WorldWideScience

Sample records for cities cathedral chapters

  1. Seville City Hall Chapter Room ceiling decoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robador, M. D.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes a chemical and physical study of the colour, chemical composition and mineral phases of the decorative materials in the Seville City Hall Chapter House ceiling. The findings showed that the inner most layer of material, calcite, was covered with white lead, in turn concealed under a layer of gilded bole. The ceiling underwent re-gilding, also over bole, due in all likelihood to wear on the original gold leaf. In the nineteenth century, the entire ceiling with the exception of the inscriptions was whitewashed with calcite and white lead. Silver was employed on King John I’s sword (coffer 27. Gold leaf was used to adorn the royal attributes: crowns, belts, sceptres, swords and rosary beads. The high reliefs were likewise gilded. The pigments identified on the ceiling adornments included azurite, malachite, vermilion and gas black. A lime and ground dolomite mortar was used throughout.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el estudio de diferentes aspectos, como el color, la composición química y las fases mineralógicas presentes en los diferentes materiales que forman la ornamentación del techo de la Sala Capitular del Ayuntamiento de Sevilla, mediante métodos físicos y químicos. Nuestros resultados muestran que el dorado fue realizado sobre una capa de bol previamente depositada sobre una lámina de blanco de plomo que cubría un estrato de calcita. Posteriormente, y probablemente debido a alteraciones en el dorado original, el techo fue de nuevo dorado usando una técnica similar. En el siglo XIX, casi todo el techo, excepto las zonas con inscripciones, fue blanqueado usando una mezcla de calcita y blanco de plomo. Se empleó plata para cubrir la espada del rey Juan I (casetón 27. Finísimas láminas de oro se usaron para decorar los atributos reales: coronas, cinturones, cetros, espadas y rosarios. En diferentes partes de la decoración fueron detectados pigmentos como azurita, malaquita, bermellón y

  2. Chapter Ⅱ Better Water Update the Quality of Better City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2010-01-01

    @@ With a warmer global climate and the modernization of cities,overcoming the problem of water is a common issue that many cities around the world have to face.With the development of modern cities,waste water from both families and factories is continuously flowing into lakes and rivers.Heavy rains often hit many cities in countries across the world,such as the South of China,Pakistan.Let us enter the Puxi side of Shanghai Expo,where many international cities are showcasing their achievements such as how to control flooding,how to utilize rain,and how to treat waste water.For instance.Water Square at the Netherlands exhibit,the living water park at the Chengdu Pavilion,the treatment of waste water in Izmir,Turkey and three Swiss cities (Zurich,Geneva,Basel),along with the Osaka exhibit,all showcase solutions to the problem of "Water".

  3. The Geometry of Bourges Cathedral

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Bork

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a geometrical analysis of Bourges Cathedral, based on the application of computer-aided design (CAD) techniques to the results of a recent and highly precise laser survey. This analysis reveals that the cathedral's original designer developed a tightly interlocking and strikingly unified design, in which the five-fold subdivision of the chevet ground plan set proportions that would be vertically extruded into an elevation that can be inscribed both within a square and wi...

  4. Chapter 11: City-Wide Collaborations for Urban Climate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Steven; Hoffstadt, Rita Mukherjee; Allen, Lauren B.; Crowley, Kevin; Bader, Daniel A.; Horton, Radley M.

    2014-01-01

    Although cities cover only 2 percent of the Earth's surface, more than 50 percent of the world's people live in urban environments, collectively consuming 75 percent of the Earth's resources. Because of their population densities, reliance on infrastructure, and role as centers of industry, cities will be greatly impacted by, and will play a large role in, the reduction or exacerbation of climate change. However, although urban dwellers are becoming more aware of the need to reduce their carbon usage and to implement adaptation strategies, education efforts on these strategies have not been comprehensive. To meet the needs of an informed and engaged urban population, a more systemic, multiplatform and coordinated approach is necessary. The Climate and Urban Systems Partnership (CUSP) is designed to explore and address this challenge. Spanning four cities-Philadelphia, New York, Pittsburgh, and Washington, DC-the project is a partnership between the Franklin Institute, the Columbia University Center for Climate Systems Research, the University of Pittsburgh Learning Research and Development Center, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, New York Hall of Science, and the Marian Koshland Science Museum of the National Academy of Sciences. The partnership is developing a comprehensive, interdisciplinary network to educate urban residents about climate science and the urban impacts of climate change.

  5. The Geometry of Bourges Cathedral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bork

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a geometrical analysis of Bourges Cathedral, based on the application of computer-aided design (CAD techniques to the results of a recent and highly precise laser survey. This analysis reveals that the cathedral's original designer developed a tightly interlocking and strikingly unified design, in which the five-fold subdivision of the chevet ground plan set proportions that would be vertically extruded into an elevation that can be inscribed both within a square and within a series of progessively smaller equilaterial triangles. These results contribute to an ongoing debate about the use of ‘ad quadratum’ and ‘ad triangulum’ geometries in Gothic architecture, and they provide new evidence for the geometrical coherence of Gothic cathedral design. In methodological terms, meanwhile, this discussion demonstrates the potential of CAD-based geometrical analysis for the study of precisely surveyed medieval buildings./ppThe sequence of images being analysed can be viewed as supplementary material at: href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/ah.bz.s1"http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/ah.bz.s1

  6. Cologne cathedral as an international monument

    OpenAIRE

    Swenson, A

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines international involvement in the completion of Germany’s most famous ‘national monument’. Long before Cologne Cathedral was listed as UNESCO World Heritage, it played an important part in the development of an international heritage consciousness. The paper sketches the multidirectional ways in which the cathedral was fashioned internationally. The first part examines how personal networks helped initiate the nineteenth-century completion; the second looks at international ...

  7. Biennial Survey of Education in the United States, 1930-1932. Bulletin, 1933, No. 2. Chapter II: Statistics of City School Systems for the Year 1931-32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Emery M.; Herlihy, Lester B.; Comstock, Lula M.; Isdell, Julia E.; Deffenbaugh, Walter S.

    1933-01-01

    This bulletin provides the second chapter of the Biennial Survey of Education, 1930-32, which has been published in separate chapters dealing with a segment only of the educational system. The statistics presented in this report document city public schools for the school year 1931-32. The cities are divided into four population groups on the…

  8. The exaltation of eucharistic doctrine and other catholic dogmas in the trono de octavas of seville cathedral: an iconographical study.

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Márquez, Antonio Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    Through an iconographic, historical and symbolic studythe Trono de Octavas of Seville Cathedral, one of the mostrepresentative works of art of the city, this paper analyzesthe importance of the Council of Trento in Seville´s 17thand 18th century art.

  9. Processing panoramic images in heritage. Jaen Cathedral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Soria

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A spherical photo is an image that it can show a scene and the user can interact with its. We are working in the Jaén’s cathedral. We are giving the possibility of a virtual visit with good results in many points at this place. We labored with a camera called Lady Bug 2. It can take spherical photo very easy. We used some web tools where we share all ours work.

  10. Seismic Analysis and Strengthening of Mallorca Cathedral

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho, Diogo Simões do Amaral

    2010-01-01

    Due to the complexity associated with the seismic action, as well as the dynamic properties of the structures, the design of historical buildings only took into account static actions. Depending on the seismicity of the site, the buildings are characterized by more or less constructive details adopted in order to prevent important damages due to seismic action. Therefore, the seismic analysis of Mallorca Cathedral is carried out in the present work. The typical damages arising from seismic...

  11. The Buen Pastor Cathedral in San Sebastián

    OpenAIRE

    Gens Solé, Antonio; Alonso Pérez de Agreda, Eduardo; Jubany Casanovas, Jorge; Uzcanga, L.

    2013-01-01

    The construction of an underground car park required an excavation in sand under the water table adjacent to the cathedral of Buen Pastor in San Sebastián, Spain. Because of the close proximity of the cathedral and other buildings, control of ground movements was a paramount consideration in the design. Construction involved the use of diaphragm walls propped by the floor slabs using the top-down technique. A monitoring system was installed to control the performance of the excavation through...

  12. The Golden Gate: The Transformation of the Cathedral Portal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benešovská, Klára; Chotěbor, P.

    Prague : Prague Castle Administration, 2003, s. 180-187. ISBN 80-86161-73-0 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK9056118 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z8033913 Keywords : Prague Castle * Gothic architecture * St Vitus cathedral Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  13. Planning for countering nuclear terrorism. Chapter 1. Motivation and redirection: rationale and achievements in the russian closed nuclear cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The non-proliferation rationale and achievements of the collaboration between the UK and Russia for a personnel redirection programme in the Closed Nuclear Cities is described. A framework for the interaction between demand and supply dimensions of proliferation threats is developed to show how redirection programmes to enable WMD (weapons of mass destruction) specialists move into civilian activities reduce these same threats. Early results from the UK-Russia Closed Nuclear Cities Partnership are presented and compared with the parallel US funded Nuclear Cities Initiative and similar local economic development measures

  14. The spaces of truth and cathedral window light

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, G.

    1996-01-01

    Major writers and painters of the Romantic period interpreted the church or cathedral in its organic and spiritual dimensions as a complex expression of a matured Christian civilization. Artists of the mid-nineteenth century continued to produce both secular and religious variations upon this established referentiality. Although divergent uses reciprocally reinforced the fascination for the central imagery of the church and its multiple contexts, they also came to suggest a deeper tension in ...

  15. Environment, energy and cities: Issues, problems and strategic options for urban settlements of the developing world. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the world has moved into the 21st century, energy-related challenges have already grown quite severe in cities throughout the world and in countries at all levels of development. From all corners of the globe, city residents are exposed to unhealthy levels of energy-generated pollution. Urban emissions are also having negative regional development impacts, reducing crop yields and forest integrity in wide areas across North America, Europe and Eastern Asia. Furthermore, the greenhouse gas emissions generated in the course of providing power to the world's cities are contributing significantly to the problem of global climate change. At the same time that the negative environmental impacts of urban energy consumption are manifesting themselves on local, regional and global levels, the demand for energy continues to grow. This relentless growth in demand for modern energy resources is understandable in cities throughout the developing world, where per capita consumption rates still remain comparatively low. Unfortunately, the environmental externalities generated by conventional energy systems are eroding the health and productivity of citizens in many developing country cities, and so new paths towards more efficient and sustainable patterns of energy consumption must be pursued in these areas. It has been estimated that about three-quarters of the world's commercial energy is consumed in cities. More specifically, over 75 per cent of carbon emissions from fossil fuel burning and cement manufacturing, and 76 per cent of industrial wood consumption, occur in urban areas. A primary function of the world energy system is to provide urban settlements with massive quantities of electricity, petrol and heat for use in commercial, transport and residential sectors (World Energy Assessment, UNDP, 2000). Urban societies in developing countries are dual in nature: in some segments of the society, incomes are quite high, and their energy-consumption patterns are similar to

  16. Hong Kong chapter report

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, M; Cheung, YM

    2008-01-01

    Yiu-ming Cheung from Hong Kong Baptist University, China, and Michael Chau from The University of Hong Kong, China, has discussed significant facts of the IEEE (Hong Kong) Computational Intelligence Chapter report. The Hong Kong Chapter, founded in 2003, is aimed at coordinating and supporting work and stimulating the public's interests in the field of Computational Intelligence in the city. They have organized many activities that can be classified in four categories, such as conference co-o...

  17. The eighteenth-century music manuscripts at St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin: sources, lineage, and relationship to other collections

    OpenAIRE

    Houston, Kerry

    2002-01-01

    This thesis examines the music manuscripts copied before 1800 that survive in the music library at St Patrick?s Cathedral, Dublin. Prior to this study, these manuscripts had not been investigated in a comprehensive way. The aim of this investigation is to record textual detail of the manuscripts and to examine their provenance and lineage in the wider context of the cathedral?s history and the history of cathedral music in the British Isles.

  18. Construction of St. Michael’s the Archangel Cathedral in Sochi (1874–1891

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir G. Ivantsov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article, basing on archive data, describes the hard process of the construction of St. Michael’s the Archangel Cathedral in Sochi in 1874–1891. Special attention is attached to the role of architect A.S. Kaminsky in the construction of the cathedral.

  19. "Friends" of Anglican Cathedrals: Norms and Values. Befriending, Friending or Misnomer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskett, Judith A.

    2013-01-01

    Loyal supporters of Anglican cathedrals first subscribed to "Friends" associations in the late 1920s. Yet, in 1937, a journalist in "The Times" portrayed cathedrals as a "queer thing to be a friend of." Drawing on theories of friendship from a range of disciplines, and surveys of what has been proclaimed in the public…

  20. Cleaning of stone materials in the Cathedral de Valladolid (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fort, R.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Two types of black crusts showing gypsiferous and calcareous compositions are recognized on the front-walls of the Valladolid Cathedral. On the basis of several petrophysical parameters, in particular compacity, sorption and desorption kinematics of carbonate rocks used building the cathedral, we conclude that the most appropriate cleaning method of the ashlars is washing with water. Highest efficiency of the method is attained with water at 90ºC and at a pressure of 120 bars. This assessment is valid for most of the carbonate rocks of the cathedral except for detrital pelmicrites because of their low compacity which makes that water pressure for cleaning must not exceed 50 bars. The processing of cleaning with water should be preceded by alkaline treatment (NaOH and EDTA of the rock surface.

    Atendiendo a los parámetros petrofisicos (compacidad, cinemática de sorción y desorción de las diferentes facies carbonáticas con las que se construyó la catedral, se determina que el método idóneo para llevar a cabo la limpieza de sus sillares es con agua. La mayor efectividad se alcanza con una temperatura del agua de 90ºC y una presión de 120 bares, a excepción de las pelmicritas detríticas, que dada su baja compacidad la presión no puede ser superior a los 50 bares. Para la eliminación de las costras negras es necesario aplicar previamente un tratamiento alcalino a base de hidróxido sódico y EDTA.

  1. Cracking pattern and seismic performance assessment of the Orvieto cathedral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper are described the in situ cracking pattern measurement and ambient vibration monitoring for the seismic performance evaluation of the Orvieto Cathedral Italy, according the deplacement based safety assessment. This requires, as a first step, the direct measurement of the cracking pattern and dynamic response of the structural macro elements of the cathedral due to weak vibrations induced by traffic and seismic micro tremors. Seismic assessment for this type of structure require also the proper limit states definitions. In fact, in the case historic monuments like churches, due to the presence of specific typology of macro elements: rigid blocks, complex vault systems, slenderness of the walls, presence of wide halls, domes and drums with particular geometry, is necessary to define the proper assessment procedures which are slightly different with respect those required for conventional civil industrial buildings. Regarding the Ambient vibration monitoring, a new approach to estimate the participating masses associated to the macro element kinematics is defined: it is based on the frequency contribution to the Root Main Square Acceleration, obtained by numerical integration of the Power Spectral Density (PSD) function. This information, when associated to the analysis of the Real and Imaginary part of the Cross Spectral Density (CSD) function between the acceleration time histories at different points, allow to identify the principal (at least first and second) mode shapes of the structure.

  2. Depiction of Facial Nerve Paresis in the Gallery of Portraits Carved in Stone by George Matthew the Dalmatian on the Šibenik Cathedral Dating from the 15th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Škrobonja, Ante; Čulina, Tatjana

    2011-01-01

    The introductory segment of this paper briefly describes George Matthew the Dalmatian, the architect who, between 1441 and 1473, oversaw the construction of the Cathedral of St. James in [ibenik, a city on the Croatian side of the Adriatic coast. Of the most impressive details included in this monumental construction and sculptural flamboyant gothic production infused with distinctive Dalmatian spirit is a frieze of 71 stone and three lion portraits encircling the outer apse wall....

  3. Simulation of the effect of auxiliary ties used in the construction of Mallorca Cathedral

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgeois, Julien

    2013-01-01

    The thesis is oriented on the study of Mallorca Cathedral taking into account its construction process and, particularly, the influence of iron ties used as auxiliary devices during the construction. Some previous studies (Roca et al., 2013, 2012) have presented some possible hypotheses about the construction process of this gothic cathedral. This study complements the previous results by considering the possibility of the adoption of auxiliary ties, since some evidences of their ...

  4. Chapter 2

    OpenAIRE

    Cissé, Salmana; Keith M. Moore; Brewster, C.

    2005-01-01

    Metadata only record In chapter 2, Cissé et al. introduce the social and historical context shaping the lifescape of the Inland Delta of the Niger, the core of Mali's 5th Region. Various ethnic groups have coexisted in this area for centuries, generating livelihoods with complementary systems of production. The chapter discusses how recent changes in agricultural and pastoral production systems have unbalanced this symbiosis and increased competition for scarce resources, thereby leading t...

  5. Deterioration of ancient metallic elements taken from Toledo cathedral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castaño González, Juan Guillermo

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The construction of Toledo Cathedral spanned a period of more than 200 years and was influenced by many different trends and criteria, reflected in the wide range of styles it accommodates (basically Mudéjar and Gothic, with Flemish, baroque and renaissance elements. Over the centuries it has undergone numerous restorations, also according to different criteria. The cathedral is situated in an environment of low aggressivity, in terms of atmospheric contamination, but the passage of time has taken its toll on many structural, architectural and artistic elements. During recent restoration work several metallic elements, which have been exposed for many years or even centuries to the inclemencies of the Toledo climate, were taken in order to analyse their composition and deterioration. The techniques used have been Scanning Electron Microscopy with X-Ray Microprobe (SEM/EDAX, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. The elements considered are a piece of roofing lead, a lead slate clamp, a piece of stained glass window leading, and an iron nail.

    La Catedral de Toledo se edificó en un período de más de 200 años, bajo numerosos criterios de construcción que se reflejan en la multiplicidad de estilos que alberga (entre mudéjar y gótico, con aportaciones flamencas, barrocas y renacentistas. A través de los siglos, ha sido objeto de numerosas restauraciones, también bajo distintos criterios. La catedral está ubicada en un ambiente poco agresivo, en cuanto a corrosión atmosférica se refiere. Sin embargo, el discurrir de tantos años no deja de hacer mella en los diversos elementos estructurales, arquitectónicos y artísticos que la componen. En recientes restauraciones se obtuvieron algunos elementos metálicos que han estado expuestos, por muchos años, siglos inclusive, a las inclemencias del clima toledano, con el propósito de analizar su composición y deterioro, empleando las técnicas de Microscopio

  6. The spaces of truth and cathedral window light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gillespie

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Major writers and painters of the Romantic period interpreted the church or cathedral in its organic and spiritual dimensions as a complex expression of a matured Christian civilization. Artists of the mid-nineteenth century continued to produce both secular and religious variations upon this established referentiality. Although divergent uses reciprocally reinforced the fascination for the central imagery of the church and its multiple contexts, they also came to suggest a deeper tension in Western development between what the church had meant in an earlier Europe and what it might mean for late modernity. The threat of a permanent loss of cultural values was an issue haunting Realist approaches. A crucial revision occurred when key Symbolist poets openly revived the first Romantic themes but treated them as contents available to a decidedly post-Romantic historical consciousness. There was an analogous revival of interest in the church as a culturally charged symbol in painting around the turn of the century. Although they might apply this poetic and pictorial heritage in strikingly different ways, writers of high Modernism such as Rilke, Proust, and Kafka understood its richness and importance.

  7. Chapter 4

    OpenAIRE

    Westley, F.; Carpenter, S.R.; Brock, W.A.; C. S. Holling; Gunderson, L.H.

    2002-01-01

    Metadata only record This chapter attempts to compare ecological systems (as perceived by ecologists), against social systems (as perceived by social scientists). The differences between the systems lie in the dimensions used to study each system. Ecological systems key dimensions are space and time. While social systems include those dimensions, a third one, symbolic construction and meaning, is also added to fully understand the system. Essentially, this third dimension significantly con...

  8. Ground-penetrating radar investigation of St. Leonard's Crypt under the Wawel Cathedral (Cracow, Poland) - COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Andrea; Pajewski, Lara; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Avlonitou, Pepi; Konstantakis, Yannis; Musiela, Małgorzata; Mitka, Bartosz; Lambot, Sébastien; Żakowska, Lidia

    2016-04-01

    The Wawel ensemble, including the Royal Castle, the Wawel Cathedral and other monuments, is perched on top of the Wawel hill immediately south of the Cracow Old Town, and is by far the most important collection of buildings in Poland. St. Leonard's Crypt is located under the Wawel Cathedral of St Stanislaus BM and St Wenceslaus M. It was built in the years 1090-1117 and was the western crypt of the pre-existing Romanesque Wawel Cathedral, so-called Hermanowska. Pope John Paul II said his first Mass on the altar of St. Leonard's Crypt on November 2, 1946, one day after his priestly ordination. The interior of the crypt is divided by eight columns into three naves with vaulted ceiling and ended with one apse. The tomb of Bishop Maurus, who died in 1118, is in the middle of the crypt under the floor; an inscription "+ MAVRVS EPC MCXVIII +" indicates the burial place and was made in 1938 after the completion of archaeological works which resulted in the discovery of this tomb. Moreover, the crypt hosts the tombs of six Polish kings and heroes: Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki (King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth), Jan III Sobieski (King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Commander at the Battle of Vienna), Maria Kazimiera (Queen of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and consort to Jan III Sobieski), Józef Poniatowski (Prince of Poland and Marshal of France), Tadeusz Kościuszko (Polish general, revolutionary and a Brigadier General in the American Revolutionary War) and Władysław Sikorski (Prime Minister of the Polish Government in Exile and Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Armed Forces). The adjacent six crypts and corridors host the tombs of the other Polish kings, from Sigismund the Old to Augustus II the Strong, their families and several Polish heroes. In May 2015, the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil engineering applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" organised and offered a Training School (TS) on the

  9. Ground-penetrating radar investigation of St. Leonard's Crypt under the Wawel Cathedral (Cracow, Poland) - COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Andrea; Pajewski, Lara; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Avlonitou, Pepi; Konstantakis, Yannis; Musiela, Małgorzata; Mitka, Bartosz; Lambot, Sébastien; Żakowska, Lidia

    2016-04-01

    historical interest. The TS presented an insight into the challenges, advantages and potential of GPR prospection in historical cities. Data examples from urban historical centres were presented and discussed. An introduction to electromagnetic modelling of GPR was provided. To widen the perspective, the school included an introduction to urban remote sensing, describing how high-resolution satellite imagery or alternative sources of image date can be exploited for urban feature extraction, to analyse population, energy use, and other aspects of the urban environment. In this work, data collected in St Leonard's Crypt will be presented for the first time. The activities focused on surveying the floor of the crypt, in order to obtain an image of the tomb of Bishop Maurus, verify whether further cavities were present and collect information about the subsurface of the crypt. GPR scans were taken on a 20 cm x 20 cm grid. Subsequently, an interesting area of smaller extent was chosen, where further data were collected on a 10 cm x 10 cm grid. We found out that the tomb of Bishop Maurus is shifted with respect to the inscription placed in the middle of the crypt and supposed to indicate its position. We could also detect the presence of another large cavity and estimate their size. All measurements were performed by using a CX-12 GPR pulsed system of MALA Geoscience. Acknowledgement The Authors are deeply grateful to the Parish of the Cathedral of St. Stanislaus BM and St. Wenceslas M, Cracow, Poland, for authorizing us to carry out the practical sessions of the Training School in St. Leonard's Crypt under the Wawel Cathedral. This was for all Trainers and Trainees a unique, touching and unforgettable experience. The Authors thank COST (www.cost.eu) for funding the Action TU1208 "Civil engineering applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" (www.GPRadar.eu) and for its constant support to the Action.

  10. CATHEDRAL: a fast and effective algorithm to predict folds and domain boundaries from multidomain protein structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver C Redfern

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We present CATHEDRAL, an iterative protocol for determining the location of previously observed protein folds in novel multidomain protein structures. CATHEDRAL builds on the features of a fast secondary-structure-based method (using graph theory to locate known folds within a multidomain context and a residue-based, double-dynamic programming algorithm, which is used to align members of the target fold groups against the query protein structure to identify the closest relative and assign domain boundaries. To increase the fidelity of the assignments, a support vector machine is used to provide an optimal scoring scheme. Once a domain is verified, it is excised, and the search protocol is repeated in an iterative fashion until all recognisable domains have been identified. We have performed an initial benchmark of CATHEDRAL against other publicly available structure comparison methods using a consensus dataset of domains derived from the CATH and SCOP domain classifications. CATHEDRAL shows superior performance in fold recognition and alignment accuracy when compared with many equivalent methods. If a novel multidomain structure contains a known fold, CATHEDRAL will locate it in 90% of cases, with <1% false positives. For nearly 80% of assigned domains in a manually validated test set, the boundaries were correctly delineated within a tolerance of ten residues. For the remaining cases, previously classified domains were very remotely related to the query chain so that embellishments to the core of the fold caused significant differences in domain sizes and manual refinement of the boundaries was necessary. To put this performance in context, a well-established sequence method based on hidden Markov models was only able to detect 65% of domains, with 33% of the subsequent boundaries assigned within ten residues. Since, on average, 50% of newly determined protein structures contain more than one domain unit, and typically 90% or more of these

  11. Depiction of facial nerve paresis in the gallery of portraits carved in stone by George Matthew the Dalmatian on the Sibenik Cathedral dating from the 15th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrobonja, Ante; Culina, Tatjana

    2011-06-01

    The introductory segment of this paper briefly describes George Matthew the Dalmatian, the architect who, between 1441 and 1473, oversaw the construction of the Cathedral of St. James in Sibenik, a city on the Croatian side of the Adriatic coast. Of the most impressive details included in this monumental construction and sculptural flamboyant gothic production infused with distinctive Dalmatian spirit is a frieze of 71 stone and three lion portraits encircling the outer apse wall. From the intriguing amalgamation of portraits of anonymous people this master came across in his surrounding, the fiftieth head in the row has been selected for this occasion. On the face of a younger man the authors have recognized and described pathognomonic right-sided facial nerve paresis. The question posed here is whether this is coincidental or it represents the master's courage, given that instead of famous people in the cathedral he situated not only ordinary people but also those "labelled" and traditionally marginalized, thus, in the most beautiful manner, foreshadowing the forthcoming spirit of Humanism and Renaissance in Croatian and European art. PMID:21755741

  12. Constable's "Salisbury Cathedral" in English Class: A Case Study Argument for Blended Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traubitz, Nancy

    1995-01-01

    Contends that, although the Eurocentric focus in art and literature currently may be out of favor, the lack of a cultural background may hurt students' scores on standardized tests. Describes a teaching plan based on artist John Constable's painting, "Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishop's Garden." (CFR)

  13. Tuam Cathedral, fourteenth-century choir, south exterior wall, door, jamb and arch

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donovan, Danielle

    2001-01-01

    South door of fourteenth-century choir of Tuam Cathedral. Perhaps a later insertion due to it's similarity to the fifteenth-century west door at Ross Errilly, which has a similar moulding and very similar hood stops. Moulding from intrados comprises: hollow chamfer, quadrant, hollow chamfer. The hood, from extrados to interior comprises: frontal fillet, hollow chamfer.

  14. An App for the Cathedral in Freiberg--An Interdisciplinary Project Seminar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröber, Cindy; Münster, Sander

    2014-01-01

    This project seminar aims at creating and evaluating a manual for interdisciplinary projects as part of a learning process. Working together, pedagogies and students from different disciplines assess tools and recommendations for successful collaborations while developing an app for the cathedral in Freiberg. As part of the project the students…

  15. Biennial Survey of Education in the United States, 1932-1934. Bulletin, 1935, No. 2. Chapter III: Statistics of City School Systems, 1933-34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Emery M.; Herlihy, Lester B.; Comstock, Lula M.; Isdell, Julia E.; Choate, Blache K.; Smith, Rose Marie; Deffenbaugh, Walter S.

    1936-01-01

    This report presents statistics of city public-school systems for the year 1933-34. It also presents, in connection with the text, data on certain points to show trends within the past 10 years, and especially within the past 4 years when the effects of the depression were being felt by the schools. In previous reports statistics for cities…

  16. Deterioration of the granitic stones of main front of the Vila Real Cathedral (N of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes, M. E. P.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cathedral of Vila Real (North of Portugal is located in the city centre and at least four regional two-mica granites were used in its construction. A petrographic study of these granites concluded that the stones had different degrees of alterations. The identification of some physical properties of the granites –open porosity, real and apparent density, free water absorption, porometry and capillary transmission– confirms their susceptibility to degrees of weathering. A recent cleaning intervention was made and several types of deterioration were visible in the monument‚s stones, namely: granular disintegration, some thin black layers, plates, flakes and black crusts, especially in the main front exposed to SW. Granular disintegration is the most important deterioration process and is responsible for the loss of material in the most-affected stones; it is also related to the presence of small amounts of highly soluble salts such as halite and nitrates and to solar exposure.La Catedral de Vila Real (Norte de Portugal se encuentra en el centro de la ciudad y se han utilizado, al menos, cuatro granitos de dos micas para su construcción extraídos de sus alrededores. El estudio petrográfico de estos granitos pone de manifiesto que poseen un diferente grado de alteración. La determinación de algunas propiedades físicas de los granitos –porosidad abierta, densidad aparente y real, absorción libre de agua, porometría y capilaridad– confirman los distintos grados de alteración. La catedral ha sufrido una reciente limpieza y sobre las piedras de la Catedral se observan distintas formas de alteración, sobre todo desagregación granular (arenización, escasas pátinas finas negras, desplacaciones, escamas y costras negras, especialmente en la fachada principal, expuesta al SW. El fenómeno de la desagregación granular es el más importante y es el responsable de de la pérdida de material en las piedras más afectadas. Su g

  17. The effect of air pollution on the stone decay of the Cologne Cathedral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, B.; Siegesmund, S.; Licha, T.; Simon, K.; Oyhantcabal, P.; Middendorf, B.

    2012-04-01

    Different building stones of the Cologne Cathedral show a large variation of weathering phenomena. The Drachenfels trachyte, which was the construction material for the medieval part of the cathedral, shows significant surface deterioration, back-weathering coexisting with flaking, crumbling or the massive formation of gypsum crusts. Wolff (1992) first mentioned the negative interferences between the Schlaitdorfer sandstone and the Londorfer basalt lava or the Drachenfels trachyte and the Krensheimer muschelkalk. Crust formation on limestone, sandstone, and volcanic rock from the Cologne Cathedral as well as from the Xanten and Altenberg Cathedral are investigated. These three buildings are located in different areas and exposed to varying industrial, urban, and rural environmental situations. The material investigated range from dark grey to black framboidal crusts. This 3 to 10 mm thick cauliflower-like form of gypsum crust incorporates particles from the pollution fluxes. It covers the stone surface and mainly occurs at sites protected from wind and direct rain. Secondly, thin laminar black crusts trace the stone surface and may cover complete sections of the building's structure not necessarily preferring protected sites. This kind of crust seems to have very strong bonds between the thin black crust and the stone surface. Major and trace element distribution show an enrichment of sulfur, indicating the presence of gypsum, lead and other typical pollutants (arsenic, antimony, bismuth, tin etc.), which generally can be linked to traffic and industry. This indicates that even though the SO2 emission has decreased due to i.e. stronger regulations of waste incineration plants and the ban of leaded petrol, the pollutants are still present in the crusts on the building stones. From systematic SEM observations it becomes evident that the total amount of pollution is less pronounced in the Altenberg and Xanten Cathedrals as compared with the Cologne Cathedral. The

  18. Differential effects of biocide treatments on saxicolous communities: Case study of the Segovia cathedral cloister (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos, Asunción de los; Pérez Ortega, Sergio; Wierzchos, Jacek; Ascaso, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the differential elimination of surface lichen thalli and their penetrating hyphae and epilithic and endolithic cyanobacteria by two biocide treatments applied on a small scale to the cloister of the Segovia cathedral. Both chemical treatments were followed by mechanical cleaning, and their effects were determined by scanning electron microscopy with backscattered electron imaging (SEM–BSE). Both treatments were effective at killing epilithic lichens and cyanobacteria, a...

  19. Detailed structural analysis of Mallorca Cathedral's structure on a global model

    OpenAIRE

    Puente Paz, Jose Luís

    2011-01-01

    Mallorca cathedral, an outstanding Gothic building showing one of the more audacious structures built in Europe during the Middle Age, has been researched by the Department of Construction Engineering of UPC for more than 10 years. The building includes very interesting structural innovations and some specific seismic resistant devices, such as diaphragmatic arches. However, previous structural analyses have pointed out that the structure might show only limited seismic strength due to the...

  20. Characterization of decayed ceramic sculptures decorating the Pardon portico of Seville cathedral, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Rodríguez, José Luis; Maqueda Porras, Celia; Justo Erbez, Ángel; Morillo González, Esmeralda; Jiménez de Haro, María del Carmen

    1994-01-01

    The decay of the ceramic sculptures decorating the Pardon portico of Seville cathedral has been studied. The material of the corbels and canopies is alabaster. The presence of dolomite in some black veins initiates the high erosion of the material. The ceramics of the different sculptures show two groups of mineralogical composition: (a) quartz, gehlenite and wollastonite, and (b) illite, calcite and feldspars. The differences in colour of the sculptures are attributed to the firing temperatu...

  1. The Sicilian Architect Tommaso Maria Napoli and the Baroque Cathedral of Dubrovnik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvat-Levaj, Katarina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The design of the Dubrovnik Cathedral (1671-1713 – a monumental three-nave basilica with a dome over the crossing – was commissioned, thanks to Abbot Stjepan Gradić, from the Roman architect Andrea Bufalini. Among the leaders of construction, which lasted for over four decades, the Sicilian architect Tommaso Maria Napoli stands out. During his nine-year stay in Dubrovnik (1689-98 he was the only one who engaged in radical changes in the design. Through his changes to the vaulting and lighting of the main nave and sanctuary, as well as the introduction of terraces above the side chapels, he gave the building better proportions, and moreover he balanced its volume by enriching the Cathedral with the plastic expressiveness characteristic of Sicilian architecture at that time. Napoli was the only architect involved in the construction of the Dubrovnik Cathedral who had an international reputation, from his native Sicily, to Naples, Rome, and the Habsburg Monarchy. This makes his inventive corrections to Bufalini's design even more significant.

  2. Soundscape evaluation in a Catholic cathedral and Buddhist temple precincts through social surveys and soundwalks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Hwang, In Hwan; Hong, Joo Young

    2014-04-01

    Religious precincts in urban spaces have their own religious spatiality formed by their sociocultural and historical background. It is necessary to identify the spatiality of urban religious precincts in their sociocultural contexts because soundscape perception is determined largely by context. In the present study, social surveys and soundwalks were performed in a Catholic cathedral and in Buddhist temple precincts in Seoul. In the surveys, important spatial functions, sound, and visual components of the Catholic cathedral and Buddhist temple precincts were investigated by principal component analysis. The results showed that the cathedral precincts play a more important role in social functions related to mainly visual components than the temple precincts do, whereas the functions for religious activities related to sound elements are more stressed in the temple precincts. In the soundwalk evaluation, contributions of soundscape and landscape components to tranquility in the two religious precincts were explored. It was found that pleasantness of soundscape and attractiveness of landscape significantly affected the perception of tranquility. In addition, it was revealed that a sense of enclosure could enhance tranquility in urban religious precincts. PMID:25234985

  3. CATHEDRAL BASIC EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AS A BASIS FOR FORMING TECHNOLOGY TEACHER COMPETENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Жураковская

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a review of the activities of the cathedral basic educational institutions (KBOU - Lyceum Istra, Moscow region, which implements one of the scientific and methodological areas of activity - the introduction of new educational technologies and principles of the organization of the educational process to ensure effective implementation of key provisions of the federal state educational standards basic general education. The paper proposed a structure of didactic games and one of its examples, focused on becoming a high school student individuality.Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy now

  4. Desalination of brick masonry and stone carvings in Capitullum hall of Riga Dome Cathedral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of Riga Dome Cathedral and its Capithullum hall were initiated in 1211. Through centuries they were damaged a lot due to migration of soluble salts and moisture. During the last restoration (1888-1891) a lot of mistakes were conceded and subsequently some of probable solutions for restoration were unsuccessful. In 2009 the new restoration stage in Capithullum hall was started. Two types of desalination methods were used in hall – desalination with lime-sand plaster and poultice of lignin. Both quantitative and semiquantitative chemical analyses were performed in order to appreciate the desalination process.

  5. Italian Baroque Music in Malta: A Madrigal from the Music Archives at the Cathedral Museum in Mdina

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Matteo

    2010-01-01

    The Mdina Cathedral Museum in Malta owns the most important collection of Italian baroque music south of Naples. The collection consists mostly of sacred music since it originated in the archives of the music chapel in St. Paul’s Cathedral, but there are also secular compositions reflecting the tastes of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, who made their home on the island from 1530 to 1798. The museum’s musical holdings consists of 159 printed works by Italian seventeenth-century composers...

  6. Silver Furnishings of Medieval Altar of St. Stanislaus in Cracow Cathedral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Czyżewski

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at these elements of St. Stanislaus’ tomb in the Gothic Cathedral on the Wawel Hill which were made of silver. Except for one (a reliquary diptych all were destroyed and are known only from written records. The basic issue is to establish the date and the founder of a wooden coffin covered with gilded silver plates, in which the relics of the Martyr were placed. The literature on the subject attributed the foundation of the reliquary to St. Kunegunda (1234-1292, Elizabeth of Poland (1305-1380, St. Jadwiga, Hedvig of Anjou (1374-1399 and Ladislaus the Short (1260 or 1261-1333. Thanks to the records written in 1631 by a priest Jan Wielewicki which mention the renovation of the medieval coffin, we know that it had an inscription which unequivocally pointed to the person of Elizabeth of Poland, wife of a Hungarian king Charles I Robert and mother of a king of Hungary and Poland Louis d’Anjou, as the founder. A detailed description included in the records of an inspection of the Cracow Cathedral in 1670 allows an approximate reconstruction of this work of art, which was a box-reliquary of approximate measurements: 175, 8x87, 9x43, 95 cm, closed with a ridge roof cover of unknown height. It had cast decoration. The longer sides were each interspersed with 6 and the shorter with 2 pictures with the scenes from St. Stanislaus’s life. Likenesses of 18 bishops adorned both patches of the corners and axes of the shorter sides were accentuated with buttresses. Top rims of the cover were decorated with an open-work comb (tracery. Iconographic programme cannot be reconstructed on the basis of the existing sources. After a new coffin for the remains of the Saint was funded by Sigismund III, the old one was used as a reliquary for the hand and placed in St. Peter and Paul’s chapel, which - according to tradition - originally housed the tomb. After the cathedral was looted by the Swedes in 1657, the medieval reliquary was put back in

  7. Ecological corrosion of stone and it prevention in Riga Dome Cathedral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deterioration of historical monuments is the results of chemical reaction of polluted air, soil and water with the stone material. The crystallization and hydration of corrosion products results in their expansion causing the degradation of dolomite, limestone, brick, lime mortars in the Riga Dome Cathedral. By chemical and x-ray-phase analyses the corrosion products are NaCl, KNO3, CaSO4·2H2O, KNaSO4, MgSO4·7H2O. In the result of scientific work some conservation methods have been found out based on desalination by wool - cotton - water and lime poultices, consolidation bu lime water and ethylsilicate using poros plasters. (authors)

  8. Western and Southern Doors of Suzdal Cathedral of the Nativity of the Virgin. Iconography Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Manukyan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Basing on the image of St. Metrophanes, probable patron of Suzdal episcopate Mitrophan, holding bishop’s throne from 1227 to 1238 on the panel strip of western gate, we have supposed that both doors of the Suzdal Cathedral of the Nativity of the Virgin were made in late 1220-1230s. To determine the date of gates manufacture, we have made the stylistical analysis of their décor. The gates style goes back to the second half of XII century, but we have managed to find enough works of the XIII century, bearing features of late-Comnenian epoch style. On the other hand, the style of both western and southern gates bears traces of new ‘monumental’ style of the XII century.

  9. The Ephemeral Cathedral of Créteil : a 350m2 lightweight gridshell structure made of 2 kilometers of GFRP tubes

    OpenAIRE

    du Peloux, Lionel; Tayeb, Frédéric; Caron, Jean-François; Baverel, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    International audience The Ephemeral Cathedral of Créteil (Paris, France) is a gridshell structure made of composite materials. Built in 2013, this religious edifice of 350m 2 is a temporary church meant to gather the parishioners during the two-years renovation of their permanent cathedral. This large-scale prototype (Figure 1) represents a first in the building industry, which still shows excessive apprehension for the use of non-traditional materials such as composites, especially when ...

  10. Defining the island city: ancient right versus modern metropolis, as considered at Peel, Isle of Man

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Adrienne Tutt

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the term ‘city’ per se, and the right to city status in the British Isles. It addresses the nature of modest insular proto-cities, those on small islands and archipelagos that have no great significance outside their own insular sphere, by looking at Peel on the Isle of Man, which claims city status on the basis of its cathedrals, ancient and modern, ruined and working. Whilst not meeting the current United Kingdom’s criteria for city status, Peel’s claim can be validated ...

  11. City marketing: online communication plan for the city of Lisbon

    OpenAIRE

    Altrichter, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Marketing City Marketing represents marketing efforts of cities in order to attract more visitors. Today, we are confronted everyday with marketing campaigns in all different communication media promoting countries, cities or events. Cities are competing for visitors on a global scale, forcing them to adapt successful marketing strategies for gaining and retaining costumers. Yet, City Marketing still remains an unknown chapter for a big part of the general public an...

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF ACID RAINS ON THE LITHOTHAMNIAN LIMESTONE ON THE GALLERY OF THE MARY'S ASCENSION CATHEDRAL, ZAGREB, CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Crnković

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban, environmental pollution, caused by acid rains and damages of stone elements on Cathedral of Zagreb are described. On the surfaces of limestone elements that are in the »shade«, the black scabs have developed. The outher crusts, and inner powdery matter of the black scabs have been investigated by microscopy, and analyzed by means of x-ray. thermal and chemical analyses. They contain gypsum, calcite, soot, and sporadic fly ash.

  13. Polypropylene fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete for the reconstruction of the cathedral of La Laguna, Canary Island, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Pacios Alvarez, Antonia; Carballosa de Miguel, Pedro; Gutiérrez Jiménez, J.P.; Tanner, P.

    2011-01-01

    High performance materials are needed for the reconstruction of such a singular building as a cathedral, since in addition to special mechanical properties, high self compact ability, high durability and high surface quality, are specified. Because of the project’s specifications, the use of polypropylene fiber-reinforced, self-compacting concrete was selected by the engineering office. The low quality of local materials and the lack of experience in applying macro polypropylene fiber for str...

  14. Basic Principles - Chapter 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This chapter described at a very high level some of the considerations that need to be made when designing algorithms for a vehicle health management application....

  15. Chapter 9: Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-12-19

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  16. Chapter 9: Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algora, Carlos; Espinet-Gonzalez, Pilar; Vazquez, Manuel; Bosco, Nick; Miller, David; Kurtz, Sarah; Rubio, Francisca; McConnell,Robert

    2016-04-15

    This chapter describes the accumulated knowledge on CPV reliability with its fundamentals and qualification. It explains the reliability of solar cells, modules (including optics) and plants. The chapter discusses the statistical distributions, namely exponential, normal and Weibull. The reliability of solar cells includes: namely the issues in accelerated aging tests in CPV solar cells, types of failure and failures in real time operation. The chapter explores the accelerated life tests, namely qualitative life tests (mainly HALT) and quantitative accelerated life tests (QALT). It examines other well proven and experienced PV cells and/or semiconductor devices, which share similar semiconductor materials, manufacturing techniques or operating conditions, namely, III-V space solar cells and light emitting diodes (LEDs). It addresses each of the identified reliability issues and presents the current state of the art knowledge for their testing and evaluation. Finally, the chapter summarizes the CPV qualification and reliability standards.

  17. Macroscopical morphology of deterioration of the stone in the Cathedral of Cádiz, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcalde, M.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Two factors have determined the actual deterioration state of the Cathedral of Cádiz, one is natural and the other is anthropogenic. On one hand, the presence of salts conditioned by atmospherical environment and saline solutions of the rising damp; on the other hand, the vicissitudes suffered by the temple during its construction, having been unprotected for long periods of time both internally and externally the bad use of the building and the little maintenance carried out on it. The crystallization and dissolution, and salt hydratation and dehydratation mechanisms have provoked serious deteriorations in the foreign lithotypes: spalling in compact limestones, chipping and pulverizations in marbles; the autochthonous “ostionera", well-balanced in the medium, presents a good state of conservation. The interior of the Cathedral, contrary to the normal, is much more degraded than the exterior.

    Dos son los factores de alteración que han determinado el estado actual de alteración de la Catedral de Cádiz, uno natural y otro antropogénico. Por una parte la presencia de sales, condicionada tanto por el ambiente atmosférico como por la ascensión capilar desde el subsuelo de soluciones salinas; por otra, las vicisitudes sufridas por el templo durante su construcción, desprotegido del medio largos períodos de tiempo tanto interior como exteriormente, el mal uso del mismo y las escasas actuaciones de mantenimiento. Los mecanismos de aumento de volumen en capilares e intersticios ligados a la cristalización y disolución, e hidratación y deshidratación de sales, han provocado graves alteraciones en los litotipos foráneos, siendo los indicadores de alteración más típicos en esta Catedral las fragmentaciones en las calizas compactas, disyunciones y pulverizaciones en los mármoles, y eflorescencias de forma general; la autóctona ostionera, en buen equilibrio con el medio, presenta un buen estado de conservación. El interior de la

  18. An in situ corrosion study of Middle Ages wrought iron bar chains in the Amiens Cathedral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassini, S.; Angelini, E.; Parvis, M.; Bouchar, M.; Dillmann, P.; Neff, D.

    2013-12-01

    The corrosion behaviour of Middle Ages wrought iron bar chains exposed to indoor atmospheric corrosion for hundred of years in the Notre Dame Cathedral of Amiens (France) has been evaluated by means of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), a well-established electrochemical technique extensively used for testing anticorrosive properties of metal coatings. The measurements have been performed in situ with a portable EIS instrument designed to work as a standalone device, in six different areas of the wrought iron bar chains characterized by different aesthetical appearance. Moreover, a properly designed electrochemical cell has been employed to carry out the impedance measurements without affecting the artefacts surfaces. The wrought iron bar chains, as evidenced by μ-Raman and microscopic analyses, are covered by corrosion products constituted by iron oxides and oxyhydroxides, such as goethite, lepidocrocite, maghemite, akaganeite, organized in complex layered structures. In situ EIS allows one to investigate the phenomena involved at the electrochemical interfaces among the various corrosion products and to assess and predict their corrosion behaviour. From the analysis of the experimental findings of this monitoring campaign, EIS measurements can be proposed to restorers/conservators as a reliable indicator of dangerous situations on which they must act for the preservation of the iron artefacts.

  19. The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Monocentric and Polycentric River Basin Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Lankford

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Two contemporary theories of river basin management are compared. One is centralised 'regulatory river basin management' with an apex authority that seeks hydrometric data and nationally agreed standards and procedures in decisions over water quality and allocation. This model is commonplace and can be identified in many water training curricula and derivatives of basin management policy. The other, 'polycentric river basin management', is institutionally, organisationally and geographically more decentralised, emphasising local, collective ownership and reference to locally agreed standards. The polycentric model is constructed from the creation of appropriate managerial subunits within river basins. This model emphasises the deployment of hydrologists, scientists and other service providers as mediating agents of environmental and institutional transformation, tackling issues arising within and between the basin subunits such as water allocation and distribution, productivity improvement and conflict resolution. Significantly, it considers water allocation between subunits rather than between sectors and to do this promulgates an experimental, step-wise pragmatic approach, building on local ideas to make tangible progress in basins where data monitoring is limited, basin office resources are constrained and regulatory planning has stalled. To explore these issues, the paper employs the 'Cathedral and Bazaar' metaphor of Eric Raymond. The discussion is informed by observations from Tanzania, Nigeria and the UK.

  20. Gamma-radiography of the bronze door of the royal cathedral at Gniezno

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A knowledge of the technology of historical objects is important for a knowledge of the history of technique. There is in Poland a very interesting object: the door of the cathedral at Gniezno, cast in bronze in the 12th century. This door is composed of two wings which are different as to the character of the bas-reliefs, the dimensions, and the technology. On the front of each half there are nine panels with sculptured figures. The nine scenes on each wing are surrounded by an ornamental belt decorated by ledges. An investigation of the medieval technology of such an impressive casting was interesting both from the point of view of the history of art and the history of casting. In this case, the object was to find out whether the cast had been made in one piece or in parts and also how the liquid metal had been conveyed to the casting mould. In addition, radiologists were interested in the degree to which radiographic investigations can solve such problems. In order to obtain radiographs of the whole door it was necessary to make gammaradiographs. About a hunched radiographs were made, using the isotope Cs137. (author)

  1. Chapter 5: Monitoring results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Bart; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    2003-01-01

    The monitoring results from the IEA Task 13 project "Advanced solar low energy houses" are described in this chapter. The underlying information was collected in the form of questionnaires. The questionnaires were formulated in such a way that participants are provided with a uniform lay-out to f...

  2. Macroscopical morphology of deterioration of the stone in the cathedral of Guadíx/Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcalde, M.

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The main factors of deterioration that affect the Cathedral of Guadíx are of a natural origin, basically thermic and hydraulic, due to its great oscillations in temperature in Summer, the frequency of frosts in Winter and the rains. The lithotypes employed are mainly calcarenite of mean porosite and slightly more compact limestones from the quarries in the area, and marbles. The corresponding deterioration mechanisms are those of differential thermic dilatations caused by thermic jumps, especially in the more compact stones, those of increase in volume in capillaries and interstices, especially by freezing, and those of dissolution. The most serious deterioration indicators are fissures and spalling that affect the most carved elements and which have taken the greater part of the most aerated elements such as the pinnacles to a state to ruin.

    Los principales factores de alteración que afectan a la catedral de Guadix son de origen natural, fundamentalmente térmico e hidráulico, por sus grandes oscilaciones de temperatura en verano y por la frecuencia de heladas en invierno, y por la lluvias. Los litotipos empleados son principalmente calcarenitas de porosidad media y calizas algo más compactas, procedentes de canteras de la zona, y mármoles. Los mecanismos de alteración correspondientes son los de dilatación térmica diferencial originados por los saltos térmicos, en especial en las piedras más compactas, los de incremento de volumen en capilares e intersticios, sobre todo por heladicidad, y los de disolución. Los indicadores de alteración más graves son las fisuras y fragmentaciones que afectan a los elementos más labrados y que han llevado al estado de ruina a la mayor parte de los elementos más aireados como los pináculos.

  3. Radiation Protection. Chapter 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapter 21, in describing basic radiation biology and radiation effects, demonstrates the need to have a system of radiation protection that allows the many beneficial uses of radiation to be realized while ensuring detrimental radiation effects are either prevented or minimized. This can be achieved with the twin objectives of preventing the occurrence of deterministic effects and of limiting the probability of stochastic effects to a level that is considered acceptable. In a radiology facility, consideration needs to be given to the patient, the staff involved in performing the radiological procedures, members of the public and other staff that may be in the radiology facility, carers and comforters of patients undergoing procedures, and persons who may be undergoing a radiological procedure as part of a biomedical research project. This chapter discusses how the objectives given above are fulfilled through a system of radiation protection and how such a system should be applied practically in a radiology facility

  4. Chapter 14. Greenhouses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    Greenhouse heating is one of the most common uses of geothermal resources. Because of the significant heating requirements of greenhouses and their ability to use very low- temperature fluids, they are a natural application. The evaluation of a particular greenhouse project involves consideration of the structure heating requirements, and the system to meet those requirements. This chapter is intended to provide information on each of these areas.

  5. The Ephemeral Cathedral of Créteil : a 350m2 lightweight gridshell structure made of 2 kilometers of GFRP tubes

    OpenAIRE

    du Peloux, Lionel; Tayeb, Frédéric; Caron, Jean-François; Baverel, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The Ephemeral Cathedral of Créteil (Paris, France) is a gridshell structure made of composite materials. Built in 2013, this religious edifice of 350m 2 is a temporary church meant to gather the parishioners during the two-years renovation of their permanent cathedral. This large-scale prototype (Figure 1) represents a first in the building industry, which still shows excessive apprehension for the use of non-traditional materials such as composites, especially when it comes to structural app...

  6. Building-stone used in architectural heritage: red sandstone of Astorga cathedral (Leon); Materiales utilizados en el patrimonio arquitectonico: la arenisca roja de la catedral de Astorga (Leon)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Martinez, R.; Alavarez Areces, E.; Menduina, J.; Martin Rubi, J. A.

    2009-07-01

    The unequivocal origin of the red sandstone used for Astorga cathedral was studied in this paper. This red sandstone presents distinctive hydrothermal minerals filling fractures, the most conspicuous are anatase crystals with characteristic habit, colour and transparency, quite rare in the region. The identification of fractures filled with this TiO{sub 2} polymorph in an abandoned sandstone quarry south of Astorga allowed us to confirm the origin of the rock used for one of the towers of Astorga cathedral. (Author) 10 refs.

  7. The basilica of Santa Maria de Oviedo: from royal Pantheon to double cathedral. Restitution Hypothesis based on compositional and metrological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Borge Cordovilla

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Basilica of Santa Maria de Oviedo (now “Rey Casto” Chapel of the Cathedral, was the lower church of the "Double Cathedral" Oviedo. For historians, the purpose of this building was the royal pantheon, creating a formal architectural framework around the tombs of the kings of Asturias, associated funerary cult in memory of the monarchs. This vision has been maintained, despite non-membership archeology shows the cemetery to the original draft of the building, which is deducted important morphological and functional changes in it. Analysis techniques based on computer graphics and numerical approach to serve the reasonable assumptions that allow the reconstruction of this building still missing.

  8. Chapter 6: Conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter provides a brief summary of conclusions with respect to project implementation issues. Furthermore, the chapter contains recommendations on future applications of the modelling system and on water resources management in the project area

  9. Introduction to Chapter two

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the first forms of occupation of the territory east of the Jordan River, from prehistoric times to the taking of Phoenicia by Alexander the Great in 333 BC. At that time, the climate was wetter and hunter-gatherers of the Palaeolithic period were widely scattered along wadis and temporary ponds. During the Neolithic period they developed new hunting techniques and built kites throughout the badiya; these were long funnel-shaped stone walls used to capture gaz...

  10. Selective sandstone deterioration in the cathedrals of Salamanca, Textural anisotropy as a cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Patino, María Teresa

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available Textural sandstone anisotropy is related to the selective deterioration of such stone in buildings. The samples studied come from the Cathedrals of Salamanca. Stone fragments, cut in different directions with regard to the base supporting the ashlars in the wall, are studied by means of a binocular magnifying glass and the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. This shows that the sandstone microfabric has a granular and a laminar microtexture, which correspond to different directions in the plane in question as regards the position of the ashlar. Either of these circumstances coincides with the stone surface on the outside of the building and affect its surface deterioration in a different way. The SEM images of deteriorated stone were compared with those of unaffected stone, with both types coming from differently orientated cuts as regards the position of the ashlar. In conclusion, the position given to the block of stone in the building is of importance for the preservation of the stone. The speed of ultrasound transmission measured in samples from commercial quarries confirms the textural sandstone anisotropy to a greater or lesser extent.

    La anisotropía textural de las areniscas se relaciona con la selectividad de su deterioro en los edificios. Las muestras estudiadas pertenecen a las Catedrales de Salamanca. Fragmentos de piedra, cortados en direcciones diferentes respecto a la base sobre la que se asientan los sillares en el muro, son estudiados por medio de la lupa binocular y del microscopio electrónico de barrido (SEM. De éstos se deduce que la microfábrica de las areniscas tiene una microtextura granular y otra laminar, que corresponden a direcciones diferentes del plano respecto al asiento del sillar. Una u otra de estas situaciones coincide con la superficie de la piedra expuesta al exterior en el edificio, y afectan a su deterioro superficial de forma diferente. Las capas externas en las que predomina la arcilla

  11. Macroscopical morphology of deterioration of the stone in the Cathedral of Seville, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcalde, M.

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The lithotype mainly used in the construction of the Cathedral of Seville is the calcarenite from Puerto de Santa f/laria followed by the limestone from Espera. The primordial extrinsecal factor of deterioration is the atmospherical contamination, mainly sulphur oxides and smoke, within a humid environment. From both factors, the porose stone of a carbonated nature and the acid environment, we can deduce that the principal mechanism of deterioration is the chemical attack; the most important indicators of deterioration that have been found are the deposits and arenizations. In a "grosso modo" valoration we can say that the stone of structural employment is well conserved in its majority while the ornamental stone is degraded at 80%. Half the cresting is in a state of ruin and 20% of the tips have been removed or will have to be in the near future.

    El litotipo mayoritariamente empleado en la construcción de la Catedral de Sevilla es la calcarenita del Puerto de Santa María seguida de la caliza de Espera. El factor extrínseco de alteración primordial es la contaminación atmosférica, principalmente óxidos de azufre y humos, en ambiente húmedo. De ambos factores, piedra porosa de naturaleza carbonatada y medio ambiente ácido, puede deducirse que el principal mecanismo de alteración es el ataque químico y se ha encontrado que los indicadores de alteración más importantes son los depósitos y las arenizaciones. En una valoración a grosso modo puede decirse que la piedra de uso estructural se encuentra bien conservada en su mayor parte, y la ornamental degradada en un 80%. La mitad de las cresterías se encuentran en estado de ruina y un 20% de los remates han sido retirados o habrán de serlo próximamente.

  12. Ecclesia Sancti Viti, Wenceslai, Adalberti et Sanctae Mariae et monasterium ecclesiae pragensis: A Reconstruction of the Building Phases and Liturgical Topography of the Cathedral and the Chapter Area

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maříková-Kubková, Jana

    Hildesheim: Deutscher Verein für Kunstwissenschaft e.V, 2015. s. 4. ISBN N. [Forum Kunst des Mittelalters. 16.09.2015-19.09.2015, Hildesheim] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) CU7-MULT7/2010-0653/001-001 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : history of medieval architecture * medieval art * Prague Castle Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://mittelalterkongress.de/

  13. Quality Management. Chapter 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter introduces the principles and definitions of quality management systems (QMSs) for radiology facilities, to give a framework to assist in the setting up of such systems and to emphasize the role of the medical physicist in this context. While there is a diversity of terms currently in use to describe quality processes both generally and specifically within radiology, there is broad agreement that the effective management of radiation medicine services demands a quality culture that includes a systematic approach to the elements that govern the delivery of that service. Therefore, the concept of quality assurance (QA) within the radiological facility covers, in its widest sense, all those factors that affect the intended outcome, that is, a clinical diagnosis. The medical physicist has an important role in the overall QMS, especially, but not exclusively, with respect to the equipment performance. A worked example of a quality control (QC) programme is included at the end of the chapter, to demonstrate the depth of detail and involvement of the medical physicist

  14. Palaeoclimate. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter assesses palaeoclimatic data and knowledge of how the climate system changes over interannual to millennial time scales, and how well these variations can be simulated with climate models. Additional palaeoclimatic perspectives are included in other chapters. Palaeoclimate science has made significant advances since the 1970s, when a primary focus was on the origin of the ice ages, the possibility of an imminent future ice age, and the first explorations of the so-called Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period. Even in the first IPCC assessment, many climatic variations prior to the instrumental record were not that well known or understood. Fifteen years later, understanding is much improved, more quantitative and better integrated with respect to observations and modelling. After a brief overview of palaeoclimatic methods, including their strengths and weaknesses, this chapter examines the palaeoclimatic record in chronological order, from oldest to youngest. This approach was selected because the climate system varies and changes over all time scales, and it is instructive to understand the contributions that lower-frequency patterns of climate change might make in influencing higher-frequency patterns of variability and change. In addition, an examination of how the climate system has responded to large changes in climate forcing in the past is useful in assessing how the same climate system might respond to the large anticipated forcing changes in the future. Cutting across this chronologically based presentation are assessments of climate forcing and response, and of the ability of state-of-the-art climate models to simulate the responses. Perspectives from palaeoclimatic observations, theory and modelling are integrated wherever possible to reduce uncertainty in the assessment. Several sections also assess the latest developments in the rapidly advancing area of abrupt climate change, that is, forced or unforced climatic change that involves

  15. Chapter 7: Microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, Rebecca; Coleman, Andre; Wigmosta, Mark; Schoenung, Susan; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Langholtz, Matthew; Davis, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    This chapter of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report provides an estimate of biomass potential at given minimum selling prices. This is not a projection of actual measured biomass or a simulation of commercial projects. Biomass potential is estimated based on 30 years of hourly local climate and strain-specific biophysical characteristics using the Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT), assuming sufficient available nutrients (including CO2). As is the case for terrestrial feedstocks, important resource analysis questions for algae include not only how much of the crop may be available but also what price might be needed to procure that supply. Identifying resource co-location opportunities for algal biofuel facilities has the potential to reduce costs, utilize waste resources, and focus attention on appropriate technologies and locations for commercialization.

  16. Kaks luustikku Tartu toomkirikust: arheoloogia ja osteoloogia andmed / Two skeletons from the Tartu Cathedral Cemetery: archaeological and osteological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Malve

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with two case studies based on the osteological obtained in the rescue excavations in the Cathedral of Tartu in 2001 and 2008 (fig. 1. The first case study focuses on the skeleton of the child who suffered from congenital syphilis. The grave has been dated to the end of the 17th or the beginning of the 18th century. The child had been buried in the eighth nave of the northern aisle of the Cathedral (fig. 3. The grave was, according to the Christian burial traditions, west-oriented with the head facing towards the east. A Swedish 1/6 öre, minted during the reign of King Charles XI (1600–1697, was recovered from the grave. The skeleton was relatively complete and well preserved (fig. 2. Based on the dental eruption, the age at death was 9 years ± 24 months. Sexually distinctive characteristics had not developed, and thus it was impossible to determine the sex of the child. Both the microscopical and radiological analyses revealed that the skeleton had indicators of congenital syphilis. Damage from gummatous osteomyelitis and periostitis were visible on the skull and on the axial and appendicular skeleton (fig. 6, while Hutchinson’s incisors and Mulberry molars were present among the teeth. Deformations and damage on the bones suggest that the child had suffered from the disease for quite a long time.The second case study discusses a beheaded man found from the eighth nave in the southern aisle of the Cathedral (fig. 3. The grave pit had a depth of 80 cm from the medieval floor surface of the church, which indicates that the burial dates from the Middle Ages. Also, the head of the deceased pointed to the west.The bones were well preserved (fig. 6. Sex was determined from the characteristics of the skull and the length of the right humerus. Calcification of the cranial sutures and cartilages suggests that the age of the man at death was probably 50+. Macroscopic examination of the skeleton revealed that the man had suffered

  17. A corrosion study of the ferrous medieval reinforcement of the Amiens cathedral. Phase characterisation and localisation by various microprobes techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monnier, J. [SIS2M/LAPA-Laboratoire Pierre Suee, UMR 9956 CNRS - CEA, Bat. 637, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif/Yvette cedex (France); Institut de Chimie et des Materiaux Paris-Est UMR 7182 CNRS - Universite Paris 12, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France)], E-mail: monnier@icmpe.cnrs.fr; Neff, D. [SIS2M/LAPA-Laboratoire Pierre Suee, UMR 9956 CNRS - CEA, Bat. 637, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif/Yvette cedex (France); Reguer, S. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, Saint-Aubin BP 4891192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dillmann, P. [SIS2M/LAPA-Laboratoire Pierre Suee, UMR 9956 CNRS - CEA, Bat. 637, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif/Yvette cedex (France); IRAMAT/LMC UMR 5060 CNRS and Laboratoire Pierre Suee UMR 9956 CNRS - CEA, Bat. 637, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, Cedex (France); Bellot-Gurlet, L. [Laboratoire de Dynamique, Interaction et Reactivite (LADIR), UMR 7075 CNRS - Universite Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6, 2 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Leroy, E. [Institut de Chimie et des Materiaux Paris-Est UMR 7182 CNRS - Universite Paris 12, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Foy, E. [SIS2M/LAPA-Laboratoire Pierre Suee, UMR 9956 CNRS - CEA, Bat. 637, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif/Yvette cedex (France); Legrand, L. [Laboratoire Analyse et Modelisation pour la biologie et l' Environnement, UMR 8587, CNRS-Universite d' Evry-CEA, Universite d' Evry Val d' Essonne, rue du Pere Jarland, 91025 Evry (France); Guillot, I. [Institut de Chimie et des Materiaux Paris-Est UMR 7182 CNRS - Universite Paris 12, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France)

    2010-03-15

    In this study, long term corrosion mechanisms are approached through the characterisation of corrosion products formed on ancient artefacts over 500 years. Thirty-one artefacts were sampled in the Amiens cathedral. The thick corrosion product layers have been characterised at a microscopic scale by coupling complementary microbeam analytical techniques (SEM-EDS, Raman microspectroscopy, X-ray microdiffraction and microfluorescence, X-ray absorption microspectroscopy under synchrotron radiation). The main phase of the corrosion layer is goethite but lepidocrocite and akaganeite are also present locally in the corrosion layer. In addition, the presence of low crystallinity phases (feroxyhyte and/or ferrihydrite) is showed. These phases are electrochemically reactive, thus they could play a key role in the corrosion mechanisms.

  18. A corrosion study of the ferrous medieval reinforcement of the Amiens cathedral. Phase characterisation and localisation by various microprobes techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, long term corrosion mechanisms are approached through the characterisation of corrosion products formed on ancient artefacts over 500 years. Thirty-one artefacts were sampled in the Amiens cathedral. The thick corrosion product layers have been characterised at a microscopic scale by coupling complementary microbeam analytical techniques (SEM-EDS, Raman microspectroscopy, X-ray microdiffraction and microfluorescence, X-ray absorption microspectroscopy under synchrotron radiation). The main phase of the corrosion layer is goethite but lepidocrocite and akaganeite are also present locally in the corrosion layer. In addition, the presence of low crystallinity phases (feroxyhyte and/or ferrihydrite) is showed. These phases are electrochemically reactive, thus they could play a key role in the corrosion mechanisms.

  19. Smart City Governance: A Local Emergent Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Albert

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents a local emergent perspective on smart city governance. Smart city governance is about using new technologies to develop innovative governance arrangements. Cities all around the world are struggling to find smart solutions to wicked problems and they hope to learn from successf

  20. Towards the next chapter

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    In the late 1970s, while the CERN community was busy preparing the SPS to operate as a collider and planning for LEP, people also had their eyes on the next chapter in the unfolding story of CERN.   That the LEP tunnel should be built with a future hadron collider in mind was a given by the end of the decade. But there had also been proposals to build large proton storage rings, or re-equip the ISR with superconducting magnets. Some people had suggested building an electron-proton collider at CERN, and there were ambitious plans looking far into the future at a possible Very Big Accelerator to be built somewhere in the world, which went by its acronym VBA. For the field of particle physics, with its very long lead times, this is part of the normal cycle, and while most of those options never came to fruition, this process did pave the way for the LHC. Today, with the LHC programme underway, the time has come for CERN to start seriously considering the options for its post-LHC future. Perhaps ...

  1. Image Reconstruction. Chapter 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discusses how 2‑D or 3‑D images of tracer distribution can be reconstructed from a series of so-called projection images acquired with a gamma camera or a positron emission tomography (PET) system [13.1]. This is often called an ‘inverse problem’. The reconstruction is the inverse of the acquisition. The reconstruction is called an inverse problem because making software to compute the true tracer distribution from the acquired data turns out to be more difficult than the ‘forward’ direction, i.e. making software to simulate the acquisition. There are basically two approaches to image reconstruction: analytical reconstruction and iterative reconstruction. The analytical approach is based on mathematical inversion, yielding efficient, non-iterative reconstruction algorithms. In the iterative approach, the reconstruction problem is reduced to computing a finite number of image values from a finite number of measurements. That simplification enables the use of iterative instead of mathematical inversion. Iterative inversion tends to require more computer power, but it can cope with more complex (and hopefully more accurate) models of the acquisition process

  2. Chapter 11. Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.; Culver, Gene

    1998-01-01

    Most geothermal fluids, because of their elevated temperature, contain a variety of dissolved chemicals. These chemicals are frequently corrosive toward standard materials of construction. As a result, it is advisable in most cases to isolate the geothermal fluid from the process to which heat is being transferred. The task of heat transfer from the geothermal fluid to a closed process loop is most often handled by a plate heat exchanger. The two most common types used in geothermal applications are: bolted and brazed. For smaller systems, in geothermal resource areas of a specific character, downhole heat exchangers (DHEs) provide a unique means of heat extraction. These devices eliminate the requirement for physical removal of fluid from the well. For this reason, DHE-based systems avoid entirely the environmental and practical problems associated with fluid disposal. Shell and tube heat exchangers play only a minor role in low-temperature, direct-use systems. These units have been in common use in industrial applications for many years and, as a result, are well understood. For these reasons, shell and tube heat exchangers will not be covered in this chapter.

  3. Conclusion. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beginning 1992, January 1 Semipalatinsk test site was transforming into large research scientific center. The National Nuclear Center (NNC) was formed on the base of site's research enterprises. The principal problems of NNC are as follows: liquidation of nuclear tests consequences; liquidation of technological infrastructure for preparation and conducting of nuclear tests, creation of technology for radioactive wastes store; implementation of atomic energy development conception in Kazakhstan, etc. Program of site conversion constantly is expanding. In this chapter measures by rehabilitation of injured population are revealed. Taking into account radioecological situation, dose loadings, demographic indexes, sick rate and mortality of population on territories exposed to site's influence Government of Kazakhstan adopted Decree on declaration of these lands of zone of ecological catastrophe. Measures on improvement of radioecological situation are reduce to following ones: determination of irradiation doses received by population during testing period; study of existing radiation contamination; study of all possible sources for dose increasing and taking into account other ones; information of population about radioecological situation and about all consequences of nuclear tests. In 1992 Supreme Soviet of Republic of Kazakhstan worked out and adopted law On social defence of citizens suffered from consequences of nuclear tests on Semipalatinsk test site. It was distinguished four zones of radiation risk. The first zone is zone of extreme risk. It is part of territory subjected to radiation contamination with dose of influence on population above 100 rem during of total period of tests conducting. To this zone belong following inhabited settlements: Budene, Dolon', Cheremushki, Mostik, Sarzhal, Isa, Sarpan, Karakoryk, Zagotskot-2. Second zone is zone of maximal radiation risk. To this zone belong inhabited settlements of following districts: Abaj, Abraly, Beskargaj

  4. Advanced Concepts. Chapter 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Mulqueen, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Before there is a funded space mission, there must be a present need for the mission. Space science and exploration are expensive, and without a well-defined and justifiable need, no one is going to commit significant funding for any space endeavor. However, as discussed in Chapter 1, applications of space technology and many and broad, hence there are many ways to determine and establish a mission need. Robotic science missions are justified by their science return. To be selected for flight, questions like these must be addressed: What is the science question that needs answering, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to answer it? Why does answering the question require an expensive space flight, instead of some ground-based alternative? If the question can only be answered by flying in space, then why is this approach better than other potential approaches? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to answer the question in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? There are also many ways to justify human exploration missions, including science return, technology advancement, as well as intangible reasons, such as national pride. Nonetheless, many of the questions that need answering, are similar to those for robotic science missions: Where are the people going, why, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to get there? What is the safest method to achieve the goal? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to get there and keep the crew alive in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? Another reason for some groups sending spacecraft into space is for profit. Telecommunications, geospatial imaging, and tourism are examples of proven, market-driven space missions and applications. For this specific set of users, the

  5. Macroscopical morphology of deterioration of the stone used in the cathedral whole of Granada/Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcalde, M.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The main factors of deterioration that affect the Cathedral Whole of Granada are one of natural thermic origin due to the low temperatures during the winters and the higher thermic oscillations and those of anthropogenical origin: fundamentally the oxidation of metallic elements and atmospheric pollution due to burnt products. For this reason, the more important deterioration mechanisms are the freezing ones due to the expansion produced in the water retained inside the pores and microcracks, fundamentally in the architectonic elements with high expositional surface and in their shady orientation; the main indicators produced are fissuring and spalling. In this way, a lot of elements of Santa Pudia stone located in the Royal Chapel crenellations have disappeared and the rest are very deteriorated. The more compact Sierra Elvira stone used on the upper zone of the cornices has also been affected by the freezing mechanism, which starts with the microcracks produced by differential dilatations due to the thermic oscillations which made the water access easy. The iron corrosion and later expansion of the oxidation products has provoked the cracking and fissuring of many ornamental elements like balls, pinnacles, etc, and this situation has obliged their dismantling on the upper zones due to the danger to the public. The mechanisms of dissolution, crystallization cycles and Chemical action have led to abundant material loosening in the form of grain disgregations overcoats on the higher humidity zones, and formation of hollows (pitting, alveolar erosion, striations in the zones more exposed to the winds. This situation is generalized in the lower zones of the monument, except on the main facade, and in the parapets and lower zones of the cornices. The grain disgregations are more important when biological crusts or unburned deposits exist, the latter being of major abundance on the surfaces near the Gran Vía and in its orientation. It is necessary

  6. An analysis of the black crusts from the Seville Cathedral: A challenge to deepen the understanding of the relationships among microstructure, microchemical features and pollution sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cathedral of Seville is one of the most important buildings in the whole of southern Spain. It suffers, like most of the historical buildings located in urban environments, from several degradation phenomena related to the high pollution level. Undoubtedly, the formation of black crusts plays a crucial role in the decay of the stone materials belonging to the church. Their formation occurs mainly on carbonate building materials, whose interaction with a sulfur oxide-enriched atmosphere leads to the transformation of calcium carbonate (calcite) into calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum) which, together with embedded carbonaceous particles, forms the black crusts on the stone surface. To better understand the composition and the formation dynamics of this degradation product and to identify the pollutant sources and evaluate their impact on the stone material, an analytical study was carried out on the black crust samples collected from different areas of the building. For a complete characterization of the black crusts, several techniques were used, including laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, micro infrared spectroscopy, optical and scanning electron microscopy. This battery of tests provided information about the nature and distribution of the mineralogical phases and the elements within the crusts and the crust-substrate interface, contributing to the identification of the major pollution sources responsible for the deterioration of the monument over time. In addition, the results revealed a relation among the height of sampling, the surface exposure and the concentration of heavy metals. Finally, information has been provided about the origin of the concentration gradients of some metals. - Highlights: • Black crusts from the Cathedral of Seville have been studied. • The impact of the pollution on the Cathedral of Seville has been assessed. • A geochemical study has been performed on black

  7. An analysis of the black crusts from the Seville Cathedral: A challenge to deepen the understanding of the relationships among microstructure, microchemical features and pollution sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffolo, Silvestro A., E-mail: silvestro.ruffolo@unical.it [Università della Calabria, Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), Via Pietro Bucci 87036, Arcavacata di Rende, CS (Italy); Comite, Valeria [Università della Calabria, Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), Via Pietro Bucci 87036, Arcavacata di Rende, CS (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali–Sezione di Scienze della Terra, Università di Catania, Corso Italia 57, 95129 Catania (Italy); La Russa, Mauro F. [Università della Calabria, Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), Via Pietro Bucci 87036, Arcavacata di Rende, CS (Italy); Belfiore, Cristina M. [Università della Calabria, Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), Via Pietro Bucci 87036, Arcavacata di Rende, CS (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali–Sezione di Scienze della Terra, Università di Catania, Corso Italia 57, 95129 Catania (Italy); Barca, Donatella [Università della Calabria, Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), Via Pietro Bucci 87036, Arcavacata di Rende, CS (Italy); Bonazza, Alessandra [Istituto di Scienze dell' Atmosfera e del Clima, ISAC-CNR, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Crisci, Gino M. [Università della Calabria, Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), Via Pietro Bucci 87036, Arcavacata di Rende, CS (Italy); Pezzino, Antonino [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali–Sezione di Scienze della Terra, Università di Catania, Corso Italia 57, 95129 Catania (Italy); and others

    2015-01-01

    The Cathedral of Seville is one of the most important buildings in the whole of southern Spain. It suffers, like most of the historical buildings located in urban environments, from several degradation phenomena related to the high pollution level. Undoubtedly, the formation of black crusts plays a crucial role in the decay of the stone materials belonging to the church. Their formation occurs mainly on carbonate building materials, whose interaction with a sulfur oxide-enriched atmosphere leads to the transformation of calcium carbonate (calcite) into calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum) which, together with embedded carbonaceous particles, forms the black crusts on the stone surface. To better understand the composition and the formation dynamics of this degradation product and to identify the pollutant sources and evaluate their impact on the stone material, an analytical study was carried out on the black crust samples collected from different areas of the building. For a complete characterization of the black crusts, several techniques were used, including laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, micro infrared spectroscopy, optical and scanning electron microscopy. This battery of tests provided information about the nature and distribution of the mineralogical phases and the elements within the crusts and the crust-substrate interface, contributing to the identification of the major pollution sources responsible for the deterioration of the monument over time. In addition, the results revealed a relation among the height of sampling, the surface exposure and the concentration of heavy metals. Finally, information has been provided about the origin of the concentration gradients of some metals. - Highlights: • Black crusts from the Cathedral of Seville have been studied. • The impact of the pollution on the Cathedral of Seville has been assessed. • A geochemical study has been performed on black

  8. Experiment of construction - Innovation in the form. The Cathedral of St. James in Šibenik and «Freedom of creation in peripheral milieu»

    OpenAIRE

    Predrag Marković

    2014-01-01

    The Cathedral of St. James in Šibenik represents the most important architectural achievement of the Renaissance on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea. Its exceptional, in many respects unusual and still enigmatic structure, characterized primarily by the peculiar stone barrel vaults, designed and for the most part built by Niccolo di Giovanni Fiorentino (1475-1506/1536). If we consider that such unique combination of structural and formal solutions has never reoccurred, not even in smalle...

  9. American Red Cross Chapter Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Regions are part of the national field level structure to support chapters. The Regions role is admistrative as well as provides oversight and program technical...

  10. Chapter 28. Chemistry and light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter author deals with the light and photochemical reactions as photosynthesis, visions, ozone layer depletion, photodynamic therapy, laser and its applications and photochromism. Principle of solar cells and solar energy conversion are presented.

  11. Nuclear metallurgy lectures, Chapter 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1955-05-18

    This chapter covers process tubes; it is divided into: philosophy of safety factors, mechanical properties of available materials (C steel, mo steel, Cr-Mo steel, ss-304, ss-347), and costs (zircaloy-2).

  12. Wading through black jade in Marianne Moore’s sunken cathedral: The modernist sea poem as a Deleuzian fold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambroży Paulina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is a close reading of Moore’s poem “The Fish” (1918 through the conceptual lens of Gilles Deleuze’s trope of the fold, as explained in his influential 1988 study of Leibniz, The Fold: Leibniz and the Baroque. The purpose is to explore Moore’s (neobaroque sensibility and her peculiar penchant for Baroque tropes, images and forms. The Deleuzian concept of the fold, with its rich epistemological implications and broad cultural applicability as the universal trope of crisis, change, unrest and transience, helps to comprehend Moore’s own philosophical and aesthetic concerns. The study, in accord with the interdiscursive character of the contemporary studies of modernism draws from art history, philosophy, theory, literature, and visual arts, to uncover a strong Baroque undercurrent in the poet’s polyphonic imagination. Seen in the light of Deleuze’s fold, Moore’s poem emerges as a quasi-Baroque ruin, a sunken cathedral-cum-graveyard, with a theatrical chiaroscuro lighting and folding and unfolding of sense, which both shelters and entombs the severely wounded modernist soul.

  13. Entropy Man, Chapter 10 Renewable Resources

    OpenAIRE

    John Bryant

    2015-01-01

    Chapter from a book entitled Entropy Man, which deals with the relationships between the disciplines of thermodynamics and economics. Chapter 1 illusrates how entropy impacts on the world in which we live. Chapter 2 is a short history of human development. Chapter 3 covers such concepts as the distribution of income, elasticity, the first and second laws of thermodynamics and utility. Chapter 4 explores production and consumption. Chapter 5 explores the relationship between economic entropy a...

  14. Chapter 1: Direct Normal Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Daryl R.

    2016-04-15

    This chapter addresses the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the solar resource, the direct solar radiation. It discusses the total or integrated broadband direct beam extraterrestrial radiation (ETR). This total integrated irradiance is comprised of photons of electromagnetic radiation. The chapter also discusses the impact of the atmosphere and its effect upon the direct normal irradiance (DNI) beam radiation. The gases and particulates present in the atmosphere traversed by the direct beam reflect, absorb, and scatter differing spectral regions and proportions of the direct beam, and act as a variable filter. Knowledge of the available broadband DNI beam radiation resource data is essential in designing a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) system. Spectral variations in the DNI beam radiation affect the performance of a CPV system depending on the solar cell technology used. The chapter describes propagation and scattering processes of circumsolar radiation (CSR), which includes the Mie scattering from large particles.

  15. Chapter 3. Emotions and Selves

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, Miri

    2012-01-01

    Following the footsteps of Natalie Zemon Davis, and very much in her honor, the previous two chapters traced the possibilities of a global history and the creation of terrains of polemic and encounter within the vast and important culture field that developed around Mary in medieval Europe. In this chapter we will continue the enterprise of identifying Tasks and Themes in the Study of Europe-an Culture, by studying the emergence of a European style of emotive devotion. For in the centuries th...

  16. Chapter IV: Primary landscape structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inanimate and live nature, which represent the basis of the landscape as yet not affected by man and his activities is represented in detail in this chapter. It is characterised by the series of components of the physical sphere as the permanent material basis of the remaining landscape structures. The output is the types of the primary landscape structure represented by the abiotic complexes. This chapter consists of next subchapters: (1) Geological base; (2) Surface; (3) Air; (4) Waters; (5) Soils; (6) Vegetation; (7) Fauna; (8) Types of primary landscape structure

  17. Hangzhou Declared Famous City of Calligraphy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ah Tong

    2010-01-01

    @@ June 20th,2010 marked an important chapter in the history of Hangzhou.On this day,Hangzhou was officially designated as"Famous City of Cal ligraphy of China"by China Calligraphers Associa tion.The city celebrated its latest glory by holding a series of calligraphic events.

  18. Quantitative Nuclear Medicine. Chapter 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planar imaging is still used in clinical practice although tomographic imaging (single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)) is becoming more established. In this chapter, quantitative methods for both imaging techniques are presented. Planar imaging is limited to single photon. For both SPECT and PET, the focus is on the quantitative methods that can be applied to reconstructed images

  19. Hyperostosis frontalis interna – a find in women individual from Modern Times (St. Martin Cathedral, Spisska Kapitula, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Petrušová Chudá

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present find of skeletal remains from the St. Martin Cathedral from the 17th – 18th centuries which were excavated in year 2008. Especially of individual from grave no. 2/2008 – preserved cranium showed marks of endocranial hyperostosis (stage B according Hershkovitz et al. 1999. Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI is an overgrowth of bony tissue on the inner plate of the frontal bone of the calvaria, the irregular thickening of the endocranium (may be 1 cm or thicker. It is typically bilateral and symmetrical, and may extend to involve the parietal bones. It was first described in 1765 by Morgagni and Santorini as an obesity and virilism associated with thickening of internal table of the frontal bone called hyperostosis frontalis interna. HFI appears more commonly in women than in men, with an estimated male:female ratio 1:9, usually in age 35 years and older women. In modern population this condition is most prevalent in postmenopausal females, with frequencies of 40 – 62% reported, in general population, composed of males and females of different ages HFI affects 3 – 15% of individuals. In contrast, HFI is rarely reported in an archeological context. Using an anthropomorphological and paleopathological examination of the skeletal remains we realized that this women was in age category adultus II (30 – 39 years or older, her stature was cca 151.875 cm and she also suffered from DISH, healed fracture of styloid process of right ulna, osteoarthrosis of humeral and femoral heads and spondylosis.

  20. The central tower of the cathedral of Schleswig - New investigations to understand the alcali-silica reaction of historical mortars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Wanja; Protz, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The damaging alcali-silica reaction leads to crack-formation and structural destruction at noumerous, constructed with cement mortar, buildings worldwide. The ASR-reaction causes the expansion of altered aggregates by the formation of a swelling gel. This gel consists of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) that increases in volume with water, which exerts an expansive pressure inside the material. The cathedral of Schleswig is one of the oldest in northern Germany. The first church was built in 985-965. The Romanesque building part was erected around 1180 and the Gothic nave at the end of the 13th century. The central tower was constructed between 1888 and 1894 with brick and cement mortar. With 112 meters, the tower is the second-largest church spire of the country of Schleswig-Holstein in northern Germany. Due to the formation of cracks and damages from 1953 to 1956 first restoration works took place. Further developments of cracks are making restoration necessary again today. For developing a suitable conservation strategy, different investigations were done. The investigation included the determination of the pore space properties, the hygric and thermal dilatation and mercury porosimetry measurements. Furthermore, the application of cathodoluminescence microscopy may give information about the alteration process and microstructures present and reveal the differences between unaltered and altered mortars. An obvious relation between the porosity and the swelling intensity could be detected. Furthermore it becomes apparent, that a clear zonation of the mortar took place. The mortar near the surface is denser with a lower porosity and has a significantly lower swelling or dilatation.

  1. Monitoring of the temperature - moisture regime of critical parts in the tower of the St. Martin Cathedral in Bratislava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicar, L.; Fidríková, D.; Štofanik, V.; Vretenár, V.

    2012-04-01

    Historic monuments are subject to degradation due to exposition to surrounding meteorological conditions and groundwater. Degradation is most often manifested by deterioration of plaster, walls structure and building elements like stones. A significant attention measures are undertaken to prevent degradation of the cultural heritage throughout the world. Our contribution is to monitor the objects for recognition of the critical state when it is necessary to make adjustments to avoid destruction. Buildings consisting from the listed elements belong to porous materials. Moisture diffusion, condensation, etc. attack structure stability of the buildings. Then the moisture diffusion and effects like drying, freezing / thawing belong to the control mechanisms of the degradation. In addition to laboratory experiments concerning the mentioned effects, we simultaneously studied processes by monitoring of the cultural monuments. During monitoring we have identified diffusion of moisture associated with cycle day / night and cycle moisture /drying caused by meteorological precipitation. Long term monitoring is performed in the tower of St. Martin Cathedral in Bratislava under the window sill of the belfry in exterior at three orientations, the north, south and the west. Monitoring is carried out in plaster and in masonry about 10 cm from the wall surface. The thermal conductivity sensors are used for monitoring that operate on the principle of the hot ball method. Then thermal conductivity of porous material is a function of pore content. The sensor has shape of a ball in diameter up to 2 mm in which a heat source as well as a thermometer is integrated into one component. A small heat output is delivered into the surrounding material. The temperature response of the sensor gives information on the thermal conductivity. For use in the preservation of cultural heritage a number of measuring devices have been developed for automatic registration of temperature and moisture in

  2. Towards cognitive cities advances in cognitive computing and its application to the governance of large urban systems

    CERN Document Server

    Finger, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the readers to the new concept of cognitive cities. It demonstrates why cities need to become cognitive and why therefore a concept of cognitive city is needed. It highlights the main building blocks of cognitive cities and illustrates the concept by various cases. Following a concise introductory chapter the book features nine chapters illustrating various aspects and dimensions of cognitive cities. The logic of its structure proceeds from more general considerations to more specific illustrations. All chapters offer a comprehensive view of the different research endeavours about cognitive cities and will help pave the way for this new and innovative approach to governing cities in the future. .

  3. Significant Movements in City School Systems. Bulletin, 1929, No. 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffenbaugh, W. S.

    1929-01-01

    So extensive and so complex has the modern city school system become that it is impossible in a short chapter to discuss more than a few of the educational movements in the cities of the country, and these only briefly. In addition to day elementary and secondary schools, the activities of city school systems include night schools, continuation…

  4. Chapter 1. Traditional marketing revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Lambin, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to review the traditional marketing concept and to analyse its main ambiguities as presented in popular textbooks. The traditional marketing management model placing heavy emphasis of the marketing mix is in fact a supply-driven approach of the market, using the understanding of consumers’ needs to mould demand to the requirements of supply, instead of adapting supply to the expectations of demand. To clarify the true role of marketing, a distinction is made b...

  5. Chapter V: Secondary landscape structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter deals with the secondary landscape structure of the Slovak Republic. It consists of next subchapters: (1) Land use pattern; (2) Special landscape structures; (3) Real vegetation. The secondary landscape structure consists of the elements influenced by man, created or recreated. They represent material elements with a particular spatial delimitation in the landscape. Vegetation, above all forest vegetation, is the indispensable part of the secondary landscape structure. Special space was given to the historical landscape structure

  6. Chapter 17 - Economics of adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Chambwera, M.; Heal, G.; Dubeux, C.; Hallegatte, S.; Leclerc, L.; Markandya, A.; McCarl, B.A.; Mechler, R; Neumann, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter assesses the literature on the economics of climate change adaptation, building on the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) and the increasing role that economic considerations are playing in adaptation decisionmaking and policy. AR4 provided a limited assessment of the costs and benefits of adaptation, based on narrow and fragmented sectoral and regional literature (Adger et al, 2007). Substantial advances have been made in the economics of climate change adaptation after AR4.

  7. Education Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaked, Haim

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

  8. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  9. Instrumentation for Dosimetry. Chapter 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of absorbed dose (or air kerma) are required in varying situations in diagnostic radiology. The radiation fields vary from plain, slit and even point projection geometry, and may be stationary or moving, including rotational. Owing to the use of low photon energies for these fields, it is important that dosimeters have a satisfactory energy response. In general, the requirements for dosimeter accuracy are less stringent than those in radiation therapy; however, the dose and dose rate measurements cover a large range. Patient dosimetry (see Chapter 22) is a primary responsibility of the medical physicist specializing in diagnostic radiology and is required by legislation in many countries. Dose data are also required in the optimization of examinations for image quality and dose. Radiation measurement is also critical for occupational and public exposure control (see Chapter 24). Dose measurements are essential in acceptance testing and quality control (see Chapter 19). Several types of dosimeter can be used, provided that they have a suitable energy response, but typically, ionization chambers of a few cubic centimetres in volume, or solid state detectors specifically designed for such measurements, are used. If dosimeters are used to make measurements during an examination, they must not interfere with the examination. These devices are also used for determination of the half value layer (HVL). Special types of ionization chamber are employed for computed tomography (CT), mammography and interventional radiology dosimetry

  10. Mechanisms of the multi-secular atmospheric corrosion of ferrous alloys: The case of the Metz cathedral reinforcements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the mechanisms of the multi-secular atmospheric corrosion of ferrous alloys has various applications, from the preservation and restoration of cultural heritage metals, to the evaluation of their long term behaviour, specifically when they are used for the storage containers surrounding nuclear wastes. The study of the corrosion product layers (CPL) developed during 5 centuries on the Metz cathedral reinforcements brings new results for a better understanding of the complex processes involved in the formation of the atmospheric CPL. The phases and chemical elements constituting the CPL of these reinforcements were characterized at the micrometric scale (μDRX, Raman μ-spectroscopy (μRS), SEM-EDS). Results specifically showed that these CPL differ from other multi-secular systems previously studied by their very high content in ferri-hydrite (5Fe2O3, 9H2O). This very reactive phase is distributed in the whole CPL and mixed at the microscopic scale with goethite (a-FeOOH) and lepidocrocite (g-FeOOH). Diffusion experiments of bromide ions followed by in situ X-ray μ-fluorescence allowed a better understanding of the transport of dissolved species in the porous network of the CPL. Furthermore, a test of the corrosion system behavior in conditions simulating the wetting stage of the RH cycle of atmospheric corrosion, also followed in situ by μRS, highlighted the reduction of ferri-hydrite at the metal/CPL interface. These results allowed to verify for the first time a fundamental hypothesis about the mechanisms of very long term atmospheric corrosion. Finally, re-corrosion experiments of the corrosion system were monitored in a climatic chamber simulating accelerated atmospheric cycles in an 18O-labelled environment. Then the detection of the 18O isotope linked to the precipitated phases, by nuclear reaction analysis using a nuclear microprobe, allowed to localise the formation sites of the new corrosion products. All these results improve the

  11. The influence of the masonry mechanical properties in the structural behaviour of the Leon`s cathedral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gálvez Ruiz, J. C.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical and physical properties of the masonry have a considerable bearing on the structural behaviour. Ancient buildings, like Leon’s cathedral, show uncertainty about real condition of the material and even structural compounds. These uncertainties make it difficult to assessment the bearing capacity of the structure and the affect of the restorations. This paper shows a study to select the most influential material’s parameters on the structural behaviour. The study is based on a sensitiveness analysis.The study starts with a structural analysis to select the most responsible areas of the transversal structural section. Then, the structural calculation is done by modifying the value of the material’s parameters in the expected scatter band. The statistical study provides the most influential parameters on the structural masonry behaviour. Finally the conclusions are proponed.Las propiedades de un material como la fábrica influyen de forma determinante en el comportamiento de la estructura. En una estructura histórica, como la catedral de León, se añade la incertidumbre del estado real del material y la composición de sus elementos estructurales. Estos aspectos dificultan la evaluación de la capacidad resistente de la estructura y la incidencia de actuaciones de reparación o remodelación. Este trabajo presenta el estudio realizado para seleccionar, mediante un análisis de sensibilidad del comportamiento de la estructura, cuáles son las variables del material que más afectan al comportamiento estructural de la catedral.El estudio se inicia con el análisis estructural de la sección tipo para identificar las zonas de mayor responsabilidad. A continuación se hace el estudio estructural con la combinación de todas las variables, especialmente las dependientes de los materiales, modificando su valor. Mediante un tratamiento estadístico de los resultados, se determina qué parámetros de los adoptados afectan más al

  12. X ray Production. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The differential absorption of X rays in tissues and organs, owing to their atomic composition, is the basis for the various imaging methods used in diagnostic radiology. The principles in the production of X rays have remained the same since their discovery. However, much refinement has gone into the design of X ray tubes to achieve the performance required for today’s radiological examinations. In this chapter, an outline of the principles of X ray production and a characterization of the radiation output of X ray tubes will be given. The basic processes producing X rays are dealt with in Section 1.4

  13. Chapter 9. The landscape sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this work is to examine the interactions between the activities of the electric industry (generating, transmission and distribution) and the environment, whilst showing to what extent the facilities are likely to affect it adversely and describing the measures taken to lessen the detrimental effects. The chapter devoted to the 'landscape' includes a section covering the electricity generating facilities, and among these, the nuclear power stations. The studies carried out on the main units of insertion into the site are presented, particularly the landscaping involved in setting up a power station

  14. 31 CFR Appendixes to Chapter V - Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Note Appendixes to Chapter V Money... CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Ch. V, Nt. Appendixes to Chapter V—Note Notes: The alphabetical lists.... References to regulatory parts in chapter V or other authorities: : Western Balkans Stabilization...

  15. Beer City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shandong Province’s Qingdao is becoming China’s great beer city sicenically located on a peninsula over-looking the Pacific Ocean, Qingdao, |or Tsingtao, is a coastal city soaked in two kinds of foam. One floats in

  16. Ideal Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Meitner, Erika

    2012-01-01

    Erika Meitner discusses her new book: Ideal Cities. This collection of autobiographical narrative and lyric poems explores the relationship between body and place—specifically the pleasures and dangers of women’s corporeal experiences. Ideal Cities is guided by an epigraph from Song of Songs, and the metaphorical idea of bodies as cities, and cities as bodies. How do women’s bodies become sites of inscription via sex, childbirth, and other highly physical acts? These poems also investigate ur...

  17. Sin City?

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier, Pieter A; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen N.

    2007-01-01

    Is moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? Weinvestigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners bymoving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danishcouples. We find that of the couples who married in the city, the ones who stay inthe city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who marriedoutside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. Thiscorrelation ...

  18. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 21, Rigid Motions and Vectors, Chapter 22, Computer and Programs. Teacher's Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    The teacher's guide for the eleventh unit in this SMSG series covers the chapter on rigid motions and vectors and the chapter on computers and programs. The overall purpose for each of the chapters is described, the prerequisite knowledge needed by students is specified, the mathematical development of each chapter is detailed, behavioral…

  19. Chapter 8. The radioactivity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this work is to examine the interactions between the activities of the nuclear industry (generating, transmission and distribution) and the environment, whilst showing to what extent the facilities are likely to affect it adversely and describing the measures taken to lessen the detrimental effects. The chapter dealing with radioactivity among the 'nuisance sectors' includes the following headings: natural radioactivity and the biological effects of radiation, the operation of a power station (principle, generating steam from nuclear energy, different types of reactors, safety barriers), radioactive effluents and wastes, nuclear controls and the environment, measures taken in the event of an accident occurring in a nuclear power station, the dismantling and decommissioning of power stations

  20. Chapter 12. Space Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    The performance evaluation of space heating equipment for a geothermal application is generally considered from either of two perspectives: (a) selecting equipment for installation in new construction, or (b) evaluating the performance and retrofit requirements of an existing system. With regard to new construction, the procedure is relatively straightforward. Once the heating requirements are determined, the process need only involve the selection of appropriately sized hot water heating equipment based on the available water temperature. It is important to remember that space heating equipment for geothermal applications is the same equipment used in non-geothermal applications. What makes geothermal applications unique is that the equipment is generally applied at temperatures and flow rates that depart significantly from traditional heating system design. This chapter presents general considerations for the performance of heating equipment at non-standard temperature and flow conditions, retrofit of existing systems, and aspects of domestic hot water heating.

  1. Evolution and Reconstruction of Learning Cities for Sustainable Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Connie; Wu, Aimee Tiu

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes how the concept of learning cities evolved from the "learning society" and the lifelong education and learning movements, and advances multiple forms of communities of learning.

  2. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , any attempt to create a green city is motivated by certain ecological, political and esthetical perspectives. Therefore the role of plants in tomorrows cities is everything but straightforward. Rather, a broad range of possibilities unfolds. City PLANTastic is the title of the 8th World in Denmark...... urbanism, who reflect upon the multiple roles of plants in the future city through their most recent projects. The theme for the 2012 World in Denmark conference is City PLANTastic, which will also be explored by researchers through their works....

  3. Chapter 4: Geological Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, J; Herzog, H

    2006-06-14

    Carbon sequestration is the long term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. The largest potential reservoirs for storing carbon are the deep oceans and geological reservoirs in the earth's upper crust. This chapter focuses on geological sequestration because it appears to be the most promising large-scale approach for the 2050 timeframe. It does not discuss ocean or terrestrial sequestration. In order to achieve substantial GHG reductions, geological storage needs to be deployed at a large scale. For example, 1 Gt C/yr (3.6 Gt CO{sub 2}/yr) abatement, requires carbon capture and storage (CCS) from 600 large pulverized coal plants ({approx}1000 MW each) or 3600 injection projects at the scale of Statoil's Sleipner project. At present, global carbon emissions from coal approximate 2.5 Gt C. However, given reasonable economic and demand growth projections in a business-as-usual context, global coal emissions could account for 9 Gt C. These volumes highlight the need to develop rapidly an understanding of typical crustal response to such large projects, and the magnitude of the effort prompts certain concerns regarding implementation, efficiency, and risk of the enterprise. The key questions of subsurface engineering and surface safety associated with carbon sequestration are: (1) Subsurface issues: (a) Is there enough capacity to store CO{sub 2} where needed? (b) Do we understand storage mechanisms well enough? (c) Could we establish a process to certify injection sites with our current level of understanding? (d) Once injected, can we monitor and verify the movement of subsurface CO{sub 2}? (2) Near surface issues: (a) How might the siting of new coal plants be influenced by the distribution of storage sites? (b) What is the probability of CO{sub 2} escaping from injection sites? What are the attendant risks? Can we detect leakage if it occurs? (3) Will surface leakage negate or

  4. Chapter 12: Human microbiome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xochitl C Morgan

    Full Text Available Humans are essentially sterile during gestation, but during and after birth, every body surface, including the skin, mouth, and gut, becomes host to an enormous variety of microbes, bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and viral. Under normal circumstances, these microbes help us to digest our food and to maintain our immune systems, but dysfunction of the human microbiota has been linked to conditions ranging from inflammatory bowel disease to antibiotic-resistant infections. Modern high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatic tools provide a powerful means of understanding the contribution of the human microbiome to health and its potential as a target for therapeutic interventions. This chapter will first discuss the historical origins of microbiome studies and methods for determining the ecological diversity of a microbial community. Next, it will introduce shotgun sequencing technologies such as metagenomics and metatranscriptomics, the computational challenges and methods associated with these data, and how they enable microbiome analysis. Finally, it will conclude with examples of the functional genomics of the human microbiome and its influences upon health and disease.

  5. Generic Performance Measures. Chapter 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generic nuclear medicine imager, whether a gamma camera, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system or positron emission tomography (PET) scanner, comprises several main components: a detection system, a form of collimation to select γ rays at specific angles, electronics and a computing system to create the map of the radiotracer distribution. This section discusses these components in more detail. The first stage of a generic nuclear medicine imager is the detection of the γ rays emitted by the radionuclide. In the case of PET, the radiation of interest are the 511 keV annihilation photons that result from the interaction of the positron emitted by the radionuclide with an electron in the tissue. For general nuclear medicine and SPECT, there is one or sometimes more than one γ ray of interest, with energies in the range of 400 keV. The γ rays are detected when they interact and deposit energy in the crystal(s) of the imaging system. There are two main types of detector: crystals that give off light that can be converted to an electrical signal when the γ ray interacts (‘scintillators’) and semiconductors, crystals that generate an electrical signal directly when the γ ray deposits energy in the crystal. Scintillation detectors include NaI(Tl), bismuth germanate (BGO) and lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO); semiconductor detectors used in nuclear medicine imagers include cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). Radiation detectors are described in more detail in Chapter 6

  6. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses Roskilde Festival as an Instant City. For more than 40 years, Roskilde Festival has had many thousands participants for a weeklong festival on music, performances and cultural experiences in a layout designed as an urban environment. During the last ten years, in- creasing...... emphasis has been laid on creating a vivid, and engaging social environment in order to create a lab for social, and architectural experi- ments. These goals challenge the city planning as well as the urban sce- nography. The article addresses the research questions: What kind of city life and social...... of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban...

  7. Limerick City

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Postcard. Colour photograph of River Shannon with Limerick City in background. Number 2/LK-018. Printed on reverse "Limerick city, where the Shannon river meets the sea is one of the most progressive of Irish cities, where the past and present mingle pleasantly. That part of the city called Newtown Pery was designed and planned in 1767, and is the Limerick of wide streets crossing at right angles, and the pleasantly tree-sprinkled People's Park. The tall column in the park commemorates Thomas...

  8. Various chapter styles for the memoir class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded.......Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded....

  9. Chapter 6: CPV Tracking and Trackers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luque-Heredia, Ignacio; Magalhaes, Pedro; Muller, Matthew

    2016-04-15

    This chapter explains the functional requirements of a concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) sun tracker. It derives the design specifications of a CPV tracker. The chapter presents taxonomy of trackers describing the most common tracking architectures, based on the number of axes, their relative position, and the foundation and placing of tracking drives. It deals with the structural issues related to tracker design, mainly related to structural flexure and its impact on the system's acceptance angle. The chapter analyzes the auto-calibrated sun tracking control, by describing the state of the art and its development background. It explores the sun tracking accuracy measurement with a practical example. The chapter discusses tracker manufacturing and tracker field works. It reviews survey of different types of tracker designs obtained from different manufacturers. Finally, the chapter deals with IEC62817, the technical standard developed for CPV sun trackers.

  10. Chapter 17: Estimating Net Savings: Common Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Violette, D. M.; Rathbun, P.

    2014-09-01

    This chapter focuses on the methods used to estimate net energy savings in evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) studies for energy efficiency (EE) programs. The chapter provides a definition of net savings, which remains an unsettled topic both within the EE evaluation community and across the broader public policy evaluation community, particularly in the context of attribution of savings to particular program. The chapter differs from the measure-specific Uniform Methods Project (UMP) chapters in both its approach and work product. Unlike other UMP resources that provide recommended protocols for determining gross energy savings, this chapter describes and compares the current industry practices for determining net energy savings, but does not prescribe particular methods.

  11. Function of site. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Semipalatinsk test site's history there are two stages for nuclear tests. In first stage (1949-1962) when the nuclear tests have being conducted in atmosphere, and second one (1963-1989) when underground nuclear explosions have being carried out. There were 456 nuclear tests, from which 117 were both the surface and the atmospheric explosions and other underground ones. In the chapter general characteristics of atmospheric nuclear tests, conducted on Semipalatinsk test site in 1949-1962 (chronology of conducting, release energy and kinds of nuclear explosions) are presented in tabular form. Most powerful of explosion was test of hydro- nuclear (hydrogen) bomb - prototype of thermonuclear charge in 1955 with capacity 1.6 Mt. In 1990-1992 the target-oriented radioecological investigation of territory around Semipalatinsk test site was carried out. Specialists dividing all atmospheric explosions by rate local traces, forming out of test site into 4 groups: with very strong contamination, with strong contamination, with weak contamination, and with very weak contamination. To nuclear explosions with very strong contamination were attributed the four explosions carrying out in 29.08.1949, 24.09.1951, 12.08.1953, 24.08.1956. Estimations of radiological situation including external doses of radiation and environment contamination and content of radioactive substances in human body was given by 10 European experts in collaboration with Kazakstan scientists. Results of investigation show that during past period surface contamination, called by nuclear weapons' fissile products was subjected to considerable decay. External doses completely coincidence with natural background. Remains of long living radionuclides are insignificant as well, and in 1995 its approximately were equal to annual exposition doses. One of most damaged settlements is Chagan. On it territory 530 radioactive sources with doses capacity from 100 up to 400 μR/h. Scientists of Semipalatinsk defined

  12. Dating of Artefacts. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    categories of such alterations are known: changes in chemical composition, radioactive decay and fission, migration of elements, deformation, depolymerization, ionization, leaching and hydrolysis. Thus, in principle, the modern materials used in recent times to imitate past or ancient objects are not naturally 'aged'. Among the laboratory processes used for art authenticity detection, the science based techniques of absolute dating play a predominant role, as they are considered highly reputable. Indeed, they are efficient in many, but not all, instances, for reasons explained below. This chapter briefly deals with luminescence and radiocarbon techniques, which exploit the above mentioned natural procedures of ionization and decay, respectively, as comprising the most frequently employed approaches in authenticity detection. Both techniques are regarded here as a means of investigating counterfeits.

  13. Chapter 5. Origin of Mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter author deals with the origin of uranium mineralization in Slovakia. There are discussed (1) Stratiform mineralization, particularly: (A) Uranium in Ti-rare earth elements (REE)-Zr placers in sandstone, (B) uranium mineralization in sandstone with abundant organic matter, (C) Uranium mineralization in phosphatic sandstone,(D) Cu±U mineralization (copper sandstone), (E) U-Mo mineralized horizons in volcanoclastic and volcanic rocks; (2) Vein mineralization, particularly: (F) Uranium mineralization in pegmatite, (G) Mo-W-(U-Ti-REE) mineralization in granite, (H) U-REE±Au mineralization in proximity of granite, (I) U±Mo and Cu mineralization cutting the permian sequences, (J) Uranium mineralization in the Neogene volcanics; and (3) Evolution of uranium mineralization. Uraninite occurrence in pegmatite of Dubrava deposit in Nizke Tatry Mts is the oldest manifestation of the uranium mineralization in the Western Carpathians. Its origin is related to the Hercynian magmatic activity. The most important uranium mineralization occurs in the Permian sequences. The stratiform mineralization is related to sandstones with abundant organic matter of Hronicum in the Kozie Chrbty Mts. or to volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks of Gemericum and Tatricum. The low-grade Permian ores display age ranging from (270 to 240±30) Ma. The Permian low-grade mineralization wa re-mobilized during the Alpine orogeny forming ore bodies of high-grade uranium mineralization especially on northern Gemericum and Tatricum of the Povazsky Inovec Mts. Big tectonic structures in ore deposits were favourable for remobilization. The younger re-mobilized mineralization overlaps the older low grade mineralization. U-Pb isotopic dating gave 130±20 Ma in high-grade ores of Gemericum in Novoveska Huta and 100±20 in high-grade ores of Tatricum in Kalnica. The Alpine granite with dissemination U-Ti-REE mineralization displays age 101±5 Ma according to Rb-Sr dating. As reliable U-Pb dating of U

  14. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction....... This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge...

  15. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    design” will be used as a background perspective to reflect upon the future of drones in cities. The other perspective used to frame the phenomenon is the emerging discourse of the “smart city”. A city of proliferating digital information and data communication may be termed a smart city as shorthand...... on the block” that will potentially be a game-changer for urban governance, economics and everyday life. Here we are thinking of the unmanned aerial vehicle or drone as the popular term has it. Therefore, the paper asks how life in “drone city” may play out. Drones may alter the notion of surveillance by means...

  16. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  17. SURMAT : decision support tool to select municipal solid waste treatment technologies : case study in Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Thi, Le, K.O.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to enable taking more sustainable and cost-effective decisions on MSW management in developing cities. For this purpose, a tool named SURMAT was developed and applied using data of Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam (chapter 6). In order to prepare the tool for modeling of the MSW management in Ho Chi Minh City, an analysis of the current MSW management system (chapter 2), a selection of technologies (chapter 3, 4) and a costs analysis of the selected technologies (chapter 5...

  18. Potential Cities_

    OpenAIRE

    Budzynski, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Buildings and urban construction are understood in this paper as representations of the city. Their meanings, however, are often invisible, positing unrealized urban visions, which are both imbedded in and which call up chains of associations expressing desires and fears. Narratives of what the city should be often contain the rejection of the existing urban situation. Understanding architectural objects as potential underscores their imaginary nature. Freud, for example, uses the Roman ruins...

  19. Beautiful city

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald A. Carlino

    2009-01-01

    Proponents of the City Beautiful movement advocated for sizable public investments in monumental spaces, street beautification, and classical architecture. Today, economists and policymakers see the provision of consumer leisure amenities as a way to attract people and jobs to cities. But past studies have provided only indirect evidence of the importance of leisure amenities for urban growth and development. In this article, Jerry Carlino uses a new data set on the number of leisure tourist ...

  20. City Beautiful

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald A. Carlino; Saiz, Albert

    2008-01-01

    The City Beautiful movement, which in the early 20th century advocated city beautification as a way to improve the living conditions and civic virtues of the urban dweller, had languished by the Great Depression. Today, new urban economic theorists and policymakers are coming to see the provision of consumer leisure amenities as a way to attract population, especially the highly skilled and their employers. However, past studies have provided only indirect evidence of the importance of leisur...

  1. Model cities

    OpenAIRE

    M Batty

    2007-01-01

    The term ?model? is now central to our thinking about how weunderstand and design cities. We suggest a variety of ways inwhich we use ?models?, linking these ideas to Abercrombie?sexposition of Town and Country Planning which represented thestate of the art fifty years ago. Here we focus on using models asphysical representations of the city, tracing the development ofsymbolic models where the focus is on simulating how functiongenerates form, to iconic models where the focus is on representi...

  2. Sustainable cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sustainable City Project, a collaboration among the cities of Portland, Oregon, and San Francisco and San Jose, California, aims at developing and implementing sustainable energy planning methods and programs for cites. For a period of two years (1989-90), the three project cities worked in parallel, yet pursued independent courses to develop appropriate sustainable urban energy practices to meet local needs and aspirations. Central to the Sustainable City Project was finding ways to manage today's urban energy needs without jeopardizing the needs of future generations. Sustainability implies that nothing should go to waste, but rather should contribute to the proper balance between the natural environment and the built environment Sustainable urban energy systems encompass more than energy efficiency and energy conservation measures: they must be diverse, flexible, self-reliant, renewable, and integrated. Since local governments make decisions affecting land use, building codes, transportation systems, waste disposal, and power plants--all of which impact energy resource use--local jurisdictions can do much to ensure their own sustainable future. This paper will present an accounting of the specific steps that each city took to determine and begin implementation of their respective approaches to sustainable energy planning, with a specific focus on the City of San Jose activities. Useful tools for facilitating community process, program planning and implementation, and quantitative analysis will also be discussed

  3. How to write a medical book chapter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendirci, Muammer

    2013-09-01

    Invited medical book chapters are usually requested by editors from experienced authors who have made significant contributions to the literature in certain fields requested by an editor from an experienced. Before the start of the writing process a consensus should be established between the editor and the author with regard to the title, deadline, specific instructions and content of the manuscript. Certain issues concerning a chapter can be negotiated by the parties beforehand, but some issues cannot. As writing a medical book chapter is seen as an honor in its own right, the assignment needs to be treated with sincerity by elucidating the topic in detail, and maximal effort should be made to keep in mind that the chapter will reach a large target audience. The purpose of this review article is to provide guidance to residents and junior specialists in the field of urology to improve their writing skills. PMID:26328134

  4. Chapter 2 Levees in flood risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Wallis, M; Simm, J.; Tourment, R.; Bramley, M; Schelfhout, H.; WILLIAMSON, T.

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 2 introduces the concepts and principles of flood risk management, flood risk management systems, and their components. It also introduces life cycle management frameworks, failure modes, risk analysis and the potential effects of climate change.

  5. Student Loan Bankruptcies: A Chapter 13 Revival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, John M.

    1980-01-01

    Unless legislative or judicial action is taken, the current high volume of student loans will likely encourage frequent utilization of Chapter 13 of the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978 for unintended purposes. (Author/IRT)

  6. Chapter 42. Waterborne and Foodborne Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter identifies the most prominent parasites in North America that are acquired through contaminated food and water including protozoa (Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Entamoeba, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Cystoisospora, Cyclospora, Toxoplasma, and Balantidium), nematodes (Trichinella, Angiostrongyl...

  7. Chapter 5: Summary of model application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter provides a brief summary of the model applications described in Volume III of the Final Report. This chapter dealt with the selected water management regimes; ground water flow regimes; agriculture; ground water quality; hydrodynamics, sediment transport and water quality in the Danube; hydrodynamics, sediment transport and water quality in the river branch system; hydrodynamics, sediment transport and water quality in the Hrusov reservoir and with ecology in this Danube area

  8. Volume 3 Chapter 6: Transformation paths

    OpenAIRE

    Mechler, R.; Rezai, A; Mehdi, B.

    2014-01-01

    There is little doubt that the currently observed patterns of climate change are predominantly caused by human activity (Volume 1, Chapter 1). This chapter addresses the challenge of stabilizing climate change at 2 degrees C and particularly focuses on the questions which mitigation and adaptation measures in Austria can contribute to achieve this goal. Additionally, a number of desirable co-benefits pertaining to socio-ecological transformation leading towards limiting climate change are ana...

  9. Where Social and Professional Networking Meet: The Virtual Association Chapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noxon, Rose

    2011-01-01

    Online Capella University wanted to sponsor an International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI) chapter. Using social networking platforms, a new type of chapter was designed. The virtual chapter breaks new ground on more than the chapter's platform; it is also the first university-sponsored chapter and has a unique approach to…

  10. Indoor damage of aged porous natural stone due to thermohygric stress: a case study of opuka stone altar from the St. Vitus Cathedral, Prague (Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikryl, Richard; Prikrylova, Jirina; Racek, Martin; Kreislova, Kateřina; Weishauptova, Zuzana

    2016-04-01

    Opuka stone (extremely fine-grained clayey-calcareous silicite) used for a carved stone altar located in the interior of the St. Vitus Cathedral (Prague, Czech Republic) was affected by decay phenomena (formation of the case-hardened surface, its later blistering, flaking and/or powdering of stone substrate) which are similar to those observed in outdoor environments. Through the detailed analytical study (optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry and x-ray elemental mapping of cross-sections of surface layers, x-ray diffraction of surface layers, ion-exchange chromatography for water-soluble salts, mercury porosimetry) and analysis of long-term indoor environmental monitoring (temperature, relative humidity, sulphur and nitrogen oxides deposition), it has been found that observed decay phenomena, which are manifested on microscale by brittle damage and formation of mode I (tensile) cracks along the exposed surface of the stone, can be interpreted as a result from thermohygric stress occurring on the interface between case hardened surface layer and stone substrate.

  11. Medieval glass from the Cathedral in Paderborn: a comparative study using X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and inductively coupled laser ablation mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated four stained glass samples recovered from an archaeological excavation at the Cathedral in Paderborn (Germany) between 1978 and 1980. On two of the samples there are parts of paintings. Concentrations of major elements were determined using two independent techniques: LA-ICP-MS (a UV laser ablation microsampler combined with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer) and synchrotron radiation X-ray excited X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF). The SR-XRF data were quantified by using the program package PyMCA developed by the software group of the ESRF in Grenoble. Significant differences were found between the concentrations determined by the two techniques that can be explained by concentration gradients near the surface of the glasses caused, for example, by corrosion/leaching processes and the different surface sensitivities of the applied techniques. For several of the elements that were detected in the glass and in the colour pigments used for the paintings X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra were recorded in order to determine the chemical speciation of the elements of interest. As was expected, most elements in the glass were found as oxides in their most stable form. Two notable exceptions were observed: titanium was not found as rutile - the most stable form of TiO2 - but in the form of anatase, and lead was not found in one defined chemical state but as a complex mixture of oxide, sulphate, and other compounds. (orig.)

  12. Medieval glass from the Cathedral in Paderborn: a comparative study using X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and inductively coupled laser ablation mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hormes, J. [University of Saskatchewan, Canadian Light Source Inc., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Louisiana State University, CAMD, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Roy, A.; Bovenkamp, G.L. [Louisiana State University, CAMD, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Simon, K. [University of Goettingen, Geochemistry, Centre for Geosciences, Goettingen (Germany); Kim, C.Y. [University of Saskatchewan, Canadian Light Source Inc., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Boerste, N. [Faculty for Theology Paderborn, Paderborn (Germany); Gai, S. [LWL - Archaeologie fuer Westfalen, Muenster (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    We have investigated four stained glass samples recovered from an archaeological excavation at the Cathedral in Paderborn (Germany) between 1978 and 1980. On two of the samples there are parts of paintings. Concentrations of major elements were determined using two independent techniques: LA-ICP-MS (a UV laser ablation microsampler combined with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer) and synchrotron radiation X-ray excited X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF). The SR-XRF data were quantified by using the program package PyMCA developed by the software group of the ESRF in Grenoble. Significant differences were found between the concentrations determined by the two techniques that can be explained by concentration gradients near the surface of the glasses caused, for example, by corrosion/leaching processes and the different surface sensitivities of the applied techniques. For several of the elements that were detected in the glass and in the colour pigments used for the paintings X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra were recorded in order to determine the chemical speciation of the elements of interest. As was expected, most elements in the glass were found as oxides in their most stable form. Two notable exceptions were observed: titanium was not found as rutile - the most stable form of TiO{sub 2} - but in the form of anatase, and lead was not found in one defined chemical state but as a complex mixture of oxide, sulphate, and other compounds. (orig.)

  13. Long-Term Monitoring of Fresco Paintings in the Cathedral of Valencia (Spain Through Humidity and Temperature Sensors in Various Locations for Preventive Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Fernández-Navajas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe the performance of a microclimate monitoring system that was implemented for the preventive conservation of the Renaissance frescoes in the apse vault of the Cathedral of Valencia, that were restored in 2006. This system comprises 29 relative humidity (RH and temperature sensors: 10 of them inserted into the plaster layer supporting the fresco paintings, 10 sensors in the walls close to the frescoes and nine sensors measuring the indoor microclimate at different points of the vault. Principal component analysis was applied to RH data recorded in 2007. The analysis was repeated with data collected in 2008 and 2010. The resulting loading plots revealed that the similarities and dissimilarities among sensors were approximately maintained along the three years. A physical interpretation was provided for the first and second principal components. Interestingly, sensors recording the highest RH values correspond to zones where humidity problems are causing formation of efflorescence. Recorded data of RH and temperature are discussed according to Italian Standard UNI 10829 (1999.

  14. Entropy Man, Chapter 9 Non-renewable Resources

    OpenAIRE

    John Bryant

    2015-01-01

    Chapter from a book entitled Entropy Man, which deals with the relationships between the disciplines of thermodynamics and economics. Chapter 1 illusrates how entropy impacts on the world in which we live. Chapter 2 is a short history of human development. Chapter 3 covers such concepts as the distribution of income, elasticity, the first and second laws of thermodynamics and utility. Chapter 4 explores production and consumption. Chapter 5 explores the relationship between economic entropy a...

  15. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trads, Søren Frimann; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Succesful corporate branding requires that questions related to communication, publicity, and organizational structures are adressed. An uncritical adoption of approaches known from tradition product branding will inevitable give problems as the properties of tangible commodities and services with...... potential visitors, problems seem to multiply in what has becom known as city branding. This analysis of the communicational aspects of two Danish provincial towns´ branding efforts examines both their internally and externally directed communication. It demonstrates that an insufficient understanding of...... - or willingness to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  16. Soft Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders; Yoneda, Akira; Nakamura, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a project exploring sustainable ways of urban living. The project renders a scenario comprised of an array of simple conversions of existing urban spaces and buildings, in the attempt to tie strategies ranging from urban planning to interior design into a coherent vision of a...... sustainable future. The project is the result of a joint research study between Denmark and Japan. Taking as its example the city of Kyoto, the project investigates some possible strategies on how cities more generally may be transformed into liveable, healthy and ecologically sensible environments....

  17. Location of quarries of non traditional stony materials in the architecture of Madrid: the Crypt of the Cathedral of Santa María la Real de la Almudena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Heras, M.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The combination between petrological data and historical documentation sources is necessary to establish an accurate methodology for the location of the original quarries of the stony materials used in a determinate historical building. The petrographical and petrophisical data correlation combined with a multivariate statistical analysis, by means of similarity indexes of both the materials in the building and the probable source geological formations, allows the location even when the documental sources would he incomplete or lost, or when the source areas would be modified. The works of location of original quarries used in architectural heritage are important since they allow improving the works of restoration on a building by means of the possibility of using identical materials for substitution or reintegration of decayed elements. The establishment of the original areas also offers the possibility of obtaining unaltered semipiés to evaluate the state and processes of decay of the building as well as to use this rough material to test the effectivity and durability of protective arid consolidant treatments in the building and monuments. The aim of this work has been to characterize and to locate the origin of the stony material in the stonework of the Crypt of the Cathedral of Santa María la Real de la Almudena (Madrid. These stone types came from quarries located in Viana de Jadraque (Guadalajara, Spain and in the central area of Portugal. These materials do not correspond with the traditional ones used in the city of Madrid and its presence is due to the opening of new ways of transport in the second half of the 19"' centuiy.

    Para establecer una metodología adecuada con el fin de localizar las canteras originales de los materiales pétreos de construcción utilizados en un determinado edificio histórico se necesita combinar datos petrológicos y fuentes de documentación histórica. La correlación de los datos petrogr

  18. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  19. Decorative carving in Chapter-House of Dominican Monastery in Cracow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Walczak

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of the chapter house of the Dominican Friars in Cracow is not known in greater detail. Only two medieval documents with a mention of it are known. In in capitulo fratrum ordinis Praedicatorum Cracoviae of 1244 an endowment for the Cistercian monastery in Mogiła was confirmed. In Cracovie in capitulo fratrum predicatorum of 1306 the purchase of land in Dąbie, near Cracow, was certified. Marcin Szyma estimated that these notes cannot be ascribed to one building, which means that there were two gathering places for monks, one built after the other. Szyma locates the oldest chapter-house in the site of today’s sacristy and links it with a brick wall with a biforium window and portal remains, found in the western wall of the building. The older record marks terminus ante quern, and comparative chronology and analysis of style point to 1240s as the date of extension of the house. A new chapter house was built in Szyma’s assessment at the end of that century, and certainly before 1306. The building has fairly rich decorative carving, infrequently mentioned in historical records. The portal in the western wall of the chapter house has had three preserved, if tumbledown, consoles carved in yellowish, fine-grained sandstone. The closest analogies to these decorations are to be found in edifices built for the last members of the Premyslids dynasty, especially for king Premyslav Otokar II in the third quarter of the 13th century. In works connected with the “Premyslids building school” compact, block-like shapes of caps, ‘coated’ with tiny leaves and decorative ‘crowns’ at rib base were fairly common. Consoles in a portal of the oldest fragment of Śpilberk in Brno or chapels in the castles in Bezdez, Horsovsky Tyn, Zvikov and Buchlov are of special importance for these considerations. Czech examples most often employ a variety of flora, yet, even here, in the portal caps of the monastery in Hradiśte on Jizerou (ca 1260 we

  20. Chapter 10: CPV Multijunction Solar Cell Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterwald, Carl R.; Siefer, Gerald

    2016-04-15

    Characterization of solar cells can be divided into two types: the first is measurement of electrooptical semiconductor device parameters, and the second is determination of electrical conversion efficiency. This chapter reviews the multijunction concepts that are necessary for understanding Concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) cell characterization techniques, and describes how CPV efficiency is defined and used. For any I-V measurement of a multijunction cell, the sun simulator spectrum has to be adjusted in a way that all junctions generate the same photocurrent ratios with respect to each other as under reference conditions. The chapter discusses several procedures for spectral irradiance adjustments of solar simulators, essential for multijunction measurements. It overviews the light sources and optics commonly used in simulators for CPV cells under concentration. Finally, the chapter talks about the cell area, quantum efficiency (QE), and current-voltage (I-V) curve measurements that are needed to characterize cells as a function of irradiance.

  1. Fun City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin ...

  2. City Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  3. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 21, Rigid Motions and Vectors, Chapter 22, Computers and Programs. Student's Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    Transformation geometry topics are covered in one chapter of Unit 11 of this SMSG series. Work with translations, reflections, rotations, and composition of motions is included; vectors are briefly discussed. The chapter on computers and programming deals with recent history and uses of of the computer, organization of a digital computer, an…

  4. Chapter 12: spatial or area repellents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatial repellents a three-dimensional zone of protection around a host from attacks by biting arthropods. This chapter reviews current knowledge and outlines future directions for utilization of spatial repellents. Current knowledge includes the kinds of products, both active and passive devices,...

  5. Why a European chapter of IALE?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Antrop, Marc; de Blust, Geert; Correia, Teresa Pinto; Ramos, Isabel Loupa; Kozová, Mária; Papadimitriou, Fivos; Van Eetvelde, Veerle

    Association (IALE) and its national chapters. The reasons have to do with the development of the scientific discipline of landscape ecology, with the concept landscape with its multiple interpretations, with the landscape characteristics of Europe and with the changing demands for research, planning and...

  6. Introduction to Mathematical Fuzzy Logic. Chapter 1

    OpenAIRE

    Běhounek, L. (Libor); Cintula, P. (Petr); P. Hájek

    2011-01-01

    The chapter provides a comprehensive introduction to the area of mathematical fuzzy logic. Starting from the syntax and semantics of t-norm fuzzy logics, it systematically surveys the systems of propositional fuzzy logics known from the literature, their general and particular metamathematical properties, predicate variants of fuzzy logics, and axiomatic fuzzy mathematics.

  7. Chapter 8: Youth, Technology, and Media Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefton-Green, Julian

    2006-01-01

    This chapter begins with a scenario contrasting two seemingly different images of child and media from before and after the "digital revolution." The author argues that there is much greater continuity in how this relationship has been conceptualized over the period than is commonly imagined. While not offering a comprehensive study of recent…

  8. Chapter VIII: Protected areas and natural resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter of the Atlas presents Slovak's ecological and cultural priorities, which must be conserved and protected. All precious assets of the natural and cultural heritage as important sources of landscape regeneration are presented. They secure preservation of gene pool, ecological stability and landscape diversity. Their value for man as user of landscape is immeasurable. (author)

  9. Learning Cities for All: Directions to a New Adult Education and Learning Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Leodis

    2015-01-01

    This chapter features a conceptual framework that considers the practical characteristics of learning cities, pointing to the field of adult and continuing education to lead a movement for the purposes of education, learning, and engagement for all.

  10. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003). But......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  11. A metageography of port-city relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Ducruet, César

    2007-01-01

    http://www.ashgate.com/default.aspx?page=637&calcTitle=1&title_id=9123&edition_id=10373 This chapter is an empirical attempt to identify the nature and regional dimension of port-city relationships on a world scale. Although general processes of such relationships can be identified in the literature, regional variations are still not well understood when dealing with the insertion of port cities in the global transport chain. An analysis of a world sample is proposed using simple character...

  12. Technopolis best practices for science and technology cities

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Six years of UNESCO-World Technopolis Association workshops, held at various world cities and attended by government officials and scholars from nearly all the world’s countries, have resulted in a uniquely complete collection of reports on science park and science city projects in most of those countries. These reports, of which a selected few form chapters in this book, allow readers to compare knowledge-based development strategies, practices, and successes across countries. The chapters illustrate varying levels of cooperation across government, industry, and academic sectors in the respective projects – and the reasons and philosophies underlying this variation - and resulting differences in practices and results

  13. Basic Physics for Nuclear Medicine. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technologies used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic imaging have evolved over the last century, starting with Röntgen’s discovery of X rays and Becquerel’s discovery of natural radioactivity. Each decade has brought innovation in the form of new equipment, techniques, radiopharmaceuticals, advances in radionuclide production and, ultimately, better patient care. All such technologies have been developed and can only be practised safely with a clear understanding of the behaviour and principles of radiation sources and radiation detection. These central concepts of basic radiation physics and nuclear physics are described in this chapter and should provide the requisite knowledge for a more in depth understanding of the modern nuclear medicine technology discussed in subsequent chapters

  14. Vaccination against bacterial kidney disease: Chapter 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Diane G.; Wiens, Gregory D.; Hammell, K. Larry; Rhodes, Linda D.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, has been recognized as a serious disease in salmonid fishes since the 1930s. This chapter discusses the occurrence and significance, etiology, and pathogenesis of BKD. It then describes the different vaccination procedures and the effects and side-effects of vaccination. Despite years of research, however, only a single vaccine has been licensed for prevention of BKD, and has demonstrated variable efficacy. Therefore, in addition to a presentation of the current status of BKD vaccination, a discussion of potential future directions for BKD vaccine development is included in the chapter. This discussion is focused on the unique characteristics of R. salmoninarum and its biology, as well as aspects of the salmonid immune system that might be explored specifically to develop more effective vaccines for BKD prevention.

  15. Dust and human health: Chapter 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morman, Suzette A.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that exposure to fine particulate matter may increase risk for human morbidity and mortality. Until recently, population health related studies examining the effects of particulate matter on human health generally examined anthropogenic (industry and combustion by-products) sources with few studies considering contributions from natural sources. This chapter provides an overview of naturally occurring inorganic mineral dust research and associated human health ailments and some of the challenges in elucidating the etiological mechanisms responsible.

  16. Interactions of Radiation with Matter. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter deals with the physics of events that occur when photons and electrons interact with matter. These are the radiations that are important for diagnostic radiology, and only those interactions that result in their attenuation, absorption and scattering are dealt with. Other interactions, such as those with nuclei, are not considered here because they only occur for radiation that is higher in energy than that used for diagnostic radiology

  17. Chapter 5. Measuring operational marketing performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lambin, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to raise the issue of marketing accountability. A central problem in business today is that marketing lacks the kind of accountability and metrics common to the rest of the corporation. For a very long time, this imprecision has been tolerated and has been excused because marketing was supposed to be inherently “creative”. Yet, as marketing consumes a larger and larger portion of the firm budget, the imperative grows to quantify marketing’s direct contribution...

  18. Chapter X: Landscape as the human environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last chapter of the Atlas contains the outline of future developments in dependence on the environmental limits and potential. The limits of development for the single industries are elaborated in detail and the most important developmental trends of the territory of the Slovak Republic are assessed. These characteristics are complemented by spatial expression of the environmental quality as one of the most important prerequisites of spatial planning. (author)

  19. A City Is a Complex Network

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    A city is not a tree but a semi-lattice. To use a more fashionable term, a city is a complex network. The complex network constitutes a unique topological perspective on cities and enables us to better understand the kind of problem a city is. The topological perspective differentiates it from the perspectives of Euclidean geometry and Gaussian statistics that deal with essentially regular shapes and more or less similar things. Many urban theories, such as the Central Place Theory, Zipf's Law, the Image of the City, and the Theory of Centers can be interpreted from the point of view of complex networks. A livable city consists of far more small things than large ones, and their shapes tend to be irregular and rough. This chapter illustrates the complex network view and argues that we must abandon the kind of thinking guided by Euclidean geometry and Gaussian statistics, and instead adopt fractal geometry, power-law statistics, and Alexander's living geometry to develop sustainable cities. Keywords: Scaling, ...

  20. Life story chapters, specific memories and the reminiscence bump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Pillemer, David B.; Ivcevic, Zorana

    2011-01-01

    demonstrates that positive but not negative memories show a reminiscence bump and that memories cluster at the beginning of extended time periods. The current study tested the hypotheses that (1) ages marking the beginning of positive but not negative chapters produce a bump, and that (2) specific memories are...... over-represented at the beginning of chapters. Potential connections between chapters and the cultural life script are also examined. Adult participants first divided their life story into chapters and identified their most positive and most negative chapter. They then recalled a specific memory from...... both their most positive and most negative chapter. As predicted, the beginning age of positive but not negative chapters produced a bump and specific memories tended to cluster at chapter beginnings. The results support the idea that chapters guide the search for specific memories and that the...

  1. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal...... performance. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  2. Management of Therapy Patients. Chapter 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic principles of radiation protection and their implementation as they apply to nuclear medicine are covered in general in Chapter 3. This chapter will look at the specific case of nuclear medicine used for therapy. In addition to the standards discussed in Chapter 3, specific guidance on the release of patients after radionuclide therapy can be found in the IAEA’s Safety Reports Series No. 63 [20.1]. When the patient is kept in hospital following radionuclide therapy, the people at risk of exposure include hospital staff whose duties may or may not directly involve the use of radiation. This can be a significant problem. However, it is generally felt that it can be effectively managed with well trained staff and appropriate facilities. On the other hand, once the patient has been released, the groups at risk include members of the patient’s family, including children, and carers; they may also include neighbours, visitors to the household, co-workers, those encountered in public places, on public transport or at public events, and finally, the general public. It is generally felt that these risks can be effectively mitigated by the radiation protection officer (RPO) with patient-specific radiation safety precaution instructions

  3. A Survey of Geologic Resources. Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, Jennifer; Rickman, Doug

    2012-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the resources available from the Moon itself: regolith, geologically concentrated materials, and lunar physical features that will enable habitation and generation of power on the surface. This chapter briefly covers the formation of the Moon and thus the formation of the crust of the Moon, as well as the evolution of the regolith. The characteristics of the regolith are provided in some detail, including its mineralogy and lithology. The location of high concentrations of specific minerals or rocks is noted. Other ideal locations for in situ resource utilization technology and lunar habitation are presented. This chapter is intended to be a brief review of current knowledge, and to serve as a foundational source for further study. Each concept presented here has a wealth of literature associated with it; the reader is therefore directed to that literature with each discussion. With great interest in possible manned lunar landings and continued study of the Moon by multiple satellites, the available information changes regularly.

  4. Experiment of construction - Innovation in the form. The Cathedral of St. James in Šibenik and «Freedom of creation in peripheral milieu»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Marković

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Cathedral of St. James in Šibenik represents the most important architectural achievement of the Renaissance on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea. Its exceptional, in many respects unusual and still enigmatic structure, characterized primarily by the peculiar stone barrel vaults, designed and for the most part built by Niccolo di Giovanni Fiorentino (1475-1506/1536. If we consider that such unique combination of structural and formal solutions has never reoccurred, not even in smaller-size regional religious or secular architecture, it is obvious that before us stands a great and so far insufficiently researched experiment. Therefore, this article will try to reveal the origin of these specific construction techniques, and will try to answer the question of how such a technological experiment contributed to the formal innovations, namely their pure all'antica appearance. It will also analyse these issues in the context of what has been called “the creative freedom of the peripheral milieu” – a theoretically specified framework defined by the Croatian art historian Lj. Karaman (1963.       Il Duomo di San Giacomo di Sebenico rappresenta la più importante realizzazione architettonica del Rinascimento sulla sponda orientale dell’Adriatico. La sua eccezionale e per molti versi inconsueta ed enigmatica struttura si distingue soprattutto per le particolari volte a botte costruite in pietra, progettate e per la maggior parte costruite da Niccolò di Giovanni Fiorentino (1475-1506/1536. Alla luce del fatto che questa singolare combinazione di soluzioni costruttive e formali non è stata più riutilizzata, neanche in dimensioni ridotte, risulta chiaro che il Duomo di Sebenico costituisce un eccezionale, creativo ed audace sperimento architettonico. Lo scopo di questo lavoro è quello di indagare l’origine di queste specifiche tecniche costruttive, e di offrire una risposta alla domanda sul contributo che questo esperimento

  5. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  6. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  7. 非洲裔移民在穗宗教场所地方感特征及其形成机制--基于广州石室圣心大教堂的实证研究%Profile and Determinants of African Immigrants’ Sense of Place in Religious Space:A Case Study of Guangzhou Sacred Heart Cathedral

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄嘉玲; 何深静

    2014-01-01

    Under globalization, the geographyof religion has recently attracted much scholarly attention, and become a significant component of cultural geography. Yet, theoretical exploration and systematic empirical work on the role of sacred spaces in facilitating internal and international migrants’ assimilation and adaptation to local society are still lacking, especially in the Chinese context. With the rising global mobility, international immigrants are ubiquitous in a few large Chinese cities. In Guangzhou, an enlarging community of African immigrants is emerging. Their residential areas and daily activities, including religious activities, have shown a clear pattern of spatial concentration. Combined with semi-structured questionnaires and interviews, this study attempts to focus on this under-researched topic by exploring the underlying mechanism and the determinants of African immigrants’ sense of place in religious space in Guangzhou, using theSacred Heart Cathedral as a study area. Emperical evidence shows that African immigrants’ place attachment and place identity tended to develop before place dependence was formed. Although strong place attachment in religion space coexists with strong space substitutability, Sacred Heart Cathedral is irreplaceable to some extent because of its uniquelocation. And since the religious doctrine advocates psychological dependence rather than substance dependence, place dependence tends to be concealed unconsciously, which reveals the different nature of sense of place towards sacred space and secular space. Multivariate linear regression model reveals that social activities and the length of human-place interaction, instead of the length of residence in Guangzhou, are significant determinants for the development of African’s sense of place, because human-place interaction can foster senses of distinctiveness, continuity, self-esteem and self-efficacy. Social conditions also contribute in a significant way because social

  8. Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge : Hunting Chapter of Visitor Service Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Hunting Chapter precedes the overall Visitor Services Plan for Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge Agassiz NWR. This chapter includes specific guidelines for...

  9. Nuclear metallurgy lectures. Chapter 6, Reduction of uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kattner, W.T.

    1955-05-26

    This report consists of Chapter Six of the Nuclear Metallurgy Lectures. Chapter six discusses the reduction of uranium, chemical composition of uranium ores, extraction process for uranium ores, bomb reduction, green salt, and dingots.

  10. Special Topics in Radiography. Chapter 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to this point, this handbook has described the use of X rays to form 2-D medical images of the 3-D patient. This process of reducing patient information by one dimension results in an image of superimposed tissues where important information might be obscured. Chapter 11 begins a section of the book involving the creation of cross-sectional medical images through computed tomography (CT), ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This Chapter describes a number of special X ray imaging modalities and their associated techniques, and forms a transition between projection and cross-sectional imaging. The first of these special topics is dental radiography, which is characterized by a diversity of technology and innovation. The common intraoral radiograph of a single tooth has seen little fundamental change since the time of Roentgen and is, today, along with the simple chest radiograph, the most commonly performed radiographic examination. By contrast, the challenge to create an image of all the teeth simultaneously has placed dentistry at the cutting edge of technology, through the development of panographic techniques and, most recently, with the application of cone beam CT (CBCT). Moreover, the small size of the tooth and the consequent reduced need for X ray generation power promotes equipment mobility. The effect of the need for equipment mobility also forms a special topic that is examined in this chapter. Quantification of the composition of the body is another special X ray imaging technique. Dual energy X ray absorptiometry (DXA) is primarily used to derive the mass of one material in the presence of another, through knowledge of their unique X ray attenuation at different energies. DXA’s primary commercial application has been to measure body mineral density as an assessment of fracture risk and to diagnose osteoporosis; thus, the X ray energies used are optimized for bone density assessment. Currently, there are estimated to be over 50 000

  11. Space Applications of Mass Spectrometry. Chapter 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, John H.; Griffin, Timothy P.; Limero, Thomas; Arkin, C. Richard

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometers have been involved in essentially all aspects of space exploration. This chapter outlines some of these many uses. Mass spectrometers have not only helped to expand our knowledge and understanding of the world and solar system around us, they have helped to put man safely in space and expand our frontier. Mass spectrometry continues to prove to be a very reliable, robust, and flexible analytical instrument, ensuring that its use will continue to help aid our investigation of the universe and this small planet that we call home.

  12. Investment in electricity for development. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this short chapter, we discuss first the role of reliable and affordable electricity in underpinning economic development and in enabling the achievement of the MDGs in health and education. We then review some estimates of investment requirements for energy needs in sub Saharan Africa. In the next section we discuss briefly how financing sources for investment in the sector in sub-Saharan Africa are constrained. In the main and final section we list priority policies, which, if implemented, can help overcome these constraints so that increased amounts of investment begin to flow into the sector, resulting in the desired improvement in electricity services

  13. Fundamental Concepts in Radionuclide Therapy. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short overview of the basic concepts and principles of radionuclide therapy is presented in this chapter. After introducing the most important radionuclides currently employed in therapeutic applications and new promising radioisotopes such as α emitters, this review covers the various types of vector molecules and biological approaches for targeting specific cancer cells. These applications include the use of receptor specific pharmacophores such as antibodies and peptides, and DNA targeting agents. The potential advantages of combining methods developed for radionuclide therapy with gene therapy and nanotechnology are also discussed. (author)

  14. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers,...

  15. Cities, Towns and Villages - City Limit (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Data available online through GeoStor at http://www.geostor.arkansas.gov. Arkansas Cities: This data set contains all of the city limit boundaries within the state...

  16. Chapter 6. Radioactivity of plants and factors influencing its value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with radioactivity of plants and factors influencing its value. Chapter consistsof next parts: (1) Natural radioactivity of plants; (2) Radioactive contamination of plants; (3) Factors influencing radioactivity of biological chain soil - plant; (4) Possibilities of decreasing of radioactive contamination of agricultural and food products

  17. Chapter 14. Radionuclides in vegetal production and food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with using of radionuclides in vegetal production and food processing. Chapter consist of next parts: (1) Influence of radiation on foods; (2) Radiation sterilisation in health service

  18. Chapter 3. Radioactivity of atmosphere and factors influencing its value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with radioactivity of atmosphere and factors influencing its value. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radioactivity of atmosphere; (2) Radioactive contamination of atmosphere (Radioactive fallout and global radioactive fallout)

  19. Sister Cities Flourish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Building sister city relation,also known as friendsh ip city,is a common channel for cities in different countries to keep a closer tie and communication.According to the statistics from China International Friendship Cities Association,up to the end of 2007,1087 provinces and states and 314 cities from 120 countries in the world have found their sister cities in China.Among them,Japan has the largest amount of Chinese sister cities,that is 200 provinces and 33 cities,and takes up almost 17 percent of the total number.

  20. System analysis using multitracer approaches. Chapter 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present chapter offers a qualitative or semi-quantitative step towards a synthesis of the information that the different tracers provide. It also offers some criteria that can be used to help assess the reliability of selected tracer data in evaluating tracer model ages from measurements of concentrations of multiple environmental tracers in the system. In most of the literature on isotope hydrology, the term ‘apparent age’ is used instead of ‘tracer model age’, and within this chapter the two terms are considered synonymous. This approach testing reliability of tracer data is only a first step and performs a black and white selection of the tracer data. Some consistency tests are performed, and for data passing these tests there is at least no obvious reason known that the tracer model age is not a valid description. For data that fail these tests, it is obvious that a straightforward calculation of tracer model ages will not give the intended result.

  1. Measures of Image Quality. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A medical image is a pictorial representation of a measurement of an object or function of the body. This information can be acquired in one to three spatial dimensions. It can be static or dynamic, meaning that it can also be measured as a function of time. Certain fundamental properties can be associated with all of these data. Firstly, no image can exactly represent the object or function; at best, one has a measurement with an associated error equal to the difference between the true object and the measured image. Secondly, no two images will be identical, even if acquired with the same imaging system of the same anatomic region; this variability is generally referred to as noise. There are many different ways to acquire medical image data; the various mechanisms of acquisition are described in detail in the subsequent chapters. However, regardless of the method of image formation, one must be able to judge the fidelity of the image in an attempt to answer the question “How accurately does the image portray the body or the bodily function?” This judgement falls under the rubric of ‘image quality’. In this chapter, methods of quantifying image quality are described

  2. Image Perception and Assessment. Chapter 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of a medical image is to provide information to a human reader, such as a radiologist, so that a diagnosis can be reached — rather than to display the beauty of the human internal workings. It is important to understand how the human visual system affects the perception of contrast and spatial resolution of structures that are present in the image. If the image is not properly displayed, or the environment is not appropriate, subtle clinical signs may go unnoticed, which can potentially lead to a misdiagnosis. This chapter provides an introduction to human visual perception and task based objective assessment of an imaging system. A model for the contrast sensitivity of the human visual system is presented. This model is used to derive the greyscale standard display function for medical displays. Task based assessment measures the quality of an imaging system as the ability of an observer to perform a well defined task, based on a set of images. Metrics for observer performance are introduced, as well as experimental methodologies for the measurement of human performance. The last section of the chapter describes the estimation of task performance based on mathematical observer models

  3. Environment. Chapter 5; Medio ambiente. Capitulo 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Castillo, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this chapter it is mentioned the concern for the care of the environment in Mexico by prominent foreign and Mexican scientists who impelled the creation of a Forest Law. The ecological policies for the conservation of natural resources that cause a sustainable development in Mexico are commented; it is described what the environmental infrastructure consists of; the case of trash handling is analyzed and the Chapter concludes with the relationship of the environment, the climatic change, the infrastructure and the planning. [Spanish] En este capitulo se menciona la preocupacion por el cuidado del medio ambiente en Mexico, por prominentes cientificos extranjeros y mexicanos que impulsaron la creacion de una Ley Forestal. Se comentan las politicas ecologicas para la conservacion de recursos naturales que propicien un desarrollo sustentable en Mexico; se describe en que consiste la infraestructura ambiental; se analiza el caso del manejo de la basura y; se concluye con la relacion del medio ambiente, el cambio climatico, la infraestructura y la planeacion.

  4. Universal Sensor and Actuator Requirements. Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Taylor; Webster, John; Garg, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    The previous chapters have focused on the requirements for sensors and actuators for "More Intelligent Gas Turbine Engines" from the perspective of performance and operating environment. Even if a technology is available, which meets these performance requirements, there are still various hurdles to be overcome for the technology to transition into a real engine. Such requirements relate to TRL (Technology Readiness Level), durability, reliability, volume, weight, cost, etc. This chapter provides an overview of such universal requirements which any sensor or actuator technology will have to meet before it can be implemented on a product. The objective here is to help educate the researchers or technology developers on the extensive process that the technology has to go through beyond just meeting performance requirements. The hope is that such knowledge will help the technology developers as well as decision makers to prevent wasteful investment in developing solutions to performance requirements, which have no potential to meet the "universal" requirements. These "universal" requirements can be divided into 2 broad areas: 1) Technology value proposition; and 2) Technology maturation. These requirements are briefly discussed in the following.

  5. Eisenhüttenstadt: Monitoring a shrinking German City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Howest

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The German Urban Commission is currently monitoring a phenomenon not entirely new:the economic and demographic shrinking of cities. As outlined during the Pretoria Conferencein 2002, this process is increasingly puzzling for both urban planners and politicians,and in some regions – especially in eastern Germany – the situation is getting dramaticallyworse (see chapter 1. In chapter 2 and 3 of this paper we will illustrate the effects of economicand demographic shrinking, by analysing the example of the eastern German City ofEisenhüttenstadt. In chapter 4 we will outline Eisenhüttenstadt’s perspectives for the futureand discuss its efforts to adapt to these new challenges. The conclusion will put forward anumber of theses for further discussion.

  6. Eisenhüttenstadt: monitoring a shrinking German city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lienhard Lötscher

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The German Urban Commission is currently monitoring a phenomenon not entirely new: the economic and demographic shrinking of cities. As outlined during the Pretoria Confe-rence in 2002, this process is increasingly puzzling for both urban planners and politicians, and in some regions – especially in eastern Germany – the situation is getting dramatically worse (see chapter 1. In chapter 2 and 3 of this paper we will illustrate the effects of eco-nomic and demographic shrinking, by analysing the example of the eastern German City of Eisenhüttenstadt. In chapter 4 we will outline Eisenhüttenstadt’s perspectives for the future and discuss its efforts to adapt to these new challenges. The conclusion will put forward a number of theses for further discussion.

  7. City positioning theories and city core competencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinquan; Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Gity positioning The Chinese city in a decision develops the topic of the destiny. Since the 90's of 20 centuries, the economic integral and globalization developed rapidly. The development make national boundary become not so important, the function of the city is increasingly outstanding. In other words, national competition ability is morally now on the city competition ability. At the same time, this development result that the industry is divided internationally and is divided in cities. Therefore, under the condition of globalization, if the city wants the superior development, it must take advantages and avoid shortage, to position the city accurately, establish the competition and development the strategy. The city positioning is clearly defined the city competition ability, more important it indicated the direction of the city development. Trough the analysis of the resource and environment of the city, decide an accurate position of the best function of the city, well configure the inner and outside resource, catch the opportunities,face the challenges, maximized the market share in order to maximized the wealth and city competition ability.

  8. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 5, Number Theory, Chapter 6, The Integers. Student's Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    The third student text in this SMSG series of 14 covers the following topics from number theory: the division algorithm, divisibility, prime numbers, prime factorization, common divisors and common multiples, and properties of the whole number system. A second chapter discusses properties and operations with integers. For a special edition of this…

  9. Chapter 2: Stand-alone Applications - TOPCAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. J.

    Tool for OPerations on Catalogues And Tables or TOPCAT is a graphical viewer for table data. It offers a variety of ways to work with data tables, including a browser for the cell data, viewers for information about table and column metadata, dataset visualization, and even analysis. We discuss a small subset of TOPCAT's functionalities in this chapter. TOPCAT was originally developed as part of the Starlink program in the United Kingdom. It is now maintained by AstroGrid. The program is written in pure Java and available under the GNU General Public License. It is available for download and a version is included in the software distribution accompanying this book. TOPCAT is a GUI interface on top of the STIL library. A command line interface to this library, STILTS, described in Chapter 21 provides scriptable access to many of the capabilities described here. The purpose of this tutorial is to provide an overview of TOPCAT to the novice user. The best place to look for and learn about TOPCAT is the web page maintained by Mark B. Taylor. There, TOPCAT documentation is provided in HTML, PDF, via screen shots, etc. In this chapter we take the user through a few examples that give the general idea of how TOPCAT works. The majority of the functionality of TOPCAT is not included in this short tutorial. Our goal in this tutorial is to lead the reader through an exercise that would result in a publication quality figure (e.g. for a journal article). Specifically, we will use TOPCAT to show how the color-magnitude relation of a galaxy cluster compares to that of all galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (York et al. 2000). This diagnostic is used not only in cluster finding, but its linear fit can provide insight into the age and/or metallicity of the oldest galaxies in galaxy clusters (which are some of the oldest galaxies in the Universe). The data we need for this exercise are: 1) the entire spectroscopic galaxy catalog from the SDSS, with galaxy positions, galaxy

  10. La charpente de la nef de la cathédrale de Bourges The structure of the nave in Bourges cathedral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Epaud

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La cathédrale gothique de Bourges a été édifiée en deux campagnes avec le chœur, de 1195 à 1214, puis la nef, de 1225 à 1255, après 10 ans d’interruption du chantier. Ses charpentes d’origine ont été en partie reconstruites sur l’ensemble des collatéraux, suite à un incendie en 1559, et sur la partie médiane du grand vaisseau, entre 1747 et 1754, du fait de la suppression du faux transept et de sa flèche. Le relevé archéologique de la charpente gothique subsistante sur la nef, et l’analyse dendrochronologique de ses bois démontrent que les abattages se sont étalés de 1230 à 1257, avec deux grandes campagnes de coupes de bois entre 1240 et 1244 et en automne-hiver 1254-1255, juste avant la mise en œuvre et le levage de la charpente en 1256 ou peu après. Ces coupes successives supposent un approvisionnement du chantier par des donations de bois ou de parcelles forestières exploitées aussitôt, obligeant à un stockage des bois dans l’attente du chantier. La charpente à chevrons-formant-fermes a été exécutée selon un premier projet qui a été modifié en cours de réalisation pour y insérer un dispositif de contreventement longitudinal, avec une nouvelle structure des fermes principales permettant de le recevoir. Ce contreventement axial est doublé par un second situé dans le plan des chevrons, attesté pour la première fois par la dendrochronologie du milieu du xiiie s. En 1262, les travées orientales de la charpente de la nef sont reprises pour permettre le rajout d’une flèche en bois et d’un faux-transept à l’aplomb de la quatrième travée de voûtes.The Gothic cathedral of Bourges was built in two phases, with the chancel from 1195 to 1214 then the nave from 1225 to 1255, after a 10-year interruption to the building work. The original roof structure was in part reconstructed on all the sides, following a fire in 1559, and on the middle part of the great nave, between 1747 and 1754, due to

  11. Chapter I: Landscape and its representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter contains and defines the basic concepts, represents the landscape in schematic way, demonstrates the concepts in form of pictures (landscape as a whole, its individual components and structures), graphic forms, including the historical and the present representation of landscape in artistic works. Definition of landscape and schemes of the basic concepts are included. It consists of next subchapters: (1) Landscape - material reality - fragment of geographical sphere; (2) Landscape, its elements, and relationships; (3) Landscape structure; (4) Definition of the landscape; (5) Landscape characteristics; Methodology used for compilation of the Landscape Atlas of the SR; (6) Conception of the Landscape Atlas of the Slovak Republic; Historical representation of landscape; (7) Development of representation of the selected landscape types; Slovak landscape in fine arts

  12. Environment-effect reporting. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environment-effect reporting is a tool in the resolution of one or more government bodies about activities which may have important disadvantageous impacts upon the environment. This chapter gives a treatment of environment-effect reporting as a process consisting of the preparation, draw-up, judgement and use of an environment-effect report (MER), followed by an evaluation. The contentsof an environment-effect report are indicated. The role of environment-effect reporting in relation with other procedures is discussed. Some experience with the application of environment-effect reporting is presented and a number of experiences in the application are discussed. (H.W.). 5 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  13. Chapter 40: history of neurology in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarac, François; Boller, François

    2010-01-01

    The history of neurology in France is characterized by the very high degree of centralization in that country where "everything seems to happen in Paris," and yet the considerable degree of autonomous diversity in the evolution of some other medical schools such as Montpellier and Strasbourg. It could be argued that France saw the birth of clinical neurology as a separate discipline since Jean Martin Charcot at the Salpêtrière Hospital obtained a chair of diseases of the nervous system in 1892, a first in the history of the academic world. The chapter shows, however, that the work of Charcot was preceded by a long evolution in medical thinking, which culminated with the introduction of experimental medicine developed by Claude Bernard and François Magendie, and by the study of aphasia by Paul Broca and its localization of language in a specific area of the brain. Many of the great neurologists of France like Duchenne de Boulogne, Gilles de la Tourette, Joseph Babinski and Pierre Marie gravitated around Charcot while others like Charles-Edward Brown-Sequard and Jules Dejerine developed their talents independently. The history of Sainte-Anne Hospital further illustrates this independence. It also shows the relation between neurology and psychiatry with Henri Ey, Jean Delay and Pierre Deniker, who collaborated with Henri Laborit in the clinical development of chlorpromazine. Sainte Anne also saw the birth of modern neuropsychology with Henry Hécaen. Jean Talairach and his group developed human stereotaxic neurosurgery and a 3-dimensional brain atlas that is used around the world. The chapter also mentions institutions (the CNRS and INSERM) that have contributed to developments partially independently from medical schools. It concludes with a presentation of schools located outside of Paris that have played a significant role in the development of neurology. Six of the most important ones are described: Montpellier, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Strasbourg, Lyon, and

  14. Mercury and halogens in coal: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Quick, Jeffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Apart from mercury itself, coal rank and halogen content are among the most important factors inherent in coal that determine the proportion of mercury captured by conventional controls during coal combustion. This chapter reviews how mercury in coal occurs, gives available concentration data for mercury in U.S. and international commercial coals, and provides an overview of the natural variation in halogens that influence mercury capture. Three databases, the U.S. Geological Survey coal quality (USGS COALQUAL) database for in-ground coals, and the 1999 and 2010 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Information Collection Request (ICR) databases for coals delivered to power stations, provide extensive results for mercury and other parameters that are compared in this chapter. In addition to the United States, detailed characterization of mercury is available on a nationwide basis for China, whose mean values in recent compilations are very similar to the United States in-ground mean of 0.17 ppm mercury. Available data for the next five largest producers (India, Australia, South Africa, the Russian Federation, and Indonesia) are more limited and with the possible exceptions of Australia and the Russian Federation, do not allow nationwide means for mercury in coal to be calculated. Chlorine in coal varies as a function of rank and correspondingly, depth of burial. As discussed elsewhere in this volume, on a proportional basis, bromine is more effective than chlorine in promoting mercury oxidation in flue gas and capture by conventional controls. The ratio of bromine to chlorine in coal is indicative of the proportion of halogens present in formation waters within a coal basin. This ratio is relatively constant except in coals that have interacted with deep-basin brines that have reached halite saturation, enriching residual fluids in bromine. Results presented here help optimize mercury capture by conventional controls and provide a starting point for

  15. A Regular City

    OpenAIRE

    Arina Sharavina

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the first plans of Chita, which served as the basis for the city development. It presents contribution to the city history made by the Decembrist Dmiry Zavalishin’s, who was the first author of the city development plan. Peculiarities of the quarter development of the realized city plan are also presented.

  16. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  17. Project TRABAJO and Individualized Bilingual Education for Children with Retarded Mental Development. E.S.E.A. Title VII [and] Chapter 720 Annual Evaluation Report, 1980-81.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Educational Evaluation.

    Project TRABAJO (an academic and job program) and the Individualized Bilingual Education for Children with Retarded Mental Development(a Chapter 720 Program) are two programs which provide supplementary and instructional support for 150 mildly and moderately mentally retarded New York City school students with limited English proficiency. The…

  18. Chapter 24: Programmatic Interfaces - IDL VOlib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. J.

    In this chapter, we describe a library for working with the VO using IDL (the Interactive Data Language). IDL is a software environment for data analysis, visualization, and cross-platform application development. It has wide-usage in astronomy, including NASA (e.g. http://seadas.gsfc.nasa.gov/), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (http://www.sdss.org), and the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph Instrument (http://ssc.spitzer.caltech.edu/archanaly/contributed/smart/). David Stern, the founder of Research Systems, Inc. (RSI), began the development of IDL while working with NASA's Mars Mariner 7 and 9 data at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado. In 1981, IDL was rewritten in assembly language and FORTRAN for VAX/VMS. IDL's usage has expanded over the last decade into the fields of medical imaging and engineering, among many others. IDL's programming style carries over much of this FORTRAN-legacy, and has a familiar feel to many astronomers who learned their trade using FORTRAN. The spread of IDL-usage amongst astronomers can in part be attributed to the wealth of publicly astronomical libraries. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) maintains a list of astronomy-related IDL libraries, including the well known Astronomy User's Library (hereafter ASTROLIB2). We will use some of these GSFC IDL libraries. We note that while IDL is a licensed-software product, the source code of user-written procedures are typically freely available to the community. To make the most out of this section as a reader, it is important that many of the data discovery, access, and analysis protocols are understood before reading this chapter. In the next section, we provide an overview of some of the NVO terminology with which the reader should be familiar. The IDL library discussed here is specifically for use with the Virtual Observatory and is named VOlib. IDL's VOlib is available at http://nvo.noao.edu and is included with the software distrubution for this

  19. Chapter IX: Stress phenomena in landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter consist of next sub-chapters: (1) Sources of stress phenomena and their reflection in landscape; (2) Impact of stress phenomena on natural resources and human hea; (3) Impact of stress phenomena on landscape. The different types of human activities and natural phenomena affect the environment. They are referred to by the general term of stress phenomena. There are the stress phenomena of natural character (the radon risk, landslides, avalanches, etc.) and anthropogenic phenomena determined or directly provoked by man (air and water pollution, emissions, etc.). They cause different environmental problems: they threaten the ecological and cultural priorities, but above all they threaten human health. National legislation and international conventions concerning the air protection lay down the regular inventory of emission of pollutants to atmosphere. Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute (SHMU) is responsible for such inventory. It is carried out in co-operation with several specialised institutions under the methodological guidance of the SHMU. The Register of Emissions and Pollution Sources (REZZO) was in operation at SHMU since 1985. It contains the data on emissions of the basic pollutants from stationary sources. This system was replaced by the National Emission Inventory System (NEIS) harmonised with the internationally accepted methodology (CORINAIR, EMEP, IPCC/FCCC). Sources of pollutants emitted to atmosphere are above all energetic and industrial productions, transport, fuel mining and transport, waste disposal and agriculture. Emissions in Slovakia reached their highest level by the end of the 1980's. Their consistent decrease is recorded since the 1990's. The cause of such developments is the overall recession connected with the decline of industrial production and consequently lower demand of the amount of produced energy. Simultaneously, the effects of legal instruments (Act No. 309/1991 of Coll. on protection of air against pollutants (The

  20. Chapter 11. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter the international co-operation of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) in 1999 is reviewed. The Director General of the IAEA, Mr. Mohamed ElBaradei by his deputy for nuclear safety, Mr. Zikmund Domaratsky, upon the invitation of Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Slovak Republic Mr. Eduard Kukan, on 29 and 30 April 1999. Since 1999 Slovakia is represented in the Board of Governors of the IAEA. The Chairman of UJD was delegated by the Government of Slovakia to take the function of the governor. Co-operation between Slovakia and the IAEA in the field of technical projects is very successful. In the past year Slovakia was involved in 6 national and 23 regional projects. Significant part of regional projects related to the nuclear safety. Overall UJD organized 6 seminars and training courses with a broad international participation. These focused on radiation protection, fuel cycle, emergency regulations and utilization of radiation methods in oncology. There were 15 active research contracts in the field of agriculture, nuclear energy, safety of nuclear installations, physics, chemistry and RAW in 1999. A medium-term goal of UJD in the field of technical co-operation is a gradual transition to active international assistance in providing assistance to less developed countries. Within the technical projects of the IAEA assistance has been provided mainly to the countries of former of former Soviet Union. Other international activities and co-operation of UJD in 1999 are presented

  1. Energy. Chapter 4; Energia. Capitulo 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Castillo, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    This chapter stands out that the infrastructure for the electric energy generation, as well as the one departing from fossil fuels has been the responsibility of two institutions with great solvency in the scope of engineering: the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). It is presented here the energy future in a sustainable context; a prospective study to year 2050; a strategic proposal of Petroleos Mexicanos; the forecast of the oil industry in Mexico and a technological prospective of the energy. [Spanish] En este capitulo se destaca que la infraestructura para la generacion de energia, tanto electrica como a partir de combustibles fisiles ha corrido a cargo de dos instituciones con gran solvencia en el ambito de la ingenieria: la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex). Se presenta el futuro de la energia en un contexto sustentable; un estudio prospectivo al ano 2050; una propuesta estrategica de Petroleos Mexicanos; la prospectiva de la industria petrolera en Mexico y; una prospectiva tecnologica de la energia.

  2. Moving forward with imperfect information: chapter 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averyt, Kristen; Brekke, Levi D.; Kaatz, Laurna; Welling, Leigh; Hartge, Eric H.; Iseman, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This chapter summarized the scope of what is known and not known about climate in the Southwestern United States. There is now more evidence and more agreement among climate scientists about the physical climate and related impacts in the Southwest compared with that represented in the 2009 National Climate Assessment (Karl, Melillo, and Peterson 2009). However, there remain uncertainties about the climate system, the complexities within climate models, the related impacts to the biophysical environment, and the use of climate information on decision making. Uncertainty is introduced in each step of the climate planning-an-response process--in the scenarios used to drive the climate models, the information used to construct the models, and the interpretation and use of the model' data for planning and decision making (Figure 19.1). There are server key challenge, drawn from recommendations of the authors of this report, that contribute to these uncertainties in the Southwest: - There is a dearth of climate observations at high elevations and on the lands of Native nations.

  3. Cities and Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew K. Rose

    2005-01-01

    If one ranks cities by population, the rank of a city is inversely related to its size, a well-documented phenomenon known as Zipf's Law. Further, the growth rate of a city's population is uncorrelated with its size, another well-known characteristic known as Gibrat's Law. In this paper, I show that both characteristics are true of countries as well as cities; the size distributions of cities and countries are similar. But theories that explain the size-distribution of cities do not obviously...

  4. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  5. SURMAT : decision support tool to select municipal solid waste treatment technologies : case study in Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thi, Le K.O.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to enable taking more sustainable and cost-effective decisions on MSW management in developing cities. For this purpose, a tool named SURMAT was developed and applied using data of Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam (chapter 6). In order to prepare the tool for modeling of the MSW

  6. Bright Lights, Big Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Overabundant lighting has become another pollution source in the Chinese cities The glow of electric lights illuminating the nights of ever-brighter cities has been regarded as one of the signs of prosperity and modern civilization.

  7. A Crowded City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Over 4 million vehicles on road challenge Beijing’s city management Beijing, the city once known as the kingdom of bicycles, has become clogged with automobiles, the Beijing Municipal Government Publicity Office said on December 18.

  8. Globalization and cities

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Mina

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the basic concepts on cities within contemporary globalisation. First, it briefly reviews the city perspective within the world system theory (concepts of over-urbanisation, under-urbanisation, and dependent urbanisation), new international division of labour, theory of the second circuit of capital and informational society. The second part of the paper is dedicated to the concepts of global and world cities and their implications for the cities in developed and develop...

  9. Cities as Spatial Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdinand Rauch

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows that Zipf's Law for cities can emerge as a property of a clustering process. If initially uniformly distributed people chose their location based on a specific gravity equation as found in trade studies, they will form cities that follow Zipf's Law in expected value. This view of cities as spatial agglomerations is supported empirically by the observation that larger cities are surrounded by larger hinterland areas and larger countryside populations.

  10. Chapter 1 Support for Instructional Development, 1986-87.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaemper, Jack; Morse, Kathy

    Six of the 39 Albuquerque (New Mexico) Public Schools' Chapter 1 participating schools, as part of the school-based budgeting process, allocated a portion of their Chapter 1 resource allocation for on-site intensive staff development activities. Three schools--Alamosa, Chaparral, and Duranes--agreed to utilize the time of a Support for…

  11. The Creative Cities Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Creative Cities Network, started by UNESCO in 2004, is one of the world’s highest-level non-governmental organizations in creative industry. The network focuses on the excellence of its member cities as its main product, and finds ways to maintain relevance in city life, local economy

  12. Imagineering the city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van den Berg

    2015-01-01

    Cities today are products. The urban experience is commodified into marketable items by urban entrepreneurs. Urban administrations, city marketers, politicians, local businesses and other actors all over the world are developing entrepreneurial strategies to sell their city. From "‘I ♥ New York"’ to

  13. Chapter A3. Cleaning of Equipment for Water Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Franceska D., (Edited By); Radtke, Dean B.; Gibs, Jacob; Iwatsubo, Rick T.

    1998-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. Chapter A3 describes procedures for cleaning the equipment used to collect and process samples of surface water and ground water and procedures for assessing the efficacy of the equipment-cleaning process. This chapter is designed for use with the other chapters of this field manual. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters will be posted on the USGS page 'National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data.' The URL for this page is http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A/ (accessed September 20, 2004).

  14. Chapter 15 Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, Paul; Devon, Rebecca S; Hayden, Michael R; Leavitt, Blair R

    2007-01-01

    Several forms of genetically defined juvenile amy-otrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have now been charac-terized and discussion of these conditions will form the basis for this chapter. ALS2 is an autosomal recessive form of ALS with a juvenile onset and very slow progression that mapped to chromosome 2q33. Nine different mutations have been identified in the ALS2 gene that result in premature stop codons, suggesting a loss of function in the gene product, alsin. The alsin protein is thought to function as a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for GTPases and may play a role in vesicle transport or membrane trafficking processes. ALS4 is an autosomal dominant form of juvenile onset ALS associated with slow progression, severe muscle weakness and pyramidal signs, in the absence of bulbar and sensory abnormalities. Mutations in the SETX gene cause ALS4, and the SETX gene product senataxin may have DNA and RNA helicase activity and play a role in the regulation of RNA and/or DNA in the cell. A third form of juvenile-onset ALS (ALS5) is associated with slowly progressing lower motor neuron signs (weak-ness and atrophy) initially of the hands and feet, with eventual bulbar involvement. Progressive upper motor neuron disease becomes more obvious with time. ALS5 has been linked to a 6 cM region of chromosome 15q15.1-q21.1, but the causative gene mutation for ALS5 has yet to be identified. The high degree of clin-ical and genetic heterogeneity in the various forms of juvenile ALS can make differential diagnosis difficult, other genetic disorders that must be considered include: spinal muscular atrophy, hereditary spastic paraplegia, SBMA, GM2 gangliosidosis and the hereditary motor neuronopathies/motor forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Acquired disorders that must also be consid-ered include heavy metal intoxications (especially lead), multifocal motor neuropathy, paraneoplastic syndromes, vitamin deficiencies (B12) and infections (HTLV-II, HIV and poliomyelitis). PMID

  15. GC/MS in the study of deterioration process of historical monuments: characterization of the black crust formed in the Cathedral of Seville; GC/MS en el estudio del proceso de deterioro de monumentos historicos: caracterizacion de la costra negra presente en la Catedral de Sevilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, J. [Programa de Corrosion del Golfo de Mexico. Universidad Autonoma de Campeche. Av. Agustin Melgar s/n, Campeche (Mexico); Hermosin, B.; Saiz J, C. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla. Avenida de la Reina Mercedes 10. Sevilla, Espana (Spain)]. e-mail: javreyes@uacam.mx

    2006-07-01

    Here, we present an interesting application of Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) technique which permitted to differentiate successfully between natural and anthropogenic compounds present in the black crust formed in the Cathedral of Seville. This building, considered as one of the most important historic and cultural European monuments suffers from intense blackening of its outside walls and sculptures due to the interaction with the urban environment. Fragment of black crusts were removed from the Cathedral walls and extraction process with organic solvents was carried out. The aliphatic, aromatic and polar fractions were separated and analyzed using GC/MS. A complex organic composition of the black crusts indicated the accumulative character of the deposition process of atmospheric particles as a function of the time. The presence of high molecular weight n-alkanes, n-fatty acids and natural molecular markers identified during the study were indicative of current biogenic contributions. It was also found an important group of petrogenic molecular markers related with diesel soot emissions from motor engines. The diesel soot and molecular markers were entrapped within the black crust mineral matrix and contribute to the observed blackening of the Seville Cathedral. (Author)

  16. Getting the Most from Pi Sigma Alpha Chapters: Exploring the Chapter Activity Grant Program and Its Multiplier Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    The political science honor society, Pi Sigma Alpha, has chapters in nearly 700 institutions across the United States. The organization sponsors many programs that can contribute a great deal to students of political science; however, many students are unaware of these opportunities. This article encourages chapter advisors to make use of these…

  17. Cities as development drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Bjørn; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Hansen, Jens Aage;

    2011-01-01

    There is a strong connection between economic growth and development of cities. Economic growth tends to stimulate city growth, and city economies have often shaped innovative environments that in turn support economic growth. Simultaneously, social and environmental problems related to city growth...... can be serious threats to the realization of the socio-economic contributions that cities can make. However, as a result of considerable diversity of competences combined with interactive learning and innovation, cities may also solve these problems. The ‘urban order’ may form a platform for...... innovative problem solving and potential spill-over effects, which may stimulate further economic growth and development. This paper discusses how waste problems of cities can be transformed to become part of new, more sustainable solutions. Two cases are explored: Aalborg in Denmark and Malmö in Sweden. It...

  18. Me, the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The search for identity of cities looks rather urgent and attracts attention of many researchers. Addressing this issue, the article draws an analogy between a human person and a city. Like a city, a human being needs to comprehend his self-identity in order to resist depressive tendencies. It is shown that a person’s depressive symptoms are similar to those of cities. The city identity necessary to resist depression can be searched for both historically and geographically. The historical aspect consists of local myths and legends about the city and the citizens. The geographical aspect of identity comprises features of the terrain, climate, flora and fauna of the region where the city is located.

  19. La elección del método contable: el caso del Cabildo Catedral de Sevilla, siglo XVI = Choosing an accounting method in the 17th century: the case of the Cathedral Council of Sevilla, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Julián Hernández Borreguero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Gracias al avanzado estado de las investigaciones en Historia de la Contabilidad podemos situar en qué momento temporal aparecieron sucesivamente los distintos métodos contables que hoy conocemos. A pesar de ello, son pocos los estudios que analizan por qué los contadores elegían uno u otro para gestionar una determinada entidad económica. En nuestra opinión existen una serie de restricciones y condicionantes a la hora de la decisión sobre el método contable a implantar en un determinado negociado. En este trabajo centramos esta problemática en una entidad eclesiástica, concretamente el Cabildo Catedral de Sevilla. En el siglo XVII, cuando el uso de la partida doble estaba plenamente difundido en la ciudad y en el país, observamos cómo en la mayoría de los negociados del Cabildo no se utilizó este método, sino diversas variantes de la partida simple. A lo largo de esta comunicación analizamos los casos en los que se utilizan los distintos métodos; en nuestra opinión hay una buena correspondencia entre los métodos utilizados y la realidad económica que se gestionaba.Thanks to the advanced state of research about the history of accounting, we can exactly date the moment in which the present accounting methods were first used. However, there are few studies focusing on the reasons to choose a specific accounting method to manage an institution. This study reviews those reasons in an ecclesiastical institution, the Cathedral Council of Seville. In the 17th century, when double entry was widely used in town and throughout the country, we can see how the Cathedral Council used instead versions of the single entry method. This paper addresses the cases in which the different methods were used. We think that there is a good correspondence between the method chosen and the economic reality managed.

  20. Biophilic Cities Are Sustainable, Resilient Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Newman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing recognition of the need for daily contact with nature, to live happy, productive, meaningful lives. Recent attention to biophilic design among architects and designers acknowledges this power of nature. However, in an increasingly urban planet, more attention needs to be aimed at the urban scales, at planning for and moving towards what the authors call “biophilic cities”. Biophilic cities are cities that provide close and daily contact with nature, nearby nature, but also seek to foster an awareness of and caring for this nature. Biophilic cities, it is argued here, are also sustainable and resilient cities. Achieving the conditions of a biophilic city will go far in helping to foster social and landscape resilience, in the face of climate change, natural disasters and economic uncertainty and various other shocks that cities will face in the future. The paper identifies key pathways by which biophilic urbanism enhances resilience, and while some are well-established relationships, others are more tentative and suggest future research and testing.

  1. Economic impacts of climate change on cities: A survey of the existing literature

    OpenAIRE

    Stasinopoulos, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts a survey of the existing literature on the direct market impacts of climate change on urban centers. In the first chapter, the argument for the importance of cities as case studies for research on the impacts of climate change is established using current population data and future projections. In the second chapter, a brief overview of how we can go from the global level to the regional level, when we consider the impacts of climate change, is given. In the third chapter,...

  2. Pollution and city size: can cities be too small?

    OpenAIRE

    Borck, Rainald; TABUCHI Takatoshi

    2015-01-01

    We study the optimal and equilibrium size of cities in a monocentric city model with environmental pollution. Pollution is related to city size through the effect of population on production, commuting, and housing consumption. If pollution is local, we find that equilibrium cities are too large, mirroring standard results in the theory of city systems. When pollution is global and per capita pollution declines with city size, however, equilibrium cities may be too small.

  3. City Carbon Footprint Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwu Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cities worldwide have demonstrated political leadership by initiating meaningful strategies and actions to tackle climate change. However, the lack of knowledge concerning embodied greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of cities has hampered effective mitigation. We analyse trans-boundary GHG emission transfers between five Australian cities and their trading partners, with embodied emission flows broken down into major economic sectors. We examine intercity carbon footprint (CF networks and disclose a hierarchy of responsibility for emissions between cities and regions. Allocations of emissions to households, businesses and government and the carbon efficiency of expenditure have been analysed to inform mitigation policies. Our findings indicate that final demand in the five largest cities in Australia accounts for more than half of the nation’s CF. City households are responsible for about two thirds of the cities’ CFs; the rest can be attributed to government and business consumption and investment. The city network flows highlight that over half of emissions embodied in imports (EEI to the five cities occur overseas. However, a hierarchy of GHG emissions reveals that overseas regions also outsource emissions to Australian cities such as Perth. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on carbon neutrality, low-carbon city concepts and strategies and allocation of subnational GHG responsibility.

  4. Air-sea linkages in European port cities

    OpenAIRE

    Ducruet, César; Joly, Olivier; Martell Flores, Hipolito

    2005-01-01

    This chapter aims at highlighting the relationships between air, maritime & logistic activities of port cities in Europe. Although recent studies have considered sea-air intermodality as a locational advantage for ports and coastal urban centres, they are still few and isolated case studies. Nevertheless, this subject appears to be of growing interest for transport, logistic players and urban planners to improve port performance in a competitive context. However, there is neither an estimatio...

  5. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase two A, part 2, chapter XI: concept evolution, chapter XII: design concept, and chapter XIII: operation and test programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report corresponds to Chapters XI, XII, and XIII of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR Workship, Phase Two A, Part 2. In the phase Two A, Part 2 workshop, we have studied critical technical issues and have also assessed scientific and technical data bases. Based on those results, the INTOR design have been modified to upgrade the design concept. The major modification items are related to plasma beta value, plasma operation scenario, reactor size reduction, neutron fluence, tritium producing blanket, and implementation of active control coils. In those chapters, the concept evolution for the design modification and main results are described. (author)

  6. Chapter No.10. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management came into the effect on June 18, 2001. In next part of this chapter the bilateral co-operation of the UJD with partner organisations from Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine, Poland, U.S.A., Federal Republic of Germany, Switzerland, Japan, Romania and Armenia in 2001 is reviewed

  7. Modeling and Advanced Control for Sustainable Process Systems (chapter 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter introduces a novel process systems engineering framework that integrates process control with sustainability assessment tools for the simultaneous evaluation and optimization of process operations. The implemented control strategy consists of a biologically-insp...

  8. Methodic of payment determination for environment pollution. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the chapter 2 the methodic for determination of payments for environmental impacts from coal thermal power plant including the specifications of enterprises payments for harmful gases discharges into atmosphere and payments for solid wastes disposition is presented

  9. Chapter 4. The operation culture of the Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the fourth chapter of this CD ROM the operation culture of the Slovak Electric, Plc. (Slovenske elektrarne, a.s.), is presented. It consist of next paragraphs (1) Environment; (2) Personnel and social policy; (3) Public relations; (4) Consultancy

  10. Part I. Chapter IV. Coldness is coming from Wienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter author reviewed a political pressure of Austrian government and Austrian legislative assembly on Slovakia before fuel assembly insertion and commissioning of the Unit-1 of the Mochovce NPP. Mission of Walkdown II is described.

  11. Blurred Sex and the City - An Analysis of Language and Gender in Sex and the City

    OpenAIRE

    Skov Andersen, Marie Louise; Arildsen, Vibeke; Gade Kohl, Louise; Mastilo, Tatjana; von Hedemann, Christopher Christian Johan

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at distinguishing between the different male and female features that have been employed in the four protagonists’ use of language in Sex and the City. Jennifer Coates and Bent Preisler’s research form the basis of the analysis. A number of linguistic features used to identify male and female speech modes are presented in a chapter on theory, and the different features are then used in a character-based analysis of the show. The paper concludes that the characters make use of ...

  12. Volume 3 Chapter 1: Mitigation and adaptation to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Mechler, R.; Nakicenovic, N.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the needs and opportunities as well as the constraints and barriers with respect to mitigation and adaptation to climate change. While the chapter concentrates mainly on Austria, information is provided on the global and EU level to the extent they are relevant for Austria. Section 1.1 discusses the targets already specified for mitigation at the global level, as well as technologies that are already available or are emerging with the potential to meet the challenges a...

  13. Should We Abolish Chapter 11? Evidence from Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Timothy C G; Martel, Jocelyn

    1999-01-01

    Chapter 11 has been severely criticized over the last decade. Some American jurists arguing in favor of revising Chapter 11 have raised the possibility that the Canadian reorganization system might be a good alternative. This article examines data on firms undergoing reorganization under the Canadian bankruptcy system and argues that there are fruitful lessons to be learned from the Canadian experience with court-supervised reorganization. Canadian reorganization plans have very high rates of...

  14. Emotive Terrains: Exploring the emotional geographies of city through walking as art, senses and embodied technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Psarras, Vasileios

    2015-01-01

    Walking has always been the nexus between humans and the city, constituting an expression with artistic, cultural, performative and sensorial implications for an array of artistic and intellectual voices. This thesis investigates the personal and shared emotional geographies of the city (e.g. streets, tube stations) through performative and aesthetic considerations of walking, senses, metaphors and embodied technologies. Three areas primarily inform this thesis and shape its chapters: i) cont...

  15. Cities and human security

    OpenAIRE

    Szpak, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Cities have been researched mostly in terms of their economic, technological, and social value and significance. Despite some changes in this respect there is still a need to research cities as a fascinating phenomenon, also in respect of its capabilities to increase human security on a local and global scale. The article examines the role of cities for human security in the selected and representative fields such as sustainable development, human rights and environmental protection which are...

  16. Assimilation in multilingual cities

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Javier; Verdugo, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    International audience We characterise how the assimilation patterns of minorities into the strong and the weak language differ in a situation of asymmetric bilingualism. Using large variations in language composition in Canadian cities from the 2001 and 2006 Censuses, we show that the differences in the knowledge of English by immigrant allophones (i.e. the immigrants with a mother tongue other than English and French) in English-majority cities are mainly due to sorting across cities. In...

  17. Learning cities 2020

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of historic work in the field of Learning City development. It then proceeds to highlight two contemporary strands of work. The first is the initiative of UNESCO’s Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) in establishing the International Platform of Learning Cities. The second is the work of the PASCAL Observatory, currently manifested in the Learning Cities 2020 programme.

  18. Sound and the City

    OpenAIRE

    Bulley, James; Sahin, Ozden; Spinelli, Emmanuel; Tanaka, Atau; Hosang, Georgina M.; Cubitt, Sean; Drever, John L.; Kanngieser, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Imagining the future soundscape of the city. Researchers from across disciplines explore the rapidly changing urban soundscape — how do the sounds around us affect our daily life? What might a futuristic city sound like? An interactive listening experience exploring the impact that the sounds around us can have on our health, wellbeing and sense of place. Sound and the City installation was exhibited as part of the Universities Week at the Natural History Museum between June 9 — 11, 2...

  19. Assimilation in multilingual cities

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Using the Public Use Microdata Files of the 2001 and 2006 Canadian Censuses, we study the determinants of the assimilation of language minorities into the city majority language. We show that official minority members (i.e. francophones in English-speaking cities and anglophones in French-speaking cities) assimilate less than the "allophones" (the individuals with a mother tongue other than English or French), and that immigrants generally assimilate less than natives. In addition, the langua...

  20. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities

  1. Suburbs and Cities

    OpenAIRE

    William N. Goetzmann; Matthew I. Spiegel; Susan M. Wachter

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of how closely the fortunes of suburbs are tied to the fortunes of the central city. We use similarities in residential housing price dynamics as a measure of how closely the economies of cities and suburbs are related. We develop housing price indices for most of the zip codes in California, and use these in a clustering procedure to see whether cities and suburbs naturally aggregate together, or whether they move separately. We find that central cities tend to...

  2. Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter updates information taken from Chapters 3 to 6 of the IPCC Working Group I Third Assessment Report. It concerns itself with trends in forcing agents and their precursors since 1750, and estimates their contribution to the radiative forcing (RF) of the climate system. Discussion of the understanding of atmospheric composition changes is limited to explaining the trends in forcing agents and their precursors. Areas where significant developments have occurred since the TAR are highlighted. The chapter draws on various assessments since the TAR, in particular the 2002 World Meteorological Organization (WMO), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion (2003) and the IPCC Technology and Economic Assessment Panel (TEAP) special report on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System (2005). The chapter assesses anthropogenic greenhouse gas changes, aerosol changes and their impact on clouds, aviation-induced contrails and cirrus changes, surface albedo changes and natural solar and volcanic mechanisms. The chapter reassesses the 'radiative forcing' concept (Sections 2.2 and 2.8), presents spatial and temporal patterns of RF, and examines the radiative energy budget changes at the surface. For the long-lived greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), chlorofluoro-carbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), hereinafter collectively referred to as the LLGHGs; Section 2.3), the chapter makes use of new global measurement capabilities and combines long-term measurements from various networks to update trends through 2005. Compared to other RF agents, these trends are considerably better quantified; because of this, the chapter does not devote as much space to them as previous assessments (although the processes involved and the related budgets are further discussed in Sections 7.3 and 7

  3. The City at Stake:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Esmann Andersen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the city have been addressed from many different approaches such as law, political science, art history and public administration, in which the eco-nomic, political and legal status of the city have played a major role. However, a new agenda for conceptualizing the city has emerged, in which the city assumes new roles. By using stakeholder theory as a framework for conceptualizing the city, we argue that the city assumes a political-economic agenda-setting role as well as providing a stage for identity constructions and relational performances for consumers, organizations, the media, politicians and other stakeholders. Stakeholder theory allows us to conceptualize the city as being constituted by stakes and relationships between stakeholders which are approached from three analytical positions (modern, postmodern and hypermodern, respectively, thereby allowing us to grasp different stakes and types of relationships, ranging from functional and contractual relationships to individualized and emotionally driven or more non-committal and fluid forms of relationships. In order to support and illustrate the analytical potentials of our framework for conceptualizing urban living, we introduce a project which aims to turn the city of Aarhus into a CO2-neutral city by the year 2030, entitled Aarhus CO2030. We conclude that applying stakeholder theory to a hyper-complex organization such as a city opens up for a reconceptualization of the city as a web of stakes and stakeholder relations. Stakeholder theory contributes to a nuanced and elaborate understanding of the urban complexity and web of both enforced and voluntary relationships as well as the different types of relationships that characterize urban life.

  4. Deer City Legend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUHUANZHI; LILIKUN

    2003-01-01

    MORE and more commodities,such as clothes,shoes,millinery,lighters and shavers,now bear the “Made in Wenzhou”mark.It woule appear that Wenzhou grooms the whole nation.Lucheng(deer city)District in central Wenzhou is the nucleus of the city's thriving light industry sector.

  5. The Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Jensen, Ole B.; Kiib, Hans

    2009-01-01

    development are discussed in the paper, as well as the problems and the new opportunities with which the ‘Experience city' is faced. The article focus on the design of the Danish Experience City with special emphasis on hybrid cultural projects and on performative urban spaces. It present the first findings...... as we engage with the discussion about the trajectory of future research....

  6. A liveable city:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2014-01-01

    increas- ingly based in and on cities rather than nations, and cities compete for businesses, branding, tourists and talent. In the western world, urbanisation has happened simultane- ously to de-industrialisation, which has opened industrial neighbourhoods and harbours for new uses – often focus- ing on...

  7. CHONGQING, the Hot City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chongqing is a well-known city with a history of more than 3,000 years. It is a famous historical and cultural city in China. Chongqing is the birthplace of the Bayu Culture. At present, Chongqing is a municipality directly under the Central Government with the largest area, the most administrative districts and the largest population.

  8. Marriage and the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Pieter; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen

    Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing...

  9. Escaping The Big Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    More white-collar workers consider leaving major metropolises to find opportunities in small and medium-sized cities The energy and excitement of first-tier cities, including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen in Guangdong Province, have long served as magnets attracting enthusiastic young people. But recent surveys have overturned the perception of this urban draw.

  10. Smart cities: event everywhere

    OpenAIRE

    Reboredo Penedo, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    The research attempts to provide a big picture from the literature through a Systematic Literature Review about the smart city and the existing standards topics for interchanging data through Smart City Apps. Additionally a prototype was created to analyze one of the standards found in the SLR

  11. Making Cities Better

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Livelihood programs change the lives of urban residents For decades Chinese cities have vied with each other to top national and international development rankings. However, the triennial national list of cities with an advanced living environment judges candidates according to less conventional

  12. Walkout in Crystal City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Greg

    2009-01-01

    When students take action, they create change that extends far beyond the classroom. In this article, the author, who was a former teacher from Crystal City, Texas, remembers the student walkout that helped launch the Latino civil rights movement 40 years ago. The Crystal City student walkout remains a high point in the history of student activism…

  13. Reflective cool cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidegger, V.

    2011-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Our globe is heating, and cities are heating up much more. At the same time, cities are growing and green spaces are substituted by buildings and streets. These man-made surfaces are dark and tend to heat up

  14. Climate Change Adaptation in Urban Planning in African Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Gertrud; Herslund, Lise Byskov; Lund, Dorthe Hedensted;

    2014-01-01

    Resilience of urban structures towards impacts of a changing climate is one of the emerging tasks that cities all over the world are facing at present. Effects of climate change take many forms, depending on local climate, spatial patterns, and socioeconomic structures. Cities are only just begin...... they need integration at city level to form strategic adaptation plans. A combined rational and pragmatic approach is advisable as is involvement of stakeholders in the production of relevant knowledge...... beginning to be aware of the task, and some time will pass before it is integrated into mainstream urban governance. This chapter is based on work in progress. It covers urban governance and planning aspects of climate change adaptation as studied in the CLUVA project (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability...... in Africa), as well as some experiences from Denmark. Focus is on the responses and capacities of urban authorities, strengths and weaknesses of the efforts, data needs and possible ways forward. The chapter concludes that many adaptation activities are taking place in the CLUVA case cities, but that...

  15. Great cities look small

    CERN Document Server

    Sim, Aaron; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social-ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximising the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly-available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterise the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of GDP and HIV infection rates ac...

  16. Universities Scale Like Cities

    CERN Document Server

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the gross university income in terms of total number of citations over size in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its ...

  17. 2008 City of Baltimore Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the spring of 2008, the City of Baltimore expressed an interest to upgrade the City GIS Database with mapping quality airborne LiDAR data. The City of Baltimore...

  18. Conservation for cities how to plan and build natural infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, Robert I

    2015-01-01

    With this book, Robert McDonald offers a comprehensive framework for maintaining and strengthening the supporting bonds between cities and nature through innovative infrastructure projects. It's time to think differently about cities and nature. More people than ever live in cities, and all of this urban growth, along with challenges of adapting to climate change, will require a new approach to infrastructure if we're going to create livable urban places. After presenting a broad approach to incorporating natural infrastructure priorities into urban planning, he focuses each following chapter on a specific ecosystem service. He describes a wide variety of benefits, and helps practitioners answer fundamental questions about how to use natural infrastructure to create communities that are more resilient and livable.

  19. Seismic Hazard Management in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintergerst, L.

    2007-05-01

    Mexico City is one of the largest cities in the world. More than 8.5 million residents and 4.5 million floating population are in the city itself, but with the surrounding suburbs the number of people that could be affected by natural and man-made hazards rises to approximately 20 million. The main risk to the city as a whole is a large magnitude earthquake. Since there is reason to prepare for a credible seismic scenario of Mw = 8.2, which would exceed the damages caused during the 1985 earthquake (Mw = 8.1), we founded the Metropolitan Geologic Service (MGS) in 1998. The MGS has developed geologic and seismic hazard maps for the city (http:www.proteccioncivil.df.gob.mx). The maps include three separate risk maps for low height (3 stories), medium height (10 stories) and tall buildings (10 stories). The maps were prepared by using the maximum horizontal accelerations documented during the 1985 earthquake, and wave propagation modeling for buildings of different resonant periods (T = 0.0, 1.0 and 2.0 sec). In all cases, the risk zones were adjusted to include documented damage during the 1957, 1979 and 1985 earthquakes. All three maps show a high risk zone in the north-central portion of the city, elongated in a N-S direction, which corresponds with a narrow graben where the thickness of alluvial sediments is particularly large, and where wave amplification is accentuated. Preparation of these maps, and others used for planning, has been facilitated by the ongoing elaboration of a Dynamic Geographical Information System, which is based on geo-scientific information, includes all types of risks, and incorporates vulnerability models. From the risk management standpoint, we have elaborated the Permanent Contingency Plan for Mexico City, which in its Earthquakes chapter includes plans for coordination and for organizing attention to the population in the event of a seismic disaster. This Permanent Plan follows the philosophy of Descartes' Method, has 11 processes (6

  20. Great cities look small.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Aaron; Yaliraki, Sophia N; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-08-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximizing the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterize the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of gross domestic product and human immunodeficiency virus infection rates across US metropolitan areas, we illustrate the effect of changes in local and city-wide connectivities by considering the economic impact of two contemporary inter- and intra-city transport developments in the UK: High Speed 2 and London Crossrail. This derivation of the model suggests that the scaling of different urban indicators with population size has an explicitly mechanistic origin. PMID:26179988

  1. @City: technologising Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas, Jesús

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City, creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

  2. CHAPTER 7. BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS BY NON-PLASMA BASED METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, A

    2009-04-20

    The most common method of analysis for beryllium is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). This method, along with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), is discussed in Chapter 6. However, other methods exist and have been used for different applications. These methods include spectroscopic, chromatographic, colorimetric, and electrochemical. This chapter provides an overview of beryllium analysis methods other than plasma spectrometry (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or mass spectrometry). The basic methods, detection limits and interferences are described. Specific applications from the literature are also presented.

  3. Child support policy: An international perspective (Chapter 1)

    OpenAIRE

    C. Skinner; Bradshaw, J. (Jonathan); Davidson, J.

    2008-01-01

    This is a chapter from a report of a comparative study of child support policy in fourteen countries (Skinner, C., Bradshaw, J. and Davidson, J. (2007) Child support policy: an international perspective, Department for Work and Pensions Research Report 405, Leeds: Corporate Document Services. www.dwp.gov.uk/asd/asd5/rports2007-2008/rrep405.pdf. The chapter is an analysis of LIS data for twelve of these countries and explores the contribution of child support to the reduction in child poverty....

  4. Futures of cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Arkitektskole. Bogen  har 3 dele. Principles: Copenhagen Agenda for Sustainable Living, 10 principper udviklet af Ugebrevet Mandag Morgen illustreret af arkitektstuderende. Congress: Futures of Cities, Emerging Urbanisms- Emerging Practices, oplæg fra unge tegnestuer til temaet fremlagt på Student Congress......Bogen dokumenterer resultater fra den internationale kongres Futures of Cities arrangeret af IFHP International Federation of Housing and Planning, Realdania, Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole og City of Copenhagen. Kongressen blev afholdt i september 2007 i Øksnehallen og på Kunstakademiets...

  5. Making the Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the latest research into cultural planning and architectural branding in Denmark based on the ‘Experience City' research project located at Aalborg University. The paper explores the implication of the turn towards culture and experience in the contemporary Danish city. It thus...... makes an investigation into the complex relationship between the words and policies of the ‘Experience Economy' and the actual urban transformations made in cities with reference to these changes. The paper discusses the cases researched in relation to the state, market, civil society framework as well...

  6. Smart city – future city? smart city 20 as a livable city and future market

    CERN Document Server

    Etezadzadeh, Chirine

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a livable smart city presented in this book highlights the relevance of the functionality and integrated resilience of viable cities of the future. It critically examines the progressive digitalization that is taking place and identifies the revolutionized energy sector as the basis of urban life. The concept is based on people and their natural environment, resulting in a broader definition of sustainability and an expanded product theory. Smart City 2.0 offers its residents many opportunities and is an attractive future market for innovative products and services. However, it presents numerous challenges for stakeholders and product developers.

  7. Green Cities : Cities and Climate Change in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    Urban sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Brazilian cities are growing. At the national level, the dominance of greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation in Brazil masks the fact that emissions from other sectors, like Energy, Transport and Waste, are growing quite rapidly in cities. Compared to other cities around the world, Brazilian cities have low per capita GHG emissions be...

  8. Cities within Cities: An Urbanization Approach in the Gulf Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bamakhrama, Salim Salah

    2015-01-01

    Within Dubai, nineteen out of the original 112 mega-projects carried the word city in their names, a phenomenon that is common in Gulf cities such as Dubai, Riyadh and Abu Dhabi. To further explore this phenomenon, this thesis focuses on three aspects that affect the dynamic relationship between the primary city and the cities within cities (sub-cities) in the Gulf region with special emphasis on Dubai. First, the naming problem of the sub-city illustrates why the tension between competing id...

  9. Postsovkhoz City & Postsovkhoz Person

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Põlvamaal Moostes mõtte- ja keskkonnakunstitalgud "Postsovkhoz City" ja "Postsovkhoz Person". Näha saab endistesse tööstushoonetesse ülespandud näitusi ja installatsioone. 11. VIII esinejad, ettekanded.

  10. Different Creative Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mark; Vaarst Andersen, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    This article uses a mixed-method study of Denmark to investigate whether and how Richard Florida's creative class theory should be adapted to small welfare economies. First, we carry out an econometric analyses showing that like in North America, the Danish creative class propels economic growth...... and exhibits a tendency of congregating in major cities with diverse service and cultural offers and tolerance to non-mainstream lifestyles. However, we find that a range of smaller Danish cities also attract the creative class. Second, we undertake qualitative interviews that facilitate theory building. We...... suggest that many creatives are attracted by the smaller cities' cost advantages, specialized job offers, attractive work/life balances, and authenticity and sense of community. The article synthesizes its results into four stylized types of creative cities, and concludes by discussing the policy...

  11. OpenCities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Open Cities Project aims to catalyze the creation, management and use of open data to produce innovative solutions for urban planning and resilience challenges...

  12. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    WE LOVE THE CITY Byen i bygningen, bygningen i byen Lasse Andersson, Ph.d., arkitekt maa, adjunkt ved Aalborg Universitet Med udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY vil vi formidle mødet mellem urban design oog arkitektur. Disciplinen ’at bygge by’ har de seneste 20 år ikke tændt hjerterne hos...... fjern og ’usexet’ for unge arkitekter in spe. Det kan fremtidens by ikke være tjent med, og WE LOVE THE CITY vil derfor gerne vise alle, der færdes i byen og bruger dens arkitektur, at her er et potentiale. Med udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY ønsker Utzon Centeret, LasseVegas Kontoret ApS og ADEPT...

  13. Should Cities Regulate Graffiti?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Graffiti, while still a new phenomenon to most Chinese, is becoming more familiar among teenagers in big cities like Beijing and Shanghai. A recent report by Xinhua News Agency discusses the trend. The report said a small

  14. Towards Intelligently - Sustainable Cities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for achieving sustainable cities, Intelligent and Knowledge City Programmes (ICPs and KCPs represent cost-efficient strategies for improving the overall performance of urban systems. However, even though nobody argues on the desirability of making cities “smarter”, the fundamental questions of how and to what extent can ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement of urban sustainability lack a precise answer. In the attempt of providing a structured answer to these interrogatives, this paper presents a methodology developed for investigating the modalities through which ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement or urban sustainability. Results suggest that ICPs and KCPs efficacy lies in supporting cities achieve a sustainable urban metabolism through optimization, innovation and behavior changes.

  15. Other city symphonies

    OpenAIRE

    Hielscher, Eva; Jacobs, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Catalogue description of the film program curated by Eva Hielscher and Steven Jacobs on 'Other City Symphonies' during the 2015 Pordenone Silent Film Festival, including paragraphs on individual films.

  16. Simulacrum City / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    2000-01-01

    Veneetsia 7. arhitektuuribiennaali Eesti ekspositsiooni kataloogist Simulacrum City. Tallinn : Eesti Arhitektide Liit, 2000. Teksti autorid Anders Härm, Tarmo Maiste, Andres Kurg, Harry Charrington, kujundaja Jaanus Tamme, fotod Arne Maasik

  17. Earthquakes in cities revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Wirgin, Armand

    2016-01-01

    During the last twenty years, a number of publications of theoretical-numerical nature have appeared which come to the apparently-reassuring conclusion that seismic motion on the ground in cities is smaller than what this motion would be in the absence of the buildings (but for the same underground and seismic load). Other than the fact that this finding tells nothing about the motion within the buildings, it must be confronted with the overwhelming empirical evidence (e.g, earthquakes in Sendai (2011), Kathmandu (2015), Tainan City (2016), etc.) that shaking within buildings of a city is often large enough to damage or even destroy these structures. I show, on several examples, that theory can be reconciled with empirical evidence, and suggest that the crucial subject of seismic response in cities is in need of more thorough research.

  18. City, ICT and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Galit Cohen; Peter Nijkamp

    2004-01-01

    New technologies tend to exert a profound influence on modern city life. This paper addresses the role of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the city. After a broad overview of the potential of ICT in a geographical setting and its possible impact on urban policy in regard to the ICT sector, the paper focusses attention on urban public policy in regard to the ICT sector. This study offers the proposition that urban ICT policy is driven by the stakeholders attitudinal and perc...

  19. Feeding the City

    OpenAIRE

    Roncaglia, Sara; Giorgio Solinas, Pier

    2015-01-01

    Every day in Mumbai 6,000 dabbawalas (literally translated as "those who carry boxes") distribute a staggering 200,000 home-cooked lunchboxes to the city's workers and students. Giving employment and status to thousands of largely illiterate villagers from Mumbai's hinterland, this co-operative has been in operation since the late nineteenth century. It provides one of the most efficient delivery networks in the world: only one lunch in six million goes astray. Feeding the City is an ethnogr...

  20. Aging City Leads Way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The northern city of Dalian has become a model of care for the elderly that other Chinese cities are following Chinese Minister of Civil Affairs Li Xueju has called upon civil affairs agencies in the nation to learn from Dalian’s diversified models for elderly care,ranging from running collectively owned and foreign-designed nursing homes to offering tax incentives to private households and companies serving the elderly

  1. Improving the City environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All around the world cities are under severe environmental pressure. Water supplies, traffic congestion, air pollution, noise and waste disposal cause very similar problems in cities that are otherwise quite diverse. And attempts to improve conditions usually run into a range of difficulties. Indeed, environmental problems often persist for years before governments -national, regional and local- make any major effort to address them. 6 refs

  2. Cities in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Shepotylo Oleksandr

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the urban development of transition countries in 1991–2010, primarily focusing on the last decade. Cities in transition face a unique set of challenges that came forth due to interplay of the legacy of socialist urban policies and the transition to the market economy. The socialist urban policies restrained growth of the largest cities and distorted the spatial equilibrium towards more uniform distribution of urban population. The transition to the market economy reduces d...

  3. The Happiness of Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Florida, Richard; Mellander, Charlotta; Rentfrow, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Research on subjective well-being has focused on cross-national differences, while research on cities and regions has shown that human capital is a key factor in metropolitan income and related outcomes. This investigation tests the hypothesis that human capital will have a significant effect on well-being at the metropolitan scale. Using metropolitan level data from the 2009 Gallup-Healthways Survey, we examine the effects of human capital on city happiness alongside many...

  4. Towards smart city education

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Annika; Kortuem, Gerd; Cavero, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability has been an important topic in UK schools for some time, most notably since the Sustainable School Strategy was proposed by the UK Department for Education (DFES) in 2006. However, as smart city technologies emerge and show real promise in contributing to a more sustainable future, it is becoming apparent that new skills for working with the big urban data sets that drive these innovations must be taught to upcoming generations to ensure that they can be active smart city citiz...

  5. Innovation across cities

    OpenAIRE

    Soo, Kwok Tong

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the distribution of patenting activity across cities in the OECD, using a sample of 218 cities from 2000 to 2008. We obtain three main results. First, patenting activity is more concentrated than population and GDP. Second, patenting activity is less persistent than population and GDP. Third, patenting exhibits mean-reversion, and is positively associated with GDP, the fragmentation of local government, and population density. Our results suggest that policymakers can infl...

  6. Small Cell City

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghan, S.; Steele, R.

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, mobile operators have planned their networks to accommodate mobile terminals at ground level. Increasingly, mobile users communicate while stationary from within high-rise buildings. With mobiles operating at a variety of different heights and mobilities, plus the requirement to accommodate increasing teletraffic and multimedia services, there is a need to compact small cells into the three-dimensional city space. This article is concerned with using city buildings to act as el...

  7. Active City Administration

    OpenAIRE

    M .R. Sindhu; Viraj M. Jamle; Pramod M. Shelke; Shrikant G. Baheti

    2012-01-01

    The basic and universal corner stone of good governance are quality of service, quick response mechanisms and above all accountable and transparent process mechanism. The active city administration initiatives resulted in computerization of the legacy systems in government with limited ability to internalize the advances in information and communication technologies.By using active city administration services we able to know real time, quantitative and basic approach of the government servic...

  8. Cities and Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Mare, David C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the productivity (and wage) gains from locating in dense, urban environments. We distinguish between three potential explanations of why firms are willing to pay urban workers more: (1) the urban wage premium is spurious and is the result of omitted ability measures, (2) the urban wage premium works because cities enhance productivity and (3) the urban wage premium is the result of faster skill accumulation in cities. Using a combination of standard regressions, individual...

  9. Competitive advantages of Central European cities in the cross-border region Alpe-Adria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Pichler-Milanović

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the competitive advantages of the major cities in the Alpe-Adria region, defined by the authors on the basis of a survey conducted among experts and leading individuals from various fields. First opinions on the international image of cities, international functions, marketing properties and rivals are shown. The next theme is quality of life, researched through housing, urban services, natural and business environments. A chapter about development projects and interurban cooperation follows. In conclusion there are three chapters dealing with directions for improving the supra-national setting and quality of life in the region’s cities, new urban development strategies and directions for improving the supra-national position of Ljubljana.

  10. Tritium recoil reactions in inorganic solid compounds. Chapter 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of recoil tritium produced in inorganic solid compounds is an esoteric chapter of the already esoteric field of Hot Atom Chemistry. A very small group of investigators have devoted their attention to this problem. The author summarizes the results of their studies. (Auth.)

  11. Functional Literacy in Romania: Between Myth & Reality. Chapter 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghel, Florentina

    This chapter reviews the history of literacy training in Romania through the pretotalitarian period (1890-1945), the totalitarian period (1945-1989), and the posttotalitarian period (1989-present). Current literacy development efforts face many challenges including the facts that 592 classrooms do not have indoor plumbing, that more than 1,700…

  12. Instructional Interventions to Improve Social Competence. Chapter Eighteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Laurence R.

    A conceptual framework of social competence is presented to formulate actions that will enhance the social competence of learners with mental disabilities. This chapter discusses the individual's culturally determined inputs; the processes of social affects, social skills, and social thinking; and the desired social outcomes. The history of social…

  13. Chapter 11. Quality evaluation of apple by computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple is one of the most consumed fruits in the world, and there is a critical need for enhanced computer vision technology for quality assessment of apples. This chapter gives a comprehensive review on recent advances in various computer vision techniques for detecting surface and internal defects ...

  14. Tourette Association Chapters, Support Groups, and Centers of Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... http://www.tsa-SoCal.org Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/groups/311427567715/ • Tourette Association Center of Excellence University ... http://www.li-tsa.org Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/longIslandtsa • Greater Rochester and Finger Lakes Area Chapter ...

  15. Fundamentals of Atomic and Nuclear Physics. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the structure of the atom, elementary nuclear physics, the nature of electromagnetic radiation and the production of X rays is fundamental to the understanding of the physics of medical imaging and radiation protection. This, the first chapter of the handbook, summarizes those aspects of these areas which, being part of the foundation of modern physics, underpin the remainder of the book

  16. Chapter Two: Foundations for the Study of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, the historical roots of contemporary Practice Theory are unearthed in the work of semioticians, philosophers, and anthropologists. Saussure's semiotic theory is contrasted with that of Peirce, and the importance of Peirce's work for understanding the context of signs is stressed. The philosophy of language in the writings of…

  17. Chapter 4: Establishment of the integrated modelling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter summarizes how the Integrated Modelling System has been established. The Danubian Lowland Information System (DLIS) has been developed, providing a central database and Geographical Information System (GIS) with facilities for data storage, maintenance, processing and presentation. In addition, data can be imported and exported in the file formats readable for the applied modelling system

  18. Chapter 13. Exploring Use of the Reserved Core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmen, John [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). SCI Inst. and School of Computing; Humphrey, Alan [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). SCI Inst. and School of Computing; Berzins, Martin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). SCI Inst. and School of Computing

    2015-07-29

    In this chapter, we illustrate benefits of thinking in terms of thread management techniques when using a centralized scheduler model along with interoperability of MPI and PThread. This is facilitated through an exploration of thread placement strategies for an algorithm modeling radiative heat transfer with special attention to the 61st core. This algorithm plays a key role within the Uintah Computational Framework (UCF) and current efforts taking place at the University of Utah to model next-generation, large-scale clean coal boilers. In such simulations, this algorithm models the dominant form of heat transfer and consumes a large portion of compute time. Exemplified by a real-world example, this chapter presents our early efforts in porting a key portion of a scalability-centric codebase to the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor. Specifically, this chapter presents results from our experiments profiling the native execution of a reverse Monte-Carlo ray tracing-based radiation model on a single coprocessor. These results demonstrate that our fastest run configurations utilized the 61st core and that performance was not profoundly impacted when explicitly oversubscribing the coprocessor operating system thread. Additionally, this chapter presents a portion of radiation model source code, a MIC-centric UCF cross-compilation example, and less conventional thread management technique for developers utilizing the PThreads threading model.

  19. Hackable Cities : From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change

    OpenAIRE

    de Lange, M.L.; de Waal, Martijn; Foth, Marcus; Verhoeff, Nanna; Martin, Brynskov

    2015-01-01

    The DC9 workshop takes place on June 27, 2015 in Limerick, Ireland and is titled "Hackable Cities: From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change". The notion of "hacking" originates from the world of media technologies but is increasingly often being used for creative ideals and practices of city making. "City hacking" evokes more participatory, inclusive, decentralized, playful and subversive alternatives to often top-down ICT implementations in smart city making. However, these discourses ...

  20. Sinking coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, G.; Bucx, T.; Dam, R.; de Lange, G.; Lambert, J.

    2015-11-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. A major cause for severe land subsidence is excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs for (infra)structure. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. As subsidence is often spatially variable and can be caused by multiple processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes? What is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues)? Where are the vulnerable areas? What are the impacts and risks? How can adverse impacts be mitigated or compensated for? Who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

  1. The Joint Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Fistola

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The new connections, which high speed train allows to activate among the metropolitan systems, seem to be able to give life to new urban macro-structures for which the transfer time, among the main poles of the railway segment, becomes comparable to an inside moving into the city and therefore considered as an inter-functional mobility. The tunnel effect generated by the high speed connection seems to be able to allow a new temporal and functional joint among the metropolitan systems consequently supporting the possibility, for the users, to move themselves among the different urban functions belonging to the different cities. The birth of these urban aggregations seems to drive towards new megalopolis, which we can define for the first time with the term: joint-city. For this new metropolitan settlement it seems to be very interesting to investigate the constitutive peculiarities, the systemic articulation, its relational structures, the evolutionary scenarios, and so on. The urban functions (activities can be considered as structures of relationships between people that allows to define "organizational links" inside the community; the urban functions are located in specific places inside urban container or in open spaces. The urban functions represent the urban engines and the functional system can be thought as the “soul of the city", abstract but essential to its survival. In the definition set out here the analysis is carried out for many interconnected urban functional system points (specifically those in Rome and Naples. The new high speed railway has to be considered not only as a new channel of mobility between cities, but as a real possibility of joint between the functional systems of the two centres. A final consideration can be carried out in relation to the possibility of implementing new measures of governance of urban transformations considering the new macro-city: the "Joint City".

  2. Towards a comparative science of cities: using mobile traffic records in New York, London and Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Grauwin, S.; Sobolevsky, S.; Moritz, S.; Gódor, I.; Ratti, C.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines the possibility to analyze and compare human activities in an urban environment based on the detection of mobile phone usage patterns. Thanks to an unprecedented collection of counter data recording the number of calls, SMS, and data transfers resolved both in time and space, we confirm the connection between temporal activity profile and land usage in three global cities: New York, London and Hong Kong. By comparing whole cities typical patterns, we provide insights on ...

  3. Hamilton : the electric city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The City of Hamilton has launched an extensive energy planning exercise that examines the possibility of steep increases in oil and natural gas prices. This report examined and illustrated the issue of oil and gas price points. The report also examined and presented the city's role in an era of energy constraints, focusing on the city's transit system and its vehicle fleet. In addition, in response to City Council's direction, the report presented the aerotropolis proposal and discussed freight transport issues. Specific topics of discussion included oil and natural gas prospects; prospects for high oil and natural gas prices; impacts of fuel price increases; strategic planning objectives for energy constraints; reducing energy use by Hamilton's transport and in buildings; and land-use planning for energy constraints. Energy production opportunities involve the use of solar energy; wind energy; deep lake water cooling (DLWC); hydro-electric power; energy from waste; biogas production; district energy; and local food production. Economic and social development through preparing for energy constraints and matters raised by city council were also presented. The report also demonstrated how an energy-based strategy could be paid for and its components approved. The next steps for Hamilton were also identified. refs., tabs., figs

  4. Earth's City Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Earth's city lights was created with data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Originally designed to view clouds by moonlight, the OLS is also used to map the locations of permanent lights on the Earth's surface. The brightest areas of the Earth are the most urbanized, but not necessarily the most populated. (Compare western Europe with China and India.) Cities tend to grow along coastlines and transportation networks. Even without the underlying map, the outlines of many continents would still be visible. The United States interstate highway system appears as a lattice connecting the brighter dots of city centers. In Russia, the Trans-Siberian railroad is a thin line stretching from Moscow through the center of Asia to Vladivostok. The Nile River, from the Aswan Dam to the Mediterranean Sea, is another bright thread through an otherwise dark region. Even more than 100 years after the invention of the electric light, some regions remain thinly populated and unlit. Antarctica is entirely dark. The interior jungles of Africa and South America are mostly dark, but lights are beginning to appear there. Deserts in Africa, Arabia, Australia, Mongolia, and the United States are poorly lit as well (except along the coast), along with the boreal forests of Canada and Russia, and the great mountains of the Himalaya. The Earth Observatory article Bright Lights, Big City describes how NASA scientists use city light data to map urbanization. Image by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based on DMSP data

  5. Universities scale like cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F J van Raan

    Full Text Available Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  6. Planning and setting objectives in field studies: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter enumerates the steps required in designing and planning field studies on the ecology and conservation of reptiles, as these involve a high level of uncertainty and risk. To this end, the chapter differentiates between goals (descriptions of what one intends to accomplish) and objectives (the measurable steps required to achieve the established goals). Thus, meeting a specific goal may require many objectives. It may not be possible to define some of them until certain experiments have been conducted; often evaluations of sampling protocols are needed to increase certainty in the biological results. And if sampling locations are fixed and sampling events are repeated over time, then both study-specific covariates and sampling-specific covariates should exist. Additionally, other critical design considerations for field study include obtaining permits, as well as researching ethics and biosecurity issues.

  7. Non-Imaging Detectors and Counters. Chapter 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, nuclear medicine has been largely an imaging based specialty, employing such diverse and increasingly sophisticated modalities as rectilinear scanning, (planar) gamma camera imaging, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). Non-imaging radiation detection, however, remains an essential component of nuclear medicine. This chapter reviews the operating principles, performance, applications and quality control (QC) of the various non-imaging radiation detection and measurement devices used in nuclear medicine, including survey meters, dose calibrators, well counters, intra-operative probes and organ uptake probes. Related topics, including the basics of radiation detection, statistics of nuclear counting, electronics, generic instrumentation performance parameters and nuclear medicine imaging devices, are reviewed in depth in other chapters of this book

  8. Chapter 10: Mining genome-wide genetic markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhang

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association study (GWAS aims to discover genetic factors underlying phenotypic traits. The large number of genetic factors poses both computational and statistical challenges. Various computational approaches have been developed for large scale GWAS. In this chapter, we will discuss several widely used computational approaches in GWAS. The following topics will be covered: (1 An introduction to the background of GWAS. (2 The existing computational approaches that are widely used in GWAS. This will cover single-locus, epistasis detection, and machine learning methods that have been recently developed in biology, statistic, and computer science communities. This part will be the main focus of this chapter. (3 The limitations of current approaches and future directions.

  9. Ultrafine particles in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Morawska, Lidia; Birmili, Wolfram; Paasonen, Pauli; Hu, Min; Kulmala, Markku; Harrison, Roy M; Norford, Leslie; Britter, Rex

    2014-05-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs; diameter less than 100 nm) are ubiquitous in urban air, and an acknowledged risk to human health. Globally, the major source for urban outdoor UFP concentrations is motor traffic. Ongoing trends towards urbanisation and expansion of road traffic are anticipated to further increase population exposure to UFPs. Numerous experimental studies have characterised UFPs in individual cities, but an integrated evaluation of emissions and population exposure is still lacking. Our analysis suggests that the average exposure to outdoor UFPs in Asian cities is about four-times larger than that in European cities but impacts on human health are largely unknown. This article reviews some fundamental drivers of UFP emissions and dispersion, and highlights unresolved challenges, as well as recommendations to ensure sustainable urban development whilst minimising any possible adverse health impacts. PMID:24503484

  10. Reproducing in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Ruth

    2008-02-01

    Reproducing in cities has always been costly, leading to lower fertility (that is, lower birth rates) in urban than in rural areas. Historically, although cities provided job opportunities, initially residents incurred the penalty of higher infant mortality, but as mortality rates fell at the end of the 19th century, European birth rates began to plummet. Fertility decline in Africa only started recently and has been dramatic in some cities. Here it is argued that both historical and evolutionary demographers are interpreting fertility declines across the globe in terms of the relative costs of child rearing, which increase to allow children to outcompete their peers. Now largely free from the fear of early death, postindustrial societies may create an environment that generates runaway parental investment, which will continue to drive fertility ever lower. PMID:18258904

  11. Chapter 5: Anthropogenic methane sources, emissions and future projections

    OpenAIRE

    HOGLUND-ISAKSSON Lena; Thomson, Allison; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Rao, Shilpa; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews recent global assessments of anthropogenic methane emissions, their expected future development and estimated reduction potentials. Because methane is a gas which mixes rapidly in the global atmosphere, it is of interest to review emissions at the global scale as well as for the area covered by the eight Arctic nations. The following key findings have been identified: • Bottom-up emission inventories agree fairly well in terms of the overall magnitude of global anthropogeni...

  12. What do we know about Chapter 13 personal bankruptcy filings?

    OpenAIRE

    Wenli Li

    2007-01-01

    Since 1980, the number of households filing for bankruptcy has more than tripled. This drastic increase in personal bankruptcy filings led to substantial debate among economists and policymakers. That debate subsequently resulted in the enactment of extensive reforms in 2005 when Congress passed the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act. Ultimately, the rationale for this legislation is the presumption that Chapter 13 leads to more appropriate outcomes compared with either C...

  13. Nuclear criticality safety. Chapter 0530 of AEC manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programme objectives of this chapter of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission manual on nuclear criticality safety are to protect the health and safety of the public and of the government and contractor personnel working in plants that handle fissionable material and to protect public and private property from the consequences of a criticality accident occurring in AEC-owned plants and other AEC-contracted activities involving fissionable materials

  14. Indexes a chapter from the Chicago Manual of Style

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    For nearly one hundred years, The Chicago Manual of Style has been the authoritative reference for writers, editors, and publishers. Now in its fifteenth edition, the Manual has been thoroughly revised and updated. The chapter on indexing presented here has been reorganized, streamlined, and revised for the electronic age. It provides examples and recommendations on style and method for professionals, authors, and others who prepare indexes for published works.

  15. Chapter VI: Population and its activities in landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter brings the detailed characterisation of the demographic and economic structures according to the individual industries. A considerable part of it is dedicated to settlement. These phenomena are highly variable and relatively unstable. The authors have succeeded to reflect the most recent situation relying on the last census of population, houses, and flats carried out in 2001 according to the data provided by the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. (author)

  16. HARAMEKHALA – TANTRA (THE FIRST CHAPTER ON MEDICINE)

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, P.V.

    1986-01-01

    This translation of Haramekhala – tantra of the author is based on Banaras Hindu University manuscript which seems to be a novel one. The manuscript runs into 133 stanzas in all in the form of dialogue between lord Siva and goddess Parvati. This is only the first chapter (of the great work) dealing with medicine. From stanza 109 onwards some magic spells are described and as such those have not been included in this translation.

  17. The Classic: Chapter XVIII. Operative Treatment in Chronic Articular Ostitis

    OpenAIRE

    Gibney, Virgil P.

    2009-01-01

    This Classic article is a reprint of the original work by Virgil P. Gibney, Chapter XVIII. Operative Treatment in Chronic Articular Ostitis. An accompanying biographical sketch of Virgil P. Gibney, MD, is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1166-2. The Classic Article is ©1884 and is abridged from Gibney VP. Operative treatment in chronic articular ostitis. In: The Hip and Its Diseases. New York, NY, London, UK: Bermingham & Co; 1884:388–402.

  18. Hydrologic processes and the water budget: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, Donald O.; Winter, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the hydrological setting of Mirror Lake and its water budget. It first describes the glacial deposits and bedrock topography in the Mirror Lake area. It then provides an overview of the hydrologic processes associated with Mirror Lake and examines the field and analytical methods used to determine its water budget. It presents results from the hydrologic studies, which are based on monthly and annual water budgets for the calendar years 1981 through 2000.

  19. Chapter 2 - Luminescence analysis (OSL and TL) from Karabai I

    OpenAIRE

    Burbidge, C. I.; Richter, D.; Sanderson, D.C.W; Housley, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter reports a pilot study by two luminescence laboratories on samples from the 2004 excavations of Karabai I. The Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC) examined the optical stimulated luminescent (OSL) properties of the sediments using a method called luminescence profiling (Burbidge et al. 2007); the Max-Planck-Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig attempted to analyse the thermoluminescence (TL) age of a small collection of heated stones. Luminescen...

  20. Chapter 1. Impacts of the oceans on climate change.

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, PC; Fischer, AC; Lewis-Brown, E.; Meredith, MP; Sparrow, M; Andersson, AJ; Antia, A.; Bates, NR; Bathmann, U.; Beaugrand, G.; Brix, H.; Dye, S.; Edwards, M.; T. Furevik; Gangstø, R.

    2010-01-01

    The oceans play a key role in climate regulation especially in part buffering (neutralising) the effects of increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and rising global temperatures. This chapter examines how the regulatory processes performed by the oceans alter as a response to climate change and assesses the extent to which positive feedbacks from the ocean may exacerbate climate change. There is clear evidence for rapid change in the oceans. As the main heat store for the wor...

  1. The egocentric city

    OpenAIRE

    Tzinis, A.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is going to discus the advantages of the use of a GPS as a tool for surveying the pedestrian movements of individuals in an urban environment. An experiment is going to take place that will try to evolve City designs specifically for the pedestrian movements of particular individuals whose tracks have been recorded with a GPS for this specific purpose. The aim is to see if the rest of participants’ movement habits have been affected by this mutation in the city g...

  2. City Bug Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Brynskov, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the wider contexts of digital policy, transparency, digitisation and how this changes city administration and the role of the (digital) publics, using City Bug Report as a design case. Employing a mix between design research and action research, the authors exemplify and analyse...... elements of both the design process, the organisational, the political and technological contexts. They point to the role of researchers and designers in exploring and understanding digital elements of public space as not merely registering structures but also actively engaging in public discourse...

  3. Prototyping a Smart City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Brynskov, Martin

    In this paper, we argue that by approaching the so-called Smart City as a design challenge, and an interaction design perspective, it is possible to both uncover existing challenges in the interplay between people, technology and society, as well as prototype possible futures. We present a case...... in which we exposed data about the online communication between the citizens and the municipality on a highly visible media facade, while at the same time prototyped a tool that enabled citizens to report ‘bugs’ within the city....

  4. Cities, Towns and Villages, city, Published in 2003, Daggett County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cities, Towns and Villages dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2003. It is described as 'city'. Data by this publisher are often...

  5. Fundamentals of Physics, Volume 1, (Chapters 1 - 21)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jearl

    2004-01-01

    Chapter 1. Measurement 1. How does the appearance of a new type of cloud signal changes in Earth's atmosphere? 1-1 What Is Physics? 1-2 Measuring Things. 1-3 The International System of Units. 1-4 Changing Units. 1-5 Length. 1-6 Time. 1-7 Mass. Review & Summary. Problems. Chapter 2. Motion Along a Straight Line. What causes whiplash injury in rear-end collisions of cars? 2-1 What Is Physics? 2-2 Motion. 2-3 Position and Displacement. 2-4 Average Velocity and Average Speed. 2-5 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed. 2-6 Acceleration. 2-7 Constant Acceleration: A Special Case. 2-8 Another Look at Constant Acceleration. 2-9 Free-Fall Acceleration. 2-10 Graphical Integration in Motion Analysis. 2 Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 3. Vectors. How does an ant know the way home with no guiding clues on the desert plains? 3-1 What Is Physics? 3-2 Vectors and Scalars. 3-3 Adding Vectors Geometrically. 3-4 Components of Vectors. 3-5 Unit Vectors. 3-6 Adding Vectors by Components. 3-7 Vectors and the Laws of Physics. 3-8 Multiplying Vectors. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 4. Motion in Two and Three Dimensions. In a motorcycle jump for record distance, where does the jumper put the second ramp? 4-1 What Is Physics? 4-2 Position and Displacement. 4-3 Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity. 4-4 Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration. 4-5 Projectile Motion. 4-6 Projectile Motion Analyzed. 4-7 Uniform Circular Motion. 4-8 Relative Motion in One Dimension. 4-9 Relative Motion in Two Dimensions. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 5. Force and Motion--I. When a pilot takes off from an aircraft carrier, what causes the compulsion to .y the plane into the ocean? 5-1 What Is Physics? 5-2 Newtonian Mechanics. 5-3 Newton's First Law. 5-4 Force. 5-5 Mass. 5-6 Newton's Second Law. 5-7 Some Particular Forces. 5-8 Newton's Third Law. 5-9 Applying Newton's Laws. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 6. Force and Motion--II. Can a

  6. Healthy Cities: a guide to the literature.

    OpenAIRE

    Kenzer, M

    2000-01-01

    The author reviews the literature on attempts by city governments, international agencies, and nongovernmental and community organizations to improve city life around the world through Healthy Cities projects.

  7. Cultural diversity, cities and innovation: firm effects or city effects?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Growing cultural diversity is seen as important for innovation. Research has focused on two potential mechanisms: a firm effect, with diversity at the firm level improving knowledge sourcing or ideas generation, and a city effect, where diverse cities helping firms innovate. This paper uses a dataset of over 2,000 UK SMEs to test between these two. Controlling for firm characteristics, city characteristics and firm and city diversity, there is strong evidence for the firm effect. Firms with a...

  8. Fundamentals of Physics, Part 1 (Chapters 1-11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2003-12-01

    Chapter 1.Measurement. How does the appearance of a new type of cloud signal changes in Earth's atmosphere? 1-1 What Is Physics? 1-2 Measuring Things. 1-3 The International System of Units. 1-4 Changing Units. 1-5 Length. 1-6 Time. 1-7 Mass. Review & Summary. Problems. Chapter 2.Motion Along a Straight Line. What causes whiplash injury in rear-end collisions of cars? 2-1 What Is Physics? 2-2 Motion. 2-3 Position and Displacement. 2-4 Average Velocity and Average Speed. 2-5 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed. 2-6 Acceleration. 2-7 Constant Acceleration: A Special Case. 2-8 Another Look at Constant Acceleration. 2-9 Free-Fall Acceleration. 2-10 Graphical Integration in Motion Analysis. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 3.Vectors. How does an ant know the way home with no guiding clues on the deser t plains? 3-2 Vectors and Scalars. 3-3 Adding Vectors Geometrically. 3-4 Components of Vectors. 3-5 Unit Vectors. 3-6 Adding Vectors by Components. 3-7 Vectors and the Laws of Physics. 3-8 Multiplying Vectors. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 4.Motion in Two and Three Dimensions. In a motorcycle jump for record distance, where does the jumper put the second ramp? 4-1 What Is Physics? 4-2 Position and Displacement. 4-3 Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity. 4-4 Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration. 4-5 Projectile Motion. 4-6 Projectile Motion Analyzed. 4-7 Uniform Circular Motion. 4-8 Relative Motion in One Dimension. 4-9 Relative Motion in Two Dimensions. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 5.Force and Motion-I. When a pilot takes off from an aircraft carrier, what causes the compulsion to fly the plane into the ocean? 5-1 What Is Physics? 5-2 Newtonian Mechanics. 5-3 Newton's First Law. 5-4 Force. 5-5 Mass. 5-6 Newton's Second Law. 5-7 Some Particular Forces. 5-8 Newton's Third Law. 5-9 Applying Newton's Laws. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 6.Force and Motion-II. Can a Grand Prix race car be driven

  9. Hackable Cities : From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, M.L.; de Waal, Martijn; Foth, Marcus; Verhoeff, Nanna; Martin, Brynskov

    2015-01-01

    The DC9 workshop takes place on June 27, 2015 in Limerick, Ireland and is titled "Hackable Cities: From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change". The notion of "hacking" originates from the world of media technologies but is increasingly often being used for creative ideals and practices of city m

  10. City of layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2007-01-01

    mobility practices are played out in a relational space where the potential for movement is shifted in favour of the elite and the tourists. The Sky Train reconfigures the mobility patterns of the inner city of Bangkok in ways that are more than planning policies to overcome congestion and traffic jams...

  11. Nature in the City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferbert, Mary Lou

    1981-01-01

    Describes a science program developed by the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, "Nature in the City," in which students and teachers learn together about the natural community surrounding their school. Includes program's rationale, list of "adventures," and methods. Discusses strategies of Sherlock Holmes'"adventure" focusing on animal tracks…

  12. Governing the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Strategy frames the contemporary epistemological space of urbanism: major cities across the globe such as New York, London and Sydney invest time, energy and resources to craft urban strategies. Extensive empirical research projects have proposed a shift towards a strategic framework to manage ci...

  13. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    With a point of departure in amongst others the Danish office of ADEPT’s approach, ‘The city in the building and the building in the city’ (ADEPT 2012), it is consequently the aim of this article to show how workshops can help shape and develop a spatial and architectural approach to form finding...

  14. Scarcity Makes the City

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The first talk in the series, Scarcity Makes the City, features Vancouver-based economic geographer Geoff Mann. Looking at how modern political economy affects social relations and our experience of everyday life, Mann will discuss how contemporary capitalist dynamics shape Vancouver’s urban context, and the pasts, presents, and futures that weave it together.

  15. Bug City: Bees [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography, fun…

  16. City Kids Go Green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tricia

    1993-01-01

    Describes Outward Bound Urban Resources Initiative, a six-week summer course whose goal is to work with urban youth to develop solutions for local environmental problems. Among the activities described include converting city lots into parks, neighborhood cleanup, and tree planting. (MDH)

  17. Clean Cities Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  18. A Vibrant Ancient City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGTONG

    2004-01-01

    LIJIANG is a small city onthe Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau in southern Chinawith an 800-year history.Word of its ancient language and music, and unique natural scenery has spread over the decades, and Lijiang is now known throughout the world. It was added

  19. Transport for smart cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Buus; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2011-01-01

    ’ activities can be reached within the relative close distances of the city. However, urbanisation has also led to significant disadvantages, of which transport accounts for some of the most severe. Traffic accidents and emissions of air pollutants and noise take heavy tolls in terms of people killed...

  20. Practicing the Generic (City)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2010-01-01

    Flanagan proposes that most locative media artworks neglect the particularities of spaces, their historical and political layers. Koolhaas, on the other hand, states that all urban areas are alike, that we are facing a global Generic City. The paper analyses digital media artist Esther Polak’s No...

  1. City fiiling / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Arhitektide Andres Alveri ja Tiit Trummali tähtsamatest töödest. Pikemalt Tallinna kesklinnas asuvatest majadest City Plaza ja Rävala Neli. Kommentaarid Rein Veidemannilt, Veljo Kaasikult, Hardo Aasmäelt, Toomas Tammiselt, Jaak Aaviksoolt ja Karin Pauluselt

  2. City model enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Philip D.; Quinn, Jonathan A.; Jones, Christopher B.

    The combination of mobile communication technology with location and orientation aware digital cameras has introduced increasing interest in the exploitation of 3D city models for applications such as augmented reality and automated image captioning. The effectiveness of such applications is, at present, severely limited by the often poor quality of semantic annotation of the 3D models. In this paper, we show how freely available sources of georeferenced Web 2.0 information can be used for automated enrichment of 3D city models. Point referenced names of prominent buildings and landmarks mined from Wikipedia articles and from the OpenStreetMaps digital map and Geonames gazetteer have been matched to the 2D ground plan geometry of a 3D city model. In order to address the ambiguities that arise in the associations between these sources and the city model, we present procedures to merge potentially related buildings and implement fuzzy matching between reference points and building polygons. An experimental evaluation demonstrates the effectiveness of the presented methods.

  3. Atlantic City memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Franklin H

    2008-04-01

    Fifty years ago, the Atlantic City meetings, held the first week in May of every year, were attended by all the elite of American academic medicine and all who wanted to join that group. Part of the magic of those meetings was that professors and neophytes took each other seriously and talked to each other. PMID:18382726

  4. Less Smart More City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Smart is an expression used in recent years in science, and it refers to someone or something that shows a lively intelligence, with a quick learning curve and a fast response to external stimuli. The present scenario is dominated by the accelerated technological development that involves every aspect of life, enhancing the everyday tools through the use of information and digital processing: everything is smart, even cities. But when you pair the term smart to a complex organism such as the city the significance of the two together is open to a variety of interpretations, as shown by the vast and varied landscape of definitions that have occurred in recent years. Our contribution presents the results of research aimed at analyzing and interpreting this fragmented scene mainly, but not exclusively, through lexical analysis, applied to a textual corpus of 156 definitions of smart city. In particular, the study identified the main groups of stakeholders that have taken part in the debate, and investigated the differences and convergences that can be detected: Academic, Institutional, and Business worlds. It is undeniable that the term smart has been a veritable media vehicle that, on the one hand brought to the center of the discussion the issue of the city, of increasing strategic importance for the major challenges that humanity is going to face,  and on the other has been a fertile ground on which to pour the interests of different groups and individuals. In a nutshell we can say that from the analysis the different approaches that each group has used and supported emerge clearly and another, alarming, consideration occurs: of the smart part of “Smart City” we clearly grasp the tools useful to the each group of stakeholders, and of the city part, as a collective aspiration, there is often little or nothing.

  5. Rethinking Cities: Toward Shared Prosperity

    OpenAIRE

    Glaeser, Edward; Joshi-Ghani, Abha

    2013-01-01

    The great transition from farm to city is filled with economic, social, and political promise. Cities are the product of a triad of forces. This Economic Premise explores how the three forces of spatial transformation—physical infrastructure, human interactions, and public policy—come together and shape cities. But too many cities in Sub-Saharan Africa continue to suffer from the oldest urban scourge—unclean water. Crime and murder turn many Latin American neighborhoods into places of terror ...

  6. City of One Thousand Temples

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Emma Natalya

    2015-01-01

    A Network of Hearsay in South India Although the South Indian city of Kanchipuram is popularly known as the City of One Thousand Temples, there is no existing prescribed circuit, and no comprehensive temple listing or map to guide visitors.* Rather, the thousands of pilgrims who flood the city daily usually only know about the five most famous temples. Scattered street signs throughout the busy city point the way to these sprawling monuments, which are always crowded and especially ...

  7. 77 FR 75628 - STS Hydropower, Ltd., Dan River, Inc., and City of Danville, VA; Notice of Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission STS Hydropower, Ltd., Dan River, Inc., and City of Danville, VA; Notice of..., 2012, Jeoffrey L. Burtch, as Chapter 7 Bankruptcy Trustee for Dan River, Inc. and STS Hydropower, Ltd... the license for the Schoolfield Hydroelectric Project from Dan River, Inc. and STS Hydropower, Ltd....

  8. Cities with Children: Child friendly cities in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre

    2006-01-01

    Child Friendly Cities in Italy describes the evolution of childhood in Italy and the emergence of a new culture of the city. It analyses the consideration given to the Child Friendly Cities initiative and in particular the attention provided to the child as an active citizen and the role of the city in promoting the participation of young people in decision-making processes at the local level. The study looks at the specific experience of 12 of the more than 100 Italian cities that have adopt...

  9. The Carbon City Index (CCI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Straatman, Bas; Mangalagiu, Diana;

    This paper presents a consumption-based Carbon City Index for CO2 emissions in a city. The index is derived from regional consumption and not from regional production. It includes imports and exports of emissions, factual emission developments, green investments as well as low carbon city...

  10. ARC3.2 Summary for City Leaders Climate Change and Cities: Second Assessment Report of the Urban Climate Change Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, C.; Solecki, W.; Romero-Lankao, P.; Mehrotra, S.; Dhakal, S.; Bowman, T.; Ibrahim, S. Ali

    2015-01-01

    ARC3.2 presents a broad synthesis of the latest scientific research on climate change and cities. Mitigation and adaptation climate actions of 100 cities are documented throughout the 16 chapters, as well as online through the ARC3.2 Case Study Docking Station. Pathways to Urban Transformation, Major Findings, and Key Messages are highlighted here in the ARC3.2 Summary for City Leaders. These sections lay out what cities need to do achieve their potential as leaders of climate change solutions. UCCRN Regional Hubs in Europe, Latin America, Africa, Australia and Asia will share ARC3.2 findings with local city leaders and researchers. The ARC3.2 Summary for City Leaders synthesizes Major Findings and Key Messages on urban climate science, disasters and risks, urban planning and design, mitigation and adaptation, equity and environmental justice, economics and finance, the private sector, urban ecosystems, urban coastal zones, public health, housing and informal settlements, energy, water, transportation, solid waste, and governance. These were based on climate trends and future projections for 100 cities around the world.

  11. Chapter Leadership Profiles among Citizen Activists in the Drunk Driving Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungerleider, Steven; Bloch, Steven

    1987-01-01

    Study of Mothers Against Drunk Drivers (MADD) analyzed the chapter emphasis, levels of satisfaction and relationship to national office on several measures. Surveying 212 chapters, MADD leadership provided profile of independent, autonomous activists in the drunk driving countermeasure movement. (Author)

  12. Fundamentals of Physics, Part 3 (Chapters 22-33)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2004-03-01

    Chapter 21. Electric Charge. Why do video monitors in surgical rooms increase the risk of bacterial contamination? 21-1 What Is Physics? 21-2 Electric Charge. 21-3 Conductors and Insulators. 21-4 Coulomb's Law. 21-5 Charge Is Quantized. 21-6 Charge Is Conserved. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 22. Electric Fields. What causes sprites, those brief .ashes of light high above lightning storms? 22-1 What Is Physics? 22-2 The Electric Field. 22-3 Electric Field Lines. 22-4 The Electric Field Due to a Point Charge. 22-5 The Electric Field Due to an Electric Dipole. 22-6 The Electric Field Due to a Line of Charge. 22-7 The Electric Field Due to a Charged Disk. 22-8 A Point Charge in an Electric Field. 22-9 A Dipole in an Electric Field. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 23. Gauss' Law. How can lightning harm you even if it do es not strike you? 23-1 What Is Physics? 23-2 Flux. 23-3 Flux of an Electric Field. 23-4 Gauss' Law. 23-5 Gauss' Law and Coulomb's Law. 23-6 A Charged Isolated Conductor. 23-7 Applying Gauss' Law: Cylindrical Symmetry. 23-8 Applying Gauss' Law: Planar Symmetry. 23-9 Applying Gauss' Law: Spherical Symmetry. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 24. Electric Potential. What danger does a sweater pose to a computer? 24-1 What Is Physics? 24-2 Electric Potential Energy. 24-3 Electric Potential. 24-4 Equipotential Surfaces. 24-5 Calculating the Potential from the Field. 24-6 Potential Due to a Point Charge. 24-7 Potential Due to a Group of Point Charges. 24-8 Potential Due to an Electric Dipole. 24-9 Potential Due to a Continuous Charge Distribution. 24-10 Calculating the Field from the Potential. 24-11 Electric Potential Energy of a System of Point Charges. 24-12 Potential of a Charged Isolated Conductor. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 25. Capacitance. How did a fire start in a stretcher being withdrawn from an oxygen chamber? 25-1 What Is Physics? 25-2 Capacitance. 25-3 Calculating the Capacitance. 25

  13. Chapter 6. Models of groundwater ages and residence times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CFC ages are generally based on absolute concentrations. As a result, when waters of different ages mix, the CFC concentration changes and so does the apparent age. Because CFC concentrations in the atmosphere are not a linear function of time, the apparent age is not necessarily proportional to the fraction of each component of water in the mixture. In this chapter, more general models of groundwater age distributions in simple aquifer types are reviewed, as well as how the age distribution relates to aquifer properties

  14. Energy consumption and quality of man's life. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Chapter 1 a dependence of public life quality showings from energy consumption value is proved. Priority of fuel-energetic complex development is grounded as well. Specific features of Kazakhstan power engineering during its integration into world economics are given. Problems of liberalization of power engineering economy are illustrated. Dependences between assessments of human potential and energy consumption level in the world and Kazakhstan are given in tabular form. In Kazakhstan under relatively stable education level index an energy consumption reduction was resulted to gross national product decrease on via capita

  15. Chapter 5. The strategic plans of the Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the fifth chapter of this CD ROM the strategic plans of the Slovak Electric, Plc. (Slovenske elektrarne, a.s.), are presented. It consist of next paragraphs (1) The programme of strategic changes (Declaration of the programme; The need for change; Major tasks; The management structure; Interconnections between the PSC target areas; The PSC projects); (2) The development of the Company (The major objectives of the Company; The energy plan of Slovakia; Analysis of development Alternatives; Results of the analysis; Economic comparison of the alternatives; Development of generation, The information system; Strategic goals and legislation). (3) The quality control system

  16. Chapter 2. Use of tracer technology in mineral fertilizer management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter provides background information on fertilizer nitrogen (N) consumption and production (2.1) and estimates of future requirements, followed by methods for the measurement of fertilizer N use efficiency (2.2). Aspects relevant to the use of fertilizer N in agricultural production systems, such as factors affecting its efficiency and loss (2.3), and interactions with other N sources and soil testing for providing fertilizer recommendations, are discussed, as are approaches/strategies to improve fertilizer N efficiency (2.4), with particular emphasis on the use of isotopic tracers. (author)

  17. Chapter 7: Fatwas at the rescue of hard cases

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazzal, Zouhair

    2013-01-01

    All four cases examined in detail thus far in the two previous chapters (three related to the Shihābs, in addition to a regular Beirut case similar in its structure to that of Bashīr III) reveal an eagerness to go beyond the limitations imposed by both Maronite canon law and Ḥanafī practice. But a great deal of conservatism also reveals itself in that the court procedures, which by and large consisted of legal subterfuges, did not touch upon the substance of the law. However, even with the ex...

  18. GROWING AND MAINTAINING VIABLE STUDENT CHAPTERS OF PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS: THE CASE OF THE NATIONAL AGRIMARKETING ASSOCIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Wachenheim, Cheryl J.

    2006-01-01

    There are 35 accredited student chapters of the National AgriMarketing Association (NAMA) from 24 states and 3 Canadian Provinces. Membership in a NAMA student chapter allows students to network with professionals, develop their marketing and communication skills, and develop leadership and team-building skills. A survey of student chapter advisors was used to identify what facilitates and what constrains student chapter success. Advisors indicated the opportunity and enjoyment of the nationa...

  19. Chapter 15. Safety of work in nuclear scientific and technological disciplines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems of safety of work in nuclear scientific and technological disciplines. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Safety at the work with radioactive substances; (2) Safety at the work with radioactive wastes; (3) Prevention of formation of supercritical state; (4) Nuclear safety of nuclear power plants

  20. Chapter 9. Behaviour of individual groups of radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with behaviour of individual groups of radionuclides in the environment. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Noble gases; (2) Non-metals; (3) Alkali metals; (4) Alkaline earth metals; (5) Heavy metals; (6) Rare earth elements; (7) Actinides

  1. 38 CFR 21.382 - Training and staff development for personnel providing assistance under Chapter 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... development for personnel providing assistance under Chapter 31. 21.382 Section 21.382 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Personnel Training and Development § 21.382 Training and staff development for personnel providing assistance under Chapter 31. (a)...

  2. Golden Jubilee Photos - The cathedrals of matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    In their day, LEP and its four detectors were the biggest of "big science," both in the size of the detectors and the international collaborations that produced them. Initially each detector had certain measurements in which it excelled, and with later upgrades they all performed well across-the-board. By making overlapping measurements, but using different methods, the results from the four detectors reinforced each other. For detecting the direction and momenta of charged particles with extreme accuracy, the ALEPH detector had at its core a time projection chamber, for years the world's biggest. The experiment also became renowned for its innovative software for visualizing particle collisions. Of the LEP detectors, DELPHI was the most innovative, including what was the world's largest superconducting magnet. One of DELPHI's main strengths was its ability to unambiguously identify many types of charged particles. L3's strong point was accurate measurements of the momenta of electrons and their heavier c...

  3. The Emerging City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    ” – urban furniture that was originally part of an election campaign for the cultural minister of Denmark, will illustrate how both political and artistic signatures become deterritorialized through urban space, time and every day social use. The second example is taken from corporate city development at...... the urban milieu and how other meanings emerge. In the last example, Relocation of beer drinkers on Enghave Square, Copenhagen, I will highlight how a heterogeneous assemblages of architecture, urban design, artistic intervention and every day social life has constructed continuums of intensities over...... a period of time thus establishing an emergent urban space divergent from both the intentions of the planner, architect, artist and user. Through the examples, I suggest that each urban body or design deterritorialize connecting with the city. Broadening up the perspective, I ask whether...

  4. Visions of the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    Visions of the City is a dramatic account of utopian urbanism in the twentieth century. It explores radical demands for new spaces and ways of living, and considers their effects on planning, architecture and struggles to shape urban landscapes. Such visions, it shows, have played a crucial role in...... to transform urban space and everyday life. He addresses in particular Constant's vision of New Babylon, finding within his proposals for future spaces produced through nomadic life, creativity and play a still powerful challenge to imagine cities otherwise. The book not only recovers vital moments...... from past hopes and dreams of modern urbanism. It also contests current claims about the 'end of utopia', arguing that reconsidering earlier projects can play a critical role in developing utopian perspectives today. Through the study of utopian visions, it aims to rekindle elements of utopianism...

  5. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRAKTISTAN 2011 og udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY på Utzon Centeret i Aalborg vil vi derfor gerne vise alle, der færdes i byen og bruger dens arkitektur, at der i Urban design fagligheden er et potentiale. Både for de der bruger byen og for dem der udøver arkitekturen med en stærk urban intention i det skala...

  6. City Gods projektet

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Jakob Find

    2005-01-01

    Title: Copenhagen Urban Freight project – potentials and barriers – a case study approach Keywords: Urban freight transport, urban sustainability, Copenhagen Urban Freight Or-dinance, City logistics, mobility, supply chain approach Introduction The Copenhagen Urban Freight project was launched in 1995, where representatives from two competing transport companies, working for the first time in cooperation on behalf on the Danish Minster for Transport, presented their ideas towa...

  7. City Gods projektet

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Jakob Find

    2006-01-01

    Title: Copenhagen Urban Freight project – potentials and barriers – a case study approach Keywords: Urban freight transport, urban sustainability, Copenhagen Urban Freight Or-dinance, City logistics, mobility, supply chain approach Introduction The Copenhagen Urban Freight project was launched in 1995, where representatives from two competing transport companies, working for the first time in cooperation on behalf on the Danish Minster for Transport, presented their ideas toward a more effici...

  8. Cities, connections and cronyism

    OpenAIRE

    John Quiggin

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments in the global system of cities present a curious paradox. With the cost of communications declining almost to zero and substantial, though less dramatic reductions in transport costs, there is now little technical requirement for most kinds of production to be undertaken in any particular location, or for elements of production chains to be located close to each other. This fact has had dramatic consequences for the organisation of manufacturing industry. Simple production...

  9. Businessplan Smart Sustainable cities

    OpenAIRE

    Verdeyen, Nadia; Opstelten, Ivo; Eweg, Erlijn; Rietbergen, Marieke; Martinovic, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Uit voorwoord Anton Franken, lid CvB `Smart Sustainable Cities is een platform voor het bedrijfsleven, kennisinstellingen en Hogeschool Utrecht waar gezamenlijk vernieuwende producten en diensten worden ontwikkeld die de realisatie van slimme, duurzame en gezonde steden dichterbij brengt. Startende en ervaren professionals hebben hiermee de mogelijkheid om via het onderwijs of via bij- en nascholing de nieuwste toepasbare kennis en inzichten op dit gebied op te doen. Tevens verricht het platf...

  10. Transport for smart cities

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Niels Buus; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2011-01-01

    The global megatrend of the last century’s migration from rural to ever-larger conurbations has created immense gains to society through economies of scale and benefits from agglomeration. These include – other things remaining equal – a lesser need for transport because a bigger share of peoples’ activities can be reached within the relative close distances of the city. However, urbanisation has also led to significant disadvantages, of which transport accounts for some of the most severe. T...

  11. The Temporary City Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Niamh; McCarthy, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The Temporary City Workshop was hosted by Dr Niamh Moore-Cherry on Tuesday 21 October in Nova UCD. The workshop is part of the Greening as Spatial Politics project funded by the IRC New Foundations scheme 2013 and is a collaboration between geographers at University College Dublin and the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. The goal of the workshop was to facilitate networking across a diversity of stakeholders and initiate discussion on temporary urban interventions in Dublin. The workshop wa...

  12. Towards what kind of city?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Coletta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The virtual city exists in “time” whereas the real city exists in “space”. The first one is an expression of our imagination, the second one of our ability to create. Time has articulated the images of cities as artisan philosophers, historians, artists, dreamers and even poets have given it to us. Space has generated cities which have been worked upon by geographers, geologists, surveyors, and finally urban planners. Space and time however live together in both cities, even if with alternating states of subordination. The culture of thinking, of decision making and of working is the unifying center of both the cities; it is the generating element both of the crises and the prosperity of the cities and it works towards an overcoming of the first and for the pursuit of the second (prosperity using the experience of the past for the making of a better future.

  13. CityVille For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Orland, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Learn to build and play CityVille to its full potential! You don't have to move to the city?just build one! Free to play, CityVille is a real-time simulation game that is available on Facebook and is the latest online game craze. As the only how-to beginner guide for new and current players, this helpful book walks you through the process of building a city from the ground up while acting as the city leader. You'll learn how to clear land, assemble roads, construct buildings, ship and import goods, trade with others, interact with the city's residents, and visit neighboring cities. Vibrant ful

  14. Overview of NATO Background on Scramjet Technology. Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J. Philip; Bouchez, Marc; McClinton, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present overview is to summarize the current knowledge of the NATO contributors. All the topics will be addressed in this chapter, with references and some examples. This background enhances the level of knowledge of the NATO scramjet community, which will be used for writing the specific chapters of the Report. Some previous overviews have been published on scramjet technology worldwide. NASA, DOD, the U.S. industry and global community have studied scramjet-powered hypersonic vehicles for over 40 years. Within the U.S. alone, NASA, DOD (DARPA, U.S. Navy and USAF), and industry have participated in hypersonic technology development. Over this time NASA Langley Research Center continuously studied hypersonic system design, aerothermodynamics, scramjet propulsion, propulsion-airframe integration, high temperature materials and structural architectures, and associated facilities, instrumentation and test methods. These modestly funded programs were substantially augmented during the National Aero-Space Plane (X-30) Program, which spent more than $3B between 1984 and 1995, and brought the DOD and other NASA Centers, universities and industry back into hypersonics. In addition, significant progress was achieved in all technologies required for hypersonic flight, and much of that technology was transferred into other programs, such as X-33, DC-X, X-37, X-43, etc. In addition, technology transfer impacted numerous other industries, including automotive, medical, sports and aerospace.

  15. Energy. Chapter in the background information report Welfare and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the study on Welfare and the Environment in the Netherlands insight is given in the possible changes and their impact on the environment in which present and future generations will live and work, focusing on living, working, mobility, agriculture, energy, environment, nature and water. Attention is paid to regional differences, spatial distribution and the future of big cities and rural areas. In this publication the energy subject is highlighted

  16. Experiences gained by establishing the IAMG Student Chapter Freiberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Sebastian M.; Liesenberg, Veraldo; Shahzad, Faisal

    2013-04-01

    The International Association for Mathematical Geosciences (IAMG) Student Chapter Freiberg was founded in 2007 at the Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg (TUBAF) in Germany by national and international graduate and undergraduate students of various geoscientific as well as natural science disciplines. The major aim of the IAMG is to promote international cooperation in the application and use of Mathematics in Geosciences research and technology. The IAMG encourages all types of students and young scientists to found and maintain student chapters, which can even receive limited financial support by the IAMG. Following this encouragement, generations of students at TUBAF have build up and established a prosperous range of activities. These might be an example and an invitation for other young scientists and institutions worldwide to run similar activities. We, some of the current and former students behind the student chapter, have organised talks, membership drives, student seminars, guest lectures, several short courses and even international workshops. Some notable short courses were held by invited IAMG distinguished lecturers. The topics included "Statistical analysis in the Earth Sciences using R - a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics", "Geomathematical Natural Resource Modeling" and "Introduction to Geostatistics for Environmental Applications and Natural Resources Evaluation: Basic Concepts and Examples". Furthermore, we conducted short courses by ourselves. Here, the topics included basic introductions into MATLAB, object oriented programming concepts for geoscientists using MATLAB and an introduction to the Keyhole Markup Language (KML). Most of those short courses lasted several days and provided an excellent and unprecedented teaching experience for us. We were given credit by attending students for filling gaps in our university's curriculum by providing in-depth and hands-on tutorials on topics, which were merely

  17. Fundamentals of Physics, Part 4 (Chapters 34-38)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2004-04-01

    Chapter 33. Electromagnetic Waves. Why can one rainbow or two rainbows be seen in the sky but never three rainbows? 33-1 What Is Physics? 33-2 Maxwell's Rainbow. 33-3 The Traveling Electromagnetic Wave, Qualitatively. 33-4 The Traveling Electromagnetic Wave, Quantitatively. 33-5 Energy Transport and the Poynting Vector. 33-6 Radiation Pressure. 33-7 Polarization. 33-8 Reflection and Refraction. 33-9 Total Internal Reflection. 33-10 Polarization by Reflection. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 34. Images. What creates the illusion of hallways in a mirror maze? 34-1 What Is Physics? 34-2 Two Types of Images. 34-3 Plane Mirrors. 34-4 Spherical Mirrors. 34-5 Images from Spherical Mirrors. 34-6 Spherical Refracting Surfaces. 34-7 Thin Lenses. 34-8 Optical Instruments. 34-9 Three Proofs. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 35. Interference. How do color-shifting inks on paper currency shift colors? 35-1 What Is Physics? 35-2 Light as a Wave. 35-3 Diffraction. 35-4 Young's Interference Experiment. 35-5 Coherence. 35-6 Intensity in Double-Slit Interference. 35-7 Interference from Thin Films. 35-8 Michelson's Interferometer. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 36. Diffraction. How were variable displays on credit cards made bright and counterfeit-proof? 36-1 What Is Physics? 36-2 Diffraction and the Wave Theory of Light. 36-3 Diffraction by a Single Slit: Locating the Minima. 36-4 Intensity in Single-Slit Diffraction, Qualitatively. 36-5 Intensity in Single-Slit Diffraction, Quantitatively. 36-6 Diffraction by a Circular Aperture. 36-7 Diffraction by a Double Slit. 36-8 Diffraction Gratings. 36-9 Gratings: Dispersion and Resolving Power. 36-10 X-Ray Diffraction. Review & Summary Questions. Problems. Chapter 37. Relativity. How can we determine what lurks at the center of the galaxy M87, 50 million light-years away? 37-1 What Is Physics? 37-2 The Postulates. 37-3 Measuring an Event. 37-4 The Relativity of Simultaneity. 37-5 The Relativity

  18. Securing water for the cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterthwaite, D

    1993-01-01

    Many cities in developing countries have grown so much that they can no longer provide adequate, sustainable water. Over pumping in Dakar and Mexico City has forced those cities to obtain water from ever more distant sources. In Dakar, the result has been saltwater intrusion. Overpumping has caused Mexico City to sink, in some areas by as much as 9 m, resulting in serious damage to buildings and sewage and drainage pipes. Other cities facing similar water problems are coastal cities in Peru (e.g., Lima), La Rioja and Catamarca in Argentina, cities in Northern Mexico, and cities in dry areas of Africa. For some cities, the problem is not so much ever more distant water supplies but insufficient funds to expand supplies. Bangkok and Jakarta both face saltwater intrusion into their overdrawn aquifers. Even through agriculture is the dominant user of water in most countries, demand concentrated in a small area exhausts local and regional sources and pollutes rivers, lakes, and coasts with untreated human and industrial waste. Most cities in Africa and Asia do not have a sewerage system. Further, most cities do not have the drains to deal with storm water and external floodwater, causing frequent, seasonal flooding. The resulting stagnant water provides breeding grounds for insect vectors of diseases (e.g., malaria). The problems in most cities are a result of poor management, not lack of water. Reducing leaks in existing piped distribution systems from the usual 60% loss of water to leaks to 12% would increase the available water 2-fold. Another way to address water shortages would be commercial, industrial, and recreational use of minimally treated waste water, such as is the case in Madras and Mexico City. Political solutions are needed to resolve inadequate water supply and waste management. PMID:12287008

  19. Geology and paleoecology of the Cottonwood Creek delta in the Eocene Tipton Tongue of the Green River Formation and a mammalian fauna from the Eocene Cathedral Bluffs Tongue of the Wasatch Formation, Southeast Washakie Basin, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehler, H.W.; Hanley, J.H.; Honey, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    Nonmarine mollusks are used to interpret paleoenvironments and patterns of sedimentation of a fan delta on the east margin of Eocene Lake Gosiute. The delta is composed of a lens of quartzose sandstone intertongued with oil shale. Delta morphology is illustrated by cross sections and paleogeographic maps. A fossil fauna representing five mammalian orders is described and used to establish the age of parts of the Wasatch and Green River formations. There are three chapters in this bulletin.

  20. CityGML - Interoperable semantic 3D city models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Gerhard; Plümer, Lutz

    2012-07-01

    CityGML is the international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) for the representation and exchange of 3D city models. It defines the three-dimensional geometry, topology, semantics and appearance of the most relevant topographic objects in urban or regional contexts. These definitions are provided in different, well-defined Levels-of-Detail (multiresolution model). The focus of CityGML is on the semantical aspects of 3D city models, its structures, taxonomies and aggregations, allowing users to employ virtual 3D city models for advanced analysis and visualization tasks in a variety of application domains such as urban planning, indoor/outdoor pedestrian navigation, environmental simulations, cultural heritage, or facility management. This is in contrast to purely geometrical/graphical models such as KML, VRML, or X3D, which do not provide sufficient semantics. CityGML is based on the Geography Markup Language (GML), which provides a standardized geometry model. Due to this model and its well-defined semantics and structures, CityGML facilitates interoperable data exchange in the context of geo web services and spatial data infrastructures. Since its standardization in 2008, CityGML has become used on a worldwide scale: tools from notable companies in the geospatial field provide CityGML interfaces. Many applications and projects use this standard. CityGML is also having a strong impact on science: numerous approaches use CityGML, particularly its semantics, for disaster management, emergency responses, or energy-related applications as well as for visualizations, or they contribute to CityGML, improving its consistency and validity, or use CityGML, particularly its different Levels-of-Detail, as a source or target for generalizations. This paper gives an overview of CityGML, its underlying concepts, its Levels-of-Detail, how to extend it, its applications, its likely future development, and the role it plays in scientific research. Furthermore, its

  1. Water for cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Africa has entered the new Millennium with a sense of hope and renewed confidence. With widening and deepening of political reforms, economic liberalization and a strengthened civil society, an increasing number of African countries are striving towards economic recovery and sustainable development. But also Africa is a continent of paradox. Home to the world's longest river, the Nile, and the second largest freshwater lake, Lake Victoria. Africa has abundant water resources contributed by large rivers, vast stretches of wetlands and limited, but widely spread, groundwater. Yet only a limited number of countries are beneficiaries of this abundance. Fourteen African countries account for 80% of the total water available on the continent, while 12 of the countries together account for only 1% of water availability. Some 400 million people are estimated to be living in water-scarce condition today. Indeed my home country, Tanzania, claims over 40% of Africa's water resources from Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganaika and other major water bodies. Water in Africa is not only unfairly distributed by nature but, due to backward technology and underdevelopment, it remains also inadequately allocated by man. At the turn of the new Millennium, over 300 million people in Africa still do not have access to safe water. But perhaps nowhere is the challenge more complex and demanding than in the rapidly growing African cities. With an average growth rate of 5% per annum, Africa is the fastest urbanizing region in the world today. Between 1990 and 2020, in many of our life times, urban populations in Africa will rise fourfold from 138 to 500 million. The 'Water for African Cities Programme' is demonstrating, in seven African countries (Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Senegal, South Africa and Zambia), how to put in place an integrated urban water resource management strategy that could bring three key sectors -- urban, environment and water -- to work together. Tanzania is the

  2. Impact of alien terrestrial arthropods in Europe. Chapter 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Kenis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter reviews the effects of alien terrestrial arthropods on the economy, society and environment in Europe. Many alien insect and mite species cause serious socio-economic hazards as pests of agriculture, horticulture, stored products and forestry. They may also affect human or animal health. Interestingly, there is relatively little information available on the exact yield and financial losses due to alien agricultural and forestry pests in Europe, particularly at continental scale. Several alien species may have a positive impact on the economy, for example parasitoids and predators introduced for the biological control of important pests. Invasive alien arthropods can also cause environmental hazards. They may affect native biodiversity through various mechanisms, including herbivory, predation, parasitism, competition for resource and space, or as vectors of diseases. They can also affect ecosystem services and processes through cascading effects. However, these ecological impacts are poorly studied, particularly in Europe, where only a handful cases have been reported.

  3. Chapter 12: Trapped Electrons as Electrical (Quantum) Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdú, José

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we present a detailed model of the equivalent electric circuit of a single trapped particle in a coplanar-waveguide (CPW) Penning trap. The CPW-trap, which is essentially a section of coplanar-waveguide transmission-line, is designed to make it compatible with circuit-quantum electrodynamic architectures. This will enable a single trapped electron, or geonium atom, as a potential building block of microwave quantum circuits. The model of the trapped electron as an electric circuit was first introduced by Hans Dehmelt in the 1960s. It is essential for the description of the electronic detection using resonant tank circuits. It is also the basis for the description of the interaction of a geonium atom with other distant quantum systems through electrical (microwave) signals.

  4. Other elements: Cs, K, and Kr. Chapter 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter deals with two types of Moessbauer candidates with totally different chemical behavior: alkali metals, cesium and potassium, and a noble rare gas, krypton. Cesium and potassium generally form strongly ionic compounds by more or less completely losing a valence electron. This leaves behind a spherically symmetric and relatively inert core. Thus one expects a lack of variety in the resulting Moessbauer spectra. However, some measurable differences between the isomer shifts of different compounds have been found. In alloys of cesium, on the other hand, large differences in the isomer shifts indicate considerable, but ill-understood differences in the band structures. In the case of potassium a similar behavior would be expected but no isomer shifts have been found to date. In this isotope the presence of a large second-order Doppler shift can conceal the chemical information however accurately the shifts might have been measured. (Auth.)

  5. Finite Element Method (Chapter from "Gratings: Theory and Numeric Applications")

    CERN Document Server

    Demésy, Guillaume; Nicolet, André; Vial, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, we demonstrate a general formulation of the Finite Element Method allowing to calculate the diffraction efficiencies from the electromagnetic field diffracted by arbitrarily shaped gratings embedded in a multilayered stack lightened by a plane wave of arbitrary incidence and polarization angle. It relies on a rigorous treatment of the plane wave sources problem through an equivalent radiation problem with localized sources. Bloch conditions and a new Adaptative Perfectly Matched Layer have been implemented in order to truncate the computational domain. We derive this formulation for both mono-dimensional gratings in TE/TM polarization cases (2D or scalar case) and for the most general bidimensional or crossed gratings (3D or vector case). The main advantage of this formulation is its complete generality with respect to the studied geometries and the material properties. Its principle remains independent of both the number of diffractive elements by period and number of stack layers. The flexi...

  6. New city spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, Jan; Gemzøe, Lars

    2001-01-01

    2. rev. udg. engelsk udgave af 'Nye byrum'. This book presents an overview of the developments in the use and planning of public spaces, and offers a detailed description of 9 cities with interesting public space strategies: Barcelona, Lyon, Strasbourg, Freiburg and Copenhagen in Europe, Portland...... in North America, Curitiba and Cordoba in South America and Melbourne in Australia. It also portrays 39 selected public space projects from all parts of the World. The strategies and projects are extensively illustrated by drawings, plans and photographs....

  7. Towards Smart City Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Stan, Catalin; Wøldike, Niels Peter;

    2015-01-01

    We present an approach to geometry learning that is based on a didactic theory, which builds on play in order to discover and learn about geometry. Inspired by this theory, a mobile and location-aware game has been developed that aims at embodying geometric concepts in the real world. To this end......, the concept of smart city learning is exploited to situate learning about geometric shapes in concrete buildings and thus make them more accessible for younger children. In close collaboration with a local school a game for 3rd graders was developed and tested on a field trip and in class. A mixed measures...

  8. Smart Cities need architects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Architects and urban planners have always been at the forefront of technical and social innovation processes, researching and proposing new urban models and buildings based on cognitive materials from both their own and other fields of knowledge. In fact, current society, including our ways of life and habits, could not be comprehended without the open, curious minds and progressive even defiant attitudes of architects such as Brunelleschi, Violletle- Duc, Perret, Le Corbusier and Fuller, who defied the threshold of conceptual and vital convention and staked everything on exploring and applying the characteristic technological breakthroughs of their day to architecture and the design of cities. (Author)

  9. City under the Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    military conflicts are taking place. Studying the wealth of public representations of Camp Century, established 1959-60 by the US Army 128 miles east of the Thule Air Base and often referred to as the “City under the Ice”, we find a sharp contrast between the domesticated interior and the superpower...... public image of Camp Century was one of technological comfort and military-scientific control. Amidst the raging Cold War and up against the harsh environment, the construction of the camp would prove to the public that the combined forces of the US military-technology-science complex would prevail...

  10. Building the Bicycle City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    was supplemented by an informative magazine and a map of the ward for pupils. At first you could think that it was just another gimmick to inform inhabitants about their municipality, but it was actually an intelligent way to make children and young people know their neighbourhood through physical activity......, the bike reduces distances, is a stress reducing tool, makes the cyclists experience the differences of the seasons - smells, sounds, wind, temperatures - see parts of the city that they never would normally not experience in the underground subway and gives you the opportunity to talk with your companion...

  11. Responsive City Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Skouboe; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper presents and discusses perspectives extracted from two interviews conducted during the experiments Urban Responsive Lighting. The two experts embody two different fields related to city lighting: architecture & public lighting industry. The representatives were invited to the test......-site, where 15 LED RGB Park lamps, controlled driven by a wind sensor, mobile phone applications or by thermal camera tracking. According to the specialists are the social and aesthetical dimensions more interesting than the energy use cases and efficiency. This motivates an interdisciplinary discussion on...

  12. City of Epitaphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Hicks

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The pavement lies like a ledger-stone on a tomb. Buried underneath are the remains of fertile landscapes and the life they once supported. Inscribed on its upper side are epitaphic writings. Whatever their ostensible purpose, memorial plaques and public artworks embedded in the pavement are ultimately expressions of civic bereavement and guilt. The pavement's role as both witness and accomplice to fatality is confirmed by private individuals who publicize their grief with death notices graffitied on the asphalt. To walk the city is to engage in a dialogue about death.

  13. Beyond the City Limits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hairong

    2012-01-01

    While most fresh university graduates in China aim to find jobs in the cities,more and more welleducated young people are starting to look for career opportunities in rural areas.Cheng Guangjing is one of those who have chosen to work as a village official.In 2009 he began working in Dongzhuang Village,Lankao County in central China's Henan Province.On November 24,2011,the villagers unanimously elected him secretary of the Dongzhuang Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC).

  14. The City Street

    OpenAIRE

    H.C. van der Wouden

    1999-01-01

    Original title: De stad op straat. The city street; the public space in perspective (De stad op straat; de openbare ruimte in perspectief) by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP is intended to contribute to the formation of new ideas about the public space and the future of urban societies. It presents a collection of essays on the urban public space from a large number of scientific disciplines. The following authors contributed to the collection: Prof. R.W. Boomkens (cult...

  15. Smart Cities: esperienze europee

    OpenAIRE

    Gasca, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    «Il tema chiave che ruota intorno concetto di Smat City è la necessità e il desiderio di trasformare le città e le comunità in luoghi con una migliore qualità della vita» (Van Beurden, 2011). Proprio questo deve essere uno degli obiettivi principali delle strategie smart che, valorizzando le potenzialità dei territori nei quali si sviluppano, devono essere orientate ad un miglioramento delle condizioni di vita della cittadinanza e allo sviluppo della capacità attrattiva delle città. La smart ...

  16. Magical Landscapes and Designed Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    “something special,” a feel-good, (almost spiritual) healing power (just moments away from the bustling city). In Melanesia, such a spiritual force goes by the name of “mana”. Århus’ mana landscapes are only invested with this huge, floating quality because they are near the city. Furthermore, they are seen...... from the point of view of the city, where order, design, planning and commerce are important cityscape qualities. The article deals with the way in which these two parts of the city, landscape and brandscape are complementary parts of the city-web. Analytical points made by Mauss, Lévi-Strauss and...... Greimas are discussed in connection with the empirical setting of the city of Århus...

  17. City project and public space

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The book aims at nurturing theoretic reflection on the city and the territory and working out and applying methods and techniques for improving our physical and social landscapes. The main issue is developed around the projectual dimension, with the objective of visualising both the city and the territory from a particular viewpoint, which singles out the territorial dimension as the city’s space of communication and negotiation. Issues that characterise the dynamics of city development will be faced, such as the new, fresh relations between urban societies and physical space, the right to the city, urban equity, the project for the physical city as a means to reveal civitas, signs of new social cohesiveness, the sense of contemporary public space and the sustainability of urban development. Authors have been invited to explore topics that feature a pluralism of disciplinary contributions studying formal and informal practices on the project for the city and seeking conceptual and operative categories capab...

  18. The Emergence of City Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: – Many city logistics projects in Europe have failed. A better understanding of the complex organizational change processes in city logistics projects with many stakeholders may expand city logistics capabilities and thereby help prevent future failures. The purpose of this paper is...... therefore to increase understanding of how city logistics emerge, and secondarily, to investigate whether such processes can be managed at all. Design/methodology/approach: – A paradigm shift in urban planning creates new ways of involving stakeholders in new sustainability measures such as city logistics....... Organizational change theory is applied to capture the social processes leading to emergence of city logistics. The methodology is a qualitative processual analysis of a single longitudinal case. Findings: – The change process took different forms over time. At the time of concluding the analysis, positive...

  19. Host City Contract operational requirements

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Host City Contract - Operational Requirements (the “HCC Operational Requirements”) are an important part of the Host City Contract, detailing a set of core elements for the project, which provide Olympic quality conditions for the athletes and all participants, while at the same time allowing potential host cities to responsibly match their Games concepts to their own sport, economic, social, and environmental long-term planning needs.

  20. Participatory prototyping for future cities

    OpenAIRE

    Van Waart, P.; Mulder, I.J.; de Bont, C.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging pervasive technologies such as the Internet of Things and Open Data will have severe impact on the experience, interactions and wellbeing of citizens in future smart cities. Local governments are concerned how to engage and embed citizens in the process of smart city development because without them it is difficult for governments and industrial technology providers to understand what future city is desired. We explore how prototyping methods can be used in a multi-helix approach tow...

  1. Large cities are less green

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Erneson A.; José S. Andrade; Makse, Hernán A.

    2014-01-01

    We study how urban quality evolves as a result of carbon dioxide emissions as urban agglomerations grow. We employ a bottom-up approach combining two unprecedented microscopic data on population and carbon dioxide emissions in the continental US. We first aggregate settlements that are close to each other into cities using the City Clustering Algorithm (CCA) defining cities beyond the administrative boundaries. Then, we use data on $\\rm{CO}_2$ emissions at a fine geographic scale to determine...

  2. Large cities are less green

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, E A; Makse, H A

    2014-01-01

    We study how urban quality evolves as a result of carbon dioxide emissions as urban agglomerations grow. We employ a bottom-up approach combining two unprecedented microscopic data on population and carbon dioxide emissions in the continental US. We first aggregate settlements that are close to each other into cities using the City Clustering Algorithm (CCA) defining cities beyond the administrative boundaries. Then, we use data on $\\rm{CO}_2$ emissions at a fine geographic scale to determine the total emissions of each city. We find a superlinear scaling behavior, expressed by a power-law, between $\\rm{CO}_2$ emissions and city population with average allometric exponent $\\beta = 1.46$ across all cities in the US. This result suggests that the high productivity of large cities is done at the expense of a proportionally larger amount of emissions compared to small cities. Furthermore, our results are substantially different from those obtained by the standard administrative definition of cities, i.e. Metropol...

  3. Smart Cities and Sustainability Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena BATAGAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In our age cities are complex systems and we can say systems of systems. Today locality is the result of using information and communication technologies in all departments of our life, but in future all cities must to use smart systems for improve quality of life and on the other hand for sustainable development. The smart systems make daily activities more easily, efficiently and represent a real support for sustainable city development. This paper analysis the sus-tainable development and identified the key elements of future smart cities.

  4. in Beirut City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. El Khoury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of nutritional supplements among exercisers in gyms has been never investigated in the Middle East. The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence intake of nutritional supplements and the potential influencing factors among people exercising in gyms in Beirut city. In this cross-sectional study, 512 exercisers, aged between 20 and 50 years, were randomly selected from gyms. The intake of nutritional supplements was reported among 36.3% (95% confidence interval 32.2–40.5 of participants, with a weak presence of medical supervision. Patterns of supplement use differed by gender and age. Men and younger exercisers were found to focus on supplements associated with performance enhancement and muscle building, while women and older exercisers were more concerned with health-promoting products such as vitamins, minerals, and herbal supplements. An appropriate dissemination of accurate and scientifically sound information regarding the benefits and side effects of nutritional supplements is highly recommended in the sports environment in Beirut city.

  5. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase two A, part 2, chapter I: introduction, and chapter II: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report corresponds to Chapters I and II of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR Workshop, Phase Two A, Part 2. The major objectives of the INTOR workshop, Phase Two A, Part 2 are to study critical technical issues, and to assess scientific and technical data bases, and to finally upgrade the INTOR design concept. To study critical technical issues that affect the feasibility or practicability of the INTOR design concept, the following five groups are organized; (A) Impurity control, (B) RF heating and current drive, (C) Transient electromagnetics, (D) Maintainability, (E) Technical benefit. In addition to those groups, the three disciplinary groups are organized to assess the worldiode scientific and technical data bases that exist now and that will exist 4-5 years to support the detailed design and construction of an INTOR-like machine, and to identify additional R D that is required; (F) Physics, (G) Engineering, (H) Nuclear. (author)

  6. CEP action area studies : City of Yellowknife fleet review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The City of Yellowknife maintains a fleet of vehicles and equipment used for public service. Yellowknife's Community Energy Plan (CEP) has a goal to reduce Yellowknife's fleet fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 20 per cent within 10 years. This report examined current fuel consumption for the City of Yellowknife's fleet based on available data and examined options to reduce fleet fuel consumption. It also quantified the reduction in fuel consumption, GHG emissions, as well as the financial impacts of various options. An overview of the City of Yellowknife's fleet of vehicles and equipment was first provided, as well as calculated annual values for fuel consumption, GHG emissions, and energy consumption for the City of Yellowknife's fleet. Two fleet management case studies were presented. Fuel-efficient vehicles on the market that could provide an opportunity to replace some of the City of Yellowknife's fleet of light vehicles, and bylaw vehicles with fuel-efficient vehicles were discussed. These vehicles include hybrid vehicles, smart cars, compressed natural gas vehicles, and compressed-air vehicles. Equipment maintenance for tires, preventive, synthetic oils, and driver training programs were discussed. Anti-idling campaigns and technologies were also examined. The report concluded with a discussion of renewable fuels such as biodiesel and ethanol blended gasoline. Fleet fuel consumption, GHG and financial impacts were provided for each chapter heading. It was concluded that if all of the measures identified in the report were implemented, an overall decrease in GHG emissions of approximately 15 per cent would be achieved. 15 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

  7. Smart cities of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, M.; Axhausen, K. W.; Giannotti, F.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Bazzani, A.; Wachowicz, M.; Ouzounis, G.; Portugali, Y.

    2012-11-01

    Here we sketch the rudiments of what constitutes a smart city which we define as a city in which ICT is merged with traditional infrastructures, coordinated and integrated using new digital technologies. We first sketch our vision defining seven goals which concern: developing a new understanding of urban problems; effective and feasible ways to coordinate urban technologies; models and methods for using urban data across spatial and temporal scales; developing new technologies for communication and dissemination; developing new forms of urban governance and organisation; defining critical problems relating to cities, transport, and energy; and identifying risk, uncertainty, and hazards in the smart city. To this, we add six research challenges: to relate the infrastructure of smart cities to their operational functioning and planning through management, control and optimisation; to explore the notion of the city as a laboratory for innovation; to provide portfolios of urban simulation which inform future designs; to develop technologies that ensure equity, fairness and realise a better quality of city life; to develop technologies that ensure informed participation and create shared knowledge for democratic city governance; and to ensure greater and more effective mobility and access to opportunities for urban populations. We begin by defining the state of the art, explaining the science of smart cities. We define six scenarios based on new cities badging themselves as smart, older cities regenerating themselves as smart, the development of science parks, tech cities, and technopoles focused on high technologies, the development of urban services using contemporary ICT, the use of ICT to develop new urban intelligence functions, and the development of online and mobile forms of participation. Seven project areas are then proposed: Integrated Databases for the Smart City, Sensing, Networking and the Impact of New Social Media, Modelling Network Performance

  8. Cities and Climate Change : An Urgent Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    The report discusses the link between climate change and cities, why cities should be concerned about climate change and adopt early preventative policies, and how the World Bank and other organizations can provide further support to cities on climate change issues. The report is one in a series of activities that explore the nexus of cities and climate change. This report, cities and clim...

  9. Tourism and City. Reflections about Tourist Dimension of Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Anna La Rocca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The city of the future seems to be necessarily “intelligent” both in its physical and in functional features.This paper starts from the consideration that the diffusion of new communication technologies (ICTs is significantly changing the urban supply system of tourist services giving rise to new ways of enjoying the city.As tourism can be assumed as an urban activity, by a town planning point of view, the study of tourism is meaningful to identify development trajectories of the present cities targeted to sustainable and smarter models.As a matter of fact, almost all the projects to get a “smart city” are based on the idea of joining the potentialities of ICTs and the needs of urban management through people living or using the city.In such a vision, “tourist dimension” of the city becomes fundamental in promoting urban image as well as in improving efficiency of the city. This efficiency also depends on the capability of each city to share historical and cultural heritage as “common good”.As tourist demand has deeply changed also driven by technological development, this paper tries to investigate how the urban supply will change in order to meet the rising demand of quality and efficiency. The transition to smart tourist destination currently seems to be strongly connected with the number and the variety of apps to improve the “experiential component”. A lack of interest there seems to be in finding strategies and policies oriented to plan the urban supply of services tourist or not.This consideration, if shared, opens up new perspectives for research and experimentation in which city planning could have a key-role also in proposing an holistic approach to city development towards smart city.

  10. The hybrid outcome of urban change: global city, polarized city?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayat Ismail

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of studies supports the assumption that levels of socio-spatial polarization, segregation, and exclusion are rising in global cities over the past decades as a direct outcome of certain global processes, such as the deindustrialization process, its associated changes in division of labor, and declined redistributive power of the welfare state. However, that assumption – known as the polarization thesis – is criticized based on several contentions, including the oversimplification of the global/local interplay by overlooking the role of local contingent factors that may modify, intensify, or reverse the expected socio-spatial outcome in individual cities. This study aims to capture the hybrid nature of the socio-spatial outcomes of global cities by proving that the complex process of restructuring of cities is a form of structural and chronological hybridity. Through providing a solid empirical ground for investigating the general applicability of the socio-spatial polarization thesis, as well as evaluating the influence of local contexts of cities on the outcomes of urban change. The research offers a theoretical review of the multifaceted restructuring of global cities. Then, the macro trends of global economy are linked to their micro outcomes (segregation patterns within cities, through understanding the implications of cities’ economic functions on local urban policies and housing markets. Finally, the changes in socioeconomic segregation over the past decades are calculated for a large dataset of 66 global cities. The collective result of the analysis shows the downfalls of the generalized hypothesis. While the discussion of individual cities highlights certain contextual particularities, that are contributing to the production of unique socio-spatial configurations in different global cities.

  11. The diffusion equation and the steady state. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We shall now study the equations that govern the neutron field in a reactor. These equations are based on the concept of local neutron balance, which takes into account the reaction rates in an element of volume and the net leakage rates out of the volume. The reaction rates are written in terms of the local cross sections, assumed known from a preprocessed database (e.g., ENDF/B-VI). The starting equation is the Maxwell-Boltzmann transport equation, in its integro-differential form. The various approximations required to go from the transport equation to the neutron diffusion equation will be presented first, because all finite-reactor calculations are based on the diffusion approximation. We shall then discuss the multi-group formalism of the diffusion equations and study the mathematical properties of this equation in steady state. This preliminary step will allow us to derive in a more accurate way, in the next chapter, the reactor point-kinetics equations. In the diffusion approximation, neutrons diffuse from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration, just as heat diffuses from regions of high temperature to those of low temperature, or, rather, as gas molecules diffuse to reduce spatial variations in concentration. While it is sufficiently accurate to treat the transport of gas molecules as a diffusion process, this approach is too limiting for neutron transport. In contrast to a gas, where collisions are very frequent, the cross sections for the interaction of neutrons with nuclei are relatively small, as we saw in chapter 1 (of the order of barns, i.e., 10-24cm2) . This implies that neutrons traverse appreciable distances (of the order of a centimetre) between collisions. This relatively long neutron mean free path, together with the heterogeneity of the physical medium, requires that a more complete treatment be carried out, taking account of variations in the angular distribution of neutron speed in the vicinity of highly absorbing

  12. History of creation of Semipalatinsk test nuclear site. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1949 August USSR's Government adopted decision about creation of nuclear site with conditional name Uchebnyj polygon 2. For its building was chosen territory in 140 km from Semipalatinsk city. Semipalatinsk test site consists of the land of three regions: Semipalatinsk, Pavlodar, Karaganda and it occupies 18,500 km2 of fertile land, rich with minerals. Now this territory was alienated from national using. Polygon was complex object and it incorporated three main zones: Opytnoe Pole, zone of radiation safety, site Sh. Opytnoe Pole was equipped by special constructions ensuring nuclear test conducting, its observing and registration of physical measurements and occupied 2,300 km2. Around of the Opytnoe Pole is situated zone of radiation safety with area 45 thousand ha. Site Sh was situated in 14 km from center of Opytnoe Pole and it was intended for distribution of individual protection devices, dosimeters and for conducting of dis-activation and sanitary works. History of the site creation is connected with building of Kurchatov city. In dozen and hundred of kilometers from Kurchatov city there were top secret objects: site Balapan with total area 100,000 ha intended for conducting of nuclear tests in wells with threshold capacity 100-200 kt. Here simultaneously with main problems on the site the military-applied works were conducted on mechanics, physics of combustion, simulation of Earthquakes and determination of seismic stability of buildings and constructions. Research site Degelen with total area 33,100 ha which has been used for underground testing of nuclear charges with small capacity. Site 10 one of large research technical complex on which two reactor units were installed. Main tasks of the complex were as follows: high-temperature fuel materials testing, conducting of fundamental researches in field of physics of fissile products, thermal physics and gas hydrodynamics. On site M a laboratory base for radiochemical, radiological and chemical researches

  13. CHED Events: Salt Lake City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Donald J.

    2009-03-01

    The Division of Chemical Education (CHED) Committee meetings planned for the Spring 2009 ACS Meeting in Salt Lake City will be in the Marriott City Center Hotel. Check the location of other CHED events, the CHED Social Event, the Undergraduate Program, Sci-Mix, etc. because many will be in the Salt Palace Convention Center.

  14. Malmo: A city in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Tessa Kate

    2014-01-01

    . From 1840 to the mid-1970s, Malmo’s growth continued to flourish. Like many Swedish cities, the manufacturing recession of the mid-1970s bought unemployment and population decline. Malmo transitioned from a manufacturing hub into a knowledge city with a strong focus on sustainable planning. Malmo has...

  15. Tuned City: The Space Acoustic

    OpenAIRE

    Niessen, BM

    2008-01-01

    The article is an in-depth interview with Derek Holzer, performance director of the Berlinese sound art festival Tuned City. The interview focuses on the transformations of sound art and on the role of media festivals in the contemporary city.

  16. Cities as nuclei of sustainability?

    CERN Document Server

    Rybski, Diego; Reusser, Dominik E; Fichtner, Christina; Kropp, Jürgen P

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing CO2 emission inventories of 256 cities from 33 countries we find power-law correlations between the emissions and city size, measured in population. The results suggest that in developing countries more CO2 per capita is emitted in large cities, i.e. they tend to exhibit super-linear correlations and doubling the population of any city implies up to 110% increase of emissions. For developed countries the results suggest the opposite, i.e. linear or sub-linear correlations, implying better efficiency of large cities, doubling the population of any city implies only 80% increase of emissions. The transition occurs at approx. 10,000GDP/cap. We derive how the total emissions of an entire country relate with the power-law correlations and find that the size of the most populated city is dominating in the case of linear and super-linear correlations. The size of the largest city has no influence in the case of sub-linear correlations. We conclude that from the climate change mitigation point of view, urba...

  17. Dubai: a City of Hope?

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Abirafeh

    2007-01-01

    The City of Hope is an organisation offering refuge for abused women in Dubai, the largest city of the United Arab Emirates. Dubai has started to acknowledge the social problems accompanying its phenomenal economic growth but is it doing enough to tackle the scourge of human trafficking?

  18. Dubai: a City of Hope?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Abirafeh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The City of Hope is an organisation offering refuge for abused women in Dubai, the largest city of the United Arab Emirates. Dubai has started to acknowledge the social problems accompanying its phenomenal economic growth but is it doing enough to tackle the scourge of human trafficking?

  19. Globalization : Countries, Cities and Multinationals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Acs, Zoltan J.

    2011-01-01

    McCann P. and Acs Z. J. Globalization: countries, cities and multinationals, Regional Studies. This paper explores the relationship between the size of a country, the size of its cities, and the importance of economies of scale in the modern era of globalization. In order to do this, it integrates t

  20. The Emergence of City Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta; Aastrup, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    as a change process where the city is working to change paradigm from a conventional top down regulation to a sustainable mobility paradigm. This long lasting and complex process towards improved organization of goods deliveries in the Copenhagen city center can further be understood as a teleological process...

  1. Educating Cities in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Graciela; Valdés-Cotera, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the development of educating cities from a political perspective, illustrating in detail the diversity of organisations and individuals involved and the challenges they are facing. Bearing in mind that educating cities were established from the 1990s onwards in Europe and spread to other continents from there, the purpose of…

  2. Archaeoastronomy and Calendar Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2016-02-01

    The use of astronomy for collective purposes, both religious and political, is apparent in the earliest astronomical records, from the evidence for Palaeolithic lunar calendars to megalithic monuments and Mesopotamian celestial-omen reports. This paper will consider the application of the heavens to the organisation of the ‘Cosmic State’, the human polity modelled on the assumption of a close relationship between society on the one hand and planetary and stellar patterns on the other. I will also examine the foundation of Baghdad within the tradition of celestial town planning and argue that the city may be seen as a ‘talisman’, designed to connect heaven to Earth and ensure peace, stability and political success by harmonising time and space.

  3. Distance weighted city growth

    CERN Document Server

    Rybski, Diego; Kropp, Jürgen P

    2012-01-01

    Urban agglomerations exhibit complex emergent features of which Zipf's law, i.e. a power-law size distribution, and fractality may be regarded as the most prominent ones. We propose a simplistic model for the generation of city-like structures which is solely based on the assumption that growth is more likely to take place close to inhabited space. The model involves one parameter which is an exponent determining how strongly the attraction decays with the distance. In addition, the model is run iteratively so that existing clusters can grow and new ones can emerge. The model is capable of reproducing the size distribution and the fractality of the hull of the largest cluster. While the power-law distribution depends on both, the imposed exponent and the iteration, the fractality seems to be independent of the former and only depends on the latter.

  4. Human diffusion and city influence

    CERN Document Server

    Lenormand, Maxime; Tugores, Antònia; Ramasco, José J

    2015-01-01

    Cities are characterized by concentrating population, economic activity and services. However, not all cities are equal and hierarchy in terms of influence at local, regional or global scales naturally emerges. Traditionally, there have been important efforts to describe this hierarchy by indirect measures such the sharing of company headquarters, traffic by air, train or boats or economical exchanges. In this work, we take a different approach and introduce a method that uses geolocated Twitter information to quantify the impact of cities on rural or other urban areas. Since geolocated tweets are becoming a global phenomenon, the method can be applied at a world-wide scale. We focus on $58$ cities and analyze the mobility patterns of people after visiting them for the first time. Cities such as Rome and Paris appear consistently as those with largest area covered by Twitter users after their visit and as those attracting visitors most diverse in origin. The study is also performed discerning users mobility b...

  5. California spotted owls: Chapter 5 in Managing Sierra Nevada forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Suzanne C.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) are habitat specialists that are strongly associated with late-successional forests. For nesting and roosting, they require large trees and snags embedded in a stand with a complex forest structure (Blakesley et al. 2005, Gutiérrez et al. 1992, Verner et al. 1992b). In mixedconifer forests of the Sierra Nevada, California spotted owls typically nest and roost in stands with high canopy closure (≥75 percent) [Note: when citing studies, we use terminology consistent with Jennings et al. (1999), however, not all studies properly distinguish between canopy cover and closure and often use the terms interchangeably (see chapter 14 for clarification)] and an abundance of large trees (>24 in (60 cm) diameter at breast height [d.b.h.]) (Bias and Gutiérrez 1992, Gutiérrez et al. 1992, LaHaye et al. 1997, Moen and Gutiérrez 1997, Verner et al. 1992a). The California spotted owl guidelines (Verner et al. 1992b) effectively summarized much of the information about nesting and roosting habitat. Since that report, research on the California spotted owl has continued with much of the new information concentrated in five areas: population trends, barred owl (Strix varia) invasion, climate effects, foraging habitat, and owl response to fire.

  6. The impact of climate change on coastal ecosystems: chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Virginia; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Nicholls, Robert J.; Forbes, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we stress two important features of coasts and coastal ecosystems. First, these are dynamic systems which continually undergo adjustments, especially through erosion and re-deposition, in response to a range of processes. Many coastal ecosystems adjust naturally at a range of time scales and their potential for response is examined partly by reconstructing how such systems have coped with natural changes of climate and sea level in the geological past. Second, coasts have changed profoundly through the 20th Century due to the impacts of human development (such as urbanisation, port and industrial expansion, shore protection, and the draining and conversion of coastal wetlands), with these development-related drivers closely linked to a growing global population and economy. It remains a challenge to isolate the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise from either the natural trajectory of shoreline change, or the accelerated pathway resulting from other human-related stressors. There exists a danger of overstating the importance of climate change, or overlooking significant interactions of climate change with other drivers.

  7. Applied Space Systems Engineering. Chapter 17; Manage Technical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Effective space systems engineering (SSE) is conducted in a fully electronic manner. Competitive hardware, software, and system designs are created in a totally digital environment that enables rapid product design and manufacturing cycles, as well as a multitude of techniques such as modeling, simulation, and lean manufacturing that significantly reduce the lifecycle cost of systems. Because the SSE lifecycle depends on the digital environment, managing the enormous volumes of technical data needed to describe, build, deploy, and operate systems is a critical factor in the success of a project. This chapter presents the key aspects of Technical Data Management (TDM) within the SSE process. It is written from the perspective of the System Engineer tasked with establishing the TDM process and infrastructure for a major project. Additional perspectives are reflected from the point of view of the engineers on the project who work within the digital engineering environment established by the TDM toolset and infrastructure, and from the point of view of the contactors who interface via the TDM infrastructure. Table 17.1 lists the TDM process as it relates to SSE.

  8. Image Post-Processing and Analysis. Chapter 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For decades, scientists have used computers to enhance and analyse medical images. At first, they developed simple computer algorithms to enhance the appearance of interesting features in images, helping humans read and interpret them better. Later, they created more advanced algorithms, where the computer would not only enhance images but also participate in facilitating understanding of their content. Segmentation algorithms were developed to detect and extract specific anatomical objects in images, such as malignant lesions in mammograms. Registration algorithms were developed to align images of different modalities and to find corresponding anatomical locations in images from different subjects. These algorithms have made computer aided detection and diagnosis, computer guided surgery and other highly complex medical technologies possible. Nowadays, the field of image processing and analysis is a complex branch of science that lies at the intersection of applied mathematics, computer science, physics, statistics and biomedical sciences. This chapter will give a general overview of the most common problems in this field and the algorithms that address them

  9. Technetium-99m Radiopharmaceuticals in Neurology. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ideal radioisotope for single photon emission computed tomography imaging is 99mTc, due to its physical decay characteristics, its availability through commercially available generator systems and its low cost per dose. Technetium-99m hydrophilic complexes are used to evaluate the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, while neutral and lipophilic complexes are used as brain perfusion imaging agents for determination of changes in regional cerebral blood flow in various neurological disorders. Radiopharmaceuticals that bind to central nervous system (CNS) receptors in vivo are useful for understanding the pathophysiology of a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders, their diagnosis and treatment. Nowadays, CNS receptor imaging agents are, with some exceptions, typically positron emission tomography radionuclide based radiopharmaceuticals. The reason for this is not based on principal but is rather as a result of the fact that efforts in the direction of 99mTc containing agents have not been strong or consistent enough. In the chapter, the progress made in the development of 99mTc complexes for imaging dopamine transporter, 5-HT1A receptor and amyloid plaques is presented. (author)

  10. Chapter 19: HVAC Controls (DDC/EMS/BAS) Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romberger, J.

    2014-11-01

    The HVAC Controls Evaluation Protocol is designed to address evaluation issues for direct digital controls/energy management systems/building automation systems (DDC/EMS/BAS) that are installed to control heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment in commercial and institutional buildings. (This chapter refers to the DDC/EMS/BAS measure as HVAC controls.) This protocol may also be applicable to industrial facilities such as clean rooms and labs, which have either significant HVAC equipment or spaces requiring special environmental conditions. This protocol addresses only HVAC-related equipment and the energy savings estimation methods associated with installing such control systems as an energy efficiency measure. The affected equipment includes: Air-side equipment (air handlers, direct expansion systems, furnaces, other heating- and cooling-related devices, terminal air distribution equipment, and fans); Central plant equipment (chillers, cooling towers, boilers, and pumps). These controls may also operate or affect other end uses, such as lighting, domestic hot water, irrigation systems, and life safety systems such as fire alarms and other security systems. Considerable nonenergy benefits, such as maintenance scheduling, system component troubleshooting, equipment failure alarms, and increased equipment lifetime, may also be associated with these systems. When connected to building utility meters, these systems can also be valuable demand-limiting control tools. However, this protocol does not evaluate any of these additional capabilities and benefits.

  11. Technetium-99m Labelled Molecules for Hypoxia Imaging. Chapter 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the field of diagnostic imaging, the concept of imaging hypoxia constitutes an important development and 99mTc labelled vectors have taken a long stride in this direction. Delineation of hypoxic cells amidst oxygenated cells has a strong bearing on treatment strategies and regimes, since hypoxic cells are normally resistant to therapy, thus having a direct influence on the extent of tumour propagation and malignant progression. Inherent drawbacks in the invasive methods currently available for measuring hypoxia led to the development of non-invasive modalities such as use of radiolabelled molecules for imaging hypoxia. In the chapter, an attempt is made to provide a comprehensive overview of 99mTc based radiopharmaceutical agents as well as a brief discussion of other radiolabelled agents that show considerable promise in diagnostic imaging of tumour hypoxia. The review also discusses the phenomenon of hypoxia, other non-invasive methods of detecting hypoxia currently available and the evolution of radiopharmaceuticals to image hypoxia. (author)

  12. Chapter 4: neurology in the Bible and the Talmud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinsod, Moshe

    2010-01-01

    The Bible, a major pillar of Western Civilization consists of Hebrew Scriptures, assembled over a millennium and accepted as of divine origin. The Talmud is a compendium of Jewish laws, covering every possible aspect of life, analyzed in depth from 200 BCE to 600 CE, becoming the foundation of Jewish existence. The all-encompassing character of the books provides numerous medical problems and observations that appear in various connotations. When in need to clarify various legal dilemmas, the Talmudic sages displayed astoundingly accurate anatomical knowledge and were pioneers in clinical-pathological correlations. The descriptions of "neurological" events in the Bible are very precise but show no evidence of neurological knowledge. Those reported in the various tractates of the Talmud are evidence of a substantial medical knowledge, marked by Hellenistic influence. Subjects such as head and spinal injuries, epilepsy, handedness neuralgias aphasia tinnitus and tremor were discussed in depth. This chapter is an updated collection of the studies, extracting observations and discussions of neurological manifestations from the ancient texts. PMID:19892107

  13. Chapter 20: neurological illustration from photography to cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Geneviève

    2010-01-01

    This chapter explores iconography in neurology from the birth of photography up to the early medical applications of cinematography before 1914. The important visual part of neurological diagnosis explains why these techniques were adopted very early by neurologists. Duchenne published the first medical book illustrated with photographs of patients. The first and most famous photographic laboratory was created in Charcot's department, at the Salpêtrière in Paris, under the direction of Albert Londe. Londe published the first book dedicated to medical photography. The physiologist Marey and the photographer Muybridge, in association with neurologists, played key roles in the development of chronophotography and cinematography. Germany was the first country to welcome cinematography in a neurology department. Independently, neurologists began to film patients in other countries in Europe and in America. In 1905, Arthur Van Gehuchten (1861-1914), Belgian anatomist and neurologist, began systematically to film neurologic patients, with the intention of building up a complete neurological iconographic collection. This collection has survived and has been restored in the laboratory of the Royal Belgian Film Archive where the films are now safely stored in their vaults. PMID:19892123

  14. Sustainability in South Asian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Akhmat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available City brings about the most complex interplay of social, cultural, and political dimensions of space. It will have to accommodate around one billion humans only in South Asia by the year 2030. Therefore it needs to be prepared to absorb huge increases in urban population and resulting pressure on basic infrastructure and livelihood opportunities. In order to secure a better future and to improve the quality of life of all the citizens, city needs to be reinvented, by incorporating creativity and innovation with the approaches, we use in its planning. Here we present an overview of the progress, challenges and some key interventions to reinvent the city in South Asian region as well as in the developing world, with the examples of the most populous countries in the region: India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Planning transforms geometric space in city into lived space. City planning in South Asia is as old as the human settlement itself, but the current situation is well below the level to be admired. Most of the city plans have been faulty with poor economic base and implementability, and fostered unintended city within the city, whose growth rate shadows the growth rate of the city itself. City in the developing world desperately needs to follow a sustainable development pattern which satisfies the requirement for equity; meets basic human needs; allows social and ethnic self-determination; promotes environmental awareness, integrity and inter-linkages between various living beings across time and space. It requires a combination of strategic policy making, supported by a system that combines personal opinion with scientific knowledge. It needs to reset the basis for the articulation of the initiatives of all relevant stakeholders to seek synergies for its development.

  15. Sister Cities along US/Mexico Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Locations of 29 cities referred to as US and Mexico "Sister Cities." The locations of the cities were pulled from the Digital Chart of the World database, 1994. The...

  16. Chapter 13: Mining electronic health records in the genomics era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Joshua C

    2012-01-01

    chapter reviews several examples of phenotype extraction and their application to genetic research, demonstrating a viable future for genomic discovery using EHR-linked data. PMID:23300414

  17. Chapter 13: Mining electronic health records in the genomics era.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C Denny

    individuals. This chapter reviews several examples of phenotype extraction and their application to genetic research, demonstrating a viable future for genomic discovery using EHR-linked data.

  18. Volcanism on the Red Planet: Mars. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, Ronald; Bridges, Nathan T.; Crown, David A.; Crumpler, Larry S.; Fagents, Sarah A.; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Zimbelman, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Of all the planets in the Solar System, Mars is the most Earthlike in its geological characteristics. Like Earth, it has been subjected to exogenic processes, such as impact cratesing and erosion by wind and water, as well as endogenic processes, including tectonic deformation of the crust and volcanism. The effects of these processes are amply demonstrated by the great variety of surface features, including impact craters, landslides, former river channels, sand dunes, and the largest volcanoes in the Solar System. Some of these features suggest substantial changes in Mars' environment during its history. For example, as reviewed by Carr, today Mars is a cold, dry desert with an average atmospheric pressure of only 5.6 mbar which does not allow liquid water to exist on the surface. To some planetary scientists, the presence of the channels bespeaks a time when Mars was warmer and wetter. However, others have argued that these features might have formed under current conditions and that there might not have been a shift in climate. Could the morphology of volcanoes and related features provide clues to past Martian environments? What role is played by atmospheric density in the styles of eruptions on Mars and resulting landforms? If these and related questions can be answered, then we may have a means for assessing the conditions on Mars' surface in the past and comparing the results with models of Martian evolution. In this chapter, we outline the sources of information available for volcanism on Mars, explore the influence of the Martian environment on volcanic processes, and describe the principal volcanic features and their implications for understanding the general evolution of the Martian surface.

  19. Observations. Oceanic Climate Change and Sea Level. Chapter 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindoff, N.L.; Willebrand, J.; Artale, V.; Cazenave, A.; Gregory, J.; Gulev, S.; Hanawa, K.; Le Quere, C.; Levitus, S.; Nojiri, Y.; Shum, C.K.; Talley, L.D.; Unnikrishnan, A.

    2007-09-15

    and hence change the sea level both regionally and globally. The ocean varies over a broad range of time scales, from seasonal (e.g., in the surface mixed layer) to decadal (e.g., circulation in the main subtropical gyres) to centennial and longer (associated with the MOC). The main modes of climate variability, which are described in Chapter 3, are the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), the Northern Annular Mode (NAM), which is related to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). Forcing of the oceans is often related to these modes, which cause changes in ocean circulation through changed patterns of winds and changes in surface ocean density. The Third Assessment Report (TAR) discussed some aspects of the ocean's role. Elsewhere it was concluded that the global ocean has significantly warmed since the late 1950's. This assessment provides updated estimates of temperature changes for the oceans. Furthermore, it discusses new evidence for changes in the ocean freshwater budget and the ocean circulation. The TAR estimate of the total inorganic carbon increase in the ocean was based entirely on indirect evidence. This assessment provides updated indirect estimates and reports on new and direct evidence for changes in total carbon increase and for changes in ocean biogeochemistry (including pH and oxygen). Others determined a range of 1 to 2 mm/yr for the observed global average sea level rise in the 20th century. This assessment provides new estimates for sea level change and the climate-related contributions to sea level change from thermal expansion and melting of ice sheets, glaciers and ice caps. The focus of this chapter is on observed changes in the global ocean basins, however some regional changes in the ocean state are also considered. Many ocean observations are poorly sampled in space and time, and regional distributions often are quite heterogeneous. Furthermore, the

  20. CUA-IUAES: Dreamed/Planned Cities and Experienced Cities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beranská, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 4 (2014), s. 487-488. ISSN 0009-0794 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : city * urban space * urban anthropology Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology , Ethnology Impact factor: 0.094, year: 2012

  1. The city of the merchant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnow, Niels Finn

    2003-01-01

    The City of the Merchant deals with cities, towns and villages in the European medieval period - i.e. in post-antique and pre-industrial Europe. In actual fact, the book mainly deals with Denmark and Northern Italy (the City States), with digressions to other "feudal" localities in France on Sici......, in the middle East, the Crusades, in Germany (the Hansatic League) and, finally, as far a field as the Danish West Indies. The book is part of a larger project that comprises other historical environments....

  2. Zipf Law for Brazilian Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Moura Jr., Newton J.; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.

    2005-01-01

    This work studies the Zipf Law for cities in Brazil. Data from censuses of 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2000 were used to select a sample containing only cities with 30,000 inhabitants or more. The results show that the population distribution in Brazilian cities does follow a power law similar to the ones found in other countries. Estimates of the power law exponent were found to be 2.22 +/- 0.34 for the 1970 and 1980 censuses, and 2.26 +/- 0.11 for censuses of 1991 and 2000. More accurate results w...

  3. The ecological future of cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Mark J; MacGregor-Fors, Ian

    2016-05-20

    The discipline of urban ecology arose in the 1990s, primarily motivated by a widespread interest in documenting the distribution and abundance of animals and plants in cities. Today, urban ecologists have greatly expanded their scope of study to include ecological and socioeconomic processes, urban management, planning, and design, with the goal of addressing issues of sustainability, environmental quality, and human well-being within cities and towns. As the global pace of urbanization continues to intensify, urban ecology provides the ecological and social data, as well as the principles, concepts and tools, to create livable cities. PMID:27199416

  4. Flood Insurance Study, City of Park City, Utah, Summit County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1987-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of Park City, Summit County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound flood plain management. Minimum flood plain man...

  5. DENSER Cities: A System for Dense Efficient Reconstructions of Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Tanner, Michael; Pinies, Pedro; Paz, Lina Maria; Newman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This paper is about the efficient generation of dense, colored models of city-scale environments from range data and in particular, stereo cameras. Better maps make for better understanding; better understanding leads to better robots, but this comes at a cost. The computational and memory requirements of large dense models can be prohibitive. We provide the theory and the system needed to create city-scale dense reconstructions. To do so, we apply a regularizer over a compressed 3D data stru...

  6. ConnectiCity, augmented perception of the city

    OpenAIRE

    Iaconesi, Salvatore; Persico, Oriana

    2012-01-01

    As we move through cities in our daily lives, we are in a constant state of transformation of the spaces around us. The form and essence of urban space directly affects people's behavior, describing in their perception what is possible or impossible, allowed or prohibited, suggested or advised against. We are now able to fill and stratify space/time with digital information layers, completely wrapping cities in a membrane of information and of opportunities for interaction and communication. ...

  7. 20 CFR 30.1 - What rules govern the administration of EEOICPA and this chapter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... General Provisions Introduction § 30.1 What rules govern the administration of EEOICPA and this chapter... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What rules govern the administration of EEOICPA and this chapter? 30.1 Section 30.1 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION...

  8. 77 FR 39731 - Swinomish Indian Tribal Community-Title 15, Chapter 4: Liquor Legalization, Regulation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Swinomish Indian Tribal Community--Title 15, Chapter 4: Liquor Legalization... publishes Title 15, Chapter 4: Liquor Legalization, Regulation and License Code for the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community. The Code regulates and controls the possession, sale and consumption of liquor...

  9. Draft of chapters 4-9 as of May 11, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A revised outline for the final report is given, and the first draft of chapters 4 - 9 are included. The chapters cover enrichment demands according to various fuel cycle strategies, comparison of enrichment demand and availability, assessment and comparison of the proliferation aspects of enrichment, assurance of supply, special needs of developing countries, and general conclusions

  10. 1985 Mexico City, Mexico Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.1 earthquake occurred off the Pacific coast of Mexico. The damage was concentrated in a 25 square km area of Mexico City, 350 km from the epicenter....

  11. Qinadao:An Oceanic City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    BLUE sky and white clouds, an azure sea patterned with colorful sails, this view of Qingdao is little different from a seascape of either the Mediterranean or the Pacific Ocean. The exotic facade of this small city on the

  12. Brigham City Hydro Generation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammons, Tom B. [Energy Conservation Specialist, Port Ewen, NY (United States)

    2015-10-31

    Brigham City owns and operates its own municipal power system which currently includes several hydroelectric facilities. This project was to update the efficiency and capacity of current hydro production due to increased water flow demands that could pass through existing generation facilities. During 2006-2012, this project completed efficiency evaluation as it related to its main objective by completing a feasibility study, undergoing necessary City Council approvals and required federal environmental reviews. As a result of Phase 1 of the project, a feasibility study was conducted to determine feasibility of hydro and solar portions of the original proposal. The results indicated that the existing Hydro plant which was constructed in the 1960’s was running at approximately 77% efficiency or less. Brigham City proposes that the efficiency calculations be refined to determine the economic feasibility of improving or replacing the existing equipment with new high efficiency equipment design specifically for the site. Brigham City completed the Feasibility Assessment of this project, and determined that the Upper Hydro that supplies the main culinary water to the city was feasible to continue with. Brigham City Council provided their approval of feasibility assessment’s results. The Upper Hydro Project include removal of the existing powerhouse equipment and controls and demolition of a section of concrete encased penstock, replacement of penstock just upstream of the turbine inlet, turbine bypass, turbine shut-off and bypass valves, turbine and generator package, control equipment, assembly, start-up, commissioning, Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA), and the replacement of a section of conductors to the step-up transformer. Brigham City increased the existing 575 KW turbine and generator with an 825 KW turbine and generator. Following the results of the feasibility assessment Brigham City pursued required environmental reviews with the DOE and

  13. Foreign Funds for City Banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGPEI

    2005-01-01

    The rather straightforward restructuring of the Bank of Beijing became more arresting in January after Deutsche Bank was reported to be competing with its Dutch rival ING to purchase a stake in the local city commercial bank.

  14. Global cities and cultural experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas Gaviria, Pilar; Emontspool, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Studying the cultural dynamics of expatriate amateur theater in Brussels, this paper investigates multicultural marketplace development in contemporary global cities. Design/methodology/approach: The paper performs an interpretive analysis of the expatriate amateur scene in Brussels from...... marketing research, providing original insights into market dynamics and cultural experimentation in multicultural environments....... an ethnographic perspective, combining observations of rehearsals and performances, in-depth interviews with actors, directors and audience, and secondary data. Findings: The fluidity of global cities allows their inhabitants to engage in collective creative processes of cultural experimentation...... to the important role of global cities for cultural experimentation. Such cities are not only an interesting market for culturally diverse products, but also learning hubs. Managers willing to address multicultural marketplaces might target these markets with dynamic cultural offers that ensure a...

  15. City Governments Need Deliberative Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricard, Lykke Margot; Lewis, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Innovation in the public sector has become an important focus for governments, which are facing a growing inability to address difficult policy challenges. In the context of city governments, innovation capacity is boosted by the involvement of ‘outsiders’...

  16. City Walks and Tactile Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Diaconu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to develop categories of the pedestrian’s tactile and kinaesthetic experience of the city. The beginning emphasizes the haptic qualities of surfaces and textures, which can be “palpated” visually or experienced by walking. Also the lived city is three-dimensional; its corporeal depth is discussed here in relation to the invisible sewers, protuberant profiles, and the formal diversity of roofscapes. A central role is ascribed in the present analysis to the formal similarities between the representation of the city by walking through it and the representation of the tactile form of objects. Additional aspects of the “tactile” experience of the city in a broad sense concern the feeling of their rhythms and the exposure to weather conditions. Finally, several aspects of contingency converge in the visible age of architectural works, which record traces of individual and collective histories.

  17. Smart cities and sharing economy

    OpenAIRE

    GORI, Paula; Parcu, Pier Luigi; STASI, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    The concepts of smart city and sharing economy are at the centre of a number of current debates, which touch upon, among others, issues like the current urbanisation trends, the particular economic situation we are facing in the last years, the spread of connectivity and of new technologies and the innovation process in general. This working paper looks at the different and common characteristics of both smart cities and sharing economy models, in order to explore their interaction and comple...

  18. Feicheng City of Peach Blossom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    IN Feicheng City, central Shandong Province, can be found the world’s largest peach orchard, recorded in the Guinness Book of World Records as covering 6,667 hectares. In spring, the city is permeated with the fragrance of peach blossom.Home of the "Buddha Peach"Peach growing in Feicheng has a history of 1,100 years. The Feicheng peach is distinctive for

  19. Deer Tracks in the City?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Cassie Fay; Beeman-Cadwallader, Nicole; Riggs, Morgan; Rodriguez, Antonia; Buck, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    "Why would a deer print be in the city?" wondered a student. She had noticed the track near a grocery store that morning with her mother. She was familiar with deer and had noticed their prints on a trip to a local museum; however, she had never seen a deer in the city before this experience. As she retold the story to her classmates, her question…

  20. KUNMING: The City of Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Kunming is the political, economic and cultural center of Yunnan province and the most popular center for tourism in Southwest China. Kunming enjoys a pleasant climate and does its best to live up to its title of "the City of Spring". Whenever you are planning to go, the temperature is always pleasant. With its convenient transport links in and out of the city, Kunming welcomes tens of thousands of tourists every day.

  1. Constructing a modern city machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Hanne; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    1998-01-01

    Based on the Copenhagen sewers debates and constructions the role of changing perceptions of water, hygiene and environment is discussed in relation to the modernisation of cities by machinating flows and infrastructures.......Based on the Copenhagen sewers debates and constructions the role of changing perceptions of water, hygiene and environment is discussed in relation to the modernisation of cities by machinating flows and infrastructures....

  2. FUSION CITIES - consolidation of movement

    OpenAIRE

    Sieber, Jula-Kim

    2009-01-01

    Urban, social, cultural analysis of fusion cities, two bordering cities growing together, with different types of borders: natural, artificial, political, and social. The work is displayed in maps and visual language. BRAKIN_natural : Brazzaville and Kinshasa by Humerto Sarabio and Marion Bouchard SAN JUANA_artificial : San Diego and Tijuana by Julio Obregon Zepeda and Anne Touchet JERUSALEM_political : East and West Jerusalem by Slobodan Subotić and Petko Gogov FAVEMINIO_social : Favela and ...

  3. Housing Booms and City Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Edward L. Glaeser; Joshua D. Gottlieb; Kristina Tobio

    2012-01-01

    Popular discussions often treat the great housing boom of the 1996-2006 period as if it were a national phenomenon with similar impacts across locales, but across metropolitan areas, price growth was dramatically higher in warmer, less educated cities with less initial density and higher initial housing values. Within metropolitan areas, price growth was faster in neighborhoods closer to the city center. The centralization of price growth during the boom was particularly dramatic in those met...

  4. INCREASING RETURN TO SMART CITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Lööf, Hans; Nabavi, Pardis

    2012-01-01

    Increased urbanization, global warming and sustainable growth belong to the major contemporary policy challenges. Today cities are home to more than 50% of the world population, the largest 600 urban centers generate about 60% of global GDP, and the agglomerated areas are responsible for 75% of world carbon emissions. The UN estimates that 70% of the world's growing population will live in cities by 2050. At the same time the world population is expected to increase from 7 billion people to 9...

  5. European Strategies for Smarter Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Barresi; Gabriella Pultrone

    2013-01-01

    On a worldwide scale, cities and regions must tackle the challenges set by the radical change in our society and in our economy, aiming to develop effective public policies and boost their managerial, evaluation and planning skills. Anyway, it is essential to put a new idea of city at the centre of the smart strategies in order to bring policies back to their former central position, since technologies alone cannot generate welfare and prosperity. Local leadership, integrated planning and a r...

  6. Beijing: Beyond the Olympic city

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Y

    2012-01-01

    Mega-event strategies have become part of a deliberate urban policy for cities around the world. There is a particular concern on how to combine the preparation of a mega-event with urban development processes that meet long-term demands. This paper examines how Beijing tried to use the Summer Olympic Games 2008 to fight its spatial and environmental problems, and create a new image for the city.

  7. Chapter 1. Direct and surrogate measures of soil water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance for field scientists who are not instrumentation experts but who wish to determine soil water content as part of their work. This publication is targeted to help those setting up soil water monitoring projects in the developing countries where expertise in many technologies is not readily available. However, it also has value to anyone planning a project involving the determination of field soil water content. Most importantly, it will also give some guidance as to what corroborative measurements are needed to check the performance of water sensing technology being used. A substantial suite of soil water sensors and technologies are available today. Some are well understood as to their technical capability and are both mechanically and electronically reliable. However, some technologies that claim to measure soil water content are quite unsuited to some applications and produce results that have little, if any, relation to soil water content in the field. This manual sets out a decision making process and critical factors for matching various water measurement technologies to project objectives. The first factor is the accuracy required by the user. The second is the degree of water content variability across the field to be measured. The third is the presence of interferences to the measurement process. And the fourth consists of the capabilities of the available devices in light of the spatial variability of water content and the interferences that are present. A successful outcome can only be obtained if all four factors are considered. Because this manual is intended to be a practical guide, it cannot be a simple one. Only reliable measurements are practically useful. The techniques involved in obtaining reliable values of soil water content are not simple, nor are the potential problems, pitfalls, and sensor interferences that can prevent good values from being obtained. The manual is divided into chapters that

  8. Jet Engine Noise Generation, Prediction and Control. Chapter 86

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Dennis L.; Envia, Edmane

    2004-01-01

    . An example of this type of engine is shown in Figure IC, which is a schematic of the Honeywell T55 engine that powers the CH-47 Chinook helicopter. Since the noise from the propellers or helicopter rotors is usually dominant for turbo-shaft engines, less attention has been paid to these engines in so far as community noise considerations are concerned. This chapter will concentrate mostly on turbofan engine noise and will highlight common methods for their noise prediction and reduction.

  9. Analysis Matrix for Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo E. Branchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current digital revolution has ignited the evolution of communications grids and the development of new schemes for productive systems. Traditional technologic scenarios have been challenged, and Smart Cities have become the basis for urban competitiveness. The citizen is the one who has the power to set new scenarios, and that is why a definition of the way people interact with their cities is needed, as is commented in the first part of the article. At the same time, a lack of clarity has been detected in the way of describing what Smart Cities are, and the second part will try to set the basis for that. For all before, the information and communication technologies that manage and transform 21st century cities must be reviewed, analyzing their impact on new social behaviors that shape the spaces and means of communication, as is posed in the experimental section, setting the basis for an analysis matrix to score the different elements that affect a Smart City environment. So, as the better way to evaluate what a Smart City is, there is a need for a tool to score the different technologies on the basis of their usefulness and consequences, considering the impact of each application. For all of that, the final section describes the main objective of this article in practical scenarios, considering how the technologies are used by citizens, who must be the main concern of all urban development.

  10. Life in The Country And The City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仕富; 伍章华

    2002-01-01

    City born and city bred, some people consider city life to be the life of the heaven, comparing it with the poverty, in their opinion, of the country. On the contrary, others are very tired of the city life and they are admiring to live in the peaceful country very much.

  11. City Marketing: Towards an Integrated Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Braun (Erik)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis PhD thesis deals with city marketing: cities making use of marketing ideas, concepts and tools. Marketing has proved its value in the business environment, but what about applying marketing in the context of cities? How can cities make effective use of the potential of marketing? T

  12. How To Save Our Shrinking Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybcznski, Witold; Linneman, Peter D.

    1999-01-01

    Explores solutions to the problem of shrinking cities, population declines in urban areas. Consolidation and de-annexation are not desirable alternatives, but for many shrinking cities no other workable alternative can be seen. The reality is that many cities will continue to shrink. Radical redesign can make cities better and smaller. (SLD)

  13. Venture capital in New England secondary cities

    OpenAIRE

    Carole Carlson; Prabal Chakrabarti

    2007-01-01

    Over the past two decades, venture capital has been one of the major drivers of the U.S. economy. This article examines venture capital investment in secondary cities, cities outside of the 40 largest U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), including New England secondary cities, and identifies factors that may explain how certain smaller cities attract venture capital.

  14. Chapter No.12. UJD personnel and economic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    second place belonged to employees at the age of 51-60 years representing 26% of overall number of employees. This statistics proves, that the state supervision was provided mostly by employees with the long-standing practice, i.e., by employees at the age of 41-60 years representing 62% of an overall number of employees. Other age categories were represented as follows: 23% of all employees at the age of 20-30 years, 10% of all employees at the age of 31-40 years an 5% of all employees at the age over 60 years. UJD as the central state body has an independent status and acts independently in the budgetary process, i.e., it has its own budgetary chapter with incomes and outcomes directly connected with the State Budget. In 2001, the state regulation and supervision over the nuclear safety was funded from the State Budget amounting to SKK 77,911 thousands. Apart from these funds, UJD used the extra-budgetary funds from abroad (from the Swiss Government through the SWISSLOVAK, SWISSUP Project, Evita Project, IAEA Projects and from the Temporary Secretariat of Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organisation) amounting to SKK 1,773 thousands. Overall expenditures as of 31 December 2001 amounted to SKK 79,684 thousands. From total amount of budgetary funds, the amount of SKK 71,394 thousands was used as running expenditures and the amount of SKK 6,517 thousands was used for capital assets acquisition. Total amount of finance from the State Budget did not exceed the limit of available funds, i.e. the amount of SKK 3,685 thousands from the budgetary chapter was not drawn. This situation is connected with unrealised foreign transfers in favour of the international organisations (payment obligation did not arise) as well as with lower use of other current expenditures. Current foreign transfers amounting to SKK 24,967 thousands represented the largest portion of budgetary expenditures, i.e. transfer to EBRD on Chernobyl containment renovation, two contributions to IAEA Technical Co

  15. Developing living cities from analysis to action

    CERN Document Server

    Scientific, World

    2010-01-01

    With more and more of the world's population projected to live in urban areas, the life and death of cities has become a key factor in urban development considerations. This book attempts to bring an original contribution on the analysis of creating living cities. It advances the concept and framework of a ""living city"" and also explicates the key attributes of a ""living city"" that are increasingly critical to the reinvigoration and sustainable growth of cities.The book also seeks to document and compare Singapore's development as a ""living city"" with other cities around the world. Contr

  16. Architecture and Stages of the Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents more than 41 articles on ‘Architecture and Stages of the Experience City'. The aim of the book is to investigate current challenges related to architecture, art and city life in the ‘Experience City' and it is presenting cutting edge knowledge and experiences within the following...... themes: Experience City Making Digital Architecture Stages in the Experience City The City as a Learning Lab Experience City Architecture Performative Architecture Art and Performance Urban Catalyst and Temporary Use...

  17. Smartmentality: The Smart City as Disciplinary Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Vanolo

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyses the concept of the smart city in critical perspective, focusing on the power/knowledge implications for the contemporary city. On the one hand, smart city policies support new ways of imagining, organising and managing the city and its flows; on the other, they impress a new moral order on the city by introducing specific technical parameters in order to distinguish between the ‘good’ and ‘bad’ city. The smart city discourse may therefore be a powerful tool for the ...

  18. For the Smarter Good of Cities? On Cities, Complexity and Slippages in the Smart City Discourse’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Henriette; Veel, Kristin Eva Albrechtsen

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Cities for Smart Environmental and Energy Futures presents works written by eminent international experts from a variety of disciplines including architecture, engineering and related fields. Due to the ever-increasing focus on sustainable technologies, alternative energy sources......, and global social and urban issues, interest in the energy systems for cities of the future has grown in a wealth of disciplines. Some of the special features of this book include new findings on the city of the future from the macro to the micro level. These range from urban sustainability to indoor...... urbanism, and from strategies for cities and global climate change to material properties. The book is intended for graduate students and researchers active in architecture, engineering, the social and computational sciences, building physics and related fields....

  19. From city marketing to city branding : An interdisciplinary analysis with reference to Amsterdam, Budapest and Athens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavaratzis, Mihalis

    2008-01-01

    This thesis deals with the theory and practice of city marketing. It describes the transition from city marketing to city branding by identifying the roots of city marketing in general marketing theory, by adapting the concept of corporate-level marketing for the needs of cities and by analysing in

  20. Plan for city identity establishment and city marketing - the case of Kimpo city

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Inn

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide theoretical methods and practical strategies of crea-ting city identity, and to utilize them as basic tools of city management. Place marketing consists of two parts, place assets making and place promotion. Place asset making is the process of making the place-specific advantage or attractiveness and the place promotion is the process that makes notice of it. The place marketing debates and strategies is quite often confined to partial place marketing,...