WorldWideScience

Sample records for citation impact environments

  1. Visibility and Citation Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Nader Ale; Salehi, Hadi; Embi, Mohamed Amin; Tanha, Farid Habibi; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Motahar, Seyed Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The number of publications is the first criteria for assessing a researcher output. However, the main measurement for author productivity is the number of citations, and citations are typically related to the paper's visibility. In this paper, the relationship between article visibility and the number of citations is investigated. A case study of…

  2. The citation impact outside references - formal versus informal citations

    OpenAIRE

    Marx, Werner; Cardona, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    In this study the amount of informal citations (i.e. those mentioning only author names or their initials instead of the complete references) in comparison to the formal (full reference based) citations is analyzed using some pioneers of chemistry and physics as examples. The data reveal that the formal citations often measure only a small fraction of the overall impact of seminal publications. Furthermore, informal citations are mainly given instead of (and not in addition to) formal citatio...

  3. Gender and citation impact in management research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which a gender gap exists in the citation rates of management researchers. Based on a cross-sectional sample of 26,783 publications and 65,436 authorships, we illuminate possible differences in women’s and men’s average citation impact per paper, adjusting...... for covariation attributable to geographical setting, institutional reputation, self-citations, collaborative patterns and journal prestige. We find a marginal difference in citation impact in favor of women management scholars. Women are also slightly more likely than men to author articles among the top-10......% most cited in their field. Yet given the sensitivity of our results to uncertainties in the data, these variations should not be overgeneralized. In the large picture, differences in citation rates appear to be a negligible factor in the reproduction of gender inequalities in management research....

  4. Data publications correlate with citation impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Leitner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscience and molecular biology have been generating large datasets over the past years that are reshaping how research is being conducted. In their wake, open data sharing has been singled out as a major challenge for the future of research. We conducted a comparative study of citations of data publications in both fields, showing that the average publication tagged with a data-related term by the NCBI MeSH (Medical Subject Headings curators achieves a significantly larger citation impact than the average in either field. We introduce a new metric, the data article citation index (DAC-index, to identify the most prolific authors among those data-related publications. The study is fully reproducible from an executable Rmd (R Markdown script together with all the citation datasets. We hope these results can encourage authors to more openly publish their data.

  5. The citation impact of hydrology journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Martyn P.; Hanson, R. Brooks

    2017-06-01

    We examine a suite of journal-level productivity and citation statistics for six leading hydrology journals in order to help authors understand the robustness and meaning of journal impact factors. The main results are (1) the probability distribution of citations is remarkably homogenous across hydrology journals; (2) hydrology papers tend to have a long-lasting impact, with a large fraction of papers cited after the 2 year window used to calculate the journal impact factor; and (3) journal impact factors are characterized by substantial year-to-year variability (especially for smaller journals), primarily because a small number of highly cited papers have a large influence on the journal impact factor. Consequently, the ranking of hydrology journals with respect to the journal impact factor in a given year does not have much information content. These results highlight problems in using citation data to evaluate hydrologic science. We hope that this analysis helps authors better understand journal-level citation statistics, and also helps improve research assessments in institutions and funding agencies.

  6. Predicting the long-term citation impact of recent publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegehuis, Clara; Litvak, Nelli; Waltman, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental problem in citation analysis is the prediction of the long-term citation impact of recent publications. We propose a model to predict a probability distribution for the future number of citations of a publication. Two predictors are used: The impact factor of the journal in which a

  7. Predicting the long-term citation impact of recent publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegehuis, Clara; Litvak, Nelli; Waltman, Ludo

    A fundamental problem in citation analysis is the prediction of the long-term citation impact of recent publications. We propose a model to predict a probability distribution for the future number of citations of a publication. Two predictors are used: the impact factor of the journal in which a

  8. Unraveling Scientific Impact : Citation Types in Marketing Journals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stremersch (Stefan); N.M.A. Camacho (Nuno); S. Vanneste (Sofie); I.W.J. Verniers (Isabel)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe number of citations a paper receives is the most commonly used measure of scientific impact. In this paper, we study not only the number but also the type of citations that 659 marketing articles generated. We discern five citation types: application, affirmation, negation, review

  9. Impact of Wikipedia on citation trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marashi, Sayed-Amir; Hosseini-Nami, Seyed Mohammad Amin; Alishah, Khadijeh; Hadi, Mahdieh; Karimi, Ali; Hosseinian, Saeedeh; Fard, Rouhallah Ramezani; Mirhassani, Reihaneh Sadat; Hosseini, Zhaleh; Shojaie, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the "visibility" of an article influences its citation count. More specifically, it is believed that the social media can influence article citations.Here we tested the hypothesis that inclusion of scholarly references in Wikipedia affects the citation trends. To perform this analysis, we introduced a citation "propensity" measure, which is inspired by the concept of amino acid propensity for protein secondary structures. We show that although citation counts generally increase during time, the citation "propensity" does not increase after inclusion of a reference in Wikipedia.

  10. Evaluating Academic Journals Using Impact Factor and Local Citation Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hye-Kyung

    2007-01-01

    This study presents a method for journal collection evaluation using citation analysis. Cost-per-use (CPU) for each title is used to measure cost-effectiveness with higher CPU scores indicating cost-effective titles. Use data are based on the impact factor and locally collected citation score of each title and is compared to the cost of managing…

  11. Identifying Anomalous Citations for Objective Evaluation of Scholarly Article Impact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Bai

    Full Text Available Evaluating the impact of a scholarly article is of great significance and has attracted great attentions. Although citation-based evaluation approaches have been widely used, these approaches face limitations e.g. in identifying anomalous citations patterns. This negligence would inevitably cause unfairness and inaccuracy to the article impact evaluation. In this study, in order to discover the anomalous citations and ensure the fairness and accuracy of research outcome evaluation, we investigate the citation relationships between articles using the following factors: collaboration times, the time span of collaboration, citing times and the time span of citing to weaken the relationship of Conflict of Interest (COI in the citation network. Meanwhile, we study a special kind of COI, namely suspected COI relationship. Based on the COI relationship, we further bring forward the COIRank algorithm, an innovative scheme for accurately assessing the impact of an article. Our method distinguishes the citation strength, and utilizes PageRank and HITS algorithms to rank scholarly articles comprehensively. The experiments are conducted on the American Physical Society (APS dataset. We find that about 80.88% articles contain contributed citations by co-authors in 26,366 articles and 75.55% articles among these articles are cited by the authors belonging to the same affiliation, indicating COI and suspected COI should not be ignored for evaluating impact of scientific papers objectively. Moreover, our experimental results demonstrate COIRank algorithm significantly outperforms the state-of-art solutions. The validity of our approach is verified by using the probability of Recommendation Intensity.

  12. Identifying Anomalous Citations for Objective Evaluation of Scholarly Article Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaomei; Xia, Feng; Lee, Ivan; Zhang, Jun; Ning, Zhaolong

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating the impact of a scholarly article is of great significance and has attracted great attentions. Although citation-based evaluation approaches have been widely used, these approaches face limitations e.g. in identifying anomalous citations patterns. This negligence would inevitably cause unfairness and inaccuracy to the article impact evaluation. In this study, in order to discover the anomalous citations and ensure the fairness and accuracy of research outcome evaluation, we investigate the citation relationships between articles using the following factors: collaboration times, the time span of collaboration, citing times and the time span of citing to weaken the relationship of Conflict of Interest (COI) in the citation network. Meanwhile, we study a special kind of COI, namely suspected COI relationship. Based on the COI relationship, we further bring forward the COIRank algorithm, an innovative scheme for accurately assessing the impact of an article. Our method distinguishes the citation strength, and utilizes PageRank and HITS algorithms to rank scholarly articles comprehensively. The experiments are conducted on the American Physical Society (APS) dataset. We find that about 80.88% articles contain contributed citations by co-authors in 26,366 articles and 75.55% articles among these articles are cited by the authors belonging to the same affiliation, indicating COI and suspected COI should not be ignored for evaluating impact of scientific papers objectively. Moreover, our experimental results demonstrate COIRank algorithm significantly outperforms the state-of-art solutions. The validity of our approach is verified by using the probability of Recommendation Intensity.

  13. Citation Impact of Collaboration in Radiology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Parikh, Ujas; Duszak, Richard

    2017-11-01

    Team science involving multidisciplinary and multi-institutional collaboration is increasingly recognized as a means of strengthening the quality of scientific research. The aim of this study was to assess associations between various forms of collaboration and the citation impact of published radiology research. In 2010, 876 original research articles published in Academic Radiology, the American Journal of Roentgenology, JACR, and Radiology were identified with at least one radiology-affiliated author. All articles were manually reviewed to extract features related to all authors' disciplines and institutions. Citations to these articles through September 2016 were extracted from Thomson Reuters Web of Science. Subsequent journal article citation counts were significantly higher (P analysis, the strongest independent predictors of the number of citations were authors from multiple countries (β = 9.14, P = .002), a nonuniversity collaborator (β = 4.80, P = .082), and at least seven authors (β = 4.11, P = .038). With respect to subsequent journal article citations, various forms of collaboration are associated with greater scholarly impact of published radiology research. To enhance the relevance of their research, radiology investigators are encouraged to pursue collaboration across traditional disciplinary, institutional, and geographic boundaries. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lovely but dangerous: The impact of patent citations on patent duration

    OpenAIRE

    Maurseth, Per Botolf

    2001-01-01

    - What is the impact of patent citations on patent renewal behaviour? Patent citations are commonly used as an indicator of technology spillovers. For cited patents therefore, patent citations have a potentially ambiguous impact. On the one hand, patent citations may indicate a scientific breakthrough, a high value of the cited patent and therefore a long survival period. On the other hand, patent citations may indicate competing innovations that render the cited patent obsolete. By discri...

  15. Publication Metrics of Dental Journals - What is the Role of Self Citations in Determining the Impact Factor of Journals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, Satheesh; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of the present study are to examine the publication metrics of dental journals and to delineate the role of self citations in determining the impact factor of journals. The Journal Citation Reports database was used. All dental journals that had an impact factor assigned for year 2013 were selected. The outcomes were Impact Factor (IF), Eigenfactor™ (EF), article influence score (AIS), and proportion of self-citations to total citations. Independent variables were geographic region of journal and ranking of journal (based on IF). Non-parametric tests were used to examine the associations between outcomes and independent variables. During the year 2013, 82 journals in dentistry had an IF. Mean IF was 1.489 and mean IF without including self-citations was 1.231. Mean EF scores and AIS were .00458 and .5141 respectively. Mean percentage of self cites to total citations for all dental journals was 12.24%. Higher ranking journals were associated with significantly higher EF and AIS. Journals published in USA/Canada or Europe were associated with higher IF and EF compared to those published in other regions. There were no differences in percentages of self citations to total citations either across journal rankings or geographic region. Top ranking journals tend to have higher IFs due to higher EF and AIS rather than by self-citations. Self-citations increase the impact factors of dental journals by 21%. There was no geographic influence in the percentage of self-citations to total citations thus indicating a healthy dental scientific publishing environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A large-scale analysis of impact factor biased journal self-citations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chorus, C.G.; Waltman, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Based on three decades of citation data from across scientific fields of science, we study trends in impact factor biased self-citations of scholarly journals, using a purpose-built and easy to use citation based measure. Our measure is given by the ratio between i) the relative share of journal

  17. Impact maturity times and citation time windows: The 2-year maximum journal impact factor

    CERN Document Server

    Dorta-Gonzalez, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Journal metrics are employed for the assessment of scientific scholar journals from a general bibliometric perspective. In this context, the Thomson Reuters journal impact factors (JIF) are the citation-based indicators most used. The 2-year journal impact factor (2-JIF) counts citations to one and two year old articles, while the 5-year journal impact factor (5-JIF) counts citations from one to five year old articles. Nevertheless, these indicators are not comparable among fields of science for two reasons: (i) each field has a different impact maturity time, and (ii) because of systematic differences in publication and citation behaviour across disciplines. In fact, the 5-JIF firstly appeared in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) in 2007 with the purpose of making more comparable impacts in fields in which impact matures slowly. However, there is not an optimal fixed impact maturity time valid for all the fields. In some of them two years provides a good performance whereas in others three or more years are...

  18. Predicting long-term citation impact of articles in social and personality psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Nick; Koval, Peter

    2010-06-01

    The citation impact of a comprehensive sample of articles published in social and personality psychology journals in 1998 was evaluated. Potential predictors of the 10-yr. citation impact of 1580 articles from 37 journals were investigated, including number of authors, number of references, journal impact factor, author nationality, and article length, using linear regression. The impact factor of the journal in which articles appeared was the primary predictor of the citations that they accrued, accounting for 30% of the total variance. Articles with greater length, more references, and more authors were cited relatively often, although the citation advantage of longer articles was not proportionate to their length. A citation advantage was also enjoyed by authors from the United States of America, Canada, and the United Kingdom. 37% of the variance in the total number of citations was accounted for by the study variables.

  19. [The impact factor and citation frequency of Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology from 2000 to 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kun-fang; Wen, Feng

    2011-08-01

    From the point of impact factor and citation to evaluate the academic level and influence of Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology (CJO). Using the impact factor (IF) data provided by China Science and Technology Journal Citation Reports (CJCR), and the information of Chinese Medical citation Index (CMCI/CMCC integrated version), the citations from CJO were collected and analyzed with bibliometric methods. From 2000 to 2008, the IF of CJO were 0.573, 0.863, 0.702, 0.745, 0.877, 1.031, 0.807, 0.875 and 0.533. From 2000 to 2009, 2485 papers were published in CJO, 1562 of them were referenced (9294 times). The frequency of total citation rate was 62.86%. The region with the highest citation frequency was Guangdong (2661 times), followed by Beijing (2200 times), Shandong (926 times) and Shanghai (901 times). As to the institution, the top of rank was Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center of Sun Yat-Sen University (with 277 papers, 201 citations and 2193 times of citation frequency) and Beijing Tongren Eye Center (with 197 papers, 106 citations and 507 times of citation frequency). The IF of CJO was stable, and ranked first in domestic academic of Ophthalmology. Meanwhile, it had a higher frequency of Citation, which shows that CJO has high quality and strong influence, and become one of main core ophthalmology journals in China.

  20. Bibliometrics of systematic reviews: analysis of citation rates and journal impact factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews are important for informing clinical practice and health policy. The aim of this study was to examine the bibliometrics of systematic reviews and to determine the amount of variance in citations predicted by the journal impact factor (JIF) alone and combined with several other characteristics. Methods We conducted a bibliometric analysis of 1,261 systematic reviews published in 2008 and the citations to them in the Scopus database from 2008 to June 2012. Potential predictors of the citation impact of the reviews were examined using descriptive, univariate and multiple regression analysis. Results The mean number of citations per review over four years was 26.5 (SD ±29.9) or 6.6 citations per review per year. The mean JIF of the journals in which the reviews were published was 4.3 (SD ±4.2). We found that 17% of the reviews accounted for 50% of the total citations and 1.6% of the reviews were not cited. The number of authors was correlated with the number of citations (r = 0.215, P reviews published in the top quartile of JIFs (≥ 5.16) received citations in the bottom quartile (eight or fewer), whereas 9% of reviews published in the lowest JIF quartile (≤ 2.06) received citations in the top quartile (34 or more). Six percent of reviews in journals with no JIF were also in the first quartile of citations. Conclusions The JIF predicted over half of the variation in citations to the systematic reviews. However, the distribution of citations was markedly skewed. Some reviews in journals with low JIFs were well-cited and others in higher JIF journals received relatively few citations; hence the JIF did not accurately represent the number of citations to individual systematic reviews. PMID:24028376

  1. Comparison of Journal Citation Reports and Scopus Impact Factors for Ecology and Environmental Sciences Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Edward; Hodkinson, Sarah Z.

    2008-01-01

    Impact factors for journals listed under the subject categories "ecology" and "environmental sciences" in the Journal Citation Reports database were calculated using citation data from the Scopus database. The journals were then ranked by their Scopus impact factor and compared to the ranked lists of the same journals derived from Journal…

  2. A Comparative Study of the Citation Impact of Chinese Journals with Government Priority Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, P.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the citation impact of Chinese journals, relevant Chinese government agencies have launched a program entitled Citation Impact Upgrading Plan (CIUP) with financial support. Only a few journals that perform better have been screened out for CIUP support. This study tries to figure

  3. A Large-Scale Analysis of Impact Factor Biased Journal Self-Citations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorus, Caspar; Waltman, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Based on three decades of citation data from across scientific fields of science, we study trends in impact factor biased self-citations of scholarly journals, using a purpose-built and easy to use citation based measure. Our measure is given by the ratio between i) the relative share of journal self-citations to papers published in the last two years, and ii) the relative share of journal self-citations to papers published in preceding years. A ratio higher than one suggests that a journal's impact factor is disproportionally affected (inflated) by self-citations. Using recently reported survey data, we show that there is a relation between high values of our proposed measure and coercive journal self-citation malpractices. We use our measure to perform a large-scale analysis of impact factor biased journal self-citations. Our main empirical result is, that the share of journals for which our measure has a (very) high value has remained stable between the 1980s and the early 2000s, but has since risen strongly in all fields of science. This time span corresponds well with the growing obsession with the impact factor as a journal evaluation measure over the last decade. Taken together, this suggests a trend of increasingly pervasive journal self-citation malpractices, with all due unwanted consequences such as inflated perceived importance of journals and biased journal rankings.

  4. A Large-Scale Analysis of Impact Factor Biased Journal Self-Citations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspar Chorus

    Full Text Available Based on three decades of citation data from across scientific fields of science, we study trends in impact factor biased self-citations of scholarly journals, using a purpose-built and easy to use citation based measure. Our measure is given by the ratio between i the relative share of journal self-citations to papers published in the last two years, and ii the relative share of journal self-citations to papers published in preceding years. A ratio higher than one suggests that a journal's impact factor is disproportionally affected (inflated by self-citations. Using recently reported survey data, we show that there is a relation between high values of our proposed measure and coercive journal self-citation malpractices. We use our measure to perform a large-scale analysis of impact factor biased journal self-citations. Our main empirical result is, that the share of journals for which our measure has a (very high value has remained stable between the 1980s and the early 2000s, but has since risen strongly in all fields of science. This time span corresponds well with the growing obsession with the impact factor as a journal evaluation measure over the last decade. Taken together, this suggests a trend of increasingly pervasive journal self-citation malpractices, with all due unwanted consequences such as inflated perceived importance of journals and biased journal rankings.

  5. Impact of the web on citation and information-seeking behaviour of academics

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    D.Litt. et Phil. This study investigated the impact of the Web on the information-seeking and citation behaviour of Unisa academics. The research study was executed in two phases. Phase 1 consisted of a Web citation analysis and phase 2 a questionnaire. Phase 1 explored how the availability of Web information resources affected the scholarly citation behaviour of Unisa academics by determining the relationship between Web-based references and non-Web-based references in the reference lists...

  6. [Analysis of the impact of Archivos de Bronconeumología through the Science Citation Index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, F; Mayoralas, S; Dorgham, A; Granda, I; Perpiñá, M; Casan, P; Xaubet, A; Agustí, A G; Alvarez-Sala, J L

    2001-12-01

    To describe the impact factor of Archivos de Bronconeumología from 1997 until 2000 and to identify the patterns of citation of the journal and topics having the greatest impact. SCISEARCH was used to locate citations of articles published by Archivos de Bronconeumología between 1995 and 1999. The following data were collected for each article: year of publication, authors, journal, country of publication, language, specialty or specialties, institution(s), residence of the first author and topic. The impact factor was calculated as the ratio of citations received in one year by articles published in Archivos de Bronconeumología during the two previous years and the total number of articles published by Archivos de Bronconeumología over the two years under study. The impact factor of Archivos de Bronconeumología was 0.107 in 1997, 0.089 in 1998, 0.105 in 1999 and 0.119 in 2000. Citations were found in a wide range of source journals, with respiratory system publications having little weight. Citations were made mainly by Spanish authors (75%) and self-citation was restrained (21.1%). Topics related to tuberculosis and respiratory infections (23.6% of the citations received) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (12.5%) made the greatest impact. The impact factor of Archivos de Bronconeumología is modest, although higher than those of some other publications included in Journal Citation Reports.

  7. The more publication, the higher impact factor: citation analysis of top nine gastroenterology and hepatology journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi Elizee, Pegah; Karimzadeh Ghassab, Romina; Raoofi, Azam; Miri, Seyyed Mohammad

    2012-12-01

    The impact factor (IF), as the most important criterion for journal's quality measurement, is affected by the self-citation and number of publications in each journal. To find out the relationship between the number of publications and self-citations in a journal, and their correlations with IF. Self-citations and impact factors of nine top gastroenterology and hepatology journals were assessed during the seven recent years (2005-2011) through Journal Citation Reports (JCR, ISI Thomson Reuters). Although impact factors of all journals increased during the study, five out of nine journals increased the number of publications from 2005 to 2011. There was an increase in self-citation only in the journal of HEPATOLOGY (499 in 2005 vs. 707 in 2011). Impact factors of journals (6.5 ± 3.5) were positively correlated with total number of publications (248.6 ± 91.7) (R: 0.688, P impact factor without self-citation (6.08 ± 3.3) had a correlation (R: 0.672, P < 0.001) with the number of published items (248.6 ± 91.7). The number of articles and self-citation have definite effects on IF of a journal and because IF is the most prominent criterion for journal's quality measurement, it would be a good idea to consider factors affecting on IF such as self-citation.

  8. Scientific impact of studies published in temporarily available radiation oncology journals: a citation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieder, Carsten; Geinitz, Hans; Andratschke, Nicolaus H; Grosu, Anca L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review all articles published in two temporarily available radiation oncology journals (Radiation Oncology Investigations, Journal of Radiosurgery) in order to evaluate their scientific impact. From several potential measures of impact and relevance of research, we selected article citation rate because landmark or practice-changing research is likely to be cited frequently. The citation database Scopus was used to analyse number of citations. During the time period 1996-1999 the journal Radiation Oncology Investigations published 205 articles, which achieved a median number of 6 citations (range 0-116). However, the most frequently cited article in the first 4 volumes achieved only 23 citations. The Journal of Radiosurgery published only 31 articles, all in the year 1999, which achieved a median number of 1 citation (range 0-11). No prospective randomized studies or phase I-II collaborative group trials were published in these journals. Apparently, the Journal of Radiosurgery acquired relatively few manuscripts that were interesting and important enough to impact clinical practice. Radiation Oncology Investigations' citation pattern was better and closer related to that reported in several previous studies focusing on the field of radiation oncology. The vast majority of articles published in temporarily available radiation oncology journals had limited clinical impact and achieved few citations. Highly influential research was unlikely to be submitted during the initial phase of establishing new radiation oncology journals.

  9. An evaluation of impacts in "Nanoscience & nanotechnology:" Steps towards standards for citation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.

    2013-01-01

    One is inclined to conceptualize impact in terms of citations per publication, and thus as an average. However, citation distributions are skewed, and the average has the disadvantage that the number of publications is used in the denominator. Using hundred percentiles, one can integrate the

  10. Citation Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Nicolaisen, Jeppe

    2017-01-01

    Citation frequencies are commonly interpreted as measures of quality or impact. Yet, the true nature of citations and their proper interpretation have been the center of a long, but still unresolved discussion in Bibliometrics. A comparison of 67,578 pairs of studies on the same healthcare topic......, with the same publication age (1–15 years) reveals that when one of the studies is being selected for citation, it has on average received about three times as many citations as the other study. However, the average citation-gap between selected or deselected studies narrows slightly over time, which fits...

  11. How to improve the prediction based on citation impact percentiles for years shortly after the publication date?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornmann, L.; Leydesdorff, L.; Wang, J.

    2014-01-01

    The findings of Bornmann, Leydesdorff, and Wang (2013b) revealed that the consideration of journal impact improves the prediction of long-term citation impact. This paper further explores the possibility of improving citation impact measurements on the base of a short citation window by the

  12. Highest Impact Articles in Microsurgery: A Citation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kuylhee; Ibrahim, Ahmed M S; Koolen, Pieter G L; Markarian, Mark K; Lee, Bernard T; Lin, Samuel J

    2015-09-01

    Microsurgery has developed significantly since the inception of the first surgical microscope. There have been few attempts to describe "classic" microsurgery articles. In this study citation analysis was done to identify the most highly cited clinical and basic science articles published in five peer-reviewed plastic surgery journals. Thomson/Reuters web of knowledge was used to identify the most highly cited microsurgery articles from five journals: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Annals of Plastic Surgery, Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery, Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery, and Microsurgery. Articles were identified and sorted based on the number of citations and citations per year. The 50 most cited clinical and basic science articles were identified. For clinical articles, number of total citations ranged from 120 to 691 (mean, 212.38) and citations per year ranged from 30.92 to 3.05 (mean, 9.33). The most common defect site was the head and neck (n = 15, 30%), and flaps were perforator and muscle/musculocutaneous flaps (n = 10 each, 20%, respectively). For basic science articles, number of citations ranged from 71 to 332 (mean, 130.82) and citations per year ranged from 2.20 to 11.07 (mean, 5.27). There were 27 animal, 21 cadaveric, and 2 combined studies. The most highly cited microsurgery articles are a direct reflection of the educational and clinical trends. Awareness of the most frequently cited articles may serve as a basis for core knowledge in the education of plastic surgery trainees. III. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Impact factor of Korean Journal of Pediatrics on Korean Medical Citation Index and Science Citation Index of Web of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Chong Woo; Choi, Sun Hee; Han, Man Yong; Rha, Yeong Ho; Lee, Young Jin

    2011-04-01

    The total number of times a paper is cited, also known as the impact factor (IF) of a medical journal, is widely implied in evaluating the quality of a research paper. We evaluated the citation index data as an IF of Korean J Pediatr in Korean Medical Citation Index (KoMCI) and JCI of Web of Science. We calculated the IF of Korean J Pediatr at KoMCI supervised by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. And we estimated the IF of Korean J Pediatr by the JCI of Web of Science although it was never officially reported. The IF of Korean J Pediatr on KoMCI has increased from 0.100 in the year 2000, to 0.205 in 2008, and 0.326 in 2009. Although the IF of Korean J Pediatr was 0.006 in 2005, 0.018 in 2006, 0.028 in 2008, 0.066 in 2009, and 0.018 in 2010 according to the JCI of Web of Science, the number of citations are steadily increasing. Understanding and realizing the current status will be a stepping stone for further improvement. The next objective of the Korean J Pediatr is to become registered in the SCI or SCIE. Increasing the IF according to the JCI of Web of Science is crucial in order to achieve this goal.

  14. Citation analysis may severely underestimate the impact of clinical research as compared to basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eck, Nees Jan; Waltman, Ludo; van Raan, Anthony F J; Klautz, Robert J M; Peul, Wilco C

    2013-01-01

    Citation analysis has become an important tool for research performance assessment in the medical sciences. However, different areas of medical research may have considerably different citation practices, even within the same medical field. Because of this, it is unclear to what extent citation-based bibliometric indicators allow for valid comparisons between research units active in different areas of medical research. A visualization methodology is introduced that reveals differences in citation practices between medical research areas. The methodology extracts terms from the titles and abstracts of a large collection of publications and uses these terms to visualize the structure of a medical field and to indicate how research areas within this field differ from each other in their average citation impact. Visualizations are provided for 32 medical fields, defined based on journal subject categories in the Web of Science database. The analysis focuses on three fields: Cardiac & cardiovascular systems, Clinical neurology, and Surgery. In each of these fields, there turn out to be large differences in citation practices between research areas. Low-impact research areas tend to focus on clinical intervention research, while high-impact research areas are often more oriented on basic and diagnostic research. Popular bibliometric indicators, such as the h-index and the impact factor, do not correct for differences in citation practices between medical fields. These indicators therefore cannot be used to make accurate between-field comparisons. More sophisticated bibliometric indicators do correct for field differences but still fail to take into account within-field heterogeneity in citation practices. As a consequence, the citation impact of clinical intervention research may be substantially underestimated in comparison with basic and diagnostic research.

  15. Citation Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaio, Gianfranco Di; Waldenström, Daniel; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the determinants of citation success among authors who have recently published their work in economic history journals. Besides offering clues about how to improve one's scientific impact, our citation analysis also sheds light on the state of the field of economic history....... Consistent with our expectations, we find that full professors, authors appointed at economics and history departments, and authors working in Anglo-Saxon and German countries are more likely to receive citations than other scholars. Long and co-authored articles are also a factor for citation success. We...... find similar patterns when assessing the same authors' citation success in economics journals. As a novel feature, we demonstrate that the diffusion of research — publication of working papers, as well as conference and workshop presentations — has a first-order positive impact on the citation rate....

  16. Citations for Randomized Controlled Trials in Sepsis Literature: The Halo Effect Caused by Journal Impact Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongheng; Poucke, Sven Van

    2017-01-01

    Citations for randomized controlled trials (RCT) are important for the dissemination of study results. However, predictors of citations for RCTs have not been investigated. The study aimed to investigate the predictors of citations for RCTs in sepsis literature. RCTs that investigated the efficacy of treatment strategies on clinical outcomes in sepsis patients were included, and publication dates were restricted to the period from 2000 to 2016. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews and interventions. A multivariable linear regression model was built to investigate the independent variables associated with total citations. In total, 160 RCTs met our inclusion criteria and were included for analysis. The median of total citations was 28.5 (IQR: 6-76). The journal impact factor (IF) for articles was 6.312 (IQR: 3.143-7.214). The dependent variable was transformed by the square root to improve normality and meet the assumption of homoscedasticity. The journal IF (coefficient: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.25) was independently associated with total citations. Large samples were associated with more total citations (coefficient: 0.0026; 95% CI: 0.0013, 0.0039). The study demonstrated that the journal IF was a major determinant of the RCT's total citation number.

  17. Citation Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Nicolaisen, Jeppe

    2017-01-01

    Citation frequencies are commonly interpreted as measures of quality or impact. Yet, the true nature of citations and their proper interpretation have been the center of a long, but still unresolved discussion in Bibliometrics. A comparison of 67,578 pairs of studies on the same healthcare topic,...

  18. Psychiatry and the Hirsch h-index: The relationship between journal impact factors and accrued citations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Glenn E; Cleary, Michelle; Walter, Garry

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable debate on the use and abuse of journal impact factors and on selecting the most appropriate indicator to assess research outcome for an individual or group of scientists. Internet searches using Web of Science and Scopus were conducted to retrieve citation data for an individual in order to calculate nine variants of Hirsch's h-index. Citations to articles published in a wide range of psychiatric journals in the periods 1995-99 and 2000-05 were analyzed using Web of Science. Comparisons were made between journal impact factor, h-index of citations from publication to 2008, and the proportion of articles cited at least 30 or 50 times. For up to 14 years post-publication, there was a strong positive relationship between journal impact factor and h-index for citations received. Journal impact factor was also compared to the percentage of articles cited at least 30 or 50 times-a comparison that showed wide variations between journals with similar impact factors. This study found that 40%-50% of the articles published in the top ten psychiatry journals ranked by impact factor acquire 30 to 50 citations within ten to fifteen years. Despite certain flaws and weaknesses, the h-index provides a better way to assess long-term performance of articles or authors than using a journal's impact factor, and it provides an alternative way to assess a journal's long-term ranking.

  19. Examining the Impact of Chemistry Education Research Articles from 2007 through 2013 by Citation Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Li; Lewis, Scott E.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Oueini, Razanne

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating the impact of Chemistry Education Research articles has historically centered on the impact factor of the publishing journal. With the advent of electronic journal indices, it is possible to determine the impact of individual research articles by the number of citations it has received. However, in a relatively new discipline, such as…

  20. Inaccurate Citations in Biomedical Journalism: Effect on the Impact Factor of the American Journal of Roentgenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, Nevzat

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of incorrect citations and its effects on the impact factor of a specific biomedical journal: the American Journal of Roentgenology. The Cited Reference Search function of Thomson Reuters' Web of Science database (formerly the Institute for Scientific Information's Web of Knowledge database) was used to identify erroneous citations. This was done by entering the journal name into the Cited Work field and entering "2011-2012" into the Cited Year(s) field. The errors in any part of the inaccurately cited references (e.g., author names, title, year, volume, issue, and page numbers) were recorded, and the types of errors (i.e., absent, deficient, or mistyped) were analyzed. Erroneous citations were corrected using the Suggest a Correction function of the Web of Science database. The effect of inaccurate citations on the impact factor of the AJR was calculated. Overall, 183 of 1055 citable articles published in 2011-2012 were inaccurately cited 423 times (mean [± SD], 2.31 ± 4.67 times; range, 1-44 times). Of these 183 articles, 110 (60.1%) were web-only articles and 44 (24.0%) were print articles. The most commonly identified errors were page number errors (44.8%) and misspelling of an author's name (20.2%). Incorrect citations adversely affected the impact factor of the AJR by 0.065 in 2012 and by 0.123 in 2013. Inaccurate citations are not infrequent in biomedical journals, yet they can be detected and corrected using the Web of Science database. Although the accuracy of references is primarily the responsibility of authors, the journal editorial office should also define a periodic inaccurate citation check task and correct erroneous citations to reclaim unnecessarily lost credit.

  1. Self-citation rates among medical imaging journals and a possible association with impact factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurmis, Timothy P. [Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma, Royal Adelaide Hospital, South Australia (Australia)], E-mail: tim.kurmis@health.sa.gov.au; Kurmis, Andrew P. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Victoria (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Since conceptualisation in 1955, journal impact factors (IFs) have evolved as surrogate markers of perceived 'quality'. However, no previous research has explored the relationship between IF and journal self-citation rate, which may inflate this measure. Given Radiography's ongoing push to achieve Medline and ISI database inclusion, this paper aimed to quantitatively explore the frequency of self-citation and correlate this with ISI-reported IF. Methods: A review of articles published in two peer-reviewed, Medline and ISI-listed, imaging journals (Radiology and Academic Radiology), and Radiography, within in a 12-month period, was performed. The total number of citations and self-citations per article was recorded, and the results compared. Basic statistical and correlation analyses between listed IF ratings and self-citation indices were also performed. Results and Discussion: To our knowledge, this work represents the preliminary investigation exploring the association between ISI-listed IF and self-citation frequency. From the current results it can be suggested that such a relationship does exist, as demonstrated by the strongly positive correlation statistic (Pearson's r{sup 2} = 0.99). Radiology was noted to have a considerably larger mean number of self-citations per article than the other two journals (p < 0.01), despite near-equivalent numbers of references per article. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that there may be relationship between an ISI-listed IFs and journal self-citation rates. It is hoped that this paper will be of interest in academic and research circles, both within medical imaging and more widely, and may provide impetus for discussion relating to self-citation frequency and influence on resultant IF calculations.

  2. Self-citation rate and impact factor in the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Shimpei

    2018-02-01

    Journal ranking based on the impact factor (IF) can be distorted by self-citation. The aim of this study is to investigate the present status of self-citation in the plastic surgery journals and its effect on the journals' IFs. IF, IF without self-citations (corrected IF), self-cited rate, and self-citing rate for 11 plastic surgery journals were investigated from 2009-2015, by reviewing the Journal Citation Report ® . The correlations of the IF with the self-cited rate and the self-citing rate were statistically assessed. In addition, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery was compared with 15 top journals from other surgical specialties in 2015. IF was significantly correlated with the self-cited rate (R: 0.594, p = 0.001) and the self-citing rate (R: 0.824, p < 0.001). The self-cited rate of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery in 2015 was higher than that of top journals from other surgical specialties. The IFs of Microsurgery and Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery increased greatly in recent years, but they were inflated by high self-cited and self-citing rates. The self-citation rate positively affects the IF in plastic surgery journals. A high concentration of self-citation of some journals could distort the ranking among plastic surgery journals in general.

  3. Analysis of self-citation and impact factor in dermatology journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Ofer; Mimouni, Michael; Mimouni, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the impact factor's (IF) accuracy and credibility, which may be affected by different factors, including self-citations. To investigate the self-citation rate (SCR) of dermatology journals and its relationship to the IF. Data on all dermatology journals listed in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) were retrieved, and the following parameters were analyzed: IF, total publications used to calculate the IF, total citations used to calculate the IF, self-citations used to calculate the IF, SCR, and IF without self-citations (corrected IF). The median SCR was 10.53% (0-50%), and the median IF and corrected IF, 1.54 (0.05-6.37) and 1.35 (0.03-5.84), respectively. There was an inverse correlation between the IF and the SCR. A statistically significant difference was noted in the SCR between general and subspecialty journals and between journals that offered a full English text and those that did not. In general, the IF of dermatology journals is not influenced by the SCR. However, journals with a lower IF tend to have a higher SCR. Subspecialty journals and foreign language journals have a higher SCR than general dermatology and English language journals, respectively, probably owing to their limited distribution and the difficulty experienced by international authors in accessing references in specific languages. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  4. Does Interdisciplinary Research Lead to Higher Citation Impact? The Different Effect of Proximal and Distal Interdisciplinarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegros-Yegros, Alfredo; Rafols, Ismael; D’Este, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the effect of degree of interdisciplinarity on the citation impact of individual publications for four different scientific fields. We operationalise interdisciplinarity as disciplinary diversity in the references of a publication, and rather than treating interdisciplinarity as a monodimensional property, we investigate the separate effect of different aspects of diversity on citation impact: i.e. variety, balance and disparity. We use a Tobit regression model to examine the effect of these properties of interdisciplinarity on citation impact, controlling for a range of variables associated with the characteristics of publications. We find that variety has a positive effect on impact, whereas balance and disparity have a negative effect. Our results further qualify the separate effect of these three aspects of diversity by pointing out that all three dimensions of interdisciplinarity display a curvilinear (inverted U-shape) relationship with citation impact. These findings can be interpreted in two different ways. On the one hand, they are consistent with the view that, while combining multiple fields has a positive effect in knowledge creation, successful research is better achieved through research efforts that draw on a relatively proximal range of fields, as distal interdisciplinary research might be too risky and more likely to fail. On the other hand, these results may be interpreted as suggesting that scientific audiences are reluctant to cite heterodox papers that mix highly disparate bodies of knowledge—thus giving less credit to publications that are too groundbreaking or challenging. PMID:26266805

  5. Citation analysis of orthopaedic literature; 18 major orthopaedic journals compared for Impact Factor and SCImago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebelt, Michiel; Siebelt, Teun; Pilot, Peter; Bloem, Rolf M; Bhandari, Mohit; Poolman, Rudolf W

    2010-01-04

    One of the disadvantages of the Impact Factor (IF) is self-citation. The SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) indicator excludes self-citations and considers the quality, rather than absolute numbers, of citations of a journal by other journals. The present study re-evaluated the influence of self-citation on the 2007 IF for 18 major orthopaedic journals and investigated the difference in ranking between IF and SJR. The journals were analysed for self-citation both overall and divided into a general group (n = 8) and a specialized group (n = 10). Self-cited and self-citing rates, as well as citation densities and IFs corrected for self-citation (cIF), were calculated. The rankings of the 18 journals by IF and by SJR were compared and the absolute difference between these rankings (DeltaR) was determined. Specialized journals had higher self-citing rates (p = 0.01, Deltamedian = 9.50, 95%CI -19.42 to 0.42), higher self-cited rates (p = 0.0004, Deltamedian = -10.50, 95%CI -15.28 to -5.72) and greater differences between IF and cIF (p = 0.003, Deltamedian = 3.50, 95%CI -6.1 to 13.1). There was no significant correlation between self-citing rate and IF for both groups (general: r = 0.46, p = 0.27; specialized: r = 0.21, p = 0.56). When the difference in ranking between IF and SJR was compared between both groups, sub-specialist journals were ranked lower compared to their general counterparts (DeltaR: p = 0.006, Deltamedian = 2.0, 95%CI -0.39 to 4.39). Citation analysis shows that specialized orthopaedic journals have specific self-citation tendencies. The correlation between self-cited rate and IF in our sample was large but, due to small sample size, not significant. The SJR excludes self-citations in its calculation and therefore enhances the underestimation in ranking of specialized journals.

  6. Citation analysis of orthopaedic literature; 18 major orthopaedic journals compared for Impact Factor and SCImago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloem Rolf M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the disadvantages of the Impact Factor (IF is self-citation. The SCImago Journal Rank (SJR indicator excludes self-citations and considers the quality, rather than absolute numbers, of citations of a journal by other journals. The present study re-evaluated the influence of self-citation on the 2007 IF for 18 major orthopaedic journals and investigated the difference in ranking between IF and SJR. Methods The journals were analysed for self-citation both overall and divided into a general group (n = 8 and a specialized group (n = 10. Self-cited and self-citing rates, as well as citation densities and IFs corrected for self-citation (cIF, were calculated. The rankings of the 18 journals by IF and by SJR were compared and the absolute difference between these rankings (ΔR was determined. Results Specialized journals had higher self-citing rates (p = 0.01, Δmedian = 9.50, 95%CI -19.42 to 0.42, higher self-cited rates (p = 0.0004, Δmedian = -10.50, 95%CI -15.28 to -5.72 and greater differences between IF and cIF (p = 0.003, Δmedian = 3.50, 95%CI -6.1 to 13.1. There was no significant correlation between self-citing rate and IF for both groups (general: r = 0.46, p = 0.27; specialized: r = 0.21, p = 0.56. When the difference in ranking between IF and SJR was compared between both groups, sub-specialist journals were ranked lower compared to their general counterparts (ΔR: p = 0.006, Δmedian = 2.0, 95%CI -0.39 to 4.39. Conclusions Citation analysis shows that specialized orthopaedic journals have specific self-citation tendencies. The correlation between self-cited rate and IF in our sample was large but, due to small sample size, not significant. The SJR excludes self-citations in its calculation and therefore enhances the underestimation in ranking of specialized journals.

  7. Research assessments by synchronic and diachronic citation impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iribarren-Maestro, Isabel; Ingwersen, Peter; Larsen, Birger

    2009-01-01

    Impact Factors and the Field Crown Indicator are used in the study. The results reveal that although some analyzed departments publish highly (>50%) in first quartile journals, the impact values for UC3M production are not correspondingly high for all the parameters analyzed: the production not always...... contribute to the impact factors of their respective journals, and the visibility of that production are found to be lower in general than the patterns exhibited by all European countries as a whole for each subject area. The results confirm the need to extend impact and visibility studies beyond...

  8. Journal impact factors and the influence of age and number of citations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact factor (IF) of a scientific journal is considered a measure of how important a journal is within its discipline, and it is based on a simple relationship between the number of citations of the journal’s articles divided by the number of articles in the scientific journal (http://en.wikipe...

  9. Investigating the Link between self-citation and authors’ co-incidence with journal impact factors in Iran: Case study of Economic Journals indexed in Islamic Science Citation Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Attapour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available   The present paper examines the links between self-citation and authors’ co-incidence with impact factors of economic journals indexed in ISC. It is essentially a scientometric research employing citation analysis and literature survey. Data was collected by querying ISC and leafing through the journals studied. Self-citation, authors’ co-incidence and impact factor of the journal studied formed the variables. Correlation analysis indicated that there is a significance between authors’ self-citations and co-incidence with impact factor of the journals studied. Significance was also found between authors’ co-incidence and self-citation of the journals studied.

  10. Macro-indicators of citation impacts of six prolific countries: InCites data and the statistical significance of trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornmann, L.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2013-01-01

    Using the InCites tool of Thomson Reuters, this study compares normalized citation impact values calculated for China, Japan, France, Germany, United States, and the UK throughout the time period from 1981 to 2010. InCites offers a unique opportunity to study the normalized citation impacts of

  11. The impact of article titles on citation hits: an analysis of general and specialist medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Thomas S; Sebire, Neil J

    2010-06-30

    Most published articles are not cited and citation rates depend on many variables. We hypothesized that specific features of journal titles may be related to citation rates. We reviewed the title characteristics of the 25 most cited articles and the 25 least cited articles published in 2005 in general and specialist medical journals including the Lancet, BMJ and Journal of Clinical Pathology. The title length and construction were correlated to the number of times the papers have been cited to May 2009. Retrospective review of a scientific database. None. Citation rate. The number of citations was positively correlated with the length of the title, the presence of a colon in the title and the presence of an acronym. Factors that predicted poor citation included reference to a specific country in the title. These data suggest that the construction of an article title has a significant impact on frequently the paper is cited. We hypothesize that this may be related to the way electronic searches of the literature are undertaken.

  12. Which percentile-based approach should be preferred for calculating normalized citation impact values? An empirical comparison of five approaches including a newly developed citation-rank approach (P100)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornmann, L.; Leydesdorff, L.; Wang, J.

    2013-01-01

    For comparisons of citation impacts across fields and over time, bibliometricians normalize the observed citation counts with reference to an expected citation value. Percentile-based approaches have been proposed as a non-parametric alternative to parametric central-tendency statistics. Percentiles

  13. How fractional counting of citations affects the impact factor: normalization in terms of differences in citation potentials among fields of science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Bornmann, L.

    2011-01-01

    The Impact Factors (IFs) of the Institute for Scientific Information suffer from a number of drawbacks, among them the statistics—Why should one use the mean and not the median?—and the incomparability among fields of science because of systematic differences in citation behavior among fields. Can

  14. Blog Citations as Indicators of the Societal Impact of Research : Content Analysis of Social Sciences Blogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R. Jamali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes motivations behind social sciences blog posts citing journal articles in order to find out whether blog citations are good indicators for the societal impact or benefits of research. A random sample of 300 social sciences blog posts (out of 1,233 blog posts from ResearchBlogging.org published between 01/01/2012 to 18/06/2014 were subjected to content analysis. The 300 blog posts had 472 references including 424 journal articles from 269 different journals. Sixty‐one (22.68% of all cited journals were from the social sciences and most of the journals with high frequency were highly cited general science journals such as PNAS and Science. Seventy‐five percent of all journals were referenced only once. The average age of articles cited at the time of citation was 5.8 years. Discussion and criticism were the two main categories of motivations. Overall, the study shows the potential of blog citations as an altmetric measure and as a proxy for assessing the research impact. A considerable number of citation motivations in blogs such as disputing a belief, suggesting policies, providing a solution to a problem, reacting to media, criticism and the like seemed to support gaining societal benefits. Societal benefits are considered as helping stimulate new approaches to social issues, or informing public debate and policymaking. Lower self‐citation (compared to some other altmetric measures such as tweets and the fact that blogging involves generating content (i.e. an intellectual process give them an advantage for altmetrics. However, limitations and contextual issues such as disciplinary differences and low uptake of altmetrics, in general, in scholarly communication should not be ignored when using blogs as a data source for altmetrics.

  15. Prior publication productivity, grant percentile ranking, and topic-normalized citation impact of NHLBI cardiovascular R01 grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltman, Jonathan R; Evans, Frank J; Danthi, Narasimhan S; Wu, Colin O; DiMichele, Donna M; Lauer, Michael S

    2014-09-12

    We previously demonstrated absence of association between peer-review-derived percentile ranking and raw citation impact in a large cohort of National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute cardiovascular R01 grants, but we did not consider pregrant investigator publication productivity. We also did not normalize citation counts for scientific field, type of article, and year of publication. To determine whether measures of investigator prior productivity predict a grant's subsequent scientific impact as measured by normalized citation metrics. We identified 1492 investigator-initiated de novo National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute R01 grant applications funded between 2001 and 2008 and linked the publications from these grants to their InCites (Thompson Reuters) citation record. InCites provides a normalized citation count for each publication stratifying by year of publication, type of publication, and field of science. The coprimary end points for this analysis were the normalized citation impact per million dollars allocated and the number of publications per grant that has normalized citation rate in the top decile per million dollars allocated (top 10% articles). Prior productivity measures included the number of National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-supported publications each principal investigator published in the 5 years before grant review and the corresponding prior normalized citation impact score. After accounting for potential confounders, there was no association between peer-review percentile ranking and bibliometric end points (all adjusted P>0.5). However, prior productivity was predictive (Pcitation counts, we confirmed a lack of association between peer-review grant percentile ranking and grant citation impact. However, prior investigator publication productivity was predictive of grant-specific citation impact. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. [Approximation to the impact of biomedical journals in neurological sciences: study of bibliometric indicators in the Journal Citation Reports-Science Citation Index 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez de Dios, J; Valderrama-Zurian, J C; Gonzalez-Alcaide, G; Sempere, A P; Bolanos-Pizarro, M; Aleixandre-Benavent, R

    Neurological sciences form a multidisciplinary field that produces a wide range of scientific journals. The aim of this study was to perform a scientometric analysis of neurological science journals in the 2006 Journal Citation Reports-Science Citation Index (JCR-SCI) edition. We study the three areas dedicated to neurological sciences (Neurosciences, Clinical Neurology and Neuroimaging) in the 2006 JCR-SCI edition. Bibliometric indicators used are: journals, articles, citations, impact factor (IF), immediacy index, half life and journals with the greatest IF in each specialty. We also perform a special analysis of Spanish neurological journals in JCR-SCI. In the area of Neurosciences we find a total of 200 journals, 27.157 articles, 1.109.784 citations and an average IF of 2,446, the greatest IF belonging to Annu Rev Neurosci (28,533) and Nat Rev Neurosci (23,054); Spanish journals: Neurocirugia and Acta Esp Psiquiatr. The area of Clinical Neurology contains 147 journals, 18.114 articles, 540.364 citations and an average IF of 1,848, the greatest IF belonging to Lancet Neurol (9,479) and Ann Neurol (8,051); Spanish journals: Neurologia and Rev Neurol. The area of Neuroimaging contains 13 journals, 1.747 articles, 49.210 citations and an average IF of 1,298, the greatest IF belonging to Neuroimage (5,559) and Hum Brain Mapp (4,888). We found out a broad representation of neurological journals from the 6,166 journals included in the 2006 JCR-SCI edition. Bibliometric characteristics differ in accordance to the clinical (Clinical Neurology) or experimental (Neurosciences) nature of the area. Even though bibliometric indicators for the four Spanish neurological journals have gradually improve over the previous 5 years, they are still proportionally ranked low in JCR-SCI. Due to significant limitations observed in the IF, we suggest conducting its analysis from a multidimensional bibliometric perspective, and always within its contextual research area.

  17. Influence of a performance indicator on Danish research production and citation impact 2000-12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter; Larsen, Birger

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the patterns of Danish research productivity, citation impact and (inter)national collaboration across document types 2000-2012, prior to and after the introduction of the Norwegian publication point-based performance indicator in 2008. Document types analysed are: research...... articles; conference proceedings papers excluding meeting abstracts; and review articles. The Danish Research & Innovation Agency's basic statistics combined with Web of Science (WoS) are used for data collection and analyses. Findings demonstrate that the research article productivity increases steeply...... (37 %) after the start of the performance indicator and the citation impact progresses linearly over the entire period, regardless the introduction of the performance indicator. Academic staff progression is only 24 % during the same time period. The collaboration ratio between purely Danish...

  18. Publication Trends and Citation Impact of Tribology Research in India: A Scientometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran, P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes India's contribution to world tribology research during the period 2001-2012 based on SCOPUS records. India's global publication share, annual output, and its citation impact of Indian contribution, partner countries, leading contributors, leading institutes, and highly cited papers were analyzed. Additionally, a cloud technique is used to map frequently used single words in titles. It is observed that India ranks in the $7^{th}$ position with a global publication share of 3.83% and an annual average growth rate of 25.58% during the period 2001-2012. The citation impact of India's contribution is 6.05 which decreased from 12.74 during 2001-2006 to 4.62 during 2007-2012. 17.4% of India's total research output was published with international collaboration.

  19. The impact of article length on the number of future citations: a bibliometric analysis of general medicine journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falagas, Matthew E; Zarkali, Angeliki; Karageorgopoulos, Drosos E; Bardakas, Vangelis; Mavros, Michael N

    2013-01-01

    The number of citations received is considered an index of study quality and impact. We aimed to examine the factors associated with the number of citations of published articles, focusing on the article length. Original human studies published in the first trimester of 2006 in 5 major General Medicine journals were analyzed with regard to the number of authors and of author-affiliated institutions, title and abstract word count, article length (number of print pages), number of bibliographic references, study design, and 2006 journal impact factor (JIF). A multiple linear regression model was employed to identify the variables independently associated with the number of article citations received through January 2012. On univariate analysis the JIF, number of authors, article length, study design (interventional/observational and prospective/retrospective), title and abstract word count, number of author-affiliated institutions, and number of references were all associated with the number of citations received. On multivariate analysis with the logarithm of citations as the dependent variable, only article length [regression coefficient: 14.64 (95% confidence intervals: (5.76-23.50)] and JIF [3.37 (1.80-4.948)] independently predicted the number of citations. The variance of citations explained by these parameters was 51.2%. In a sample of articles published in major General Medicine journals, in addition to journal impact factors, article length and number of authors independently predicted the number of citations. This may reflect a higher complexity level and quality of longer and multi-authored studies.

  20. Scopus’s Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) versus a Journal Impact Factor based on Fractional Counting of Citations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Opthof, T.

    2010-01-01

    Impact factors (and similar measures such as the Scimago Journal Rankings) suffer from two problems: (a) citation behavior varies among fields of science and, therefore, leads to systematic differences, and (b) there are no statistics to inform us whether differences are significant. The recently

  1. Scopus's Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) Versus a Journal Impact Factor Based on Fractional Counting of Citations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Opthof, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Impact factors (and similar measures such as the Scimago Journal Rankings) suffer from two problems: (a) citation behavior varies among fields of science and, therefore, leads to systematic differences, and (b) there are no statistics to inform us whether differences are significant. The recently

  2. Altmetrics - A Collated Adjunct Beyond Citations for Scholarly Impact: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patthi, Basavaraj; Prasad, Monika; Gupta, Ritu; Singla, Ashish; Kumar, Jishnu Krishna; Dhama, Kuldeep; Ali, Irfan; Niraj, Lav Kumar

    2017-06-01

    In emerging Figures, scholars are unifying social media tools like blogs, Twitter, and Mendeley into their professional communications. The online, open nature of these tools reveals the scholarly action to be clear and unambiguous. Metrics which is set on these activities could enlighten broader, faster measures of impact, supplementing traditional citation metrics. The present review aims to analyse the correlation of altmetrics with the traditional citations in medical research. The search strategy used a combination of controlled vocabulary and free text terms. The main database searched were PubMed, PubMed Central, Cochrane Review, Embase and Google Scholar from 2010 to 2016. Out of the total 78 titles appeared seven articles fulfilled the criteria and were selected for the review. The positive correlation between altmetrics and traditional citations indicates that the two are not entirely different from each other and are familiar with each other. Altmetrics are usually accessible earlier and enable us to evaluate the social impact of scholarly research, almost at the actual time. Much work is needed to develop this research which will focus on the clarity of the impact signal. Thus newer dimensions, such as altmetrics and article-level metrics are an effort to explore the influence of research across the worldwide population.

  3. Protective clothing: Fire and radiation environments. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning clothing design, fabrication, and testing for personal protection from exposure to flames and radiation. Citations discuss the treatment of fibers and textiles, testing for physiological tolerances, and methods of decontamination after exposure. Discussed also are user acceptance and proper use of protective clothing by firefighters, nuclear energy personnel, and others. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  4. An approach for the condensed presentation of intuitive citation impact metrics which remain reliable with very few publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.; Tippett, Ch.; Côté, G.; Roberge, G.; Archambault, E.

    2016-07-01

    An approach for presenting citation data in a condensed and intuitive manner which will allow for their reliable interpretation by policy analysts even in cases where the number of peer-reviewed publications produced by a given entity remains small is presented. The approach is described using country level data in Agronomy & Agriculture (2004–2013), an area of specialisation for many developing countries with a small output size. Four citation impact metrics, and a synthesis graph that we call the distributional micro-charts of relative citation counts, are considered in building our “preferred” presentation layout. These metrics include two indicators that have long been used by Science-Metrix in its bibliometric reports, the Average of Relative Citations (ARC) and the percentage of publications in the 10% most cited publications in the database (HCP), as well as two newer metrics, the Median of Relative Citations (MRC) and the Relative Integration Score (RIS). The findings reveal that the proposed approach combining the MRC and HCP with the distributional micro-charts effectively allows to better qualify the citation impact of entities in terms of central location, density of the upper citation tail and overall distribution than Science-Metrix former approach based on the ARC and HCP. This is especially true of cases with small population sizes where a strong presence of outliers (denoted by strong HCP scores) can have a significant effect on the central location of the citation data when estimated with an average. (Author)

  5. Can tweets predict citations? Metrics of social impact based on Twitter and correlation with traditional metrics of scientific impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2011-12-19

    Citations in peer-reviewed articles and the impact factor are generally accepted measures of scientific impact. Web 2.0 tools such as Twitter, blogs or social bookmarking tools provide the possibility to construct innovative article-level or journal-level metrics to gauge impact and influence. However, the relationship of the these new metrics to traditional metrics such as citations is not known. (1) To explore the feasibility of measuring social impact of and public attention to scholarly articles by analyzing buzz in social media, (2) to explore the dynamics, content, and timing of tweets relative to the publication of a scholarly article, and (3) to explore whether these metrics are sensitive and specific enough to predict highly cited articles. Between July 2008 and November 2011, all tweets containing links to articles in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR) were mined. For a subset of 1573 tweets about 55 articles published between issues 3/2009 and 2/2010, different metrics of social media impact were calculated and compared against subsequent citation data from Scopus and Google Scholar 17 to 29 months later. A heuristic to predict the top-cited articles in each issue through tweet metrics was validated. A total of 4208 tweets cited 286 distinct JMIR articles. The distribution of tweets over the first 30 days after article publication followed a power law (Zipf, Bradford, or Pareto distribution), with most tweets sent on the day when an article was published (1458/3318, 43.94% of all tweets in a 60-day period) or on the following day (528/3318, 15.9%), followed by a rapid decay. The Pearson correlations between tweetations and citations were moderate and statistically significant, with correlation coefficients ranging from .42 to .72 for the log-transformed Google Scholar citations, but were less clear for Scopus citations and rank correlations. A linear multivariate model with time and tweets as significant predictors (P < .001) could explain

  6. Open access to journal articles in oncology: current situation and citation impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, F; Sun, H; Walsh, T; Glenny, A-M; Worthington, H

    2017-10-01

    Recent years have seen numerous efforts and resources devoted to the development of open access (OA), but the current OA situation of the oncology literature remains unknown. We conducted this cross-sectional study to determine the current share and provision methods of OA in the field of oncology, identify predictors of OA status (OA versus non-OA), and study the association between OA and citation counts. PubMed was searched for oncology-related, peer-reviewed journal articles published in December 2014. Google, Google Scholar, PubMed, ResearchGate, OpenDOAR and OAIster were manually checked to assess the OA status of each included article. Citation data were extracted from Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the OA proportion (primary outcome) and OA provision methods. Multivariable logistic regression and multilevel generalized linear model analyses were performed to study predictors of OA status and the association between OA and citation counts, respectively. In a random sample of 1000 articles, 912 were deemed eligible and therefore included. Of these, the full-texts of 530 articles (58.1%; 95% CI: 54.9-61.3) were freely available online: 314 (34.4%) were available from publishers ('Gold road' to OA), 424 (46.5%) were available via self-archiving ('Green road' to OA). According to multivariable regression analyses, impact factor, publisher type, language, research type, number of authors, continent of origin, and country income were significant predictors of articles' OA status; OA articles received a citation rate 1.24 times the incidence rate for non-OA articles (95% CI: 1.05-1.47; P = 0.012). Based on our sample, in the field of oncology, 42% of recent journal articles are behind the pay-wall (non-OA) 1 year after publication; the 'Green road' of providing OA is more common than the 'Gold road'; OA is associated with higher citation counts.

  7. The academic impact of the Triological Society theses--Mosher and Fowler awards: citations, impact factor, and h-index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Karam W; Lahham, Sari; Mahboubi, Hossein; Crumley, Roger L; Wong, Brian J F

    2013-11-01

    The Triological Society requires thesis submission for full membership. Accepted theses (AT) may be recognized with designations of: Mosher Awards (MA), Fowler Awards (FA), Honorable Mention for Basic Science (HMBS), and Honorable Mention for Clinical Science (HMCS). We sought to determine and compare the scholarly impact of Triological Society theses, their authors, and whether differences exist between AT and those that receive special recognition. Retrospective analysis of awards and theses compiled by The Triological Society home office from 1998 to 2011. Thomson Reuters' Integrated Search Interface (ISI) Web of Knowledge and Google Scholar and were used to determine citations and the author's h-index. Trend and statistical analysis was performed. Of the 307 Triological Society theses examined, 275 were published and had record of citation. H-indices and number of citations were found to be nonparametric; thus, median and quartile (1(st) -3(rd) quartiles) values were found to be the following: AT 11 (4-26), MA 18 (9-25), FA 6 (1-28), HMBS 11 (4-26), and HMCS 16 (1-28) for number of citations per published thesis. H-indices of authors with accepted theses were AT 15 (10-19), MA 16 (15-23), FA 18 (10-23), HMBS 16 (11-19), and HMCS 15 (11-21). When comparing all groupings of theses and award winners with bibliometric indices, no statistical significance was found (P >0.5). The Triological Society cultivates a competitive pool of applicants as membership is highly regarded. Negligible difference in citations and author h-index were observed between AT, MA, and FA theses indicated that the level of excellence is uniform, and thesis submission remains influential and prestigious. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. The level of non-citation of articles within a journal as a measure of quality: a comparison to the impact factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weale, Andy R; Bailey, Mick; Lear, Paul A

    2004-01-01

    Background Current methods of measuring the quality of journals assume that citations of articles within journals are normally distributed. Furthermore using journal impact factors to measure the quality of individual articles is flawed if citations are not uniformly spread between articles. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of citations to articles and use the level of non-citation of articles within a journal as a measure of quality. This ranking method is compared with the impact factor, as calculated by ISI®. Methods Total citations gained by October 2003, for every original article and review published in current immunology (13125 articles; 105 journals) and surgical (17083 articles; 120 journals) fields during 2001 were collected using ISI® Web of Science. Results The distribution of citation of articles within an individual journal is mainly non-parametric throughout the literature. One sixth (16.7%; IQR 13.6–19.2) of articles in a journal accrue half the total number of citations to that journal. There was a broader distribution of citation to articles in higher impact journals and in the field of immunology compared to surgery. 23.7% (IQR 14.6–42.4) of articles had not yet been cited. Levels of non-citation varied between journals and subject fields. There was a significant negative correlation between the proportion of articles never cited and a journal's impact factor for both immunology (rho = -0.854) and surgery journals (rho = -0.924). Conclusion Ranking journals by impact factor and non-citation produces similar results. Using a non-citation rate is advantageous as it creates a clear distinction between how citation analysis is used to determine the quality of a journal (low level of non-citation) and an individual article (citation counting). Non-citation levels should therefore be made available for all journals. PMID:15169549

  9. Measuring Long-Term Impact Based on Network Centrality: Unraveling Cinematic Citations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Andreas; Horvát, Emőke-Ágnes

    2014-01-01

    Traditional measures of success for film, such as box-office revenue and critical acclaim, lack the ability to quantify long-lasting impact and depend on factors that are largely external to the craft itself. With the growing number of films that are being created and large-scale data becoming available through crowd-sourced online platforms, an endogenous measure of success that is not reliant on manual appraisal is of increasing importance. In this article we propose such a ranking method based on a combination of centrality indices. We apply the method to a network that contains several types of citations between more than 40,000 international feature films. From this network we derive a list of milestone films, which can be considered to constitute the foundations of cinema. In a comparison to various existing lists of ‘greatest’ films, such as personal favourite lists, voting lists, lists of individual experts, and lists deduced from expert polls, the selection of milestone films is more diverse in terms of genres, actors, and main creators. Our results shed light on the potential of a systematic quantitative investigation based on cinematic influences in identifying the most inspiring creations in world cinema. In a broader perspective, we introduce a novel research question to large-scale citation analysis, one of the most intriguing topics that have been at the forefront of scientific enquiries for the past fifty years and have led to the development of various network analytic methods. In doing so, we transfer widely studied approaches from citation analysis to the the newly emerging field of quantification efforts in the arts. The specific contribution of this paper consists in modelling the multidimensional cinematic references as a growing multiplex network and in developing a methodology for the identification of central films in this network. PMID:25295877

  10. Self-selected or mandated, open access increases citation impact for higher quality research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine Gargouri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Articles whose authors have supplemented subscription-based access to the publisher's version by self-archiving their own final draft to make it accessible free for all on the web ("Open Access", OA are cited significantly more than articles in the same journal and year that have not been made OA. Some have suggested that this "OA Advantage" may not be causal but just a self-selection bias, because authors preferentially make higher-quality articles OA. To test this we compared self-selective self-archiving with mandatory self-archiving for a sample of 27,197 articles published 2002-2006 in 1,984 journals. METHDOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The OA Advantage proved just as high for both. Logistic regression analysis showed that the advantage is independent of other correlates of citations (article age; journal impact factor; number of co-authors, references or pages; field; article type; or country and highest for the most highly cited articles. The OA Advantage is real, independent and causal, but skewed. Its size is indeed correlated with quality, just as citations themselves are (the top 20% of articles receive about 80% of all citations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The OA advantage is greater for the more citable articles, not because of a quality bias from authors self-selecting what to make OA, but because of a quality advantage, from users self-selecting what to use and cite, freed by OA from the constraints of selective accessibility to subscribers only. It is hoped that these findings will help motivate the adoption of OA self-archiving mandates by universities, research institutions and research funders.

  11. Measuring long-term impact based on network centrality: unraveling cinematic citations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Spitz

    Full Text Available Traditional measures of success for film, such as box-office revenue and critical acclaim, lack the ability to quantify long-lasting impact and depend on factors that are largely external to the craft itself. With the growing number of films that are being created and large-scale data becoming available through crowd-sourced online platforms, an endogenous measure of success that is not reliant on manual appraisal is of increasing importance. In this article we propose such a ranking method based on a combination of centrality indices. We apply the method to a network that contains several types of citations between more than 40,000 international feature films. From this network we derive a list of milestone films, which can be considered to constitute the foundations of cinema. In a comparison to various existing lists of 'greatest' films, such as personal favourite lists, voting lists, lists of individual experts, and lists deduced from expert polls, the selection of milestone films is more diverse in terms of genres, actors, and main creators. Our results shed light on the potential of a systematic quantitative investigation based on cinematic influences in identifying the most inspiring creations in world cinema. In a broader perspective, we introduce a novel research question to large-scale citation analysis, one of the most intriguing topics that have been at the forefront of scientific enquiries for the past fifty years and have led to the development of various network analytic methods. In doing so, we transfer widely studied approaches from citation analysis to the the newly emerging field of quantification efforts in the arts. The specific contribution of this paper consists in modelling the multidimensional cinematic references as a growing multiplex network and in developing a methodology for the identification of central films in this network.

  12. Citation context and impact of ‘sleeping beauties’ in paediatric research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Završnik, Jernej; del Torso, Stefano; Blažun Vošner, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Objectives ‘Sleeping beauties’, i.e. publications that are not cited for a long while, present interesting findings in science. This study analysed the citation trends of sleeping beauties in paediatric research. Methods The study used bibliometric software to analyse the papers citing sleeping beauties in paediatric research, to understand the context in which paediatric sleeping beauties were finally cited and the impact of these sleeping beauties on paediatric research. Results Two paediatric sleeping beauties, addressing medical homes and the transition from paediatric to adult health care, respectively, awakened in response to organizational needs. Both presented novel concepts of paediatric service organization that became important because of an increased need for optimization of services. Conclusion All sleeping beauties bring new knowledge that becomes important only after several years. Paediatric sleeping beauties exhibited unique characteristics; however, their presence in paediatric research shows that knowledge acquisition in paediatrics resembles that in other disciplines. PMID:27834306

  13. The Pagerank-Index: Going beyond Citation Counts in Quantifying Scientific Impact of Researchers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upul Senanayake

    Full Text Available Quantifying and comparing the scientific output of researchers has become critical for governments, funding agencies and universities. Comparison by reputation and direct assessment of contributions to the field is no longer possible, as the number of scientists increases and traditional definitions about scientific fields become blurred. The h-index is often used for comparing scientists, but has several well-documented shortcomings. In this paper, we introduce a new index for measuring and comparing the publication records of scientists: the pagerank-index (symbolised as π. The index uses a version of pagerank algorithm and the citation networks of papers in its computation, and is fundamentally different from the existing variants of h-index because it considers not only the number of citations but also the actual impact of each citation. We adapt two approaches to demonstrate the utility of the new index. Firstly, we use a simulation model of a community of authors, whereby we create various 'groups' of authors which are different from each other in inherent publication habits, to show that the pagerank-index is fairer than the existing indices in three distinct scenarios: (i when authors try to 'massage' their index by publishing papers in low-quality outlets primarily to self-cite other papers (ii when authors collaborate in large groups in order to obtain more authorships (iii when authors spend most of their time in producing genuine but low quality publications that would massage their index. Secondly, we undertake two real world case studies: (i the evolving author community of quantum game theory, as defined by Google Scholar (ii a snapshot of the high energy physics (HEP theory research community in arXiv. In both case studies, we find that the list of top authors vary very significantly when h-index and pagerank-index are used for comparison. We show that in both cases, authors who have collaborated in large groups and/or published

  14. The Pagerank-Index: Going beyond Citation Counts in Quantifying Scientific Impact of Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, Upul; Piraveenan, Mahendra; Zomaya, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying and comparing the scientific output of researchers has become critical for governments, funding agencies and universities. Comparison by reputation and direct assessment of contributions to the field is no longer possible, as the number of scientists increases and traditional definitions about scientific fields become blurred. The h-index is often used for comparing scientists, but has several well-documented shortcomings. In this paper, we introduce a new index for measuring and comparing the publication records of scientists: the pagerank-index (symbolised as π). The index uses a version of pagerank algorithm and the citation networks of papers in its computation, and is fundamentally different from the existing variants of h-index because it considers not only the number of citations but also the actual impact of each citation. We adapt two approaches to demonstrate the utility of the new index. Firstly, we use a simulation model of a community of authors, whereby we create various 'groups' of authors which are different from each other in inherent publication habits, to show that the pagerank-index is fairer than the existing indices in three distinct scenarios: (i) when authors try to 'massage' their index by publishing papers in low-quality outlets primarily to self-cite other papers (ii) when authors collaborate in large groups in order to obtain more authorships (iii) when authors spend most of their time in producing genuine but low quality publications that would massage their index. Secondly, we undertake two real world case studies: (i) the evolving author community of quantum game theory, as defined by Google Scholar (ii) a snapshot of the high energy physics (HEP) theory research community in arXiv. In both case studies, we find that the list of top authors vary very significantly when h-index and pagerank-index are used for comparison. We show that in both cases, authors who have collaborated in large groups and/or published less

  15. The Pagerank-Index: Going beyond Citation Counts in Quantifying Scientific Impact of Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, Upul; Piraveenan, Mahendra; Zomaya, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying and comparing the scientific output of researchers has become critical for governments, funding agencies and universities. Comparison by reputation and direct assessment of contributions to the field is no longer possible, as the number of scientists increases and traditional definitions about scientific fields become blurred. The h-index is often used for comparing scientists, but has several well-documented shortcomings. In this paper, we introduce a new index for measuring and comparing the publication records of scientists: the pagerank-index (symbolised as π). The index uses a version of pagerank algorithm and the citation networks of papers in its computation, and is fundamentally different from the existing variants of h-index because it considers not only the number of citations but also the actual impact of each citation. We adapt two approaches to demonstrate the utility of the new index. Firstly, we use a simulation model of a community of authors, whereby we create various ‘groups’ of authors which are different from each other in inherent publication habits, to show that the pagerank-index is fairer than the existing indices in three distinct scenarios: (i) when authors try to ‘massage’ their index by publishing papers in low-quality outlets primarily to self-cite other papers (ii) when authors collaborate in large groups in order to obtain more authorships (iii) when authors spend most of their time in producing genuine but low quality publications that would massage their index. Secondly, we undertake two real world case studies: (i) the evolving author community of quantum game theory, as defined by Google Scholar (ii) a snapshot of the high energy physics (HEP) theory research community in arXiv. In both case studies, we find that the list of top authors vary very significantly when h-index and pagerank-index are used for comparison. We show that in both cases, authors who have collaborated in large groups and/or published less

  16. Publication Speed, Reporting Metrics, and Citation Impact of Cardiovascular Trials Supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David; Cooper-Arnold, Katharine; Lauer, Michael

    2015-07-31

    We previously demonstrated that cardiovascular (CV) trials funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) were more likely to be published in a timely manner and receive high raw citation counts if they focused on clinical endpoints. We did not examine the metrics of trial reports, and our citation measures were limited by failure to account for topic-related citation behaviors. Of 244 CV trials completed between 2000 and 2011, we identified 184 whose main results were published by August 20, 2014. One investigator who was blinded to rapidity of publication and citation data read each publication and characterized it according to modified Delphi criteria. There were 46 trials (25%) that had Delphi scores of 8 or 9 (of a possible 9); these trials published faster (median time from trial completion to publication, 12.6 [interquartile range {IQR}, 6.7 to 23.3] vs. 21.8 [IQR, 12.1 to 34.9] months; Pcitation impact (median citation percentile for topic and date of publication, with 0 best and 100 worst, 1.92 [IQR, 0.64 to 7.83] vs. 8.41 [IQR, 1.80 to 24.75]; P=0.002). By random forest regression, we found that the 3 most important predictors of normalized citation percentile values were total costs, intention-to-treat analyses (as a modified Delphi quality measure), and focus on clinical (not surrogate) endpoints. NHLBI CV trials were more likely to publish results quickly and yield higher topic-normalized citation impact if they reported results according to well-defined metrics, along with focus on clinical endpoints. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  17. Measuring Research Quality Using the Journal Impact Factor, Citations and "Ranked Journals": Blunt Instruments or Inspired Metrics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarwal, Som D.; Brion, Andrew M.; King, Maxwell L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines whether three bibliometric indicators--the journal impact factor, citations per paper and the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) initiative's list of "ranked journals"--can predict the quality of individual research articles as assessed by international experts, both overall and within broad disciplinary…

  18. Influence of proceedings papers on citation impact in seven sub-fields of sustainable energy research 2005-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter; Larsen, Birger; Carlos Garcia-Zorita, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the following seven sub-fields of Sustainable Energy Research with respect to the influence of proceedings papers on citation patterns across citing and cited document types, overall sub-field and document type impacts and citedness: the Wind Power, Renewable Energy, Solar and...

  19. Impact of Voluntary Accreditation on Deficiency Citations in U.S. Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Laura M.; McDonald, Shawna M.; Castle, Nicholas G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This study examines the association between nursing home accreditation and deficiency citations. Design and Methods: Data originated from a web-based search of The Joint Commission (TJC) accreditation and On-line Survey Certification of Automated Records from 2002 to 2010. Deficiency citations were divided into 4 categories:…

  20. Correlation between Self-Citation and Impact Factor in Iranian English Medical Journals in WoS and ISC: A Comparative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi Mirsaeid, Seyed Javad; Motamedi, Nadia; Ramezan Ghorbani, Nahid

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the impact of self-citation (Journal and Author) on impact factor of Iranian English Medical journals in two international citation databases, Web of Science (WoS) and Islamic world science citation center (ISC), were compared by citation analysis. Twelve journals in WoS and 26 journals in ISC databases indexed between the years (2006-2009) were selected and compared. For comparison of self-citation rate in two databases, we used Wilcoxon and Mann-whitney tests. We used Pearson test for correlation of self-citation and IF in WoS, and the Spearman's correlation coefficient for the ISC database. Covariance analysis was used for comparison of two correlation tests. P. value was 0.05 in all of tests. There was no significant difference between self-citation rates in two databases (P>0.05). Findings also showed no significant difference between the correlation of Journal self-citation and impact factor in two databases (P=0.526) however, there was significant difference between the author's self-citation and impact factor in these databases (PImpact Factor of WoS was higher than the ISC.

  1. Reference citation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brkić, Silvija

    2013-01-01

    .... This paper deals with different styles of reference citation. Special emphasis was placed on the Vancouver Style for reference citation in biomedical journals established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors...

  2. Longitudinal Trends in Internationalisation, Collaboration Types, and Citation Impact: A Bibliometric Analysis of Seven LIS Journals (1980-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sei-Ching Joanna Sin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Journal publication is a core avenue for sharing research in the LIS field. Effective scholarly communication is beneficial to the growth of a discipline. Bibliometrics research shows that articles in prestigious international journals are predominantly those of authors based in a few nations, however. Papers from authors outside the established nations are likely to be cited less often. This study analysed the longitudinal changes in geographical patterns of authorship, collaboration types, and factors affecting the citation impact of seven top LIS journals over a period of 29 years. In addition to data from all nations, this paper includes specific findings relating to Asian countries. Analysis of 8,140 papers shows that the internationalisation level in the sample set has increased in terms of number of nations represented and in a decreasing Gini coefficient. The presence of Asian nations such as Taiwan and Singapore as top contributing countries is particularly notable in the past 10 years. Domestic collaboration is found to be the dominant type of authorship pattern. In terms of citation impact as measured by citation counts, logistic regression was used to test the effects of author continent, country income level, collaboration type, publication year, and number of authors. Papers from lower-income countries or from Asian or European authors are found less likely to be ‘more cited.’ International and domestic collaboration had a positive relation with citation counts. A practical implication is that authors may consider international collaboration as a way to increase the visibility and impact of their research. Nevertheless, the reasons behind such differential citation impact require more exploration. Invisible colleges, the strengths of weak ties, and the geographic scope of a paper are some factors to be further examined. It is hoped that more research can help identify and overcome barriers in scholarly communication so as to

  3. Cigarette smoking in the business environment. January 1970-November 1988 (Citations from the Management Contents data base). Report for January 1970-November 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the impact of cigarette smoking in the workplace. Costs and benefits of corporate smoking policies are considered. Health promotions and an employee's right to smoke are discussed. Space considerations, designated smoking areas, and corporate smoking policy implementation are examined. Corporate programs that encourage employees to quit smoking as part of employee fitness plans are considered. (Contains 50 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  4. The assessment of science: the relative merits of post-publication review, the impact factor, and the number of citations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre-Walker, Adam; Stoletzki, Nina

    2013-10-01

    The assessment of scientific publications is an integral part of the scientific process. Here we investigate three methods of assessing the merit of a scientific paper: subjective post-publication peer review, the number of citations gained by a paper, and the impact factor of the journal in which the article was published. We investigate these methods using two datasets in which subjective post-publication assessments of scientific publications have been made by experts. We find that there are moderate, but statistically significant, correlations between assessor scores, when two assessors have rated the same paper, and between assessor score and the number of citations a paper accrues. However, we show that assessor score depends strongly on the journal in which the paper is published, and that assessors tend to over-rate papers published in journals with high impact factors. If we control for this bias, we find that the correlation between assessor scores and between assessor score and the number of citations is weak, suggesting that scientists have little ability to judge either the intrinsic merit of a paper or its likely impact. We also show that the number of citations a paper receives is an extremely error-prone measure of scientific merit. Finally, we argue that the impact factor is likely to be a poor measure of merit, since it depends on subjective assessment. We conclude that the three measures of scientific merit considered here are poor; in particular subjective assessments are an error-prone, biased, and expensive method by which to assess merit. We argue that the impact factor may be the most satisfactory of the methods we have considered, since it is a form of pre-publication review. However, we emphasise that it is likely to be a very error-prone measure of merit that is qualitative, not quantitative.

  5. Beyond Citation Rates: A Real-Time Impact Analysis of Health Professions Education Research Using Altmetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Lauren A; Meyer, Holly S; Artino, Anthony R

    2017-10-01

    To complement traditional citation-based metrics, which take years to accrue and indicate only academic attention, academia has begun considering altmetrics or alternative metrics, which provide timely feedback on an article's impact by tracking its dissemination via nontraditional outlets, such as blogs and social media, across audiences. This article describes altmetrics and examines altmetrics attention, outlets used, and top article characteristics for health professions education (HPE) research. Using Altmetric Explorer, a tool to search altmetrics activity, the authors searched for HPE articles that had at least one altmetrics event (e.g., an article was tweeted or featured in a news story) between 2011 and 2015. Retrieved articles were analyzed using descriptive statistics. In addition, the 10 articles with the highest Altmetric Attention Scores were identified and their key characteristics extracted. The authors analyzed 6,265 articles with at least one altmetrics event from 13 journals. Articles appeared in 14 altmetrics outlets. Mendeley (161,470 saves), Twitter (37,537 tweets), and Facebook (1,650 posts) were most popular. The number of HPE articles with altmetrics attention increased 145%, from 539 published in 2011 to 1,321 in 2015. In 2015, 50% or more of the articles in 5 journals received altmetrics attention. Themes for articles with the most altmetrics attention included social media or social networking; three such articles were written as tips or guides. Increasing altmetrics attention signals interest in HPE research and the need for further investigation. Knowledge of popular and underused outlets may help investigators strategically share research for broader dissemination.

  6. Citation Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Waldenström, Daniel; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    This study analyses determinants of citation success among authors publishing in economic history journals. Bibliometric features, like article length and number of authors, are positively correlated with the citation rate up to a certain point. Remarkably, publishing in top-ranked journals hardly...... affects citations. In regard to author-specific characteristics, male authors, full professors and authors working economics or history departments, and authors employed in Anglo-Saxon countries, are more likely to get cited than others. As a ‘shortcut' to citation success, we find that research diffusion...

  7. An Analysis of Peer-Reviewed Scores and Impact Factors with Different Citation Time Windows: A Case Study of 28 Ophthalmologic Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Li; Gai, Shuang-Shuang; Zhang, Shi-Le; Wang, Pu

    2015-01-01

    An important attribute of the traditional impact factor was the controversial 2-year citation window. So far, several scholars have proposed using different citation time windows for evaluating journals. However, there is no confirmation whether a longer citation time window would be better. How did the journal evaluation effects of 3IF, 4IF, and 6IF comparing with 2IF and 5IF? In order to understand these questions, we made a comparative study of impact factors with different citation time windows with the peer-reviewed scores of ophthalmologic journals indexed by Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) database. The peer-reviewed scores of 28 ophthalmologic journals were obtained through a self-designed survey questionnaire. Impact factors with different citation time windows (including 2IF, 3IF, 4IF, 5IF, and 6IF) of 28 ophthalmologic journals were computed and compared in accordance with each impact factor's definition and formula, using the citation analysis function of the Web of Science (WoS) database. An analysis of the correlation between impact factors with different citation time windows and peer-reviewed scores was carried out. Although impact factor values with different citation time windows were different, there was a high level of correlation between them when it came to evaluating journals. In the current study, for ophthalmologic journals' impact factors with different time windows in 2013, 3IF and 4IF seemed the ideal ranges for comparison, when assessed in relation to peer-reviewed scores. In addition, the 3-year and 4-year windows were quite consistent with the cited peak age of documents published by ophthalmologic journals. Our study is based on ophthalmology journals and we only analyze the impact factors with different citation time window in 2013, so it has yet to be ascertained whether other disciplines (especially those with a later cited peak) or other years would follow the same or similar patterns. We designed the survey questionnaire

  8. An Analysis of Peer-Reviewed Scores and Impact Factors with Different Citation Time Windows: A Case Study of 28 Ophthalmologic Journals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Li Liu

    Full Text Available An important attribute of the traditional impact factor was the controversial 2-year citation window. So far, several scholars have proposed using different citation time windows for evaluating journals. However, there is no confirmation whether a longer citation time window would be better. How did the journal evaluation effects of 3IF, 4IF, and 6IF comparing with 2IF and 5IF? In order to understand these questions, we made a comparative study of impact factors with different citation time windows with the peer-reviewed scores of ophthalmologic journals indexed by Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE database.The peer-reviewed scores of 28 ophthalmologic journals were obtained through a self-designed survey questionnaire. Impact factors with different citation time windows (including 2IF, 3IF, 4IF, 5IF, and 6IF of 28 ophthalmologic journals were computed and compared in accordance with each impact factor's definition and formula, using the citation analysis function of the Web of Science (WoS database. An analysis of the correlation between impact factors with different citation time windows and peer-reviewed scores was carried out.Although impact factor values with different citation time windows were different, there was a high level of correlation between them when it came to evaluating journals. In the current study, for ophthalmologic journals' impact factors with different time windows in 2013, 3IF and 4IF seemed the ideal ranges for comparison, when assessed in relation to peer-reviewed scores. In addition, the 3-year and 4-year windows were quite consistent with the cited peak age of documents published by ophthalmologic journals.Our study is based on ophthalmology journals and we only analyze the impact factors with different citation time window in 2013, so it has yet to be ascertained whether other disciplines (especially those with a later cited peak or other years would follow the same or similar patterns.We designed the survey

  9. An Analysis of Peer-Reviewed Scores and Impact Factors with Different Citation Time Windows: A Case Study of 28 Ophthalmologic Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Li; Gai, Shuang-Shuang; Zhang, Shi-Le; Wang, Pu

    2015-01-01

    Background An important attribute of the traditional impact factor was the controversial 2-year citation window. So far, several scholars have proposed using different citation time windows for evaluating journals. However, there is no confirmation whether a longer citation time window would be better. How did the journal evaluation effects of 3IF, 4IF, and 6IF comparing with 2IF and 5IF? In order to understand these questions, we made a comparative study of impact factors with different citation time windows with the peer-reviewed scores of ophthalmologic journals indexed by Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) database. Methods The peer-reviewed scores of 28 ophthalmologic journals were obtained through a self-designed survey questionnaire. Impact factors with different citation time windows (including 2IF, 3IF, 4IF, 5IF, and 6IF) of 28 ophthalmologic journals were computed and compared in accordance with each impact factor’s definition and formula, using the citation analysis function of the Web of Science (WoS) database. An analysis of the correlation between impact factors with different citation time windows and peer-reviewed scores was carried out. Results Although impact factor values with different citation time windows were different, there was a high level of correlation between them when it came to evaluating journals. In the current study, for ophthalmologic journals’ impact factors with different time windows in 2013, 3IF and 4IF seemed the ideal ranges for comparison, when assessed in relation to peer-reviewed scores. In addition, the 3-year and 4-year windows were quite consistent with the cited peak age of documents published by ophthalmologic journals. Research Limitations Our study is based on ophthalmology journals and we only analyze the impact factors with different citation time window in 2013, so it has yet to be ascertained whether other disciplines (especially those with a later cited peak) or other years would follow the same or

  10. Open access to journal articles in dentistry: Prevalence and citation impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Fang; Sun, Heyuan; Walsh, Tanya; Worthington, Helen; Glenny, Anne-Marie

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the current prevalence of open access (OA) in the field of dentistry, the means used to provide OA, as well as the association between OA and citation counts. PubMed was searched for dental articles published in 2013. The OA status of each article was determined by manually checking Google, Google Scholar, PubMed and ResearchGate. Citation data were extracted from Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science. Chi-square tests were used to compare the OA prevalence by different subjects, study types, and continents of origin. The association between OA and citation count was studied with multivariable logistic regression analyses. A random sample of 908 articles was deemed eligible and therefore included. Among these, 416 were found freely available online, indicating an overall OA rate of 45.8%. Significant difference in OA rate was detected among articles in different subjects (P<0.001) and among those from different continents (P<0.001). Of articles that were OA, 74.2% were available via self-archiving ('Green road' OA), 53.3% were available from publishers ('Gold road' OA). According to multivariable logistic regression analyses, OA status was not significantly associated with either the existence of citation (P=0.37) or the level of citation (P=0.52). In the field of dentistry, 54% of recent journal articles are behind the paywall (non-OA) one year after their publication dates. The 'Green road' of providing OA was more common than the 'Gold road'. No evidence suggested that OA articles received significantly more citations than non-OA articles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Citation Analysis as a Tool to Measure the Impact of Individual Research Consultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsfelder, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to determine the degree to which individual research consultations with a librarian can improve the work of undergraduate students. Citation analysis was used to evaluate the quality of sources selected on draft papers before meeting with a librarian and on final papers after meeting with a librarian. The rating scale presented…

  12. Progressive Trends and Impact of the Journal of Career Development: A Citation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaichanasakul, Adipat; He, Yuhong; Chen, Hsui-Hui; Allen, G. E. Kawika; Khairallah, Taleb S.; Ramos, Karina

    2011-01-01

    As one of the four premier journals in vocational psychology, the "Journal of Career Development" ("JCD") has published over 830 articles over the past three decades. This study examined the performance of "JCD" through a citation analysis and provided evaluative data for scholars publishing in the field of vocation psychology. Articles published…

  13. From abstract to impact in cardiovascular research: factors predicting publication and citation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnik, Stephan; Raptis, Dimitri A.; Walker, Janina H.; Hasun, Matthias; Speer, Thimotheus; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Komajda, Michel; Bax, Jeroen J.; Tendera, Michal; Fox, Kim; Van de Werf, Frans; Mundow, Ciara; Lüscher, Thomas F.; Ruschitzka, Frank; Matter, Christian M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Through a 4-year follow-up of the abstracts submitted to the European Society of Cardiology Congress in 2006, we aimed at identifying factors predicting high-quality research, appraising the quality of the peer review and editorial processes, and thereby revealing potential ways to improve future research, peer review, and editorial work. Methods and results All abstracts submitted in 2006 were assessed for acceptance, presentation format, and average reviewer rating. Accepted and rejected studies were followed for 4 years. Multivariate regression analyses of a representative selection of 10% of all abstracts (n= 1002) were performed to identify factors predicting acceptance, subsequent publication, and citation. A total of 10 020 abstracts were submitted, 3104 (31%) were accepted for poster, and 701 (7%) for oral presentation. At Congress level, basic research, a patient number ≥ 100, and prospective study design were identified as independent predictors of acceptance. These factors differed from those predicting full-text publication, which included academic affiliation. The single parameter predicting frequent citation was study design with randomized controlled trials reaching the highest citation rates. The publication rate of accepted studies was 38%, whereas only 24% of rejected studies were published. Among published studies, those accepted at the Congress received higher citation rates than rejected ones. Conclusions Research of high quality was determined by study design and largely identified at Congress level through blinded peer review. The scientometric follow-up revealed a marked disparity between predictors of full-text publication and those predicting citation or acceptance at the Congress. PMID:22669850

  14. The health impact of trade and investment agreements: a quantitative systematic review and network co-citation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Pepita; McKee, Martin; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David

    2017-03-08

    Regional trade agreements are major international policy instruments that shape macro-economic and political systems. There is widespread debate as to whether and how these agreements pose risks to public health. Here we perform a comprehensive systematic review of quantitative studies of the health impact of trade and investment agreements. We identified studies from searches in PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Global Health Online. Research articles were eligible for inclusion if they were quantitative studies of the health impacts of trade and investment agreements or policy. We systematically reviewed study findings, evaluated quality using the Quality Assessment Tool from the Effective Public Health Practice Project, and performed network citation analysis to study disciplinary siloes. Seventeen quantitative studies met our inclusion criteria. There was consistent evidence that implementing trade agreements was associated with increased consumption of processed foods and sugar-sweetened beverages. Granting import licenses for patented drugs was associated with increased access to pharmaceuticals. Implementing trade agreements and associated policies was also correlated with higher cardiovascular disease incidence and higher Body Mass Index (BMI), whilst correlations with tobacco consumption, under-five mortality, maternal mortality, and life expectancy were inconclusive. Overall, the quality of studies is weak or moderately weak, and co-citation analysis revealed a relative isolation of public health from economics. We identified limitations in existing studies which preclude definitive conclusions of the health impacts of regional trade and investment agreements. Few address unobserved confounding, and many possible consequences and mechanisms linking trade and investment agreements to health remain poorly understood. Results from our co-citation analysis suggest scope for greater interdisciplinary collaboration. Notwithstanding these limitations, our

  15. [Analysis of the impact of Anales Españoles de Pediatría through the Science Citation Index from 1997-2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Río, F; Mayoralas Alises, S; Esparza Paz, P; González Pérez-Yarza, E

    2002-08-01

    To quantify the impact factor of Anales Españoles de Pediatría from 1997 until 2000 and to identify the journal's citation patterns and the topics with the greatest impact. SCISEARCH was used to locate citations of articles published in Anales Españoles de Pediatría between 1995 and 1999. The following data were collected for each article: year of publication, authors, journal, country of publication, language, specialty or specialties, institution(s), residence of the first author and topic. The impact factor was calculated as the ratio between citations received over 1 year by articles published in Anales Españoles de Pediatría in the two previous years and the total number of articles published by Anales Españoles de Pediatría over the 2 years under study. The impact factor of Anales Españoles de Pediatría was 0.052 in 1997, 0.080 in 1998, 0.101 in 1999, 0.089 in 2000 and 0.064 in 2001. Citations were found in a wide range of source journals. The greatest proportion (35.6 %) were found in Spanish medical journals. Citations were made mainly by Spanish authors (62.8 %) and self-citation was moderate (14.3 %). Topics related to neurology (16.9 % of the citations received), infectious diseases (16.2 %) and neonatology (14.8 %) had the greatest impact. The impact factor of Anales Españoles de Pediatria is modest, although higher than that of some other biomedical publications included in Journal Citation Reports.

  16. Inspection Citations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Disclosure of reporting citations provide the public with a rationale for the Agency’s enforcement actions and will also help to inform public and industry...

  17. Influence of proceedings papers on citation impact in seven sub-fields of sustainable energy research 2005–2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter; Larsen, Birger; Garcia-Zorita, J. Carlos

    2014-01-01

    and Wave Energy, Geo-thermal, Bio-fuel and Bio-mass energy ub-fields. The analyses cover peer reviewed research and review articles as well as two kinds of proceeding papers from conferences published 2005–2009 in (a) book series or volumes and (b) special journal issues excluding meeting abstracts cited......This paper analyses the following seven sub-fields of Sustainable Energy Research with respect to the influence of proceedings papers on citation patterns across citing and cited document types, overall sub-field and document type impacts and citedness: the Wind Power, Renewable Energy, Solar...

  18. Influence of university mergers and the Norwegian performance indicator on overall Danish citation impact 2000-12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter; Larsen, Birger

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the patterns of Danish research productivity, citation impact and (inter)national collaboration across document types 2000-2012, prior to and after 1) the university mergers in 2006 and 2) the introduction of the Norwegian publication point-based performance indicator 2008......S coverage of proceedings papers is declining. The positive growth in research articles derives primarily from the Natural Sciences and Technology published in prestigious Level 2 journals. The introduction of the publication performance model, rather than the university mergers, is regarded the accelerator...

  19. Examining the Impact of the National Institutes of Health Public Access Policy on the Citation Rates of Journal Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groote, Sandra L; Shultz, Mary; Smalheiser, Neil R

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether National Institutes of Health (NIH) funded articles that were archived in PubMed Central (PMC) after the release of the 2008 NIH Public Access Policy show greater scholarly impact than comparable articles not archived in PMC. A list of journals across several subject areas was developed from which to collect article citation data. Citation information and cited reference counts of the articles published in 2006 and 2009 from 122 journals were obtained from the Scopus database. The articles were separated into categories of NIH funded, non-NIH funded and whether they were deposited in PubMed Central. An analysis of citation data across a five-year timespan was performed on this set of articles. A total of 45,716 articles were examined, including 7,960 with NIH-funding. An analysis of the number of times these articles were cited found that NIH-funded 2006 articles in PMC were not cited significantly more than NIH-funded non-PMC articles. However, 2009 NIH funded articles in PMC were cited 26% more than 2009 NIH funded articles not in PMC, 5 years after publication. This result is highly significant even after controlling for journal (as a proxy of article quality and topic). Our analysis suggests that factors occurring between 2006 and 2009 produced a subsequent boost in scholarly impact of PubMed Central. The 2008 Public Access Policy is likely to be one such factor, but others may have contributed as well (e.g., growing size and visibility of PMC, increasing availability of full-text linkouts from PubMed, and indexing of PMC articles by Google Scholar).

  20. The significance of citation impact indicators of research performance in the developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Japhet Bakuwa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that Sub-Saharan Africa needs to produce more journals indexed by ISI Web of Science (WoS. Researchers from the region should also publish in other ISI indexed, reputable and high impact journals such as Nature and Science. Inevitably, this will make Sub-Saharan African researchers visible and globally competitive. The Sub- Saharan African region has only about 40 journals out of over 12 000 journals that have been indexed by the ISI Web of Science (WoS. Arguably, ranking of universities across the globe and qualification for Nobel Prizes are determined by metrics-based evaluation of research performance. Sub-Saharan Africa is poorly represented on the world university rankings. The region has also produced only six Nobel Prize award winners from 1901 to 2010. In the same period, USA, UK and Germany produced 326, 116 and 102 recipients respectively. While there are some limitations on the use of citation indicators to evaluate research output, this researcher argues that citation impact indicators of research performance provide policymakers, researchers and funding agencies with an objective measure for assessing research performance and therefore are of great significance in the developing countries of Sub-Saharan Africa.

  1. The Rise and Rise of Citation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Meho, Lokman I.

    2006-01-01

    With the vast majority of scientific papers now available online, the author describes how the Web is allowing physicists and information providers to measure more accurately the impact of these papers and their authors. Provides a historical background of citation analysis, ISI's citation databases, and the impact factor. Discusses the strengths and weaknesses of Web of Science and other more recent citation data sources (e.g., Scopus and Google Scholar), the impact of the Web on citation...

  2. Pattern of reference types and impact factors of journals in the Korea Citation Index according to academic discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Hyeong Kim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Korea Citation Index (KCI is a citation database for scholarly journals from Korea, the number of journals of which is 2,168 in January, 2015. This article aims to analyze the pattern of reference types and impact factors of journals in the KCI according to academic discipline. Journals of the KCI were classified according to academic discipline: humanities, arts and sports, social science, science, and multi-disciplinary science. Science journals were sub-classified as natural science, engineering, agriculture & fisheries, and medical health. The pattern of reference types was classified as journal article, book, report/thesis/internet, and others. Changing patterns of the two-year impact factor were described according to the publication year of journals in each discipline. The reference type of each discipline in 2010 showed different patterns. In humanities, the portion of books out of cited literatures was 51.1%, while the portion of books in natural science, engineering, medical health, and agriculture & fisheries fields were 11.0%, 10.0%, 7.0%, and 11.0%, respectively. In social science, the portion of journal articles was 53.1% and books 27.3%. In medical health, the portion of journal article was 87.6%. Journals’ average impact factors in 2011 were 0.9 for social science, 0.8 for arts and sports, 0.55 for interdisciplinary, 0.5 for agriculture and fisheries and humanities, 0.45 for natural science, 0.32 for engineering, and 0.3 for medical health. Researchers in humanities in Korea use books as a primary source of references, while those in other disciplines use journals as a major source of references. Higher impact factors in social science journals and lower ones in science journals mean that social scientists in Korea deal with mainly domestic topics, while scientist deal with global topics.

  3. The Citation Index of Chemistry Education Research in the "Journal of Chemical Education" from 2008 to 2016: A Closer Look at the Impact Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jon-Marc G.; Bain, Kinsey; Moon, Alena; Mack, Michael R.; DeKorver, Brittland K.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2017-01-01

    Journal impact factors are a metric often used to evaluate journals; they are calculated by considering a journal's citation and publication rates during a specified time period. In some cases, impact factors can be misleading because they do not take into account the publication of different types of papers. In the "Journal of Chemical…

  4. Does size matter? An investigation of how department size and other organizational variables influence on publication productivity and citation impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksnes, D.W.; Rørstad, K.; Piro, F.N.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we investigate whether university department size is important in determining publication productivity and citation impact. Drawing on a unique dataset containing a variety of different variables at department levels, we are able to provide a richer picture of the research performance than what typically has been the case in many previous studies. In addition to analyzing the basic question of how size relates to scientific performance, we address whether the funding profile of the departments plays a role, whether the scientific performance is influenced by the composition of the academic personnel (in terms of gender, academic positions, recruiting personnel and the share of doctoral degree holders). The study shows that virtually no size effect can be identified and highly productive and highly cited units are found among both small, medium and large departments. For none of the organizational variables we are able to identify statistically significant relationships in respect to research performance at an overall level. We conclude that the productivity and citation differences at the level of departments cannot generally be explained by the selected variables for department size, funding structure and the composition of scientific personnel. (Author)

  5. Quality Weighted Citations Versus Total Citations in the Sciences and Social Sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The paper analyses academic journal quality and research impact using quality weighted citations versus total citations, based on the widely-used Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Science citations database (ISI). A new Index of Citations Quality (ICQ) is presented, based on

  6. Quality Weighted Citations versus Total Citations in the Sciences and Social Sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The paper analyses academic journal quality and research impact using quality weighted citations versus total citations, based on the widely-used Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Science citations database (ISI). A new Index of Citations Quality (ICQ) is presented, based on

  7. The impact factor of an open access journal does not contribute to an article’s citations [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SK Chua

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Citations of papers are positively influenced by the journal’s impact factor (IF. For non-open access (non-OA journals, this influence may be due to the fact that high-IF journals are more often purchased by libraries, and are therefore more often available to researchers, than low-IF journals. This positive influence has not, however, been shown specifically for papers published in open access (OA journals, which are universally accessible, and do not need library purchase. It is therefore important to ascertain if the IF influences citations in OA journals too. Methods 203 randomized controlled trials (102 OA and 101 non-OA published in January 2011 were included in the study. Five-year citations for papers published in OA journals were compared to those for non-OA journals. Source papers were derived from PubMed. Citations were retrieved from Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. The Thompson-Reuter’s IF was used. Results OA journals were found to have significantly more citations overall compared to non-OA journals (median 15.5 vs 12, p=0.039. The IF did not correlate with citations for OA journals (Spearman’s rho =0.187, p=0.60. The increase in the citations with increasing IF was minimal for OA journals (beta coefficient = 3.346, 95% CI -0.464, 7.156, p=0.084. In contrast, the IF did show moderate correlation with citations for articles published in non-OA journals (Spearman’s rho=0.514, p<0.001. The increase in the number of citations was also significant (beta coefficient = 4.347, 95% CI 2.42, 6.274, p<0.001. Conclusion It is better to publish in an OA journal for more citations. It may not be worth paying high publishing fees for higher IF journals, because there is minimal gain in terms of increased number of citations. On the other hand, if one wishes to publish in a non-OA journal, it is better to choose one with a high IF.

  8. Citation classics in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryann Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of a scientific article is proportional to the citations it has received. In this study, we set out to identify the most cited works in epileptology in order to evaluate research trends in this field. METHODS: According to the Web of Science database, articles with more than 400 citations qualify as "citation classics". We conducted a literature search on the ISI Web of Science bibliometric database for scientific articles relevant to epilepsy. RESULTS: We retrieved 67 highly cited articles (400 or more citations, which were published in 31 journals: 17 clinical studies, 42 laboratory studies, 5 reviews and 3 classification articles. Clinical studies consisted of epidemiological analyses (n=3, studies on the clinical phenomenology of epilepsy (n=5 – including behavioral and prognostic aspects – and articles focusing on pharmacological (n=6 and non-pharmacological (n=3 treatment. The laboratory studies dealt with genetics (n=6, animal models (n=27, and neurobiology (n=9 – including both neurophysiology and neuropathology studies. The majority (61% of citation classics on epilepsy were published after 1986, possibly reflecting the expansion of research interest in laboratory studies driven by the development of new methodologies, specifically in the fields of genetics and animal models. Consequently, clinical studies were highly cited both before and after the mid 80s, whilst laboratory researches became widely cited after 1990. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that the main drivers of scientific impact in the field of epileptology have increasingly become genetic and neurobiological studies, along with research on animal models of epilepsy. These articles are able to gain the highest numbers of citations in the time span of a few years and suggest potential directions for future research.

  9. Citation impact of NHLBI R01 grants funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act as compared to R01 grants funded through a standard payline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danthi, Narasimhan S; Wu, Colin O; DiMichele, Donna M; Hoots, W Keith; Lauer, Michael S

    2015-02-27

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) allowed National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute to fund R01 grants that fared less well on peer review than those funded by meeting a payline threshold. It is not clear whether the sudden availability of additional funding enabled research of similar or lesser citation impact than already funded work. To compare the citation impact of ARRA-funded de novo National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute R01 grants with concurrent de novo National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute R01 grants funded by standard payline mechanisms. We identified de novo (type 1) R01 grants funded by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute in fiscal year 2009: these included 458 funded by meeting Institute's published payline and 165 funded only because of ARRA funding. Compared with payline grants, ARRA grants received fewer total funds (median values, $1.03 versus $1.87 million; Pcitation impact for each grant by weighting each article for the number of citations it received normalizing for subject, article type, and year of publication. The ARRA R01 grants had a similar normalized citation impact per $1 million spent as the payline grants (median values [interquartile range], 2.15 [0.73-4.68] versus 2.03 [0.75-4.10]; P=0.61). The similar impact of the ARRA grants persisted even after accounting for potential confounders. Despite shorter durations and lower budgets, ARRA R01 grants had comparable citation outcomes per $million spent to that of contemporaneously funded payline R01 grants. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. A Survey on Characteristics of Core Latin Journals in Scientific Output of Faculty Members of Tehran University in Accordance to ISI Citations and JCR Impact Factor During 1990-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Jafari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study intends to investigate characteristics of core Latin journals in scientific output of faculty members of Tehran University (Faculties of Humanities, Psychology and Education, Social Science and Art indexed in A&HCI, SSCI (Thomson Reuters according to ISI citations and, JCR impact factor. 5434 citations to 194 articles were used as sample. Citation analysis was employed. Core journals were established according to Bradford law. Research findings reveal that out of 5434 citations, 3230 (59/44% citations belong to periodicals. Also due to interdisciplinary differences, in 50 % majors, periodicals were cited more than other information sources. Findings also indicate that there are similarities between the core journals and JCR journals. Comparison of impact factor average of core journals with impact factor average of JCR journals shows that average impact factor of core journals exceeds impact factor average of JCR journals in related fields

  11. Effective Strategies for Increasing Citation Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Nader Ale; Salehi, Hadi; Embi, Mohamed Amin; Tanha, Farid Habibi; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Motahar, Seyed Mohammad; Ordi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Due to the effect of citation impact on The Higher Education (THE) world university ranking system, most of the researchers are looking for some helpful techniques to increase their citation record. This paper by reviewing the relevant articles extracts 33 different ways for increasing the citations possibilities. The results show that the article…

  12. The Electronic Communication Environment Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery P. Terin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available What we understand is dependant on how we understand, by what means. With this in mind the electronic communication environment impact can be understood differently. The author singles out and interrelates lineality and simultaneity as the two competing modes of reasoning, whose application leads to strikingly contrasting results. The figure/ground approach, as it is practiced by contemporary researchers, allows to operate in the field more adequately. This fact is very important to know taking into consideration both its managerial potential and the educational promises. To add, the students today are known to be greatly influenced by the synchronous mode of perception and thinking as it is readily offered by electronic gadgets. On the other hand, they are often seen being estranged by the literary establishment's approaches still in use. In other words, there have emerged whole clusters of new problems in this respect both for the teachers and the studies themselves. To deal with them successfully, our task is to increasingly concentrate on renovating our electronic experiences communicating with the students to overcome the forthcoming difficulties in the process of promoting the new educational agenda and getting them adequately prepared for the new challenges of the electronic communication world. At to the notions which may be of great importance with this in mind, they include information retrieval, pattern recognition and interfacing, to name for the beginning just a few of them.

  13. The impact of the 2007 graduated driver licensing law in Massachusetts on the rate of citations and licensing in teenage drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePesa, Christopher; Raybould, Toby; Hurwitz, Shelley; Lee, Jarone; Gervasini, Alice; Velmahos, George C; Masiakos, Peter T; Kaafarani, Haytham M A

    2017-06-01

    We recently demonstrated that the 2007 Massachusetts Graduated Driving Licensing (GDL) law decreased the rate of motor vehicle crashes in teenage drivers. To better understand this decrease, we sought to examine the law's impact on the issuance of driving licenses and traffic citations to teenage drivers. Citation and license data were obtained from the Massachusetts Department of Transportation. Census data were obtained from the Census Data Center. Two study periods were defined: pre-GDL (2002-2006) and post-GDL (2007-2012). Two populations were defined: the study population (aged 16-17) and the control population (aged 25-29). The rates of licenses per population were compared pre- vs. post-GDL for the study group. The numbers of total, state, and local citations per population were compared pre- vs. post-GDL for both populations. A sensitivity analysis was performed for the rates of citations using licenses issued as a denominator. While licenses per population obtained by the study group decreased over the entire period, there was no change in the rate of decrease per year pre- vs. post-GDL (2.0% vs. 1.4%; p=0.6392). In the study population, total, state, and local citations decreased post-GDL (17.8% vs. 8.1%, p<0.0001; 3.7% vs. 2.2%, p<0.0001; 14.1% vs. 5.8%, p<0.0001, respectively). In the control group, total and state citations did not change (26.7% vs. 23.9%, p=0.3606; 9.2% vs. 10.2%, p=0.3404, respectively), and local citations decreased (17.5% vs. 13.7%, p=0.0389). The rates of decrease per year for total, state, and local citations were significantly greater in the study population compared with control (p<0.0001, p=0.0002, p<0.0001, respectively). The 2007 GDL law in Massachusetts was associated with fewer traffic citations without a change in the rate of licenses issued to teenagers. These findings suggest that 2007 GDL may be improving driving habits as opposed to motivating teenagers to delay the issuing of licenses. Copyright © 2017. Published by

  14. Impact factor, H index, peer comparisons, and Retrovirology: is it time to individualize citation metrics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeang, Kuan-Teh

    2007-01-01

    There is a natural tendency to judge a gift by the attractiveness of its wrapping. In some respect, this reflects current mores of measuring the gravitas of a scientific paper based on the journal cover in which the work appears. Most journals have an impact factor (IF) which some proudly display on their face page. Although historically journal IF has been a convenient quantitative shorthand, has its (mis)use contributed to inaccurate perceptions of the quality of scientific articles? Is now the time that equally convenient but more individually accurate metrics be adopted? PMID:17577403

  15. Report on World Workshops on Oral Medicine (WWOM) IV and V: research themes and citation impact: WWOM VI steering committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D E; Lodi, G; Beier Jensen, S; Greenberg, M S; Hodgson, T; Kerr, A R; Wray, D; Lockhart, P B

    2015-05-01

    The first World Workshop on Oral Medicine (WWOM) was held in 1988. The portfolio has continued to expand in scope and impact over the past 26 years. Five World Workshops were conducted between 1988 and 2010, focusing on creation of systematic reviews in biomedicine and health care of importance to the international oral medicine community. WWOM VI was conducted in April 2014 and further extended this modeling. This most recent Workshop also fostered creation of the inaugural joint meeting between the American Academy of Oral Medicine and the European Association of Oral Medicine, together with The British Society for Oral Medicine and the Oral Medicine Academy of Australasia. The goal of the WWOM portfolio is to strategically enhance international oral medicine research, education, and clinical practice. To this end, this report summarizes subject areas for WWOM IV (2004) and research recommendations for WWOM V (2010), as well as citation metrics relative to publications from these two conferences. The information is designed to provide research and clinical context for key issues in oral medicine as delineated by the WWOM portfolio over the past 10 years, as well as for projected outcomes of WWOM VI over the next 12 months. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Normalized impact factor (NIF): an adjusted method for calculating the citation rate of biomedical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owlia, P; Vasei, M; Goliaei, B; Nassiri, I

    2011-04-01

    The interests in journal impact factor (JIF) in scientific communities have grown over the last decades. The JIFs are used to evaluate journals quality and the papers published therein. JIF is a discipline specific measure and the comparison between the JIF dedicated to different disciplines is inadequate, unless a normalization process is performed. In this study, normalized impact factor (NIF) was introduced as a relatively simple method enabling the JIFs to be used when evaluating the quality of journals and research works in different disciplines. The NIF index was established based on the multiplication of JIF by a constant factor. The constants were calculated for all 54 disciplines of biomedical field during 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 years. Also, ranking of 393 journals in different biomedical disciplines according to the NIF and JIF were compared to illustrate how the NIF index can be used for the evaluation of publications in different disciplines. The findings prove that the use of the NIF enhances the equality in assessing the quality of research works produced by researchers who work in different disciplines. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Is quality and completeness of reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in high impact radiology journals associated with citation rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pol, Christian B; McInnes, Matthew D F; Petrcich, William; Tunis, Adam S; Hanna, Ramez

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether study quality and completeness of reporting of systematic reviews (SR) and meta-analyses (MA) published in high impact factor (IF) radiology journals is associated with citation rates. All SR and MA published in English between Jan 2007-Dec 2011, in radiology journals with an IF >2.75, were identified on Ovid MEDLINE. The Assessing the Methodologic Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) checklist for study quality, and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist for study completeness, was applied to each SR & MA. Each SR & MA was then searched in Google Scholar to yield a citation rate. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship between AMSTAR and PRISMA results with citation rate. Multivariate analyses were performed to account for the effect of journal IF and journal 5-year IF on correlation with citation rate. Values were reported as medians with interquartile range (IQR) provided. 129 studies from 11 journals were included (50 SR and 79 MA). Median AMSTAR result was 8.0/11 (IQR: 5-9) and median PRISMA result was 23.0/27 (IQR: 21-25). The median citation rate for SR & MA was 0.73 citations/month post-publication (IQR: 0.40-1.17). There was a positive correlation between both AMSTAR and PRISMA results and SR & MA citation rate; ρ=0.323 (P=0.0002) and ρ=0.327 (P=0.0002) respectively. Positive correlation persisted for AMSTAR and PRISMA results after journal IF was partialed out; ρ=0.243 (P=0.006) and ρ=0.256 (P=0.004), and after journal 5-year IF was partialed out; ρ=0.235 (P=0.008) and ρ=0.243 (P=0.006) respectively. There is a positive correlation between the quality and the completeness of a reported SR or MA with citation rate which persists when adjusted for journal IF and journal 5-year IF.

  18. Impact of Article Page Count and Number of Authors on Citations in Disability Related Fields: A Systematic Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abubakar; Adam, Mastura; Ghafar, Norafida A; Muhammad, Murtala; Ebrahim, Nader Ale

    2016-09-01

    Citation metrics and total publications in a field has become the gold standard for rating researchers and viability of a field. Hence, stimulating demand for citation has led to a search for useful strategies to improve performance metric index. Meanwhile, title, abstract and morphologic qualities of the articles attract researchers to scientific publications. Yet, there is relatively little understanding of the citation trend in disability related fields. We aimed to provide an insight into the factors associated with citation increase in this field. Additionally, we tried to know at what page number an article might appear attractive to disability researchers needs. Thus, our focus is placed on the article page count and the number of authors contributing to the fields per article. To this end, we evaluated the quantitative characteristics of top cited articles in the fields with a total citation (≥50) in the Web of Science (WoS) database. Using one-way independent ANOVA, data extracted spanning a period of 1980-2015 were analyzed, while the non-parametric data analysis uses Kruskal-Walis test. Articles with 11 to 20 pages attract more citations followed by those within the range of zero to 10. Articles with upward 21 pages are the least cited. Surprisingly, articles with more than two authors are significantly ( P <0.05) less cited and the citation decreases as the number of authors increased. Collaborative studies enjoy wider utilization and more citation, yet discounted merit of additional pages and limited collaborative research in disability field is revealed in this study.

  19. Aberration of the Citation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Multiple inherent biases related to different citation practices (for e.g., self-citations, negative citations, wrong citations, multi-authorship-biased citations, honorary citations, circumstantial citations, discriminatory citations, selective and arbitrary citations, etc.) make citation-based bibliometrics strongly flawed and defective measures. A paper can be highly cited for a while (for e.g., under circumstantial or transitional knowledge), but years later it may appear that its findings, paradigms, or theories were untrue or invalid anymore. By contrast, a paper may remain shelved or overlooked for years or decades, but new studies or discoveries may actualize its subject at any moment. As citation-based metrics are transformed into "commercial activities," the "citation credit" should be considered on a commercial basis too, in the sense that "citation credit" should be shared out as a "citation dividend" by shareholders (coauthors) averagely or proportionally to their contributions but not fully appropriated by each of them. At equal numbers of citations, the greater number of authors, the lower "citation credit" should be and vice versa. Overlooking the presence of distorted and subjective citation practices makes many people and administrators "obsessed" with the number of citations to such an extent to run after "highly cited" authors and to create specialized citation databases for commercial purposes. Citation-based bibliometrics, however, are unreliable and unscientific measures; citation counts do not mean that a more cited work is of a higher quality or accuracy than a less cited work because citations do not measure the quality or accuracy. Citations do not mean that a highly cited author or journal is more commendable than a less cited author or journal. Citations are not more than countable numbers: no more, no less.

  20. Alternative bibliometrics from impact factor improved the esteem of a journal in a 2-year-ahead annual-citation calculation: multivariate analysis of gastroenterology and hepatology journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto; Rios, Camilo

    2015-02-01

    A deeper understanding of supplementary bibliometrics beyond the impact factor might provide researchers with a better understanding of the citation process. This study presents a multivariate analysis of gastroenterology and hepatology journals to evaluate the predictive ability of seven bibliometrics in the Web of Science to calculate total cites over a 2-year period. Coincidentally, bibliometrics appearing during 2008, 2009, and 2010, with their corresponding cites in 2010, 2011, and 2012, were recorded from the Journal Citation Reports Science Edition. A linear mixed-effects design using random slopes and intercepts was performed on 51 out of 74 journals in the Gastroenterology and Hepatology category. There was a significant global effect size (R(2) = 0.992; P impact factor was not a significant predictor. The Eigenfactor Score and Cited Half-life predictors might be the new standards to assess the influence and importance of scientific journals; this approach may help researchers select journals in which to publish their work.

  1. Functions of Uni- and Multi-citations: Implications for Weighted Citation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dangzhi Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: (1 To test basic assumptions underlying frequency-weighted citation analysis: (a Uni-citations correspond to citations that are nonessential to the citing papers; (b The influence of a cited paper on the citing paper increases with the frequency with which it is cited in the citing paper. (2 To explore the degree to which citation location may be used to help identify nonessential citations. Design/methodology/approach: Each of the in-text citations in all research articles published in Issue 1 of the Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology (JASIST 2016 was manually classified into one of these five categories: Applied, Contrastive, Supportive, Reviewed, and Perfunctory. The distributions of citations at different in-text frequencies and in different locations in the text by these functions were analyzed. Findings: Filtering out nonessential citations before assigning weight is important for frequency-weighted citation analysis. For this purpose, removing citations by location is more effective than re-citation analysis that simply removes uni-citations. Removing all citation occurrences in the Background and Literature Review sections and uni-citations in the Introduction section appears to provide a good balance between filtration and error rates. Research limitations: This case study suffers from the limitation of scalability and generalizability. We took careful measures to reduce the impact of other limitations of the data collection approach used. Relying on the researcher’s judgment to attribute citation functions, this approach is unobtrusive but speculative, and can suffer from a low degree of confidence, thus creating reliability concerns. Practical implications: Weighted citation analysis promises to improve citation analysis for research evaluation, knowledge network analysis, knowledge representation, and information retrieval. The present study showed the importance of filtering out nonessential

  2. The academic productivity and impact of the University of Toronto Neurosurgery Program as assessed by manuscripts published and their number of citations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Christopher S; Tam, Joseph; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Lozano, Andres M

    2015-09-01

    Recent works have assessed academic output across neurosurgical programs using various analyses of accumulated citations as a proxy for academic activity and productivity. These assessments have emphasized North American neurosurgical training centers and have largely excluded centers outside the United States. Because of the long tradition and level of academic activity in neurosurgery at the University of Toronto, the authors sought to compare that program's publication and citation metrics with those of established programs in the US as documented in the literature. So as to not rely on historical achievements that may be of less relevance, they focused on recent works, that is, those published in the most recent complete 5-year period. The authors sought to make their data comparable to existing published data from other programs. To this end, they compiled a list of published papers by neurosurgical faculty at the University of Toronto for the period from 2009 through 2013 using the Scopus database. Individual author names were disambiguated; the total numbers of papers and citations were compiled on a yearly basis. They computed a number of indices, including the ih(5)-index (i.e., the number of citations the papers received over a 5-year period), the summed h-index of the current faculty over time, and a number of secondary measures, including the ig(5), ie(5), and i10(5)-indices. They also determined the impact of individual authors in driving the results using Gini coefficients. To address the issue of author ambiguity, which can be problematic in multicenter bibliometric analyses, they have provided a source dataset used to determine the ih(5) index for the Toronto program. The University of Toronto Neurosurgery Program had approximately 29 full-time surgically active faculty per year (not including nonneurosurgical faculty) in the 5-year period from 2009 to 2013. These faculty published a total of 1217 papers in these 5 years. The total number of

  3. The measurement of the effect on citation inequality of differences in citation practices across scientific fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Juan A; Li, Yunrong; Li, Yungrong; Ruiz-Castillo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    This paper has two aims: (i) to introduce a novel method for measuring which part of overall citation inequality can be attributed to differences in citation practices across scientific fields, and (ii) to implement an empirical strategy for making meaningful comparisons between the number of citations received by articles in 22 broad fields. The number of citations received by any article is seen as a function of the article's scientific influence, and the field to which it belongs. A key assumption is that articles in the same quantile of any field citation distribution have the same degree of citation impact in their respective field. Using a dataset of 4.4 million articles published in 1998-2003 with a five-year citation window, we estimate that differences in citation practices between the 22 fields account for 14% of overall citation inequality. Our empirical strategy is based on the strong similarities found in the behavior of citation distributions. We obtain three main results. Firstly, we estimate a set of average-based indicators, called exchange rates, to express the citations received by any article in a large interval in terms of the citations received in a reference situation. Secondly, using our exchange rates as normalization factors of the raw citation data reduces the effect of differences in citation practices to, approximately, 2% of overall citation inequality in the normalized citation distributions. Thirdly, we provide an empirical explanation of why the usual normalization procedure based on the fields' mean citation rates is found to be equally successful.

  4. Citation patterns of a controversial and high-impact paper: Worm et al. (2006) "Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Trevor A

    2013-01-01

    Citation patterns were examined for Worm et al. 2006 (Science 314:787-790), a high-impact paper that focused on relationships between marine biodiversity and ecosystem services. This paper sparked much controversy through its projection, highlighted in the press release, that all marine fisheries would be collapsed by 2048. Analysis of 664 citing papers revealed that only a small percentage (11%) referred to the 2048 projection, while 39% referred to fisheries collapse in general, and 40% to biodiversity and ecosystem services. The 2048 projection was mentioned more often in papers published soon after the original paper, in low-impact journals, and in journals outside of fields that would be expected to focus on biodiversity. Citing papers also mentioned the 2048 projection more often if they had few authors (28% of single-author papers vs. 2% of papers with 10 or more authors). These factors suggest that the more knowledgeable the authors of citing papers were about the controversy over the 2048 projection, the less likely they were to refer to it. A noteworthy finding was that if the original authors were also involved in the citing papers, they rarely (1 of 55 papers, 2%) mentioned the 2048 projection. Thus the original authors have emphasized the broader concerns about biodiversity loss, rather than the 2048 projection, as the key result of their study.

  5. Citation analysis of scientific categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory S. Patience

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Databases catalogue the corpus of research literature into scientific categories and report classes of bibliometric data such as the number of citations to articles, the number of authors, journals, funding agencies, institutes, references, etc. The number of articles and citations in a category are gauges of productivity and scientific impact but a quantitative basis to compare researchers between categories is limited. Here, we compile a list of bibliometric indicators for 236 science categories and citation rates of the 500 most cited articles of each category. The number of citations per paper vary by several orders of magnitude and are highest in multidisciplinary sciences, general internal medicine, and biochemistry and lowest in literature, poetry, and dance. A regression model demonstrates that citation rates to the top articles in each category increase with the square root of the number of articles in a category and decrease proportionately with the age of the references: articles in categories that cite recent research are also cited more frequently. The citation rate correlates positively with the number of funding agencies that finance the research. The category h-index correlates with the average number of cites to the top 500 ranked articles of each category (R2=0.997. Furthermore, only a few journals publish the top 500 cited articles in each category: four journals publish 60% (σ=±20% of these and ten publish 81% (σ=±15%.

  6. Citation analysis of scientific categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patience, Gregory S; Patience, Christian A; Blais, Bruno; Bertrand, Francois

    2017-05-01

    Databases catalogue the corpus of research literature into scientific categories and report classes of bibliometric data such as the number of citations to articles, the number of authors, journals, funding agencies, institutes, references, etc. The number of articles and citations in a category are gauges of productivity and scientific impact but a quantitative basis to compare researchers between categories is limited. Here, we compile a list of bibliometric indicators for 236 science categories and citation rates of the 500 most cited articles of each category. The number of citations per paper vary by several orders of magnitude and are highest in multidisciplinary sciences, general internal medicine, and biochemistry and lowest in literature, poetry, and dance. A regression model demonstrates that citation rates to the top articles in each category increase with the square root of the number of articles in a category and decrease proportionately with the age of the references: articles in categories that cite recent research are also cited more frequently. The citation rate correlates positively with the number of funding agencies that finance the research. The category h-index correlates with the average number of cites to the top 500 ranked articles of each category ([Formula: see text]). Furthermore, only a few journals publish the top 500 cited articles in each category: four journals publish 60% ([Formula: see text]) of these and ten publish 81% ([Formula: see text]).

  7. Coverage of Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica et Adriatica in Elsevier's CiteScore index: a new tool for measuring the citation impact of academic journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Mario

    2017-03-01

    In December 2016, Elsevier launched a new tool that helps measure the citation impact of academic journals, called the CiteScore index. The CiteScore index values for 2015 confirmed the status of Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica et Adriatica (Acta Dermatovenerol APA) as the leading journal in dermatology and sexually transmitted infections in the region. Sixty-five articles published in Acta Dermatovenerol APA from 2012 to 2014 received a total of 77 citations in 2015, resulting in a CiteScore index value of 1.18 for the journal. More than half of the articles published from 2012 to 2014 received at least one citation in 2015. Acta Dermatovenerol APA performed well in all three categories listed because it is ranked 384th out of 1,549 journals in the category General Medicine (75th percentile), 53rd out of 122 journals in the category Dermatology (56th percentile), and 142nd out of 246 journals in the category Infectious Diseases (42nd percentile).

  8. Current status of Science Citation Index Expanded listing of Korean medical journals and effect of PubMed electronic publication ahead of print to their impact factors

    OpenAIRE

    Jae Jun Shim; Byung-Ho Kim

    2016-01-01

    This year marked the twentieth anniversary of the Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors (KAMJE). The number of member journals has increased from 105 to 257 since its inception in 1996. In the same period, the number of journals listed in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) has increased from zero to 35. The average journal impact factor (JIF) that was initially 0.13 has now increased by more than tenfold on average to 1.45 as of 2014. Many KAMJE journals that are not indexed i...

  9. Rankings and Trends in Citation Patterns of Communication Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Timothy R.

    2010-01-01

    Journal citations are increasingly used as indicators of the impact of scholarly work. Because many communication journals are not included in the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI), SSCI impact factors are potentially misleading for communication journals. The current paper reports a citation analysis of 30 communication journals based on…

  10. Gender Differences in Synchronous and Diachronous Self-citations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghiasi, G.; Lariviere, V.; Sugimoto, C.

    2016-07-01

    Citation rates are increasingly used as a currency of science, providing a basis to reward a scientist. Self-citations, an inevitable part of scholarly communication, may contribute to the inflation of citation counts and impose a considerable impact on research evaluation and academic career advancements. Self-citations are classified into two types in this study: synchronous self-citations (self-citations an author gives) and diachronous self-citations (selfcitations an author receives). The main objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive gendered analysis of synchronous and diachronous self-citations across all scientific disciplines. For this purpose, citation data of 12,725,171 articles published in 2008-2014 are extracted from Web of Science and are further scrutinized for articles of each gender. The findings reveal that men receive citations from their own papers at a higher rate than their women counterparts. They also tend to give more citations to their own publications. Gender gap in citation impact decreases when first-author’s diachronous citations are eliminated in the impact analysis. However, the gap does not vary when all-authors’ diachronous citations are excluded. The results of this research is important for effective gender-related policy-making in the science and technology arena. (Author)

  11. The Highest-Impact Combat Orthopedic and Extremity Injury Articles in the Past 70 Years: A Citation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jason; Do, Woo S; Stinner, Daniel J; Wenke, Joseph C; Orman, Jean A; Kragh, John F

    The objective of this study was to identify the most-cited peer-reviewed combat orthopedic and extremity injury articles published during the past 70 years. Orthopedic trauma presents ongoing challenges to both US civilian and military healthcare personnel. Improvements in combat trauma and extremity injury survival and quality of life are the result of advances in orthopedic trauma research. The Web of Science (including Science Citation Index) was searched for the most cited articles related to combat orthopedic trauma, published from 1940 to 2013. The most-cited article was by Owens et al. (Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, 2007; 137 citations). Between the 1990s and 2000s, there was a 256% increase in the number of highly cited publications. A total of 69% of the articles were on the topics of comorbid vascular trauma (25%), epidemiology (23%), or orthopedic trauma (21%). This study identifies some of the most important contributions to combat orthopedic trauma and research and the areas of greatest scientific interest to the specialty during the past seven decades and highlights key research that has contributed to the evolution of modern combat orthopedic traumatology. 2017.

  12. An increasing citation black hole in ecology and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Anthony R; Wong, Bob B M; Chapple, David G

    2015-01-01

    Citations published in online supplementary material (OSM) are invisible to search engines used to calculate citation counts, potentially negatively impacting popular performance indices and journal rankings that rely on citation counts for quantification. To quantify the number of citations that are "lost" in OSM, we conducted a systematic survey of supplementary citation practices in four high-ranking, society-run journals from two geographical locations (Europe and North America). In 2012, 6% of all citations were only included in the OSM and were therefore not included in citation counts. We found a significant increase in the number of references invisible to citation counting services over the last two decades. A solution to this problem is urgently required and could include journal indexing of citations in OSM or the inclusion of all references in the main text.

  13. Ranking Economics and Econometrics ISI Journals by Quality Weighted Citations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The paper analyses academic journal quality and impact using quality weighted citations that are based on the widely-used Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Science citations database (ISI). A recently developed Index of Citations Quality (ICQ), based on quality weighted

  14. Bioinformatics paper exceeds 500 in citation index

    OpenAIRE

    Whyte, Barry James

    2010-01-01

    A scientific paper that includes contributions from scientists at the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech, has exceeded 500 citations in the ISI Web of Knowledge, an online academic database that documents the impact of scientific publications.

  15. Sharing data increases citations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Thea Marie; Ellegaard, Ole; Larsen, Asger Væring

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents some indications to the existence of a citation advantage related to sharing data using astrophysics as a case. Through bibliometric analyses we find a citation advantage for astrophysical papers in core journals. The advantage arises as indexed papers are associated with data...... by bibliographical links, and consists of papers receiving on average significantly more citations per paper per year, than do papers not associated with links to data....

  16. Twitter Predicts Citation Rates of Ecological Research

    OpenAIRE

    Peoples, Brandon K.; Midway, Stephen R.; Dana Sackett; Abigail Lynch; Patrick B Cooney

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between traditional metrics of research impact (e.g., number of citations) and alternative metrics (altmetrics) such as Twitter activity are of great interest, but remain imprecisely quantified. We used generalized linear mixed modeling to estimate the relative effects of Twitter activity, journal impact factor, and time since publication on Web of Science citation rates of 1,599 primary research articles from 20 ecology journals published from 2012-2014. We found a strong po...

  17. Citation Classics in "Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior": A Research Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The number of citations a scholarly work receives is a common measure of its impact on the scientific literature; "citation classics" are the most highly cited works. The content of "Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior" ("SLTB") citation classics is described here. The impact of "SLTB" citation classics is compared to their counterparts in…

  18. Researchers' perceptions of citations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aksnes, Dag W.; Rip, Arie

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks at how citations are perceived among scientists. Based on a questionnaire survey it traces the repertoire of views and experiences about citations that could be found among Norwegian scientists that had published highly cited papers. Their views circle around three issues: the

  19. Citations Prize 2011 Citations Prize 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

    2011-12-01

    Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat who was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winning co-authors each receive a certificate. Susan Hagness (left) receiving the Rotblat Medal from Robert Jeraj of PMB's Editorial Board (right) on behalf of Mariya Lazebnik. The winner of the 2011 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous 5 years (2006-2010) is A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal, benign and malignant breast tissues obtained from cancer surgeries Authors: Mariya Lazebnik, Dijana Popovic, Leah McCartney, Cynthia B Watkins, Mary J Lindstrom, Josephine Harter, Sarah Sewall, Travis Ogilvie, Anthony Magliocco, Tara M Breslin, Walley Temple, Daphne Mew, John H Booske, Michal Okoniewski and Susan C Hagness Reference: Mariya Lazebnik et al 2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 6093-115 Discussion of the significance of the winning paper can be found on medicalphysicsweb (medicalphysicsweb.org/cws/article/research/47814). Our congratulations go to the winning authors. Steve Webb Editor-in-Chief Simon Harris Publisher

  20. Twitter Predicts Citation Rates of Ecological Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon K Peoples

    Full Text Available The relationship between traditional metrics of research impact (e.g., number of citations and alternative metrics (altmetrics such as Twitter activity are of great interest, but remain imprecisely quantified. We used generalized linear mixed modeling to estimate the relative effects of Twitter activity, journal impact factor, and time since publication on Web of Science citation rates of 1,599 primary research articles from 20 ecology journals published from 2012-2014. We found a strong positive relationship between Twitter activity (i.e., the number of unique tweets about an article and number of citations. Twitter activity was a more important predictor of citation rates than 5-year journal impact factor. Moreover, Twitter activity was not driven by journal impact factor; the 'highest-impact' journals were not necessarily the most discussed online. The effect of Twitter activity was only about a fifth as strong as time since publication; accounting for this confounding factor was critical for estimating the true effects of Twitter use. Articles in impactful journals can become heavily cited, but articles in journals with lower impact factors can generate considerable Twitter activity and also become heavily cited. Authors may benefit from establishing a strong social media presence, but should not expect research to become highly cited solely through social media promotion. Our research demonstrates that altmetrics and traditional metrics can be closely related, but not identical. We suggest that both altmetrics and traditional citation rates can be useful metrics of research impact.

  1. Twitter Predicts Citation Rates of Ecological Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, Brandon K; Midway, Stephen R; Sackett, Dana; Lynch, Abigail; Cooney, Patrick B

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between traditional metrics of research impact (e.g., number of citations) and alternative metrics (altmetrics) such as Twitter activity are of great interest, but remain imprecisely quantified. We used generalized linear mixed modeling to estimate the relative effects of Twitter activity, journal impact factor, and time since publication on Web of Science citation rates of 1,599 primary research articles from 20 ecology journals published from 2012-2014. We found a strong positive relationship between Twitter activity (i.e., the number of unique tweets about an article) and number of citations. Twitter activity was a more important predictor of citation rates than 5-year journal impact factor. Moreover, Twitter activity was not driven by journal impact factor; the 'highest-impact' journals were not necessarily the most discussed online. The effect of Twitter activity was only about a fifth as strong as time since publication; accounting for this confounding factor was critical for estimating the true effects of Twitter use. Articles in impactful journals can become heavily cited, but articles in journals with lower impact factors can generate considerable Twitter activity and also become heavily cited. Authors may benefit from establishing a strong social media presence, but should not expect research to become highly cited solely through social media promotion. Our research demonstrates that altmetrics and traditional metrics can be closely related, but not identical. We suggest that both altmetrics and traditional citation rates can be useful metrics of research impact.

  2. Measuring Research Impact in an Open Access Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Scholze

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on electronic publication impact as a limited, but rather well defined sub-field of research impact. With Open Access, a much bigger corpus of data has become available for statistical analysis. Publication impact can be measured by author- or reader-generated data. Author-generated data would be citations. Reader-generated data would be usage. Usage data can be collected through webserver or linkresolver logs. It has to be normalized in order to be shared and analysed meaningfully. The paper presents current initiatives and projects aiming to provide a suitable infrastructure, including publisher data (COUNTER/SUSHI and data collected from Open Access repositories (using OAI-PMH and OpenURL ContextObjects. Citation and usage data can be analyzed quantitatively or structurally. These new metrics can enhance or complement existing metrics like the Journal Impact Factor (JIF. Services like decision support systems for collection management or recommender systems can also be built on this metrics.

  3. Author self-citation in the general medicine literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Aziz, Brittany; Shams, Iffat; Busse, Jason W

    2011-01-01

    Author self-citation contributes to the overall citation count of an article and the impact factor of the journal in which it appears. Little is known, however, about the extent of self-citation in the general clinical medicine literature. The objective of this study was to determine the extent and temporal pattern of author self-citation and the article characteristics associated with author self-citation. We performed a retrospective cohort study of articles published in three high impact general medical journals (JAMA, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine) between October 1, 1999 and March 31, 2000. We retrieved the number and percentage of author self-citations received by the article since publication, as of June 2008, from the Scopus citation database. Several article characteristics were extracted by two blinded, independent reviewers for each article in the cohort and analyzed in multivariable linear regression analyses. Since publication, author self-citations accounted for 6.5% (95% confidence interval 6.3-6.7%) of all citations received by the 328 articles in our sample. Self-citation peaked in 2002, declining annually thereafter. Studies with more authors, in cardiovascular medicine or infectious disease, and with smaller sample size were associated with more author self-citations and higher percentage of author self-citation (all p≤0.01). Approximately 1 in 15 citations of articles in high-profile general medicine journals are author self-citations. Self-citation peaks within about 2 years of publication and disproportionately affects impact factor. Studies most vulnerable to this effect are those with more authors, small sample size, and in cardiovascular medicine or infectious disease.

  4. On the evolution and utility of annual citation indices

    CERN Document Server

    Khaleque, Abdul; Sen, Parongama

    2014-01-01

    We study the statistics of citations made to the top ranked indexed journals for Science and Social Science databases in the Journal Citation Reports using different measures. Total annual citation and impact factor, as well as a third measure called the annual citation rate are used to make the detailed analysis. We observe that the distribution of the annual citation rate has an universal feature - it shows a maximum at the rate scaled by half the average, irrespective of how the journals are ranked, and even across Science and Social Science journals, and fits well to log-Gumbel distribution. Correlations between different quantities are studied and a comparative analysis of the three measures is presented. The newly introduced annual citation rate factor helps in understanding the effect of scaling the number of citation by the total number of publications. The effect of the impact factor on authors contributing to the journals as well as on editorial policies is also discussed.

  5. Twitter predicts citation rates of ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, Brandon K.; Midway, Stephen R.; Sackett, Dana K.; Lynch, Abigail; Cooney, Patrick B.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between traditional metrics of research impact (e.g., number of citations) and alternative metrics (altmetrics) such as Twitter activity are of great interest, but remain imprecisely quantified. We used generalized linear mixed modeling to estimate the relative effects of Twitter activity, journal impact factor, and time since publication on Web of Science citation rates of 1,599 primary research articles from 20 ecology journals published from 2012–2014. We found a strong positive relationship between Twitter activity (i.e., the number of unique tweets about an article) and number of citations. Twitter activity was a more important predictor of citation rates than 5-year journal impact factor. Moreover, Twitter activity was not driven by journal impact factor; the ‘highest-impact’ journals were not necessarily the most discussed online. The effect of Twitter activity was only about a fifth as strong as time since publication; accounting for this confounding factor was critical for estimating the true effects of Twitter use. Articles in impactful journals can become heavily cited, but articles in journals with lower impact factors can generate considerable Twitter activity and also become heavily cited. Authors may benefit from establishing a strong social media presence, but should not expect research to become highly cited solely through social media promotion. Our research demonstrates that altmetrics and traditional metrics can be closely related, but not identical. We suggest that both altmetrics and traditional citation rates can be useful metrics of research impact.

  6. Impact of Coal Mining on Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining adversely affects the eco-system as a whole. On the unstable earth, the unresting mankind constantly uses a variety of resources for daily lives. Coal is recognized to have been the main source of energy in India for many decades and contributes to nearly 27 % of the world’s commercial energy requirement. Coal is mainly mined using two methods- surface or ‘opencast’ and underground mining. The geological condition determines the method of mining. Coal mining is usually associated with the degradation of natural resources and the destruction of habitat. This causes invasive species to occupy the area, thus posing a threat to biodiversity. Huge quantities of waste material are produced by several mining activities in the coal mining region. If proper care is not taken for waste disposal, mining will degrade the surrounding environment. The method of waste disposal affects land, water and air and in turns the quality of life of the people in the adjacent areas. This paper throws lights on the burning issues of coal mines and its impact on the environment.

  7. The Normalization of Citation Counts Based on Classification Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Barth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available If we want to assess whether the paper in question has had a particularly high or low citation impact compared to other papers, the standard practice in bibliometrics is to normalize citations in respect of the subject category and publication year. A number of proposals for an improved procedure in the normalization of citation impact have been put forward in recent years. Against the background of these proposals, this study describes an ideal solution for the normalization of citation impact: in a first step, the reference set for the publication in question is collated by means of a classification scheme, where every publication is associated with a single principal research field or subfield entry (e.g., via Chemical Abstracts sections and a publication year. In a second step, percentiles of citation counts are calculated for this set and used to assign the normalized citation impact score to the publications (and also to the publication in question.

  8. Limiting our impact on the environment

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    CERN’s fourth safety objective for 2012 concerns the reduction of the environmental impact of noise and energy consumption associated with CERN's activities.   In order to continue to reduce the impact of noise on our neighbours, the HSE Unit is coordinating measures to reduce noise in the environment at all the LHC and SPS points, and on the Meyrin and Prévessin sites. If you are aware of a high-intensity noise that could disturb those living and working close to our sites, you can contact the HSE Unit. And most important of all, please take this potential nuisance into account when you're planning new projects. The HSE Unit is there to help you. The other aspect of our environmental target for the year is to optimise CERN's energy consumption. We can achieve this by limiting the energy consumption of facilities right from the design stage - from small components to large installations - and by using renewable energies even on a sma...

  9. Alternative bibliometrics from the web of knowledge surpasses the impact factor in a 2-year ahead annual citation calculation: Linear mixed-design models' analysis of neuroscience journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Orbe-Arteaga, Ulises; Rios, Camilo; Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto

    2018-01-01

    The decision about which journal to choose for the publication of research deserves further investigation. In this study, we evaluate the predictive ability of seven bibliometrics in the Web of Knowledge to calculate total cites over a 7-year period in neuroscience journals. Coincidental bibliometrics appearing during 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011, along with their corresponding cites in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013, were recorded from the journal citation reports (JCR) Science Edition. This was a retrospective study. This was a bibliographic research using data from the Web of Knowledge in the neuroscience category. A linear-mixed effects design using random slopes and intercepts was performed on 275 journals in the neuroscience category. We found that Eigenfactor score, cited half-life, immediacy index, and number of articles are significant predictors of 2-year-ahead total cites (P ≤ 0.010 for all variables). The impact factor, 5-year impact factor, and article influence score were not significant predictors; the global effect size was significant (R2= 0.999; P < 0.001) with a total variance of 99.9%. An integrative model using a set of several metrics could represent a new standard to assess the influence and importance of scientific journals, and may simultaneously help researchers to rank journals in their decision-making during the manuscript submission phase.

  10. Mandatory and Self-citation; Types, Reasons, Their Benefits and Disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmat Esfe, Mohammad; Wongwises, Somchai; Asadi, Amin; Karimipour, Arash; Akbari, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    This paper defines and discusses two important types of citations, self-citation and mandatory citation, in engineering journals. Citation can be classified in three categories: optional; semi-mandatory; and mandatory. There are some negative and positive impacts for the authors' paper and journals' reputation if mandatory citation of a paper or set of papers is requested. These effects can be different based on the recommended papers for citing in the new research. Mandatory citation has various types discussed in this paper. Self-citation and its reasons and impacts are also discussed in the present study.

  11. Turning the Tables on Citation Analysis One More Time: Principles for Comparing Sets of Documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Bornmann, Lutz; Mutz, Ruediger; Opthof, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    We submit newly developed citation impact indicators based not on arithmetic averages of citations but on percentile ranks. Citation distributions are-as a rule-highly skewed and should not be arithmetically averaged. With percentile ranks, the citation score of each paper is rated in terms of its

  12. Turning the tables in citation analysis one more time: principles for comparing sets of documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Bornmann, L.; Mutz, R.; Opthof, T.

    2011-01-01

    We submit newly developed citation impact indicators based not on arithmetic averages of citations but on percentile ranks. Citation distributions are-as a rule-highly skewed and should not be arithmetically averaged. With percentile ranks, the citation score of each paper is rated in terms of its

  13. Non-Traffic Citations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Non-traffic citations (NTCs, also known as "summary offenses") document low-level criminal offenses where a law enforcement officer or other authorized official...

  14. Citation patterns and trends of systematic reviews about mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Alberto; Fazia, Teresa; Bernardinelli, Luisa; Morandi, Gabriella

    2017-08-01

    We performed a citation analysis of the literature about mindfulness aimed at describing the most significant topics and the impact of more relevant papers. We classified 128 systematic reviews about mindfulness-based intervention retrieved in Scopus according to their object, the population included and the type of mindfulness proposed. The citation counting was reported. The cumulative citation numbers per chronological years and article life were analyzed thorough a linear regression model. 1) We observed a general increase in the number of reviews published from 2003 to 2016; 2) two reviews collected the 33% of the overall citations; 3) citation counting for clinical and mixed population collected the 90% of total citations; 4) clinical reviews had higher cumulative citation per publication/year growth. As mindfulness research advances, higher attention should be given to the mechanisms by which mindfulness interventions work so as to provide fruitful insights for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A generalized view of self-citation: direct, co-author, collaborative, and coercive induced self-citation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, John P A

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of self-citation can present in many different forms, including direct, co-author, collaborative, and coercive induced self-citation. It can also pertain to the citation of single scientists, groups of scientists, journals, and institutions. This article presents some case studies of extreme self-citation practices. It also discusses the implications of different types of self-citation. Self-citation is not necessarily inappropriate by default. In fact, usually it is fully appropriate but often it is even necessary. Conversely, inappropriate self-citation practices may be highly misleading and may distort the scientific literature. Coercive induced self-citation is the most difficult to discover. Coercive Induced self-citation may happen directly from reviewers of articles, but also indirectly from reviewers of grants, scientific advisors who steer a research agenda, and leaders of funding agencies who may espouse spending disproportionately large funds in research domains that perpetuate their own self-legacy. Inappropriate self-citation can be only a surrogate marker of what might be much greater distortions of the scientific corpus towards conformity to specific opinions and biases. Inappropriate self-citations eventually affect also impact metrics. Different impact metrics vary in the extent to which they can be gamed through self-citation practices. Citation indices that are more gaming-proof are available and should be more widely used. We need more empirical studies to dissect the impact of different types of inappropriate self-citation and to examine the effectiveness of interventions to limit them. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Citations to papers from Brazilian institutions: a more effective indicator to assess productivity and the impact of research in graduate programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Meneghini

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A recent assessment of 4400 postgraduate courses in Brazil by CAPES (a federal government agency dedicated to the improvement of the quality of and research at the postgraduate level stimulated a large amount of manifestations in the press, scientific journals and scientific congresses. This gigantic effort to classify 16,400 scientific journals in order to provide indicators for assessment proved to be puzzling and methodologically erroneous in terms of gauging the institutions from a metric point of view. A simple algorithm is proposed here to weigh the scientometric indicators that should be considered in the assessment of a scientific institution. I conclude here that the simple gauge of the total number of citations accounts for both the productivity of scientists and the impact of articles. The effort spent in this exercise is relatively small, and the sources of information are fully accessible. As an exercise to estimate the value of the methodology, 12 institutions of physics (10 from Brazil, one from the USA and one from Italy have been evaluated.

  17. Artifactual increase in journal self-citation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Patrick; Rice, Kevin J; Gravenstein, Nikolaus; Rice, Mark J

    2011-08-01

    After submission of a manuscript to a peer-reviewed anesthesia journal, several authors were asked to cite additional references from the journal to which they submitted. We hypothesized that there were differences among the anesthesiology journals in both the total number of self-citations and the proportion of self-citations to the total number of references in each manuscript for the years 2005 and 2010. We conducted a review of a sample of manuscripts from 2005 and 2010 to examine the number and rate of self-citations. As a secondary analysis, we reviewed impact factor (IF), rate of self-referencing, and contribution of self-citations to IF in the population of manuscripts published in 8 anesthesia journals between 2000 and 2009 using the ISI Journal Citation Reports. The number (P citations among the different journals were significantly different in 2005, with similar results for 2010 in the number (P citations. The mean range of number of self-citations ranged from 0.45 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06 to 0.84) to 3.95 (95% CI, 2.2 to 5.7) in 2005 and from 0.25 (95% CI, -0.05 to 0.55) to 4.5 (95% CI, 2.2 to 6.9) in 2010. On a per-journal basis, no difference in the number of self-citations was noted between 2005 and 2010. Analysis of the ISI Journal Citation Reports from 2000 to 2009 suggested a general decline in the contribution of self-cites to the IF over time for the aggregate journals (Spearman correlation coefficient (Rs) -0.25 (95% CI, -0.45 to -0.03), P = 0.02), with the exception of the journal in question (Rs = 0.59 (95% CI, -0.1 to 0.88), P = 0.05). Positive correlations were found between self-cited rate and IF (Rs 0.52, 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.66, P citations differed among anesthesia journals, the contribution of self-citation to IF has declined over time for most anesthesia journals. These results suggest periodic reassessment may be important to ensure that the publication process remains transparent and impartial to bias.

  18. 40 CFR 68.33 - Defining offsite impacts-environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Defining offsite impacts-environment. 68.33 Section 68.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... impacts—environment. (a) The owner or operator shall list in the RMP environmental receptors within a...

  19. Current status of Science Citation Index Expanded listing of Korean medical journals and effect of PubMed electronic publication ahead of print to their impact factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Jun Shim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This year marked the twentieth anniversary of the Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors (KAMJE. The number of member journals has increased from 105 to 257 since its inception in 1996. In the same period, the number of journals listed in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE has increased from zero to 35. The average journal impact factor (JIF that was initially 0.13 has now increased by more than tenfold on average to 1.45 as of 2014. Many KAMJE journals that are not indexed in the SCIE are putting their best effort towards eventual inclusion. Following listing with SCIE, however, editors have turned their attention towards the JIF and have shown interest in early online publication as a means of improving the JIF. The current status of PubMed electronic publication ahead of print (EAP was surveyed among KAMJE journals that are indexed in the SCIE, and the impact of this EAP on the improvement of the JIF was investigated. Based on the survey, more than half of the members have started or are planning on implementing EAP. However, these efforts were found to be still in their infancy, and they have been insufficient to serve as a basis for scientific analysis. Since the sample size is too small and the implementation period too short to statistically analyze the effects of early publication on the JIF, a case-by-case approach was taken. Based on case studies, it is difficult to draw conclusions yet about whether online early publication enhances the JIF.

  20. Citation classics in suicide and life threatening behavior: a research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven

    2012-12-01

    The number of citations a scholarly work receives is a common measure of its impact on the scientific literature; "citation classics" are the most highly cited works. The content of Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior (SLTB) citation classics is described here. The impact of SLTB citation classics is compared to their counterparts in journals having published the most suicide papers. All data are from the ISI electronic venue on the Web of Science and refer to the number of citations the top 1% of works received in each of ten journals from 1975 through August 10, 2011. Among all ten journals, SLTB ranked first in the number of works on suicide. The principle theme of half of SLTB suicide classics was literature review. The median number of citations for SLTB citation classics (top 1%) was 121.5, with a range between 96 and 279 citations, but classics from generalized psychiatric journals received more citations as anticipated. Journal impact factors explained 73% of the variance in classic's citation counts across journals. On average, suicide classics received 30% more citations than all classics. Among a second group of five specialized suicide journals, however, SLTB ranked first in average 5-year impact. Although SLTB produced the highest number of suicide articles of any journal, SLTB's citation classics received fewer citations than suicide classics in high-impact/prestige, general journals. Future work is needed to assess what predicts which SLTB articles ultimately become citation classics. © 2012 The American Association of Suicidology.

  1. Annual Journal citation indices: a comparative study

    CERN Document Server

    Khaleque, Abdul; Sen, Parongama

    2016-01-01

    We study the statistics of citations made to the indexed Science journals in the Journal Citation Reports during the period 2004-2013 using different measures. We consider different measures which quantify the impact of the journals. To our surprise, we find that the apparently uncorrelated measures, even when defined in an arbitrary manner, show strong correlations. This is checked over all the years considered. Impact factor being one of these measures, the present work raises the question whether it is actually a nearly perfect index as claimed often. In addition we study the distributions of the different indices which also behave similarly.

  2. Citation Analysis: Definitions and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhossein Abdoulmajid

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Citations hold a special place within scientific literature. In fact a scientific paper is deemed credible only when it cites the relevant works and papers on the subject. Citation analysis is a method based on the existing citations within scientific literature. It analyses and evaluates works by counting the number of citations used in different texts such as journals, dissertations and such. The emergence of citation indices has contributed to the remarkable growth and development of citation analysis, making it a significant research area over the past couple of decades. The present paper deals with the importance of citations and citation theories. Definitions and historical background on citation analysis as well as its various field applications are discussed.

  3. [Environment and lifestyle: Impacts on male fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendayan, M; Alter, L; Swierkowski-Blanchard, N; Caceres-Sanchez, L; Selva, J; Robin, G; Boitrelle, F

    2018-01-01

    In this last century, an increase of men infertility has been registered. It has been suggested that environmental factors could a negative impact over sperm quality. Among these factors, impact of environmental toxicant has been spread by media. In this review of scientific literature, we identify several environmental factors that could impact men fertility in a negative way. These factors are tobacco, marijuana, weight, body mass index, heat, nutritional state, electromagnetic waves and altitude. For each of these factors, the impact over men fertility, their mechanism, as well their influence over the use of Assisted Reproductive Technics are reported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. THE IMPACT OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT ON URBAN ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    TROANCA Dumitru

    2012-01-01

    By their nature, tourism activities cause certain effects on the environment. They may vary depending on the extent of tourist activities, and also on the factors contributing to their increase or decline. All these effects have led to the notion of “the impact of tourism activity on the environment”. Environment in general is affected by these actions, but this paper focuses mainly on the impact of tourism development on the urban environment. We divided these effects into four categories: e...

  5. Citation Analysis of PJCR Humanities Journals during 2003-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Roya Maghsoudi Daryeh

    2011-01-01

    By using citation analysis, this article has studied humanities journals of Persian Journal Citation Report (PJCR) during 2003-2007. In this research "Impact Factor" and "Immediacy Index" of these journals were investigated and top publishers were determined according to the Impact Factor indicator. Findings showed that more than 75% of these journals have Impact Factor during mentioned years, while only 30% journals have Immediacy Index. Comparing the average Impact Factor of humanities jour...

  6. Prevalence and Citation Advantage of Gold Open Access in the Subject Areas of the Scopus Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorta-González, Pablo; Santana-Jiménez, Yolanda

    2018-01-01

    The potential benefit of open access (OA) in relation to citation impact has been discussed in the literature in depth. The methodology used to test the OA citation advantage includes comparing OA vs. non-OA journal impact factors and citations of OA vs. non-OA articles published in the same non-OA journals. However, one problem with many studies…

  7. An analysis of the citation climate in neurosurgical literature and description of an interfield citation metric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhugiri, Venkatesh S; Sasidharan, Gopalakrishnan M; Subeikshanan, Venkatesan; Dutt, Akshat; Ambekar, Sudheer; Strom, Shane F

    2015-05-01

    The citation climate in neurosurgical literature is largely undefined. To study the patterns of citation of articles in neurosurgery as a scientific field and to evaluate the performance of neurosurgery journals vis-à-vis journals in other fields. References cited in articles published in neurosurgery journals during a specified time period were analyzed to determine the age of articles cited in neurosurgical literature. In the next analysis, articles published in neurosurgical journals were followed up for 13 years after publication. The postpublication citation patterns were analyzed to determine the time taken to reach the maximally cited state and the time when articles stopped being cited. The final part of the study dealt with the evolution of a new interfield citation metric, which was then compared with other standardized citation indexes. The mean ± SD age of articles cited in neurosurgical literature was 11.6 ± 11.7 years (median, 8 years). Citations received by articles gradually increased to a peak (at 6.25 years after publication in neurosurgery) and then reached a steady state; articles were still cited well into the late postpublication period. Neurosurgical articles published in nonneurosurgical high-impact journals were cited more highly than those in neurosurgical journals, although they took approximately the same time to reach the maximally cited state (7.2 years). The most cited pure neurosurgery journal was Neurosurgery. The citation climate for neurosurgery was adequately described. The interfield citation metric was able to ensure cross-field comparability of journal performance. G1, group 1G2, group 2G3, group 3G4, group 4IFCM, interfield citation metric.

  8. Citation distribution profile in Brazilian journals of general medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiggi Araujo Lustosa

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Impact factors are currently the bibliometric index most used for evaluating scientific journals. However, the way in which they are used, for instance concerning the study or journal types analyzed, can markedly interfere with estimate reliability. This study aimed to analyze the citation distribution pattern in three Brazilian journals of general medicine. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a descriptive study based on numbers of citations of scientific studies published by three Brazilian journals of general medicine. METHODS: The journals analyzed were São Paulo Medical Journal, Clinics and Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira. This survey used data available from the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI platform, from which the total number of papers published in each journal in 2007-2008 and the number of citations of these papers in 2009 were obtained. From these data, the citation distribution was derived and journal impact factors (average number of citations were estimated. These factors were then compared with those directly available from the ISI Journal of Citation Reports (JCR. RESULTS: Respectively, 134, 203 and 192 papers were published by these journals during the period analyzed. The observed citation distributions were highly skewed, such that many papers had few citations and a small percentage had many citations. It was not possible to identify any specific pattern for the most cited papers or to exactly reproduce the JCR impact factors. CONCLUSION: Use of measures like "impact factors", which characterize citations through averages, does not adequately represent the citation distribution in the journals analyzed.

  9. Predictive Aspects of a Stochastic Model for Citation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzel, W.; Schubert, A.

    1995-01-01

    A statistical model for citation processes is presented as a particular version of a nonhomogenous birth process. The mean value function and special transition probabilities, which can readily be calculated on the basis of known and estimated parameters, give essential information on the change of citation impact in time. (10 references) (KRN)

  10. Citation analysis of the scientific publications of Britton Chance in ISI citation indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Z. Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Britton Chance was a pioneer in many scientific fields such as enzymatic reaction kinetics, bioenergetics, metabolism, in vivo NMR, and biophotonics. As an engineer, physical chemist, physicist, physiologist, biophysicist, biochemist, innovator and educator, he had worked in diversified fields over extended periods between 1926 until his death in 2010, at the age of 97. In order to illustrate his scientific career and great impact on research from a new perspective, we employ scientometric analysis tools to analyze the publications of Britton Chance with data downloaded from the ISI Citation Indexes in April 2013. We included articles, reviews and proceeding papers but excluded meeting abstracts. In total, we obtained 1023 publication records with 1236 authors in 266 journals with 17,114 citations from 1945 to 2013. We show the annual publications and citations that Britton Chance received from 1945 to 2013, and generate HistCite maps on the basis of the global citations (GCS and local (self citations (LCS to show the citation relationships among the top-30 publications of Britton Chance. Metabolism and the development of physical methods to probe it appear to be the connecting thread of the lifelong research of Britton Chance. Furthermore, we generate the journal map and co-authorship map to show the broad scope of research topics and collaborators and the high impacts of the scientific oeuvre of Britton Chance ranging from physics, engineering, chemistry and biology to medicine.

  11. The dynamics of patent citations

    OpenAIRE

    Marco, Alan C.

    2006-01-01

    The use of patent citations as a measure of patent "quality" increased dramatically in recent years. I estimate the hazard of patent citation, and find evidence of unobserved heterogeneity. Hazard estimation provides a means to separate patent quality from citation "inflation."

  12. Analysis and visualization of citation networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Dangzhi

    2015-01-01

    Citation analysis-the exploration of reference patterns in the scholarly and scientific literature-has long been applied in a number of social sciences to study research impact, knowledge flows, and knowledge networks. It has important information science applications as well, particularly in knowledge representation and in information retrieval.Recent years have seen a burgeoning interest in citation analysis to help address research, management, or information service issues such as university rankings, research evaluation, or knowledge domain visualization. This renewed and growing interest

  13. National Built Environment Health Impact Assessment Model ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behavioral (activity, diet, social interaction) and exposure (air pollution, traffic injury, and noise) related health impacts of land use and transportation investment decisions are becoming better understood and quantified. Research has shown relationships between density, mix, street connectivity, access to parks, shops, transit, presence of sidewalks and bikeways, and healthy food with physical activity, obesity, cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and some mental health outcomes. This session demonstrates successful integration of health impact assessment into multiple scenario planning tool platforms. Detailed evidence on chronic disease and related costs associated with contrasting land use and transportation investments are built into a general-purpose module that can be accessed by multiple platforms. Funders, researchers, and end users of the tool will present a detailed description of the key elements of the approach, how it has been applied, and how will evolve. A critical focus will be placed on equity and social justice inherent within the assessment of health disparities that will be featured in the session. Health impacts of community design have significant cost benefit implications. Recent research is now extending relationships between community design features and chronic disease to health care costs. This session will demonstrate the recent application of this evidence on health impacts to the newly adopted Los Angeles Regional Transpo

  14. Early urban impact on Mediterranean coastal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Morhange, Christophe; Guiot, Joël; Zviely, Dov; Shaked, Idan; Otto, Thierry; Artzy, Michal

    2013-12-18

    A common belief is that, unlike today, ancient urban areas developed in a sustainable way within the environmental limits of local natural resources and the ecosystem's capacity to respond. This long-held paradigm is based on a weak knowledge of the processes underpinning the emergence of urban life and the rise of an urban-adapted environment in and beyond city boundaries. Here, we report a 6000-year record of environmental changes around the port city of Akko (Acre), Israel, to analyse ecological processes and patterns stemming from the emergence and growth of urban life. We show that early urban development deeply transformed pre-existing ecosystems, swiftly leading to an urban environment already governed by its own ecological rules and this, since the emergence of the cities.

  15. Impact Of Equestrian Tourism On The Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Petroman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Considereda sub-sector of horse raisin units, equestrian tourism is a form of moderntourism very popular among the young people as both an entertainingrecreational and adventure activity and a form of animal therapy in thetreatment and rehabilitation of autistic children; it is also a sub-type ofrural tourism, adventure tourism, or ecological tourism. Equestrian tourismpracticed without management strategies can have both positive and negativeeffects on the environment: it can affect roads by soil compaction, vegetationby the introduction of invasive plant species, and tourists by the noise andsmell. In order to reduce the negative effects on the environment, we need todevelop management strategies for the routes and visitors as well as for theareas where equestrian tourism is practiced; we also need to developenvironmental-friendly tourism products depending on the degree of difficulty,supplying accommodation at the horse farm and horse riding lessons,conferences, chart rides in the nature, and horseback holidays.

  16. Survey of formal and informal citation in Google search engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Teymourikhani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Informal citations is bibliographic information (title or Internet address, citing sources of information resources for informal scholarly communication and always neglected in traditional citation databases. This study is done, in order to answer the question of whether informal citations in the web environment are traceable. The present research aims to determine what proportion of web citations of Google search engine is related to formal and informal citation. Research method: Webometrics is the method used. The study is done on 1344 research articles of 98 open access journal, and the method that is used to extract the web citation from Google search engine is “Web / URL citation extraction". Findings: The findings showed that ten percent of the web citations of Google search engine are formal and informal citations. The highest formal citation in the Google search engine with 19/27% is in the field of library and information science and the lowest official citation by 1/54% is devoted to the field of civil engineering. The highest percentage of informal citations with 3/57% is devoted to sociology and the lowest percentage of informal citations by 0/39% is devoted to the field of civil engineering. Journal Citation is highest with 94/12% in the surgical field and lowest with 5/26 percent in the philosophy filed. Result: Due to formal and informal citations in the Google search engine which is about 10 percent and the reduction of this amount compared to previous research, it seems that track citations by this engine should be treated with more caution. We see that the amount of formal citation is variable in different disciplines. Cited journals in the field of surgery, is highest and in the filed of philosophy is lowest, this indicates that in the filed of philosophy, that is a subset of the social sciences, journals in scientific communication do not play a significant role. On the other hand, book has a key role in this filed

  17. The impact of meteoritic impacts on the early Martian environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbet, M.; Forget, F.; Svetsov, V.; Tran, H.; Karatekin, O.; Popova, O.; Gillmann, C.

    2017-09-01

    We model the environmental effect of meteoritic impacts on Early Mars ( 3.8Gy ago) by combining an hydrocode with a Global Climate Model. We explore if these impact events could trigger the warm & wet conditions, and the precipitation rates required to explain the formation of the Martian valley networks.

  18. Characterizing and Modeling Citation Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Young-Ho; Fortunato, Santo

    2011-01-01

    Citation distributions are crucial for the analysis and modeling of the activity of scientists. We investigated bibliometric data of papers published in journals of the American Physical Society, searching for the type of function which best describes the observed citation distributions. We used the goodness of fit with Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics for three classes of functions: log-normal, simple power law and shifted power law. The shifted power law turns out to be the most reliable hypothesis for all citation networks we derived, which correspond to different time spans. We find that citation dynamics is characterized by bursts, usually occurring within a few years since publication of a paper, and the burst size spans several orders of magnitude. We also investigated the microscopic mechanisms for the evolution of citation networks, by proposing a linear preferential attachment with time dependent initial attractiveness. The model successfully reproduces the empirical citation distributions and accounts for the presence of citation bursts as well. PMID:21966387

  19. Characterizing and modeling citation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Young-Ho; Fortunato, Santo

    2011-01-01

    Citation distributions are crucial for the analysis and modeling of the activity of scientists. We investigated bibliometric data of papers published in journals of the American Physical Society, searching for the type of function which best describes the observed citation distributions. We used the goodness of fit with Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics for three classes of functions: log-normal, simple power law and shifted power law. The shifted power law turns out to be the most reliable hypothesis for all citation networks we derived, which correspond to different time spans. We find that citation dynamics is characterized by bursts, usually occurring within a few years since publication of a paper, and the burst size spans several orders of magnitude. We also investigated the microscopic mechanisms for the evolution of citation networks, by proposing a linear preferential attachment with time dependent initial attractiveness. The model successfully reproduces the empirical citation distributions and accounts for the presence of citation bursts as well.

  20. From Attention to Citation, What and How Does Altmetrics Work?

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xianwen; Fang, Zhichao; Mao, Wenli

    2014-01-01

    Scholarly and social impacts of scientific publications could be measured by various metrics. In this study, the relationship between various metrics of 63,805 PLOS research articles are studied. Generally, article views correlate well with citation, however, different types of article view have different levels of correlation with citation, when pdf download correlates the citation most significantly. It's necessary for publishers and journals to provide detailed and comprehensive article metrics. Although the low correlation between social attention and citation is confirmed by this study and previous studies, more than ever, we find that social attention is highly correlated with article view, especially the browser html view. Social attention is the important source that bringing network traffic to browser html view and may lead to citation subsequently. High altmetric score has the potential role in promoting the long-term academic impact of articles, when a conceptual model is proposed to interpret the ...

  1. Models for predicting and explaining citation count of biomedical articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lawrence D; Aliferis, Constantin

    2008-11-06

    The single most important bibliometric criterion for judging the impact of biomedical papers and their authors work is the number of citations received which is commonly referred to as citation count. This metric however is unavailable until several years after publication time. In the present work, we build computer models that accurately predict citation counts of biomedical publications within a deep horizon of ten years using only predictive information available at publication time. Our experiments show that it is indeed feasible to accurately predict future citation counts with a mixture of content-based and bibliometric features using machine learning methods. The models pave the way for practical prediction of the long-term impact of publication, and their statistical analysis provides greater insight into citation behavior.

  2. Incites into Citation Linking using the OAI-PMH

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    There are some 300 repositories of research material (Source: IAR), most of which have an OAI-PMH interface, but no current Institutional Repositories export reference data - nor do they provide their users with citation impact metrics. We propose a model for extending IR's to be citation aware and to expose that data to citation indices using the OAI-PMH and OpenURL. We present some techniques for the export of citation data using the OAI-PMH in Citebase Search. As part of a proposed Open Access Citation Information study we have developed a proposal for the integration of reference parsing and linking into the author- deposit process. This highly-distributed approach to citation linking utilises the OAI-PMH to transfer structured citation data between IRs and citation indexing services. OpenURL - a standard for contextual linking using bibliographic data - is now a NISO standard. As well as it's linking role, OpenURL is a useful standard for the transfer of bibliographic data for the purposes of citation in...

  3. 圖書資訊領域期刊引用影響之結構方程模式分析 The Structural Equation Analysis on the Journal Citation Impact in the Field of Library and Information Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Ho Huang

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available 本研究提出一個測量期刊引用影響的整合式概念模型,並應用結構方程模式方法在圖書資訊學相關領域的50種期刊資訊進行以「期刊屬性」、「期刊易取性」及「期刊多樣性」等三項為「期刊引用」的前置因素理論模型的實證。整體模型的可解釋變異量為39.4%,其中測量模型的結果:以文獻篇數測量「期刊屬性」,以文件獲取性測量「期刊易取性」,及主題多樣化來測量「期刊多樣性」具顯著效果;而影響係數、立即指數及全部引用數來測量「期刊引用」,則均具顯著效果。結構模型的結果:「期刊引用」受到「期刊多樣性」的影響,但「期刊屬性」與「期刊易取性」則不具顯著性影響。The study proposes an integrated conceptual model to assess the journal citation impact. The antecedent factors include journal attributes, journal accessibility, and journal diversity. The structural equation modeling (SEM with partial least square (PLS is applied to conduct the empirical study within the fifty journals in the field of library and information science. The result shows that the antecedent factors account for 39.4% of the variance in journal citation. The result of measurement model shows that the number of articles is a good indicator for journal attributes; document availability is a good indicator for journal accessibility; and subject variety is a good indicator for journal diversity. As for the journal citation, three indicators include impact factor, immediacy index, and total citations are all good indicators. Moreover, the result of structural model shows that journal citation is significantly influenced by journal diversity, while there is no significant effect of journal attributes and journal accessibility.

  4. The New Generation of Citation Indexing in the Age of Digital Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengxiong; Cabrera, Peggy

    2008-01-01

    As the Web is becoming a powerful new medium in scientific publication and scholarly communication, citation indexing has found a new application in the digital environment. The authors reviewed the new developments in Web-based citation indexing and conducted a case study in three major citation search tools, "Web of Science", "Scopus" and…

  5. 40 CFR 152.93 - Citation of a previously submitted valid study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation of a previously submitted... Data Submitters' Rights § 152.93 Citation of a previously submitted valid study. An applicant may... the citation is necessary. (b) Study previously submitted by another person. If the applicant is not...

  6. Pharmaceuticals and Their Impact on the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić, S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceuticals are a class of emerging environmental contaminants that are extensively and increasingly being used in human and veterinary medicine and are released continuously into the environment. A variety of pharmaceuticals have been detected in many environmental samples worldwide. The establishment of chemical analysis methods able to determine more polar compounds allow the determination and identification of trace quantities of drugs and their metabolites. Most regulatory agencies require that environmental risk assessment is performed as an integral part of their approval procedures for the marketing for medicinal products. Marketing approval for medicinal products in the European Union is regulated by the Directive 2001/83/EC. Based on the Directive, the European Medicines Agency (EMA has published guidelines describing the procedure for the environmental risk assessment for medicinal products marketed in the EU. The requirements for the Environmental risk assessment (ERA in Croatia are regulated by the Medicinal Products Act (Official Gazette No. 71/07 and the Ordinance on the Procedure and Method for Granting Marketing Authorisations for Medicinal Products (Official Gazette No. 113/08.

  7. What Do Citation Patterns Reveal about the Outdoor Education Field? A Snapshot 2000-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Andrew; Stewart, Alistair

    2016-01-01

    This study considered what insights into outdoor education (OE) research and scholarship could be gleaned from citation indices and patterns. Citation indices have long been used as ranking tools in the physical sciences, and more recently have been used in humanities and social sciences. High citation measures indicate high research impact,…

  8. Scientific citations favor positive results : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyx, Bram; Urlings, Miriam J.E.; Swaen, Gerard M.H.; Bouter, Lex M.; Zeegers, Maurice P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Citation bias concerns the selective citation of scientific articles based on their results. We brought together all available evidence on citation bias across scientific disciplines and quantified its impact. Study Design and Setting An extensive search strategy was applied to the Web of

  9. S-index: Measuring significant, not average, citation performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonoyiannakis, Manolis

    2009-03-01

    We recently [1] introduced the ``citation density curve'' (or cumulative impact factor curve) that captures the full citation performance of a journal: its size, impact factor, the maximum number of citations per paper, the relative size of the different-cited portions of the journal, etc. The citation density curve displays a universal behavior across journals. We exploit this universality to extract a simple metric (the ``S-index'') to characterize the citation impact of ``significant'' papers in each journal. In doing so, we go beyond the journal impact factor, which only measures the impact of the average paper. The conventional wisdom of ranking journals according to their impact factors is thus challenged. Having shown the utility and robustness of the S-index in comparing and ranking journals of different sizes but within the same field, we explore the concept further, going beyond a single field, and beyond journals. Can we compare different scientific fields, departments, or universities? And how should one generalize the citation density curve and the S-index to address these questions? [1] M. Antonoyiannakis and S. Mitra, ``Is PRL too large to have an `impact'?'', Editorial, Physical Review Letters, December 2008.

  10. Citation as a Representation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Kryssanov, V. V.; Rinaldo, F. J.; Ogawa, H.; Kuleshov, E.

    2006-01-01

    The presented work proposes a novel approach to model the citation rate. The paper begins with a brief introduction into informetrics studies and highlights drawbacks of the contemporary approaches to modeling the citation process as a product of social interactions. An alternative modeling framework based on results obtained in cognitive psychology is then introduced and applied in an experiment to investigate properties of the citation process, as they are revealed by a large collection of ...

  11. References that anyone can edit: review of Wikipedia citations in peer reviewed health science literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bould, M Dylan; Hladkowicz, Emily S; Pigford, Ashlee-Ann E; Ufholz, Lee-Anne; Postonogova, Tatyana; Shin, Eunkyung; Boet, Sylvain

    2014-03-06

    To examine indexed health science journals to evaluate the prevalence of Wikipedia citations, identify the journals that publish articles with Wikipedia citations, and determine how Wikipedia is being cited. Bibliometric analysis. Publications in the English language that included citations to Wikipedia were retrieved using the online databases Scopus and Web of Science. To identify health science journals, results were refined using Ulrich's database, selecting for citations from journals indexed in Medline, PubMed, or Embase. Using Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports, 2011 impact factors were collected for all journals included in the search. Resulting citations were thematically coded, and descriptive statistics were calculated. 1433 full text articles from 1008 journals indexed in Medline, PubMed, or Embase with 2049 Wikipedia citations were accessed. The frequency of Wikipedia citations has increased over time; most citations occurred after December 2010. More than half of the citations were coded as definitions (n = 648; 31.6%) or descriptions (n=482; 23.5%). Citations were not limited to journals with a low or no impact factor; the search found Wikipedia citations in many journals with high impact factors. Many publications are citing information from a tertiary source that can be edited by anyone, although permanent, evidence based sources are available. We encourage journal editors and reviewers to use caution when publishing articles that cite Wikipedia.

  12. Multiple Citation Indicators and Their Composite across Scientific Disciplines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P A Ioannidis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many fields face an increasing prevalence of multi-authorship, and this poses challenges in assessing citation metrics. Here, we explore multiple citation indicators that address total impact (number of citations, Hirsch H index [H], co-authorship adjustment (Schreiber Hm index [Hm], and author order (total citations to papers as single; single or first; or single, first, or last author. We demonstrate the correlation patterns between these indicators across 84,116 scientists (those among the top 30,000 for impact in a single year [2013] in at least one of these indicators and separately across 12 scientific fields. Correlation patterns vary across these 12 fields. In physics, total citations are highly negatively correlated with indicators of co-authorship adjustment and of author order, while in other sciences the negative correlation is seen only for total citation impact and citations to papers as single author. We propose a composite score that sums standardized values of these six log-transformed indicators. Of the 1,000 top-ranked scientists with the composite score, only 322 are in the top 1,000 based on total citations. Many Nobel laureates and other extremely influential scientists rank among the top-1,000 with the composite indicator, but would rank much lower based on total citations. Conversely, many of the top 1,000 authors on total citations have had no single/first/last-authored cited paper. More Nobel laureates of 2011-2015 are among the top authors when authors are ranked by the composite score than by total citations, H index, or Hm index; 40/47 of these laureates are among the top 30,000 by at least one of the six indicators. We also explore the sensitivity of indicators to self-citation and alphabetic ordering of authors in papers across different scientific fields. Multiple indicators and their composite may give a more comprehensive picture of impact, although no citation indicator, single or composite, can be expected to

  13. Multiple Citation Indicators and Their Composite across Scientific Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, John P A; Klavans, Richard; Boyack, Kevin W

    2016-07-01

    Many fields face an increasing prevalence of multi-authorship, and this poses challenges in assessing citation metrics. Here, we explore multiple citation indicators that address total impact (number of citations, Hirsch H index [H]), co-authorship adjustment (Schreiber Hm index [Hm]), and author order (total citations to papers as single; single or first; or single, first, or last author). We demonstrate the correlation patterns between these indicators across 84,116 scientists (those among the top 30,000 for impact in a single year [2013] in at least one of these indicators) and separately across 12 scientific fields. Correlation patterns vary across these 12 fields. In physics, total citations are highly negatively correlated with indicators of co-authorship adjustment and of author order, while in other sciences the negative correlation is seen only for total citation impact and citations to papers as single author. We propose a composite score that sums standardized values of these six log-transformed indicators. Of the 1,000 top-ranked scientists with the composite score, only 322 are in the top 1,000 based on total citations. Many Nobel laureates and other extremely influential scientists rank among the top-1,000 with the composite indicator, but would rank much lower based on total citations. Conversely, many of the top 1,000 authors on total citations have had no single/first/last-authored cited paper. More Nobel laureates of 2011-2015 are among the top authors when authors are ranked by the composite score than by total citations, H index, or Hm index; 40/47 of these laureates are among the top 30,000 by at least one of the six indicators. We also explore the sensitivity of indicators to self-citation and alphabetic ordering of authors in papers across different scientific fields. Multiple indicators and their composite may give a more comprehensive picture of impact, although no citation indicator, single or composite, can be expected to select all the

  14. Using citation data to improve retrieval from MEDLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstam, Elmer V; Herskovic, Jorge R; Aphinyanaphongs, Yindalon; Aliferis, Constantin F; Sriram, Madurai G; Hersh, William R

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether algorithms developed for the World Wide Web can be applied to the biomedical literature in order to identify articles that are important as well as relevant. DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS A direct comparison of eight algorithms: simple PubMed queries, clinical queries (sensitive and specific versions), vector cosine comparison, citation count, journal impact factor, PageRank, and machine learning based on polynomial support vector machines. The objective was to prioritize important articles, defined as being included in a pre-existing bibliography of important literature in surgical oncology. RESULTS Citation-based algorithms were more effective than noncitation-based algorithms at identifying important articles. The most effective strategies were simple citation count and PageRank, which on average identified over six important articles in the first 100 results compared to 0.85 for the best noncitation-based algorithm (p PageRank more than simple citation count. However, in spite of citation lag, citation-based algorithms remain more effective than noncitation-based algorithms. CONCLUSION Algorithms that have proved successful on the World Wide Web can be applied to biomedical information retrieval. Citation-based algorithms can help identify important articles within large sets of relevant results. Further studies are needed to determine whether citation-based algorithms can effectively meet actual user information needs.

  15. A document clustering and ranking system for exploring MEDLINE citations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yongjing; Li, Wenyuan; Chen, Keke; Liu, Ying

    2007-01-01

    A major problem faced in biomedical informatics involves how best to present information retrieval results. When a single query retrieves many results, simply showing them as a long list often provides poor overview. With a goal of presenting users with reduced sets of relevant citations, this study developed an approach that retrieved and organized MEDLINE citations into different topical groups and prioritized important citations in each group. A text mining system framework for automatic document clustering and ranking organized MEDLINE citations following simple PubMed queries. The system grouped the retrieved citations, ranked the citations in each cluster, and generated a set of keywords and MeSH terms to describe the common theme of each cluster. Several possible ranking functions were compared, including citation count per year (CCPY), citation count (CC), and journal impact factor (JIF). We evaluated this framework by identifying as "important" those articles selected by the Surgical Oncology Society. Our results showed that CCPY outperforms CC and JIF, i.e., CCPY better ranked important articles than did the others. Furthermore, our text clustering and knowledge extraction strategy grouped the retrieval results into informative clusters as revealed by the keywords and MeSH terms extracted from the documents in each cluster. The text mining system studied effectively integrated text clustering, text summarization, and text ranking and organized MEDLINE retrieval results into different topical groups.

  16. Encouraging data citation and discovery with the Data Citation Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force, Megan M; Robinson, Nigel J

    2014-10-01

    An overview of the Data Citation Index is provided. Thomson Reuters developed this resource in response to a stated desire among members of the research community for increased attribution of non-traditional scholarly output. Launched in October of 2012 on the Web of science research platform, its aims include linking published research articles to their underlying data sets and tracking the citation of the data, as well as encouraging bibliographic citation of data. Cross-disciplinary search capabilities in the Index enable new possibilities for data discovery and synthesis. Data repositories are evaluated with respect to various selection criteria, with particular attention to their relevance to scientific and scholarly research. Index content reflects current data deposition practices. As data citation standards and practices continue to move toward widespread formalization and adoption, the initiative seeks to address issues of data citation, reuse, and author credit in a developing climate.

  17. Improving Software Citation and Credit

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Alice; DuPrie, Kimberly; Mink, Jessica; Nemiroff, Robert; Robitaille, Thomas; Shamir, Lior; Shortridge, Keith; Taylor, Mark; Teuben, Peter; Wallin, John

    2015-01-01

    The past year has seen movement on several fronts for improving software citation, including the Center for Open Science's Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) Guidelines, the Software Publishing Special Interest Group that was started at January's AAS meeting in Seattle at the request of that organization's Working Group on Astronomical Software, a Sloan-sponsored meeting at GitHub in San Francisco to begin work on a cohesive research software citation-enabling platform, the work of Force11 to "transform and improve" research communication, and WSSSPE's ongoing efforts that include software publication, citation, credit, and sustainability. Brief reports on these efforts were shared at the BoF, after which participants discussed ideas for improving software citation, generating a list of recommendations to the community of software authors, journal publishers, ADS, and research authors. The discussion, recommendations, and feedback will help form recommendations for software citation to those publishers...

  18. Impact assessment of land use planning driving forces on environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Longgao, E-mail: chenlonggao@163.com [Institute of Land Resources, Jiangsu Normal University (JSNU), Xuzhou 221116 (China); Yang, Xiaoyan [Institute of Land Resources, Jiangsu Normal University (JSNU), Xuzhou 221116 (China); School of Environment and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Chen, Longqian [School of Environment and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Li, Long [Department of Geography, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels 1050 (Belgium)

    2015-11-15

    Land use change may exert a negative impact on environmental quality. A state–impact–state (SIS) model describing a state transform under certain impacts has been integrated into land use planning (LUP) environmental impact assessment (LUPEA). This logical model is intuitive and easy to understand, but the exploration of impact is essential to establish the indicator system and to identify the scope of land use environmental impact when it is applied to a specific region. In this study, we investigated environmental driving forces from land use planning (LUPF), along with the conception, components, scope, and impact of LUPF. This method was illustrated by a case study in Zoucheng, China. Through the results, we concluded that (1) the LUPF on environment are impacts originated from the implementation of LUP on a regional environment, which are characterized by four aspects: magnitude, direction, action point, and its owner; (2) various scopes of LUPF on individual environmental elements based on different standards jointly define the final scope of LUPEA; (3) our case study in Zoucheng demonstrates the practicability of this proposed approach; (4) this method can be embedded into LUPEA with direction, magnitudes, and scopes of the LUPF on individual elements obtained, and the identified indicator system can be directly employed into LUPEA and (5) the assessment helps to identify key indicators and to set up a corresponding strategy to mitigate the negative impact of LUP on the environment, which are two important objectives of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in LUP. - Highlights: • Environmental driving forces from land use planning (LUPF) are investigated and categorized. • Our method can obtains the direction, magnitudes and scopes of environmental driving forces. • The LUPEA scope is determined by the combination of various scopes of LUPF on individual elements. • LUPF assessment can be embedded into LUPEA. • The method can help to

  19. The impact of changing human environment and climate change on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    health infrastructure, and drug resistance. The impact of human-induced climate change through industrialization with the consequent depletion of the ozone layer of the environment is now observed to compromise the sustainability of human development as it threatens the ecological support system on which life depends ...

  20. Impact Modelling for Circular Economy: Geodesign Discussion Support Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Šileryte, R.; Wandl, A.; van Timmeren, A.; Bregt, Arnold; Sarjakoski, Tapani; van Lammeren, Ron; Rip, Frans

    2017-01-01

    Transitioning towards circular economy requires changes in the current system which yield a number of impacts on such fundamental values as human health, natural environment, exhaustible resources, social well-being and prosperity. Moreover, this process involves multiple actors and requires careful

  1. The Impact of Military Exercises and Operations on Local Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the impact of military services and operations on the environment in relation to military as an institution as well as those linked to military- like activities of the non-armed state groups such as militias, rebels, guerillas, and terrorist groups. The study relied on desktop review of existing literature on military ...

  2. Impact of Political Environment on Business Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Political Environment on Business Performance of Multinational Companies in Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and ...

  3. Climate Change Impacts on the Built Environment in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The populations, infrastructure and ecology of cities are at risk from the impacts of climate change which affect urban ventilation and cooling, urban drainage and flood risk and water resources. Built areas exert considerable influence over their local climate and environment, and urban populations are already facing a ...

  4. Conservation tillage impacts on soil, crop and the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiu Abolanle Busari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to match food production with increasing world population through identification of sustainable land management strategies. However, the struggle to achieve food security should be carried out keeping in mind the soil where the crops are grown and the environment in which the living things survive. Conservation agriculture (CA, practising agriculture in such a way so as to cause minimum damage to the environment, is being advocated at a large scale world-wide. Conservation tillage, the most important aspect of CA, is thought to take care of the soil health, plant growth and the environment. This paper aims to review the work done on conservation tillage in different agro-ecological regions so as to understand its impact from the perspectives of the soil, the crop and the environment. Research reports have identified several benefits of conservation tillage over conventional tillage (CT with respect to soil physical, chemical and biological properties as well as crop yields. Not less than 25% of the greenhouse gas effluxes to the atmosphere are attributed to agriculture. Processes of climate change mitigation and adaptation found zero tillage (ZT to be the most environmental friendly among different tillage techniques. Therefore, conservation tillage involving ZT and minimum tillage which has potential to break the surface compact zone in soil with reduced soil disturbance offers to lead to a better soil environment and crop yield with minimal impact on the environment.

  5. Health Impacts from Human Interaction with the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S. E.

    2008-12-01

    Humans have produced far greater impact on the environment than any other living form. The impact has been so significant-particularly during the past 50 years-that a new word, Anthrposphere has started appearing in recent literature. It is now being used along with the four major components of the system earth to underscore humans' influence on the environment. Human activities have produced a myriad of impacts on the environment that span the scale from local to global. The slow process that brought humanity to the present environmental crisis began with the Industrial Revolution and has greatly accelerated since the World War II. The past 50 years mark a unique period in human history that is characterized by rapid technological advances and unprecedented population growth. While the use of technology has been very effective in meeting the needs of the growing population, it has also produced serious impact on the environment. Large scale exploitation of mineral, fuel, water, forest, and marine resources has led to severe environmental degradation; and the resulting pollution of air, water, and land has caused serious consequences to human and ecological health. The presentation deals with the adverse impact on human health associated with mining, dam and reservoir construction, improper waste management, use of fossil fuels, and climate change. Case studies are included to illustrate health impacts from metal and coal mining; dam and reservoir construction and preponderance of disease vectors; pollution caused by improper waste disposal and the resulting incidence of cancer and other diseases; and emergence of vector-borne diseases at hitherto unknown locations, cardiovascular and respiratory track ailments, and increased morbidity and mortality triggered by elevated temperatures associated with climate change. A brief discussion of possible measures to mitigate the health consequences is also included in the presentation.

  6. Characterizing and modeling citation dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ho Eom

    Full Text Available Citation distributions are crucial for the analysis and modeling of the activity of scientists. We investigated bibliometric data of papers published in journals of the American Physical Society, searching for the type of function which best describes the observed citation distributions. We used the goodness of fit with Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics for three classes of functions: log-normal, simple power law and shifted power law. The shifted power law turns out to be the most reliable hypothesis for all citation networks we derived, which correspond to different time spans. We find that citation dynamics is characterized by bursts, usually occurring within a few years since publication of a paper, and the burst size spans several orders of magnitude. We also investigated the microscopic mechanisms for the evolution of citation networks, by proposing a linear preferential attachment with time dependent initial attractiveness. The model successfully reproduces the empirical citation distributions and accounts for the presence of citation bursts as well.

  7. Citation indices for social media articles in urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calopedos, Ross J S; Garcia, Cindy; Rashid, Prem; Murphy, Declan G; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Woo, Henry H

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of publications on urological participation in social media (SoMe) by virtue of citations in the urological and non-urological literature. On 15 March 2016, a PubMed search was undertaken using the names of the major SoMe platforms in current use and associated with the field of urology. The search term 'urolog*' was used to specifically capture articles that could be associated with 'urology', 'urologist' or 'urological'. Exclusion criteria for analysis included non-English language articles, articles published for the first time online in any form after 1 March 2015, articles irrelevant to the topic of SoMe, and letters of correspondence. Included articles were then searched in Google Scholar and citations analysed to determine if citations were from the urological literature or non-urological literature. Citations from non-urological journals were considered to be as such even if authored by urologists and on the subject of urology and SoMe. Prior to exclusions as defined in the methods, our PubMed search yielded 232 articles of which 17 were non-English language and 66 had been published after 1 March 2015. Allowing for 12 months after the most recent articles were published, we found that the mean number of total citations in any journal was 20.8. There were more citations in journals not specific to urology, with 8.3 citations in urological journals, compared to 12.6 citations in non-urological journals. Urological SoMe journal articles are highly cited, particularly in the non-urological literature. It is likely that the magnitude of citations has positively contributed to the impact factors of the almost all journals publishing these manuscripts. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  9. Citation Analysis of Hepatitis Monthly by Journal Citation Report (ISI), Google Scholar, and Scopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri, Seyyed Mohammad; Raoofi, Azam; Heidari, Zahra

    2012-09-01

    Citation analysis as one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics can be used for computing the various impact measures for scholars based on data from citation databases. Journal Citation Reports (JCR) from Thomson Reuters provides annual report in the form of impact factor (IF) for each journal. We aimed to evaluate the citation parameters of Hepatitis Monthly by JCR in 2010 and compare them with GS and Sc. All articles of Hepat Mon published in 2009 and 2008 which had been cited in 2010 in three databases including WoS, Sc and GS gathered in a spreadsheet. The IFs were manually calculated. Among the 104 total published articles the accuracy rates of GS and Sc in recording the total number of articles was 96% and 87.5%. There was a difference between IFs among the three databases (0.793 in ISI [Institute for Scientific Information], 0.945 in Sc and 0.85 GS). The missing rate of citations in ISI was 4% totally. Original articles were the main cited types, whereas, guidelines and clinical challenges were the least ones. None of the three databases succeed to record all articles published in the journal. Despite high sensitivity of GS comparing to Sc, it cannot be a reliable source for indexing since GS has lack of screening in the data collection and low specificity. Using an average of three IFs is suggested to find the correct IF. Editors should be more aware on the role of original articles in increasing IF and the potential efficacy of review articles in long term impact factor.

  10. Diet History Questionnaire: Suggested Citations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of the Diet History Questionnaire and Diet*Calc Analysis Software for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes version information for the software, questionnaire, and nutrient database.

  11. Patent Citations and Financial Analysts’ Long-Term Growth Forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jincheol Bae

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the influence of patent citations, a proxy for the quality of firms’ innovation outputs, on financial analysts’ long-term growth forecasts for firms. We find that financial analysts are more likely to issue long-term forecasts for firms with higher patent citations. In addition, we find that financial analysts’ long-term forecasts are more positive for firms with high patent citations. These results imply that patent citations increase financial analysts’ coverage, and result in more positive forecasts for firms with impactful patents. Considering that financial analysts play important roles in allocating financial resources in capital markets, our findings suggest that patents are valuable assets for firms in securing capital from capital markets, and are thus essential for the sustainable growth of firms.

  12. Semantic Web for Reliable Citation Analysis in Scholarly Publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Tous

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the impact of scholarly artifacts is constrained by current unreliable practices in cross-referencing, citation discovering, and citation indexing and analysis, which have not kept pace with the technological advances that are occurring in several areas like knowledge management and security. Because citation analysis has become the primary component in scholarly impact factor calculation, and considering the relevance of this metric within both the scholarly publishing value chain and (especially important the professional curriculum evaluation of scholarly professionals, we defend that current practices need to be revised. This paper describes a reference architecture that aims to provide openness and reliability to the citation-tracking lifecycle. The solution relies on the use of digitally signed semantic metadata in the different stages of the scholarly publishing workflow in such a manner that authors, publishers, repositories, and citation-analysis systems will have access to independent reliable evidences that are resistant to forgery, impersonation, and repudiation. As far as we know, this is the first paper to combine Semantic Web technologies and public-key cryptography to achieve reliable citation analysis in scholarly publishing

  13. 40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation of all studies in the Agency... PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.95 Citation of all studies in the... for a data requirement by citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent of that data...

  14. 41 CFR 105-1.150 - Citation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation. 105-1.150... (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulations System § 105-1.150 Citation. (a) In formal documents, such as legal briefs, citations of chapter 105 material shall include a citation...

  15. 27 CFR 71.72 - Before citation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Before citation. 71.72... Procedure Surrender of Permit § 71.72 Before citation. If a respondent surrenders the permit before citation... appropriate TTB officer, warrants citation for suspension, revocation or annulment, the surrender shall be...

  16. Citation analysis of puerperal and menstrual psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockington, Ian

    2017-02-01

    A citation analysis of more than 2500 works on the childbearing and menstrual psychoses has shown that the average number of citations is 1 % of the literature or less; Anglo-Saxon authors have the lowest standards of scholarship. Many excellent works have received few of no citations. Attention is drawn to citation fraud and the pernicious effect of superficial "reviews."

  17. From Excessive Journal Self-Cites to Citation Stacking: Analysis of Journal Self-Citation Kinetics in Search for Journals, Which Boost Their Scientometric Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneberg, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Bibliometric indicators increasingly affect careers, funding, and reputation of individuals, their institutions and journals themselves. In contrast to author self-citations, little is known about kinetics of journal self-citations. Here we hypothesized that they may show a generalizable pattern within particular research fields or across multiple fields. We thus analyzed self-cites to 60 journals from three research fields (multidisciplinary sciences, parasitology, and information science). We also hypothesized that the kinetics of journal self-citations and citations received from other journals of the same publisher may differ from foreign citations. We analyzed the journals published the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Nature Publishing Group, and Editura Academiei Române. We found that although the kinetics of journal self-cites is generally faster compared to foreign cites, it shows some field-specific characteristics. Particularly in information science journals, the initial increase in a share of journal self-citations during post-publication year 0 was completely absent. Self-promoting journal self-citations of top-tier journals have rather indirect but negligible direct effects on bibliometric indicators, affecting just the immediacy index and marginally increasing the impact factor itself as long as the affected journals are well established in their fields. In contrast, other forms of journal self-citations and citation stacking may severely affect the impact factor, or other citation-based indices. We identified here a network consisting of three Romanian physics journals Proceedings of the Romanian Academy, Series A, Romanian Journal of Physics, and Romanian Reports in Physics, which displayed low to moderate ratio of journal self-citations, but which multiplied recently their impact factors, and were mutually responsible for 55.9%, 64.7% and 63.3% of citations within the impact factor calculation window to the three journals

  18. From Excessive Journal Self-Cites to Citation Stacking: Analysis of Journal Self-Citation Kinetics in Search for Journals, Which Boost Their Scientometric Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Bibliometric indicators increasingly affect careers, funding, and reputation of individuals, their institutions and journals themselves. In contrast to author self-citations, little is known about kinetics of journal self-citations. Here we hypothesized that they may show a generalizable pattern within particular research fields or across multiple fields. We thus analyzed self-cites to 60 journals from three research fields (multidisciplinary sciences, parasitology, and information science). We also hypothesized that the kinetics of journal self-citations and citations received from other journals of the same publisher may differ from foreign citations. We analyzed the journals published the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Nature Publishing Group, and Editura Academiei Române. We found that although the kinetics of journal self-cites is generally faster compared to foreign cites, it shows some field-specific characteristics. Particularly in information science journals, the initial increase in a share of journal self-citations during post-publication year 0 was completely absent. Self-promoting journal self-citations of top-tier journals have rather indirect but negligible direct effects on bibliometric indicators, affecting just the immediacy index and marginally increasing the impact factor itself as long as the affected journals are well established in their fields. In contrast, other forms of journal self-citations and citation stacking may severely affect the impact factor, or other citation-based indices. We identified here a network consisting of three Romanian physics journals Proceedings of the Romanian Academy, Series A, Romanian Journal of Physics, and Romanian Reports in Physics, which displayed low to moderate ratio of journal self-citations, but which multiplied recently their impact factors, and were mutually responsible for 55.9%, 64.7% and 63.3% of citations within the impact factor calculation window to the three journals

  19. Tweeting birds: online mentions predict future citations in ornithology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Tom; O'Hanlon, Nina; Dudley, Steve P

    2017-11-01

    The rapid growth of online tools to communicate scientific research raises the important question of whether online attention is associated with citations in the scholarly literature. The Altmetric Attention Score (AAS) quantifies the attention received by a scientific publication on various online platforms including news, blogs and social media. It has been advanced as a rapid way of gauging the impact of a piece of research, both in terms of potential future scholarly citations and wider online engagement. Here, we explore variation in the AAS of 2677 research articles published in 10 ornithological journals between 2012 and 2016. On average, AAS increased sevenfold in just five years, primarily due to increased activity on Twitter which contributed 75% of the total score. For a subset of 878 articles published in 2014, including an additional 323 ornithology articles from non-specialist journals, an increase in AAS from 1 to 20 resulted in a predicted 112% increase in citation count from 2.6 to 5.5 citations per article. This effect interacted with journal impact factor, with weaker effects of AAS in higher impact factor journals. Our results suggest that altmetrics (or the online activity they measure), as well as complementing traditional measures of scholarly impact in ornithology such as citations, may also anticipate or even drive them.

  20. Citation Mining: Integrating Text Mining and Bibliometrics for Research User Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostoff, Ronald N.; del Rio, J. Antonio; Humenik, James A.; Garcia, Esther Ofilia; Ramirez, Ana Maria

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the importance of identifying the users and impact of research, and describes an approach for identifying the pathways through which research can impact other research, technology development, and applications. Describes a study that used citation mining, an integration of citation bibliometrics and text mining, on articles from the…

  1. Impact of the China Healthy Cities Initiative on Urban Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Dahai; Ruan, Shiman; Xu, Jin; Zhu, Weiming; Zhang, Luyu; Cheng, Gang; Meng, Qingyue

    2017-04-01

    The China Healthy Cities initiative, a nationwide public health campaign, has been implemented for 25 years. As "Healthy China 2030" becomes the key national strategy for improving population health, this initiative is an important component. However, the effects of the initiative have not been well studied. This paper aims to explore its impact on urban environment using a multiple time series design. We adopted a stratified and systematic sampling method to choose 15 China healthy cities across the country. For the selected healthy cities, 1:1 matched non-healthy cities were selected as the comparison group. We collected longitudinal data from 5 years before cities achieved the healthy city title up to 2012. We used hierarchical models to calculate difference-in-differences estimates for examining the impact of the initiative. We found that the China Healthy Cities initiative was associated with increases in the proportion of urban domestic sewage treated (32 percentage points), the proportion of urban domestic garbage treated (30 percentage points), and the proportion of qualified farmers' markets (40 percentage points), all of which are statistically significant (P environment in terms of infrastructure construction, yet had little impact on green space and air quality.

  2. Gale Crater: Formation and post-impact hydrous environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenzer, S. P.; Abramov, O.; Allen, C. C.; Bridges, J. C.; Clifford, S. M.; Filiberto, J.; Kring, D. A.; Lasue, J.; McGovern, P. J.; Newsom, H. E.; Treiman, A. H.; Vaniman, D. T.; Wiens, R. C.; Wittmann, A.

    2012-09-01

    Gale Crater, the landing site of the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory mission, formed in the Late Noachian. It is a 150 km diameter complex impact structure with a central mound (Mount Sharp), the original features of which may be transitional between a central peak and peak ring impact structure. The impact might have melted portions of the substrate to a maximum depth of ˜17 km and produced a minimum of 3600 km3 of impact melt, half of which likely remained within the crater. The bulk of this impact melt would have pooled in an annular depression surrounding the central uplift, creating an impact melt pool as thick as 0.5-1 km. The ejecta blanket surrounding Gale may have been as thick as ˜600 m, which has implications for the amount of erosion that has occurred since Gale Crater formed. After the impact, a hydrothermal system may have been active for several hundred thousand years and a crater lake with associated sediments is likely to have formed. The hydrothermal system, and associated lakes and springs, likely caused mineral alteration and precipitation. In the presence of S-rich host rocks, the alteration phases are modelled to contain sheet silicates, quartz, sulphates, and sulphides. Modelled alteration assemblages may be more complex if groundwater interaction persisted after initial alteration. The warm-water environment might have provided conditions supportive of life. Deep fractures would have allowed for hydraulic connectivity into the deep subsurface, where biotic chemistry (and possibly other evidence of life) may be preserved.

  3. Geographic bias in citation rates of conservation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijaard, Erik; Cardillo, Marcel; Meijaard, Emily M; Possingham, Hugh P

    2015-06-01

    We investigated whether the impact of conservation science is greater for research conducted in countries with more pressing conservation problems. We quantified research impact for 231 countries based on 2 citation metrics (mean cites per paper and h index) and fitted models predicting research impact based on number of threatened bird and mammal species (as a measure of conservation importance of a country) and a range of demographic variables. Citation rates of conservation research increased as a country's conservation need increased and as human population, quality of governance, and wealth increased. Even after accounting for these factors, citation rates among regions and countries within regions varied significantly. The conservation research community needs to consider ways to begin addressing the entrenched disadvantages some countries have when it comes to initiating projects and producing high-quality research. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. [Citation patterns in Portuguese and Brazilian biomedical journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Sílvia Costa; Santos, Tiago S; Lopes, Pedro Faria; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Bibliographic references of scientific articles are the source for calculating impact indexes frequently used for the assignment of funding to research projects. Different citation patterns may result in measurement bias of these impact indexes. To analyze citation patterns of Brazilian and Portuguese biomedical journals regarding the geographic origin of the sources cited. As part of the v+biomed project, a convenience sample of 11 biomedical journals, 4 Portuguese and 7 Brazilian, was gathered including the following subject categories: General and Internal Medicine, Public Health, Gynecology and Obstetrics, and Surgery. All the references from all the articles published in all the issues (except supplements) in 2009 and 2010 were retrieved. The type of source cited and its geographic origin were analyzed. A total of 102 issues from the 11 journals, containing 1430 articles, with a total of 32782 references were analyzed. No differences were found regarding the number of authors, pages or references between articles from Brazilian and Portuguese journals. Brazilian journals presented higher prevalence of English language and cited significantly more journals from their own country (30.1%) comparing to Portuguese journals (5.4%). Additionally, a lower citation rate to journals from the other country analyzed was evident in Brazilian (0.1%) when compared to Portuguese (3.2%) journals, as well as a higher self-citation of Brazilian journals (Brazil - 5.6%, Portugal - 2.1%). A different citation pattern between Portuguese and Brazilian biomedical journals was found, consisting of a higher citation rate from Brazilian to other Brazilian journals and to themselves. This differential in citation patterns may have implications on impact indexes determination which warrant further investigation.

  5. Towards a “Book Publishers Citation Reports”. First approach using the “ Book Citation Index”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Salinas, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The absence of books and book chapters in the Web of Science Citation Indexes (SCI, SSCI and A&HCI has always been considered an important flaw but the Thomson Reuters ‘Book Citation Index’ database was finally available in October of 2010 indexing 29,618 books and 379,082 book chapters. The Book Citation Index opens a new window of opportunities for analyzing Humanities and Social Sciences from a bibliometric point of view. The main objective of this article is to analyze different impact indicators referred to the scientific publishers included in the Book Citation Index for the Social Sciences and Humanities fields during 2006-2011. This way we construct what we have called the ‘Book Publishers Citation Reports’. For this, we present a total of 19 rankings according to the different disciplines in Humanities & Arts and Social Sciences & Law with six indicators for scientific publishers.

    La ausencia de libros y capítulos de libros en los índices de citas presentes en las bases de datos de la Web of Science ha sido tradicionalmente una de sus más importantes debilidades. Sin embargo, Thomson Reuters en Octubre de 2010 lanzó el Book Citation Index, un nuevo índice de citas que contaba con 29.618 libros y 379.082 capítulos de libros. Este producto ha abierto nuevas posibilidades para el análisis bibliométrico de campos como las Humanidades y las Ciencias Sociales. Precisamente el objetivo principal de esta nota es analizar a través de diferentes indicadores las editoriales de los ámbitos de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales indexadas en el Book Citation Index durante los años 2006-2011. Más concretamente se ha probado la posibilidad de desarrollar un ranking de editoriales de libros basado en la citación y la producción de las mismas. Para ello se presentan una colección de rankings con seis indicadores bibliométricos para un total de 19 disciplinas científicas.

  6. Nanosilver: Properties, Applications and Impacts on Health and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia F. M. Nogueira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has developed rapidly in the last decade as a multidisciplinary field, with a myriad of applications in strategic areas including energy, electronics, medi-cine, biotechnology, among others. In modern days, the high commercial demand of silver nanoparticles (NPAg, in particular, has motivated a broad debate in the scientific community. This review gives a brief survey of the applications, commercialization and possible impacts of NPAg to human health and environment, with focus on their toxicity, transformation, and bioavailability. We also present a description of the current international laws and regulations regarding commercialization of nanomaterials.

  7. THE IMPACT OF E-COMMERCE ON THE ECONOMICS ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERT GABRIEL DRAGOMIR

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes to speak about the impact the e-commerce has within the economics environment. At first, we described the development of the digital technologies and the role of the browsers in the electronic commerce. Secondly, we aim at presenting, in brief, the history and the evolution of e-commerce. As concern the applicative part of the paper, several graphs comment on the up-to-date pieces of information connected to the issue. At last, the new concept of bit coin is referred to. In the end we draw up the conclusions.

  8. The citation wake of publications detects nobel laureates' papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosik, David F; Bornholdt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    For several decades, a leading paradigm of how to quantitatively assess scientific research has been the analysis of the aggregated citation information in a set of scientific publications. Although the representation of this information as a citation network has already been coined in the 1960s, it needed the systematic indexing of scientific literature to allow for impact metrics that actually made use of this network as a whole, improving on the then prevailing metrics that were almost exclusively based on the number of direct citations. However, besides focusing on the assignment of credit, the paper citation network can also be studied in terms of the proliferation of scientific ideas. Here we introduce a simple measure based on the shortest-paths in the paper's in-component or, simply speaking, on the shape and size of the wake of a paper within the citation network. Applied to a citation network containing Physical Review publications from more than a century, our approach is able to detect seminal articles which have introduced concepts of obvious importance to the further development of physics. We observe a large fraction of papers co-authored by Nobel Prize laureates in physics among the top-ranked publications.

  9. Citation analysis in research evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Moed, Henk F

    2005-01-01

    This book is written for members of the scholarly research community, and for persons involved in research evaluation and research policy. More specifically, it is directed towards the following four main groups of readers: - All scientists and scholars who have been or will be subjected to a quantitative assessment of research performance using citation analysis. - Research policy makers and managers who wish to become conversant with the basic features of citation analysis, and about its potentialities and limitations. - Members of peer review committees and other evaluators, who consider th

  10. Nutrition-labeling regulation impacts on restaurant environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saelens, Brian E; Chan, Nadine L; Krieger, James; Nelson, Young; Boles, Myde; Colburn, Trina A; Glanz, Karen; Ta, Myduc L; Bruemmer, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    Recent attempts to improve the healthfulness of away-from-home eating include regulations requiring restaurants to post nutrition information. The impact of such regulations on restaurant environments is unknown. To examine changes in restaurant environments from before to after nutrition-labeling regulation in a newly regulated county versus a nonregulated county. Using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey-Restaurant version audit, environments within the same quick-service chain restaurants were evaluated in King County (regulated) before and 6 and 18 months after regulation enforcement and in Multnomah County (nonregulated) restaurants over a 6-month period. Data were collected in 2008-2010 and analyses conducted in 2011. Overall availability of healthy options and facilitation of healthy eating did not increase differentially in King County versus Multnomah County restaurants aside from the substantial increase in onsite nutrition information posting in King County restaurants required by the new regulation. Barriers to healthful eating decreased in King County relative to Multnomah County restaurants, particularly in food-oriented establishments. King County restaurants demonstrated modest increases in signage that promotes healthy eating, although the frequency of such promotion remained low, and the availability of reduced portions decreased in these restaurants. The healthfulness of children's menus improved modestly over time, but not differentially by county. A restaurant nutrition-labeling regulation was accompanied by some, but not uniform, improvements in other aspects of restaurant environments in the regulated compared to the nonregulated county. Additional opportunities exist for improving the healthfulness of away-from-home eating beyond menu labeling. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Relative Citation Ratio (RCR): A New Metric That Uses Citation Rates to Measure Influence at the Article Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, B Ian; Yuan, Xin; Anderson, James M; Santangelo, George M

    2016-09-01

    Despite their recognized limitations, bibliometric assessments of scientific productivity have been widely adopted. We describe here an improved method to quantify the influence of a research article by making novel use of its co-citation network to field-normalize the number of citations it has received. Article citation rates are divided by an expected citation rate that is derived from performance of articles in the same field and benchmarked to a peer comparison group. The resulting Relative Citation Ratio is article level and field independent and provides an alternative to the invalid practice of using journal impact factors to identify influential papers. To illustrate one application of our method, we analyzed 88,835 articles published between 2003 and 2010 and found that the National Institutes of Health awardees who authored those papers occupy relatively stable positions of influence across all disciplines. We demonstrate that the values generated by this method strongly correlate with the opinions of subject matter experts in biomedical research and suggest that the same approach should be generally applicable to articles published in all areas of science. A beta version of iCite, our web tool for calculating Relative Citation Ratios of articles listed in PubMed, is available at https://icite.od.nih.gov.

  12. Relative Citation Ratio (RCR): A New Metric That Uses Citation Rates to Measure Influence at the Article Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, B. Ian; Yuan, Xin; Santangelo, George M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite their recognized limitations, bibliometric assessments of scientific productivity have been widely adopted. We describe here an improved method to quantify the influence of a research article by making novel use of its co-citation network to field-normalize the number of citations it has received. Article citation rates are divided by an expected citation rate that is derived from performance of articles in the same field and benchmarked to a peer comparison group. The resulting Relative Citation Ratio is article level and field independent and provides an alternative to the invalid practice of using journal impact factors to identify influential papers. To illustrate one application of our method, we analyzed 88,835 articles published between 2003 and 2010 and found that the National Institutes of Health awardees who authored those papers occupy relatively stable positions of influence across all disciplines. We demonstrate that the values generated by this method strongly correlate with the opinions of subject matter experts in biomedical research and suggest that the same approach should be generally applicable to articles published in all areas of science. A beta version of iCite, our web tool for calculating Relative Citation Ratios of articles listed in PubMed, is available at https://icite.od.nih.gov. PMID:27599104

  13. Relative Citation Ratio (RCR: A New Metric That Uses Citation Rates to Measure Influence at the Article Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Ian Hutchins

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite their recognized limitations, bibliometric assessments of scientific productivity have been widely adopted. We describe here an improved method to quantify the influence of a research article by making novel use of its co-citation network to field-normalize the number of citations it has received. Article citation rates are divided by an expected citation rate that is derived from performance of articles in the same field and benchmarked to a peer comparison group. The resulting Relative Citation Ratio is article level and field independent and provides an alternative to the invalid practice of using journal impact factors to identify influential papers. To illustrate one application of our method, we analyzed 88,835 articles published between 2003 and 2010 and found that the National Institutes of Health awardees who authored those papers occupy relatively stable positions of influence across all disciplines. We demonstrate that the values generated by this method strongly correlate with the opinions of subject matter experts in biomedical research and suggest that the same approach should be generally applicable to articles published in all areas of science. A beta version of iCite, our web tool for calculating Relative Citation Ratios of articles listed in PubMed, is available at https://icite.od.nih.gov.

  14. Microbial impact on polysulfide dynamics in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Alyssa J

    2016-06-01

    Polysulfides (Sx (2-)) are sulfide oxidation intermediates that are important for a variety of environmentally relevant processes including pyrite formation, organic matter sulfidization, isotope exchange among reduced sulfur species, and metal chelation. In addition to their chemical reactivity, laboratory experiments with microbial cultures and enzymes indicate both indirect and direct roles for microorganisms in affecting polysulfide chemistry in natural environments through production and consumption. As polysulfides have been detected in a wide array of natural systems ranging from microbial mats to hydrothermal vents, constraining their biogeochemical cycling has broad impacts. However, many questions remain regarding the processes responsible for polysulfide dynamics in these environments and the precise role that microorganisms play in these processes. This review provides a summary of laboratory experiments investigating the role of polysulfides in microbial metabolism, and observations of polysulfides in the environment in order to provide further insight into and highlight open questions about this significant component of the sulfur cycle. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Viral Aggregation: Impact on Virus Behavior in the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerba, Charles P; Betancourt, Walter Q

    2017-07-05

    Aggregates of viruses can have a significant impact on quantification and behavior of viruses in the environment. Viral aggregates may be formed in numerous ways. Viruses may form crystal like structures and aggregates in the host cell during replication or may form due to changes in environmental conditions after virus particles are released from the host cells. Aggregates tend to form near the isoelectric point of the virus, under the influence of certain salts and salt concentrations in solution, cationic polymers, and suspended organic matter. The given conditions under which aggregates form in the environment are highly dependent on the type of virus, type of salts in solution (cation, anion. monovalent, divalent) and pH. However, virus type greatly influences the conditions when aggregation/disaggregation will occur, making predictions difficult under any given set of water quality conditions. Most studies have shown that viral aggregates increase the survival of viruses in the environment and resistance to disinfectants, especially with more reactive disinfectants. The presence of viral aggregates may also result in overestimation of removal by filtration processes. Virus aggregation-disaggregation is a complex process and predicting the behavior of any individual virus is difficult under a given set of environmental circumstances without actual experimental data.

  16. News from the Library : Citation counts: Web of Science @ CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    The online information resources available to the CERN Community have recently increased by an additional database: Web of Science. WoS is a collection of several databases, among them the Science Citation Index, the Conference Proceedings Index and the Journal Citation Reports. The first two products allow you to perform subject, author and title searches, and most importantly you can obtain a list of papers citing a specific article, or navigate to the articles cited by the same article. Besides the retrieval and navigation features, analytical tools allow you to produce statistics and graphs describing the impact of a publication. Finally, the Journal Citation Reports database provides you with the well known – and often disputed – Impact Factor. Access to Web of Science: http://library.web.cern.ch/library/Library/wos.html Please provide feedback to library.desk@cern.ch.

  17. Prestige versus citation volume as journal indices in cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, alternative measures of a journal's influence have been developed to those based on citation metrics (such as Impact Factor). This includes the Scimago Journal Rank (SJR) which is adapted from algorithms used to prioritize webpages in search engines. It is considered a measure of "prestige" insofar as it takes into account the importance of links/citations and not just their total number. Taking a sample of 38 journals from within the field of cognitive neuroscience, it is shown that SJR and Impact Factor correlate highly (r = .83) but with a few large discrepancies in rankings. This journal, Cognitive Neuroscience, fares better on the prestige-based measure than might otherwise be expected from its citation-based rank.

  18. 100 classic papers of interventional radiology: A citation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Matthew T; Browne, Ronan Fj; MacMahon, Peter J; Lawler, Leo

    2015-04-28

    To define the 100 citation classic papers of interventional radiology. Using the database of Journal Citation Reports the 40 highest impact factor radiology journals were chosen. From these journals the 100 most cited interventional radiology papers were chosen and analysed. The top paper received 2497 citations and the 100(th) paper 200 citations. The average number of citations was 320. Dates of publication ranged from 1953 - 2005. Most papers originated in the United States (n = 67) followed by Italy (n = 20) and France (n = 10). Harvard University (n = 18) and Osped Civile (n = 11) were the most prolific institutions. Ten journals produced all of the top 100 papers with "Radiology" and "AJR" making up the majority. SN Goldberg and T Livraghi were the most prolific authors. Nearly two thirds of the papers (n = 61) were published after 1990. This analysis identifies many of the landmark interventional radiology papers and provides a fascinating insight into the changing discourse within the field. It also identifies topics, authors and institutions which have impacted greatly on the specialty.

  19. The Impact of the Forest and Forest Industry on the Environment: A Study of Bibliographic Coverage. Bibliographic Series No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler, David K.; McKay, Michael W.

    A citation study investigated the coverage by abstracting and indexing services of literature dealing with the environmental effects of the forest and forest products industries, the impact of man on the forest ecology, and methods for maximizing forest tree utilization. A search of nine secondary sources (abstracting and indexing services)…

  20. Author Self-Citation in the Otolaryngology Literature: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolisano, Anthony M; Song, Sungjin A; Cable, Benjamin B

    2016-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of author self-citation in the field of otolaryngology. A retrospective review of bibliographic references in 5 otolaryngology journals. Five high-impact otolaryngology journals were reviewed over a 3-month period between January and March 2014 to identify the pattern of author self-citations. Data included study type, otolaryngology topic, authorship, total citations, author self-citations, and country of origin. Nearly two-thirds of articles contained at least 1 self-citation, with an average of 2.6 self-citations per article. Self-citations represented nearly 10% of total citations. Articles with at least 1 self-citation had more authors (5.8 vs 4.9, P otolaryngology literature is common and compares similarly to other medical specialties previously studied. Self-citation should not be considered inappropriate, as it is often done to expand on earlier research. Nevertheless, editors, researchers, and readers should be aware of this increasingly recognized phenomenon and its associated potential implications to the process of scientific inquiry. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  1. Citation analysis of Canadian psycho-oncology and supportive care researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Thomas F; Crooks, Dauna; Plohman, James; Kepron, Emma

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a historical review of psycho-oncology and supportive care research in Canada using citation analysis and to review the clinical impact of the research conducted by the most highly cited researchers. The lifetime journal publication records of 109 psycho-oncology and supportive care researchers in Canada were subject to citation analysis using the Scopus database, based on citations since 1996 of articles deemed relevant to psychosocial oncology and supportive care, excluding self-citations. Three primary types of analysis were performed for each individual: the number of citations for each journal publication, a summative citation count of all published articles, and the Scopus h-index. The top 20 psycho-oncology/supportive care researchers for each of five citation categories are presented: the number of citations for all publications; the number of citations for first-authored publications; the most highly cited first-authored publications; the Scopus h-index for all publications; and the Scopus h-index for first-authored publications. The three most highly cited Canadian psycho-oncology researchers are Dr. Kerry Courneya (University of Alberta), Dr. Lesley Degner, (University of Manitoba), and Dr. Harvey Chochinov (University of Manitoba). Citation analysis is useful for examining the research performance of psycho-oncology and supportive care researchers and identifying leaders among them.

  2. Modeling the citation network by network cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zheng; Ouyang, Zhenzheng; Zhang, Pengyuan; Yi, Dongyun; Kong, Dexing

    2015-01-01

    Citation between papers can be treated as a causal relationship. In addition, some citation networks have a number of similarities to the causal networks in network cosmology, e.g., the similar in-and out-degree distributions. Hence, it is possible to model the citation network using network cosmology. The casual network models built on homogenous spacetimes have some restrictions when describing some phenomena in citation networks, e.g., the hot papers receive more citations than other simultaneously published papers. We propose an inhomogenous causal network model to model the citation network, the connection mechanism of which well expresses some features of citation. The node growth trend and degree distributions of the generated networks also fit those of some citation networks well.

  3. Modeling the citation network by network cosmology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xie

    Full Text Available Citation between papers can be treated as a causal relationship. In addition, some citation networks have a number of similarities to the causal networks in network cosmology, e.g., the similar in-and out-degree distributions. Hence, it is possible to model the citation network using network cosmology. The casual network models built on homogenous spacetimes have some restrictions when describing some phenomena in citation networks, e.g., the hot papers receive more citations than other simultaneously published papers. We propose an inhomogenous causal network model to model the citation network, the connection mechanism of which well expresses some features of citation. The node growth trend and degree distributions of the generated networks also fit those of some citation networks well.

  4. Radiation Environments and their Impact at the CERN's Injector Chain

    CERN Document Server

    De Carvalho Saraiva, Joao Pedro; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    Mixed particle and energy radiation fields present at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its Injector Chain are responsible for failures on electronic devices located in the vicinity of the accelerator beam lines. These radiation effects on electronics and, more generally, the overall radiation damage issues have a direct impact on component and system lifetimes, as well as on maintenance requirements and radiation exposure to personnel who have to intervene and fix the faults. This note describes the different radiation environments present along the CERN’s Injector Chain and the expected evolution over the next years with the ongoing LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) project. The available dosimetry and beam monitoring systems used to assess radiation levels are presented, outlining their respective pros and cons. The interplay between Monte Carlo simulations and the available radiation monitoring in the Injectors is also presented.

  5. Statistical regularities in the rank-citation profile of scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Succi, Sauro

    2011-01-01

    Recent "science of science" research shows that scientific impact measures for journals and individual articles have quantifiable regularities across both time and discipline. However, little is known about the scientific impact distribution at the scale of an individual scientist. We analyze the aggregate scientific production and impact of individual careers using the rank-citation profile c_{i}(r) of 200 distinguished professors and 100 assistant professors. For the entire range of paper r...

  6. Scientific citations favor positive results: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyx, Bram; Urlings, Miriam J E; Swaen, Gerard M H; Bouter, Lex M; Zeegers, Maurice P

    2017-08-01

    Citation bias concerns the selective citation of scientific articles based on their results. We brought together all available evidence on citation bias across scientific disciplines and quantified its impact. An extensive search strategy was applied to the Web of Science Core Collection and Medline, yielding 52 studies in total. We classified these studies on scientific discipline, selection method, and other variables. We also performed random-effects meta-analyses to pool the effect of positive vs. negative results on subsequent citations. Finally, we checked for other determinants of citation as reported in the citation bias literature. Evidence for the occurrence of citation bias was most prominent in the biomedical sciences and least in the natural sciences. Articles with statistically significant results were cited 1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-1.8) times more often than articles with nonsignificant results. Articles in which the authors explicitly conclude to have found support for their hypothesis were cited 2.7 (CI 2.0-3.7) times as often. Article results and journal impact factor were associated with citation more often than any other reported determinant. Similar to what we already know on publication bias, also citation bias can lead to an overrepresentation of positive results and unfounded beliefs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Citation bias in reported smoking prevalence in people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon; Ragg, Mark; McGeechan, Kevin

    2009-03-01

    A meta-analysis of 42 studies on tobacco smoking among schizophrenia subjects found an average smoking prevalence of 62% (range=14-88%). Statements are common, however, in the research literature and the media that between 80% and 90% of people with schizophrenia smoke. The purpose of the present paper was therefore to determine if citation bias exists in the over-citation and reportage of studies finding high rates of smoking prevalence in schizophrenia subjects. Two hypotheses were tested: (i) that studies on the prevalence of smoking in people with schizophrenia reporting high smoking rates would be cited more often than studies reporting lower rates; and (ii) that statements about smoking rates among schizophrenic people on the Internet would report very high rates more often than more realistic, less dramatic rates. A 10% increase in reported prevalence of smoking was associated with a 61% (95% confidence interval (CI)=30-98%) increase in citation rate. Journal impact factor (IF) was significantly associated with citation rate (p=0.001) but the country in which a study was carried out did not have an effect (p=0.90). After adjusting for IF, a 10% increase in prevalence of smoking was associated with a 28% increase (95%CI=1-62%) in citation rate. This bias is mirrored on the Internet, where statements abound about uncommonly highly rates of smoking by people with schizophrenia. Studies reporting very high prevalence of smoking among people with schizophrenia are cited more often than those studies reporting a low prevalence, a result consistent with citation bias. This citation bias probably contributes to the misinformation available on the Internet, and may have adverse policy and clinical implications.

  8. Kinesiology Faculty Citations across Academic Rank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Duane

    2015-01-01

    Citations to research reports are used as a measure for the influence of a scholar's research line when seeking promotion, grants, and awards. The current study documented the distributions of citations to kinesiology scholars of various academic ranks. Google Scholar Citations was searched for user profiles using five research interest areas…

  9. Ranking national research systems by citation indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksnes, Dag W.; Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Gunnarsson, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of two different methodologies for calculating national citation indicators: whole counts and fractionalised counts. The aim of our study is to investigate the effect on relative citation indicators when citations to documents are fractionalised among the...

  10. Writing references and using citation management software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungur, Mukadder Orhan; Seyhan, Tülay Özkan

    2013-01-01

    The correct citation of references is obligatory to gain scientific credibility, to honor the original ideas of previous authors and to avoid plagiarism. Currently, researchers can easily find, cite and store references using citation management software. In this review, two popular citation management software programs (EndNote and Mendeley) are summarized. PMID:26328132

  11. 27 CFR 71.73 - After citation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false After citation. 71.73 Section 71.73 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Procedure Surrender of Permit § 71.73 After citation. If a respondent surrenders the permit after citation...

  12. 78 FR 4766 - Authority Citation Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 200 Authority Citation Correction AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION... citation. The Commission is publishing this technical amendment to accurately reflect the authority citation in the Code of Federal Regulations. DATES: Effective Date: January 23, 2013. FOR FURTHER...

  13. Writing references and using citation management software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungur, Mukadder Orhan; Seyhan, Tülay Özkan

    2013-09-01

    The correct citation of references is obligatory to gain scientific credibility, to honor the original ideas of previous authors and to avoid plagiarism. Currently, researchers can easily find, cite and store references using citation management software. In this review, two popular citation management software programs (EndNote and Mendeley) are summarized.

  14. Citation Analysis and Discourse Analysis Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Howard D.

    2004-01-01

    John Swales's 1986 article "Citation analysis and discourse analysis" was written by a discourse analyst to introduce citation research from other fields, mainly sociology of science, to his own discipline. Here, I introduce applied linguists and discourse analysts to citation studies from information science, a complementary tradition not…

  15. Cyber-Bullying in School Settings: A Research Citation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Research on the topic of cyber-bullying has proliferated over the past decade, particularly on its impact on school-aged children. Thus, it would be of interest to examine the scope and extent of research interest in the topic in scholarly publications. This paper reports on a reference citation analysis of the database PsycINFO, using…

  16. Research paper citation record keeping: it is not for wimps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, M V

    2008-10-01

    In an era in which academic institutions are held more accountable, a problem, which does not seem to have an immediate resolution, exists: how does one demonstrate the quality of one's work? Specifically, how does one show that his or her research is making an impact and is thought to be important? A variety of measures of scientific journal article importance, reflected mostly by citation analyses, have been focused on as being potential gold standards. However, although several measures have been reported, keeping a record of citation of individual research papers, primarily due to the effort involved in finding accurate information, is not for wimps.

  17. The citation pattern of Brazilian economists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Faria

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the determinants of international citations by Brazilian economists in papers published in the top domestic journals in 1994 and 2004. Brazilian research in economics has become more open to international influence and widespread geographically; researchers more specialized and technically oriented and the research topics more diversified. However, Brazil is plagued by editorial favoritism, reflected in the negative and significant impact of references to the works authored by domestic journals editors on international citations. We also find that longer technical papers written on topics other than the economic history of Brazil are more likely to cite foreign literature.Este artigo estuda os determinantes das citações internacionais dos economistas brasileiros em artigos publicados nas principais revistas domésticas de economia nos anos 1994 e 2004. A pesquisa de economia no Brasil se tornou mais aberta à influencia internacional e mais espalhada geograficamente; os pesquisadores mais especializados e tecnicamente orientados e os tópicos de pesquisa mais diversificados. Entretanto, a pesquisa continua sendo prejudicada pelo favoritismo editorial, refletido no impacto negativo e significante das referências dos autores aos trabalhos dos editores das revistas domésticas sobre as citacoes internacionais. Constatamos que artigos técnicos mais longos sobre tópicos que não sejam sobre história econômica do Brasil têm maior chance de citar a literatura internacional.

  18. Identification of long-term concept-symbols among citations: Do common intellectual histories structure citation behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comins, J.A.; Leydesdorff, L.

    Citation classics” are not only highly cited, but also cited during several decades. We explore whether the peaks in the spectrograms generated by Reference Publication Years Spectroscopy (RPYS) indicate such long-term impact by comparing across RPYS for subsequent time intervals. Multi-RPYS

  19. Citation Analysis of the Korean Journal of Urology From Web of Science, Scopus, Korean Medical Citation Index, KoreaMed Synapse, and Google Scholar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Sun

    2013-04-01

    The Korean Journal of Urology began to be published exclusively in English in 2010 and is indexed in PubMed Central/PubMed. This study analyzed a variety of citation indicators of the Korean Journal of Urology before and after 2010 to clarify the present position of the journal among the urology category journals. The impact factor, SCImago Journal Rank (SJR), impact index, Z-impact factor (ZIF, impact factor excluding self-citation), and Hirsch Index (H-index) were referenced or calculated from Web of Science, Scopus, SCImago Journal & Country Ranking, Korean Medical Citation Index (KoMCI), KoreaMed Synapse, and Google Scholar. Both the impact factor and the total citations rose rapidly beginning in 2011. The 2012 impact factor corresponded to the upper 84.9% in the nephrology-urology category, whereas the 2011 SJR was in the upper 58.5%. The ZIF in KoMCI was one fifth of the impact factor because there are only two other urology journals in KoMCI. Up to 2009, more than half of the citations in the Web of Science were from Korean researchers, but from 2010 to 2012, more than 85% of the citations were from international researchers. The H-indexes from Web of Science, Scopus, KoMCI, KoreaMed Synapse, and Google Scholar were 8, 10, 12, 9, and 18, respectively. The strategy of the language change in 2010 was successful from the perspective of citation indicators. The values of the citation indicators will continue to increase rapidly and consistently as the research achievement of authors of the Korean Journal of Urology increases.

  20. The impact of learning environment disruption on medical student performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Tim J; Ali, Anthony N; Bell, Caroline J; Carter, Frances A; Frampton, Chris M; McKenzie, Jan M

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to quantify the effects of two distinct and separate disruptions caused by earthquakes to a medical school learning environment on two separate cohorts of Year 5 medical students. The first disruption was caused by an earthquake of magnitude 7.1 that occurred near the end of the academic year but caused minimal physical damage. The second disruption, to a different cohort of students, was caused by a magnitude 6.3 aftershock that occurred at the beginning of the academic year, caused loss of life and widespread damage to the city, and resulted in the closure of the medical school building for 2 years. Using students from the same class, who spent their year in different unaffected cities, as control subjects, and students from previous years in the same city as historic controls, we developed models to compare actual and predicted performances on end-of-year examinations in each of the two cohorts with those in the three previous unaffected year groups. The predictive models fitted the data well with multiple correlations for the written (R range: 0.69-0.79) and clinical (R range: 0.52-0.69) examinations. Students in the first cohort, for whom the disruption occurred close to end-of-year examinations but had a mild effect on the physical environment, performed slightly (-1.5% to -2.0%) but significantly (p performed as expected. An unexpected disruption that occurred close to examinations, but which had less physical environmental effect, had a greater impact on assessment performance than a more severe disruption and series of disruptions to which students had time to adapt and which they could work around. Two theories are offered to explain the observations. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2013.

  1. Citation Analysis of Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences in ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and Google Scholar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarifmahmoudi, Leili; Kianifar, Hamid Reza; Sadeghi, Ramin

    2013-10-01

    Citation tracking is an important method to analyze the scientific impact of journal articles and can be done through Scopus (SC), Google Scholar (GS), or ISI web of knowledge (WOS). In the current study, we analyzed the citations to 2011-2012 articles of Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences (IJBMS) in these three resources. The relevant data from SC, GS, and WOS official websites. Total number of citations, their overlap and unique citations of these three recourses were evaluated. WOS and SC covered 100% and GS covered 97% of the IJBMS items. Totally, 37 articles were cited at least once in one of the studied resources. Total number of citations were 20, 30, and 59 in WOS, SC, and GS respectively. Forty citations of GS, 6 citation of SC, and 2 citations of WOS were unique. Every scientific resource has its own inaccuracies in providing citation analysis information. Citation analysis studies are better to be done each year to correct any inaccuracy as soon as possible. IJBMS has gained considerable scientific attention from wide range of high impact journals and through citation tracking method; this visibility can be traced more thoroughly.

  2. How accessibility influences citation counts: The case of citations to the full text articles available from ResearchGate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sababi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that the number of citations to an article can positively be correlated to its free online availability. In the present study, we investigated the possible impact of academic social networks on the number of citations. We chose the social web service “ResearchGate” as a case. This website acts both as a social network to connect researchers, and at the same time, as an open access repository to publish post-print version of the accepted manuscripts and final versions of open access articles. We collected the data of 1823 articles published by the authors from four different universities. By analyzing these data, we showed that although different levels of full text availability are observed for the four universities, there is always a significant positive correlation between full text availability and the citation count. Moreover, we showed that both post-print version and publisher’s version (i.e., final published version of the archived manuscripts receive more citations than non-OA articles, and the difference in the citation counts of post-print manuscripts and publisher’s version articles is nonsignificant.

  3. Growing complex network of citations of scientific papers: Modeling and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golosovsky, Michael; Solomon, Sorin

    2017-01-01

    We consider the network of citations of scientific papers and use a combination of the theoretical and experimental tools to uncover microscopic details of this network growth. Namely, we develop a stochastic model of citation dynamics based on the copying-redirection-triadic closure mechanism. In a complementary and coherent way, the model accounts both for statistics of references of scientific papers and for their citation dynamics. Originating in empirical measurements, the model is cast in such a way that it can be verified quantitatively in every aspect. Such validation is performed by measuring citation dynamics of physics papers. The measurements revealed nonlinear citation dynamics, the nonlinearity being intricately related to network topology. The nonlinearity has far-reaching consequences including nonstationary citation distributions, diverging citation trajectories of similar papers, runaways or "immortal papers" with infinite citation lifetime, etc. Thus nonlinearity in complex network growth is our most important finding. In a more specific context, our results can be a basis for quantitative probabilistic prediction of citation dynamics of individual papers and of the journal impact factor.

  4. 40 CFR 152.94 - Citation of a public literature study or study generated at government expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation of a public literature study or study generated at government expense. 152.94 Section 152.94 Protection of Environment... PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.94 Citation of a public...

  5. Robustness and discriminatory strength of citation-based journal indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Peter; Christensen, Anette Luther

    subject categories. As this is a work in progress, subject and indicator selection is not yet complete, nor is data acquisition. RESULTS: Examplar data may be seen in figure 1, displaying the robustness of the journal impact factor for describing citations. REFERENCES: Lehmann, S., Jackson, A.D., Lautrup......, B. (2006). Measures for Measures. Nature, 444:1003-1006Figure: Robustness of the journal impact factor....

  6. Emissions from Coal Fires and Their Impact on the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Engle, Mark; Stracher, Glenn; Hower, James; Prakash, Anupma; Radke, Lawrence; ter Schure, Arnout; Heffern, Ed

    2009-01-01

    extinguishing underground fires (fig. 2) (see 'Controlling Coal Fires'). In this fact sheet we review how coal fires occur, how they can be detected by airborne and remote surveys, and, most importantly, the impact coal-fire emissions may have on the environment and human health. In addition, we describe recent efforts by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and collaborators to measure fluxes of CO2, CO, CH4, and Hg, using groundbased portable detectors, and combining these approaches with airborne thermal imaging and CO2 measurements. The goal of this research is to develop approaches that can be extrapolated to large fires and to extrapolate results for individual fires in order to estimate the contribution of coal fires as a category of global emissions.

  7. Characteristics associated with citation rate of the medical literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhaya V Kulkarni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The citation rate for articles is viewed as a measure of their importance and impact; however, little is known about what features of articles are associated with higher citation rate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cohort study of all original articles, regardless of study methodology, published in the Lancet, JAMA, and New England Journal of Medicine, from October 1, 1999 to March 31, 2000. We identified 328 articles. Two blinded, independent reviewers extracted, in duplicate, nine variables from each article, which were analyzed in both univariable and multivariable linear least-squares regression models for their association with the annual rate of citations received by the article since publication. A two-way interaction between industry funding and an industry-favoring result was tested and found to be significant (p = 0.02. In our adjusted analysis, the presence of industry funding and an industry-favoring result was associated with an increase in annual citation rate of 25.7 (95% confidence interval, 8.5 to 42.8 compared to the absence of both industry funding and industry-favoring results. Higher annual rates of citation were also associated with articles dealing with cardiovascular medicine (13.3 more; 95% confidence interval, 3.9 to 22.3 and oncology (12.6 more; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 24.0, articles with group authorship (11.1 more; 95% confidence interval, 2.7 to 19.5, larger sample size and journal of publication. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Large trials, with group authorship, industry-funded, with industry-favoring results, in oncology or cardiology were associated with greater subsequent citations.

  8. Aerosol impacts on climate and environment over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, M.; Sano, I.; Mukai, S.

    2014-12-01

    It is well known that the aerosol distribution in East Asia is complex due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth and the behavior of natural dusts. Therefore, detailed observations of atmospheric particles in East Asian are important. It is concerned about the change of concentration of aerosols causes various effects on the climate by directly and indirectly modifying the optical properties and lifetimes of cloud. In addition to radiation budget change, aerosol has a significant potential to change cloud and precipitation. These circulation fields change influence on emission of natural aerosols such as dust aerosols and sea salt aerosols. Also, air pollution in megacities in East Asia has become a serious problem. Especially problematic are fine particles called PM2.5, whose diameter is 2.5 mm or less. Particulate matter (PM) pollution as indicated by high PM2.5 readings will cause a spike in the mortality rate of patients suffering from heart and lung diseases. Because fine particles are much smaller than inhalable coarse particles, the can penetrate deeper into the lungs and cause more severe effects on human health. Anthropogenic sources of PM2.5 include automobiles, factories, coal-burning power plants, and heaters in homes. It is well known that the size of dust particles decreases during long-range transport via westerly winds, and the resulting dust storms can contain high concentrations of fine particles. Accordingly, PM2.5 concentrations correspond well to both anthropogenic and dust aerosols. This work intends to investigate impacts of aerosol on regional climate change and environment over East Asia using observations and model simulations.

  9. Metal Matrix Composites: Fatigue and Fracture Testing. (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and results of testing metal matrix composites for fatigue and fracture. Methods include non-destructive testing techniques, and static and cyclic techniques for assessing compression, tensile, bending, and impact characteristics.

  10. Impact of Multitasking on Listening Effectiveness in the Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Kushniryk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study evaluated the impact of multitasking and social presence on students’ performances in the learning environment. In the first live-presenter group, the participants listened to a lecture in a face-to-face environment. In the second virtual-presenter group, the participants listened on their computers to a pre-recorded lecture. The participants of these groups listened to a lecture and simultaneously wrote responses to open-ended online survey questions. While the participants of the first two groups were multitasking, those in the third group completed listening and writing tasks sequentially. It was found that multitasking significantly decreased performances on both the listening and writing tasks. The experiment also uncovered that the degree of social presence did not affect students’ performances on the listening or writing tasks in the learning environment. The perceived degree of social presence was the same in the virtual- and live-presenter groups.La présente étude expérimentale évalue les conséquences de la multiplicité des tâches et de la présence sociale sur la performance des étudiants dans l’environnement d’apprentissage. Le premier groupe a assisté à une cours donnée par un conférencier sur place. Le deuxième groupe a écouté le cours préenregistrée à partir d’un ordinateur. Les participants de ces deux groupes ont répondu simultanément en ligne aux questions ouvertes d’un sondage. Alors que les participants des deux premiers groupes ont effectué des tâches multiples simultanément, ceux du troisième groupe ont d’abord écouté puis ont répondu au sondage de façon séquentielle. Les chercheurs ont découvert que le fait de réaliser des tâches multiples entraînent une baisse importante de la performance en ce qui a trait à l’écoute et à la rédaction des réponses. L’expérience a aussi permis de découvrir que la présence en classe n’influe pas sur la

  11. Ecological impacts of ocean acidification in coastal marine environments (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, C.; Crim, R.; Gooding, R.; Nienhuis, S.; Tang, E.

    2010-12-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are driving rapid and potentially unprecedented reductions in pH and carbonate ion availability in coastal marine environments. This process, known as ocean acidification (OA), has far-reaching implications for the performance and survival of marine organisms, particularly those with calcified shells and skeletons. Here, we highlight the ways in which OA impacts plants and animals in a coastal benthic food web, with an emphasis on what we know and what we don’t know about the ways in which the responses of individual organisms will scale up to long-term changes in community structure. Our system of interest is the rocky shore benthic community that is broadly represented from Alaska through California. Ecologically important species include producers (micro- and macro-algae), grazers (urchins and gastropods), filter feeders (mussels), and predators (sea stars). Although the direct effects of OA on coastal phytoplankton and kelps remain poorly understood, it appears as though elevated CO2 will increase the doubling rate of benthic diatoms. Small changes in food supply, however, may pale in comparison to the direct effects of OA on heavily calcified grazers and filter feeders. Sea urchin and mussel growth are both reduced by increased CO2 in the lab, and decadal-scale reductions in pH are associated with reduced turban snail growth in the field. Although adult abalone growth appears to be unaffected by CO2, larval development is impaired and larval survival is significantly reduced in acidified conditions. In contrast to the negative effects of OA on heavily calcified herbivores and filter feeders, lightly calcified sea stars actually grow faster when CO2 is experimentally increased. The acidification-induced changes described here are likely to result in substantial shifts in the benthic ecosystem. Increasing predation pressure may further reduce the abundance of grazers and filter feeders that are already suffering

  12. Do citation systems represent theories of truth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Van der Veer Martens

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that the citation can be viewed not only as a "concept symbol" but also as a "boundary object". The scientific, legal, and patent citation systems in America are examined at the micro, meso, and macro levels in order to understand how they function as commodified theories of truth in contemporary knowledge representation. This approach also offers a meta-theoretical overview of existing citation research efforts in science, law, and technology that may be of interdisciplinary interest.

  13. Data reuse and the open data citation advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwowar, Heather A; Vision, Todd J

    2013-01-01

    Background. Attribution to the original contributor upon reuse of published data is important both as a reward for data creators and to document the provenance of research findings. Previous studies have found that papers with publicly available datasets receive a higher number of citations than similar studies without available data. However, few previous analyses have had the statistical power to control for the many variables known to predict citation rate, which has led to uncertain estimates of the "citation benefit". Furthermore, little is known about patterns in data reuse over time and across datasets. Method and Results. Here, we look at citation rates while controlling for many known citation predictors and investigate the variability of data reuse. In a multivariate regression on 10,555 studies that created gene expression microarray data, we found that studies that made data available in a public repository received 9% (95% confidence interval: 5% to 13%) more citations than similar studies for which the data was not made available. Date of publication, journal impact factor, open access status, number of authors, first and last author publication history, corresponding author country, institution citation history, and study topic were included as covariates. The citation benefit varied with date of dataset deposition: a citation benefit was most clear for papers published in 2004 and 2005, at about 30%. Authors published most papers using their own datasets within two years of their first publication on the dataset, whereas data reuse papers published by third-party investigators continued to accumulate for at least six years. To study patterns of data reuse directly, we compiled 9,724 instances of third party data reuse via mention of GEO or ArrayExpress accession numbers in the full text of papers. The level of third-party data use was high: for 100 datasets deposited in year 0, we estimated that 40 papers in PubMed reused a dataset by year 2, 100 by

  14. Data reuse and the open data citation advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A. Piwowar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Attribution to the original contributor upon reuse of published data is important both as a reward for data creators and to document the provenance of research findings. Previous studies have found that papers with publicly available datasets receive a higher number of citations than similar studies without available data. However, few previous analyses have had the statistical power to control for the many variables known to predict citation rate, which has led to uncertain estimates of the “citation benefit”. Furthermore, little is known about patterns in data reuse over time and across datasets. Method and Results. Here, we look at citation rates while controlling for many known citation predictors and investigate the variability of data reuse. In a multivariate regression on 10,555 studies that created gene expression microarray data, we found that studies that made data available in a public repository received 9% (95% confidence interval: 5% to 13% more citations than similar studies for which the data was not made available. Date of publication, journal impact factor, open access status, number of authors, first and last author publication history, corresponding author country, institution citation history, and study topic were included as covariates. The citation benefit varied with date of dataset deposition: a citation benefit was most clear for papers published in 2004 and 2005, at about 30%. Authors published most papers using their own datasets within two years of their first publication on the dataset, whereas data reuse papers published by third-party investigators continued to accumulate for at least six years. To study patterns of data reuse directly, we compiled 9,724 instances of third party data reuse via mention of GEO or ArrayExpress accession numbers in the full text of papers. The level of third-party data use was high: for 100 datasets deposited in year 0, we estimated that 40 papers in PubMed reused a

  15. Data reuse and the open data citation advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vision, Todd J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Attribution to the original contributor upon reuse of published data is important both as a reward for data creators and to document the provenance of research findings. Previous studies have found that papers with publicly available datasets receive a higher number of citations than similar studies without available data. However, few previous analyses have had the statistical power to control for the many variables known to predict citation rate, which has led to uncertain estimates of the “citation benefit”. Furthermore, little is known about patterns in data reuse over time and across datasets. Method and Results. Here, we look at citation rates while controlling for many known citation predictors and investigate the variability of data reuse. In a multivariate regression on 10,555 studies that created gene expression microarray data, we found that studies that made data available in a public repository received 9% (95% confidence interval: 5% to 13%) more citations than similar studies for which the data was not made available. Date of publication, journal impact factor, open access status, number of authors, first and last author publication history, corresponding author country, institution citation history, and study topic were included as covariates. The citation benefit varied with date of dataset deposition: a citation benefit was most clear for papers published in 2004 and 2005, at about 30%. Authors published most papers using their own datasets within two years of their first publication on the dataset, whereas data reuse papers published by third-party investigators continued to accumulate for at least six years. To study patterns of data reuse directly, we compiled 9,724 instances of third party data reuse via mention of GEO or ArrayExpress accession numbers in the full text of papers. The level of third-party data use was high: for 100 datasets deposited in year 0, we estimated that 40 papers in PubMed reused a dataset by year 2

  16. Citation Analysis of the Korean Journal of Urology From Web of Science, Scopus, Korean Medical Citation Index, KoreaMed Synapse, and Google Scholar

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, Sun

    2013-01-01

    The Korean Journal of Urology began to be published exclusively in English in 2010 and is indexed in PubMed Central/PubMed. This study analyzed a variety of citation indicators of the Korean Journal of Urology before and after 2010 to clarify the present position of the journal among the urology category journals. The impact factor, SCImago Journal Rank (SJR), impact index, Z-impact factor (ZIF, impact factor excluding self-citation), and Hirsch Index (H-index) were referenced or calculated f...

  17. Implementation of Data Citations and Persistent Identifiers at the ORNL DAAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R. B.; Santhana Vannan, S.; Devarakonda, Ranjeet; McMurry, B. F.; Kidder, J. H.; Shanafield, H. A.; Palanisamy, G.

    2013-12-01

    As research in Earth Science becomes more data intensive, a critical requirement of data archives is that data needs to be easily discovered, accessed, and used. One approach to improving data discovery and access is through data citations coupled with Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). Beginning in 1998, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC) has issued data product citations that have been accepted and used in AGU and other peer-reviewed journals. Citation elements established by the ORNL DAAC are similar to those used for journal articles (authors, titles, information to locate, and version), and beginning in 2007 included a DOI that is persistent, actionable, specific, and complete. The citation approach used at the DAAC also allows for referring to specific subsets of the data, by including within the citation the temporal and spatial portions of the data actually used. Citations allow others to find data and reproduce the results of the research article, and also use those data to test new hypotheses, design new sample collections, or construct or evaluate models. In addition to enhancing discovery and access of the data used in a research article, the citation gives credit to data generators, data centers and their funders, and, through citation indices, determine the scientific impact of a data set. The ORNL DAAC has developed a database that links research articles and their use of ORNL DAAC data products. The database allows determination of who, in which journal, and how the data have been used, in a manner analogous to author citation indices. The ORNL DAAC has been an initial contributor to the Thomson Reuters Data Citation Index. In addition, research data products deposited at the ORNL DAAC are linked using DOIs to relevant articles in Elsevier journals available on ScienceDirect. The ultimate goal of this implementation is that citations to data products become a routine part of the scientific process.

  18. Update on research software citation efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alice

    2017-01-01

    Research software citation has received a lot of attention the past few years, as evidenced by numerous efforts that have discussed it, including WSSSPE, Force11 Software Citation Working Group, the Center for Open Science's Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) Guidelines, a workshop on Engineering Academic Software, and the CodeMeta project. This presentation briefly covers recent broad efforts to improve research transparency across disciplines through software availability and citation, and the Software Citation Principles that have recently been published as a result of the work done through Force11.

  19. High-ranked social science journal articles can be identified from early citation information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David I

    2014-01-01

    Do citations accumulate too slowly in the social sciences to be used to assess the quality of recent articles? I investigate whether this is the case using citation data for all articles in economics and political science published in 2006 and indexed in the Web of Science. I find that citations in the first two years after publication explain more than half of the variation in cumulative citations received over a longer period. Journal impact factors improve the correlation between the predicted and actual future ranks of journal articles when using citation data from 2006 alone but the effect declines sharply thereafter. Finally, more than half of the papers in the top 20% in 2012 were already in the top 20% in the year of publication (2006).

  20. Citation analysis in health care sciences. Innovative investigation or seductive pseudo-science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, M

    2014-01-01

    Citations of scientific papers in health care have become a subject of interest, as in any scientific sector. However, such a metric, while useful in a simple way, can become subject to too much credibility, and therefore to advanced analyses which are not soundly grounded even if methodologically valid. The objective was to contextualise citation indices in health care science, juxtaposed with a parallel analytic paper. The literature was reviewed and set against the objectives of metrics of literature and of researchers. The strengths and weaknesses of citation indices in the health sector were identified, with practical examples of perverse effects, and compared with the core objectives of health care development. Citation indices in health care science have a value, but this is limited to giving a broad overview. Other measures of effectiveness, including impact on education, on health care development, and on stimulation of applied developments, are needed rather than spuriously scientific advanced analyses of citation counts.

  1. The measurement of the effect on citation inequality of differences in citation practices across scientific fields

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crespo, Juan A; Li, Yunrong; Li, Yungrong; Ruiz-Castillo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    This paper has two aims: (i) to introduce a novel method for measuring which part of overall citation inequality can be attributed to differences in citation practices across scientific fields, and (ii...

  2. Are shorter article titles more attractive for citations? Cross-sectional study of 22 scientific journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, Farrokh; Yadollahie, Mahboobeh

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the correlation between the length of the title of a scientific article and the number of citations it receives, in view of the common editorial call for shorter titles. Title and the number of citations to all articles published in 2005 in 22 arbitrarily chosen English-language journals (n=9031) were retrieved from citation database Scopus. The 2008 journal impact factors of these 22 journals were also retrieved from Thomson Reuters' Journal Citation Report (JCR). Assuming the article title length as the independent variable, and the number of citations to the article as the dependent variable, a linear regression model was applied. The slope of the regression line for some journals (n=6, when titles were measured in characters but 7 when titles were measured in words) was negative - none was significantly different from 0. The overall slope for all journals was 0.140 (when titles were measured in characters) and 0.778 (when titles were measured in words), which is significantly different from 0 (Ptitles received more citations - Spearman rho=0.266 - when titles were measured in characters, and rho=0.244 when titles were measured in words (P10 and for 2 out of 14 journals with impact factor titles seem to be associated with higher citation rates. This association is more pronounced for journals with high impact factors. Editors who insist on brief and concise titles should perhaps update the guidelines for authors of their journals and have more flexibility regarding the length of the title.

  3. GENERAL MECHANISMS OF CITATION SYSTEM OF SCIENTIFIC ARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віктор Дмитрович ГОГУНСЬКИЙ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Transformation competitive environment of higher education in the creation of effective mechanisms of management research encourages research teams and individual researchers to analyze their activity Publication search methods for improvement of citations of scientific publications. The paper analyzed the life cycle of scientific publications and show that the way to promote scientific articles in the world community inherent properties of Markov processes. Application of Markov chains allows top ground the need for active participation of the authors in the distribution of its publications in different scientometric databases, repositories of scientific and social networks. Markov model to describe decomposition of scientists made certain discrete states and proposed a schematic diagram of transitions between them. The model's 5A fully reflect the properties of the system. Communication influences the probability of changing system states with consistent movement along the trajectory from a lack of information about the publication to familiarize with it because of the positive attitude to state its citation. This is a must as well as a negative attitude to the publications. Proved that improve performance citation of scientific publications in the case of using Google Scholar, ORCID, Mendeley, Academia, ResearchGate, and others. The active participation of authors in their publications available in these systems leads to an increase in the proportion of articles that are available to colleagues in the global scientific community that is becoming one of the factors of increase in citations.

  4. Citation networks of related trials are often disconnected: implications for bidirectional citation searches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Karen A; Dunn, Adam G; Tsafnat, Guy; Glasziou, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) should set findings within the context of previous research. The resulting network of citations would also provide an alternative search method for clinicians, researchers, and systematic reviewers seeking to base decisions on all available evidence. We sought to determine the connectedness of citation networks of RCTs by examining direct (referenced trials) and indirect (through references of referenced trials, etc) citation of trials to one another. Meta-analyses were used to create citation networks of RCTs addressing the same clinical questions. The primary measure was the proportion of networks where following citation links between RCTs identifies the complete set of RCTs, forming a single connected citation group. Other measures included the number of disconnected groups (islands) within each network, the number of citations in the network relative to the maximum possible, and the maximum number of links in the path between two connected trials (a measure of indirectness of citations). We included 259 meta-analyses with a total of 2,413 and a median of seven RCTs each. For 46% (118 of 259) of networks, the RCTs formed a single connected citation group-one island. For the other 54% of networks, where at least one RCT group was not cited by others, 39% had two citation islands and 4% (10 of 257) had 10 or more islands. On average, the citation networks had 38% of the possible citations to other trials (if each trial had cited all earlier trials). The number of citation islands and the maximum number of citation links increased with increasing numbers of trials in the network. Available evidence to answer a clinical question may be identified by using network citations created with a small initial corpus of eligible trials. However, the number of islands means that citation networks cannot be relied on for evidence retrieval. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The impact of the environment on organizational performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... technological environment in the period between 1993 and 1998. Only the socio-cultural environment appears to be favourable but this did not help to enhance organizational performance. Keywords: performance, effectiveness, turbulence, collectivism, individualism and absenteeism. Global Journal of Social Sciences ...

  6. The Impact of Multitasking Learning Environments in the Middle Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkwine, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    This research study considers the status of middle school students in the 21st century in terms of their tendency to multitask in their daily lives and the overall influence this multitasking has on teaching and learning environments. Student engagement in the learning environment and students' various learning styles are discussed as primary…

  7. Citation analysis of meta-analysis articles on posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xi-Ming; Chen, Ping-Yan

    2011-04-01

    In the past two decades enormously scientific researches on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been undertaken and many related meta-analyses have been published. Citation analysis was used to get comprehensive perspectives of meta-analysis articles (MA articles) on PTSD for the purpose of facilitating the researchers, physicians and policy-makers to understand the PTSD. MA articles on PTSD in any languages from January 1980 to March 2009 were included if they presented meta-analytical methods and received at least one citation recorded in the Web of Science (WoS). Whereas studies, in which any effect sizes of PTSD were not distinguished from other psychological disorders, were excluded. Citations to and by identified MA articles were documented basing on records in WoS. Citation analysis was used to examine distribution patterns of characteristics and citation impact of MA articles on PTSD. Canonical analysis was used to explore the relationship between the characteristics of MA articles and citation impact. Thirty-four MA articles published during 1998 and 2008 were identified and revealed multiple study topics on PTSD: 10 (29.4%) were about epidemiology, 13 (38.2%) about treatment or intervention, 6 (17.6%) about pathophysiology or neurophysiology or neuroendocrine, 3 (8.8%) about childhood and 2 (5.9%) about psychosocial adversity. Two articles cited most frequently with 456 and 145 counts were published in Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology by Brewin (2000) and Psychological Bulletin by Ozer (2003), respectively. Mean cited count was 7.48 ± 10.56 and mean age (year 2009 minus article publication year) was (4.24 ± 2.91) years. They had been cited approximately by 67 disciplines and by authors from 42 countries or territories. Characteristics of meta-analysis highly correlated with citation impact and reflected by canonical correlation of 0.899 (P citation impact. Citation analysis would serve to capture the global perspectives and topics of

  8. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Editor Behavior through Potentially Coercive Citations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Herteliu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available How much is the h-index of an editor of a well-ranked journal improved due to citations which occur after his/her appointment? Scientific recognition within academia is widely measured nowadays by the number of citations or h-index. Our dataset is based on a sample of four editors from a well-ranked journal (impact factor, IF, greater than 2. The target group consists of two editors who seem to benefit by their position through an increased citation number (and subsequently h-index within the journal. The total amount of citations for the target group is greater than 600. The control group is formed by another set of two editors from the same journal whose relations between their positions and their citation records remain neutral. The total amount of citations for the control group is more than 1200. The timespan for which the citations’ pattern has been studied is 1975–2015. Previous coercive citations for a journal’s benefit (an increase of its IF has been indicated. To the best of our knowledge, this is a pioneering work on coercive citations for personal (editors’ benefit. Editorial teams should be aware about this type of potentially unethical behavior and act accordingly.

  9. [Citation analysis of papers from Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Guo, Hong-bo; Li, Shan; Li, Yan-ping

    2013-01-01

    To analyze and evaluate the quality and academic level of the Chinese Journal of gastrointestinal surgery. Based on the data from WanFang data, a statistical research was carried out with the methods of bibliometrics and citation analysis to investigate the Details of the papers from Chinese Journal of gastrointestinal surgery cited by other journal articles.The important analysis indexes included number of published papers, number of cited papers, citation frequency, citation time distribution and difference, authors and citation journal distribution, etc. Of all the 1442 papers published by the Chinese Journal of gastrointestinal surgery. From 2007 to 2011, 392 papers are cited, which account for about 27.18% of all cited numbers with total cited 998 times .. Immediacy index from 2009-2011 were respectively 0.08, 0.04 and 0.08. Cited half-life was 0.08 in 2011. A relatively large proportion of papers published in the journal have ever been cited, indicating that the whole quality of the journal is considerably high. But due to its relatively short history of publication the journal still lacks papers with deep impact and great significance.

  10. Publication productivity and citation analysis of the Medical Journal of Malaysia: 2004 - 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanni, S A; Zainab, A N

    2012-02-01

    We analysed 580 articles (original articles only) published in Medical Journal of Malaysia between 2004 and 2008, the resources referenced by the articles and the citations and impact received. Our aim was to examine article and author productivity, the age of references used and impact of the journal. Publication data was obtained from MyAIS database and Google Scholar provided the citation data. From the 580 articles analyzed, contributors mainly come from the hospitals, universities and clinics. Contributions from foreign authors are low. The useful lives of references cited were between 3 to 11 years. ISI derived Impact factor for MJM ranged between 0.378 to 0.616. Journal self-citation is low. Out of the 580 sampled articles, 76.8% have been cited at least once over the 5 years and the ratio of total publications to citations is 1: 2.6.

  11. Mining a Web Citation Database for Author Co-Citation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yulan; Hui, Siu Cheung

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a mining process to automate author co-citation analysis based on the Web Citation Database, a data warehouse for storing citation indices of Web publications. Describes the use of agglomerative hierarchical clustering for author clustering and multidimensional scaling for displaying author cluster maps, and explains PubSearch, a…

  12. The simulated clinical environment: Cognitive and emotional impact among undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Marie-Laurence; Lafleur, Alexandre; Leppink, Jimmie; Dolmans, Diana H J M

    2017-02-01

    Simulated clinical immersion (SCI) is used in undergraduate healthcare programs to expose the learner to real-life situations in authentic simulated clinical environments. For novices, the environment in which the simulation occurs can be distracting and stressful, hence potentially compromising learning. This study aims to determine whether SCI (with environment) imposes greater extraneous cognitive load and stress on undergraduate pharmacy students than simulated patients (SP) (without environment). It also aims to explore how features of the simulated environment influence students' perception of learning. In this mixed-methods study, 143 undergraduate pharmacy students experienced both SCI and SP in a crossover design. After the simulations, participants rated their cognitive load and emotions. Thirty-five students met in focus groups to explore their perception of learning in simulation. Intrinsic and extraneous cognitive load and stress scores in SCI were significantly but modestly higher compared to SP. Qualitative findings reveal that the physical environment in SCI generated more stress and affected students? focus. In SP, students concentrated on clinical reasoning. SCI stimulated a focus on data collection but impeded in-depth problem solving processes. The physical environment in simulation influences what and how students learn. SCI was reported as more cognitively demanding than SP. Our findings emphasize the need for the development of adapted instructional design guidelines in simulation for novices.

  13. The impacts of small scale artisanal diamond mining on the environment

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    M.A. This mini-dissertation establishes the extent to which small scale artisanal diamond mining impacts on the environment. There has, in the past, been research undertaken specifically on the water related impacts of small scale artisanal diamond mining. This study however, looks at the environment holistically, and gauges the total degradation to the receiving environment. Small scale artisanal diamond mining is considered to be a major contributor to the local economy and improved qual...

  14. Impact of socio-economic home environment on student learning achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Jolita Dudaitė

    2016-01-01

    Surveys on education intended to test student learning achievement often analyse which educational environment factors have the biggest impact on student achievement. Determination of such factors and assessment of their impact is important in order to control the change in student achievement. Most surveys showed that student achievement is influenced by economic home environment factors, and student’s socio-economic status. The purpose of this article is to analyse impact of socio-economic ...

  15. Biomechanics Scholar Citations across Academic Ranks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knudson Duane

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: citations to the publications of a scholar have been used as a measure of the quality or influence of their research record. A world-wide descriptive study of the citations to the publications of biomechanics scholars of various academic ranks was conducted.

  16. 41 CFR 128-1.152 - Citation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation. 128-1.152 Section 128-1.152 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 128-1.152 Citation. The JPMR will be...

  17. 1 CFR 22.2 - Authority citation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority citation. 22.2 Section 22.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION OF NOTICES AND PROPOSED RULES Notices § 22.2 Authority citation. The authority under...

  18. Citation graph based ranking in Invenio

    CERN Document Server

    Marian, Ludmila; Rajman, Martin; Vesely, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Invenio is the web-based integrated digital library system developed at CERN. Within this framework, we present four types of ranking models based on the citation graph that complement the simple approach based on citation counts: time-dependent citation counts, a relevancy ranking which extends the PageRank model, a time-dependent ranking which combines the freshness of citations with PageRank and a ranking that takes into consideration the external citations. We present our analysis and results obtained on two main data sets: Inspire and CERN Document Server. Our main contributions are: (i) a study of the currently available ranking methods based on the citation graph; (ii) the development of new ranking methods that correct some of the identified limitations of the current methods such as treating all citations of equal importance, not taking time into account or considering the citation graph complete; (iii) a detailed study of the key parameters for these ranking methods. (The original publication is ava...

  19. Academic Citation Practice: A Sinking Sheep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekdal, Ole Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    An explosion in access to electronic databases and digital information is changing the way we view source citation. While the original purpose of referencing--showing the reader exactly where the author got his or her input--is clearly more important than ever, citation is increasingly taking on other roles, ones that have little to do with good…

  20. Bibliometrics and citation analysis from the science citation index to cybermetrics

    CERN Document Server

    De Bellis, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    Bibliometrics and Citation Analysis: From the Science Citation Index to Cybermetrics offers a comprehensive overview of theories, techniques, concepts, and applications in the interdisciplinary and steadily growing field of bibliometrics. This book looks at bibliographic citation and citation networks by discussing the past, present, and future of bibliometrics, from its foundations in the Science Citation Index to its expansion into the World Wide Web. It is useful to those in every area of scholarship involved in the quantitative analysis of information exchanges, but also to general readers

  1. Comparison of Journal Self-Citation Rates between Some Chinese and Non-Chinese International Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zu-Guo; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Chun-Ting

    2012-01-01

    Background The past 3 decades have witnessed a boost in science development in China; in parallel, more and more Chinese scientific journals are indexed by the Journal Citation Reports issued by Thomson Reuters (SCI). Evaluation of the performance of these Chinese SCI journals is necessary and helpful to improve their quality. This study aimed to evaluate these journals by calculating various journal self-citation rates, which are important parameters influencing a journal impact factor. Methodology/Principal Findings We defined three journal self-citation rates, and studied these rates for 99 Chinese scientific journals, almost exhausting all Chinese SCI journals currently available. Likewise, we selected 99 non-Chinese international (abbreviated as ‘world’) journals, with each being in the same JCR subject category and having similar impact factors as their Chinese counterparts. Generally, Chinese journals tended to be higher in all the three self-citation rates than world journal counterparts. Particularly, a few Chinese scientific journals had much higher self-citation rates. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that generally Chinese scientific journals have higher self-citation rates than those of world journals. Consequently, Chinese scientific journals tend to have lower visibility and are more isolated in the relevant fields. Considering the fact that sciences are rapidly developing in China and so are Chinese scientific journals, we expect that the differences of journal self-citation rates between Chinese and world scientific journals will gradually disappear in the future. Some suggestions to solve the problems are presented. PMID:23173041

  2. The Impact of the External Environment on Person-Environment Fit in the Selection of New Housing Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Melissa Renee

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the concept of "fit" with housing/residence life professionals at colleges and universities using Werbel and Gilliland's (1999) framework/ model of describing person-environment fit and then determine how/if this fit may be impacted by individual or institutional demographics. This purpose…

  3. Learn about Energy and its Impact on the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clean energy includes renewable energy, energy efficiency and efficient combined heat and power. All forms of electricity generation have an environmental impact on our air, water and land, but it varies.

  4. Physical Environment Comfort Impacts on Office Employee’s Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua Shirley Jin Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Office workplaces today is now no longer only consisting of passive and fixed activity but also towards a more flexible environment activity. The number of office workplaces is hiking from day to day which leads to the increase of the office workers. The productivity will be improved by providing optimum physical environment. The physical environment comfort in a workplace is claimed to be vital as it will encourages healthier, more productive and lower absenteeism rate among employees. The physical environment comfort encompassed optimum room temperature, relative humidity and illuminance level. This research intend to investigate the importance of physical environment comfort by evaluating the comfort based on the existing workplace and determine its effect on employee’s performance. Evaluation between the selected case studies are made in the aspects of employee’s comfort perceive health and absenteeism rate by wielding the elements of physical comfort consisting room temperature, relative humidity and illuminance level. Field study was carried out for 3 institutional building particularly management department. High correlations are found between room temperature, lighting and relative humidity with health related issue such as stuffy, easily tired and difficulty in concentration which affect employees’ productivity and work performances.

  5. A reverse engineering approach to the suppression of citation biases reveals universal properties of citation distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Castellano, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    The large amount of information contained in bibliographic databases has recently boosted the use of citations, and other indicators based on citation numbers, as tools for the quantitative assessment of scientific research. Citations counts are often interpreted as proxies for the scientific influence of papers, journals, scholars, and institutions. However, a rigorous and scientifically grounded methodology for a correct use of citation counts is still missing. In particular, cross-disciplinary comparisons in terms of raw citation counts systematically favors scientific disciplines with higher citation and publication rates. Here we perform an exhaustive study of the citation patterns of millions of papers, and derive a simple transformation of citation counts able to suppress the disproportionate citation counts among scientific domains. We find that the transformation is well described by a power-law function, and that the parameter values of the transformation are typical features of each scientific discipline. Universal properties of citation patterns descend therefore from the fact that citation distributions for papers in a specific field are all part of the same family of univariate distributions.

  6. How citation distortions create unfounded authority: analysis of a citation network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Steven A

    2009-07-20

    To understand belief in a specific scientific claim by studying the pattern of citations among papers stating it. A complete citation network was constructed from all PubMed indexed English literature papers addressing the belief that beta amyloid, a protein accumulated in the brain in Alzheimer's disease, is produced by and injures skeletal muscle of patients with inclusion body myositis. Social network theory and graph theory were used to analyse this network. Citation bias, amplification, and invention, and their effects on determining authority. The network contained 242 papers and 675 citations addressing the belief, with 220,553 citation paths supporting it. Unfounded authority was established by citation bias against papers that refuted or weakened the belief; amplification, the marked expansion of the belief system by papers presenting no data addressing it; and forms of invention such as the conversion of hypothesis into fact through citation alone. Extension of this network into text within grants funded by the National Institutes of Health and obtained through the Freedom of Information Act showed the same phenomena present and sometimes used to justify requests for funding. Citation is both an impartial scholarly method and a powerful form of social communication. Through distortions in its social use that include bias, amplification, and invention, citation can be used to generate information cascades resulting in unfounded authority of claims. Construction and analysis of a claim specific citation network may clarify the nature of a published belief system and expose distorted methods of social citation.

  7. The impact of the economic environment on financial reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Burcă

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Financial reporting represents a current issue of economic environment, given globalization and the recent economic crisis. Accounting -as profession - along with the investors and state institutions have started a comprehensive project of accounting convergence designed to improve the comparability of accounting information released by financial statements synthesis. The success of the project can only be provided by taking into account several constraints imposed by the economic environment, and not only. Therefore, attention must be paid to the voice of capital markets and large multinational corporations regarding the future development of financial reporting.

  8. Impact of Political Environment on Business Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    An International Multidisciplinary Journal, Ethiopia. Vol. 9(3), Serial No. 38, July, 2015:1-10 ... issues emanating from the political decisions of government, which are capable of altering the expected outcome and .... environment improves global business performance: protecting new and existing global investments and ...

  9. Fukushima Daiichi Accident and Its Radiological Impact on the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevelacqua, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident is a topic of current media and public interest. It provides a means to motivate students to understand the fission process and the barriers that have been designed to prevent the release of fission products to the environment following a major nuclear power reactor accident. The Fukushima Daiichi accident…

  10. Impact of Political Environment on Business Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About twenty-seven (27) of such companies were identified and the necessary data were sourced from the Nigerian Stock Exchange Fact Book of 2012 and the World Development Indicators of World Bank Group. Political environment was measured as the degree of political stability and absence of violence while business ...

  11. Impact of Political Environment on Business Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    environment improves global business performance: protecting new and existing global investments and operations, and capitalizing on opportunities resulting from political change (Phung, 2009). It is our belief that by establishing a systematic approach to political risk management, multinational companies can drive ...

  12. Impact of Aviation Fuel Quality on Flight Safety and Environment

    OpenAIRE

    A.V. Yakovleva; S.V. Boichenko; O.A. Vovk

    2013-01-01

    The role of aviation fuels quality for provision of flight safety is described. Statistics on jet fuel consumption all over the world and Ukraine in particular is presented. Analysis of flight accidents is done; the role of fuel quality as a reason of such events as well as a factor affecting the environment is investigated.

  13. Impact of the learning environment on career intentions of paediatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. High childhood disease burdens in South Africa (SA) prioritise the need for careers in paediatrics. Experiences of junior doctors during internship may influence career trajectories in a direction that is discordant with national health priorities. Objective. To explore the influence of the learning environment and ...

  14. Open Access Meets Discoverability: Citations to Articles Posted to Academia.edu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Niyazov

    Full Text Available Using matching and regression analyses, we measure the difference in citations between articles posted to Academia.edu and other articles from similar journals, controlling for field, impact factor, and other variables. Based on a sample size of 31,216 papers, we find that a paper in a median impact factor journal uploaded to Academia.edu receives 16% more citations after one year than a similar article not available online, 51% more citations after three years, and 69% after five years. We also found that articles also posted to Academia.edu had 58% more citations than articles only posted to other online venues, such as personal and departmental home pages, after five years.

  15. Societal Impact of Improved Environment and Geospatial Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, J.; Andrzejewska, M.; Stonor, T.

    2013-12-01

    Geospatial projects are often dogged by the inability to establish a strong quantitative value proposition and are unable to sustain the attention of senior decision makers. In a tough economic climate, it is particularly important that any project that requires a significant investment can show a clear Return on Investment (ROI). In the case of commerce, benefit can be quantified through increase in sales/profit or reduction of risk. In the case of societal impact, quantification is more challenging. At the Geospatial World Forum (GWF) 2013 in Rotterdam, a number of case studies were presented on social impacts which used differing approaches to impact assessment. Some of the cases discussed projects with community issues and explained alternative means of conflict resolution. However, a comparison of the different case studies was not made at the GWF meeting. This presentation will take the next step and address the commonalities and differences in the approaches.

  16. Environment, Health and Climate: Impact of African aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liousse, C.; Doumbia, T.; Assamoi, E.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Baeza, A.; Penner, J. E.; Val, S.; Cachier, H.; Xu, L.; Criqui, P.

    2012-12-01

    Fossil fuel and biofuel emissions of particles in Africa are expected to significantly increase in the near future, particularly due to rapid growth of African cities. In addition to biomass burning emissions prevailing in these areas, air quality degradation is then expected with important consequences on population health and climatic/radiative impact. In our group, we are constructing a new integrated methodology to study the relations between emissions, air quality and their impacts. This approach includes: (1) African combustion emission characterizations; (2) joint experimental determination of aerosol chemistry from ultrafine to coarse fractions and health issues (toxicology and epidemiology). (3) integrated environmental, health and radiative modeling. In this work, we show some results illustrating our first estimates of African anthropogenic emission impacts: - a new African anthropogenic emission inventory adapted to regional specificities on traffic, biofuel and industrial emissions has been constructed for the years 2005 and 2030. Biomass burning inventories were also improved in the frame of AMMA (African Monsoon) program. - carbonaceous aerosol radiative impact in Africa has been modeled with TM5 model and Penner et al. (2011) radiative code for these inventories for 2005 and 2030 and for two scenarios of emissions : a reference scenario, with no further emission controls beyond those achieved in 2003 and a ccc* scenario including planned policies in Kyoto protocol and regulations as applied to African emission specificities. In this study we will show that enhanced heating is expected with the ccc* scenarios emissions in which the OC fraction is relatively lower than in the reference scenario. - results of short term POLCA intensive campaigns in Bamako and Dakar in terms of aerosol chemical characterization linked to specific emissions sources and their inflammatory impacts on the respiratory tract through in vitro studies. In this study, organic

  17. Do open access working papers attract more citations compared to printed journal articles from the same research unit?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter; Elleby, Anita

    2011-01-01

    articles published in the same year (2004) by the same institute and predominantly by the same authors. The study analyzes the total amount of citations and citation impact observed in Web of Science (WoS) and Google Scholar (GS) received during the five-year period 2004-09 (February) by the two...

  18. Do open access working papers attract more citations compared to printed journal articles from the same research unit?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    published in the same year (2004) by the same institute and predominantly by the same authors. The study analyzes the total amount of citations and citation impact observed in Web of Science (WoS) and Google Scholar (GS) received during five-year periode 2004-09 (February) by the two publication types...

  19. [The citation analysis of the publications in Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2000-2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xiang-zheng; Xue, Ai-hua; You, Su-ning; Liu, Qun; Zhou, Pei-zhen

    2008-06-01

    To carry out the citation analysis of publications in Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine (CJPM) among the preventive medicine authors and analyze the impact of this magazine in preventive medicine domain. Using Chinese scientific periodical literature evaluation and statistical analysis system (V1.0), the citation status of all CJPM publications in 2000-2005 was analyzed, the analysis covered 21 columns, including the review, editorial and original article, the data were collected up to November, 2007. From 2000 to 2005, CJPM had more than 30 columns and carried 1196 articles and 92. 89% (1111/1196) articles were from 21 main columns. During 2003 to 2005, the impact factors of CJPM were 0. 897, 1.011 and 0. 891 respectively. Among 21 main columns, the citation frequency of six columns including original article, editorial, review, courses, discussion and case report were higher than 80%. In five columns (original article, editorial, report, review and academic trends), the average citation frequency of individual articles was more than 4 times. The citation frequency of 20 authors was higher than 20 times and these authors were from medical schools, teaching hospitals, centers of diseases control and the research institutes. The individual citation frequency of 17 articles was more than 20 times and the individual citation frequency of three articles was more than 50 times. 34.9% of the citations of the 2000-2005 CJPM articles were from the top 20 journals, and the self-citation rate was 4. 85%. The publications in Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine are most frequently cited, which indicated that those publications have high quality, this journal has a great effect in preventive medicine field of China.

  20. Biological control of pests and insects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of biological agents to control insects and pests. Radiation, genetic breeding, bacteria, fungi, viruses, and pheromones are discussed as alternatives to pesticidal management. Methods for monitoring the effectiveness and environmental impact of these agents are reviewed. Population control of fruit flies, spruce sawflies, flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, gypsy moths, and other agriculturally-important insects is also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 190 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Biological control of pests and insects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of biological agents to control insects and pests. Radiation, genetic breeding, bacteria, fungi, viruses, and pheromones are discussed as alternatives to pesticidal management. Methods for monitoring the effectiveness and environmental impact of these agents are reviewed. Population control of fruit flies, spruce sawflies, flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, gypsy moths, and other agriculturally-important insects is also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. The Impact of Different Competitive Environments on Pacing and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konings, Marco J; Hettinga, Florentina J

    2017-10-16

    In real-life competitive situations, athletes are required to continuously make decisions about how and when to invest their available energy resources. This study attempted to identify how different competitive environments invite elite short-track speed skaters to modify their pacing behaviour during head-to-head competition. Lap times of elite 500, 1000 and 1500 m short-track speed skating competitions between 2011-2016 (n=34095 races) were collected. Log-transformed lap and finishing times were analysed with mixed linear models. The fixed effects in the model were sex, season, stage of competition, start position, competition importance, event number per tournament, number of competitors per race, altitude, and time qualification. The random effects of the model were Athlete identity and the residual (within-athlete race-to-race variation). Separate analyses were performed for each event. Several competitive environments, such as the number of competitors in a race (a higher number of competitors evoked most likely a faster initial pace; CV=1.9-9.3%), the stage of competition (likely to most likely, a slower initial pace was demonstrated in finals; CV=-1.4-2.0%), the possibility of time qualification (most likely a faster initial pace; CV=2.6-5.0%) and competition importance (most likely faster races at the Olympics; CV=1.3-3.5%), altered the pacing decisions of elite skaters in 1000 and 1500 m events. Stage of competition and start position affected 500 m pacing behaviour. As demonstrated in this study, different competitive environments evoked modifications in pacing behavior, in particular in the initial phase of the race, emphasizing the importance of athlete-environment interactions, especially during head-to-head competitions.

  3. Mechanisms linking energy balance and reproduction: impact of prenatal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhinehart, Erin M

    2016-01-01

    The burgeoning field of metabolic reproduction regulation has been gaining momentum due to highly frequent discoveries of new neuroendocrine factors regulating both energy balance and reproduction. Universally throughout the animal kingdom, energy deficits inhibit the reproductive axis, which demonstrates that reproduction is acutely sensitive to fuel availability. Entrainment of reproductive efforts with energy availability is especially critical for females because they expend large amounts of energy on gestation and lactation. Research has identified an assortment of both central and peripheral factors involved in the metabolic regulation of reproduction. From an evolutionary perspective, these mechanisms likely evolved to optimize reproductive fitness in an environment with an unpredictable food supply and regular bouts of famine. To be effective, however, the mechanisms responsible for the metabolic regulation of reproduction must also retain developmental plasticity to allow organisms to adapt their reproductive strategies to their particular niche. In particular, the prenatal environment has emerged as a critical developmental window for programming the mechanisms responsible for the metabolic control of reproduction. This review will discuss the current knowledge about hormonal and molecular mechanisms that entrain reproduction with prevailing energy availability. In addition, it will provide an evolutionary, human life-history framework to assist in the interpretation of findings on gestational programming of the female reproductive function, with a focus on pubertal timing as an example. Future research should aim to shed light on mechanisms underlying the prenatal modulation of the adaptation to an environment with unstable resources in a way that optimizes reproductive fitness.

  4. Impact of hot environment on colostrum and milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabucci, U; Basiricò, L; Morera, P

    2013-11-03

    Under hot and warm environments productivity and reproduction efficiency of farm and wild animals are negatively affected. The negative effects of hot environments on animal health are responsible for the alteration of colostrum and milk production in term of quantity and quality. Colostrum and milk are nutrient-rich fluids secreted by the mammary gland of female mammals after giving birth and during growth and development of the young. Multiple factors influence the production and the composition of colostrum and milk, including species, breed, health status, feeding practices and environmental conditions. Colostrum and milk are not only a good source of macronutrients and micronutrients, but contains many biologically-active constituents. Colostrum and milk of various species differ widely in amounts and proportions of their principal constituents, especially comparing monogastric with ruminant animals because of the difference between their physiology and digestion. The interspecies variations in part reflect different adaptive strategies to environmental conditions and selective pressures of various species during the evolution. A limited number of studies documented the effects of hot condition on modification of colostrum and milk quality, in particular referred to nutrients and immunoglobulin composition, but no information are available on the effects of hot environment on nutraceutical properties and bioactive molecules content of colostrum and milk.

  5. Impact of Modificated Asphalt Mixtures on Paving Functioning and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Gribulis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pollution began to increase in the beginning of 19th century, when the global economy and industrial development started the signal grow. The current problem of global warming is partly related with emission of carbon dioxide (CO2 to environment, which one of the sources are industrial production companies. Warm asphalt mix is usually used in the practice of Lithuania and the world for equipment of road paving. These mixes are produced in specialized asphalt mixers where stone dosing, drying and its mixing with bituminous binders are performed. The temperature of produced hot asphalt mix in mixer reach 150–180 °C and 120–160 °C of mixture laying on the road. Various pollutants, carbon dioxide, formaldehydes, and other are spread to the environment. The carried out researches in Lithuania and the world have showed that while using special additives it is possible to reduce the temperatures of warm asphalt production and laying on the road. Such reduction of temperature helps not to worsen the quality of asphalt layer, to lower the emission of pollutants to environment, to improve the conditions of road workers and to economically use the gas for production of asphalt mixes. Production technologies of different asphalt mixes, their advantages and disadvantages, and results of laboratory tests are analyzed in this article. Equipment samples of experimental road sections, using the warm mixing asphalt mixtures are given.

  6. The disastrous boomerang effects of "citation mania".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perbal, Annick

    2017-08-07

    The recent publication of a commentary article by Dadkhah et al. (J Cell Commun Signal 11:181-185, 2017) which addressed issues raised by the citation of questionable scientific papers in current databases and the recent retraction of manuscripts dealing with the biological properties of the CCN1 protein by Lin et al. (J Biol Chem 291(53):27433, 2016) prompted us to examine how this situation reflects an evolution of the original citation system, endangering scientific communication. We argue that the increasing number of publication retractions that have been witnessed over several years is a direct consequence of the bias created by the inconsistency of citation metrics.

  7. Impact of work environment and work-related stress on turnover intention in physical therapists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Byoung-kwon; Seo, Dong-kwon; Lee, Jang-Tae; Lee, A-Ram; Jeon, Ha-Neul; Han, Dong-Uk

    2016-01-01

    .... It should help create efficient personnel and organization management by exploring the impact of the work environment and work-related stress on turnover intention and analyzing the correlation between them...

  8. Impacts of feral horses on a desert environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrickson Larry E

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Free-ranging horses (Equus caballus in North America are considered to be feral animals since they are descendents of non-native domestic horses introduced to the continent. We conducted a study in a southern California desert to understand how feral horse movements and horse feces impacted this arid ecosystem. We evaluated five parameters susceptible to horse trampling: soil strength, vegetation cover, percent of nonnative vegetation, plant species diversity, and macroinvertebrate abundance. We also tested whether or not plant cover and species diversity were affected by the presence of horse feces. Results Horse trailing resulted in reduced vegetation cover, compacted soils, and in cases of intermediate intensity disturbance, increased plant species diversity. The presence of horse feces did not affect plant cover, but it did increase native plant diversity. Conclusion Adverse impacts, such as soil compaction and increased erosion potential, were limited to established horse trails. In contrast, increased native plant diversity near trails and feces could be viewed as positive outcomes. Extensive trailing can result in a surprisingly large impact area: we estimate that 25 km2 of trails in our study area.

  9. PAH Accessibility in Particulate Matter from Road-Impacted Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Ian J; O'Connell, Steven G; Meland, Sondre; Bæk, Kine; Grung, Merete; Anderson, Kim A; Ranneklev, Sissel B

    2016-08-02

    Snowmelt, surface runoff, or stormwater releases in urban environments can result in significant discharges of particulate matter-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into aquatic environments. Recently, more-specific activities such as road-tunnel washing have been identified as contributing to contaminant load to surface waters. However, knowledge of PAH accessibility in particulate matter (PM) of urban origin that may ultimately be released into urban surface waters is limited. In the present study, we evaluated the accessibility of PAHs associated with seven distinct (suspended) particulate matter samples collected from different urban sources. Laboratory-based infinite sink extractions with silicone rubber (SR) as the extractor phase demonstrated a similar pattern of PAH accessibility for most PM samples. Substantially higher accessible fractions were observed for the less-hydrophobic PAHs (between 40 and 80% of total concentrations) compared with those measured for the most-hydrophobic PAHs ( 5.5 were found in line with those commonly found for slowly or very slowly desorbing sediment-associated contaminants. PAHs with log Kow < 5.5 were found at higher desorbing rates. The addition of detergents did not influence the extractability of lighter PAHs but increased desorption rates for the heavier PAHs, potentially contributing to increases in the toxicity of tunnel-wash waters when surfactants are used. The implications of total and accessible PAH concentrations measured in our urban PM samples are discussed in a context of management of PAH and PM emission to the surrounding aquatic environment. Although we only fully assessed PAHs in this work, further study should consider other contaminants such as OPAHs, which were also detected in all PM samples.

  10. The impact of galactic environment on star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreckel, Kathryn; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Schinnerer, Eva; Groves, Brent; Adamo, Angela; Hughes, Annie; Meidt, Sharon; SFNG Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    While spiral arms are the most prominent sites for star formation in disk galaxies, interarm star formation contributes significantly to the overall star formation budget. However, it is still an open question if the star formation proceeds differently in the arm and inter-arm environment. We use deep VLT/MUSE optical IFU spectroscopy to resolve and fully characterize the physical properties of 428 interarm and arm HII regions in the nearby grand design spiral galaxy NGC 628. Unlike molecular clouds (the fuel for star formation) which exhibit a clear dependence on galactic environment, we find that most HII region properties (luminosity, size, metallicity, ionization parameter) are independent of environment. One clear exception is the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) contribution to the arm and interarm flux (traced via the temperature sensitive [SII]/Halpha line ratio inside and outside of the HII region boundaries). We find a systematically higher DIG background within HII regions, particularly on the spiral arms. Correcting for this DIG contamination can result in significant (70%) changes to the star formation rate measured. We also show preliminary results comparing well-corrected star formation rates from our MUSE HII regions to ALMA CO(2-1) molecular gas observations at matched 1"=50pc resolution, tracing the Kennicutt-Schmidt star formation law at the scales relevant to the physics of star formation. We estimate the timescales relevant for GMC evolution using distance from the spiral arm as a proxy for age, and test whether star formation feedback or galactic-scale dynamical processes dominate GMC disruption.

  11. Impact of liquid environment on femtosecond laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitz, A.; Hoppius, J. S.; Fiebrandt, M.; Awakowicz, P.; Esen, C.; Ostendorf, A.; Gurevich, E. L.

    2017-11-01

    The ablation rate by femtosecond laser processing of iron in different liquids is investigated for fluences up to 5 J/cm^2. The resulting fluence dependency is modeled by an approach derived from the two-temperature model. In our experiments, the liquid environment strongly affects the effective penetration depth, e.g, the ablation rate in water is almost ten times higher than in toluene. This effect is discussed and introduced phenomenologically into the model. Additional reflectivity measurements and plasma imaging provide improved insight into the ablation process.

  12. Climate change and the cultural environment: Recognized impacts challenges in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Berghäll, Jonna; Pesu, Minna

    2008-01-01

    Climate change impacts the cultural heritage of Finland. Adaptation and mitigation measures are posing challenges along with the consequences of climate change. Cultural landscapes, the built cultural environment and the archaeological heritage all will be affected. The impacts of climate change that Finland will face and the challenges posed by them for the care of the cultural environment also apply to the Boreal Zone of Northern Europe in more general terms. This report charts the chall...

  13. The impact of healthcare on the environment: improving sustainability in the health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Jane

    As the largest employer in the UK, the NHS has a duty to contribute to sustainability in the UK and minimise the impact of healthcare provision on the environment. Nurses also have a responsibility to ensure their practice makes the best use of resources. This article discusses initiatives aimed at supporting organisations and individuals in reducing the negative impact of healthcare on the environment and on human health and wellbeing.

  14. 引用文獻分析與引用動機研究 Citation Analysis and Citation Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-yueh Tsay

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available 無Citation analysis has been an important area of informetrics (or bibliometrics for severai decades. It mainly deals with the study of the relationship between citing and cited documents. A number of studies have been done to explore citation analysis and its applications. These studies have different opinions about the nature and the complexities of the citing process. Theories of citation have been debated for decades and can never be complete. By reviewing many empirical studies, this article describes the development and critique of citation analysis. especially focuses on the citation classifications, citation functions, citation concepts and citation motivations.

  15. The impact of multiuser virtual environments on student engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claman, Faith L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to test the hypothesis that web-based synchronous instruction utilizing Multi-user Virtual World Environments (MUVEs) increases student engagement compared to traditional asynchronous learning methods. In a quasi-experimental two group posttest only study, a sample of Family Nurse Practitioner students (n = 21) received instruction using either a synchronous (n = 10) or asynchronous (n = 11) learning method. Engagement was measured using the Community of Inquiry survey. Results indicated that engagement scores were significantly higher for the synchronous learning platform (mean = 3.61, SD = 1.13) compared to the asynchronous learning platform (mean = 3.49, SD = 1.08, t(1766) = -2.21, p synchronous MUVE platforms have the potential to improve learning outcomes and offer nursing students a multitude of educational opportunities to practice new skills and behaviors in real life scenarios, all within the safety of a controlled environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The impacts of fracking on the environment: A total environmental study paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingmin

    2017-02-15

    Fracking has become a hot topic in the media and public discourse not only because of its economic benefit but also its environmental impacts. Recently, scientists have investigated the environmental impacts of fracking, and most studies focus on its air and ground water pollution. A systematic research structure and an overall evaluation of fracking's impacts on the environment are needed, because fracking does not only influence ground water but most environmental elements including but not limited to air, water, soil, rock, vegetation, wildlife, human, and many other ecosystem components. From the standpoint of the total environment, this communication assesses the overall impacts of fracking on the environment and then designs a total environmental study paradigm that effectively examines the complicated relationship among the total environment. Fracking dramatically changes the anthroposphere, which in turn significantly impacts the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere through the significant input or output of water, air, liquid or solid waste disposals, and the complex chemical components in fracking fluids. The proposed total environment study paradigm of fracking can be applied to other significant human activities that have dramatic impacts on the environment, such as mountain top coal mining or oil sands for environmental studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Homophily and missing links in citation networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ciotti, Valerio; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Panzarasa, Pietro; Latora, Vito

    2015-01-01

    Citation networks have been widely used to study the evolution of science through the lenses of the underlying patterns of knowledge flows among academic papers, authors, research sub-fields, and scientific journals. Here we focus on citation networks to cast light on the salience of homophily, namely the principle that similarity breeds connection, for knowledge transfer between papers. To this end, we assess the degree to which citations tend to occur between papers that are concerned with seemingly related topics or research problems. Drawing on a large data set of articles published in the journals of the American Physical Society between 1893 and 2009, we propose a novel method for measuring the similarity between articles through the statistical validation of the overlap between their bibliographies. Results suggest that the probability of a citation made by one article to another is indeed an increasing function of the similarity between the two articles. Our study also enables us to uncover missing ci...

  18. Citation Patterns to Traditional and Electronic Preprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Hsiu Fu

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A preprint or an e-print is a research article made publicly available prior to formal publication in a peer-reviewed journal. It is a new form of scholarly communication. To understand how preprint and e-print are used, this paper examined their citation patterns. This research searched the “cited work” field in the SciSearch database. The results showed that more than 657,713 preprints were cited from 1974 to 2003. As to e-print, 109,492 citations to 15 arXiv.org archives from 1991 to 2003 were found. Since1991, the number of citations to preprints had been decreasing, while the e-prints cited had increased. The peak e-print citation rate of 3 years observed was comparable to that of print journals.[Article content in Chinese

  19. Mapping the Chinese Science Citation Database

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2009-01-01

    Methods developed for mapping the journal structures contained in aggregated journal-journal citations in the Science Citation Index are applied to the Chinese Science Citation Database of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. This database covers 991 journals, of which only 37 had originally English titles. Using factor-analytical and graph-analytical techniques we show that this data is dually structured. The main structure is the intellectual organization of the journals in journal groups (as in the international SCI), but the university-based journals provide an institutional layer that orients this structure towards practical ends (e.g., agriculture). The Chinese Science Citation Database exhibits the characteristics of Mode 2 in the production of scientific knowledge more than its western counterparts. The contexts of application lead to correlation (interfactorial complexity) among the components.

  20. ABOUT INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT SCHEMES IMPACT RADIATION ENVIRONMENTS AND LOADS ON REINFORCED LAMELLAR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafail B. Garibov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the model of deformation of fiber-reinforced concrete rectangular plate under the influence of radiation environments. In the calculation of the plate was considered different schemes impact of the applied external loads and radiation environments.

  1. The Consequences of the Consequences: The Impact of the Environment on People with Aphasia over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Robyn; Carragher, Marcella; Foster, Abby

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the impact of the environment on the participation of people with aphasia depends on one's perspective. A long-term perspective provides a unique insight into the myriad of ways in which the environment can influence the participation of people living with aphasia over decades. In this article, the authors present the real-life story…

  2. Clustering of scientific citations in Wikipedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup

    The instances of templates in Wikipedia form an interesting data set of structured information. Here I focus on the cite journal template that is primarily used for citation to articles in scientific journals. These citations can be extracted and analyzed: Non-negative matrix factorization...... is performed on a (article x journal) matrix resulting in a soft clustering of Wikipedia articles and scientific journals, each cluster more or less representing a scientific topic....

  3. Servomotors . (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, testing, and application of servomotors. AC, DC, and brushless motor drives are discussed. Applications are examined, including use in hydraulic presses; teleprinters; machine tools; sewing machines; and servocontrol devices for instrumentation, robots, and aircraft control. Testing methods evaluate precision, vibration and vibration reduction, and stability of servomotors. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Environment matters : the impact of urea and macromolecular crowding on proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Candotti, Michela

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to analytically understand the impact of two diametric opposite environments on protein structure and dynamics and compared them to the most common solvent on earth: water. The first environment is a popular denaturing solution (urea 8M), which has served for years in protein-science laboratories to investigate protein stability; still many open questions regarding its mechanism of action remained unclear. The second environment instead moves towards a more physiological repre...

  5. Co-citation, bibliographic coupling and a characterization of lattice citation networks

    OpenAIRE

    Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    In this article we study directed, acyclic graphs. We introduce the head and tail order relations and study some of their properties. Recalling the notions of generalized bibliographic coupling and generalized co-citation, and introducing a new property, called the l - property, we come to a characterization of lattices. As document citation networks are concrete realizations of directed acyclic graphs all our results are directly applicable to citation analysis. bibliographic coupling; co...

  6. Heliophysics: Active Stars, their Astrospheres, and Impacts on Planetary Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, C. J.; Bagenal, F.; Sojka, J. J.

    2016-04-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction Carolus J. Schrijver, Frances Bagenal and Jan J. Sojka; 2. Solar explosive activity throughout the evolution of the Solar System Rachel Osten; 3. Astrospheres, stellar winds, and the interstellar medium Brian Wood and Jeffrey L. Linsky; 4. Effects of stellar eruptions throughout astrospheres Ofer Cohen; 5. Characteristics of planetary systems Debra Fischer and Ji Wang; 6. Planetary dynamos: updates and new frontiers Sabine Stanley; 7. Climates of terrestrial planets David Brain; 8. Upper atmospheres of the giant planets Luke Moore, Tom Stallard and Marina Garland; 9. Aeronomy of terrestrial upper atmospheres David E. Siskind and Stephen W. Bougher; 10. Moons, asteroids, and comets interacting with their surroundings Margaret G. Kivelson; 11. Dusty plasmas Mihály Horányi; 12. Energetic-particle environments in the Solar System Norbert Krupp; 13. Heliophysics with radio scintillation and occultation Mario M. Bisi; Appendix 1. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; References; Index.

  7. Citation Sentiment Analysis in Clinical Trial Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Zhang, Yaoyun; Wu, Yonghui; Wang, Jingqi; Dong, Xiao; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In scientific writing, positive credits and negative criticisms can often be seen in the text mentioning the cited papers, providing useful information about whether a study can be reproduced or not. In this study, we focus on citation sentiment analysis, which aims to determine the sentiment polarity that the citation context carries towards the cited paper. A citation sentiment corpus was annotated first on clinical trial papers. The effectiveness of n-gram and sentiment lexicon features, and problem-specified structure features for citation sentiment analysis were then examined using the annotated corpus. The combined features from the word n-grams, the sentiment lexicons and the structure information achieved the highest Micro F-score of 0.860 and Macro-F score of 0.719, indicating that it is feasible to use machine learning methods for citation sentiment analysis in biomedical publications. A comprehensive comparison between citation sentiment analysis of clinical trial papers and other general domains were conducted, which additionally highlights the unique challenges within this domain.

  8. Page 1 - 26 A K Ray et all environment particularly under impact ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    26 A K Ray et all environment particularly under impact fatigue loading ... industries. Impact fatigue properties of this material has ... failure criterion. In the present paper, we have investigated AE signals generated during indentation toughness testing of alumina based composite and 25 wt % SiC. reinforced Alo, composite.

  9. Exploring the Impact of a Professional Practice Education Doctorate in Educational Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Swapna; Dawson, Kara

    2013-01-01

    This article presents one approach to assessing the impact of an online professional practice doctorate in education on participants' work environments. It is unique in that it explored impact during the doctoral program, before participants began their dissertation research, and it focused on how participants apply learning from the program…

  10. A geometric graph model of the coevolution between citations and coauthorships in scientific papers

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Zheng; Li, Jianping; Li, Miao; Yi, Dongyun

    2016-01-01

    Collaborations and citations within scientific research grow simultaneously and interact dynamically. Modelling the coevolution between them helps to study many phenomena that can be approached only through combining citation and coauthorship data. A geometric graph for the coevolution is proposed, the mechanism of which synthetically expresses the interactive impacts of authors and papers in a geometrical way. The model is validated against a data set of papers published in PNAS during 2000-2015. The validation shows the ability to reproduce a range of features observed with citation and coauthorship data combined and separately. Particulary, in the empirical distribution of citations per author there exist two limits, in which the distribution appears as a generalized Poisson and a power-law respectively. Our model successfully reproduces the shape of the distribution, and provides an explanation for how the shape emerges. The model also captures the empirically positive correlations between the numbers of ...

  11. Reprint of "Citation analysis as a measure of article quality, journal influence and individual researcher performance".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Julie M; Marshall, Gill

    2013-09-01

    The research-related performance of universities, as well as that of individual researchers, is increasingly evaluated through the use of objective measures, or metrics, which seek to support or in some cases even replace more traditional methods of peer review. In particular there is a growing awareness in research communities, government organisations and funding bodies around the concept of using evaluation metrics to analyse research citations. The tools available for 'citation analysis' are many and varied, enabling a quantification of scientific quality, academic impact and prestige. However there is increasing concern regarding the potential misuse of such tools, which have limitations in certain research disciplines.This article uses 'real world' examples from radiography research and scholarship to illustrate the range of currently available citation analysis tools. It explores the academic debate surrounding their strengths and limitations, and identifies the potential impact of citation analysis on the radiography research community.The article concludes that citation analysis is a valuable tool for researchers to use for personal reflection and research planning, yet there are inherent dangers if it is used inappropriately. Whilst citation analysis can give objective information regarding an individual, research group, journal or higher education institution, it should not be used as a total substitute for traditional qualitative review and peer assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Desalination impacts on the coastal environment: Ash Shuqayq, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, O A; Phillips, M R; Williams, A T; Gheith, A M; Bantan, R A; Rasul, N M

    2012-04-01

    Ash Shuqayq (Saudi Red Sea coast) is approximately 28km long and characterised by narrow rocky headlands with intermittent pocket beaches. Fifty-two sediment samples from six different environments (beach, dune, sabkha, tidal/lagoon, offshore and wadi) were analysed. Testing showed that beach and dune sands are mainly medium to fine grained, with some very coarse sand (MZ=-0.59ø). Both beach and dune sands are moderately well to moderately sorted, although some are poorly sorted due to an influx of wadi sediments. Sediment source together with littoral reworking contributed to grain size variation. Carbonate content varied between 1.5% and 23%, whilst the organic content varied between 1.1% and 13%. Spatial analysis showed increasing southward carbonate and organic content, with both correlated (r=0.57). Sabkha sediments had significantly higher carbonate percentages (t=2.898; df=18; pdesalination processes. Due to human and ecosystem health consequences and the likely increased demand for desalination plants, similar analyses should be undertaken elsewhere, e.g. the Mediterranean. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. THE IMPACT OF LANGUAGES ON THE ONLINE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COANCA MARIANA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an analysis of the English language, as lingua franca of the Internet, mainly online business environment. If a business has already developed a Web site, it is important to translate the site into the target language of a particular foreign market. It sounds easy, but is a literal translation all that's required for a different culture? We shall see in the next parts of this paper. Indeed, nowadays, the whole humanity has at its disposal an exceptional, very powerful medium. The new communications technology is causing a revolution in many aspects of our lives, and its future effects are still unforeseeable English is an integral part of business communication, job opportunities and globalization. Cultural translation goes beyond mere linguistic translation, since it involves designing a Web site that is sensitive to the cultural differences, between the originated country and the target country. If you ask any search marketer what the main issue is when trying to optimize website(s for Europe he will tell you: language.

  14. Forecasting the impact of virtual environment technology on maintenance training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Mark S.; Boman, Duane; Piantanida, Tom; Stephenson, Robert

    1993-01-01

    To assist NASA and the Air Force in determining how and when to invest in virtual environment (VE) technology for maintenance training, we identified possible roles for VE technology in such training, assessed its cost-effectiveness relative to existing technologies, and formulated recommendations for a research agenda that would address instructional and system development issues involved in fielding a VE training system. In the first phase of the study, we surveyed VE developers to forecast capabilities, maturity, and estimated costs for VE component technologies. We then identified maintenance tasks and their training costs through interviews with maintenance technicians, instructors, and training developers. Ten candidate tasks were selected from two classes of maintenance tasks (seven aircraft maintenance and three space maintenance) using five criteria developed to identify types of tasks most likely to benefit from VE training. Three tasks were used as specific cases for cost-benefit analysis. In formulating research recommendations, we considered three aspects of feasibility: technological considerations, cost-effectiveness, and anticipated R&D efforts. In this paper, we describe the major findings in each of these areas and suggest research efforts that we believe will help achieve the goal of a cost-effective VE maintenance training system by the next decade.

  15. THE IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE LANDFILL ON THE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Janas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to assess the environmental impact of a shut down industrial waste landfill. A detailed analysis of the quality of groundwater around the landfill in the years 1995-2016 was conducted. Assessment of the status of groundwater in the landfill area was made based on the results of monitoring tests. It includes the measurement of pH, specific electrical conductivity (SEC and the content of chlorides, sulfates, phosphates, heavy metals: copper (Cu, lead (Pb, chromium (Cr and a number of other pollution indicators. The analysis confirms that the landfill during the operation did not constitute a threat because of a number of employed security measures and sealing layers. Only in recent years, the industrial waste landfill which is already out of operation has become an extremely serious environmental threat. The results of water analyses from the piezometers clearly indicate that there is a problem of groundwater contamination. There was a significant increase in the value of some of the analyzed indicators (such as chlorides and sulfates, mainly in the piezometers located on the flow line of groundwater in the landfill area. The observed situation is probably a result of damage to the sealing layers and leaching of pollutants from waste deposited in the landfill by rain water.

  16. Desalination impacts on the coastal environment: Ash Shuqayq, Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alharbi, O.A., E-mail: omar.alharbi@smu.ac.uk [Faculty of Applied Design and Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea Metropolitan University, Swansea, Wales SA1 6ED (United Kingdom); Phillips, M.R., E-mail: m.phillips@smu.ac.uk [Faculty of Applied Design and Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea Metropolitan University, Swansea, Wales SA1 6ED (United Kingdom); Williams, A.T., E-mail: allan.williams@smu.ac.uk [Faculty of Applied Design and Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea Metropolitan University, Swansea, Wales SA1 6ED (United Kingdom); Gheith, A.M., E-mail: amingheith@mans.edu.eg [Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); Bantan, R.A., E-mail: rbantan@kau.edu.sa [Marine Geology Department, Faculty of Marine Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Rasul, N.M., E-mail: rasul.nm@sgs.org.sa [Saudi Geological Survey, Centre for Marine Geology, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-04-01

    Ash Shuqayq (Saudi Red Sea coast) is approximately 28 km long and characterised by narrow rocky headlands with intermittent pocket beaches. Fifty-two sediment samples from six different environments (beach, dune, sabkha, tidal/lagoon, offshore and wadi) were analysed. Testing showed that beach and dune sands are mainly medium to fine grained, with some very coarse sand (MZ = - 0.59o). Both beach and dune sands are moderately well to moderately sorted, although some are poorly sorted due to an influx of wadi sediments. Sediment source together with littoral reworking contributed to grain size variation. Carbonate content varied between 1.5% and 23%, whilst the organic content varied between 1.1% and 13%. Spatial analysis showed increasing southward carbonate and organic content, with both correlated (r = 0.57). Sabkha sediments had significantly higher carbonate percentages (t = 2.898; df = 18; p < 0.01) and results suggested origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. X-ray diffractions show beach and dune sediments are mainly composed of detrital quartz and plagioclase feldspar with uncommon amounts of chlorites. Analysis of sediment characteristics, composition and shoreline distribution alongside coastal processes, indicate that high chlorite levels are probably caused by desalination processes. Due to human and ecosystem health consequences and the likely increased demand for desalination plants, similar analyses should be undertaken elsewhere, e.g. the Mediterranean. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New and previously unpublished Red Sea sediment information. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sediment chemical and spatial variations established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sabkha origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Desalination plant shown as cause of increased marine sediment chlorite levels.

  17. Less Citation, Less Dissemination: The Case of French Psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémy Potier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We contribute to inquiries about the visibility of globalized psychoanalytic research in the digital era (cf. Stepansky 2009 by adopting a comparative perspective on a specific geographic area of historical importance for psychoanalysis: France. The largely digital globalized psychoanalytic research field relies on standard bibliometric measures of journal quality (Impact Factor, SJR, etc.,which depend on the number and type of academic cites received by a journal. Thus, citing shapes academic publishing space by differentially valuing its component journals. Conversely, not to cite practically means not to engage with the field. Hence, we took citedness rate as a proxy for global visibility.By drawing on an original database created by one of us, we determined the global citational visibility of French vs. Anglo- American psychoanalytic productions (respective global outreach; and we related it to a first look at French vs. Anglo-American citation practices (geographic breakdown of article cites.We found that,on a 15 - year period,the global outreach(citedness rate of French articles is ten times smaller than that of Anglo - American articles;and that French articles are cited in Anglo - American journals five times more than Anglo - American articles in French journals– which in turn don’ t seem to cite their French peers very often.These specific French citation practices could be explained by the implicit modes of reference at work in clinical settings shaped by rich theoretical and clinical local legacies.We conclude by considering that this situation presents French psychoanalytic research with a formidable opportunityfor increased citational visibility.

  18. Feature engineering for MEDLINE citation categorization with MeSH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimeno Yepes, Antonio Jose; Plaza, Laura; Carrillo-de-Albornoz, Jorge; Mork, James G; Aronson, Alan R

    2015-04-08

    Research in biomedical text categorization has mostly used the bag-of-words representation. Other more sophisticated representations of text based on syntactic, semantic and argumentative properties have been less studied. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of different text representations of biomedical texts as features for reproducing the MeSH annotations of some of the most frequent MeSH headings. In addition to unigrams and bigrams, these features include noun phrases, citation meta-data, citation structure, and semantic annotation of the citations. Traditional features like unigrams and bigrams exhibit strong performance compared to other feature sets. Little or no improvement is obtained when using meta-data or citation structure. Noun phrases are too sparse and thus have lower performance compared to more traditional features. Conceptual annotation of the texts by MetaMap shows similar performance compared to unigrams, but adding concepts from the UMLS taxonomy does not improve the performance of using only mapped concepts. The combination of all the features performs largely better than any individual feature set considered. In addition, this combination improves the performance of a state-of-the-art MeSH indexer. Concerning the machine learning algorithms, we find that those that are more resilient to class imbalance largely obtain better performance. We conclude that even though traditional features such as unigrams and bigrams have strong performance compared to other features, it is possible to combine them to effectively improve the performance of the bag-of-words representation. We have also found that the combination of the learning algorithm and feature sets has an influence in the overall performance of the system. Moreover, using learning algorithms resilient to class imbalance largely improves performance. However, when using a large set of features, consideration needs to be taken with algorithms due to the risk of over-fitting. Specific

  19. Development of the virtual research environment for analysis, evaluation and prediction of global climate change impacts on the regional environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okladnikov, Igor; Gordov, Evgeny; Titov, Alexander; Fazliev, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Description and the first results of the Russian Science Foundation project "Virtual computational information environment for analysis, evaluation and prediction of the impacts of global climate change on the environment and climate of a selected region" is presented. The project is aimed at development of an Internet-accessible computation and information environment providing unskilled in numerical modelling and software design specialists, decision-makers and stakeholders with reliable and easy-used tools for in-depth statistical analysis of climatic characteristics, and instruments for detailed analysis, assessment and prediction of impacts of global climate change on the environment and climate of the targeted region. In the framework of the project, approaches of "cloud" processing and analysis of large geospatial datasets will be developed on the technical platform of the Russian leading institution involved in research of climate change and its consequences. Anticipated results will create a pathway for development and deployment of thematic international virtual research laboratory focused on interdisciplinary environmental studies. VRE under development will comprise best features and functionality of earlier developed information and computing system CLIMATE (http://climate.scert.ru/), which is widely used in Northern Eurasia environment studies. The Project includes several major directions of research listed below. 1. Preparation of geo-referenced data sets, describing the dynamics of the current and possible future climate and environmental changes in detail. 2. Improvement of methods of analysis of climate change. 3. Enhancing the functionality of the VRE prototype in order to create a convenient and reliable tool for the study of regional social, economic and political consequences of climate change. 4. Using the output of the first three tasks, compilation of the VRE prototype, its validation, preparation of applicable detailed description of

  20. Workplace aesthetics: Impact of environments upon employee health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Elisabet; Theorell, Tores; Saraste, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Associations between self-reported need for aesthetic improvements in the workplace and the need for ergonomic improvement and health factors were investigated to determine the possible impact of aesthetic needs on job performance. The need for aesthetic improvements were compared with the need for ergonomic improvements. All employees at a Swedish broadcasting company were invited to participate in this cross sectional study. Of those who fulfilled the inclusion criteria the participation rate was 74% (1961/2641). Demographic data was obtained from company files and pre-validated questionnaire was used for data collections from the participants. additional questions on needs for improvement were developed, tested for repeatability, and demonstrated to be within acceptable limits. Differences between 'high rank' and 'low rank' aesthetic needs and ergonomic needs were correlated to set ups of demographic, work environmental and organisational and health variables.The perceived needs for aesthetic and ergonomic improvements showed significantly different distributions (pAesthetic needs were more frequently reported than ergonomic needs. There was no significant gender related difference in response distribution of aesthetic or ergonomic needs, whereas differences between occupational groups were shown (0.006 and 0.003). 'High rank' needs for aesthetic improvement were associated to psychologically demanding work, negative work stress, sleep disturbances, problems at work, musculoskeletal pain and lower age. Gender and physical training did not differ between 'high and low rank' responders regarding neither aesthetic nor ergonomic needs. Sick leave was stronger related to ergonomics. The independently tested associations with aesthetic needs were similar to, but fewer than those for ergonomic needs with regard to the variable set ups. Sixteen studied factors out of 24, showed significant difference between 'high and low rank' aesthetic needs, and 21/24 of ergonomic

  1. Statistical regularities in the rank-citation profile of scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Alexander M; Stanley, H Eugene; Succi, Sauro

    2011-01-01

    Recent science of science research shows that scientific impact measures for journals and individual articles have quantifiable regularities across both time and discipline. However, little is known about the scientific impact distribution at the scale of an individual scientist. We analyze the aggregate production and impact using the rank-citation profile c(i)(r) of 200 distinguished professors and 100 assistant professors. For the entire range of paper rank r, we fit each c(i)(r) to a common distribution function. Since two scientists with equivalent Hirsch h-index can have significantly different c(i)(r) profiles, our results demonstrate the utility of the β(i) scaling parameter in conjunction with h(i) for quantifying individual publication impact. We show that the total number of citations C(i) tallied from a scientist's N(i) papers scales as [Formula: see text]. Such statistical regularities in the input-output patterns of scientists can be used as benchmarks for theoretical models of career progress.

  2. 圖書資訊學期刊自我引用分析 A Self Citation Study on Journals of Library and Information Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yueh Tsay

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available 本文就2005年社會科學引文索引(Social Sciences Citation Index)之期刊引用報告(Journal Citation Reports)資料庫,所收錄53種圖書資訊學期刊之引用數據特性,加以分析介紹,進而就期刊同時法自我引用、期刊歷時法自我引用與各引用數據之相關性,分別進行統計檢測,並就二種自我引用率驗證其異同。By searching the Journal Citation Reports of Social Sciences Citation Index database, this study investigates the characteristics and compares the difference on citation data for 53 journals of library and information science. The journal citation data that were explored include cited times, impact factor, immediacy index, citing half-life, cited half-life, self-citing rate (synchronous self-citation and self cited rate (diachronous self-citation. Moreover, the relationship between each citation data and two self-citation rates, and the mean difference between two self-citation rates are examined by statistical tests.

  3. Citation advantage of open access articles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Eysenbach

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Open access (OA to the research literature has the potential to accelerate recognition and dissemination of research findings, but its actual effects are controversial. This was a longitudinal bibliometric analysis of a cohort of OA and non-OA articles published between June 8, 2004, and December 20, 2004, in the same journal (PNAS: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Article characteristics were extracted, and citation data were compared between the two groups at three different points in time: at "quasi-baseline" (December 2004, 0-6 mo after publication, in April 2005 (4-10 mo after publication, and in October 2005 (10-16 mo after publication. Potentially confounding variables, including number of authors, authors' lifetime publication count and impact, submission track, country of corresponding author, funding organization, and discipline, were adjusted for in logistic and linear multiple regression models. A total of 1,492 original research articles were analyzed: 212 (14.2% of all articles were OA articles paid by the author, and 1,280 (85.8% were non-OA articles. In April 2005 (mean 206 d after publication, 627 (49.0% of the non-OA articles versus 78 (36.8% of the OA articles were not cited (relative risk = 1.3 [95% Confidence Interval: 1.1-1.6]; p = 0.001. 6 mo later (mean 288 d after publication, non-OA articles were still more likely to be uncited (non-OA: 172 [13.6%], OA: 11 [5.2%]; relative risk = 2.6 [1.4-4.7]; p < 0.001. The average number of citations of OA articles was higher compared to non-OA articles (April 2005: 1.5 [SD = 2.5] versus 1.2 [SD = 2.0]; Z = 3.123; p = 0.002; October 2005: 6.4 [SD = 10.4] versus 4.5 [SD = 4.9]; Z = 4.058; p < 0.001. In a logistic regression model, controlling for potential confounders, OA articles compared to non-OA articles remained twice as likely to be cited (odds ratio = 2.1 [1.5-2.9] in the first 4-10 mo after publication (April 2005, with the odds ratio increasing to 2.9 (1

  4. CiTO, the Citation Typing Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    CiTO, the Citation Typing Ontology, is an ontology for describing the nature of reference citations in scientific research articles and other scholarly works, both to other such publications and also to Web information resources, and for publishing these descriptions on the Semantic Web. Citation are described in terms of the factual and rhetorical relationships between citing publication and cited publication, the in-text and global citation frequencies of each cited work, and the nature of the cited work itself, including its publication and peer review status. This paper describes CiTO and illustrates its usefulness both for the annotation of bibliographic reference lists and for the visualization of citation networks. The latest version of CiTO, which this paper describes, is CiTO Version 1.6, published on 19 March 2010. CiTO is written in the Web Ontology Language OWL, uses the namespace http://purl.org/net/cito/, and is available from http://purl.org/net/cito/. This site uses content negotiation to deliver to the user an OWLDoc Web version of the ontology if accessed via a Web browser, or the OWL ontology itself if accessed from an ontology management tool such as Protégé 4 (http://protege.stanford.edu/). Collaborative work is currently under way to harmonize CiTO with other ontologies describing bibliographies and the rhetorical structure of scientific discourse. PMID:20626926

  5. Macromolecule Mass Spectrometry: Citation Mining of User Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-14

    alpha 12.7, hemoglobin 3.3, globin 2.6, human 2.0, chain 1.4, gamma 1.0, esi 0.9, milk 0.9, lactamas 0.8, alpha.beta 0.8, subunit 0.8, glycat 0.8...journals, organizations). 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 89 19a. NAME OF...dissemination and impacts of the initial cited papers is also a key feature of Citation Mining, it was desired to limit the analysis to one paper from each

  6. Are Shorter Article Titles More Attractive for Citations? Cross-sectional Study of 22 Scientific Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, Farrokh; Yadollahie, Mahboobeh

    2010-01-01

    Aim To investigate the correlation between the length of the title of a scientific article and the number of citations it receives, in view of the common editorial call for shorter titles. Methods Title and the number of citations to all articles published in 2005 in 22 arbitrarily chosen English-language journals (n = 9031) were retrieved from citation database Scopus. The 2008 journal impact factors of these 22 journals were also retrieved from Thomson Reuters’ Journal Citation Report (JCR). Assuming the article title length as the independent variable, and the number of citations to the article as the dependent variable, a linear regression model was applied. Results The slope of the regression line for some journals (n = 6, when titles were measured in characters but 7 when titles were measured in words) was negative – none was significantly different from 0. The overall slope for all journals was 0.140 (when titles were measured in characters) and 0.778 (when titles were measured in words), significantly different from 0 (P articles with longer titles received more citations – Spearman ρ = 0.266 – when titles were measured in characters, and ρ = 0.244 when titles were measured in words (P 10 and for 2 out of 14 journals with impact factor <10 (P < 0.001, Fisher exact test). Conclusion Longer titles seem to be associated with higher citation rates. This association is more pronounced for journals with high impact factors. Editors who insist on brief and concise titles should perhaps update the guidelines for authors of their journals and have more flexibility regarding the length of the title. PMID:20401960

  7. Analyzing Data Citations to Assess the Scientific and Societal Value of Scientific Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; Downs, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    Stakeholders in the creation, distribution, support, funding, and use of scientific data can benefit by understanding the value that the data have for society and science. For decades, the scientific community has been using citations of articles in the published scientific literature as one of the primary measures used for evaluating the performance of scientists, departments, institutions, and scientific disciplines. Similarly, citations in the published literature of scientific data may be useful for measuring and assessing the value of the scientific data and the performance of the individuals, projects, programs, and organizations that have contributed to the data and their use. The results of citation analysis and other assessments of the value of data also can contribute to planning for future data collection, development, distribution, and preservation efforts. The planned release of new data citation indexes and the more widespread adoption of unique data identifiers and automated attribution mechanisms have the potential to improve significantly the capabilities for analyzing citations of scientific data. In addition, rapid developments in the systems and capabilities for disseminating data, along with education and workforce development on the importance of data attribution and on techniques for data citation, can improve practices for citing scientific data. Such practices need to lead not only to better aggregate statistics about data citation, but also to improved characterization and understanding of the impact of data use in terms of the benefits for science and society. Analyses of citations in the scientific literature were conducted for data that were distributed by an interdisciplinary scientific data center during a five-year period (1997 - 2011), to identify the scientific fields represented by the journals and books in which the data were cited. Secondary citation analysis also was conducted for a sample of scientific publications that used

  8. K-Pg extinction patterns in marine and freshwater environments: The impact winter model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Douglas S.; Lewis, William M.; Sheehan, Peter M.; Toon, Owen B.

    2013-07-01

    Chicxulub asteroid impact produced massive extinction in terrestrial environments most likely through an intense heat pulse and subsequent widespread fires. Aquatic environments were shielded from this heat and fire but nevertheless showed massive extinction in marine environments and, for reasons unexplained, far less extinction in freshwater environments. Extinction in marine environments resulted from the effects of an "impact winter" caused by dust and smoke in the atmosphere that extinguished sunlight at the Earth's surface for a period of months to years. The resulting cessation of photosynthesis caused a globally extensive extinction of phytoplankton taxa. Because aquatic ecosystems, unlike terrestrial environments, are strongly dependent on daily photosynthetic output by autotrophs, loss of phytoplankton likely caused catastrophic mortality and extinction in aquatic ecosystems. Other potential causes of mortality in aquatic ecosystems include lower ambient temperatures and anoxia due to the lack of photosynthetic oxygen. Inland waters, although probably subject to high mortality, showed lower proportionate extinction than marine environments probably because of the greater potential among the freshwater taxa for dormancy, the greater efficiency of reaeration by rapid flow to offset oxygen demand, abundant thermal refugia fed by groundwater at moderate temperatures, and preadaptation of freshwater taxa to a great degree of environmental variability. In addition, detrital feeders appear to have had low extinction rates in either marine or freshwater environments, but again freshwater taxa would have been favored by higher renewal rates of detrital organic matter as a result of their direct hydrologic contact with soil.

  9. Coauthorship and Citation Networks for Statisticians

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Pengsheng

    2014-01-01

    We have collected and cleaned two network data sets: Coauthorship and Citation networks for statisticians. The data sets are based on all research papers published in four of the top journals in statistics from 2003 to the first half of 2012. We analyze the data sets from many different perspectives, focusing on (a) productivity, patterns and trends, (b) centrality, and (c) community structures, and present an array of interesting findings. For (a), we find that over the 10-year period, both the average number of papers per author and the fraction of self citations have been decreasing, but the proportion of distant citations has been increasing. These suggest that the statistics community has become increasingly more collaborative, competitive, and globalized, driven by the boom of online resources and Search Engines. For (b), we identify the most prolific, the most collaborative, and the most highly cited authors. We also identify a handful of "hot" papers and suggest "Variable Selection" and several other ...

  10. Citation Analysis for Biomedical and Health Sciences Journals Published in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Juyeon; Chang, Hyejung; Kim, Jung A; Choi, Mona; Park, Ziyoung; Cho, Yoonhee; Lee, Eun-Gyu

    2017-07-01

    A citation analysis of biomedical and health sciences journals was conducted based on their enlistment in journal databases to identify the factors contributing to the citation metrics. Among the 1,219 academic journals managed by the National Center for Medical Information and Knowledge at the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 556 journals were included for analysis as of July 2016. The characteristics of the journals include history years, publication media, language, open-access policy as well as the status enlisted in international and domestic databases, such as Science Citation Index (SCI), Scopus, Medline, PubMed Central, Embase, and Korea Citation Index (KCI). Six bibliometric measures were collected from SCI, Scopus, and KCI as of 2015, the most recent disclosure year. Analyses of group differences and influential factors were conducted using t-tests, Mann-Whitney tests, and multiple regression. Journal characteristics, such as history years, publication media, and open-access policy, were not significant factors influencing global or domestical citation of the journals. However, global citations were higher for SCI and Medline enlisted journals than for their counterparts. Among KCI journals, the KCI impact factors of journals published in English only were lower. Efforts by journals to be enlisted in international databases, especially in SCI and Medline, are critical to enhance their global circulation. However, articles published in English only hinder the use of domestic researchers. Different strategies are required for enhancing international and domestic readerships.

  11. [Citation analysis of research articles from Norwegian health enterprises, 2005-2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Fredrik Niclas; Aksnes, Dag W

    2014-08-19

    The citation frequency of a publication is often interpreted as an expression of its scientific impact. Previous citation analyses of Norwegian medical research have either focused on universities and university hospitals or on subject areas at the national level. Such analyses have paid little attention to other health enterprises, despite a strong increase in their research activity during the last decade. For all health enterprises with more than 25 publications in the Web of Science during the period 2005-2011 we have calculated field normalized citation indexes at the institution and subject levels. On the whole, research undertaken by the health enterprises is frequently cited, and some medium-sized health enterprises stand out in terms of their high average citation indexes: Helse Stavanger Health Enterprise, Diakonhjemmet Hospital and Helse Nord-Trøndelag Health Enterprise, although Oslo University Hospital Health Enterprise and Helse Bergen Health Enterprise account for more than half of the most cited articles. In citation analyses at the aggregated level, highly and infrequently cited research groups/departments may balance each other. This appears to be the case in the largest health enterprises. Some medium-sized health enterprises that have a more concentrated research portfolio will thus accumulate higher average citation indexes than the largest university hospitals.

  12. IMPACT OF THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY ON THE ENVIRONMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF ITS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Tripa

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the impact on the environment of textile products, highlighting that their pollution is primarily exerted on air and water. Textile industry affects the environment through the consumption of water, energy and chemicals, as a result of the existence of a great number of processes through which fibers are passing until they are transformed into finished products, and the large amount of waste they generate. They may be recoverable (resulting from the spinning phases, yarn w...

  13. The impact of triclosan on the spread of antibiotic resistance in the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Carey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Triclosan (TCS is a commonly used antimicrobial agent that enters wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs and the environment. An estimated 1.1x105 to 4.2x105 kg of TCS are discharged from these WWTPs per year in the United States. The abundance of TCS along with its antimicrobial properties have given rise to concern regarding its impact on antibiotic resistance in the environment. The objective of this review is to assess the state of knowledge regarding the impact of TCS on multidrug resistance in environmental settings, including engineered environments such as anaerobic digesters. Pure culture studies are reviewed in this paper to gain insight into the substantially smaller body of research surrounding the impacts of TCS on environmental microbial communities. Pure culture studies, mainly on pathogenic strains of bacteria, demonstrate that TCS is often associated with multidrug resistance. Research is lacking to quantify the current impacts of TCS discharge to the environment, but it is known that resistance to TCS and multidrug resistance can increase in environmental microbial communities exposed to TCS. Research plans are proposed to quantitatively define the conditions under which TCS selects for multidrug resistance in the environment.

  14. The Impact of Cricket Farming on Rural Livelihoods, Nutrition and the Environment in Thailand and Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz

    not only food for their households but also employment and income. This development has resulted in the subsequent promotion of small- and medium-scale insect farming systems in rural communities in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), such as Kenya. However, the policy environment for cricket farming......, the social and environmental impacts in Thailand and the adoption of cricket farming in Kenya is not well understood. There is therefore a critical need for more research into the impacts of cricket farming on nutrition, rural livelihoods and the environment. My thesis addresses this research gap......, such as quantifying greenhouse gas emissions from farmed insect species. In Paper III, a LCA was carried out to compare the environmental impacts of commercial cricket farming and broiler chicken farming. The LCA found that commercial cricket farming has fewer environmental impacts when compared to medium...

  15. Climate Change Potential Impacts on the Built Environment and Possible Adaptation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2014-01-01

    The built environment consists of components that exist at a range of scales from small (e.g., houses, shopping malls) to large (e.g., transportation networks) to highly modified landscapes such as cities. Thus, the impacts of climate change on the built environment may have a multitude of effects on humans and the land. The impact of climate change may be exacerbated by the interaction of different events that singly may be minor, but together may have a synergistic set of impacts that are significant. Also, mechanisms may exist wherein the built environment, particularly in the form of cities, may affect weather and the climate on local and regional scales. Hence, a city may be able to cope with prolonged heat waves, but if this is combined with severe drought, the overall result could be significant or even catastrophic, as accelerating demand for energy to cooling taxes water supplies needed both for energy supply and municipal water needs. This presentation surveys potential climate change impacts on the built environment from the perspective of the National Climate Assessment, and explores adaptation measures that can be employed to mitigate these impacts.

  16. Analysis of the citation of articles published in the European Journal of Emergency Medicine since its foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Guerrero, Inés M; Martín-Sánchez, Francisco J; Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; Graham, Collin A; Miró, Òscar

    2017-10-09

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution of the citation of articles from the European Journal of Emergency Medicine (EJEM) from 1994 (EJEM foundation) to 2015 and identify highly cited articles and their principal characteristics and determine a possible correlation between the citations counted in different databases. We obtained the articles published in EJEM from 1994 to 2015 in ISI-WoS (main source) and Scopus, Google Scholar, and Medline databases (accessory sources). The citations were quantified and their annual evolution and the bibliometric indices derived (impact factor and SCImago Journal Rank) were evaluated. We identified and analyzed the highly cited EJEM articles and evaluated the possible correlation between the citations counted for these articles in the databases. Overall, 1705 EJEM articles were cited 9422 times in 8122 different articles. The evolution of the global citation, impact factor, and SCImago Journal Rank from 1994 to 2015 increased significantly. The h-index of EJEM was 30, and 31 articles were considered highly cited (≥30 citations), 16.1% of them being clinical trials. By subjects, 22.5% corresponded to cardiology, 19.3% to emergency department management, and 12.9% to pediatrics; by countries, 81% were from Europe, with Belgian authors publishing four (12.9%) highly cited articles, and French, Spanish, British, and Swedish authors having three (9.7%) each. Two studies in the EJEM achieved the definition of 'citation classics' (more than 100 citations). The number of citations in all the databases, except Medline, showed statistically significant correlations. Citation of EJEM articles has progressively increased and EJEM bibliometric indicators have improved; most highly cited articles are mainly by European authors.

  17. Three options for citation tracking: Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkalbasi, Nisa; Bauer, Kathleen; Glover, Janis; Wang, Lei

    2006-06-29

    Researchers turn to citation tracking to find the most influential articles for a particular topic and to see how often their own published papers are cited. For years researchers looking for this type of information had only one resource to consult: the Web of Science from Thomson Scientific. In 2004 two competitors emerged--Scopus from Elsevier and Google Scholar from Google. The research reported here uses citation analysis in an observational study examining these three databases; comparing citation counts for articles from two disciplines (oncology and condensed matter physics) and two years (1993 and 2003) to test the hypothesis that the different scholarly publication coverage provided by the three search tools will lead to different citation counts from each. Eleven journal titles with varying impact factors were selected from each discipline (oncology and condensed matter physics) using the Journal Citation Reports (JCR). All articles published in the selected titles were retrieved for the years 1993 and 2003, and a stratified random sample of articles was chosen, resulting in four sets of articles. During the week of November 7-12, 2005, the citation counts for each research article were extracted from the three sources. The actual citing references for a subset of the articles published in 2003 were also gathered from each of the three sources. For oncology 1993 Web of Science returned the highest average number of citations, 45.3. Scopus returned the highest average number of citations (8.9) for oncology 2003. Web of Science returned the highest number of citations for condensed matter physics 1993 and 2003 (22.5 and 3.9 respectively). The data showed a significant difference in the mean citation rates between all pairs of resources except between Google Scholar and Scopus for condensed matter physics 2003. For articles published in 2003 Google Scholar returned the largest amount of unique citing material for oncology and Web of Science returned the

  18. Impacts of Mining and Urbanization on the Qin-Ba Mountainous Environment, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xinliang Xu; Hongyan Cai; Daowei Sun; Lan Hu; Kwamina E. Banson

    2016-01-01

    The Qin-Ba Ecological Functional Zone is a component of China’s ecological security pattern designed to protect the regional ecosystem and maintain biodiversity. However, due to the impact of mining and urban encroachment, the plight of a sustainable ecosystem in the Qin-Ba mountainous area is deteriorating. This paper has used a remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) to examine the impacts of mining and urban encroachment on the environment in the Qin-Ba mountainous area. The...

  19. Community Structure in Methanogenic Enrichments Provides Insight into Syntrophic Interactions in Hydrocarbon-Impacted Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fowler, Jane; Toth, Courtney R. A.; Gieg, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    -impacted environments. In this study, a methanogenic crude oil-degrading enrichment culture was successively transferred onto the single long chain fatty acids palmitate or stearate followed by their parent alkanes, hexadecane or octadecane, respectively, in order to assess the impact of different substrates......, indicate that many syntrophic interactions are stable over time despite changes in substrate pressure, and show that syntrophic interactions amongst bacteria themselves are as important as interactions between bacteria and methanogens in complex methanogenic communities....

  20. Factors influencing citations to systematic reviews in skin diseases: a cross-sectional study through Web of Sciences and Scopus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manriquez, Juan; Cataldo, Karina; Harz, Isidora

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Disseminating information derived from systematic reviews is a fundamental step for translating evidence into practice. OBJECTIVE To determine which features of dermatological SR are associated with systematic review dissemination, using citation rates as an indicator. METHODS Dermatological systematic reviews published between 2008 and 2012 were obtained from Scopus, the ISI Web of Sciences and the Cochrane Skin Group. Bibliometric data of every systematic review were collected and analyzed. RESULTS A total of 320 systematic reviews were analyzed. Univariable analysis showed that the journal impact factor, number of authors, and total references cited were positively associated with the number of citations. There was a significant difference in the median number of citations with regard to the corresponding author's country, type of skin disease, type of funding, and presence of international collaboration. Cochrane reviews were significantly associated with a lower number of citations. Multivariable analysis found that the number of authors, number of references cited and the corresponding author from United Kingdom were independently correlated with many citations. Cochrane systematic reviews tended to be independently associated with a lower number of citations. CONCLUSIONS Citation number to systematic reviews may be improving by increasing the number of authors, especially collaborative authors, and the number of cited references. The reasons for the association of Cochrane SRs with fewer citations should be addressed in future studies. PMID:26560209

  1. Factors influencing citations to systematic reviews in skin diseases: a cross-sectional study through Web of Sciences and Scopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manriquez, Juan; Cataldo, Karina; Harz, Isidora

    2015-01-01

    Disseminating information derived from systematic reviews is a fundamental step for translating evidence into practice. To determine which features of dermatological SR are associated with systematic review dissemination, using citation rates as an indicator. Dermatological systematic reviews published between 2008 and 2012 were obtained from Scopus, the ISI Web of Sciences and the Cochrane Skin Group. Bibliometric data of every systematic review were collected and analyzed. A total of 320 systematic reviews were analyzed. Univariable analysis showed that the journal impact factor, number of authors, and total references cited were positively associated with the number of citations. There was a significant difference in the median number of citations with regard to the corresponding author's country, type of skin disease, type of funding, and presence of international collaboration. Cochrane reviews were significantly associated with a lower number of citations. Multivariable analysis found that the number of authors, number of references cited and the corresponding author from United Kingdom were independently correlated with many citations. Cochrane systematic reviews tended to be independently associated with a lower number of citations. Citation number to systematic reviews may be improving by increasing the number of authors, especially collaborative authors, and the number of cited references. The reasons for the association of Cochrane SRs with fewer citations should be addressed in future studies.

  2. The impact of distraction in natural environments on user experience research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greifeneder, Elke

    2012-01-01

    Laboratories have long been seen as reasonable proxies for user experience research. Yet, this assumption may have become unreliable. The trend toward multiple activities in the users' natural environment, where people simultaneously use a digital library, join a chat or read an incoming Facebook....... The existence and impact of distraction is measured in a standard laboratory setting and in a remote setting that explicitly allows users to work in their own natural environment. The data indicates that there are significant differences between results from the laboratory and natural environment setting...

  3. An Impact Sensor System for the Characterization of the Micrometeoroid and Lunar Secondary Ejecta Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J.-C.; Burchell, M.; Corsaro, R.; Giovane, F.; Stansbery, E.; Blum, Jurgen; Cooke, William; Pisacane, V.

    2009-01-01

    The Impact Sensor for Micrometeoroid and Lunar Secondary Ejecta (IMMUSE) project aims to apply and integrate previously demonstrated impact sensing subsystems to characterize the micrometeoroid and lunar secondary (MMSE) environment on the surface of the Moon. Once deployed, data returned from IMMUSE will benefit: (1) Fundamental Lunar Science: providing data to improve the understanding of lunar cratering processes and dynamics of the lunar regolith. (2) Lunar Exploration Applied Science: providing an accurate MMSE environment definition for reliable impact risk assessments, cost-effective shielding designs, and mitigation measures for long-term lunar exploration activities. (3) Planetary Science: providing micrometeoroid data to aid the understanding of asteroidal collisions and the evolution of comets. A well-established link between micrometeoroid impacts and lunar regolith is also key to understanding other regolith-covered bodies from remote-sensing data. The IMMUSE system includes two components: (1) a large area (greater than or equal to 1 m2) micrometeoroid detector based on acoustic impact and fiber optic displacement sensors and (2) a 100 cm2 lunar secondary ejecta detector consisting of dual-layer laser curtain and acoustic impact sensors. The combinations of different detection mechanisms will allow for a better characterization of the MMSE environment, including flux, particle size/mass, and impact velocity. IMMUSE is funded by the NASA LASER Program through 2012. The project fs goal is to reach a Technical Readiness Level of 4 in preparation for a more advanced development beyond 2012. Several prototype subsystems have been constructed and subjected to low impact and hypervelocity impact tests. The presentation will include a status review and preliminary test results.

  4. Electronic journals and scholarly communication: a citation and reference study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Harter

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The journal is fundamental to formal scholarly communication. This research reports highlights and preliminary findings from an empirical study of scholarly electronic journals. The purpose of the research is to assess the impact of electronic journals (e-journals on scholarly communication, by measuring the extent to which they are being cited in the literature, both print and electronic. The intent is to provide a snapshot of the impact e-journals were having on scholarly communication at a given point in time, roughly the end of 1995. This study provides one measure of that impact, specifically on the formal, as opposed to informal, communication process. The study also examines the forms in which scholars cite e-journals, the accuracy and completeness of citations to e-journals, and practical difficulties faced by scholars and researchers who wish to retrieve e-journals through the networks.

  5. Citation classics in neurointerventional research: a bibliometric analysis of the 100 most cited articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Soo; Yoon, Dae Young; Kim, Hye Jeong; Jeon, Hong Jun; Lee, Jong Young; Cho, Byung-Moon; Lee, Kwanseop

    2017-05-01

    The number of citations that an article has received can be used to evaluate its impact on the scientific community. This study aimed to identify the 100 most cited articles in the field of neurointervention and to analyze their characteristics. We selected the 669 journals that were considered potentially to publish neurointervention articles based on the database of Journal Citation Reports. Using the Web of Science citation search tool, we identified the 100 most cited articles relevant to neurointervention within the selected journals. Each article was evaluated for several characteristics including publication year, journal, journal category, impact factor, number of citations, number of citations per year, authorship, department, institution, country, type of article, and topic. The number of citations for the top 100 articles ranged from 1912 to 170 (mean 363.4) and citations per year ranged from 271.0 to 4.1 (mean 40.0). The majority of articles were published in clinical neurology journals (63%), were published in 2000-2009 (39%), originated in the USA (45%), were original articles (95%), and dealt with endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysm (42%). The Department of Radiology, University of California School of Medicine (n=12) was the leading institution and Viñuela F (n=11) was the most prolific author. Our study presents a detailed list and analysis of the 100 most cited articles in the field of neurointervention and provides a historical perspective on the scientific progress in this field. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Bibliometric analysis of factors predicting increased citations in the vascular and endovascular literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, George A; Antoniou, Stavros A; Georgakarakos, Efstratios I; Sfyroeras, George S; Georgiadis, George S

    2015-02-01

    Dissemination of research findings in the scientific community is reflected by the citation count. Our objective was to investigate the relative citation impact of vascular research studies and identify potential predictors of increased citation rates. Articles published in leading journals of vascular and general surgery (Journal of Vascular Surgery, European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Journal of Endovascular Therapy, Annals of Vascular Surgery and Annals of Surgery, British Journal of Surgery, Journal of the American College of Surgeons, and JAMA Surgery) during a 4-month period were identified through electronic databases. Variables potentially associated with increased citation rates, including subject, design, title characteristics, article length, bibliographic references, authorship, geographic distribution, interdisciplinary collaboration, article access, and funding, were assessed in univariate and multiple linear regression models through December 2012. A total of 226 articles with a total number of 4,605 citations were identified. Univariate analysis revealed that endovascular-related studies, study design, studies reporting design in the title, long articles, and studies with high number of references were associated with higher citation rates. On multivariate analysis, 3 variables were found to independently predict the number of citations: study subject (endovascular-related studies; regression coefficient [95% confidence interval], 0.474 [0.240-0.708]; P < 0.001); study design (randomized controlled trial; regression coefficient [95% confidence interval], 0.575 [0.145-1.005]; P = 0.009); and article length (number of pages; regression coefficient [95% confidence interval], 0.069 [0.016-0.123]; P = 0.011). Authors involved in vascular research may enhance the impact of their work by embarking on research strategies of high methodologic quality and pursuing work related with new technologies and evolving endovascular therapies

  7. High Citation of Iranian Coauthored articles in comparison with single authored ones: does it link with self-citation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seaid Nazarian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of co-authorship and self-citation on the citation rates of Iranian indexed articles in Web of Science (WoS. Research population included Iranian indexed articles in WoS in 2007 which had been received at least one citation. Numbers of articles in the time of research (October & November 2010 was 7355, which 390 of them, using stratified random sampling, was selected as sample. Research results showed that co-authored articles have received more citations than single-authored ones and this difference was statistically significant. On the other hand, self-citation exclusion has significantly reduced the citation rates of both co-authored and single-authored articles. After self-citation exclusion, existing difference between citation rates of co-authored and single-authored articles lost its significance. So, it can be concluded that self-citation exclusion led to reduction of citation rates of Iranian indexed articles in WoS, but this exclusion affected co-authored articles citation rates more than single-authored ones. In other words, high citation of Iranian co-authored articles in comparison with single-authored articles has been affected mainly by self-citation, not by foreign citation. This finding, which was our contribution, contradicted with results of previous researches.

  8. Exploiting citation contexts for physics retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabrowska, Anna; Larsen, Birger

    2015-01-01

    The text surrounding citations within scientific papers may contain terms that usefully describe cited documents and can benefit retrieval. We present a preliminary study that investigates appending ci- tation contexts from citing documents to cited documents in the iSearch test collection. We...

  9. Citation of serials and some books

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis-Kruseman, van M.J.

    1955-01-01

    The abbreviations used are in general in conformity with common usage in botanical taxonomy, though, where possible, the citation has been limited to the minimum necessary for strict taxonomic reference, e.g.: ‘F.v.M. Fragm.’—for F. VON MUELLER, Fragmenta phytographiae Australiae, ‘Walp. Ann.’—for

  10. Citation: A Library Instruction Computer Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelewyn, Arie C.; Corby, Katherine

    1982-01-01

    A library instruction computer game created at Newberry College, South Carolina challenges players' skill at using the "Readers' Guide," and by noting elapsed time needed to create a bibliography of citations on a given topic, encourages an increase in skill. Computer equipment used, illustrative examples, and five references are noted.…

  11. Food, fat, family and friends : studies on the impact of the social environment on dietary intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feunekes, G.I.J.

    1996-01-01


    The impact of the social environment on food and fat intake was investigated in several samples including family members, close friends, and meal time companions in the Netherlands. Firstly, a food frequency questionnaire to assess the intake of fat, fatty acids and cholesterol was

  12. The Design, Enactment, and Impact of an Undergraduate, Inquiry-Based, Astronomy Laboratory Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the design, enactment, and impact of an undergraduate, inquiry-based astronomy laboratory learning environment. The professor, Richard, adopted laboratory materials from the Center for Astronomy and Physics Education Research [CAPER] which were described by the group as inquiry-based. Students worked through these…

  13. Organic fertilisers of the MAC trial and their impact on soil quality, environment and climate change.

    OpenAIRE

    Koopmans, C.J.; Zanen, M.; Bokhorst, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    After 8 years, the MAC field trial in Lelystad, the Netherlands, shows the effects of different fertiliser strategies, ranging from animal manure to plant compost to mineral fertiliser. The impact on yield, soil quality, soil health, environment and climate change is discussed. The trial is unique in monitoring th eeffect of so many types of fertilisers over so many years.

  14. Impact of EU Enlargement on Business Environment of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Ján Vravec; Marián Gál; Tomás Sabol

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the impact of EU enlargement on business environment in the Slovak Republic. Integration of Slovakia into EU has significantly influenced operating conditions for small and medium enterprises. Prosperity of small and medium enterprises depends mainly on their ability to adapt themselves to these new conditions.

  15. Climate Change Education: Quantitatively Assessing the Impact of a Botanical Garden as an Informal Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellmann, Daniela; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-01-01

    Although informal learning environments have been studied extensively, ours is one of the first studies to quantitatively assess the impact of learning in botanical gardens on students' cognitive achievement. We observed a group of 10th graders participating in a one-day educational intervention on climate change implemented in a botanical garden.…

  16. The Hudson River Plume: Exploring Human Impact on the Coastal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Janice; Duncan, Ravit; Lichtenwalner, C. Sage; Dunbar, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The Hudson River Watershed contains a variety of geologic, topographic, climatic, and hydrologic features and a diversity of land-use patterns--making it an ideal model for studying human impact on the coastal environment. In this article, the authors present the Hudson River Plume (HRP), a problem-based online module that explores nonpoint-source…

  17. The potential impact of geological environment on health status of residents of the Slovak Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapant, S; Cvečková, V; Dietzová, Z; Fajčíková, K; Hiller, E; Finkelman, R B; Škultétyová, S

    2014-06-01

    In order to assess the potential impact of the geological environment on the health of the population of the Slovak Republic, the geological environment was divided into eight major units: Paleozoic, Crystalline, Carbonatic Mesozoic and basal Paleogene, Carbonatic-silicate Mesozoic and Paleogene, Paleogene Flysch, Neovolcanics, Neogene and Quaternary sediments. Based on these geological units, the databases of environmental indicators (chemical elements/parameters in groundwater and soils) and health indicators (concerning health status and demographic development of the population) were compiled. The geological environment of the Neogene volcanics (andesites and basalts) has been clearly documented as having the least favourable impact on the health of Slovak population, while Paleogene Flysch geological environment (sandstones, shales, claystones) has the most favourable impact. The most significant differences between these two geological environments were observed, especially for the following health indicators: SMRI6364 (cerebral infarction and strokes) more than 70 %, SMRK (digestive system) 55 %, REI (circulatory system) and REE (endocrine and metabolic system) almost 40 % and REC (malignant neoplasms) more than 30 %. These results can likely be associated with deficit contents of Ca and Mg in groundwater from the Neogene volcanics that are only about half the level of Ca and Mg in groundwater of the Paleogene sediments.

  18. Data Citation Concept for CMIP6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockhause, M.; Toussaint, F.; Lautenschlager, M.; Lawrence, B.

    2015-12-01

    There is a broad consensus among data centers and scientific publishers on Force 11's 'Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles'. To put these principles into operation is not always as straight forward. The focus for CMIP6 data citations lies on the citation of data created by others and used in an analysis underlying the article. And for this source data usually no article of the data creators is available ('stand-alone data publication'). The planned data citation granularities are model data (data collections containing all datasets provided for the project by a single model) and experiment data (data collections containing all datasets for a scientific experiment run by a single model). In case of large international projects or activities like CMIP, the data is commonly stored and disseminated by multiple repositories in a federated data infrastructure such as the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF). The individual repositories are subject to different institutional and national policies. A Data Management Plan (DMP) will define a certain standard for the repositories including data handling procedures. Another aspect of CMIP data, relevant for data citations, is its dynamic nature. For such large data collections, datasets are added, revised and retracted for years, before the data collection becomes stable for a data citation entity including all model or simulation data. Thus, a critical issue for ESGF is data consistency, requiring thorough dataset versioning to enable the identification of the data collection in the cited version. Currently, the ESGF is designed for accessing the latest dataset versions. Data citation introduces the necessity to support older and retracted dataset versions by storing metadata even beyond data availability (data unpublished in ESGF). Apart from ESGF, other infrastructure components exist for CMIP, which provide information that has to be connected to the CMIP6 data, e.g. ES-DOC providing information on models and

  19. Quality of Student Paper Sources Improves after Individual Consultation with Librarians. A Review of: Reinsfelder, T. L. (2012. Citation analysis as a tool to measure the impact of individual research consultations. College & Research Libraries, 73(3, 263-277.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Newton Miller

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine whether the quality of sources used for a research paper will improve after a student receives one-on-one instruction with a librarian. To test citation analysis and a rating scale as means for measuring effectiveness of one-on-one consultations.Design – Citation analysis.Setting – Academic library of a large American university.Subjects – Papers from 10 courses were evaluated. In total, 76 students were asked to meet with librarians. Of these, 61 actually participated. Another 36 students from the control group were not asked to meet with a librarian (although 1 partook in a consultation.Methods – Librarians invited faculty to participate in a new service to help improve quality of student research papers. Eligible courses included those with a required research paper component where papers could be evaluated at different times in the project. Faculty instructed students in the class to meet with the librarian after a first draft of a paper was written. Students from seven courses were asked to meet with a librarian. Courses included English Composition (2, Geography (1, Child Development (1, Occupational Therapy (1, Marketing (1 and Women Writers (1. Three courses acted as control groups (all English Composition. After meeting with students to make recommendations, librarians used a rating scale (measuring relevancy, authority, appropriate dates and scope to review the quality of sources in both drafts and final papers.Main Results – One-on-one consultations with a librarian resulted in sources being of a higher quality in the final paper. With the exception of authority, the differences between draft and final paper were statistically significant in all measures (overall quality, relevance, dates and scope. Those in the control group showed no improvement in quality of sources between draft and final paper.Conclusion – Quality of sources in final paper improves after one-on-one consultations with

  20. Bibliometric Analysis of Manuscript Characteristics That Influence Citations: A Comparison of Six Major Radiology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhani, Haris Naseem; Shariff, Shoaib; Bhulani, Nizar; Khosa, Faisal; Hanna, Tarek Noel

    2017-12-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate radiology manuscript characteristics that influence citation rate, capturing features of manuscript construction that are discrete from study design. Consecutive articles published from January 2004 to June 2004 were collected from the six major radiology journals with the highest impact factors: Radiology (impact factor, 5.076), Investigative Radiology (2.320), American Journal of Neuroradiology (AJNR) (2.384), RadioGraphics (2.494), European Radiology (2.364), and American Journal of Roentgenology (2.406). The citation count for these articles was retrieved from the Web of Science, and 29 article characteristics were tabulated manually. A point-biserial correlation, Spearman rank-order correlation, and multiple regression model were performed to predict citation number from the collected variables. A total of 703 articles-211 published in Radiology, 48 in Investigative Radiology, 106 in AJNR, 52 in RadioGraphics, 129 in European Radiology, and 157 in AJR-were evaluated. Punctuation was included in the title in 55% of the articles and had the highest statistically significant positive correlation to citation rate (point-biserial correlation coefficient [rpb] = 0.85, p radiology. Using bibliometric knowledge, authors can craft a title, abstract, and text that may enhance visibility and citation count over what they would otherwise experience.

  1. Journal bibliometrics indicators and citation ethics: a discussion of current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggett, Sarah

    2013-10-01

    Science has recently been accelerating at a fast rate, resulting in what has been called "information overload" and more recently "filter failure". In this perspective, journal performance indicators can play an important role in journal evaluation. Opinions on the appropriate use of journal-level bibliometrics indicators can be divided but they have now long been used as measures in research evaluation, and many editors see it as part of their editorial duty to try and improve bibliometrics indicators and rankings for their journal. There are various techniques through which this can be attempted, some more ethical than others. Some editors may try to boost the bibliometrics performance of their journals through gratuitous citations. This is problematic because citations are meant to provide useful references, scientifically justifiable, to previously published literature. As such citations can be used as widely accepted measures of scientific impact. Therefore, superfluous citations can distort the validity of bibliometrics indicators. It might be tempting to try to improve a journal's bibliometrics rankings at all costs, but these are only as meaningful as the data that feed into them. Exceedingly inflated indicators due to unethical behaviours can damage the reputation of a journal and its editors, and can lead to a loss of quality manuscript submissions, which in turn is likely to affect the journal's future citation impact. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. From the impacts of human activities on our climate and environment to the mysteries of titan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutron, C. [Grenoble-1 Univ., Institut Universitaire de France/CNRS, 38 (France)

    2002-11-01

    This volume is the fifth in the series. After an introductory chapter in which Paul Crutzen propounds to name 'anthropocene' the present period characterized by the ever increasing impacts of human activities on our environment, it contains nineteen chapters surveying various topics 'From the impacts of human activities on our climate and environment to the mysteries of Titan'. Particular emphasis is given to the origin of life on Earth, climate change, atmosphere modelling, climate-vegetation interaction, deep sea records of past climate variability, the last glacial maximum, halogen chemistry in the marine boundary layer, the role and fate of trace elements in the environment, mercury as a global pollutant, atmospheric aerosols, emissions of pollutants in Europe, the effect of atmospheric pollution on building materials, air quality assessment, transport phenomena in the atmosphere, the solar energetic flux, the atmosphere of Saturn's satellite Titan, cometary research, molecules and the process of star formation. (author)

  3. Statistical regularities in the rank-citation profile of scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Alexander M; Succi, Sauro

    2011-01-01

    Recent "science of science" research shows common regularities in the publication patterns of scientific papers across time and discipline. Here we analyze the complete publication careers of 300 scientists and find remarkable regularity in the functional form of the rank-citation profile c_{i}(r) for each scientist i =1...300. We find that the rank-ordered citation distribution c_{i}(r) can be approximated by a discrete generalized beta distribution (DGBD) over the entire range of ranks r, which allows for the characterization and comparison of c_{i}(r) using a common framework. The functional form of the DGBD has two scaling exponents, beta_i and gamma_i, which determine the scaling behavior of c_{i}(r) for both small and large rank r. The crossover between two scaling regimes suggests a complex reinforcement or positive-feedback relation between the impact of a scientist's most famous papers and the impact of his/her other papers. Moreover, since two scientists with equivalent Hirsch h-index values may hav...

  4. ANÁLISIS DEL ÍNDICE DE IMPACTO EN LA ESPECIALIDAD DE CARDIOLOGÍA SEGÚN EL JOURNAL CITATION REPORTS EN EL PERÍODO 2006-2008 / Analysis of the impact factor in cardiology according to the Journal Citation Reports during the period 2006-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenni González Lugo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Heart diseases are at the top of the health statistics concerning the main causes of death in the world. This fact reveals the need of focussing the health scientific policy toward the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. Currently, the best results in this field are not widely published; however, the challenge for Cuban publications, in general, is to reach a better visibility. In order to meet this challenge, a bibliometric study of the Cardiology journals which are available in the Web of Science was carried out, having the Impact Factor (IF as the main variable. The issues of the JCR Science Edition during the period from 2006 to 2008 were analysed. The results showed that there is not a sufficient amount of journals on this field, in spite of the fact that there is a group which has increased its number, year after year, with a relatively high impact factor. Although the vast majority of these journals are published in English, some others, of high renown, are published in Spanish or are multilingual. The Journal of the American College of Cardiology was the journal with the highest impact factor in 2008; therefore, it is the one with the highest visibility in this specialty. Finally, it was determined that most of the Cardiology journals are from North America, mainly from the US, while only 6 of them are from Europe.

  5. Evolution of a Mediterranean Coastal Zone: Human Impacts on the Marine Environment of Cape Creus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Josep; Riera, Victòria

    2008-12-01

    This study presents an integrated analysis of the evolution of the marine environment and the human uses in Cape Creus, a Mediterranean coastal area where intense commercial fisheries and recreational uses have coexisted over the last fifty years. The investigation synthesizes the documented impacts of human activities on the marine environment of Cap de Creus and integrates them with new data. In particular, the evolution of vulnerable, exploited species is used to evaluate the fishing impacts. The effects of area protection through the establishment of a marine reserve in the late 1990s and the potential climate change impacts are also considered. The evolution of the human uses is marked by the increasing socioeconomic importance of recreational activities (which affect species and habitats) in detriment to artisanal and red coral fisheries (which principally affect at a species level). Overall, populations of sedentary, vulnerable exploited species, hard sessile benthic invertebrates, and ecologically fragile habitats, such as seagrass meadows, the coralligenous and infralittoral algal assemblages have been the most negatively impacted by anthropogenic activities. Albeit human uses currently constitute the largest negative impact on the marine environment of Cap de Creus, climate change is emerging as a key factor that could have considerable implications for the marine environment and tourism activities. The establishment of the marine reserve appears to have had little socioeconomic impact, but there is some evidence that it had some positive biological effects on sedentary, littoral fishes. Results demonstrate that the declaration of a marine reserve alone does not guarantee the sustainability of marine resources and habitats but should be accompanied with an integrated coastal management plan.

  6. Evolution of a Mediterranean coastal zone: human impacts on the marine environment of Cape Creus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Josep; Riera, Victòria

    2008-12-01

    This study presents an integrated analysis of the evolution of the marine environment and the human uses in Cape Creus, a Mediterranean coastal area where intense commercial fisheries and recreational uses have coexisted over the last fifty years. The investigation synthesizes the documented impacts of human activities on the marine environment of Cap de Creus and integrates them with new data. In particular, the evolution of vulnerable, exploited species is used to evaluate the fishing impacts. The effects of area protection through the establishment of a marine reserve in the late 1990s and the potential climate change impacts are also considered. The evolution of the human uses is marked by the increasing socioeconomic importance of recreational activities (which affect species and habitats) in detriment to artisanal and red coral fisheries (which principally affect at a species level). Overall, populations of sedentary, vulnerable exploited species, hard sessile benthic invertebrates, and ecologically fragile habitats, such as seagrass meadows, the coralligenous and infralittoral algal assemblages have been the most negatively impacted by anthropogenic activities. Albeit human uses currently constitute the largest negative impact on the marine environment of Cap de Creus, climate change is emerging as a key factor that could have considerable implications for the marine environment and tourism activities. The establishment of the marine reserve appears to have had little socioeconomic impact, but there is some evidence that it had some positive biological effects on sedentary, littoral fishes. Results demonstrate that the declaration of a marine reserve alone does not guarantee the sustainability of marine resources and habitats but should be accompanied with an integrated coastal management plan.

  7. An energy-economy-environment model for simulating the impacts of socioeconomic development on energy and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenyi; Zeng, Weihua; Yao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Many rapidly developing regions have begun to draw the attention of the world. Meanwhile, the energy and environmental issues associated with rapid economic growth have aroused widespread critical concern. Therefore, studying energy, economic, and environmental systems is of great importance. This study establishes a system dynamic model that covers multiple aspects of those systems, such as energy, economy, population, water pollution, air pollution, solid waste, and technology. The model designed here attempts to determine the impacts of socioeconomic development on the energy and environment of Tongzhou District in three scenarios: under current, planning, and sustainable conditions. The results reveal that energy shortages and water pollutions are very serious and are the key issues constraining future social and economic development. Solid waste emissions increase with population growth. The prediction results provide valuable insights into social advancement.

  8. An Energy-Economy-Environment Model for Simulating the Impacts of Socioeconomic Development on Energy and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many rapidly developing regions have begun to draw the attention of the world. Meanwhile, the energy and environmental issues associated with rapid economic growth have aroused widespread critical concern. Therefore, studying energy, economic, and environmental systems is of great importance. This study establishes a system dynamic model that covers multiple aspects of those systems, such as energy, economy, population, water pollution, air pollution, solid waste, and technology. The model designed here attempts to determine the impacts of socioeconomic development on the energy and environment of Tongzhou District in three scenarios: under current, planning, and sustainable conditions. The results reveal that energy shortages and water pollutions are very serious and are the key issues constraining future social and economic development. Solid waste emissions increase with population growth. The prediction results provide valuable insights into social advancement.

  9. Low-gravity Orbiting Research Laboratory Environment Potential Impact on Space Biology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol

    2006-01-01

    One of the major objectives of any orbital space research platform is to provide a quiescent low gravity, preferably a zero gravity environment, to perform fundamental as well as applied research. However, small disturbances exist onboard any low earth orbital research platform. The impact of these disturbances must be taken into account by space research scientists during their research planning, design and data analysis in order to avoid confounding factors in their science results. The reduced gravity environment of an orbiting research platform in low earth orbit is a complex phenomenon. Many factors, among others, such as experiment operations, equipment operation, life support systems and crew activity (if it is a crewed platform), aerodynamic drag, gravity gradient, rotational effects as well as the vehicle structural resonance frequencies (structural modes) contribute to form the overall reduced gravity environment in which space research is performed. The contribution of these small disturbances or accelerations is precisely why the environment is NOT a zero gravity environment, but a reduced acceleration environment. This paper does not discuss other factors such as radiation, electromagnetic interference, thermal and pressure gradient changes, acoustic and CO2 build-up to name a few that affect the space research environment as well, but it focuses solely on the magnitude of the acceleration level found on orbiting research laboratory used by research scientists to conduct space research. For ease of analysis this paper divides the frequency spectrum relevant to most of the space research disciplines into three regimes: a) quasi-steady, b) vibratory and c) transient. The International Space Station is used as an example to illustrate the point. The paper discusses the impact of these three regimes on space biology research and results from space flown experiments are used to illustrate the potential negative impact of these disturbances (accelerations

  10. Using incomplete citation data for MEDLINE results ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovic, Jorge R; Bernstam, Elmer V

    2005-01-01

    Information overload is a significant problem for modern medicine. Searching MEDLINE for common topics often retrieves more relevant documents than users can review. Therefore, we must identify documents that are not only relevant, but also important. Our system ranks articles using citation counts and the PageRank algorithm, incorporating data from the Science Citation Index. However, citation data is usually incomplete. Therefore, we explore the relationship between the quantity of citation information available to the system and the quality of the result ranking. Specifically, we test the ability of citation count and PageRank to identify "important articles" as defined by experts from large result sets with decreasing citation information. We found that PageRank performs better than simple citation counts, but both algorithms are surprisingly robust to information loss. We conclude that even an incomplete citation database is likely to be effective for importance ranking.

  11. GPM GROUND VALIDATION UND CITATION NAVIGATION DATA GCPEX V2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation UND Citation Navigation Data GCPEx V2 dataset was collected by the Cessna Citation II Research, which was aircraft, owned, and operated by...

  12. GPM Ground Validation UND Citation Navigation Data OLYMPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation UND Citation Navigation Data OLYMPEX dataset supplies navigation data collected by the Cessna Citation II aircraft for flights that...

  13. New graduate burnout: the impact of professional practice environment, workplace civility, and empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschinger, Heather K Spence; Finegan, Joan; Wilk, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    The future of professional nursing depends on finding ways to create high-quality work environments that retain newcomers to the profession. The purpose of this study was to examine the combined effect of supportive professional practice environments, civil working relationships, and empowerment on new graduates' experiences of burnout at work. The results support previous evidence of the importance of working environments that enable new graduates to practice according to professional standards learned in their educational programs. Further, the results provide a more comprehensive understanding of the impact of workplace conditions on new graduate burnout by demonstrating the additive value of working in collegial work settings in which nurses respected others and refrain from incivility behaviors in their day to day work. Given the current nursing shortage, every effort must be made to ensure that new graduates are exposed to high-quality work environments that engage them with their work.

  14. The Impact of Field Trips and Family Involvement on Mental Models of the Desert Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Eugene

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the mental models of the desert environment held by fourth- and seventh-grade students in the USA and whether those mental models could be affected by: (1) classroom field trips to a desert riparian preserve, and (2) interaction with family members at the same preserve. Results generally indicated that students in this study were resolute in their models and that field trips did not impact the types of models students adhered to. Twenty-three seventh-grade students who self-selected to participate in a Family Science Club with their parents did demonstrate a shift in their mental models and developed significantly more sophisticated models over time. A critical implication of the study is that unless transformation of mental models of the environment is an explicit goal of instruction, simple exposure to the environment (even within the context of life science instruction) will not transform understandings of how organisms within an environment act and interact interdependently.

  15. Do open access working papers attract more citations compared to printed journal articles from the same research unit?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter; Elleby, Anita

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an empirical case study of the characteristics of citations received by 10 open accessible non-peer reviewed working papers published by a prestigious multidisciplinary, but basically social science research institute, compared to 10 printed peer reviewed journal...... articles published in the same year (2004) by the same institute and predominantly by the same authors. The study analyzes the total amount of citations and citation impact observed in Web of Science (WoS) and Google Scholar (GS) received during the five-year period 2004-09 (February) by the two...... access working papers publicly accessible through the DIIS e-archive became far less cited than the corresponding sample of DIIS journal articles published in printed form. However, highly cited working papers have higher impact than the average of the lower half of cited articles. Citation time series...

  16. Cosmology. (Latest Citations from the NTIS Bibliographic Database)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning theories and explorations into the origin of the universe. Citations focus on various genesis models including perturbation, unified field and string theories. Large scale structure of the universe, galactic evolution, quantum gravity, dark matter, black holes, entropy, Feynman diagrams and multi-dimensional systems represent areas of coverage. The citations include theoretical investigations and astronomical observations. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Impact of work environment and work-related stress on turnover intention in physical therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoung-Kwon; Seo, Dong-Kwon; Lee, Jang-Tae; Lee, A-Ram; Jeon, Ha-Neul; Han, Dong-Uk

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to provide basic data for solutions to reduce the turnover rate of physical therapists. It should help create efficient personnel and organization management by exploring the impact of the work environment and work-related stress on turnover intention and analyzing the correlation between them. [Subjects and Methods] A survey was conducted with 236 physical therapists working at medical institutions in the Daejeon and Chungcheong areas. For the analysis on the collected data, correlational and linear regression analyses were conducted using the SPSS 18.0 program and Cronbach's alpha coefficient. [Results] The results showed a statistically significant positive correlation between turnover intention and work-related stress but a statistically significant negative correlation respectively between turnover intention and work environment. Work-related stress (β=0.415) had a significant positive impact on turnover intention and work environment (β=-0.387) had a significant negative impact on turnover intention. [Conclusion] To increase satisfaction level with the profession as well as the workplace for physical therapists, improvement of the work environment was the most necessary primary improvement.

  18. Social interactions in different environments impacts and motivates reproductive displays in college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wortham

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Social environments can have an impact on the interactions between the sexes, specifically pre-courtship behaviors. Sexual selection theory may explain social interactions of the sexes, where males display and attract mates more than females. These behaviors may intensify in a sexual environment. It was hypothesized that individuals would display more in a sexualized environment compared to a non-sexualized location. This research sampled N = 880 participants at a university in a southern state in North America and asked which unisex sunglasses they preferred. While the most popular non-showy sunglasses were selected the most, showy new arrival sunglasses were selected more often when the surveyor’s behavior was flirty, compared to normal behavior and dressing sexy. Thus, social interactions such as flirting between the sexes impacted the behaviors of others and increased the intensity of reproductive displays. At the location with sexualized behaviors and dress, individuals selected the non-showy sunglasses, possibly to draw attention to their bodies in swimsuits, whereas at the non-sexy location, new arrivals were chosen at a higher frequency, possibly to stand out when wearing normal clothes. The sexes chose to stand out at equal frequencies as did single participants and people in a relationship, suggesting that all individuals are trying to display and attract mates equally. Social environments impacted display behaviors and the motivation to display is discussed.

  19. Plenary presentations and public citations from The American Association for Thoracic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Mohamed; Terasaki, Yusuke; Adusumilli, Prasad S; Stiles, Brendon M

    2016-01-01

    We examined the impact of work presented in the plenary sessions at the meeting of The American Association for Thoracic Surgery (AATS), by determining how frequently the published papers corresponding to the session presentations during the past 20 years, were cited; those that were most cited were identified. We reviewed the AATS meeting programs from the 20-year period from 1994 to 2014 and identified the corresponding publications in the Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (JTCVS) from all abstracts presented at the plenary sessions. Papers were categorized as cardiac, thoracic, or congenital. References were evaluated for subsequent citation in the Web of Science (WoS), and Google Scholar (GS). We determined both the median number of citations overall, and per year. For comparison, we evaluated numbers of citations in WoS from current JTCVS papers in issues containing the 3 most-cited plenary session papers. Among 195 published plenary papers, the median number of citations in WoS and GS was 49 and 76, respectively. The median total number of citations in WoS was as follows: 51 for cardiac-category papers (n = 105); 61 for thoracic (n = 55), and 41 for congenital (n = 35). These values were higher than the median total number of citations for contemporary nonplenary JTCVS papers: cardiac (22, n = 55; P citations per year since publication for plenary publications was 5.9 (cardiac), 6 (thoracic), and 3.7 (congenital), respectively. Publications corresponding to the plenary sessions of the AATS are highly cited and include some of the seminal studies in our field in the past 20 years. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Individual, country, and journal self-citation in soil science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minasny, B.; Hartemink, A.E.; McBratney, A.

    2010-01-01

    Self-citation is common practice in most sciences but it differs between disciplines, countries and journals. Here we report on self-citation in soil science. We investigated citations in the major soil science journals and conducted an analysis on a country basis and for the subdiscipline of

  1. Observations on Citation Practices in Mathematics Education Research. Research Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatham, Keith R.

    2015-01-01

    The author argues that the field of mathematics education as a whole can and should improve its citation practices. He discusses 4 forms of citation practice and considers how they vary with respect to transparency of voice. He also discusses several ways that citation practices may misrepresent cited authors' ideas. He concludes with suggestions…

  2. 32 CFR 935.125 - Citation in place of arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation in place of arrest. 935.125 Section 935... INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Peace Officers § 935.125 Citation in place of arrest. In any case in which a peace officer may make an arrest without a warrant, he may issue and serve a citation if he...

  3. 1 CFR 5.8 - Form of citation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Form of citation. 5.8 Section 5.8 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.8 Form of citation. Without prejudice to any other form of citation, Federal Register material may be cited by volume...

  4. 37 CFR 41.12 - Citation of authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation of authority. 41.12... COMMERCE PRACTICE BEFORE THE BOARD OF PATENT APPEALS AND INTERFERENCES General Provisions § 41.12 Citation.... (a) Citations to authority must include: (1) For any United States Supreme Court decision, a United...

  5. 36 CFR 1150.48 - PER: Citation, answer, amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PER: Citation, answer...; Pleadings and Motions § 1150.48 PER: Citation, answer, amendment. (a) Unless otherwise specified, other..., the citation shall request PER when it appears to the Executive Director that immediate and...

  6. 47 CFR 1.14 - Citation of Commission documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Citation of Commission documents. 1.14 Section... Rules of Practice and Procedure General § 1.14 Citation of Commission documents. The appropriate reference to the FCC Record shall be included as part of the citation to any document that has been printed...

  7. Local Citation Analysis of Graduate Biology Theses: Collection Development Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laura Newton

    2011-01-01

    This paper will focus on the citation analysis of graduate masters theses from Carleton University's Biology Department with implications for library collection management decisions. Twenty-five masters theses were studied to determine citation types and percentages, ranking of journals by frequency of citation and by number of authors citing, and…

  8. A Ten Year Citation Analysis of Major Australian Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterham, Robin J.

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of the Excellence in Research for Australia scheme has heightened debate amongst research institutions over the use of metrics such as citations, especially given the ready availability of citation data. An analysis is presented of the citation performance of nine Australian universities and the Commonwealth Scientific, Industrial…

  9. Ranking Leading Econometrics Journals using Citations Data from ISI and RePEc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The paper focuses on the robustness of rankings of academic journal quality and research impact of 10 leading econometrics journals taken from the Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Science (ISI) Category of Economics, using citations data from ISI and the highly accessible

  10. Ranking Leading Econometrics Journals Using Citations Data from ISI and RePEc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract __ The paper focuses on the robustness of rankings of academic journal quality and research impact of 10 leading econometrics journals taken from the Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Science (ISI) Category of Economics, using citations data from ISI and the highly accessible

  11. Are larger effect sizes in experimental studies good predictors of higher citation rates?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Henriksen, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    areas and with a more credible model selection procedure. Using meta-analyses, we identify comparable individual experimental studies (n=259) from five different research specialties. Effect sizes are compared to the citation rates of the individual studies and impact factors for the journals where...

  12. A Citation Analysis of Sub-Saharan African Library and Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In bibliometrics, the numbers of research articles and citations constitute the main measurement indicators of research output and impact respectively. This study evaluates the library and information science/studies (LIS) journals published in sub-Saharan African countries in order to assess their performance. Drawing its ...

  13. Revistas Iberoamericanas de Educación en SciELO Citation Index y Emerging Source Citation Index

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rafael Repiso; Evaristo Jiménez-Contreras; Ignacio Aguaded

    2017-01-01

    El presente trabajo es un análisis de las revistas de Educación iberoamericanas en SciELO Citation Index y Emerging Source Citation Index, dos de los nuevos productos incorporados a Web of Science...

  14. Geographic trends of scientific output and citation practices in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igoumenou, Artemis; Ebmeier, Klaus; Roberts, Nia; Fazel, Seena

    2014-12-06

    Measures of research productivity are increasingly used to determine how research should be evaluated and funding decisions made. In psychiatry, citation patterns within and between countries are not known, and whether these differ by choice of citation metric. In this study, we examined publication characteristics and citation practices in articles published in 50 Web of Science indexed psychiatric and relevant clinical neurosciences journals, between January 2004 and December 2009 comprising 51,072 records that produced 375,962 citations. We compared citation patterns, including self-citations, between countries using standard x(2) tests. We found that most publications came from the USA, with Germany being second and UK third in productivity. USA articles received most citations and the highest citation rate with an average 11.5 citations per article. The UK received the second highest absolute number of citations, but came fourth by citation rate (9.7 citations/article), after the Netherlands (11.4 citations/article) and Canada (9.8 citations/article). Within the USA, Harvard University published most articles and these articles were the most cited, on average 20.0 citations per paper. In Europe, UK institutions published and were cited most often. The Institute of Psychiatry/Kings College London was the leading institution in terms of number of published records and overall citations, while Oxford University had the highest citation rate (18.5 citations/record). There were no differences between the self-citation practices of American and European researchers. Articles that examined some aspect of treatment in psychiatry were the most published. In terms of diagnosis, papers about schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were the most published and the most cited. We found large differences between and within countries in terms of their research productivity in psychiatry and clinical neuroscience. In addition, the ranking of countries and institutions differed widely

  15. Life cycle assessment as a method of limitation of a negative environment impact of castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Casting production constitutes environmental problems going far beyond the foundry plant area. Applying a notion of the life cycle the input (suppliers side and output factors (clients side can be identified. The foundry plant activities for the environment hazard mitigation can be situated on various stages of the casting life cycle. The environment impact of motorisation castings made of different materials – during the whole life cycle of castings – are discussed in the paper. It starts from the charge material production, then follows via the casting process, car assembly, car exploitation and ends at the car breaking up for scrap.

  16. Public awareness, concerns, and priorities about anthropogenic impacts on marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelcich, Stefan; Buckley, Paul; Pinnegar, John K; Chilvers, Jason; Lorenzoni, Irene; Terry, Geraldine; Guerrero, Matias; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Valdebenito, Abel; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-10-21

    Numerous international bodies have advocated the development of strategies to achieve the sustainability of marine environments. Typically, such strategies are based on information from expert groups about causes of degradation and policy options to address them, but these strategies rarely take into account assessed information about public awareness, concerns, and priorities. Here we report the results of a pan-European survey of public perceptions about marine environmental impacts as a way to inform the formation of science and policy priorities. On the basis of 10,106 responses to an online survey from people in 10 European nations, spanning a diversity of socioeconomic and geographical areas, we examine the public's informedness and concern regarding marine impacts, trust in different information sources, and priorities for policy and funding. Results show that the level of concern regarding marine impacts is closely associated with the level of informedness and that pollution and overfishing are two areas prioritized by the public for policy development. The level of trust varies greatly among different information sources and is highest for academics and scholarly publications but lower for government or industry scientists. Results suggest that the public perceives the immediacy of marine anthropogenic impacts and is highly concerned about ocean pollution, overfishing, and ocean acidification. Eliciting public awareness, concerns, and priorities can enable scientists and funders to understand how the public relates to marine environments, frame impacts, and align managerial and policy priorities with public demand.

  17. Geopressured geothermal bibliography. Volume 1 (citation extracts)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, T.R.; Sepehrnoori, K.

    1981-08-01

    This bibliography was compiled by the Center for Energy Studies at The University of Texas at Austin to serve as a tool for researchers in the field of geopressured geothermal energy resources. The bibliography represents citations of papers on geopressured geothermal energy resources over the past eighteen years. Topics covered in the bibliography range from the technical aspects of geopressured geothermal reservoirs to social, environmental, and legal aspects of tapping those reservoirs for their energy resources. The bibliography currently contains more than 750 entries. For quick reference to a given topic, the citations are indexed into five divisions: author, category, conference title, descriptor, and sponsor. These indexes are arranged alphabetically and cross-referenced by page number.

  18. Citation classics in periodontology: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieri, Michele; Saletta, Daniele; Guidi, Luisa; Buti, Jacopo; Franceschi, Debora; Mauro, Saverio; Pini-Prato, Giovanpaolo

    2007-04-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the most cited articles in Periodontology published from January 1990 to March 2005; and to analyse the differences between citation Classics and less cited articles. The search was carried out in four international periodontal journals: Journal of Periodontology, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, International Journal of Periodontics and Restorative Dentistry and Journal of Periodontal Research. The Classics, that are articles cited at least 100 times, were identified using the Science Citation Index database. From every issue of the journals that contained a Classic, another article was randomly selected and used as a Control. Fifty-five Classics and 55 Controls were identified. Classic articles were longer, used more images, had more authors, and contained more self-references than Controls. Moreover Classics had on the average a bigger sample size, often dealt with etiopathogenesis and prognosis, but were rarely controlled or randomized studies. Classic articles play an instructive role, but are often non-Controlled studies.

  19. Methodological challenges of evaluating the impact of the Global Environment Facility's biodiversity program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaessen, Jos; Todd, David

    2008-08-01

    In this paper, we explore some of the methodological challenges that evaluators face in assessing the impacts of complex intervention strategies. We illustrate these challenges, using the specific example of an impact evaluation of one of the six focal areas of the Global Environment Facility; its biodiversity program. The discussion is structured around the concepts of attribution and aggregation, offering the reader a framework for reflection. Subsequently, the paper discusses how theory-based evaluation can provide a basis for addressing the attribution and aggregation challenges presented.

  20. Elastic–plastic adhesive impacts of tungsten dust with metal surfaces in plasma environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratynskaia, S., E-mail: svetlana.ratynskaia@ee.kth.se [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Association EUROfusion-VR, Stockholm (Sweden); Tolias, P. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Association EUROfusion-VR, Stockholm (Sweden); Shalpegin, A. [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Vignitchouk, L. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Association EUROfusion-VR, Stockholm (Sweden); De Angeli, M. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy); Bykov, I. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Association EUROfusion-VR, Stockholm (Sweden); Bystrov, K.; Bardin, S. [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute For Fundamental Energy Research, Edisonbaan 14, 3439MN Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Brochard, F. [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Ripamonti, D. [Istituto per l’Energetica e le Interfasi – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy); Harder, N. den; De Temmerman, G. [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute For Fundamental Energy Research, Edisonbaan 14, 3439MN Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2015-08-15

    Dust-surface collisions impose size selectivity on the ability of dust grains to migrate in scrape-off layer and divertor plasmas and to adhere to plasma-facing components. Here, we report first experimental evidence of dust impact phenomena in plasma environments concerning low-speed collisions of tungsten dust with tungsten surfaces: re-bouncing, adhesion, sliding and rolling. The results comply with the predictions of the model of elastic-perfectly plastic adhesive spheres employed in the dust dynamics code MIGRAINe for sub- to several meters per second impacts of micrometer-range metal dust.

  1. PubFocus: semantic MEDLINE/PubMed citations analytics through integration of controlled biomedical dictionaries and ranking algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuong Cheng-Ming

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding research activity within any given biomedical field is important. Search outputs generated by MEDLINE/PubMed are not well classified and require lengthy manual citation analysis. Automation of citation analytics can be very useful and timesaving for both novices and experts. Results PubFocus web server automates analysis of MEDLINE/PubMed search queries by enriching them with two widely used human factor-based bibliometric indicators of publication quality: journal impact factor and volume of forward references. In addition to providing basic volumetric statistics, PubFocus also prioritizes citations and evaluates authors' impact on the field of search. PubFocus also analyses presence and occurrence of biomedical key terms within citations by utilizing controlled vocabularies. Conclusion We have developed citations' prioritisation algorithm based on journal impact factor, forward referencing volume, referencing dynamics, and author's contribution level. It can be applied either to the primary set of PubMed search results or to the subsets of these results identified through key terms from controlled biomedical vocabularies and ontologies. NCI (National Cancer Institute thesaurus and MGD (Mouse Genome Database mammalian gene orthology have been implemented for key terms analytics. PubFocus provides a scalable platform for the integration of multiple available ontology databases. PubFocus analytics can be adapted for input sources of biomedical citations other than PubMed.

  2. Citation Patterns of Engineering, Statistics, and Computer Science Researchers: An Internal and External Citation Analysis across Multiple Engineering Subfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Madeline

    2015-01-01

    This study takes a multidimensional approach to citation analysis, examining citations in multiple subfields of engineering, from both scholarly journals and doctoral dissertations. The three major goals of the study are to determine whether there are differences between citations drawn from dissertations and those drawn from journal articles; to…

  3. Citation bias favoring statistically significant studies was present in medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannot, Anne-Sophie; Agoritsas, Thomas; Gayet-Ageron, Angèle; Perneger, Thomas V

    2013-03-01

    Statistically significant studies may be cited more than negative studies on the same topic. We aimed to assess here whether such citation bias is present across the medical literature. We conducted a cohort study of the association between statistical significance and citations. We selected all therapeutic intervention studies included in meta-analyses published between January and March 2010 in the Cochrane database, and retrieved citation counts of all individual studies using ISI Web of Knowledge. The association between the statistical significance of each study and the number of citations it received between 2008 and 2010 was assessed in mixed Poisson models. We identified 89 research questions addressed in 458 eligible articles. Significant studies were cited twice as often as nonsignificant studies (multiplicative effect of significance: 2.14, 95% confidence interval: 1.38-3.33). This association was partly because of the higher impact factor of journals where significant studies are published (adjusted multiplicative effect of significance: 1.14, 95% confidence interval: 0.87-1.51). A citation bias favoring significant results occurs in medical research. As a consequence, treatments may seem more effective to the readers of medical literature than they really are. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. "'Jackin’ for Beats'": DJing for Citation Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Craig

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A challenge in teaching English composition is helping students envision plagiarism as “borrowing” – showing love to author(s and/or text(s that further their argument(s, versus “stealing” – biting someone’s style and words. Alastair Pennycook (1996 and Sarah Wakefield (2006 have contributed pieces to the elaborate plagiarism/citation puzzle, while Houston Baker situated the hip-hop DJ in seminal text Black Studies, Rap and the Academy (1993. Merging these moments introduces critical questions: Did Diddy invent “the remix” or become the illest beat-biter ever? How did DJ/Producers Pete Rock and Large Professor pay homage to previous musical genres to further hip-hop remix production without just taking 4-8 bar samples, copying sources and claiming unethical ownership? And how can this discussion provide students a window into citation conversations? This article will remix these “texts” to introduce the idea of DJ Rhetoric to discuss plagiarism. Through the lens of the hip-hop DJ in writing classrooms, one can foster an appreciation of the difference between “love and theft” in student citation. This article will couple examples from hip-hop music/culture while simultaneously remixing interviews from various hip-hop DJ/producers to help answer these difficult questions.

  5. Publication boost in Web of Science journals and its effect on citation distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Šubelj, Lovro

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we show that the dramatic increase in the number of research articles indexed in the Web of Science database impacts the commonly observed distributions of citations within these articles. First, we document that the growing number of physics articles in recent years is due to existing journals publishing more and more papers rather than more new journals coming into being as it happens in computer science. And second, even though the references from the more recent papers generally cover a longer time span, the newer papers are cited more frequently than the older ones if the uneven paper growth is not corrected for. Nevertheless, despite this change in the distribution of citations, the citation behavior of scientists does not seem to have changed.

  6. Do PageRank-based author rankings outperform simple citation counts?

    CERN Document Server

    Fiala, Dalibor; Žitnik, Slavko; Bajec, Marko

    2015-01-01

    The basic indicators of a researcher's productivity and impact are still the number of publications and their citation counts. These metrics are clear, straightforward, and easy to obtain. When a ranking of scholars is needed, for instance in grant, award, or promotion procedures, their use is the fastest and cheapest way of prioritizing some scientists over others. However, due to their nature, there is a danger of oversimplifying scientific achievements. Therefore, many other indicators have been proposed including the usage of the PageRank algorithm known for the ranking of webpages and its modifications suited to citation networks. Nevertheless, this recursive method is computationally expensive and even if it has the advantage of favouring prestige over popularity, its application should be well justified, particularly when compared to the standard citation counts. In this study, we analyze three large datasets of computer science papers in the categories of artificial intelligence, software engineering,...

  7. Modeling scientific-citation patterns and other triangle-rich acyclic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-Xi; Holme, Petter

    2009-09-01

    We propose a model of the evolution of the networks of scientific citations. The model takes an out-degree distribution (distribution of number of citations) and two parameters as input. The parameters capture the two main ingredients of the model: the aging of the relevance of papers and the formation of triangles when new papers cite old. We compare our model to three network structural quantities of an empirical citation network. We find that unique point in parameter space optimizing the match between the real and model data for all quantities. The optimal parameter values suggest that the impact of scientific papers, at least in the empirical data set we model, is proportional to the inverse of the number of papers since they were published.

  8. Environmental impacts of the emerging digital economy: the e-for-environment e-commerce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Daniel Z; Rejeski, David W

    2002-02-01

    The Internet-led digital economy is changing both the production and consumption patterns at the global scale. Although great potential exists to harness information technology in general and the Internet in particular and improve the environment, possible negative impacts of e-commerce on the environment should also be considered and dealt with. In this forum, we discuss both the potential positive and negative impacts of e-commerce. Drawing from insights gained from the complexity theory, we also delineate some broad contours for environmental policies in the information age. Given the paradoxical nature of technological innovations, we want to caution the scientific community and policymakers not to treat the Internet as the Holy Grail for environmental salvation.

  9. Sources, impacts and trends of pharmaceuticals in the marine and coastal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaw, Sally; Thomas, Kevin V; Hutchinson, Thomas H

    2014-11-19

    There has been a significant investment in research to define exposures and potential hazards of pharmaceuticals in freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems. A substantial number of integrated environmental risk assessments have been developed in Europe, North America and many other regions for these situations. In contrast, comparatively few empirical studies have been conducted for human and veterinary pharmaceuticals that are likely to enter coastal and marine ecosystems. This is a critical knowledge gap given the significant increase in coastal human populations around the globe and the growth of coastal megacities, together with the increasing importance of coastal aquaculture around the world. There is increasing evidence that pharmaceuticals are present and are impacting on marine and coastal environments. This paper reviews the sources, impacts and concentrations of pharmaceuticals in marine and coastal environments to identify knowledge gaps and suggests focused case studies as a priority for future research. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Towards a simple mathematical theory of citation distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchanov, Yurij L

    2015-01-01

    The paper is written with the assumption that the purpose of a mathematical theory of citation is to explain bibliometric regularities at the level of mathematical formalism. A mathematical formalism is proposed for the appearance of power law distributions in social citation systems. The principal contributions of this paper are an axiomatic characterization of citation distributions in terms of the Ekeland variational principle and a mathematical exploration of the power law nature of citation distributions. Apart from its inherent value in providing a better understanding of the mathematical underpinnings of bibliometric models, such an approach can be used to derive a citation distribution from first principles.

  11. In pursuit of a holistic learning environment: the impact of music in the medical physiology classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modell, Harold I; DeMiero, Frank G; Rose, Louise

    2009-03-01

    A holistic learning environment is one that nurtures all aspects of students' learning. The environment is safe, supportive, and provides opportunities to help students deal with nonacademic as well as academic factors that impact their learning. Creation of such an environment requires the establishment of a supportive learning community. For a variety of reasons, establishing such a learning community of first-year medical students can be challenging. This communication presents one approach to meeting this challenge in a medical school Human Physiology course. Steps were taken at the beginning of the course to create the community, and activities designed to reinforce these efforts were incorporated into the course as it progressed. Two pilot studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that providing students with a participatory music experience may help to promote a holistic learning environment by helping them restore a sense of balance to their emotional well-being as well as reinforce a sense of community in the classroom. Student response to these activities indicated that these efforts provided emotional support during stressful periods during the quarter, helped promote a feeling of safety within the environment, and re-energized the class during long class sessions. This project illustrates that each instructor, within the confines of his/her own classroom, can make a significant contribution to achieving a holistic learning environment for his/her students.

  12. The impact of the educational environment on career choice and attitudes toward psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendran, Rathi; Lim, Haikel A; Verma, Swapna; Kua, Ee Heok

    2015-05-01

    The educational environment may influence students' attitudes towards medical specialties, which in turn can affect specialty career choices. The present study sought to establish if perceptions of the educational environment in a psychiatry rotation influenced attitudinal changes towards psychiatry in medical students and impacts decisions about psychiatry as a career choice. The modified Attitudes to Psychiatry Scale, Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure, and questions specific to career choice in psychiatry were administered to 100 undergraduates in a psychiatry rotation. Significant improvements in attitudes toward psychiatry were highly correlated with the educational environment, particularly when it was perceived as providing inspiration and enabling students to recognize the merits of psychiatry and the effectiveness of treatment. However, there was a worsening trend in the stigma to psychiatry in the posting, and only the positive attitudinal change (but not educational environment) influenced a career choice in psychiatry. While the educational environment contributes towards positive attitudinal changes in a specialty rotation, stigma of psychiatry continues to be a limiting factor, which is, unfortunately, not clearly addressed in the curriculum. The findings support the urgent need for interventions in this area.

  13. Silver nanoparticles – applications and the impact on health and the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents information on the growing application and possible impacts of nanosilverparticles on human health and environment. Silver nanoparticles are the most frequent commercialized nanomaterial. They are used in a number of strategic areas including energy, electronics, medicine and biotechnology. Currently little is known about the toxicity of silver nanoparticles or about the mechanism of adverse effect. The potential risk associated with the application of engineered silver nanoparticles have been videly delated in recent years.

  14. Differentiated Responsibilities On Population Explosion And Its Impact On Environment – A Corridor For The Crossing?

    OpenAIRE

    P.P. Sajimon

    2010-01-01

    Climate change and disasters are fast emerging as the most significant challenges of the 21st century as global risks with impacts far beyond just the environment and implications on national security and development. As the world continues its contemporary patterns of production and consumption, the future is at immense risk. Climate Change has the potential to alter the ability of the earth’s physical and biological systems to provide goods and services essential for sustainable development...

  15. Quantifying Mitigation Characteristics of Shock Isolation Seats in a Wave Impact Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    acceleration and ejection seat accelerations) that could push the limits of human tolerance [References A1 - A3]. They focused on the rigid body accelerations...related to aircraft dynamics or ejection seat thrust. Their conclusions were that human tolerance to rapidly applied acceleration depends primarily...Engineering Department Technical Report QUANTIFYING MITIGATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SHOCK ISOLATION SEATS IN A WAVE IMPACT ENVIRONMENT by Michael R

  16. Assessing the exposure risk and impacts of pharmaceuticals in the environment on individuals and ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Kathryn E.; Boxall, Alistair B.A.; Brown, A. Ross; Cuthbert, Richard J.; Gaw, Sally; Hutchinson, Thomas H.; Jobling, Susan; Madden, Judith C.; Metcalfe, Chris D.; Naidoo, Vinny; Shore, Richard F.; Smits, Judit E.; Taggart, Mark A.; Thompson, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    Copyright @ 2013 The authors. Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited. The use of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals is increasing. Over the past decade, there has been a proliferation of research into potential environmental impacts of pharmaceuticals in the environment. A Royal Society-supported seminar brou...

  17. Impact of work environment and work-related stress on turnover intention in physical therapists

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Byoung-kwon; Seo, Dong-kwon; Lee, Jang-Tae; Lee, A-Ram; Jeon, Ha-Neul; Han, Dong-Uk

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to provide basic data for solutions to reduce the turnover rate of physical therapists. It should help create efficient personnel and organization management by exploring the impact of the work environment and work-related stress on turnover intention and analyzing the correlation between them. [Subjects and Methods] A survey was conducted with 236 physical therapists working at medical institutions in the Daejeon and Chungcheong areas. For the analysis on t...

  18. A study of the impact of scheduling parameters in heterogeneous computing environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Sarah S [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a tool for exploring system scheduler parameter settings in a heterogeneous computing environment. Through the coupling of simulation and optimization techniques, this work investigates optimal scheduling intervals, the impact of job arrival prediction on scheduling, as well as how to best apply fair use policies. The developed simulation framework is quick and modular, enabling decision makers to further explore decisions in real-time regarding scheduling policies or parameter changes.

  19. The impact of lead pollution on human health (environment in Ancient Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sič Magdolna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Having in mind that the lead coming from mines and foundries, from the water conducted thought the aqueducts and finally from food and wine, endangered to a great extent the health of Roman population, in this paper the author tackles the possible impact of lead from these sources onto human health (environment in Ancient Rome, as well as the debated question whether the lead pollution was one of the factors that caused the fall of the Roman Empire.

  20. The Impact of the fMRI Environment on Cognitive Function: A Visual Working Memory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dunbar, Jill

    2008-01-01

    The environment within an fMRI scanner can be intimidating, featuring characteristics such as extreme noise levels, postural constraints, and claustrophobic conditions. It is likely that these external pressures can have a detrimental affect of cognition. We used a change detection task to investigate the impact that these stressors may have on Visual Working Memory (VWM) performance. 24 Participants completed the change detection task, once in a normal laboratory setting, and once in ...

  1. Involvement of Student Teachers and Pupils in Designing and Manipulating Virtual Learning Environments Impacts Reading Achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Zaretsky

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed at investigating the involvement of student teachers and pupils in designing and manipulating virtual learning environment and its impact on reading achievements through action research. In order to understand the connection between the real and virtual worlds, the design of such simulations is based on applying the virtual environment to the real world as much as possible. The objects were taken from the pupils’ everyday environment and unique motivation. The researcher taught the method to 30 student teachers. Such procedures were held among different populations. The findings showed that as the student teachers practiced the simulation design through the PowerPoint Software, it became clear to them how the computer can be implemented in their practical work. Consequently, their presentations became highly animated, and applied to the pupils

  2. A small world of citations? The influence of collaboration networks on citation practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Wallace

    Full Text Available This paper examines the proximity of authors to those they cite using degrees of separation in a co-author network, essentially using collaboration networks to expand on the notion of self-citations. While the proportion of direct self-citations (including co-authors of both citing and cited papers is relatively constant in time and across specialties in the natural sciences (10% of references and the social sciences (20%, the same cannot be said for citations to authors who are members of the co-author network. Differences between fields and trends over time lie not only in the degree of co-authorship which defines the large-scale topology of the collaboration network, but also in the referencing practices within a given discipline, computed by defining a propensity to cite at a given distance within the collaboration network. Overall, there is little tendency to cite those nearby in the collaboration network, excluding direct self-citations. These results are interpreted in terms of small-scale structure, field-specific citation practices, and the value of local co-author networks for the production of knowledge and for the accumulation of symbolic capital. Given the various levels of integration between co-authors, our findings shed light on the question of the availability of 'arm's length' expert reviewers of grant applications and manuscripts.

  3. Impact of audio narrated animation on students' understanding and learning environment based on gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrudin, Ajeng Ratih; Setiawan, Wawan; Sanjaya, Yayan

    2017-05-01

    This study is titled the impact of audio narrated animation on students' understanding in learning humanrespiratory system based on gender. This study was conducted in eight grade of junior high school. This study aims to investigate the difference of students' understanding and learning environment at boys and girls classes in learning human respiratory system using audio narrated animation. Research method that is used is quasy experiment with matching pre-test post-test comparison group design. The procedures of study are: (1) preliminary study and learning habituation using audio narrated animation; (2) implementation of learning using audio narrated animation and taking data; (3) analysis and discussion. The result of analysis shows that there is significant difference on students' understanding and learning environment at boys and girls classes in learning human respiratory system using audio narrated animation, both in general and specifically in achieving learning indicators. The discussion related to the impact of audio narrated animation, gender characteristics, and constructivist learning environment. It can be concluded that there is significant difference of students' understanding at boys and girls classes in learning human respiratory system using audio narrated animation. Additionally, based on interpretation of students' respond, there is the difference increment of agreement level in learning environment.

  4. Exploring the Impact of Toxic Attitudes and a Toxic Environment on the Veterinary Healthcare Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Irene C; Coe, Jason B; Adams, Cindy L; Conlon, Peter D; Sargeant, Jan M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this qualitative study was to compare veterinarians' and Registered Veterinary Technicians' (RVT's) perceptions of the veterinary healthcare team with respect to the impact of toxic attitudes and a toxic environment. Focus group interviews using a semi-structured interview guide and follow up probes were held with four veterinarian groups (23 companion animal veterinarians) and four Registered Veterinary Technician groups (26 RVTs). Thematic analysis of the discussions indicated both veterinarian and RVT participants felt team members with manifestations of toxic attitudes negatively impacted veterinary team function. These manifestations included people being disrespectful, being resistant to change, always wanting to be the "go to person," avoiding conflict, and lacking motivation. When conflict was ignored, or when people with toxic attitudes were not addressed, a toxic environment often resulted. A toxic environment sometimes manifested when "broken communication and tension between staff members" occurred as a result of employees lacking confidence, skills, or knowledge not being managed properly. It also occurred when employees did not feel appreciated, when there was difficulty coping with turnover, and when there were conflicting demands. The presence of people manifesting a toxic attitude was a source of frustration for both veterinarian and RVT participants. Prompt and consistent attention to negative behaviors is recommended to reduce the development of a toxic environment.

  5. Exploring the impact of toxic attitudes and a toxic environment on the veterinary healthcare team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eMoore

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe objective of this qualitative study was to compare veterinarians’ and Registered Veterinary Technicians’ (RVT’s perceptions of the veterinary health care team with respect to the impact of toxic attitudes and a toxic environment. Focus group interviews using a semi-structured interview guide and follow up probes were held with 4 veterinarian groups (23 companion animal veterinarians and 4 Registered Veterinary Technician groups (26 RVTs. Thematic analysis of the discussions indicated both veterinarian and RVT participants felt team members with toxic attitudes negatively impacted veterinary team function. These attitudes included people being disrespectful, being resistant to change, always wanting to be the go to person, avoiding conflict, and lacking motivation. When conflict was ignored, or when people with toxic attitudes were not addressed, a toxic environment often resulted. A toxic environment sometimes manifested when broken communication and tension between staff members occurred as a result of employees lacking confidence, skills, or knowledge not being managed properly. It also occurred when employees did not feel appreciated, when there was difficulty coping with turnover, and when there were conflicting demands.The presence of people with a toxic attitude was a source of frustration for both veterinarian and RVT participants. Prompt and consistent attention to negative behaviors is recommended to reduce the development of a toxic environment.

  6. A citation-analysis of economic research institutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketzler, Rolf; Zimmermann, Klaus F

    2013-06-01

    The citation analysis of the research output of the German economic research institutes presented here is based on publications in peer-reviewed journals listed in the Social Science Citation Index for the 2000-2009 period. The novel feature of the paper is that a count data model quantifies the determinants of citation success and simulates their citation potential. Among the determinants of the number of cites the quality of the publication outlet exhibits a strong positive effect. The same effect has the number of the published pages, but journals with size limits also yield more cites. Field journals get less citations in comparison to general journals. Controlling for journal quality, the number of co-authors of a paper has no effect, but it is positive when co-authors are located outside the own institution. We find that the potential citations predicted by our best model lead to different rankings across the institutes than current citations indicating structural change.

  7. Association between success rate and citation count of studies of radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation: possible evidence of citation bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perino, Alexander C; Hoang, Donald D; Holmes, Tyson H; Santangeli, Pasquale; Heidenreich, Paul A; Perez, Marco V; Wang, Paul J; Turakhia, Mintu P

    2014-09-01

    The preferential citation of studies with the highest success rates could exaggerate perceived effectiveness, particularly for treatments with widely varying published success rates such as radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation. We systematically identified observational studies and clinical trials of radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation between 1990 and 2012. Generalized Poisson regression was used to estimate association between study success rate and total citation count, adjusting for sample size, journal impact factor, time since publication, study design, and whether first or last author was a consensus-defined pre-eminent expert. We identified 174 articles meeting our inclusion criteria (36 289 subjects). After adjustment only for time since publication, a 10-point increase above the mean in pooled reported success rates was associated with a 17.8% increase in citation count at 5 years postpublication (95% confidence interval, 7.1-28.4%; Pcitation count; 95% confidence interval, 7.6-29.6%; Pcitation count, which may indicate citation bias. To readers of the literature, radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation could be perceived to be more effective than the data supports. These findings may have implications for a wide variety of novel cardiovascular therapies. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Human impact on genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii: example of the anthropized environment from French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, A; Ajzenberg, D; Devillard, S; Demar, M P; de Thoisy, B; Bonnabau, H; Collinet, F; Boukhari, R; Blanchet, D; Simon, S; Carme, B; Dardé, M-L

    2011-08-01

    In French Guiana, severe cases of toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients are associated with atypical strains of Toxoplasma gondii linked to a wild neotropical rainforest cycle and a higher genetic diversity than usually observed for T. gondii isolates from anthropized environment. This raises the question of the impact of anthropization of the natural environment, on genetic diversity and on the population structure of T. gondii. However, few data are available on strains circulating in the anthropized areas from French Guiana. Seropositive animals originating mainly from anthropized sub-urban areas and punctually from wild environment in French Guiana were analyzed for T. gondii isolation and genotyping. Thirty-three strains were obtained by bioassay in mice and compared with 18 previously reported isolates chiefly originating from the Amazon rainforest. The genotyping analysis performed with 15 microsatellite markers located on 12 different chromosomes revealed a lower genetic diversity in the anthropized environment. Results were analyzed in terms of population structure by clustering methods, Neighbor-joining trees reconstruction based on genetic distances, F(ST,) Mantel's tests and linkage disequilibrium. They clearly showed a genetic differentiation between strains associated to the anthropized environment and those associated to the wild, but with some inbreeding between them. The majority of strains from the anthropized environment were clustered into additional lineages of T. gondii that are common in the Caribbean. In conclusion the two environmental populations "wild" and "anthropized" were genetically well differentiated. The anthropization of the environment seems to be accompanied with a decreased diversity of T. gondii associated with a greater structure of the populations. We detected potential interpenetration and genetic exchanges between these two environmental populations. As a higher pathogenicity in human of "wild" genotypes has been

  9. Cardiovascular Disease Risk in the Offspring of Diabetic Women: The Impact of the Intrauterine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Laura J.; McCloskey, Kate; Vuillermin, Peter J.; Burgner, David; Said, Joanne; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of gestational diabetes is increasing worldwide, exposing large numbers of infants to hyperglycaemia whilst in utero. This exposure may have a long-term negative impact on the cardiovascular health of the offspring. Novel methods to assess cardiovascular status in the neonatal period are now available—including measuring arterial intima-media thickness and retinal photography. These measures will allow researchers to assess the relative impact of intrauterine exposures, distinguishing these from genetic or postnatal environmental factors. Understanding the long-term impact of the intrauterine environment should allow the development of more effective health policy and interventions to decrease the future burden of cardiovascular disease. Initiating disease prevention aimed at the developing fetus during the antenatal period may optimise community health outcomes. PMID:23133443

  10. Open Access Papers Have a Greater Citation Advantage in the Author-Pays Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Sullo

    2016-03-01

    ; they also verified that the journals were using the APC model by visiting each journal’s website. Because of the large number of subject areas of the identified journals, the researchers decided to classify the journals into four broader categories: Health Sciences, Life Sciences, Natural Sciences, and Social Sciences and Humanities. To calculate the impact of OA papers, citation per paper (CPP was calculated for each subject area. Impact values were calculated on an annual basis as well. The researchers calculated the citation advantage of OA articles as the “difference between the open access and toll access impacts in terms of a percentage of the latter” (p. 585. Main Results – The authors categorized their findings according to three themes: the growth of APC funded OA papers, the number of OA papers by discipline, and citation advantage of OA vs. TA in general and by subject area. Together, Springer and Elsevier published 18,654 OA papers in the APC journals; this number represents 4.7% of the 396,760 papers published between 2007 and 2011. While the number of OA and TA papers has been growing annually, the number of OA papers has been growing more rapidly compared to the TA papers. In terms of subject areas, Life Sciences had the largest number of OA and TA papers (184,315, followed by Health Sciences (149,341, Natural Sciences (121,274, and Social Sciences and Humanities (42,824. Natural Sciences had the most OA papers (5.7% in terms of the number of papers in this subject area being OA papers, followed by Social Sciences and Humanities (5.2%, Health Sciences (4.6% and Life Sciences (3.6%. Overall, the researchers found that the impact values of OA papers were larger than those of the TA papers for each year examined. In considering subject areas, in all disciplines except Life Sciences, the most highly cited paper in the field is an OA paper. In Life Sciences, the most highly cited TA paper had 2,215 citations, compared to the OA paper, which had 1

  11. Islamic World Science Citation Center (ISC): Evaluating Scholary Journals Based on Citation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrad, Jaffar; Arastoopoor, Sholeh

    2012-03-01

    Citation analysis is currently one of the most widely used metrics for analyzing the scientific contribution in different fields. The Islamic World Science Citation Center (ISC) aims at promoting technical cooperation among Muslim scientists and their respected centers based on these theories. It also facilitates the accessibility of knowledge and research contribution among them. This paper aims at revealing some of the outmost features of ISC databases, in order to give a fairly clear view of what it is and what are its products. The paper consists of three major parts. After an introduction about the Islamic World Science Citation Center, the paper deals with major tools and products of ISC. In the third part ISCs' journal Submission system is presented as an automatic means, by which users can upload journals' papers into the respected databases. Some complementary remarks have been made regarding the current state of ISC and its future plans.

  12. Climate change impacts on crop yields, land use and environment in response to crop sowing dates and thermal time requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, Andrea; Webber, Heidi; Zhao, Gang; Ewert, Frank; Kros, Hans; Wolf, Joost; Britz, Wolfgang; Vries, de Wim

    2017-01-01

    Impacts of climate change on European agricultural production, land use and the environment depend on its impact on crop yields. However, many impact studies assume that crop management remains unchanged in future scenarios, while farmers may adapt their sowing dates and cultivar thermal time

  13. The impact of workplace incivility on the work environment, manager skill, and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Patricia Smokler; Malecha, Ann

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of workplace incivility (WPI) on staff nurses related to cost and productivity. Healthful practice environments are one of the goals of the American Organization of Nurse Executives 2010 to 2012 Strategic Plan. Healthy work environments are linked to patient safety and quality. A postal survey was sent to 2,160 staff nurses (n = 659 completed) and included the Nursing Incivility Scale and Work Limitation Questionnaire. Although almost 85% (n = 553) reported experiencing WPI in the past 12 months, nurses working in healthy work environments(defined as Magnet®, Pathway to Excellence, and/or Beacon Unit recognition) reported lower WPI scores compared with nurses working in the standard work environment (P Workplace incivility scores varied between types of unit. Nurses' perception of their manager's ability to handle WPI was negatively associated with WPI scores (P < .001). Lost productivity as a result of WPI was calculated at $11,581 per nurse per year. Not only does WPI exist at high rates, but also it is costly. Nursing leaders play a vital role ensuring a healthy work environment.

  14. Space Weather Impacts on Spacecraft Design and Operations in Auroral Charging Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda N.

    2012-01-01

    Spacecraft in low altitude, high inclination (including sun-synchronous) orbits are widely used for remote sensing of the Earth s land surface and oceans, monitoring weather and climate, communications, scientific studies of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere, and a variety of other scientific, commercial, and military applications. These systems are episodically exposed to environments characterized by a high flux of energetic (approx.1 to 10 s kilovolt) electrons in regions of very low background plasma density which is similar in some ways to the space weather conditions in geostationary orbit responsible for spacecraft charging to kilovolt levels. While it is well established that charging conditions in geostationary orbit are responsible for many anomalies and even spacecraft failures, to date there have been relatively few such reports due to charging in auroral environments. This presentation first reviews the physics of the space environment and its interactions with spacecraft materials that control auroral charging rates and the anticipated maximum potentials that should be observed on spacecraft surfaces during disturbed space weather conditions. We then describe how the theoretical values compare to the observational history of extreme charging in auroral environments and discuss how space weather impacts both spacecraft design and operations for vehicles on orbital trajectories that traverse auroral charging environments.

  15. Do open access working papers attract more citations compared to printed journal articles from the same research unit?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter; Elleby, Anita

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an empirical case study of the characteristics of citations received by 10 open accessible non-peer reviewed working papers published by a prestigious multidisciplinary, but basically social science research institute, compared to 10 printed peer reviewed journal...... publication types, the citation distributions over the individual sample publications and observed years as well as over external, institutional and personal self-citations. The institute concerned is the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS), Copenhagen. The results demonstrate that the open...... access working papers publicly accessible through the DIIS e-archive became far less cited than the corresponding sample of DIIS journal articles published in printed form. However, highly cited working papers have higher impact than the average of the lower half of cited articles. Citation time series...

  16. Impacts of desalination plant discharges on the marine environment: A critical review of published studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; Johnston, Emma L; Knott, Nathan A

    2010-10-01

    Desalination of seawater is an increasingly common means by which nations satisfy demand for water. Desalination has a long history in the Middle East and Mediterranean, but expanding capacities can be found in the United States, Europe and Australia. There is therefore increasing global interest in understanding the environmental impacts of desalination plants and their discharges on the marine environment. Here we review environmental, ecological and toxicological research in this arena including monitoring and assessment of water quality and ecological attributes in receiving environments. The greatest environmental and ecological impacts have occurred around older multi-stage flash (MSF) plants discharging to water bodies with little flushing. These discharge scenarios can lead to substantial increases in salinity and temperature, and the accumulation of metals, hydrocarbons and toxic anti-fouling compounds in receiving waters. Experiments in the field and laboratory clearly demonstrate the potential for acute and chronic toxicity, and small-scale alterations to community structure following exposures to environmentally realistic concentrations of desalination brines. A clear consensus across many of the reviewed articles is that discharge site selection is the primary factor that determines the extent of ecological impacts of desalination plants. Ecological monitoring studies have found variable effects ranging from no significant impacts to benthic communities, through to widespread alterations to community structure in seagrass, coral reef and soft-sediment ecosystems when discharges are released to poorly flushed environments. In most other cases environmental effects appear to be limited to within 10s of meters of outfalls. It must be noted that a large proportion of the published work is descriptive and provides little quantitative data that we could assess independently. Many of the monitoring studies lacked sufficient detail with respect to study design

  17. Bibliometrics, citation indexing, and the journals of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derek R; Hazelton, Michael

    2008-12-01

    Bibliometric research has risen in popularity during recent years and an increasing number of investigations now have examined the nursing literature. Our article provides a comprehensive overview of citation-based research in the nursing profession, as well as a discussion of bibliometrics, journal impact factors, and international publishing trends. The debate on evidence-based practice and its potential influence and relevance for nursing scholars is also covered. Although journal performance indicators are, no doubt, important for the contemporary nursing academic, it is the core research skills and attributes that nursing scholars, academics, and educators will need to consider more carefully in future if the next generation of professional nurse researchers is to truly flourish.

  18. Feasibility of Deploying Inhaler Sensors to Identify the Impacts of Environmental Triggers and Built Environment Factors on Asthma Short-Acting Bronchodilator Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jason G; Barrett, Meredith A; Henderson, Kelly; Humblet, Olivier; Smith, Ted; Sublett, James W; Nesbitt, LaQuandra; Hogg, Chris; Van Sickle, David; Sublett, James L

    2017-02-01

    Epidemiological asthma research has relied upon self-reported symptoms or healthcare utilization data, and used the residential address as the primary location for exposure. These data sources can be temporally limited, spatially aggregated, subjective, and burdensome for the patient to collect. First, we aimed to test the feasibility of collecting rescue inhaler use data in space-time using electronic sensors. Second, we aimed to evaluate whether these data have the potential to identify environmental triggers and built environment factors associated with rescue inhaler use and to determine whether these findings would be consistent with the existing literature. We utilized zero-truncated negative binomial models to identify triggers associated with inhaler use, and implemented three sensitivity analyses to validate our findings. Electronic sensors fitted on metered dose inhalers tracked 5,660 rescue inhaler use events in space and time for 140 participants from 13 June 2012 to 28 February 2014. We found that the inhaler sensors were feasible in passively collecting objective rescue inhaler use data. We identified several environmental triggers with a positive and significant association with inhaler use, including: AQI, PM10, weed pollen, and mold. Conversely, the spatial distribution of tree cover demonstrated a negative and significant association with inhaler use. Utilizing a sensor to capture the signal of rescue inhaler use in space-time offered a passive and objective signal of asthma activity. This approach enabled detailed analyses to identify environmental triggers and built environment factors that are associated with asthma symptoms beyond the residential address. The application of these new technologies has the potential to improve our surveillance and understanding of asthma. Citation: Su JG, Barrett MA, Henderson K, Humblet O, Smith T, Sublett JW, Nesbitt L, Hogg C, Van Sickle D, Sublett JL. 2017. Feasibility of deploying inhaler sensors to

  19. Climate Change Impacts on the Built Environment in the United States and Implications for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2012-01-01

    As an integral part of the National Climate Assessment (NCA), technical assessment reports for 13 regions in the U.S. that describe the scientific rationale to support climate change impacts within the purview of these regions, and provide adaptation or mitigation measures in response to these impacts. These technical assessments focus on climate change impacts on sectors that are important environmental, biophysical, and social and economic aspects of sustainability within the U.S.: Climate change science, Ecosystems and biodiversity, Water resources, Human health, Energy supply and use, Water/energy/land use, Transportation, Urban/infrastructure/vulnerability, Agriculture, Impacts of climate change on tribal/indigenous and native lands and resources, Forestry, Land use/land cover change, Rural communities development, and Impacts on biogeochemical cycles, with implications for ecosystems and biodiversity. There is a critical and timely need for the development of mitigation and adaptation strategies in response to climate change by the policy and decision making communities, to insure resiliency and sustainability of the built environment in the future.

  20. Assessment of environment impacts of egg production chain using life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasempour, Atena; Ahmadi, Ebrahim

    2016-12-01

    In this study we have to deal with the assessment of environment impacts of laying hen in the Alborz province, Iran. This assessment was carried out for one kg of egg during a period of 420 days for 1000 chickens. Then due to significant consumption of diet during period of question, three main products including corn, soybean and wheat which are consist of 80 percent of the combination of laying chicken diet, also collected the information about their production and it has been evaluated the indicators of their environment individually and eventually, the results has been considered as a title for inputs of poultry. Data for production of inputs were taken from EcoInvent 2.0 database, and SimaPro software was used for analysis. Ten classification impacts including Abiotic Depletion potential, Acidification potential, Eutrophication potential, Global Warming potential for time horizon 100 years, Ozone Depletion potential, Human Toxicity potential, Freshwater and Marine Aquatic Eco-toxicity potential, Terrestrial Eco-toxicity potential, and Photochemical Oxidation potential were selected based on the CML 2 baseline 2000 V2/world, 1990/characterization method. Due to the results, for each kilograms of egg, 30/09 MJ and also the value of greenhouse gas emissions is 4/07 Kg CO 2 eq was calculated. According to the obtained results, the production of diet has made the most negative charge of environment among the inputs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Modern Conditions and the Impacts of the Creation of Architectural Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abyzov, Vadym

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this research is an attempt to identify and analyse the modern conditions and impacts of the creation of architectural environment and on this basis to determine the main directions and tasks of the development of architecture at the appropriate hierarchical levels. A comprehensive review and structural analysis of all impact factors and different current conditions that lead to the sustainable architecture design are conducted in the proposal. The main groups of factors and conditions such as social-economical, natural-geographic, urban, ergonomics, ecological, typological, technical, cultural, and aesthetics are determined in accordance with their contemporary specifics. This analysis provides an opportunity to define the appropriative hierarchical levels of the modern trends and prospects of creation an effective, attractive and friendly architectural environment. Some examples of author’s projects and implementations is presented in the article. Such methodological approach will help to create a holistic view of the creation architectural environment, will allow to systematize existing knowledges and concepts, practices and prospects of the means and methods of its formation and development.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) enrich their degrading genera and genes in human-impacted aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ke; Chen, Baowei; Qing, Qing; Zou, Shichun; Wang, Xiaowei; Luan, Tiangang

    2017-11-01

    Bacterial degradation is an important clearance pathway for organic contaminants from highly human-impacted environments. However, it is not fully understood how organic contaminants are selected for degradation by bacteria and genes in aquatic environments. In this study, PAH degrading bacterial genera and PAH-degradation-related genes (PAHDGs) in sediments collected from the Pearl River (PR), the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the South China Sea (SCS), among which there were distinct differences in anthropogenic impact, were analyzed using metagenomic approaches. The diversity and abundance of PAH degrading genera and PAHDGs in the PR were substantially higher than those in the PRE and the SCS and were significantly correlated with the total PAH concentration. PAHDGs involved with the three key processes of PAH degradation (ring cleavage, side chain and central aromatic processes) were significantly correlated with each other in the sediments. In particular, plasmid-related PAHDGs were abundant in the PR sediments, indicating plasmid-mediated horizontal transfer of these genes between bacteria or the overgrowth of the bacteria containing these plasmids under the stresses of PAHs. Our results suggest that PAH degrading bacteria and genes were rich in PAH-polluted aquatic environments, which could facilitate the removal of PAHs by bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Link Label Prediction in Signed Citation Network

    KAUST Repository

    Akujuobi, Uchenna

    2016-04-12

    Link label prediction is the problem of predicting the missing labels or signs of all the unlabeled edges in a network. For signed networks, these labels can either be positive or negative. In recent years, different algorithms have been proposed such as using regression, trust propagation and matrix factorization. These approaches have tried to solve the problem of link label prediction by using ideas from social theories, where most of them predict a single missing label given that labels of other edges are known. However, in most real-world social graphs, the number of labeled edges is usually less than that of unlabeled edges. Therefore, predicting a single edge label at a time would require multiple runs and is more computationally demanding. In this thesis, we look at link label prediction problem on a signed citation network with missing edge labels. Our citation network consists of papers from three major machine learning and data mining conferences together with their references, and edges showing the relationship between them. An edge in our network is labeled either positive (dataset relevant) if the reference is based on the dataset used in the paper or negative otherwise. We present three approaches to predict the missing labels. The first approach converts the label prediction problem into a standard classification problem. We then, generate a set of features for each edge and then adopt Support Vector Machines in solving the classification problem. For the second approach, we formalize the graph such that the edges are represented as nodes with links showing similarities between them. We then adopt a label propagation method to propagate the labels on known nodes to those with unknown labels. In the third approach, we adopt a PageRank approach where we rank the nodes according to the number of incoming positive and negative edges, after which we set a threshold. Based on the ranks, we can infer an edge would be positive if it goes a node above the

  4. Analysis of citations in four MIE proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, C O

    1987-01-01

    Scientific work in medical informatics has been going on for more than 25 years; the results of this work are published in one way or another. How are these publications used to avoid the invention of the wheel for the second and third time? To get an overview of this, four proceedings of the Medical Informatics Europe conferences out of the last eight years have been analysed, to show the behaviour of authors in different countries and in different years in respect of citations.

  5. The impact of turbulent fluctuations on light propagation in a controlled environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Silvia; Hou, Weilin; Goode, Wesley

    2014-05-01

    Underwater temperature and salinity microstructure can lead to localized changes in the index of refraction and can be a limiting factor in oceanic environments. This optical turbulence can affect electro-optical (EO) signal transmissions that impact various applications, from diver visibility to active and passive remote sensing. To quantify the scope of the impacts from turbulent flows on EO signal transmission, and to examine and mitigate turbulence effects, we perform experiments in a controlled turbulence environment allowing the variation of turbulence intensity. This controlled turbulence setup is implemented at the Naval Research Laboratory Stennis Space Center (NRLSSC). Convective turbulence is generated in a classical Rayleigh-Benard tank and the turbulent flow is quantified using a state-of-the-art suite of sensors that includes high-resolution Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter profilers and fast thermistor probes. The measurements are complemented by very high- resolution non-hydrostatic numerical simulations. These computational fluid dynamics simulations allow for a more complete characterization of the convective flow in the laboratory tank than would be provided by measurements alone. Optical image degradation in the tank is assessed in relation to turbulence intensity. The unique approach of integrating optical techniques, turbulence measurements and numerical simulations helps advance our understanding of how to mitigate the effects of turbulence impacts on underwater optical signal transmission, as well as of the use of optical techniques to probe oceanic processes.

  6. Assessing the exposure risk and impacts of pharmaceuticals in the environment on individuals and ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kathryn E; Boxall, Alistair B A; Brown, A Ross; Cuthbert, Richard J; Gaw, Sally; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Jobling, Susan; Madden, Judith C; Metcalfe, Chris D; Naidoo, Vinny; Shore, Richard F; Smits, Judit E; Taggart, Mark A; Thompson, Helen M

    2013-08-23

    The use of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals is increasing. Over the past decade, there has been a proliferation of research into potential environmental impacts of pharmaceuticals in the environment. A Royal Society-supported seminar brought together experts from diverse scientific fields to discuss the risks posed by pharmaceuticals to wildlife. Recent analytical advances have revealed that pharmaceuticals are entering habitats via water, sewage, manure and animal carcases, and dispersing through food chains. Pharmaceuticals are designed to alter physiology at low doses and so can be particularly potent contaminants. The near extinction of Asian vultures following exposure to diclofenac is the key example where exposure to a pharmaceutical caused a population-level impact on non-target wildlife. However, more subtle changes to behaviour and physiology are rarely studied and poorly understood. Grand challenges for the future include developing more realistic exposure assessments for wildlife, assessing the impacts of mixtures of pharmaceuticals in combination with other environmental stressors and estimating the risks from pharmaceutical manufacturing and usage in developing countries. We concluded that an integration of diverse approaches is required to predict 'unexpected' risks; specifically, ecologically relevant, often long-term and non-lethal, consequences of pharmaceuticals in the environment for wildlife and ecosystems.

  7. Measuring the Value of Research Data: A Citation Analysis of Oceanographic Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belter, Christopher W.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of scientific research is becoming increasingly reliant on publication-based bibliometric indicators, which may result in the devaluation of other scientific activities - such as data curation – that do not necessarily result in the production of scientific publications. This issue may undermine the movement to openly share and cite data sets in scientific publications because researchers are unlikely to devote the effort necessary to curate their research data if they are unlikely to receive credit for doing so. This analysis attempts to demonstrate the bibliometric impact of properly curated and openly accessible data sets by attempting to generate citation counts for three data sets archived at the National Oceanographic Data Center. My findings suggest that all three data sets are highly cited, with estimated citation counts in most cases higher than 99% of all the journal articles published in Oceanography during the same years. I also find that methods of citing and referring to these data sets in scientific publications are highly inconsistent, despite the fact that a formal citation format is suggested for each data set. These findings have important implications for developing a data citation format, encouraging researchers to properly curate their research data, and evaluating the bibliometric impact of individuals and institutions. PMID:24671177

  8. Measuring the value of research data: a citation analysis of oceanographic data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belter, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of scientific research is becoming increasingly reliant on publication-based bibliometric indicators, which may result in the devaluation of other scientific activities--such as data curation--that do not necessarily result in the production of scientific publications. This issue may undermine the movement to openly share and cite data sets in scientific publications because researchers are unlikely to devote the effort necessary to curate their research data if they are unlikely to receive credit for doing so. This analysis attempts to demonstrate the bibliometric impact of properly curated and openly accessible data sets by attempting to generate citation counts for three data sets archived at the National Oceanographic Data Center. My findings suggest that all three data sets are highly cited, with estimated citation counts in most cases higher than 99% of all the journal articles published in Oceanography during the same years. I also find that methods of citing and referring to these data sets in scientific publications are highly inconsistent, despite the fact that a formal citation format is suggested for each data set. These findings have important implications for developing a data citation format, encouraging researchers to properly curate their research data, and evaluating the bibliometric impact of individuals and institutions.

  9. The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Developing Economies and the Environment The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Developing Economies and the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Zwerg

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the impact of foreign direct investment on developing economies and the environment. All of us that are concerned about the environment should ask ourselves if the increase in capital mobility associated with the world-wide process of  liberalization, deregulation and privatization, known as the Neo-liberal global regime, has contributed to the problems of higher emissions, ozone layer destruction, and pollution of water sources, as well as to create false economic bubbles that lead to increased consumption in these regions whilst forcing the destruction of the environment by the poor in order to survive and cope with the roles their society demands. Neo-liberal practices such as those enforced in developing countries like Colombia, while seeking to attract foreign investment to push their economies, tend to generate a false aggregated demand growth that in most cases is not sustainable in the long term, increases global unemployment, unleash destructive competitive processes and weaken government’s ability to regulate business in the citizens` best interests.Este artículo trata sobre el impacto de inversión extranjera directa en economíasen vías de desarrollo y el medio ambiente. Todos los que nos preocupamos por elmedio ambiente debemos preguntarnos, si el aumento en la movilidad de capitales asociada con el proceso mundial de liberalización, desregulación y privatización,conocido como “neoliberalismo”, ha contribuido a problemas de emisiones másaltas, destrucción de la capa de ozono, y polución de fuentes de agua, así como a lacreación de falsas burbujas económicas que llevan a aumentar el consumo en estasregiones, obligando a los más pobres a destruir el medio ambiente para sobrevivir ypoder cumplir con los roles impuestos por la sociedad. Prácticas neoliberales talescomo las implantadas en países en vías de desarrollo, como Colombia, en busquedade alcanzar mayor inversión extranjera para

  10. Work environment impact scale: testing the psychometric properties of the Swedish version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekbladh, Elin; Fan, Chia-Wei; Sandqvist, Jan; Hemmingsson, Helena; Taylor, Renée

    2014-01-01

    The Work Environment Impact Scale (WEIS) is an assessment that focuses on the fit between a person and his or her work environment. It is based on Kielhofner's Model of Human Occupation and designed to gather information on how clients experience their work environment. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the WEIS assessment instrument. In total, 95 ratings on the 17-item WEIS were obtained from a sample of clients with experience of sick leave due to different medical conditions. Rasch analysis was used to analyze the data. Overall, the WEIS items together cohered to form a single construct of increasingly challenging work environmental factors. The hierarchical ordering of the items along the continuum followed a logical and expected pattern, and the participants were validly measured by the scale. The three occupational therapists serving as raters validly used the scale, but demonstrated a relatively high rater separation index, indicating differences in rater severity. The findings provide evidence that the Swedish version of the WEIS is a psychometrically sound assessment across diagnoses and occupations, which can provide valuable information about experiences of work environment challenges.

  11. Impact of the virtual reality on the neural representation of an environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellet, Emmanuel; Laou, Laetitia; Petit, Laurent; Zago, Laure; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie

    2010-07-01

    Despite the increasing use of virtual reality, the impact on cerebral representation of topographical knowledge of learning by virtual reality rather than by actual locomotion has never been investigated. To tackle this challenging issue, we conducted an experiment wherein participants learned an immersive virtual environment using a joystick. The following day, participants' brain activity was monitored by functional magnetic resonance imaging while they mentally estimated distances in this environment. Results were compared with that of participants performing the same task but having learned the real version of the environment by actual walking. We detected a large set of areas shared by both groups including the parieto-frontal areas and the parahippocampal gyrus. More importantly, although participants of both groups performed the same mental task and exhibited similar behavioral performances, they differed at the brain activity level. Unlike real learners, virtual learners activated a left-lateralized network associated with tool manipulation and action semantics. This demonstrated that a neural fingerprint distinguishing virtual from real learning persists when subjects use a mental representation of the learnt environment with equivalent performances. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. The Impact of Nursing Characteristics and the Work Environment on Perceptions of Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tschannen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Failure to communicate openly and accurately to members of the healthcare team can result in medical error. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of nursing characteristics and environmental values on communication in the acute care setting. Nurses (=135 on four medical-surgical units in two hospitals completed a survey asking nurses' perceptions of communication, work environment, and nursing demographics. LPNs perceived significantly higher levels of open communication with nurses than did RNs (=.042. RNs noted higher levels of accuracy of communication among nurses than did LPNs (<.001. Higher experience levels resulted in greater perceptions of open communication. Only environmental values (e.g., trust, respect were a significant predictor of both openness and accuracy of communication. These findings suggest understanding the environment (e.g., presence or absence of trust, respect, status equity, and time availability is a foundational step that must occur before implementing any strategies aimed at improving communication.

  13. Information Processing and Firm-Internal Environment Contingencies: Performance Impact on Global New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinschmidt, Elko; de Brentani, Ulrike; Salomo, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Innovation in its essence is an information processing activity. Thus, a major factor impacting the success of new product development (NPD) programs, especially those responding to global markets, is the firm's ability to access, share and apply NPD information, which is often widely dispersed......, functionally, geographically and culturally. To this end, an IT-communication strength is essential, one that is nested in an internal organizational environment that ensures its effective functioning. Using organizational information processing (OIP) theory as a framework, superior global NPD program...... on a hierarchical regression analysis, the results are substantially supportive, with some unexpected findings. These shed light on the complex relationships of the firm's internal environment, OIP competency, and global NPD program performance....

  14. Impact of the environment and the topology on the performance of hierarchical body area networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Gianluigi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Personal area networks and, more specifically, body area networks (BANs are key building blocks of future generation networks and of the Internet of Things as well. In this article, we present a novel analytical framework for network performance analysis of body sensor networks with hierarchical (tree topologies. This framework takes into account the specificities of the on-body channel modeling and the impact of the surrounding environment. The obtained results clearly highlight the differences between indoor and outdoor scenarios, and provide several insights on BAN design and analysis. In particular, it will be shown that the BAN topology should be selected according to the foreseen medical application and the deployment environment.

  15. Mapping of Danish Law Related to Companies' Impact on Environment and Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin; Østergaard, Kim; Feldthusen, Rasmus Kristian

    This overview of Danish law related to companies’ conduct and impact on environment and climate change has been undertaken under the ‘Sustainable Companies’ project hosted at the Department of Private Law at the University of Oslo. The ‘mapping’ of national law – including in particular company law....... Environmental law has been seen under the project as essentially related to climate change. Some other issues related to sustainable development and company conduct have been addressed as well, in particular in relation to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). In the current paper, this particularly applies...... for Danish law related to environment and climate change and CSR in a general sense, sources of law and jurisdiction specific issues, types of companies, shareholding structure etc. (section 1); the purpose of the company, duties and competence of the company organs, and corporate governance issues (section...

  16. World citation and collaboration networks: uncovering the role of geography in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Raj Kumar; Kaski, Kimmo; Fortunato, Santo

    2012-11-01

    Modern information and communication technologies, especially the Internet, have diminished the role of spatial distances and territorial boundaries on the access and transmissibility of information. This has enabled scientists for closer collaboration and internationalization. Nevertheless, geography remains an important factor affecting the dynamics of science. Here we present a systematic analysis of citation and collaboration networks between cities and countries, by assigning papers to the geographic locations of their authors' affiliations. The citation flows as well as the collaboration strengths between cities decrease with the distance between them and follow gravity laws. In addition, the total research impact of a country grows linearly with the amount of national funding for research & development. However, the average impact reveals a peculiar threshold effect: the scientific output of a country may reach an impact larger than the world average only if the country invests more than about 100,000 USD per researcher annually.

  17. World citation and collaboration networks: uncovering the role of geography in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Raj Kumar; Kaski, Kimmo; Fortunato, Santo

    2012-01-01

    Modern information and communication technologies, especially the Internet, have diminished the role of spatial distances and territorial boundaries on the access and transmissibility of information. This has enabled scientists for closer collaboration and internationalization. Nevertheless, geography remains an important factor affecting the dynamics of science. Here we present a systematic analysis of citation and collaboration networks between cities and countries, by assigning papers to the geographic locations of their authors’ affiliations. The citation flows as well as the collaboration strengths between cities decrease with the distance between them and follow gravity laws. In addition, the total research impact of a country grows linearly with the amount of national funding for research & development. However, the average impact reveals a peculiar threshold effect: the scientific output of a country may reach an impact larger than the world average only if the country invests more than about 100,000 USD per researcher annually. PMID:23198092

  18. Diversity of recent tsunami impact, sedimentary record, and hazards from local to distal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, B. M.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Jaffe, B. E.; Szczucinski, W.

    2014-12-01

    One of the goals of paleotsunami research is to define the frequency and magnitude of past tsunamis in order to better understand the hazards posed to coastal communities and ecosystems. Field observations and mapping in the aftermath of several recent tsunamis has greatly improved our understanding of the diversity of tsunami impacts in different environments, the variability observed in the sedimentary record of tsunamis, and the change in these characteristics along the tsunami path from the near- to far-field. Recent tsunamis originating in the Indian Ocean (2004), South Pacific (2009), Chile (2010), and Japan (2011) have affected both local and distant coastlines across a wide range of coastal environments and morphologies. Coral reefs, beaches, dunes, coastal plains with wetlands and/or beach ridge complexes, and rocky embayed coasts have been examined for depositional patterns and evidence of erosion, landscape and vegetation change, and, at a number of sites, impacts to the built environment. We summarize deposit variability, including thickness, stratification, and composition, in an effort to document the wide range of observed deposit features. We observed evidence where vegetation can modify the tsunami flow characteristics. Our field efforts did not focus on impacts to coastal structures, but observations during the course of our work can be applied to improve hazard assessment and recognition of vulnerable areas. Tsunami magnitude, deposits, and hazards are most pronounced near the source and tend to decline with distance, although local factors can modify this trend significantly. For example, general trends in the decrease of tsunami height, inundation, and run-up with distance from the source often exhibit local anomalies where interactions between the tsunami characteristics and local physiography, such as slope and orientation of the coast, create complex interactions that may greatly modify general trends. Efforts to relate the sedimentary

  19. Analysis agriculture's impact in a system of lakes on a karst environment with tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea Olea, Selene; Escolero Fuentes, Oscar

    2015-04-01

    This paper has as main object to analyze the impact of agriculture in the water quality of the "Lagos de Montebello" area; which is located in the Southeast of Mexico. This area is prominent by its tropical climate and a karstic environment. The issue arises in a lake system affected by pollution in the later years, which has turned its former clear water into a highly sedimented muddy water in the topographically lower terrains while no polluted on the higher ones; therefore it is intended to determine if the rise in agricultural activity in the lower terrains has induced this phenomenon. The impact of agriculture has been historically studied in temperate climates with karstic environments; nevertheless it has not been very well studied in tropical climates; which are the reason of this proposal to perform a study to analyze the impact of the intensive agriculture running in the area. To develop this project we studied the area regarding to the types of crops that has being established in the zone, being mostly tomato, corn, and bean; and the fertilizers and pesticides applied to them. A groundwater monitoring plan was designed with a variety of phases such as: piezometers building, measurement of groundwater levels, measurement of field parameters, with a two months intervals (Ph, temperature, electric conductivity, total dissolved solids), and water samplings for laboratory analysis (major ions, nutrients, total organic carbon, pesticides) at twice a year, once during rainy season and then on drought. The rates of pollution agents infiltration depends on the type of soil retention and volume of water. The materials found in the soil by the piezometers are clay, silt, sand and variations between them. We determined that the geochemical qualities of the groundwater vary from calcic bicarbonate to calcic sulfated. The results reached with this monitoring provides a preliminary diagnosis on the possible causes and other implications that intensive agriculture in a

  20. A Tri-Citation Analysis Exploring the Citation Image of Kurt Lewin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Linda S.

    2002-01-01

    Presents the initial phase of a comparison of cocitation and social network analysis methods for the study of scholarly communication, based on a case study of the intellectual contributions of Kurt Lewin, a social psychologist. Highlights include an author tri-citation analysis; cluster analysis; multidimensional scaling; and diffusion of ideas.…