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Sample records for citalopram promethazine risperidone

  1. Peripheral Edema Occurring during Treatment with Risperidone Combined with Citalopram

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Hamzeh Hosseini; Amirhossein Ahmadi

    2012-01-01

    An 80-year-old female presented with symptoms of depression, worthlessness, hopelessness, loss of energy, insomnia, impatience, and forgetfulness associated with persecutory delusion that had begun about one year before her visit. She was diagnosed with major depression with psychotic signs and began treatment with risperidone (2 mg/night) and citalopram (20 mg/day). After 20 days, she returned and reported partial improvement in her symptoms, although she had developed severe swelling of the...

  2. Promethazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the symptoms of allergic reactions such as allergic rhinitis (runny nose and watery eyes caused by allergy ... times. Promethazine is also used to prevent and control nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery, ...

  3. Citalopram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citalopram is used to treat depression. Citalopram is in a class of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). It is thought to work by increasing the amount of serotonin, a natural ...

  4. A comparison of the effect between combine citalopram with risperidone citalopram in the treatment of post-stroke depression%西酞普兰合用利培酮与西酞普兰治疗脑卒中后抑郁的疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马秀青; 纪爱建

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of combine citalopram with risperidone in the treatment of post-trok depression(PSD). Methods:89 patients with PSD were randomly assigned into two groups treated respectively,such as combine citalopram with risperidone and citalopram combined with placebo for 6 weeks in order to evaluate efficacy and side effects with HAMD,HAMA and TESS after 1、2、6 week. Results:There were differences of decreased scores of HAMD,HAMA between the two groups patients after 1、2、6 week respectively (p<0.05~0.01).There were no differences of scores of TESS between the two groups patients after 1、2、6 week respectively. Conlusion:Combine citalopram with risperidone was much better than citalopram combined with placebo,the former was well tolerated.%目的探讨西酞普兰合用利培酮治疗脑卒中后抑郁的疗效。方法将89例脑卒中后抑郁患者随机分成二组,分别给予西酞普兰和安慰剂与西酞普兰合用利培酮治疗6周,以HAMD及HAMA二种量表观察疗效,以TESS观察副作用。结果二组间HAMD和HAMA于第1、2、6周末减分率比较均有显著性差异(P<0.05~0.01)。TESS各周差异均不明显。结论西酞普兰合用利培酮治疗脑卒中后抑郁的疗效优于西酞普兰,且耐受性好。

  5. 小剂量利培酮强化抗抑郁剂治疗双相抑郁发作的疗效和安全性研究%Efficacy and safety of low dosage risperidone added on valproate and citalopram in the treatment of acute bipolar depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 王刚; 马辛

    2014-01-01

    目的考察小剂量利培酮强化抗抑郁剂治疗对双相抑郁发作的疗效和安全性。方法符合入组标准的住院患者,先接受2周的丙戊酸钠( valproate,VPA)合并西酞普兰( citalopram,CIT)治疗。2周末相对于基线的蒙哥马利抑郁量表( Montgomery and Asberg Depression Scale,MADRS)减分率0.05)。 CGI-I 2组对比,差异具有统计学意义(P0.05)。随机治疗第1周末BPRS阳性因子评分VPA+CIT+RIS组较VPA+CIT组明显降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),显示VPA+CIT+RIS组较VPA+CIT组在改善阳性精神病性症状方面起效更快。在随机治疗第2周,VPA+CIT+RIS组有效率为66.0%,VPA+CIT组为33.3%,显示VPA+CIT+RIS组较VPA+CIT组起效更快。结论 VPA+CIT+RIS与VPA+CIT治疗双相抑郁发作均安全有效。在快速起效及降低转相风险方面,VPA+CIT+RIS组优于VPA+CIT组。%Objective To evaluate the augmentation efficacy and safety of low dosage risperidone, added on the usual treatment ( valproate and citalopram) in the acute treatment of bipolar depression. Methods A total of 46 inpatients with a diagnostic criteria for acute depression episode with bipolar disorder according to DSM-IV-TR were first given valproate and citalopram treatment. The subjects who achieve little clinical response( i. e. reduction from baseline in total MADRS score by<50%) at the end of 2-week will enter into the randomized open-label 6-week treatment phase. The eligible subjects will be randomized to treatment with valproate & citalopram or valproate & citalopram & risperidone in a 1:1 ratio. Efficacy rating scales to be used in the study include MADRS, YMRS, BPRS( total score and positive subscale), CGI-S, and CGI-I. The evaluations of safety and tolerability include SAS, treatment-emergent mania, clinical laboratory tests, vital signs , ECG, and adverse events reports. Results At the end of treatment, the scores of MADRS, BPRS, GIC-I, and CGI-S in both treatment groups decreased significantly compared

  6. Risperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... depressive disorder; a disease that causes episodes of depression, episodes of severe mania, and other abnormal moods). Risperidone is in a class of medications called atypical antipsychotics. It works by ...

  7. Effects and safety of citalopram combined with low-dose risperidone on refractory depression%西酞普兰联合利培酮治疗难治性抑郁症的疗效与安全性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂隽; 蒋峰

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects and safety of citalopram combined with low-dose risperidone on refractory depression. Methods All of 54 patients with the refractory depression were ran-domly divided into two groups: augmented treatment group (taken citalopram 20 mg/d, risperidone 0.5-2.0mg/d) and mono-thempy group (taken citalopram alone 20 mg/d). The treatment lasted for 6 weeks. They were estimated with Hamilton depression scale (HAMD), Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA), and treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS) at baseline and every two weeks subsequently. Results In the augment-ed treatment group, total effective rate was 60.7% and recovery and excellence rate was 50.0%, while that was 26.9% and 15.4% in mono-therapy group (P< 0.05). The adverse effect of two groups was minor. Conclu-sion Rispefidone may be a useful and safe adjunct to citalopram in treatment of refractory depression.%目的 探讨西酞普兰联合小剂量利培酮治疗难治性抑郁症的疗效及安全性.方法 将54例难治性抑郁症患者随机分为两组,西酞普兰联合利培酮组:西酞普兰(20 mg/d)治疗的同时联合应用利培酮(0.5~2.0mg/d),共28例.西酞普兰组:单用西酞普兰(20mg/d)治疗,共26例.两组持续治疗6周.于治疗前及治疗第2、4、6周末应用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD,17项)和汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)以及不良反应量表(TESS)进行评定.结果 西酞普兰联合利培酮组总有效率为60.7%,痊愈和显效占50.0%;西酞普兰组的总有效率为26.9%,痊愈和显效占15.4%,两组总有效率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).两组患者的不良反应均轻微.结论 西酞普兰联合小剂量利培酮治疗难治性抑郁症的疗效优于单用西酞普兰,且安全性较好,是临床治疗中可选用的方法之一.

  8. Antinociceptive Effect of Promethazine in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Farshchi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sThe present study was undertaken to investigate the nociception activity of promethazine, a tranquillizer devoid of hypnotic activity in mice.Materials and MethodsAntinociception was evaluated, using the acetic acid-induced writhing, tail flick, hot plate and formalin pain tests.ResultsPromethazine (4 and 6 mg/kg and acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg produced a significant inhibition of the second phase response in the formalin pain model (P0.05 and administration of naloxone (0.1 mg/kg couldn't block the antinociceptive effect of promethazine.ConclusionThe data obtained suggest that antinociceptive effects of the promethazine may be mediated via peripheral and not central mechanisms.

  9. Compound list: promethazine [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available promethazine PMZ 00110 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/prome...thazine.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/prome...thazine.Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/prome....jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/promethazine.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  10. Enhancement of the anti-immobility action of antidepressants by risperidone in the forced swimming test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogóż, Zofia; Kabziński, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of antidepressants (ADs) belonging to different pharmacological groups and risperidone (an atypical antipsychotic drug), given separately or jointly, on immobility time in the forced swimming test in male C57BL/6J mice. The antidepressants: citalopram, fluvoxamine, sertraline, reboxetine, milnacipran (5 and 10 mg/kg), or risperidone in low doses (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) given alone did not change the immobility time of mice in the forced swimming test. Co-treatment with reboxetine or milnacipran (10 mg/kg) and risperidone in a lower dose of 0.05 mg/kg or with sertraline, reboxetine (5 and 10 mg/kg), citalopram, fluvoxamine, milnacipran (10 mg/kg) and risperidone in a higher dose of 0.1 mg/kg produced antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test. WAY100635 (a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist) inhibited the effects induced by co-administration of ADs and risperidone. Active behavior in the forced swimming test was not a consequence of an increased general activity, since the combined treatment with ADs and risperidone failed to enhance the locomotor activity of mice. The obtained results indicate that a low dose of risperidone enhances the activity of ADs in an animal model of depression, and that, among other mechanisms, 5-HT(1A) receptors may play a role in these effects.

  11. Citalopram concentrations in samples from autopsies and living persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Karen; Dragsholt, Claus; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese;

    1998-01-01

    Retskemi,Citalopram,fatal concentrations,toxic concentrations,therapeutic concentrations,metabolites......Retskemi,Citalopram,fatal concentrations,toxic concentrations,therapeutic concentrations,metabolites...

  12. Usefulness of serotoninergic challenge with oral citalopram

    OpenAIRE

    Mattos Paulo; Franco Vanessa A; Noel François; Segenreich Daniel; Gonçalves José Carlos

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Challenge tests designed to evaluate serotoninergic pathways have widely used intravenous citalopram. Oral citalopram has also been used, but unsatisfactory results were obtained with a dose of 20 mg. The objective of this study was to determine whether a higher oral dose would reproduce similar to those described for intravenous administration. To that end, we evaluated cortisol, growth hormone and prolactin levels. METHOD: Eight healthy male volunteers were evaluated in a randomi...

  13. Using Latent Sleepiness to Evaluate an Important Effect of Promethazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Hayat, Matthew; Vksman, Zalman; Putcha, Laksmi

    2007-01-01

    Astronauts often use promethazine (PMZ) to counteract space motion sickness; however PMZ may cause drowsiness, which might impair cognitive function. In a NASA ground study, subjects received PMZ and their cognitive performance was then monitored over time. Subjects also reported sleepiness using the Karolinska Sleepiness Score (KSS), which ranges from 1 - 9. A problem arises when using KSS to establish an association between true sleepiness and performance because KSS scores tend to overly concentrate on the values 3 (fairly awake) and 7 (moderately tired). Therefore, we defined a latent sleepiness measure as a continuous random variable describing a subject s actual, but unobserved true state of sleepiness through time. The latent sleepiness and observed KSS are associated through a conditional probability model, which when coupled with demographic factors, predicts performance.

  14. Development of Risperidone PLGA Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan D’Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to design and evaluate biodegradable PLGA microspheres for sustained delivery of Risperidone, with an eventual goal of avoiding combination therapy for the treatment of schizophrenia. Two PLGA copolymers (50 : 50 and 75 : 25 were used to prepare four microsphere formulations of Risperidone. The microspheres were characterized by several in vitro techniques. In vivo studies in male Sprague-Dawley rats at 20 and 40 mg/kg doses revealed that all formulations exhibited an initial burst followed by sustained release of the active moiety. Additionally, formulations prepared with 50 : 50 PLGA had a shorter duration of action and lower cumulative AUC levels than the 75 : 25 PLGA microspheres. A simulation of multiple dosing at weekly or 15-day regimen revealed pulsatile behavior for all formulations with steady state being achieved by the second dose. Overall, the clinical use of Formulations A, B, C, or D will eliminate the need for combination oral therapy and reduce time to achieve steady state, with a smaller washout period upon cessation of therapy. Results of this study prove the suitability of using PLGA copolymers of varying composition and molecular weight to develop sustained release formulations that can tailor in vivo behavior and enhance pharmacological effectiveness of the drug.

  15. Postmortem Femoral Blood Concentrations of Risperidone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Kristian; Johansen, Sys Stybe

    2014-01-01

    Postmortem femoral blood concentrations of the antipsychotic drug risperidone and the active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone were determined by an achiral LC-MS/MS method in 38 cases. The cause of death was classified as unrelated to risperidone in 30 cases, in which the sum of the concentration of...... the drug and metabolite ranged from below the limit of quantification to 0.058 mg/kg (median 0.0098 mg/kg). This concentration range, which largely corresponds to published in vivo plasmalevels under therapy, may serve as a reference for judgment of postmortem cases involving risperidone. In one case......, risperidone was judged to be a contributing factor to death, and the sum of concentrations was 0.29 mg/kg. This concentration is of the same order of magnitude as observed for plasma levels in clinical intoxication cases. For the remaining seven cases, the cause of death was unclear. The measurements observed...

  16. Risperidone for Aggressive Behavior in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of risperidone augmentation for treatment-resistant aggression in children with ADHD were evaluated in a placebo-controlled pilot study at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, FL.

  17. Citalopram in the treatment of dysthymic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellerstein, David J; Batchelder, Sarai; Miozzo, Ruben; Kreditor, David; Hyler, Steven; Gangure, Dinu; Clark, Joy

    2004-05-01

    This study aimed to provide preliminary data on the tolerability and effectiveness of citalopram for patients with dysthymic disorder. Twenty-one adult subjects meeting DSM-IV criteria for dysthymic disorder were enrolled in this 12-week open-label study, of whom 15 had pure dysthymia (e.g. no major depression in the past 2 years). Citalopram was initiated at 20 mg/day, and increased to a maximum of 60 mg/day. Response was defined as 50% or greater drop in score on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and a Clinical Global Impressions-I score of 1 ('very much improved') or 2 ('much improved'). Of these 15 pure dysthymic disorder subjects, all completed the trial, and 11 (73.3%) were treatment responders. All paired sample t-tests were highly significant, demonstrating significant average improvement on all measures of symptomatology and functioning. Scores on the 24-item HDRS decreased from 22.3+/-4.3 at baseline to 9.1+/-7.8 at week 12 [t(14)=6.1, P<0.001]. In addition, improvement was noted in self-reported measures of temperament and social functioning. The average final dose of citalopram was 39 mg/day. Side-effects were reported by nine of 15 subjects (60%), most frequently gastrointestinal symptoms (n=5), dry mouth (n=5) and sexual side-effects (n=3). These findings suggest the effectiveness and tolerability of citalopram in treating dysthymic disorder. Double-blind prospective studies are needed comparing citalopram both to placebo and to other medications, assessing both initial and sustained response to treatment.

  18. Risperidone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risperdal® Oral Solution ... mood) or mixed episodes (symptoms of mania and depression that happen together) in adults and in teenagers ... of age and older with bipolar disorder (manic depressive disorder; a disease that causes episodes of depression, episodes ...

  19. Prolonged QTc Interval and Torsades de Pointes Induced by Citalopram

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, Anand; Ulveling, Kyle; Alla, Venkata; Abuissa, Hussam; Airey, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Citalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor with a favorable cardiac-safety profile. Corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation and cardiac arrhythmias have not been previously reported in association with citalopram use except in the presence of overdose, abnormal electrolyte values, or renal or liver failure. Herein, we report the case of a 40-year-old woman with mental depression who presented with a prolonged QTc interval and torsades de pointes after the initiation of citalopram...

  20. The prevention of postoperative vomiting following strabismus surgery in children with using Promethazine and Droperidol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaigh al Islam V

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Children undergoing general anesthesia for strabismus surgery have a higher incidence of postoperative vomiting than those receiving the same anaesthesia for other types of ambulatory surgical procedures. Droperidol (0/0 75 mg/kg IV and promethazine (0.05-1.0 mg/kg were used in 100 children between 2-15 years old. Promethazine which has sedative property, anticholinergic antihistaminic, antiemetic and anti-motion sickness effects is recommended for children 0.05 mg-1.0 mg/kg of body weight IV. After induction of anesthesia and before operation and manipulation of the eye and combined with 0.5 mg/kg IM promethazine after operation. The incidence of vomiting following strabismus surgery might be reduced more than with intravenous droperidol

  1. Hyperprolactinaemia - a risperidone side-effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahovac, Tanja; Ruzić, Klementina; Medved, Paola; Pavesić-Radonja, Aristea; Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta

    2010-03-01

    A 47 year old patient has been treated for psychotic depression for the last 5 years. The illness began manifesting through the symptoms of depressive thoughts, intrapsychic tension, projectivity, derealisation phenomena and pre-psychotic fears. She was treated with a combination of antidepressives, anxiolitics and hypnotics in ambulatory conditions. The therapy applied did not obtain the effects expected due to which an atypical antipsychotic was administered subsequently - risperidone, a 2 mg dose in the evening. After commencing the antipsychotic treatment, the symptoms started to weaken and a steady remission was obtained. Two years after a regular risperidone administration (in combination with fluoxetine, alprazolam and flurazepam) the patient reported some "bleeding" in October 2006. Hormonal blood tests were performed and high prolactin values were registered (2567.0 mIJ/L),due to which a gradual risperidone retractement was indicated. Medicamentous hyperprolactinaemia is a well known side effect of risperidone. A gradual risperidone retractement lead to a lowered and normal prolactin level within a month. PMID:20305606

  2. Autogenic-feedback training exercise is superior to promethazine for control of motion sickness symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, P. S.; Toscano, W. B.

    2000-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms affect approximately 50% of the crew during space travel and are commonly treated with intramuscular injections of promethazine. The purpose of this paper is to compare the effectiveness of three treatments for motion sickness: intramuscular injections (i.m.) of promethazine, a physiological training method (autogenic-feedback training exercise [AFTE]), and a no-treatment control. An earlier study tested the effects of promethazine on cognitive and psychomotor performance and motion sickness tolerance in a rotating chair. For the present paper, motion sickness tolerance, symptom reports, and physiological responses of these subjects were compared to matched subjects selected from an existing database who received either AFTE or no treatment. Three groups of 11 men, between the ages of 33 and 40 years, were matched on the number of rotations tolerated during their initial rotating-chair motion sickness test. The motion sickness test procedures and the 7-day interval between tests were the same for all subjects. The drug group was tested under four treatment conditions: baseline (no injections), a 25 mg dose of promethazine, a 50 mg dose of promethazine, and a placebo of sterile saline. AFTE subjects were given four 30-minute AFTE sessions before their second, third, and fourth motion sickness tests (6 hours total). The no-treatment control subjects were only given the four rotating-chair tests. Motion sickness tolerance was significantly increased after 4 hours of AFTE when compared to either 25 mg (p effect of promethazine was an inhibition of skin conductance level. The AFTE group showed significantly less heart rate and skin conductance variability during motion sickness tests administered after training.

  3. From achiral to chiral analysis of citalopram

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Björn

    2003-01-01

    Within the field of depression the “monoamine hypothesis” has been the leading theory to explain the biological basis of depression. This theory proposes that the biological basis of depression is due to a deficiency in one or more of three key neurotransmitter systems, namely noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin which are thought to mediate the therapeutic actions of virtually every known antidepressant agent. Citalopram is a selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) used for the treatm...

  4. Citalopram/Escitalopram (Celexa/Lexapro) and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citalopram/Escitalopram (Celexa®/Lexapro®) and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to citalopram/escitalopram may increase the risk for birth defects ...

  5. Liver microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activity: enhancement by blockade of degradative processes in promethazine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, G.; Villarruel, M. C.; Bernacchi, A.; de Castro, C. R.; Castro, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Daily injection of promethazine over 4 days significantly increased the liver cytochrome P-450 content and ethyl morphine N-demethylase activity. These increases were evident after the first dose and were prevented by puromycin or actinomycin D administration. Repeated administration of promethazine does not increase the liver's ability to incorporate [14]C DL-leucine in microsomes but slows down the decay of radioactivity in microsomes previously labelled with ([14C]-guanidino) arginine. Repeated treatment with promethazine leads to a marked proliferation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and a slight increase in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). Our findings suggest that the enhancement of P-450 and EM-ase activity result from the decelerating effect of promethazine on protein degradation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7295538

  6. Identification and determination of ketotifen hydrogen fumarate, azelastine hydrochloride, dimetindene maleate and promethazine hydrochloride by densitometric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszomirska, Elzbieta; Czerwińska, Krystyna; Kublin, Elzbieta; Mazurek, Aleksander P

    2013-01-01

    Conditions for determination of: ketotifen hydrogen fumarate, azelastine hydrochloride, dimetindene maleate and promethazine hydrochloride by densitometric method in substances and pharmaceuticals were provided. Maximum wavelenghts were: 228 nm for ketotifen hydrogen fumarate, 295 nm for azelastine hydrochloride, 265 nm for dimetindene maleate and 255 nm for promethazine hydrochloride. The limits of quantification were in the ranges of 0.2-5 microg/spot. The statistical data showed adequate accuracy and precision of developed methods. PMID:24383318

  7. Liver microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activity: enhancement by blockade of degradative processes in promethazine-treated rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, G.; Villarruel, M. C.; Bernacchi, A.; de Castro, C. R.; Castro, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Daily injection of promethazine over 4 days significantly increased the liver cytochrome P-450 content and ethyl morphine N-demethylase activity. These increases were evident after the first dose and were prevented by puromycin or actinomycin D administration. Repeated administration of promethazine does not increase the liver's ability to incorporate [14]C DL-leucine in microsomes but slows down the decay of radioactivity in microsomes previously labelled with ([14C]-guanidino) arginine. Rep...

  8. R-citalopram functionally antagonises escitalopram in vivo and in vitro: evidence for kinetic interaction at the serotonin transporter

    OpenAIRE

    Stórustovu, Signe í; Sánchez, Connie; Pörzgen, Peter; Brennum, Lise T; Larsen, Anna Kirstine; Pulis, Monica; Ebert, Bjarke

    2004-01-01

    Clinical observations with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), S-citalopram, indicate that S-citalopram is more efficacious and produces earlier symptom relief than RS-citalopram. Since R-citalopram is at least 20-fold weaker than S-citalopram as inhibitor of the 5-HT transporter (SERT) in preclinical studies, the clinical data suggest an unexpected antagonistic interaction between the two enantiomers. We therefore characterised the interaction of R- and S-citalopram with the S...

  9. Structure-activity relationship studies of citalopram derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M Andreas B; Plenge, Per; Andersen, Jacob;

    2016-01-01

    . The antidepressant drug citalopram displays high-affinity S1 binding and low-affinity S2 binding. To elucidate a possible therapeutic role of allosteric inhibition of SERT a drug that specifically targets the allosteric site is required. The purpose of this study was to find a compound bearing higher...... selectivity towards the S2 site. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We performed a systematic structure-activity relationship study based on the scaffold of citalopram and the structurally closely related congener, talopram, that shows low-affinity S1 binding in SERT. The role of the four chemical substituents, which...... distinguish citalopram from talopram in conferring selectivity towards the S1 and S2 site, respectively, was assessed by determining the binding of 14 citalopram/talopram analogous to the S1 and S2 binding sites in SERT using membranes of COS7 cells transiently expressing SERT. KEY RESULTS: The structure...

  10. Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH) associated with citalopram use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpekar, Vivek C.; Joshi, Prashant P.

    2005-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) can cause the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). SIADH is associated with hyponatraemia without oedema. We report the case of a patient who developed acute-onset hyponatraemia that progressed rapidly to serious neurological dysfunction shortly after the introduction of citalopram. All SSRIs including citalopram should be used with care in the elderly. The water and electrolyte balance should be monitored carefully during SSRI therapy. PMID:20711296

  11. Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH) associated with citalopram use

    OpenAIRE

    Kirpekar, Vivek C.; Joshi, Prashant P

    2005-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) can cause the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). SIADH is associated with hyponatraemia without oedema. We report the case of a patient who developed acute-onset hyponatraemia that progressed rapidly to serious neurological dysfunction shortly after the introduction of citalopram. All SSRIs including citalopram should be used with care in the elderly. The water and electrolyte balance should be monitored carefully ...

  12. Predictive factors for generalized seizures after deliberate citalopram overdose

    OpenAIRE

    Waring, W Stephen; Gray, Julie A; Graham, Ann

    2008-01-01

    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECTCitalopram is a common means of self-poisoning in young adults.Generalized seizures are a recognised complication after selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor overdose (including citalopram overdose). WHAT THIS STUDY ADDSThe minimum stated citalopram dose associated with seizures in the absence of co-ingested drugs was 400 mg.Co-ingestion of a tricyclic antidepressant or venlafaxine confers a 15-fold increased risk of seizures.

  13. Lyophilized Chitosan/xanthan Polyelectrolyte Complex Based Mucoadhesive Inserts for Nasal Delivery of Promethazine Hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    G Dehghan, Mohamed Hassan; Marzuka, Marzuka

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was the development of chitosan/xanthan polyelectrolyte complex based mucoadhesive nasal insert of promethazine hydrochloride a drug used in the treatment of motion sickness. A 32 factorial design was applied for preparing chitosan/xanthan polyelectrolyte complex and to study the effect of independent variables i.e. concentration of xanthan [X1] and concentration of chitosan [X2] on various responses i.e. viscosity of polyelectrolyte complex solution, water...

  14. Usefulness of serotoninergic challenge with oral citalopram Utilidade do desafio serotoninérgico com citalopram oral

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Mattos; Vanessa A Franco; François Noel; Daniel Segenreich; José Carlos Gonçalves

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Challenge tests designed to evaluate serotoninergic pathways have widely used intravenous citalopram. Oral citalopram has also been used, but unsatisfactory results were obtained with a dose of 20 mg. The objective of this study was to determine whether a higher oral dose would reproduce similar to those described for intravenous administration. To that end, we evaluated cortisol, growth hormone and prolactin levels. METHOD: Eight healthy male volunteers were evaluated in a randomi...

  15. Risperidone-associated ejaculatory and urinary dysfunction in male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtmann, Martin; Gerstner, Sandra; Schmidt, Martin H

    2003-01-01

    We report two male adolescents who developed partial or complete retrograde ejaculation during risperidone treatment. Additionally, one patient complained of bladder outflow obstruction, and the other reported a reduced ejaculatory volume and decreased viscosity of semen. On rechallenge with risperidone, patient A showed a prompt recurrence of the ejaculatory dysfunction. The side effects were highly disturbing and led to reduced treatment compliance in both patients. The impact of risperidone, a strong alpha(1)-receptor antagonist, on the adrenergic system might induce retrograde ejaculation by altering the sympathetic tonus, allowing semen to pass retrogradely into the bladder during ejaculation. The reduced ejaculatory volume may be caused by risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Clinicians should regularly inquire about sexual dysfunction and symptoms suggestive of hyperprolactinemia before starting risperidone treatment and regularly thereafter. PMID:12804132

  16. Spectrophotometric estimation of risperidone in tablets

    OpenAIRE

    B. K. Jayanna; Devaraj, T. D.; Roopa, K. P.; G. Nagendrappa; H R Arun Kumar; Gowda, N.

    2014-01-01

    A simple, rapid and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method is developed for the determination of risperidone in tablet formulation. The method is based on the oxidation of drug using potassium permanganate in alkaline medium and excess potassium permanganate oxidizes 1,10-phenanthroline Fe(II). The measurement of decrease in absorbance of 1,10-phenanthroline Fe (II) was done at 415 nm. The beer′s law is obeyed in the concentration range of 5.0 to 40.0 μg/ml and molar absorptivity is found...

  17. P-glycoprotein interaction with risperidone and 9-OH-risperidone studied in vitro, in knock-out mice and in drug-drug interaction experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing, Thomas B.; Pedersen, Anne D.; Linnet, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    P-glycoprotein, risperidone, nortriptyline, cyclosporine A, drug-drug interaction, blood-brain barrier, knock-out mice......P-glycoprotein, risperidone, nortriptyline, cyclosporine A, drug-drug interaction, blood-brain barrier, knock-out mice...

  18. Risperidone in idiopathic and symptomatic dystonia: preliminary experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, E; Latorraca, S; Piacentini, S; Marini, P; Sorbi, S

    2000-04-01

    Risperidone is a heterocyclic neuroleptic with prominent antiserotoninergic (5HT2) as well as antidopaminergic (D2) activity. We studied the efficacy of risperidone in the treatment of idiopathic and symptomatic dystonias in seven patients using the Fahn and Marsden rating scale for torsion dystonia before and after four weeks of treatment (2-6 mg/day). The twisting and involuntary movements with abnormal postures decreased in all the patients treated, with a statistically significant mean improvement (41%; p = 0.009, CI 95%). Our results suggest that risperidone is useful in idiopathic and symptomatic dystonia. PMID:10938193

  19. Galactorrhea Following Citalopram Treatment: A Case Report and Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horst J. Koch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 25-year-old women suffering from major depression who was treated with citalopram for several weeks with doses between 20 mg and 60 mg. She gradually developed marked mydriasis within 2 months after treatment and subsequently neuritis nervi optici. Moreover, abrupt galactorrhea occurred after 2 months of treatment. All neuro-ophthalmological, neurophysiological, clinical laboratory, and neuroradiological diagnostic efforts did not reveal an underlying organic pathophysiology. The ocular symptoms disappeared rapidly after the discontinuation of citalopram and pulse therapy with methyl-prednisolone. However, galactorrhea persisted for a few weeks necessitating treatment with bromocriptine.

  20. Serotonin 2A Receptors, Citalopram and Tryptophan-Depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Hornboll, Bettina; Elliott, Rebecca;

    2013-01-01

    neural correlates of inhibition using intravenous citalopram and acute tryptophan depletion during functional magnetic resonance imaging. We adapted the NoGo paradigm to isolate effects on inhibition per se as opposed to other aspects of the NoGo paradigm. Successful NoGo inhibition was associated with...... greater activation of the right IFG compared to control trials with alternative responses, indicating that the IFG is activated with inhibition in NoGo trials rather than other aspects of invoked cognitive control. Activation of the left IFG during NoGo trials was greater with citalopram than acute...

  1. Risperidone treatment increases CB1 receptor binding in rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Anna; Husum, Henriette; Holst, Birgitte;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Body weight gain is a common side effect of treatment with antipsychotics, but the mechanisms underlying this weight gain are unknown. Several factors may be involved in antipsychotic-induced body weight gain including the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB(1)), the serotonin receptor 2C...... positively correlated with visceral fat mass. Risperidone treatment increased CB(1) receptor binding in the arcuate nucleus (40%), hippocampus (25-30%) and amygdala (35%) without concurrent alterations in the CB(1) receptor mRNA. Risperidone treatment increased adiponectin mRNA. CONCLUSION: The present study...... showed that risperidone treatment altered CB(1) receptor binding in the rat brain. Risperidone-induced adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in the clinic may be explained by increased CB(1) receptor density in brain regions involved in appetite and regulation of metabolic function....

  2. Risperidone as a treatment for childhood habitual behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Omranifard, Victoria; Najafi, Mostafa; Sharbafchi, Mohammad Reza; Emami, Parisa; Maracy, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding risperidone to the general behavioral treatment of masturbation in children 3-7 years old. Methods: A 4 week randomized clinical controlled trial was designed in year 2009. Samples have been chosen from children who have been referred to the Child and Adolescence Psychiatric Clinic of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Ninety children were recruited at the study and randomly allocated into the risperidone and contro...

  3. Differences of promethazine and terfenadine on ion channels in guinea pig ventricular myocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xue-wen; NIU Shuan-cheng; ZHANG Xuan-ping; L(U) Ji-yuan; BAI Feng; ZHANG Ling; WU Bo-wei

    2006-01-01

    @@ Promethazine, a first generation antihistamine,has an antiarrhythmic effect on ischemia-reperfusion inducing arrhythmias1 and experimental arrhythmias.2 However, terfenadine as a second generation of antihistamine, has been reported to elicit hypotension, bradycardia, prolongation of the QTc interval and torsades de pointes (TdP) like ventricular arrhythmia.3 This may be due to the blockage on rectifier postassium current (Ik) of terfenadine, resulting in the prolongation of the action potential duration (APD) and dispersion of the repolarization duration, which might provoke a specific form of polymorphic ventricular tachydysrhythmia, i.e. TdP.4 In clinical practice,however, the class Ⅲ antiarrhythmic agents, which target on the Ik and prolong the action potential duration and QTc interval, rarely lead to arrhythmias.Other actions must be considered to underlie the arrhythmogenic tendency of terfenadine besides its inhibition on Ik. Though both promethazine and terfenadine block the H1 receptor, there must be a different pharmacology profile between the two compounds on ion channels of cardiac myocytes.Whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to investigate the effects of these two antagonists of the H1 receptor on the main ion currents in cardiac electrical activities.

  4. Spectrophotometric estimation of risperidone in tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanna, B K; Devaraj, T D; Roopa, K P; Nagendrappa, G; Kumar, H R Arun; Gowda, N

    2014-09-01

    A simple, rapid and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method is developed for the determination of risperidone in tablet formulation. The method is based on the oxidation of drug using potassium permanganate in alkaline medium and excess potassium permanganate oxidizes 1,10-phenanthroline Fe(II). The measurement of decrease in absorbance of 1,10-phenanthroline Fe (II) was done at 415 nm. The beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 5.0 to 40.0 μg/ml and molar absorptivity is found to be 7.3932 × 10(4) l/mol/cm. The proposed method is well suited for the pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:25425761

  5. Spectrophotometric estimation of risperidone in tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B K Jayanna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method is developed for the determination of risperidone in tablet formulation. The method is based on the oxidation of drug using potassium permanganate in alkaline medium and excess potassium permanganate oxidizes 1,10-phenanthroline Fe(II. The measurement of decrease in absorbance of 1,10-phenanthroline Fe (II was done at 415 nm. The beer′s law is obeyed in the concentration range of 5.0 to 40.0 μg/ml and molar absorptivity is found to be 7.3932 × 10 4 l/mol/cm. The proposed method is well suited for the pharmaceutical formulations.

  6. Reduction of erythema in hairless guinea pigs after cutaneous sulfur mustard vapor exposure by pretreatment with niacinamide, promethazine and indomethacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yourick, J.J.; Dawson, J.S.; Mitcheltree, L.W.

    1995-12-31

    Erythema is the initial symptom that occurs after sulfur mustard (HD) cutaneous exposure. The time course of HD-induced erythema is similar to that observed after UV irradiation, which can be reduced by indomethacin. Sulfur mustard lethality is decreased by using promethazine, which is an antihistamine. Niacinamide can reduce microvesication after HD vapor exposure in hairless guinea pig (HGP) skin. The present study examines the effect of the combined administration of niacinamide, indomethacin and promethazine used alone or in all possible combinations on the degree of erythema and histopathologic skin damage after HD exposure in HGP. Niacinamide (750 mg kg%`, i.p.), promethazine (12.5 mg kg%1, i.m.) or indomethacin (4 mg kg%1, p.o.) used singly or in combination was given as a 30-min pretreatment before an 8-min HD vapor cup skin exposure. Using a combination pretreatment of niacinamide, promethazine and indomethacin, erythema was reduced at 4 (91%) and 6 (55%) h, but not 24 h after HD. The incidence of histopathological skin changes (microvesicles, follicular involvement, epidermal necrosis, intracellular edema and pustular epidermatitis) 24 h after HD was not reduced. This study indicates that HD (induced erythema) may result from several different mechanisms, including inflammation, histamine release and DNA damage. It is suggested that two phases of inflammation may occur: an early phase sensitive to antihistamines and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and a late phase of extensive cell damage that was not sensitive to these drug pretreatments.

  7. Acute Dystonia Due to Citalopram Treatment: A Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Moosavi, S. Mohammad; Ahmadi, Mahshid; Monajemi, Mani B.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Abnormal movements such as acute dystonia, dyskinesia, parkinsonism, exacerbation of Parkinson disease, akathisia and possibly neuroleptic malignant syndrome may be associated with the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) rarely. Citalopram, a typical SSRI, used in serotonergic dysfunction related disorders, potentially can cause extrapyramidal symptoms such as acute dystonia. Methods: In a retrospective survey on patients referred to psychiatric clinic between...

  8. Citalopram associated with acute angle-closure glaucoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sabit

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute angle-closure glaucoma is a rare complication in patients receiving anti-depressant treatment. In the following case, we report the development of acute angle closure glaucoma in a patient who overdosed on Citalopram, an antidepressant, and discuss the possible etiological mechanisms for the condition. Case presentation We report a 54 year old, Caucasian lady, with depression and alcohol dependence syndrome, who developed acute angle-closure glaucoma after an overdose of Citalopram, along with alcohol. She was treated with medications and had bilateral Yag laser iridotomies to correct the glaucoma and has made complete recovery. In this case, the underlying cause for glaucoma appears to be related to the ingestion of Citalopram. Conclusion The patho-physiological basis for acute angle closure glaucoma in relation to antidepressant medications remains unclear. The authors suggest Citalopram may have a direct action on the Iris or Ciliary body muscle through serotonergic or anti-cholinergic mechanisms or both. This case highlights the importance of the awareness of the underlying risks, which may predispose an individual to develop acute angle-closure glaucoma, and reminds the clinicians the significance of history taking and examination of the eye before and after starting anti-depressants. This area needs to be further researched.

  9. Cardiac safety of citalopram: prospective trials and retrospective analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Poul Lind; Overø, K F; Tanghøj, P

    1999-01-01

    -controlled, fixed-dose trials in adult and elderly patients (N = 1,460) with major depression and/or dementia. Finally, more than 6,000 ECGs (N = 1,789 citalopram-treated patients) collected from all clinical trials conducted from 1978 through 1996 were reassessed in a standardized manner to identify any effects...

  10. Effects of Risperidone on Cognitive-Motor Performance and Motor Movements in Chronically Medicated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Michael G.; Hollway, Jill A.; Leone, Sarah; Masty, Jessica; Lindsay, Ronald; Nash, Patricia; Arnold, L. Eugene

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the placebo-controlled effects of risperidone on cognitive-motor processes, dyskinetic movements, and behavior in children receiving maintenance risperidone therapy. Sixteen children aged 4-14 years with disruptive behavior were randomly assigned to drug order in a crossover study of risperidone and placebo for 2…

  11. Citalopram increases the differentiation efifcacy of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into neuronal-like cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javad Verdi; Seyed Abdolreza Mortazavi-Tabatabaei; Shiva Sharif; Hadi Verdi; Alireza Shoae-Hassani

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants can promote neuronal cell proliferation and enhance neuroplasticity both in vitro and in vivo. It is hypothesized that citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, can promote the neuronal differentiation of adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Citalopram strongly enhanced neuronal characteristics of the cells derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The rate of cell death was decreased in citalopram-treated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells than in control cells in neurobasal medium. In addition, the cumulative population doubling level of the citalopram-treated cells was signiifcantly increased compared to that of control cells. Also BrdU incorporation was elevated in citalopram-treated cells. These ifndings suggest that citalopram can improve the neuronal-like cell differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by increasing cell proliferation and survival while maintaining their neuronal characteristics.

  12. RP-HPLC estimation of risperidone in tablet dosage forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bladania S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, specific, accurate, and precise reverse phase liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the estimation of risperidone in tablet dosage forms. A Phenomenex Gemini C-18, 5 µm column having 250x4.6 mm i.d. in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing methanol: acetonitrile: 50 mM potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (80:10:10 v/v was used. The flow rate was 1.3 ml/min and effluents were monitored at 234 nm. Clozapine was used as an internal standard. The retention time of risperidone and clozapine were 2.5 min and 3.3 min, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity, limit of quantification, limit of detection, robustness and stability. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for estimation of risperidone was found to be 500 ng/ml and 990 ng/ml, respectively. Recovery of risperidone was found to be in the range of 99.02-101.68%. Proposed method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of risperidone in tablet formulations.

  13. Characterization of an allosteric citalopram-binding site at the serotonin transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fenghua; Breum Larsen, Mads; Neubauer, Henrik Amtoft;

    2005-01-01

    -citalopram, sertraline,       serotonin and paroxetine. EC50 values for S- and R-citalopram are 3.6 +/-       0.4 microm and 19.4 +/- 2.3 microm, respectively. Fluoxetine, venlafaxine       and duloxetine have no significant effect on the dissociation of       [3H]S-citalopram. Allosteric modulation of dissociation...

  14. Histological changes in the liver of fetuses of pregnant rats following citalopram administration

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynab Mohammadi; Mahnaz Azarnia; Ghadireh Mirabolghasemi; Abdolhossein Shiravi; Zohreh Mohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Depression is a dilapidating disorder, which may occur during pregnancy. Citalopram is an antidepressant drug often prescribed to pregnant women. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether maternal administration of citalopram affects fetal liver histology. Materials and Methods: Pregnant Wistar albino rats were treated with citalopram (10 or 20 mg/kg/day). A control group received no treatment. Rat fetal liver samples were obtained on day 18 of gestation and eval...

  15. Efficacy and safety of citalopram versus amitriptyline in the treatment of major depression

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Anand; D K Sharma; Choudhary, Ashok; Jain, Mahendra

    2005-01-01

    Background: Double-blind clinical trials comparing citalopram with amitriptyline or other tricyclic antidepressants are lacking in India. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the newer antidepressant citalopram in the treatment of major depression. Methods: The clinical acceptability and safety profile of citalopram was assessed and compared with that of amitriptyline in 40 patients in an outpatient set-up. Patients aged 18 to 65 years who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for a single...

  16. Citalopram associated with acute angle-closure glaucoma: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Sabit; Thirumalai Srinivasa; Croos Robert; Davis Jane

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Acute angle-closure glaucoma is a rare complication in patients receiving anti-depressant treatment. In the following case, we report the development of acute angle closure glaucoma in a patient who overdosed on Citalopram, an antidepressant, and discuss the possible etiological mechanisms for the condition. Case presentation We report a 54 year old, Caucasian lady, with depression and alcohol dependence syndrome, who developed acute angle-closure glaucoma after an overdos...

  17. Citalopram--a review of pharmacological and clinical effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Bezchlibnyk-Butler, K; Aleksic, I; Kennedy, S. H.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide clinicians with a critical evaluation of citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) that has been available in Canada since March 1999. DATA SOURCES: Commercial searches (MEDLINE and BiblioTech) and an "in-house" search (InfoDrug) were used to find published English-language references for clinical and preclinical publications. There was no restriction of publication dates. Primary index terms used were: pharmacological properties, receptors, pharmacolog...

  18. Severe symptomatic hyponatremia during citalopram therapy - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergara Jesus

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyponatremia secondary to the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone is an uncommon complication of treatment with the new class of antidepressant agents, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The risk of hyponatremia seems to be highest during the first weeks of treatment particularly, in elderly females and in patients with a lower body weight. Case Presentation A 61-year-old diabetic male was admitted to the hospital because of malaise, progressive confusion, and a tonic/clonic seizure two weeks after starting citalopram, 20 mg/day. On physical examination the patient was euvolemic and had no evidence of malignancy, cardiac, renal, hepatic, adrenal or thyroid disease. Laboratory tests results revealed hyponatremia, serum hypoosmolality, urine hyperosmolarity, and an elevated urine sodium concentration, leading to the diagnosis of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. Citalopram was discontinued and fluid restriction was instituted. The patient was discharged after serum sodium increased from 124 mmol/L to 134 mmol/L. Two weeks after discharge the patient denied any new seizures, confusion or malaise. At that time his serum sodium was 135 mmol/L. Conclusions Because the use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors is becoming more popular among elderly depressed patients the present paper and other reported cases emphasize the need of greater awareness of the development of this serious complication and suggest that sodium serum levels should be monitored closely in elderly patients during treatment with citalopram.

  19. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Augmentation of Citalopram Treatment for Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Gertsik, Lev; Poland, Russell E.; Bresee, Catherine; Rapaport, Mark Hyman

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the efficacy of combination therapy with citalopram plus omega-3 fatty acids versus citalopram plus placebo (olive oil) in the initial treatment of individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). We hypothesized that combination therapy would not only lead to greater efficacy, but a more rapid onset of therapeutic response.

  20. Citalopram indtaget under graviditet og barn født med Mb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sebastian Werngreen; Qvist, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Citalopram taken during pregnancy and the child born with Ugeskr Laeger 2013;175:V03130178 A woman treated with citalopram during the entirety of her pregnancy bore a child with Hirschsprung’s disease. Theories on the development of the enteric nervous system support a possible negative effect of...

  1. Desensitisation of 5-HT autoreceptors upon pharmacokinetically monitored chronic treatment with citalopram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, TIFH; Spoelstra, EN; Bosker, FJ; Mork, A; den Boer, JA; Westerink, BHC; Wikstrom, HV

    2000-01-01

    Rats were chronically treated with the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor citalopram [1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-phtalancarbonitril], by means of osmotic minipumps. Using an infusion concentration of 50 mg/ml citalopram, steady-state plasma concentrations of approximately 0.

  2. Development of risperidone liposomes for brain targeting through intranasal route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Reema; Singh, Mohan; Ranjan, OmPrakash; Nayak, Yogendra; Garg, Sanjay; Shavi, Gopal V; Nayak, Usha Y

    2016-10-15

    The present paper is aimed at development of functionalized risperidone liposomes for brain targeting through nasal route for effective therapeutic management of schizophrenia. The risperidone liposomes were prepared by thin film hydration method. Various parameters such as lipid ratio and lipid to drug ratio were optimized by using Design-Expert(®) Software to obtain high entrapment with minimum vesicle size. The surface of the optimized liposomes was modified by coating stearylamine and MPEG-DSPE for enhanced penetration to the brain. The formulations were evaluated for vesicle size, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency. The morphology was studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). In vivo efficacy was assessed by performing pharmacokinetic study in Wistar albino rats following intranasal administration of the formulations in comparison to intravenous bolus administration of pure drug. The mean vesicle size of optimized liposomes ranged from 90 to 100nm with low polydispersity index (smooth bilayered surface. All formulations showed prolonged diffusion controlled drug release. The in vivo results showed that liposomal formulations provided enhanced brain exposure. Among the formulations studied, PEGylated liposomes (LP-16) had shown greater uptake of risperidone into the brain than plasma. High brain targeting efficiency index for LP-16 indicating preferential transport of the drug to brain. The study demonstrated successful formulation of surface modified risperidone liposomes for nasal delivery with brain targeting potential. PMID:27593571

  3. Dystonia with MPH/Risperidone Combined Therapy for ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millichap, J Gordon; Yee, Michelle M

    2016-01-01

    Investigators from Child Neurology and Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, report extrapyramidal symptoms in a 13-year-old boy with a psychiatric history of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and autism, responsive to combination risperidone, oxcarbazepine, and MPH. PMID:27004141

  4. CNS effects of citalopram, a new serotonin inhibitor antidepressant (a quantitative pharmaco-electroencephalography study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, T M; Menon, G N; Bozak, M M; Itil, K Z

    1984-01-01

    Citalopram, a new phthalane derivative and a specific serotonin re-uptake inhibitor in animal pharmacological tests, was evaluated in a double-blind, crossover, quantitative pharmaco-EEG (QPEEGTM) study in healthy human volunteers. The CNS effects of citalopram are linear, dose- and time-related, can statistically be differentiated from placebo, and indicate a rapid onset of effects with short duration. According to the Computer Data Bank, citalopram has a mode of action similar to mood elevators (antidepressants) with fewer sedative properties. Thus the therapeutic action of citalopram is predicted to be similar to desipramine and protriptyline from the tricyclics, and fluvoxamine from non-tricyclics. According to data bank assessment, it is hypothesized that the single antidepressant dose of citalopram is to be more than 25 mg, which should be given t.i.d. in clinical trials. PMID:6592676

  5. CNS effects of citalopram, a new serotonin inhibitor antidepressant (a quantitative pharmaco-electroencephalography study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, T M; Menon, G N; Bozak, M M; Itil, K Z

    1984-01-01

    Citalopram, a new phthalane derivative and a specific serotonin re-uptake inhibitor in animal pharmacological tests, was evaluated in a double-blind, crossover, quantitative pharmaco-EEG (QPEEGTM) study in healthy human volunteers. The CNS effects of citalopram are linear, dose- and time-related, can statistically be differentiated from placebo, and indicate a rapid onset of effects with short duration. According to the Computer Data Bank, citalopram has a mode of action similar to mood elevators (antidepressants) with fewer sedative properties. Thus the therapeutic action of citalopram is predicted to be similar to desipramine and protriptyline from the tricyclics, and fluvoxamine from non-tricyclics. According to data bank assessment, it is hypothesized that the single antidepressant dose of citalopram is to be more than 25 mg, which should be given t.i.d. in clinical trials.

  6. Costs and efficacy ofolanzapine and risperidone in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Mapelli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: schizophrenia is a serious and long lasting psychiatric disease. The new “atypical” antipsychotic drugs, introduced in the 90s, have substantially improved the effectiveness of medical treatments, compared to previous neuroleptic drugs. Nowadays they tend to be used as first choice drugs. The ddd cost of atypicals may differ by 20% and health authorities may have an incentive to deliver the less costly drug, especially if they are generic. However the various drugs show differential effectiveness rates and a rational choice should consider both cost and effectiveness.
Objective: the purpose of this analysis is to review the existing evidence on cost-effectiveness studies of olanzapine and risperidone, the two most prescribed drugs in Italy. Six published studies were identified, but attention was focused on two articles that reported consistent and methodologically sound results.
Results: most reviewed studies are cost-minimization analyses, since effectiveness indicators show no significant statistical difference between the two drugs, and are inconclusive since the results depend on the evaluation setting. However one observational retrospective study showed a significant severity reduction over 12 months for patients treated with olanzapine (-2.46 on HoNOS scale; p<0.05, compared to a smaller non significant reduction of the risperidone group (-0.57. Despite the higher drug cost, the average total cost per reduced severity score was lower for olanzapine than for risperidone patients (€ 4,554 vs. € 10,897. The only medical and related health care costs for risperidone patients were higher than total costs for olanzapine patients. Another study comparing cohorts of patients with similar starting severity showed a significant severity reduction and global functioning increase over 12 months for olanzapine but no significant increase for risperidone patients (-0.35, p<0.01 on CGI scale; +3.66, p <0.05 on GAF scale

  7. Neonatal administration of citalopram delays somatic maturation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C.B.J. Deiró

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the somatic maturation of neonate rats treated during the suckling period with citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Groups with 6 male neonates were randomly assigned to different treatments 24 h after birth. Each litter was suckled by one of the dams until the 21st postnatal day. Body weight, head axis and tail length were measured daily from the 1st to the 21st postnatal day. Time of ear unfolding, auditory conduit opening, incisor eruption, and eye opening was determined. Pups received 5 mg (Cit5, 10 mg (Cit10 or 20 mg/kg (Cit20 citalopram sc, or saline (0.9% NaCl, w/v, sc. Compared to saline, body weight was lower (24.04%, P < 0.01 for Cit10 from the 10th to the 21st day and for Cit20 from the 6th to the 21st day (38.19%, P < 0.01. Tail length was reduced in the Cit20 group (15.48%, P < 0.001 from the 8th to the 21st day. A reduction in mediolateral head axis (10.53%, P < 0.05 was observed from the 11th to the 21st day in Cit10 and from the 6th to the 21st day in Cit20 (13.16%, P < 0.001. A reduction in anteroposterior head axis was also observed in the Cit20 group (5.28%, P < 0.05 from the 13th to the 21stday. Conversely, this axis showed accelerated growth from the 12th to the 21stday in the Cit5 group (13.05%, P < 0.05. Auditory conduit opening was delayed in the Cit5 and Cit20 groups and incisor eruption was delayed in all citalopram groups. These findings show that citalopram injected during suckling to rats induces body alterations and suggest that the activity of the serotoninergic system participates in growth mechanisms.

  8. Multiple dose pharmacokinetics of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in Chinese female patients with schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-ling ZHOU; Qiu-xiong LIN; Chuan-yue WANG; Wen-biao LI; Shu-guang LIN; Huan-de LI; Xin LI; Huai-yan PENG; Xi-yong YU; Ming YANG; Feng-li SU; Feng WANG; Rong-hua ZHU; Chun-yu DENG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study the multiple dose clinical pharmacokinetics of risperidone and its main active metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone, in Chinese female patients with schizophrenia. Methods: The subjects were 23 Chinese female inpatients aged 18-65 years who met the CCMD-Ⅲ (third revision of the Chinese Criteria of Mental Disorders) criteria for schizophrenia. Subjects were tested after 17 d of treatment with 2 mg risperidone twice daily. Plasma concentrations of risperidone and 9-hydroxy-risperidone were assayed by using validated high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) methods. Results: Risperidone was rapidly absorbed (Tmax was 1.6 h) and its Tin in plasma was short (3.2 h).9-hydroxy-risperidone was quickly metabolized from the parent drug with a mean Tmax of 2.5 h. It had a long half-life of 24.7 h. The Cssav of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone were 36.9±33.1 and 110.6±30.5 μg·h·L-1, respectively, and the AUCss0-12 were 443.2±397.4 and 1327.2±402.3 μg·h·L-1, respectively. CL/F and V/F of risperidone were 8.7±6.2 L/h and 34.1±24.3 L, respectively. Interindividual variations for pharmacokinetic parameters were quite large for risperidone. All 23 subjects experienced high prolactin levels when treated with risperidone. However there was no correlation between prolactin level and the concentration of risperidone, 9-hydroxy-risperidone, or the active moiety. Conclusion: Risperidone showed large interindividual variations in pharmacokinetics. Administration of risperidone resulted in high serum prolactin levels. The results indicate that systemic exposure to risperidone and 9-hydroxy-risperidone in female Chinese schizophrenic patients is higher relative to published data for white Caucasian patients. Larger studies regarding the PK/PD relationship may be required to develop a reasonable clinical dosage regimen for Chinese female patients.

  9. Open channel block of Kv1.5 currents by citalopram

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyang Mi; Hahn, Sang June; Choi, Bok Hee

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To examine whether selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram interacts with Kv1.5, one of the cardiovascular-specific Kv channel isoforms. Methods: The interaction between citalopram and Kv1.5 expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells was studied using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Results: Citalopram reduced Kv1.5 whole-cell currents in a reversible concentration-dependent manner, with an IC50 value and a Hill coefficient of 2.8±1.1 μmol/L and 0.8±0.3, respectively. Cital...

  10. Chronic administration of citalopram inhibited El mouse convulsions and decreased monoamine oxidase-A activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Kabuto, Hideaki; Yokoi, Isao; Endo, Atsushi; Takei, Mineo; Kurimoto, Tadashi; Mori, Akitane

    1994-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is thought to play an important role in the seizures of El mice because the seizure threshold of El mice correlates with the 5-HT concentration in the central nervous system. In this study, the anticonvulsant effect of a 5-HT reuptake blocker, citalopram, was evaluated behaviorally and biochemically. El mouse convulsions were inhibited by chronic administration of citalopram (80 mg/kg/day, p.o. for 2 weeks), but were not inhibited by acute administration of citalopram (80 mg/...

  11. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Chih-Hsun; Hsu Chih-Wei; Tsao Tang-Yi; Chou Jason

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare inflammatory breast disease. The etiology and treatment options of IGM remain controversial. Previous case reports have suggested that hyperprolactinemia may be associated with IGM. In the present report, we describe the first case of IGM associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/8120093785928228

  12. Beliefs and social norms about codeine and promethazine hydrochloride cough syrup (CPHCS) use and addiction among multi-ethnic college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ronald; Yacoubian, George S; Rhodes, Warren; Forsythe, Karry J; Bowers, Kameko S; Eulian, Valencia M; Mangum, Clemmie A; O'Neal, Jamie D; Martin, Queen; Essien, E James

    2007-09-01

    In this study a qualitative approach is used to investigate relevant beliefs and norms concerning the consumption, initiation, and perceived addiction of codeine and promethazine hydrochloride cough syrup (CPHCS) among 61 college-age students who identified themselves as current CPHCS users. In general, a majority of students stated that doctors and pharmacists were the greatest facilitators of CPHCS acquisition. A majority of students believed that their friends felt codeine promethazine use was "normal" and "cool" among college students their age, and that reinforcing factors, such as peer pressure and curiosity, contributed to initial CPHCS use. PMID:18159781

  13. Potential bias in testing for hyperprolactinemia and pituitary tumors in risperidone-treated patients: a claims-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Jasmanda; Mahmoud Ramy; Pandina Gahan; Gianfrancesco Frank D; Wang Ruey H

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background A reporting association of risperidone with pituitary tumors has been observed. Because such tumors are highly prevalent, there may be other reasons why they were revealed in association with risperidone treatment. We assessed two potential explanations: disproportionately more prolactin assessment and head/brain imaging in risperidone-treated patients vs patients treated with other antipsychotics. Methods Treatment episodes with risperidone, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiap...

  14. The effect of dexamethasone and promethazine in combination with buparvaquone in the management of East Coast fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gwamaka

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dexamethasone and promethazine on the amelioration of pulmonary oedema in East Coast fever were investigated. The clinical effects of these drugs were further investigated when used in conjunction with the antitheilerial drug, buparvaquone. In the first experiment, 15 crossbred (Friesian x Zebu steers were divided into four groups. With the exception of the animals in group IV, that served as a control group all the others were infected with Theileria parva sporozoites. On the second day of the febrile reaction, the steers in groups I and II were treated with dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg and promethazine (1 mg/kg, respectively. Group III steers served as the infected untreated controls. On the fifth day of the febrile reaction the animals in groups I, II and III were infused intravenously with tattoo ink suspension and 1 h later sacrificed for post-mortem examination and tissue sampling. The clinical picture indicated that both drugs significantly mitigated dyspnoea and the post mortem examination revealed a significant reduction in morphological changes. Tattoo ink particle count reflected a significant (P < 0.01 reduction in vascular leakage in the treated animals, with promethazine being significantly (P < 0.05 more effective than dexamethasone in this respect. In the second experiment, 18 steers were infected with T. parva sporozoites, and then were randomly allotted into three groups each of which contained six animals. After the onset of ECF clinical signs, the animals in the first two groups were treated with buparvaquone in combination with either dexamethasone (group I or promethazine (group II, and the third group was treated with buparvaquone alone. The results indicated that all the animals in groups I, II and III recovered well and no significant differences were observed in clinical disposition between the groups. Two months later, serum samples were collected from the refractory animals and demonstrated the presence of

  15. Open-Label Treatment With Citalopram in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Masand, Prakash S.; Gupta, Sanjay; Schwartz, Thomas L; Virk, Subhdeep; Hameed, Ahmad; Kaplan, David S.

    2005-01-01

    Background: This open-label pilot study investigated whether the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram improves symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a functional gastrointestinal disorder with frequent psychiatric comorbidity.

  16. From the selective serotonin transporter inhibitor citalopram to the selective norepinephrine transporter inhibitor talopram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eildal, Jonas Nii Nortey; Andersen, Jacob; Kristensen, Anders Skov;

    2008-01-01

    Citalopram and talopram are structurally closely related, but they have very distinct pharmacological profiles as selective inhibitors of the serotonin and norepinephrine transporters, respectively. A systematic structure-activity relationship study was performed, in which each of the four...

  17. Tamoxifen's protection against breast cancer recurrence is not reduced by concurrent use of the SSRI citalopram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lash, T L; Pedersen, L; Cronin-Fenton, D;

    2008-01-01

    serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), so these widely used drugs - when taken concurrently - may reduce tamoxifen's prevention of breast cancer recurrence. We studied citalopram use in 184 cases of breast cancer recurrence and 184 matched controls without recurrence after equivalent follow-up. Cases and...... prescription databases from the National Health Service. Seventeen cases (9%) and 21 controls (11%) received at least one prescription for the SSRI citalopram while taking tamoxifen (adjusted conditional odds ratio=0.85, 95% confidence interval=0.42, 1.7). We also observed no reduction of tamoxifen...... effectiveness among regular citalopram users (>or=30% overlap with tamoxifen use). These results suggest that concurrent use of citalopram does not reduce tamoxifen's prevention of breast cancer recurrence....

  18. Adjunctive treatment with aripiprazole for risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjbar F

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatemeh Ranjbar,1 Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani,2,3 Parisa Niari Khams,1 Asghar Arfaie,1 Azim Salari,4 Mostafa Farahbakhsh1 1Clinical Psychiatry Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, East Azerbaijan, Iran; 2Road Traffic Injury Research Center, Department of Statistics & Epidemiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3World Health Organization Collaborating Center on Community Safety Promotion, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; 4Emam Khomeini Hospital, Naghadeh, West Azerbaijan, Iran Background: Antipsychotics have been used for more than 50 years in the treatment of schizophrenia and many other psychiatric disorders. Prolactin levels usually increase in patients treated with risperidone. Aripiprazole, which has a unique effect as an antipsychotic, is a D2 receptor partial agonist. It is an atypical antipsychotic with limited extrapyramidal symptoms. Since it acts as an antagonist in hyperdopaminergic conditions and as an agonist in hypodopaminergic conditions, it does not have adverse effects on serum prolactin levels. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of aripiprazole on risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Methods: This before-and-after clinical trial was performed in 30 patients. Baseline prolactin levels were measured in all patients who were candidates for treatment with risperidone. In subjects with elevated serum prolactin, aripiprazole was added to their treatment. Serum prolactin levels were measured during the first week, second week, and monthly thereafter for at least 3 months or until prolactin levels became normal. The data were analyzed using Stata version 11 software. Survival analysis and McNemar’s test were also performed. Results: The mean age of the participants was 30.8 years. Prolactin levels normalized in 23 (77% participants during the study, and menstrual disturbances normalized in 25 (83.3%. Prolactin levels normalized in most patients between days 50

  19. Formulation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of transdermal patches containing risperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Geeta; Dhawan, Sanju; Hari Kumar, S L

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of oral risperidone treatment in prevention of schizophrenia is well known. However, oral side effects and patient compliance is always a problem for schizophrenics. In this study, risperidone was formulated into matrix transdermal patches to overcome these problems. The formulation factors for such patches, including eudragit RL 100 and eudragit RS 100 as matrix forming polymers, olive oil, groundnut oil and jojoba oil in different concentrations as enhancers and amount of drug loaded were investigated. The transdermal patches containing risperidone were prepared by solvent casting method and characterized for physicochemical and in vitro permeation studies through excised rat skin. Among the tested preparations, formulations with 20% risperidone, 3:2 ERL 100 and ERS 100 as polymers, mixture of olive oil and jojoba oil as enhancer, exhibited greatest cumulative amount of drug permeated (1.87 ± 0.09 mg/cm(2)) in 72 h, so batch ROJ was concluded as optimized formulation and assessed for pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and skin irritation potential. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of the optimized risperidone patch were determined using rabbits, while orally administered risperidone in solution was used for comparison. The calculated relative bioavailability of risperidone transdermal patch was 115.20% with prolonged release of drug. Neuroleptic efficacy of transdermal formulation was assessed by rota-rod and grip test in comparison with control and marketed oral formulations with no skin irritation. This suggests the transdermal application of risperidone holds promise for improved bioavailability and better management of schizophrenia in long-term basis.

  20. Prolactin release in children treated with risperidone: impact and role of CYP2D6 metabolism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, P.W.; Lahuis, B.E.; Hermans, M.H.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Engeland, H. van; Scahill, L.; Minderaa, R.B.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the role of CYP2D6 polymorphism in risperidone-induced prolactin release in children. METHOD: Twenty-five children (aged 5-15 years) with pervasive developmental disorders were genotyped for CYP2D6 polymorphisms. Serum prolactin, risperidone, and 9-hydroxyrisperidone

  1. Prolactin release in children treated with risperidone - Impact and role of CYP2D6 metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, Pieter W.; Lahuis, Bertine E.; Hermans, Mirjam H.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; van Engeland, Herman; Scahill, Lawrence; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the role of CYP2136 polymorphism in risperidone-induced prolactin release in children. Method: Twenty-five children (aged 5-15 years) with pervasive developmental disorders were genotyped for CYP2D6 polymorphisms. Serum prolactin, risperidone, and 9-hydroxyrisperidon

  2. Clinical utility of the risperidone formulations in the management of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madaan V

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Vishal Madaan1, Durga P Bestha2, Venkata Kolli2, Saurabh Jauhari2, Roger C Burket1 1University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, USA; 2Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA Abstract: Risperidone is one of the early second-generation antipsychotics that came into the limelight in the early 1990s. Both the oral and long-acting injectable formulations have been subject to numerous studies to assess their safety, efficacy, and tolerability. Risperidone is currently one of the most widely prescribed antipsychotic medications, used for both acute and long-term maintenance in schizophrenia. Risperidone has better efficacy in the treatment of psychotic symptoms than placebo and possibly many first-generation antipsychotics. Risperidone fares better than placebo and first-generation antipsychotics in the treatment of negative symptoms. Risperidone's long acting injectable preparation has been well tolerated and is often useful in patients with medication nonadherence. Risperidone has a higher risk of hyperprolactinemia comparable to first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs but fares better than many second-generation antipsychotics with regards to metabolic side effects. In this article, we briefly review the recent literature exploring the role of risperidone formulations in schizophrenia, discuss clinical usage, and highlight the controversies and challenges associated with its use. Keywords: risperidone, schizophrenia, formulation, antipsychotic, side effects

  3. Citalopram increases the differentiation efficacy of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into neuronal-like cells

    OpenAIRE

    Verdi, Javad; Mortazavi-Tabatabaei, Seyed AbdolReza; Sharif, Shiva; Verdi, Hadi; Shoae-Hassani, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants can promote neuronal cell proliferation and enhance neuroplasticity both in vitro and in vivo. It is hypothesized that citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, can promote the neuronal differentiation of adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Citalopram strongly enhanced neuronal characteristics of the cells derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The rate of cell death was d...

  4. Variations in response to citalopram in men and women with alcohol dependence.

    OpenAIRE

    Naranjo, C A; Knoke, D M; Bremner, K.E.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the differential effects of citalopram on alcohol consumption in nondepressed women and men with mild to moderate alcohol dependence. DESIGN: Prospective, placebo-controlled study. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-one subjects (34 men and 27 women). INTERVENTIONS: After a 2-week baseline, subjects were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of citalopram (40 mg per day) (n = 15 women, 16 men) or placebo (n = 12 women, 18 men). All received brief standard psychosocial interventions. OUTCOME ME...

  5. The role of adenosine receptors and endogenous adenosine in citalopram-induced cardiovascular toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Kubilay Oransay; Nil Hocaoglu; Mujgan Buyukdeligoz; Yesim Tuncok; Sule Kalkan

    2014-01-01

    Aim: We investigated the role of adenosine in citalopram-induced cardiotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Protocol 1: Rats were randomized into four groups. Sodium cromoglycate was administered to rats. Citalopram was infused after the 5% dextrose, 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX; A 1 receptor antagonist), 8-(-3-chlorostyryl)-caffeine (CSC; A 2a receptor antagonist), or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) administrations. Protocol 2: First group received 5% dextrose intraperitoneally 1 hour...

  6. The effects of acute citalopram dosing on gastric motor function and nutrient tolerance in healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Pieter; Oudenhove, Lukas Van; Casteels, Cindy; De Vos, Rita; Verbeke, Kristin; Tack, Jan

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether endogenous serotonin release is involved in the regulation of gastric motility and food intake. AIM: To study the effect of acute administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram on gastric motor function in man. METHODS: Nineteen healthy volunteers underwent a gastric barostat, gastric emptying and/or a drinking test after dosing with either placebo or citalopram (20 mg intravenously). In the barostat protocol, a flacc...

  7. The effectiveness and limitations of regulatory warnings for the safe prescribing of citalopram

    OpenAIRE

    Friesen KJ; Bugden SC

    2015-01-01

    Kevin J Friesen, Shawn C BugdenFaculty of Health Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, CanadaBackground: Citalopram is the most commonly prescribed antidepressant in Canada. Concerns have been raised about its cardiac safety, and a dose-dependent prolongation of the QT interval has been documented. Drug interactions involving concomitant use of other medications that prolong the QT interval or increase citalopram levels by interfering with its metabolism increas...

  8. EFFICACY OF CITALOPRAM IN TREATMENT OF PATHOLOGICAL SKIN PICKING, A RANDOMIZED DOUBLE BLIND PLACEBO CONTROLLED TRIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Arbabi, M; V Farnia; K. Balighi; M.R. Mohammadi; A A Nejati-Safa; k Yazdchi; Golestan, B; F Darvish

    2008-01-01

    "nVarious studies suggest that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may be useful in treating pathological skin picking (PSP). This study sought to assess effectiveness of citalopram in comparison with placebo in treating PSP. Forty five individuals with PSP were recruited in a four-week, randomized clinical trial of citalopram (20 mg/day) in comparison with placebo. Study measures assessing skin picking severity, mental health status, obsessive compulsive disorder and quality...

  9. A Comparative Study on the Sedative Effect of Oral Midazolam and Oral Promethazine Medication in Lumbar Puncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojjat DERAKHSHANFAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Derakhshanfar H, Modanlookordi M, Amini A, Shahrami A. A Comparative Study of the Sedative Effect of Oral Midazolam and Oral Promethazine Medication in Lumbar Puncture. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Spring;7(2:11-16. ObjectiveLumbar puncture (LP essentially is a painful and stressful procedure that indicated for diagnosis and therapeutic purposes. One way to reduce the anxiety is to administer an oral premedication. The aim of this study is to compare clinical effects of oral midazolam and oral promethazine in LP.Materials & MethodsThis prospective randomized controlled clinical trial study wasperformed on 80 children aged 2-7 years that were candidate for LP. They were divided into two randomized equal groups. First group received oral midazolam syrup 0.5 mg/kg and the other group received oral promethazine syrup 1mg/kg. Level of sedation, hemodynamic changes and any other complications were monitored every 5 minutes from 30 minutes before the start of the procedure.ResultsMidazolam group and promethazine group were similar in age, gender and weight. Midazolam had significantly shorter onset of sedation and also shorter duration to maximal sedation. The two groups were similar with respect to sedative effect at all time. The only complication that was significantly more in midazolam group was nausea and vomiting.ConclusionMidazolam syrup and promethazine syrup have same sedative effect in children. Both of these medications are easy to use in preschool children and none of them appeared to be superior to another. References1. Ellenby MS, Tegtmeyer K, Lai S, Braner DA. Lumbar Puncture. N Engl J Med 2006;28;355(13:e12.2. Crock C, Olsson C, Phillips R, Chalkiadis G, Sawyer S, Ashley D, et al. General anesthesia or conscious sedation for painful procedures in childhood cancer: The family’s perspective. Arch Dis Child 2003;88(3:253−7.3. Holdsworth MT, Raisch DW, Winter SS, Frost JD, Moro MA, Doran NH, et al. Pain and

  10. EFFICACY OF CITALOPRAM IN TREATMENT OF PATHOLOGICAL SKIN PICKING, A RANDOMIZED DOUBLE BLIND PLACEBO CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Arbabi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nVarious studies suggest that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs may be useful in treating pathological skin picking (PSP. This study sought to assess effectiveness of citalopram in comparison with placebo in treating PSP. Forty five individuals with PSP were recruited in a four-week, randomized clinical trial of citalopram (20 mg/day in comparison with placebo. Study measures assessing skin picking severity, mental health status, obsessive compulsive disorder and quality of life were given at baseline, weeks 2 and 4. PSP severity, general health status, obsession-compulsion severity and quality of life level were similar between two groups at baseline (P > 0.05. Treatment analyses revealed significant improvements in quality of life, general health status and obsession-compulsion severity in citalopram group compared to placebo group (P < 0.05. Mean PSP severity reduction in citalopram group was more than placebo group but this difference was not significant. Citalopram can improve general health status and quality of life in individuals with PSP but its effect on skin picking behavior doesn't differ significantly with placebo. Other trials with longer time are needed to determine the exact efficacy of citalopram on PSP

  11. A population pharmacokinetic model for R- and S-citalopram and desmethylcitalopram in Alzheimer’s disease patients with agitation

    OpenAIRE

    Akil, Ayman; Bies, Robert R.; Bruce G Pollock; Avramopoulos, Dimitrios; Devanand, D. P.; Mintzer, Jacobo E.; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Schneider, Lon S; Weintraub, Daniel; Yesavage, Jerome; Shade, David M.; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

    2015-01-01

    The citalopram for Alzheimer’s disease trial evaluated citalopram for the management for agitation in Alzheimer’s disease patients. Sparse data was available from this elderly patient population. A nonlinear mixed effects population pharmacokinetic modeling approach was used to describe the pharmacokinetics of R- and S-citalopram and their primary metabolite (desmethylcitalopram). A structural model with 4 compartments (one compartment/compound) with linear oral absorption and elimination des...

  12. An Unusual Case of Serotonin Syndrome with Oxycodone and Citalopram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Walter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 77-year-old female with recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer presented to a hospital outpatient clinic with tremor, weakness, inability to coordinate motor movements, and confusion. It was suspected that the symptoms were due to possible central nervous system metastases; however, a CT scan of her head was unremarkable. The lung clinic liaison pharmacist took a medication history from the patient, complimented by extra information from the patient’s community pharmacy. The pharmacist suspected the rare side effect of serotonin syndrome was responsible for the patient’s presenting symptoms caused by the combination of oxycodone and citalopram. The patient’s symptoms resolved soon after oxycodone was changed to morphine.

  13. Life-threatening overdose with lamotrigine, citalopram, and chlorpheniramine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatraman N

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lamotrigine is a commonly used agent for seizure control in epilepsy. There are limited data on the adverse effects of lamotrigine in overdose. We report a number of serious side-effects associated with a large overdose of lamotrigine. A 23-year-old female presented to the emergency department after taking an intentional overdose of 9.2 g of lamotrigine, 56 mg of chlorpheniramine, and 220 mg of citalopram. On admission, she had a reduced level of consciousness and electrocardiographic abnormalities; a widened QRS and a prolonged corrected QT (QTc interval. Prompt treatment with early intubation, along with the use of magnesium for cardioprotection and administration of sodium bicarbonate may have aided in a quick recovery with a short intensive care stay and good outcome.

  14. Beliefs and Social Norms about Codeine and Promethazine Hydrochloride Cough Syrup (CPHCS) Onset and Perceived Addiction among Urban Houstonian Adolescents: An Addiction Trend in the City of Lean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ronald J., Jr.; Kelder, Steven H.; Markham, Christine M.; Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Peters, LeCresha A.; Ellis, Artist

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, we used a qualitative approach to investigate relevant beliefs and norms associated with codeine and promethazine hydrochloride cough syrup (CPHCS) consumption, initiation, and perceived addiction among 48 alternative school students who identified themselves as current CPHCS users. In general, both boys and girls believed…

  15. Observational Study of Retention Samples of Promethazine Hydrochloride Syrup%盐酸异丙嗪糖浆的留样观察研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭芳玲; 张志华; 何周康

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the stability of Promethazine Hydrochloride Syrup. Methods: To observe and study its qualitative stability, this article is based on the quality standard of ( Hunan ) weiyaoji ( 98 ) 13 NO. 023, Promethazine Hydrochloride Syrup. The stability was inspected when it was stored under the prescriptive conditions by using room temperature retention samples. Results: The Promethazine Hydrochloride Syrup was stored at room temperature for 12 months. The indicators were in line with the quality standard. Conclusions: According to the stability results, Promethazine Hydrochloride Syrup at room temperature for 12 months is stable and reliable.%目的:考察盐酸异丙嗪糖浆的稳定性.方法:为考究其质量稳定性,以(湘)卫药剂(98)13第023号盐酸异丙嗪糖浆项下质量标准为依据,采用室温留样观察法,考察其在规定条件下贮存的稳定性.结果:盐酸异丙嗪糖浆在室温下贮存12个月,各项指标都符合质量标准.结论:根据稳定性考察结果,盐酸异丙嗪糖浆在室温下12个月内含量稳定、质量可靠.

  16. Combination treatment of tamoxifen with risperidone in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lan Yeh

    Full Text Available Tamoxifen has long been used and still is the most commonly used endocrine therapy for treatment of both early and advanced estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in pre- and post-menopause women. Tamoxifen exerts its cytotoxic effect primarily through cytostasis which is associated with the accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Apoptotic activity can also be exerted by tamoxifen which involves cleavage of caspase 9, caspase 7, caspase 3, and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP. Down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bak have also been observed. In addition, stress response protein of GRP 94 and GRP 78 have also been induced by tamoxifen in our study. However, side effects occur during tamoxifen treatment in breast cancer patients. Researching into combination regimen of tamoxifen and drug(s that relieves tamoxifen-induced hot flushes is important, because drug interactions may decrease tamoxifen efficacy. Risperidone has been shown to be effective in reducing or eliminating hot flushes on women with hormonal variations. In this present study, we demonstrated that combination of tamoxifen with risperidone did not interfered tamoxifen-induced cytotoxic effects in both in vitro and in vivo models, while fluoxetine abrogated the effects of tamoxifen. This is the first paper suggesting the possibility of combination treatment of tamoxifen with risperidone in breast cancer patients, providing a conceivable resolution of tamoxifen-induced side effects without interfering the efficacy of tamoxifen against breast cancer.

  17. Effectiveness of Risperidone Augmentation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Experience From a Specialty Clinic in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Aditya; Kalyani, Bangalore G; Arumugham, Shyam Sundar; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Math, Suresh Bada; Reddy, Y C Janardhan

    2016-08-01

    Risperidone is the most widely used augmenting agent in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, a recent controlled study found risperidone to be no different from placebo, raising doubts about its effectiveness. In this context, we sought to examine the real-world effectiveness of risperidone from the large database of an OCD clinic in India. A total of 1314 consecutive patients who registered at the OCD clinic between 2004 and 2014 were evaluated with structured interviews and scales. Patients with OCD initiated on risperidone augmentation without concurrent cognitive behavior therapy and who were on stable and adequate doses of serotonin reuptake inhibitors for at least 12 preceding weeks were included for analysis. The primary outcome measure was all-cause discontinuation. Logistic regression was performed to identify the factors predicting improvement with risperidone augmentation. A total of 92 patients were eligible for analysis. Risperidone continued to be used in 23 patients (25%) at the time of last follow-up, and the remaining discontinued either because of ineffectiveness or intolerability. The fall in the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores was significantly greater in patients who continued to take risperidone when compared with those who did not (41.6% vs 3.7%, t = 6.95, P Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores. On regression analysis, no predictors of improvement with risperidone augmentation could be identified. The study demonstrated, in a real-world setting, that risperidone may be a useful augmenting agent in a proportion of patients with partial/poor response to serotonin reuptake inhibitors. PMID:27219093

  18. Paliperidone ER and oral risperidone in patients with schizophrenia: a comparative database analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schooler Nina

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare the efficacy and tolerability of paliperidone extended-release (ER with risperidone immediate-release using propensity score methodology. Methods Six double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, short-term clinical trials for acute schizophrenia with availability of individual patient-level data were identified (3 per compound. Propensity score pairwise matching was used to balance observed covariates between the paliperidone ER and risperidone patient populations. Scores were generated using logistic regression models, with age, body mass index, race, sex, baseline Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS total score and baseline Clinical Global Impressions–Severity (CGI-S score as factors. The dosage range of paliperidone ER (6-12 mg/day was compared with 2 risperidone dosage ranges: 2-4 and 4-6 mg/day. The primary efficacy measure was change in PANSS total score at week 6 end point. Tolerability end points included adverse event (AE reports and weight. AEs with rates ≥5% and with a ≥2% difference between paliperidone ER and risperidone were identified. Results Completion rates for placebo-treated subjects in paliperidone ER trials (n = 95 and risperidone trials (n = 122 groups were 36.8% and 51.6%, respectively; end point changes on PANSS total scores were similar (p = 0.768. Completion rates for subjects receiving paliperidone ER 6-12 mg/day (n = 179, risperidone 2-4 mg/day (n = 113 or risperidone 4-6 mg/day (n = 129 were 64.8%, 54.0% and 66.7%, respectively (placebo-adjusted rates: paliperidone ER vs risperidone 2-4 mg/day, p = 0.005; paliperidone ER vs risperidone 4-6 mg/day, p = 0.159. PANSS total score improvement with paliperidone ER was greater than with risperidone 2-4 mg/day (difference in mean change score, -6.7; p Conclusions This indirect database analysis suggested that paliperidone ER 6-12 mg/day may be more efficacious than risperidone 2-4 mg/day and as efficacious as risperidone 4-6 mg

  19. Electrochemical study of oxidation process of promethazine using sensor based on carbon nanotubes paste containing immobilized DNA on inorganic matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Marco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the voltammetric behavior and the oxidation process of promethazine (PHZ in electrochemical sensor based on carbon nanotubes paste containing DNA immobilized on the inorganic matrix prepared by sol-gel process (SiO2/Al2O3/Nb2O5. The method of Laviron verified that the system is irreversible and high speed of electron transfer between the electrode and DNA. The study of the oxidation of PHZ and influence of pH showed slope of 0.054 V / pH (near the nernstian system: 0.0592 V / pH suggesting that it involves the transfer of two protons and two electrons.

  20. SSRIs and ejaculation: a double-blind, randomized, fixed-dose study with paroxetine and citalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldinger, M D; Zwinderman, A H; Olivier, B

    2001-12-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are known to induce delayed orgasm and ejaculation. However, different SSRIs may differentially delay ejaculation. A double-blind, fixed-dose study in healthy men with lifelong rapid ejaculation was performed to evaluate potential differences between clinically relevant doses of two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, paroxetine and citalopram, in their effects on ejaculation. Thirty men with an intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) less than 1 minute were randomly assigned to receive paroxetine (20 mg/day) and citalopram (20 mg/day) for 5 weeks, after taking half the dosage in the first week. During the 1-month baseline and 6-week treatment period, IELTs were measured at home by using a stopwatch procedure. The trial was completed by 23 men. Analysis of variance revealed a between-group difference in the evolution of IELT delay over time (p = 0.0004); the IELT after paroxetine and citalopram gradually increased from 18 and 21 seconds to approximately 170 and 44 seconds, respectively. Paroxetine 20 mg/day exerted a strong delay (8.9-fold increase), whereas citalopram 20 mg/day mildly delayed ejaculation (1.8-fold increase). These results indicate that paroxetine leads to a significant delay in orgasm and ejaculation, whereas citalopram seems to have less of an effect on it. PMID:11763001

  1. Chronic citalopram administration causes a sustained suppression of serotonin synthesis in the mouse forebrain.

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    Gerard Honig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serotonin (5-HT is a neurotransmitter with important roles in the regulation of neurobehavioral processes, particularly those regulating affect in humans. Drugs that potentiate serotonergic neurotransmission by selectively inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin (SSRIs are widely used for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Although the regulation of serotonin synthesis may be an factor in SSRI efficacy, the effect of chronic SSRI administration on 5-HT synthesis is not well understood. Here, we describe effects of chronic administration of the SSRI citalopram (CIT on 5-HT synthesis and content in the mouse forebrain. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Citalopram was administered continuously to adult male C57BL/6J mice via osmotic minipump for 2 days, 14 days or 28 days. Plasma citalopram levels were found to be within the clinical range. 5-HT synthesis was assessed using the decarboxylase inhibition method. Citalopram administration caused a suppression of 5-HT synthesis at all time points. CIT treatment also caused a reduction in forebrain 5-HIAA content. Following chronic CIT treatment, forebrain 5-HT stores were more sensitive to the depleting effects of acute decarboxylase inhibition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these results demonstrate that chronic citalopram administration causes a sustained suppression of serotonin synthesis in the mouse forebrain. Furthermore, our results indicate that chronic 5-HT reuptake inhibition renders 5-HT brain stores more sensitive to alterations in serotonin synthesis. These results suggest that the regulation of 5-HT synthesis warrants consideration in efforts to develop novel antidepressant strategies.

  2. SSRIs and ejaculation: a double-blind, randomized, fixed-dose study with paroxetine and citalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldinger, M D; Zwinderman, A H; Olivier, B

    2001-12-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are known to induce delayed orgasm and ejaculation. However, different SSRIs may differentially delay ejaculation. A double-blind, fixed-dose study in healthy men with lifelong rapid ejaculation was performed to evaluate potential differences between clinically relevant doses of two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, paroxetine and citalopram, in their effects on ejaculation. Thirty men with an intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) less than 1 minute were randomly assigned to receive paroxetine (20 mg/day) and citalopram (20 mg/day) for 5 weeks, after taking half the dosage in the first week. During the 1-month baseline and 6-week treatment period, IELTs were measured at home by using a stopwatch procedure. The trial was completed by 23 men. Analysis of variance revealed a between-group difference in the evolution of IELT delay over time (p = 0.0004); the IELT after paroxetine and citalopram gradually increased from 18 and 21 seconds to approximately 170 and 44 seconds, respectively. Paroxetine 20 mg/day exerted a strong delay (8.9-fold increase), whereas citalopram 20 mg/day mildly delayed ejaculation (1.8-fold increase). These results indicate that paroxetine leads to a significant delay in orgasm and ejaculation, whereas citalopram seems to have less of an effect on it.

  3. Design and Subject Characteristics in the Federally-Funded Citalopram Trial in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Lawrence; McCracken, James T.; Bearss, Karen; Robinson, Fay; Hollander, Eric; King, Bryan; Bregman, Joel; Sikich, Lin; Dukes, Kimberly; Sullivan, Lisa; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Donnelly, Craig; Kim, Young-Shin; Ritz, Louise; Hirtz, Deborah; Wagner, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The Studies to Advance Autism Research and Treatment Network conducted a randomized trial with citalopram in children with Pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). We present the rationale, design and sample characteristics of the citalopram trial. Subjects (128 boys, 21 girls) had a mean age of 9.3 (plus or minus 3.12) years; 132 (88.6%) were…

  4. Changes in QTc interval in the citalopram for agitation in Alzheimer's disease (CitAD randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea T Drye

    Full Text Available A Food and Drug Administration (FDA safety communication in August 2011 warned that citalopram was associated with a dose dependent risk of QT prolongation and recommended dose restriction in patients over the age of 60 but did not provide data for this age group.CitAD was a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial for agitation in Alzheimer's disease (AD. Participants were assigned to citalopram (target dose of 30 mg/day or placebo in a 1 ∶ 1 ratio. 186 people, 181 of whom were over the age of 60, having probable AD with clinically significant agitation were recruited from September 2009 to January 2013. After the FDA safety communication about citalopram, ECG was added to the required study procedures before enrollment and repeated at week 3 to monitor change in QTc interval. Forty-eight participants were enrolled after enhanced monitoring began.Citalopram treatment was associated with a larger increase in QTc interval than placebo (difference in week 3 QTc adjusting for baseline QTc: 18.1 ms [95% CI: 6.1, 30.1]; p = 0.004. More participants in the citalopram group had an increase ≥ 30 ms from baseline to week 3 (7 in citalopram versus 1 in placebo; Fisher's exact p = 0.046, but only slightly more in the citalopram group met a gender-specific threshold for prolonged QTc (450 ms for males; 470 ms for females at any point during follow-up (3 in citalopram versus 1 in placebo, Fisher's exact p = 0.611. One of the citalopram participants who developed prolonged QTc also displayed ventricular bigeminy. No participants in either group had a cardiovascular-related death.Citalopram at 30 mg/day was associated with improvement in agitation in patients with AD but was also associated with QT prolongation.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00898807.

  5. Risperidone in Children and Adolescents with Conduct Disorder: A Single-Center, Open-Label Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ercan, Eyüp Sabri; Kutlu, Ayşe; Çıkoğlu, Sibel; Veznedaroğlu, Baybars; Erermiş, Serpil; Varan, Azmi

    2003-01-01

    Background: Risperidone is one of the most commonly used atypical antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of children and adolescents. However, the data about its use in children and adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) are limited.

  6. Serum prolactin levels and sexual dysfunctions in antipsychotic medication, such as risperidone : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegtering, H; Lambers, PA; Prakken, G; ten Brink, C

    2000-01-01

    Classical antipsychotic drugs increase the level of serum prolactin. The atypical antipsychotic clozapine barely increases prolactin levels. An open naturalistic study in the University Hospital of Groningen suggests that treatment with risperidone in comparison to classical antipsychotics seems to

  7. Effect of the coadministration of citalopram with mirtazapine or atipamezole on rat contextual conditioned fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuda T

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Takahiro Masuda,1,2 Takeshi Inoue,1 Yan An,1 Naoki Takamura,1,3 Shin Nakagawa,1 Yuji Kitaichi,1 Tsukasa Koyama,1 Ichiro Kusumi1 1Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo Japan; 2Medical Affairs, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma, Co, Ltd, Tokyo, Japan; 3Regenerative and Cellular Medicine Office, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma, Co, Ltd, Osaka, Japan Background: Mirtazapine, a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant, which blocks the α2-adrenergic autoreceptors and heteroreceptors, has shown anxiolytic properties in clinical trials and preclinical animal experiments. The addition of mirtazapine to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs is clinically suggested to be more effective for anxiety disorders. In this study, we examined the combined effects of mirtazapine and citalopram, an SSRI, on the freezing behavior of rats, which was induced by contextual conditioned fear as an index of anxiety or fear. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats individually received footshocks in a shock chamber, and 24 hours later, they were given citalopram and/or mirtazapine injections. One hour after citalopram and 30 minutes after mirtazapine administration, freezing behavior was analyzed in the same shock chamber without shocks. Results: Mirtazapine decreased freezing in a dose-dependent manner, which is consistent with a previous report; it also enhanced an anxiolytic-like effect at a high dose (30 mg/kg of citalopram. Because mirtazapine blocks α2-adrenoreceptors, the combined effect of atipamezole, a selective α2 receptor antagonist, with citalopram was also examined. Similar to mirtazapine, atipamezole reduced freezing dose-dependently, but the enhancement of citalopram's effects by atipamezole was not clear when compared with mirtazapine. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that mirtazapine has an anxiolytic-like effect and may enhance the anxiolytic-like effect of SSRIs, but this enhancement may not be

  8. Serotonin transporter polymorphism alters citalopram effects on human pain responses to physical pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yina; Wang, Chenbo; Luo, Siyang; Li, Bingfeng; Wager, Tor D; Zhang, Wenxia; Rao, Yi; Han, Shihui

    2016-07-15

    Humans exhibit substantial inter-individual differences in pain perception, which contributes to variability in analgesic efficacy. Individual differences in pain sensitivity have been linked with variation in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR), and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as citalopram have been increasingly used as treatments for multiple pain conditions. We combined genotyping, pharmacological challenge, and neuroimaging during painful electrical stimulation to reveal how serotonin genetics and pharmacology interact to influence pain perception and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled procedure, we acutely administrated citalopram (30mgpo) to short/short (s/s) and long/long (l/l) healthy male 5-HTTLPR homozygotes during functional MRI with painful and non-painful electrical stimulation. 5-HTTLPR genotype modulated citalopram effects on pain-related brain responses in the thalamus, cerebellum, anterior insula, midcingulate cortex and inferior frontal cortex. Specifically, citalopram significantly reduced pain-related brain responses in l/l but not in s/s homozygotes. Moreover, the interaction between 5-HTTLPR genotype and pain-related brain activity was a good predictor of the citalopram-induced reductions in pain reports. The genetic modulations of citalopram effects on brain-wide pain processing were paralleled by significant effects on the Neurological Pain Signature, a multivariate brain pattern validated to be sensitive and specific to physical pain. This work provides neurobiological mechanism by which genetic variation shapes brain responses to pain perception and treatment efficacy. These findings have important implications for the types of individuals for whom serotonergic treatments provide effective pain relief, which is critical for advancing personalized pain treatment. PMID:27132044

  9. Antipsychotic discontinuation syndrome following risperidone withdrawal: a case report from rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Sanivarapu, Sravanti L.; Krishnamurthy CN

    2014-01-01

    Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic agent used primarily to treat schizophrenia. It is a dopamine antagonist with antiserotonergic, antihistaminergic and antiadrenergic properties. Antipsychotic discontinuation symptoms have been described in the literature following abrupt or rapid reduction in the dose. This unusual case demonstrates that sudden withdrawal of even a modest dose of risperidone may cause significant discontinuation symptoms in susceptible individuals. Hence, there is a n...

  10. Evidence based administration of risperidone and paliperidone for the treating conduct disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates the evidence-based administration of risperidone and paliperidone for the treating children and adolescents with conduct disorder (CD). Materials and Methods: A review of the current literature from clinical trials that investigated the efficacy of risperidone and paliperidone on CD considering the inclusion criteria and search strategies was performed by a search of PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Results: Out of 53 titles, 31 were irrelevant. The abstra...

  11. A Comparison of Risperidone and Buspirone for Treatment of Behavior Disorders in Children with Phenylketonuria

    OpenAIRE

    FAYYAZI, Afshin; Elham SALARI*; Ali KHAJEH; Abdi GAJARPOUR

    2014-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Fayyazi A, Salari E, Khajeh A, Ghajarpour A. A Comparison of Risperidone and Buspirone for Treatment ofBehavior Disorders in Children with Phenylketonuria. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Autumn; 8(4):33-38.AbstractObjectiveMany patients with late-diagnosed phenylketonuria (PKU) suffer from severe behavior problems. This study compares the effects of buspirone and risperidone on reducing behavior disorders in these patients.Materials & MethodsIn this crossover clinical...

  12. Normalization of Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia with the Addition of Aripiprazole

    OpenAIRE

    Shores, Larry E.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor metabolic changes, including hyperprolactinemia, in adolescents medicated with atypical antipsychotics, especially when polypharmacy is involved. This study specifically followed risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia in adolescents (14 male patients and 2 female patients) after aripiprazole was added to begin transitioning to another atypical antipsychotic. No other changes were made in the medication regimen. Risperidone was continued at the previo...

  13. Effect of citalopram in the modified forced swim test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuśmider, Maciej; Solich, Joanna; Pałach, Paulina; Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, Marta

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of citalopram (7.5 and 15 mg/kg) in the modified forced swim test (FST) in Wistar rats, in comparison to the effect of desipramine at the same doses. The citalopram at both doses increased swimming behavior, at the cost of climbing and immobility. The administration of desipramine increased climbing behavior while immobility counts were decreased. The modified FST is indeed more sensitive than the conventional FST in describing precisely the behavioral effects of antidepressant drugs, allowing to roughly estimate the contribution of individual neurotransmitter system to the mechanism of action of the studied drug.

  14. Citalopram controls phobic symptoms in patients with panic disorder: randomized controlled trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Leinonen, E.; Lepola, U; Koponen, H; Turtonen, J; Wade, A; Lehto, H

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of long-term treatment with citalopram or clomipramine on subjective phobic symptoms in patients with panic disorder. DESIGN: Double-blind, parallel-group, five-arm study. PATIENTS: Patients aged 18 to 65 years with panic disorder (DMS-III-R diagnosis) and with no major depressive symptoms. INTERVENTIONS: Four hundred and seventy-five patients were randomized to 8 weeks of treatment with either citalopram (10 to 15 mg per day; 20 to 30 mg per day; or 40 to 60...

  15. The Effect of Intravenous Citalopram on the Neural Substrates of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhikram, Tracy P; Farb, Norman A S; Ravindran, Lakshmi N; Papadopoulos, Yousef G; Conn, David K; Pollock, Bruce G; Ravindran, Arun V

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of an intravenous serotonin reuptake inhibitor on the neural substrates of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), as intravenous agents may be more effective in treating OCD than conventional oral pharmacotherapy. Eight OCD subjects and eight control subjects received alternate infusions of citalopram and placebo during functional magnetic resonance imaging, in a randomized, symptom-provocation, crossover design. Compared with baseline, OCD subjects displayed significant changes in prefrontal neural activity after the citalopram infusion relative to placebo, and these changes correlated with reductions in subjective anxiety. PMID:27019066

  16. R-citalopram inhibits functional and 5-HTP-evoked behavioural responses to the SSRI, escitalopram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez, Connie; Kreilgaard, Mads

    2004-01-01

    corresponded to a serum concentration of approximately 50 ng/ml, which can be considered to be in the range of clinically relevant serum concentrations. In conclusion, R-citalopram inhibited the escitalopram-induced increase of 5-HT activity in functional, as well as behavioural, animal models. The mechanism...... effect of R-citalopram on the escitalopram-induced increase of 5-HT neurotransmission at the behavioural [potentiation of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)-induced behavioural changes in mice and rats] and functional (increase in serum corticosterone in rats) levels. The effect of escitalopram was inhibited...

  17. A Comparative Study between Olanzapine and Risperidone in the Management of Schizophrenia

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    Saeed Shoja Shafti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Since a variety of comparisons between risperidone and olanzapine have resulted in diverse outcomes, so safety and efficacy of them were compared again in a new trial. Method. Sixty female schizophrenic patients entered into one of the assigned groups for random allocation to olanzapine or risperidone (n=30 in each group in a double-blind, 12-week clinical trial. Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS and Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS were used as the primary outcome measures. Clinical Global Impressions-Severity Scale (CGI-S, Schedule for Assessment of Insight (SAI, and finally Simpson Angus Scale (SAS as well were employed as secondary scales. Results. While both of olanzapine and risperidone were significantly effective for improvement of positive symptoms (P<0.0001, as regards negative symptoms, it was so only by means of olanzapine (P<0.0003. CGI-S and SAI, as well, were significantly improved in both of the groups. SAS increment was significant only in the risperidone group (P<0.02. Conclusion. While both of olanzapine and risperidone were equally effective for improvement of positive symptoms and insight, olanzapine showed superior efficacy with respect to negative symptoms, along with lesser extrapyramidal side effects, in comparison with risperidone.

  18. In vitro-in vivo correlation of parenteral risperidone polymeric microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Choi, Stephanie; Qu, Wen; Wang, Yan; Burgess, Diane J

    2015-11-28

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether an in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) can be established for polymeric microspheres that are equivalent in formulation composition but prepared with different manufacturing processes. Risperidone was chosen as a model therapeutic and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with similar molecular weight as that used in the commercial product Risperdal® Consta® was used to prepare risperidone microspheres. Various manufacturing processes were investigated to produce the risperidone microspheres with similar drug loading (approx. 37%) but distinctly different physicochemical properties (e.g. porosity, particle size and particle size distribution). In vitro release of the risperidone microspheres was investigated using different release testing methods (such as sample-and-separate and USP apparatus 4). In vivo pharmacokinetic profiles of the risperidone microsphere formulations following intramuscular administration were determined using a rabbit model. Furthermore, the obtained pharmacokinetic profiles were deconvoluted using the Loo-Riegelman method and the calculated in vivo release was compared with the in vitro release of these microspheres. Level A IVIVCs were established and validated for the compositionally equivalent risperidone microspheres based on the in vitro release data obtained using USP apparatus 4. The developed IVIVCs demonstrated good predictability and were robust. These results showed that the developed USP apparatus 4 method was capable of discriminating PLGA microspheres that are equivalent in formulation composition but with manufacturing differences and predicting their in vivo performance in the investigated animal model. PMID:26423236

  19. Low-dose adrenaline, promethazine, and hydrocortisone in the prevention of acute adverse reactions to antivenom following snakebite: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Asita de Silva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Envenoming from snakebites is most effectively treated by antivenom. However, the antivenom available in South Asian countries commonly causes acute allergic reactions, anaphylactic reactions being particularly serious. We investigated whether adrenaline, promethazine, and hydrocortisone prevent such reactions in secondary referral hospitals in Sri Lanka by conducting a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In total, 1,007 patients were randomized, using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of adrenaline (0.25 ml of a 1∶1,000 solution subcutaneously, promethazine (25 mg intravenously, and hydrocortisone (200 mg intravenously, each alone and in all possible combinations. The interventions, or matching placebo, were given immediately before infusion of antivenom. Patients were monitored for mild, moderate, or severe adverse reactions for at least 96 h. The prespecified primary end point was the effect of the interventions on the incidence of severe reactions up to and including 48 h after antivenom administration. In total, 752 (75% patients had acute reactions to antivenom: 9% mild, 48% moderate, and 43% severe; 89% of the reactions occurred within 1 h; and 40% of all patients were given rescue medication (adrenaline, promethazine, and hydrocortisone during the first hour. Compared with placebo, adrenaline significantly reduced severe reactions to antivenom by 43% (95% CI 25-67 at 1 h and by 38% (95% CI 26-49 up to and including 48 h after antivenom administration; hydrocortisone and promethazine did not. Adding hydrocortisone negated the benefit of adrenaline. CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment with low-dose adrenaline was safe and reduced the risk of acute severe reactions to snake antivenom. This may be of particular importance in countries where adverse reactions to antivenom are common, although the need to improve the quality of available antivenom cannot be

  20. Early onset of treatment effects with oral risperidone

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    Naber Dieter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dogma of a delayed onset of antipsychotic treatment effects has been maintained over the past decades. However, recent studies have challenged this concept. We therefore performed an analysis of the onset of antipsychotic treatment effects in a sample of acutely decompensated patients with schizophrenia. Methods In this observational study, 48 inpatients with acutely decompensated schizophrenia were offered antipsychotic treatment with oral risperidone. PANSS-ratings were obtained on day 0, day 1, day 3, day 7 and day 14. Results Significant effects of treatment were already present on day 1 and continued throughout the study. The PANSS positive subscore and the PANSS total score improved significantly more than the PANSS negative subscore. Conclusion Our results are consistent with the growing number of studies suggesting an early onset of antipsychotic treatment effects. However, non-pharmacological effects of treatment also need to be taken into consideration.

  1. Pharmacogenetics of Risperidone and Cardiovascular Risk in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton Dos Santos-Júnior

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the frequency of obesity and metabolic complications in child and adolescent users of risperidone. Potential associations with clinical parameters and SNPs of the HTR2C, DRD2, LEP, LEPR, MC4R, and CYP2D6 genes were analyzed. Methods. Samples from 120 risperidone users (8–20 years old were collected and SNPs were analyzed, alongside assessment of chronological and bone ages, prescribed and weight-adjusted doses, use of other psychotropic drugs, waist circumference, BMI z-scores, blood pressure, HOMA-IR index, fasting levels of serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, transaminases, and leptin. Results. Thirty-two (26.7% patients were overweight and 5 (4.2% obese. Hypertension was recorded in 8 patients (6.7%, metabolic syndrome in 6 (5%, and increased waist circumference in 20 (16.7%. The HOMA-IR was high for 22 patients (18.3%, while total cholesterol and triglycerides were high in 20 (16.7% and 41 (34.2% patients, respectively. SNP associations were found for LEP, HTR2C, and CYP2D6 with BMI; CYP2D6 with blood pressure, ALT, and HOMA-IR; HTR2C and LEPR with leptin levels; MC4R and DRD2 with HOMA-IR; HTR2C with WC; and LEP with ALT. Conclusions. Although not higher than in the general pediatric population, a high frequency of patients was overweight/obese, with abnormalities in metabolic parameters and some pharmacogenetic associations.

  2. Identification of biotransformation products of citalopram formed in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretsou, Vasiliki G; Psoma, Aikaterini K; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Aalizadeh, Reza; Fenner, Kathrin; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2016-10-15

    Citalopram (CTR) is a worldwide highly consumed antidepressant which has demonstrated incomplete removal by conventional wastewater treatment. Despite its global ubiquitous presence in different environmental compartments, little is known about its behaviour and transformation processes during wastewater treatment. The present study aims to expand the knowledge on fate and transformation of CTR during the biological treatment process. For this purpose, batch reactors were set up to assess biotic, abiotic and sorption losses of this compound. One of the main objectives of the study was the identification of the formed transformation products (TPs) by applying suspect and non-target strategies based on liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). The complementary use of reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) for the identification of polar TPs, and the application of in-house developed quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) prediction models, in addition to the comprehensive evaluation of the obtained MS/MS spectra, provided valuable information to support identification. In total, fourteen TPs were detected and thirteen of them were tentatively identified. Four compounds were confirmed (N-desmethylCTR, CTR amide, CTR carboxylic acid and 3-oxo-CTR) through the purchase of the corresponding reference standard. Probable structures based on diagnostic evidence were proposed for the additional nine TPs. Eleven TPs are reported for the first time. A transformation pathway for the biotransformation of CTR was proposed. The presence of the identified TPs was assessed in real wastewater samples through retrospective analysis, resulting in the detection of five compounds. Finally, the potential ecotoxicological risk posed by CTR and its TPs to different trophic levels of aquatic organisms was evaluated by means of risk quotients. PMID:27459150

  3. Measuring citalopram in blood and central nervous system: revealing a distribution pattern that differs from other antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulzen, Michael; Lammertz, Sarah E; Gründer, Gerhard; Veselinovic, Tanja; Hiemke, Christoph; Tauber, Simone C

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to measure blood and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of citalopram and its weakly active N-demethylated metabolite desmethylcitalopram to account for the distribution between the two compartments. The findings are discussed in the context with own preceding studies on the distribution pattern of different antidepressants. Concentrations of citalopram were measured in blood serum and cerebrospinal fluid of 18 patients treated with daily doses of 10-40 mg. Daily doses were correlated with serum and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations, and serum concentrations were correlated with concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid. Serum concentrations of citalopram and desmethylcitalopram showed no significant correlation to the daily dose, r=0.164, P=0.515, and r=0.174, P=0.505, respectively, whereas citalopram concentrations in serum and cerebrospinal fluid were highly correlated (r=0.763, Pcitalopram (total=bound+unbound concentration) varied between 0.14 and 0.86 (mean 0.35, SD 0.16). By correcting the mean cerebrospinal fluid/serum ratio for 80% plasma protein binding, cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of citalopram were on average 77% higher than the calculated unbound serum concentration with a ratio of 1.77 (SD 0.81, range 0.68-4.29). Findings indicate a very good ability of citalopram to cross the blood-brain and cerebrospinal fluid barrier. High concentrations of citalopram in the cerebrospinal fluid are indicative of active transport of citalopram into or missing active transport out of the cerebrospinal fluid. The results suggest a high ability of citalopram to enter the brain with sufficiently high drug concentrations at the target sites within the brain, contributing toward clinical efficacy. PMID:26650488

  4. Acute citalopram has different effects on regional 5-HT synthesis in FSL, FRL, and SDP rats; an autoradiographic evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Kanemaru, Kazuya; Hasegawa, Shu; Nishi, Kyoko; Diksic, Mirko

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we measured the effect of an acute treatment of citalopram on 5-HT synthesis in a genetic rat model of depression, the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, their counterparts, the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) rats, and outbred Sprague-Dawley (SPD) rats, using the α-[14C]methyl-L-tryptophan (α-MTrp) autoradiographic method. A comparison of 5-HT synthesis in the FSL rats treated with citalopram (FSL-CTP) and those treated with saline (FSL-SAL) indicate that citalopram reduces glo...

  5. Topiramate-associated acute glaucoma in a migraine patient receiving concomitant citalopram therapy: a case-report

    OpenAIRE

    Spaccapelo, Luca; Leschiutta, Silvia; Aurea, Claudio; Ferrari, Anna

    2009-01-01

    We describe the case of a 34 year-old man with diagnosis of migraine with and without aura that developed myopia and acute glaucoma after 7 days of treatment with topiramate. The patient had also been taking citalopram daily for two months. Both topiramate and citalopram have been related to the increase of intraocular pressure and the development of glaucoma. We can't exclude that in this patient citalopram caused an increase of the ocular pressure in dose-dependent manner, facilitating topi...

  6. Citalopram Treatment of Pediatric Recurrent Abdominal Pain and Comorbid Internalizing Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, John V.; Perel, James; Lucas, Amanda; Bridge, Jeff; Ehmann, Mary; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Axelson, David; Birmaher, Boris; Ryan, Neal; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Brent, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the potential efficacy, tolerability, and safety of citalopram in the treatment of functional pediatric recurrent abdominal pain and comorbid internalizing disorders. Method: Twenty-five clinically referred children and adolescents with recurrent abdominal pain aged 7 to 18 years, inclusive, participated in a 12-week,…

  7. Novel and high affinity fluorescent ligands for the serotonin transporter based on (s)-citalopram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Vivek; Rahbek-Clemmensen, Troels; Billesbølle, Christian B;

    2014-01-01

    Novel rhodamine-labeled ligands, based on (S)-citalopram, were synthesized and evaluated for uptake inhibition at the human serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine transporters (hSERT, hDAT, and hNET, respectively) and for binding at SERT, in transiently transfected COS7 cells. Compound 14 demons...

  8. Synthesis of ( sup 11 C)citalopram and brain distribution studies in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram, S.; Krishnan, K.R.R.; Bissette, G.; Knight, D.L.; Coleman, R.E. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA). Medical Center)

    1991-01-01

    Citalopram (1-(3-dimethylamino)propyl-1-(p-fluoro-phenyl)-5-phthalancarbonitrile) is a selective serotonin uptake inhibitor, and this prototype drug possesses high affinity for serotonin uptake sites and is used in the treatment of depression. We have synthesized ({sup 11}C)citalopram by alkylation. The procedure involves the reaction of ({sup 11}C)iodomethane with desmethylcitalopram in acetone in the presence of sodium hydroxide base at 65{sup o}C for 8-10 min, and followed by purification by column, which contained, in series silica gel and basic alumina produces pure ({sup 11}C)citalopram with a specific activity of 150-434 Ci/mmol (at EOS). The radiochemical yields were 18% to 66% (at EOB), with a radiochemical purity range 92% to 99%. In vivo biodistribution of ({sup 11}C)citalopram in Sprague-Dawley rats brain clearly differentiates regions of high (frontal cortex, substantia niagra and hypothalamus) and low (cerebellum) uptake corresponding to the known distribution of serotonin uptake in rats and primates. These results demonstrate that this ligand is suitable for study of serotonin uptake sites by P.E.T., and may be useful as a biochemical diagnostic imaging tool in various psychiatric disorders. Further studies with this ligand are in progress. (author).

  9. Enhanced Antidepressant-Like Effects of Electroacupuncture Combined with Citalopram in a Rat Model of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, antidepressants are the dominative treatment for depression, but they have limitations in efficacy and may even produce troublesome side effects. Electroacupuncture (EA has been reported to have therapeutic benefits in the treatment of depressive disorders. The present study was conducted to determine whether EA could enhance the antidepressant efficacy of a low dose of citalopram (an SSRI antidepressant in the chronic unpredictable stress-induced depression model rats. Here, we show that a combined treatment with 2 Hz EA and 5 mg/kg citalopram for three weeks induces a significant improvement in depressive-like symptoms as detected by sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swimming test, whereas these effects were not observed with either of the treatments alone. Further investigations revealed that 2 Hz EA plus 5 mg/kg citalopram produced a remarkably increased expression of BDNF and its receptor TrkB in the hippocampus compared with those measured in the vehicle group. Our findings suggest that EA combined with a low dose of citalopram could produce greater therapeutic effects, thereby, predictive of a reduction in drug side effects.

  10. Changes in sleep polygraphic variables and clinical state in depressed patients during treatment with citalopram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmel, Alex L. van; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Bouhuys, Antoinette L.

    1993-01-01

    Drug-induced improvement of depression may be mediated by changes in sleep physiology. The aim of this study was to relate changes in sleep polygraphic variables to clinical state during treatment with citalopram, a highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. Sixteen patients took part. The study wa

  11. Cholinergic modulation of the cerebral metabolic response to citalopram in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Gwenn S.; Kramer, Elisse; Ma, Yilong; Hermann, Carol R.; Dhawan, Vijay; Chaly, Thomas; Eidelberg, David

    2009-01-01

    Pre-clinical and human neuropharmacological evidence suggests a role of cholinergic modulation of monoamines as a pathophysiological and therapeutic mechanism in Alzheimer's disease. The present study measured the effects of treatment with the cholinesterase inhibitor and nicotinic receptor modulator, galantamine, on the cerebral metabolic response to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, citalopram. Seven probable Alzheimer's disease patients and seven demographically comparable contro...

  12. Synthesis of a selective serotonin uptake inhibitor: ( sup 11 C)citalopram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannals, R.F.; Ravert, H.T.; Wilson, A.A.; Wagner, H.N. Jr. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Citalopram, a selective serotonin uptake inhibitor, was labeled with {sup 11}C for non-invasive in vivo studies of serotonin uptake sites in the human brain using positron emission tomography. The synthesis was completed in approximately 17 min using ({sup 11}C)methyl iodide as the precursor. The synthesis, purification, characterization, and determination of specific activity are described. (author).

  13. Citalopram combined with WAY 100635 inhibits ejaculation and ejaculation-related Fos immunoreactivity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, T.R. de; Pattij, T.; Veening, J.G.; Dederen, P.J.W.C.; Waldinger, M.D.; Cools, A.R.; Olivier, B.

    2005-01-01

    The role of 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)(1A) receptor activation in the sexual side-effects, in particular delayed ejaculation, of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) was studied. Male Wistar rats were treated for 15 days with vehicle, the SSRI citalopram (10 mg/kg/day p.o.), the 5-H

  14. Behavioral and neurochemical effects of anpirtoline and citalopram in isolated and group housed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilke, O; Will, K; Jähkel, M; Oehler, J

    2001-07-01

    Acute effects of serotonergic drugs acting via different mechanisms were investigated by a social interaction test and subsequent determination of serotonin and dopamine metabolisms in mice housed in groups or isolated for 6 weeks. A resident/intruder test was performed with anpirtoline (5-HT1B receptor agonist in rodents; 1 mg/kg), citalopram (SSRI; 0.5 mg/kg) and saline treatment before animals were decapitated and different brain regions were frozen for subsequent HPLC-analyses. Behavioral investigations indicated a strong increase of aggressive behavior after 6 weeks of isolation housing. Acute citalopram treatment did not influence behavioral parameters of isolated and group housed mice. In contrast, anpirtoline antagonized isolation induced aggressive behavioral components in a specific manner. Analysis of dopamine and serotonin metabolism revealed that citalopram treatment did not affect dopamine metabolism, but reduced serotonin metabolism in the striatum, hippocampus, cortex and midbrain independent of housing conditions. In contrast, anpirtoline treatment increased dopamine metabolism in cortex, striatum and midbrain as well as influenced serotonin metabolism in a structure- and state-specific manner. Whereas anpirtoline decreased serotonin metabolism in the cortex, the midbrain and the hippocampus independent of housing conditions, in the striatum anpirtoline abolished the isolation induced decrease of serotonin metabolism. These results indicate that anpirtoline might induce antiaggressive effects via postsynaptic receptor- and structure-specific activation of serotonergic but also dopaminergic processes, whereas structure independent increase of synaptic serotonin via citalopram was ineffective to reverse aggressivity in isolated mice.

  15. Risperidone in children with autism: randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Ravishankar; Singhi, Pratibha; Malhi, Prahbhjot

    2006-06-01

    Some open-label studies suggest that risperidone can be useful in the treatment of certain target symptoms in children with autism. We aimed to study whether the use of risperidone in comparison with placebo improved functioning in children with autism with regard to behavior (aggressiveness, hyperactivity, irritability), social and emotional responsiveness, and communication skills. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 40 consecutive children with autism, whose ages ranged from 2 to 9 years, who were receiving either risperidone or placebo given orally at a dose of 1 mg/day for 6 months. Autism symptoms were monitored periodically. The outcome variables were total scores on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) after 6 months. Of the 40 children enrolled, 39 completed the trial over a period of 18 months; 19 received risperidone, and 20 received placebo. In the risperidone group, 12 of 19 children showed improvement in the total Childhood Autism Rating Scale score and 17 of 19 children in the Children's Global Assessment Scale score compared with 0 of 20 children for the Childhood Autism Rating Scale score and 2 of 20 children for the Children's Global Assessment Scale score in the placebo group (P social responsiveness and nonverbal communication and reduced the symptoms of hyperactivity and aggression. Risperidone was associated with increased appetite and a mild weight gain, mild sedation in 20%, and transient dyskinesias in three children. Risperidone improved global functioning and social responsiveness while reducing hyperactivity and aggression in children with autism and was well tolerated. PMID:16948927

  16. Valproate-Risperidone versus Valproate-Lithium combination in acute mania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Barekatain

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: We evaluated the efficacy of valproate plus risperidone versus valproate plus lithium combination in the treatment of acute mania. Methods: In 2-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study, 46 acute manic patients according to DSM-IV criteria were randomly assigned to receive combination of valproate 20 mg/ kg/day plus risperidone 2-4 mg/day (n=23 or lithium600-1200 mg/day (n=23. The assessment of efficacy measures were according to Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S and Improvement (CGI-I scale. Other effectiveness measures included YMRS response (YMRS reduction >50 % and YMRS remission (YMRS total scores <12. Results: In each group, 16 of 23 patients (70 % completed the study. YMRS response, CGI-Improvement, and reduction in the total scores of YMRS and CGI-S observed in both groups, significantly greater for valproate-risperidone than valproate-lithium combination group (P=0.006, P=0.015, P=0.004, and P=0.007, respectively.YMRS remission were shown in both groups without statistical significance (P=0.073. The total scores of YMRS at 4th, 8th, and 14th days of trial were lower in valproate-risperidone than valproate-lithium combination group (P=0.017, P=0.005, and P=0.004, respectively. The rate of adverse events and mean weight gain in both groups were not statistically different. Conclusion: In acute manic patients, both combinations of valproate with lithium or with risperidone had efficacy in acutely manic patients, but valproate-risperidone combination was more effective. Both treatments were safe and well tolerated. Considering the small sample size and limited period of observation, further studies need to be conducted to find out the best combination in the treatment of acute mania. Key words: Acute mania, Valproate, Risperidone, Lithium, Combination Therapy

  17. On-Demand Treatment of Premature Ejaculation with Citalopram: A Randomized Double-Blind Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghafuri Zahra

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available "nAs the most common male sexual disorder premature ejaculation (PE, also referred to as early ejaculation (EE or rapid ejaculation (RE, affects 30%-40% of sexually active men. Despite the limited number of available studies comparing the efficacy of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI they have been thought to have beneficial effects for the treatment of patients with PE. In the present study, we assessed the efficacy of on-demand use of citalopram, in the treatment of premature ejaculation. A randomized double blind study of fixed dose on-demand use of citalopram was performed in Roozbeh Psychiatry Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The sample was consisted of 80 married patients diagnosed with PE according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups: group 1 consisting of 42 patients received 20mg citalopram, and group 2 consisting of 38 patients received placebo four hours before intercourse for a 4-week treatment course. The effects of drug on the ejaculatory function in each group were assessed by the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT, and the Chinese Index of Premature Ejaculation (CIPE before and at the end of treatment course. The mean IELT increased from 66.78±36.94 to 80.85±43.05 seconds in group 1 and from 63.44±33.16 to 65.71±34.26 seconds in group 2 (P = 0.000. Mean CIPE score increased 1.14±1.04 and 0.52±0.50 in group 1 and 2 respectively (P = 0.002. The patients treated with on demand citalopram showed significantly greater improvement in IELT and CIPE score compared to the patients receiving placebo. It seems that citalopram may be an effective treatment of premature ejaculation with on-demand usage. However further studies are warranted.

  18. Combination treatment with risperidone long-acting injection and psychoeducational approaches for preventing relapse in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Y

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yueren Zhao,1–3 Taro Kishi,1 Nakao Iwata,1 Manabu Ikeda3,4 1Department of Psychiatry, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Okehazama Hospital Fujita Kokoro Care Center, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan; 3Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan; 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan Abstract: A recent meta-analysis showed that long-acting injectable (LAI antipsychotics were not superior to oral antipsychotics for preventing relapse in patients with schizophrenia. We therefore designed a treatment strategy combining risperidone LAI and COMPASS (COMprehensive Psycho-educational Approach and Scheme Set, an original psychoeducational program supporting treatment with risperidone LAI and evaluating subjective treatment satisfaction, transition of symptoms, and effectiveness in preventing symptomatic relapse. The aim of this study was to examine whether addition of COMPASS to risperidone LAI was more effective in preventing relapse in schizophrenia patients than risperidone LAI alone, with the latter group consisting of patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients were followed up for 6 months, with COMPASS continuously implemented from the transition to the observation phase. The primary efficacy measurements were relapse rate (rates of rehospitalization and discontinuation due to inefficacy. Secondary efficacy measurements were the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF scores. Of the 96 patients originally enrolled, 19 (19.8% were discontinued from all causes. During the 6-month study period, ten of the 96 patients (10.4% relapsed, compared with a 12.2% relapse rate in patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients showed significant improvements in BPRS total

  19. Treatment of multiple distressing spontaneous orgasms with citalopram and their re-emergence following discontinuation of prolonged use of citalopram in an adult female survivor of child sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Vohra, Adarsh

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin reuptake inhibitors-induced orgasmic dysfunctions including spontaneous orgasms have been reported in women. Spontaneous orgasm is experiencing orgasm in the absence of sexual sensory stimulation. A woman with sexual abuse in her childhood who later developed distressing spontaneous orgasms is discussed. She stopped experiencing these orgasms with citalopram. However the orgasms soon re-emerged following the abrupt discontinuation of prolonged use of citalopram but disappeared again...

  20. A Risperidone-Induced Prolactinoma Resolved when a Woman with Schizoaffective Disorder Switched to Ziprasidone: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Arcari, Gail T.; Mendes, Asante K.; Sothern, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    Antipsychotic drug therapy, e.g., risperidone, can be associated with endocrine abnormalities, including an increase in serum prolactin level (sPrl) due to a drug-induced benign pituitary tumor (prolactinoma). A few case reports have noted a resolution of hyperprolactinemia and prolactinoma after cessation of risperidone treatment. We report a similar finding for a woman with schizoaffective disorder, manic type.

  1. Risperidone Improves Behavioral Symptoms in Children with Autism in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandina, Gahan J.; Bossie, Cynthia A.; Youssef, Eriene; Zhu, Young; Dunbar, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Subgroup analysis of children (5-12 years) with autism enrolled in an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of risperidone for pervasive developmental disorders. The primary efficacy measure was the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability (ABC-I) subscale. Data were available for 55 children given risperidone (n = 27) or placebo (n =…

  2. Risperidone Dosing in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Disorder: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Justine M.; Kushner, Stuart; Ning, Xiaoping; Karcher, Keith; Ness, Seth; Aman, Michael; Singh, Jaskaran; Hough, David

    2013-01-01

    Efficacy and safety of 2 risperidone doses were evaluated in children and adolescents with autism. Patients (N = 96; 5-17 years), received risperidone (low-dose: 0.125 mg/day [20 to 45 kg] or high-dose: 1.25 mg/day [20 to 45 kg]) or placebo. Mean baseline (range 27-29) to endpoint change…

  3. Risperidone – Solid-state characterization and pharmaceutical compatibility using thermal and non-thermal techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Josiane Souza Pereira; Veronez, Isabela Pianna; Rodrigues, Larissa Lopes [Laboratório de Análise e Caracterização de Fármacos – LACFar, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Trevisan, Marcello G. [Laboratório de Análise e Caracterização de Fármacos – LACFar, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); National Institute of Bioanalytics Science and Technology – INCTBio, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, 13084-653, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Garcia, Jerusa Simone, E-mail: jerusa.garcia@unifal-mg.edu.br [Laboratório de Análise e Caracterização de Fármacos – LACFar, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: • DSC was used to characterize Risperidone and study its compatibility with excipients. • FT-IR associated with PCA was used to complement DSC data. • LC analyzes confirmed the DSC and FT-IR/PCA results. • Risperidone was incompatible with three among five excipients evaluated. - Abstract: A full solid-state characterization of risperidone was conducted using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine its physicochemical properties and polymorphism. The primary aim of this work was to study the compatibility of risperidone with pharmaceutical excipients using DSC to obtain and compare the curves of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the excipients with their 1:1 (w/w) binary mixtures. These same binary mixtures were turned to room temperature and analyzed by FT-IR combined with principal component analysis (PCA) to evaluate solid-state incompatibilities. The chemical incompatibilities of these samples were verified using a stability-indicating liquid chromatography (LC) method to assay for the API and evaluate the formation of degradation products. All of these methods showed incompatibilities between risperidone and the excipients magnesium stearate, lactose and cellulose microcrystalline.

  4. Optimization and in vivo toxicity evaluation of G4.5 PAMAM dendrimer-risperidone complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jimena Prieto

    Full Text Available Risperidone is an approved antipsychotic drug belonging to the chemical class of benzisoxazole. This drug has low solubility in aqueous medium and poor bioavailability due to extensive first-pass metabolism and high protein binding (>90%. Since new strategies to improve efficient treatments are needed, we studied the efficiency of anionic G4.5 PAMAM dendrimers as nanocarriers for this therapeutic drug. To this end, we explored dendrimer-risperidone complexation dependence on solvent concentration, pH and molar relationship. The best dendrimer-risperidone incorporation (46 risperidone molecules per dendrimer was achieved with a mixture of chloroform:methanol 50∶50 v/v solution pH 3. In addition, to explore the possible effects of this complex, in vivo studies were carried out in the zebrafish model. Changes in the development of dopaminergic neurons and motoneurons were studied using tyrosine hydroxylase and calretinin, respectively. Physiological changes were studied through histological sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin to observe possible morphological brain changes. The most significant changes were observed when larvae were treated with free risperidone, and no changes were observed when larvae were treated with the complex.

  5. Optimization and in vivo toxicity evaluation of G4.5 PAMAM dendrimer-risperidone complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Maria Jimena; del Rio Zabala, Nahuel Eduardo; Marotta, Cristian Hernán; Carreño Gutierrez, Hector; Arévalo Arévalo, Rosario; Chiaramoni, Nadia Silvia; del Valle Alonso, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Risperidone is an approved antipsychotic drug belonging to the chemical class of benzisoxazole. This drug has low solubility in aqueous medium and poor bioavailability due to extensive first-pass metabolism and high protein binding (>90%). Since new strategies to improve efficient treatments are needed, we studied the efficiency of anionic G4.5 PAMAM dendrimers as nanocarriers for this therapeutic drug. To this end, we explored dendrimer-risperidone complexation dependence on solvent concentration, pH and molar relationship. The best dendrimer-risperidone incorporation (46 risperidone molecules per dendrimer) was achieved with a mixture of chloroform:methanol 50∶50 v/v solution pH 3. In addition, to explore the possible effects of this complex, in vivo studies were carried out in the zebrafish model. Changes in the development of dopaminergic neurons and motoneurons were studied using tyrosine hydroxylase and calretinin, respectively. Physiological changes were studied through histological sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin to observe possible morphological brain changes. The most significant changes were observed when larvae were treated with free risperidone, and no changes were observed when larvae were treated with the complex.

  6. Risperidone and NAP protect cognition and normalize gene expression in a schizophrenia mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisburd, Sinaya; Shemer, Zeev; Yeheskel, Adva; Giladi, Eliezer; Gozes, Illana

    2015-11-10

    Mutated disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), a microtubule regulating protein, leads to schizophrenia and other psychiatric illnesses. It is hypothesized that microtubule stabilization may provide neuroprotection in schizophrenia. The NAP (NAPVSIPQ) sequence of activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) contains the SxIP motif, microtubule end binding (EB) protein target, which is critical for microtubule dynamics leading to synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection. Bioinformatics prediction for FDA approved drugs mimicking SxIP-like motif which displace NAP-EB binding identified Risperidone. Risperidone or NAP effectively ameliorated object recognition deficits in the mutated DISC1 mouse model. NAP but not Risperidone, reduced anxiety in the mutated mice. Doxycycline, which blocked the expression of the mutated DISC1, did not reverse the phenotype. Transcripts of Forkhead-BOX P2 (Foxp2), a gene regulating DISC1 and associated with human ability to acquire a spoken language, were increased in the hippocampus of the DISC1 mutated mice and were significantly lowered after treatment with NAP, Risperidone, or the combination of both. Thus, the combination of NAP and standard of care Risperidone in humans may protect against language disturbances associated with negative and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia.

  7. Review of risperidone for the treatment of pediatric and adolescent bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R Bishop

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey R Bishop1,2, Mani N Pavuluri21Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, Pediatric Mood Disorders Program and Center for Cognitive Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Risperidone is a commonly used medication for the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in children and adolescents. It has been studied as a monotherapy treatment in early onset schizophrenia and as both monotherapy and combination therapy for pediatric bipolar disorder. Studies to date indicate that risperidone is an effective treatment for positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and mania symptoms of bipolar disorder. In young patient populations, side effects such as weight gain, extrapyramidal side effects, and prolactin elevation require consideration when evaluating the risk benefit ratio for individual patients. Here we review published studies of risperidone for the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in children and adolescents to provide practitioners with an overview of published data on the efficacy and safety of risperidone in these patient populations.Keywords: risperidone, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, children, adolescents

  8. Altered brain concentrations of citalopram and escitalopram in P-glycoprotein deficient mice after acute and chronic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Louise; Carlsson, Björn; Hiemke, Christoph; Ahlner, Johan; Bengtsson,Finn; Schmitt, Ulrich; Kugelberg, Fredrik C

    2013-01-01

    Background: According to both in vitro and in vivo data P-glycoprotein (P-gp) may restrict the uptake of several antidepressants into the brain, thus contributing to the poor success rate of current antidepressant therapies. The therapeutic activity of citalopram resides in the Senantiomer, whereas the R-enantiomer is practically devoid of serotonin reuptake potency. To date, no in vivo data are available that address whether the enantiomers of citalopram and its metabolites are substrates of...

  9. Citalopram, Methylphenidate, or Their Combination in Geriatric Depression: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lavretsky, H.; Reinlieb, M; St. Cyr, N.; Siddarth, P.; Ercoli, LM; Senturk, D

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors evaluated the potential of methylphenidate to improve antidepressant response to citalopram, as assessed by clinical and cognitive outcomes, in elderly depressed patients. METHOD: The authors conducted a 16-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial for geriatric depression in 143 older outpatients diagnosed with major depression comparing treatment response in three treatment groups: methylphenidate plus placebo (N=48), citalopram plus placebo (N=48), and ci...

  10. Citalopram for major depressive disorder in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of published placebo-controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Apler, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of citalopram for major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults, in a systematic review of all published, randomised, double-blind studies comparing it with a placebo. Data sources Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, PsychINFO and Embase. Study selection Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of citalopram in adults with MDD were included. Studies with medically ill or treatment resistant subjects were excluded, as were stud...

  11. Pregnancy exposure to olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, aripiprazole and risk of congenital malformations. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ennis, Zandra Nymand; Damkier, Per

    2015-01-01

    To review available data on first-trimester exposure to olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone and aripiprazole and risk of congenital malformations. We performed a systematic literature search in accordance with PRISMA guidelines identifying studies containing original data on first....../22 (5.1%) and 100/5 (5.0%), respectively. Relative risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals were 1.0 (0.7-1.4) (olanzapine), 1.0 (0.6-1.7) (quetiapine), 1.5 (0.9-2.2) (risperidone) and 1.4 (0.5-3.1) (aripiprazole). First-trimester exposure to olanzapine is not associated with an increased risk...... of congenital malformation. Data for quetiapine and risperidone do not suggest a substantially increased risk, while the risk estimate for aripiprazole remains imprecise owing to a low amount of data....

  12. Aripiprazole and Risperidone for Treatment of Methamphetamine-Associated Psychosis in Chinese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Sheng; Chen, Huijing; Xu, Zaifeng; Schottenfeld, Richard S; Hao, Wei; Chawarski, Marek Cezary

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated tolerability and efficacy of aripiprazole and risperidone for treatment of methamphetamine (METH) associated psychotic symptoms in China. Patients with acute METH-associated psychotic symptoms (N=42) and with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score between 60 and 120 were randomized to aripiprazole (initial dose 5-10mg per day followed by flexible doses 5-15 mg per day) or risperidone (initial dose 2-4 mg per day followed by flexible doses 4-6 mg per day) from day 3 to 25 of inpatient hospital stay. Outcome measures included PANSS and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness scale (CGI-S), METH craving Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Simpson Angus Scale (SAS), Barnes Assessments Akathasia Rating Scale (BARS), and self-reported adverse effects evaluated during treatment. Retention was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the MIXED models procedure was used to compare the groups on measures of psychotic and extra-pyramidal symptoms. Patients in both aripiprazole and risperidone groups showed statistically significant reductions in psychotic symptomatology from baseline during treatment (p<0.001) with no statistically significant differences between the treatment groups (p=0.73 and p=0.15, respectively). Risperidone-treated patients reported significantly greater METH craving reductions (p<0.001). Overall, 71% of patients completed the entire study, but the aripiprazole group had a significantly lower retention than the risperidone group (p=0.007), primarily due to medication related adverse effects. Aripiprazole-treated patients also had significantly more akathisia (p=0.03) and agitation (p=0.02) than risperidone-treated patients. Patients in both groups who tolerated their medications and completed the entire study achieved comparable reductions of psychotic symptoms. PMID:26733277

  13. The R-enantiomer of citalopram counteracts escitalopram-induced increase in extracellular 5-HT in the frontal cortex of freely moving rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, A; Kreilgaard, Mads; Sánchez, C

    2003-01-01

    The selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor, citalopram, is a racemic mixture of an S(+)- and R(-)-enantiomer, escitalopram and R-citalopram, respectively. The present study compares the effects of escitalopram, R-citalopram and citalopram on extracellular levels of 5-HT in the frontal cortex...... of freely moving rats. In addition, co-injection of escitalopram and R-citalopram (ratios 1:2 and 1:4) were assessed. In some experiments escitalopram and R-citalopram were infused into the frontal cortex by reverse microdialysis. Finally, the extracellular level of escitalopram in the frontal cortex...... was studied after administration of escitalopram alone or in combination with R-citalopram. Escitalopram (1.0-3.9 mg/kg, s.c.) produced a greater maximal increase in extracellular 5-HT than citalopram (2.0-8.0 mg/kg, s.c.). R-citalopram (15.6 mg/kg s.c.) did not affect the 5-HT levels. When co...

  14. Antipsychotic discontinuation syndrome following risperidone withdrawal: a case report from rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sravanti L. Sanivarapu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic agent used primarily to treat schizophrenia. It is a dopamine antagonist with antiserotonergic, antihistaminergic and antiadrenergic properties. Antipsychotic discontinuation symptoms have been described in the literature following abrupt or rapid reduction in the dose. This unusual case demonstrates that sudden withdrawal of even a modest dose of risperidone may cause significant discontinuation symptoms in susceptible individuals. Hence, there is a need for caution while taking a patient off antipsychotic medications in view of the vulnerable subgroup. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 233-234

  15. Comparison the effectiveness of aripiprazole and risperidone for the treatment of acute bipolar mania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Akhavan Rezayat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Second-generation antipsychotics, approved for the treatment of mania, are associated with adverse effects such as weight gain and metabolic disorders. Aripiprazole, a recently introduced second-generation antipsychotic, are thought to account for its low propensity for weight gain, metabolic disturbances and sedation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of risperidone versus aripiprazole in the treatment of acute mania. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with acute episodes of mania were enrolled in this study, and they were randomly assigned into a risperidone group of 24 cases and an aripiprazole group of 26 cases. In group A, aripiprazole with a dose of 5-30 mg/day and in group B, risperidone with a dose of 2-8 mg/day was given to patients. The average dose of aripiprazole was 27 mg/day, and the average dose of risperidone was 6 mg/day. The effects of each drug for the treatment of acute mania were assessed on the 1 st day of admission and on days 2, 4, 6, 8 and at weeks 2, 4 and 6 after therapy using the young mania rating scale (YMRS and at the baseline and on weeks 3 and 6 after admission using the clinical global impression (CGI scale. Results: The mean age of the group of risperidone was 34 ± 8.6 years and in a group of aripiprazole it was 34 ± 9.1 years (P = 0.83. Comparison of YMRS scores over the period of 6 weeks revealed a statistically significant difference in both groups (P < 0.0001.There was also a statistically significant difference in YMRS scores between risperidone and aripiprazole at day 8 (P = 0.026 and weeks 2 (P = 0.035 and 4 (P = 0.042. There was also a statistically significant difference in CGI-Severity scale score at weeks 3 (P = 0.003 and 6 (P = 0.000 and in CGI-Improvement scale score at weeks 3 (P = 0.005 and 6 (P = 0.002. The most common side-effect observed in both groups was headache (0%15/4 in aripiprazole vs. %16/7 in risperidone Conclusion: Aripiprazole that is readily

  16. Valproate-Risperidone versus Valproate-Lithium combination in acute mania

    OpenAIRE

    M Barekatain; A. Fatemi; N BASHARDOOST; A Darougheh; M Salehi; GH Asadollahi

    2005-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the efficacy of valproate plus risperidone versus valproate plus lithium combination in the treatment of acute mania. Methods: In 2-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study, 46 acute manic patients according to DSM-IV criteria were randomly assigned to receive combination of valproate 20 mg/ kg/day plus risperidone 2-4 mg/day (n=23) or lithium600-1200 mg/day (n=23). The assessment of efficacy measures were according to Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) ...

  17. Topiramate plus citalopram in the treatment of Compulsive-Impulsive Sexual Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell'Osso Bernardo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Compulsive-Impulsive Sexual Behaviors (C-ISBs include repetitive sexual acts and compulsive sexual thoughts which occur so frequently and with such intensity that they interfere with sexual intimacy and interpersonal and occupational functioning and whose categorization and effective treatments are still unclear. We report the case of a patient affected by C-ISBs and bipolar disorder of type II who improved dramatically after three months' addition of topiramate to citalopram. Topiramate is a powerful anticonvulsant which has recently been proposed also for the treatment of migraine, bipolar disorder and binge eating disorder. This case-report suggests that topiramate might be beneficial in augmentation with citalopram in patients suffering from C-ISBs, although controlled studies to confirm our findings are needed.

  18. Risk of Ventricular Arrhythmia with Citalopram and Escitalopram: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qirjazi, Elena; McArthur, Eric; Nash, Danielle M.; Dixon, Stephanie N.; Weir, Matthew A.; Vasudev, Akshya; Jandoc, Racquel; Gula, Lorne J.; Oliver, Matthew J.; Wald, Ron; Garg, Amit X.

    2016-01-01

    Background The risk of ventricular arrhythmia with citalopram and escitalopram is controversial. In this study we investigated the association between these two drugs and the risk of ventricular arrhythmia. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of older adults (mean age 76 years) from 2002 to 2012 in Ontario, Canada, newly prescribed citalopram (n = 137 701) or escitalopram (n = 38 436), compared to those prescribed referent antidepressants sertraline or paroxetine (n = 96 620). After inverse probability of treatment weighting using a propensity score, the baseline characteristics of the comparison groups were similar. The primary outcome was a hospital encounter with ventricular arrhythmia within 90 days of a new prescription, assessed using hospital diagnostic codes. The secondary outcome was all-cause mortality within 90 days. Results Citalopram was associated with a higher risk of a hospital encounter with ventricular arrhythmia compared with referent antidepressants (0.06% vs. 0.04%, relative risk [RR] 1.53, 95% confidence intervals [CI]1.03 to 2.29), and a higher risk of mortality (3.49% vs. 3.12%, RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.18). Escitalopram was not associated with a higher risk of ventricular arrhythmia compared with the referent antidepressants (0.03% vs. 0.04%, RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.68), but was associated with a higher risk of mortality (2.86% vs. 2.63%, RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.18). Conclusion Among older adults, initiation of citalopram compared to two referent antidepressants was associated with a small but statistically significant increase in the 90-day risk of a hospital encounter for ventricular arrhythmia. PMID:27513855

  19. Topiramate plus citalopram in the treatment of Compulsive-Impulsive Sexual Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Dell'Osso Bernardo; Marazziti Donatella

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Compulsive-Impulsive Sexual Behaviors (C-ISBs) include repetitive sexual acts and compulsive sexual thoughts which occur so frequently and with such intensity that they interfere with sexual intimacy and interpersonal and occupational functioning and whose categorization and effective treatments are still unclear. We report the case of a patient affected by C-ISBs and bipolar disorder of type II who improved dramatically after three months' addition of topiramate to citalopram. Topir...

  20. Enhanced Antidepressant-Like Effects of Electroacupuncture Combined with Citalopram in a Rat Model of Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jian; Pei, Yu; Pan, Yan-Li; Jia, Jun; Shi, Chen; Yu, Yan; Deng, Jia-Hui; Li, Bo; Gong, Xiao-Li; Wang,Xuan; Xiao-min WANG; Ma, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Currently, antidepressants are the dominative treatment for depression, but they have limitations in efficacy and may even produce troublesome side effects. Electroacupuncture (EA) has been reported to have therapeutic benefits in the treatment of depressive disorders. The present study was conducted to determine whether EA could enhance the antidepressant efficacy of a low dose of citalopram (an SSRI antidepressant) in the chronic unpredictable stress-induced depression model rats. Here, we ...

  1. A controlled crossover study of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram in irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Tack, Jan; Broekaert, Dorine; Fischler, Benjamin; Oudenhove, Lukas Van; Gevers, Anne-Marie; Janssens, Jozef

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are frequently used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) although evidence of their efficacy is scarce. AIM: Twenty three non-depressed IBS patients were recruited from a tertiary care centre and included in a crossover trial comparing six weeks of treatment with the SSRI citalopram (20 mg for three weeks, 40 mg for three weeks) with placebo. IBS symptom severity was the primary outcome measure, and depression and anx...

  2. Differential effects of acute and repeated citalopram in mouse models of anxiety and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Mombereau, Cedric; Gur, Tamar L.; Onksen, Jennifer; Blendy, Julie A

    2009-01-01

    Clinically, SSRIs are widely prescribed in the treatment of several anxiety disorders, though very few pre-clinical studies have observed a beneficial effect of this class of drugs in animal models of anxiety. Furthermore, the biphasic pattern observed clinically, an exacerbation of anxiety followed by beneficial effects, is rarely observed in animal studies. In the present study we document this clinical phenomenon in several behavioral paradigms. While a single injection of citalopram induc...

  3. The serotonin transporter in rhesus monkey brain: comparison of DASB and citalopram binding sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Zhizhen [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States)]. E-mail: zhizhen_zeng@merck.com; Chen, T.-B. [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Miller, Patricia J. [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Dean, Dennis [Labeled Compound Synthesis Group, Drug Metabolism, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065-0900 (United States); Tang, Y.S. [Labeled Compound Synthesis Group, Drug Metabolism, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065-0900 (United States); Sur, Cyrille [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Williams, David L. [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    We have characterized the interaction of the serotonin transporter ligand [{sup 3}H]-N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-cyanophenylthio)-benzylamine (DASB) with rhesus monkey brain in vitro using tissue homogenate binding and autoradiographic mapping. [{sup 3}H]-DASB, a tritiated version of the widely used [{sup 11}C] positron emission tomography tracer, was found to selectively bind to a single population of sites with high affinity (K {sub d}=0.20{+-}0.04 nM). The serotonin transporter density (B {sub max}) obtained for rhesus frontal cortex was found to be 66{+-}8 fmol/mg protein using [{sup 3}H]-DASB, similar to the B {sub max} value obtained using the reference radioligand [{sup 3}H]-citalopram, a well-characterized and highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (83{+-}22 fmol/mg protein). Specific binding sites of both [{sup 3}H]-DASB and [{sup 3}H]-citalopram were similarly and nonuniformly distributed throughout the rhesus central nervous system, in a pattern consistent with serotonin transporter localization reported for human brain. Regional serotonin transporter densities, estimated from optical densities of the autoradiographic images, were well correlated between the two radioligands. Finally, DASB and fluoxetine showed dose-dependent full inhibition of [{sup 3}H]-citalopram binding in a competition autoradiographic study, with K {sub i} values in close agreement with those obtained from rhesus brain homogenates. This side-by-side comparison of [{sup 3}H]-DASB and [{sup 3}H]-citalopram binding sites in rhesus tissue homogenates and in adjacent rhesus brain slices provides additional support for the use of [{sup 11}C]-DASB to assess the availability and distribution of serotonin transporters in nonhuman primates.

  4. Effect of the coadministration of citalopram with mirtazapine or atipamezole on rat contextual conditioned fear

    OpenAIRE

    MASUDA, TAKAHIRO; Inoue, Takeshi; An, Yan; Takamura, Naoki; Nakagawa, Shin; Kitaichi, Yuji; Koyama, Tsukasa; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mirtazapine, a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant, which blocks the alpha(2)-adrenergic autoreceptors and heteroreceptors, has shown anxiolytic properties in clinical trials and preclinical animal experiments. The addition of mirtazapine to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is clinically suggested to be more effective for anxiety disorders. In this study, we examined the combined effects of mirtazapine and citalopram, an SSRI, on the freezing beha...

  5. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of venlafaxine compared with citalopram in generalized anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jingjing; XU, HONGBING; Chen, Zhiqing

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacoeconomic evaluation aims to investigate the selection and use of drugs to make patient medication efficient, safe and economical. In this study, a pharmacoeconomic evaluation was performed to assess two treatments for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). A total of 100 outpatients with GAD were enrolled. The patients were divided into the following two groups according to treatment program: the venlafaxine group (n=50) and the citalopram group (n=50). The patients in the venlafaxine gr...

  6. Citalopram Enhances Neurovascular Regeneration and Sensorimotor Functional Recovery after Ischemic Stroke in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Espinera, Alyssa R.; Ogle, Molly E.; Gu, Xiaohuan; WEI, LING

    2013-01-01

    Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) after stroke enhances motor functional recovery; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be further elucidated. We hypothesized that daily administration of the clinical drug citalopram would produce these functional benefits via enhancing neurovascular repair in the ischemic peri-infarct region. To test this hypothesis, focal ischemic stroke was induced in male C57/B6 mice by per...

  7. 西酞普兰合成路线图解%Graphical Synthetic Routes of Citalopram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余红霞; 郭峰

    2003-01-01

    @@ 西酞普兰(citalopram,1)[1],化学名为1-[3-(二甲氨基)丙基]-1-(4-氟苯基)-1,3-二氢异苯并呋喃-5-腈,系一种高效的选择性格-羟色胺再吸收抑制剂,为第二代抗抑郁药.

  8. Risperidone-induced weight gain is mediated through shifts in the gut microbiome and suppression of energy expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Bahr

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Risperidone is a second-generation antipsychotic that causes weight gain. We hypothesized that risperidone-induced shifts in the gut microbiome are mechanistically involved in its metabolic consequences. Wild-type female C57BL/6J mice treated with risperidone (80 μg/day exhibited significant excess weight gain, due to reduced energy expenditure, which correlated with an altered gut microbiome. Fecal transplant from risperidone-treated mice caused a 16% reduction in total resting metabolic rate in naïve recipients, attributable to suppression of non-aerobic metabolism. Risperidone inhibited growth of cultured fecal bacteria grown anaerobically more than those grown aerobically. Finally, transplant of the fecal phage fraction from risperidone-treated mice was sufficient to cause excess weight gain in naïve recipients, again through reduced energy expenditure. Collectively, these data highlight a major role for the gut microbiome in weight gain following chronic use of risperidone, and specifically implicates the modulation of non-aerobic resting metabolism in this mechanism.

  9. A Comparison of Risperidone and Buspirone for Treatment of Behavior Disorders in Children with Phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin FAYYAZI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Fayyazi A, Salari E, Khajeh A, Ghajarpour A. A Comparison of Risperidone and Buspirone for Treatment ofBehavior Disorders in Children with Phenylketonuria. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Autumn; 8(4:33-38.AbstractObjectiveMany patients with late-diagnosed phenylketonuria (PKU suffer from severe behavior problems. This study compares the effects of buspirone and risperidone on reducing behavior disorders in these patients.Materials & MethodsIn this crossover clinical trial study, patients with severe behavior disorders after medical examination were randomly divided into two groups of two 8-week crossover treatments with risperidone or buspirone. Patient behavioral disorders before and after treatment by each drug was rated by parents on the Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form (NCBRF, and after treatment by each drug, were assessed by a physician through clinical global impression (CGI.ResultsThirteen patients were able to complete the therapy period with these two medications.The most common psychiatric diagnoses were intellectual disability accompanied by pervasive developmental disorder NOS, and intellectual disability accompanied by autistic disorder. Risperidone was significantly effective in reducing the NCBRF subscales of hyperactivity disruptive/ stereotypic, and conduct problems. Treatment by buspirone only significantly decreased the severity of hyperactivity, but other behavior aspects showed no significant differences. Assessment of the severity of behavior disorder after treatment by risperidone and buspirone showed significant differences in reducing hyperactivity and masochistic/stereotype.ConclusionAlthough buspirone is effective in controlling hyperactivity in patients with PKU, it has no preference over risperidone. Therefore, it is recommended as an alternative to risperidone.ReferencesSmith I, Nowles JK. Behaviour in early treated phenylketonuria: a systematic review. Eur J Pediatr 2000;159:89-93.Targum SD

  10. Pharmacokinetic genes do not influence response or tolerance to citalopram in the STAR*D sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Peters

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We sought to determine whether clinical response or tolerance to the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI citalopram is associated with genetic polymorphisms in potentially relevant pharmacokinetic enzymes. METHODOLOGY: We used a two-stage case-control study design in which we split the sample of 1,953 subjects from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D trial into a discovery (n = 831 and validation set (n = 1,046. Fifteen polymorphisms from five (CYP2D6, ABCB1, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 pharmacokinetic genes were genotyped. We examined the associations between these polymorphisms and citalopram response and tolerance. Significant associations were validated in the second stage for those polymorphism found to be statistically significant in the first stage. CONCLUSIONS: No genetic polymorphism in the pharmacokinetic genes examined was significantly associated with our response or tolerance phenotypes in both stages. For managing pharmacological treatment with citalopram, routine screening of the common pharmacokinetic DNA variants that we examined appears to be of limited clinical utility.

  11. Serotonin Transporter Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR and Citalopram Effectiveness in Iranian Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Sahraian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Several studies have implicated the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in treatment outcomes of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors in patients with major depression. The aim of this study was to examine the association between polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene and citalopram effectiveness in Iranian patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD.Methods:The sample consisted of 104 patients, with Fars ethnic background, who were diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Beck Depression inventory was used to evaluate the severity of the symptoms during the follow-up, and to determine clinical response of the patients at 4th and 8th week, respectively.Results:Our results showed a correlation between the genotype and response to antidepressant drug citalopram, (odds ratios for L/S and L/L were 3.90 (95 percent CI: 1.29- 11.80 and 1.90 (95 percent CI: 0.72-5.08, respectively.Conclusion:In conclusion, our results reveal that genetic variation of serotonin transporter is involved in clinical remission of major depressive episodes in Iranian patients after citalopram treatment.

  12. The serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram suppresses activity in the neonatal rat barrel cortex in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetshina, Dinara; Zakharov, Andrei; Vinokurova, Daria; Nasretdinov, Azat; Valeeva, Guzel; Khazipov, Roustem

    2016-06-01

    Inhibition of serotonin uptake, which causes an increase in extracellular serotonin levels, disrupts the development of thalamocortical barrel maps in neonatal rodents. Previous in vitro studies have suggested that the disruptive effect of excessive serotonin on barrel map formation involves a depression at thalamocortical synapses. However, the effects of serotonin uptake inhibitors on the early thalamocortical activity patterns in the developing barrel cortex in vivo remain largely unknown. Here, using extracellular recordings of the local field potentials and multiple unit activity (MUA) we explored the effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram (10-20mg/kg, intraperitoneally) on sensory evoked activity in the barrel cortex of neonatal (postnatal days P2-5) rats in vivo. We show that administration of citalopram suppresses the amplitude and prolongs the delay of the sensory evoked potentials, reduces the power and frequency of the early gamma oscillations, and suppresses sensory evoked and spontaneous neuronal firing. In the adolescent P21-29 animals, citalopram affected neither sensory evoked nor spontaneous activity in barrel cortex. We suggest that suppression of the early thalamocortical activity patterns contributes to the disruption of the barrel map development caused by SSRIs and other conditions elevating extracellular serotonin levels. PMID:27016034

  13. Low-dose intravenous lipid emulsion for the treatment of severe quetiapine and citalopram poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purg, Darinka; Markota, Andrej; Grenc, Damjan; Sinkovič, Andreja

    2016-06-01

    The treatment of quetiapine and/or citalopram poisoning is mainly supportive and involves gastric lavage, activated charcoal, intubation, and mechanical ventilation. Recently, however, there were reports of successful treatment with intravenous lipid emulsion. Here we report a case of a 19-year-old Caucasian girl who ingested approximately 6000 mg of quetiapine, 400 mg of citalopram, and 45 mg of bromazepam in a suicide attempt. The patient developed ventricular tachycardia and epileptic seizures 12 h after admission to the hospital. As the patient's condition deteriorated, we combined standard therapy (intubation, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressors) with low-dose intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) (a total of 300 mL of 20 % lipid emulsion) and normalised her heart rhythm and stopped the seizures. She was discharged to the psychiatric ward after 48 h and home after a prolonged (2-month) psychiatric rehabilitation. Intravenous lipid emulsion turned out to be effective even in the lower dose range than previously reported for quetiapine poisoning in patients presenting with seizure and ventricular arrhythmia. To our knowledge, there are no case reports describing the use of ILE in treating citalopram poisoning. PMID:27331303

  14. Synthesis of sup 11 C-labeled citalopram, a selective serotonin uptake inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram, Siya (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA). Dept. of Radiology)

    1990-01-01

    A procedure for labeling the novel serotonin uptake inhibitor, citalopram (1-(3-dimethylamino)propyl-1-(p-fluorophenyl)-5-phthalancarbonitrile, Lu 10-171 ), with the positron emitting radionuclide {sup 11}C (t{sub 1/2} = 20.4 min) has been developed, in order to permit the pharmacokinetics of this compound to be studied in man. The procedure involves the reaction of ({sup 11}C)iodomethane with desmethylcitalopram in acetone in the presence of sodium hydroxide base at 65deg for 8-10 min; this was followed by purification by a column which contained, in series silica gel and basic alumina, and produces no carrier added ({sup 11}C)citalopram in radiochemical yield (18-66% at EOB) and radiochemical purity (>95%). The specific activity of ({sup 11}C)citalopram was 2.52 x 10{sup 3}-16.06 x 10{sup 3} GBq/mmol (68-434 Ci/mmol) at the end of synthesis. (author).

  15. Combination of Citalopram and Nortriptyline in Treatment of Moderate to Severe Major Depression: A Double-blind, Placebo- controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Depression is a major health problem, which is not only underrecognized and undertreated, but is also associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It has been suggested that combination therapy rapidly reduces depressive symptoms in patients with moderate to severe depression and is more effective than monotherapy; but this suggestion remains controversial. Serotonergic and noradrenergic enhancement may be synergistic and more effective than serotonergic enhancement alone in the management of depression. The objective of this double blind, placebo-controlled study was to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of the combination of citalopram and nortriptyline for the treatment of moderate to severe major depression. Method: 45 patients, who met the DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder based on the clinical interview, were included in the study. Patients had a baseline Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score of at least 20. In this trial, patients were randomly assigned to receive nortriptyline 50 mg/day plus citalopram 40 mg/day (group1 or placebo plus citalopram 40 mg/day (group2, for an 8 week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Results: Both protocols significantly decreased the score of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale over the trial period, but the combination of nortriptyline and citalopram showed a significant superiority over citalopram alone in the treatment of moderate to severe major depressive disorder (t = 3.34, d.f. = 36, P = 0.001. The difference between the two groups in the frequency of side effects was not significant. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that combination of nortriptyline and citalopram is more effective than citalopram alone in the treatment of depression. This advantage is probably the result of reuptake inhibition of both serotonin and norepinephrine

  16. Citalopram, depression and pseudo dementia: A neuropsychological case study Citalopram, depressão e pseudodemência: um estudo neuropsicológico de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Mattos

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The author presents a case of (depressive pseudo dementia, commenting on the clinical and neuropsychological findings before and after the use of citalopram, a serotoninergic anti depressive drug. The case portrays the current criticism about the old dichotomy between non-reversible ("functional" and reversible ("organic" dementia. The 73 year old woman initially diagnosed as pseudo demented showed some mild cognitive deterioration in neuropsychological evaluation after the improvement of her depressive symptoms. Some reasons for the divergent findings on pseudo dementia prognosis in the literature are proposed.O autor apresenta um caso de pseudodemência depressiva, tecendo comentários sobre os achados clínicos e neuropsicológicos antes e depois do uso de citalopram, um agente serotoninérgico. O caso apresentado ilustra as críticas atuais acerca da antiga dicotomia entre demências reversíveis ("funcionais" e não-reversíveis ("orgânicas". A paciente de 73 anos inicialmente diagnosticada como pseudodemente demonstrou algum grau de deterioração cognitiva em testes neuropsicológicos após a melhora dos sintomas depressivos. São sugeridas algumas razões para os achados divergentes com relação ao prognóstico da pseudodemência encontrados na literatura.

  17. Stability Indicating HPLC Determination of Risperidone in Bulk Drug and Pharmaceutical Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarna R. Dedania

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to develop a validated stability-indicating assay method (SIAM for risperidone after subjecting it to forced decomposition under hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis, and thermal stress conditions. The liquid chromatographic separation was achieved isocratically on a symmetry C18 column (5 μm size, 250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d. using a mobile phase containing methanol: acetonitrile (80 : 20, v/v at a flow rate of 1 mL/min and UV detection at 280 nm. Retention time of risperidone was found to be 3.35±0.01. The method was linear over the concentration range of 10–60 μg/mL(2=0.998 with a limit of detection and quantitation of 1.79 and 5.44 μg/mL, respectively. The method has the requisite accuracy, specificity, sensitivity, and precision to assay risperidone in bulk form and pharmaceutical dosage forms. Degradation products resulting from the stress studies did not interfere with the detection of Risperidone, and the assay is thus stability indicating.

  18. Sustained release of risperidone from biodegradable microspheres prepared by in-situ suspension-evaporation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Taekun; Choi, Juhyuen; Kim, Aram; Lee, Jin Ho; Nam, Yoonjin; Park, Junsung; Sun, Bo kyung; Suh, Hearan; Kim, Cherng-ju; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2016-04-30

    Risperidone-loaded poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres were prepared with a suspension-evaporation process with an aqueous suspension containing an in situ-formed aluminum hydroxide inorganic gel (SEP-AL process) and evaluated for encapsulation efficiency, particle size, surface morphology, glass transition temperature, in vitro drug release profile, and in vivo behavior. The SEP-AL microspheres were compared with conventional oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion solvent evaporation method using polyvinylalcohol (PVA) as an emulsifier (CP-PVA process). The microspheres were spherical in shape. DSC measurements showed that risperidone crystallinity was greatly reduced due to the homogeneous distribution of risperidone in PLGA microspheres. In vitro drug release profile from the microspheres showed a sigmoidal pattern of negligible initial burst up to 24h and minimal release (time-lag) for 7 days. After the lag phase, slow release took a place up to 25 days and then rapid release occurred sharply for 1 week. In vivo rat pharmacokinetic profile from the microspheres showed very low blood concentration level at the initial phase (up to 24h) followed by the latent phase up to 21 days. At the 3rd week, main phase started and the blood concentration of the drug increased up to the 5th week, and then gradually decreased. The risperidone-loaded PLGA microspheres produced by SEP-AL process showed excellent controlled release characteristics for the effective treatment of schizophrenia patients. PMID:26899975

  19. POST MARKETING SURVEILLANCE STUDY ON RISPERIDONE IN PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J R Zaveri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the commonest psychiatric ailments. It has been estimated that approximately 1% of the population and 15% of the adults suffers from this disease. Risperidone, atypical antipsychotic, acts mainly by 5HT2 blockade action. Produce virtually no extra pyramidal side effects at low dose, has a broad efficacy. But extra pyramidal dysfunction can appear at higher doses. We conducted a post marketing surveillance study on risperidone in 40 patients suffering from schizophrenia at Psychiatric department of Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad. In this study we specially studied its efficacy and safety. The results of this study are consistent with phase III clinical studies on risperidone carried out in Indian patients except its effects on food intake. As far as the efficacy of risperidone in patient with schizophrenia is concerned, it provided good symptomatic relief In term of safety, 7 patients out of 40, experience adverse effects like decrease appetite, constipation, insomnia, EPS and NMS. Patient with NMS was admitted in hospital and was died later on. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 34-36

  20. Sexual dysfunction and hormonal changes in first episode psychosis patients on olanzapine or risperidone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Bruggen; T. van Amelsvoort; L. Wouters; P. Dingemans; L. de Haan; D. Linszen

    2009-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotics interfere with central and peripheral neurotransmitter systems and with hormonal production. In this study we compared the effect of olanzapine and risperidone on hormonal state and sexual function (by using the Questionnaire for Sexual Dysfunction, QSD) in 40 patients with a

  1. Risperidone treatment for ADHD in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Biederman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Biederman, Paul Hammerness, Robert Doyle, Gagan Joshi, Megan Aleardi, Eric MickPediatric Psychopharmacology Research Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USAObjective: Children and adolescents with bipolar disorder are also at high risk of having comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The objective of this study was to estimate improvement in ADHD symptoms in children with bipolar disorder.Methods: This was an open-label, study of risperidone monotherapy for the treatment of pediatric bipolar disorder. Thirty-one children and adolescents 4–15 years of age (7.2 ± 2.8 years of both sexes (71%, N = 22 male with pediatric bipolar disorder (YMRS score = 32.9 ± 8.8 and ADHD (ADHD-RS score = 37.9 ± 8.9 were included in these analyses.Results: Improvement in ADHD symptoms was contingent on improvement in manic symptoms. Although both hyperactive/impulsive (−7.5 ± 5.5.6, p < 0.05 and inattentive (−6.8 ± 5.0, p < 0.05 ADHD symptoms were significantly improved with risperidone, improvement was modest, and only 29% of subjects (N = 6 showed a 30% reduction in ADHD rating scale scores and had a CGI-I ≤ 2.Conclusions: These results suggest that that treatment with risperidone is associated with tangible but generally modest improvement of symptoms of ADHD in children with bipolar disorder.Keywords: ADHD, bipolar disorder, children, risperidone

  2. Switching to quetiapine for risperidone-induced amenorrhea: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P K Pardal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost all the antipsychotics can cause hyperprolactinemia-related side-effects like amenorrhea. Quetiapine has been reported to have minimal propensity to cause hyperprolactinemia. We report here two cases of risperidone-induced amenorrhea, who resumed their normal cycle on switching over the medication to quetiapine.

  3. Switching to quetiapine for risperidone-induced amenorrhea: Report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Pardal, P. K.; Raaj Konwar; Jyoti Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Almost all the antipsychotics can cause hyperprolactinemia-related side-effects like amenorrhea. Quetiapine has been reported to have minimal propensity to cause hyperprolactinemia. We report here two cases of risperidone-induced amenorrhea, who resumed their normal cycle on switching over the medication to quetiapine.

  4. Synergistic Effects of Citalopram and Morphine in the Renal Colic Pain Relief; a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Esmailian

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the synergistic effects of opioids and other analgesic drugs such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs have been established in relieving acute pain due to renal calculi, no studies today have evaluated the concomitant administration of opiates and other drugs with analgesic effects, such as serotonin re-uptake inhibitors. Considering the high prevalence of renal colic, the present study was carried out to compare the effect of concomitant prescription of morphine and a placebo with that of morphine and citalopram on the management of acute pain due to renal calculi. Methods: The present double-blind randomized clinical trial was carried out from October 2012 to March 2013 in the Al-Zahra educational Hospital in Isfahan, Iran. A total of 90 patients with acute renal colic pain were randomly divided into two groups of 45 subjects. The subjects in one group received morphine/ placebo and another one morphine/citalopram. The patients’ pain severity was determined by visual analogue scale (VAS before and 20 minutes after administration of medications. In case of persistent pain the second or even third dose was administered and the pain severity was once again determined. Data were analyzed with STATA 11.0 using chi-squared, two-way ANOVA, Bonferroni post hoc test, and log rank test. Results: The decrease in pain severity in the morphine/citalopram group was significantly compared to the morphine/placebo group and the time before administration of the medications (p<0.001. In contrast, administration of morphine/placebo did not have a significant effect on pain severity at this interval (p=0.32. Kaplan-Meier curve showed that the first injection was successful in relieving pain in 15 (33.3% and 26 (57.8% subjects in the morphine/placebo and morphine/citalopram groups, respectively. The second injection of these medications resulted in therapeutic success in 35 (87.8% and 42 (95.6% subjects in the above groups

  5. Spectrofluorimetric method for quantification of citalopram in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids through oxidation with Ce(IV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jasmin; Jan, M. Rasul; Khan, M. Naeem; Inayatullah

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive and simple spectrofluorimetric method for the quantification of citalopram in a pure form, in pharmaceutical preparations, and in human blood plasma and urine has been described. The proposed method was based on the oxidation of citalopram by Ce(IV) in acidic media to produce fluorescent Ce(III), and on the subsequent measurement of its fluorescence intensity at 353 nm after excitation at 252 nm. All variables affecting the oxidation of citalopram such as Ce(IV) concentration, the type and concentration of acid, temperature and heating time were studied and optimized. Under the optimized experimental conditions the linear range of concentration versus fluorescence intensity was found to lie between 0.02 and 1.4 g/ml. Limits of detection and quantification were determined to be 6.9·10-3 g/ml and 2.3·10-2 g/ml respectively. Effects of excipients commonly used in the quantification of citalopram have been studied and no interferences were found. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine citalopram in pure form, in pharmaceutical preparations, and in biological fluids. Good recoveries in the ranges of 95.31-101.67%, 88.50-96.67%, and 90.0-96.67% were obtained for the pharmaceutical preparations (tablets), blood plasma, and human urine respectively.

  6. Clinical toxicology of citalopram after acute intoxication with the sole drug or in combination with other drugs : overview of 26 cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimmink, Afra; Caminada, Klaartje; Hunfeld, Nicole G M; Touw, Daan J

    2008-01-01

    There is discussion concerning the cardiac safety of citalopram in an overdose. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects and toxicokinetic parameters of citalopram in an overdose as a single drug and in combination with other drugs. Cases observed between 1997 and 2006 were evaluat

  7. Ionophore-Based Potentiometric Sensors for the Flow-Injection Determination of Promethazine Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Formulations and Human Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suad Mustafa Al-Araji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasticised poly(vinyl chloride-based membranes containing the ionophores (α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins (CD, dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6 and dibenzo-30-crown-10 (DB30C10 were evaluated for their potentiometric response towards promethazine (PM in a flow injection analysis (FIA set-up. Good responses were obtained when β- and γ-CDs, and DB30C10 were used. The performance characteristics were further improved when tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl borate (KTPB was added to the membrane. The sensor based on β-CD, bis(2-ethylhexyl adipate (BEHA and KTPB exhibited the best performance among the eighteen sensor compositions that were tested. The response was linear from 1 x 10−5 to 1 x 10−2 M, slope was 61.3 mV decade−1, the pH independent region ranged from 4.5 to 7.0, a limit of detection of 5.3 x 10−6 M was possible and a lifetime of more than a month was observed when used in the FIA system. Other plasticisers such as dioctyl phenylphosphonate and tributyl phosphate do not show significant improvements in the quality of the sensors. The promising sensors were further tested for the effects of foreign ions (Li+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Cr3+, Fe3+, glucose, fructose. FIA conditions (e.g., effects of flow rate, injection volume, pH of the carrier stream were also studied when the best sensor was used (based on β-CD. The sensor was applied to the determination of PM in four pharmaceutical preparations and human urine that were spiked with different levels of PM. Good agreement between the sensor and the manufacturer’s claimed values (for pharmaceutical preparations was obtained, while mean recoveries of 98.6% were obtained for spiked urine samples. The molecular recognition features of the sensors as revealed by molecular modelling were rationalised by the nature of the interactions and complexation energies between the host and guest molecules.

  8. Ziprasidone versus olanzapine, risperidone or quetiapine in patients with chronic schizophrenia: a 12-week open-label, multicentre clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lublin, Henrik; Haug, Hans-Joachim; Koponen, Hannu;

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy, safety and tolerability of ziprasidone versus the comparators olanzapine, risperidone or quetiapine were investigated in adult patients with chronic schizophrenia, schizoaffective and schizophreniform disorders, with lack of efficacy or intolerance to their previous antipsychotic...

  9. Trabecular bone loss after administration of the second-generation antipsychotic risperidone is independent of weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyl, Katherine J; Dick-de-Paula, Ingrid; Maloney, Ann E; Lotinun, Sutada; Bornstein, Sheila; de Paula, Francisco J A; Baron, Roland; Houseknecht, Karen L; Rosen, Clifford J

    2012-02-01

    Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have been linked to metabolic and bone disorders in clinical studies, but the mechanisms of these side effects remain unclear. Additionally, no studies have examined whether SGAs cause bone loss in mice. Using in vivo and in vitro modeling we examined the effects of risperidone, the most commonly prescribed SGA, on bone in C57BL6/J (B6) mice. Mice were treated with risperidone orally by food supplementation at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg daily for 5 and 8 weeks, starting at 3.5 weeks of age. Risperidone reduced trabecular BV/TV, trabecular number and percent cortical area. Trabecular histomorphometry demonstrated increased resorption parameters, with no change in osteoblast number or function. Risperidone also altered adipose tissue distribution such that white adipose tissue mass was reduced and liver had significantly higher lipid infiltration. Next, in order to tightly control risperidone exposure, we administered risperidone by chronic subcutaneous infusion with osmotic minipumps (0.5 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks) in 7 week old female B6 mice. Similar trabecular and cortical bone differences were observed compared to the orally treated groups (reduced trabecular BV/TV, and connectivity density, and reduced percent cortical area) with no change in body mass, percent body fat, glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity. Unlike in orally treated mice, risperidone infusion reduced bone formation parameters (serum P1NP, MAR and BFR/BV). Resorption parameters were elevated, but this increase did not reach statistical significance. To determine if risperidone could directly affect bone cells, primary bone marrow cells were cultured with osteoclast or osteoblast differentiation media. Risperidone was added to culture medium in clinically relevant doses of 0, 2.5 or 25 ng/ml. The number of osteoclasts was significantly increased by addition in vitro of risperidone while osteoblast differentiation was not altered. These studies indicate that

  10. Adjunctive Aripiprazole Treatment for Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia: An 8-Week Randomized, Open-Label, Comparative Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jingyuan Zhao; Xueqin Song; Xiaoqing Ai; Xiaojing Gu; Guangbiao Huang; Xue Li; Lijuan Pang; Minli Ding; Shuang Ding; Luxian Lv

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive aripiprazole treatment in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Methods One hundred and thirteen patients who were receiving a stable dose of risperidone were randomly assigned to either adjunctive aripiprazole treatment (10 mg/day) (aripiprazole group) or no additional treatment (control group) at a 1:1 ratio for 8 weeks. Schizophrenia symptoms were measured using the Positive an...

  11. Use of a Direct Observational Measure in a Trial of Risperidone and Parent Training in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    HANDEN, BENJAMIN L.; JOHNSON, CYNTHIA R.; Butter, Eric M.; LECAVALIER, LUC; SCAHILL, LAWRENCE; Aman, Michael G; McDougle, Christopher J.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Mulick, James A.; White, Susan W.; Bearss, Karen; Hollway, Jill A.; Stigler, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    A Structured Observational Analog Procedure (SOAP), an analogue measure of parent-child interactions, was used to assess treatment outcome in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and serious behavior problems. It served as a secondary outcome measure in a 24-week, randomized trial of risperidone (MED; N=49) versus risperidone plus parent training (COMB; n=75) (ages 4–13 years). At 24-weeks, there was 28 % reduction in child inappropriate behavior during a Demand Condition (p=.0002) and 12 %...

  12. [18F]altanserin binding to human 5HT2A receptors is unaltered after citalopram and pindolol challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, L. H.; Adams, K. H.; Yndsgaard, S;

    2004-01-01

    /infusion approach designed for attaining steady state in blood and brain 2 hours after the initial [18F]altanserin administration. Three hours after commencement of radiotracer administration, 0.25 mg/kg of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, citalopram (Lundbeck, Valby, Denmark), was administered to all...... condition (120 to 180 minutes) was compared with the stimulated condition (195 to 300 minutes). Despite a pronounced increase in plasma prolactin and two subjects reporting hot flushes compatible with an 5-HT-induced adverse effect, cortical [18F]altanserin binding was insensitive to the citalopram...... challenge, even after pindolol pretreatment. The biochemical and cellular events possibly affecting the unsuccessful translation of the citalopram/pindolol challenge into a change in 5-HT2A receptor binding of [18F]altanserin are discussed...

  13. Efficacy of an Eight Week Trial of Imipramine and Citalopram in Patients with Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Abbasi-Asl; Abbas Alimadadi; Hasan Khoonsari; Hossein Khalili; Padideh Ghaeli; Mohammad Sanatti; Mahdiyeh Moin; Mansoor Rastegarpanah

    2008-01-01

    "n "nObjective: Mixed anxiety-depressive disorder (MADD) is a condition in which patients have both anxiety and depressive symptoms but do not meet the diagnostic criteria for either an anxiety disorder or a mood disorder. "nThe aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of imipramine and citalopram in the treatment of MADD. "n "nMethods: Fifty one outpatients aged 18 to 55 who were diagnosed with MADD were randomly assigned to receive citalopram or imipramine for 8 weeks. Patients were as...

  14. Danish physicians' preferences for prescribing escitalopram over citalopram and sertraline to treatment-naïve patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Karen Killerup; Glintborg, Dorte; Moreno, Søren Ilsøe;

    2013-01-01

    , citalopram and sertraline reported to the Danish National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics from April 1, 2009 until March 31, 2010 were analysed with regard to treatment naivety and type of prescriber. A prescription was considered as first time if the patient had not received a prescription......, were responsible for initiating 87 % of all treatment-naïve patients. CONCLUSION: The most expensive SSRI, escitalopram, is prescribed as first choice to one in five patients receiving their first antidepressant of escitalopram, citalopram or sertraline. General practitioners made the bulk of all first...

  15. Mutational Mapping and Modeling of the Binding Site for (S)-Citalopram in the Human Serotonin Transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Olsen, Lars; Hansen, Kasper B.;

    2010-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) regulates extracellular levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) in the brain by facilitating uptake of released 5-hydroxytryptamine into neuronal cells. SERT is the target for widely used antidepressant drugs, including imipramine, fluoxetine......, and (S)-citalopram, which are competitive inhibitors of the transport function. Knowledge of the molecular details of the antidepressant binding sites in SERT has been limited due to lack of structural data on SERT. Here, we present a characterization of the (S)-citalopram binding pocket in human SERT (h...

  16. Response of symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder to treatment with citalopram or placebo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Dan J; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford; Overo, Kerstin Fredricson

    2007-01-01

    -controlled study of citalopram in obsessive-compulsive disorder were analyzed. Factor analysis of individual items and symptom categories of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Checklist were undertaken, and the impact of symptom dimensions on treatment outcomes was analysed. RESULTS: Factor analysis of Yale-Brown...... better outcome. Factor analysis of Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Checklist symptom clusters yielded a 4 factor solution, but confirmed that symmetry/ordering was associated with male gender, early onset, and long duration of obsessive-compulsive disorder while high scores on the hoarding subscale...

  17. On-Demand Treatment of Premature Ejaculation with Citalopram: A Randomized Double-Blind Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ghafuri Zahra; Farnia Vahid; Mohseni Mohmmad Ghasem; Raisi Firoozeh; Atharikia Davood

    2009-01-01

    "nAs the most common male sexual disorder premature ejaculation (PE), also referred to as early ejaculation (EE) or rapid ejaculation (RE), affects 30%-40% of sexually active men. Despite the limited number of available studies comparing the efficacy of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI) they have been thought to have beneficial effects for the treatment of patients with PE. In the present study, we assessed the efficacy of on-demand use of citalopram, in the treatment of pr...

  18. Development and Validation of an UPLC-MS/MS Method for Simultaneous Determination of Ibuprofen and Promethazine in Tablets Stored on Board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L.; Chow, D. S.-L.; Daniels, V. R.

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic efficacy and safety of pharmaceuticals remain a critical issue for successful NASA medical operations of long-term space missions on International Space Station (ISS). Medications stored aboard the ISS are subjected to unique environmental factors for extended time periods that may cause physicochemical degradation or alterations in the integrity of formulations that include the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the chemical matrix of the formulation. Degradation of API and adjuvants, in addition to alterations of the chemical matrix of the formulation, can decrease potency and bioavailability and increase the risk due to toxicity of degraded medications. UPLC-MS/MS analysis is efficient and highly sensitive to quantify API content and MS analysis enables the elucidation of the structures of degradation products for each formulation. Therefore the aim of this project was to develop and validate a rapid, specific, and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS assay for the simultaneous determination of ibuprofen and promethazine in tablets stored aboard the ISS.

  19. Non-destructive quantitative analysis of risperidone in film-coated tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkoula, M G; Kontoyannis, C G

    2008-07-15

    A simple, non-destructive, methodology based on FT-Raman spectroscopy was developed for the quantitative analysis of risperidone in commercially available film-coated tablets. A simple linear regression model was constructed based on standard tablets, prepared using the same manufacturing process as the commercially available. The tablets contained 0.27, 0.54, 1.08, 1.62, 2.16, 3.24 and 4.32 wt% risperidone. The most prominent Raman vibration of the active pharmaceutical ingredient at 1533 cm(-1), recorded using a home-made rotating system, was plotted against concentration. The model was tested on commercial film-coated tablets. The results were compared against those obtained by application of HPLC on the same samples. PMID:18359600

  20. Combination of Citalopram and Nortriptyline in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Double – Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Raisi

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The fact that some antidepressants with strong effects on serotonin reuptake blockade fail to relieve obsessive-compulsive symptoms has caused growing interest in investigating noradrenergic function in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD . In light of the above, we undertook a trial to investigate whether the combination of citalopram with nortriptyline is more effective in treating obsessive-compulsive symptoms than citalopram alone. Method: 40 patients who met the DSM-IV criteria for OCD were included in the study. Patients were allocated in a random fashion: 20 patients to citalopram 40mg /day plus nortriptyline 50mg /day, and 20 patients to citalopram 40mg /day plus placebo. Results: Both protocols significantly decreased the scores of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS over the trial period, but the combination of citalopram and nortriptyline showed a significant superiority over citalopram alone in the treatment of OCD. Conclusion: As this study indicates, nortriptyline improves the efficacy of citalopram. In addition, a rapid onset of action is one of the advantages of this combination. This study supports further investigation of the noradrenergic– serotonergic hypothesis in OCD.

  1. CHALLENGE WITH ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTIC DRUGS IN RISPERIDONE INDUCED NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Mendhekar, D.N.; Jiloha, R.C.; M M Mehndiratta; War, L.

    2002-01-01

    There are several reports available on neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) associated with risperidone but when a more stringent criterion is applied there are only a few. Report on challenge and rechallenge with various atypical antipsychotic drugs in re-emergence of post NMS psychosis is scanty. Our aim of presenting this is to highlight the differential response of various atypical antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of post NMS psychosis. This paper reports a young male with mild mental...

  2. Risperidone treatment for ADHD in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Joseph Biederman, Paul Hammerness, Robert Doyle, Gagan Joshi, Megan Aleardi, Eric MickPediatric Psychopharmacology Research Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USAObjective: Children and adolescents with bipolar disorder are also at high risk of having comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of this study was to estimate improvement in ADHD symptoms in children with bipolar disorder.Methods: This was an open-label, study of risperidone monot...

  3. Treatment of anorexia nervosa with long-term risperidone in an outpatient setting: case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kracke, Elsa J; Tosh, Aneesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There are currently few studies focusing on the efficacy of long-term atypical antipsychotics to treat anorexia nervosa in the pediatric population. Case description This case report follows the treatment of a 17 year-old female with anorexia nervosa over her four-year undergraduate career. After two years of multidisciplinary treatment, low-dose risperidone was initiated due to persistence of her disease. She expressed decreased rigidity around meal times, her weight improved an...

  4. Comparison the effectiveness of aripiprazole and risperidone for the treatment of acute bipolar mania

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Akhavan Rezayat; Paria Hebrani; Fatemeh Behdani; Mohamad Salaran; Majid Nabizadeh Marvast

    2014-01-01

    Background: Second-generation antipsychotics, approved for the treatment of mania, are associated with adverse effects such as weight gain and metabolic disorders. Aripiprazole, a recently introduced second-generation antipsychotic, are thought to account for its low propensity for weight gain, metabolic disturbances and sedation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of risperidone versus aripiprazole in the treatment of acute mania. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients wi...

  5. Risperidone long-acting injection: a review of its long term safety and efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer, Michael K

    2008-01-01

    Michael K RainerMemory-Clinic and Psychiatric Department, Donauspital, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: A long-acting form of the second-generation antipsychotic drug risperidone is now broadly available for the treatment of schizophrenia and closely related psychiatric conditions. It combines the advantage of previously available depot formulations for first-generation drugs with the favorable characteristics of the modern “atypical” antipsychotics, namely higher efficacy in the ...

  6. Selective labeling of serotonin uptake sites in rat brain by (/sup 3/H)citalopram contrasted to labeling of multiple sites by (/sup 3/H)imipramine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amato, R.J.; Largent, B.L.; Snowman, A.M.; Snyder, S.H.

    1987-07-01

    Citalopram is a potent and selective inhibitor of neuronal serotonin uptake. In rat brain membranes (/sup 3/H)citalopram demonstrates saturable and reversible binding with a KD of 0.8 nM and a maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) of 570 fmol/mg of protein. The drug specificity for (/sup 3/H)citalopram binding and synaptosomal serotonin uptake are closely correlated. Inhibition of (/sup 3/H)citalopram binding by both serotonin and imipramine is consistent with a competitive interaction in both equilibrium and kinetic analyses. The autoradiographic pattern of (/sup 3/H)citalopram binding sites closely resembles the distribution of serotonin. By contrast, detailed equilibrium-saturation analysis of (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding reveals two binding components, i.e., high affinity (KD = 9 nM, Bmax = 420 fmol/mg of protein) and low affinity (KD = 553 nM, Bmax = 8560 fmol/mg of protein) sites. Specific (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding, defined as the binding inhibited by 100 microM desipramine, is displaced only partially by serotonin. Various studies reveal that the serotonin-sensitive portion of binding corresponds to the high affinity sites of (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding whereas the serotonin-insensitive binding corresponds to the low affinity sites. Lesioning of serotonin neurons with p-chloroamphetamine causes a large decrease in (/sup 3/H)citalopram and serotonin-sensitive (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding with only a small effect on serotonin-insensitive (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding. The dissociation rate of (/sup 3/H)imipramine or (/sup 3/H)citalopram is not altered by citalopram, imipramine or serotonin up to concentrations of 10 microM. The regional distribution of serotonin sensitive (/sup 3/H)imipramine high affinity binding sites closely resembles that of (/sup 3/H)citalopram binding.

  7. Preparation and Biological Evaluation of Radioiodinated Risperidone and Lamotrigine as Models for Brain Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain imaging technology is becoming an important tool in both research and clinical care. Due to the sensitivity of brain imaging technology, neuroscientists are able to visualize brain structure and function from the level of individual molecules to the whole brain, recognize and diagnose neurological disorders, develop new strategies for treatment and determine how therapies work. The study aimed to take advantages from drugs that are able to cross the brain barrier for the development of potential radiopharmaceuticals for non-invasive brain imaging. Risperidone and lamotrigine were successfully labeled with 125I via direct electrophilic substitution reaction at 80 degree C. The reaction parameters affecting the preparation process were studied. 125I-risperidone and 125I-lamotrigine gave maximum labeling yield of 89 % ± 3.75 and 97.5 % ± 1.0 %, respectively and their stability were up to 6 and 24 h, respectively. Biodistribution studies showed that maximum uptake of 125I-risperidone and 125I-lamotrigine in the brain of mice were 4.27 % ± 0.38 and 2.45 % ± 0.18 of the injected activity/g tissue organ, at 10

  8. Effervescent tablet formulation for enhanced patient compliance and the therapeutic effect of risperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Kareem Abu Bakr; Ibrahim, Howida Kamal; Ghorab, Mahmoud Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Risperidone is a poorly water soluble atypical antipsychotic drug. This work investigated the potential of developing risperidone effervescent tablets to facilitate drug administration and mask drug taste. The solid dispersion technique was selected to improve drug solubility due to its ease of scaling up, reproducibility and affordable cost. Thirty formulas were prepared adopting a 5(1).2(1).3(1) full factorial design. Trehalose, Inulin, pregelatinized starch, carboxymethylcellulose sodium and Eudragit E100 were used as hydrophilic carriers at different ratios. Rotovap, lyophilization and the kneading-oven were applied as solvent evaporation techniques. Differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that the drug was present as amorphous material entrapped within the carrier matrix. Eight tablet blends were prepared using different effervescent mixture ratios with or without binder and lubricant/glidant mixture. All of the blends had acceptable flowability, acceptable effervescence times and immediate drug release that could not be achieved by any of the control formulas. The formula of choice contained 40% effervescent mixture, 5% starch, 1% boric acid, 1% aspartame and sufficient lactose. The relative bioavailability (RB) of risperidone from this formula was 161.41% with a significantly higher extent of absorption compared to the market conventional tablets. This formula may be promising in improving patient compliance and drug efficiency. PMID:24833273

  9. Clozapine and risperidone influence on cortisol and estradiol levels in male patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piriu, G; Torac, E; Gaman, L E; Iosif, L; Tivig, I C; Delia, C; Gilca, M; Stoian, I; Atanasiu, V

    2015-01-01

    Estrogens role in schizophrenia patients is a subject, which has gained an increased attention from the medical community. Estrogens have been shown to inhibit dopamine actions, improve neuronal regeneration, and overall, have a protective role in the pathology of schizophrenia. The adjunctive estrogen therapy for men is currently under debate. Antipsychotic medication is known to influence the hypothalamo-hypophyseal - gonadal axis by inducing variable degrees of hyperprolactinemia. Several studies have found that some of the atypical antipsychotics lower cortisol levels in patients and also in healthy controls. We have investigated the effects of clozapine and risperidone on estradiol levels in men with schizophrenia. We have also evaluated the levels of prolactin and cortisol, taking into account the possible influence of antipsychotic drugs on both these hormones. Both prolactin and cortisol also have the potential to regulate sexual hormones biosynthesis. Our study found decreased estradiol levels in men with schizophrenia treated with clozapine and risperidone, while prolactin levels were increased only in the risperidone treated group. Cortisol levels are not statistically significant different between groups. PMID:26664488

  10. RAPID CHROMATOGRAPHIC AND SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF CITALOPRAM IN RELEVANCE TO PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Das et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the study to measure the sensitivity and accuracy of two techniques, chromatography and spectrophotometry for the direct determination of citalopram in pharmaceutical formulations. Chromatography was performed on SE-30 column (1 m × 3 mm i.d using Nitrogen as a carrier gas (flow rate of 40 ml/min, having retention time of 12.8 min. Calibration curve was found linear in the range of 200-400 µg/ml. LOD and LOQ values were found as 1.1726 µg/ml and 3.5535 µg/ml respectively and the recoveries were in the range of 98.36–100.07%. In spectrophotometry method the absorption spectra were measured at 240 nm for standard and tablets form. Calibration curve was found linear in the range of 2-4 µg/ml. LOD and LOQ values were found as 40.59 ng/ml and 123.0 ng/ml respectively. Recoveries were in the range of 98.53–100.78%. The experimental results obtained indicate that the above proposed methods are specific, sensitive and accurate for the determination of citalopram in pharmaceutical formulations. These methods were also compared statistically and found that there was no significant difference between the two methods in terms of accuracy and precision. Whilst, the chromatographic method developed will applicable for its detection in biological matrices also.

  11. Citalopram-induced hypophagia is enhanced by blockade of 5-HT1A receptors: role of 5-HT2C receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Grignaschi, G.; Invernizzi, R W; Fanelli, E.; Fracasso, C; Caccia, S.; Samanin, R.

    1998-01-01

    The selective 5-hydroxytryptamine reuptake inhibitor citalopram (10 and 20 mg kg−1, i.p.) significantly reduced food intake in male rats (CD-COBS) habituated to eat their daily food during a 4-h period.The 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 (0.3 mg kg−1) administered systemically did not modify feeding but significantly potentiated the reduction in food intake caused by 10 mg kg−1 i.p. citalopram. The dose of 5 mg kg−1 i.p. citalopram was not active in animals pretreated with vehicle but si...

  12. Differential regulation of serotonin-1A receptor stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding in the dorsal raphe nucleus by citalopram and escitalopram

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Dania V.; Burke, Teresa F.; Hensler, Julie G.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of chronic citalopram or escitalopram administration on 5-HT1A receptor function in the dorsal raphe nucleus was determined by measuring [35S]GTPγS binding stimulated by the 5-HT1A receptor agonist (R)-(+)-8-OH-DPAT (1nM-10μM). Although chronic administration of citalopram or escitalopram has been shown to desensitize somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors, we found that escitalopram treatment decreased the efficacy of 5-HT1A receptors to activate G-proteins, whereas citalopram treat...

  13. Partial Purification of the 5-Hydroxytryptamine-Reuptake System from Human Blood Platelets Using a Citalopram-Derived Affinity Resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biessen, E.A.L.; Horn, A.S.; Robillard, G.T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a procedure for the synthesis and application of a citalopram-derived affinity resin in purifying the 5HT-reuptake system from human blood platelets. A two-step scheme has been developed for partial purification, based on wheat germ agglutinin-lectin (WGA) affinity and citalopra

  14. Partial purification of the 5-hydroxytryptophan-reuptake system from human blood platelets using a citalopram-derived affinity resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biessen, E.A.L; Horn, A.S.; Robillard, G.T. (Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands))

    1990-04-03

    This paper describes a procedure for the synthesis and application of a citalopram-derived affinity resin in purifying the 5HT-reuptake system from human blood platelets. A two-step scheme has been developed for partial purification, based on wheat germ agglutinin-lectin (WGA) affinity and citalopram affinity chromatographies. Upon solubilization of the carrier with 1% digitonin, a 50-70-fold increase in specific ({sup 3}H) imipramine binding activity with a 70% recovery could be accomplished through WGA-lectin chromatography. The WGA pool was then subjected to affinity chromatography on citalopram-agarose. At least 90% of the binding capacity adsorbed to the column. Specific elution using 10 {mu}M citalopram resulted in a 22% recovery of binding activity. A 10,000-fold overall purification was obtained by using this two-step procedure. Analysis of the fractions on SDS-PAGE after {sup 125}I labeling revealed specific elution of 78- and 55-kDa proteins concomitant with the appearance of ({sup 3}H) imipramine binding activity. The pharmacological profile of the partially purified reuptake system correlated well with that derived from the crude membrane-bound reuptake system, suggesting a copurification of the 5HT binding activity and ({sup 3}H)imipramine binding activity.

  15. The antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects following co-treatment with escitalopram and risperidone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminska, K; Rogoz, Z

    2016-06-01

    Several clinical reports have documented a beneficial effect of the addition of a low dose of risperidone to the ongoing treatment with antidepressants, in particular selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), in the treatment of drug-resistant depression and treatment-resistant anxiety disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effect of treatment with the antidepressant escitalopram (SSRI) given separately or jointly with a low dose of risperidone (an atypical antipsychotic) in the forced swim test and in the elevated plus-maze test in rats. The obtained results showed that escitalopram at doses of 2.5 or 5 mg/kg evoked antidepressant-like effect in the forced swim test. Moreover, risperidone at low doses (0.05 or 0.1 mg/kg) enhanced the antidepressant-like activity of escitalopram (1 mg/kg) in this test by increasing the swimming time and decreasing the immobility time in those animals. WAY 100635 (a serotonin 5-HT1A receptor antagonist) at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg abolished the antidepressant-like effect induced by co-administration of escitalopram and risperidone. The active behavior in that test did not reflect an increase in general activity, since the combined treatment with escitalopram and risperidone failed to enhance the exploratory activity of rats. In the following experiment, we showed that escitalopram (5 mg/kg) and mirtazapine (5 or 10 mg/kg) or risperidone (0.1 mg/kg) induced an anxiolytic-like effect in the elevated plus-maze test, and the combined treatment with an ineffective dose of risperidone (0.05 mg/kg) enhanced the anxiolytic-like effects of escitalopram (2.5 mg/kg) or mirtazapine (1 and 2.5 mg/kg) in this test. The obtained results suggest that risperidone applied at a low dose enhances the antidepressant-like activity of escitalopram in the forced swim test, and that 5-HT1A receptors may play some role in these effects. Moreover, a low dose of risperidone may also enhance the anxiolytic-like action of the studied

  16. The antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects following co-treatment with escitalopram and risperidone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminska, K; Rogoz, Z

    2016-06-01

    Several clinical reports have documented a beneficial effect of the addition of a low dose of risperidone to the ongoing treatment with antidepressants, in particular selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), in the treatment of drug-resistant depression and treatment-resistant anxiety disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effect of treatment with the antidepressant escitalopram (SSRI) given separately or jointly with a low dose of risperidone (an atypical antipsychotic) in the forced swim test and in the elevated plus-maze test in rats. The obtained results showed that escitalopram at doses of 2.5 or 5 mg/kg evoked antidepressant-like effect in the forced swim test. Moreover, risperidone at low doses (0.05 or 0.1 mg/kg) enhanced the antidepressant-like activity of escitalopram (1 mg/kg) in this test by increasing the swimming time and decreasing the immobility time in those animals. WAY 100635 (a serotonin 5-HT1A receptor antagonist) at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg abolished the antidepressant-like effect induced by co-administration of escitalopram and risperidone. The active behavior in that test did not reflect an increase in general activity, since the combined treatment with escitalopram and risperidone failed to enhance the exploratory activity of rats. In the following experiment, we showed that escitalopram (5 mg/kg) and mirtazapine (5 or 10 mg/kg) or risperidone (0.1 mg/kg) induced an anxiolytic-like effect in the elevated plus-maze test, and the combined treatment with an ineffective dose of risperidone (0.05 mg/kg) enhanced the anxiolytic-like effects of escitalopram (2.5 mg/kg) or mirtazapine (1 and 2.5 mg/kg) in this test. The obtained results suggest that risperidone applied at a low dose enhances the antidepressant-like activity of escitalopram in the forced swim test, and that 5-HT1A receptors may play some role in these effects. Moreover, a low dose of risperidone may also enhance the anxiolytic-like action of the studied

  17. Risperidone and Divalproex Differentially Engage the Fronto-Striato-Temporal Circuitry in Pediatric Mania: A Pharmacological Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuluri, Mani N.; Passarotti, Alessandra M.; Fitzgerald, Jacklynn M.; Wegbreit, Ezra; Sweeney, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the impact of risperidone and divalproex on affective and working memory circuitry in patients with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Method: This was a six-week, double-blind, randomized trial of risperidone plus placebo versus divalproex plus placebo for patients with mania (n = 21; 13.6 [plus or minus] 2.5…

  18. Subjective response to antipsychotic treatment and compliance in schizophrenia. A naturalistic study comparing olanzapine, risperidone and haloperidol (EFESO Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacristán Jose A

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to compare the effectiveness of different antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia it is very important to evaluate subjective response and compliance in patient cohorts treated according to routine clinical practice. Method Outpatients with schizophrenia entered this prospective, naturalistic study when they received a new prescription for an antipsychotic drug. Treatment assignment was based on purely clinical criteria, as the study did not include any experimental intervention. Patients treated with olanzapine, risperidone or haloperidol were included in the analysis. Subjective response was measured using the 10-item version of the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-10, and treatment compliance was measured using a physician-rated 4 point categorical scale. Results A total of 2128 patients initiated treatment (as monotherapy with olanzapine, 417 with risperidone, and 112 with haloperidol. Olanzapine-treated patients had significantly higher DAI-10 scores and significantly better treatment compliance compared to both risperidone- and haloperidol-treated patients. Risperidone-treated patients had a significantly higher DAI-10 score compared to haloperidol-treated patients. Conclusion Subjective response and compliance were superior in olanzapine-treated patients, compared to patients treated with risperidone and haloperidol, in routine clinical practice. Differences in subjective response were explained largely, but not completely, by differences in incidence of EPS.

  19. A comparison of continuous subcutaneous paliperidone infusion and repeated subcutaneous injection of risperidone free-base in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, G; Pittau, B; Casu, G; Peddio, G; Spada, G P; Pira, M; Deriu, A; Portesani, F; Pisu, C; Lazzari, P; Pani, L

    2010-03-01

    It is proposed that to achieve a therapeutic effect in schizophrenia patients, dopamine D(2)-receptor occupancy by antipsychotics within the striatum must exceed 60-65%. However, at high levels of D(2)-receptor occupancy, the risk of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) is increased. Following oral dosing of antipsychotics, peaks and troughs in plasma drug concentrations may be mirrored by fluctuations in D(2)-receptor occupancy. Paliperidone, a novel antipsychotic available as extended-release tablets (paliperidone ER), is the major active metabolite of risperidone and exhibits a plasma pharmacokinetic profile with reduced peak-trough fluctuations and consistent D(2)-receptor occupancy compared with conventional oral antipsychotic formulations. Using formulations that resemble those in clinical practice, this study provides a preclinical evaluation of the pharmacological properties of paliperidone ER and risperidone immediate-release formulation in terms of consistent antipsychotic efficacy over time and extrapyramidal symptom liability. Significant fluctuations in inhibition of d-amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion were observed for repeated subcutaneous (SC) risperidone injections, whereas stable inhibitory efficacy was demonstrated during continuous SC paliperidone infusion. Similarly, significant fluctuations in latency on-bar were observed with repeated SC risperidone injections, whereas significantly lower latency on-bar was demonstrated following continuous SC paliperidone infusion. These results in an animal model suggest that although risperidone and paliperidone demonstrate similar pharmacologic effects, continuous administration of paliperidone achieves more stable antipsychotic efficacy with reduced motor impairment, akin to the effects observed with paliperidone ER in clinical studies. PMID:19640686

  20. Augmentation with a 5-HT1A but not a 5-HT1B receptor antagonist critically depends on the dose of citalopram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, TIFH; Liao, Y; Bosker, FJ; den Boer, JA; Westerink, BHC; Wikstrom, HV

    2000-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-1-(4-nuorophenyl)-5-phtalancarbonitril (citalopram) were determined in order to find optimal conditions for augmentation of its effect on extracellular serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamin

  1. Påvirker protonpumpehemmere serumkonsentrasjonen til de tre selektive serotoninreopptakshemmerne sertralin, citalopram og escitalopram? : En farmakokinetisk studie basert på retrospektive data

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Bakgrunn: Det er kjent at protonpumpehemmere i varierende grad virker som hemmere av CYP2C19. Samtidig er CYP2C19 viktig i metabolismen av de selektive serotoninreopptakshemmerne (SSRI-ene) sertralin, citalopram og escitalopram. Hensikten med denne studien var å undersøke i hvor stor grad de fire protonpumpehemmerne esomeprazol, lansoprazol, omeprazol og pantoprazol påvirker serumkonsentrasjonen av de tre SSRI-ene sertralin, citalopram og escitalopram. Metode: Resultater fra serumkonsentr...

  2. Effects of repeated treatment with fluoxetine and citalopram, 5-HT uptake inhibitors, on 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors in the rat brain.

    OpenAIRE

    Klimek, V; Zak-Knapik, J; Mackowiak, M.

    1994-01-01

    Repeated treatment with fluoxetine and citalopram, which are potent 5-HT reuptake inhibitors, resulted in different regulation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors in the rat brain. Their effects were compared with those of other antidepressants: imipramine, mianserin and levoprotiline. The density of 5-HT1A receptors, labelled with [3H]8-OH-DPAT, in the rat hippocampus was enhanced after citalopram, imipramine, mianserin and levoprotiline, but not altered after fluoxetine administration. [3H]Ketans...

  3. Combination of Citalopram and Nortriptyline in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Double – Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Firoozeh Raisi; Marzieh Tavakoli; Abbas Ali Nasehi

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The fact that some antidepressants with strong effects on serotonin reuptake blockade fail to relieve obsessive-compulsive symptoms has caused growing interest in investigating noradrenergic function in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) . In light of the above, we undertook a trial to investigate whether the combination of citalopram with nortriptyline is more effective in treating obsessive-compulsive symptoms than citalopram alone. Method: 40 patients who met the DSM-IV criteri...

  4. Atypical antipsychotics olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone and risk of acute major cardiovascular events in young and middle-aged adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasternak, Björn; Svanström, Henrik; Ranthe, Mattis F;

    2014-01-01

    risperidone (n = 14,134). The primary outcome was any major cardiovascular event (composite of cardiovascular mortality, acute coronary syndrome, or ischemic stroke) within 1 year following treatment initiation. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) while on current antipsychotic monotherapy......BACKGROUND: A number of serious cardiovascular safety concerns related to the use of atypical antipsychotics, compared with no use, have emerged, but nearly all reports are from studies of older patients. We aimed to compare the risk of cardiovascular events between the three most commonly used...... in the outpatient setting, adjusting for an outcome-specific disease risk score. RESULTS: The crude rate of any major cardiovascular event was 5.3 per 1,000 person-years among olanzapine users, 3.4 in quetiapine users, and 5.2 in risperidone users. Compared with risperidone, the risk of any major cardiovascular...

  5. Risperidone use in a teaching hospital during its first year after market approval: economic and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, C S; Mulsant, B H; Sweet, R A; Maxwell, R A; Coley, K; Ganguli, R; Branch, R

    1995-01-01

    Risperidone, a new antipsychotic drug, was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on the basis of its having comparable efficacy and less toxicity than haloperidol. In a preliminary study to evaluate the therapeutic efficiency of this drug, we conducted a survey of resperidone utilization, cost, and safety during its first year of availability at an academic psychiatric hospital. Data were obtained from a computerized, centralized medical record system, from an adverse drug reaction monitoring system, and from pharmacy purchasing records. In its first year of availability, risperidone became the second most widely used antipsychotic agent at our institution. Most of this use extended beyond the adult schizophrenia population, for whom pre-marketing safety and efficacy data are available. The direct institutional cost of risperidone treatment exceeded the entire budget for antipsychotic drugs during the year before its release. Results from the adverse drug reaction reporting system did not indicate a strong advantage of risperidone over more established antipsychotic agents with respect to extrapyramidal side effects. Furthermore, the mean dose of risperidone associated with extrapyramidal symptoms was 3.5 mg/day, considerably lower than that suggested by pre-marketing studies in a more select patient group. These results confirm that new pharmacological agents are generally used in much broader patient populations than those for which efficacy and safety have been established prior to FDA approval. This study also raises questions about the therapeutic efficiency of risperidone compared with other antipsychotic drugs. We conclude that systematic studies of outcome, safety, and cost of new pharmaceuticals in naturalistic settings are needed to provide the data necessary to establish local standards of cost-effective care.

  6. Choline acetyltransferase expression in rat prefrontal cortex and hippocampus after acute and chronic exposure to amisulpride, haloperidol, and risperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guang-Biao; Zhao, Tong; Li, Chun-Rong; Sui, Zhi-Yan; Kang, Nam-In; Han, Eui-Hyeog; Chung, Young-Chul

    2012-10-24

    Recently, there has been an increasing concern that atypical antipsychotics as well as typical ones may cause detrimental effects on cognitive function. Supporting evidence comes from many preclinical studies demonstrating that long-term administration of haloperidol, risperidone, and ziprasidone reduced choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expression in rat hippocampus (HIP). However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have examined the effects of amisulpride on ChAT expression in rats. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute and chronic administration of amisulpride, haloperidol, and risperidone on ChAT expression in the rat prefrontal cortex (PFC) and HIP. Animals received daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of amisulpride (5 or 100mg/kg), haloperidol (1 or 2mg/kg), risperidone (1 or 2mg/kg) or vehicle for 7 or 45 days. One day after the last injection, rats were sacrificed. ChAT immunoreactivity was assessed with immunofluorescence staining. Target areas of brain were PFC and HIP (CA1, CA3 and DG). The short-term administration of haloperidol and risperidone produced significant decrease of ChAT immunoreactivity in the PFC and HIP compared to vehicle whereas amisulpride had no effects on ChAT immunoreactivity in the PFC and HIP. In long-term study, haloperidol and risperidone decreased ChAT-positive cells and/or fiber pixel density in the PFC and HIP whereas amisulpride decreased ChAT-positive cells in the PFC and had no effects on fiber pixel density of ChAT in the HIP. The results suggest that both short-term and long-term administration of haloperidol and risperidone, and long-term administration of amisulpride may produce detrimental effects on cognitive function by reducing ChAT expression in the PFC and/or HIP.

  7. Dopamine transporter density assessed with [123]IPT SPECT before and after risperidone treatment in children with tourette's disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourette's disorder (TD), which is characterized by multiple waxing and waning motor tics and one or more vocal tics, is known to be associated with abnormalities in the dopaminergic system. To testify our hypothesis that risperidone would improve tic symptoms of TD patients through the change of the dopaminergic system, we measured the dopamine transporter (DAT) densities between drug-naive children with TD and normal children, and investigated the DAT density before and after treatment with risperidone in drug-naive children with TD, using iodine-123 labelled N-(3-iodopropen-2-yl)-2β-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-chlorophenyl)tropane ([123I]IPT) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). [123I]IPT SPECT imaging and Yale Global Tic Severity Scale-Korean version (YGTSS-K) for assessing the tic symptom severity were carried out before and after treatment with risperidone for 8 weeks in nine drug-naive children with TD. Eleven normal children also underwent SPECT imaging 2 hours after an intravenous administration of [123I]IPT. Drug-naive children with TD had a significantly greater increase in the specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of both basal ganglia compared with the normal children. However, no significant difference in the specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of the basal ganglia before and after treatment with risperidone in children with TD was found, although tic symptoms were significantly improved with risperidone. These findings suggest that DAT densities are directly associated with the pathophysiology of TD, however, that the effect of risperidone on tic symptoms in children with TD is not attributed to the change of dopaminergic system

  8. Risperidone regulates Dopamine D2-like receptors expression in rat brain in a time-dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Peiyan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Antipsychotics can elicit dopamine super-sensitivity by up-regulation of D2-like receptors (DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4 expression. Nevertheless, the expression profile of dopamine D2-like receptors in different brain regions and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, and changes following risperidone administration were still unclear. In this study, we would investigate the expression of D2-like receptors mRNA in different brain regions and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs in rats after 2, 6 weeks risperidone administration. Methods: The experimental rats were given risperidone (0.25mg/kg/day, i.p., and the control rats were given 0.9% NaCl. The rats were sacrificed at 0 week, 2 weeks and 6 weeks after the drug administration. Expression of the dopamine D2-like receptors was quantified by Real-time PCR method. Results: Dopamine D2-like receptors expressed in all the examined regions of rat brain. Their expression significantly increased 2weeks after risperidone administration in different brain regions. However, the changed expression of DRD2 and DRD3 turned back to the basal level 6weeks later, while the increased DRD4 expression remained in left parietal cortex. Meanwhile, DRD2 and DRD3 but not DRD4 expressed in PBMCs, however, the risperidone could not affect their expression. Conclusions: The risperidone could change the dopamine D2-like receptors expression in a time-dependent manner in different brain regions, which might guide the clinical use in the near future.

  9. Optimizing limbic selective D2/D3 receptor occupancy by risperidone: a [123I]-epidepride SPET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Rodrigo A; Erlandsson, Kjell; Jones, Hugh M; Mulligan, Rachel S; Ell, Peter J; Pilowsky, Lyn S

    2003-02-01

    Selective action at limbic cortical dopamine D2-like receptors is a putative mechanism of atypical antipsychotic efficacy with few extrapyramidal side effects. Although risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic with high affinity for D2 receptors, low-dose risperidone treatment is effective without inducing extrapyramidal symptoms. The objective was to test the hypothesis that treatment with low-dose risperidone results in 'limbic selective' D2/D3 receptor blockade in vivo. Dynamic single photon emission tomography (SPET) sequences were obtained over 5 hours after injection of [123I]-epidepride (approximately 150 MBq), using a high-resolution triple-headed brain scanner (Marconi Prism 3000XP). Kinetic modelling was performed using the simplified reference region model to obtain binding potential values. Estimates of receptor occupancy were made relative to a normal volunteer control group (n = 5). Six patients treated with low-dose risperidone (mean = 2.6 mg) showed moderate levels of D2/D3 occupancy in striatum (49.9%), but higher levels of D2/D3 occupancy in thalamus (70.8%) and temporal cortex (75.2%). Occupancy values in striatum were significantly different from thalamus (F (1,4) = 26.3, p < 0.01) and from temporal cortex (F (1,4) = 53.4, p < 0.01). This is the first study to evaluate striatal and extrastriatal occupancy of risperidone. Low dose treatment with risperidone achieves a similar selectivity of limbic cortical over striatal D2/D3 receptor blockade to that of atypical antipsychotics with lower D2/D3 affinity such as clozapine, olanzapine and quetiapine. This finding is consistent with the relevance of 'limbic selective' D2/D3 receptor occupancy to the therapeutic efficacy of atypical antipsychotic drugs. PMID:12544369

  10. Impact of evergreening on patients and health insurance: a meta analysis and reimbursement cost analysis of citalopram/escitalopram antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkhafaji Ali A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background "Evergreening" refers to the numerous strategies whereby owners of pharmaceutical products use patent laws and minor drug modifications to extend their monopoly privileges on the drug. We aimed to evaluate the impact of evergreening through the case study of the antidepressant citalopram and its chiral switch form escitalopram by evaluating treatment efficacy and acceptability for patients, as well as health insurance costs for society. Methods To assess efficacy and acceptability, we performed meta-analyses for efficacy and acceptability. We compared direct evidence (meta-analysis of results of head-to-head trials and indirect evidence (adjusted indirect comparison of results of placebo-controlled trials. To assess health insurance costs, we analyzed individual reimbursement data from a representative sample of the French National Health Insurance Inter-regime Information System (SNIIR-AM from 2003 to 2010, which allowed for projecting these results to the whole SNIIR-AM population (53 million people. Results In the meta-analysis of seven head-to-head trials (2,174 patients, efficacy was significantly better for escitalopram than citalopram (combined odds ratio (OR 1.60 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 2.46. However, for the adjusted indirect comparison of 10 citalopram and 12 escitalopram placebo-controlled trials, 2,984 and 3,777 patients respectively, efficacy was similar for the two drug forms (combined indirect OR 1.03 (0.82 to 1.30. Because of the discrepancy, we could not combine direct and indirect data (test of inconsistency, P = 0.07. A similar discrepancy was found for treatment acceptability. The overall reimbursement cost burden for the citalopram, escitalopram and its generic forms was 120.6 million Euros in 2010, with 96.8 million Euros for escitalopram. Conclusions The clinical benefit of escitalopram versus citalopram remains uncertain. In our case of evergreening, escitalopram represented a substantially

  11. Double-blind randomized trial of risperidone versus divalproex in pediatric bipolar disorder: fMRI outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Pavuluri, Mani N.; Passarotti, Alessandra M.; Lu, Lisa H.; Carbray, Julie A; Sweeney, John A.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the relative effects of risperidone and divalproex on brain function in pediatric mania. This is a double-blind 6-week fMRI trial with 24 unmedicated manic patients randomized to risperidone or divalproex, and 14 healthy controls (HC) matched for IQ and demographic factors (mean age: 13.1±3.3 years). A pediatric affective color matching task, in which subjects matched the color of a positive, negative or neutral word with one of two colored circles, was administered. The primary ...

  12. Gabapentin adjunctive to risperidone or olanzapine in partially responsive schizophrenia: an open-label pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Gabriel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Adel GabrielDepartments of Psychiatry and Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Alberta, CanadaBackground: There is a great need in the treatment of schizophrenia for a drug, or drug ­combinations, to improve clinical response with fewer serious side effects. The objective of this study was to explore the therapeutic effects and tolerability of the anticonvulsant gabapentin as an adjunctive in the treatment of patients with partially responsive schizophrenia.Methods: Ten consenting patients with a confirmed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision diagnosis of schizophrenia were identified. All patients failed at least one 12-week treatment trial with risperidone or olanzapine. Gabapentin was added to ongoing antipsychotic treatment with olanzapine or risperidone for eight weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Other scales included the Calgary Depression Scale (CDSS and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance was utilized to examine changes in outcome measures over time with adjunctive treatment with gabapentin.Results: There was a significant drop in the PANSS and CDSS scores at endpoint (week 8. There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups with regard to changes in all outcome measures or in AIMS score. The adjunctive treatments were well tolerated and side effects were transient.Conclusion: Gabapentin could be used successfully as an adjunct to novel antipsychotics in partially responsive schizophrenia. However, large controlled studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of gabapentin in psychotic disorders.Keywords: schizophrenia, refractory, adjunctive treatment, gabapentin, risperidone, olanzapine

  13. Extrapyramidal Symptoms During Risperidone Maintenance Treatment in Schizophrenia: A Prospective, Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Qi-Jing; Li, Xian-Bin; Wang, Zhi-Min; Li, An-Ning; Ma, Xin; Wang, Chuan-Yue

    2016-04-01

    The risperidone maintenance treatment in schizophrenia study was designed to identify the duration of maintenance treatment required with an initial therapeutic dose in contrast to reducing the dose over time. This study investigated extrapyramidal symptoms (EPSs) in different risperidone maintenance treatment paradigms over 1 year. Clinically stabilized patients with schizophrenia (n = 374) were randomized to a no-dose-reduction group and 4-week and 26-week reduction groups, in which the dose was gradually reduced by 50% over 8 weeks and maintained. Extrapyramidal symptoms were assessed at baseline and monthly for 6 months, followed by every 2 months. The Simpson-Angus Scale of Extrapyramidal Symptoms-Chinese version assessed EPS severity. Data were analyzed by a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). The frequency of EPS at baseline was 23.2%, 20.0%, and 21.3% in the 4-week, 26-week, and no-dose-reduction groups, respectively. Risperidone dosage, positive symptoms, and disorganized thoughts at baseline predicted development of EPS. The GLMM indicated that a significant decrease in EPS was maintained, and different trajectories occurred over time across groups. In the 235 patients who continued treatment after 1 year, the incidence of EPS decreased to 4.1%, 2.8%, and 10.0% in the 4-week, 26-week, and no-dose-reduction groups, respectively, whereas the numbers of dropouts because of intolerable EPS were not significantly different (4.8%, 6.7%, and 6.2%, respectively). These novel findings indicate EPSs were tolerable and differentially decreased depending on the dose paradigm during the 1-year treatment period. Future studies should implement a GLMM to investigate antipsychotic adverse effects during long-term treatment. PMID:26848792

  14. Bioequivalence study of a generic Risperidone (Iperdal® in healthy Thai male volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werawath Mahatthanatrakul

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the rate and extent of absorption of a generic risperidone (Iperdal® with a reference formulation (Risperdal® when given orally. The study was an open label, randomized, two-period, two-sequence,single dose cross-over design with a 2 weeks washout period in 16 healthy Thai male volunteers. Single oral dose of two 2-mg tablets of risperidone were administered and serial blood samples were collected from the antecubital vein before and at0.17, 0.33, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 12, 24 and 48 hours post dose. Risperidone plasma concentrations were assayed using a validated High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC-UV method modified from Avenosoet al. (2000. Pharamcokinetic parameters i.e. Cmax, AUC0à48 and Tmax were analyzed by noncompartment analysis. Variations of the data were analyzed by “Two Way Analysis of Variance” (ANOVA. Statistics were tested as stated in USP 28 guidelinefor bioequivalence study. The maximum concentration (Cmax, ng/ml of risperidone for the innovator and the generic product were 31.11±17.24 (range 5.64-56.78 and 32.58±19.77 (range 5.29-84.56 ng/ml, respectively. The area under theplasma concentration-time curve (AUC0®48 of the innovator and the generic product were 160.64±152.89 (range 18.57- 550.32 and 144.03±127.37 (range 16.27-456.0 ng.hr/ml, respectively. The time to maximum concentration (Tmax of theinnovator and the generic product were 0.97±0.41(range 0.5-2 and 1.02±0.32 (range 0.5-1.5 hr, respectively. The 90% confidence interval of the ratio of the ln-transformed of Cmax and AUC0à48 of both preparations were 89.39-112.99% and80.02-107.28% respectively which were within the acceptance range of 80.00-125.00%. Therefore, it can be concluded that both preparations used in this study are bioequivalent in terms of both the rate and extent of absorption.

  15. Application of orange G dye for quantitation of citalopram hydrobromide, donepezil hydrochloride and rabeprazole sodium from tablet formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillai S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Three simple, rapid and accurate visible spectrophotometric methods have been developed using Orange G dye for the quantitative estimation of citalopram hydrobromide, donepezil hydrochloride and rabeprazole sodium from respective tablet formulations. These developed methods are based on formation of chloroform-extractable coloured complex of drug and dye. The extracted coloured complex shows absorption maxima at 476 nm and linearity in the concentration range of 10-50 μg/ml for citalopram hydrobromide (method I; at 482 nm and linearity in the concentration range of 5-35 μg/ml for donepezil hydrochloride (method II and at 477.4 nm with linearity in the concentration range of 10-70 μg/ml for rabeprazole sodium (method III. The results of analysis for all three developed methods were validated statistically and by recovery studies.

  16. Fabrication a new modified electrochemical sensor based on Au-Pd bimetallic nanoparticle decorated graphene for citalopram determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar, Leili; Rounaghi, Gholam Hossein; Es'haghi, Zarrin; Chamsaz, Mahmoud; Tarahomi, Somayeh

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes a simple approach for sensing of citalopram (CTL) using gold-palladium bimetallic nanoparticles (Au-PdNPs) decorated graphene modified gold electrode. Au-PdNPs were deposited at the surface of a graphene modified gold electrode with simple electrodeposition method. The morphology and the electrochemical properties of the modified electrode were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The novel sensor exhibited an excellent catalytic activity towards the oxidation of CTL. The oxidation peak current of CTL, was linear in the range of 0.5-50μM with a detection limit 0.049μM with respect to concentration of citalopram. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for determination of CTL tablet and human plasma samples with satisfactory results. PMID:27612758

  17. Fabrication a new modified electrochemical sensor based on Au-Pd bimetallic nanoparticle decorated graphene for citalopram determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar, Leili; Rounaghi, Gholam Hossein; Es'haghi, Zarrin; Chamsaz, Mahmoud; Tarahomi, Somayeh

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes a simple approach for sensing of citalopram (CTL) using gold-palladium bimetallic nanoparticles (Au-PdNPs) decorated graphene modified gold electrode. Au-PdNPs were deposited at the surface of a graphene modified gold electrode with simple electrodeposition method. The morphology and the electrochemical properties of the modified electrode were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The novel sensor exhibited an excellent catalytic activity towards the oxidation of CTL. The oxidation peak current of CTL, was linear in the range of 0.5-50μM with a detection limit 0.049μM with respect to concentration of citalopram. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for determination of CTL tablet and human plasma samples with satisfactory results.

  18. Studies on the interaction between promethazine and human serum albumin in the presence of flavonoids by spectroscopic and molecular modeling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling-Ling; Wang, Zhi-Xin; Wang, Yong-Xia; Liu, Xian-Ping; Yang, Yan-Jie; Gao, Yan-Ping; Wang, Xin; Liu, Bin; Wang, Xin

    2016-09-01

    Fluorescence, absorption, time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC), and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic techniques as well as molecular modeling methods were used to study the binding characterization of promethazine (PMT) to human serum albumin (HSA) and the influence of flavonoids, rutin and baicalin, on their affinity. The results indicated that the fluorescence quenching mechanism of HSA by PMT is a static quenching due to the formation of complex. The reaction was spontaneous and mainly mediated by hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. The binding distance between the tryptophan residue of HSA and PMT is less than 8nm, which indicated that the energy transfer from the tryptophan residue of HSA to PMT occurred. The binding site of PMT on HSA was located in sites I and the presence of PMT can cause the conformational changes of HSA. There was the competitive binding to HSA between PMT and flavonoids because of the overlap of binding sites in HSA. The flavonoids could decrease the association constant and increase the binding distance. In addition, their synergistic effect can further change the conformation of HSA. The decrease in the affinities of PMT binding to HSA in the presence of flavonoids may lead to the increase of free drug in blood, which would affect the transportation or disposition of drug and evoke an adverse or toxic effect. Hence, rationalising dosage and diet regimens should be taken into account in clinical application of PMT. PMID:27315330

  19. Studies on the interaction between promethazine and human serum albumin in the presence of flavonoids by spectroscopic and molecular modeling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling-Ling; Wang, Zhi-Xin; Wang, Yong-Xia; Liu, Xian-Ping; Yang, Yan-Jie; Gao, Yan-Ping; Wang, Xin; Liu, Bin; Wang, Xin

    2016-09-01

    Fluorescence, absorption, time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC), and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic techniques as well as molecular modeling methods were used to study the binding characterization of promethazine (PMT) to human serum albumin (HSA) and the influence of flavonoids, rutin and baicalin, on their affinity. The results indicated that the fluorescence quenching mechanism of HSA by PMT is a static quenching due to the formation of complex. The reaction was spontaneous and mainly mediated by hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. The binding distance between the tryptophan residue of HSA and PMT is less than 8nm, which indicated that the energy transfer from the tryptophan residue of HSA to PMT occurred. The binding site of PMT on HSA was located in sites I and the presence of PMT can cause the conformational changes of HSA. There was the competitive binding to HSA between PMT and flavonoids because of the overlap of binding sites in HSA. The flavonoids could decrease the association constant and increase the binding distance. In addition, their synergistic effect can further change the conformation of HSA. The decrease in the affinities of PMT binding to HSA in the presence of flavonoids may lead to the increase of free drug in blood, which would affect the transportation or disposition of drug and evoke an adverse or toxic effect. Hence, rationalising dosage and diet regimens should be taken into account in clinical application of PMT.

  20. Subtype-selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists enhance the responsiveness to citalopram and reboxetine in the mouse forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Jesper T; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø; Christensen, Jeppe K; Olsen, Gunnar M; Peters, Dan; Mirza, Naheed R; Redrobe, John P

    2011-10-01

    Nicotine increases serotonergic and noradrenergic neuronal activity and facilitates serotonin and noradrenaline release. Accordingly, nicotine enhances antidepressant-like actions of reuptake inhibitors selective for serotonin or noradrenaline in the mouse forced swim test and the mouse tail suspension test. Both high-affinity α4β2 and low-affinity α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes are implicated in nicotine-mediated release of serotonin and noradrenaline. The present study therefore investigated whether selective agonism of α4β2 or α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors would affect the mouse forced swim test activity of two antidepressants with distinct mechanisms of action, namely the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram and the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor reboxetine. Subthreshold and threshold doses of citalopram (3 and 10 mg/kg) or reboxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg) were tested alone and in combination with the novel α4β2-selective partial nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, NS3956 (0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg) or the α7-selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, PNU-282987 (10 and 30 mg/kg). Alone, NS3956 and PNU-282987 were devoid of activity in the mouse forced swim test, but both 1.0 mg/kg NS3956 and 30 mg/kg PNU-282987 enhanced the effect of citalopram and also reboxetine. The data suggest that the activity of citalopram and reboxetine in the mouse forced swim test can be enhanced by agonists at either α4β2 or α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, suggesting that both nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes may be involved in the nicotine-enhanced action of antidepressants.

  1. Marked Mydriasis and Neuritis Nervi Optici Associated with Galactorrhea Following Citalopram Treatment: A Case Report and Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Horst J.; Heike Zellmer

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a 25-year-old women suffering from major depression who was treated with citalopram for several weeks with doses between 20 mg and 60 mg. She gradually developed marked mydriasis within 2 months after treatment and subsequently neuritis nervi optici. Moreover, abrupt galactorrhea occurred after 2 months of treatment. All neuro-ophthalmological, neurophysiological, clinical laboratory, and neuroradiological diagnostic efforts did not reveal an underlying organic pathophys...

  2. Efficacy and safety evaluation of citalopram and doxepin on sleep quality in comorbid insomnia and anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Junfeng; Chang, Fei; Zu, Hengbing

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are frequently comorbid with insomnia, and sleep disturbance in patients with anxiety disorders is the most common complaint. Antidepressants can affect sleep quality; however, their effect in patients with comorbid insomnia and anxiety disorders is unclear. The aim of the present study was to comprehensively evaluate the dose, treatment duration, treatment efficacy and safety of clinical citalopram and doxepin application in patients with comorbid insomnia and anxiety disor...

  3. Mutational Mapping and Modeling of the Binding Site for (S)-Citalopram in the Human Serotonin Transporter*

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Jacob; Olsen, Lars; Hansen, Kasper B.; Taboureau, Olivier; Jørgensen, Flemming S.; Jørgensen, Anne Marie; Bang-Andersen, Benny; Egebjerg, Jan; Strømgaard, Kristian; Kristensen, Anders S.

    2009-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) regulates extracellular levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) in the brain by facilitating uptake of released 5-hydroxytryptamine into neuronal cells. SERT is the target for widely used antidepressant drugs, including imipramine, fluoxetine, and (S)-citalopram, which are competitive inhibitors of the transport function. Knowledge of the molecular details of the antidepressant binding sites in SERT has been limited due to lack of struct...

  4. Panic attacks 10 years after heart transplantation successfully treated with low-dose citalopram: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Chenyu; ZHUANG, Yamin; Ji, Jianlin; Chen, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Summary Panic attacks are common among patients who have undergone heart transplantation, but there are no clinical guidelines for the treatment of panic attacks in this group of patients. This report describes a 22-year-old woman who experienced panic attacks 10 years after heart transplant surgery. The attacks started after she discovered that the average post-transplantation survival is 10 years. Treated with citalopram 10 mg/d, her symptoms improved significantly after 2 weeks and had com...

  5. Neonatal citalopram exposure decreases serotonergic fiber density in the olfactory bulb of male but not female adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Junlin eZhang; Dennis, Katie A.; Darling, Ryan D.; Loai eAlzghoul; Paul, Ian A.; Simpson, Kimberly L.; Lin, Rick C.S.

    2013-01-01

    Manipulation of serotonin (5HT) during early development has been shown to induce long-lasting morphological changes within the raphe nuclear complex and serotonergic circuitry throughout the brain. Recent studies have demonstrated altered raphe-derived 5HT transporter (SERT) immunoreactive axonal expression in several cortical target sites after brief perinatal exposure to selective 5HT reuptake inhibitors such as citalopram (CTM). Since the serotonergic raphe nuclear complex projects to the...

  6. A rhodamine-labeled citalopram analogue as a high-affinity fluorescent probe for the serotonin transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Peng; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard; Løland, Claus Juul;

    2013-01-01

    A novel fluorescent ligand was synthesized as a high-affinity, high specificity probe for visualizing the serotonin transporter (SERT). The rhodamine fluorophore was extended from an aniline substitution on the 5-position of the dihydroisobenzofuran ring of citalopram (2, 1-(3-(dimethylamino)prop...... to the transporters for dopamine and norepinephrine. Visualization of the SERT with compound 8 was demonstrated by confocal microscopy in HEK293 cells stably expressing EGFP–SERT....

  7. A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial of "Ginkgo Biloba" Added to Risperidone in Patients with Autistic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Elmira; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Rezazadeh, Shams-Ali; Tabrizi, Mina; Rezaei, Farzin; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2012-01-01

    "Ginkgo biloba" has been reported to affect the neurotransmitter system and to have antioxidant properties that could impact the pathogenesis of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Based on these studies, we decided to assess the effectiveness of "Ginkgo biloba" extract (Ginko T.D., Tolidaru, Iran) as an adjunctive agent to risperidone in the treatment of…

  8. Effects of risperidone on core symptoms of autistic disorder based on childhood autism rating scale: An open label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padideh Ghaeli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of risperidone in patients afflicted by autistic disorder especially with regards to its three core symptoms, including "relating to others", "communication skills", and "stereotyped behaviors" based on Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS. Materials and Methods: An 8-week open-label study of risperidone for treatment of autistic disorder in children 4-17 years old was designed. Risperidone dose titration was as follow: 0.02 mg/kg/day at the first week, 0.04 mg/kg/day at the second week, and 0.06 mg/kg/day at the third week and thereafter. The outcome measures were scores obtained by CARS, Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC, and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I scale. Results: Fifteen patients completed this study. After 8 weeks, CARS total score decreased significantly, (P=0.001. At the end of the study, social interactions and verbal communication skills of the patients were significantly improved (P<0.001, P=0.03, respectively. However, stereotypic behaviors did not show any significant change in this study. Increase in appetite and somnolence were the most reported side effects. Conclusion: This study suggests that risperidone may be an effective treatment for the management of core symptoms of autistic disorder.

  9. Risperidone-associated adverse drug reactions and CYP2D6 polymorphisms in a South African cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyren M. Dodgen

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: CYP2D6 variation appeared not to be a good pharmacogenetic marker for predicting risperidone-related ADRs in this naturalistic South African cohort. Evaluation of a larger cohort would be needed to confirm these observations, including an examination of the role of potential intermediaries between the hypothesised genetic and clinical phenotypes.

  10. Add-on effects of a low-dose aripiprazole in resolving hyperprolactinemia induced by risperidone or paliperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Ying; Yang, Fuzhong; Li, Chunbo; Guo, Qian; Wen, Hui; Zhu, Suoyu; Ouyang, Qiong; Shen, Weidi; Sheng, Jianhua

    2016-03-30

    This study investigated the effects of a low-dose aripiprazole adjunctive treatment for risperidone- or paliperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia in Han Chinese women with schizophrenia. After 4 weeks of risperidone or paliperidone treatment, 60 out of 66 patients improved significantly and experienced hyperprolactinemia. They were randomly assigned to the treatment group (aripiprazole adjunctive treatment) (n=30) or control group (non-adjunctive treatment) (n=30). The dosage of risperidone and paliperidone were maintained; and aripiprazole was maintained at 5mg/day during the 8-week study period. The prolactin levels at the end of the 8th week were significantly lower in the treatment group than in the control group. The estradiol level correlated negatively with serum prolactin level both in the treatment group and the control group at the end of the 8th week and the 4th week respectively. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score improved significantly during the 8-week study period in both groups. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse event was similar in two groups. Low-dose aripiprazole adjunctive treatment is effective in relieving risperidone- and paliperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia in female schizophrenic patients without increasing adverse event. PMID:26921057

  11. An open-label trial of risperidone and fluoxetine in children with autistic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desousa Avinash

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Various studies have shown the effectiveness of risperidone and fluoxetine in the management of behavioral problems in autism. Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare these two drugs in the management of behavioral problems in autism. Materials and Methods: Forty children with autism were divided into 2 groups in a 16-week open trial that compared these two drugs. Parents rated the children using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC and the Conners′ Parent Rating Scale - Revised (CPRS-R. The author rated the children using the Children′s Psychiatric Rating Scale and Clinical Global Impression (CGI Scale. Results: The risperidone group showed significant improvement in areas like irritability and hyperactivity, while the fluoxetine group showed significant improvement in speech deviance, social withdrawal and stereotypy. When the two drugs were compared, fluoxetine showed greater improvement in stereotypy, while both drugs showed improvement on the general autism scale; and on anger, hyperactivity and irritability scales. Conclusions : In this open trial, both drugs were well tolerated and appeared to be beneficial in the treatment of common behavioral problems in children with autism. Further controlled and double-blind studies in larger samples are warranted.

  12. Efficacy and safety of risperidone oral solution in agitation associated with dementia in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laks Jerson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD contribute to caregiver burden and institutionalization of elderly. Neuroleptics are prescribed to control agitation. Side effects of typical neuroleptics are harmful, making atypical neuroleptics an indication. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate efficacy and tolerability of risperidone oral solution (ROS given once daily to demented elderly outpatients with BPSD (agitation. METHOD: Patients (n=26, 76.35±8.63 years, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th ed. (DSM-IV criteria for dementia. RSO was given, starting dose of 0.25 mg and increments of 0.25 mg every week. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE assessed cognitive status, Behavioral and Emotional Activities Manifested in Dementia (BEAM-D and Clinical Global Impression (CGI measured BPSD, Extrapiramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS evaluated extrapyramidal symptoms. Cardiovascular side effects were evaluated clinically. RESULTS: There was a 26% reduction in agitation and no cardiovascular side effects in the range from 1.0 to 1.25 mg. Side effects were more prevalent above 2.5 mg. CONCLUSION: Risperidone oral solution improved agitation with good tolerability from 0.5 to 1.25 mg. A single dose with increments of 0.25 mg may be more acceptable to patients and caregivers.

  13. Risperidone long-acting injection: a review of its long term safety and efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K Rainer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael K RainerMemory-Clinic and Psychiatric Department, Donauspital, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: A long-acting form of the second-generation antipsychotic drug risperidone is now broadly available for the treatment of schizophrenia and closely related psychiatric conditions. It combines the advantage of previously available depot formulations for first-generation drugs with the favorable characteristics of the modern “atypical” antipsychotics, namely higher efficacy in the treatment of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia and reduced motor disturbances. Published clinical studies show an objective clinical efficacy (as per psychiatric symptom scores and relapse data that exceeds that of oral atypical antipsychotics when patients are switched to the long-acting injectable form, a low incidence of treatment-emergent extrapyramidal side effects, and very good acceptance by patients. Available data for maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder show equivalence with the oral form instead of superiority, but are still limited. As it seems likely that efficacy benefits are mostly due to the fact that the injectable form reduces the demand for patient compliance to one physician visit every 2 weeks instead of self-administration on a daily or twice-daily basis, additional potential could exist in other psychiatric disorders where atypical antipsychotic drugs are of benefit but where patient adherence to treatment schedules is typically low.Keywords: risperidone, schizophrenia, psychotic disorders, patient compliance; delayed-action preparations, injections, intramuscular

  14. Waterborne citalopram has anxiolytic effects and increases locomotor activity in the three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, M; Porseryd, T; Hallgren, S; Porsch-Hällström, I; Hansen, S H; Olsén, K H

    2016-04-01

    Citalopram is an antidepressant drug, which acts by inhibiting the re-uptake of serotonin from the synaptic cleft into the pre-synaptic nerve ending. It is one of the most common drugs used in treatment of depression, it is highly lipophilic and frequently found in sewage treatment plant effluents and surface waters around the world. Citalopram and other selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors have, at concentrations that occur in nature, been shown to have behavioural as well as physiological effects on fish and other animals. This study is the result of several different experiments, intended to analyse different aspects of behavioural effects of chronic citalopram exposure in fish. Our model species the three-spine stickleback is common in the entire northern hemisphere and is considered to be a good environmental sentinel species. Female three-spine sticklebacks were exposed to 0, 1.5 and 15μg/l nominal concentrations of citalopram for 21 days and subjected to the novel tank (NT) diving test. In the NT test, the fish exposed to 1.5μg/l, but not the 15μg/l fish made a significantly higher number of transitions to the upper half and stayed there for significantly longer time than the fish exposed to 0μg/l. The 15μg/l group, however, displayed a significantly lower number of freeze bouts and a shorter total freezing time. The test for locomotor activity included in the NT test showed that fish treated with 1.5 and 15μg/l displayed a significantly higher swimming activity than control fish both 5-7 and 15-17min after the start of the experiment. In the next experiment we compared fish exposed to 1.5μg/l and 0.15μg/l to pure water controls with regard to shoaling intensity and found no effect of treatment. In the final experiment the propensity of fish treated with 1.5μg/l to approach an unknown object and aggressive behaviour was investigated using the Novel Object test and a mirror test, respectively. The exposed fish ventured close to the unknown object

  15. Efficacy and Safety of Risperidone and Quetiapine in Adolescents With Bipolar II Disorder Comorbid With Conduct Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Gabriele; Milone, Annarita; Stawinoga, Agnieszka; Veltri, Stefania; Pisano, Simone

    2015-10-01

    Although a frequent co-occurrence between bipolar disorder (BD) and conduct disorder (CD) in youth has been frequently reported, data about pharmacological management are scarce and focused on BD type I. Second generation antipsychotics are frequently used in clinical practice, but no comparative studies are available. The aim of this exploratory study was to compare efficacy and safety of risperidone and quetiapine in a sample of adolescents presenting a BD type II comorbid with CD. Twenty-two patients diagnosed with a structured interview according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, (male/female ratio, 12/10; mean (SD) age 15.0 (1.4) years) were randomized in 2 treatment groups (quetiapine [n = 12] vs risperidone [n = 10]), treated with flexible doses, and followed up for 12 weeks. Efficacy measures assessed manic symptoms, aggression, anxiety, depression, global clinical severity, and impairment. Safety measures included body mass index, serum prolactin, extrapyramidal adverse effects, and electrocardiogram. At the end of the study, all patients improved in all efficacy measures. Both treatments showed similar efficacy in reducing manic symptoms and aggression. Quetiapine was more effective in improving anxiety and depressive symptoms. A change in body mass index was found, and in a post hoc analysis, it was significant only in the risperidone group. Prolactin significantly increased only in the risperidone group. In BD type II, CD comorbidity, quetiapine, or risperidone monotherapy may be effective and relatively safe, although the small sample size, the limited duration of the study, and the design (lack of a blind assessments and of a placebo group) make it difficult to draw definitive conclusions. PMID:26226481

  16. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT of anxiety disorders before and after treatment with citalopram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seedat Soraya

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have now examined the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI treatment on brain function in a variety of anxiety disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and social anxiety disorder (social phobia (SAD. Regional changes in cerebral perfusion following SSRI treatment have been shown for all three disorders. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC (OCD, caudate (OCD, medial pre-frontal/cingulate (OCD, SAD, PTSD, temporal (OCD, SAD, PTSD and, thalamic regions (OCD, SAD are some of those implicated. Some data also suggests that higher perfusion pre-treatment in the anterior cingulate (PTSD, OFC, caudate (OCD and antero-lateral temporal region (SAD predicts subsequent treatment response. This paper further examines the notion of overlap in the neurocircuitry of treatment and indeed treatment response across anxiety disorders with SSRI treatment. Methods Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT using Tc-99 m HMPAO to assess brain perfusion was performed on subjects with OCD, PTSD, and SAD before and after 8 weeks (SAD and 12 weeks (OCD and PTSD treatment with the SSRI citalopram. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM was used to compare scans (pre- vs post-medication, and responders vs non-responders in the combined group of subjects. Results Citalopram treatment resulted in significant deactivation (p = 0.001 for the entire group in the superior (t = 4.78 and anterior (t = 4.04 cingulate, right thalamus (t = 4.66 and left hippocampus (t = 3.96. Deactivation (p = 0.001 within the left precentral (t = 4.26, right mid-frontal (t = 4.03, right inferior frontal (t = 3.99, left prefrontal (3.81 and right precuneus (t= 3.85 was more marked in treatment responders. No pattern of baseline activation distinguished responders from non-responders to subsequent pharmacotherapy. Conclusions Although each of the anxiety disorders may be mediated by different

  17. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome in a patient taking citalopram and Hydroxycut: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetanovich Gregory L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome presents with thunderclap headaches accompanied by mild neurologic deficits and is characterized by multifocal narrowing of the cerebral arteries that resolves over days to weeks. This syndrome may be idiopathic or occur in special contexts, most often involving adrenergic or serotonergic overactivity. To the best of our knowledge, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome has not previously been reported in association with Hydroxycut use in the literature. Case Presentation We report the case of a 65-year-old Caucasian woman on longstanding citalopram who developed reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome two weeks after beginning to take the weight-loss supplement Hydroxycut. Conclusion There are sparse data about the safety of herbal supplements such as Hydroxycut, even though the Food and Drug Administration has banned some herbal ingredients, such as ephedra, that were in this preparation in the past. This case highlights the importance of considering herbal supplements and potential drug interactions in the genesis of otherwise unexplained reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome.

  18. Comparison Of Effect Of Addition Of Fluvoxamine Or Risperidone To Clozapine In Chronic Partially Responsive Schizophrenic Patients On Clinical Response, QTc interval And Lipid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Mahakalkar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To study & compare the augmentation effect of addition of fluvoxamine or risperidone in chronic partially responsive schizophrenic patients receiving clozapine on clinical and laboratory parameters.Methods - A prospective, randomized, parallel, open label 12 weeks study. The schizophrenic patients, aged 20-60 years, who followed the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria and receiving clozapine therapy, showing partial response to the treatment were recruited and the study was carried out from January 2007 to June 2008. Subjects were randomized into two groups: Group A (n=28: fluvoxamine (25-50mg/day was added to clozapine (25-200mg/day & Group B (n=27: risperidone (1-5mg/day was added to clozapine therapy. The effect of drugs was assessed by PANSS, BPRS scale and ECG and lipid profile were done at 6 and 12 weeks.Result - There was significant decrease in PANSS and BPRS score in both groups.Fluvoxamine + clozapine significantly reduced PANSS score as compared to risperidone + clozapine compared to baseline and between 6 and 12 weeks. Risperidone +clozapine prolonged QTc interval (at 12 weeks and elevated serum TG, VLDL, HDL significantly at 6 and 12 weeks.Conclusion – Although addition of fluvoxamine and risperidone to clozapine are effective in management of chronic partially responsive schizophrenia on clozapine, fluvoxamine is more effective as well as safer compared to Risperidone when compared for 6 and 12 weeks in these patients.

  19. Effects of co-treatment with mirtazapine and low doses of risperidone on immobility time in the forced swimming test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogóż, Zofia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of mirtazapine (MIR) and risperidone (an atypical antipsychotic drug), given separately or jointly, on immobility time in the forced swimming test in male C57BL/6J mice. Fluoxetine (FLU) was used as a reference drug. MIR (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) and FLU (5 and 10 mg/kg), or risperidone in low doses (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) given alone did not change the immobility time of mice in the forced swimming test. Joint administration of MIR (5 and 10 mg/kg) or FLU (10 mg/kg) and risperidone (0.1 mg/kg) produced antidepressant-like activity in the forced swimming test. WAY100636 (a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist) inhibited, while yohimbine (an α(2)-adrenergic receptor antagonist) potentiated the antidepressant-like effect induced by co-administration of MIR and risperidone. Active behavior in that test did not reflect an increase in general activity, since combined administration of antidepressants and risperidone failed to enhance the locomotor activity of mice. The obtained results indicate that risperidone applied in a low dose enhances the antidepressant-like activity of MIR and that, among other mechanisms, 5-HT(1A)-, and α(2)-adrenergic receptors may play a role in this effect.

  20. The Efficacy of Citalopram in the Treatment of Functional Abdominal Pain in Children: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Pourmoghaddas

    2014-04-01

    Eighty six patients completed the trial (43 in each group. Treatment response rate in the citalopram and the placebo group was 55.8% and 39.5% at week 4 (P=0.097 and 72.0% and 53.4% at week 12 (P=0.059, respectively. Controlling for baseline characteristics, more reduction was observed in pain (z=-2.67, P=0.008 and global severity scores (z=-3.08, P=0.002 in the citalopram group compared with the placebo group. Changes in depression, anxiety, and somatization scores were comparable between the two groups. Receiving citalopram (OR=7.718, P=0.006, father education level (OR=3.179, P=0.040, baseline pain score (OR=5.621, P

  1. No change in [¹¹C]CUMI-101 binding to 5-HT(1A) receptors after intravenous citalopram in human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Lars H; Feng, Ling; Haahr, Mette E;

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity of [¹¹C]CUMI-101 to citalopram challenge aiming at increasing extracellular 5-HT. CUMI-101 has agonistic properties in human embryonic kidney 293 cells transfected with human recombinant 5-HT(1A) receptors (Hendry et al. [2011] Nucl...... Med Biol 38:273-277; Kumar et al. [2006] J Med Chem 49:125-134) and has previously been demonstrated to be sensitive to bolus citalopram in monkeys (Milak et al. [2011] J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 31:243-249). We studied six healthy individuals. Two PET-scans were performed on the same day in each...... individual before and after constant infusion of citalopram (0.15 mg/kg). The imaging data were analyzed using two tissue compartment kinetic modeling with metabolite corrected arterial input and Simplified Reference Tissue Modeling using cerebellum as a reference region. There was no significant difference...

  2. Sexual dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia treated with conventional antipsychotics or risperidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liu-Seifert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hong Liu-Seifert1, Bruce J Kinon1, Christopher J Tennant2, Jennifer Sniadecki1, Jan Volavka31Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2CJT Biomedical Consulting, South Lake Tahoe, CA, USA; 3New York University, New York, NY, USAObjective: To better understand sexual dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia and its associations with prolactin and reproductive hormones.Methods: This was a secondary analysis of an open-label, one-day study (N = 402. The primary objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in patients with schizophrenia who had been treated with conventional antipsychotics or risperidone. Other atypical antipsychotics available at the time of the study were not included due to a more favorable prolactin profile.Results: The majority of patients (59% of females and 60% of males reported impairment of sexual function. In postmenopausal females, risk of impaired sexual interest was increased by 31% for every 10 ng/ml increase in prolactin (p = 0.035. In males, lower testosterone was associated with higher prolactin (p < 0.001 and with orgasmic (p = 0.004 and ejaculatory dysfunction (p = 0.028.Conclusion: These findings suggest that hyperprolactinemia may be associated with sexual dysfunction. They also provide more information on the relationships between prolactin, reproductive hormones, and sexual dysfunction. Sexual dysfunction is an understudied yet important consideration in the treatment of schizophrenia. More attention is warranted in this area as it may provide opportunities for improved quality of life and adherence to treatment for patients.Keywords: sexual dysfunction, schizophrenia, hyperprolactinemia, antipsychotics, risperidone

  3. Escitalopram Versus Citalopram and Sertraline: A Double-Blind Controlled, Multi-centric Trial in Indian Patients with Unipolar Major Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Lalit, Vaya; Appaya, Prakash M.; Hegde, Rajendra P.; Mital, Anukant K.; Mittal, Sunil; Nagpal, Rajesh; Palaniappun, Vaiapuri; Ramsubramaniam, C.; Rao, Gundugurti P.; Roy, Krishna; Trivedi, Jitendra K.; Ganpat K. Vankar; Karan, Rajesh S.; Shah, Sweety; Patel, Ronak B.

    2004-01-01

    The present randomized, double blind, parallel group, controlled, multi-centric trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram in comparison with citalopram and sertraline in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Outpatients (N=214) with an ongoing/newly diagnosed ICD-10 major depressive episode and a Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) score of > 18 were randomly assigned to citalopram, 20–40 mg/day (74 patients), escitalopram, 10–20 mg/day (69 pa...

  4. Predicting beneficial effects of atomoxetine and citalopram on response inhibition in Parkinson's disease with clinical and neuroimaging measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zheng; Rae, Charlotte L; Nombela, Cristina; Ham, Timothy; Rittman, Timothy; Jones, Peter Simon; Rodríguez, Patricia Vázquez; Coyle-Gilchrist, Ian; Regenthal, Ralf; Altena, Ellemarije; Housden, Charlotte R; Maxwell, Helen; Sahakian, Barbara J; Barker, Roger A; Robbins, Trevor W; Rowe, James B

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies indicate that selective noradrenergic (atomoxetine) and serotonergic (citalopram) reuptake inhibitors may improve response inhibition in selected patients with Parkinson's disease, restoring behavioral performance and brain activity. We reassessed the behavioral efficacy of these drugs in a larger cohort and developed predictive models to identify patient responders. We used a double-blind randomized three-way crossover design to investigate stopping efficiency in 34 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease after 40 mg atomoxetine, 30 mg citalopram, or placebo. Diffusion-weighted and functional imaging measured microstructural properties and regional brain activations, respectively. We confirmed that Parkinson's disease impairs response inhibition. Overall, drug effects on response inhibition varied substantially across patients at both behavioral and brain activity levels. We therefore built binary classifiers with leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) to predict patients' responses in terms of improved stopping efficiency. We identified two optimal models: (1) a "clinical" model that predicted the response of an individual patient with 77-79% accuracy for atomoxetine and citalopram, using clinically available information including age, cognitive status, and levodopa equivalent dose, and a simple diffusion-weighted imaging scan; and (2) a "mechanistic" model that explained the behavioral response with 85% accuracy for each drug, using drug-induced changes of brain activations in the striatum and presupplementary motor area from functional imaging. These data support growing evidence for the role of noradrenaline and serotonin in inhibitory control. Although noradrenergic and serotonergic drugs have highly variable effects in patients with Parkinson's disease, the individual patient's response to each drug can be predicted using a pattern of clinical and neuroimaging features. PMID:26757216

  5. Memantine add on to citalopram in elderly patients with depression: A double-blind placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Omranifard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proper management of depression in elderly population would improve the outcome of the disease and reduce its related disability and mortality. Use of memantine with minimal side effects and drug interaction seems reasonable in the elderly but its antidepressant activity is controversial. The aim of the current research is to investigate the effects of add-on memantine during citalopram therapy in elderly patients with depression, in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind, placebo controlled trial study; elderly patients aged more than 60 years who were recently diagnosed with depression, were enrolled. The selected patients were randomlysplit into two groups, viz. intervention and placebo groups. The intervention was memantine (20 mg daily or identical placebo plus citalopram for 8 weeks. The severity of depression and quality of life was evaluated using Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15, Hamilton Rating Scale for depression (HRSD and World Health Organization Quality of Life WHOQOL-BREF respectively. The mentioned scores were evaluated at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks, after initiating the trial in two studied groups and compared with each other. Results: 28 and 29 patients were studied in the intervention and placebo groups, respectively. Score of GDS-15, HRSD and WHO-QOL-BREF scales at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks, after initiating trial did not change significantly after use of memantine (P > 0.05. There was no significant difference in mean +/- SD of GDS-15, HRSD and WHO-QOL-BREF scales among intervention and placebo groups (P > 0.05. Conclusion: The outcome of this clinical trial did not support the antidepressant effect of add-on memantine in elderly patients with depression receiving citalopram. It is recommended to design further studies considering the limitations of the current study mentioned herein and the effect of memantine with other anti-depressant agents.

  6. Fate of citalopram during water treatment with O3, ClO2, UV and fenton oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hörsing, Maritha; Kosjek, Tina; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus;

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we investigate the fate of citalopram (CIT) at neutral pH using advanced water treatment technologies that include O3, ClO2 oxidation, UV irradiation and Fenton oxidation. The ozonation resulted in 80% reduction after 30 min treatment. Oxidation with ClO2 removed >90% CIT...... at a dosage of 0.1 mg L−1. During UV irradiation 85% reduction was achieved after 5 min, while Fenton with addition of 14 mg L−1 (Fe2+) resulted in 90% reduction of CIT. During these treatment experiments transformation products (TPs) were formed from CIT, where five compounds were identified by using high...

  7. 西酞普兰引起肝功能异常%Abnormal hepatic function caused by citalopram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜赛平; 卢晓阳

    2011-01-01

    1例70岁男性患者因咳嗽、咯痰加重,伴发热、气促,给予头孢哌酮钠-舒巴坦钠、万古霉素、奥美拉唑、泼尼松、谷胱甘肽治疗。治疗第8天,因抑郁症给予西酞普兰10 mg,1次/d。第9天丙氨酸转氨酶(ALT)及天冬氨酸转氨酶(AST)分别从47 U/L、52 U/L升至139U/L、145 U/L。第10天因抑郁症状未控制,西酞普兰加量至20mg,1次/d。之后肝酶明显增高,第19天实验室检查示ALT529U/L,ASr 256 U/L。考虑为西酞普兰引起的肝功能异常,遂停用该药,其他合并用药继续应用。随后肝功能水平逐渐下降。%A 70-year-old man received cefoperazone sodium/sulbactam sodium, vancomycin, and oraeprazole for worsened cough and expectoration accompanied by a fever and short of breath. On day 8, he was given citalopram 10 mg once daily for depression. On day 9, his ALT and AST levels increased from 47 U/L and 52 U/L to 139 U/L and 145 U/L, respectively. The dosage of citalopram was increased to 20 mg once daily due to poor control of depression. Subsequently, his hepatic enzyme levels increased markedly and, on day 19, the laboratory tests revealed a ALT level of 529 U/L and a AST level of 256 U/L Abnormal hepatic function was considered to be induced by citalopram, so citalopram was stopped and other drugs were continued. Then his hepatic function gradually returned to normal.

  8. Very Low-Dose Risperidone in First-Episode Psychosis: A Safe and Effective Way to Initiate Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. McGorry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients experiencing a first psychotic episode have high rates of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPSs when treated with the doses of neuroleptics used in multiepisode or chronic schizophrenia. There is some evidence that lower doses may be equally, if not more, effective but less toxic in this population. Here, we report the results of a biphasic open label trial designed to assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of low-dose (2–4 mg/day risperidone treatment in a group of 96 first-episode nonaffective psychosis patients. At the end of the trial, 62% of patients met the response criteria although approximately 80% had achieved a response at some time during the study. Reports of EPS remained low, and there were no dystonic reactions. We conclude that even at a dose of 2 mg/day, risperidone was highly effective in reducing acute symptomatology in a real world sample of young first-episode psychosis patients.

  9. Adjunctive long-acting risperidone in patients with bipolar disorder who relapse frequently and have active mood symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Haskins John T; Turkoz Ibrahim; Adler Caleb M; Macfadden Wayne; Turner Norris; Alphs Larry

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this exploratory analysis was to characterize efficacy and onset of action of a 3-month treatment period with risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI), adjunctive to an individual's treatment regimen, in subjects with symptomatic bipolar disorder who relapsed frequently and had significant symptoms of mania and/or depression. Methods Subjects with bipolar disorder with ≥4 mood episodes in the past 12 months entered the open-label stabilization phase preced...

  10. Costi ed effetti di Risperidone Long Acting (RLA) rispetto ad antipsicotici atipici nel trattamento dei soggetti schizofrenici in Italia

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo G. Mantovani; Patrizia Berto; Anna D. Ausilio; Bart Heeg

    2004-01-01

    Objective: to estimate the costs and effects of long-acting risperidone (LAR) in the treatment of schizophrenic patients in Italy, as compared to conventional and oral atypical antipsychotics. Methods: a discrete event model was used. The model simulates patients. history for every single therapeutic alternative and selects incident events, on the basis of pre-defined probability distribution-powered, randomized repetitions. The model operates on two types of parameters: patient characteristi...

  11. A six month randomized controlled trial of long acting injectable risperidone 50 and 100mg in treatment resistant schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, H Y; Lindenmayer, J-P; Kwentus, J; Share, D B; Johnson, R; Jayathilake, K

    2014-04-01

    It has been suggested that atypical antipsychotic drugs (A-APDs) other than clozapine may be effective to improve positive symptoms in some patients with treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS), if both the dose is higher, and the duration of the trial longer, than those which have been ineffective in non-TRS (NTRS) patients. This hypothesis was tested with long acting injectable risperidone (Risperdal Consta®, RLAI). One hundred sixty TRS patients selected for persistent moderate-severe delusions or hallucinations, or both, were randomized to RLAI, 50 or 100mg biweekly, in a six month, outpatient, double-blind, multicenter trial. We hypothesized that RLAI, 100mg, would be more effective than RLAI, 50mg. However, both doses produced clinically significant and equivalent improvement in PANSS Total, Positive, and Negative subscale scores, as well as key cognitive, global and functional measures, with increasing response during the course of the study, confirming the value of longer clinical trial duration for patients with TRS, but not superiority of the higher dose. The overall response rate was comparable to that previously reported for clozapine and high dose olanzapine, another A-APD, in TRS. Both doses of RLAI were equally well tolerated, producing minimal extrapyramidal side effects and few drop outs. Plasma levels of the active moiety, risperidone+9-hydroxyrisperidone, during treatment with RLAI 100mg, were comparable to those for 6-8 mg/day oral risperidone, which have not been effective in TRS. Further study of RLAI, ≥ 50-100mg biweekly, should compare it with clozapine and oral risperidone in TRS, with duration of treatment ≥ six months. PMID:24630262

  12. Investigation on the binding activities of citalopram with human and bovine serum albumins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jingjing; Liu, Yan, E-mail: liuyan@fjirsm.ac.cn; Chen, Mingmao; Huang, Huayin; Song, Ling, E-mail: songling@fjirsm.ac.cn

    2014-02-15

    The binding interactions of citalopram (CIT), an efficient antidepressant, with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated by a series of spectroscopic methods including fluorescence, UV–vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD) and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR). The fluorescence quenching and UV–vis absorption studies reveal that CIT could form complexes with both HSA and BSA. The CIT–BSA complex exhibits higher binding affinity than CIT–HSA complex. The thermodynamic study further suggests that the interactions between CIT and SAs are mainly driven by hydrophobic forces and hydrogen bonds. The {sup 1}H NMR analysis indicates that the participation of different functional groups of CIT is unequal in the complexation of CIT–HSA and CIT–BSA. Site marker competitive experiments show that the interactions between CIT and SAs primarily locate at sub-domain II A (site I). The effects of CIT on the conformation of SAs are further analyzed via synchronous fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence and CD spectra techniques. The results prove that the presence of CIT decreases the α-helical content of both SAs and induces the slight unfolding of the polypeptides of protein. Additionally, the conformational change of BSA induced by CIT is larger than that of HSA. -- Highlights: • The difference of binding activity between CIT–BSA and CIT–HSA is first reported. • Use spectroscopic, thermodynamic, and NMR methods. • CIT exhibits higher binding affinity to BSA than to HSA. • The binding forces between CIT and SA have been investigated. • The complexation of CIT–SA induces the conformational change of SA.

  13. Minocycline and risperidone prevent microglia activation and rescue behavioral deficits induced by neonatal intrahippocampal injection of lipopolysaccharide in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furong Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various signs of activation of microglia have been reported in schizophrenia, and it is hypothesized that microglia activation is closely associated with the neuropathology of schizophrenia. METHODS: Neonatal intrahippocampal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, an activator of microglia, was performed in rats at postnatal day 7 (P7, and they were separately given saline, risperidone (0.5 mg/kg, minocycline (40 mg/kg or a combination of both of them at P42 for consecutive 14 days. Behavioral changes (locomotion activity, social interaction, novel object recognition and prepulse inhibition were examined and the number of microglia was assessed by using immunohistochemistry in adulthood. RESULTS: The adult rats in LPS-injected group showed obvious behavioral alteration (e. g. deficits in social interaction, novel object recognition and prepulse inhibition and a dramatic increase of number of activated microglial cells in the hippocampus and other brain regions such as cerebral cortex and thalamus compared to those in saline-injected group. Interestingly, application of either minocycline, risperidone or both of them significantly rescued behavioral deficits and attenuated microglia activation. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that inhibition of microglia activation may be one of mechanisms underlying the antipsychotic effect of minocycline and risperidone.

  14. Minocycline and Risperidone Prevent Microglia Activation and Rescue Behavioral Deficits Induced by Neonatal Intrahippocampal Injection of Lipopolysaccharide in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yu-qiang; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Xianghui; Wu, Renrong; Guo, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Jingping

    2014-01-01

    Background Various signs of activation of microglia have been reported in schizophrenia, and it is hypothesized that microglia activation is closely associated with the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Methods Neonatal intrahippocampal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an activator of microglia, was performed in rats at postnatal day 7 (P7), and they were separately given saline, risperidone (0.5 mg/kg), minocycline (40 mg/kg) or a combination of both of them at P42 for consecutive 14 days. Behavioral changes (locomotion activity, social interaction, novel object recognition and prepulse inhibition) were examined and the number of microglia was assessed by using immunohistochemistry in adulthood. Results The adult rats in LPS-injected group showed obvious behavioral alteration (e. g. deficits in social interaction, novel object recognition and prepulse inhibition) and a dramatic increase of number of activated microglial cells in the hippocampus and other brain regions such as cerebral cortex and thalamus compared to those in saline-injected group. Interestingly, application of either minocycline, risperidone or both of them significantly rescued behavioral deficits and attenuated microglia activation. Conclusion Our results suggest that inhibition of microglia activation may be one of mechanisms underlying the antipsychotic effect of minocycline and risperidone. PMID:24705495

  15. Effects of the SSRI citalopram on behaviours connected to stress and reproduction in Endler guppy, Poecilia wingei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsén, K Håkan; Ask, Katarina; Olsén, Hanna; Porsch-Hällström, Inger; Hallgren, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Psychoactive drugs, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) have been identified in high levels in effluents from Swedish sewage treatment plants (STP) at concentrations high enough to give pharmacological effects in fish. In humans SSRIs are used in the treatment of depression and they have anxiolytic effects. In the present study we exposed Endler guppy (Poecilia wingei) of both sexes to citalopram that showed the highest concentrations of SSRIs in STP effluents and studied reproductive and non-reproductive behaviour. Male courting behaviours were not affected compared to control fish after 14-28 days exposure to 1 μg L(-1). In two experiments exposing both sexes to 0.2, 2.3 or 15 μg L(-1) for 21 days, fish exposed to the two highest doses showed anxiolytic effects when placed in a novel environment (novel tank diving test, NT). Males were only affected by exposure to 15 μg L(-1). They had significantly longer latency to explore the upper half of the aquarium, more visits and longer time spent in the upper half, and showed less bottom freezing behaviour, all markers of anxiolytic behaviour. In females exposure to 2.3 or 15 μg L(-1) significantly increased freezing behaviour, while no effects on other behaviour variables were observed. No effects on shoaling behaviour could be discerned. These results show that citalopram have anxiolytic effects on guppy fish and thus affect ecologically relevant behaviours of importance to survival of fish.

  16. The S-enantiomer of R, S-citalopram, increases inhibitor binding to the human serotonin transporter by an allosteric mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fenghua; Larsen, Mads; Sanchez, Connie;

    2005-01-01

    ]-escitalopram/hSERT complex. The combined effect of escitalopram and R-citalopram was additive. Paroxetine and sertraline mainly stabilised the [3H]-paroxetine/hSERT complex. Fluoxetine, duloxetine and venlafaxine have only minor effects. 5-HT stabilised the [125I]-RTI-55, [3H]-MADAM, [3H]-paroxetine, [3H]-fluoxetine and [3H...

  17. The S-enantiomer of R,S-citalopram, increases inhibitor binding to the human serotonin transporter by an allosteric mechanism. Comparison with other serotonin transporter inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fenghua; Larsen, Mads Breum; Sánchez, Connie;

    2005-01-01

    ]-escitalopram/hSERT complex. The combined effect of escitalopram and R-citalopram was additive. Paroxetine and sertraline mainly stabilised the [3H]-paroxetine/hSERT complex. Fluoxetine, duloxetine and venlafaxine have only minor effects. 5-HT stabilised the [125I]-RTI-55, [3H]-MADAM, [3H]-paroxetine, [3H]-fluoxetine and [3H...

  18. CB-1 receptors modulate the effect of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, citalopram on extracellular serotonin levels in the rat prefrontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, Jelle; Cremers, Thomas I. F. H.; Hofland, Corry M.; Westerink, Ben H. C.

    2011-01-01

    A large percentage of depressed individuals use drugs of abuse, like cannabis. This study investigates the impact of cannabis on the pharmacological effects of the antidepressant citalopram. Using microdialysis in the prefrontal cortex of rats we monitored serotonin levels before and after cannabino

  19. Nicotine, but not mecamylamine, enhances antidepressant-like effects of citalopram and reboxetine in the mouse forced swim and tail suspension tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen T., Jesper; Redrobe, John P

    2009-01-01

    in the mouse forced swim test (mFST) and the mouse tail suspension test (mTST). The potential for mecamylamine to augment antidepressant drug action was also investigated. Sub-threshold and threshold doses of citalopram (3 and 10mg/kg) or reboxetine (3, 10 and 20mg/kg) were tested alone and in combination...

  20. Association between tryptophan hydroxylase-2 genotype and the antidepressant effect of citalopram and paroxetine on immobility time in the forced swim test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Alexander V; Tikhonova, Maria A; Osipova, Daria V; Kulikov, Victor A; Popova, Nina K

    2011-10-01

    Tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) is the rate limiting enzyme of serotonin synthesis in the brain. The 1473G allele of the C1473G polymorphism in mTPH2 gene is associated with reduced enzyme activity and serotonin synthesis rate in the mouse brain. Here, the influence of the 1473G allele on the antidepressant effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), citalopram (2.5 or 5.0mg/kg) and paroxetine (5.0 or 10.0mg/kg), in the forced swim test was studied using B6-1473G and B6-1473C congenic mouse lines with the 1473G (decreased TPH2 activity) or 1473C (normal TPH2 activity) alleles, respectively, transferred to the genome of C57BL/6 mouse strain. Paroxetine (5.0 or 10.0mg/kg) and citalopram (2.5 or 5.0mg/kg) decreased immobility time in B6-1473C mice, while both doses of paroxetine and 2.5mg/kg of citaloprame did not alter immobility time in B6-1473G mice. However, 5.0mg/kg of citalopram reduced immobility in B6-1473G mice. The results provided genetic evidence of moderate association between 1473G allele and reduced sensitivity to SSRIs in mice.

  1. “Positive allosteric modulation of AMPA receptors differentially modulates the behavioural effects of citalopram in mouse models of antidepressant and anxiolytic action”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzpatrick, Ciarán Martin; Larsen, Maria; Madsen, Louise;

    2016-01-01

    serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram (0-10 mg/kg) was investigated in mice, using the APAM LY451646 (0-3 mg/kg). Antidepressant-like effects were assessed with the forced swim test (FST), while anxiolytic-like effects were tested with the elevated zero maze (EZM) and the marble burying test (MBT...

  2. Construction of novel sensitive electrochemical sensor for electro-oxidation and determination of citalopram based on zinc oxide nanoparticles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, Hamed; Afkhami, Abbas; Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Soltani-Felehgari, Farzaneh

    2016-02-01

    A new chemically modified carbon paste electrode (CMCPE) was applied to the simple, rapid, highly selective and sensitive determination of citalopram in human serum and pharmaceutical preparations using adsorptive square wave voltammetry (ASWV). The ZnO nanoparticles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified CPE (ZnO-MWCNT/CPE) electrode was prepared by incorporation of the ZnO nanoparticles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in carbon paste electrode. The limit of detection and the linear range were found to be 0.005 and 0.012 to 1.54μmolL(-1) of citalopram, respectively. The effects of potentially interfering substances on the determination of this compound were investigated and found that the electrode is highly selective. The proposed CMCPE was used to the determination of citalopram in human serum, urine and pharmaceutical samples. This reveals that ZnO-MWCNT/CPE shows excellent analytical performance for the determination of citalopram in terms of very low detection limit, high sensitivity, very good repeatability and reproducibility over other methods reported in the literature. PMID:26652440

  3. Quetiapine Augments the Effect of Citalopram in Non-Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of 76 Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.C.C. Vulink; D. Denys; S.B.A.H.A. Fluitman; J.C.M. Meinardi; H.G.M. Westenberg

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of quetiapine addition to citalopram in treatment-naive or medication-free obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. Method. Seventy-six patients who met DSM-IV criteria for OCD and who were drug-free or drug-naive at entry were randomly assigned in a 10-week, d

  4. Citalopram with Mirtazapine treatment senile depression%西酞普兰与米氮平治疗老年期抑郁症对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏冬; 刘蕴霞; 席永稳

    2009-01-01

    目的:比较西酞普兰与米氮平治疗老年期抑郁症的疗效和不良反应.方法:将64例老年期抑郁症患者随机分成两组,疗程8周,采用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)和副反应量表(TESS)评定疗效和不良反应.结果:西酞普兰组和米氮平组显效率分别82.35%和76.7%,两组疗效差异无显著性(P>0.05),西酞普兰的不良反应少于米氮平.结论:西酞普兰是一种安全、有效的抗抑郁药.%Objective:To explore the efficacy and side effects of citalopram and mirtazapine in treatment of senile depression.Methods:64 senile depressive patients were randomly divided into two groups for 8 weeks.The trerapeutic response and side effects were evaluated with the HAMD and TESS.Results:The effective rates of citalopram and mirtazapine were 82.35% and 76.7% respectively there were no significant difference in efficacy between the two groups (P>0.05),citalopram had fewer side effects than mirtazapine.Conclusion:Citalopram is a safe and effective antidepressant.

  5. Maintenance therapy with once-monthly administration of long-acting injectable risperidone in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder: a pilot study of an extended dosing interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naessens Ineke

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several clinical studies have established the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of long-acting risperidone administered once every 2 weeks in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. This report evaluates preliminary efficacy, safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic data for a novel (once-monthly administration of long-acting injectable risperidone 50 mg in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Methods Clinically stable patients participated in a 1-year, open-label, single-arm, multicenter pilot study. During the 4-week lead-in phase, patients received long-acting risperidone 50 mg injections every 2 weeks, with 2 weeks of oral risperidone supplementation. Injections of long-acting risperidone 50 mg every 4 weeks followed for up to 48 weeks, without oral supplementation. The primary endpoint was relapse; other assessments included PANSS, CGI-S, adverse event reports, and determination of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone plasma concentrations. Results Twelve patients in the intent-to-treat population (n = 67 met relapse criteria (17.9%. Relapse risk at 1 year was estimated as 22.4%. Non-statistically significant improvements in symptoms (PANSS and clinical status (CGI-S at endpoint were observed. The most common adverse events included schizophrenia aggravated not otherwise specified (19.5%, anxiety (16.1%, insomnia (16.1%, and headache (11.5%. There were no unexpected safety and tolerability findings. Mean plasma concentrations for risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone were generally stable during the study. Conclusion Once-monthly dosing of long-acting risperidone was well tolerated, associated with a relatively low relapse rate (similar to that reported with other antipsychotics, and maintained the clinically stable baseline status of most patients. Although the results suggest that some symptomatically stable patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder might be safely

  6. Costs and effects of long-acting risperidone compared with oral atypical and conventional depot formulations in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Gerd; Heeg, Bart; van Hout, Ben A; Mehnert, Angelika

    2005-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most expensive psychiatric conditions because of high direct and indirect costs associated with the nature of the illness, its resistance to treatment and the consequences of relapse. Long-acting risperidone is a new formulation of an atypical antipsychotic drug that also offers the improvements in compliance associated with haloperidol depot. The aim of this simulation study was to compare the benefits and costs of three pharmacological treatment strategies comprising first-line treatment with long-acting risperidone injection, a haloperidol depot or an oral atypical antipsychotic agent, over a 5-year period in Germany. A discrete event simulation model was developed to compare three treatment scenarios from the perspective of major third-party payers (sickness funds and social security 'Sozialversicherung'). The scenarios comprised first-line treatment with haloperidol depot (scenario 1), long-acting risperidone (scenario 2) and oral olanzapine (scenario 3). Switches to second or third-line options were allowed when side-effects occurred or a patient suffered more than a fixed number of relapses. The model accounted for fixed patient characteristics, and on the basis of these, simulated patient histories according to several time-dependent variables. The time horizon for this model was limited to 5 years, and in accordance with German guidelines, costs and effects were discounted by between 3 and 10%. Direct costs included medication, type of physician visits and treatment location. Indirect costs were not included. Information on treatment alternatives, transition probabilities, model structure and healthcare utilization were derived from the literature and an expert panel. Outcomes were expressed in terms of the number and duration of psychotic episodes, cumulative symptom scores, costs, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY). Univariate sensitivity analyses were carried out, as were subgroup analyses based on disease severity and

  7. Clinical doses of citalopram or reboxetine differentially modulate passive and active behaviors of female Wistar rats with high or low immobility time in the forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Serrano, Ana Gisela; Vila-Luna, María Leonor; Álvarez-Cervera, Fernando José; Heredia-López, Francisco José; Góngora-Alfaro, José Luis; Pineda, Juan Carlos

    2013-09-01

    The sensitivity of immobility time (IT) to antidepressant-drugs differs in rats expressing high or low motor activity during the forced swimming test (FST). However, whether this heterogeneity is expressed after the administration of the most selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs and SNRIs, respectively) is unknown. We compared the influence of either the SSRI citalopram or the SNRI reboxetine with the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline on two subgroups of female Wistar rats expressing high IT (HI; at or above the mean value) or low IT (LI; below the mean) during the initial 5 min of the first session of the FST. None of the tested drugs increased motor activity in the open field test. When vehicle was applied to either HI or LI rats, IT increased in the second session of the FST. This increment concurred with a simultaneous climbing time (CT) decrement. When amitriptyline (15 mg/kg) was tested the CT increased for both HI and LI rats. This increment was accompanied by an IT decrement in HI and LI rats. Reboxetine (0.16 or 1 mg/kg) precluded IT and CT changes in both HI and LI rats and produced a swimming time reduction. Citalopram (0.4, 1, and 3 mg/kg) essentially mimicked the influence of reboxetine on the IT and CT in LI rats, as well as in HI rats, but in the latter case only at 3 mg/kg. Yet, at the dose of 10 mg/kg citalopram lacked this effect in both subgroups. No differences were detected when the IT of LI rats was evaluated with citalopram (3 mg/kg) during estrus or diestrus stage. These results show that clinical doses of citalopram produced an antidepressant-like effect selectively in LI rats, while amitriptyline or reboxetine produced this effect in both LI and HI animals.

  8. Clozapine and olanzapine are better antioxidants than haloperidol, quetiapine, risperidone and ziprasidone in in vitro models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinholi, Francis Fregonesi; Farias, Carine Coneglian de; Bonifácio, Kamila Landucci; Higachi, Luciana; Casagrande, Rúbia; Moreira, Estefânia Gastaldello; Barbosa, Décio Sabbatini

    2016-07-01

    Although the etiopathogenic mechanisms of schizophrenia (SCZ) are unknown, evidences suggest that excessive free radical production or oxidative stress may be involved in the pathophysiology of SCZ. Antipsychotics are the drugs used in the treatment of SCZ but it remains controversial the impact that typical vs. atypical antipsychotics has on the oxidative stress status in SCZ patients. In vitro, the antioxidant capacity of six antipsychotics was assessed by their ability to: decrease or scavenge reactive oxygen species in the neutrophil respiratory burst; donate hydrogen and stabilize the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH); and scavenge 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS(+)). This study demonstrated that both clozapine and olanzapine have antioxidant effects, in vitro, by scavenging superoxide anion on the respiratory burst, donating electron in the ABTS(+) assay and stabilizing the radical DPPH. Ziprasidone significantly scavenged ABTS(+) and stabilized the radical DPPH whereas risperidone significantly reduced the respiratory burst. Haloperidol and quetiapine lacked antioxidant effects. The chemical structure-related antioxidant capacity suggests a possible neuroprotective mechanism of these drugs on the top of their antipsychotic mechanism of action. PMID:27261620

  9. Emerging treatments in the management of bipolar disorder – focus on risperidone long acting injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissam El-Hage

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Wissam El-Hage1, Simon A Surguladze21Inserm U930 ERL CNRS 3106, Université François Rabelais and Clinique Psychiatrique Universitaire, CHRU de Tours, Tours, France; 2Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, UKAbstract: Bipolar disorder is a life-long psychiatric illness characterized by a high frequency of relapses and substantial societal costs. Almost half of the patients are prescribed second generation antipsychotics for treatment of manic states, or as the maintenance therapy. ­Risperidone long acting injection (RLAI as a monotherapy or as adjunctive therapy to lithium or valproate for the maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder was approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA in United States in May 2009. In this review we will consider the aspects of pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, metabolism, safety and tolerability, and clinical trials focusing on the efficacy of RLAI in bipolar disorder. The patients’ perspective and attitudes to long-acting injections will also be discussed.Keywords: second generation, antipsychotics, patient attitudes, lithium, valproate, monotherapy

  10. A comparison of low-dose risperidone to paroxetine in the treatment of panic attacks: a randomized, single-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galynker Igor I

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because a large proportion of patients with panic attacks receiving approved pharmacotherapy do not respond or respond poorly to medication, it is important to identify additional therapeutic strategies for the management of panic symptoms. This article describes a randomized, rater-blind study comparing low-dose risperidone to standard-of-care paroxetine for the treatment of panic attacks. Methods Fifty six subjects with a history of panic attacks were randomized to receive either risperidone or paroxetine. The subjects were then followed for eight weeks. Outcome measures included the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (Ham-A, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (Ham-D, the Sheehan Panic Anxiety Scale-Patient (SPAS-P, and the Clinical Global Impression scale (CGI. Results All subjects demonstrated a reduction in both the frequency and severity of panic attacks regardless of treatment received. Statistically significant improvements in rating scale scores for both groups were identified for the PDSS, the Ham-A, the Ham-D, and the CGI. There was no difference between treatment groups in the improvement in scores on the measures PDSS, Ham-A, Ham-D, and CGI. Post hoc tests suggest that subjects receiving risperidone may have a quicker clinical response than subjects receiving paroxetine. Conclusion We can identify no difference in the efficacy of paroxetine and low-dose risperidone in the treatment of panic attacks. Low-dose risperidone appears to be tolerated equally well as paroxetine. Low-dose risperidone may be an effective treatment for anxiety disorders in which panic attacks are a significant component. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT100457106

  11. 利培酮合并氯氮平治疗难治性精神分裂症对照研究%Comparative Study on Risperidone Combined Clozapine and Risperidone in the Treatment of Refractory Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高亚娇; 安红伟; 靳红强

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of clozapine combined with risperidone in the treatment of refractory schizophrenia. Methods 63 cases were divided into two groups randomly,32 cases of treatment-refractory schizophrenia were treated with risperidone combined clozapine( the treatment group ) and 31 cases were treated with risperidone( the control group ). The clinical effect of patients were measured with positive and negative symptoms scale( PANSS ), and side effects were assessed with treatment emergent symptoms scale( TESS )respectively before and after 4,8,12 week treatment. Results There were significant differences in the curative effect between the two groups( P <0.05 ). After eight weeks treatment, total score of PANSS in two groups were much lower than before,the treatment group had greater decreases. After twelve weeks treatment,total score of PANSS in the treatment group was lower than that in the control group. There were statistical differences between the two groups( P <0. 05 ). Conclusion Clozapine combined with risperidone has curative effect affirmation to treat TRS,this deserves utilization in the clinical area.%目的 探讨利培酮联合氯氮平治疗难治性精神分裂症(TRS)的疗效及安全性.方法 将63例TRS患者随机分为利培酮合并氯氮平组(治疗组)32例和利培酮组(对照组)31例,两组治疗后4、8、12周均以阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS)评定疗效,治疗意外症状量表(TESS)评定不良反应.结果 治疗组和对照组治疗TRS的疗效比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).治疗后8周,两组PANSS总分均较治疗前下降,治疗组下降更明显.两组治疗12周后PANSS总分比较,治疗组明显低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 利培酮联合氯氮平治疗TRS的疗效肯定,值得临床应用.

  12. Outcomes on the pharmacopsychometric triangle in bupropion-SR vs. buspirone augmentation of citalopram in the STAR*D trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Fava, Maurizio; Trivedi, M H;

    2012-01-01

    Bech P, Fava M, Trivedi MH, Wisniewski SR, Rush AJ. Outcomes on the pharmacopsychometric triangle in bupropion-SR vs. buspirone augmentation of citalopram in the STAR*D trial. Objective: To compare within the framework of a novel pharmacopsychometric triangle, augmentation treatment with bupropion...... Scale (HAM-D(17) ) and of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-C(30) ), referred to as HAM-D(6) and IDS-C(6) , were focussed on pure antidepressive effect. Side-effects (tolerable vs. intolerable) and quality of life were measured using patient-administered questionnaires. A modified......-C(6) , and IDS-C(30) , but not on the HAM-D(17) . In the domain of side effects, the total scores on the Patient Rated Inventory of Side Effects (PRISE) were reduced significantly more by bupropion-SR than by buspirone (P = 0.03). In the domain of quality of life, the total scores on the Quality...

  13. Adjunctive Aripiprazole Treatment for Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia: An 8-Week Randomized, Open-Label, Comparative Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyuan Zhao

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive aripiprazole treatment in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia.One hundred and thirteen patients who were receiving a stable dose of risperidone were randomly assigned to either adjunctive aripiprazole treatment (10 mg/day (aripiprazole group or no additional treatment (control group at a 1:1 ratio for 8 weeks. Schizophrenia symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Rating scales and safety assessments (RSESE, BARS, UKU were performed at baseline and at weeks 4 and 8. Serum levels of prolactin were determined at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8. Metabolic parameters were determined at baseline and again at weeks 4 and 8.One hundred and thirteen patients were enrolled in this study, and 107 patients completed the study (54 in the aripiprazole group, and 53 in the control group. PANSS-total scores in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.003 and week 8 (P = 0.007 compared with the control group. PANSS-negative scores in the aripiprazole group also decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.005 and week 8 (P< 0.001 compared with the control group. Serum levels of prolactin in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 2 (P< 0.001, week 4 (P< 0.001, week 6 (P< 0.001 and week 8 (P< 0.001 compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in changes of Fasting Plasma Glucose, Total cholesterol, Triglycerides and High Density Lipoprotein within each group at week 4 and 8 execpt low density lipoproteins. There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups.Adjunctive aripiprazole treatment may be beneficial in reducing serum levels of prolactin and improving negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia.chictr.org ChiCTR-IOR-15006278.

  14. A case of psychosis due to Fahr's syndrome and response to behavioral disturbances with risperidone and oxcarbazepine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, Abhijeet Dhawalram; Gawande, Sushil; Tadke, Rahul; Kirpekar, Vivek C.; Bhave, Sudhir H.

    2014-01-01

    Calcification of basal ganglia or Fahr's syndrome is a rare disease characterized by bilateral and symmetrical intracranial deposition of calcium mainly in cerebral basal ganglia. Motor and neuropsychiatric symptoms are prominent features. We report a case presented with a few motor symptoms, features of delirium and prominent psychiatric symptoms (disorganized behavior) predominantly evident after the improvement in delirium. Radiological findings were suggestive of bilateral basal ganglia calcification. Parathyroid hormone levels were low with no significant findings in other investigations and negative family history. Patient showed significant improvement in behavioral disturbances with risperidone, low dose of lorazepam, oxcarbazepine, and memantine. PMID:24891710

  15. Study on the luminescence behavior of sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin with risperidone and its analytical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Chen, Donghua; Song, Zhenghua

    2012-10-01

    The interaction of sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) with risperidone (RISP) was first described with luminol-SBE-β-CD chemiluminescence (CL) system by flow injection analysis (FIA). In luminol-SBE-β-CD CL system, the 1:1 SBE-β-CD⋯luminol∗ complexation could enhance CL intensity of luminol and produce the effect of complexation enhancement of CL (CEC). It was found that RISP could quench the CL intensity of SBE-β-CD⋯luminol∗ and caused the effect of complexation enhancement of quenching (CEQ), the formation constant KR-CD 3.4 × 104 L mol-1 and the stoichiometric ratio 1:1 of RISP⋯SBE-β-CD complex were obtained by the proposed CL model. Association degree α 0.036 of RISP⋯SBE-β-CD complex was also given by CL method. Based on the linear relationship to the decrement of luminol-SBE-β-CD-RISP CL intensity and the logarithm of RISP concentration, RISP also can be quantified in the linear range of 3.0-500.0 nmol L-1 with a detection limit of 1.0 nmol L-1 (3σ). The proposed method was successfully applied to monitoring excreted RISP in human urine. It was found that RISP reached its maximum after oral administration for 1.5 h with the total excretion of 14.26% within 8.5 h; the elimination rate constant k and half-life time t1/2 were 0.474 and 1.5 h, respectively.

  16. Development of Nutraceutical Emulsions as Risperidone Delivery Systems: Characterization and Toxicological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igartúa, Daniela Edith; Calienni, María Natalia; Feas, Daniela Agustina; Chiaramoni, Nadia Silvia; Valle Alonso, Silvia Del; Prieto, María Jimena

    2015-12-01

    Emulsions are gaining increasing interest to be applied as drug delivery systems. The main goal of this work was the formulation of an oil/water nutraceutical emulsion (NE) for oral administration, enriched in omega 3 (ω3) and omega 6 (ω6), and able to encapsulate risperidone (RISP), an antipsychotic drug widely used in the treatment of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). RISP has low solubility in aqueous medium and poor bioavailability because of its metabolism and high protein binding. Coadministration of ω3, ω3, and vitamin E complexed with RISP might increase its bioavailability and induce a synergistic effect on the treatment of ASD. Here, we developed an easy and quick method to obtain NEs and then optimized them. The best formulation was chosen after characterization by particle size, defects of the oil-in-water interface, zeta potential (ZP), and in vitro drug release. The formulation selected was stable over time, with a particle size of around 3 μm, a ZP lower than -20 mV and controlled drug release. To better understand the biochemical properties of the formulation obtained, we studied in vitro toxicity in the Caco-2 cell line. After 4 h of treatment, an increase in cellular metabolism was observed for all RISP concentrations, but emulsions did not change their metabolic rate, except at the highest concentration without drug (25 μg/mL), which showed a significant reduction in metabolism respect to the control. Additionally, locomotor activity and heart rate in zebrafish were measured as parameters of in vivo toxicity. Only the highest concentration (0.625 μg/mL) showed a cardiotoxic effect, which corresponds to the decrease in spontaneous movement observed previously. As all the materials contained in the formulations were US FDA approved, the NE selected would be good candidate for clinical trials.

  17. Dose-dependent inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 by citalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine and paroxetine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, U; Gram, L F; Vistisen, K;

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this pharmacokinetic study was to investigate the dose-dependent inhibition of model substrates for CYP2D6, CYP2C19 and CYP1A2 by four marketed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs): citalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine and paroxetine. METHODS: The study was...... by sparteine (CYP2D6), mephenytoin (CYP2C19) and caffeine (CYP1A2) tests. Fluoxetine was given at 3-week intervals because of the long half-life of fluoxetine and its metabolite norfluoxetine. Citalopram, fluoxetine and paroxetine were given in doses of 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg and fluvoxamine was given...... fluoxetine are potent inhibitors of CYP2D6, that fluvoxamine and fluoxetine are moderate inhibitors of CYP2C19 and that fluvoxamine is a potent inhibitor of CYP1A2 in humans in vivo. The clinical prediction of interaction from single-dose experiments may have to take the degree of accumulation during steady...

  18. High- and low-affinity binding of S-citalopram to the human serotonin transporter mutated at 20 putatively important amino acid positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plenge, Per; Wiborg, Ove

    2005-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) is responsible for terminating or modulating the action of serotonin released from the presynaptic neuron and is the major target for most antidepressants including the tricyclic antidepressants and the selective serotonin uptake inhibitors. Two binding sites...... for uptake inhibitors and serotonin (5-HT) have been found on SERT. At one site, uptake inhibitors bind with high-affinity to SERT, thereby blocking the uptake of 5-HT. The other site is a low-affinity allosteric site, which influences the dissociation of uptake inhibitors, such as imipramine, paroxetine......, and citalopram from the first site, when occupied by 5-HT and a few uptake inhibitors like paroxetine and citalopram. In this study, the connection between the high-affinity binding site and the allosteric affinity-modulating site was investigated by introducing 20 single amino acid substitutions into positions...

  19. Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial of the Efficacy of Venlafaxine Versus Citalopram in the Treatment of the Acute Phase of Major Depressive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseini, Fatemeh; Amini, Fariba; Yassini Ardekani, Seyed Mojtaba; Shariat, Neda; Nadi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are many antidepressant medications with different side-effects and efficacy profiles. Objectives: In this study, we compared the efficacy of citalopram and venlafaxine in major depression, which has not yet been studied in Iran. Patients and Methods: In this double-blind, randomized controlled trial study, 39 patients aged 18-54 year old with major depressive disorder were randomly allocated into two groups in Yazd City, Iran, between March 2011 and December 2012. A total o...

  20. Comparing the Efficacy of 8 Weeks Treatment of Cipram® and its Generic Citalopram in Patients With Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Khoonsari, Hasan; Oghazian, Mohammad Bagher; Kargar, Mona; Moin, Mahdiyeh; Khalili, Hossein; Alimadadi, Abbas; Torkamandi, Hassan; Ghaeli, Padideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder (MADD) suffer both anxiety and depression. Antidepressants, especially, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are among agents of choice for treating this condition. Objectives: This study compared the efficacy of Cipram® with its generic, citalopram. Patients and Methods: Forty adult outpatients (between 18 to 55 years of age) with a diagnosis of MADD who met the trial criteria, entered this double-blind, randomized study. Subject...

  1. Comorbid Anxiety and Social Avoidance in Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression: Response to Adding Risperidone to Stimulant and Parent Training; Mediation of Disruptive Symptom Response

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Farmer, Cristan A.; Findling, Robert L; Bukstein, Oscar; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Brown, Nicole V.; Li, Xiaobai; Rundberg-Rivera, E. Victoria; Bangalore, Srihari; Buchan-Page, Kristin; Hurt, Elizabeth A.; Rice, Robert; McNamara, Nora K.; Aman, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In the four-site Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression (TOSCA) study, addition of risperidone to stimulant and parent training moderately improved parent-rated disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) symptoms. This secondary study explores outcomes other than DBD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as measured by the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-4R (CASI-4R).

  2. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Risperidone for the Treatment of Adolescents and Young Adults with Anorexia Nervosa: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Jennifer; Gralla, Jane; Sigel, Eric; Ellert, Swan; Dodge, Mindy; Gardner, Rick; O'Lonergan, Teri; Frank, Guido; Wamboldt, Marianne Z.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory pilot study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of risperidone for the treatment of anorexia nervosa. Method: Forty female subjects 12 to 21 years of age (mean, 16 years) with primary anorexia nervosa in an eating disorders program were randomized to receive…

  3. The effect of clozapine and risperidone on attentional bias in patients with schizophrenia and a cannabis use disorder: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machielsen, Marise Wj; Veltman, Dick J; van den Brink, Wim; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2014-07-01

    Cannabis use disorders (CUDs) are highly comorbid in patients with schizophrenia and are associated with poor outcome. Clozapine has been put forward as the first choice antipsychotic in this comorbid group. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the assumed superiority of clozapine. We compared the effects of clozapine and risperidone on attentional bias, subjective craving and associated regional brain activity in patients with schizophrenia and CUD. Overall, 36 patients with schizophrenia and 19 healthy controls were included. Patients were randomised to antipsychotic treatment with clozapine or risperidone. At baseline and after 4 weeks of medication use, regional brain responses were measured during a classical Stroop and a cannabis word Stroop using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Clozapine-treated CUD patients showed a larger reduction in craving and in activation of the insula during the cannabis word Stroop, while risperidone-treated patients showed a larger decrease in activation of the right anterior cingulate cortex during the classical Stroop. A significant association was found between decreases in subjective craving and decreases in insula activation during the cannabis word Stroop. These findings strongly suggest that clozapine may be a better treatment choice in patients with schizophrenia and CUD than risperidone. PMID:24646809

  4. Differences in frontal cortical activation by a working memory task after substitution of risperidone for typical antipsychotic drugs in patients with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Honey, Garry D; Edward T Bullmore; Soni, William; Varatheesan, Malini; Williams, Steve C.R.; Sharma, Tonmoy

    1999-01-01

    Antipsychotic drug treatment of schizophrenia may be complicated by side effects of widespread dopaminergic antagonism, including exacerbation of negative and cognitive symptoms due to frontal cortical hypodopaminergia. Atypical antipsychotics have been shown to enhance frontal dopaminergic activity in animal models. We predicted that substitution of risperidone for typical antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia would be associated with enhanced functional activation of frontal...

  5. Drug induced parkinsonism caused by the concurrent use of donepezil and risperidone in a patient with traumatic brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Si Hyun; Kim, Don-Kyu

    2013-02-01

    A 69-year-old male patient with previous history of traumatic brain injury 5 months ago was admitted to the Department of Neuropsychiatry because of aggressive behavior and delusional features. After starting on 2 mg of risperidone per day, his delusion, anxiety, and aggressive behavior gradually improved. Two weeks later, he was given 10 mg of donepezil per day for his mild cognitive impairment. After 6 weeks of admission in the Department of Neuropsychiatry, he showed parkinsonian features including difficulty in walking, decreased arm swing during walking, narrowed step width, scooped posture, bradykinesia, tremor, and sleep disorder. To rule out the primary Parkinsonism, dopamine transporter imaging technique [18F]fluoropropyl-carbomethoxy-iodopropyl-nor-β-tropane positron emission tomography-computed tomography (18F]FP(IT PET-CT)) was performed, and dopamine transporter activity was not decreased. We considered that his parkinsonian features were associated with the combination of risperidone and donepezil. Both drugs were stopped and symptoms rapidly disappeared in several days. PMID:23526695

  6. Long-Term Risperidone Treatment Induces Visceral Adiposity Associated with Hepatic Steatosis in Mice: A Magnetic Resonance Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Auger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs have led to significant advances in the treatment of psychotic disorders, they still induce metabolic disturbances. We aimed at characterizing the metabolic consequences of a risperidone treatment and at establishing a link with noninvasive MR markers, in order to develop a tool for predicting symptoms of the metabolic syndrome. Fat deposition and liver morphometry were assessed by T1-weighted imaging. Fatty acid composition and fat accumulations in tissues were determined using MR spectroscopy with and without water suppression, respectively. Risperidone treatment induced a weight gain accompanied with metabolic disturbances such as hyperglycemic status, an increase in visceral adipose tissue (VAT, and liver fat depositions. Correlations using Methylene-Water Ratio (MWR and Polyunsaturated Index (PUI demonstrated a concomitant increase in the weight gain, VAT and liver fat depositions, and a decrease in the quantity of polyunsaturated fatty acids. These results were consistent with a hepatic steatosis state. We evaluated the ability of MR techniques to detect subtle metabolic disorders induced by APDs. Thus, our model and methodology offer the possibility to investigate APDs side effects in order to improve the health conditions of schizophrenic patients.

  7. Allosteric effects of R- and S-citalopram on the human 5-HT transporter: evidence for distinct high- and low-affinity binding sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plenge, Per; Gether, Ulrik; Rasmussen, Søren G

    2007-01-01

    The human 5-HT transporter (hSERT) has two binding sites for 5-HT and 5-HT uptake inhibitors: the orthosteric high-affinity site and a low-affinity allosteric site. Activation of the allosteric site increases the dissociation half-life for some uptake inhibitors. The objectives of this study were 1......) to identify hSERT mutations that inactivate the high-affinity site without affecting the allosteric site and 2) to observe allosteric effects in which hSERT binds R-citalopram with higher affinity than S-citalopram. Wild-type and mutant (Y95F, I172M, and Y95F/I172M) hSERTs were expressed in COS-7 cells...... nM, and 17.100 nM (mutants). The allosteric site however, in wild-type hSERT and the three mutants was unaffected by the mutations as attenuation of the dissociation rate of the [(3)H]-paroxetine:hSERT complex in the presence of S-citalopram or paroxetine was the same for wild-type h...

  8. Utility of eosin Y as a complexing reagent for the determination of citalopram hydrobromide in commercial dosage forms by fluorescence spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Syed Najmul Hejaz; Al-Fazari, Ahlam; Al-Badaei, Munira; Al-Mahrazi, Ruqiya

    2015-12-01

    An accurate, selective and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of citalopram hydrobromide in commercial dosage forms. The method was based on the formation of a fluorescent ion-pair complex between citalopram hydrobromide and eosin Y in the presence of a disodium hydrogen phosphate/citric acid buffer solution of pH 3.4 that was extractable in dichloromethane. The extracted complex showed fluorescence intensity at λem = 554 nm after excitation at 259 nm. The calibration curve was linear over at concentrations of 2.0-26.0 µg/mL. Under optimized experimental conditions, the proposed method was validated as per ICH guidelines. The effect of common excipients used as additives was tested and the tolerance limit calculated. The limit of detection for the proposed method was 0.121 μg/mL. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of citalopram hydrobromide in commercial dosage forms. The results were compared with the reference RP-HPLC method.

  9. Spectroscopic and thermal investigations on the charge transfer interaction between risperidone as a schizophrenia drug with some traditional π-acceptors: Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Habeeb, Abeer A.; Al-Saif, Foziah A.; Refat, Moamen S.

    2013-03-01

    The focus of present investigation was to assess the utility of non-expensive techniques in the evaluation of risperidone (Ris) in solid and solution states with different traditional π-acceptors and subsequent incorporation of the analytical determination into pharmaceutical formulation for a faster release of risperidone. Charge-transfer complexes (CTC) of risperidone with picric acid (PA), 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinon (DDQ), tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), tetracyano ethylene (TCNE), tetrabromo-p-quinon (BL) and tetrachloro-p-quinon (CL) have been studied spectrophotometrically in absolute methanol at room temperature. The stoichiometries of the complexes were found to be 1:1 ratio by the photometric molar ratio between risperidone and the π-acceptors. The equilibrium constants, molar extinction coefficient (ɛCT) and spectroscopic-physical parameters (standard free energy (ΔGo), oscillator strength (f), transition dipole moment (μ), resonance energy (RN) and ionization potential (ID)) of the complexes were determined upon the modified Benesi-Hildebrand equation. Risperidone in pure form was applied in this study. The results indicate that the formation constants for the complexes depend on the nature of electron acceptors and donor, and also the spectral studies of the complexes were determined by (infrared, Raman, and 1H NMR) spectra and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The most stable mono-protonated form of Ris is characterized by the formation of +Nsbnd H (pyrimidine ring) intramolecular hydrogen bonded. In the high-wavenumber spectral region ˜3400 cm-1, the bands of the +Nsbnd H stretching vibrations and of the pyrimidine nitrogen atom could be potentially useful to discriminate the investigated forms of Ris. The infrared spectra of both Ris complexes are confirming the participation of +Nsbnd H pyrimidine ring in the donor-acceptor interaction.

  10. Risperidone induces long-lasting changes in the conditioned avoidance response and accumbal gene expression selectively in animals treated as adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Aung Aung Kywe; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Alexander, Suzanne; Cui, Xiaoying; Burne, Thomas H J; Eyles, Darryl W

    2016-09-01

    Adolescence is a period of dynamic remodeling and maturation in the brain. Exposure to psychotropic drugs during adolescence can potentially alter neural maturation in the adolescent brain subsequently altering neural function at maturity. In this regard, antipsychotic drugs (APDs) are important given a notable global increase in prescription of these APDs to adolescents for a variety of behavioural symptoms and conditions over the past twenty years. However, there is a paucity of data on the long-term consequences of APDs on the adolescent brain. In this preclinical study, we have examined whether the adolescent brain is more susceptible than the adult brain to long-term neural changes induced by risperidone, which is the APD most frequently prescribed to adolescents. Rats were chronically treated (21 days) with 1.3 mg/kg/day risperidone or vehicle either as adolescents (postnatal day (PND) 36-56)) or adults (PND80-100). Behaviour was assessed using the well-described suppression of the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) by APDs. We examined CAR after all animals had reached maturity (PND127). We show that mature rats treated with risperidone as adolescents had increased CAR suppression compared to adults when rechallenged with this same drug. In the nucleus accumbens, significant downregulation of serotonergic 5HT2A receptors and catechol-o-methyl transferase mRNA levels was observed only in the adolescent treated animals. Impaired 5HT2A receptor signaling may explain the increased CAR suppression observed in rats treated with risperidone as adolescents. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), however, did not detect any risperidone-induced long-term brain structural change at maturity. These findings confirm that APD administration during adolescence may produce long-term behavioural and neurochemical alterations. PMID:27130903

  11. Differences in frontal cortical activation by a working memory task after substitution of risperidone for typical antipsychotic drugs in patients with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, Garry D.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Soni, William; Varatheesan, Malini; Williams, Steve C. R.; Sharma, Tonmoy

    1999-01-01

    Antipsychotic drug treatment of schizophrenia may be complicated by side effects of widespread dopaminergic antagonism, including exacerbation of negative and cognitive symptoms due to frontal cortical hypodopaminergia. Atypical antipsychotics have been shown to enhance frontal dopaminergic activity in animal models. We predicted that substitution of risperidone for typical antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia would be associated with enhanced functional activation of frontal cortex. We measured cerebral blood oxygenation changes during periodic performance of a verbal working memory task, using functional MRI, on two occasions (baseline and 6 weeks later) in two cohorts of schizophrenic patients. One cohort (n = 10) was treated with typical antipsychotic drugs throughout the study. Risperidone was substituted for typical antipsychotics after baseline assessment in the second cohort (n = 10). A matched group of healthy volunteers (n = 10) was also studied on a single occasion. A network comprising bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal and lateral premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, and posterior parietal cortex was activated by working memory task performance in both the patients and comparison subjects. A two-way analysis of covariance was used to estimate the effect of substituting risperidone for typical antipsychotics on power of functional response in the patient group. Substitution of risperidone increased functional activation in right prefrontal cortex, supplementary motor area, and posterior parietal cortex at both voxel and regional levels of analysis. This study provides direct evidence for significantly enhanced frontal function in schizophrenic patients after substitution of risperidone for typical antipsychotic drugs, and it indicates the potential value of functional MRI as a tool for longitudinal assessment of psychopharmacological effects on cerebral physiology. PMID:10557338

  12. Comparison of Venlafaxine and Citalopram for Depression%文拉法辛与西酞普兰治疗抑郁症对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘跃刚; 王学廷; 高平来

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of venlafaxine and citalopram in the treatment of depression. Methods Eighty depression patients were randomly treated with oral venlafaxine (venlafaxine treatment group, n=40) or citalopram (citalopram treatment group, n=40) for 6 weeks. Clinical efficacies were assessed with Hamihon Depression Scale (HAMD) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Illness (CGI-SI) and adverse reactions with Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) before treatment and at the end of week 1, 2, 4 and 6. Results The scores of HAMD and CGI-SI significantly decreased in both groups after treatment for 6 weeks (P0.05). Adverse reactions were mild in both groups. Conclusion Both venlafaxine and citalopram are effective and safe for depression with good compliance, and they show equivalent curative efficacies. However, venlafaxine is superior to citalopram for quickly controlling depressive symptoms.%目的:观察文拉法辛与西酞普兰治疗抑郁症的临床疗效和安全性。方法80例抑郁症患者按随机数字表法分为文拉法辛组和西酞普兰组,每组40例,分别口服文拉法辛和西酞普兰,连续观察6周。于治疗开始后的第1、2、4、6周末,采用汉密顿抑郁量表(HAMD)和临床病情严重程度量表(CGI-SI)评定临床疗效,副反应量表(TESS)评定不良反应。结果经过6周治疗2组HAMD和CGI-SI评分均较治疗前显著下降(P0.05)。2组不良反应较轻微。结论文拉法辛与西酞普兰治疗抑郁症疗效均显著,2组疗效相当,但文拉法辛起效更快,控制抑郁症状迅速。两药安全性高,依从性好。

  13. RP-HPLC chiral separation of citalopram%反相高效液相色谱法拆分西酞普兰对映异构体*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌兰辉; 吴松; 卢建勋; 杨慧; 杨庆云

    2012-01-01

    Objective;To establish an HPLC method to separate citalopram enantiomers on ovomucoid chiral column for optical purity detection of escitalopram oxalate. Methods-. The mobile phase was recommended as acetoni-trile-0. 05 mol · L-1 phosphate buffer(pH 7. 0) ( 15.'85)at a flow rate of 1.0 mL · min-1.The column temperature was 30℃ and the detection wavelength was 240 nm. Results; Citalopram enantiomers were separated under the above conditions, the resolution between S - and R - citalopram was 1. 90. The optical purity of escitalopram oxalate was more than 97. 9%. Conclusion; With good resolution and repeatability, the method can be reliably used for chiral separation of citalopram enantiomers, and determination of the optical purity of S - and R - citalopram sample.%目的:建立西酞普兰对映异构体的HPLC手性分析方法,用于草酸艾司西酞普兰光学纯度的分析测定.方法:采用不易变性的卵类粘蛋白键合硅胶(ES - OVM)为手性固定相,以乙腈-0.05 mol·L-1磷酸盐缓冲液(pH 7.0)(15∶85)为流动相,流速为1.0 mL·min-1,柱温30℃,检测波长240nm,对西酞普兰对映异构体进行分离测定.结果:西酞普兰对映异构体在卵粘蛋白柱上实现了良好的分离,分离度为1.90.将该方法应用于手性拆分得到的草酸艾司西酞普兰的光学纯度测定,结果光学纯度大于97.9%.结论:该方法分离度与重现性好,可用于西酞普兰的光学纯度的分析测定及对拆分过程进行监测,结果可靠.

  14. Study on the Industryial Production of Citalopram%西酞普兰工业化生产的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞灵军; 陈志校; 傅智盛

    2012-01-01

    Citalopram was an effective and safe antidepressant which existed in the market for many years and had great market value.To realize the industrial production of citalopram,the process was improved based on the patent US4943590.The improved process was 4-(4-(dimethylamino)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-hydroxy-butyl)-3-(hydroxymetheyl)-benzonitrile was dissolved in toluene at 0 ℃.Toluene sulfochloride was used as acylation reagent,HCl generated in the acylation reaction was absorbed by Na2CO3 water solution(20 wt-%).The conversion rate of the process was higher than 99%,and the purity of the product was more than 99.5%.This improved process was very easy to carry out,those chemical materials were commercialized and cheep,and low pollutant discharge,which can satisty the need of industrialized production.%西酞普兰是一种已经上市多年的抗抑郁症药物,具有巨大的市场价值。本文在专利US4943590报道的工艺基础上进行改进,以4-[4-(二甲胺基)-1-(4-氟苯基)-羟基丁基]-3-(羟甲基)-苯腈为起始原料,以甲苯为溶剂,以对甲苯磺酰氯为酰化试剂,以20%的碳酸钠水溶液为缚酸剂,于0℃反应制备西酞普兰。产品经提纯后,其纯度可达到99.5%以上。该工艺的转化率在99%以上,具有工艺操作条件温和,原料价廉易得,三废排放少的优点,完全可以满足工业化生产的要求。

  15. The Effect of a Combination Treatment Using Palonosetron, Promethazine, and Dexamethasone on the Prophylaxis of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting and QTC interval duration in Patients Undergoing Craniotomy Under General Anesthesia: A pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Daniel Bergese

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV is a displeasing experience that distresses surgical patients during the first 24 hours after a surgical procedure. The incidence of postoperative nausea occurs in about 50%, the incidence of postoperative vomiting is about 30%, and in high-risk patients, the PONV rate could be as high as 80%. Therefore, the study design of this single arm, non-randomized, pilot study assessed the efficacy and safety profile of a triple therapy combination with palonosetron, dexamethasone and promethazine to prevent PONV in patients undergoing craniotomies under general anesthesia.Methods: The research protocol was approved by the institutional review board and 40 subjects were provided written informed. At induction of anesthesia, a triple therapy of palonosetron 0.075 mg IV, dexamethasone 10 mg IV and promethazine 25 mg IV was given as PONV prophylaxis. After surgery, subjects were transferred to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU or post anesthesia care unit as clinically indicated. Ondansetron 4 mg IV was administered as primary rescue medication to subjects with PONV symptoms. PONV was assessed and collected every 24 hours for 5 days via direct interview and/or medical charts review.Results: The overall incidence of PONV during the first 24 hours after surgery was 30% (n=12. The incidence of nausea and emesis 24 hours after surgery was 30% (n=12 and 7.5% (n=3 respectively. The mean time to first emetic episode, first rescue, and first significant nausea was 31.3 (±33.6 15.1 (±25.8 and 21.1 (±25.4 hours, respectively . The overall incidence of nausea and vomiting after 24-120 hours period after surgery was 30% (n=12. The percentage of subjects without emesis episodes over 24-120 h postoperatively was 70% (n=28. No subjects presented a prolonged QTC interval ≥500 msec before and/or after surgery.Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that this triple therapy regimen may be an adequate alternative

  16. Preparation and in-vitro characterization of Risperidone-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes as a potential injectable product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Shukla

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n  "n Background and the purpose of the study: This investigation deals with risperidone cyclodextrin (CD complexation for parenteral administration to improve its aqueous solubility which would be beneficial over immediate and sustained release formulations available in market especially for agitated and non-cooperative psychotic patients. "nMethods: The phase solubility study of the drug with β-CD, hydroxypropyl (HP-β-CD and γ-CD was conducted and CDs with higher stability constants were selected for complexation. The complexes of Risperidone with β-CD and HP-β-CD were prepared by precipitation and vacuum drying methods, respectively. Fourier transform-infrared, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry techniques were used for characterization of complexes. Drug precipitation study of complex's solution in water for injection and 100 ml of 0.1 M pH 7.4 phosphate buffer saline and stability study in accelerated condition were also carried out. "nResults: The stability constants of the CD were in the following order: β-CD (341.953±11.87 M-1 > HP-β-CD (170.817± 5.93 M-1 > γ-CD (93.716 ± 3.25 M-1. CDs with high stability constants were selected to prepare the drug CD complex. The complexation efficiencies of β-CD and HP-β-CD were 95.23 ± 2.27% and 97.59 ±1.97%, respectively. Both types of CDs exhibited complexation at 1:2 molar stoichiometric ratio. The drug precipitation study indicated complete solubility (100% drug dissolution without a trace of precipitate within 5 mins. The complexes were found to be stable for a period of 3 months under accelerated stability conditions. Major conclusion:Stable complexes of risperidone were successfully formulated using both β-CD and HP-β-CD by simple and highly efficient methods of complexation for parenteral administration.

  17. Adjunctive Aripiprazole Treatment for Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia: An 8-Week Randomized, Open-Label, Comparative Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingyuan; Song, Xueqin; Ai, Xiaoqing; Gu, Xiaojing; Huang, Guangbiao; Li, Xue; Pang, Lijuan; Ding, Minli; Ding, Shuang; Lv, Luxian

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive aripiprazole treatment in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Methods One hundred and thirteen patients who were receiving a stable dose of risperidone were randomly assigned to either adjunctive aripiprazole treatment (10 mg/day) (aripiprazole group) or no additional treatment (control group) at a 1:1 ratio for 8 weeks. Schizophrenia symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Rating scales and safety assessments (RSESE, BARS, UKU) were performed at baseline and at weeks 4 and 8. Serum levels of prolactin were determined at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8. Metabolic parameters were determined at baseline and again at weeks 4 and 8. Results One hundred and thirteen patients were enrolled in this study, and 107 patients completed the study (54 in the aripiprazole group, and 53 in the control group). PANSS-total scores in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.003) and week 8 (P = 0.007) compared with the control group. PANSS-negative scores in the aripiprazole group also decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.005) and week 8 (P< 0.001) compared with the control group. Serum levels of prolactin in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 2 (P< 0.001), week 4 (P< 0.001), week 6 (P< 0.001) and week 8 (P< 0.001) compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in changes of Fasting Plasma Glucose, Total cholesterol, Triglycerides and High Density Lipoprotein within each group at week 4 and 8 execpt low density lipoproteins. There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups. Conclusions Adjunctive aripiprazole treatment may be beneficial in reducing serum levels of prolactin and improving negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Trial Registration chictr.org Chi

  18. Enantioseparation of Citalopram by RP-HPLC, Using Sulfobutyl Ether-β-Cyclodextrin as a Chiral Mobile Phase Additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yangfeng; He, Quan Sophia; Cai, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Enantiomeric separation of citalopram (CIT) was developed using a reversed phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) with sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) as a chiral mobile phase additive. The effects of the pH value of aqueous buffer, concentration of chiral additive, composition of mobile phase, and column temperature on the enantioseparation of CIT were investigated on the Hedera ODS-2 C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm × 5.0 um). A satisfactory resolution was achieved at 25°C using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of aqueous buffer (pH of 2.5, 5 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate, and 12 mM SBE-β-CD), methanol, and acetonitrile with a volumetric ratio of 21 : 3 : 1 and flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. This analytical method was evaluated by examining the precision (lower than 3.0%), linearity (regression coefficients close to 1), limit of detection (0.070 µg/mL for (R)-CIT and 0.076 µg/mL for (S)-CIT), and limit of quantitation (0.235 µg/mL for (R)-CIT and 0.254 µg/mL for (S)-CIT). PMID:26880921

  19. Enantioseparation of Citalopram by RP-HPLC, Using Sulfobutyl Ether-β-Cyclodextrin as a Chiral Mobile Phase Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangfeng Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enantiomeric separation of citalopram (CIT was developed using a reversed phase HPLC (RP-HPLC with sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD as a chiral mobile phase additive. The effects of the pH value of aqueous buffer, concentration of chiral additive, composition of mobile phase, and column temperature on the enantioseparation of CIT were investigated on the Hedera ODS-2 C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm × 5.0 um. A satisfactory resolution was achieved at 25°C using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of aqueous buffer (pH of 2.5, 5 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate, and 12 mM SBE-β-CD, methanol, and acetonitrile with a volumetric ratio of 21 : 3 : 1 and flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. This analytical method was evaluated by examining the precision (lower than 3.0%, linearity (regression coefficients close to 1, limit of detection (0.070 µg/mL for (R-CIT and 0.076 µg/mL for (S-CIT, and limit of quantitation (0.235 µg/mL for (R-CIT and 0.254 µg/mL for (S-CIT.

  20. A novel voltammetric sensor for citalopram based on multiwall carbon nanotube/(poly(p-aminobenzene sulfonic acid)/β-cyclodextrin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholivand, Mohammad-Bagher; Akbari, Arezoo

    2016-05-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTS) coated with poly p-aminobenzene sulfonic acid/β-cyclodextrin (p-ABSA/β-CD) film was used as an effective strategy for modification of the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Electrochemical study and determination of citalopram (CT) were investigated at the p (p-ABSA)/β-CD/MWCNT/GC using cyclic and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric techniques. The results indicate that the p (p-ABSA)/β-CD/MWCNT/GC significantly enhanced the oxidation peak current of CT. The modified electrode was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV).The fabricated electrochemical sensor exhibits a fast and reversible linear response toward CT within the concentration ranges of 90 nM-1 μM, 1-11 μM and 11-100 μM with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99 and detection limit of 44 nM. The resulting functionalized polymer film features interesting electrochemical properties such good recovery, reproducibility and selectivity toward CT. The applicability of the proposed sensor was tested by determination of CT in pharmaceutical combinations and human body fluids. PMID:26952450

  1. Neonatal citalopram exposure decreases serotonergic fiber density in the olfactory bulb of male but not female adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junlin eZhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation of serotonin (5HT during early development has been shown to induce long-lasting morphological changes within the raphe nuclear complex and serotonergic circuitry throughout the brain. Recent studies have demonstrated altered raphe-derived 5HT transporter (SERT immunoreactive axonal expression in several cortical target sites after brief perinatal exposure to selective 5HT reuptake inhibitors such as citalopram (CTM. Since the serotonergic raphe nuclear complex projects to the olfactory bulb (OB and perinatal 5HT disruption has been shown to disrupt olfactory behaviors, the goal of this study was to further investigate such developmental effects in the OB of CTM exposed animals. Male and female rat pups were exposed to CTM from postnatal day 8-21. After animals reach adulthood (>90 days, OB tissue sections were processed immunohistochemically for SERT antiserum. Our data revealed that the density of the SERT immunoreactive fibers decreased ~40% in the OB of CTM exposed male rats, but not female rats. Our findings support a broad and long-lasting change throughout most of the 5HT system, including the OB, after early manipulation of 5HT. Because dysfunction of the early 5HT system has been implicated in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, these new findings may offer insight into the abnormal olfactory perception often noted in patients with ASD.

  2. Frequency of sexual dysfunction and other reproductive side-effects in patients with schizophrenia treated with risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, or haloperidol: the results of the EIRE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobes, J; Garc A-Portilla, M P; Rejas, J; Hern Ndez, G; Garcia-Garcia, M; Rico-Villademoros, F; Porras, A

    2003-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotics seem to differ mainly in their tolerability profile. The aim of this cross-sectional study, the Estudio de Investigaci n de Resultados en Esquizofrenia (Outcomes Research Study in Schizophrenia; EIRE study), was to assess in a clinical setting the frequency of several side-effects related to haloperidol, risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine. This article addresses sexual dysfunction and other reproductive side-effects (gynecomastia, menorrhage, amenorrhea, and galactorrhea). We recruited outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria and who had received a single antipsychotic (risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, or haloperidol) for at least 4 weeks. During a single visit, we collected data, including demographic and clinical characteristics, current antipsychotic and concomitant treatment, and adverse effects listed in a modified version of the UKU Scale. We used a Chi-squared test to determine pairs comparisons of the frequency of adverse reactions between treatments. To estimate risk of a given adverse reaction with a given treatment, we used a logistic regression method. We assessed 636 evaluable patients out of 669 recruited. Frequency of sexual dysfunction was high with haloperidol (38.1%) and also with olanzapine (35.3%), quetiapine (18.2%), and risperidone (43.2%). We found the frequency of other reproductive side-effects to be relatively low with all four drugs: haloperidol (6.9%), olanzapine (6.4%), quetiapine (2.7%), and risperidone (11.7%). Sexual dysfunction appeared to be dose-related with haloperidol, risperidone, and olanzapine. Risperidone and olanzapine showed a higher risk of sexual dysfunction and other reproductive sideeffects than haloperidol. Quetiapine showed a lower risk of sexual dysfunction during short-term treatment ( 12 weeks) are lacking. Our results suggest that none of the atypical

  3. Frequency of sexual dysfunction and other reproductive side-effects in patients with schizophrenia treated with risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, or haloperidol: the results of the EIRE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobes, J; Garc A-Portilla, M P; Rejas, J; Hern Ndez, G; Garcia-Garcia, M; Rico-Villademoros, F; Porras, A

    2003-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotics seem to differ mainly in their tolerability profile. The aim of this cross-sectional study, the Estudio de Investigaci n de Resultados en Esquizofrenia (Outcomes Research Study in Schizophrenia; EIRE study), was to assess in a clinical setting the frequency of several side-effects related to haloperidol, risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine. This article addresses sexual dysfunction and other reproductive side-effects (gynecomastia, menorrhage, amenorrhea, and galactorrhea). We recruited outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria and who had received a single antipsychotic (risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, or haloperidol) for at least 4 weeks. During a single visit, we collected data, including demographic and clinical characteristics, current antipsychotic and concomitant treatment, and adverse effects listed in a modified version of the UKU Scale. We used a Chi-squared test to determine pairs comparisons of the frequency of adverse reactions between treatments. To estimate risk of a given adverse reaction with a given treatment, we used a logistic regression method. We assessed 636 evaluable patients out of 669 recruited. Frequency of sexual dysfunction was high with haloperidol (38.1%) and also with olanzapine (35.3%), quetiapine (18.2%), and risperidone (43.2%). We found the frequency of other reproductive side-effects to be relatively low with all four drugs: haloperidol (6.9%), olanzapine (6.4%), quetiapine (2.7%), and risperidone (11.7%). Sexual dysfunction appeared to be dose-related with haloperidol, risperidone, and olanzapine. Risperidone and olanzapine showed a higher risk of sexual dysfunction and other reproductive sideeffects than haloperidol. Quetiapine showed a lower risk of sexual dysfunction during short-term treatment ( 12 weeks) are lacking. Our results suggest that none of the atypical

  4. Weight gain in a controlled study of risperidone in children, adolescents and adults with mental retardation and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellings, J A; Zarcone, J R; Crandall, K; Wallace, D; Schroeder, S R

    2001-01-01

    As part of an ongoing, prospective, ABA design, double-blind crossover study of risperidone versus placebo for the treatment of aggressive, destructive and self-injurious behavior in persons aged 6-65 years with mental retardation (MR) and autism, we measured the weight of 19 subjects at each study visit. We compared mean weight gain during the 16-week acute phase and 24-week open maintenance phase with that during the initial and middle placebo phases statistically, using a linear mixed model procedure. Results of the linear mixed model analysis showed that relative weight gain observed during the acute and maintenance drug phases was significantly greater than that observed during the initial and middle placebo phases respectively (p = .0001 and p = .0001). Over approximately a year, children aged 8-12 (n = 5) gained a mean of 8.2 kg (range = 2.7-17.7 kg); adolescents (n = 6) aged 13-16 gained a mean of 8.4 kg (range 3.6-15.5 kg); adults aged 21-51 (n = 8) gained a mean of 5.4 kg (range 0-9.5 kg). Weight gain observed in this controlled study of risperidone treatment in children, adolescents, and adults with MR and autism was significant. It may be greater in this population than in others reported and in this study was not limited to an acute effect only. Rate of weight gain diminished rapidly on tapering and stopping the drug. Further studies are urgently needed, including those incorporating diet and exercise programming. PMID:11642473

  5. Costi ed effetti di Risperidone Long Acting (RLA rispetto ad antipsicotici atipici nel trattamento dei soggetti schizofrenici in Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo G. Mantovani

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate the costs and effects of long-acting risperidone (LAR in the treatment of schizophrenic patients in Italy, as compared to conventional and oral atypical antipsychotics. Methods: a discrete event model was used. The model simulates patients. history for every single therapeutic alternative and selects incident events, on the basis of pre-defined probability distribution-powered, randomized repetitions. The model operates on two types of parameters: patient characteristics and time-dependent variables. Patient characteristics (age, sex, illness profile and severity, probability of incurring in an adverse event and potential dangerousness remain fixed during the 5 simulated years. Time-dependent variables are subject to changes and include outpatient visits, severity of psychotic episodes, symptom-scores, compliance, incidence of adverse effects, site of treatment and dangerousness. Three treatments have been selected: scenario 1 begins with LAR, switches to olanzapine and then to clozapine; scenario 2 starts with olanzapine, switches to oral risperidone and ends with clozapine. Direct medical costs have been computed on the basis of psychiatric visits, drug costs and costs of the institution in which the patient is treated (hospital, rehabilitation clinic, etc. Outcome measures were number of psychotic episodes in 5 years, total time spent during these episodes and cumulative score of positive and negative symptoms at 5 years. Information on alternatives, transition probabilities, model structure and health resources utilization were derived from the literature and from a panel of experts. Results: it has been estimated that LAR is economically dominant (more effective at lower cost respect to oral atypical antipsychotics, being able to prevent 0.87 psychotic episodes per patient, with a net cost saving of 4,773 euro per patient. Sub-group analysis indicate that LAR is always more effective than the considered alternatives

  6. Essential Contributions of Serotonin Transporter Inhibition to the Acute and Chronic Actions of Fluoxetine and Citalopram in the SERT Met172 Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackenoff, Alex G; Moussa-Tooks, Alexandra B; McMeekin, Austin M; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Blakely, Randy D

    2016-06-01

    Depression is a common mental illness and a leading cause of disability. The most widely prescribed antidepressant medications are serotonin (5-HT) selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Although there is much support for 5-HT transporter (SERT) antagonism as a basis of antidepressant efficacy, this evidence is indirect and other targets and mechanisms have been proposed. In order to distinguish SERT-dependent and -independent effects of SSRIs, we developed a knock-in mouse model whereby high-affinity interactions of many antidepressants at SERT have been ablated via knock-in substitution (SERT Met172) without disrupting 5-HT recognition or uptake. Here we utilize the C57BL/6J SERT Met172 model to evaluate SERT dependence for the actions of two widely prescribed SSRIs, fluoxetine and citalopram, in tests sensitive to acute and chronic actions of antidepressants. In the tail suspension and forced swim tests, fluoxetine and citalopram fail to reduce immobility in SERT Met172 mice. In addition, SERT Met172 mice are insensitive to chronic fluoxetine and citalopram administration in the novelty induced hypophagia test (NIH) and fail to exhibit enhanced proliferation or survival of hippocampal stem cells. In both acute and chronic studies, SERT Met172 mice maintained sensitivity to paroxetine, an antidepressant that is unaffected by the Met172 mutation. Together, these studies provide definitive support for an essential role of SERT antagonism in the acute and chronic actions of two commonly used SSRIs in these tests, and reinforce the utility of the SERT Met172 model for isolating SERT/5-HT contributions of drug actions in vivo. PMID:26514584

  7. Comparison between the efficacies of Risperidone with Haloperidol in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among preschoolers: a randomized double-blind clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, Forough; Tashakori, Ashraf; Abdi, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disease with a worldwide pooled prevalence of 5.29%. Objective To compare the efficacy of Risperidone with Haloperidol in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among 3- to 6-year-old children. Methods In a 6-week double-blind clinical trial, the efficacy of Risperidone 0.5–2 mg with a dose of maximum Haloperidol 0.075 mg/kg was assessed in 39 children aged 3–6 years. This study was conducted at the Golestan Psychiatric Clinic (Ahvaz, Iran). Measurement tools included the Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-48), Children’s Global Assessment Scale (CGAS), and the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale (ADHD-RS). Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney, and Fisher’s exact tests in the SPSS 19. Results During the 6 weeks, the decline in points was seen in Conner’s rating scale and in ADHD-RS score in Risperidone and Haloperidol groups (p0.05). Conclusions Haloperidol and Risperidone possibly can be an acceptable treatment choice in the ADHD treatment of 3- to 6-year-old children. Trial registration The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (http://www.irct.ir) with the Irct ID: IRCT2015082623766N1. Funding This work was financially supported by grant (ref. no.: U-93130) from the vice chancellor for Research Affairs of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. PMID:27790334

  8. Olanzapine vs. Risperidone in Patients with First-Episode Schizophrenia and a Lifetime History of Cannabis Use Disorders: 16-Week Clinical and Substance Use outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Sevy, Serge; Robinson, Delbert G.; Sunday, Suzanne; Napolitano, Barbara; Miller, Rachel; McCormack, Joanne; Kane, John M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of olanzapine and risperidone for the acute treatment of first-episode schizophrenia patients with cannabis use disorders. This secondary analysis of a previously published study included forty-nine first-episode patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, or schizoaffective disorder and a co-occurring lifetime diagnosis of cannabis use disorders randomly assigned to treatment with either olanzapine (n=28) or risp...

  9. A high-performance liquid chromatographic-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometric method for determination of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, David E; Laycock, John D; Huang, Wei; Foltz, Rodger L

    2004-09-01

    Risperidone, a benzisoxazole derivative, is an antipsychotic agent used for the treatment of schizophrenia. We developed a liquid chromatographic-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-APCI-MS-MS) method with improved sensitivity, selectivity, and dynamic range for determination of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in human plasma. A structural analogue of risperidone, RO68808 (5 ng/mL), is added as the internal standard to 1 mL of human plasma. Plasma is made basic, extracted with pentane/methylene chloride (3:1), the organic phase evaporated to dryness, and the residue is reconstituted in water with 0.1% formic acid/acetonitrile (20:1). For LC-MS-MS analysis, a Metachem Inertsel HPLC column (2.1 x 150 mm, 5-microm particle size) is connected to a Finnigan TSQ7000 tandem MS via the Finnigan API interface. Both electrospray (ESI) and APCI produced predominantly MH(+) ions for the two analytes and the internal standard. Ions detected by selected reaction monitoring correspond to the following transitions: m/z 411 to 191 for risperidone, m/z 427 to 207 for 9-hydroxyrisperidone, and m/z 421 to 201 for the internal standard. APCI provided a larger dynamic range (0.1 to 25 ng/mL) and better precision and accuracy than ESI. Intrarun accuracy and precision determined at 0.1, 0.25, 2.5, and 15 ng/mL were within 12% of target with %CVs not exceeding 10.9%. Interrun accuracy and precision determined at the same concentrations were within 9.6% of target with %CVs not exceeding 6.7%. Analytes were stable in plasma after 24 h at room temperature, 2 freeze-thaw cycles, and 490 days at -20 degrees C. PMID:15516302

  10. Controlled clinical treatment of the domestic Ziprasidone and risperidone%国产齐拉西酮与维思通的临床对照治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永强; 冯金河

    2013-01-01

    Objective:comparison curative effect and untoward effect between Ziprasidone and risperidone. Methods:Sixty patients with schizophrenia were randomly divided into two groups: thirty patients were in Ziprasidone's group and the other thirty patients were in risperidone's group, after treatment for six weekends, used positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS) and treatment emergent symptoms scale (TESS) to evaluate the efficacy. Results: Ziprasidone and risperidone have equal therapy, but the incidence of adverse reaction and symptom severity of Ziprasidone was significantly lower than risperidone, especially, Ziprasidone has a small influence in mammotropic hormone and weight. Conclusion: Ziprasidone for schizophrenia have a good efficacy, few untoward effects and good compliance.%目的对比国产齐拉西酮与维思通的疗效和不良反应。方法对60例精神分裂症患者随机分为国产齐拉西酮组30例和维思通组30例,进行相应的药物治疗,疗程6周,采用PANSS量表和TESS副反应量表进行评价。结果国产齐拉西酮和维思通疗效相当,但国产齐拉西酮的不良反应发生率和症状严重程度显著低于维思通,特别对催乳素和体重的影响明显较小,同时具有良好的依从性。结论国产齐拉西酮治疗精神分裂症疗效确切,不良反应少,依从性好。

  11. Novel Azido-Iodo Photoaffinity Ligands for the Human Serotonin Transporter Based on the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (S)-Citalopram

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Vivek; Yarravarapu, Nageswari; Lapinsky, David J.; Perley, Danielle; Felts, Bruce; Tomlinson, Michael J.; Vaughan, Roxanne A.; Henry, L. Keith; Lever, John R.; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2015-01-01

    Three photoaffinity ligands (PALs) for the human serotonin transporter (hSERT) were synthesized based on the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), (S)-citalopram (1). The classic 4-azido-3-iodo-phenyl group was appended to either the C-1 or C-5 position of the parent molecule, with variable-length linkers, to generate ligands 15, 22, and 26. These ligands retained high to moderate affinity binding (K i = 24–227 nM) for hSERT, as assessed by [3H]5-HT transport inhibition. When tested ...

  12. Evaluation of S-[[sup 11]C]citalopram as a radioligand for in vivo labelling of 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hume, S.P.; Lammertsma, A.A.; Bench, C.J.; Pike, V.W.; Pascali, C.; Cremer, J.E. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom). M.R.C. Cyclotron Unit); Dolan, R.J. (Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom))

    1992-11-01

    The biologically active S-enantiomer of [N-methyl-[sup 11]C]citalopram was evaluated as a radioligand for in vivo labelling of the 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake site in brain, using ex vivo tissue counting in rats and positron emission tomography in man. In rats, the maximal signal for total versus non-specific binding was approx. 2 at 60-120 min after radioligand injection. Subsequent studies in man failed to identify a specific signal over a 90 min scanning period, due to prolonged retention of non-specific label. (author).

  13. Effects of acute treatment with paroxetine, citalopram and venlafaxine in vivo on noradrenaline and serotonin outflow: a microdialysis study in Swiss mice

    OpenAIRE

    David, D J P; Bourin, M; Jego, G; Przybylski, C; Jolliet, P.; Gardier, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated whether a single administration of a range of doses (1, 4 and 8 mg kg−1, i.p.) of paroxetine, citalopram or venlafaxine may simultaneously increase extracellular levels of 5-HT ([5-HT]ext) and noradrenaline ([NA]ext) by using in vivo microdialysis in the frontal cortex (FCx) of awake, freely moving Swiss mice.In vivo, paroxetine induced similar increases in cortical [5-HT]ext at the three doses tested, and induced a statistically significant increase in cortical [NA]ex...

  14. Evidence that the deficit in sexual behavior in adult rats neonatally exposed to citalopram is a consequence of 5-HT1 receptor stimulation during development

    OpenAIRE

    Maciag, Dorota; Coppinger, David; Paul, Ian A.

    2006-01-01

    Neonatal (postnatal days 8-21) exposure of rats to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), citalopram, results in persistent changes in behavior including decreased sexual activity in adult animals. We hypothesized that this effect was a consequence of abnormal stimulation of serotonergic receptors 5- HT1A or/and 5-HT1B as a result of increased synaptic availability of serotonin during a critical period of development. We examined whether neonatal exposure to a 5-HT1A (8OH-DPAT) an...

  15. Effects of Repeated Citalopram Treatments on Chronic Mild Stress-Induced Growth Associated Protein-43 mRNA Expression in Rat Hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sang-Ha; Choi, Song-Hyen; Lee, Jimin; Kang, Seungwoo; Shin, You-Chan; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Hyun Jung; Shin, Seung Keon; Lee, Min-Soo; Shin, Kyung-Ho

    2008-01-01

    Although growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) is known to play a significant role in the regulation of axonal growth and the formation of new neuronal connections in the hippocampus, there is only a few studies on the effects of acute stress on GAP-43 mRNA expression in the hippocampus. Moreover, the effects of repeated citalopram treatment on chronic mild stress (CMS)-induced changes in GAP-43 mRNA expression in the hippocampus have not been explored before. To explore this question, male r...

  16. 疏血通联合异丙嗪、三磷酸腺苷、维生素B6治疗眩晕症的临床疗效观察%Curative effect observation of Shuxuetong with promethazine, ATP, vitamin B6 treat vertigo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the clinical efficacy of Shuxuetong with promethazine, ATP, vitamin B6 in the treatment of vertigo, provide effective theoretical basis for the treatment of rapid treatment. Methods 60 patients with vertigo were randomly divided into treatment group and control group. Treatment group was treated with Shuxuetong, promethazine,ATP, vitamin B6; the control group was given the treatment of promethazine, 654-2. Comparison of curative effect of two groups of patients after 3h. Results Effective 28 cases in the treatment group after treatment 3h, significantly better than the 20 cases in the control group, P<0.01. Conclusion Shuxuetong combination with promethazine, adenosine triphosphate, vitamin B6 treatment of emergency vertigo is a safe and effective and fast treatment, worthy of clinical application.%目的:探讨疏血通联合异丙嗪、三磷酸腺苷、维生素B6治疗眩晕症的临床疗效,为急诊快速救治提供有效理论依据。方法将60例眩晕症患者随机分为治疗组和对照组。治疗组给予疏血通、异丙嗪、三磷酸腺苷、维生素B6治疗;对照组给予异丙嗪、654-2治疗。对比两组患者在3h后的疗效。结果治疗组在治疗3h后有效26例,明显好于对照组17例,P<0.05。结论疏血通联用异丙嗪、三磷酸腺苷、维生素B6治疗眩晕症是一种安全有效而又快速的治疗手段,值得临床推广应用。

  17. 西酞普兰治疗脑梗死后强哭发作的临床研究%Study of citalopram on treatment of pathological crying after cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衣旭华; 龙君; 刘丽娟; 殷军蕾; 林春燕

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy of citalopram on treatment of pathological crying after cerebral infarction.Methods Fifty-two patients with pathological crying symptoms after cerebral infarction were randomly divided into two groups:citalopram treatment group (27 cases) and control group (25cases).Control group had conventional cerebrovascular disease treatment.Citalopram treatment group was treated with citalopram 20 mg/day for 3 months.The response rates and Hasegawa Dementia Scale (HDS) between two groups at the end of treatment were compared.Results There were significant differences in the response rates (88.9% and 36%,respectively) and HDS(8.43±2.21 and 6.24±2.02,respectively) between citalopram group and control group after treatment (P<0.01).Conclusions The study shows that citalopram is effective for treating pathological crying after cerebral infarction.Citalopram can not only control pathological crying,but also improve cognitive function in patients with cerebral infarction.%目的 观察西酞普兰治疗脑梗死后强哭发作的治疗效果.方法 脑梗死后强哭发作患者52例,按入院先后顺序随机分为2组,西酞普兰组27例,对照组25例.对照组给予常规脑血管病治疗,西酞普兰治疗组在此基础上加用西酞普兰20 mg,1次/d,连服3个月,比较2组治疗后总有效率和长谷川痴呆量表积分.结果 西酞普兰组和对照组总有效率分别是88.9%(25/27)和36.0%(9/25);长谷川痴呆量表积分是(8.43±2.21)分和(6.24±2.02)分,两者差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 西酞普兰治疗强哭发作效果好,不但能控制强哭发作,而且能提高患者的认知功能.

  18. Positive allosteric modulation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid glutamate receptors differentially modulates the behavioural effects of citalopram in mouse models of antidepressant and anxiolytic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Ciarán M; Larsen, Maria; Madsen, Louise H; Caballero-Puntiverio, Maitane; Pickering, Darryl S; Clausen, Rasmus P; Andreasen, Jesper T

    2016-09-01

    Drugs that increase monoamine neurotransmission are effective in both anxiety and depression. The therapeutic effects of monoamine-based antidepressant drugs may involve indirect effects on neurotransmission through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid glutamate receptors (AMPAR). Thus, chronic antidepressant treatment increases AMPAR-mediated neurotransmission and AMPAR-positive allosteric modulators have shown antidepressant-like efficacy in rodents. Here, the effect of enhanced AMPAR neurotransmission on the antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like actions of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram (0-10 mg/kg) was investigated in mice using the AMPAR-positive allosteric modulator LY451646 (0-3 mg/kg). Antidepressant-like effects were assessed using the forced-swim test (FST), whereas anxiolytic-like effects were tested using the elevated zero maze (EZM) and the marble burying test. LY451646 (3 mg/kg) increased swim distance in the FST and a subactive dose of LY451646 (1 mg/kg) enhanced the effect of citalopram in the FST. In the EZM, LY451646 (3 mg/kg) did not show anxiogenic effects alone, but blocked the anxiolytic-like action of citalopram in the EZM, as reflected by an increase in the latency to enter the open areas and a decrease in the number of entries and time spent in the open areas in citalopram-treated mice. In the marble burying test, LY451646 (3 mg/kg) showed no effect alone, but significantly attenuated the anxiolytic-like effect of citalopram (1.25-2.5 mg/kg) by increasing the number of marbles buried in citalopram-treated mice. These results suggest that AMPAR neurotransmission plays opposite roles in anxiety and depression as AMPAR potentiation facilitated the antidepressant-like effects of citalopram while attenuating its anxiolytic-like effect. These findings have ramifications in the search for AMPAR-based novel anxiolytic and antidepressant treatments. PMID:27341500

  19. 2种西酞普兰制剂的人体生物等效性研究%Study on Bioequivalence of 2 Kinds of Citalopram Preparations in Healthy Volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄天文; 文隽; 潘文; 李艳; 雷宇

    2012-01-01

    目的:比较西酞普兰胶囊与片剂在健康人体内的生物等效性.方法:20名健康志愿者采用双周期交叉试验,单剂量空腹口服西酞普兰胶囊(受试制剂)与西酞普兰片(参比制剂)各40 mg,以高效液相色谱法测定其西酞普兰血药浓度,药-时数据经3p97软件处理,计算主要药动学参数,并进行2种制剂的生物等效性评价.结果:西酞普兰胶囊与片剂的主要药动学参数分别为tmax(36.9±9.1)、(39.3±6.8)h,cmax(68.7±5.6)、(71.8±6.9)μg·L-1,t1/2(4.3±1.1)、(4.6±1.0)h,AUC0~144h(2 418±636)、(2 483±342)μg·h·L-1,AUC0~∞(2 576±561)、(2 742±371)μg·h·L-1.西酞普兰胶囊的相对生物利用度为(98.8±11.4)%.结论:西酞普兰胶囊与片剂具有生物等效性.%OBJECTIVE: To compare the bioequivalence of Citalopram capsules and Citalopram tablets in healthy volunteers. METHODS: In bi-periodic cross-over study, 20 healthy volunteers were given Citalopram capsule 40 mg (test preparation) and Citalopram tablet 40 mg (reference preparation) orally respectively. The blood concentration of citalopram was determined by HPLC and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with 3p97 software. The bioequivalence of 2 kinds of preparations was evaluated. RESULTS: Main pharmacokinetic parameters of Citalopram capsules vs. Citalopram tablets were as follows: tmax(36.9±9.1)h and (39.3 ±6.8)h;Cmax(68.7 ±5.6)ng·L-1 and (71.8 ±6.9)ug-L-1;rM(4.3± l.l)h and (4.6 ±1.0) h; AUC0~144 h(2 418 ±636)μg·h· L-1 and (2 483 ± 342)μg·h·L-1; AUC0~00 were(2 576 ± 561)μg·h·L-1 and (2 742 ± 371) μg·h·L-1. The relative bioavailability of Citalopram capsules was (98.8 ±11.4)%. CONCLUSION: Citalopram capsule and Citalopram tablet are bioequivalent.

  20. Desipramine and citalopram attenuate pretest swim-induced increases in prodynorphin immunoreactivity in the dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the lateral division of the central nucleus of the amygdala in the forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung; Kim, Hee Jeong; Kim, Hyun Ju; Choi, Sun Hye; Cho, Jin Hee; Cho, Yun Ha; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Kyung Ho

    2014-10-01

    Dynorphin in the nucleus accumbens shell plays an important role in antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test (FST), but it is unclear whether desipramine and citalopram treatments alter prodynorphin levels in other brain areas. To explore this possibility, we injected mice with desipramine and citalopram 0.5, 19, and 23 h after a 15-min pretest swim and observed changes in prodynorphin expression before the test swim, which was conducted 24 h after the pretest swim. The pretest swim increased prodynorphin immunoreactivity in the dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBNST) and lateral division of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeL). This increase in prodynorphin immunoreactivity in the dBNST and CeL was blocked by desipramine and citalopram treatments. Similar changes in prodynorphin mRNA levels were observed in the dBNST and CeL, but these changes did not reach significance. To understand the underlying mechanism, we assessed changes in phosphorylated CREB at Ser(133) (pCREB) immunoreactivity in the dBNST and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Treatment with citalopram but not desipramine after the pretest swim significantly increased pCREB immunoreactivity only in the dBNST. These results suggest that regulation of prodynorphin in the dBNST and CeL before the test swim may be involved in the antidepressant-like effect of desipramine and citalopram in the FST and suggest that changes in pCREB immunoreactivity in these areas may not play an important role in the regulation of prodynorphin in the dBNST and CeA.

  1. A control study of citalopram and venlafaxine in the treatment of depression%西酞普兰与万拉法新治疗老年抑郁症的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璟; 杨君宏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and side effects of citalopram in the treatment of depression. Methods 108 patients with aged depression were double-blindly assigned to citalopram group and venlafaxine group for 6 weeks. HAMD,CGI and TESS were used to assess the clinical efficacy and side effects. Results Citalopram possessed efficacy similar to venlafaxine. However citalopram had fewer side effects. Conclusion Citalopram may be first drug for treating aged depression.%目的:探讨西酞普兰与万拉法新治疗老年抑郁症的疗效和安全性。方法将108例老年抑郁症患者随机分为两组,各54例,分别给予西酞普兰和万拉法新治疗,疗程6周,采用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、临床疗效总评量表的病情严重程度(CGI-SI)和副反应量表(TESS)评定疗效和不良反应。结果西酞普兰与万拉法新治疗老年性抑郁症疗效相近,但前者不良反应较后者少而轻微。结论西酞普兰可作为治疗老年抑郁症的首选用药。

  2. Comparative study of Parocetine and Citalopram on treatment of depressive patients with attempted suicide%帕罗西汀和西酞普兰治疗抑郁症自杀未遂患者的疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程敏锋; 温盛霖; 钟智勇

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To compare the clinical effect and safty of Parocetine and Citalopram on treatment of depressive patients with attempted suicide. METHODS: Using randomized study,75 cases depressive patients with attempted suicide were evaluated by Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAMD) and Treatment emergent symotoms(TESS). RESULTS:The effective rate of Parocetine after 4 weeks treatment was lower than that of Citalopram (P<0.05). There was significance difference. The significant efficiency had significance difference in two groups after 4 weeks treatment (P<0.05). The side effects of Parocetine and Citalopram had no differences(P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Citalopram is rapidly responsive antidepressant for depressive patients with attempted suicide, and salty of Parocetine and Citalopram are similar.%目的:比较帕罗西汀(赛乐特)和西酞普兰(喜普妙)治疗抑郁症自杀未遂患者的疗效和安全性.方法:用随机对照方法对75例抑郁症自杀未遂患者进行帕罗西汀(试验组)和西酞普兰(对照组)治疗8周,采用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)评定疗效,用副反应量表(TESS)评定不良反应.结果:试验组在治疗后4周的HAMD减分值及减分率低于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P0.05).结论:在系统治疗抑郁症自杀未遂患者时,西酞普兰抗抑郁作用显效快于帕罗西汀,两药安全性相仿.

  3. 西酞普兰与氟西汀治疗脑卒中后抑郁临床对照研究%Citalopram and fluoxetine in t he treatment of post-stroke depression clinical control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段媛卿; 王文泽; 王继禹

    2010-01-01

    Objective Discussion of citalopram and fluoxetine in the treatment of post-stroke depression efficacy and safety of. Methods 82 cases of post-stroke depression were randomly divided into groups of citalopram and fluoxetine groups, treatment of 6 weeks, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and Emergent Symptom Scale(TESS) in pre-treatment and treatment of 1,2,4,6 weekend separately assessed the efficacy and adverse reactions. Results Citalopram and fluoxetine group the overall effect of a considerable, citalopram group effect faster than the fluoxetine group of adverse reactions due to limited light. Conclusion Citalopram in the treatment of post-stroke depression are both effective and safe.%目的 探讨西酞普兰与氟西汀治疗脑卒中后抑郁的疗效和安全性.方法 82例脑卒中后抑郁患者,随机分为西酞普兰组和氟西汀组,治疗6周,采用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)和副反应量表(TESS)于治疗前和治疗1、2、4、6周末分别评定疗效和不良反应.结果 西酞普兰组和氟西汀组总体疗效相当,西酞普兰组起效较快,不良反应较氟西汀组少而轻.结论 西酞普兰治疗脑卒中后抑郁既有效又安全.

  4. [The study of therapeutic efficacy of two forms of risperidone--rileptid and rispolept in patients with schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhapkin, R V

    2008-01-01

    Generic drugs represent a big part of the Russian pharmaceutical market, a number of registered copies of the same drug manufactured by different pharmaceutical companies being estimated as several tens of drugs that does not mean their equally high quality and complete interchangeability. A choice of optimal price-to-quality ratio of a drug among a great number of analogues is possible only with taking into account a number of factors related to a manufacturer, a drug and a patient. The most important index of interchangeability of generic drugs is their therapeutic equivalence to the original one. A study aimed to compare the therapeutic equivalence of two preparations of risperidone--original rispolept and generic rileptid--has been carried out. The comparison of efficacy and tolerability of the therapy has not revealed differences both in any of the parameters and in any stages of the study. In conclusion, the full therapeutic equivalence of generic drug rileptid to original rispolept is revealed. PMID:18833105

  5. 氟哌啶醇与利培酮对精神分裂症患者生活质量的影响%Effect of Haloperidol and Risperidone on the Life Quality of the Patients with Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任清涛; 闫加民; 李广

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects between ha loperidol and rieperidon e on quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: The patients with schizophrenia treated respectively by haloperidol and risperidone were compared by double blind method. The General Quality of Life Inventory (GQOLI) was used to evaluate the life quality, while the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PA NSS) and the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) were used to assess the eff icacy and side effects. Results: The risperidone group sho wed better effects tha n the haloperidol group in the domains of physical function ,mental health and s ocial function The difference was significant (P<0.01). Conclusion:[ WT5"BZ The quality of life of Schizophrenic patients treated by haloperidol were poorer than that o f risperidone.

  6. Dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding of [123I]epidepride in risperidone-treatment chronic MK-801-induced rat schizophrenia model using nanoSPECT/CT neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Epidepride is a compound with an affinity in picomolar range for D2/D3 receptors. The aim of this work was designed to investigate the diagnostic possibility of [123I]epidepride imaging platform for risperidone-treatment chronic MK-801-induced rat schizophrenia model. Methods: Rats received repeated administration of MK-801 (dissolved in saline, i.p., 0.3 mg/kg/day) or saline for 4 weeks. After 1-week administration of MK-801, rats in MK-801 + risperidone group received risperidone (0.5 mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally 15 min prior to MK-801 administration for the rest of 3-week treatment. We obtained serial [123I]epidepride neuroimages from nanoSPECT/CT and evaluated the alteration of specific binding in striatum and midbrain. Results: Risperidone reversed chronic MK-801-induced decrease in social interaction duration. IHC and ELISA analysis showed consistent results that chronic MK-801 treatment significantly decreased striatal and midbrain D2R expression but repeated risperidone administration reversed the effect of MK-801 treatment. In addition, [123I]epidepride nanoSPECT/CT neuroimaging revealed that low specific [123I]epidepride binding ratios caused by MK-801 in striatum and midbrain were statistically alleviated after 1- and 2-week risperidone administration, respectively. Conclusions: We established a rat schizophrenia model by chronic MK-801 administration for 4 weeks. [123I]Epidepride nanoSPECT neuroimaging can trace the progressive alteration of D2R expression in striatum and midbrain caused by long-lasting MK-801 treatment. Besides diagnosing illness stage of disease, [123I]epidepride can be a useful tool to evaluate therapeutic effects of antipsychotic drug in chronic MK-801-induced rat schizophrenia model

  7. Economic consequences of the adverse reactions related with antipsychotics: an economic model comparing tolerability of ziprasidone, olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobes, Julio; Cañas, Fernando; Rejas, Javier; Mackell, Joan

    2004-12-01

    Frequency of adverse reactions (ARs) related with antipsychotics usage is high. Along with clinical implications, economic impact might be important. The purpose of this study was to model the economic consequences of ARs related with ziprasidone, olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol in Spain, by means of a cost-effectiveness model developed using a Markov modeling approach. The model simulated treatment of a cohort of 1000 schizophrenics for 12 months, initiating treatment with one of four antipsychotic drugs; haloperidol, risperidone, olanzapine and ziprasidone. Conditional probabilities of developing any of four adverse events were calculated. Treatment was modified (decrease dose, switch medication) according to incidence of ARs and physician judgments, obtained from a local cross-sectional study and clinical trials previously published. The analysis was conducted in year 2002 from a third party payer perspective. Results are shown as annual cost per month with psychotic symptoms controlled and included univariate sensitivity analysis. The therapeutic strategy starting with ziprasidone showed the lower costs and the greater number of months with symptoms controlled in most scenarios evaluated versus the other options considered, although the differences were weak: 9.6, 9.3, 9.5 and 9.5 controlled months per patient in base scenario, with annual cost per patient per month with symptoms controlled of 1035 Euros, 1084 Euros, 1087 Euros and 1090 Euros for ziprasidone, haloperidol, risperidone and olanzapine, respectively. Results were robust to one-way sensitivity analysis. Despite the unlike drug prices of antipsychotics, a considerable economic impact due to adverse reactions was seen in our setting. These results should be taken into account by health decision makers and clinicians in the management of patients with schizophrenia.

  8. Influence of aripiprazole, risperidone, and amisulpride on sensory and sensorimotor gating in healthy 'low and high gating' humans and relation to psychometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csomor, Philipp A; Preller, Katrin H; Geyer, Mark A; Studerus, Erich; Huber, Theodor; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2014-09-01

    Despite advances in the treatment of schizophrenia spectrum disorders with atypical antipsychotics (AAPs), there is still need for compounds with improved efficacy/side-effect ratios. Evidence from challenge studies suggests that the assessment of gating functions in humans and rodents with naturally low-gating levels might be a useful model to screen for novel compounds with antipsychotic properties. To further evaluate and extend this translational approach, three AAPs were examined. Compounds without antipsychotic properties served as negative control treatments. In a placebo-controlled, within-subject design, healthy males received either single doses of aripiprazole and risperidone (n=28), amisulpride and lorazepam (n=30), or modafinil and valproate (n=30), and placebo. Prepulse inhibiton (PPI) and P50 suppression were assessed. Clinically associated symptoms were evaluated using the SCL-90-R. Aripiprazole, risperidone, and amisulpride increased P50 suppression in low P50 gaters. Lorazepam, modafinil, and valproate did not influence P50 suppression in low gaters. Furthermore, low P50 gaters scored significantly higher on the SCL-90-R than high P50 gaters. Aripiprazole increased PPI in low PPI gaters, whereas modafinil and lorazepam attenuated PPI in both groups. Risperidone, amisulpride, and valproate did not influence PPI. P50 suppression in low gaters appears to be an antipsychotic-sensitive neurophysiologic marker. This conclusion is supported by the association of low P50 suppression and higher clinically associated scores. Furthermore, PPI might be sensitive for atypical mechanisms of antipsychotic medication. The translational model investigating differential effects of AAPs on gating in healthy subjects with naturally low gating can be beneficial for phase II/III development plans by providing additional information for critical decision making.

  9. Alterations in brain extracellular dopamine and glycine levels following combined administration of the glycine transporter type-1 inhibitor Org-24461 and risperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Katalin; Marko, Bernadett; Zsilla, Gabriella; Matyus, Peter; Pallagi, Katalin; Szabo, Geza; Juranyi, Zsolt; Barkoczy, Jozsef; Levay, Gyorgy; Harsing, Laszlo G

    2010-12-01

    The most dominant hypotheses for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia have focused primarily upon hyperfunctional dopaminergic and hypofunctional glutamatergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system. The therapeutic efficacy of all atypical antipsychotics is explained in part by antagonism of the dopaminergic neurotransmission, mainly by blockade of D(2) dopamine receptors. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction in schizophrenia can be reversed by glycine transporter type-1 (GlyT-1) inhibitors, which regulate glycine concentrations at the vicinity of NMDA receptors. Combined drug administration with D(2) dopamine receptor blockade and activation of hypofunctional NMDA receptors may be needed for a more effective treatment of positive and negative symptoms and the accompanied cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. To investigate this type of combined drug administration, rats were treated with the atypical antipsychotic risperidone together with the GlyT-1 inhibitor Org-24461. Brain microdialysis was applied in the striatum of conscious rats and determinations of extracellular dopamine, DOPAC, HVA, glycine, glutamate, and serine concentrations were carried out using HPLC/electrochemistry. Risperidone increased extracellular concentrations of dopamine but failed to influence those of glycine or glutamate measured in microdialysis samples. Org-24461 injection reduced extracellular dopamine concentrations and elevated extracellular glycine levels but the concentrations of serine and glutamate were not changed. When risperidone and Org-24461 were added in combination, a decrease in extracellular dopamine concentrations was accompanied with sustained elevation of extracellular glycine levels. Interestingly, the extracellular concentrations of glutamate were also enhanced. Our data indicate that coadministration of an antipsychotic with a GlyT-1 inhibitor may normalize hypofunctional NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission with reduced

  10. Micelle Enhanced Fluorimetric and Thin Layer Chromatography Densitometric Methods for the Determination of (± Citalopram and its S – Enantiomer Escitalopram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham A. Taha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two sensitive and validated methods were developed for determination of a racemic mixture citalopram and its enantiomer S-(+ escitalopram. The first method was based on direct measurement of the intrinsic fluorescence of escitalopram using sodium dodecyl sulfate as micelle enhancer. This was further applied to determine escitalopram in spiked human plasma, as well as in the presence of common and co-administerated drugs. The second method was TLC densitometric based on various chiral selectors was investigated. The optimum TLC conditions were found to be sensitive and selective for identification and quantitative determination of enantiomeric purity of escitalopram in drug substance and drug products. The method can be useful to investigate adulteration of pure isomer with the cheap racemic form.

  11. Citalopram for treatment of epilepsy and depression: a systematic review%西酞普兰治疗癫痫伴发抑郁的系统评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周娟; 龙燕玲; 吴波; 邹晓毅

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of citalopram in patients with epilepsy and depression.Methods Through adopting Cochrane systematic review methods,we searched Pubmed,Embase,Cochrane Library,the China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP),the China Biological Medicine Database (CBM),the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure full-text journal database (CNKI)(by June,2012),so as to collect the randomized controlled trials(RCTs) about citalopram for the patients with epilepsy and depression,the quality of each trial was assessed,and meta-analysis was conducted.Results Two trials,involving 94 patients were included,and were single-center controlled trials in china.The results of Meta analysis showed that citalopram were more effective than placebo and the outcomes were statistically significant ((R =18.11,95% CI (5.76,56.88),P <0.00001).The two trials reported the adverse events,such as headache,dizziness,nausea,vomiting,insomnia,sedation,etc.No trial assessed quality of life.Conclusions Available evidence suggests that citalopram could obviously improve depressive symptoms of patients with epilepsy and depression.Some patients occur adverse events,but they are generally mild.Further high-quality,large-scale RCTs are needed to confirm these results.%目的 评价西酞普兰治疗癫痫伴发抑郁障碍患者的疗效及安全性.方法 采用Cochrane系统评价的方法,计算机检索Pubmed、Embase、Cochrane Library、中国生物医学期刊文献数据库、中国期刊全文数据库、中文科技期刊全文数据库,检索时间为每个数据库建库到2012年6月,检索语言限制为英文和中文.全面收集西酞普兰治疗癫痫患者伴发抑郁的临床随机对照试验,评价纳入研究质量,进行Meta分析.结果 共纳入2个研究,94例患者,均为国内单中心实验,Meta分析结果显示,西酞普兰对抑郁情绪的改善有效率高于对照组,差异有统计学意义[OR =18.11,95% CI (5.76~56

  12. A Danish cost-effectiveness model of escitalopram in comparison with citalopram and venlafaxine as first-line treatments for major depressive disorder in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan; Stage, Kurt B; Damsbo, Niels;

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to model the cost-effectiveness of escitalopram in comparison with generic citalopram and venlafaxine in primary care treatment of major depressive disorder (baseline scores 22-40 on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, MADRS) in Denmark. A three......-path decision analytic model with a 6-month horizon was used. All patients started at the primary care path and were referred to outpatient or inpatient secondary care in the case of insufficient response to treatment. Model inputs included drug-specific probabilities derived from systematic literature review......, ad-hoc survey and expert opinion. Main outcome measures were remission defined as MADRS treatment costs. Analyses were conducted from healthcare system and societal perspectives. The human capital approach was used to estimate societal cost of lost productivity. Costs were reported...

  13. 西酞普兰与氟西汀治疗抑郁症的疗效比较%Comparison of the effect of citalopram and fluoxetine in the treatment of depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李月霞

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较西酞普兰与氟西汀治疗抑郁症的疗效及不良反应.方法 将46例符合CCMD-3诊断标准的抑郁症患者随机分为西酞普兰组和氟西汀组,疗程6周,用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)和副反应量表(TESS)评定疗效和不良反应.结果 西酞普兰组显效率为75.4%,氟西汀组为74.8%,两组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).两组治疗第2周末HAND评分差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).西酞普兰组TESS评分低于氟西汀组(P<0.05).结论 西酞普兰和氟西汀均有良好的抗抑郁效果.西酞普兰具有起效早、不良反应小的优点.%Objective To compare the effect and side effects of citalopram and fluoxetine in the treatment of depression.Methods 46 cases meet the diagnostic criteria of CCMD-3 in patients with depression were randomly divided into citalopram group and fluoxetine group,treatment for 6 weeks,with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and Emergent Symptom Scale(TESS) assessed the efficacy and adverse reactions.Results The efficiercy in citalopram group was 75.4%,74.8% for the fluoxetine group,the difference between the two groups was not significant ( P>0.05).Affter 2weeks treatment HAMD score between the two groups was significantly different (P < 0.05),TESS score in Citalopram group was lower than the fluoxetine group,the differences were significant ( P < 0.05 ).Conclusion Citalopram and fluoxetine have good antidepressant effects.Citalopram has the advanteges of early onset,cess adverse reactions.

  14. Effect of in utero exposure to the atypical anti-psychotic risperidone on histopathological features of the rat placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K P; Singh, Manoj K; Gautam, Shrikant

    2016-04-01

    For clinical management of different forms of psychosis, both classical and atypical anti-psychotic drugs (APDs) are available. These drugs are widely prescribed, even during pregnancy considering their minimal extra-pyramidal side effects and teratogenic potential compared to classical APDs. Among AAPDs, risperidone (RIS) is a first-line drug of choice by physicians. The molecular weight of RIS is 410.49 g/mol; hence, it can easily cross the placental barrier and enter the foetal bloodstream. It is not known whether or not AAPDs like RIS may affect the developing placenta and foetus adversely. Reports on this issue are limited and sketchy. Therefore, this study has evaluated the effects of maternal exposure to equivalent therapeutic doses of RIS on placental growth, histopathological and cytoarchitectural changes, and to establish a relationship between placental dysfunction and foetal outcomes. Pregnant rats (n = 24) were exposed to selected doses (0.8, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg) of RIS from gestation days 6-21. These dams were sacrificed; their placentas and foetuses were collected, morphometrically examined and further processed for histopathological examination. This study revealed that in utero exposure to equivalent therapeutic doses of RIS during organogenesis-induced placental dystrophy (size and weight), disturbed cytoarchitectural organization (thickness of different placental layers), histopathological lesions (necrosis in trophoblast with disruption of trophoblastic septa and rupturing of maternal-foetal interface) and intrauterine growth restriction of the foetuses. It may be concluded that multifactorial mechanisms might be involved in the dysregulation of structure and function of the placenta and of poor foetal growth and development. PMID:27256515

  15. Association studies of genomic variants with treatment response to risperidone, clozapine, quetiapine and chlorpromazine in the Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q; Wu, X; Li, M; Huang, H; Minica, C; Yi, Z; Wang, G; Shen, L; Xing, Q; Shi, Y; He, L; Qin, S

    2016-08-01

    Schizophrenia is a widespread mental disease with a prevalence of about 1% in the world population. Continuous long-term treatment is required to maintain social functioning and prevent symptom relapse of schizophrenia patients. However, there are considerable individual differences in response to the antipsychotic drugs. There is a pressing need to identify more drug-response-related markers. But most pharmacogenomics of schizophrenia have typically focused on a few candidate genes in small sample size. In this study, 995 subjects were selected for discovering the drug-response-related markers. A total of 77 single-nucleotide polymorphisms of 25 genes have been investigated for four commonly used antipsychotic drugs in China: risperidone, clozapine, quetiapine, and chlorpromazine. Significant associations with treatment response for several genes, such as CYP2D6, CYP2C19, COMT, ABCB1, DRD3 and HTR2C have been verified in our study. Also, we found several new candidate genes (TNIK, RELN, NOTCH4 and SLC6A2) and combinations (haplotype rs1544325-rs5993883-rs6269-rs4818 in COMT) that are associated with treatment response to the four drugs. Also, multivariate interactions analysis demonstrated the combination of rs6269 in COMT and rs3813929 in HTR2C may work as a predictor to improve the clinical antipsychotic response. So our study is of great significance to improve current knowledge on the pharmacogenomics of schizophrenia, thus promoting the implementation of personalized medicine in schizophrenia.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 18 August 2015; doi:10.1038/tpj.2015.61. PMID:26282453

  16. Adjunctive long-acting risperidone in patients with bipolar disorder who relapse frequently and have active mood symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haskins John T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this exploratory analysis was to characterize efficacy and onset of action of a 3-month treatment period with risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI, adjunctive to an individual's treatment regimen, in subjects with symptomatic bipolar disorder who relapsed frequently and had significant symptoms of mania and/or depression. Methods Subjects with bipolar disorder with ≥4 mood episodes in the past 12 months entered the open-label stabilization phase preceding a placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Subjects with significant depressive or manic/mixed symptoms at baseline were analyzed. Significant depressive symptoms were defined as Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS ≥16 and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS t tests; categorical differences were assessed using Fisher exact test. No adjustment was made for multiplicity. Results 162 subjects who relapsed frequently met criteria for significant mood symptoms at open-label baseline; 59/162 (36.4% had depressive symptoms, 103/162 (63.6% had manic/mixed symptoms. Most subjects (89.5% were receiving ≥1 medication for bipolar disorder before enrollment. Significant improvements were observed for the total population on the CGI-BP-S, MADRS, and YMRS scales (p Conclusions Exploratory analysis of changes in overall clinical status and depression/mania symptoms in subjects with symptomatic bipolar disorder who relapse frequently showed improvements in each of these areas after treatment with RLAI, adjunctive to a subject's individualized treatment. Prospective controlled studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  17. A comparative study between risperidone and ritalin in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder%利培酮治疗注意缺陷障碍对照观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰利明; 薛漳

    2001-01-01

    目的:观察小剂量利培酮治疗注意缺陷障碍(ADHD) 的疗效和安全性。 方法:前瞻性研究,以利他林作为对照,采用 康纳多动症评定量表及不良反应症状量表(TESS)评定,观察4周。 结果:利培酮有效率为77%,利他林为78%;未见锥体外系副反应。 结论:利培酮与利他林的疗效相似,小剂量使用时安全有效。%Objective:To observe the efficacy and security of small doses risperidone in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity diso rder(ADHD). Method:Compared with ritalin group,the patients wer e treated with small doses risperidone for 4 weeks.Conner hyperactivety rating s cale (CHRS) and the treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS) were completed by th em. Results:The efficacy rate in risperidone group was 77%, a nd in ritalin group was 78%. No extrapyramidal side effect was found. C onclusion:It suggests that small doses risperidone is effective and safe in the treatment of ADHD, being similar to ritalin.

  18. MiRNA-365 and miRNA-520c-3p respond to risperidone treatment in first-episode schizophrenia after a 1 year remission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Sha; YUAN Yan-bo; GUAN Li-li; WEI Hui; CHENG Zhang; HAN Xue; YANG Lei

    2013-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) control gene expression by destabilizing target transcripts and inhibiting their translation.Aberrant expression of miRNAs has been described in many human diseases,including schizophrenia.However,the effects on miRNA expression in response to antipsychotic treatment in peripheral circulation have not been thoroughly examined.Methods Using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR),We quantified the expression of seven candidate miRNAs in plasma samples of 40 first-episode schizophrenics before and after antipsychotic treatment.The patients were all treated with risperidone and achieved remission in 1 year.Results Compared with the baseline,the expression levels of miR-365 and miR-520c-3p were significantly downregulated after 1 year of risperidone treatment (P <0.001).There were no significant correlations between the clinical symptoms and the expression levels of these two miRNAs (P >0.05).Conclusions This study analyzed possible circulating miRNAs in response to antipsychotic monotherapy for schizophrenia,the further mechanism need to be confirmed.

  19. [Preparation and evaluation of risperidone-loaded microsphere/sucrose acetate isobutyrate in situ forming complex depot with double diffusion barriers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xia; Tang, Xing; Xu, Yu-hong; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yan; He, Hai-bing

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, a risperidone loaded microsphere/sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB) in situ forming complex depot was designed to reduce the burst release of SAIB in situ forming depot and to continuously release risperidone for a long-term period without lagime. The model drug risperidone (Ris) was first encapsulated into microspheres and then the Ris-microspheres were embedded into SAIB depot to reduce the amount of dissolved drug in the depot. The effects of different types of microsphere matrix, including chitosan and poly(lactide-coglycolide) (PLGA), matrix/Ris ratios in microspheres and morphology of microspheres on the drug release behavior of complex depot were investigated. In comparison with the Ris-loaded SAIB depot (Ris-SAIB), the complex depot containing chitosan microspheres (in which chitosan/Ris = 1 : 1, w/w) (Ris-Cm-SAIB) decreased the burst release from 12.16% to 5.80%. However, increased drug release rate after 4 days was observed in Ris-Cm-SAIB, which was caused by the high penetration of the medium to Ris-Cm-SAIB due to the hydrophilie of chitosan. By encapsulation of risperidone in PLGA microspheres, most drugs can be prevented from dissolving in the depot and meanwhile the hydrophobic PLGA can reduce the media penetration effect on the depot. The complex depot containing PLGA microspheres (in which PLGA/ drug=4 : 2, w/w) (Ris-Pm-SAIB) showed a significant effectiveness on reducing the burst release both in vitro and in vivo whereby only 0.64% drug was released on the first day in vitro and a low AUC0-4d value [(105.2± 24.4) ng.mL-1.d] was detected over the first 4 days in vivo. In addition, drug release from Ris-Pm-SAIB can be modified by varying the morphology of microspheres. The porous PLGA microspheres could be prepared by adding medium chain triglyceride (MCT) in the organic phase which served as pore agents during the preparation of PLGA microspheres. The complex depot containing porous PLGA microspheres (which were prepared by

  20. Effects of escitalopram, R-citalopram, and reboxetine on serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-10, and depression-like behavior in mice after lipopolysaccharide administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chao; Zhang, Ji-chun; Yao, Wei; Ren, Qian; Yang, Chun; Ma, Min; Han, Mei; Saito, Ryo; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation plays a role in the pathophysiology of depression. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) escitalopram, its inactive enantiomer R-citalopram, and selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (NRI) reboxetine, show anti-inflammatory and antidepressant effects in an inflammation-induced model of depression. Pretreatment with escitalopram (1, 3, or 10mg/kg, i.p.) markedly blocked an increase in the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), after a single administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.5mg/kg). Furthermore, escitalopram (3 or 10mg/kg) significantly increased the serum levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) by a single administration of LPS. In contrast, pretreatment with R-citalopram (10mg/kg, i.p.) or reboxetine (10mg/kg, i.p.) did not affect the alterations in serum levels of TNF-α and IL-10 after LPS administration. Co-administration of reboxetine with escitalopram did not show anti-inflammatory effects. Pretreatment with escitalopram (10mg/kg) significantly attenuated LPS-induced increase of the immobility time in the tail-suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST). In contrast, pretreatment with R-citalopram (10mg/kg), or reboxetine (10mg/kg) did not alter LPS-induced increase of immobility time of TST and FST. Interestingly, co-administration of reboxetine with escitalopram did not show antidepressant effect in this model. These findings suggest that escitalopram, but not R-citalopram and reboxetine, has anti-inflammatory and antidepressant effects in LPS-treated model of depression, and that reboxetine can antagonize the effects of escitalopram in the inflammation model. Therefore, it is likely that serotonergic system plays a key role in the pathophysiology of inflammation-induced depression. PMID:26892759

  1. 利培酮与氯氮平治疗精神分裂症对照研究%Effect of risperidone and clozapine on the treatment of schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李月霞

    2009-01-01

    目的 比较利培酮和氯氮平治疗精神分裂症的疗效和不良反应.方法 将40例精神分裂症患者随机分成两组,利培酮组和氯氮平组各20例,于治疗前和治疗第2、4、6周末采用症状量表(PANSS)及副反应量表(TESS)评定疗效及不良反应.结果 两组PANSS减分率比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),利培酮组不良反应少.结论 利培酮与氯氮平治疗精神分裂症疗效相当,但利培酮不良反应少.%Objective To comparie effect of risperidone and clozapine on the treatment of schizophrenia and adverse reactions. Methods 40 cases were randomly divided into two groups of patients with schizophrenia, risperi-done and clozapine group 20 cases, pre-treatment and treatment in the first weekend 2,4,6 Symptom Rating Scale (PANSS) and the reaction volume Table (TESS) were used to assess the efficacy and adverse reactions. Results Comparison of reduction rate PANSS, there was no significant difference(P > 0. 05), compared with clozapine group, risperidone group had less adverse reactions. Conclusion Risperidone and clozapine group had considerable effect in the treatment of schizophrenia, but risperidone had fewer adverse reactions.

  2. The effect of citalopram hydrobromide on 5-HT{sub 2A} receptors in the impulsive-aggressive dog, as measured with {sup 123}I-5-I-R91150 SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peremans, K.; Hoybergs, Y.; Gielen, I. [Ghent University, Department of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Merelbeke (Belgium); Audenaert, K.; Vervaet, M.; Heeringen, C. van [Ghent University, Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Gent (Belgium); Otte, A.; Goethals, I.; Dierckx, R. [Ghent University Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Gent (Belgium); Blankaert, P. [Ghent University, Laboratory of Radiopharmacy, Gent (Belgium)

    2005-06-01

    Involvement of the serotonergic system in impulsive aggression has been demonstrated in both human and animal studies. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of citalopram hydrobromide (a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor) on the 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor and brain perfusion in impulsive-aggressive dogs by means of single-photon emission computed tomography. The binding index of the radioligand {sup 123}I-5-I-R91150 was measured before and after treatment with citalopram hydrobromide in nine impulsive-aggressive dogs. Regional perfusion was measured with {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD). Behaviour was assessed before treatment and again after 6 weeks of treatment. A correlation was found between decreased binding and behavioural improvement in eight out of nine dogs. The 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor binding index was significantly reduced after citalopram hydrobromide treatment in all cortical regions but not in the subcortical area. None of the dogs displayed alterations in perfusion on the post-treatment scans. This study supports previous findings regarding the involvement of the serotonergic system in impulsive aggression in dogs in general. More specifically, the effect of treatment on the 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor binding index could be demonstrated and the decreased binding index correlated with behavioural improvement. (orig.)

  3. Comparison of plasma concentration of risperidone and serum prolactin level after risperidone treatment between male and female adolescents with schizophrenia%青少年男女精神分裂症患者利培酮治疗后血药浓度与血清催乳素的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓虎; 郑毅; 王红星

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较男女青少年精神分裂症患者服用利培酮后利培酮、9-羟利培酮血药浓度和血清催乳素,并探讨血药浓度与血清催乳素的关系. 方法 符合DSM-V诊断标准的精神分裂症青少年患者41例(男20例,女21例),给予利培酮治疗8周.在治疗基线和第4,8周末测定血清催乳素水平,在治疗第4,8周末监测利培酮和9-羟利培酮的血药浓度. 结果 ①血清催乳素在时间上存在主效应(P<0.001),其中第4周末、第8周末男、女患者血清催乳素水平分别与基线进行自身比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.001);②男、女患者间血药浓度和血清催乳素水平在第4周末、第8周末进行比较,无统计学差异(P>0.05).③男、女患者利培酮(Ris)、9-羟利培酮(9oh)血药浓度与血清催乳素存在正相关(男:4周末PRis<0.01、P9oh<0.01;8周末PRis<0.01、P9oh <0.05;女:4周末PRis>0.05、P9oh <0.01,8周末PRis<0.05、P9oh<0.01). 结论 ①利培酮能明显升高青少年患者血清催乳素水平;其血药浓度越高,催乳素水平也越高;②性别对血药浓度和血清催乳素水平无影响.%Objective To compare the plasma concentrations of risperidone,9-hydroxyrisperidone and serum prolactin levels after risperidone treatment between the male and female adolescents with schizophrenia, and to explore their relations. Methods A total of 41 patients(20 male and 21 female) met the DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia. The patients were given risperidone for 8 weeks. Serum prolactin, plasma concentrations of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone were obtained at the baseline,at the end of 4th and 8th week. Results ?Serum prolactin had a significant main effect on the time of taking medicine ( P 0. 05). (5)In the male and female, serum prolactin was positively correlated with plasma concentration of risperidone( Ris) and 9-hydroxyrisperidone(9oh) ( male; at the end of 4th week PRis 0.05 and P9oh < 0.01; at the end of

  4. 银杏叶制剂合并西酞普兰治疗血管性抑郁的对照研究%Contrast Study of Folium Ginkgo Preparation and Citalopram Combined Treatment in Vascular Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈斌华; 齐若兵; 苏雪倩; 夏泳; 赵黎君

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨银杏叶制剂合并西酞普兰治疗血管性抑郁的疗效。[方法]将62例血管性抑郁患者随机分为研究组和治疗组。研究组32例,采用银杏叶制剂合并西酞普兰联合治疗,240mg/d,分3次口服;对照组30例,单用西酞普兰,20mg口服,1次/d。在治疗前和治疗后4周、8周、12周分别用Hamilton抑郁量表(HAMD)评分,根据Hamilton抑郁量表平均分和总有效率评定疗效。[结果]治疗8周后研究组HAMD评分低于对照组(P<0.05),治疗12周后研究组HAMD评分明显低于对照组(P<0.01)。治疗12周后研究组总有效率高于对照组(P<0.05)。[结论]银杏叶制剂合并西酞普兰治疗血管性抑郁的疗效优于单用西酞普兰。%[Objective] To investigate the efficacy of folium ginkgo preparation and citalopram combined treatment in vascular depression. [Methods] Patients with vascular depression (n=62) participated in our treatment study were randomly divided into folium ginkgo preparation in combination with citalopram groupCinvestigation group,n=32) and citalopram single group(contrast group,n = 30),change in depression mood was measured by the Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) .before 4 weeks,8 weeks and 12 weeks after treatment,the effect was evaluated according to the average point of the Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) and the over effective rate. [Results] The HAMD score of the investigation group was lower than the contrast group 8 weeks after treatment, the HAMD score of the investigation group was lower remarkably than the contrast group 12 weeks after treatment, the over effective rate of the investigation group was higher than the contrast group 12 weeks after treatment. [Conclusion] The efficacy of folium ginkgo preparation and citalopram combined treatment in vascular depression was better than citalopram single.

  5. Comparison of Subjective Experiences and Effectiveness of First-Generation Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics and Risperidone Long-Acting Injectables in Patients With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Yin; Lin, Shih-Ku

    2016-10-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to compare the subjective experiences and clinical effects of first-generation long-acting injectable (FGA-LAI) antipsychotics with those of risperidone long-acting injectables (RIS-LAIs) in 434 schizophrenia patients. Compared with the RIS-LAI group, the patients treated with FGA-LAIs had a significantly longer duration of illness and LAI treatment and were older. Our results suggest that patients treated with FGA-LAI have more satisfactory subjective experiences compared with patients treated with RIS-LAI and that both FGA-LAI and RIS-LAI treatments can prevent relapses and hospitalization. Additional longitudinal studies determining the long-term benefits of RIS-LAI are warranted. PMID:27580495

  6. Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder - related nightmares and other sleep disturbances with risperidone in combat veterans and victims of domestic and childhood abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Khachiyants

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances including nightmares are often reported as hallmark of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The literature related to the pharmacological treatment of PTSD-related nightmares is sparse and inconclusive. After reviewing the literature it was obvious that currently a limited data on studies supporting the use of antipsychotic medications for the treatment of PTSD are published. Moreover, even more limited scientific evidence is now available to formulate evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of PTSD-related nightmares which are often reported as the most intrusive and disruptive symptom. Objective for this study is to review comprehensively the current research literature which reflects use of antipsychotic medication risperidone for the treatment of PTSD-related nightmares of different etiology.

  7. Effects of diazepam, citalopram, methadone and naloxone on PCP-induced stereotyped behaviour and social isolation in the rat social interaction test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams-Dodd, F

    1998-01-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP) can induce a model psychosis in humans that mimics the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. In the social interaction test PCP induces stereotyped behaviour and social isolation in rats, and these behaviours can be inhibited by antipsychotic drugs. In order to further evaluate the predictive validity of this model of schizophrenia the anxiolytic diazepam (0.02-17.5 micromol/kg; 0.005-5.0 mg/kg), the antidepressant citalopram (0.62-19.8 micromol/kg; 0.3-4.0 mg/kg), the opioid agonist methadone (0.36-5.8 micromol/kg; 0.13-2.0 mg/kg) and the opioid antagonist naloxone (0.34-22.0 micromol/kg; 0.13-8.0 mg/kg) were tested as examples of drugs without antipsychotic activity. The experiments demonstrated that these compounds did not specifically inhibit the behavioural effects of PCP. So far only antipsychotic drugs have been able to specifically inhibit the PCP-induced behaviours.

  8. Content determination of S-citalopram by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography%HPLC测定S-西酞普兰

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪梅; 刘旭; 严轶琛; 徐江平

    2004-01-01

    目的拆分西酞普兰(R,S-citalopram)对映异构体,建立S-西酞普兰的质量检测方法.方法采用CHIROBIOTIC V手性柱,以甲醇-冰醋酸一三乙胺(100:0.1:0.1)为流动相,检测波长240nm,柱温20℃,流速1.0min/ml.结果 S、R型异构体获得完全分离,S-西酞普兰在10~150μg/m1范围内具有良好线性,(r=0.999 1,n=5).结论该方法简便、准确,可作为S-西酞普兰含量测定及其R型异构体的含量监控方法.

  9. Summary data of potency and parameter information from semi-mechanistic PKPD modeling of prolactin release following administration of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonists risperidone, paliperidone and remoxipride in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Amit; Vermeulen, An; Huntjens, Dymphy R H; Danhof, Meindert; De Lange, Elizabeth C M; Proost, Johannes H

    2016-09-01

    We provide the reader with relevant data related to our recently published paper, comparing two mathematical models to describe prolactin turnover in rats following one or two doses of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonists risperidone, paliperidone and remoxipride, "A comparison of two semi-mechanistic models for prolactin release and prediction of receptor occupancy following administration of dopamine D2 receptor antagonists in rats" (Taneja et al., 2016) [1]. All information is tabulated. Summary level data on the in vitro potencies and the physicochemical properties is presented in Table 1. Model parameters required to explore the precursor pool model are presented in Table 2. In Table 3, estimated parameter comparisons for both models are presented, when separate potencies are estimated for risperidone and paliperidone, as compared to a common potency for both drugs. In Table 4, parameter estimates are compared when the drug effect is parameterized in terms of drug concentration or receptor occupancy. PMID:27617278

  10. 氯氮平与维思通对精神分裂患者血糖影响的比较%Different effects of clozapine and risperidone on levels of blood glucose in patients with schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹栋; 谢世平

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the different effects of clozapine and risperidone on levels of blood glucose in patients with schizophrenia. Method 200 qualified cases selected from psychiatric department were divided into two groups randomly, of which 100 cases accepted the treatment with clozapine and the other 100 cases with risperidone. Blood glucose tests were used before treatment ,4 weeks after treatment and 8 weeks after treatment Results There was significantly higher blood glucose level in clozapine- treated group than in risperidone- treated group after 4 or 8 weeks treatment. The number of cases who had elevated blood glucose level (>6.1 mmol/L) in clozapine- treated group was significantly more than in risperidone- treated group. Conclusion The glucoregulatory abnormality which leads to glucose elevation in clozapine- treated patients is greater than in risperidone- treated patients. Additional motivation to clinical monitor for antipsychotic treatment- related hyperglycemia is indicated.

  11. 利培酮合并氯氮平治疗难治性精神分裂症临床分析%Clinical Effect of Risperidone Combined with Clozapine in Treatment of Re-fractory Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵圣兰; 郭晓静

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of risperidone combined with clozapine in the treatment of refractory schizophrenia. Methods The control group received conventional treatment with risperidone; study group received combined treat-ment of risperidone and clozapine. Outcomes and adverse reaction of the patients with refractory schizophrenia in the two groups were recorded and statistically analyzed. Results Clinical total efficiency of the study group, 88.37%, was significantly higher than that of the control group, 69.77% (P 0.05). Conclusion Risperidone combined with clozapine used in the treatment of patients with refractory schizophrenia can significantly improve the clinical effi-cacy and quality of life and protect the safety of patients.%目的:探讨利培酮合并氯氮平治疗难治性精神分裂症临床应用效果。方法对照组给予利培酮常规治疗;研究组实施利培酮联合氯氮平片疗法。将两组中难治性精神分裂症患者的疗效及不良反应发生状况记录,通过统计学分析得出结论。结果研究组临床治疗的总有效率为88.37%,明显优于对照组临床治疗总有效率69.77%(P0.05)。结论难治性精神分裂症患者经利培酮联合氯氮平治疗可显著提高其临床疗效,有效保障患者生活质量及生命安全。

  12. 利培酮、氯氮平治疗精神分裂症的药物经济学评估%Pharmacoeconomic Evaluation of Schizophrenia in Risperidon and Cloza-pine Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑冰

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较利培酮、氯氮平治疗住院精神分裂症的成本-效果。方法对82例住院精神分裂症患者应用利培酮或氯氮平进行治疗,根据PANSS量表减分率评定疗效,对住院花费运用药物经济学成本-效果分析法进行评价。结果利培酮、氯氮平治疗精神分裂症的显效率分别为77.8%、71.4%,二者比较无显著性差异( P>0.05);产生单位效果所需成本二者无显著差异。结论利培酮与氯氮平治疗住院精神分裂症的疗效及费用基本相当。%OBJECTIVE To compare the efficiency and economic cost between Risperidon and Clozapine in the treatment of schizophrenia.METHODS 82 in-patients with schizophrenia were treated with Risperidon or Clozap-ine.PANSS was used to assess the clinical efficacy and pharmacoeconomic cost-effectiveness analysis was used to e-valuate costs.RESULTS The effective rates of Risperidon and Clozapine were 77.8% and 71.4% respectively with no significant difference ( P>0.05 ).There was no significant difference in the costs for an identical effect be-tween two drugs.CONCLUSION The ef-ective and costs of Risperidon and Clozapine are almost equal in the treat-ment of schizophrenia.

  13. Differential long-term effects of haloperidol and risperidone on the acquisition and performance of tasks of spatial working and short-term memory and sustained attention in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Elizabeth J; Waller, Jennifer L; Terry, Alvin V

    2013-12-01

    A common feature of the neuropsychiatric disorders for which antipsychotic drugs are prescribed is cognitive dysfunction, yet the effects of long-term antipsychotic treatment on cognition are largely unknown. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of long-term oral treatment with the first-generation antipsychotic haloperidol (1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg daily) and the second-generation antipsychotic risperidone (1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg daily) on the acquisition and performance of two radial-arm maze (RAM) tasks and a five-choice serial reaction-time task (5C-SRTT) in rats during days 15-60 and 84-320 days of treatment, respectively. In the RAM, neither antipsychotic significantly affected the acquisition or performance of a spatial win shift or a delayed non-match-to-position task. Conversely, in the rats administered 5C-SRTT, haloperidol was associated with profound deficits in performance, and the subjects were not able to progress through all stages of task acquisition. Depending on the dose, risperidone was associated with a greater number of trials to meet specific performance criteria during task acquisition compared with vehicle-treated controls; however, most subjects were eventually able to achieve all levels of task acquisition. Both haloperidol and risperidone also increased the number of perseverative and time-out responses during certain stages of task acquisition, and the response and reward latencies were slightly higher than controls during several stages of the study. These results in rats suggest that while long-term treatment with haloperidol or risperidone may not significantly affect spatial working or short-term memory, both antipsychotics can (depending on dose) impair sustained attention, decrease psychomotor speed, increase compulsive-type behaviors, and impair cognitive flexibility. PMID:24042161

  14. Analysis on Minimum Cost of Duloxetine and Citalopram in Treating Depression%度洛西汀与西酞普兰治疗抑郁症的最小成本分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧民; 韦德会

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the economic effects and safety of duloxetine and citalopram in the treatment of depression to provide the guidance for clinical rational drug use.Methods Fifty patients with depression were randomly divided into the duloxetine group and the citalopram group,and treated by duloxetine and citalopram for 6 weeks,respectively.The curative efficacies and adverse reactions were compared between the two groups.The evaluation was performed by the pharmacoeconomics cost minimization analysis method.Results The total effective rates in the duloxetine group and the citalopram group were 96.00% and 92.00% respectively,without statistical difference between the two groups existed(P>0.05); the costs were 1 030.88 Yuan and 1 092.09 Yuan,cost/effect ratios(C/E) were 1 073.83 and 1 187.05 respectively.The rate of adverse reactions in the duloxetine group was lower than that in the citalopram group.Conclusion The effects of duloxetine and and citalopram in the treatment of depression are equivalent.Duloxetine has the lower cost and is a better therapeutic scheme for the treatment of depression.%目的 评价度洛西汀与西酞普兰治疗抑郁症的经济效果和安全性,以利临床合理用药.方法 将50例抑郁症患者随机分为度洛西汀组、西酞普兰组,分别给予度洛西汀、西酞普兰治疗6周,比较两组疗效和不良反应,并应用药物经济学最小成本分析法进行评价.结果 度洛西汀组和西酞普兰组总有效率分别为96.00%和92.00%,2组间疗效差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),成本分别为1 030.88元和1 092.09元,成本/效果(C/E)分别为1 073.83和1 187.05,度洛西汀组的不良反应率较西酞普兰组低.结论 度洛西汀和西酞普兰治疗抑郁症疗效相当,度洛西汀治疗成本与不良反应发生率均较低,是治疗抑郁症较佳治疗方案.

  15. 互为内标法测定患者血浆中氟西汀和西酞普兰的浓度%Determination of Fluoxetine and Citalopram in Patient Plasma Using Each Internal Standard Method by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣晨; 许杜娟; 夏泉; 陈贵海; 戴根苗

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立测定人血浆中氟西汀、西酞普兰的高效液相色谱-荧光(HPLC-FLU)法,为临床用药提供参考.方法:氟西汀和西酞普兰互为内标,血浆样品碱化后经液-液萃取,以Ultimate XB-C18反相色谱柱进行分离,流动相为乙腈:0.02 mol·L-1磷酸氢二钠溶液(35:65,pH 5.0),流速为1.0 ml·min-1,柱温为30℃.荧光检测氟西汀和西酞普兰的激发波长为230 nm,发射波长为305 nm.结果:氟西汀、西酞普兰血药浓度均在15.625~1 000 μg·L-1范围内线性关系良好;平均回收率分别为100.72%和100.94%;分析方法的最低定量限均为5 μg·L-1 ;日内、日间RSD均<3%;冻融稳定性RSD均<10%.结论:本法快速、简便、灵敏、准确,适用于氟西汀、西酞普兰的血药浓度监测及药动学研究.%Objective: To establish an HPLC method with fluorescence detection assay for the determination of fluoxetine and citalopram in the patient plasma and provide a scientific basis for the clinical application. Method: Fluoxetine and citalopram were used as the internal standard for each other. The samples were alkalized and extracted by liquid-liquid extraction. Then the samples were separated on an Ultimate XB-C18 column with the mixture of acetonitrile-0. 02 mol·L-1 disodium hydrogen phosphate ( 35: 65 , pH 5. 0 ) as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 1. 0 ml·min-1. The column temperature was set at 30℃. Fluoxetine and citalopram were detected by fluorescence detection ( Ex=230 nm, Em =305 mn). Result: Linearity was obtained from 15.625 to 1000 μg·L-1 for fluoxetine and citalopram. The LOQ was 5 μg·L-1. The average recovery of fluoxetine and citalopram was 100. 72% and 100. 94% , respectively. Both the inter-day and intra-day RSD were less than 3% . The Freeze-thaw stability RSD was less than 10% . Conclusion: The method is rapid, convenient, sensitive and reliable in the drug determination, adverse reaction control and phannacokinetic study of fluxetine and

  16. 艾司西酞普兰与西酞普兰治疗抑郁症对照观察%A control study of escitalopram vs.citalopram in the treat-ment of depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆占峰; 杨伟; 孙永勋

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨艾司西酞普兰与西酞普兰治疗抑郁症的临床疗效及安全性。方法将60例抑郁症患者按就诊顺序随机分为艾司西酞普兰组和西酞普兰组,每组30例,分别口服艾司西酞普兰、西酞普兰治疗,观察6周。于治疗前后采用汉密顿抑郁量表评定临床疗效,副反应量表评定不良反应。结果治疗第6周末艾司西酞普兰组总有效率为86.67%,西酞普兰组为83.33%,两组比较差异无显著性(P >0.05)。艾司西酞普兰组治疗第1周末起,西酞普兰组治疗第2周末起汉密顿抑郁症量表总分较治疗前显著降低(P 0.05)。艾司西酞普兰组不良反应发生率为43.3%,西酞普兰组为50.0%,两组比较差异无显著性(P >0.05)。结论艾司西酞普兰治疗抑郁症疗效显著,安全性高,与西酞普兰相当。%Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of escitalopram and citalopram in the treatment of depression.Methods Sixty depression patients were divided into two groups of 30 ones each according to visiting order,they took orally escitalopram or citalopram for 6 weeks.Efficacies were assessed with the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD)before and after treatment and adverse reactions with the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS).Results At the end of the 6 st week treatment total effective rate was respectively 86.67% in escitalopram and 83.33% in citalopram group,which showed no significant group difference (P >0.05).The total score of the HAMD since the end of the 1 th week in escitalopram and since the 2 nd in citalopram group lowered more significantly compared with pretreatment (P 0.05).The incidence of adverse reac-tions was 43.3% in escitalopram and 50.0% in citalopram group,which showed no significant group difference (P >0.05 ).Conclusion Both escitalopram and citalopram have an evident effect and higher safety in the treatment of depression.

  17. CONTRAST ANALYSIS OF RISPERIDONE AND CLOZAPINE ON EEG OF PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA%利培酮与氯氮平对精神分裂症患者脑电图的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑育喜; 陆丽珍; 卢建国; 龙俊荣; 侯英; 梁容梅

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the effects of risperidone and clozapine on EEG of patients with schizophrenia. Methods The two groups of patientstaking clozapine and risperidone respectively were given EEG examination before and af-ter 2nd and 4th week of treatment, the abnormal rate of EEG of two groups of patients were analyzed to compare the effects of the two drugs on electrical activity of the brain.Results The abnormal rate of EEG induced by clozapine was significantly higher than that induced by resperidone (p<0.05).Conclusion The influence of risperidone on EEG is lower than that of clozapine.%目的:分析利培酮与氯氮平对精神分裂症患者脑电图的影响。方法通过对两组分别服用氯氮平、利培酮的患者,在服药前、服药后第2周、第4周分别检查脑电图一次,分析两组病人脑电图的异常率,对比两种药物对脑电活动的影响。结果氯氮平引起脑电图异常率明显高于利培酮( p<0.05)。结论利培酮对脑电图的影响较氯氮平轻。

  18. Comparative Study on Tiapride and Risperidone in Treatment of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia%硫必利与利培酮治疗老年痴呆精神行为症状的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁成勇

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical application of risperidone in the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and tiapride therapy differences behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and related side effects. Methods Experimental group were treated with tiapride (50~400 mg / qd), the control group received risperidone (0.5~4.0 mg) /qd).6 weeks Differences between the two groups and the PANSS scale Results TESS data. Results Efifciency difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05) tiapride treatment group the number of cases of side effects than risperidone group, the Results were statistically significant (P 0.05).硫必利治疗组发生副反应的病例数少于利培酮治疗组,结果具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 硫必利治疗老年期痴呆精神及行为症状效果确切.

  19. Analysis Clinical Efficacy on Escitalopram Citalopram Treatment-resistant Depression%艾司西酞普兰治疗难治性抑郁症的临床疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱强

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察艾司西酞普兰治疗难治性抑郁症的临床疗效。方法选择2013年2月~2013年9月我院收治的难治性抑郁症患者100例为临床研究对象,随机分为观察组(艾司西酞普兰组)和对照组(常规治疗组)两组,每组50例。治疗后观察两组的疗效。结果观察组患者的总有效率、治愈率、显效率高于对照组,两组数据对比,差异明显,P<0.05,具有统计学意义。结论:在治疗难治性抑郁症方面,艾司西酞普兰的效果更明显。%Objective Observtion the division of the clinical efficacy of citalopram in the treatment of refractory depression. Methods Selected 100 cases of patients with treatment-resistant depression for clinical research object from February 2013 to September 2013 in our hospital, were randomly divided into observation group (department of citalopram group) and control group (conventional treatment group) in the two groups, 50 cases in each group. Observed the curative effect on two groups after treatment. Results Observation group of patients with total effective rate, cure rate, the efifciency was higher than the control group, two groups of data contrast, P<0.05, difference statistically significance. Conclusion In terms of treatment-resistant depression, the effect of escitalopram citalopram is obvious.

  20. Effects of S-citalopram associated with cognitive therapy in the treatment of women depression%认知疗法合并艾司西酞普兰治疗女性抑郁症患者的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀苹; 雷彤; 刘丽荣

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effects of S-citalopram associatedted with cognitive therapy in the treatment of women with depression. Method: 60 women patients with depressive disorder were ran domly divided into S-citalopram associated with cognitive treatment group (n = 30) and single S-citalopram group (n =30) for 8 weeks. The efficacy was evaluated with Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD at base line and 1,2,4 and 8-week treatment. Results:There was significant difference in total score of HAMD after two weeks. Research group shows significant effects after one week. There was significant difference in total score after the 1st,2nd,4th,8th week between two groups,Research group decreased more significantly,difference was not significant in side effect. Conclusion: S-citalopram associatedted with cognitive therapy in the treatment of women is an effective and well-tolerated methed, can improve the effect and shorter the duration.%目的:比较艾司西酞普兰合并认知治疗与单用艾司西酞普兰对女性抑郁症患者的疗效.方法:60例女性抑郁症患者随机分为研究组(艾司西酞普兰合并认知治疗组)30例,对照组(单用艾司西酞普兰组)30例,治疗8周.治疗前及治疗1、2、4和8周分别采用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)评定疗效.结果:治疗2周开始,两组HAMD评分均显著下降.研究组治疗1周HAMD明显下降.研究组较对照组HAMD下降更显著.两组不良反应差异无显著性.结论:艾司西酞普兰合并认知治疗对女性抑郁症患者疗效明显,安全性高.

  1. 西酞普兰与阿米替林治疗老年抑郁症对照研究%A Control Study on Citalopram and Amitriptyline in the Treatment of Aged Patients with Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金英; 甘露春; 冯冬梅; 梁颂游

    2006-01-01

    目的探讨治疗老年抑郁症比较理想的药物.方法将100例老年抑郁症患者随机分成两组,观察西酞普兰与阿米替林的疗效及副反应.结果西酞普兰与阿米替林疗效相当,而其副反应明显低于阿米替林.结论西酞普兰(Citalopram)是治疗老年抑郁症较为理想的药物.

  2. 奎硫平合并西酞普兰治疗老年期抑郁症临床疗效观察%Observation of clinical curative effects on Quetiapine combined with Citalopram in the treatment of senile depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马达休; 周琳钧; 皮静

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨奎硫平合并西肽普兰治疗老年抑郁症的临床疗效和安全性.方法 将60例老年抑郁症患者随机分为两组,每组30例.对照组口服西肽普兰,研究组口服西肽普兰合并奎硫平.于治疗前及治疗后1、2、4周和8周评定汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、老年抑郁量表(GDS)、药物副作用症状量表(TESS).结果 在治疗老年期抑郁症中,研究组在临床疗效、HAMD、GDS评分方面与对照组比较,差异有高度统计学意义(P < 0.01),而在药物副作用方面差异无统计学意义(P > 0.05).结论 老年抑郁症患者,合用喹硫平治疗起效快,疗效好,安全性高,适宜临床使用.%Objective To investigate the clinical curative effects and safety of Quetiapine combined with Citalopram in the treatment of senile depression. Methods Sixty patients with senile depression were randomly divided into two groups, with 30 patients in each group. The control group received the oral administration of Citalopram and the study group received the oral administration of Quetiapine combined with Citalopram. The Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD), geriatric depression scale (GDS) and drug side effects symptom scale (TESS) were used for assessment before the treatment and 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks after treatment. Results In the treatment of patients with senile depression, the study group was significantly different from the control group in the HAMD and GDS scores (P 0.05). Conclusion In the treatment of patients with senile depression, Quetiapine combined with Citalopram is fast, effective and safe, thereby suitable for clinical application.

  3. 西酞普兰对恶性肿瘤患者抑郁症状的随机双盲对照研究%Depession treatment with citalopram in cancer patients: a randomized and controlled clinical trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄健清

    2011-01-01

    目的 以随机双盲对照研究明确西酞普兰在肿瘤患者伴随抑郁症的疗效和安全性。方法 188例恶性肿瘤伴随抑郁症患者随机分为两组,分别给以西酞普兰和安慰剂治疗6周。采用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD-17),汉密尔顿焦虑量表i(HAMA)于治疗前和治疗1、2、4、6周末分别评定疗效。结果 西酞普兰组总有效率62.22%,治疗后HAMD和HA MA评分均较治疗前下降,同安慰剂对照组相比差异有显著性(P<0.05)。两组不良反应发生率轻微,比较差异无显著性(P>0.05)。结论 西酞普兰治疗肿瘤患者伴随抑郁症疗效确切,不良反应轻微。%Objectives To evaluate efficacy and safety of citalopram in the treatment of depression of cancer patients. Methods In the 6-week, randomized, double-blind and parallel controlled clinical trial, 188 patients were randomly divided into citalopram group and placebo group. All the patients were assessed with HAMD-17, HAMA before treatment and after 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks of treatment.Safety measures included adverse reactions observation. Results The total effective rates of the escitalopram group 62.22%. The scores of HAMD 17 and HAMA in citalopram decreased significantly,with statistically difference compared with the baseline and placebo group. Conclutions Citalopram is an effective and safety antidepressant treatment to depression in cancer patients.

  4. 西酞普兰联合认知疗法治疗产后抑郁症对照研究%A control study of citalopram combined with cognitive therapy in postnatal depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜静; 周雅君

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨西酞普兰联合认知疗法治疗产后抑郁症的临床疗效和安全性。方法将64例产后抑郁症患者随机分为两组,每组32例,两组均晨口服西酞普兰治疗,研究组联合认知疗法治疗,观察6周。于治疗前后采用汉密顿抑郁量表评定临床疗效,副反应量表评定不良反应。结果治疗各时段研究组汉密顿抑郁量表评分显著低于对照组(P<0.05),显效时间显著快于对照组( t=3.12,P<0.01);治疗6周末两组显效率、总有效率及不良反应发生率比较差异均无显著性(P>0.05)。结论西酞普兰联合认知疗法治疗产后抑郁症起效快,疗效显著,安全性高,显著优于单用西酞普兰治疗。%Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of citalopram combined with cognitive therapy in postnatal depression (PD) .Methods Sixty-four PD patients were randomly di-vided into two groups of 32 ones each ,both groups took orally citalopram in the morning ,research group was plus cognitive therapy for 6 weeks .Clinical efficacies were assessed with the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) before and after treatment and adverse reactions with the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) .Results The HAMD score in each period was significantly lower (P0 .05) .Conclusion Citalopram combined with cognitive therapy takes effect more rapidly and has an evident effect and higher safety compared with single-use citalopram in the treatment of postnatal depression .

  5. A Comparative Study of Tandospirone Combined Citalopram in Treatment of Depression with Anxiety%坦度螺酮联合西酞普兰治疗伴焦虑症状的抑郁症对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶; 刘晶洁

    2012-01-01

      Objective To study the efficacy of tandospirone combined citalopram on depression with anxiety. Methods A total of 56 patients who met with the criteria of CCMD-3 for depression with anxiety were randomly divided into tandospirone combined citalopram group and citalopram group with the treatment of 6 weeks. The efficacy was evaluated with Hamilton Rating Scale for depression(HAMD) and Hamilton Rating Scale for anxiety(HAMA).The side effects were evaluated with Treatment Emergent Symptoms Scale (TESS). Results The reduce rate of mean score of HAMD and HAMA in intervention group was significantly higher than that of control group. Two groups of side effects was similar. Conclusion Tandospirone combined citalopram has better effect in treatment of depression with anxiety.%  目的探讨坦度螺酮联合西酞普兰治疗伴有焦虑症状的抑郁症疗效。方法将56例伴有焦虑症状的抑郁症患者随机分成两组,各28例。治疗组在用西酞普兰基础上联合使用坦度螺酮治疗,对照组仅用西酞普兰治疗,疗程6周。采用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)评定疗效,采用药物不良反应量表(TESS)于治疗6周末评定不良反应。结果6周末治疗组HAMD和HAMA评分低于对照组。两组不良反应无显著差异。结论坦度螺酮联合西酞普兰治疗伴有焦虑症状的抑郁症的疗效优于单用西酞普兰。

  6. A clinical study of combined Citalopram Hydrobromide and psychotherapy in the treatment of depression%氢溴酸西酞普兰联合心理治疗对抑郁症的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泽聪; 龚飞中

    2012-01-01

      目的观察氢溴酸西酞普兰联合心理治疗对抑郁症的疗效。方法对80例符合标准的抑郁症患者随机分成两组,一组是给予氢溴酸西酞普兰联合心理治疗(研究组,n=41),另一组为氢溴酸西酞普兰治疗(对照组,n=39),疗程6周。用汉密顿抑郁量表(HAMD)在治疗前、1、2、4、6周末评定疗效。结果两组总体疗效有显著差异性,心理干预组(研究组)抗抑郁显效更快,治愈率、临床显效率明显高于对照组。结论合并心理治疗不仅可以加快抑郁症状缓解的速度,而且本身心理治疗对抑郁症有一定的疗效,明显提高抑郁症的治疗效果,值得临床推广。%  Objective To observe the clinical ef icacy of Citalopram Hydrobromide combined with Psychotherapy in the treatment of depression. Methods On 80 patients with standard depression were randomly divided into two groups,one group was given citalopram hydrobromide combined with psychological therapy (study group, n=41), another group of citalopram hydrobromide treatment (the control group, n=39), 6 weeks. With Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) before treatment,1,2,4,6 weekend for evaluating ef icacy. Results The two groups have significant dif erences in overal ef icacy, psychological intervention group(Study Group) antidepressant increased speed,the cure rate, the clinical ef ective rate was significantly higher than that of control group. Conclusion The therapeutic effect of combined psychological therapy take a active part earlier than only the use of Citalopram Hydrobromide,and the psychotherapy has a certain effect in depression and improve treatment ef ect in depression, it is worthy of clinical application.

  7. The Post-Ovariectomy Interval Affects the Antidepressant-Like Action of Citalopram Combined with Ethynyl-Estradiol in the Forced Swim Test in Middle Aged Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Rivera, Nelly M; Gallardo Tenorio, Alfredo; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso; Estrada Camarena, Erika

    2016-05-03

    The use of a combined therapy with low doses of estrogens plus antidepressants to treat depression associated to perimenopause could be advantageous. However the use of these combinations is controversial due to several factors, including the time of intervention in relation to menopause onset. This paper analyzes whether time post-OVX influences the antidepressant-like action of a combination of ethynyl-estradiol (EE₂) and citalopram (CIT) in the forced swim test (FST). Middle-aged (15 months old) female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and after one or three weeks treated with EE₂ (1.25, 2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat, s.c.; -48 h) or CIT (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 or 10 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and tested in the FST. In a second experiment, after one or three weeks of OVX, rats received a combination of an ineffective dose of EE₂ (1.25 µg/rat, s.c., -48 h) plus CIT (2.5 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and subjected to the FST. Finally, the uteri were removed and weighted to obtain an index of the peripheral effects of EE₂ administration. EE₂ (2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat) reduced immobility after one but not three weeks of OVX. In contrast, no CIT dose reduced immobility at one or three weeks after OVX. When EE₂ (1.25 µg/rat) was combined with CIT (2.5 mg/kg) an antidepressant-like effect was observed at one but not three weeks post-OVX. The weight of the uteri augmented when EE₂ was administrated three weeks after OVX. The data suggest that the time post-OVX is a crucial factor that contributes to observe the antidepressant-like effect of EE₂ alone or in combination with CIT.

  8. Ageing and Chronic Administration of Serotonin-Selective Reuptake Inhibitor Citalopram Upregulate Sirt4 Gene Expression in the Preoptic Area of Male Mice

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    Wong eDutt Way

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunction and cognitive deficits are markers of the ageing process. Mammalian sirtuins (SIRT, encoded by sirt 1-7 genes, are known as ageing molecules which are sensitive to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT. Whether the 5-HT system regulates SIRT in the preoptic area (POA, which could affect reproduction and cognition has not been examined. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the effects of citalopram (CIT, 10mg/kg for 4 weeks, wk, a potent selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor and ageing on SIRT expression in the POA of male mice using real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry. Age-related increases of sirt1, sirt4, sirt5, and sirt7 mRNA levels were observed in the POA of 52 wk old mice. Furthermore, 4 wk of chronic CIT treatment started at 8 wk of age also increased sirt2 and sirt4 mRNA expression in the POA. Moreover, the number of SIRT4 immuno-reactive neurons increased with ageing in the medial septum area (12 wk = 1.00±0.15 vs 36 wk = 1.68±0.14 vs 52 wk = 1.54±0.11, p<0.05. In contrast, the number of sirt4-immunopositive cells did not show a statistically significant change with CIT treatment, suggesting that the increase in sirt4 mRNA levels may occur in cells in which sirt4 is already being expressed. Taken together, these studies suggest that CIT treatment and the process of ageing utilize the serotonergic system to up-regulate SIRT4 in the POA as a common pathway to deregulate social cognitive and reproductive functions.

  9. The Post-Ovariectomy Interval Affects the Antidepressant-Like Action of Citalopram Combined with Ethynyl-Estradiol in the Forced Swim Test in Middle Aged Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Rivera, Nelly M; Gallardo Tenorio, Alfredo; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso; Estrada Camarena, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The use of a combined therapy with low doses of estrogens plus antidepressants to treat depression associated to perimenopause could be advantageous. However the use of these combinations is controversial due to several factors, including the time of intervention in relation to menopause onset. This paper analyzes whether time post-OVX influences the antidepressant-like action of a combination of ethynyl-estradiol (EE₂) and citalopram (CIT) in the forced swim test (FST). Middle-aged (15 months old) female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and after one or three weeks treated with EE₂ (1.25, 2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat, s.c.; -48 h) or CIT (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 or 10 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and tested in the FST. In a second experiment, after one or three weeks of OVX, rats received a combination of an ineffective dose of EE₂ (1.25 µg/rat, s.c., -48 h) plus CIT (2.5 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and subjected to the FST. Finally, the uteri were removed and weighted to obtain an index of the peripheral effects of EE₂ administration. EE₂ (2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat) reduced immobility after one but not three weeks of OVX. In contrast, no CIT dose reduced immobility at one or three weeks after OVX. When EE₂ (1.25 µg/rat) was combined with CIT (2.5 mg/kg) an antidepressant-like effect was observed at one but not three weeks post-OVX. The weight of the uteri augmented when EE₂ was administrated three weeks after OVX. The data suggest that the time post-OVX is a crucial factor that contributes to observe the antidepressant-like effect of EE₂ alone or in combination with CIT. PMID:27153072

  10. Acute responsivity of the serotonergic system to S-citalopram and positive emotionality – the moderating role of the 5-HTTLPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrin eWielpuetz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the idea that the central serotonergic system has a modulatory function on behavior and personality in general, we aimed to highlight its association to habitual positive emotionality. In a placebo-controlled double-blind and randomized cross-over neuroendocrine challenge design (n = 72 healthy males we investigated the association of the central serotonergic responsivity, 5-HTTLPR-genotype as well as their combined effects on positive emotionality. Regression analyses revealed an involvement of the serotonergic system in positive emotionality. There was, however, no direct association between positive emotionality and cortisol responses to S-citalopram; rather 5-HTTLPR-genotype showed an association (p < .05. That is, positive emotionality scores increased with the number of s-alleles carried by the individuals. Most notable was the moderating role of 5-HTTLPR-genotype (p < .05 on the association between acute serotonergic responsivity and positive emotionality. Indeed, this association was only found in ss-homozygotes, in which the acute responsivity of the serotonergic system additionally seems to contribute to the level of positive emotionality (r = .70, p < .05. The findings correspond to previous research demonstrating that the 5-HTTLPR is not only involved in the negative-emotional aspects of behavior and temperament, but is associated, moreover, with positive affectivity – supporting the assumption of its valence-neutrality. In addition, our data are in line with the idea of possible influences of the 5-HTTLPR-genotype on early neuronal development. They also indicate the need for further studies in order to clearly elucidate the role of the serotonergic system and its subcomponents in the regulation of positive emotionality.

  11. A clinical study on substitution of risperidone for clozapine in the treatment of schizophrenia%利培酮替换氯氮平治疗精神分裂症临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅其一; 王晓龙; 杨小男; 方建中

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To explore a clinical optimal regime of substitutingrisperidone for clozapine. Method:Subjects were randomly enrolled into three groups: risperidone group, combination of risperidone and benzhexol group and combination of risperdone and alprazolam group. The efficacy and side effects were accessed with the positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS), a rating scale for extramidal side-effects (ESRS) and the treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS) before and after treatment. Results:The efficacy of all regimes was significant, and no significant differences were found among them. The female patients had more severe side effects than the male patients. The side effects were slightest in the combination of risperidone and alprazolam group and most severe in the risperidone group. Conclusion:Substituting risperidone and alprazolam for clozapine is the optimal regime in the treatment of schizophrenia.%目的:探索以利培酮替换氯氮平的临床换药方案。 方法:受试患者随机进入3组:单用利培酮组,利培酮+安坦组,利培酮+阿普唑仑组。在治疗前、治疗后1、2、4、6周用阳性症状与阴性症状量表(PANSS)、锥体外系副反应量表(ESRS)、不良反应症状量表(TESS)比较其疗效和副反应。 结果:3组换药后疗效均显著(P0.05)。女性较男性副反应大一些;利培酮+阿普唑仑组副反应最轻,单用利培酮组副反应最大。 结论:利培酮+阿普唑仑替换氯氮平方案较佳。

  12. Clinical Comparison Analysis on Risperidone and Clozapine in The Treatment of Schizophrenia%利培酮与氯氮平治疗精神分裂症临床对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵仁香

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析利培酮和氯氮平治疗精神分裂症的临床效果。方法选取我院2013~2014年的91例患者来进行研究分析,分组为利培酮和氯氮平组,前组有42例患者,后组有49例患者,分析两组的精神病量表(BPRS)、阳性症状量表(SAPS)、副反应量表(TESS)。结果利培酮组患者的显效时间为一至两周,平均(10.56±4.23)天,氯氮平为一周左右,平均(7.23±3.57)天,差异无统计学意义,P>0.05。利培酮组有36例显效,氯氮平组有38例显效,两组的治疗效果差异无统计学意义。量表结果显示,两种药物均对精神分裂症阳性症状改善明显,氯氮平组的BPRS和SAPS评分比利培酮组高,差异有统计学意义,P0.05. There were 36 excel ent cases in risperidone group,38 excel ent cases in clozapine group, and the difference of clinical effects were not significant. The clinical effects of two drugs to the positive symptoms of schizophrenia were obvious ,the BPRS and SAPS scores in clozapine group was higher than risperidone group significantly,P<0.05. The clinical effect of risperidone to the activation and bizarre behavior symptoms was worse,and was similar for other symptoms. Conclusion The clinical effect of risperidone and clozapine in the treatment of schizophrenia are excel ent,and the advantages of risperidone are greater.

  13. 喹硫平与利培酮对女性精神分裂症患者血清泌乳素水平的影响%Effects of quetiapine and risperidone on serum prolactin levels of female schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙海华; 杨焕

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of quetiapine and risperidone in the treatmemt of female schizophrenic patients and the effect of levels on serum prolactin. Methods 76 female schizophrenic patients were treated with quetiapine and risperidone randomly. The serum prolactin were measured and the scores of PANSS were evaluated before treatment and at the 1st、2nd、4th、8th week respectively. TESS was used to evaluate side effect. Results There were no significant differences in PANSS basal scores and the decreased scores after the treatment in two groups. The level of serum prolactin in risperidone group increased markedly than quetiapine group, and the serum prolactin level in quetiapine group were not increase significantly. Conclusion Quetiapine and risperidone have similar efficacy in the treatment of femal patients with schizophrenia. Risperidone produced increases in plasma prolactin levels in femal patients.%目的:评价喹硫平与利培酮对女性精神分裂症患者疗效和血清泌乳素水平的影响。方法选择女性精神分裂症患者76例,随机分为喹硫平与利培酮组治疗8周。采用阳性和阴性症状量表(PANSS)在治疗前及治疗第1周、2周、4周、8周末分别评定疗效,检测血清泌乳素水平,同时精神药物副反应量表(TESS)评定药物副反应。结果治疗前和治疗8周,两组在PANSS总分无显著差异。利培酮组血清泌乳素水平显著升高,并显著高于喹硫平组。喹硫平组血清泌乳素水平治疗前后无显著变化。结论喹硫平与利培酮对女性精神分裂症的疗效相似,利培酮对女性精神病患者的血清泌乳素水平有较大影响。

  14. Neonatal exposure to citalopram, a serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor, programs a delay in the reflex ontogeny in rats Exposição neonatal ao citalopram, um inibidor seletivo da recaptação de serotonina, programa retardo na ontogênese reflexa em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Bomfim de Jesus Deiró

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin influences the growth and development of the nervous system, as well as its behavioral manifestations. The possibility exists that increased brain serotonin availability in young animals modulates their neuro-behavioral responses. This study investigated the body weight gain and reflex ontogeny of neonatal rats treated during the suckling period with two doses of citalopram (5 mg, or 10 mg/kg, sc, daily. The time of the appearance of reflexes (palm grasp righting, free-fall righting, vibrissa placing, auditory startle response, negative geotaxis and cliff avoidance as well as the body weight evolution were recorded. In general, a delay in the time of reflex development and a reduced weight gain were observed in drug-treated animals. These findings suggest that serotoninergic mechanisms play a role in modulating body weight gain and the maturation of most reflex responses during the perinatal period in rats.A serotonina influencia o crescimento e o desenvolvimento do sistema nervoso e sua expressão comportamental. O aumento da disponibilidade de serotonina no cérebro de ratos jovens parece modular as respostas neurocomportamentais. Neste estudo, foram investigados o ganho de peso corporal e a ontogênese dos reflexos em ratos neonatos, tratados diariamente, durante o período de aleitamento, com duas doses de citalopram (5 ou 10 mg/Kg de peso corporal, via subcutânea. Foram avaliados, o tempo de aparecimento dos reflexos (preensão palmar, endireitamento, colocação pelas vibrissas, resposta ao susto, geotáxico negativo e aversão ao precipício, e a evolução do peso corporal. Foi observado atraso no tempo de desenvolvimento de alguns reflexos e redução no ganho de peso corporal. Os achados em ratos sugerem que as alterações no ganho de peso corporal e na maturação dos reflexos são programadas, durante o período perinatal, com participação de mecanismos serotoninérgicos de modulação.

  15. 利培酮口服液治疗首发精神分裂症急性期对照观察%A control study of risperidone oral solution in treating first-episode schizophrenia patients in acute phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄卓玮; 龚传鹏

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨利培酮13服液治疗首发精神分裂症急性期的疗效和安全性.方法:96例精神分裂症的急性期患者随机分为两组,分别给予利培酮口服液(研究组,n=49)和氯氮平(对照组,n=47)单药治疗4周.采用阳性和阴性症状量表(PANSS)评定临床疗效,临床总体印象量表(CGI-SI)评定病情严重程度,治疗中出现的症状量表(TESS)评定不良反应,自编依从性量表评定依从性.结果:治疗后两组患者PANSS及CGI-SI评分显著下降(P0.05).治疗后第4天,研究组兴奋、敌对、不合作、冲动控制缺乏因子分下降较对照组显著(P<0.05);研究组不良反应发生率明显低于对照组(P<0.05);研究组治疗依从性在治疗14 d、28 d、3个月和6个月时均优于对照组(P<0.05).结论:利培酮口服液对首发精神分裂症急性期患者的疗效和氯氮平相当,但利培酮口服液改善兴奋、敌对性等因子分较迅速,耐受性和依从性较好.%Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of risperidone oral solution in the treatment of patients on the acute phase with first-episode schizophrenia. Method:96 schizophrenia patients were randomly assigned to the group treated with risperidone oral solution group ( n = 49 ) and the other group treated with clozapine (n =47 ),respectively for 4 weeks. The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) and clinical global impressions-severity of illness rating scale(CGI-SI) were used to rate the efficacy;the treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS) was used to measure side effects and the compliance scale was used to assess the subjects'compliance with the treatment. Results:Both risperidone and clozapine group significantly showed score decrease on PANSS and CGI-SI after 4 weeks (P <0.01 ), but no significant difference was found between two groups ( P > 0.05 ). Excitement, hostility, uncooperativeness and poor impulse control of PANSS significantly decreased more in risperidone oral solution group

  16. The Effects of Escitalopram Compared With Citalopram in the Treatment of Geriatric Depression%艾司西酞普兰与西酞普兰对老年抑郁症的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙洁; 刘瑞龙

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨艾司西酞普兰与西酞普兰治疗老年抑郁症的临床疗效。方法将74例老年抑郁症患者随机分为观察组(艾司西酞普兰联用组)及对照组(西酞普兰联用组),比较两组疗效。结果两组治疗后汉密尔顿抑郁量表、汉密尔顿焦虑量表总分差异显著(P<0.05)。结论艾司西酞普兰治疗老年抑郁症效果显著。%Objective To investigate the clinical efifcacy of escitalopram and citalopram in the treatment of senile depression.Methods 74 cases of elderly patients with depression were randomly divided into observation group (escitalopram group) and control group (citalopram group), the effects of the two groups were compared.Results After treatment, the Hamilton depression rating scale and Hamilton anxiety scale scores of the two groups were signiifcantly different (P<0.05).Conclusion Escitalopram treatment of senile depression is signiifcant.

  17. Randomized Controlled Study on Combination Treatment with Oral Risperidone and Clonazepam versus Initial Treatment with Intramuscular Haloperidol Followed by Oral Risperidone%利培酮口服液合并氯硝西泮与氟哌啶醇肌注后换用利培酮口服液临床对照研究

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    蒋幸衍; 徐清; 周德祥; 方馨怡; 陆雅娜; 夏鸣华

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较利培酮口服液合并氯硝西泮片与氟哌啶醇肌注控制精神分裂症兴奋激越症状的疗效和安全性,以及在兴奋激越控制后以利培酮口服液替换氟哌啶醇肌注的疗效及安全性.方法 纳入65例兴奋激越的精神分裂症患者:33例随机分入研究组,利培酮口服液(2~6m/d)合并氯硝西泮(2~4mg/d),第8天起氯硝西泮逐渐减量,共观察49d;32例分入对照组,前7天氟哌啶醇肌注(10~20mg/d),第8天起逐渐替换为利培酮口服液(2~6ml/d),共观察49d.以阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS)及兴奋激越项目(PANSS-EC)和治疗中出现的症状量表(TESS)评定疗效和不良反应,分别在入组时及治疗第7天、第14天、第49天各评定1次.结果 两组有效率比较无显著性差异(x2=0.14,P>0.05).治疗前后比较,两组PANSS总分从治疗第7天起下降有显著性差异(t=2.27,2.39;P均<0.05),从治疗第14天起下降有非常显著性差异(t=3.40,4.30;P均<0.01);两组PANSS-EC评分从治疗第7天起下降并有非常显著性差异(t=7.01,8.44;P均<0.01);两组治疗同期PANSS总分、PANSS-EC评分比较无显著性差异(t=0.49~1.82;P均>0.05).研究组肌强直、震颤、静坐不能的发生率均明显低于对照组(x2=5.63~10.46;P均<0.05).结论 利培酮口服液合并氯硝西泮可有效安全地治疗精神分裂症急性兴奋激越.用氟哌啶醇肌注控制兴奋激越后直接换用利培酮口服液,也能保持疗效.%Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of psychotic agitation in schizophrenic patients comparing combination treatment with oral risperidone and clonazepam versus initial treatment with intramuscular haloperidol followed by oral risperidone. Methods A total of 63 schizophrenic patients with acute psychotic agitation were randomly assigned to two groups. The 33 subjects in the study group were given 7 days of combined treatment with oral risperidone (2 - 6mg/d)and clonazepam(2-4mg

  18. 度洛西汀与西酞普兰治疗抑郁症的对照研究%A comparation study of duloxetine and citalopram in the treatment of depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康明秀

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较度洛西汀与西酞普兰治疗不同症状抑郁症的疗效.方法:将122例符合国际疾病分类第10版抑郁症诊断标准的患者,按不同主诉(精神症状或躯体症状)分为精神症状组60例和躯体症状组62例,每组再随机分为度洛西汀组(30例/30例)和西酞普兰组(30例/32例),分别给予度洛西汀和西酞普兰治疗6周.用汉密尔顿抑郁量表17项(HAMD)评定疗效,用治疗中出现的症状量表(TESS)评定不良反应.结果:在以精神症状为主的患者中,度洛西汀组与西酞普兰组疗效比较差异无显著性(P>0.05);在以躯体症状为主的患者中,以度洛西汀组显效率(76.67%)高于西酞普兰组(53.12%),两组比较差异有显著性(P<0.05).结论:度洛西汀和西酞普兰治疗抑郁症均有效,但度洛西汀起效较快,治疗伴有躯体症状的抑郁症疗效更好.%Objective: To compare efficacy of duloxetine and citalopram in the treatment of depression with different symptoms. Method:122 patients meeting with lCD-10 for depression were divided into psychotic symptom group ( n = 60 ) and somatic symptom group ( n = 62 ), according to their different complaints. Then psychotic symptom group and somatic symptom group were randomly divided into two sub-groups respectively, duloxetine sub-group (n = 30/30) and citalopram sub-group ( n = 30/32) for 6 weeks treatment. The efficacy and the safety were assessed by Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) and the treatment emergent syruptom scale (TESS), respectively. Results:There was no significant difference in the efficacy between duloxetine sub-group and citalopram sub-group in the treatment of depressed patients predominant in psychotic symptoms. The response rate was significantly higher in patients of duloxetine sub-group compared with that in citalopram sub-group 76.67% vs. 53.12% (P < 0.05 ) in the treatment of depressed patients predominant in somatic symptoms. Conclusion: Both duloxetine and citalopram were

  19. 西酞普兰通过免疫调节机制治疗脑卒中后抑郁状态%Citalopram in treatment of post stroke depression through its immunoregulatory mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王姗姗; 姜磊

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the expression of TNFα in hypothalamus of rats by observing post stroke depression and its pathogenesis after citalopram treatment .Methods Eighteen rats that underwent open field test were randomly divided into the control group (n=6) and experimental group (n= 12 ). The rats in experimental group were further divided into post stroke depression group (n=6) and citalopram treatment group (n= 6) after left middle cerebral artery occlusion . Behaviors in these two groups were observed by open field test and sugar-water test ,respectively . Expression of TNF-α mRNA in hypothalamus of rats was detected by quantitative polymerase dhain reaction .Results The levels of horizontal and vertical activities and the preference for sug -ar-water were significantly lower in post stroke depression group than in control group (P<0 .01) and significantly higher in citalopram treatment group than in post stroke depression group (P< 0.05). The TNF-α mRNA expression level in hypothalamus was significantly higher in post stroke depression group than in control group (P<0 .05) and significantly lower in post stroke depression group than in citalopram treatment group (P<0 .05 ) .Conclusion Citalopram exerts its therapeutic effect on post stroke depression by down-regulating the expression of TNF-α in hypothalamus of rats .%目的 本研究通过观察脑卒中后抑郁(post stroke depression,PSD)大鼠给予抗抑郁药物西酞普兰干预后,观察下丘脑TNF-α的表达变化,并探讨PSD发病机制和潜在的药物治疗机制.方法 经旷场实验筛选出18只大鼠,随机分为对照组6只,另12只大鼠经过单侧大脑中动脉线栓法后,又随机分为PSD组6只和西酞普兰组6只,经慢性不可预见性应激后,通过旷场实验和糖水实验观察各组大鼠的行为学改变,定量PCR检测各组大鼠下丘脑TNF-α mRNA的表达改变.结果 与对照组比较,PSD组的水平活动、直立探索和糖水喜好明显下

  20. 米氮平与西酞普兰治疗精神分裂症后抑郁的对照研究%Comparative study of mirtazapine and citalopram in the treatment of patients with post-schizophrenic depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛红敏; 陈征; 陆永艳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical efficacy and safety of mirtazapine and citalopram in the treatment of patients with post-schizophrenic depression ( PSD) . Methods A total of 69 patients with post-schizophrenic depression were randomly divided into mirtazapine group and citalopram group treated with mirtazapine and citalopram respectively for 6 weeks. They were measured with Hamilton Depressive Scale ( HAMD) , Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale ( BPRS) and Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale ( TESS) at the baseline and the 2nd, 4th, 6th weekend after treatment. Results At the end of the 6 th week, there was no significant differences in effective rate between mirtazapine group and citalopram group (91.67% vs. 87. 88% , P >0.05). At the end of treatment, total scores of HAMD and BPRS in two groups both decreased significantly when compared with those at baseline (P 0.05 ). Adverse reactions in both groups were mild and the common side effects included sleepiness, dry mouth, nausea, headache, constipation, weight gain and so on. Conclusion Mirtazapine and citalopram have equivalent efficiency and safety in the treatment of patients with post-schizophrenic depression.%目的:比较米氮平与西酞普兰治疗精神分裂症后抑郁的疗效和安全性.方法:把69例符合入组条件的精神分裂症后抑郁患者随机分为米氮平组和西酞普兰组,分别给予米氮平和西酞普兰系统治疗,共6周.应用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、简明精神病量表(BPRS)及副反应量表(TESS)于治疗前和治疗2、4、6周末分别评定疗效和不良反应.结果:米氮平组和西酞普兰组患者治疗有效率分别为91.67%和87.88%,两者差异无显著性意义(P>0.05).两组治疗后HAMD和BPRS评分均较治疗前显著下降(P0.05).两组常见的副作用为嗜睡、口干、恶心、头痛、便秘、体重增加等,程度轻微.结论:米氮平与西酞普兰治疗精神分裂症后抑郁疗效相当,不良反应轻微.

  1. Bioequivalence of citalopram in Chinese healthy volunteers%西酞普兰片在中国健康受试者的人体生物等效性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊鹏利; 赵宁民; 张海峰; 马爱玲; 王漪檬

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究2种西酞普兰在健康受试者体内的生物等效性。方法18例健康男性受试者随机分组,自身对照,单次口服西酞普兰片20 mg,测定西酞普兰的血浆浓度,用DAS 2.1软件计算药代动力学参数,并进行方差分析和生物等效性评价。结果试验药与对照药的tmax分别为(4.14±3.10),(3.53±2.05) h;Cmax分别为(32.46±8.29),(34.55±7.05) ng・ mL-1;t1/2分别为(46.99±10.72),(42.91±8.23) h;AUC0-t 分别为(1379.83±301.72),(1455.61±349.93) ng・ h・ mL-1;试验药相对于对照药的生物利用度为(96.00±13.10)%。结论建立的分析方法灵敏、快速、准确,试验药与对照药有生物等效性。%Objective To study the pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of two citalopram preparations .Methods Eighteen healthy volunteers were randomly divided into two groups , whose plasma concentrations of citalopram were determined by UPLC -MS/MS method after single oral dose of 20 mg.The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 2.1.Results The main pharmacokinetic parameters of citalopram in test and reference preparations were as follows:tmax were (4.14 ±3.10), (3.53 ±2.05 ) h; Cmax were ( 32.46 ±8.29 ), ( 34.55 ±7.05 ) ng・ mL-1;t1/2 were ( 46.99 ±10.72 ) , ( 42.91 ±8.23 ) h; AUC0-t were (1379.83 ±301.72), (1455.61 ±349.93) ng・ h・ mL-1, respective-ly.The relative bioavailability of citalopram was ( 96.00 ±13.10 )%. Conclusion The method was proved to be accurate , rapid and sensitive;citalopram in the test preparations was bioequivalent to the reference .

  2. 舒必利合用西酞普兰治疗阻滞性抑郁症的临床研究%Clinical study on sulpiride combined with citalopram in treatment of retardative depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆慧; 韩翠萍

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To observe effects and adverse reactions of sulpiridein treatment of retardative depression. Methods:62 patients with retardative depression were randomly divided into study group( sulpiride combined with citalopram,31 cases) and control group( citalopram, 31 cases) . All the patients were treated for 8 weeks. The adverse reactions were evaluated with Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) and treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS). Results:At the end of 4th, 6th, and 8th week of the treatment, the total score of HAMD and item score of retardative symptom in study group were lower than those of control group, and there werestatisti-cal differences (P<0. 01 or P<0. 05). At the end of 8th week of the treatment, the effective rates of study group and control group were 83. 87% and 58. 06%, respectively, and there was the statistical difference (P<0. 01). For TESS score, the cases in control group had gastrointestinal adverse reactions, such as nausea and vomiting;while no adverse reactions were observed instudy group, and there was the significant difference. Conclusions:The effect of low dosage of sulpiride combined with citalopram is better than citalo-pram alone in the treatment of retardative depression, and it takes effect faster as well. Sulpiride can eliminate nausea, vomiting and other gastrointestinal adverse reactions induced by citalopram.%目的:观察舒必利治疗阻滞性抑郁症的疗效和不良反应。方法:对62例阻滞性抑郁症患者,随机分为合用组(舒必利合并西酞普兰,31例患者)和单用组(单用西酞普兰,31例患者),治疗8周,采用汉密顿抑郁量表(HAMD)和副反应量表(TESS)评定不良反应。结果:治疗第4、6、8周末两组患者间HAMD总分和阻滞症状项目评分比较,合用组患者低于单用组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01或P<0.05);治疗8周末合用组和单用组患者的显效率分别为83.87%和58.06%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);两组患者间TESS评分比

  3. 氢溴酸西酞普兰咀嚼片人体生物利用度和生物等效性研究%Bioavailability and bioequivalence research for chewable tablet of citalopram hydrobromide in healthy volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娟; 李海燕; 郝光涛; 刘泽源

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the relative bioavailability and the bioequivalence between domestic-made chewable tablets (to be tested) and imported tablets (reference) of citalopram hydrobromide and evaluate the bioequi valence of the two preparations. Methods A single dose of 20 mg of chewable tablets or referenced tablet of citalopram hydrobromide was administered with empty stomach by randomized crossover way in 24 healthy male volunteers. The chewable tablet was swallowed after been chewed for 30 ~ 60 s, while the referenced tablet was administered with warm water of 200 mL. The concentrations of the citalopram in plasma were detected by LC-MS/MS method. Results The main pharmacokinetics parameters of the chewable tablets and the referenced tablets were as follows: Cmax ( 16. 56 ± 4. 12) vs. ( 18. 30 ±4. 72) μg/L.Tmax (4. 42 ± 2. 41 ) vs. ( 5. 00 ± 2. 87 ) h, t1/2 (47. 44 ± 7. 74) vs. (48. 43 ± 14. 56 ) h, AUC0-tm(819.74±261. 18) vs. (885.38 ±216. 22) μg·h/L, AUC0-∞ (939.00 ±336. 16) vs. ( 1016. 04 ±315. 32) μg·h /L. The relative bioavailability Fo-tn F0-∞ of the citalopram hydrobromide chewable tablet were 91. 92% ± 15. 10% and 92. 09% ± 15. 52% respectively. Conclusion There are bioequivalence between domestic-made chewable tablets and imported tablets of citalopram hydrobromide.%目的 比较国产氢溴酸西酞普兰咀嚼片与进口氢溴酸西酞普兰片的人体药动学参数及生物利用度,评价二者的生物等效性.方法 24名健康男性受试者随机交叉单剂量服用20 mg受试制剂和参比制剂,受试制荆空腹咀嚼30 ~60 s后直接吞咽,参比制荆空腹用200 mL温开水送服.血浆样品采用高效液相色谱-串联质谱法检测.结果 受试制荆及参比制剂的主要药代动力学参数:cmax分别为(16.56±4.12)、(18.30±4.72)μg/L;Tmax分别为(4.42±2.41)、(5.00±2.87)h;t1/2分别为(47.44±7.74)、(48.43±14.56) h; AUC0-tn分别为(819.74±261.18)、(885.38±216.22)μg·h/L;AUC0-

  4. Micellization Behavior of an Amphiphilic Drug Promethazine Hydrochloride-Surfactant System in an Aqueous Medium%水溶液中两亲药物盐酸异丙嗪,表面活性剂体系的胶束化行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KABIR-UD-DIN; KHAN Abbul Bashar; NAQVI Andleeb Z.

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of the mixed amphiphilic drug promethazine hydrochloride (PMT) and cationic as well as nonionic surfactants was studied by tensiometry.The cmc values of the PMT-surfactant systems decrease at a surfactant mole fraction of 0.1 and it then becomes constant.The critical micelle concentration (cmc) values are lower than the ideal cmc (cmc*) values for PMT/TX-100,PMT/TX-114,PMT/Tween 20,and PMT/Tween 60 systems.For the PMT/Tween 40,PMT/Tween 80,PMT/CPC,andPMT/CPB systems the cmc values are close to the cmc* values.This indicates that PMT forms mixed micelles with these surfactants by attractive interactions.The surface excess (Γmax) decreases in the presence of surfactants.The rigid structure of the drug makes adsorption easier and the contribution of the surfactant at the interface decreases.The interaction parametersβm (for the mixed micelles) andβ°(for the mixed monolayer) are negative indicating attraction among the mixed components.

  5. Use of the second-generation antipsychotic, risperidone, and secondary weight gain are associated with an altered gut microbiota in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, S M; Tyler, B C; Wooldridge, N; Butcher, B D; Burns, T L; Teesch, L M; Oltman, C L; Azcarate-Peril, M A; Kirby, J R; Calarge, C A

    2015-01-01

    The atypical antipsychotic risperidone (RSP) is often associated with weight gain and cardiometabolic side effects. The mechanisms for these adverse events are poorly understood and, undoubtedly, multifactorial in etiology. In light of growing evidence implicating the gut microbiome in the host's energy regulation and in xenobiotic metabolism, we hypothesized that RSP treatment would be associated with changes in the gut microbiome in children and adolescents. Thus, the impact of chronic (>12 months) and short-term use of RSP on the gut microbiome of pediatric psychiatrically ill male participants was examined in a cross-sectional and prospective (up to 10 months) design, respectively. Chronic treatment with RSP was associated with an increase in body mass index (BMI) and a significantly lower ratio of Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes as compared with antipsychotic-naïve psychiatric controls (ratio=0.15 vs 1.24, respectively; Pgut microbiota dominating the RSP-treated participants are enriched for pathways that have been implicated in weight gain, such as short-chain fatty acid production. PMID:26440540

  6. A pilot double-blind placebo-controlled trial of pioglitazone as adjunctive treatment to risperidone: Effects on aberrant behavior in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaleiha, Ali; Rasa, Soudeh Mohebbi; Nikoo, Mohammadali; Farokhnia, Mehdi; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2015-09-30

    To assess the safety and efficacy of pioglitazone added to risperidone in the treatment of irritability in autistic disorder (AD), we conducted this study. In a 10-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 44 outpatients of both genders aged 4-12 years with a diagnosis of AD and a score of ≥12 on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) irritability subscale were included. Mean change of ABC-C irritability subscale score as primary outcome, change in other ABC-C subscale scores and partial and complete responses were compared between two groups. Twenty patients completed the trial in each group. Level of reduction and effect of time×treatment interaction in the treatment group were significant for irritability (P=0.03), lethargy/social withdrawal (P=0.04) and hyperactivity/non-compliance (P=0.03) but not for stereotypic behavior and inappropriate speech subscales compared with the placebo group. Vomiting and headache were the most frequent reported side-effects. Results of this preliminary study indicate positive effects of pioglitazone compared with placebo in improving the behavioral symptoms of AD.

  7. Regulation of P-glycoprotein expression in brain capillaries in Huntington's disease and its impact on brain availability of antipsychotic agents risperidone and paliperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Han; Chern, Yijuang; Yang, Hui-Ting; Chen, Hui-Mei; Lin, Chun-Jung

    2016-08-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease marked by an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) tract on the huntingtin (HTT) protein that may cause transcriptional dysfunction. This study aimed to investigate the regulation and function of P-glycoprotein, an important efflux transporter, in brain capillaries in HD. The results showed that, compared with the littermate controls, R6/2 HD transgenic mice with the human mutant HTT gene had higher levels of P-glycoprotein mRNA and protein and enhanced NF-κB activity in their brain capillaries. Higher P-glycoprotein expression was also observed in the brain capillaries of human HD patients. Consistent with this enhanced P-glycoprotein expression, brain extracellular levels and brain-to-plasma ratios of the antipsychotic agents risperidone and paliperidone were significantly lower in R6/2 mice than in their littermate controls. Exogenous expression of human mutant HTT protein with expanded polyQ (mHTT-109Q) in HEK293T cells enhanced the levels of P-glycoprotein transcripts and NF-κB activity compared with cells expressing normal HTT-25Q. Treatment with the IKK inhibitor, BMS-345541, decreased P-glycoprotein mRNA level in cells transfected with mHTT-109Q or normal HTT-25Q In conclusion, mutant HTT altered the expression of P-glycoprotein through the NF-κB pathway in brain capillaries in HD and markedly affected the availability of P-glycoprotein substrates in the brain.

  8. Determination of risperidone in human plasma by HPLC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study in Chinese volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-zhu HUANG; Jian-zhong SHENTU; Junc-hun CHEN; Jian LIU; Hui-li ZHOU

    2008-01-01

    This study presents a rapid, specific and sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for determination of risperidone (RIS) in human serum using paroxetine as an internal standard (IS). An Alltima-C 18separation. The analysis was performed by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) method, and the peak area of the m/z 411.3→ 191.1 transition for RIS was measured versus that of the m/z 330.1→192.1 transition for IS to generate the standard curves. The assay linearity of RIS was confirmed over the range 0.25~50.00 ng/ml and the limit of quantitation was 0.05 ng/ml. The linear range corresponds well with the serum concentrations of the analytes obtained in clinical pharmacokinetic studies. Intraday and interday relative standard deviations were 1.85%~9.09% and 1.56%~4.38%, respectively. The recovery of RIS from serum was in the range of 70.20%~84.50%. The method was successfully applied to investigate the bioequivalence between two kinds of tablets (test versus reference products) in 18 healthy male Chinese volunteers. The result suggests that two formulations are bioequivalent.

  9. Prediction of long-term metabolic effects of olanzapine and risperidone treatment from baseline body mass index in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, William Victor; Bonaccorso, Stefania; Jayathilake, Karuna; Meltzer, Herbert Yale

    2011-09-30

    Baseline body mass index (BMI), baseline BMI status (normal, overweight, obese) and early (1 month) BMI increases were tested as predictors of 6- and 12-month increases in glucose and lipid measures in 82 olanzapine (OLZ)- and 78 risperidone (RIS)-treated patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder who participated in a 12-month randomized, prospective metabolic effects study. Baseline BMI predicted greater fasting glucose and HgbA1c levels at 12 months for both treatments. Early BMI change predicted fasting glucose levels at 6 months, but not HgbA1c or BMI, at either time point. For patients who received no concomitant mood stabilizers, early BMI change predicted 12 month HgbA1c values in the OLZ group, and 6- (but not 12-) month fasting glucose and HgbA1c values in the RIS group. Neither baseline BMI nor early BMI change consistently predicted increases in lipids with either drug. OLZ-treated patients with normal baseline BMI had greater increases in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-HDL-cholesterol than those who were overweight or obese. In conclusion, higher baseline BMI predicted adverse glycemic changes after 12 months with OLZ and RIS. Individuals with normal baseline BMI may be most susceptible to OLZ-induced hyperlipidosis. Frequency of metabolic screening should be independent of baseline BMI or rapid increases in BMI.

  10. Clinical research on sertraline and citalopram in the treatment of Parkinson disease (PD) combined with depression%舍曲林与西酞普兰治疗帕金森病合并抑郁的差别的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛艳国; 李珂; 王献; 洪丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of sertraline and citalopram in the treatment of Parkinson disease (PD) combined with depression. Methods Patients were randomly divided into citalopram group and sertraline group. We used self-rating depression scale to evaluate depression in PD combined with depression. The evaluations were done before the treatment, in the process of treatment (6 weeks) and 12 weeks after the treatment. Results Citalopram group of early onset was faster than the sertraline group. There was no difference in the effect of citalopram group and sertraline group 12 weeks later. Two groups were no serious adverse events. Conclusion Conventional doses of citalopram and sertraline in the treatment of PD combined with depression are safe and effective.%目的:研究舍曲林、西酞普兰治疗帕金森病合并抑郁的疗效及安全性。方法帕金森病合并抑郁患者随机分为舍曲林治疗组及西酞普兰治疗组,采用抑郁自评量表(SDS)在治疗前、治疗6周及治疗12周评价疗效。结果西酞普兰组早期起效快于舍曲林组,但12周后有效率无明显差别,两组均未见严重不良反应。结论常规剂量的舍曲林和西酞普兰治疗帕金森病伴发抑郁均安全有效。

  11. The Post-Ovariectomy Interval Affects the Antidepressant-Like Action of Citalopram Combined with Ethynyl-Estradiol in the Forced Swim Test in Middle Aged Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Rivera, Nelly M.; Gallardo Tenorio, Alfredo; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso; Estrada Camarena, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The use of a combined therapy with low doses of estrogens plus antidepressants to treat depression associated to perimenopause could be advantageous. However the use of these combinations is controversial due to several factors, including the time of intervention in relation to menopause onset. This paper analyzes whether time post-OVX influences the antidepressant-like action of a combination of ethynyl-estradiol (EE2) and citalopram (CIT) in the forced swim test (FST). Middle-aged (15 months old) female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and after one or three weeks treated with EE2 (1.25, 2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat, s.c.; −48 h) or CIT (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 or 10 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and tested in the FST. In a second experiment, after one or three weeks of OVX, rats received a combination of an ineffective dose of EE2 (1.25 µg/rat, s.c., −48 h) plus CIT (2.5 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and subjected to the FST. Finally, the uteri were removed and weighted to obtain an index of the peripheral effects of EE2 administration. EE2 (2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat) reduced immobility after one but not three weeks of OVX. In contrast, no CIT dose reduced immobility at one or three weeks after OVX. When EE2 (1.25 µg/rat) was combined with CIT (2.5 mg/kg) an antidepressant-like effect was observed at one but not three weeks post-OVX. The weight of the uteri augmented when EE2 was administrated three weeks after OVX. The data suggest that the time post-OVX is a crucial factor that contributes to observe the antidepressant-like effect of EE2 alone or in combination with CIT. PMID:27153072

  12. The Post-Ovariectomy Interval Affects the Antidepressant-Like Action of Citalopram Combined with Ethynyl-Estradiol in the Forced Swim Test in Middle Aged Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly M. Vega Rivera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of a combined therapy with low doses of estrogens plus antidepressants to treat depression associated to perimenopause could be advantageous. However the use of these combinations is controversial due to several factors, including the time of intervention in relation to menopause onset. This paper analyzes whether time post-OVX influences the antidepressant-like action of a combination of ethynyl-estradiol (EE2 and citalopram (CIT in the forced swim test (FST. Middle-aged (15 months old female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and after one or three weeks treated with EE2 (1.25, 2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat, s.c.; −48 h or CIT (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 or 10 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h and tested in the FST. In a second experiment, after one or three weeks of OVX, rats received a combination of an ineffective dose of EE2 (1.25 µg/rat, s.c., −48 h plus CIT (2.5 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h and subjected to the FST. Finally, the uteri were removed and weighted to obtain an index of the peripheral effects of EE2 administration. EE2 (2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat reduced immobility after one but not three weeks of OVX. In contrast, no CIT dose reduced immobility at one or three weeks after OVX. When EE2 (1.25 µg/rat was combined with CIT (2.5 mg/kg an antidepressant-like effect was observed at one but not three weeks post-OVX. The weight of the uteri augmented when EE2 was administrated three weeks after OVX. The data suggest that the time post-OVX is a crucial factor that contributes to observe the antidepressant-like effect of EE2 alone or in combination with CIT.

  13. Characterization and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of cross-linked chitosan films as implant for controlled release of citalopram

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Patit P Kundu; Santosh Kumar Jindal; Manish Goswami

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to develop cross-linked chitosan (CH) films that can release drug over an extended period of time and that too in a controlled manner. A solution of different percentages of CH, is prepared in 1% lactic acid, followed by addition of citalopram (CTP) and then reacted with increasing amounts of glutaraldehyde (GL) to obtain films with different cross-linking densities. Prepared films are characterized for their physical and mechanical properties. The films are then subjected to in vitro drug release studies using pH 7.4 phosphate buffer saline (PBS) as dissolution medium and cumulative amount of drug released is calculated. Kinetic analysis of drug release is performed using Power law model and Higuchi’s model.With increase in concentration of CH, water absorption capacity and mechanical strength are increased; whereas, water vapour permeability and elasticity of the films are decreased. The effect of cross-linking agent, GL, is such that with an increase in the amount of GL, water vapour permeability, water absorption capacity and elasticity of the films are decreased; whereas, mechanical strength increased to some extent and then decreased. In vitro release studies indicate that films containing 3% CH, cross-linked with 2–3% GL and films containing 4%CH, cross-linked 1%GL are able to sustain the drug release for a prolonged time along with releasing almost complete drug in a desired period. Out of these batches, films containing 3% CH, cross-linked with 2–3% GL are having sufficient strength, water vapour permeation, water absorption capacity and elongation at break for implantation purpose. The in vitro degradation studies and histopathological studies were carried out with a sample film (batch C3 as in table 1) in rabbit model. In vitro degradation study indicates that the films maintained their integrity for desired implantation. The histopathological studies under optical microscope indicates that on implanting, there is no

  14. 利培酮与氯氮平对精神分裂症患者糖脂代谢的影响%Influences of risperidone and clozapine on glucolipid metabo-lism of patients with schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海平; 钟远惠; 李桂云; 付美华

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the influences of risperidone and clozapine on glucolipid metabolism of patients with schizophrenia.Methods A total of 120 schizophrenia patients were assigned to two groups according to random number table and treated with risperidone or clozapine for 6 weeks.Blood sugar and fat changes were detected before and after treatment.Results After treatment all indexes of only blood sugar in risperidone group increased more significantly compared with pretreatment (P < 0.01 ),so did those of both blood sugar and fat in clozapine group and were significantly higher than those in risperidone group (P <0.01).After treatment the heightening rate of fasting plasma glucose abnormality was 1.7%in risperidone group and 41.7% in clozapine group,the former significantly lower than the latter (P <0. 01).increased abnormality,no diabetes standard has been found.,the difference of two groups of blood. Conclusion Both risperidone and clozapine have influences of different degrees,especially clozpaine,chan-ges of all metabolic indexes should be closely observed when patients are treated with clozapine.%目的:探讨利培酮与氯氮平对精神分裂症患者糖脂代谢的影响。方法将120例精神分裂症患者按照随机数字表法分为两组,分别口服利培酮、氯氮平治疗,观察6周。于治疗前后检测两组患者血糖、血脂水平的变化。结果治疗后利培酮组仅血糖各项指标较治疗前显著升高(P <0.01),而氯氮平组血糖、血脂各项指标均较治疗前显著升高,且显著高于利培酮组(P <0.01)。利培酮组治疗后空糖血糖异常增高率为1.7%,氯氮平组为41.7%,利培酮组显著低于氯氮平组(P <0.01)。结论利培酮与氯氮平对精神分裂症患者的糖脂代谢均有不同程度的影响,氯氮平的影响更明显,临床上选用氯氮平治疗时应密切监测各项代谢指标的变化。

  15. 利培酮联合舍曲林治疗精神分裂症阴性症状临床研究%Combination of Risperidone and Sertraline in Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江永

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the efficacies and safety of combination of risperidone and sertraline in negative symptoms of schizo -phrenia.Methods:60 schizophrenics were randomly divided into treatment (n=30,took risperidone combined with sertraline ) and control group (n=30,took risperidone ) dose of risperidone was 2~6mg/d and that of sertraline 100~200mg/d for 8 weeks.Before and after treatment , efficacies and side effects were assessed using the Negative Syndrome Scale ( NSS) and the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale ( TESS) .Results:After treatment total score and factors , score of the NSS of both 2 groups obviously reduced and differences were signifi-cant (P<0.05).compared with the control group the total score of the NSS and factors',score of apathy poverty of thought abulia and in-terest blank obviously reduced in the treatment group and differences were significant (P<0.05).there was no difference in side effects between the 2 groups.Conclusion:combination of risperidone and sertraline is better than single risperidone in the treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia .%目的:探讨利培酮联合舍曲林治疗精神分裂症阴性症状的临床疗效和安全性。方法:将60例精神分裂症患者随机分为治疗组(利培酮+舍曲林)和对照组(利培酮)各30例,利培酮治疗剂量2~6mg/d,舍曲林50mg~200mg/d,疗程8周,治疗后采用阴性症状量表和副反应量表[1]评定临床疗效与不良反应。结果:2组治疗后阴性症状量表总分和因子分均显著下降,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),治疗组阴性症状量表总分、情感平淡、思维贫乏、意志缺乏、兴趣缺乏等因子分较对照组下降明显,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。不良反应2组无显著性差异(P>0.05)。结论:利培酮联合舍曲林治疗精神分裂症阴性症状疗效优于单用利培酮治疗。

  16. 氨磺必利与利培酮治疗首发精神分裂症的疗效对照研究%Amisulpride and Risperidone Treatment First-episode Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婕

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analysis efficacy of amisulpride and risperidone treatment first -episode schizophrenia.Methods 74 patients with first -episode schizo-phrenia were given Amisulpride and risperidone therapy,BPRS score,adverse reaction were compared.Result BPRS rating scale values were significantly reduced,be-tween groups was no significant difference;observation group adverse reactions(18.92%) was obviously lower than the control group.Conclusion Amisulpride and risper-idone can be effective in the treatment of first-episode schizophrenia,Amisulpride low adverse reaction,good safety.%目的:分析氨磺必利与利培酮治疗首发精神分裂症的疗效差异。方法选择74例首发精神分裂症患者为研究对象,分别给予氨磺必利及利培酮治疗,比较BPRS量表评分、不良反应发生率。结果观察组与对照组BPRS量表评分值均明显降低,组间比较无明显差异(P>0.05);观察组不良反应发生率(18.92%)明显低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论氨磺必利与利培酮均可有效治疗首发精神分裂症,氨磺必利不良反应较少,具有优良的治疗安全性。

  17. Risperidone and Clozapine on Blood Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Patients With Schizophrenia%利培酮和氯氮平对精神分裂症患者血糖和脂代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘召英

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究利培酮和氯氮平对精神分裂症患者血糖和脂代谢的影响。方法选择2014年1月~2015年1月来我院精神科治疗精神分裂症的患者62例,随机分成利培酮组和氯氮平组,各31例,观察两组患者治疗效果。结果治疗后,利培酮组 TC 水平为(4.81±0.15) mmol/L 低于氯氮平组 TC 水平(5.25±0.24)mmol/L,两组血糖及血脂指标相比,差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论采用利培酮和氯氮平治疗精神分裂症对患者的血糖和脂代谢水平均有影响,相对而言氯氮平影响较大,临床医生在治疗精神分裂症时应该慎重使用药物。%Objective To observe the efficacy of risperidone and clozapine on blood glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with schizophrenia. Methods Selected 62 patients with schizophrenia from January 2014 to January 2015 in our hospital were randomly divided into risperidone group and clozapine group,31 cases,the treatment groups were observed. Results After treatment,the levels of TC risperidone group(4.81±0.15)mmol/L group was significantly lower than clozapine TC levels(5.25±0.24)mmol/L,glucose and lipid levels compared to the two groups,the differences were statistical y significance(P< 0.05). Conclusion Use wil significantly affect the treatment of schizophrenia with risperidone and clozapine on blood glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with relatively greater impact in terms of clozapine,clinicians in the treatment of schizophrenia drugs should be used with caution.

  18. Il trattamento dei disturbi psicotici con olanzapina, risperidone e neurolettici tipici: una valutazione comparativa di costo/efficacia in una realtà psichiatrica locale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidio Filippelli

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several clinical trials demonstrated that atypical antipsychotics are more effective but also more expensive (as drug cost compared with the typical neuroleptics by treating psychotic disorders. The present study aimed to evaluate this result using an observational approach which better reflects the real clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical effectiveness (including work and social functioning and overall direct costs in a group of patients affected by psychotic disorders (schizophrenia and bipolar and treated with typical and atypical (olanzapine and risperidone antipsychotics. METHODS: With a multicentre observational design - two years long - 89 patients (in charge by Psychiatric Centers of Regione Campania - Italy were assessed using CGI (Clinical Global Impression and GAF (Global Assessment of Functioning scales. Moreover economic data were collected with reference to pharmacological and non-pharmacological (hospitalization, medical/nurse visits, etc. resources consumption. The pharmacoeconomic analysis were conducted choosing the perspective of the local Psychiatric Services for costs attribution. RESULTS: Considering the treatment outcomes, the use of the atypical drugs provided better performances with reference to the patients quality of life. The results in terms of work and social functioning indicated an advantage in the olanzapine group of patients. Overall direct costs of treatment (drugs and healthcare resources didn’t generate significant differences among the groups of therapy despite the pharmacological cost evidentiated an economic advantage (p<0,05 in the typical group due to the cheaper cost of these drugs. The use of olanzapine was associated to a lower number of hospitalizations and showed a general reduction (- 16% of total treatment costs between 1st and 2nd year of observation. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of side effects, the improvement in work and social functioning, associated to a more efficient

  19. Negative Correlation between Serum S100B and Leptin Levels in Schizophrenic Patients During Treatment with Clozapine and Risperidone: Preliminary Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendouei, Narjes; Hosseini, Seyed Hamzeh; Panahi, Amin; Khazaeipour, Zahra; Barari, Fatemeh; Sahebnasagh, Adeleh; Ala, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Recently, extensive efforts have been made to understand the rate of energy expenditure and the weight gain associated with atypical antipsychotic treatment, including identification of markers of obesity risk. In recent years, leptin, an adipocyte hormone, has gained significant interest in psychiatric disorders. S100B has been considered as a surrogate marker for astrocyte-specific damage in neurologic disorders. Also, S100B has been detected in adipose with concentration as high as nervous tissue as a second release source. In this study we evaluated the relationship between S100B and leptin in schizophrenic patients under treatment with clozapine and risperidone.This study included 19 patients meeting the DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia, having body mass index (BMI) of 16- 25 kg/m(2) and suffering schizophrenia for more than 3 years and from this study. Twenty five healthy controls were group matched for age and gender whose BMI was 16-25 kg/m(2). Serum S100B and leptin levels and positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS) were assessed at admission and after six weeks. During the study, S100B showed a strong and negative correlation with leptin (r = -0.5, P = 0.01). Also, there were negative correlation between serum S100B level and PANSS negative subscale after 6 weeks of treatment (r = -0.048, P = 0.8). Positive correlation between leptin level and PANSS suggested a potential role for leptin which can mediate the link between antipsychotic induced weight gain and therapeutic response in schizophrenia.

  20. Regulation of P-glycoprotein expression in brain capillaries in Huntington's disease and its impact on brain availability of antipsychotic agents risperidone and paliperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Han; Chern, Yijuang; Yang, Hui-Ting; Chen, Hui-Mei; Lin, Chun-Jung

    2016-08-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease marked by an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) tract on the huntingtin (HTT) protein that may cause transcriptional dysfunction. This study aimed to investigate the regulation and function of P-glycoprotein, an important efflux transporter, in brain capillaries in HD. The results showed that, compared with the littermate controls, R6/2 HD transgenic mice with the human mutant HTT gene had higher levels of P-glycoprotein mRNA and protein and enhanced NF-κB activity in their brain capillaries. Higher P-glycoprotein expression was also observed in the brain capillaries of human HD patients. Consistent with this enhanced P-glycoprotein expression, brain extracellular levels and brain-to-plasma ratios of the antipsychotic agents risperidone and paliperidone were significantly lower in R6/2 mice than in their littermate controls. Exogenous expression of human mutant HTT protein with expanded polyQ (mHTT-109Q) in HEK293T cells enhanced the levels of P-glycoprotein transcripts and NF-κB activity compared with cells expressing normal HTT-25Q. Treatment with the IKK inhibitor, BMS-345541, decreased P-glycoprotein mRNA level in cells transfected with mHTT-109Q or normal HTT-25Q In conclusion, mutant HTT altered the expression of P-glycoprotein through the NF-κB pathway in brain capillaries in HD and markedly affected the availability of P-glycoprotein substrates in the brain. PMID:26661162

  1. Therapeutic Effect of Citalopram Combined with Shenshuaining Pill in Treatment of Post-stroke Depression%西酞普兰合并神衰宁丸治疗脑卒中后抑郁症

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程素满; 陈金峰; 李志榕

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨西酞普兰合并神衰宁丸治疗脑卒中后抑郁的临床疗效.方法:将80例脑卒中后抑郁患者随机分为西酞普兰合并神衰宁丸的治疗组和西酞普兰对照组各40例,观察治疗6周.于治疗前及治疗1,2,4,6周末采用汉密顿抑郁量表(HAMD)进行抗抑郁疗效评定,用改良的爱丁堡-斯堪的纳维亚卒中量表(MESSS)进行神经功能康复评定,用治疗中出现的症状量表(TESS)评定药物不良反应.结果:HAMD和TESS评分显示,在第1和2周末治疗组和对照组区别显著(P <0.05);MESSS评分显示:在治疗6周末,治疗组(14.22 ± 4.53)比对照组(17.38±5.10)下降显著(P<0.05).结论:在治疗脑卒中后抑郁中,酞普兰合并神衰宁丸抗抑郁的起效更快,对神经功能的康复效果和患者的耐受性都较好.%Objective: To study the therapeutic effect of citalopram combined with Shenshuaining pill (SSNP) in the treatment of post-stroke depression. Method: Eighty post-stroke depression patients were randomly assigned into treated (citalopram combined with SSNP) and control (citalopram) groups (each n = 40 ) for 6 weeks. Anti-depression therapeutic effect, neural functional impairment and adverse reactions were assessed with the hamilton depression scale (HAMD), the modified Edinburgh-Scandinavia stroke scale (MESSS), and the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale(TESS) respectively. Result: In the treatment group, the scores of the HAMD and TESS distinguished markedly at the end of the 1st and 2st weeks, and the total scores of the MESSS were 14. 22 ±4. 53 in treatment groups at the end of the 6th were, compared with control group( 17.38 ±5. 10), they decreased significantly distinguished ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion: Citalopram combined with SSNP had superior therapeutic effect for neural function recovery, and was a kind of rapid and safe drug in the treatment of post-stroke depression.

  2. Comparative study on the treatment of depression with mirtazapin,Citalopram and Amitriptyline%米氮平与西酞普兰、阿米替林治疗抑郁症的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴强; 郭平

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较米氮平与西酞普兰、阿米替林治疗抑郁症的疗效、副反应。方法:将120例抑郁症患者随机分为3组,分别给于米氮平、西酞普兰、阿米替林治疗4周。采用汉米尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、副反应量表(TESS),在治疗前,1、2、4周末分别评定疗效、副反应。结果:米氮平组在第1周末即显效,HAMD评分与治疗前以及与另两组比较差异有显著性(P<0.05,P<0.01),而另两组与治疗前比较尚无差异性(P>0.05)。在第2周末差异较治疗前更显著(P<0.01),而且仍然与另两组差异有显著性(P<0.05)。至第4周末三组与治疗前比较差异均极有显著性(P<0.01),但三组间比较无差异性。阿米替林组锥体外系及抗胆碱能副反应最高,消化系统和精神和神经系统副反应西酞普兰组最高。结论:米氮平治疗抑郁症比阿米替林及西酞普兰起效较快,副反应较少。%Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of mirtazapine ,citalopram and Amitriptyline in the treatment of patients with depression .Methods 120 patients with depression were randomly divided into 3 groups, which were treated with mirtazapine ,Citalopram and Amitriptyline 4 weeks,respectively.Hamilton depression scale (HAMD), the treatment emergent symptoms scale (TESS) were measured to assess the efficacy and safety before treatment and the end of 1st,2st,4st week,respectively.Result Compared with base line ,the HAMD increased significantly after a 1-week treatment in mirtazapine,especily after a 2-week treatment,and it had a significant difference , comparing with the other group.while in Citalopram and Amitriptyline ,no significant changes were found.Then compared with base line,every date increased significantly after a 4-week treatment , (P< 0.01).But between each group, no significant changes were found. Among the three groups, the extrapyramidal and anticholinergic side effects was highest in

  3. 艾司西酞普兰与西酞普兰治疗老年性抑郁症的对照研究%Escitalopram and Citalopram in Treatment of Senile Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王巍

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of escitalopram and citalopram in the treatment of senile depression. Methods A total of 80 elder patients met ICD-10 depression diagnostic criteria were randomly divided into escitalopram group and citalopram group,respectively, for a 6 weeksstudy. .Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD)and Trealment Emergent Symp-tom Scale (TESS)were used to observe the effectiveness and aduerse reactions befor treatment and by the end of 1,2,4and6 weeks. Results After 6 weeks of treatment,ghe HAMD scores decreased from (23.49±2.16)and (22.98±2.14)to(7.57±2.94)and (7.92±3.09)in the escitalopram group and the citalopram group respectively,the effective rate was 82.5% and 80%,and the curative rate was 52.5%and 50%.There was no significant difference in the effective and curative rate between the 2 groups.No significant dif-ference was found in main side effects between the 2 groups (P>0.05).Conclusion Ai Sciplan and citalopram in the treatment of patients with senile depression the same, but from the two set of short-term curative effect of long-term efficacy of the same Ai Sciplan Ai Sciplan faster, faster onset.%目的:探讨艾司西酞普兰与西酞普兰对老年性抑郁症的治疗效果和安全性。方法将80例符合ICD-10的抑郁症诊断标准的老年患者,随机分为艾司西酞普兰和西酞普兰组各40例,疗程42 d后。于治疗前及治疗1、2、4及6周末分别使用了汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)和治疗中出现的反应量表(TESS),这两个表格是能够评定疗效以及患者出现不良反应的。结果结果艾司西酞普兰组与西酞普兰组均在第1周末起效,第2周末出现显著疗效。治疗8周后,两组患者HAMD,HAMA评分与治疗前相比均有显著下降,两组间HAMD,HAMA减分率比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)艾司西酞普兰组治疗第1周恶心呕吐的发生率对比西酞普兰组差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论艾司

  4. Comparison between the effects of Sertraline and Citalopram on the life quality of the depressive disorder%舍曲林和西酞普兰对抑郁症患者生活质量影响的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢玲; 胡君

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨舍曲林和西酞普兰对抑郁症患者生活质量的影响。方法将60例抑郁症患者随机分为两组,每组各30例。分别给予舍曲林和西酞普兰治疗。以生活质量综合问卷(GQLT-74)、汉米尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)评定两组患者生活质量的改变及抑郁状况。结果治疗2个月末时,两组治疗抑郁症疗效相当,西酞普兰副反应少于舍曲林;西酞普兰对抑郁症患者生活质量各维度的影响均具有显著性(P0.05)。结论西酞普兰组与舍曲林组相比,西酞普兰更能改善抑郁症患者的生活质量。%Objective :To explore the effects of Sertraline and Citalopram the social function and life quality of the depressive disorder Citalopram. Methods :60 depressive disorder that are consistent with the diagnostic criteria of depression in ICD-10 were divide drandomly into two groups and treated with Sertraline and Citalopram, respectively . Each group of 30 cases. Before and after the treatment, the depress symptoms were evaluated by HAMD and the life quality was evaluated by GQOLI-74,Results :The curative effect of improving depression symptoms in Citalopram group was equivalent with that of Sertraline group in the end of 2 month treatment. After 2 months treatment, the Citalopram group improved obviously the life quality ( P 0. 05) . Conclusions :Citalopram is more useful for improving he life quality of the depressive disorder than Sertraline.

  5. 西酞普兰与氟西汀治疗中国老年抑郁症患者的系统评价%Citalopram vs. Fluoxetine in Treatment of Senile Patients with Depression in China:A Systematic Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 杜彪; 骆洪

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To compare the clinical efficacy and the adverse reactions between citalopram and fluoxetine in treatment of senile patients with depression in china.METHODS: A total of 11 papers about controlled study comparing clinical efficacy and the adverse reactions between citalopram and fluoxetine for senile patients with depression retrieved from 1994 to 2013 in China were subjected to a meta-analysis.RESULTS:There was no significant difference in clinical efficacy between citalopram and fluoxetine (P>0.05, OR=1.17, 95%CI (0.81-1.68).The incidence rate of headache and sweating in fluoxetine group were significantly higher than in citalopram group ( P0.05 ) .CONCLUSION: Citalopram is as effective as fluoxetine as antidepressants in senile patients in China with similar efficacy, and the adverse drug reaction of citalopram is mild.%目的:比较西酞普兰与氟西汀治疗中国老年抑郁症患者的疗效和不良反应发生率。方法:收集1994—2013年国内所有关于西酞普兰与氟西汀治疗老年抑郁症的随机对照研究文献,应用系统评价方法对检索到的11篇随机对照研究文献进行定量综合分析。结果:西酞普兰与氟西汀的疗效差异无统计学意义[P>0.05,OR=1.17,95%CI(0.81~1.68)],氟西汀组头痛、出汗发生率较酞普兰组多见,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。其他不良反应发生率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:西酞普兰与氟西汀治疗中国老年抑郁症患者的疗效相似,西酞普兰较氟西汀不良反应轻微。

  6. Longitudinal Observation on Brain Structure in Patients with Dependence on Sublingual Buprenorphine, Scopolamine and Promethazine in Different Stages of Abstinence%丁丙诺啡舌下片合并东莨菪碱、异丙嗪药物依赖者脑灰质密度的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周旭辉; 王绪轶; 刘军; 郝伟

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察盐酸丁丙诺啡舌下片(sublingual buprenorphine)合并东莨菪碱(scopolamine)、异丙嗪(promethazine)药物依赖者(简称BSP依赖者)脑灰质密度的变化,并比较其与海洛因依赖者脑结构损害的异同.方法:采用基于像素的形态学测量(voxel-based morphometry,VBM)方法对16例BSP依赖者、20例海洛因依赖者停药第3天、第2个月的脑灰质密度进行了组间以及组内自身前后对比研究,并设立18例正常对照者.结果:与正常对照组相比,BSP滥用可导致成瘾者大脑广泛性脑结构损害,表现为灰质密度下降,涉及额叶、顶叶、颞叶、枕叶、岛叶、纹状体等脑区;与海洛因依赖组相比,停药3天BSP依赖组脑区灰质受损程度重于海洛因依赖组,且随着停药时间的延长,BSP依赖者灰质恢复进程慢于海洛因依赖者.结论:BSP滥用可造成依赖者广泛性、严重的脑皮质结构异常,主要集中在额叶等与成瘾关系密切的脑区.BSP滥用较海洛因更易损伤大脑皮质神经元,且大脑灰质恢复进程慢于海洛因依赖组,这提示BSP滥用对大脑皮质神经元的损害在短时间难以恢复.%Objective: Recently, an intravenous abuse of buprenorphine tablets, scopolamine and promethazine solution (BSP) has been emerging among heroin-dependent individuals in some areas of Southern China. The aim of this study was to explore the brain structural pathological changes in the patients with BSP dependence, by three dimensional MRI(3D)and compare their impairment of the brain with that of the heroin addicts. Methods: BSP-dependent patients(n=16), heroin-dependent individuals (n=20) and age/eduction-matched healthy control subjects (n=18) were assessed by 3D during resting state. Patients with BSP and heroin dependence were examined by MRI scanning after 3 days and 2 months of abstinence, while control subjects were tested only once. Results: Compared with health controls, GMD was significantly lower in

  7. 氯氮平与利培酮对血清催乳素水平的影响%The effects of clozapine and risperidone on serum prolactin levels of female schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯静; 徐贵云; 马崔; 吴福喜; 黎德美; 陆欣乔; 朱海兵

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To assess the serum prolactin levels of female firstonset schizophrenia in the treatment of clozapine and risperidone. Method:ELISA had been used to determine the serum prolactin levels. Results:The serum prolactin levels of risperidone-treated patients increased significantly 10 weeks later, while those of clozapine-treated patients showed no obvious change. Conclusion:Neither can the serum prolactin levels explain the pathogenesis and severity of schizophrenia, nor predict the clinical outcome of atypical antipsychotics.%目的:了解氯氮平或利培酮对首发女性精神分裂症患者血清催乳素水平的变化。 方法:采用ELISA方法测定血清催乳素水平。 结果:治疗后氯氮平组血清催乳素水平没有显著变化,而利培酮组血清催乳素水平显著升高。 结论:催乳素水平不能说明精神分裂症发病及严重程度,也不能作为非典型抗精神病药疗效的指标。

  8. 1H and 13C NMR Assignments for Amlodipine and Risperidone%氨氯地平和利培酮的1H和13C核磁共振信号归属

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春晖; 李勤; 刘雪辉; 赵兴凯; 崔育新

    2004-01-01

    目的对氨氯地平和利培酮两种药物分子进行核磁共振研究.方法应用一维和二维核磁共振技术,如gCOSY, gHSQC和gHMBC.结果对两种药物分子核磁共振氢谱和碳谱进行了归属,氟碳间的耦合常数对碳谱的解析提供了有利的证据.结论通过核磁共振化学位移和耦合常数的分析,确证了氨氯地平和利培酮两种药物分子的化学结构.%Aim To investigate the NMR spectroscopy of amlodipine and risperidone.Methods 1D NMR and 2D NMR experimental techniques of gCOSY, gHSQC and gHMBC were wsed.Results The assignments of the 1H and 13C NMR data for the two drugs were performed and confirmed by the evidence of JHF and JCF.Conclusion The structures of amlodipine and risperidone were confirmed by careful analysis of regular 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy.

  9. 齐拉西酮与利培酮治疗精神分裂症的临床对照研究%The Comparative Investigation between Ziprasidone and Risperidone in the Treatment of Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘勇; 王皖生; 支瑞瑞

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨齐拉西酮与利培酮治疗精神分裂症的临床疗效与安全性.方法 将60例符合第三版(CCMD-3)诊断的精神分裂症患者随机分为研究组和对照组各30例,分别予以齐拉西酮与利培酮治疗,疗程8周.分别于治疗前及治疗第8周末采用阳性症状和阴性症状量表(positive symptoms and negative symp-toms scale,PANSS)评定疗效,以治疗中出现的不良反应采用副反应量表(treatment emersent symptom scale,TESS)进行评定.结果 治疗8周后,齐拉西酮组的显效率为66.7%,总有效率为86.7%,利培酮组的显效率为70%,总有效率为90%,两组比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).两组PANSS评分治疗后均较治疗前明显下降,两组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).齐拉西酮组引起患者锥体外系副反应,体重增加,女性月经改变等方面的几率明显少于利培酮组.结论 齐拉西酮对精神分裂症疗效与利培酮相当,不良反应较少,依从性好.%Objective To explore the clinical efficacy and safety of ziprasidone and risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods 60 patients cases met the CCMD-3 diagnosis of schizophrenia were randomly assigned to ziprasidone group( n=30)or risperidone group( n=30 ). The efficacy of patients were assessed with the positive symptoms and negative symptoms scale (PANSS), and the side efficacy was evaluated with treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS). Results After 8 weeks treatment,the marked improvement rate was 66.7% and effective rate was 86.7% in ziprasidone group,while 70% and 90% in risperidone group, and there were no significant differences between two groups( P > 0. 05 ). After treatment, the two groups showed significant differences compared with the PANSS. Frequency of extrapyramidal reactions, weight gain, and menstrual changes in women were significantly less in ziprasidone group than in risperidone. Conclusion Ziprasidone was as effective as risperidone for the

  10. Meta-analysis of efficacy and safety of citalopram and fluoxetine for depression in Chinese patients%西酞普兰与氟西汀治疗中国抑郁症患者疗效和安全性的meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭珍珍; 祝漫琴; 李焕德; 成日华; 刘艺平

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较西酞普兰与氟西汀在中国抑郁症患者中的疗效和安全性.方法 计算机检索CBM、CNKI、万方数据库,采用RevMan 5.0软件进行meta分析.结果 西酞普兰与氟西汀抗抑郁治疗6周后,以汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)评定疗效,总有效率的meta分析结果表明,有效率比值比OR值为1.29,其95%的可信区间为0.98~1.69,两者不存在显著性差异.疗程为1、2周时,西酞普兰治疗组的HAMD评分比氟西汀治疗组低,具有统计学差异,即西酞普兰起效速度优于氟西汀;疗程为4、6周时,西酞普兰治疗组的HAMD评分与氟西汀治疗组差异无统计学意义,即两者疗效无统计学差异性.以西酞普兰与氟西汀抗抑郁治疗失败的相对危险度RR比较其不良反应的危险度,结果显示便秘、失眠这2个不良反应的合并RR值分别为0.4 (95%CI 0.24,0.64)和0.54 (95%CI0.34,0.86),表明西酞普兰便秘和失眠不良反应的发生率均低于氟西汀,具有统计学差异.结论 西酞普兰与氟西汀长期治疗效果相当,但西酞普兰起效快于氟西汀,且西酞普兰便秘和失眠不良反应的发生率均低于氟西汀.%Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of citalopram and fluoxetine in Chinese patients with depression. Methods CBM, CNKI, and Wanfang database were searched. Meta-analysis was performed with RevMan 5. 0. Results There was no significant difference in the efficacy between citalopram and fluoxetine by Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) with OR= 1. 29 and 95%CI 0. 98 to 1. 69 after 6 weeks. Citalopram caused greater reduction in HAMD score than fluoxetine after 1 and 2 weeks, suggesting the onset of citalopram was faster than that of fluoxetine. There were no significant differences in the decrease of HAMD scores between citalopram and fluoxetine after 4 and 6 weeks. Incidence of astriction [RR=0. 4, 95%CI 0. 24, 0. 64], insomnia [RR=0. 54, 95%CI 0. 34, 0. 86] induced by the citalopram group was

  11. Efficacy of Citalopram Combined with Low-dose Amitriptyline and Paroxetine in the Treatment of Depression%西酞普兰合并低剂量阿米替林与帕罗西汀治疗抑郁症的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡远帆

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study value and safety of the citalopram combined with low-dose amitriptyline and parosetine in the treatment of depression.Methode Collecting form January 2009 to October 2009in our hospotal out-patient and hospitalization in patients with depression,112 cases were randomly divided into combined low dose of citalopram parosetine amitriptyline group and 56 cases were rand groups,treatment for 6 weeks using hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD)and adverse reactions Scale (TESS)in the treatment of pre-and post assessment of 1,2,4,6weekend efficacy and adverse reactions of drugs.Results Citalopram combined with low-dose amitriptyline and paroxetine in the treatment groups 1~2weeks befor and aftet the HAMD score difference was significant (P0.05),citalopram combined with 46.43%,differenct between two groups was statistically significant(P0.05),西酞普兰合并低剂量阿米替林组不良反应总发生率为26.79%,帕罗西汀则为46.43%,两组差异有显著性(P<0.05).结论 西酞普兰合并低剂量阿米替林与帕罗西汀治疗抑郁症均有效,不良反应较轻,但西酞普兰合并低剂量阿米替林更安全,服用方便,不良反应更小,可作为治疗抑郁症的首选联合药物.

  12. 西酞普兰合并氯氮平治疗有自杀风险的精神分裂症患者的疗效及安全性%The efficacy and safety of combined citalopram and clozapine in the treatment of schizophrenia patient with suicidal risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗娴; 邱育平; 张业祥

    2012-01-01

      To research the efficacy and safety of combined citalopram and clozapine in the treatment of schizophrenia with suicidal risk,A study was contucted in which 46 patients with schizophrenia were randomised divided to study group and control group.The result shows that the efficacy of treatment of Combined Citalopram and Clozapine is better than treatment of Clozapine. the risk of suicide also cecreace by Combined Citalopram and Clozapine.and the safety is equivalent.%  [要] 本文通过46例有自杀风险的精神分裂症患者随机分为研究组(23例)和对照组(23例)探讨西酞普兰合并氯氮平治疗有自杀风险的精神分裂症患者的疗效及安全性。验证了西酞普兰合并氯氮平治疗有自杀风险的精神分裂症患者的疗效好于单用氯氮平,自杀风险降低,安全性相仿。

  13. Clinical Controlled Study on the Effect of Risperidone Microsphere on Schizophrenia%利培酮微球治疗精神分裂症疗效的临床对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦国兴; 甘建光; 田国强

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨利培酮微球治疗精神分裂症的疗效与安全性.方法 选取2007年1月-2009年9月我院就诊的精神分裂症患者35例为试验组,同时选择与试验组诊断相同、性别相同、年龄差异≤5岁,阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS)评分差异≤5分的患者35例为对照组.试验组给予注射用长效利培酮微球25.0 mg或37.5 mg肌肉注射,1次/2周;对照组给予利培酮片1 mg,口服,2次/d,1周内逐步加至3~6 mg/d.观察2组用药剂量、治疗前后PANSS评分、有效率及不良事件发生情况.结果 2、4、6个月时试验组注射用长效利培酮微球平均剂量分别为(31.2±7.0)mg/2周、(33.8±6.6)mg/2周、(30.2±7.0)mg/2周;对照组利培酮片平均剂量分别为(4.5±1.0)mg/d、(4.1±0.8)mg/d、(4.1±0.9)mg/d.试验组与对照组患者治疗前后不同时间PANSS评分比较,差异有统计学意义(F时间=53.34,P<0.01);而两组间PANSS评分比较差异无统计学意义(F组间=0.54,P>0.05);试验组和对照组患者治疗前与治疗2、4、6个月时比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).治疗6个月后,试验组有效31例,有效率为91.2%,无一例复发;对照组有效29例,复发2例,有效率为85.3%,两组有效率比较差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.142,P=0.707).试验组16例(47.1%)发生不良事件,对照组22例(64.7%)发生不良事件,两组不良事件发生率比较差异无统计学意义(χ2=2.15,P>0.05).结论 注射用长效利培酮微球与利培酮片有同等的疗效和安全性,由于长效抗精神病药针剂具有的强制性等先天优点,可以作为精神分裂症维持治疗的一种良好选择.%Objective To investigate clinical efficacy and safety of risperidone microspheres in the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods 35 cases of schizophrenic admitted to our hospital from January 2007 to September 2009 were selected as experiment group, while another 35 patients with the same diagnosis, same sex, age differences ≤ 5 and PANSS

  14. 比较氨磺必利与利培酮治疗精神分裂症的效果评价%Analysis of clinical effects and adverse reactions of amisulpride and risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建新; 王艳娉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze clinical effects and adverse reactions of amisulpride and risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia.Methods A total of 130 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia were divided into research group and control group. 65 cases in the research group were treated with amisulpride, and the other 65 cases in the control group were treated with risperidone. The course of treatment lasted for 8 weeks, and the positive and negative symptoms scale (PANSS) and adverse event scale (TESS) were applied to evaluate the clinical effects and adverse reactions.Results The total effective rate of the research group was 83%, and that of the control group was 77%. Difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05). After 8 weeks, PANSS score values were significantly decreased both in the research group and the control group (P0.05). Conclusion The clinical effect of amisulpride is better than risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia, and they have similar adverse reactions.%目的:分析氨磺必利与利培酮治疗精神分裂症的临床效果和不良反应。方法精神分裂症患者130例,分为研究组和对照组,研究组65例予以氨磺必利治疗,对照组65例采用利培酮治疗,疗程共计8周,采用阳性与阴性症状量表( PANSS)和副反应量表(TESS)评定其疗效和不良反应。结果研究组总有效率为83%,对照组总有效率为77%,两组间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。8周末研究组和对照组PANSS总分值均显著下降(P0.05)。结论氨磺必利治疗精神分裂症疗效优于利培酮,且不良反应与利培酮相似。

  15. 氨磺必利与利培酮治疗精神分裂症对照研究%A control study of amisulpride vs .risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华江; 徐清

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of amisulpride vs .risper-idone in the treatment of schizophrenia .Methods Sixty schizophrenics were randomly divided into two groups of 30 ones each ,research group took orally amisulpride and control group did risperidone for 8 weeks .Efficacies were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and adverse re-actions with the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) .Results At the end of the 8th week obvious effective and effective rate were respectively 70 .0% and 93 .3% in research and 66 .7% and 93 .3% in con-trol group ,which showed no significant differences (P> 0 .05) .Incidences of extrapyramidal reactions , dysfunction of liver and weight gain were significantly lower in research than in control group (P<0 .05) . Conclusion Amisulpride has an evident effect equivalent to risperidone ,higher safety and better compli-ance in the treatment of schizophrenia .%目的:探讨氨磺必利与利培酮治疗精神分裂症的临床疗效和安全性。方法将60例精神分裂症患者随机分为两组,每组30例,研究组口服氨磺必利治疗,对照组口服利培酮治疗。观察8周。采用阳性与阴性症状量表评定临床疗效,副反应量表评定不良反应。结果治疗8周末,研究组显效率为70.0%、有效率为93.3%,对照组分别为66.7%、93.3%,两组比较差异无显著性(P>0.05)。研究组锥体外系反应、肝功能异常及体质量增加发生率均显著低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论氨磺必利治疗精神分裂症疗效显著且与利培酮相当,安全性高,依从性好。

  16. CONTROL STUDY BETWEEN RISPERIDONE ORAL SOLUTION AND OLANZAPINE FOR ALCOHOL -INDUCED MENTAL DISORDER%利培酮口服液与奥氮平治疗酒精所致精神障碍对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽莉; 吕浩; 杨建立

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨利培酮口服液与奥氮平治疗酒精所致精神障碍的疗效和安全性.方法:将68例男性酒精所致精神障碍患者随机分为利培酮口服液治疗组和奥氮平治疗组.采用阳性与阴性症状量表( PANSS)评定临床疗效;采用治疗副反应量表( TESS)评定药物不良反应.结果:利培酮口服液与奥氮平两组疗效差异无显著性.利培酮口服液主要不良反应为锥外系反应,奥氮平为体重增加.结论:利培酮口服液与奥氮平治疗酒精所致精神障碍疗效及耐受性均好,可根据用药对象对不良反应的耐受等情况进行选择.%Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of risperidone oral solution and olanzapine in the treatment of alcohol - induced mental disorder. Methods: Sixty - eight male patients with alcohol - induced mental disorder were randomly divided into risperidone oral solution group and olanzapine group. Clinical effect was evaluated by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) ,and the adverse drug reactions were assessed with Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale ( TESS) . Results: No significant differences were observed in the clinical effect of the two groups. The main side effect experienced by the olanzapine group was body weight gain, while the resperidone oral solution group showed extrapyramidal responses. Conclusion: Both olanzapine and risperidone oral solution are safe and effective for the treatment of alcohol - induced mental disorder,and can be clinically selected according to patients' tolerance of the side effects.

  17. 氯氮平与利培酮对精神分裂症患者认知功能的影响比较%Comparison of effect between clozapine and risperidone in treating social cognition of patients with schizophrenia.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高磊

    2016-01-01

    目的 比较氯氮平与利培酮对精神分裂症患者认知功能的影响.方法 选取徐州精神病院 2014 年2 月—2015 年 2 月收治的 82 例精神分裂症患者,按照随机数字表法将患者分为氯氮平组和利培酮组,各 41 例.氯氮平组患者给予氯氮平治疗,利培酮组患者给予利培酮治疗,比较两组患者的阴性和阳性症状量表( PANSS)评分、简易智力量表(MMSE)评分、临床疗效和锥体外系反应发生情况.结果 治疗前后两组患者 PANSS 阳性和阴性症状及一般病理评分比较,差异均无统计学意义(P > 0. 05).两组患者总有效率比较,差异无统计学意义(P > 0. 05);治疗前两组患者 MMSE 评分比较,差异无统计学意义(P > 0. 05);治疗后利培酮组 MMSE 评分高于氯氮平组,差异有统计学意义(P 0. 05) . The total effective rate showed no significant differences between the two groups(P > 0. 05). Before treatment,MMSE score showed no significant differences between the two groups(P > 0. 05);after treatment,MMSE score of risperidone group was higher than that of clozapine group(P < 0. 05). Incidence of extrapyramidal reactions of risperidone group was higher than that of clozapine group(P < 0. 05). Conclusion Risperidone in the treatment of social cognition of patients with schizophrenia is better than that of clozapine,but has high incidence of extrapyramidal reactions

  18. 利培酮治疗难治性分裂情感性精神病临床研究%Clinical research on risperidone in the treatment of refractory schizoaffective psychosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘元华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of risperidone for the treatment of refractory schizoaffective psychosis. Methods 84 patients with refractory schizoaffective psychosis were randomly divided into observation group and control group, and 42 cases were in each group.The two groups were received lithium treatment, and risperidone was added in observation group, while the control group added clozapine. The clinical efficacy of two groups were compared. Results After treatment, the HAMD, BRMS and the PANSS factor scores were significantly lower, but the observation group was significantly lower than the control group(P<0.05);the total effective rate of HAMD,BRMS and PANSS in observation group were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05);the TESS score of observation group was significantly lower than the control group(P<0.05). Conclusion Risperidone for the treatment of refractory schizoaffective psychosis has a significant effect and less adverse reactions, it should be widely applied.%目的:探讨利培酮用于治疗难治性分裂情感性精神病的临床疗效。方法84例分裂情感性精神病患者随机分为观察组与对照组,各42例,两组均予以碳酸锂治疗,观察组加用利培酮,对照组加用氯氮平,比较两组的临床疗效。结果两组治疗后HAMD、BRMS以及PANSS各项因子评分均降低,且观察组各因子评分低于对照组,差异具统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组的临床总有效率均高于对照组,差异具统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组的TESS评分显著低于对照组,差异具统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论利培酮用于治疗难治性分裂情感性精神病疗效显著,不良反应少。

  19. Comparison of Efficacy and Prolactin Concentrations between Aripiprazole and Risperidone Treat-ments in Patients with Schizophrenia%阿立哌唑替换利培酮治疗对精神分裂症患者血清催乳素水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马筠; 李轶琛; 李毅; 房茂胜; 钟宝亮

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the prolactin concentrations between aripiprazole and risperidone treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: One hundred and twenty-eight schizophrenic patients with hy-perprolactinemia were randomly divided into risperidone group and aripiprazole group. Patients in the risperidone group were treated with risperidone and in the aripiprazole group were treated with aripiprazol instead of risperidone for 8 weeks. The prolactin concentrations were assessed and compared between two groups at weeks 0, 1,2, 4, 6, and 8. The clinical status was assessed by using the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) and the clinical global impressions scale (CGIS) atweeks0 and 8. Results: Fifty-three in the risperidone group and 48 in the aripiprazole group were available for analyzing. Shift risperidone to aripiprazole was effective in reducing serum prolactin levels. The serum prolactin levels in the risperidone group was significantly lower than that in the aripiprazole group at week 8 (P<0.001). No significant changes was found in the PANSS and CGI-S scores between the two groups. Conclusion: Shift risperidone to aripiprazole was effective in reducing serum prolactin levels of schizophrenia patients with hyperprolactinemia.%目的:研究阿立哌唑替换利培酮治疗对精神分裂症患者血清催乳素水平的影响.方法:伴有高催乳素血症的精神分裂症患者128 例,随机分为利培酮组(维持利培酮治疗)和阿立哌唑(阿立哌唑替代利培酮治疗)组,治疗8 周.于第0、1、2、4、6 及8 周测血清催乳素水平及身体质量指数(BMI);在入组时和治疗8 周时采用阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS)和临床总体印象量表(CGIS)测定疗效.结果:可用于评估的数据101 例,利培酮组53 例,阿立哌唑组48 例.阿立哌唑组替换治疗后第1 周血清催乳素水平即明显下降,第8 周时,显著低于利培酮组(P<0.001);2 组BMI 、PANSS 及CGIS 评分及变化差异无统计

  20. 氢溴酸西酞普兰片合并小剂量米氮平片治疗抑郁症的临床研究%A clinical study of combined Citalopram Hydrobromide and small dose Mirtazapine tablets in the treatment of depression LI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梅; 张小娟; 蒋硕

    2013-01-01

      目的比较氢溴酸西酞普兰片合并小剂量米氮平片与单用氢溴酸西酞普兰片治疗抑郁症的疗效及不良反应.方法将符合标准的88例抑郁症患者分为两组,治疗组给予氢溴酸西酞普兰片合并米氮平片治疗(n=45),对照组予氢溴酸西酞普兰治疗(n=43),疗程6周.用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)在治疗前及治疗1、2、4、6周末评定疗效,用副反应量表(TESS)评定不良反应.结果两组总体疗效有显著差异性(P <0.05):治疗组对抑郁症起效较快,临床治愈率更高,副作用没有明显增加.结论氢溴酸西酞普兰合并小剂量米氮平片治疗抑郁症值得临床推广.%Objective To compare the curative effect of treating and adverse reaction in the treatment for depression between the group take orally Citalopram Hydrobromide tablets with small dose Mirtazapine tablets and the group only take orally Citalopram Hydrobromide tablets. Methods Eighty-eight depression patients were divided into two groups in random, treatment group take orally Citalopram Hydrobromide tablets with small dose Mirtazapine tablets(n=45), control group only take orally Citalopram Hydrobromide tablets(n=43). Course of treatment was six weeks. Adopted Hamilton depression rating scale(HAMD) estimating the curative effect of treating before treatment and 1, 2, 4, 6 weeks for all patients. And adopted Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale(TESS) evaluating adverse reactions for all patients. Results The overall efficacy was significant difference for two groups: the treatment group got effective fast, clinical cure rate was higher, side effects was not significantly increased. Conclusion Takeing orally Citalopram Hydrobromide tablets with small dose Mirtazapine tablets treat depression is worth clinical promoting.

  1. A clinical comparative study of citalopram augmented with aripiprzole on depression%西酞普兰合并阿立派唑治疗抑郁症的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建辉; 国世辉

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy of low-dose aripiprazole combining with citalopram on the depression. Methods A total 57 patients with depression were randomly assigned to the study group and the control group. Either group was treated with a fixed dose 20 mg citalopram per day, and the study group was simultaneously titrated to low dose (5~10mg/d) of aripiprazole at initiating dose 2.5 mg per day within two weeks. They were evaluated with Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD).Clinical Global Impression (CGI-SI) and Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale(TESS) before treatment and at the end of 1st, 2nd, 4th and 6th week after treatment. The study lasted for 6 weeks. Results HAMD total score of either group were 11.54 ± 5.58 and 16.59 ± 6.67 respectively, which had statistically significant difference between two groups(t = 2.961, P0.05). TESS scores were not statistically significant difference between two groups at each point of measure. Conclusion The results suggest low dose of aripiprazole augmentation of citalopram may be effective and safe in the treatment of depression.%目的 探讨小剂量阿立派唑合并西酞普兰治疗抑郁症的疗效和不良反应.方法 将57例抑郁症患者以随机数字法分为研究组和对照组,2组均应用固定剂量西酞普兰20mg/d,研究组同时合并应用小剂量阿立派唑5~10mg/d,2组作6周的持续治疗观察,于人组前及入组后第1,2,4,6周末分别用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、临床疗效总评量表(CGI-SI)及副反应量表(TESS)进行评定.结果 研究组与对照组在治疗后第6周末HAMD评分总分分别为(11.54±5.58)分,(16.59±6.67)分,2组差异有显著性(t=2.961,P0.05).2组TESS评分同期比较均差异无显著性(P>0.05).结论 小剂量阿立派唑在抑郁症的治疗中有增效作用,且安全性较好.

  2. On Determination of Silicon in Boiler Water by Spectrophotometry of Promethazine-Silicomolybdic Blue Method%异丙嗪-硅钼蓝分光光度法测定锅炉用水中硅含量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋海南

    2011-01-01

    采用药用异丙嗪溶液作为钼蓝法中新还原剂,在0.4mol/L HCl介质中,异丙嗪与硅钼杂多酸反应生成杂多蓝,用标准曲线法测定锅炉用水中的硅含量。实验结果表明,硅含量在0.1~2.5μg.mL-1范围内符合朗伯-比尔定律,λmax=801nm,摩尔吸光系数为5.4×104L.mol-1 cm-1,标准曲线的一元线性方程为A=0.47272C+2.73×10-3,r值为0.99997。异丙嗪作还原剂具有还原速度快,产物稳定性好。该法选择性好、灵敏度搞、测量误差小,操作简便的特点。%A reducing agent of medicinal promethazine is used for the determination of silicon content in boiler water by silicomolybdic blue method.In the medium of HCl of 0.4mol/ L,the reducing agent reacts with heteropoly acid of silicon to form heteropoly blue with λmax=801nm.Absorptivity is 5.4×104L· mol-1cm-1.Lambert-Beer law is obeyed in the range of 0.1~2.5μg/m L for for silicon.By the standard curve,the expression is established,A=0.47272C+2.73×10-3,r=0.99997.The rate of the reaction is fast,and the reaction product is stable.This method is used for the determination of silicon with a good selectivity,a high sensivity,less error,and easy and fast operation.

  3. Observation on the therapeutic effect of citalopram combined with trazodone in the treatment of geriatric depression%西肽普兰合并曲唑酮治疗老年抑郁症疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高燕; 严广华; 孙洁

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨西肽普兰合并曲唑酮治疗老年抑郁症的临床疗效.方法:将74例老年抑郁症患者随机分为治疗组(西肽普兰服用剂量为20~40 mg·d-1合并曲唑酮服用剂量50~150 mg·d-1)及对照组(单用西肽普兰)各37例,疗程6周.分别于治疗后1、2、6周末用汉密尔顿抑郁量表,汉密尔顿焦虑量表评定疗效,以症状量表(TESS)评定治疗中出现的不良反应.结果:2组治疗后汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)总分比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),治疗组的不良反应比对照组重,主要表现有头昏、嗜睡,但患者均能耐受.结论:西肽普兰合并曲唑酮治疗抑郁症比对照组临床疗效更好.%OBJECTIVE To observation the efficacy of citalopram in combination with trazodone in the treatment of geriatric depression. METHODS A total of 74 depression patients were randomized into two groups. The patients in research group were treated with citelopram combined with trazodone, those in control group with citelopram. The course of treatment was 6 weeks for both groups. HAMDS HAMA and TESS were used to evaluate the efficacy and side effects at the end of week 1,2, 6. RESULTS The differences between research group and control group before and alter treatment were significant in terms of HAMA and HAMD scores (P<0. 05). Side effects of patients in research group was expressed as dizziness and drowsiness, but tolerable. CONCLUSION The effects of citalopram combined with trazodone in the treatment of geriatric depression were better than those in control group.

  4. 神经生长因子联合西酞普兰对海洛因依赖者脱毒期抑郁及心理渴求症状的疗效观察%Therapeutic effects of nerve growth factor combined with citalopram for depressive and psychological desire of heroin addicts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 汪青松; 吴庆; 张园园

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the therapeutic effects of nerve growth factor combined with citalopram for depressive and psychological desire of heroin. Methods 93 male patients were randomly assigned into two groups,including citalopram treatment group(41) and nerve growth factor(NGF) combined with citalopram treatment group(42) . There was no significant differences in offenders age,length of sentence and BDI-13 rating between the two groups before the treatment. In addition to drug medication methadone and buprenorphine , joint application of nerve growth factors for treatment was conducted for six weeks. Beck Depression self-assessment questionnaire(BDI-13) and the craving were used to evaluate the efficacy of self-rating scale. Results In nerve growth factor combined with citalopram group BDI-13 score and the reduction rates at the end of 2,4,6 week after treatment were statistically different from those in citalopram group(r =3.25,6.12,7.15;r =3. 56,4. 59,6.21,P<0. 05 ) ;craving score at 14,28 ,35,42 day significantly reduced,which was significantly different from citalopram group(r =2. 24,3. 12,3. 21,2. 56 ,P <0. 05 ). Conclusion Nerve growth factor combined with citalopram may be effective alleviating heroin addicts in during and after detoxification of coke depression and psychological desire symptoms.%目的 评价神经生长因子联合西酞普兰对海洛因依赖者的抑郁及心理渴求症状的治疗效果.方法 将93例男性患者随机分为两组,其中西酞普兰治疗组41例;神经生长因子(NGF)联合西酞普兰治疗组42例,治疗前两组罪犯的年龄、刑期及BDI-13评分比较均无统计学差异.除戒毒用药美沙酮及丁丙诺啡外,两组分别应用神经生长因子联合西酞普兰和西酞普兰进行治疗,疗程为6周.采用Beck抑郁自评问卷(BDI-13)及及心理渴求自评量表进行评定疗效.结果 神经生长因子联合西酞普兰组治疗后2、4、6周末BDI-13评分及减分率较西酞普兰

  5. Effects of the genetic polymorphism CYP2 C19 on pharmacokinetics of citalopram in Chinese healthy volunteers%CYP2 C19遗传多态性对中国健康受试者西酞普兰代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娟; 田芳

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究中国健康男性受试者CYP2C19遗传多态性对西酞普兰体内代谢的影响。方法24名中国健康男性受试者空腹单次口服西酞普兰片20 mg,服药前采静脉血,乙二胺四乙酸( EDTA)抗凝,提取DNA,测定其基因型。分别在服药前和服药后一定时间点采静脉血各5 mL,离心取血浆,用HPLC-MS/MS法检测西酞普兰血药浓度,比较不同基因型受试者西酞普兰药代动力学的差异。结果2例受试者(8.33%)为CYP2C19慢代谢;10例为CYP2C19快代谢,其中纯合子12例(50%)、杂合子10例(41.67%)。西酞普兰的代谢受CYP2C19的基因多态性影响较大,但也可能受年龄和体重的影响。结论西酞普兰临床应用时应查明患者CYP2C19基因型,并参考其年龄、体重等情况给药。%Objective To investigate the effets of cytochrome CYP2C19 gene polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics of citalopram in Chinese healthy male volunteers.Methods Twenty-four Chinese healthy male volunteers were orally administered with a single dose of citalopram 20 mg.The venous blood samples were collected , using anticoagulantion EDTA to extract DNA, and the genotype was detected .The blood sam-ples(5 mL) from the bolunteers were collected before and after the ad-ministration of citalopram and plasma was taken .The plasma concentra-tion of citalopram was examined by HPLC -MS/MS method .The geno-type CYP2 C19 was measured by PCR -based sequencing.The measure-ments were performed by HPLC -MS/MS.Pharmacokinetic differences of citalopram on patients with different genotypes were compared .Results Two out of 24 volunteers were poor metabolizing genotype ( PM ) , and 22 were extensive metabolizers (EM).Among the EM 12 were homozy-gotes and 10 were heterozygotes.The pharmacokinetic of citalopram was largely influenced by CYP2 C19 genetic polymorphism , and also effected by the volunteers′age and weight.Conclusion The CYP2 C19 genotype of

  6. The effects of aripiprazole,risperidone and clozapine administrated for schizophrenia treatment on glucose and lipid metabolism%阿立哌唑、利培酮和氯氮平治疗精神分裂症对糖脂代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马达休; 李永华; 冉庆国; 陈大坤; 周琳钧

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of aripiprazole, risperidone and clozapine used for treating schizophrenia on serum glucose and lipids of patients. Methods 270 patients with schizophrenia were divided randomly into 3 groups of 90 patients each; aripiprazole group, risperidone group and clozapine group, and aripiprazole, risperidone and clozapine were administrated for 12 weeks,respectively. Levels of fast blood glucose (FBG) ,total cholesterol (TC) ,triglycericle(TG) and body mass index (BMX) before and after treatment were compared. Results FBG levels of patients in 3 groups after treatment were increased as compared to those before treatment(P0. 05) ,all those in risperidone and clozapine groups increased after treatment as compared with treatment before(P<0. 05) ,and those in clozapine group increased greater than in risperidone group(P<0. 05). Conclusion Aripiprazole,risperidone and clozapine used for schizophrenia treatment can lead to adverse effects of glucose and lipid metabolism which are relatively milder for aripiprazole.%目的 比较阿立哌唑、利培酮和氯氮平治疗精神分裂症对患者血糖、血脂影响.方法 将270例精神分裂症患者随机分为3组:阿立哌唑组、利培酮组及氯氮平组(各90例),分别给予口服阿立哌唑、利培酮及氯氮平治疗12周.比较治疗前后空腹血糖(FBG)、总胆固醇(TC)、三酰甘油(TG),体质量指数(BMI)的变化.结果 3组患者治疗后,FBG较治疗前增高(P<0.05),氯氮平组增高最明显;阿立哌唑组治疗后TC、TG,BMI值较治疗前差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);利培酮及氯氮平组治疗后TC、TG、BMI较治疗前均有升高(P<0.05),且氯氮平组增高大于利培酮组(P<0.05).结论 阿立哌唑、利培酮及氯氮平治疗精神分裂症均可导致糖脂代谢异常的不良反应,阿立哌唑的不良反应相对较小.

  7. Clinical comparison and investigation of curative effects by olanzapine and risperidone in the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease%奥氮平、利培酮治疗老年痴呆精神行为症状疗效的临床比较探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    慕经纬

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare clinical effects by olanzapine and risperidone in the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. Methods A total of 102 patients with Alzheimer’s disease were randomly divided into olanzapine group and risperidone group, with 51 cases in each group. The olanzapine group received olanzapine tablets for treatment, and the risperidone group received risperidone tablets for treatment. Improvements of clinical symptoms were observed in 2, 4, and 8 weeks of treatment. Mini mental state examination (MMSE), dementia pathological behavior score (BE-HAVE) and positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) were taken. Condition of adverse drug reactions was evaluated. Results The olanzapine group had total effective rate as 92.2%, and the risperidone group had that as 90.2%. Their difference had no statistical significance (P>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference of scores in hostile suspicion, disturbance of thought, behavior disorders, anxiety-depression, and bigotry between the two groups after 2, 4 and 8 weeks of treatment (P>0.05). The olanzapine group had lower PANSS score in 2 and 4 weeks of treatment than the risperidone group, and the difference had statistical significance (P0.05)。两组治疗后2、4、8周敌对猜疑、思维障碍、行为紊乱、焦虑抑郁、偏执等评分比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。奥氮平组在治疗2、4周时 PANSS 评分低于利培酮组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。利培酮组发生锥体外系反应和恶心例数多于奥氮平组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论奥氮平和利培酮治疗老年痴呆精神行为症状均有较好的疗效,但奥氮平起效更快,不良反应较少,患者耐受性更好。

  8. 阿立哌唑联合利培酮治疗慢性精神分裂症对照研究%A controlled study on aripiprazole combined with risperidone in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永秀; 陈斌华; 徐小杰; 陶云海; 施剑飞

    2013-01-01

    目的 评价阿立哌唑联合利培酮治疗慢性精神分裂症的疗效和安全性.方法 212例慢性精神分裂症患者随机分为阿立哌唑联合利培酮组(治疗组,105例)和利培酮组(对照组,107例).分别于治疗前及治疗后第2,4,8周末用阳性症状和阴性症状量表(PANSS)评价疗效,副反应量表(TESS)评价药物不良反应.结果 治疗组完成105例,对照组完成104例.治疗组有效率为92.38%,显著率为77.14%;对照组有效率为85.58%,显著率为66.35%,2组疗效差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).PANSS总分减分及PANSS阴性因子减分在第2,4,8周末治疗组均优于对照组(P <0.05或P<0.01).2组药物不良反应均较轻微,经对症处理大多能缓解,其中在震颤、静坐不能、体重增加及泌乳、月经紊乱等发生率,治疗组明显低于对照组(P<0.05).结论 利培酮联合阿立哌唑治疗慢性精神分裂症疗效良好,不良反应小,患者治疗依从性好.%Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of aripiprazole combined risperidone in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia.Methods A total of 212 patients diagnosed as chronic schizophrenia were randomly divided into aripiprazole combined risperidone group (treatment group,n =105) and risperidone group (control group,n =107).Clinical effectiveness was assessed with the positive and negative syndrome scale(PANSS)and adverse reactions with the treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS) before treatment and at the end of the 2,4,8 week.Results One hundred and five patients of the treatment group and 104 patients of the control group had completed the course.The effective rate and the apparent effect rate in treatment group was 92.38% and 77.14%,whereas that was 85.58% and 66.35% in control group.There was no significant difference between two groups (P > 0.05).Effectiveness of treatment group was superior to control group at the end of the 2,4,8 week by PANSS total scores'subtraction and

  9. 利培酮对精神分裂症患者血脂和甲状腺激素的影响%Effects of risperidone on lipid and thyroid hormones in schizophrenic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明坤; 刘叶红; 张平; 韩彦超; 万爱华; 周雪丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察利培酮对精神分裂症患者血脂和甲状腺激素的影响。方法入选2011年5月至2011年10月上海精神卫生中心收治的精神分裂症患者41例为研究对象,单用利培酮治疗,疗程8周。分别于治疗前、治疗8周末测定总胆固醇(TC)、三酰甘油(TG)、低密度脂蛋白(LDL -C)、高密度脂蛋白(HDL-C);检测血清三碘甲状腺原氨酸(T3)、甲状腺素(T4)、游离三碘甲状腺原氨酸( FT3)、游离甲状腺素( FT4)和促甲状腺激素( TSH)。比较分析自身治疗前后的差异。结果利培酮治疗后,三酰甘油明显升高,与治疗前比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);T3、FT3、FT4显著下降,差异有统计学意义( P<0.01)。结论临床上用利培酮治疗精神分裂症患者时,可致血脂异常和甲状腺激素水平下降,应加强血脂及甲状腺激素水平监测,保证其治疗的安全性。%Objective To observe the effects of risperidone on lipids and thyroid hormone in patients with schizophrenia.Methods Forty-one cases of schizophrenia patients were enrolled from May to October in 2011 , respectively and were treated with risperidone alone for 8 weeks.The data of the total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density cholesterol ( LDL-C ) , and high density cholesterol ( HDL -C ) were measured before and after treatment.The data of three serum triiodothy-ronine (T3), thyroxine three (T4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine ( FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone ( TSH) were detected.The changes were recorded and compared.Results After risperidone therapy, TG increased significantly compared with before treatment ( P<0.01).The data of T3, FT3 and FT4 decreased significantly ( P<0.01) .Conclusion Risperidone may cause abnormal drop of blood lipid and thyroid hormone level, therefore, related monitors should be strengthened to ensure the safety during treatment of schizophrenia

  10. E fficacy of Aripiprazole and Risperidone on Memory Function in Patients with Schizophrenia%阿立哌唑和利培酮对首发精神分裂症患者记忆功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡茂荣; 姜淑珍; 占海燕; 胡斌; 鲍成; 余斌; 周朝雄; 吴慧玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy of aripiprazole and risperidone on memory function in patients with schizophrenia. Methods 112 first-episode patients with schizophrenia were random-ized to aripiprazole group(n=56) and risperidone group(n=56). All subjects were assessed with the Wechsler Memory Scale-ⅢSpatial Span Task(WMS-Ⅲ SST), the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Re-vised (HVLT-R) and The Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R).Results Both groups showed no statistical significance in WMS-Ⅲ SST, HVLT-R and BVMT-R scores in the baseline (P>0.05).The performances after 12 weeks of treatment in the both groups was higher than those in the baseline in all tests(P0.05).Aripiprazole group was increased significantly compared with before treatment after treatment WMS-Ⅲ SST score (P<0.05), and after treatment there was a statistical significance between the two groups (P<0.05).Conclusion Memory impairments in the patients with first-episode schizophrenia was im-proved by aripiprazole and risperidone, and effect of aripiprazole on certain memory functions was better than those of risperidone.%目的:探讨阿立哌唑和利培酮对首发精神分裂症患者记忆功能的影响。方法112例首发精神分裂症患者随机分成阿立哌唑组和利培酮组,每组56例。在治疗前和治疗12周末采用韦氏记忆量表-第三版的空间广度测验(WMS-Ⅲ SST)、霍普金斯词汇学习测验-修订版(HVLT-R)、简单视觉空间记忆测验-修订版(BVMT-R)分别对工作记忆、言语记忆和视觉记忆领域进行评定。结果在治疗前,两组的WMS-Ⅲ SST HVLT-R 和BVMT-R得分比较均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。在治疗12周后,两组的HVLT-R 和BVMT-R得分较治疗前比较均有统计学意义(P<0.05)而治疗后两组间比较无统计学意义(P>0.05);阿立哌唑组在治疗后的WMS-Ⅲ SST得分较治疗前显著增加(P<0.05),且治疗后两组间比较有统计学意义(P<0.05

  11. Risperidone combined with clozapine in the treatment of refractory schizophrenia research%利培酮联合氯氮平治疗难治性精神分裂症的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢玲银; 张智勇

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨使用利培酮联合氯氮平两种药物来治疗难治性精神分裂症的临床效果。方法选取我院收治的难治性精神分裂症患者100例为研究对象,随机将其分为观察组和对照组,其中观察组50例,采用利培酮联合氯氮平进行治疗,对照组50例则只服用氯氮平进行治疗,观察12周,分别于入组前、治疗6周末、12周末应用简明精神病评定量表(BPRS)评定治疗效果,同时应用副反应量表(TESS)评价不良反应发生情况。结果观察组在治疗6周末及12周末的BPRS 评定总分明显低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。两组TESS总分比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论临床上对于难治性精神分裂症这一疾病的治疗可采用利培酮联合氯氮平两种药物进行尝试,其临床效果显著,且安全性有较大程度的保障,值得临床推广应用。%Objective To discuss the clinical effect of risperidone combined with clozapine in the use of two kinds of drugs for the treatment of refractory schizophrenia.Methods 100 patients with refractory schizophrenia of our hospital was selected as the research object, randomly divided into observation group and control group,50 cases in each group,the cases in the observation group was treated by risperidone combined with clozapine,while the cases in the control group only received risperidone treatment,observation of 12 weeks,before entering the group,respectively treatment of 6 weeks and 12 weeks,the efficacy of treatment was assessed by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). And using the TESS to evaluate adverse reaction.ResultsIn the observation group,BPRS total score after 6 weeks and 12 weeks were significantly lower than the control group,the difference was statistically significant (P0.05).Conclusion For refractory schizophrenia,we may try to treat them with the combination of risperidone and clozapine,it is safety and

  12. 氯氮平联合利培酮治疗难治性精神分裂症临床对照研究%A Clinical Control Study on Effects of Clozapine with Risperidone on Refractory Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚献虎; 陈敬兰; 沈建华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the curative effect and safety of Risperidone with Clozapine in the treatment of refractory schizophrenia,and to provide the basis for clinical medication. Methods The 76 patients with refractory schizophrenia were randomly divided into the study group(36 cases) and the control group(40 cases) .the study group was treated by Risperidone and Clozapine, while the control group by Risperidone alone. The curative effect and side effect were evaluated by BPRS and TESS at the time points: before treatment,4,8 and 12 weeks after the treatment. Results The BPRS total scores of the study group were obviously lower than that of the control group at the end of the fourth week,eighth week and twelfth week. The TESS total scores between the two groups had no significant difference (P > 0.05 ) ; The side effect such as salivation, sleepiness, white blood cell reduction were obviously higher in the study group than as compared to the control group, but it' s well tolerated. Conclusion The combination of Clozapine and Risperidone for the refractory schizophrenia can shorten the response latency in the treatment, it is effective and safe.%目的 研究探索氯氮平联合利培酮治疗难治性精神分裂症的疗效及安全性,为临床用药提供依据.方法 76例难治性精神分裂症患者随机分为研究组和对照组,分别服用氯氮平联合利培酮(36例)、利培酮(40例)治疗,于入组前、治疗4周、治疗8周、治疗12周分别应用BPRS及TESS来观察评定疗效及副作用.结果 研究组于治疗4周末、8周末及12周末BPRS评定总分明显低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),两组TESS总分比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但流涎、嗜睡、白细胞减少等副反应两组比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),研究组较对照组明显为重,临床患者尚可以耐受.结论 氯氮平联合利培酮治疗难治性精神分裂症缩短治疗反应期、安全且疗效可靠,可以用

  13. The influence of quetiapine and risperidon on seroprolactin in the patients with schizophrenic%奎硫平与利醅酮对精神分裂症患者血清催乳素水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建中; 蒋幸衍; 张梓威; 陆蘅

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the influence of quetiapine and risperidon on semprolaetin and the relationship between semprolactin and drug efficiency.body weight and insulin resistance.Method 64 cases with schizophreniac which stopped taking drugs for more than 1 month were given quetiapine(n=31)and risperidon(n=33)respectively.Their fasting seropmlactin,leptin,insulin,blood sugar level,body height and weight were measured before and 8 weeks after treatment.To evaluate body lipid by BMI[BMI=weight/height2(kg/m2)].Insulin resistance was evaluated by insulin resistance index(HOMA-insulin resistance,HOMA-IR=fasting insulin×fasting blood snger)and drug efficiency Was evaluated by BPRS scale.Results Seroprolactin of risperidon group obviously increased after treatment for 8 weeks than before treatment[(487.54±426.04)mlU/L vs(1632.50±1005.31)mlU/L,P=0.000],but seropmlactin of quetiapine group had no obvious changes[before treatment vs after treatment(531.47±420.91)mlU/L vs(478.93±413.18)mlU/L,P=0.687].Regression of multiple factot's showed that seroprolactin was associated with sex and different drugs.Conclusion Risperidon can increase the level of seroprolactin,quetiapine has little effect on seroprolactin.There is no direct correlation among seroprolactin,drug efficiency,weight,leptin and insulin resistance.%目的 探讨奎硫平与利培酮对血清催乳素的影响及催乳索与药物疗效、体质量、胰岛素抵抗之间的相互关系.方法 64例停药1月以上的精神分裂症患者分别服用奎硫平(n=31)与利培酮(n=33),治疗前及治疗后8周分别测定其空腹血清催乳素、瘦素、胰岛素、血糖水平,测身高与体质量,以体质量指数评定体脂情况,以胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-Insulin Resistance,HOMA-IR=空腹胰岛素×空腹血糖)评定胰岛素抵抗,以简明精神症状评定量表(BPRS)减分率评定药物疗效.结果 治疗8周后利培酮组血清催乳素明显增加[治疗前(487.54±426.04)mlU/L,治疗后(1632

  14. Observation on long time curative effect and safety of risperidone in treatment of schizophrenia%利培酮治疗精神分裂症长期疗效及安全性临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹国兴; 曹华琼

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To observe the long time curative effect and safety of risperidone in treatment of schizophrenia. Methods:212 schizophrenia patients were treated with risperidone for two years,the average therapeutic dose was ( 2.35 ± 2.61 )mg/d. BPRS and SDSS were used to evaluste the therapeutic effect and TESS was used to evaluate the drug side effects. Results:Risperidone had saftisfactory effect on schizophrenia, 83.6% of the patients was improved, compared with treatment before, there were significant improve on BPRS and SDSS (P < 0.01 ). The main side effects were EPS、anti-AchE response and sinus tachycardia;a patient was diagnosed leukopenia, about 10% patients body weight gain ( P < 0.01 ). Conclusion:Risperidone can effectively and safely improve the symptoms of the patients with schizophrenia, patients can hold healthily social function during the long time curative.%目的:观察利培酮片对精神分裂症长期治疗的有效性、安全性及对社会功能的影响.方法:212例使用利培酮片剂治疗患者.平均剂量为(2.35±2.61)mg/d,疗程2年.用简明精神病量表(Brief psychiatric rating scale,BPRS)评定疗效.用不良反应症状量表(Treatment emergent symptoms scale,TESS)评价药物副反应严重程度.用社会功能缺陷评定量表(Social disbilitv screening schedule,SDSS)评定社会功能的影响程度.结果:利培酮具有良好疗效,有效率83.6%.SDSS量表评定:治疗前后比较有明显差异(P<0.01).药物不良反应主要为锥体外系副反应(Extrapyramideal side effects,EPS)中静坐不能、抗胆碱能反应(视物模糊)、窦性心动过速,症状程度较轻;白细胞减少症1例,约10%患者体重增加(体重增加超过5%)与治疗前有显著性差异(P<0.01).结论:利培酮长期治疗精神分裂症有效且安全,长期服用能够保持良好的社会功能.

  15. To observe the clinical effect of aripiprazole and risperidone in the treatment of female schizophrenia%阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗女性精神分裂症的临床效果探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚日东; 黄书梅

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of aripiprazole and risperidone in the treatment of female schizophrenia. Methods 100 cases of female spirit admitted in our hospital in 2012 January to 2014 January between the schizophrenia patients for clinical research,The patients were randomly divided into aripiprazole group and risperidone group, compared two groups of patients with clinical curative effect. Results In the two groups before treatment PANSS clinical psychopathology, negative symptoms, positive symptoms and score of contrast was no significant statistical difference (P>0.05), the clinical treatment for 2 weeks, 4 weeks of treatment and 8 weeks after the treatment, PANSS psychopathology, negative symptoms, positive symptoms and total score compared with the statistically significant difference (P0.05),临床治疗2周、治疗4周和治疗8周后PANSS精神病理、阴性症状、阳性症状和总分对比差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。两组女性精神分裂症患者临床治疗的总有效率和不良反应发生率对比差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论该次医学研究结果证实,阿立哌唑用于女性精神分裂症的临床治疗,具有更高的有效率和安全性,因而临床推广和应用价值更高。

  16. Medication adherence in patients with psychotic disorders: an observational survey involving patients before they switch to long-acting injectable risperidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baylé FJ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Franck Jean Baylé,1 Arnaud Tessier,2,3 Sophie Bouju,4 David Misdrahi2,3 1Sainte-Anne Hospital (SHU, Paris V-Descartes University, Paris, 2Hôpital Charles Perrens, Pôle de Psychiatrie Adulte, 3CNRS UMR 5287-INCIA, Bordeaux University, Bordeaux, 4Janssen-Cilag France, Issy Les Moulineaux, Paris, France Background: Maintaining antipsychotic therapy in psychosis is important in preventing relapse. Long-acting depot preparations can prevent covert non-adherence and thus potentially contribute to better patient outcomes. In this observational survey the main objective is to evaluate medication adherence and its determinants for oral treatment in a large sample of patients with psychosis.Methods: In this cross-sectional survey medication adherence for oral treatment was assessed by patients using the patient-rated Medication Adherence Questionnaire (MAQ. Data were collected by physicians on patients with a recent acute psychotic episode before switching to long-acting injectable risperidone. Other evaluations included disease severity (Clinical Global Impression – Severity, patients’ insight (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale item G12, treatment acceptance (clinician-rated Compliance Rating Scale, and therapeutic alliance (patient-rated 4-Point ordinal Alliance Scale.Results: A total of 399 psychiatrists enrolled 1,887 patients (mean age 36.8±11.9 years; 61.6% had schizophrenia. Adherence to oral medication was “low” in 53.2% of patients, “medium” in 29.5%, and “high” in 17.3%. Of patients with psychiatrist-rated active acceptance of treatment, 70% had “medium” or “high” MAQ scores (P<0.0001. Medication adherence was significantly associated with therapeutic alliance (4-Point ordinal Alliance Scale score; P<0.0001. Patient age was significantly associated with adherence: mean age increased with greater adherence (35.6, 36.7, and 38.6 years for patients with “low”, “medium”, and “high” levels of adherence

  17. Design and synthesis of 1-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-5-carbonitrile (citalopram) analogues as novel probes for the serotonin transporter S1 and S2 binding sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banala, Ashwini K; Zhang, Peng; Plenge, Per;

    2013-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) is the primary target for antidepressant drugs. The existence of a high affinity primary orthosteric binding site (S1) and a low affinity secondary site (S2) has been described, and their relation to antidepressant pharmacology has been debated. Herein, structural...... modifications to the N, 4, 5, and 4' positions of (±)citalopram (1) are reported. All of the analogues were SERT-selective and demonstrated that steric bulk was tolerated at the SERT S1 site, including two dimeric ligands (15 and 51). In addition, eight analogues were identified with similar potencies to S-1...... for decreasing the dissociation of [(3)H]S-1 from the S1 site via allosteric modulation at S2. Both dimeric compounds had similar affinities for the SERT S1 site (Ki = 19.7 and 30.2 nM, respectively), whereas only the N-substituted analogue, 51, was as effective as S-1 in allosterically modulating the binding...

  18. 银杏叶提取物联合西肽普兰治疗老年抑郁症的研究%The study of late life depression by Egb pluss Citalopram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马永盛; 马洪胜

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨银杏叶提取物( Extract of Ginkgo Biloba ,EGb) 联合西肽普兰( Citalopram) 治疗老年抑郁症(late-life depression)的效果.方法 老年抑郁患者分别进入西肽普兰单药治疗组及西肽普兰联合银杏叶提取物治疗组,并对各治疗阶段进行抑郁量表评分.结果 两组患者抑郁症状均明显改善,银杏叶提取物联合西肽普兰治疗较西肽普兰单药治疗临床疗效更好.结论 老年抑郁症抗抑郁治疗效果较好,银杏叶提取物联合西肽普兰对老年抑郁症有良好治疗效果.

  19. 认知行为与利培酮联合治疗精神分裂症残留型的临床疗效分析%Analysis of the Clinical Efficacy of Cognitive Behavior Combined With Risperidone in the Treatment of Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永良

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析认知行为配合利培酮治疗残留型精神分裂症的疗效。方法将72名残留型精神分裂症患者分成Og(观察)组和Cg(对照)组。Cg组单纯用利培酮治疗,Og组用利培酮时配合认知行为治疗。结果 Og组治疗后阴性症状、语言记忆、表达流畅、HAMD、HAMA等得分比治疗前降低,同时也比Cg组治疗后降低,而PSP得分增加。病理状态、阳性症状、SES得分及总分治疗前后无明显差别。结论认知行为疗法配合利培酮对于治疗残留型精神分裂患者获得的疗效比单纯服用药物好。%Objective To analyze the effect of cognitive behavior combined with risperidone in the treatment of residual type of schizophrenia.Methods 72 patients with schizophrenia were divided into Og (observation) group and Cg(control) group. Cg group was treated with risperidone alone, while the Og group was treated with the cognitive behavioral therapy and risperidone. ResultsThe negative symptoms,language memory, expression, HAMA and HAMD in the Og group were significantly less than those in Cg group,while the PSP score increased after treatment. There was no obvious difference in the pathological status, positive symptoms,SES score and total score.Conclusion Cognitive behavior therapy combined with risperidone in the treatment of residual type of schizophrenia patients has good efficacy.

  20. Curative effect and safety of sertraline combined with risperidone in the treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia%舍曲林联合利培酮治疗精神分裂症阴性症状的效果和安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔庆伟

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析舍曲林联合利培酮治疗精神分裂症阴性症状的效果和安全性。方法:将50例精神分裂症阴性症状患者随机分为对照组与观察组,各25例。对照组给予单纯利培酮治疗,观察组给予舍曲林联合利培酮治疗,比较两组患者的疗效及不良反应。结果:观察组的治疗总有效率明显高于对照组(P<0.05);观察组的不良反应发生率与对照组相比,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:对精神分裂症阴性症状患者应用舍曲林联合利培酮治疗,临床效果显著。%Objective:To analyze the curative effect and safety of sertraline combined with risperidone in the treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia.Methods:50 patients with negative symptoms of schizophrenia were randomly divided into the control group and the observation group with 25 cases in each.The control group was given risperidone treatment.The observation group was given sertraline combined with risperidone treatment.The curative effects and adverse reaction were compared between groups.Results:The treatment total effective rate of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group(P0.05). Conclusion:The patients with negative symptoms of schizophrenia should be given sertraline combined with risperidone treatment, and the clinical curative effect is remarkable.

  1. On Risperidone Combined with Sertraline for Analysis of Curative Effect in the Treatment of Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia%论利培酮联用舍曲林用于治疗阴性症状为主的精神分裂症的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋长海

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究利培酮联用舍曲林治疗以阴性症状为主的精神分裂症的临床效果。方法选取2009年~2012年收治的70例阴性症状为主的精神分裂症患者为研究对象,35例观察组采用利培酮联用舍曲林的药物治疗法,35例对照组采用利培酮单纯药物治疗法,观察两组患者临床反应。结果两组患者症状均有缓解,观察组治疗效果明显优于对照组。结论利培酮联用舍曲林对治疗以阴性症状为主的精神分裂症有很好的效果,值得临床大力推广。%Objective To study the risperidone combined sertraline treatment is given priority to with negative symp-toms of schizophrenia clinical effect.Methods In our hospital from 2009 to 2009 treated 70 cases of negative symptoms of schizophrenia patients as the research object , the observation group of 35 cases with risperidone combined drug therapy of sertraline, 35 cases of control group with risperidone pure drug therapy , observe two groups of patients with clinical re-sponse.Results Symptoms in both two groups of patients , the treatment effect of observation group was obviously better than the control group.Conclusions Risperidone group with sertraline treatment is given priority to with negative symp-toms of schizophrenia have very good effect , is worth promoting in the clinical practice.

  2. 齐拉西酮与利培酮对精神分裂症患者体质量、血糖、血脂的影响%Effect of Ziprasidone and Risperidone on Schizophrenia Patients' Body Weight, Blood Glucose, Blood Lipid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱肖飞

    2012-01-01

      Objective To investigate the effect of ziprasidone and risperidone on schizophrenia patients' body weight, blood lipid, blood glucose. Methods 85 cases of schizophrenia patients' from our hospital in 2008 June to 2011 June were selected, ziprasidone and risperidone respectively given to the patient, the effect of body weight, blood sugar, blood lipid were observed. Results ziprasidone treatment group before and after weight, blood glucose, blood lipid have no statistical difference (P>0.05), risperidone treatment before and after weight, blood lipid, blood glucose have statistics difference (P0.05),利培酮治疗前后体质量、血脂、血糖有统计学差异(P <0.05).结论齐拉西酮相比利培酮治疗精神分裂症患者,对其体质量、血脂、血糖的影响具有明显优势,安全性更高.

  3. Determination the concentration of citalopram and its metabolites in rat plasma by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry%超高效液相串联质谱法测定大鼠西酞普兰及其代谢物的血药浓度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春美; 王双虎; 胡国新; 周云芳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop an ultra performance liquid chroma-tography -tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination the concentration of citalopram and its metabolites ( citalopram N-oxide and N -desmethylcitalopram ) in rat plasma.Methods Plasmas were extracted with ethyl acetate.An ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 ( 50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) column was used as the stationary phase.The mobile phase was consisted of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid water with gradient elution pumped at a flow rate of 0.4 mL· min-1.The analytes were detected with positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring ( MRM ) mode and tramadol was used as internal standard.Results Excellent linear calibration curves of citalopram, N-desmethyl-citalopram and citalopram N-oxide were obtained in the concentration range of 0.1-10.0, 0.1-10.0 and 0.01-2.00 ng· mL-1 ( r=0.999 6, 0.999, 0.999 6).The lower limit of quantification were 0.05, 0.05 and 0.01 ng · mL-1.The average recovery was 96.09%-105.33%.The intra and inter day relative standard deviations were all less than 8.69%. Conclusion The method is simple, rapid and sensitive, which is suit-able for pharmacokinetics study of citalopram and its metabolites in rats.%目的:建立快速测定大鼠体内西酞普兰及其代谢物(N-氧化西酞普兰和N-去甲基西酞普兰)浓度的超高效液相串联质谱法。方法用乙酸乙酯萃取法处理血浆,色谱柱为ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18柱(50 mm ×2.1 mm,1.7μm);流动相为乙腈-0.1%甲酸水,梯度洗脱,流速为0.4 mL· min-1;用正离子多离子反应监测( MRM)扫描,内标为曲马多。结果血浆中西酞普兰、N-去甲基西酞普兰和N-氧化西酞普兰的线性范围分别为0.1~10.0,0.1~10.0,0.01~2.00 ng· mL -1(r=0.9991,0.999,0.9996),定量下限分别为0.05,0.05,0.01 ng· mL-1。其回收率分别在96.09%~105.33%。三者的日内、日间精密度均RSD<8.69%。结论

  4. 西酞普兰联合舒必利在有精神病性症状抑郁症治疗中的临床价值分析%Citalopram combined with sulpiride in the analysis of the clinical value of psychotic symptoms in the treatment of depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建

    2015-01-01

    目的:对西酞普兰联合舒必利在有精神病性症状抑郁症治疗中的临床价值进行分析和研究。方法选择2013年4月~2014年4月在本院住院治疗的有精神病性症状的抑郁症患者50例,随机分为对照组和实验组,各25例,对照组行西酞普兰治疗,实验组行西酞普兰联合舒必利治疗,观察两组患者的疗效。结果对照组患者经西酞普兰治疗后,总有效率为68%,明显低于实验组经西酞普兰联合舒必利治疗后的总有效率96%,对照组患者的汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)评分也明显优于实验组,两组间有效率的比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论针对有精神病性症状的抑郁症患者行西酞普兰联合舒必利治疗,具有显著的疗效,值得各医院临床推广使用。%Objective Of citalopram in combination with sulpiride with psychotic symptoms of clinical value in the treatment of depression is analyzed and studied. Methods The data in April 2013-April 2014 in our hospital hospitalization with 50 patients with psychotic symptoms of depression, randomly divided into two groups, each 25 cases, the control line citalopram treatment, the experimental group lines of citalopram in combination with sulpiride treatment, to observe the efifcacy of two groups of patients. Results The patients with the control group after treatment with citalopram, the total effective rate was 68.00%, signiifcantly lower than the experimental group after treatment with citalopram combined sulpiride the total effective rate of 96.00%, the experimental group is obviously better than the control group patients with HAMD scores also, efifcient comparative differences between the two groups have statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusion For patients with psychotic symptoms of depression citalopram combined therapy with sulpiride, has signiifcant curative effect, is worth the clinical promotion use.

  5. A randomized controlled study of Fluoxetine and Citalopram on the treatment of depressive symptom due to Alzheimer's disease%盐酸氟西汀与西酞普兰治疗阿尔茨海默病所致抑郁症状随机对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉; 王京丽; 张海林; 刘英; 吴炬

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of Fluoxetine and Citalopram in treatment of the depressive symptom due to Alzheimer's Disease. Methods: 80 cases of patients were randomly divided into two groups, the patients of two groups were treated with Fluoxetine and Citalopram respectively; the course was 8 weeks; HAMD and TESS was adopted to assess the clinical effect and adverse reaction. Results: HAMD of Citalopram group decreased significantly after two weeks' treatment (P<0.05), and HAMD of Fluoxetine group decreased significantly after four weeks' treatment (P< 0.05). The two groups showed the same effect after 8 weeks. Adverse reactions of two groups were lighter, the incidence of adverse reactions of Citalopram group (38.1%) was lower than Fluoxetine group (60.5%)(P<0.05). Conclusion: Citalopram has quicker effect and better safety than Fluoxetine in the depressive symptom due to AD, long-term effect of two drugs was almost the same. Citalopram is worthy of wide application in treatment of depressive symptom due to AD.%目的:比较盐酸氟西汀与西酞普兰治疗阿尔茨海默病所致抑郁症状的有效性和安全性.方法:将80例受试者随机分为两组,分别给予盐酸氟西汀和西酞普兰治疗,疗程为8周,于治疗前和治疗后2、4、6、8周末分别采用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)和副反应量表(TESS)评定两药的疗效及不良反应.结果:在用药2周后,西酞普兰组HAMD得分较治疗前显著下降(P<0.05),在治疗4周后盐酸氟西汀组较治疗前显著下降(P<0.05),两组在用药8周后,疗效相当(P>0.05).两组不良反应均较轻,西酞普兰组的总体不良反应发生率(38.1%)低于盐酸氟西汀组(60.5%)(P<0.05).结论:在治疗阿尔茨海默病所致抑郁症方面,西酞普兰起效较快,且较盐酸氟西汀安全性好.两组长期使用疗效相当.西酞普兰适合阿尔茨海默病所致抑郁患者服用.

  6. 西酞普兰和舍曲林治疗癫痫性抑郁障碍的临床疗效及安全性研究%Study on the Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Citalopram and Sertraline in the Treatment of Epileptic Depression Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈利广

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical curative effect and security of citalopram and sertraline in treatment of the epileptic depression disorder.Methods 82 cases of epileptic depression disorder can be divided into two groups. Control group using sertraline for treatment,observation group was of citalopram for treatment.ResultsThe clinical curative effect compared between the two groups, P>0.05. Adverse reactions to observation group was obviously less than control group(χ2 = 9.567,P=0.002). Conclusion Epileptic depression disorder patients treated with citalopram and sertraline has significant clinical efficacy,but citalopram’security is significantly higher than that of sertraline.%目的:探讨西酞普兰和舍曲林治疗癫痫性抑郁障碍的临床疗效与安全性。方法将82例癫痫性抑郁障碍患者分为两组,对照组应用舍曲林治疗,观察组应用西酞普兰治疗。结果两组患者临床疗效对比,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);观察组不良反应要少于对照组(χ2=9.567,P=0.002)。结论西酞普兰与舍曲林治疗癫痫性抑郁障碍患者具有临床疗效,但是西酞普兰安全性要高于舍曲林。

  7. To Study the Clinical Effect of Sulpiride Combined Citalopram in the Treatment of Depression with Psychotic Symptoms%舒必利联合西酞普兰治疗伴精神病性症状抑郁症的临床效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪锦华

    2016-01-01

    目的::研究舒必利联合西酞普兰治疗伴精神病性症状抑郁症的临床效果。方法:将某院2013年6月~2015年6月收治的伴精神病性症状抑郁症患者76例,随机分为两组各38例,观察组采用舒必利联合西酞普兰进行治疗,对照组采用西酞普兰治疗,比较两组治疗前后 HAMD、HAMA评分变化和疗效。结果:观察组治疗后 HAMD、HAMA评分均低于对照组,差异均具有统计学意义(均P<0.05);观察组总有效率高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:舒必利联合西酞普兰治疗伴精神病性症状抑郁症效果较单纯西酞普兰治疗更好,值得临床上推广。%Objective:To study the clinical effect of Sulpiride combined citalopram in the treatment with psychotic symptoms.Methods:A total of 76 patients of depression with psychotic symptoms received in a hospital from June 2013 to June 2015 were randomly divided into two groups,each of 38 cases.The observa-tion group were treated with Sulpiride combined citalopram,while the control group were treated with citalo-pram.Then compare the HAMD,HAMA score changes and the clinical effect.Results:After treatment,the HAMD,HAMA score of the observation group were lower than those of the control group,and the differ-ences were statistically significant(P<0.05).The total effective rate of the observation group were higher than that of the control group,and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion:The clinical effect of sulpiride combined citalopram in the treatment of psychotic symptoms of depression is better than that of treating with only citalopram,which is worth of clinical promotion.

  8. Investigation on the Clinical efficacy of Citalopram in Combined with Small Dose of Olanzapine in Elderly Patients with Depression%西酞普兰联合小剂量奥氮平治疗老年抑郁症临床疗效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁景省; 梁炯河

    2012-01-01

      Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of citalopram in combined with small dose of olanzapine in elderly patients with depression.Methods The clinical data of eighty-eight cases of elderly patients with depression who were treated in our hospital from December 2010 to December 2011.then they were divided into control group and observation group by using a random number table,patients in the control group was given citalopram for treatment, patients in the observation group was given small dose of olanzapine drug treatment in the foundation of citalopram,patients were tested by the self-made questionnaire,Self-Rating Anxiety Scale and Self-Rating Depression Scale in the beginning of treatment and after two months’ treatment, respectively.Results The anxiety and depression norm score of the observation group were lower than that in the control group after two months’treatment(P<0.05).Conclusion Citalopram combined with small dose of olanzapine obtained satisfactory curative effect for elderly patients with depression,and it is safe and reliable.%  目的:探讨西酞普兰联合小剂量奥氮平治疗老年抑郁症疗效和安全性.方法:选择2010年12月~2011年12月在我院门诊治疗的50例老年抑郁症患者为研究对象,运用随机数字表法将本研究患者分为对照组和观察组,对照组患者仅给予西酞普兰进行治疗,而观察组患者则使用西酞普兰联合小剂量奥氮平进行治疗,分别于治疗前和治疗后2个月进行自编问卷、焦虑自评量表(SAS)和抑郁自评量表(SDS)测评.结果:治疗2个月后,观察组患者焦虑抑郁标准分明显低于对照组的,差异有显著性(P<0.05).结论:西酞普兰联合小剂量奥氮平是治疗老年抑郁症安全高效的方案,该方案疗效确切,不良反应少.

  9. 舒肝解郁胶囊联合艾司西酞普兰治疗老年脑卒中后抑郁的临床疗效观察%The liver capsule joint resolve depression escitalopram citalopram treatment of depression in older brain after single clinical curative effect observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温慧丽; 王哲; 王俊梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the liver resolve depression capsule combined escitalopram citalopram treatment the clinical curative effect of senile depressive disorder after stroke. Methods To 120 cases of senile patients with depressive disorder after stroke were randomly divided into the control group, n=60 ChanChunYi department of citalopram treatment;N=60 joint group, on the basis of escitalopram citalopram treatment and taking the liver resolve depression capsule eight weeks for a period of treatment, comparing two groups before and after treatment in patients with symptoms was observed. Results After 8 weeks treatment symptoms were improved in both groups, the difference was statistically significant compared with before treatment (P<0.05);Combined treatment group is better than that of control group (P<0.05). Conclusions The liver capsule joint resolve depression escitalopram citalopram treatment of elderly depressive disorder after stroke curative effect.%目的:观察舒肝解郁胶囊联合艾司西酞普兰治疗老年脑卒中后抑郁障碍的临床疗效。方法:将120例老年脑卒中后抑郁障碍患者随机分为对照组n=60,单纯艾司西酞普兰治疗;联合组n=60,在艾司西酞普兰治疗基础上加服舒肝解郁胶囊8周为1个疗程,观察比较两组患者治疗前后症状改善情况。结果:经8周治疗两组症状均有改善,与治疗前比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);联合组疗效优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:舒肝解郁胶囊联合艾司西酞普兰治疗老年脑卒中后抑郁障碍疗效确切。

  10. 阿立哌唑联用西酞普兰治疗难治性抑郁症的临床对照研究%A Comparison Analysis on the Efficacy of Citalopram Combine Ariprazole in the Treatment of Refratory Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳华; 吕凯; 唐玉峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the efficacy and safety of Citalopram combined with Aripiprazole in fhe treatment of refractory de -pression.Methods:68 patients with refractory depression were randomly assigned into two groups , one group was treated with Citalopram and Ariprazole and the other group with Citalopram alone for 8 weeks .The efficacy and side effects were evaluated with Hamilton Depres-sion Rating Scale ﹙HAMD﹚and Treatment Emergent symptom Scale ﹙TESS﹚.Results:After the treatment , the HAMD scores of both groups are lower than before prominently (P0.05).Conclusion:The efficacy and safety of Citalopram combined with Aripiprazole in fhe treatment of refractory depression is better .%目的:观察阿立哌唑联合西酞普兰治疗难治性抑郁症的疗效及安全性。方法:将符合条件的68例难治性抑郁症患者随机分为2组,分别用阿立哌唑联合西酞普兰治疗和单用西酞普兰治疗,疗程8周,采用HAMD评定疗效和TESS评定不良反应。结果:治疗结束后,2组HAMD评分较治疗前均显著降低(P<0.01),试验组治疗效果好(P<0.01)且起效快(P<0.05)。试验组的不良反应较对照组的不良反应发生率高,但不良反应较轻,患者可以耐受,2组不良反应差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。结论:阿立哌唑联合西酞普兰治疗难治性抑郁的疗效优于单用西酞普兰且起效快安全性高。

  11. 西酞普兰与舍曲林治疗中国老年抑郁症患者的系统评价%Citalopram vs.Sertraline in Treatment of Depression in Chinese Senile Patients:A Systematic Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 杜彪; 骆洪

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较西酞普兰与舍曲林治疗中国老年抑郁症患者的疗效及不良反应。方法:通过计算机检索1994—2013年国内关于西酞普兰与舍曲林治疗老年抑郁症的随机对照研究文献,应用系统评价方法对检索到的3篇随机对照研究文献进行定量综合分析。结果:西酞普兰疗效与舍曲林比较差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。舍曲林组发生头昏、便秘者较西酞普兰组多见,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01)。其他不良反应发生率比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:西酞普兰与舍曲林治疗中国老年抑郁症患者的疗效相似,西酞普兰较舍曲林不良反应轻微。%OBJECTIVE:To compare the clinical efficacy and the adverse reactions between citalopram and sertrline in treatment of Chinese senile patients with depression.METHODS:A total of 3 randomized controlled trials comparing citalopram and sertraline in treatment of senile patients with depression retrieved in domestic literature from 1994 to 2013 were subjected to a comprehensive quantitative analysis.RESULTS: There was no significant difference on clinical efficacy between citalopram and sertraline ( P>0.05 ) .The incidence rates of dizziness and constipation in sertraline group were significantly higher than in citalopram group (P0.05 ) .CONCLUSIONS: Eitalopram is as effective as sertraline but with milder adverse drug reactions than the latter in treatment of depression in Chinese senile patients.

  12. Effect of amisulPride and risPeridone on Prolactin and metabolic syndrome in schizoPhrenic Patients:case-control study%氨磺必利与利培酮对精神分裂症患者催乳素及糖脂代谢影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏立和; 陈景旭; 范宏振

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the differences between the effect of amisulpride and risperidone on prolactin and metabolism in schizophrenic patients. Method:Fourty-five schizophrenic patients was divided into amisulpride group(22 cases enrolled,20 completed)and risperidone group(20 cases enrolled,19 comple-ted). Prolactin levels and various indictors of metabolism were detected before the treatment,4 weeks and 8 weeks after the treatment respectively. Results:Compared with baseline the serum prolactin levels in two groups,4 weeks and 8 weeks after the treatment increased significantly(P ﹤ 0. 02);but the prolactin of risperi-done group increased more significantly than amisulpride risperidone group. Insulin resistance and body mass in-dex were increased in both groups(P ﹤ 0. 02). Conclusion:Compared with risperidone,amisulpride has rela-tively less impact on prolactin,while two drugs had a similar impact on the metabolism.%目的:探讨氨磺必利与利培酮对精神分裂症患者催乳素及糖脂代谢的影响。方法:精神分裂症患者按治疗方案分为氨磺必利组(入组22例,完成20例)及利培酮组(入组20例,完成19例),分别在治疗前及治疗后4周、8周监测催乳素及糖脂代谢方面的各项指标,并分析治疗前后两组之间的差异。结果:两组治疗4周及治疗8周与治疗前相比,催乳素水平均有显著升高(P ﹤0.02);利培酮组较氨磺必利组催乳素升高更为显著。两组胰岛素抵抗指数及体质量指数均升高(P ﹤0.02)。结论:与利培酮相比,氨磺必利对催乳素的影响相对较轻,而两种药物对代谢方面的影响相当。

  13. Clinical efficacy of Risperidone combined with Paroxetine in treatment of methamphetamine-induced mental disorder patients%利培酮合并帕罗西汀治疗甲基苯丙胺所致精神障碍患者的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文卫

    2015-01-01

    目的::对比分析利培酮单用与利培酮合并帕罗西汀治疗甲基苯丙胺所致精神障碍患者的治疗效果。方法:将68例甲基苯丙胺所致精神障碍患者的临床资料,采用数字单双号的模式随机分为对照组(利培酮)与治疗组(利培酮合并帕罗西汀),每组各34例。结果:对照组患者的总有效率为82.35%,治疗组患者的总有效率为94.12%,治疗组明显高于对照组,(P0.05)。结论:针对甲基苯丙胺所致精神障碍患者,采用利培酮合并帕罗西汀进行治疗能够显著改善患者的精神病性状态和抑郁、焦虑情绪,临床疗效明显,值得临床推广应用。%Objective: To comparatively analyze effects of Risperidone alone and Risperidone combined with Paroxetine in treatment of methamphetamine-induced mental disorder patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis of clinical data of 68 cases with methamphetamine-induced mental disorder was done by using digital odd and even numbers modes, and these cases were randomly di-vided into control group ( Risperidone) and treatment group ( Risperidone merger Paroxetine) , 34 cases in each group. Results:The total effective rates of control group and treatment group were 82. 35% and 94. 12%, and the difference was statistically significant (P0. 05). Conclusions:For the methamphetamine-induced mental disorder patients, Paroxetine combined with Risperidone can significantly improve the patient's mental state and de-pression and anxiety emotions with a significant clinical efficacy, and is worthy of clinical application and promotion.

  14. 二甲双胍联合行为干预治疗利培酮所致的代谢紊乱%Efficacy of metformin combined behavior intervention in the treatment of metabolic disorders caused by risperidone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏金校; 王一冰; 甘建光; 曹世林; 段迪; 钱佩华; 沈妃

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察二甲双胍(降血糖药)联合行为干预治疗利培酮(抗精神分裂症药)所致体质量增加及糖、脂代谢紊乱的临床疗效.方法 对口服利培酮所致肥胖的150例精神分裂症患者,随机分为A组(75例)和B组(75例),2组均给予行为干预;但A组加服二甲双胍,治疗6个月,测相关生化指标并进行比较.结果 除DBP、HDL-C和PRL外,A组余各指标,6个月末与入组时比较有极显著性差异;除DBP、TC、PRL、HDL-C外,B组余各指标,做相应地比较也有显著性差异.6个月末,除血压、脂蛋白、AST、PRL外,余各指标,A组与同期B 组比较有显著性差异;不良反应(主要为轻度恶心)发生率,A、B 2组分别为8%,7%,2组比较无显著性差异.结论 二甲双胍与行为干预单一或联合治疗利培酮所致体质量增加及代谢紊乱均有较好效果,尤以二甲双胍联合行为干预效果更好.%Objective To explore the clinical efficacy of metformin combined behavior intervention in treating metabolic disorders caused by risperidone, such as weight gain, glucose and lipid metabolism disorders.Methods A total of 150 schizophrenia patients who become obese after treated with risperidone were randomly divided into groups A (n =75) and B (n = 75).Both groups were given the same behavioral intervention for 6 months, but patients in group A also received treatment with metformin.At the point of baseline and the 6th month end, patients in both two groups received physical examination as well as a series of serological tests followed by statistic analysis.Results All the examine indexes except diastolic blood pressure, HDL -C and PRL were different between the point of baseline and the 6th month end in group A.All the examine indexes in addition to diastolic blood pressure, TC, PRL and HDL - C were different between the point of baseline and the 6th month end in group B.A lot of exam indexes were definitely different between two groups at the 6th month end

  15. 齐拉西酮和利培酮治疗精神分裂症的临床疗效及安全性评价%Clinical efficacy and safety of ziprasidone and risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈统献; 闫耀宇; 鲍佑元

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ziprasidone versus risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia .Methods A total of 120 patients with schizophrenia were randomly divided into treatment group (n=62) and control group(n=58).Patients in the control group were administered risperidone 0.25 mg・ d-1 initially with maximum of 4.0 mg・ d-1 orally, qd. And patients in the treatment group were administered of ziprasidone 40 mg・ d -1 initially with maximum of 160 mg・ d-1 orally, bid.All the patients received 8 weeks treatment.After treatment, the clinical efficacy ,quality of life score and side effects were compared between the two groups.Results After treatment, the clinical efficacy were 89.66% and 91.94% in control and treatment group respectively, with no statistical difference(P>0.05).The score evalua-ted by the short from health survey ( SF-36 ) was significant higher in treatment group compared with control group ( P <0.05 ) . The side effects incidence rate were 20.69% in control group and 8.06% in treatment group, which was significantly difference ( P <0.05 ) . Conclusion The clinical efficacy was not different between ziprasidone and risperidone.But ziprasidone can improve patients′quality of life much more significantly with and less adverse events .%目的:评价齐拉西酮和利培酮治疗精神分裂症的临床疗效及安全性。方法将120例精神分裂症患者随机分为对照组58例和试验组62例。对照组予以利培酮起始给药剂量为0.25 mg・ d-1,最大给药剂量4.0 mg・ d-1,每日1次;试验组予以齐拉西酮初始剂量为40 mg・ d-1开始,分2次服用,按照控制情况逐渐加量,根据患者病情和耐受情况,1周之内达到最大剂量160 mg・ d-1,2组均治疗8周。比较2组的临床疗效、生活质量评分及不良反应发生率有无差别。结果对照组临床总有效率为89.66%,试验组临床总有效率为91.94%,2组比

  16. 氨磺必利与利培酮治疗精神分裂症对照研究%A control study of amisulpride vs .risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵国艳; 常双海

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of amisulpride vs .risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia .Methods Sixty schizophrenics were randomly assigned to two groups of 30 ones each ,re-search group took orally amisulpride and control group did risperidone for 8 weeks .Efficacies were as-sessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and adverse reactions with the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) .Results After treatment the total and each factor score of the PANSS of both groups lowered continuously compared with pretreatment (P0 .05);at the end of the 8th week obvious effec-tive and effective rate were respectively 60 .0% and 83 .3% in research and 66 .7% and 86 .7% in control group ,which showed no significant differences (χ2 = 0 .29 ,0 .13 ,P> 0 .05) .There were no significant group differences in incidences of adverse reactions (P>0 .05) .Conclusion Amisulpride has an efficacy equivalent to risperidone ,higher safety and better compliance in the treatment of schizophrenia .%目的:探讨氨磺必利与利培酮治疗精神分裂症的临床疗效和安全性。方法将60例精神分裂症患者随机分为两组,每组30例,研究组口服氨磺必利治疗,对照组口服利培酮治疗,观察8周。采用阳性与阴性症状量表评定临床疗效,副反应量表评定不良反应。结果治疗后两组阳性与阴性症状量表总分及各因子分均较治疗前呈持续性下降(P<0.01),治疗各时段两组评分比较差异均无显著性( P>0.05);治疗8周末研究组显效率60.0%、有效率83.3%,对照组分别为66.7%、86.7%,两组比较差异无显著性(χ2=0.29、0.13,P>0.05)。两组不良反应发生率比较差异均无显著性(P>0.05)。结论氨磺必利治疗精神分裂症的疗效与利培酮相当,安全性高,依从性好。

  17. Comparison of efficacy and safety of amisulpride ang risperidone in treating patients with schizophrenia%氨黄必利与利培酮治疗患者精神分裂症患者的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨奎娟; 刘超

    2013-01-01

    目的比较氨黄必利与利培酮治疗精神分裂症患者的疗效与不良反应。方法 120例符合中国精神障碍分类与诊断标准第3版精神分裂症诊断标准的患者随机分为两组,每组60例,分别给予氨黄必利和利培酮治疗8周,采用阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS)评定疗效,治疗中出现的症状量表(TESS)评定不良反应,用世界卫生组织编制的生活质量量表(WHOQOL-100)评定生活质量。结果 治疗8周后,氨黄必利组显效率73.3%,有效率90%,利培酮组显效率66.7%,总有效率86.7%,两组疗效比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);两组WHOQOL-100各领域评分较治疗前均明显差异(P>0.01);氨黄必利组不良反应发生率16.7%,利培酮组为13.3%两组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论 氨黄必利与利培酮治疗精神分裂症患者的疗效相当,不良反应小,明显改善患者生活质量。%Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety between amisulpride and rispeeidone in treatment of schizophrenia. Method: one hundred and twenty Patients with schizophrenia who met the schizophrenia critetion of Chinese classification of mental disorders were devided into two groups ramdomly and treated with amisulpride or riseridone for 8weeks respectively .The positive and negative scale (PANSS) and treatment Emergent side effect scale (TESS) were used to evaluate the efficacy and adverse effect respectively, the quality of life was measured by World Health Organization quality of life questionnaire (WHOQOL-100). Results:The significant efficacy rate of amisulpride group Was 73.3%and the efficacy rate was 90.0% after 8 weeks, while 66.7% and 86.7% in risperidone group . There were no statistical difference between two groups (P>0.05).The two groups showed similar improvement on quality of life. The incidence rate of adverse effect was 16.7% in amisulpride group and that was 13.3% in risperidone group, without

  18. Comparative Study on Aripiprazole and Risperidone in the Treatment of Schizophrenia%阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗精神分裂症的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭红波

    2013-01-01

    目的比较阿立哌唑和利培酮对精神分裂症的疗效,为临床用药提供参考。方法以我院2011年1月~2012年9月收治的120例精神分裂症患者为研究对象,将患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组60例。对照组患者应用利培酮,治疗组患者服用阿立哌唑。观察两组的治疗效果以及不良反应。结果治疗组总有效率高于对照组,但是差异不具有统计学意义( P>0.05);两组患者PANSS总分、阳性症状分、阴性症状分、一般精神病理分治疗后明显比治疗前降低(P<0.05),但是组间比较差异不具有统计学意义(P>0.05);治疗组不良反应发生率明显低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论临床对精神分裂症采用阿立哌唑和利培酮治疗效果均较显著,两种药物疗效相似;但是采用阿立哌唑治疗的不良反应发生率少,因此阿立哌唑治可作为临床的首要选择。%Objective Objective To analyze effect of aripiprazole and risperidone in the treatment of schizo-phrenia ,and provide reference for clinical medication choice .Methods 120 cases with schizophrenia from in-patient department in January 2011 to September 2012 were selected .These patients were randomly di-vided into treatment group and control group , 60 cases in each group .Control group received risperidone , and treatment group received aripiprazole .Curative effect and adverse reaction for two groups were observed and compared .Results Total effective rate for treatment group was obviously higher than control group , but there were no significant difference ( P>0 .05 ) .PANSS score , positive symptoms score , negative symp-toms score and general psychopathology score after treatment were obviously lower than the score before treatment ( P0 .05 ) .Incidence of adverse effect was obviously lower than control group ( P<0.05 ) .Conclusion herapeutic effects of aripiprazole and risperi-done in the treatment of

  19. 阿立哌唑和利培酮治疗女性精神分裂症对照研究%Aripiprazole and Risperidone in the Treatment of Female Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜丽艳

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究女性精神分裂症患者运用阿立哌唑和利培酮治疗的临床效果。方法2012年4月~2013年4月间诊治的160例女性精神分裂症患者,将其分为两组,组1使用阿立哌唑进行治疗,组2使用利培酮进行治疗,比较两组患者的临床效果。结果通过对两组患者进行比较,组1有效率为87.5%,组2为90.0%,两组患者临床效果未见明…显差异,无统计学意义(P >0.05);但组2患者的体质量增加情况、椎体外系反应的发生率、泌乳以及月经紊乱情况均比组1高,两组患者差异显著,有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论对于女性精神分裂症治疗上效果上阿立哌唑和利培酮基本一致,但是阿立哌唑更适合用于女性精神分裂症患者。%Objective To study the clinical effect of female schizophrenia with aripiprazole and risperidone in the treatment of patients with. Methods 160 cases of female spirit in 2012 April ~2013 April in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with schizophrenia,it is divided into two groups, group 1 were treated by aripiprazole risperidone group, 2 were treated by comparison of the clinical effects of two groups of patients. Results The two groups of patients were compared, the group has an efficiency of 1 for 87.5%, group 2 to 90%,The patients in the two groups no significant differences in clinical effect, no statistical significance (P>0.05), but the group of 2 patients with body mass increase, extrapyramidal reaction rate, lactation and menstrual disorders are 1 higher than group, the differences between the two groups were significant, with statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusion For the treatment of female schizophrenia aripiprazole and risperidone effect on basically the same,but aripiprazole is more suitable for female patients with schizophrenia.

  20. Efficacy of Clozapine Combined with Risperidone in Refractory Schizophrenia%氯氮平联合利培酮治疗难治性精神分裂症的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓波; 韦伟香

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of clozapine combined with risperidone in the treatment of refractory schizophrenia.Methods A total of 118 patients with refractory schizophrenia were randomly treated with clozapine tablets alone(control group,n = 59)or in combination with risperidone tablets(observation group,n=59).Clinical efficacy and adverse re-actions were observed in both groups.Patients were scored using the Positive and Negative Syn-drome Scale(PANSS)before and after treatment for 2,4,8 and 12 weeks.Results PANSS scores significantly decreased in both groups after treatment for 8 and 12 weeks(P <0.05),and the de-crease in observation group was more obvious than that in control group(P <0.05).In addition, the total effective rate in observation group was significantly higher than that in control group (96.6% vs 81.4%,P < 0.05),and the incidence of adverse reactions in observation group was significantly lower than that in control group(15.3% vs 27.1%,P < 0.05).Conclusion The combination of clozapine and risperidone is an effective,safe and reliable treatment and can reduce adverse reactions in the treatment of refractory schizophrenia.%目的:探讨氯氮平联合利培酮治疗难治性精神分裂症的临床疗效和安全性。方法将118例难治性精神分裂症患者按入院的先后顺序分为2组:观察组和对照组,每组59例。2组均采用氯氮平片治疗。在此基础上,观察组加用利培酮片治疗。观察2组临床疗效以及不良反应发生的情况,并对2组治疗前及治疗2、4、8和12周后采用阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS)进行评分。结果2组治疗8、12周后 PANSS 得分均较治疗前明显降低(均 P <0.05),观察组治疗8、12周后 PANSS 得分均较对照组下降更明显(均 P <0.05)。观察组总有效率明显高于对照组(96.6%比81.4%,P <0.05),不良反应发生率明显低于对照组(15.3%比27.1%,P <0.05

  1. 齐拉西酮与利培酮治疗精神分裂症对照研究%A control study of ziprasidone vs risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卉

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of ziprasidone vs risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods 78 schizophrenics were randomly divided into two groups of 36 patients each, research group took orally ziprasidone and control group did risperidone for 8 weeks. Clinical efficacies were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale( PANSS) and Clinical Global Impression(CGI), adverse reactions with the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale(TESS) before treatment and at the end of the 8th week. Results At the end of the 8th week,total effective rate was 83.33% in the research and 77.78% in the control group, which showed no significant difference(χ2=0.355,P>0.05).After treatment, the CGI total,PANSS total and each factor score of both groups lowered more significantly compared with pretreatment(P0.05). Adverse reactions of both groups were mild,mostly emerged in initial stage of treatment and could relieve with time of therapy lasting or by symptomatic treatment. Incidences of weight gain,galactorrhea and menstrual disorder were significantly lower in the research than in the control group. Conclusion Ziprasidone is more effective in first-episode schizophrenia equivalent to risperidone, scarcely causes weight gain and changes of serum prolaction,blood sugar and fat, its adverse reactions are mild and is a safe and effective novel antipsychotic.%目的 探讨齐拉西酮与利培酮治疗精神分裂症的临床疗效及安全性. 方法 将72例精神分裂症患者随机分为两组,每组36例,研究组口服齐拉西酮治疗,对照组口服利培酮治疗,观察8 w.于治疗前及治疗8 w末采用阳性与阴性症状量表、临床总体印象量表评定临床疗效,副反应量表评定不良反应.结果治疗8 w末,研究组总有效率为83.33%,对照组为77.78%,两组总有效率无显著性差异(χ2=0.355,P>0.05).治疗后两组临床总体印象量表总分、阳性与阴性症状量表总分及各因子分均

  2. rTMS vs Risperidone in the Treatment of BPSD of Alzheimer's Disease%rTMS与利培酮治疗阿尔茨海默病患者精神行为症状的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨婵娟; 张若曦; 方雅秀; 王丹逢; 韩海英; 刘文滔; 谭燕

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察重复经颅磁刺激( rTMS)和利培酮对阿尔茨海默病患者精神行为症状( BPSD )的临床疗效。方法:将45例患有阿尔茨海默病且伴有BPSD的患者随机分为研究组(20例)和对照组(25例),研究组患者接受20次5HZ rTMS,对照组接受利培酮治疗,两组治疗期间维持原有的胆碱酯酶抑制剂。治疗前及治疗2周和6周后进行神经精神科问卷( Neuropsychiatric Inventory ,NPI)和简明精神状态检查( MMSE)等评分观察疗效。结果:45例患者完成治疗,治疗6周后两组NPI得分均有降低,组内治疗前后比较,差异达统计学意义( t=12.18,2.29;P<0.05);两组间评分比较无显著性差异(t=0.68,0.42,0.66;P>0.05);两组的MMSE评分有所上升,治疗6周后两组内前后比较,差异有统计学意义(t=2.45,2.92;P<0.05)两组间评分无显著性差异(t=0.17,0.92,0.26;P>0.05)。结论:重复经颅磁刺激可能是控制轻中度阿尔茨海默病患者BPSD的一种有效而安全的治疗方法。%Objecti ve:To explore the effects of repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation ( rTMS ) in treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia ( BPSD) of patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease ( AD ) .Methods:45 mild -to moderate AD patients accompanied with BPSD were randomly divided to active rTMS group (20 cases) and Risperidone group (25 cases).Sub-jects of rTMS group were treated with rTMS respectively for 20 times during 6 weeks,and the subjects of Risperidone group were treated with risperidone ,all patients were received with stable cholinesterase in-hibitors.Neuropsychiatric Inventory ( NPI)and Mini -Mental Status Examination ( MMSE) were as-sessed before treatment and 2 weeks and 6 weeks after treatment .Results:45 subjects completed the trial . The NPI improved significantly after 6 weeks of active

  3. Efficacy and executive function of olanzapine and risperidone in the treatment of elderly patients with schizophrenia%奥氮平与利培酮治疗老年精神分裂症患者疗效及执行功能比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杭荣华; 程万良; 王瑞权; 吴明飞

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To explore the difference on efficacy and executive function between olanzapine and risperidone in treatment of elderly patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: 84 eider-ly patients with schizophrenia were randomly divided into olanzapine group (43 cases) and ris-peridon group (41 cases) treated for 8 weeks. The efficacy was assessed with the positive and negative symptoms scale (PANSS) and the executive function was evaluated with Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: After 8 weeks of treatment, the efficacy rate of olanzapine was 90. 6 % . in which 67. 4% was improved markedly. The efficacy rate of risperidon was 92. 6%, in which 68.3% were improved markedly. There were no differences between two groups (P>0. 01). The score of negative symptom of olanzapine group was significantly lower than that of risperidon group(P<0. 05). The score of categories control in risperidon group was significantly lower than that in olanzapine group, persistent errors and response error were higher than that in olanzapine group(P<0. 01). CONCLUSION; Both olanzapine and risperidon can improve the symptom and executive function of elderly patients with schizophrenia. Olanzapine is better than risperidon in improving negative symptom and executive function.%目的:比较奥氮平与利培酮治疗老年精神分裂症的疗效及对执行功能的影响.方法:84例老年精神分裂症患者随机分为奥氮平组(43例)和利培酮组(41例),于治疗前及治疗后第8周末采用阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS)和威斯康星卡片分类测验( WCST)评定疗效和执行功能,分别比较每组治疗前后及两组间的结果.结果:治疗后奥氮平组的有效率及显效率分别为90.6%和67.4%,利培酮组的有效率及显效率分别为92.6%和68.3%,两者差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).治疗后奥氮平组的阴性症状分低于利培酮组(P<0.01).利培酮组WCST的完成分类数低于奥氮平组,

  4. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of traditional Chinese medicine sarsasapogenin added to risperidone in patients with negative symptoms dominated schizophrenia%利培酮合并知母皂甙元治疗阴性症状为主的精神分裂症的双盲随机对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖世富; 薛海波; 李霞; 陈超; 李冠军; 苑成梅; 张明园

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify whether sarsasapogenin,a sapogenin from the Chinese medicinal herb Anemarrhena Asphodeloides Bunge,would augment the efficacy of risperidone and significantly improve cognitive functions in patients with negative symptoms dominated schizophrenia.Methods The trial was a double-blind,placebo-controlled,parallelgroup design.The eligible patients were randomized into 2 treatment groups:sarsasapogenin group (sarsasapogenin plus risperidone for 8 weeks,n = 41) and placebo group (risperidone only for 8 weeks,n = 39).At the baseline,as well as at weeks 2,4 and 8 of treatment,the therapeutic response was measured by using scales including Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS),Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS),modified Chinese Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (mWAIS),Clinical Global Impression (CGI) and Brief Psychiatry Rating Scale (BPRS).The study period for each subject was 8 weeks and duration of overall trial was 2 years.Results Patients treated with sarsasapogenin plus risperidone demonstrated no statistically significant differences in changes in PANSS,WMS or mWAIS score at the end-point of the trial compared with patients treated with placebo plus risperidone.The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events in patients treated with sarsasapogenin was not different from that observed in placebo group.Conclusion Sarsasapogenin did not augment the efficacy of risperidone in treating negative symptoms dominated schizophrenia.Sarsasapogenin at a dosage of 200 mg per day added to a flexible dosage of risperidone at 2-4 mg per day is safe and well tolerated by patients with negative symptoms dominated schizophrenia.%目的 探讨知母皂甙元是否能增强利培酮的治疗作用,以及两者联用是否能显著提高阴性症状为主的精神分裂症病人的认知功能.方法 本研究采用双盲、安慰剂对照的平行设计方案.研究对象随机分为知利培酮合并母皂甙组(n= 41)和利培酮合并安慰剂组(n=39

  5. 氨磺必利与利培酮治疗精神分裂症对照研究%Comparative Study of Amisulpride and Risperidone in Treating 60 Cases of Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹国兴; 古淑敏; 程雪

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the efficacy and safety of amisulpride in the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods 60 cases of first episode schizophrenia were randomly divided into the amisulpride group and the risperidone group with 30 cases in each group and treated for 8 weeks. The positive and negative symptom scale ( PANSS ) was adopted to evaluate the efficacy and the treatment emergent symptoms effect scale ( TESS ) was used to evaluate the adverse reactions. Results The total effective rate after treatment in the amisul-pride group was 83. 33%, while which in the risperidone group was 80. 00% without statistically significant difference between the two groups ( P > 0. 05 ) . The weight gain of the amisulpride group was significantly less than that of the rispefidone group ( P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion Amisulpride and rispefidone have a similar therapeutic effect, but the case number of weight gain caused by amisulpride is significantly decreased, amisulpride deserves to be clinically popularized.%目的:观察氨磺必利治疗精神分裂症的临床疗效与安全性。方法将60例首发精神分裂症患者,随机分为氨磺必利组30例,利培酮组30例,疗程8周。采用阳性与阴性症状量表( PANSS )评定疗效,采用副反应量表( TESS )评定治疗中出现的不良反应。结果氨磺必利组的治疗总有效率为83.33%,利培酮组为80.00%,两组疗效差异无统计学意义( P>0.05);氨磺必利组的体重增加明显少于利培酮组( P<0.05)。结论氨磺必利与利培酮治疗精神分裂症疗效相当,且氨磺必利引起体重增加数例明显较少,值得临床推广。

  6. 西酞普兰与阿米替林治疗老年抑郁症的临床对照研究%The Clinical Contrast Study About the Treatment of Depression in Old Age Treated by Citalopram and Amitriptyline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琦

    2015-01-01

    Objective Investigate the efficiency and safety of depression treated using citalopram. Methods According to the standard of the MDD deifned by “Chinese classiifcation of mental disorders(CCMD-3)”, we chose 70 patients above 60 years old with 17 items in Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) larger than 18 points as samples. The patients were randomly divided into two groups and treated by citalopram and amitriptyline separately for 8 weeks. The patients took a set of tests before and 2, 4, 6, 8 week after the treatments. By the end of the second and eighth week, the patients took the tests of routine urine, routine blood, liver function, cardiogram, electroencephalogram and chest X-ray. The efifciency and safety were evaluated by 17 items in HAMD and Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale. Results For the 36 patients treated by citalopram and 34 patients treated by amitriptyline, the scores of HAMD decrease signiifcantly (P<0.01) from the 2nd and the 4th week respectively. From the 2nd week, the citalopram group showed more obvious decrease of HAMD (P<0.05). If the effective treatments were deifned as 25%decrease of HAMD, in the 2nd week citalopram group had effective rate of 41.2%and amitriptyline group had effective rate of 19.4%, which showed obvious difference (P<0.05). By the end of the 8th week, citalopram group had effective rate of 73.5%and amitriptyline group had effective rate of 72.2%, which did not show obvious difference. Compared with the amitriptyline group, citalopram group had weaker untoward effects. There were obvious difference for the two groups in terms of thirst and sychnosphygmia (P<0.01) without other differences. Amitriptyline group showed abnormal electrocardiographic pattern and reversible elevated transaminase. Conclusion Citalopram shows fast effects and weaker untoward effects, which is suitable for elder patients especially with other body treatments.%目的:探讨西酞普兰治疗抑郁症的有效性及安全性。方法选择70

  7. Cognitive behavioral therapy for stable schizophrenia with risperidone treatment: A case report%精神分裂症的认知行为治疗个案报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭志华; 李占江

    2013-01-01

    本文介绍了1例康复期精神分裂症患者在利培酮治疗基础上联合认知行为治疗的整个治疗过程.在12次的认知行为治疗过程中,在前、中、后三个阶段如何进行治疗设置、不同阶段的治疗重点、具体治疗方法的应用以及效果评估进行了案例示范,并对该案例治疗的不足和精神分裂症认知行为疗法的未来发展进行了讨论.%The current paper described the complete process of cognitive behavioral therapy combined with risperidone for a patient with schizophrenia in rehabilitative period.The therapeutic setting,focus of three different stages,treatment technologies and effect evaluation were illustrated in this paper.Treatment weakness for this case and future direction of cognitive behavioral therapy for schizophrenia were also discussed.

  8. 不同剂量利培酮治疗首发精神分裂症的疗效观察%Clinical observation of various dosages of risperidone in treatment of first episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隗春玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of various dosages of Risperidone Tablets in treatment of first episode schizophrenia and safety evaluation.Methods Patients (127 cases) with first episode schizophrenia from Beijing Fangshan District Mental Health Care Hospital from April 2012 to April 2014 were randomly divided into high-dosage group ( 62 cases) and low-dosage group (65 cases). The patients in the high-dosage group werepo administered with Risperidone Tablets 0.5 — 1 mg/d at beginning, then gradually added to 6 mg/d according to patient's condition and adverse reactions in the second and third day, and maintained the dosage of 6 mg/d. The patients in the low-dosage group were same to those in the high-dosage group except added dosage and maintenance dosage of 3 mg/d. Two groups were treated for 8 weeks. After treatment, the efficacy was evaluated, and PANSS score, EPS occurrence and TESS scores in two groups were compared.Results The efficacies in the high-dosage and low-dosage groups were 93.85% and 82.26%, respectively, and there were differences between two groups (P < 0.05). After treatment, negative symptom scale scores, positive symptom scale score, the psychopathology scale scores, and PANSS total score in two groups were significantly lower, and the difference was statistically significant in the same group (P < 0.05). The observational indexes of the low-dosage group were significantly lower than those in the same period in the high-dosage group treated for 4 and 8 weeks, with significant difference between two groups (P < 0.05). The incidence of EPS and TESS scores at 4 and 8 week in the low-dosage group were obviously lower than those in the high-dosage group, and the difference was statistically significant between two groups (P < 0.05).Conclusion Low-dosage of Risperidone Tablets has curative effect in treatment of first episode schizophrenia with better clinical efficacy, less PANSS score, incidence of EPS, and TESS scores, which be superior to

  9. 度洛西汀、西肽普兰对伴躯体疼痛症状的抑郁症患者P物质的影响%Effects of Duloxetine and Citalopram on Substance P in Major Depression Patients with Somatic Pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何其华

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察比较度洛西汀、西肽普兰对伴有躯体疼痛症状的抑郁症患者血浆P物质水平的影响。方法伴有躯体疼痛症状的抑郁症患者随机分组,分别接受度洛西汀(60 mg/d,n=25),西肽普兰(20~40 mg/d,n=25)治疗,于治疗前、治疗4、8周末分别测定血浆P物质水平。结果①度洛西汀组治疗4、8周末的血浆P物质水平均较治疗前显著下降( t=2.095,3.504;P=0.046,0.003);西肽普兰组治疗8周末,血浆P物质水平较治疗前显著下降( t=2.170, P=0.040);②治疗前、治疗4周末,度洛西汀组、西肽普兰组血浆P物质水平无显著差异;治疗8周末,度洛西汀组血浆P物质水平显著低于西肽普兰组(t=2.030,P=0.047)。结论度洛西汀、西肽普兰均可使伴躯体疼痛症状的抑郁症患者血浆SP水平下降,但度洛西汀起效更快、作用更强。%Objective To investigate the effect of duloxetine and citalopram on substance P in major depression patients with somatic pain.Methods Depressed inpatients with pain symptom of body were randomly divided into two groups treated with duloxetine (60mg/d,n=25) or citalopram(20~40mg/d,n=25) and measured by serum SP obtained from external jugular vein .Results The plasma levels of substance P were significantly reduced after 4,8 weeks duloxetine treatment (t=2.095,3.504;P=0.046,0.003) or 8 weeks citalopram treatment (t=2.170,P=0.040).The plasma levels of substance P showed no significant difference between two groups be -fore and after 4 weeks treatment ,but the plasma levels of substance P were significantly lower in depressed patients treated with duloxe -tine compared to those treated with citalopram (t=2.030,P=0.047).Conclusion Duloxetine or Citalopram should have effects on down-regulating the plasma levels of substance P in major depression patients with somatic pain ,which is rapider and stronger in the former than

  10. 艾司西酞普兰与氯米帕明治疗脑外伤后抑郁临床对照观察%Ai Company Citalopram and Chlorine M Palmer Ming Treatment after Traumatic Brain Controlled Clinical Observation of Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彦恒; 王继伟; 张立敏; 邓春继

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较艾司西酞普兰与氯米帕明治疗脑外伤后抑郁的疗效和安全性.方法:将60例脑外伤后抑郁患者随机分为两组,分别用艾司西酞普兰与氯米帕明片治疗8周.采用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、抑郁自评量表(SDS)和副反应量表(TESS)于治疗前和治疗1、2、4、8周末分别评定疗效和不良反应.结果:两组显效率分别为80%和83.3%,疗效相当(P>0.05).治疗8周末HAMD和SDS评分均较治疗前下降(P<0.05),HAMD及SDS评分艾司西酞普兰组治疗第一周末即显著下降,而氯米帕明组第二周末才显著下降.副反应方面,艾司西酞普兰组以失眠为主.氯米帕明组以口干,便秘,心悸为主.结论:艾司西酞普兰是治疗脑外伤后抑郁安全有效的药物.%Objective:More ai company citalopram and chlorine m palmer Ming treatment after traumatic brain depression efficacy and safety.Methods:60 patients with depression after brain injury patients were randomly divided into two groups,respectively for ai company citalopram and chlorine m palmer Ming eight weeks of treatment .The Hamilton depression rating scale(HAMD),depression self rating scale (SDS)and side effects scale (the treatment before treatment and treatment in 1,2,4,8 weekend evaluation respectively curative effect and adverse reactions.Results:Two groups of significant efficiency 80% and 83.3%,respectively(P>0.05 treatment group).8 HAMD SDS and treatment weekend scores are a drop before treatment (P<0.05),HAMD and SDS score ai company citalopram treatment group is the first weekend decreased significantly,and chlorine m palmer Ming group the second weekend to significantly.Side effects,ai company citalopram group for insomnia primarily/Chlorine m palmer Ming group for dry mouth,constipation,palpitations primarily.Conclusion:Ai company citalopram is the treatment of depression after traumatic brain safe and effective drugs.

  11. Clinical Observation of Olanzapine Combined Escitalopram Citalopram Treatment of Mental Disorder Caused by Traumatic Brain Injury with Depressive Symptoms%奥氮平联合艾司西酞普兰治疗脑外伤所致精神障碍伴抑郁症状的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云; 张琳; 莫云

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the olanzapine combined escitalopram citalopram in brain injury caused by mental disorders associated with efficacy and safety in the treatment of depressive symptoms.Methods The mental disorders caused by traumatic brain injury patients with depressive symptoms of 58 cases with use of olanzapine, olanzapine starting dose of 5 mg/day, four weeks depending on the condition to adjust (5~20 mg/day).Joint escitalopram citalopram, es-citalopram citalopram daily starting dose of 5 mg/day, according to the condition gradually increase to (10~20 mg/day) treatment, the curative effect and adverse reaction was observed.Results 58 patients with complete treatment and evalu-ation, olanzapine 2, 4, 6 weeks after treatment, was falling the BPRs score (P<0.05), the total effective rate was 93.1%.Patients with anxiety depression improved significantly, less side effects, only 7 cases with weight gain, sleepi-ness, dizziness and other side effects.Conclusions In brain injury caused by the treatment of mental disorders associat-ed with depressive symptoms, combined with olanzapine escitalopram citalopram improve mental behavior disorder work fast, good curative effect, safety, no obvious between drug adverse reactions to each other.%目的 观察奥氮平联合艾司西酞普兰在脑外伤所致精神障碍伴抑郁症状治疗中的疗效和安全性. 方法 对脑外伤所致精神障碍伴抑郁症状的58例患者使用奥氮平,奥氮平起始剂量5 mg/天,4周内视病情调整至(5~20 mg/天).联合艾司西酞普兰,艾司西酞普兰每日起始剂量5 mg/天,按病情逐渐增量至(10~20 mg/天)治疗,观察其疗效和不良反应. 结果 完成治疗及评定患者58例,奥氮平治疗2、4、6周后,BPRs评分均较治疗前下降( P<0.05 ) ,总有效率93.1%. 患者焦虑抑郁改善显著,副反应少,仅7例出现体重增加、嗜睡、头昏等副反应. 结论 在脑外伤所致精神障碍伴抑郁症状的治疗中,用奥氮平联合艾

  12. A comparative study of Banxia Houpu Tang combined with citalopram in treatment of patients with postpartum depression%半夏厚朴汤合并西酞普兰对产后抑郁症疗效的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪丽霞; 陈麟; 张艳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of Banxia Houpu Tang combined with citalopram in treatment of patients with postpartum depression. Methods A total of 192 patients with postpartum depression were randomly divided into study group with Banxia Houpu Tang combined with citalopram and control group with citalopram for 4 weeks of treatment. They were assessed and analyzed contrastively using Hamilton Depression Scale ( HAMD) , Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) for clinical efficacy and Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) for side effects. Results At the end of 1st week, the scores of HAMD and HAMA in study group were significantly lower than those before treatment(P <0.05). At the end of 2nd and 4th week, the scores of HAMD and HAMA in two groups were significantly lower than those before treatment(P <0. 05). At the end of 1st, 2nd and 4th week, the scores of HAMD and HAMA in study groups were all significantly lower than those in control group (P <0. 05). There were no severe side effects in study group and control group. Conclusion Banxia Houpu Tang combined with citalopram should be effective and rapid in treatment of patients with postpartum depression which is better than citalopram.%目的 探讨半夏厚朴汤合并西酞普兰对产后抑郁症患者的疗效.方法 将192例产后抑郁症患者随机分成研究组(用半夏厚朴汤合并西酞普兰系统治疗)和对照组(单用西酞普兰系统治疗),共治疗4周,采用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)、副反应量表(TESS)评定疗效和副反应.结果 在第1周末,研究组的HAMD和HAMA评分与治疗前比较均降低(P<0.05).在第2、4周末,两组的HAMD和HAMA评分与治疗前比较均有显著性降低(P<0.01).在治疗后第1、2、4周末,HAMD和HAMA评分两组间比较差异均有显著性意义(P<0.01).两组不良反应均较少.结论 半夏厚朴汤合并西酞普兰可有效、快速治疗产后抑郁症患者的抑郁及焦虑症

  13. Effect of prophylactic antidepressant treatment with citalopram on motor function recovery in patients with acute cortical infarction%西酞普兰预防性抗抑郁治疗对急性皮质脑梗死患者运动功能恢复的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季滨龙; 王雪婷

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨应用西酞普兰进行预防性抗抑郁治疗对急性皮质脑梗死患者运动功能恢复的影响。方法前瞻性纳入发病24 h内入院且伴有上肢运动功能缺损的首发急性大脑中动脉供血区皮质梗死患者,随机分为西酞普兰组和对照组,西酞普兰组在常规治疗基础上从发病48 h内开始给予氢溴酸西酞普兰片口服(20 mg/d),持续30 d。应用汉密尔顿抑郁评定量表(Hamilton Depressive Rating Scale, HDRS)-17项在治疗前后进行抑郁症状评定,应用美国国立卫生研究院卒中量表(National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, NIHSS)和 Fugl-Meyer 评定量表( Fugl-Meyer Assessment, FMA)手运动功能评分在治疗前后进行功能评定。结果共66例患者纳入分析,西酞普兰组32例,对照组34例,组间基线临床资料差异均无统计学意义,所有患者的基线卒中严重程度均为中等(NIHSS评分5~15分)。治疗后30 d与基线水平相比,西酞普兰组 HDRS 评分显著改善[(6.70±3.58)分对(9.86±3.48)分;t=3.380,P=0.001],但与对照组治疗后HDRS评分差异无统计学意义[(6.70±3.58)分对(8.12±2.96)分;t=1.745,P=0.086];西酞普兰组和对照组NIHSS评分分别降低(4.30±1.88)分和(2.00±1.24)分(t=5.900,P<0.001),FMA手运动功能评分分别增高(4.00±0.70)分和(1.42±1.91)分(t=7.197,P<0.001),组间比较差异均存在统计学意义。此外,西酞普兰组和对照组分别有14例(43.8%)和5例(14.7%)患者治疗后30 d的手运动功能评分较基线恢复超过25%,西酞普兰组显著高于对照组(χ2=6.783,P=0.009)。结论伴有中度运动功能缺损的急性皮质脑梗死患者,早期应用西酞普兰能显著促进运动功能恢复,其机制可能与抗抑郁作用无关。%Objective To investigate the effect of using prophylactic antidepressant treatment with citalopram on motor function recovery in patients with acute cortical

  14. Effective comparison of ziprasidone and risperidone in young female patients with schizophrenia and the influ-ence on metabolism%齐拉西酮与利培酮治疗青年女性精神分裂症的疗效及对代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of ziprasidone and risperidone in young female patients with schizo-phrenia and the influence on metabolism.Methods 116 young female patients with schizophrenia were randomly divided into zi-prasidone group and risperidone group.The two groups received ziprasidone and risperidone treatment respectively.The course of treatment was 8 weeks.Clinical effectiveness ,adverse reactions and the influence on metabolism were compared between the two groups.Results There were no significant difference of PANSS scores on 8 weeks after treatment between two groups (P >0.05);The occurrence of extrapyramidal symptom ,weight gain and lactation and menstruation abnormality in risperidone group were much higher than those in ziprasidone group (P0.05);Compared with ziprasidone group ,BMI and prolactin greatly increased in ris-peridone group (P< 0.05).Conclusion Ziprasidone and risperidone have equivalent effectiveness for young female patients with schizophrenia ,while ziprasidone is more favorable for young female patients for less influence on metabolism.%目的:探讨齐拉西酮与利培酮治疗青年女性精神分裂症的临床疗效及对代谢的影响。方法将116例青年女性精神分裂症患者随机分为利培酮组与齐拉西酮组,分别接受利培酮及齐拉西酮治疗,疗程8周。比较2组临床疗效、不良反应及对代谢的影响。结果治疗8周后,2组阳性及阴性症状量表(PANSS)各项评分差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);利培酮组锥体外系症状、体质量增加、月经改变及泌乳等不良反应发生率显著高于齐拉西酮组(P<0.05);齐拉西酮组治疗前后BMI及泌乳素无显著变化,利培酮组治疗后上述指标显著高于齐拉西酮组( P<0.05)。结论齐拉西酮与利培酮治疗青年女性精神分裂症临床疗效相当,但齐拉西酮对代谢影响小,更适合青年女性的治疗。

  15. The inlfuence of serum prolactin between amisulpride and risperidone in female patients%氨磺必利与利培酮对女性精神分裂症患者血清催乳素的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟勇

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveComparing the therapeutic effect of amisulpride and risperidone in female patients with schizophrenia and its influence on serum prolactin.MethodThe 78 cases accord with the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria of schizophrenia patients were randomly divided into 38 cases of amisulpride treatment group and 40 cases of risperidone treatment group, observation period for 6 months, respectively before treatment, after treatment of 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 3 months, 6 months for positive and negative symptoms scale, treatment emergent symptom scale and serum prolactin.ResultThe therapeutic effect of amisulpride and risperidone was no significant difference, the two groups before treatment and after treatment of 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 3 months, 6 months PANSS score and each factor score significantly reduced (P<0.01). Amisulpride treatment group and risperidone treatment group after treatment of 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 3 months, 6 months the serum prolactin levels were significantly increased, there was no significant difference. Risperidone treatment group appears amenorrhoea, lactation adverse reactions of patients is more, there are significant difference (P<0.05).Conclusion The therapeutic effect of amisulpride and risperidone is equivalence with schizophrene, the level of serum prolactin has increased significantly, but the adverse reactions of amisulpride treatment group is lighter.%目的:比较氨磺必利与利培酮对女性精神分裂症患者的疗效及其对血清催乳素的影响。方法将78例符合《美国精神障碍诊断统计手册》(第5版)精神分裂症诊断标准的患者随机分为氨磺必利治疗组38例和利培酮治疗组40例,观察期为6个月,分别于治疗前及治疗后4周、8周、3个月、6个月进行阳性与阴性症状量表、副反应量表及血清催乳素测定。结果氨磺必利组与利培酮治疗效果差异无显著性(P>0.05),两组治疗前及治疗后4周、8周、3个月、6个月的阳性与阴性

  16. Assessment of bioequivalence of citalopram in healthy Chinese subjects by population pharmacokinetic model%群体药动学模型估算我国健康男性西酞普兰生物等效性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐懿萍; 孙菁; 陈冰; 江涛; 陈红专

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish a population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model of citalopram (CIT) in healthy man Chinese subjects, and to compare the bioequivalence of CIT estimated by PPK with that estimated by non-compartmental (NCA) model. Methods Blood samples of 23 healthy subjects were collected after CIT was given, and samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The PPK model of CIT was evaluated by nonlinear mixed-effect modeling (NONMEM). Bioequivalence of CIT was evaluated by both PPK and NCA method. Results The PPK model of CIT was consistent with one-compartment model. The estimated CIT clearance rate was (15.90±0.70) L/h and volume of distribution was (702.0±19.2) L. The CIT bioavailability estimated by NCA and PPK model was 90%, and the confidence intervals were 96.4%~105.4% and 92.5%~103.4%, respectively. Conclusions Bioequivalence of CIT could be estimated by NONMEM model.%目的:建立我国健康男性志愿者服用西酞普兰(CIT)的群体药动学(PPK)模型,并比较PPK模型与非房室(NCA)模型法估算CIT生物等效性的价值.方法:23名健康男性志愿者服用CIT后采集0~144 h血标本,采用高效液相色谱-电喷雾串联质谱法分析血浆中的CIT浓度,采用非线性混合效应模型(NONMEM)法评估CIT的PPK模型,并用NAC模型法和PPK模型法评价CIT的生物等效性.结果:CIT的PPK模型符合一房室模型,估算的CIT清除率和分布容积分别为(15.90±0.70)L/h和(702.0±19.2) L.采用NCA和PPK模型估算的CIT相对生物利用度90%可信区间分别为96.4%~105.4%和92.5%~103.4%,达到生物等效性的标准.结论:NONMEM法可用于评价CIT的生物等效性.

  17. Analysis of State Plasma Concentrations of Enantiomers of Citalopram and its Metabolites in Elder Patients%西酞普兰及其代谢物的对映体稳态血药浓度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志昌

    2000-01-01

    测定了16例老年抑郁症患者口服西酞普兰(Citalopram,CIT)后CIT及其代谢物对映体的稳态波谷血药浓度。结果表明,口服20 mg/d后(n=14),R-CIT和S-CIT的平均稳态浓度分别为(36.2±15.0)μg/L和(27.4±13.1)μg/L,R-DM-CIT和S-DM-CIT分别为(7.2±3.1)μg/L和(7.7±3.8)μg/L;口服40 mg/d后(n=2),CIT和去甲西酞普兰(DM-CIT)浓度有高于前者的趋势;去二甲西酞普兰(DDM-CIT)仅在8例患者中测出R-DDM-CIT。R-CIT与S-CIT,R-DM-CIT与S-DM-CIT以及R-CIT与R-DDM-CIT间存在线性正相关。%In this paper the state plasma concentrations of enantiomers of citalopram and its/metabolites in 16 elder depressive patients were determined by a stereoselective HPLC method./The result showed that for the dose of 20 mg per day ( n = 12) the mean values ±SD of R-CIT and SCIT plasma concentrations were (36.2 + 15.0) μg/L and (27.4 + 13.1) μg/L respectively, for R - (and S- DM- CIT) (7.2 + 3.1) μg/L and (7.7 + 3.8) μg/L respectively, whereas DDM - CIT was only detectable as R - enantiomer in 8 cases. For the dose of 40 mg per day, there was seemly a tendency of higher plasma concentrations of CIT and its metabolites than the former with lower dose. Significant (P < 0.01) linear correlation could be found between both enantiomers of CIT and DM - CIT as well as between the parent drug and primary metabolite for Renantiomer.

  18. Curative Effect of Risperidone in The Treatment of Patients with Senile Dementia Accompanied with Psychiatric Symptoms%利培酮口服液促进老年痴呆精神行为症状康复的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳华; 徐小童; 吴彦清; 顾培

    2013-01-01

      目的:观察利培酮口服液促进老年痴呆行为异常康复的临床效果与安全性。方法:将笔者所在医院精神科2010年6月-2012年6月收治的具有完整病例资料的30例表现为行为异常的老年痴呆患者,给予利培酮口服液治疗8周,观察其治疗前、后的疗效及不良反应。结果:利培酮口服液治疗有效,相对剂量低,不良反应少,耐受性较好。结论:利培酮口服液更适宜于治疗和促进老年痴呆精神行为异常的康复,利于生活质量的提高。%Objective :To explore the curative effects and side effects of risperidone for oral use in the behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of senile dementia .Methods :The clinical data of 30 patients with the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in our hospital from June 2010 to June 2012 were retrospectively analyzed .They were adminis-tered with riperidone oral solution for 8 weeks .Results:The effective treatment of risperidone oral solution ,relatively low dose ,less adverse reaction ,good tolerability.Conclusion:Risperidone oral solution is more suitable for the treat-ment of senile dementia and promoting mental abnormal ,conducive to improving the quality of life .

  19. 氨磺必利与利培酮治疗精神分裂症疗效和安全性的Meta分析%Meta-analysis on the Efficacy and Safety of Amisulpride and Risperidone in the Treatment of Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志强; 周峰; 陈惠萍

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of amisulpride and risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia. Meth-ods:The RCTs literatures on amisulpride and risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia were retrieved and screened, and the quali-fied ones were analyzed by meta-analysis. Results:A total of 10 literatures were included involving 802 patients. Meta-analysis results showed that the difference between the two groups after the treatment was not statistically significant by comparing the clinical efficien-cy, PANSS score and TESS score. About the incidence of adverse reactions, amisulpride was better than risperidone in the endocrine function, extrapyramidal symptoms, weight gain and cardiovascular system. The incidence of nausea and vomiting of amisulpride was more than that of risperidone. There was no statistical significance in insomnia, headache, dizziness and the others. Conclusion:Ex-isting literature analysis shows that amisulpride is safe and effective in the treatment of schizophrenia.%目的::评价氨磺必利与利培酮治疗精神分裂症的疗效和安全性。方法:检索氨磺必利与利培酮治疗精神分裂症相关的随机对照研究文献,纳入合格文献进行Meta分析。结果:共纳入10篇文献,802例患者纳入分析。 Meta分析结果显示:两组治疗后临床有效率、阳性和阴性症状量表( PANSS)评分及治疗中出现的症状量表( TESS)评分比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);药品不良反应发生率:内分泌功能、锥体外系症状、体重增加及心血管系统不良反应比较,氨磺必利少于利培酮(P0.05)。讨论:现有文献分析结果表明,氨磺必利治疗精神分裂症安全、有效。

  20. Comparative of effects of clozapine, risperidone and ziprasidone on body weight and blood glucose%氯氮平、利培酮与齐拉西酮对精神分裂症患者体重及血糖的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋春联; 赵青霞; 付慧鹏; 周梦煜; 袁海; 康瑞; 高新立; 孔德荣; 张岩滨; 张丽霞; 赵星梅; 胡雄; 霍军; 王体宾; 胡海涛

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of clozapine, risperidone and ziprasidone on body weight and blood glucose of patients with schizophrenia. Methods A total of 190 patients who met the criteria of CCMD -3 for schizophrenia were assigned to clozapine group, risperidone group and ziprasidone group. Using single drug for 6 months. Body weight and fasting plasma glucose were measured before and 1、2、 3、6 months after drug administration. Results After 2 months treatment, body weight in clozapine group and risperidone group were highter than before (P 0. 05). Conclusions Clozapine and Risperidone can effect body weight and blood glucose of patients with schizophrenia. Ziprasidone has no effects on body weight and blppd glucose.%目的 探讨氯氮平、利培酮、齐拉西酮三种抗精神病药物对精神分裂症患者体重及血糖的影响.方法 将190例精神分裂症患者随机分成氯氮平、利培酮、齐拉西酮三组,分别给予单药治疗6个月.于治疗前、及治疗第1、2、3、6个月末监测患者体重及空腹血糖.结果 治疗2个月后,氯氮平组、利培酮组体重较治疗前增加,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),治疗3个月后,氯氮平组、利培酮组血糖较治疗前增加,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),齐拉西酮组治疗前后体重和血糖差异无显著性(P>0.05).结论 氯氮平、利培酮对患者的体重及血糖均有影响,而齐拉西酮的影响不显著.