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Sample records for citalopram promethazine risperidone

  1. Peripheral Edema Occurring during Treatment with Risperidone Combined with Citalopram

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Hamzeh Hosseini; Amirhossein Ahmadi

    2012-01-01

    An 80-year-old female presented with symptoms of depression, worthlessness, hopelessness, loss of energy, insomnia, impatience, and forgetfulness associated with persecutory delusion that had begun about one year before her visit. She was diagnosed with major depression with psychotic signs and began treatment with risperidone (2 mg/night) and citalopram (20 mg/day). After 20 days, she returned and reported partial improvement in her symptoms, although she had developed severe swelling of the...

  2. Promethazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the symptoms of allergic reactions such as allergic rhinitis (runny nose and watery eyes caused by allergy ... times. Promethazine is also used to prevent and control nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery, ...

  3. Promethazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... works by blocking the action of a certain natural substance in the body. ... prolonged exposure to sunlight and to wear protective clothing, sunglasses, and sunscreen. Promethazine may make your skin ...

  4. Citalopram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citalopram is used to treat depression. Citalopram is in a class of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). It is thought to work by increasing the amount of serotonin, a natural ...

  5. A comparison of the effect between combine citalopram with risperidone citalopram in the treatment of post-stroke depression%西酞普兰合用利培酮与西酞普兰治疗脑卒中后抑郁的疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马秀青; 纪爱建

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of combine citalopram with risperidone in the treatment of post-trok depression(PSD). Methods:89 patients with PSD were randomly assigned into two groups treated respectively,such as combine citalopram with risperidone and citalopram combined with placebo for 6 weeks in order to evaluate efficacy and side effects with HAMD,HAMA and TESS after 1、2、6 week. Results:There were differences of decreased scores of HAMD,HAMA between the two groups patients after 1、2、6 week respectively (p<0.05~0.01).There were no differences of scores of TESS between the two groups patients after 1、2、6 week respectively. Conlusion:Combine citalopram with risperidone was much better than citalopram combined with placebo,the former was well tolerated.%目的探讨西酞普兰合用利培酮治疗脑卒中后抑郁的疗效。方法将89例脑卒中后抑郁患者随机分成二组,分别给予西酞普兰和安慰剂与西酞普兰合用利培酮治疗6周,以HAMD及HAMA二种量表观察疗效,以TESS观察副作用。结果二组间HAMD和HAMA于第1、2、6周末减分率比较均有显著性差异(P<0.05~0.01)。TESS各周差异均不明显。结论西酞普兰合用利培酮治疗脑卒中后抑郁的疗效优于西酞普兰,且耐受性好。

  6. 小剂量利培酮强化抗抑郁剂治疗双相抑郁发作的疗效和安全性研究%Efficacy and safety of low dosage risperidone added on valproate and citalopram in the treatment of acute bipolar depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 王刚; 马辛

    2014-01-01

    目的考察小剂量利培酮强化抗抑郁剂治疗对双相抑郁发作的疗效和安全性。方法符合入组标准的住院患者,先接受2周的丙戊酸钠( valproate,VPA)合并西酞普兰( citalopram,CIT)治疗。2周末相对于基线的蒙哥马利抑郁量表( Montgomery and Asberg Depression Scale,MADRS)减分率0.05)。 CGI-I 2组对比,差异具有统计学意义(P0.05)。随机治疗第1周末BPRS阳性因子评分VPA+CIT+RIS组较VPA+CIT组明显降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),显示VPA+CIT+RIS组较VPA+CIT组在改善阳性精神病性症状方面起效更快。在随机治疗第2周,VPA+CIT+RIS组有效率为66.0%,VPA+CIT组为33.3%,显示VPA+CIT+RIS组较VPA+CIT组起效更快。结论 VPA+CIT+RIS与VPA+CIT治疗双相抑郁发作均安全有效。在快速起效及降低转相风险方面,VPA+CIT+RIS组优于VPA+CIT组。%Objective To evaluate the augmentation efficacy and safety of low dosage risperidone, added on the usual treatment ( valproate and citalopram) in the acute treatment of bipolar depression. Methods A total of 46 inpatients with a diagnostic criteria for acute depression episode with bipolar disorder according to DSM-IV-TR were first given valproate and citalopram treatment. The subjects who achieve little clinical response( i. e. reduction from baseline in total MADRS score by<50%) at the end of 2-week will enter into the randomized open-label 6-week treatment phase. The eligible subjects will be randomized to treatment with valproate & citalopram or valproate & citalopram & risperidone in a 1:1 ratio. Efficacy rating scales to be used in the study include MADRS, YMRS, BPRS( total score and positive subscale), CGI-S, and CGI-I. The evaluations of safety and tolerability include SAS, treatment-emergent mania, clinical laboratory tests, vital signs , ECG, and adverse events reports. Results At the end of treatment, the scores of MADRS, BPRS, GIC-I, and CGI-S in both treatment groups decreased significantly compared

  7. Risperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... depressive disorder; a disease that causes episodes of depression, episodes of severe mania, and other abnormal moods). Risperidone is in a class of medications called atypical antipsychotics. It works by ...

  8. Compound list: promethazine [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available promethazine PMZ 00110 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human.../in_vitro/promethazine.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/i...n_vitro/promethazine.Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vi...vo/Liver/Single/promethazine.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates

  9. Effects and safety of citalopram combined with low-dose risperidone on refractory depression%西酞普兰联合利培酮治疗难治性抑郁症的疗效与安全性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂隽; 蒋峰

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects and safety of citalopram combined with low-dose risperidone on refractory depression. Methods All of 54 patients with the refractory depression were ran-domly divided into two groups: augmented treatment group (taken citalopram 20 mg/d, risperidone 0.5-2.0mg/d) and mono-thempy group (taken citalopram alone 20 mg/d). The treatment lasted for 6 weeks. They were estimated with Hamilton depression scale (HAMD), Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA), and treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS) at baseline and every two weeks subsequently. Results In the augment-ed treatment group, total effective rate was 60.7% and recovery and excellence rate was 50.0%, while that was 26.9% and 15.4% in mono-therapy group (P< 0.05). The adverse effect of two groups was minor. Conclu-sion Rispefidone may be a useful and safe adjunct to citalopram in treatment of refractory depression.%目的 探讨西酞普兰联合小剂量利培酮治疗难治性抑郁症的疗效及安全性.方法 将54例难治性抑郁症患者随机分为两组,西酞普兰联合利培酮组:西酞普兰(20 mg/d)治疗的同时联合应用利培酮(0.5~2.0mg/d),共28例.西酞普兰组:单用西酞普兰(20mg/d)治疗,共26例.两组持续治疗6周.于治疗前及治疗第2、4、6周末应用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD,17项)和汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)以及不良反应量表(TESS)进行评定.结果 西酞普兰联合利培酮组总有效率为60.7%,痊愈和显效占50.0%;西酞普兰组的总有效率为26.9%,痊愈和显效占15.4%,两组总有效率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).两组患者的不良反应均轻微.结论 西酞普兰联合小剂量利培酮治疗难治性抑郁症的疗效优于单用西酞普兰,且安全性较好,是临床治疗中可选用的方法之一.

  10. Antinociceptive Effect of Promethazine in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Farshchi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sThe present study was undertaken to investigate the nociception activity of promethazine, a tranquillizer devoid of hypnotic activity in mice.Materials and MethodsAntinociception was evaluated, using the acetic acid-induced writhing, tail flick, hot plate and formalin pain tests.ResultsPromethazine (4 and 6 mg/kg and acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg produced a significant inhibition of the second phase response in the formalin pain model (P0.05 and administration of naloxone (0.1 mg/kg couldn't block the antinociceptive effect of promethazine.ConclusionThe data obtained suggest that antinociceptive effects of the promethazine may be mediated via peripheral and not central mechanisms.

  11. Bioavailability of Promethazine during Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Jason L.; Wang, Zuwei; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Promethazine (PMZ) is the choice anti-motion sickness medication for treating space motion sickness (SMS) during flight. The side effects associated with PMZ include dizziness, drowsiness, sedation, and impaired psychomotor performance which could impact crew performance and mission operations. Early anecdotal reports from crewmembers indicate that these central nervous system side effects of PMZ are absent or greatly attenuated in microgravity, potentially due to changes in pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics in microgravity. These changes could also affect the therapeutic effectiveness of drugs in general and PMZ, in particular. In this investigation, we examined bioavailability and associated pharmacokinetics of PMZ in astronauts during and after space flight. Methods. Nine astronauts received, per their preference, PMZ (25 or 50 mg as intramuscular injection, oral tablet, or rectal suppository) on flight day one for the treatment of SMS and subsequently collected saliva samples and completed sleepiness scores for 72 h post dose. Thirty days after the astronauts returned to Earth, they repeated the protocol. Bioavailability and PK parameters were calculated and compared between flight and ground. Results. Maximum concentration (Cmax) was lower and time to reach Cmax (tmax) was longer in flight than on the ground. Area under the curve (AUC), a measure of bioavailability, was lower and biological half-life (t1/2) was longer in flight than on the ground. Conclusion. Results indicate that bioavailability of PMZ is reduced during spaceflight. Number of samples, sampling method, and sampling schedule significantly affected PK parameter estimates.

  12. Citalopram concentrations in samples from autopsies and living persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Karen; Dragsholt, Claus; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese;

    1998-01-01

    Retskemi,Citalopram,fatal concentrations,toxic concentrations,therapeutic concentrations,metabolites......Retskemi,Citalopram,fatal concentrations,toxic concentrations,therapeutic concentrations,metabolites...

  13. Endogenous histamine and promethazine-induced gastric ulcers in the guinea pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djahanguiri, B.; Hemmati, M.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments performed with an inhibitor of diaminoxydase, aminoguanidine and an inhibitor of histidine decarboxylase, NSD 1055, showed that the frequency of gastric ulcers induced by promethazine was increased with the first inhibitor and decreased with the second. It is suggested that ulcers induced by promethazine in guinea pigs might be due to histamino-liberator effect of the antihistaminio compound.

  14. Usefulness of serotoninergic challenge with oral citalopram

    OpenAIRE

    Mattos Paulo; Franco Vanessa A; Noel François; Segenreich Daniel; Gonçalves José Carlos

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Challenge tests designed to evaluate serotoninergic pathways have widely used intravenous citalopram. Oral citalopram has also been used, but unsatisfactory results were obtained with a dose of 20 mg. The objective of this study was to determine whether a higher oral dose would reproduce similar to those described for intravenous administration. To that end, we evaluated cortisol, growth hormone and prolactin levels. METHOD: Eight healthy male volunteers were evaluated in a randomi...

  15. Citalopram

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before the menstrual period each month), and social phobia (excessive anxiety about interacting with others). Talk to ... quick, severe increase in eye pressure which may lead to a loss of vision). Talk to your ...

  16. Salivary Pharmacodynamics and Bioavailability of Promethazine in Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcha, Lakshmi; Harm, Deborah L.; Nimmagudda, Ram; Berens, Kurt L.; Bourne, David W. A.

    1999-01-01

    The acute effects of exposure to microgravity include the development of space motion sickness which usually requires therapeutic intervention. The current drug of choice, promethazine (PMZ), has side effects which include nausea, drowsiness, dizziness, sedation and impaired psychomotor performance. In a ground-based study with commercial airline pilots and shuttle simulator trainers, we measured sleep and psychomotor performance variables, and physiological variables such as blood pressure and heart rate, as a function of circulating drug concentrations in the body. We evaluated a non-invasive sampling method (saliva) as a means of assessing pharmacodynamics following a single intramuscular (IM) dose of PMZ.

  17. Comparative Pharmacology of Risperidone and Paliperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corena-McLeod, Maria

    2015-06-01

    Antipsychotics, risperidone, and risperidone's active metabolite, paliperidone (9-hydroxyrisperidone), are related molecules used for the treatment of schizophrenia and related disorders. Differences in receptor binding, 5-HT2A/D2 (serotonin/dopamine) binding ratios, and mitochondrial proteomics suggest that the effects of risperidone and paliperidone on neuronal firing, regulation of mitochondrial function, and movement are different. This review seeks to explore the most significant differences at the molecular level between risperidone and paliperidone, as reported in preclinical studies. Although risperidone shows higher affinity for 5-HT receptors, paliperidone does not fit this profile. Thus, the risperidone 5-HT2A/D2 binding ratio is significantly lower than the paliperidone 5-HT2A/D2 binding ratio. Paliperidone, similar to lithium and valproate, affects expression levels and phosphorylation of complex I and V proteins in synaptoneurosomal preparations of rat prefrontal cortex, suggesting that paliperidone behaves as a mood stabilizer. It is apparent that the presence of a hydroxyl group in the paliperidone molecule confers increased hydrophilicity to this drug compared with its parent, risperidone; thus, this contributes to differential effects on mitochondrial movement, protein expression, and phosphorylation. These differences are reflected in synaptic plasticity and neuronal firing and have only recently been implicated in the mechanisms of mitochondrial function and movement. PMID:25943458

  18. Development of Risperidone PLGA Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan D’Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to design and evaluate biodegradable PLGA microspheres for sustained delivery of Risperidone, with an eventual goal of avoiding combination therapy for the treatment of schizophrenia. Two PLGA copolymers (50 : 50 and 75 : 25 were used to prepare four microsphere formulations of Risperidone. The microspheres were characterized by several in vitro techniques. In vivo studies in male Sprague-Dawley rats at 20 and 40 mg/kg doses revealed that all formulations exhibited an initial burst followed by sustained release of the active moiety. Additionally, formulations prepared with 50 : 50 PLGA had a shorter duration of action and lower cumulative AUC levels than the 75 : 25 PLGA microspheres. A simulation of multiple dosing at weekly or 15-day regimen revealed pulsatile behavior for all formulations with steady state being achieved by the second dose. Overall, the clinical use of Formulations A, B, C, or D will eliminate the need for combination oral therapy and reduce time to achieve steady state, with a smaller washout period upon cessation of therapy. Results of this study prove the suitability of using PLGA copolymers of varying composition and molecular weight to develop sustained release formulations that can tailor in vivo behavior and enhance pharmacological effectiveness of the drug.

  19. Postmortem Femoral Blood Concentrations of Risperidone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Kristian; Johansen, Sys Stybe

    2014-01-01

    Postmortem femoral blood concentrations of the antipsychotic drug risperidone and the active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone were determined by an achiral LC-MS/MS method in 38 cases. The cause of death was classified as unrelated to risperidone in 30 cases, in which the sum of the concentration of...... the drug and metabolite ranged from below the limit of quantification to 0.058 mg/kg (median 0.0098 mg/kg). This concentration range, which largely corresponds to published in vivo plasmalevels under therapy, may serve as a reference for judgment of postmortem cases involving risperidone. In one case......, risperidone was judged to be a contributing factor to death, and the sum of concentrations was 0.29 mg/kg. This concentration is of the same order of magnitude as observed for plasma levels in clinical intoxication cases. For the remaining seven cases, the cause of death was unclear. The measurements observed...

  20. Risperidone for Aggressive Behavior in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of risperidone augmentation for treatment-resistant aggression in children with ADHD were evaluated in a placebo-controlled pilot study at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, FL.

  1. Using Latent Sleepiness to Evaluate an Important Effect of Promethazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Hayat, Matthew; Vksman, Zalman; Putcha, Laksmi

    2007-01-01

    Astronauts often use promethazine (PMZ) to counteract space motion sickness; however PMZ may cause drowsiness, which might impair cognitive function. In a NASA ground study, subjects received PMZ and their cognitive performance was then monitored over time. Subjects also reported sleepiness using the Karolinska Sleepiness Score (KSS), which ranges from 1 - 9. A problem arises when using KSS to establish an association between true sleepiness and performance because KSS scores tend to overly concentrate on the values 3 (fairly awake) and 7 (moderately tired). Therefore, we defined a latent sleepiness measure as a continuous random variable describing a subject s actual, but unobserved true state of sleepiness through time. The latent sleepiness and observed KSS are associated through a conditional probability model, which when coupled with demographic factors, predicts performance.

  2. Signalling profile differences: paliperidone versus risperidone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, W P; Chavera, T A; Silva, M; Sullivan, L C; Berg, K A

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Paliperidone is an active metabolite of the second-generation atypical antipsychotic, risperidone recently approved for the treatment of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Because paliperidone differs from risperidone by only a single hydroxyl group, questions have been raised as to whether there are significant differences in the effects elicited between these two drugs. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We compared the relative efficacies of paliperidone versus risperidone to regulate several cellular signalling pathways coupled to four selected GPCR targets that are important for either therapeutic or adverse effects: human dopamine D2, human serotonin 2A receptor subtype (5-HT2A), human serotonin 2C receptor subtype and human histamine H1 receptors. KEY RESULTS Whereas the relative efficacies of paliperidone and risperidone were the same for some responses, significant differences were found for several receptor-signalling systems, with paliperidone having greater or less relative efficacy than risperidone depending upon the receptor–response pair. Interestingly, for 5-HT2A-mediated recruitment of β-arrestin, 5-HT2A-mediated sensitization of ERK, and dopamine D2-mediated sensitization of adenylyl cyclase signalling, both paliperidone and risperidone behaved as agonists. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggest that the single hydroxyl group of paliperidone promotes receptor conformations that can differ from those of risperidone leading to differences in the spectrum of regulation of cellular signal transduction cascades. Such differences in signalling at the cellular level could lead to differences between paliperidone and risperidone in therapeutic efficacy or in the generation of adverse effects. PMID:23826915

  3. Comparative Pharmacology of Risperidone and Paliperidone

    OpenAIRE

    Corena-McLeod, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Antipsychotics, risperidone, and risperidone’s active metabolite, paliperidone (9-hydroxyrisperidone), are related molecules used for the treatment of schizophrenia and related disorders. Differences in receptor binding, 5-HT2A/D2 (serotonin/dopamine) binding ratios, and mitochondrial proteomics suggest that the effects of risperidone and paliperidone on neuronal firing, regulation of mitochondrial function, and movement are different. This review seeks to explore the most significant differe...

  4. Risperidone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of mania and depression that happen together) in adults and in teenagers and children 10 years of age and older with bipolar disorder (manic depressive disorder; a disease that causes episodes of depression, episodes of mania, and other ...

  5. Risperidone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions) in adults and teenagers 13 years of age ... ever used street drugs or large amounts of alcohol; if you have ever overused prescription medications; if ...

  6. Prolonged QTc Interval and Torsades de Pointes Induced by Citalopram

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, Anand; Ulveling, Kyle; Alla, Venkata; Abuissa, Hussam; Airey, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Citalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor with a favorable cardiac-safety profile. Corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation and cardiac arrhythmias have not been previously reported in association with citalopram use except in the presence of overdose, abnormal electrolyte values, or renal or liver failure. Herein, we report the case of a 40-year-old woman with mental depression who presented with a prolonged QTc interval and torsades de pointes after the initiation of citalopram...

  7. Risperidone Mono - Therapy as Prophylaxis in Bipolar Affective Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mohit; Pinto, Denzil; Safeekh, A.T.

    2004-01-01

    Risperidone has been found to be useful in the treatment of acute bipolar disorders. This is a case report where risperidone mono therapy has been found to be effective in prophylaxis of bipolar affective disorder. The pharmacological and clinical implications of risperidone in the management of BPAD are discussed

  8. Hyperprolactinaemia - a risperidone side-effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahovac, Tanja; Ruzić, Klementina; Medved, Paola; Pavesić-Radonja, Aristea; Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta

    2010-03-01

    A 47 year old patient has been treated for psychotic depression for the last 5 years. The illness began manifesting through the symptoms of depressive thoughts, intrapsychic tension, projectivity, derealisation phenomena and pre-psychotic fears. She was treated with a combination of antidepressives, anxiolitics and hypnotics in ambulatory conditions. The therapy applied did not obtain the effects expected due to which an atypical antipsychotic was administered subsequently - risperidone, a 2 mg dose in the evening. After commencing the antipsychotic treatment, the symptoms started to weaken and a steady remission was obtained. Two years after a regular risperidone administration (in combination with fluoxetine, alprazolam and flurazepam) the patient reported some "bleeding" in October 2006. Hormonal blood tests were performed and high prolactin values were registered (2567.0 mIJ/L),due to which a gradual risperidone retractement was indicated. Medicamentous hyperprolactinaemia is a well known side effect of risperidone. A gradual risperidone retractement lead to a lowered and normal prolactin level within a month. PMID:20305606

  9. From achiral to chiral analysis of citalopram

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Björn

    2003-01-01

    Within the field of depression the “monoamine hypothesis” has been the leading theory to explain the biological basis of depression. This theory proposes that the biological basis of depression is due to a deficiency in one or more of three key neurotransmitter systems, namely noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin which are thought to mediate the therapeutic actions of virtually every known antidepressant agent. Citalopram is a selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) used for the treatm...

  10. Bioavailability and Pharmacodynamics of Promethazine in Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, J. L.; Boster, B.; Wang, Z.; Shah, V.; Berens, K. L.; Sipes, W. E.; Anderson, K. E.; Putcha, L.

    2004-01-01

    The acute effects of exposure to microgravity include the development of space motion sickness, which usually requires therapeutic intervention. The current drug of choice, promethazine (PMZ), is available to astronauts in three different dosage forms during space flight; its side effects include nausea, dizziness, sedation and impaired psychomotor performance. This ground-based study is designed to validate flight-suitable methods for pharmacodynamic evaluation of PMZ and to estimate bioavailability and pharmacodynamics of PMZ. Experimental design consists of intramuscular administration of three doses of PMZ (12.5,25 and 50 mg) and placebo in a randomized double blind fashion to human subjects and collecting blood, urine and saliva samples for 72 h. Subjects also complete cognitive performance test batteries, WinSCAT (Windows based Space Cognitive Assessment Test) and ARES (ANAM Readiness Evaluation System). Preliminary results indicate a significant relationship (p=9.88e-05) between circulating PMZ levels and cognitive performance parameters. Time to accurately complete memory tasks increases significantly with concentrations; higher concentrations also increase response time and decrease accuracy of substitution and matching tasks. AUC and half-life estimates for PMZ ranged between 0.12 and 1.7 mg.h/L and 15 and 50 h, respectively. These preliminary results indicate that PMZ may exhibit dose-dependent pharmacokinetics in humans; also, WinSCAT and ARES are sensitive for pharmacodynamic assessment of PMZ, and may be applicable for assessing the pharmacodynamics of other neurocognitive drugs.

  11. The prevention of postoperative vomiting following strabismus surgery in children with using Promethazine and Droperidol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaigh al Islam V

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Children undergoing general anesthesia for strabismus surgery have a higher incidence of postoperative vomiting than those receiving the same anaesthesia for other types of ambulatory surgical procedures. Droperidol (0/0 75 mg/kg IV and promethazine (0.05-1.0 mg/kg were used in 100 children between 2-15 years old. Promethazine which has sedative property, anticholinergic antihistaminic, antiemetic and anti-motion sickness effects is recommended for children 0.05 mg-1.0 mg/kg of body weight IV. After induction of anesthesia and before operation and manipulation of the eye and combined with 0.5 mg/kg IM promethazine after operation. The incidence of vomiting following strabismus surgery might be reduced more than with intravenous droperidol

  12. Citalopram/Escitalopram (Celexa/Lexapro) and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citalopram/Escitalopram (Celexa®/Lexapro®) and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to citalopram/escitalopram may increase the risk for birth defects ...

  13. Autogenic-feedback training exercise is superior to promethazine for control of motion sickness symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, P. S.; Toscano, W. B.

    2000-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms affect approximately 50% of the crew during space travel and are commonly treated with intramuscular injections of promethazine. The purpose of this paper is to compare the effectiveness of three treatments for motion sickness: intramuscular injections (i.m.) of promethazine, a physiological training method (autogenic-feedback training exercise [AFTE]), and a no-treatment control. An earlier study tested the effects of promethazine on cognitive and psychomotor performance and motion sickness tolerance in a rotating chair. For the present paper, motion sickness tolerance, symptom reports, and physiological responses of these subjects were compared to matched subjects selected from an existing database who received either AFTE or no treatment. Three groups of 11 men, between the ages of 33 and 40 years, were matched on the number of rotations tolerated during their initial rotating-chair motion sickness test. The motion sickness test procedures and the 7-day interval between tests were the same for all subjects. The drug group was tested under four treatment conditions: baseline (no injections), a 25 mg dose of promethazine, a 50 mg dose of promethazine, and a placebo of sterile saline. AFTE subjects were given four 30-minute AFTE sessions before their second, third, and fourth motion sickness tests (6 hours total). The no-treatment control subjects were only given the four rotating-chair tests. Motion sickness tolerance was significantly increased after 4 hours of AFTE when compared to either 25 mg (p effect of promethazine was an inhibition of skin conductance level. The AFTE group showed significantly less heart rate and skin conductance variability during motion sickness tests administered after training.

  14. Review of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction studies with citalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brøsen, K; Naranjo, C A

    2001-08-01

    Citalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is N-demethylated to N-desmethylcitalopram partially by CYP2C19 and partially by CYP3A4 and N-desmethylcitalopram is further N-demethylated by CYP2D6 to the likewise inactive metabolite di-desmethylcitalopram. The two metabolites are not active. The fact that citalopram is metabolised by more than one CYP means that inhibition of its biotransformation by other drugs is less likely. Besides citalopram has a wide margin of safety, so even if there was a considerable change in serum concentration then this would most likely not be of clinical importance. In vitro citalopram does not inhibit CYP or does so only very moderately. A number of studies in healthy subjects and patients have confirmed, that this also holds true in vivo. Thus no change in pharmacokinetics or only very small changes were observed when citalopram was given with CYP1A2 substrates (clozapine and therophylline), CYP2C9 (warfarin), CYP2C19 (imipramine and mephenytoin), CYP2D6 (sparteine, imipramine and amitriptyline) and CYP3A4 (carbamazepine and triazolam). At the pharmacodynamic level there have been a few documented cases of serotonin syndrome with citalopram and moclobemide and buspirone. It is concluded that citalopram is neither the source nor the cause of clinically important drug-drug interactions. PMID:11532381

  15. Risperidone treatment increases CB1 receptor binding in rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Anna; Husum, Henriette; Holst, Birgitte;

    2010-01-01

    showed that risperidone treatment altered CB(1) receptor binding in the rat brain. Risperidone-induced adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in the clinic may be explained by increased CB(1) receptor density in brain regions involved in appetite and regulation of metabolic function....... positively correlated with visceral fat mass. Risperidone treatment increased CB(1) receptor binding in the arcuate nucleus (40%), hippocampus (25-30%) and amygdala (35%) without concurrent alterations in the CB(1) receptor mRNA. Risperidone treatment increased adiponectin mRNA. CONCLUSION: The present study...

  16. Risperidone in the treatment of bipolar mania

    OpenAIRE

    Sajatovic, Martha; Subramoniam, Madhusoodanan; Fuller, Matthew A

    2006-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotic medications have assumed growing importance for the treatment of bipolar disorder, an illness that affects approximately 1.2%–3.7% of the general population in a given year. Current practice guidelines for the treatment of bipolar mania support the use of atypical antipsychotic medications as monotherapy or as a component of polytherapy, and in clinical settings the use of atypical antipsychotics to treat bipolar disorder is widespread. Risperidone is an atypical antips...

  17. Flash Chromatography Application for Risperidone Purification

    OpenAIRE

    Trush, G. S.; Halkevych, I. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Relevance. Biological samples for forensic-chemical investigation are complicated multi-component systems.Aim of our investigations is the study of robustness and validity of purification technique applying the flash chromatography for purification of acidic extracts from biological tissues.Methods and results. It is established that 78.4 – 83.4 % of risperidone was isolated from liver tissues by water acidified with oxalic acid, than proteins precipitated by ammonia sulphate, and finally pur...

  18. Liver microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activity: enhancement by blockade of degradative processes in promethazine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, G.; Villarruel, M. C.; Bernacchi, A.; de Castro, C. R.; Castro, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Daily injection of promethazine over 4 days significantly increased the liver cytochrome P-450 content and ethyl morphine N-demethylase activity. These increases were evident after the first dose and were prevented by puromycin or actinomycin D administration. Repeated administration of promethazine does not increase the liver's ability to incorporate [14]C DL-leucine in microsomes but slows down the decay of radioactivity in microsomes previously labelled with ([14C]-guanidino) arginine. Repeated treatment with promethazine leads to a marked proliferation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and a slight increase in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). Our findings suggest that the enhancement of P-450 and EM-ase activity result from the decelerating effect of promethazine on protein degradation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7295538

  19. R-citalopram functionally antagonises escitalopram in vivo and in vitro: evidence for kinetic interaction at the serotonin transporter

    OpenAIRE

    Stórustovu, Signe í; Sánchez, Connie; Pörzgen, Peter; Brennum, Lise T; Larsen, Anna Kirstine; Pulis, Monica; Ebert, Bjarke

    2004-01-01

    Clinical observations with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), S-citalopram, indicate that S-citalopram is more efficacious and produces earlier symptom relief than RS-citalopram. Since R-citalopram is at least 20-fold weaker than S-citalopram as inhibitor of the 5-HT transporter (SERT) in preclinical studies, the clinical data suggest an unexpected antagonistic interaction between the two enantiomers. We therefore characterised the interaction of R- and S-citalopram with the S...

  20. Structure-activity relationship studies of citalopram derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M Andreas B; Plenge, Per; Andersen, Jacob;

    2016-01-01

    . The antidepressant drug citalopram displays high-affinity S1 binding and low-affinity S2 binding. To elucidate a possible therapeutic role of allosteric inhibition of SERT a drug that specifically targets the allosteric site is required. The purpose of this study was to find a compound bearing higher...... selectivity towards the S2 site. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We performed a systematic structure-activity relationship study based on the scaffold of citalopram and the structurally closely related congener, talopram, that shows low-affinity S1 binding in SERT. The role of the four chemical substituents, which...... distinguish citalopram from talopram in conferring selectivity towards the S1 and S2 site, respectively, was assessed by determining the binding of 14 citalopram/talopram analogous to the S1 and S2 binding sites in SERT using membranes of COS7 cells transiently expressing SERT. KEY RESULTS: The structure...

  1. Spectrophotometric Determination of Citalopram Hydrobromide in Pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badiadka Narayana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen dos métodos, simples y rápidos para la determinación espectrofotométrica del bomhidrato de citalopram (CIT en fármacos. El método A está basado en la oxidación de citalopram mediante un exceso de mezcla bromato-bromuro en un medio de ácido clorhídrico, así como de la reducción del oxidante residual por una cantidad de hierro(II, y la formación del complejo de hierro(III- tiocianato, el cual se determina a 480 nm. En el método B, se emplea la 1.10-fenantrolina como agente complejante, y la formación de hierro(II-1,10-fenantrolina se determina a 510 nm. El sistema obedece la ley de Beer en un intervalo de concentración de 1.0-7.0 ¿g mL-1 de CIT para el método A, y de 0.6-6.2 ¿g mL-1 de CIT para el método B. No se observa interferencia de la parte de aditivos farmacéuticos. Ambos métodos son igualmente precisos como lo muestran los valores menores de 2% de desviación estándar relativa. Se encuentran valores de 2.10 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1, 0.019 ¿g cm-2 , 7.30 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1 y 5.5 × 10-3 ¿g cm-2 para las absortividades molares y la sensibilidad de Sandell para los métodos A y B, respectivamente. Los métodos fueron utilizados exitosamente para la determinación de bromhidrato de citalopram en forma pura o en dosificación.

  2. Identification and determination of ketotifen hydrogen fumarate, azelastine hydrochloride, dimetindene maleate and promethazine hydrochloride by densitometric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszomirska, Elzbieta; Czerwińska, Krystyna; Kublin, Elzbieta; Mazurek, Aleksander P

    2013-01-01

    Conditions for determination of: ketotifen hydrogen fumarate, azelastine hydrochloride, dimetindene maleate and promethazine hydrochloride by densitometric method in substances and pharmaceuticals were provided. Maximum wavelenghts were: 228 nm for ketotifen hydrogen fumarate, 295 nm for azelastine hydrochloride, 265 nm for dimetindene maleate and 255 nm for promethazine hydrochloride. The limits of quantification were in the ranges of 0.2-5 microg/spot. The statistical data showed adequate accuracy and precision of developed methods. PMID:24383318

  3. Liver microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activity: enhancement by blockade of degradative processes in promethazine-treated rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, G.; Villarruel, M. C.; Bernacchi, A.; de Castro, C. R.; Castro, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Daily injection of promethazine over 4 days significantly increased the liver cytochrome P-450 content and ethyl morphine N-demethylase activity. These increases were evident after the first dose and were prevented by puromycin or actinomycin D administration. Repeated administration of promethazine does not increase the liver's ability to incorporate [14]C DL-leucine in microsomes but slows down the decay of radioactivity in microsomes previously labelled with ([14C]-guanidino) arginine. Rep...

  4. Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH) associated with citalopram use

    OpenAIRE

    Kirpekar, Vivek C.; Joshi, Prashant P

    2005-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) can cause the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). SIADH is associated with hyponatraemia without oedema. We report the case of a patient who developed acute-onset hyponatraemia that progressed rapidly to serious neurological dysfunction shortly after the introduction of citalopram. All SSRIs including citalopram should be used with care in the elderly. The water and electrolyte balance should be monitored carefully ...

  5. Predictive factors for generalized seizures after deliberate citalopram overdose

    OpenAIRE

    Waring, W Stephen; Gray, Julie A; Graham, Ann

    2008-01-01

    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECTCitalopram is a common means of self-poisoning in young adults.Generalized seizures are a recognised complication after selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor overdose (including citalopram overdose). WHAT THIS STUDY ADDSThe minimum stated citalopram dose associated with seizures in the absence of co-ingested drugs was 400 mg.Co-ingestion of a tricyclic antidepressant or venlafaxine confers a 15-fold increased risk of seizures.

  6. Usefulness of serotoninergic challenge with oral citalopram Utilidade do desafio serotoninérgico com citalopram oral

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Mattos; Vanessa A Franco; François Noel; Daniel Segenreich; José Carlos Gonçalves

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Challenge tests designed to evaluate serotoninergic pathways have widely used intravenous citalopram. Oral citalopram has also been used, but unsatisfactory results were obtained with a dose of 20 mg. The objective of this study was to determine whether a higher oral dose would reproduce similar to those described for intravenous administration. To that end, we evaluated cortisol, growth hormone and prolactin levels. METHOD: Eight healthy male volunteers were evaluated in a randomi...

  7. Risperidone-associated ejaculatory and urinary dysfunction in male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtmann, Martin; Gerstner, Sandra; Schmidt, Martin H

    2003-01-01

    We report two male adolescents who developed partial or complete retrograde ejaculation during risperidone treatment. Additionally, one patient complained of bladder outflow obstruction, and the other reported a reduced ejaculatory volume and decreased viscosity of semen. On rechallenge with risperidone, patient A showed a prompt recurrence of the ejaculatory dysfunction. The side effects were highly disturbing and led to reduced treatment compliance in both patients. The impact of risperidone, a strong alpha(1)-receptor antagonist, on the adrenergic system might induce retrograde ejaculation by altering the sympathetic tonus, allowing semen to pass retrogradely into the bladder during ejaculation. The reduced ejaculatory volume may be caused by risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Clinicians should regularly inquire about sexual dysfunction and symptoms suggestive of hyperprolactinemia before starting risperidone treatment and regularly thereafter. PMID:12804132

  8. Control of radiation-induced emesis with promethazine, cimetidine, thiethylperazine, or naloxone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promethazine (2 mg/kg), cimetidine (4 mg;kg), thiethylperazine (0.86 mg/kg), and naloxone (0.08 mg/kg) were each evaluated for their ability to increase the threshold of radiation-induced emesis in the dog. Each dog was fed a can of dog food (ca 0.4 kg) and then injected IM with the appropriate drug 1 hour before being irradiated by a 60Co teletherapy unit. Dogs were then observed continuously for 10 hours while the number, time of onset, and duration of each emetic episode were monitored. The dose of radiation causing emesis in 50% control dogs was 170 rad. The ED50 was increased to 402 rad by promethazine, to 331 rad by cimetidiene, and to 320 rad by thiethylperazine. The ED50 for naloxone was 262.5 rad, which was not a statistically significant increase in threshold

  9. Lyophilized Chitosan/xanthan Polyelectrolyte Complex Based Mucoadhesive Inserts for Nasal Delivery of Promethazine Hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    G Dehghan, Mohamed Hassan; Marzuka, Marzuka

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was the development of chitosan/xanthan polyelectrolyte complex based mucoadhesive nasal insert of promethazine hydrochloride a drug used in the treatment of motion sickness. A 32 factorial design was applied for preparing chitosan/xanthan polyelectrolyte complex and to study the effect of independent variables i.e. concentration of xanthan [X1] and concentration of chitosan [X2] on various responses i.e. viscosity of polyelectrolyte complex solution, water...

  10. Spectrophotometric estimation of risperidone in tablets

    OpenAIRE

    B. K. Jayanna; Devaraj, T. D.; Roopa, K. P.; G. Nagendrappa; H R Arun Kumar; Gowda, N.

    2014-01-01

    A simple, rapid and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method is developed for the determination of risperidone in tablet formulation. The method is based on the oxidation of drug using potassium permanganate in alkaline medium and excess potassium permanganate oxidizes 1,10-phenanthroline Fe(II). The measurement of decrease in absorbance of 1,10-phenanthroline Fe (II) was done at 415 nm. The beer′s law is obeyed in the concentration range of 5.0 to 40.0 μg/ml and molar absorptivity is found...

  11. Enantioselective analysis of citalopram and metabolites in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, B; Olsson, G; Reis, M; Walinder, J; Nordin, C; Lundmark, J; Scordo, M G; Dahl, M L; Bengtsson, F; Ahlner, J

    2001-12-01

    Studies of the antidepressant effect and pharmacokinetics of citalopram have been performed in adults, but the effects on children and adolescents have only been studied to a minor extent despite its increasing use in these age groups. The aim of this study was to investigate a group of adolescents treated for depression, with respect to the steady-state plasma concentrations of the enantiomers of citalopram and its demethylated metabolites desmethylcitalopram and didesmethylcitalopram. Moreover, the authors studied the genotypes for the polymorphic cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 in relation to the different enantiomers. The S/R ratios of citalopram and desmethylcitalopram found in this study of 19 adolescents were similar to studies involving older patients. The concentrations of the R-(-)- and S-(+)-enantiomers of citalopram and desmethylcitalopram were also in agreement with values from earlier studies, the R-(-)-enantiomer (distomer) being the major enantiomer. The results indicate that the use of oral contraceptives may have some influence on the metabolism of citalopram. This might be because of an interaction of the contraceptive hormones with the CYP2C19 enzyme. PMID:11802100

  12. Pharmacogenetics of clinical response to risperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llerena, Adrián; Berecz, Roland; Peñas-Lledó, Eva; Süveges, Agnes; Fariñas, Humberto

    2013-01-01

    Despite risperidone's proven safety and efficacy, existing pharmacogenetic knowledge could be applied to improve its clinical use. The present work aims to summarize the information about genetic polymorphisms affecting risperidone adverse reactions and efficacy during routine clinical practice. The most relevant genes involved in the metabolism of the drug (i.e., CYP2D6, CYP3A and ABCB1) appear to have the greatest potential to predict differences in plasma concentrations of the drug and its interactions, but also relate to side effects, such as neuroleptic syndrome, weight gain or polydipsia. Other genes that have been found in association at least twice with any adverse reactions including metabolic changes, extrapyramidal symptoms or prolactine increase are: 5HT2A; 5HT2C; 5HT6; DRD2; DRD3; and BDNF. Some of these genes (5HTR2A, DRD2 and DRD3), along with 5-HTTLPR and COMT, have also been reported to be related with negative clinical outcomes. However, there is not yet enough evidence to support their routine screening during clinical practice. PMID:23327578

  13. Cardiac safety of citalopram: prospective trials and retrospective analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Poul Lind; Overø, K F; Tanghøj, P

    1999-01-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are believed to have a more benign cardiovascular safety profile than do the tricyclic antidepressants. The effects of the SSRI citalopram on cardiac conduction and repolarization have been extensively evaluated, both in prospective studies in...... variability of the QTc interval, as well as possible changes during treatment with placebo or citalopram, and its correlation to plasma drug levels. To document any dose-related changes, ECGs were performed at baseline and at the end of study in three randomized, double-blind, placebo- or active......-controlled, fixed-dose trials in adult and elderly patients (N = 1,460) with major depression and/or dementia. Finally, more than 6,000 ECGs (N = 1,789 citalopram-treated patients) collected from all clinical trials conducted from 1978 through 1996 were reassessed in a standardized manner to identify any effects of...

  14. Galactorrhea Following Citalopram Treatment: A Case Report and Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horst J. Koch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 25-year-old women suffering from major depression who was treated with citalopram for several weeks with doses between 20 mg and 60 mg. She gradually developed marked mydriasis within 2 months after treatment and subsequently neuritis nervi optici. Moreover, abrupt galactorrhea occurred after 2 months of treatment. All neuro-ophthalmological, neurophysiological, clinical laboratory, and neuroradiological diagnostic efforts did not reveal an underlying organic pathophysiology. The ocular symptoms disappeared rapidly after the discontinuation of citalopram and pulse therapy with methyl-prednisolone. However, galactorrhea persisted for a few weeks necessitating treatment with bromocriptine.

  15. Serotonin 2A Receptors, Citalopram and Tryptophan-Depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Hornboll, Bettina; Elliott, Rebecca;

    2013-01-01

    neural correlates of inhibition using intravenous citalopram and acute tryptophan depletion during functional magnetic resonance imaging. We adapted the NoGo paradigm to isolate effects on inhibition per se as opposed to other aspects of the NoGo paradigm. Successful NoGo inhibition was associated with...... greater activation of the right IFG compared to control trials with alternative responses, indicating that the IFG is activated with inhibition in NoGo trials rather than other aspects of invoked cognitive control. Activation of the left IFG during NoGo trials was greater with citalopram than acute...

  16. Risperidone as a treatment for childhood habitual behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Omranifard, Victoria; Najafi, Mostafa; Sharbafchi, Mohammad Reza; Emami, Parisa; Maracy, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding risperidone to the general behavioral treatment of masturbation in children 3-7 years old. Methods: A 4 week randomized clinical controlled trial was designed in year 2009. Samples have been chosen from children who have been referred to the Child and Adolescence Psychiatric Clinic of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Ninety children were recruited at the study and randomly allocated into the risperidone and contro...

  17. RISPERIDONE VERSUS HALOPERIDOL IN ACUTE AND TRANSIENT PSYCHOTIC DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, Bijoy Pratim; Bhagabati, Dipesh; Medhi, Dipanjali

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism of action of a relatively new antipsychotic drug-Risperidone differs from conventional antipsychotics like Haloperidol. We compared low dosages of Risperidone with near equivalent dosages of Haloperidol in first episode drug naive Acute and Transient Psychotic disorder. A single blind randomised four-week study protocol was employed. Highly significant and comparable efficacy as assessed by Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning Scale was seen at the...

  18. A Case of Priapism with Risperidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almari Ginory

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Priapism is a urologic emergency defined as a prolonged, possibly painful, penile erection. There are several known causes of priapism including psychotropic medications. One of the mechanisms by which antipsychotics are believed to induce priapism is through alpha-1 antagonism. This is case of a 50-year-old male with a history of schizophrenia with previous priapism related to trazodone, who presents with new onset priapism associated with risperidone. In this case, the treatment of priapism includes discontinuation of the offending agent and drainage of the corpus cavernosum twice along with intracavernosal phenylephrine injections. It is important to educate patients on priapism as a possible side effect of medications. It is also important to consider previous episodes of medication-induced priapism when prescribing psychotropic medications as this may increase the patient’s future risk of priapism.

  19. Spectrophotometric estimation of risperidone in tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanna, B K; Devaraj, T D; Roopa, K P; Nagendrappa, G; Kumar, H R Arun; Gowda, N

    2014-09-01

    A simple, rapid and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method is developed for the determination of risperidone in tablet formulation. The method is based on the oxidation of drug using potassium permanganate in alkaline medium and excess potassium permanganate oxidizes 1,10-phenanthroline Fe(II). The measurement of decrease in absorbance of 1,10-phenanthroline Fe (II) was done at 415 nm. The beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 5.0 to 40.0 μg/ml and molar absorptivity is found to be 7.3932 × 10(4) l/mol/cm. The proposed method is well suited for the pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:25425761

  20. Spectrophotometric estimation of risperidone in tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B K Jayanna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method is developed for the determination of risperidone in tablet formulation. The method is based on the oxidation of drug using potassium permanganate in alkaline medium and excess potassium permanganate oxidizes 1,10-phenanthroline Fe(II. The measurement of decrease in absorbance of 1,10-phenanthroline Fe (II was done at 415 nm. The beer′s law is obeyed in the concentration range of 5.0 to 40.0 μg/ml and molar absorptivity is found to be 7.3932 × 10 4 l/mol/cm. The proposed method is well suited for the pharmaceutical formulations.

  1. Acute Dystonia Due to Citalopram Treatment: A Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Moosavi, S. Mohammad; Ahmadi, Mahshid; Monajemi, Mani B.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Abnormal movements such as acute dystonia, dyskinesia, parkinsonism, exacerbation of Parkinson disease, akathisia and possibly neuroleptic malignant syndrome may be associated with the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) rarely. Citalopram, a typical SSRI, used in serotonergic dysfunction related disorders, potentially can cause extrapyramidal symptoms such as acute dystonia. Methods: In a retrospective survey on patients referred to psychiatric clinic between...

  2. Citalopram associated with acute angle-closure glaucoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sabit

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute angle-closure glaucoma is a rare complication in patients receiving anti-depressant treatment. In the following case, we report the development of acute angle closure glaucoma in a patient who overdosed on Citalopram, an antidepressant, and discuss the possible etiological mechanisms for the condition. Case presentation We report a 54 year old, Caucasian lady, with depression and alcohol dependence syndrome, who developed acute angle-closure glaucoma after an overdose of Citalopram, along with alcohol. She was treated with medications and had bilateral Yag laser iridotomies to correct the glaucoma and has made complete recovery. In this case, the underlying cause for glaucoma appears to be related to the ingestion of Citalopram. Conclusion The patho-physiological basis for acute angle closure glaucoma in relation to antidepressant medications remains unclear. The authors suggest Citalopram may have a direct action on the Iris or Ciliary body muscle through serotonergic or anti-cholinergic mechanisms or both. This case highlights the importance of the awareness of the underlying risks, which may predispose an individual to develop acute angle-closure glaucoma, and reminds the clinicians the significance of history taking and examination of the eye before and after starting anti-depressants. This area needs to be further researched.

  3. Relapse in patients with schizophrenia: a comparison between risperidone and haloperidol

    OpenAIRE

    Sena Eduardo Pondé de; Santos-Jesus Rogério; Miranda-Scippa Ângela; Quarantini Lucas de Castro; Oliveira Irismar Reis de

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare rates of rehospitalization and time to relapse in risperidone vs. haloperidol-treated schizophrenic patients discharged from the hospital. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial comparing risperidone and haloperidol regarding relapse in patients with schizophrenia treated with flexible doses during one year. RESULTS: Twenty patients were assigned to risperidone and 13 to haloperidol. One patient from each group withdrew consent and one patient in the risperidone group was...

  4. Differences of promethazine and terfenadine on ion channels in guinea pig ventricular myocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xue-wen; NIU Shuan-cheng; ZHANG Xuan-ping; L(U) Ji-yuan; BAI Feng; ZHANG Ling; WU Bo-wei

    2006-01-01

    @@ Promethazine, a first generation antihistamine,has an antiarrhythmic effect on ischemia-reperfusion inducing arrhythmias1 and experimental arrhythmias.2 However, terfenadine as a second generation of antihistamine, has been reported to elicit hypotension, bradycardia, prolongation of the QTc interval and torsades de pointes (TdP) like ventricular arrhythmia.3 This may be due to the blockage on rectifier postassium current (Ik) of terfenadine, resulting in the prolongation of the action potential duration (APD) and dispersion of the repolarization duration, which might provoke a specific form of polymorphic ventricular tachydysrhythmia, i.e. TdP.4 In clinical practice,however, the class Ⅲ antiarrhythmic agents, which target on the Ik and prolong the action potential duration and QTc interval, rarely lead to arrhythmias.Other actions must be considered to underlie the arrhythmogenic tendency of terfenadine besides its inhibition on Ik. Though both promethazine and terfenadine block the H1 receptor, there must be a different pharmacology profile between the two compounds on ion channels of cardiac myocytes.Whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to investigate the effects of these two antagonists of the H1 receptor on the main ion currents in cardiac electrical activities.

  5. Reduction of erythema in hairless guinea pigs after cutaneous sulfur mustard vapor exposure by pretreatment with niacinamide, promethazine and indomethacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yourick, J.J.; Dawson, J.S.; Mitcheltree, L.W.

    1995-12-31

    Erythema is the initial symptom that occurs after sulfur mustard (HD) cutaneous exposure. The time course of HD-induced erythema is similar to that observed after UV irradiation, which can be reduced by indomethacin. Sulfur mustard lethality is decreased by using promethazine, which is an antihistamine. Niacinamide can reduce microvesication after HD vapor exposure in hairless guinea pig (HGP) skin. The present study examines the effect of the combined administration of niacinamide, indomethacin and promethazine used alone or in all possible combinations on the degree of erythema and histopathologic skin damage after HD exposure in HGP. Niacinamide (750 mg kg%`, i.p.), promethazine (12.5 mg kg%1, i.m.) or indomethacin (4 mg kg%1, p.o.) used singly or in combination was given as a 30-min pretreatment before an 8-min HD vapor cup skin exposure. Using a combination pretreatment of niacinamide, promethazine and indomethacin, erythema was reduced at 4 (91%) and 6 (55%) h, but not 24 h after HD. The incidence of histopathological skin changes (microvesicles, follicular involvement, epidermal necrosis, intracellular edema and pustular epidermatitis) 24 h after HD was not reduced. This study indicates that HD (induced erythema) may result from several different mechanisms, including inflammation, histamine release and DNA damage. It is suggested that two phases of inflammation may occur: an early phase sensitive to antihistamines and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and a late phase of extensive cell damage that was not sensitive to these drug pretreatments.

  6. Effects of Risperidone on Cognitive-Motor Performance and Motor Movements in Chronically Medicated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Michael G.; Hollway, Jill A.; Leone, Sarah; Masty, Jessica; Lindsay, Ronald; Nash, Patricia; Arnold, L. Eugene

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the placebo-controlled effects of risperidone on cognitive-motor processes, dyskinetic movements, and behavior in children receiving maintenance risperidone therapy. Sixteen children aged 4-14 years with disruptive behavior were randomly assigned to drug order in a crossover study of risperidone and placebo for 2…

  7. R-citalopram inhibits functional and 5-HTP-evoked behavioural responses to the SSRI, escitalopram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez, Connie; Kreilgaard, Mads

    2004-01-01

    Escitalopram mediates the serotonin re-uptake inhibitory and antidepressant effect of citalopram racemate. However, recent studies have shown that R-citalopram inhibits the escitalopram-induced increase of extracellular 5-HT levels in the frontal cortex of rats. Here, we investigated the inhibitory...... effect of R-citalopram on the escitalopram-induced increase of 5-HT neurotransmission at the behavioural [potentiation of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)-induced behavioural changes in mice and rats] and functional (increase in serum corticosterone in rats) levels. The effect of escitalopram was inhibited by...... R-citalopram in all three models, and R-citalopram, given alone, was inactive. The effects were more pronounced using an escitalopram to R-citalopram ratio of 1:4 than ratios of 1:2 and 1:1, suggesting a dose-dependent effect. The ED(50)-value of escitalopram in mouse 5-HTP potentiation studies...

  8. Citalopram increases the differentiation efifcacy of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into neuronal-like cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javad Verdi; Seyed Abdolreza Mortazavi-Tabatabaei; Shiva Sharif; Hadi Verdi; Alireza Shoae-Hassani

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants can promote neuronal cell proliferation and enhance neuroplasticity both in vitro and in vivo. It is hypothesized that citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, can promote the neuronal differentiation of adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Citalopram strongly enhanced neuronal characteristics of the cells derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The rate of cell death was decreased in citalopram-treated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells than in control cells in neurobasal medium. In addition, the cumulative population doubling level of the citalopram-treated cells was signiifcantly increased compared to that of control cells. Also BrdU incorporation was elevated in citalopram-treated cells. These ifndings suggest that citalopram can improve the neuronal-like cell differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by increasing cell proliferation and survival while maintaining their neuronal characteristics.

  9. Histological changes in the liver of fetuses of pregnant rats following citalopram administration

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynab Mohammadi; Mahnaz Azarnia; Ghadireh Mirabolghasemi; Abdolhossein Shiravi; Zohreh Mohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Depression is a dilapidating disorder, which may occur during pregnancy. Citalopram is an antidepressant drug often prescribed to pregnant women. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether maternal administration of citalopram affects fetal liver histology. Materials and Methods: Pregnant Wistar albino rats were treated with citalopram (10 or 20 mg/kg/day). A control group received no treatment. Rat fetal liver samples were obtained on day 18 of gestation and eval...

  10. Efficacy and safety of citalopram versus amitriptyline in the treatment of major depression

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Anand; D K Sharma; Choudhary, Ashok; Jain, Mahendra

    2005-01-01

    Background: Double-blind clinical trials comparing citalopram with amitriptyline or other tricyclic antidepressants are lacking in India. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the newer antidepressant citalopram in the treatment of major depression. Methods: The clinical acceptability and safety profile of citalopram was assessed and compared with that of amitriptyline in 40 patients in an outpatient set-up. Patients aged 18 to 65 years who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for a single...

  11. Characterization of an allosteric citalopram-binding site at the serotonin transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fenghua; Breum Larsen, Mads; Neubauer, Henrik Amtoft;

    2005-01-01

    -citalopram, sertraline,       serotonin and paroxetine. EC50 values for S- and R-citalopram are 3.6 +/-       0.4 microm and 19.4 +/- 2.3 microm, respectively. Fluoxetine, venlafaxine       and duloxetine have no significant effect on the dissociation of       [3H]S-citalopram. Allosteric modulation of dissociation is...

  12. Risperidone-induced Gingival Bleeding in a Pediatric Case: A Dose-dependent Side Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergüner, Sabri; Özayhan, Hatice Yardım; Erdur, Emire Aybuke

    2016-05-31

    There are several case reports on risperidone-related bleeding; however, to our knowledge, there is no report about gingival bleeding associated with risperidone in the literature. We presented a case who experienced gingival bleeding when risperidone dose was increased to 0.5 mg/day, and subsided after decreasing the dose to 0.25 mg/day, suggesting a dose-dependent side-effect. The bleeding side effect of risperidone might be caused by several mechanisms, including 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor antagonism. Although bleeding associated with risperidone is rarely reported, clinicians should be aware of this side effect. PMID:27121433

  13. Citalopram associated with acute angle-closure glaucoma: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Sabit; Thirumalai Srinivasa; Croos Robert; Davis Jane

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Acute angle-closure glaucoma is a rare complication in patients receiving anti-depressant treatment. In the following case, we report the development of acute angle closure glaucoma in a patient who overdosed on Citalopram, an antidepressant, and discuss the possible etiological mechanisms for the condition. Case presentation We report a 54 year old, Caucasian lady, with depression and alcohol dependence syndrome, who developed acute angle-closure glaucoma after an overdos...

  14. Citalopram--a review of pharmacological and clinical effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Bezchlibnyk-Butler, K; Aleksic, I; Kennedy, S. H.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide clinicians with a critical evaluation of citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) that has been available in Canada since March 1999. DATA SOURCES: Commercial searches (MEDLINE and BiblioTech) and an "in-house" search (InfoDrug) were used to find published English-language references for clinical and preclinical publications. There was no restriction of publication dates. Primary index terms used were: pharmacological properties, receptors, pharmacolog...

  15. Severe symptomatic hyponatremia during citalopram therapy - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergara Jesus

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyponatremia secondary to the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone is an uncommon complication of treatment with the new class of antidepressant agents, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The risk of hyponatremia seems to be highest during the first weeks of treatment particularly, in elderly females and in patients with a lower body weight. Case Presentation A 61-year-old diabetic male was admitted to the hospital because of malaise, progressive confusion, and a tonic/clonic seizure two weeks after starting citalopram, 20 mg/day. On physical examination the patient was euvolemic and had no evidence of malignancy, cardiac, renal, hepatic, adrenal or thyroid disease. Laboratory tests results revealed hyponatremia, serum hypoosmolality, urine hyperosmolarity, and an elevated urine sodium concentration, leading to the diagnosis of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. Citalopram was discontinued and fluid restriction was instituted. The patient was discharged after serum sodium increased from 124 mmol/L to 134 mmol/L. Two weeks after discharge the patient denied any new seizures, confusion or malaise. At that time his serum sodium was 135 mmol/L. Conclusions Because the use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors is becoming more popular among elderly depressed patients the present paper and other reported cases emphasize the need of greater awareness of the development of this serious complication and suggest that sodium serum levels should be monitored closely in elderly patients during treatment with citalopram.

  16. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Augmentation of Citalopram Treatment for Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Gertsik, Lev; Poland, Russell E.; Bresee, Catherine; Rapaport, Mark Hyman

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the efficacy of combination therapy with citalopram plus omega-3 fatty acids versus citalopram plus placebo (olive oil) in the initial treatment of individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). We hypothesized that combination therapy would not only lead to greater efficacy, but a more rapid onset of therapeutic response.

  17. Citalopram indtaget under graviditet og barn født med Mb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sebastian Werngreen; Qvist, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Citalopram taken during pregnancy and the child born with Ugeskr Laeger 2013;175:V03130178 A woman treated with citalopram during the entirety of her pregnancy bore a child with Hirschsprung’s disease. Theories on the development of the enteric nervous system support a possible negative effect of...

  18. Desensitisation of 5-HT autoreceptors upon pharmacokinetically monitored chronic treatment with citalopram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, TIFH; Spoelstra, EN; Bosker, FJ; Mork, A; den Boer, JA; Westerink, BHC; Wikstrom, HV

    2000-01-01

    Rats were chronically treated with the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor citalopram [1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-phtalancarbonitril], by means of osmotic minipumps. Using an infusion concentration of 50 mg/ml citalopram, steady-state plasma concentrations of approximately 0.

  19. Synthesis of [11C]citalopram and brain distribution studies in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of serotonin uptake sites in the living human brain by PET with [11C]citalopram may be valuable in investigating the anatomic locus and the therapeutic role of depression and prevention of suicide. For this purpose, the authors have synthesized [11C]citalopram. In vivo biodistribution in rats has been determined

  20. Serum concentrations of paliperidone versus risperidone and clinical effects

    OpenAIRE

    Nazirizadeh, Yasmin; Vogel, Friederike; Bader, Wolfgang; Haen, Ekkehard; Pfuhlmann, Bruno; Gründer, Gerhard; Paulzen, Michael; Schwarz, Markus; Zernig, Gerald; Hiemke, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Purpose The major aim of this multicenter retrospective analysis was to examine the relationship between paliperidone serum concentrations and clinical effects in patients treated with this new antipsychotic drug. Intra-individual variability in trough serum concentrations was also analyzed in patients under treatment with either the paliperidone-extended release (ER) formulation or the risperidone immediate-release formulation. ...

  1. DETERMINATION OF RISPERIDONE AND 9-HYDROXYRISPERIDONE IN THE SCHIZOPHRENICS’ URINE

    OpenAIRE

    Sidelnikova, Larisa; Kartashov, Vladimir; Chernova, Larisa

    2015-01-01

    This research presents the testing possibility of risperidone and its main metabolite of 9-hydroxyrisperidone in the schizophrenics’ urine by isolation, purification, separation, identification and quantification of the studied substances using the methods of extraction, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) screening and UV spectrophotometry. Used methodology can be applied in chemical-toxicological analysis.

  2. Dystonia with MPH/Risperidone Combined Therapy for ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap; Yee, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Investigators from Child Neurology and Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, report extrapyramidal symptoms in a 13-year-old boy with a psychiatric history of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and autism, responsive to combination risperidone, oxcarbazepine, and MPH.

  3. Dystonia with MPH/Risperidone Combined Therapy for ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millichap, J Gordon; Yee, Michelle M

    2016-01-01

    Investigators from Child Neurology and Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, report extrapyramidal symptoms in a 13-year-old boy with a psychiatric history of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and autism, responsive to combination risperidone, oxcarbazepine, and MPH. PMID:27004141

  4. Hyperprolactinemia in Thai children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder treated with risperidone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongkaew, Yaowaluck; Ngamsamut, Nattawat; Puangpetch, Apichaya; Vanwong, Natchaya; Srisawasdi, Pornpen; Chamnanphon, Montri; Chamkrachchangpada, Bhunnada; Tan-kam, Teerarat; Limsila, Penkhae; Sukasem, Chonlaphat

    2015-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is a common adverse effect observed in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during pharmacotherapy with risperidone. The main aim of this study was to investigate important clinical factors influencing the prolactin response in risperidone-treated Thai ASD. A total of 147 children and adolescents (127 males and 20 females) aged 3–19 years with ASD received risperidone treatment (0.10–6.00 mg/day) for up to 158 weeks. Prolactin levels were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. The clinical data of patients collected from medical records – age, weight, height, body mass index, dose of risperidone, duration of treatment, and drug-use pattern – were recorded. Hyperprolactinemia was observed in 66 of 147 (44.90%) subjects. Median prolactin level at the high doses (24.00, interquartile range [IQR] 14.30–29.20) of risperidone was significantly found to be higher than at the recommended (16.20, IQR 10.65–22.30) and low (11.70, IQR 7.51–16.50) doses of risperidone. There was no relationship between prolactin levels and duration of risperidone treatment. Dose-dependence is identified as a main factor associated with hyperprolactinemia in Thai children and adolescents with ASD treated with risperidone. This study suggests that risperidone treatment causes prolactin elevations and the effects of risperidone on prolactin are probably dose-related in pediatric patients. PMID:25653528

  5. Neonatal administration of citalopram delays somatic maturation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C.B.J. Deiró

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the somatic maturation of neonate rats treated during the suckling period with citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Groups with 6 male neonates were randomly assigned to different treatments 24 h after birth. Each litter was suckled by one of the dams until the 21st postnatal day. Body weight, head axis and tail length were measured daily from the 1st to the 21st postnatal day. Time of ear unfolding, auditory conduit opening, incisor eruption, and eye opening was determined. Pups received 5 mg (Cit5, 10 mg (Cit10 or 20 mg/kg (Cit20 citalopram sc, or saline (0.9% NaCl, w/v, sc. Compared to saline, body weight was lower (24.04%, P < 0.01 for Cit10 from the 10th to the 21st day and for Cit20 from the 6th to the 21st day (38.19%, P < 0.01. Tail length was reduced in the Cit20 group (15.48%, P < 0.001 from the 8th to the 21st day. A reduction in mediolateral head axis (10.53%, P < 0.05 was observed from the 11th to the 21st day in Cit10 and from the 6th to the 21st day in Cit20 (13.16%, P < 0.001. A reduction in anteroposterior head axis was also observed in the Cit20 group (5.28%, P < 0.05 from the 13th to the 21stday. Conversely, this axis showed accelerated growth from the 12th to the 21stday in the Cit5 group (13.05%, P < 0.05. Auditory conduit opening was delayed in the Cit5 and Cit20 groups and incisor eruption was delayed in all citalopram groups. These findings show that citalopram injected during suckling to rats induces body alterations and suggest that the activity of the serotoninergic system participates in growth mechanisms.

  6. Risperidone rechallenge for marked liver function test abnormalities in an autistic child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copur, Mazlum; Erdogan, Ayten

    2011-09-01

    Risperidone have been reported to commonly lead to asymptomatic elevation of liver enzymes in adult population, and recently in children and adolescents. Results from controlled clinical trials, reports of spontaneous adverse events, and published studies/ case reports suggest that severe hepatotoxicity may be rare but can occur in the pediatric population. In the following case report, we describe a 5-year-old male patient diagnosed as autism with severe distruptive behavior. Substantial improvement was achieved with risperidone therapy. Increase in liver enzymes at the beginning of the risperidone treatment was successfully managed with multidisciplinary approach as the treatment was initially withdrawn, afterwards restarted and carefully continued. We demonstrated that risperidone may be cautiously rechallenged in selected pediatric patients who showed marked psychiatric improvement with risperidone on the face of liver enzymes elevation. Some important patents on risperidone delivery and their use for the treatment of autism are also outlined. PMID:21913889

  7. Risperidone-induced Gingival Bleeding in a Pediatric Case: A Dose-dependent Side Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Hergüner, Sabri; Özayhan, Hatice Yardım; Erdur, Emire Aybuke

    2016-01-01

    There are several case reports on risperidone-related bleeding; however, to our knowledge, there is no report about gingival bleeding associated with risperidone in the literature. We presented a case who experienced gingival bleeding when risperidone dose was increased to 0.5 mg/day, and subsided after decreasing the dose to 0.25 mg/day, suggesting a dose-dependent side-effect. The bleeding side effect of risperidone might be caused by several mechanisms, including 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A rec...

  8. Open channel block of Kv1.5 currents by citalopram

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyang Mi; Hahn, Sang June; Choi, Bok Hee

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To examine whether selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram interacts with Kv1.5, one of the cardiovascular-specific Kv channel isoforms. Methods: The interaction between citalopram and Kv1.5 expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells was studied using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Results: Citalopram reduced Kv1.5 whole-cell currents in a reversible concentration-dependent manner, with an IC50 value and a Hill coefficient of 2.8±1.1 μmol/L and 0.8±0.3, respectively. Cital...

  9. Chronic administration of citalopram inhibited El mouse convulsions and decreased monoamine oxidase-A activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Kabuto, Hideaki; Yokoi, Isao; Endo, Atsushi; Takei, Mineo; Kurimoto, Tadashi; Mori, Akitane

    1994-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is thought to play an important role in the seizures of El mice because the seizure threshold of El mice correlates with the 5-HT concentration in the central nervous system. In this study, the anticonvulsant effect of a 5-HT reuptake blocker, citalopram, was evaluated behaviorally and biochemically. El mouse convulsions were inhibited by chronic administration of citalopram (80 mg/kg/day, p.o. for 2 weeks), but were not inhibited by acute administration of citalopram (80 mg/...

  10. Risperidone-Induced Nocturnal Enuresis Successfully Treated With Reboxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergui, Joseph; Jaworowski, Sol

    2016-01-01

    There are few reports in the literature and scarce research on the topic and the treatment of antipsychotic medication-induced urinary incontinence or nocturnal enuresis (NE) despite the significant frequency of these adverse effects.Treatment for antipsychotic medication-induced urinary incontinence has been reported in relation to clozapine with response to numerous pharmacological strategies such as ephedrine, oxybutynin, intranasal desmopressin, trihexyphenidyl, and amitriptyline.We report a case of NE induced by risperidone which has been successfully treated with reboxetine.To the best of our knowledge, this article is the first report of an atypical antipsychotic medication-induced NE treated with reboxetine.Reboxetine may be an effective treatment for risperidone-induced NE. Further research is required to confirm our finding and apply this treatment for NE caused by other neuroleptics. PMID:26992158

  11. LC/MS Method for the Determination of Stable Isotope Labeled Promethazine in Human Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuwei, Wang; Boyd, Jason; Berens, Kurt L.; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2004-01-01

    Promethazine (PMZ) is taken by astronauts orally (PO), intramuscularly (IM) or rectally (PR) for space motion sickness. LC/MS method was developed with off-line solid phase extraction to measure plasma concentrations of PMZ given as stable isotope-labeled (SIL) formulations by the three different routes of administration simultaneously. Samples (0.5ml) were loaded on to Waters Oasis HLB co-polymer cartridges and eluted with 1.0 mL methanol. HPLC separation of the eluted sample was performed using an Agilent Zorbax SB-CN column (50 x 2.1 mm) at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min for 6 min. Acetonitrile/ ammonium acetate (30 mM) in water (3:2, v/v), pH 5.6 plus or minus 0.1, was used as the mobile phase for separation. Concentrations of PMZ, PMZ-d4 and PMZ-d7 and chlorpromazine (internal standard) were determined using a Micromass ZMD single quadrupole mass spectrometer with Electrospray Ionization (ESI). ESI mass spectra were acquired in positive ion mode with selected ion monitoring of [M+ H]dot plus. The method is rapid, reproducible and the assay specific parameters are listed in a table. A novel, sensitive and specific method for the measurement of PMZ and SIL PMZ in human plasma is reported.

  12. Comparison of Cognitive Performance Tests for Promethazine Pharmacodynamics in Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaksman, Z.; Boyd, J. L.; Wang, Z.; Putcha, L.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare cognitive function tests, Automated Neurological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) based Readiness Evaluation System (ARES(Registered TradeMark)) on a Palm Pilot and Windows based Spaceflight Cognitive Assessment Tool (WinSCAT(Registered TradeMark)) on a personal computer (PC) to assess performance effects of promethazine (PMZ) after administration to human subjects. In a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over design, subjects received 12.5, 25, and 50 mg intramuscular (IM) PMZ or a placebo and completed 14 sessions with WinSCAT(Registered TradeMark) (v. 1.26) and ARES(Registered TradeMark) (v. 1.27) consecutively for 72 h post dose. Maximum plasma concentrations (4.25, 6.25 and 13.33 ng/ml) were linear with dose and were achieved by 0.75, 8, and 24 h after dosing for the three doses, respectively. No significant differences in cognitive function after PMZ dosing were detected using WinSCAT(Registered TradeMark), however, tests from ARES(Registered TradeMark) demonstrated concentration dependent decrements in reaction time associated with PMZ dose.

  13. Cost Effectiveness of Long-Acting Risperidone in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Marja Hensen; Bart Heeg; Mickael Lthgren; Ben van Hout

    2010-01-01

    Background: In Sweden, risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) is generally used in a population of schizophrenia patients who are at a high risk of being non-compliant. However, RLAI might also be suitable for use in the general schizophrenia population. Objectives: To analyse the clinical and economic effects of RLAI in the Swedish treatment practice using a discrete-event simulation (DES) model. Treatment outcomes and direct costs were analysed for both the high-risk non-compliant patien...

  14. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chih-Hsun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM is a rare inflammatory breast disease. The etiology and treatment options of IGM remain controversial. Previous case reports have suggested that hyperprolactinemia may be associated with IGM. In the present report, we describe the first case of IGM associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/8120093785928228

  15. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Chih-Hsun; Hsu Chih-Wei; Tsao Tang-Yi; Chou Jason

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare inflammatory breast disease. The etiology and treatment options of IGM remain controversial. Previous case reports have suggested that hyperprolactinemia may be associated with IGM. In the present report, we describe the first case of IGM associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/8120093785928228

  16. Potential bias in testing for hyperprolactinemia and pituitary tumors in risperidone-treated patients: a claims-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Jasmanda; Mahmoud Ramy; Pandina Gahan; Gianfrancesco Frank D; Wang Ruey H

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background A reporting association of risperidone with pituitary tumors has been observed. Because such tumors are highly prevalent, there may be other reasons why they were revealed in association with risperidone treatment. We assessed two potential explanations: disproportionately more prolactin assessment and head/brain imaging in risperidone-treated patients vs patients treated with other antipsychotics. Methods Treatment episodes with risperidone, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiap...

  17. Adjunctive treatment with aripiprazole for risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjbar F

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatemeh Ranjbar,1 Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani,2,3 Parisa Niari Khams,1 Asghar Arfaie,1 Azim Salari,4 Mostafa Farahbakhsh1 1Clinical Psychiatry Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, East Azerbaijan, Iran; 2Road Traffic Injury Research Center, Department of Statistics & Epidemiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3World Health Organization Collaborating Center on Community Safety Promotion, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; 4Emam Khomeini Hospital, Naghadeh, West Azerbaijan, Iran Background: Antipsychotics have been used for more than 50 years in the treatment of schizophrenia and many other psychiatric disorders. Prolactin levels usually increase in patients treated with risperidone. Aripiprazole, which has a unique effect as an antipsychotic, is a D2 receptor partial agonist. It is an atypical antipsychotic with limited extrapyramidal symptoms. Since it acts as an antagonist in hyperdopaminergic conditions and as an agonist in hypodopaminergic conditions, it does not have adverse effects on serum prolactin levels. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of aripiprazole on risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Methods: This before-and-after clinical trial was performed in 30 patients. Baseline prolactin levels were measured in all patients who were candidates for treatment with risperidone. In subjects with elevated serum prolactin, aripiprazole was added to their treatment. Serum prolactin levels were measured during the first week, second week, and monthly thereafter for at least 3 months or until prolactin levels became normal. The data were analyzed using Stata version 11 software. Survival analysis and McNemar’s test were also performed. Results: The mean age of the participants was 30.8 years. Prolactin levels normalized in 23 (77% participants during the study, and menstrual disturbances normalized in 25 (83.3%. Prolactin levels normalized in most patients between days 50

  18. Open-Label Treatment With Citalopram in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Masand, Prakash S.; Gupta, Sanjay; Schwartz, Thomas L; Virk, Subhdeep; Hameed, Ahmad; Kaplan, David S.

    2005-01-01

    Background: This open-label pilot study investigated whether the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram improves symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a functional gastrointestinal disorder with frequent psychiatric comorbidity.

  19. From the selective serotonin transporter inhibitor citalopram to the selective norepinephrine transporter inhibitor talopram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eildal, Jonas Nii Nortey; Andersen, Jacob; Kristensen, Anders Skov;

    2008-01-01

    Citalopram and talopram are structurally closely related, but they have very distinct pharmacological profiles as selective inhibitors of the serotonin and norepinephrine transporters, respectively. A systematic structure-activity relationship study was performed, in which each of the four...

  20. Tamoxifen's protection against breast cancer recurrence is not reduced by concurrent use of the SSRI citalopram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lash, T L; Pedersen, L; Cronin-Fenton, D;

    2008-01-01

    serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), so these widely used drugs - when taken concurrently - may reduce tamoxifen's prevention of breast cancer recurrence. We studied citalopram use in 184 cases of breast cancer recurrence and 184 matched controls without recurrence after equivalent follow-up. Cases and...... prescription databases from the National Health Service. Seventeen cases (9%) and 21 controls (11%) received at least one prescription for the SSRI citalopram while taking tamoxifen (adjusted conditional odds ratio=0.85, 95% confidence interval=0.42, 1.7). We also observed no reduction of tamoxifen...... effectiveness among regular citalopram users (>or=30% overlap with tamoxifen use). These results suggest that concurrent use of citalopram does not reduce tamoxifen's prevention of breast cancer recurrence....

  1. Citalopram increases the differentiation efficacy of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into neuronal-like cells

    OpenAIRE

    Verdi, Javad; Mortazavi-Tabatabaei, Seyed AbdolReza; Sharif, Shiva; Verdi, Hadi; Shoae-Hassani, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants can promote neuronal cell proliferation and enhance neuroplasticity both in vitro and in vivo. It is hypothesized that citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, can promote the neuronal differentiation of adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Citalopram strongly enhanced neuronal characteristics of the cells derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The rate of cell death was d...

  2. Variations in response to citalopram in men and women with alcohol dependence.

    OpenAIRE

    Naranjo, C A; Knoke, D M; Bremner, K.E.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the differential effects of citalopram on alcohol consumption in nondepressed women and men with mild to moderate alcohol dependence. DESIGN: Prospective, placebo-controlled study. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-one subjects (34 men and 27 women). INTERVENTIONS: After a 2-week baseline, subjects were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of citalopram (40 mg per day) (n = 15 women, 16 men) or placebo (n = 12 women, 18 men). All received brief standard psychosocial interventions. OUTCOME ME...

  3. The role of adenosine receptors and endogenous adenosine in citalopram-induced cardiovascular toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Kubilay Oransay; Nil Hocaoglu; Mujgan Buyukdeligoz; Yesim Tuncok; Sule Kalkan

    2014-01-01

    Aim: We investigated the role of adenosine in citalopram-induced cardiotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Protocol 1: Rats were randomized into four groups. Sodium cromoglycate was administered to rats. Citalopram was infused after the 5% dextrose, 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX; A 1 receptor antagonist), 8-(-3-chlorostyryl)-caffeine (CSC; A 2a receptor antagonist), or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) administrations. Protocol 2: First group received 5% dextrose intraperitoneally 1 hour...

  4. The effects of acute citalopram dosing on gastric motor function and nutrient tolerance in healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Pieter; Oudenhove, Lukas Van; Casteels, Cindy; De Vos, Rita; Verbeke, Kristin; Tack, Jan

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether endogenous serotonin release is involved in the regulation of gastric motility and food intake. AIM: To study the effect of acute administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram on gastric motor function in man. METHODS: Nineteen healthy volunteers underwent a gastric barostat, gastric emptying and/or a drinking test after dosing with either placebo or citalopram (20 mg intravenously). In the barostat protocol, a flacc...

  5. The effectiveness and limitations of regulatory warnings for the safe prescribing of citalopram

    OpenAIRE

    Friesen KJ; Bugden SC

    2015-01-01

    Kevin J Friesen, Shawn C BugdenFaculty of Health Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, CanadaBackground: Citalopram is the most commonly prescribed antidepressant in Canada. Concerns have been raised about its cardiac safety, and a dose-dependent prolongation of the QT interval has been documented. Drug interactions involving concomitant use of other medications that prolong the QT interval or increase citalopram levels by interfering with its metabolism increas...

  6. EFFICACY OF CITALOPRAM IN TREATMENT OF PATHOLOGICAL SKIN PICKING, A RANDOMIZED DOUBLE BLIND PLACEBO CONTROLLED TRIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Arbabi, M; V Farnia; K. Balighi; M.R. Mohammadi; A A Nejati-Safa; k Yazdchi; Golestan, B; F Darvish

    2008-01-01

    "nVarious studies suggest that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may be useful in treating pathological skin picking (PSP). This study sought to assess effectiveness of citalopram in comparison with placebo in treating PSP. Forty five individuals with PSP were recruited in a four-week, randomized clinical trial of citalopram (20 mg/day) in comparison with placebo. Study measures assessing skin picking severity, mental health status, obsessive compulsive disorder and quality...

  7. Mutational Mapping and Modeling of the Binding Site for (S)-Citalopram in the Human Serotonin Transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Olsen, Lars; Hansen, Kasper B.;

    2010-01-01

    , and (S)-citalopram, which are competitive inhibitors of the transport function. Knowledge of the molecular details of the antidepressant binding sites in SERT has been limited due to lack of structural data on SERT. Here, we present a characterization of the (S)-citalopram binding pocket in human SERT...... (hSERT) using mutational and computational approaches. Comparative modeling and ligand docking reveal that (S)-citalopram fits into the hSERT substrate binding pocket, where (S)-citalopram can adopt a number of different binding orientations. We find, however, that only one of these binding modes is...... functionally relevant from studying the effects of 64 point mutations around the putative substrate binding site. The mutational mapping also identify novel hSERT residues that are crucial for (S)-citalopram binding. The model defines the molecular determinants for (S)-citalopram binding to hSERT and...

  8. Risperidone Treatment in 12 Children With Developmental Disorders and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Eapen, Valsamma; Gururaj, A K

    2005-01-01

    Background: Risperidone is a novel antipsychotic drug that has been tried in the treatment of several child psychiatric disorders. In an open clinical study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of risperidone in children with developmental disorder and behavioral problems including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

  9. Prolactin release in children treated with risperidone: impact and role of CYP2D6 metabolism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, P.W.; Lahuis, B.E.; Hermans, M.H.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Engeland, H. van; Scahill, L.; Minderaa, R.B.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the role of CYP2D6 polymorphism in risperidone-induced prolactin release in children. METHOD: Twenty-five children (aged 5-15 years) with pervasive developmental disorders were genotyped for CYP2D6 polymorphisms. Serum prolactin, risperidone, and 9-hydroxyrisperidone

  10. Clinical utility of the risperidone formulations in the management of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madaan V

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Vishal Madaan1, Durga P Bestha2, Venkata Kolli2, Saurabh Jauhari2, Roger C Burket1 1University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, USA; 2Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA Abstract: Risperidone is one of the early second-generation antipsychotics that came into the limelight in the early 1990s. Both the oral and long-acting injectable formulations have been subject to numerous studies to assess their safety, efficacy, and tolerability. Risperidone is currently one of the most widely prescribed antipsychotic medications, used for both acute and long-term maintenance in schizophrenia. Risperidone has better efficacy in the treatment of psychotic symptoms than placebo and possibly many first-generation antipsychotics. Risperidone fares better than placebo and first-generation antipsychotics in the treatment of negative symptoms. Risperidone's long acting injectable preparation has been well tolerated and is often useful in patients with medication nonadherence. Risperidone has a higher risk of hyperprolactinemia comparable to first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs but fares better than many second-generation antipsychotics with regards to metabolic side effects. In this article, we briefly review the recent literature exploring the role of risperidone formulations in schizophrenia, discuss clinical usage, and highlight the controversies and challenges associated with its use. Keywords: risperidone, schizophrenia, formulation, antipsychotic, side effects

  11. Beliefs and social norms about codeine and promethazine hydrochloride cough syrup (CPHCS) use and addiction among multi-ethnic college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ronald; Yacoubian, George S; Rhodes, Warren; Forsythe, Karry J; Bowers, Kameko S; Eulian, Valencia M; Mangum, Clemmie A; O'Neal, Jamie D; Martin, Queen; Essien, E James

    2007-09-01

    In this study a qualitative approach is used to investigate relevant beliefs and norms concerning the consumption, initiation, and perceived addiction of codeine and promethazine hydrochloride cough syrup (CPHCS) among 61 college-age students who identified themselves as current CPHCS users. In general, a majority of students stated that doctors and pharmacists were the greatest facilitators of CPHCS acquisition. A majority of students believed that their friends felt codeine promethazine use was "normal" and "cool" among college students their age, and that reinforcing factors, such as peer pressure and curiosity, contributed to initial CPHCS use. PMID:18159781

  12. EFFICACY OF CITALOPRAM IN TREATMENT OF PATHOLOGICAL SKIN PICKING, A RANDOMIZED DOUBLE BLIND PLACEBO CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Arbabi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nVarious studies suggest that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs may be useful in treating pathological skin picking (PSP. This study sought to assess effectiveness of citalopram in comparison with placebo in treating PSP. Forty five individuals with PSP were recruited in a four-week, randomized clinical trial of citalopram (20 mg/day in comparison with placebo. Study measures assessing skin picking severity, mental health status, obsessive compulsive disorder and quality of life were given at baseline, weeks 2 and 4. PSP severity, general health status, obsession-compulsion severity and quality of life level were similar between two groups at baseline (P > 0.05. Treatment analyses revealed significant improvements in quality of life, general health status and obsession-compulsion severity in citalopram group compared to placebo group (P < 0.05. Mean PSP severity reduction in citalopram group was more than placebo group but this difference was not significant. Citalopram can improve general health status and quality of life in individuals with PSP but its effect on skin picking behavior doesn't differ significantly with placebo. Other trials with longer time are needed to determine the exact efficacy of citalopram on PSP

  13. A population pharmacokinetic model for R- and S-citalopram and desmethylcitalopram in Alzheimer’s disease patients with agitation

    OpenAIRE

    Akil, Ayman; Bies, Robert R.; Bruce G Pollock; Avramopoulos, Dimitrios; Devanand, D. P.; Mintzer, Jacobo E.; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Schneider, Lon S; Weintraub, Daniel; Yesavage, Jerome; Shade, David M.; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

    2015-01-01

    The citalopram for Alzheimer’s disease trial evaluated citalopram for the management for agitation in Alzheimer’s disease patients. Sparse data was available from this elderly patient population. A nonlinear mixed effects population pharmacokinetic modeling approach was used to describe the pharmacokinetics of R- and S-citalopram and their primary metabolite (desmethylcitalopram). A structural model with 4 compartments (one compartment/compound) with linear oral absorption and elimination des...

  14. Thermodynamic properties of amphiphilic antidepressant drug citalopram HBr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Association characteristics of antidepressant during Citalopram hydrobromide in water Have been examined and its thermodynamic parameters have been calculated using tensiometery and conductometry. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) was determined by surface tension measurement at 30 deg. C and Surface activity was studied by measuring surface parameters i.e. surface pressure, JI, surface excess concentration, area per molecule of drug and standard Gibbs free energy of adsorption, delta G. The electrical conductivity was measured as a function of concentration at various temperatures and cmc was calculated in the temperature range 20-50 deg. C. Thermodynamic parameters i.e. standard free energy of micellization, delta G standard enthalpy of micellization, delta H/sub m/ and standard entropy of micellization, delta S/sub m/ were calculated from cmc value using closed association model. (author)

  15. Life-threatening overdose with lamotrigine, citalopram, and chlorpheniramine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatraman N

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lamotrigine is a commonly used agent for seizure control in epilepsy. There are limited data on the adverse effects of lamotrigine in overdose. We report a number of serious side-effects associated with a large overdose of lamotrigine. A 23-year-old female presented to the emergency department after taking an intentional overdose of 9.2 g of lamotrigine, 56 mg of chlorpheniramine, and 220 mg of citalopram. On admission, she had a reduced level of consciousness and electrocardiographic abnormalities; a widened QRS and a prolonged corrected QT (QTc interval. Prompt treatment with early intubation, along with the use of magnesium for cardioprotection and administration of sodium bicarbonate may have aided in a quick recovery with a short intensive care stay and good outcome.

  16. Isolated sinus tachycardia following reinitiation of risperidone in a patient with suspected autonomic hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie J Grubisha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The second generation antipsychotic risperidone is generally considered to have low cardiac adverse events, with an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias being reported only rarely in literature. We report here the case of a patient with a significant history of alcohol dependence, yet with no previous cardiac history, who had previously tolerated risperidone well, but had experienced isolated sinus tachycardia in the post detox period, following the reinitiation of risperidone therapy. The Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR probability scale rating for this being a medication adverse event (AE was 4, thus indicating that this  patient′s AE was associated with risperidone therapy. This case report will contribute to the limited evidence of adverse cardiac events associated with risperidone therapy, with particular emphasis on the susceptibility of patients in a state of autonomic hypersensitivity.

  17. Association of common genetic variants with risperidone adverse events in a Spanish schizophrenic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoguera, B; Riveiro-Alvarez, R; Lopez-Castroman, J; Dorado, P; Vaquero-Lorenzo, C; Fernandez-Piqueras, J; Llerena, A; Abad-Santos, F; Baca-García, E; Dal-Ré, R; Ayuso, C

    2013-04-01

    Risperidone non-compliance is often high due to undesirable side effects, whose development is in part genetically determined. Studies with genetic variants involved in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of risperidone have yielded inconsistent results. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the putative association of genetic markers with the occurrence of four frequently observed adverse events secondary to risperidone treatment: sleepiness, weight gain, extrapyramidal symptoms and sexual adverse events. A series of 111 schizophrenia inpatients were genotyped for genetic variants previously associated with or potentially involved in risperidone response. Presence of adverse events was the main variable and potential confounding factors were considered. Allele 16Gly of ADRB2 was significantly associated with a higher risk of sexual adverse events. There were other non-significant trends for DRD3 9Gly and SLC6A4 S alleles. Our results, although preliminary, provide new candidate variants of potential use in risperidone safety prediction. PMID:22212732

  18. Bioavailability and Pharmacodynamics of Promethazine on Long Duration Missions to the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcha, Lakshmi; Boyd, Jason L.; Cintron, Nitza; Berens, Kurt L.

    2004-01-01

    Space motion sickness (SMS) is often treated in space with promethazine (PMZ). Common side effects of PMZ administration (50 mg intramuscular) on the ground are drowsiness and impaired cognitive performance. Anecdotal reports indicate that these effects are absent or less pronounced in space. This suggests that the availability of PMZ to the body (bioavailability) and/or the response of the body to PMZ (pharmacodynamics) may change during space flight. Opportunities for clinical research in space are limited. The study described here is our response to a NASA Research Announcement for proposals for flight-based research needed to improve, or answer specific questions about, diagnosis and therapy during space flight, and post-flight rehabilitation. We propose here to evaluate noninvasive methods for determining the bioavailability and pharmacodynamics of PMZ. The specific objectives of the proposed research are to 1) compare pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of PMZ, estimated from saliva and plasma levels after administration of PMZ, 2) estimate the relative bioavailability of the three dosage forms of PMZ that are often administered to control motion sickness symptoms in space, and 3) establish the dose-response relationship of PMZ. We will estimate the bioavailability of an intramuscular injection (IM), oral tablet, and rectal suppository of PMZ in noma1 subjects during ambulatory and antiorthostatic bed rest (ABR) conditions using novel stable isotope techniques. We will compare and contrast the bioavailability of PMZ during normal and microgravity conditions to examine changes in drug absorption and bioavailability during microgravit. Results of this study will validate methods for an approved in-flight investigation with this medication awaiting an opportunity for manifestation..

  19. Beliefs and Social Norms about Codeine and Promethazine Hydrochloride Cough Syrup (CPHCS) Onset and Perceived Addiction among Urban Houstonian Adolescents: An Addiction Trend in the City of Lean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ronald J., Jr.; Kelder, Steven H.; Markham, Christine M.; Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Peters, LeCresha A.; Ellis, Artist

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, we used a qualitative approach to investigate relevant beliefs and norms associated with codeine and promethazine hydrochloride cough syrup (CPHCS) consumption, initiation, and perceived addiction among 48 alternative school students who identified themselves as current CPHCS users. In general, both boys and girls believed…

  20. Observational Study of Retention Samples of Promethazine Hydrochloride Syrup%盐酸异丙嗪糖浆的留样观察研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭芳玲; 张志华; 何周康

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the stability of Promethazine Hydrochloride Syrup. Methods: To observe and study its qualitative stability, this article is based on the quality standard of ( Hunan ) weiyaoji ( 98 ) 13 NO. 023, Promethazine Hydrochloride Syrup. The stability was inspected when it was stored under the prescriptive conditions by using room temperature retention samples. Results: The Promethazine Hydrochloride Syrup was stored at room temperature for 12 months. The indicators were in line with the quality standard. Conclusions: According to the stability results, Promethazine Hydrochloride Syrup at room temperature for 12 months is stable and reliable.%目的:考察盐酸异丙嗪糖浆的稳定性.方法:为考究其质量稳定性,以(湘)卫药剂(98)13第023号盐酸异丙嗪糖浆项下质量标准为依据,采用室温留样观察法,考察其在规定条件下贮存的稳定性.结果:盐酸异丙嗪糖浆在室温下贮存12个月,各项指标都符合质量标准.结论:根据稳定性考察结果,盐酸异丙嗪糖浆在室温下12个月内含量稳定、质量可靠.

  1. Evidence based administration of risperidone and paliperidone for the treating conduct disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluates the evidence-based administration of risperidone and paliperidone for the treating children and adolescents with conduct disorder (CD. Materials and Methods: A review of the current literature from clinical trials that investigated the efficacy of risperidone and paliperidone on CD considering the inclusion criteria and search strategies was performed by a search of PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Results: Out of 53 titles, 31 were irrelevant. The abstract of 22 potentially related articles were studied. Only six articles reported the results of clinical trial. However, one of them reported the effect of risperidone on conduct behaviors in autistic disorders. One study was a re-analysis of two previous studies, one study reported the effects of maintenance versus withdrawal of risperidone treatment and two studies included children with sub-average intelligence. Headache, somnolence and increased appetite are among the most common reported adverse effects. No study examined the effect of paliperidone on CD was found. Conclusion: Current literature suggests that risperidone could be effective for treating some conduct behaviors in children and adolescents. The effect of risperidone on CD is not a well-researched area. There is no well-controlled evidence based reports about the safety and efficacy of risperidone for the treatment of CD. Further trials should examine the efficacy of these medications on CD rather than conduct behaviors or disruptive behavior disorders.

  2. Effectiveness of Risperidone Augmentation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Experience From a Specialty Clinic in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Aditya; Kalyani, Bangalore G; Arumugham, Shyam Sundar; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Math, Suresh Bada; Reddy, Y C Janardhan

    2016-08-01

    Risperidone is the most widely used augmenting agent in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, a recent controlled study found risperidone to be no different from placebo, raising doubts about its effectiveness. In this context, we sought to examine the real-world effectiveness of risperidone from the large database of an OCD clinic in India. A total of 1314 consecutive patients who registered at the OCD clinic between 2004 and 2014 were evaluated with structured interviews and scales. Patients with OCD initiated on risperidone augmentation without concurrent cognitive behavior therapy and who were on stable and adequate doses of serotonin reuptake inhibitors for at least 12 preceding weeks were included for analysis. The primary outcome measure was all-cause discontinuation. Logistic regression was performed to identify the factors predicting improvement with risperidone augmentation. A total of 92 patients were eligible for analysis. Risperidone continued to be used in 23 patients (25%) at the time of last follow-up, and the remaining discontinued either because of ineffectiveness or intolerability. The fall in the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores was significantly greater in patients who continued to take risperidone when compared with those who did not (41.6% vs 3.7%, t = 6.95, P Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores. On regression analysis, no predictors of improvement with risperidone augmentation could be identified. The study demonstrated, in a real-world setting, that risperidone may be a useful augmenting agent in a proportion of patients with partial/poor response to serotonin reuptake inhibitors. PMID:27219093

  3. Paliperidone ER and oral risperidone in patients with schizophrenia: a comparative database analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schooler Nina

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare the efficacy and tolerability of paliperidone extended-release (ER with risperidone immediate-release using propensity score methodology. Methods Six double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, short-term clinical trials for acute schizophrenia with availability of individual patient-level data were identified (3 per compound. Propensity score pairwise matching was used to balance observed covariates between the paliperidone ER and risperidone patient populations. Scores were generated using logistic regression models, with age, body mass index, race, sex, baseline Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS total score and baseline Clinical Global Impressions–Severity (CGI-S score as factors. The dosage range of paliperidone ER (6-12 mg/day was compared with 2 risperidone dosage ranges: 2-4 and 4-6 mg/day. The primary efficacy measure was change in PANSS total score at week 6 end point. Tolerability end points included adverse event (AE reports and weight. AEs with rates ≥5% and with a ≥2% difference between paliperidone ER and risperidone were identified. Results Completion rates for placebo-treated subjects in paliperidone ER trials (n = 95 and risperidone trials (n = 122 groups were 36.8% and 51.6%, respectively; end point changes on PANSS total scores were similar (p = 0.768. Completion rates for subjects receiving paliperidone ER 6-12 mg/day (n = 179, risperidone 2-4 mg/day (n = 113 or risperidone 4-6 mg/day (n = 129 were 64.8%, 54.0% and 66.7%, respectively (placebo-adjusted rates: paliperidone ER vs risperidone 2-4 mg/day, p = 0.005; paliperidone ER vs risperidone 4-6 mg/day, p = 0.159. PANSS total score improvement with paliperidone ER was greater than with risperidone 2-4 mg/day (difference in mean change score, -6.7; p Conclusions This indirect database analysis suggested that paliperidone ER 6-12 mg/day may be more efficacious than risperidone 2-4 mg/day and as efficacious as risperidone 4-6 mg

  4. Chronic citalopram administration causes a sustained suppression of serotonin synthesis in the mouse forebrain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Honig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serotonin (5-HT is a neurotransmitter with important roles in the regulation of neurobehavioral processes, particularly those regulating affect in humans. Drugs that potentiate serotonergic neurotransmission by selectively inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin (SSRIs are widely used for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Although the regulation of serotonin synthesis may be an factor in SSRI efficacy, the effect of chronic SSRI administration on 5-HT synthesis is not well understood. Here, we describe effects of chronic administration of the SSRI citalopram (CIT on 5-HT synthesis and content in the mouse forebrain. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Citalopram was administered continuously to adult male C57BL/6J mice via osmotic minipump for 2 days, 14 days or 28 days. Plasma citalopram levels were found to be within the clinical range. 5-HT synthesis was assessed using the decarboxylase inhibition method. Citalopram administration caused a suppression of 5-HT synthesis at all time points. CIT treatment also caused a reduction in forebrain 5-HIAA content. Following chronic CIT treatment, forebrain 5-HT stores were more sensitive to the depleting effects of acute decarboxylase inhibition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these results demonstrate that chronic citalopram administration causes a sustained suppression of serotonin synthesis in the mouse forebrain. Furthermore, our results indicate that chronic 5-HT reuptake inhibition renders 5-HT brain stores more sensitive to alterations in serotonin synthesis. These results suggest that the regulation of 5-HT synthesis warrants consideration in efforts to develop novel antidepressant strategies.

  5. Design and Subject Characteristics in the Federally-Funded Citalopram Trial in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Lawrence; McCracken, James T.; Bearss, Karen; Robinson, Fay; Hollander, Eric; King, Bryan; Bregman, Joel; Sikich, Lin; Dukes, Kimberly; Sullivan, Lisa; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Donnelly, Craig; Kim, Young-Shin; Ritz, Louise; Hirtz, Deborah; Wagner, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The Studies to Advance Autism Research and Treatment Network conducted a randomized trial with citalopram in children with Pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). We present the rationale, design and sample characteristics of the citalopram trial. Subjects (128 boys, 21 girls) had a mean age of 9.3 (plus or minus 3.12) years; 132 (88.6%) were…

  6. Paliperidone ER and oral risperidone in patients with schizophrenia: a comparative database analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background To compare the efficacy and tolerability of paliperidone extended-release (ER) with risperidone immediate-release using propensity score methodology. Methods Six double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, short-term clinical trials for acute schizophrenia with availability of individual patient-level data were identified (3 per compound). Propensity score pairwise matching was used to balance observed covariates between the paliperidone ER and risperidone patient populations. Scores were generated using logistic regression models, with age, body mass index, race, sex, baseline Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score and baseline Clinical Global Impressions–Severity (CGI-S) score as factors. The dosage range of paliperidone ER (6-12 mg/day) was compared with 2 risperidone dosage ranges: 2-4 and 4-6 mg/day. The primary efficacy measure was change in PANSS total score at week 6 end point. Tolerability end points included adverse event (AE) reports and weight. AEs with rates ≥5% and with a ≥2% difference between paliperidone ER and risperidone were identified. Results Completion rates for placebo-treated subjects in paliperidone ER trials (n = 95) and risperidone trials (n = 122) groups were 36.8% and 51.6%, respectively; end point changes on PANSS total scores were similar (p = 0.768). Completion rates for subjects receiving paliperidone ER 6-12 mg/day (n = 179), risperidone 2-4 mg/day (n = 113) or risperidone 4-6 mg/day (n = 129) were 64.8%, 54.0% and 66.7%, respectively (placebo-adjusted rates: paliperidone ER vs risperidone 2-4 mg/day, p = 0.005; paliperidone ER vs risperidone 4-6 mg/day, p = 0.159). PANSS total score improvement with paliperidone ER was greater than with risperidone 2-4 mg/day (difference in mean change score, -6.7; p < 0.05) and similar to risperidone 4-6 mg/day (0.2; p = 0.927). Placebo-adjusted AEs more common with paliperidone ER were insomnia, sinus tachycardia and tachycardia; more common with risperidone

  7. A Comparative Study on the Sedative Effect of Oral Midazolam and Oral Promethazine Medication in Lumbar Puncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojjat DERAKHSHANFAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Derakhshanfar H, Modanlookordi M, Amini A, Shahrami A. A Comparative Study of the Sedative Effect of Oral Midazolam and Oral Promethazine Medication in Lumbar Puncture. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Spring;7(2:11-16. ObjectiveLumbar puncture (LP essentially is a painful and stressful procedure that indicated for diagnosis and therapeutic purposes. One way to reduce the anxiety is to administer an oral premedication. The aim of this study is to compare clinical effects of oral midazolam and oral promethazine in LP.Materials & MethodsThis prospective randomized controlled clinical trial study wasperformed on 80 children aged 2-7 years that were candidate for LP. They were divided into two randomized equal groups. First group received oral midazolam syrup 0.5 mg/kg and the other group received oral promethazine syrup 1mg/kg. Level of sedation, hemodynamic changes and any other complications were monitored every 5 minutes from 30 minutes before the start of the procedure.ResultsMidazolam group and promethazine group were similar in age, gender and weight. Midazolam had significantly shorter onset of sedation and also shorter duration to maximal sedation. The two groups were similar with respect to sedative effect at all time. The only complication that was significantly more in midazolam group was nausea and vomiting.ConclusionMidazolam syrup and promethazine syrup have same sedative effect in children. Both of these medications are easy to use in preschool children and none of them appeared to be superior to another. References1. Ellenby MS, Tegtmeyer K, Lai S, Braner DA. Lumbar Puncture. N Engl J Med 2006;28;355(13:e12.2. Crock C, Olsson C, Phillips R, Chalkiadis G, Sawyer S, Ashley D, et al. General anesthesia or conscious sedation for painful procedures in childhood cancer: The family’s perspective. Arch Dis Child 2003;88(3:253−7.3. Holdsworth MT, Raisch DW, Winter SS, Frost JD, Moro MA, Doran NH, et al. Pain and

  8. A Post-hoc Comparison of Paliperidone Palmitate to Oral Risperidone During Initiation of Long-acting Risperidone Injection in Patients with Acute Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandina, Gahan; Lane, Rosanne; Nuamah, Isaac; Remmerie, Bart; Coppola, Danielle; Hough, David

    2011-01-01

    Objective: First-month data of a 13-week acute schizophrenia study were used to compare paliperidone palmitate to oral risperidone during initiation of long-acting injectable risperidone. Design: Double-blind, randomized study. Setting: Outpatient or inpatient. Participants: Adults with established (≥1 year) schizophrenia. Those assigned to risperidone long-acting injectable (n=460) received 25mg on Days 8 and 22 with oral risperidone (l–6mg) supplementation for the first 28 days. The paliperidone palmitate group (n=453) received 150mg eq. on Day 1, l00mg eq. on Day 8, and oral placebo supplementation for the first 28 days. Measurements: Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Personal and Social Performance Scale, Clinical Global Impression-Severity score, and responder rate (percentage of patients with ≥30% reduction in PANSS total score). An analysis of covariance model estimated least-square mean differences between treatment groups. A post-hoc analysis of efficacy data for the period of interest, i.e., at the time points before and after the first 28 days, was conducted. Results: Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Personal and Social Performance Scale, Clinical global Impression-Severity scores showed similar efficacy between the treatment groups during the first weeks of treatment, corresponding to the risperidone long-acting injection initiation period. Mean Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score at baseline was 84.7 for paliperidone palmitate and 84.4 for oral risperidone, on Day 22 was 73.6 and 74.1, respectively, and on Day 36 was 71.8 and 72.8, respectively. Overall incidence of adverse events in the first 28 days was generally similar (45% for paliperidone palmitate vs. 35% for oral risperidone), except for injection site pain (4.6% vs. 0.7%). Similar active moiety plasma concentrations were obtained during this period. Conclusion: During the first month, paliperidone palmitate without oral supplementation has similar efficacy and

  9. Changes in QTc interval in the citalopram for agitation in Alzheimer's disease (CitAD randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea T Drye

    Full Text Available A Food and Drug Administration (FDA safety communication in August 2011 warned that citalopram was associated with a dose dependent risk of QT prolongation and recommended dose restriction in patients over the age of 60 but did not provide data for this age group.CitAD was a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial for agitation in Alzheimer's disease (AD. Participants were assigned to citalopram (target dose of 30 mg/day or placebo in a 1 ∶ 1 ratio. 186 people, 181 of whom were over the age of 60, having probable AD with clinically significant agitation were recruited from September 2009 to January 2013. After the FDA safety communication about citalopram, ECG was added to the required study procedures before enrollment and repeated at week 3 to monitor change in QTc interval. Forty-eight participants were enrolled after enhanced monitoring began.Citalopram treatment was associated with a larger increase in QTc interval than placebo (difference in week 3 QTc adjusting for baseline QTc: 18.1 ms [95% CI: 6.1, 30.1]; p = 0.004. More participants in the citalopram group had an increase ≥ 30 ms from baseline to week 3 (7 in citalopram versus 1 in placebo; Fisher's exact p = 0.046, but only slightly more in the citalopram group met a gender-specific threshold for prolonged QTc (450 ms for males; 470 ms for females at any point during follow-up (3 in citalopram versus 1 in placebo, Fisher's exact p = 0.611. One of the citalopram participants who developed prolonged QTc also displayed ventricular bigeminy. No participants in either group had a cardiovascular-related death.Citalopram at 30 mg/day was associated with improvement in agitation in patients with AD but was also associated with QT prolongation.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00898807.

  10. Risperidone in Children and Adolescents with Conduct Disorder: A Single-Center, Open-Label Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ercan, Eyüp Sabri; Kutlu, Ayşe; Çıkoğlu, Sibel; Veznedaroğlu, Baybars; Erermiş, Serpil; Varan, Azmi

    2003-01-01

    Background: Risperidone is one of the most commonly used atypical antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of children and adolescents. However, the data about its use in children and adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) are limited.

  11. Effect of the coadministration of citalopram with mirtazapine or atipamezole on rat contextual conditioned fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuda T

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Takahiro Masuda,1,2 Takeshi Inoue,1 Yan An,1 Naoki Takamura,1,3 Shin Nakagawa,1 Yuji Kitaichi,1 Tsukasa Koyama,1 Ichiro Kusumi1 1Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo Japan; 2Medical Affairs, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma, Co, Ltd, Tokyo, Japan; 3Regenerative and Cellular Medicine Office, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma, Co, Ltd, Osaka, Japan Background: Mirtazapine, a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant, which blocks the α2-adrenergic autoreceptors and heteroreceptors, has shown anxiolytic properties in clinical trials and preclinical animal experiments. The addition of mirtazapine to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs is clinically suggested to be more effective for anxiety disorders. In this study, we examined the combined effects of mirtazapine and citalopram, an SSRI, on the freezing behavior of rats, which was induced by contextual conditioned fear as an index of anxiety or fear. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats individually received footshocks in a shock chamber, and 24 hours later, they were given citalopram and/or mirtazapine injections. One hour after citalopram and 30 minutes after mirtazapine administration, freezing behavior was analyzed in the same shock chamber without shocks. Results: Mirtazapine decreased freezing in a dose-dependent manner, which is consistent with a previous report; it also enhanced an anxiolytic-like effect at a high dose (30 mg/kg of citalopram. Because mirtazapine blocks α2-adrenoreceptors, the combined effect of atipamezole, a selective α2 receptor antagonist, with citalopram was also examined. Similar to mirtazapine, atipamezole reduced freezing dose-dependently, but the enhancement of citalopram's effects by atipamezole was not clear when compared with mirtazapine. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that mirtazapine has an anxiolytic-like effect and may enhance the anxiolytic-like effect of SSRIs, but this enhancement may not be

  12. Serotonin transporter polymorphism alters citalopram effects on human pain responses to physical pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yina; Wang, Chenbo; Luo, Siyang; Li, Bingfeng; Wager, Tor D; Zhang, Wenxia; Rao, Yi; Han, Shihui

    2016-07-15

    Humans exhibit substantial inter-individual differences in pain perception, which contributes to variability in analgesic efficacy. Individual differences in pain sensitivity have been linked with variation in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR), and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as citalopram have been increasingly used as treatments for multiple pain conditions. We combined genotyping, pharmacological challenge, and neuroimaging during painful electrical stimulation to reveal how serotonin genetics and pharmacology interact to influence pain perception and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled procedure, we acutely administrated citalopram (30mgpo) to short/short (s/s) and long/long (l/l) healthy male 5-HTTLPR homozygotes during functional MRI with painful and non-painful electrical stimulation. 5-HTTLPR genotype modulated citalopram effects on pain-related brain responses in the thalamus, cerebellum, anterior insula, midcingulate cortex and inferior frontal cortex. Specifically, citalopram significantly reduced pain-related brain responses in l/l but not in s/s homozygotes. Moreover, the interaction between 5-HTTLPR genotype and pain-related brain activity was a good predictor of the citalopram-induced reductions in pain reports. The genetic modulations of citalopram effects on brain-wide pain processing were paralleled by significant effects on the Neurological Pain Signature, a multivariate brain pattern validated to be sensitive and specific to physical pain. This work provides neurobiological mechanism by which genetic variation shapes brain responses to pain perception and treatment efficacy. These findings have important implications for the types of individuals for whom serotonergic treatments provide effective pain relief, which is critical for advancing personalized pain treatment. PMID:27132044

  13. Hyperprolactinemia in Thai children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder treated with risperidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongkaew Y

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yaowaluck Hongkaew,1,2 Nattawat Ngamsamut,3 Apichaya Puangpetch,1,2 Natchaya Vanwong,1,2 Pornpen Srisawasdi,4 Montri Chamnanphon,1,2 Bhunnada Chamkrachchangpada,3 Teerarat Tan-kam,3 Penkhae Limsila,3 Chonlaphat Sukasem1,2 1Division of Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Laboratory for Pharmacogenomics, Somdech Phra Debaratana Medical Center (SDMC, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 3Yuwaprasart Waithayopathum Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Hospital, Department of Mental Health Services, Ministry of Public Health, 4Division of Clinical Chemistry, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: Hyperprolactinemia is a common adverse effect observed in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD during pharmacotherapy with risperidone. The main aim of this study was to investigate important clinical factors influencing the prolactin response in risperidone-treated Thai ASD. A total of 147 children and adolescents (127 males and 20 females aged 3–19 years with ASD received risperidone treatment (0.10–6.00 mg/day for up to 158 weeks. Prolactin levels were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. The clinical data of patients collected from medical records – age, weight, height, body mass index, dose of risperidone, duration of treatment, and drug-use pattern – were recorded. Hyperprolactinemia was observed in 66 of 147 (44.90% subjects. Median prolactin level at the high doses (24.00, interquartile range [IQR] 14.30–29.20 of risperidone was significantly found to be higher than at the recommended (16.20, IQR 10.65–22.30 and low (11.70, IQR 7.51–16.50 doses of risperidone. There was no relationship between prolactin levels and duration of risperidone treatment. Dose-dependence is identified as a main factor associated with hyperprolactinemia in Thai children and adolescents with ASD treated with

  14. Electrochemical study of oxidation process of promethazine using sensor based on carbon nanotubes paste containing immobilized DNA on inorganic matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Marco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the voltammetric behavior and the oxidation process of promethazine (PHZ in electrochemical sensor based on carbon nanotubes paste containing DNA immobilized on the inorganic matrix prepared by sol-gel process (SiO2/Al2O3/Nb2O5. The method of Laviron verified that the system is irreversible and high speed of electron transfer between the electrode and DNA. The study of the oxidation of PHZ and influence of pH showed slope of 0.054 V / pH (near the nernstian system: 0.0592 V / pH suggesting that it involves the transfer of two protons and two electrons.

  15. The Canadian experience with risperidone for the treatment of schizophrenia: an overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Iskedjian, M; Hux, M; Remington, G J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize published data to date by Canadian authors and from Canadian sources on risperidone, a novel neuroleptic indicated in the management of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. It was introduced in Canada in 1993. DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE search was performed using "risperidone" as a keyword. Three Canadian journals were also searched manually. STUDY SELECTION: Articles published between January 1991 and June 1996 by Canadian authors or involving Canadian patients...

  16. Evidence based administration of risperidone and paliperidone for the treating conduct disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates the evidence-based administration of risperidone and paliperidone for the treating children and adolescents with conduct disorder (CD). Materials and Methods: A review of the current literature from clinical trials that investigated the efficacy of risperidone and paliperidone on CD considering the inclusion criteria and search strategies was performed by a search of PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Results: Out of 53 titles, 31 were irrelevant. The abstra...

  17. A Comparison of Risperidone and Buspirone for Treatment of Behavior Disorders in Children with Phenylketonuria

    OpenAIRE

    FAYYAZI, Afshin; Elham SALARI*; Ali KHAJEH; Abdi GAJARPOUR

    2014-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Fayyazi A, Salari E, Khajeh A, Ghajarpour A. A Comparison of Risperidone and Buspirone for Treatment ofBehavior Disorders in Children with Phenylketonuria. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Autumn; 8(4):33-38.AbstractObjectiveMany patients with late-diagnosed phenylketonuria (PKU) suffer from severe behavior problems. This study compares the effects of buspirone and risperidone on reducing behavior disorders in these patients.Materials & MethodsIn this crossover clinical...

  18. Paliperidone ER and oral risperidone in patients with schizophrenia: a comparative database analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Schooler Nina; Lindenmayer Jean-Pierre; Bossie Cynthia A; Turkoz Ibrahim; Canuso Carla M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To compare the efficacy and tolerability of paliperidone extended-release (ER) with risperidone immediate-release using propensity score methodology. Methods Six double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, short-term clinical trials for acute schizophrenia with availability of individual patient-level data were identified (3 per compound). Propensity score pairwise matching was used to balance observed covariates between the paliperidone ER and risperidone patient popula...

  19. Normalization of Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia with the Addition of Aripiprazole

    OpenAIRE

    Shores, Larry E.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor metabolic changes, including hyperprolactinemia, in adolescents medicated with atypical antipsychotics, especially when polypharmacy is involved. This study specifically followed risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia in adolescents (14 male patients and 2 female patients) after aripiprazole was added to begin transitioning to another atypical antipsychotic. No other changes were made in the medication regimen. Risperidone was continued at the previo...

  20. Antipsychotic discontinuation syndrome following risperidone withdrawal: a case report from rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Sanivarapu, Sravanti L.; Krishnamurthy CN

    2014-01-01

    Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic agent used primarily to treat schizophrenia. It is a dopamine antagonist with antiserotonergic, antihistaminergic and antiadrenergic properties. Antipsychotic discontinuation symptoms have been described in the literature following abrupt or rapid reduction in the dose. This unusual case demonstrates that sudden withdrawal of even a modest dose of risperidone may cause significant discontinuation symptoms in susceptible individuals. Hence, there is a n...

  1. Citalopram controls phobic symptoms in patients with panic disorder: randomized controlled trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Leinonen, E.; Lepola, U; Koponen, H; Turtonen, J; Wade, A; Lehto, H

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of long-term treatment with citalopram or clomipramine on subjective phobic symptoms in patients with panic disorder. DESIGN: Double-blind, parallel-group, five-arm study. PATIENTS: Patients aged 18 to 65 years with panic disorder (DMS-III-R diagnosis) and with no major depressive symptoms. INTERVENTIONS: Four hundred and seventy-five patients were randomized to 8 weeks of treatment with either citalopram (10 to 15 mg per day; 20 to 30 mg per day; or 40 to 60...

  2. The Effect of Intravenous Citalopram on the Neural Substrates of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhikram, Tracy P; Farb, Norman A S; Ravindran, Lakshmi N; Papadopoulos, Yousef G; Conn, David K; Pollock, Bruce G; Ravindran, Arun V

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of an intravenous serotonin reuptake inhibitor on the neural substrates of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), as intravenous agents may be more effective in treating OCD than conventional oral pharmacotherapy. Eight OCD subjects and eight control subjects received alternate infusions of citalopram and placebo during functional magnetic resonance imaging, in a randomized, symptom-provocation, crossover design. Compared with baseline, OCD subjects displayed significant changes in prefrontal neural activity after the citalopram infusion relative to placebo, and these changes correlated with reductions in subjective anxiety. PMID:27019066

  3. In vitro-in vivo correlation of parenteral risperidone polymeric microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Choi, Stephanie; Qu, Wen; Wang, Yan; Burgess, Diane J

    2015-11-28

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether an in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) can be established for polymeric microspheres that are equivalent in formulation composition but prepared with different manufacturing processes. Risperidone was chosen as a model therapeutic and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with similar molecular weight as that used in the commercial product Risperdal® Consta® was used to prepare risperidone microspheres. Various manufacturing processes were investigated to produce the risperidone microspheres with similar drug loading (approx. 37%) but distinctly different physicochemical properties (e.g. porosity, particle size and particle size distribution). In vitro release of the risperidone microspheres was investigated using different release testing methods (such as sample-and-separate and USP apparatus 4). In vivo pharmacokinetic profiles of the risperidone microsphere formulations following intramuscular administration were determined using a rabbit model. Furthermore, the obtained pharmacokinetic profiles were deconvoluted using the Loo-Riegelman method and the calculated in vivo release was compared with the in vitro release of these microspheres. Level A IVIVCs were established and validated for the compositionally equivalent risperidone microspheres based on the in vitro release data obtained using USP apparatus 4. The developed IVIVCs demonstrated good predictability and were robust. These results showed that the developed USP apparatus 4 method was capable of discriminating PLGA microspheres that are equivalent in formulation composition but with manufacturing differences and predicting their in vivo performance in the investigated animal model. PMID:26423236

  4. Early onset of treatment effects with oral risperidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naber Dieter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dogma of a delayed onset of antipsychotic treatment effects has been maintained over the past decades. However, recent studies have challenged this concept. We therefore performed an analysis of the onset of antipsychotic treatment effects in a sample of acutely decompensated patients with schizophrenia. Methods In this observational study, 48 inpatients with acutely decompensated schizophrenia were offered antipsychotic treatment with oral risperidone. PANSS-ratings were obtained on day 0, day 1, day 3, day 7 and day 14. Results Significant effects of treatment were already present on day 1 and continued throughout the study. The PANSS positive subscore and the PANSS total score improved significantly more than the PANSS negative subscore. Conclusion Our results are consistent with the growing number of studies suggesting an early onset of antipsychotic treatment effects. However, non-pharmacological effects of treatment also need to be taken into consideration.

  5. Pharmacogenetics of Risperidone and Cardiovascular Risk in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton Dos Santos-Júnior

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the frequency of obesity and metabolic complications in child and adolescent users of risperidone. Potential associations with clinical parameters and SNPs of the HTR2C, DRD2, LEP, LEPR, MC4R, and CYP2D6 genes were analyzed. Methods. Samples from 120 risperidone users (8–20 years old were collected and SNPs were analyzed, alongside assessment of chronological and bone ages, prescribed and weight-adjusted doses, use of other psychotropic drugs, waist circumference, BMI z-scores, blood pressure, HOMA-IR index, fasting levels of serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, transaminases, and leptin. Results. Thirty-two (26.7% patients were overweight and 5 (4.2% obese. Hypertension was recorded in 8 patients (6.7%, metabolic syndrome in 6 (5%, and increased waist circumference in 20 (16.7%. The HOMA-IR was high for 22 patients (18.3%, while total cholesterol and triglycerides were high in 20 (16.7% and 41 (34.2% patients, respectively. SNP associations were found for LEP, HTR2C, and CYP2D6 with BMI; CYP2D6 with blood pressure, ALT, and HOMA-IR; HTR2C and LEPR with leptin levels; MC4R and DRD2 with HOMA-IR; HTR2C with WC; and LEP with ALT. Conclusions. Although not higher than in the general pediatric population, a high frequency of patients was overweight/obese, with abnormalities in metabolic parameters and some pharmacogenetic associations.

  6. Identification of biotransformation products of citalopram formed in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretsou, Vasiliki G; Psoma, Aikaterini K; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Aalizadeh, Reza; Fenner, Kathrin; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2016-10-15

    Citalopram (CTR) is a worldwide highly consumed antidepressant which has demonstrated incomplete removal by conventional wastewater treatment. Despite its global ubiquitous presence in different environmental compartments, little is known about its behaviour and transformation processes during wastewater treatment. The present study aims to expand the knowledge on fate and transformation of CTR during the biological treatment process. For this purpose, batch reactors were set up to assess biotic, abiotic and sorption losses of this compound. One of the main objectives of the study was the identification of the formed transformation products (TPs) by applying suspect and non-target strategies based on liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). The complementary use of reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) for the identification of polar TPs, and the application of in-house developed quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) prediction models, in addition to the comprehensive evaluation of the obtained MS/MS spectra, provided valuable information to support identification. In total, fourteen TPs were detected and thirteen of them were tentatively identified. Four compounds were confirmed (N-desmethylCTR, CTR amide, CTR carboxylic acid and 3-oxo-CTR) through the purchase of the corresponding reference standard. Probable structures based on diagnostic evidence were proposed for the additional nine TPs. Eleven TPs are reported for the first time. A transformation pathway for the biotransformation of CTR was proposed. The presence of the identified TPs was assessed in real wastewater samples through retrospective analysis, resulting in the detection of five compounds. Finally, the potential ecotoxicological risk posed by CTR and its TPs to different trophic levels of aquatic organisms was evaluated by means of risk quotients. PMID:27459150

  7. Measuring citalopram in blood and central nervous system: revealing a distribution pattern that differs from other antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulzen, Michael; Lammertz, Sarah E; Gründer, Gerhard; Veselinovic, Tanja; Hiemke, Christoph; Tauber, Simone C

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to measure blood and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of citalopram and its weakly active N-demethylated metabolite desmethylcitalopram to account for the distribution between the two compartments. The findings are discussed in the context with own preceding studies on the distribution pattern of different antidepressants. Concentrations of citalopram were measured in blood serum and cerebrospinal fluid of 18 patients treated with daily doses of 10-40 mg. Daily doses were correlated with serum and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations, and serum concentrations were correlated with concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid. Serum concentrations of citalopram and desmethylcitalopram showed no significant correlation to the daily dose, r=0.164, P=0.515, and r=0.174, P=0.505, respectively, whereas citalopram concentrations in serum and cerebrospinal fluid were highly correlated (r=0.763, Pcitalopram (total=bound+unbound concentration) varied between 0.14 and 0.86 (mean 0.35, SD 0.16). By correcting the mean cerebrospinal fluid/serum ratio for 80% plasma protein binding, cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of citalopram were on average 77% higher than the calculated unbound serum concentration with a ratio of 1.77 (SD 0.81, range 0.68-4.29). Findings indicate a very good ability of citalopram to cross the blood-brain and cerebrospinal fluid barrier. High concentrations of citalopram in the cerebrospinal fluid are indicative of active transport of citalopram into or missing active transport out of the cerebrospinal fluid. The results suggest a high ability of citalopram to enter the brain with sufficiently high drug concentrations at the target sites within the brain, contributing toward clinical efficacy. PMID:26650488

  8. Outcomes on the pharmacopsychometric triangle in bupropion-SR vs. buspirone augmentation of citalopram in the STAR*D trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Fava, Maurizio; Trivedi, M H;

    2012-01-01

    Bech P, Fava M, Trivedi MH, Wisniewski SR, Rush AJ. Outcomes on the pharmacopsychometric triangle in bupropion-SR vs. buspirone augmentation of citalopram in the STAR*D trial. Objective: To compare within the framework of a novel pharmacopsychometric triangle, augmentation treatment with bupropion...... intention to treat sample was used. Results: Within the pharmacopsychometric triangle, bupropion-SR (sustained release) was superior to buspirone when augmented to the current citalopram treatment. Thus, in the domain of pure antidepressive effect, bupropion-SR was superior (P = 0.05) on the HAM-D(6) , IDS...... depressed outpatients not responding to citalopram....

  9. Acute citalopram has different effects on regional 5-HT synthesis in FSL, FRL, and SDP rats; an autoradiographic evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Kanemaru, Kazuya; Hasegawa, Shu; Nishi, Kyoko; Diksic, Mirko

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we measured the effect of an acute treatment of citalopram on 5-HT synthesis in a genetic rat model of depression, the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, their counterparts, the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) rats, and outbred Sprague-Dawley (SPD) rats, using the α-[14C]methyl-L-tryptophan (α-MTrp) autoradiographic method. A comparison of 5-HT synthesis in the FSL rats treated with citalopram (FSL-CTP) and those treated with saline (FSL-SAL) indicate that citalopram reduces glo...

  10. Topiramate-associated acute glaucoma in a migraine patient receiving concomitant citalopram therapy: a case-report

    OpenAIRE

    Spaccapelo, Luca; Leschiutta, Silvia; Aurea, Claudio; Ferrari, Anna

    2009-01-01

    We describe the case of a 34 year-old man with diagnosis of migraine with and without aura that developed myopia and acute glaucoma after 7 days of treatment with topiramate. The patient had also been taking citalopram daily for two months. Both topiramate and citalopram have been related to the increase of intraocular pressure and the development of glaucoma. We can't exclude that in this patient citalopram caused an increase of the ocular pressure in dose-dependent manner, facilitating topi...

  11. Effects of fluvoxamine and citalopram in maintaining abstinence in a sample of Italian detoxified alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, S M; Bellini, L; Di Bella, D; Catalano, M

    1998-01-01

    A 16-week, randomized study was performed to test the efficacy of two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) fluvoxamine and citalopram, in decreasing relapse and craving in alcoholics, and to investigate possible differences in their clinical profile. After detoxification, each of the 81 patients (55 males and 26 females) was randomly assigned to one of three groups: 23 subjects did not receive any pharmacological treatment, 25 were treated with fluvoxamine, 150mg/day, and 33 with citalopram, 20 mg/day. All patients received standard cognitive-behavioural therapy. Craving was assessed twice a month using a 10-step scale. Every intake of alcohol was considered a relapse and the subject was taken out of the study. At the end of the study, both the fluvoxamine and citalopram groups showed a statistically higher rate of continuous abstinence (63.6 and 60.7%, respectively) compared to the group without pharmacological treatment (30.4%). Relapse severity did not differ among the three groups. Only citalopram showed a significant effect on craving throughout the study period. This study confirmed the efficacy of SSRIs as an adjunct to psychotherapy to prevent relapse in alcoholics. The relationship between the effects of these SSRIs on abstinence and craving, as well as the differences between their profiles, are discussed. PMID:9566477

  12. Synthesis of ( sup 11 C)citalopram and brain distribution studies in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram, S.; Krishnan, K.R.R.; Bissette, G.; Knight, D.L.; Coleman, R.E. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA). Medical Center)

    1991-01-01

    Citalopram (1-(3-dimethylamino)propyl-1-(p-fluoro-phenyl)-5-phthalancarbonitrile) is a selective serotonin uptake inhibitor, and this prototype drug possesses high affinity for serotonin uptake sites and is used in the treatment of depression. We have synthesized ({sup 11}C)citalopram by alkylation. The procedure involves the reaction of ({sup 11}C)iodomethane with desmethylcitalopram in acetone in the presence of sodium hydroxide base at 65{sup o}C for 8-10 min, and followed by purification by column, which contained, in series silica gel and basic alumina produces pure ({sup 11}C)citalopram with a specific activity of 150-434 Ci/mmol (at EOS). The radiochemical yields were 18% to 66% (at EOB), with a radiochemical purity range 92% to 99%. In vivo biodistribution of ({sup 11}C)citalopram in Sprague-Dawley rats brain clearly differentiates regions of high (frontal cortex, substantia niagra and hypothalamus) and low (cerebellum) uptake corresponding to the known distribution of serotonin uptake in rats and primates. These results demonstrate that this ligand is suitable for study of serotonin uptake sites by P.E.T., and may be useful as a biochemical diagnostic imaging tool in various psychiatric disorders. Further studies with this ligand are in progress. (author).

  13. Citalopram Treatment of Pediatric Recurrent Abdominal Pain and Comorbid Internalizing Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, John V.; Perel, James; Lucas, Amanda; Bridge, Jeff; Ehmann, Mary; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Axelson, David; Birmaher, Boris; Ryan, Neal; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Brent, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the potential efficacy, tolerability, and safety of citalopram in the treatment of functional pediatric recurrent abdominal pain and comorbid internalizing disorders. Method: Twenty-five clinically referred children and adolescents with recurrent abdominal pain aged 7 to 18 years, inclusive, participated in a 12-week,…

  14. Enhanced Antidepressant-Like Effects of Electroacupuncture Combined with Citalopram in a Rat Model of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, antidepressants are the dominative treatment for depression, but they have limitations in efficacy and may even produce troublesome side effects. Electroacupuncture (EA has been reported to have therapeutic benefits in the treatment of depressive disorders. The present study was conducted to determine whether EA could enhance the antidepressant efficacy of a low dose of citalopram (an SSRI antidepressant in the chronic unpredictable stress-induced depression model rats. Here, we show that a combined treatment with 2 Hz EA and 5 mg/kg citalopram for three weeks induces a significant improvement in depressive-like symptoms as detected by sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swimming test, whereas these effects were not observed with either of the treatments alone. Further investigations revealed that 2 Hz EA plus 5 mg/kg citalopram produced a remarkably increased expression of BDNF and its receptor TrkB in the hippocampus compared with those measured in the vehicle group. Our findings suggest that EA combined with a low dose of citalopram could produce greater therapeutic effects, thereby, predictive of a reduction in drug side effects.

  15. Changes in sleep polygraphic variables and clinical state in depressed patients during treatment with citalopram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmel, Alex L. van; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Bouhuys, Antoinette L.

    1993-01-01

    Drug-induced improvement of depression may be mediated by changes in sleep physiology. The aim of this study was to relate changes in sleep polygraphic variables to clinical state during treatment with citalopram, a highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. Sixteen patients took part. The study wa

  16. Cholinergic modulation of the cerebral metabolic response to citalopram in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Gwenn S.; Kramer, Elisse; Ma, Yilong; Hermann, Carol R.; Dhawan, Vijay; Chaly, Thomas; Eidelberg, David

    2009-01-01

    Pre-clinical and human neuropharmacological evidence suggests a role of cholinergic modulation of monoamines as a pathophysiological and therapeutic mechanism in Alzheimer's disease. The present study measured the effects of treatment with the cholinesterase inhibitor and nicotinic receptor modulator, galantamine, on the cerebral metabolic response to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, citalopram. Seven probable Alzheimer's disease patients and seven demographically comparable contro...

  17. Synthesis of a selective serotonin uptake inhibitor: ( sup 11 C)citalopram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannals, R.F.; Ravert, H.T.; Wilson, A.A.; Wagner, H.N. Jr. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Citalopram, a selective serotonin uptake inhibitor, was labeled with {sup 11}C for non-invasive in vivo studies of serotonin uptake sites in the human brain using positron emission tomography. The synthesis was completed in approximately 17 min using ({sup 11}C)methyl iodide as the precursor. The synthesis, purification, characterization, and determination of specific activity are described. (author).

  18. Citalopram combined with WAY 100635 inhibits ejaculation and ejaculation-related Fos immunoreactivity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, T.R. de; Pattij, T.; Veening, J.G.; Dederen, P.J.W.C.; Waldinger, M.D.; Cools, A.R.; Olivier, B.

    2005-01-01

    The role of 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)(1A) receptor activation in the sexual side-effects, in particular delayed ejaculation, of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) was studied. Male Wistar rats were treated for 15 days with vehicle, the SSRI citalopram (10 mg/kg/day p.o.), the 5-H

  19. Novel and high affinity fluorescent ligands for the serotonin transporter based on (s)-citalopram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Vivek; Rahbek-Clemmensen, Troels; Billesbølle, Christian B;

    2014-01-01

    Novel rhodamine-labeled ligands, based on (S)-citalopram, were synthesized and evaluated for uptake inhibition at the human serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine transporters (hSERT, hDAT, and hNET, respectively) and for binding at SERT, in transiently transfected COS7 cells. Compound 14 demons...

  20. Low-dose adrenaline, promethazine, and hydrocortisone in the prevention of acute adverse reactions to antivenom following snakebite: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Asita de Silva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Envenoming from snakebites is most effectively treated by antivenom. However, the antivenom available in South Asian countries commonly causes acute allergic reactions, anaphylactic reactions being particularly serious. We investigated whether adrenaline, promethazine, and hydrocortisone prevent such reactions in secondary referral hospitals in Sri Lanka by conducting a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In total, 1,007 patients were randomized, using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of adrenaline (0.25 ml of a 1∶1,000 solution subcutaneously, promethazine (25 mg intravenously, and hydrocortisone (200 mg intravenously, each alone and in all possible combinations. The interventions, or matching placebo, were given immediately before infusion of antivenom. Patients were monitored for mild, moderate, or severe adverse reactions for at least 96 h. The prespecified primary end point was the effect of the interventions on the incidence of severe reactions up to and including 48 h after antivenom administration. In total, 752 (75% patients had acute reactions to antivenom: 9% mild, 48% moderate, and 43% severe; 89% of the reactions occurred within 1 h; and 40% of all patients were given rescue medication (adrenaline, promethazine, and hydrocortisone during the first hour. Compared with placebo, adrenaline significantly reduced severe reactions to antivenom by 43% (95% CI 25-67 at 1 h and by 38% (95% CI 26-49 up to and including 48 h after antivenom administration; hydrocortisone and promethazine did not. Adding hydrocortisone negated the benefit of adrenaline. CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment with low-dose adrenaline was safe and reduced the risk of acute severe reactions to snake antivenom. This may be of particular importance in countries where adverse reactions to antivenom are common, although the need to improve the quality of available antivenom cannot be

  1. Risperidone in children with autism: randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Ravishankar; Singhi, Pratibha; Malhi, Prahbhjot

    2006-06-01

    Some open-label studies suggest that risperidone can be useful in the treatment of certain target symptoms in children with autism. We aimed to study whether the use of risperidone in comparison with placebo improved functioning in children with autism with regard to behavior (aggressiveness, hyperactivity, irritability), social and emotional responsiveness, and communication skills. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 40 consecutive children with autism, whose ages ranged from 2 to 9 years, who were receiving either risperidone or placebo given orally at a dose of 1 mg/day for 6 months. Autism symptoms were monitored periodically. The outcome variables were total scores on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) after 6 months. Of the 40 children enrolled, 39 completed the trial over a period of 18 months; 19 received risperidone, and 20 received placebo. In the risperidone group, 12 of 19 children showed improvement in the total Childhood Autism Rating Scale score and 17 of 19 children in the Children's Global Assessment Scale score compared with 0 of 20 children for the Childhood Autism Rating Scale score and 2 of 20 children for the Children's Global Assessment Scale score in the placebo group (P social responsiveness and nonverbal communication and reduced the symptoms of hyperactivity and aggression. Risperidone was associated with increased appetite and a mild weight gain, mild sedation in 20%, and transient dyskinesias in three children. Risperidone improved global functioning and social responsiveness while reducing hyperactivity and aggression in children with autism and was well tolerated. PMID:16948927

  2. A Randomized Open Label Comparison of the Effects ofRisperidone and Haloperidol on Sexual Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jaber Mousavi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: "nSexual dysfunction in patients who take antipsychotics causes adecline in their quality of life and medication acceptance. Considering the restrictions in cross sectional design of many earlier researches, we used a clinical trial aimed at assessing sexual dysfunction by substituting Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic drug, with Haloperidol, a typical one . "n "n "nMethod: This clinical trial was conducted on 51 patients who had been using Risperidone with a minimum dose of 2 mg/daily for at least 2 months. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. The first group continued taking Risperidone, whereas the second group was given Haloperidol. Sexual function prior to and after the drug substitution was assessed using a sexual questionnaire designed to assess four stages of sexual function . "nResults: Compared to those who changed their medication to Haloperidol, the patients who remained on Risperidone therapy suffered from more sexual dysfunction, especially in their tendency towards having sexual activities (P= 0.01, post menstrual sexual activity (P= 0.002, and reaching orgasm in their sexual activities (P= 0.04; however in the Haloperidol group, no significant difference was observed before and after the change in medication . "nConclusion: Although Risperidone and Haloperidol can both disturb patients'sexual function, the side effects of Risperidone are stronger. Hence toprevent the decline of medication acceptance or irregular consumption by patients which may lead to possible relapse, substitution of Risperidone withanother drug with fewer side effects on sexual activities is definitely to the advantage of the patients .

  3. Valproate-Risperidone versus Valproate-Lithium combination in acute mania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Barekatain

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: We evaluated the efficacy of valproate plus risperidone versus valproate plus lithium combination in the treatment of acute mania. Methods: In 2-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study, 46 acute manic patients according to DSM-IV criteria were randomly assigned to receive combination of valproate 20 mg/ kg/day plus risperidone 2-4 mg/day (n=23 or lithium600-1200 mg/day (n=23. The assessment of efficacy measures were according to Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S and Improvement (CGI-I scale. Other effectiveness measures included YMRS response (YMRS reduction >50 % and YMRS remission (YMRS total scores <12. Results: In each group, 16 of 23 patients (70 % completed the study. YMRS response, CGI-Improvement, and reduction in the total scores of YMRS and CGI-S observed in both groups, significantly greater for valproate-risperidone than valproate-lithium combination group (P=0.006, P=0.015, P=0.004, and P=0.007, respectively.YMRS remission were shown in both groups without statistical significance (P=0.073. The total scores of YMRS at 4th, 8th, and 14th days of trial were lower in valproate-risperidone than valproate-lithium combination group (P=0.017, P=0.005, and P=0.004, respectively. The rate of adverse events and mean weight gain in both groups were not statistically different. Conclusion: In acute manic patients, both combinations of valproate with lithium or with risperidone had efficacy in acutely manic patients, but valproate-risperidone combination was more effective. Both treatments were safe and well tolerated. Considering the small sample size and limited period of observation, further studies need to be conducted to find out the best combination in the treatment of acute mania. Key words: Acute mania, Valproate, Risperidone, Lithium, Combination Therapy

  4. Potential bias in testing for hyperprolactinemia and pituitary tumors in risperidone-treated patients: a claims-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jasmanda

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A reporting association of risperidone with pituitary tumors has been observed. Because such tumors are highly prevalent, there may be other reasons why they were revealed in association with risperidone treatment. We assessed two potential explanations: disproportionately more prolactin assessment and head/brain imaging in risperidone-treated patients vs patients treated with other antipsychotics. Methods Treatment episodes with risperidone, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, aripiprazole, haloperidol, perphenazine and 'other typical' antipsychotics were identified in two databases (large commercial, Medicaid. Comparisons used proportional hazards regression to determine whether prolactin testing was disproportionate with risperidone, regardless of prior potentially prolactin-related adverse events (PPAEs. Logistic regression determined whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI/computed tomography (CT were disproportionate in risperidone-treated patients vs other patients, regardless of hyperprolactinemia or PPAEs. In each regression, the 'other typical' antipsychotic category served as the comparator. Regression models controlled for age, gender, and other factors. Results Altogether, 197,926 treatment episodes were analyzed (63,878 risperidone. Among patients with or without preceding PPAEs, risperidone treatment was associated with a significantly greater likelihood of prolactin assessment (hazard ratio (HR 1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.09 to 1.66, p = 0.007. Among patients with hyperprolactinemia or PPAEs, those treated with risperidone (odds ratio (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.23, p = 0.001 or ziprasidone (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.62, p = 0.028 had a higher likelihood of MRI/CT. Conclusion Risperidone-treated patients are more likely to undergo prolactin assessment regardless of prior PPAEs, and more likely to undergo MRI/CT in association with hyperprolactinemia or PPAEs. Thus, a predisposition for

  5. On-Demand Treatment of Premature Ejaculation with Citalopram: A Randomized Double-Blind Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghafuri Zahra

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available "nAs the most common male sexual disorder premature ejaculation (PE, also referred to as early ejaculation (EE or rapid ejaculation (RE, affects 30%-40% of sexually active men. Despite the limited number of available studies comparing the efficacy of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI they have been thought to have beneficial effects for the treatment of patients with PE. In the present study, we assessed the efficacy of on-demand use of citalopram, in the treatment of premature ejaculation. A randomized double blind study of fixed dose on-demand use of citalopram was performed in Roozbeh Psychiatry Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The sample was consisted of 80 married patients diagnosed with PE according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups: group 1 consisting of 42 patients received 20mg citalopram, and group 2 consisting of 38 patients received placebo four hours before intercourse for a 4-week treatment course. The effects of drug on the ejaculatory function in each group were assessed by the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT, and the Chinese Index of Premature Ejaculation (CIPE before and at the end of treatment course. The mean IELT increased from 66.78±36.94 to 80.85±43.05 seconds in group 1 and from 63.44±33.16 to 65.71±34.26 seconds in group 2 (P = 0.000. Mean CIPE score increased 1.14±1.04 and 0.52±0.50 in group 1 and 2 respectively (P = 0.002. The patients treated with on demand citalopram showed significantly greater improvement in IELT and CIPE score compared to the patients receiving placebo. It seems that citalopram may be an effective treatment of premature ejaculation with on-demand usage. However further studies are warranted.

  6. Paliperidone palmitate and risperidone long-acting injectable in subjects with schizophrenia recently treated with oral risperidone or other oral antipsychotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphs L

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Larry Alphs,1 Cynthia A Bossie,1 Jennifer Kern Sliwa,2 Dong-Jing Fu,1 Yi-Wen Ma,3 Joseph Hulihan11CNS Medical Affairs, 2Medical Information, Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Titusville, NJ, USA; 3Biostatistics, B&P, Janssen Research & Development LLC, Titusville, NJ, USABackground: This post hoc subgroup analysis of a randomized, double-blind trial evaluated the response to treatment with two long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotics, ie, paliperidone palmitate and risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI, in subjects with schizophrenia experiencing clinically significant symptoms despite recent treatment with oral risperidone only or other oral antipsychotics.Methods: Adult subjects were eligible for the 13-week, double-blind, double-dummy trial (NCT00589914 if they had an established diagnosis of schizophrenia for at least one year and a Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS total score of 60–120 inclusive at screening. Subjects received either paliperidone palmitate (234 mg, day 1; 156 mg, day 8; then once-monthly flexible dosing or RLAI (25–50 mg biweekly, with oral risperidone supplementation on days 1–28, plus matched placebo injections/tablets.Results: This post hoc analysis reports data on 747 subjects who, within 2 weeks of starting double-blind study medication, had reportedly received oral risperidone only (paliperidone palmitate group, n = 126; RLAI group, n = 107, other oral antipsychotics (paliperidone palmitate group, n = 199; RLAI group, n = 203, or no antipsychotic (paliperidone palmitate group, n = 56; RLAI group, n = 56. Mean PANSS total scores improved significantly at end point across all subgroups (mean change from baseline ranged from −17.5 to −19.5, all P < 0.0001. Clinical Global Impression-Severity and Personal and Social Performance scale measures also significantly improved from baseline (all P < 0.0001.Conclusion: Treatment with paliperidone palmitate or RLAI resulted in a significant reduction

  7. Treatment of multiple distressing spontaneous orgasms with citalopram and their re-emergence following discontinuation of prolonged use of citalopram in an adult female survivor of child sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Vohra, Adarsh

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin reuptake inhibitors-induced orgasmic dysfunctions including spontaneous orgasms have been reported in women. Spontaneous orgasm is experiencing orgasm in the absence of sexual sensory stimulation. A woman with sexual abuse in her childhood who later developed distressing spontaneous orgasms is discussed. She stopped experiencing these orgasms with citalopram. However the orgasms soon re-emerged following the abrupt discontinuation of prolonged use of citalopram but disappeared again...

  8. Combination treatment with risperidone long-acting injection and psychoeducational approaches for preventing relapse in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Y

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yueren Zhao,1–3 Taro Kishi,1 Nakao Iwata,1 Manabu Ikeda3,4 1Department of Psychiatry, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Okehazama Hospital Fujita Kokoro Care Center, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan; 3Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan; 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan Abstract: A recent meta-analysis showed that long-acting injectable (LAI antipsychotics were not superior to oral antipsychotics for preventing relapse in patients with schizophrenia. We therefore designed a treatment strategy combining risperidone LAI and COMPASS (COMprehensive Psycho-educational Approach and Scheme Set, an original psychoeducational program supporting treatment with risperidone LAI and evaluating subjective treatment satisfaction, transition of symptoms, and effectiveness in preventing symptomatic relapse. The aim of this study was to examine whether addition of COMPASS to risperidone LAI was more effective in preventing relapse in schizophrenia patients than risperidone LAI alone, with the latter group consisting of patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients were followed up for 6 months, with COMPASS continuously implemented from the transition to the observation phase. The primary efficacy measurements were relapse rate (rates of rehospitalization and discontinuation due to inefficacy. Secondary efficacy measurements were the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF scores. Of the 96 patients originally enrolled, 19 (19.8% were discontinued from all causes. During the 6-month study period, ten of the 96 patients (10.4% relapsed, compared with a 12.2% relapse rate in patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients showed significant improvements in BPRS total

  9. Panic attacks 10 years after heart transplantation successfully treated with low-dose citalopram: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chenyu; Zhuang, Yamin; Ji, Jianlin; Chen, Hao

    2015-12-25

    Panic attacks are common among patients who have undergone heart transplantation, but there are no clinical guidelines for the treatment of panic attacks in this group of patients. This report describes a 22-year-old woman who experienced panic attacks 10 years after heart transplant surgery. The attacks started after she discovered that the average post-transplantation survival is 10 years. Treated with citalopram 10 mg/d, her symptoms improved significantly after 2 weeks and had completely resolved after 8 weeks. A positive physician-patient relationship with the doctors who regularly followed her medical condition was crucial to encouraging her to adhere to the treatment with citalopram. She continued taking the citalopram for 7 months without any adverse effects. When followed up 3 months after stopping the citalopram, she had had no recurrence of the panic attacks. PMID:27199531

  10. Risperidone – Solid-state characterization and pharmaceutical compatibility using thermal and non-thermal techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Josiane Souza Pereira; Veronez, Isabela Pianna; Rodrigues, Larissa Lopes [Laboratório de Análise e Caracterização de Fármacos – LACFar, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Trevisan, Marcello G. [Laboratório de Análise e Caracterização de Fármacos – LACFar, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); National Institute of Bioanalytics Science and Technology – INCTBio, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, 13084-653, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Garcia, Jerusa Simone, E-mail: jerusa.garcia@unifal-mg.edu.br [Laboratório de Análise e Caracterização de Fármacos – LACFar, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: • DSC was used to characterize Risperidone and study its compatibility with excipients. • FT-IR associated with PCA was used to complement DSC data. • LC analyzes confirmed the DSC and FT-IR/PCA results. • Risperidone was incompatible with three among five excipients evaluated. - Abstract: A full solid-state characterization of risperidone was conducted using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine its physicochemical properties and polymorphism. The primary aim of this work was to study the compatibility of risperidone with pharmaceutical excipients using DSC to obtain and compare the curves of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the excipients with their 1:1 (w/w) binary mixtures. These same binary mixtures were turned to room temperature and analyzed by FT-IR combined with principal component analysis (PCA) to evaluate solid-state incompatibilities. The chemical incompatibilities of these samples were verified using a stability-indicating liquid chromatography (LC) method to assay for the API and evaluate the formation of degradation products. All of these methods showed incompatibilities between risperidone and the excipients magnesium stearate, lactose and cellulose microcrystalline.

  11. Risperidone – Solid-state characterization and pharmaceutical compatibility using thermal and non-thermal techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • DSC was used to characterize Risperidone and study its compatibility with excipients. • FT-IR associated with PCA was used to complement DSC data. • LC analyzes confirmed the DSC and FT-IR/PCA results. • Risperidone was incompatible with three among five excipients evaluated. - Abstract: A full solid-state characterization of risperidone was conducted using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine its physicochemical properties and polymorphism. The primary aim of this work was to study the compatibility of risperidone with pharmaceutical excipients using DSC to obtain and compare the curves of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the excipients with their 1:1 (w/w) binary mixtures. These same binary mixtures were turned to room temperature and analyzed by FT-IR combined with principal component analysis (PCA) to evaluate solid-state incompatibilities. The chemical incompatibilities of these samples were verified using a stability-indicating liquid chromatography (LC) method to assay for the API and evaluate the formation of degradation products. All of these methods showed incompatibilities between risperidone and the excipients magnesium stearate, lactose and cellulose microcrystalline

  12. Desipramine enhances the ability of risperidone to decrease alcohol intake in the Syrian golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, Danielle; Chau, David T; Khokhar, Jibran Y; Dawson, Ree; Green, Alan I

    2014-08-30

    The atypical antipsychotic clozapine reduces alcohol drinking in patients with schizophrenia. We have proposed that clozapine׳s ability to decrease alcohol drinking relates to its weak blockade of the dopamine D2 receptor and potent blockade of the norepinephrine α-2 receptor, as well as its ability to elevate plasma and brain norepinephrine. Another atypical antipsychotic, risperidone, which is a potent blocker of both the dopamine D2 receptor and norepinephrine α-2 receptor, does not decrease alcohol drinking. In this study, we used the Syrian golden hamster to test whether the ability of risperidone to reduce alcohol drinking would be enhanced if it was used in combination with the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desipramine. Hamsters were given free access to water and alcohol (15% v/v) until they reached a steady drinking baseline. They were then treated daily with each drug or drug combination for 20 days. Risperidone (0.2mg/kg) only transiently decreased alcohol drinking. However, 5.0mg/kg, and possibly 1.0mg/kg, desipramine added to 0.2mg/kg risperidone appeared to produce a more substantial and relatively sustained effect than risperidone alone. Data from this study provide leads toward the development of new treatments for patients with schizophrenia and alcoholism, and also for those with alcoholism alone. PMID:24836200

  13. Review of risperidone for the treatment of pediatric and adolescent bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R Bishop

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey R Bishop1,2, Mani N Pavuluri21Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, Pediatric Mood Disorders Program and Center for Cognitive Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Risperidone is a commonly used medication for the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in children and adolescents. It has been studied as a monotherapy treatment in early onset schizophrenia and as both monotherapy and combination therapy for pediatric bipolar disorder. Studies to date indicate that risperidone is an effective treatment for positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and mania symptoms of bipolar disorder. In young patient populations, side effects such as weight gain, extrapyramidal side effects, and prolactin elevation require consideration when evaluating the risk benefit ratio for individual patients. Here we review published studies of risperidone for the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in children and adolescents to provide practitioners with an overview of published data on the efficacy and safety of risperidone in these patient populations.Keywords: risperidone, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, children, adolescents

  14. Risperidone and NAP protect cognition and normalize gene expression in a schizophrenia mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisburd, Sinaya; Shemer, Zeev; Yeheskel, Adva; Giladi, Eliezer; Gozes, Illana

    2015-01-01

    Mutated disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), a microtubule regulating protein, leads to schizophrenia and other psychiatric illnesses. It is hypothesized that microtubule stabilization may provide neuroprotection in schizophrenia. The NAP (NAPVSIPQ) sequence of activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) contains the SxIP motif, microtubule end binding (EB) protein target, which is critical for microtubule dynamics leading to synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection. Bioinformatics prediction for FDA approved drugs mimicking SxIP-like motif which displace NAP-EB binding identified Risperidone. Risperidone or NAP effectively ameliorated object recognition deficits in the mutated DISC1 mouse model. NAP but not Risperidone, reduced anxiety in the mutated mice. Doxycycline, which blocked the expression of the mutated DISC1, did not reverse the phenotype. Transcripts of Forkhead-BOX P2 (Foxp2), a gene regulating DISC1 and associated with human ability to acquire a spoken language, were increased in the hippocampus of the DISC1 mutated mice and were significantly lowered after treatment with NAP, Risperidone, or the combination of both. Thus, the combination of NAP and standard of care Risperidone in humans may protect against language disturbances associated with negative and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. PMID:26553741

  15. Optimization and in vivo toxicity evaluation of G4.5 PAMAM dendrimer-risperidone complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jimena Prieto

    Full Text Available Risperidone is an approved antipsychotic drug belonging to the chemical class of benzisoxazole. This drug has low solubility in aqueous medium and poor bioavailability due to extensive first-pass metabolism and high protein binding (>90%. Since new strategies to improve efficient treatments are needed, we studied the efficiency of anionic G4.5 PAMAM dendrimers as nanocarriers for this therapeutic drug. To this end, we explored dendrimer-risperidone complexation dependence on solvent concentration, pH and molar relationship. The best dendrimer-risperidone incorporation (46 risperidone molecules per dendrimer was achieved with a mixture of chloroform:methanol 50∶50 v/v solution pH 3. In addition, to explore the possible effects of this complex, in vivo studies were carried out in the zebrafish model. Changes in the development of dopaminergic neurons and motoneurons were studied using tyrosine hydroxylase and calretinin, respectively. Physiological changes were studied through histological sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin to observe possible morphological brain changes. The most significant changes were observed when larvae were treated with free risperidone, and no changes were observed when larvae were treated with the complex.

  16. A Risperidone-Induced Prolactinoma Resolved when a Woman with Schizoaffective Disorder Switched to Ziprasidone: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Arcari, Gail T.; Mendes, Asante K.; Sothern, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    Antipsychotic drug therapy, e.g., risperidone, can be associated with endocrine abnormalities, including an increase in serum prolactin level (sPrl) due to a drug-induced benign pituitary tumor (prolactinoma). A few case reports have noted a resolution of hyperprolactinemia and prolactinoma after cessation of risperidone treatment. We report a similar finding for a woman with schizoaffective disorder, manic type.

  17. Risperidone Dosing in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Disorder: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Justine M.; Kushner, Stuart; Ning, Xiaoping; Karcher, Keith; Ness, Seth; Aman, Michael; Singh, Jaskaran; Hough, David

    2013-01-01

    Efficacy and safety of 2 risperidone doses were evaluated in children and adolescents with autism. Patients (N = 96; 5-17 years), received risperidone (low-dose: 0.125 mg/day [20 to 45 kg] or high-dose: 1.25 mg/day [20 to 45 kg]) or placebo. Mean baseline (range 27-29) to endpoint change…

  18. Altered brain concentrations of citalopram and escitalopram in P-glycoprotein deficient mice after acute and chronic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Louise; Carlsson, Björn; Hiemke, Christoph; Ahlner, Johan; Bengtsson,Finn; Schmitt, Ulrich; Kugelberg, Fredrik C

    2013-01-01

    Background: According to both in vitro and in vivo data P-glycoprotein (P-gp) may restrict the uptake of several antidepressants into the brain, thus contributing to the poor success rate of current antidepressant therapies. The therapeutic activity of citalopram resides in the Senantiomer, whereas the R-enantiomer is practically devoid of serotonin reuptake potency. To date, no in vivo data are available that address whether the enantiomers of citalopram and its metabolites are substrates of...

  19. Citalopram, Methylphenidate, or Their Combination in Geriatric Depression: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lavretsky, H.; Reinlieb, M; St. Cyr, N.; Siddarth, P.; Ercoli, LM; Senturk, D

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors evaluated the potential of methylphenidate to improve antidepressant response to citalopram, as assessed by clinical and cognitive outcomes, in elderly depressed patients. METHOD: The authors conducted a 16-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial for geriatric depression in 143 older outpatients diagnosed with major depression comparing treatment response in three treatment groups: methylphenidate plus placebo (N=48), citalopram plus placebo (N=48), and ci...

  20. Citalopram for major depressive disorder in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of published placebo-controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Apler, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of citalopram for major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults, in a systematic review of all published, randomised, double-blind studies comparing it with a placebo. Data sources Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, PsychINFO and Embase. Study selection Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of citalopram in adults with MDD were included. Studies with medically ill or treatment resistant subjects were excluded, as were stud...

  1. Risperidone-induced weight gain and reduced locomotor activity in juvenile female rats: The role of histaminergic and NPY pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jiamei; De Santis, Michael; He, Meng; Deng, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Second generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) such as risperidone are increasingly prescribed (mostly for off-label use) to children and adolescents for treating various mental disorders. SGAs cause serious weight gain/obesity and other metabolic side-effects. This study aimed to establish an animal model of risperidone-induced weight gain in female juvenile rats, and to investigate the effects of risperidone on the expression of hypothalamic histaminergic H1 receptors (H1R) and neuropeptides, and their association with weight gain. Female Sprague Dawley rats were treated orally with risperidone (0.3mg/kg, 3 times/day) or vehicle (control) starting from postnatal day (PD) 23 (±1 day) for 3 weeks (a period corresponding to the childhood-adolescent period in humans). In the female juvenile rats, risperidone treatment increased food intake and body weight gain, which started to appear after 12 days' treatment. Risperidone also significantly decreased the locomotor activity of the female rats. Consistently, risperidone significantly elevated mRNA expression of hypothalamic H1R, neuropeptide Y (NPY), and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) compared to controls, and H1R and NPY levels were correlated with risperidone enhanced weight gain and food intake in the female juvenile rats. However, risperidone did not affect hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) mRNA expression. Therefore, these results suggested that risperidone elevated appetite and body weight gain in juveniles via regulation of the hypothalamic H1R, NPY and AgRP pathways, as well as by reducing activity. PMID:25782398

  2. CYP2D6 poor metabolizer status might be associated with better response to risperidone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoguera, Berta; Riveiro-Alvarez, Rosa; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Dorado, Pedro; Vaquero-Lorenzo, Concepción; Fernandez-Piqueras, José; Llerena, Adrián; Abad-Santos, Francisco; Baca-García, Enrique; Dal-Ré, Rafael; Ayuso, Carmen

    2013-11-01

    The variability in the antipsychotic response is, to some extent, genetically determined. Several studies have attempted to establish a role for genetic variation in genes coding pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic targets, but to date, no definite genetic predictive marker has been identified. We aimed to explore the putative role of 19 genetic variants and risperidone clinical improvement in 76 White schizophrenic inpatients, measured as change in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). CYP2D6 poor metabolism was significantly associated with greater clinical improvement in total PANSS and a trend was also found for MDR1 3435C>T to higher total PANSS scores in 3435T carriers. This study suggests the importance that genetic variability on pharmacokinetic factors may have in risperidone response and gives evidence for the need for further investigation in order to establish the actual predictive value and clinical utility that CYP2D6 genotyping might have in risperidone therapy management. PMID:24026091

  3. Aripiprazole and Risperidone for Treatment of Methamphetamine-Associated Psychosis in Chinese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Sheng; Chen, Huijing; Xu, Zaifeng; Schottenfeld, Richard S; Hao, Wei; Chawarski, Marek Cezary

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated tolerability and efficacy of aripiprazole and risperidone for treatment of methamphetamine (METH) associated psychotic symptoms in China. Patients with acute METH-associated psychotic symptoms (N=42) and with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score between 60 and 120 were randomized to aripiprazole (initial dose 5-10mg per day followed by flexible doses 5-15 mg per day) or risperidone (initial dose 2-4 mg per day followed by flexible doses 4-6 mg per day) from day 3 to 25 of inpatient hospital stay. Outcome measures included PANSS and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness scale (CGI-S), METH craving Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Simpson Angus Scale (SAS), Barnes Assessments Akathasia Rating Scale (BARS), and self-reported adverse effects evaluated during treatment. Retention was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the MIXED models procedure was used to compare the groups on measures of psychotic and extra-pyramidal symptoms. Patients in both aripiprazole and risperidone groups showed statistically significant reductions in psychotic symptomatology from baseline during treatment (p<0.001) with no statistically significant differences between the treatment groups (p=0.73 and p=0.15, respectively). Risperidone-treated patients reported significantly greater METH craving reductions (p<0.001). Overall, 71% of patients completed the entire study, but the aripiprazole group had a significantly lower retention than the risperidone group (p=0.007), primarily due to medication related adverse effects. Aripiprazole-treated patients also had significantly more akathisia (p=0.03) and agitation (p=0.02) than risperidone-treated patients. Patients in both groups who tolerated their medications and completed the entire study achieved comparable reductions of psychotic symptoms. PMID:26733277

  4. Effects of Risperidone and Paliperidone Pretreatment on Locomotor Response Following Prenatal Immune Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richtand, Neil M.; Ahlbrand, Rebecca; Horn, Paul; Stanford, Kevin; Bronson, Stefanie L.; McNamara, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Limited data are available regarding pharmacological characteristics of effective interventions for psychosis prevention. Enrollment challenges in psychosis prevention trials impede screening diverse interventions for efficacy. Relevant animal models could help circumvent this barrier. We previously described prevention with risperidone of abnormal behavior following neonatal hippocampal lesion. We aimed to extend those findings evaluating risperidone and paliperidone following prenatal immune activation, a developmental model of a schizophrenia risk factor. We evaluated a later developmental time point to determine persistent effects of drug treatment. Methods Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with poly I:C or saline on gestational day 14. Offspring of poly I:C and saline treated dams received risperidone (0.45 mg/kg/d), paliperidone (0.05 mg/kg/d), or vehicle from postnatal days 35 to 70. Locomotor responses to novelty, saline injection, and amphetamine (1 and 5 mg/kg) were determined at three months, i.e., 21 days following antipsychotic discontinuation. Results Risperidone and paliperidone had persistent effects on behavioral response to amphetamine (1 mg/kg) at 3 months, ameliorating the impact of prenatal immune activation on offspring of poly I:C-treated dams. Risperidone, but not paliperidone, also exerted persistent effects in offspring of saline-treated dams on locomotor response to saline and amphetamine (5 mg/kg) injection. Conclusions Risperidone and paliperidone pretreatment of poly I:C offspring during peri-pubertal development stabilized response to amphetamine exposure persisting into early adulthood. Prenatal immune activation provides a model for evaluating effects of an environmental risk factor for schizophrenia, and has potential utility for identifying pharmacological approaches to early intervention. PMID:21440257

  5. Time-Dependence of Risperidone and Asenapine Sensitization and Associated D2 receptor Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun; Li, Ming

    2013-01-01

    When an antipsychotic drug is given repeatedly and intermittently, there is often a long-term increase in its behavioral efficacy, termed antipsychotic sensitization. With the passage of time, the magnitude of antipsychotic sensitization may increase or decrease depending on the principle of Time-Dependent Sensitization (TDS) or memory decay, respectively. In the present study, we examined the time-dependent feature and possible dopamine D2 receptor mechanism of sensitization induced by the antipsychotics risperidone and asenapine in the conditioned avoidance response test. Well-trained male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were first repeatedly treated with risperidone (1.0 mg/kg) or asenapine (0.2 mg/kg) and tested for avoidance response daily for 5 consecutive days. Eight, 18 or 38 days after the 5th drug treatment, all rats were retested drug-free to assess the residual impact of prior risperidone or asenapine treatment. Drug-pretreated rats had significantly lower avoidance than vehicle-pretreated ones on this test, and the group differences increased with the passage of time. In the subsequent drug challenge test at 10, 20 or 40 days after the 5th drug treatment, all rats were injected with a low dose of risperidone (0.3 mg/kg) or asenapine (0.1 mg/kg). Drug-pretreated rats again made significantly less avoidances than controls, confirming the drug-induced sensitization effect. Finally, in the quinpirole (a D2/3 receptor agonist, 1.0 mg/kg, sc)-induced hyperlocomotion test, risperidone-pretreated rats exhibited a significantly higher level of motor activity than the vehicle-pretreated ones. These findings suggest that risperidone and asenapine sensitization is long-lasting, follows the TDS principle, and is likely mediated by D2 receptor supersensitivity. PMID:24103641

  6. The R-enantiomer of citalopram counteracts escitalopram-induced increase in extracellular 5-HT in the frontal cortex of freely moving rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, A; Kreilgaard, Mads; Sánchez, C

    2003-01-01

    The selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor, citalopram, is a racemic mixture of an S(+)- and R(-)-enantiomer, escitalopram and R-citalopram, respectively. The present study compares the effects of escitalopram, R-citalopram and citalopram on extracellular levels of 5-HT in the frontal cortex...... of freely moving rats. In addition, co-injection of escitalopram and R-citalopram (ratios 1:2 and 1:4) were assessed. In some experiments escitalopram and R-citalopram were infused into the frontal cortex by reverse microdialysis. Finally, the extracellular level of escitalopram in the frontal cortex...... was studied after administration of escitalopram alone or in combination with R-citalopram. Escitalopram (1.0-3.9 mg/kg, s.c.) produced a greater maximal increase in extracellular 5-HT than citalopram (2.0-8.0 mg/kg, s.c.). R-citalopram (15.6 mg/kg s.c.) did not affect the 5-HT levels. When co...

  7. Paliperidone palmitate and risperidone long-acting injectable in subjects with schizophrenia recently treated with oral risperidone or other oral antipsychotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphs, Larry; Bossie, Cynthia A; Sliwa, Jennifer Kern; Fu, Dong-Jing; Ma, Yi-Wen; Hulihan, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background This post hoc subgroup analysis of a randomized, double-blind trial evaluated the response to treatment with two long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotics, ie, paliperidone palmitate and risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI), in subjects with schizophrenia experiencing clinically significant symptoms despite recent treatment with oral risperidone only or other oral antipsychotics. Methods Adult subjects were eligible for the 13-week, double-blind, double-dummy trial (NCT00589914) if they had an established diagnosis of schizophrenia for at least one year and a Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score of 60–120 inclusive at screening. Subjects received either paliperidone palmitate (234 mg, day 1; 156 mg, day 8; then once-monthly flexible dosing) or RLAI (25–50 mg biweekly, with oral risperidone supplementation on days 1–28), plus matched placebo injections/tablets. Results This post hoc analysis reports data on 747 subjects who, within 2 weeks of starting double-blind study medication, had reportedly received oral risperidone only (paliperidone palmitate group, n = 126; RLAI group, n = 107), other oral antipsychotics (paliperidone palmitate group, n = 199; RLAI group, n = 203), or no antipsychotic (paliperidone palmitate group, n = 56; RLAI group, n = 56). Mean PANSS total scores improved significantly at end point across all subgroups (mean change from baseline ranged from −17.5 to −19.5, all P < 0.0001). Clinical Global Impression-Severity and Personal and Social Performance scale measures also significantly improved from baseline (all P < 0.0001). Conclusion Treatment with paliperidone palmitate or RLAI resulted in a significant reduction in the symptoms of schizophrenia irrespective of previous recent treatment with oral risperidone only or other oral antipsychotics. For subjects who had previously received oral risperidone only, the difference in formulation was the main change in the intervention because the

  8. Comparison the effectiveness of aripiprazole and risperidone for the treatment of acute bipolar mania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Akhavan Rezayat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Second-generation antipsychotics, approved for the treatment of mania, are associated with adverse effects such as weight gain and metabolic disorders. Aripiprazole, a recently introduced second-generation antipsychotic, are thought to account for its low propensity for weight gain, metabolic disturbances and sedation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of risperidone versus aripiprazole in the treatment of acute mania. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with acute episodes of mania were enrolled in this study, and they were randomly assigned into a risperidone group of 24 cases and an aripiprazole group of 26 cases. In group A, aripiprazole with a dose of 5-30 mg/day and in group B, risperidone with a dose of 2-8 mg/day was given to patients. The average dose of aripiprazole was 27 mg/day, and the average dose of risperidone was 6 mg/day. The effects of each drug for the treatment of acute mania were assessed on the 1 st day of admission and on days 2, 4, 6, 8 and at weeks 2, 4 and 6 after therapy using the young mania rating scale (YMRS and at the baseline and on weeks 3 and 6 after admission using the clinical global impression (CGI scale. Results: The mean age of the group of risperidone was 34 ± 8.6 years and in a group of aripiprazole it was 34 ± 9.1 years (P = 0.83. Comparison of YMRS scores over the period of 6 weeks revealed a statistically significant difference in both groups (P < 0.0001.There was also a statistically significant difference in YMRS scores between risperidone and aripiprazole at day 8 (P = 0.026 and weeks 2 (P = 0.035 and 4 (P = 0.042. There was also a statistically significant difference in CGI-Severity scale score at weeks 3 (P = 0.003 and 6 (P = 0.000 and in CGI-Improvement scale score at weeks 3 (P = 0.005 and 6 (P = 0.002. The most common side-effect observed in both groups was headache (0%15/4 in aripiprazole vs. %16/7 in risperidone Conclusion: Aripiprazole that is readily

  9. Valproate-Risperidone versus Valproate-Lithium combination in acute mania

    OpenAIRE

    M Barekatain; A. Fatemi; N BASHARDOOST; A Darougheh; M Salehi; GH Asadollahi

    2005-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the efficacy of valproate plus risperidone versus valproate plus lithium combination in the treatment of acute mania. Methods: In 2-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study, 46 acute manic patients according to DSM-IV criteria were randomly assigned to receive combination of valproate 20 mg/ kg/day plus risperidone 2-4 mg/day (n=23) or lithium600-1200 mg/day (n=23). The assessment of efficacy measures were according to Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) ...

  10. Antipsychotic discontinuation syndrome following risperidone withdrawal: a case report from rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sravanti L. Sanivarapu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic agent used primarily to treat schizophrenia. It is a dopamine antagonist with antiserotonergic, antihistaminergic and antiadrenergic properties. Antipsychotic discontinuation symptoms have been described in the literature following abrupt or rapid reduction in the dose. This unusual case demonstrates that sudden withdrawal of even a modest dose of risperidone may cause significant discontinuation symptoms in susceptible individuals. Hence, there is a need for caution while taking a patient off antipsychotic medications in view of the vulnerable subgroup. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 233-234

  11. Topiramate plus citalopram in the treatment of Compulsive-Impulsive Sexual Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell'Osso Bernardo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Compulsive-Impulsive Sexual Behaviors (C-ISBs include repetitive sexual acts and compulsive sexual thoughts which occur so frequently and with such intensity that they interfere with sexual intimacy and interpersonal and occupational functioning and whose categorization and effective treatments are still unclear. We report the case of a patient affected by C-ISBs and bipolar disorder of type II who improved dramatically after three months' addition of topiramate to citalopram. Topiramate is a powerful anticonvulsant which has recently been proposed also for the treatment of migraine, bipolar disorder and binge eating disorder. This case-report suggests that topiramate might be beneficial in augmentation with citalopram in patients suffering from C-ISBs, although controlled studies to confirm our findings are needed.

  12. The serotonin transporter in rhesus monkey brain: comparison of DASB and citalopram binding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have characterized the interaction of the serotonin transporter ligand [3H]-N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-cyanophenylthio)-benzylamine (DASB) with rhesus monkey brain in vitro using tissue homogenate binding and autoradiographic mapping. [3H]-DASB, a tritiated version of the widely used [11C] positron emission tomography tracer, was found to selectively bind to a single population of sites with high affinity (K d=0.20±0.04 nM). The serotonin transporter density (B max) obtained for rhesus frontal cortex was found to be 66±8 fmol/mg protein using [3H]-DASB, similar to the B max value obtained using the reference radioligand [3H]-citalopram, a well-characterized and highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (83±22 fmol/mg protein). Specific binding sites of both [3H]-DASB and [3H]-citalopram were similarly and nonuniformly distributed throughout the rhesus central nervous system, in a pattern consistent with serotonin transporter localization reported for human brain. Regional serotonin transporter densities, estimated from optical densities of the autoradiographic images, were well correlated between the two radioligands. Finally, DASB and fluoxetine showed dose-dependent full inhibition of [3H]-citalopram binding in a competition autoradiographic study, with K i values in close agreement with those obtained from rhesus brain homogenates. This side-by-side comparison of [3H]-DASB and [3H]-citalopram binding sites in rhesus tissue homogenates and in adjacent rhesus brain slices provides additional support for the use of [11C]-DASB to assess the availability and distribution of serotonin transporters in nonhuman primates

  13. Topiramate plus citalopram in the treatment of Compulsive-Impulsive Sexual Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Dell'Osso Bernardo; Marazziti Donatella

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Compulsive-Impulsive Sexual Behaviors (C-ISBs) include repetitive sexual acts and compulsive sexual thoughts which occur so frequently and with such intensity that they interfere with sexual intimacy and interpersonal and occupational functioning and whose categorization and effective treatments are still unclear. We report the case of a patient affected by C-ISBs and bipolar disorder of type II who improved dramatically after three months' addition of topiramate to citalopram. Topir...

  14. Enhanced Antidepressant-Like Effects of Electroacupuncture Combined with Citalopram in a Rat Model of Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jian; Pei, Yu; Pan, Yan-Li; Jia, Jun; Shi, Chen; Yu, Yan; Deng, Jia-Hui; Li, Bo; Gong, Xiao-Li; Wang,Xuan; Xiao-min WANG; Ma, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Currently, antidepressants are the dominative treatment for depression, but they have limitations in efficacy and may even produce troublesome side effects. Electroacupuncture (EA) has been reported to have therapeutic benefits in the treatment of depressive disorders. The present study was conducted to determine whether EA could enhance the antidepressant efficacy of a low dose of citalopram (an SSRI antidepressant) in the chronic unpredictable stress-induced depression model rats. Here, we ...

  15. A controlled crossover study of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram in irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Tack, Jan; Broekaert, Dorine; Fischler, Benjamin; Oudenhove, Lukas Van; Gevers, Anne-Marie; Janssens, Jozef

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are frequently used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) although evidence of their efficacy is scarce. AIM: Twenty three non-depressed IBS patients were recruited from a tertiary care centre and included in a crossover trial comparing six weeks of treatment with the SSRI citalopram (20 mg for three weeks, 40 mg for three weeks) with placebo. IBS symptom severity was the primary outcome measure, and depression and anx...

  16. Differential effects of acute and repeated citalopram in mouse models of anxiety and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Mombereau, Cedric; Gur, Tamar L.; Onksen, Jennifer; Blendy, Julie A

    2009-01-01

    Clinically, SSRIs are widely prescribed in the treatment of several anxiety disorders, though very few pre-clinical studies have observed a beneficial effect of this class of drugs in animal models of anxiety. Furthermore, the biphasic pattern observed clinically, an exacerbation of anxiety followed by beneficial effects, is rarely observed in animal studies. In the present study we document this clinical phenomenon in several behavioral paradigms. While a single injection of citalopram induc...

  17. The serotonin transporter in rhesus monkey brain: comparison of DASB and citalopram binding sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Zhizhen [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States)]. E-mail: zhizhen_zeng@merck.com; Chen, T.-B. [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Miller, Patricia J. [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Dean, Dennis [Labeled Compound Synthesis Group, Drug Metabolism, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065-0900 (United States); Tang, Y.S. [Labeled Compound Synthesis Group, Drug Metabolism, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065-0900 (United States); Sur, Cyrille [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Williams, David L. [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    We have characterized the interaction of the serotonin transporter ligand [{sup 3}H]-N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-cyanophenylthio)-benzylamine (DASB) with rhesus monkey brain in vitro using tissue homogenate binding and autoradiographic mapping. [{sup 3}H]-DASB, a tritiated version of the widely used [{sup 11}C] positron emission tomography tracer, was found to selectively bind to a single population of sites with high affinity (K {sub d}=0.20{+-}0.04 nM). The serotonin transporter density (B {sub max}) obtained for rhesus frontal cortex was found to be 66{+-}8 fmol/mg protein using [{sup 3}H]-DASB, similar to the B {sub max} value obtained using the reference radioligand [{sup 3}H]-citalopram, a well-characterized and highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (83{+-}22 fmol/mg protein). Specific binding sites of both [{sup 3}H]-DASB and [{sup 3}H]-citalopram were similarly and nonuniformly distributed throughout the rhesus central nervous system, in a pattern consistent with serotonin transporter localization reported for human brain. Regional serotonin transporter densities, estimated from optical densities of the autoradiographic images, were well correlated between the two radioligands. Finally, DASB and fluoxetine showed dose-dependent full inhibition of [{sup 3}H]-citalopram binding in a competition autoradiographic study, with K {sub i} values in close agreement with those obtained from rhesus brain homogenates. This side-by-side comparison of [{sup 3}H]-DASB and [{sup 3}H]-citalopram binding sites in rhesus tissue homogenates and in adjacent rhesus brain slices provides additional support for the use of [{sup 11}C]-DASB to assess the availability and distribution of serotonin transporters in nonhuman primates.

  18. Effect of the coadministration of citalopram with mirtazapine or atipamezole on rat contextual conditioned fear

    OpenAIRE

    MASUDA, TAKAHIRO; Inoue, Takeshi; An, Yan; Takamura, Naoki; Nakagawa, Shin; Kitaichi, Yuji; Koyama, Tsukasa; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mirtazapine, a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant, which blocks the alpha(2)-adrenergic autoreceptors and heteroreceptors, has shown anxiolytic properties in clinical trials and preclinical animal experiments. The addition of mirtazapine to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is clinically suggested to be more effective for anxiety disorders. In this study, we examined the combined effects of mirtazapine and citalopram, an SSRI, on the freezing beha...

  19. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of venlafaxine compared with citalopram in generalized anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jingjing; XU, HONGBING; Chen, Zhiqing

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacoeconomic evaluation aims to investigate the selection and use of drugs to make patient medication efficient, safe and economical. In this study, a pharmacoeconomic evaluation was performed to assess two treatments for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). A total of 100 outpatients with GAD were enrolled. The patients were divided into the following two groups according to treatment program: the venlafaxine group (n=50) and the citalopram group (n=50). The patients in the venlafaxine gr...

  20. Citalopram Enhances Neurovascular Regeneration and Sensorimotor Functional Recovery after Ischemic Stroke in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Espinera, Alyssa R.; Ogle, Molly E.; Gu, Xiaohuan; WEI, LING

    2013-01-01

    Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) after stroke enhances motor functional recovery; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be further elucidated. We hypothesized that daily administration of the clinical drug citalopram would produce these functional benefits via enhancing neurovascular repair in the ischemic peri-infarct region. To test this hypothesis, focal ischemic stroke was induced in male C57/B6 mice by per...

  1. 西酞普兰合成路线图解%Graphical Synthetic Routes of Citalopram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余红霞; 郭峰

    2003-01-01

    @@ 西酞普兰(citalopram,1)[1],化学名为1-[3-(二甲氨基)丙基]-1-(4-氟苯基)-1,3-二氢异苯并呋喃-5-腈,系一种高效的选择性格-羟色胺再吸收抑制剂,为第二代抗抑郁药.

  2. The Effects of Lavandula Angustifolia Mill Infusion on Depression in Patients Using Citalopram: A comparison Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nikfarjam, Masoud; Parvin, Neda; Assarzadegan, Naziheh; Asghari, Shabnam

    2013-01-01

    Background Many herbs have been used to treat psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression in traditional medicine. Objectives This study was carried out to determine the effect of using Lavandula angustifilia infusion on depression in patients taking Citalopram. Patients and Methods Among all patients referred to the Hajar Hospital psychiatric clinic, Shahrekord, Iran, 80 patients who met the criteria of major depression according to the structured interviews and the Hamilton quest...

  3. Pharmacokinetic genes do not influence response or tolerance to citalopram in the STAR*D sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Peters

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We sought to determine whether clinical response or tolerance to the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI citalopram is associated with genetic polymorphisms in potentially relevant pharmacokinetic enzymes. METHODOLOGY: We used a two-stage case-control study design in which we split the sample of 1,953 subjects from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D trial into a discovery (n = 831 and validation set (n = 1,046. Fifteen polymorphisms from five (CYP2D6, ABCB1, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 pharmacokinetic genes were genotyped. We examined the associations between these polymorphisms and citalopram response and tolerance. Significant associations were validated in the second stage for those polymorphism found to be statistically significant in the first stage. CONCLUSIONS: No genetic polymorphism in the pharmacokinetic genes examined was significantly associated with our response or tolerance phenotypes in both stages. For managing pharmacological treatment with citalopram, routine screening of the common pharmacokinetic DNA variants that we examined appears to be of limited clinical utility.

  4. Serotonin Transporter Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR and Citalopram Effectiveness in Iranian Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Sahraian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Several studies have implicated the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in treatment outcomes of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors in patients with major depression. The aim of this study was to examine the association between polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene and citalopram effectiveness in Iranian patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD.Methods:The sample consisted of 104 patients, with Fars ethnic background, who were diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Beck Depression inventory was used to evaluate the severity of the symptoms during the follow-up, and to determine clinical response of the patients at 4th and 8th week, respectively.Results:Our results showed a correlation between the genotype and response to antidepressant drug citalopram, (odds ratios for L/S and L/L were 3.90 (95 percent CI: 1.29- 11.80 and 1.90 (95 percent CI: 0.72-5.08, respectively.Conclusion:In conclusion, our results reveal that genetic variation of serotonin transporter is involved in clinical remission of major depressive episodes in Iranian patients after citalopram treatment.

  5. The serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram suppresses activity in the neonatal rat barrel cortex in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetshina, Dinara; Zakharov, Andrei; Vinokurova, Daria; Nasretdinov, Azat; Valeeva, Guzel; Khazipov, Roustem

    2016-06-01

    Inhibition of serotonin uptake, which causes an increase in extracellular serotonin levels, disrupts the development of thalamocortical barrel maps in neonatal rodents. Previous in vitro studies have suggested that the disruptive effect of excessive serotonin on barrel map formation involves a depression at thalamocortical synapses. However, the effects of serotonin uptake inhibitors on the early thalamocortical activity patterns in the developing barrel cortex in vivo remain largely unknown. Here, using extracellular recordings of the local field potentials and multiple unit activity (MUA) we explored the effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram (10-20mg/kg, intraperitoneally) on sensory evoked activity in the barrel cortex of neonatal (postnatal days P2-5) rats in vivo. We show that administration of citalopram suppresses the amplitude and prolongs the delay of the sensory evoked potentials, reduces the power and frequency of the early gamma oscillations, and suppresses sensory evoked and spontaneous neuronal firing. In the adolescent P21-29 animals, citalopram affected neither sensory evoked nor spontaneous activity in barrel cortex. We suggest that suppression of the early thalamocortical activity patterns contributes to the disruption of the barrel map development caused by SSRIs and other conditions elevating extracellular serotonin levels. PMID:27016034

  6. Low-dose intravenous lipid emulsion for the treatment of severe quetiapine and citalopram poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purg, Darinka; Markota, Andrej; Grenc, Damjan; Sinkovič, Andreja

    2016-06-01

    The treatment of quetiapine and/or citalopram poisoning is mainly supportive and involves gastric lavage, activated charcoal, intubation, and mechanical ventilation. Recently, however, there were reports of successful treatment with intravenous lipid emulsion. Here we report a case of a 19-year-old Caucasian girl who ingested approximately 6000 mg of quetiapine, 400 mg of citalopram, and 45 mg of bromazepam in a suicide attempt. The patient developed ventricular tachycardia and epileptic seizures 12 h after admission to the hospital. As the patient's condition deteriorated, we combined standard therapy (intubation, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressors) with low-dose intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) (a total of 300 mL of 20 % lipid emulsion) and normalised her heart rhythm and stopped the seizures. She was discharged to the psychiatric ward after 48 h and home after a prolonged (2-month) psychiatric rehabilitation. Intravenous lipid emulsion turned out to be effective even in the lower dose range than previously reported for quetiapine poisoning in patients presenting with seizure and ventricular arrhythmia. To our knowledge, there are no case reports describing the use of ILE in treating citalopram poisoning. PMID:27331303

  7. Synthesis of sup 11 C-labeled citalopram, a selective serotonin uptake inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram, Siya (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA). Dept. of Radiology)

    1990-01-01

    A procedure for labeling the novel serotonin uptake inhibitor, citalopram (1-(3-dimethylamino)propyl-1-(p-fluorophenyl)-5-phthalancarbonitrile, Lu 10-171 ), with the positron emitting radionuclide {sup 11}C (t{sub 1/2} = 20.4 min) has been developed, in order to permit the pharmacokinetics of this compound to be studied in man. The procedure involves the reaction of ({sup 11}C)iodomethane with desmethylcitalopram in acetone in the presence of sodium hydroxide base at 65deg for 8-10 min; this was followed by purification by a column which contained, in series silica gel and basic alumina, and produces no carrier added ({sup 11}C)citalopram in radiochemical yield (18-66% at EOB) and radiochemical purity (>95%). The specific activity of ({sup 11}C)citalopram was 2.52 x 10{sup 3}-16.06 x 10{sup 3} GBq/mmol (68-434 Ci/mmol) at the end of synthesis. (author).

  8. A Comparison of Risperidone and Buspirone for Treatment of Behavior Disorders in Children with Phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin FAYYAZI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Fayyazi A, Salari E, Khajeh A, Ghajarpour A. A Comparison of Risperidone and Buspirone for Treatment ofBehavior Disorders in Children with Phenylketonuria. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Autumn; 8(4:33-38.AbstractObjectiveMany patients with late-diagnosed phenylketonuria (PKU suffer from severe behavior problems. This study compares the effects of buspirone and risperidone on reducing behavior disorders in these patients.Materials & MethodsIn this crossover clinical trial study, patients with severe behavior disorders after medical examination were randomly divided into two groups of two 8-week crossover treatments with risperidone or buspirone. Patient behavioral disorders before and after treatment by each drug was rated by parents on the Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form (NCBRF, and after treatment by each drug, were assessed by a physician through clinical global impression (CGI.ResultsThirteen patients were able to complete the therapy period with these two medications.The most common psychiatric diagnoses were intellectual disability accompanied by pervasive developmental disorder NOS, and intellectual disability accompanied by autistic disorder. Risperidone was significantly effective in reducing the NCBRF subscales of hyperactivity disruptive/ stereotypic, and conduct problems. Treatment by buspirone only significantly decreased the severity of hyperactivity, but other behavior aspects showed no significant differences. Assessment of the severity of behavior disorder after treatment by risperidone and buspirone showed significant differences in reducing hyperactivity and masochistic/stereotype.ConclusionAlthough buspirone is effective in controlling hyperactivity in patients with PKU, it has no preference over risperidone. Therefore, it is recommended as an alternative to risperidone.ReferencesSmith I, Nowles JK. Behaviour in early treated phenylketonuria: a systematic review. Eur J Pediatr 2000;159:89-93.Targum SD

  9. Risperidone-induced weight gain is mediated through shifts in the gut microbiome and suppression of energy expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Bahr

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Risperidone is a second-generation antipsychotic that causes weight gain. We hypothesized that risperidone-induced shifts in the gut microbiome are mechanistically involved in its metabolic consequences. Wild-type female C57BL/6J mice treated with risperidone (80 μg/day exhibited significant excess weight gain, due to reduced energy expenditure, which correlated with an altered gut microbiome. Fecal transplant from risperidone-treated mice caused a 16% reduction in total resting metabolic rate in naïve recipients, attributable to suppression of non-aerobic metabolism. Risperidone inhibited growth of cultured fecal bacteria grown anaerobically more than those grown aerobically. Finally, transplant of the fecal phage fraction from risperidone-treated mice was sufficient to cause excess weight gain in naïve recipients, again through reduced energy expenditure. Collectively, these data highlight a major role for the gut microbiome in weight gain following chronic use of risperidone, and specifically implicates the modulation of non-aerobic resting metabolism in this mechanism.

  10. Combination of Citalopram and Nortriptyline in Treatment of Moderate to Severe Major Depression: A Double-blind, Placebo- controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Depression is a major health problem, which is not only underrecognized and undertreated, but is also associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It has been suggested that combination therapy rapidly reduces depressive symptoms in patients with moderate to severe depression and is more effective than monotherapy; but this suggestion remains controversial. Serotonergic and noradrenergic enhancement may be synergistic and more effective than serotonergic enhancement alone in the management of depression. The objective of this double blind, placebo-controlled study was to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of the combination of citalopram and nortriptyline for the treatment of moderate to severe major depression. Method: 45 patients, who met the DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder based on the clinical interview, were included in the study. Patients had a baseline Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score of at least 20. In this trial, patients were randomly assigned to receive nortriptyline 50 mg/day plus citalopram 40 mg/day (group1 or placebo plus citalopram 40 mg/day (group2, for an 8 week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Results: Both protocols significantly decreased the score of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale over the trial period, but the combination of nortriptyline and citalopram showed a significant superiority over citalopram alone in the treatment of moderate to severe major depressive disorder (t = 3.34, d.f. = 36, P = 0.001. The difference between the two groups in the frequency of side effects was not significant. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that combination of nortriptyline and citalopram is more effective than citalopram alone in the treatment of depression. This advantage is probably the result of reuptake inhibition of both serotonin and norepinephrine

  11. Citalopram, depression and pseudo dementia: A neuropsychological case study Citalopram, depressão e pseudodemência: um estudo neuropsicológico de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Mattos

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The author presents a case of (depressive pseudo dementia, commenting on the clinical and neuropsychological findings before and after the use of citalopram, a serotoninergic anti depressive drug. The case portrays the current criticism about the old dichotomy between non-reversible ("functional" and reversible ("organic" dementia. The 73 year old woman initially diagnosed as pseudo demented showed some mild cognitive deterioration in neuropsychological evaluation after the improvement of her depressive symptoms. Some reasons for the divergent findings on pseudo dementia prognosis in the literature are proposed.O autor apresenta um caso de pseudodemência depressiva, tecendo comentários sobre os achados clínicos e neuropsicológicos antes e depois do uso de citalopram, um agente serotoninérgico. O caso apresentado ilustra as críticas atuais acerca da antiga dicotomia entre demências reversíveis ("funcionais" e não-reversíveis ("orgânicas". A paciente de 73 anos inicialmente diagnosticada como pseudodemente demonstrou algum grau de deterioração cognitiva em testes neuropsicológicos após a melhora dos sintomas depressivos. São sugeridas algumas razões para os achados divergentes com relação ao prognóstico da pseudodemência encontrados na literatura.

  12. A pharmaco-economic analysis of patients with schizophrenia switching to generic risperidone involving a possible compliance loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Möller Hans-Jürgen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As schizophrenia patients are typically suspicious of, or are hostile to changes they may be reluctant to accept generic substitution, possibly affecting compliance. This may counteract drug costs savings due to less symptom control and increased hospitalization risk. Although compliance losses following generic substitution have not been quantified so far, one can estimate the possible health-economic consequences. The current study aims to do so by considering the case of risperidone in Germany. Methods An existing DES model was adapted to compare staying on branded risperidone with generic substitution. Differences include the probability of non-compliance and medication costs. Incremental probability of non-compliance after generic substitution was varied between 2.5% and 10%, while generic medication costs were assumed to be 40% lower. Effect of medication price was assessed as well as the effect of applying compliance losses to all treatment settings. The probability of staying on branded risperidone being cost-effective was calculated for various outcomes of a hypothetical study that would investigate non-compliance following generic substitution of risperidone. Results If the incremental probability of non-compliance after generic substitution is 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10% respectively, incremental effects of staying on branded risperidone are 0.004, 0.007, 0.011 and 0.015 Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs. Incremental costs are €757, €343, -€123 and -€554 respectively. Benefits of staying on branded risperidone include improved symptom control and fewer hospitalizations. If generic substitution results in a 5.2% higher probability of non-compliance, the model predicts staying on branded risperidone to be cost-effective (NICE threshold of ₤30,000 per QALY gained. Compliance losses of more than 6.9% makes branded risperidone the dominant alternative. Results are sensitive to the locations at which compliance

  13. Priapism associated with risperidone: a case report, literature review and review of the South London and Maudsley hospital patients’ database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paklet, Lise; Olajide, Dele

    2013-01-01

    Priapism is a urological emergency defined as persistent penile erection that is unrelated to sexual stimulation and typically involving only the corporal cavernosa. It can occur as a rare side effect of antipsychotic medications and is mediated via their α-adrenergic antagonist effect. In this paper we describe a case of priapism in a patient started on risperidone and sodium valproate. We also review the South London and Maudsley Case Register Interactive Search database to assess how many other cases of priapism were reported in patients taking risperidone. We add this information to a literature review of cases of priapism associated with risperidone. PMID:23983987

  14. Sustained release of risperidone from biodegradable microspheres prepared by in-situ suspension-evaporation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Taekun; Choi, Juhyuen; Kim, Aram; Lee, Jin Ho; Nam, Yoonjin; Park, Junsung; Sun, Bo Kyung; Suh, Hearan; Kim, Cherng-Ju; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2016-04-30

    Risperidone-loaded poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres were prepared with a suspension-evaporation process with an aqueous suspension containing an in situ-formed aluminum hydroxide inorganic gel (SEP-AL process) and evaluated for encapsulation efficiency, particle size, surface morphology, glass transition temperature, in vitro drug release profile, and in vivo behavior. The SEP-AL microspheres were compared with conventional oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion solvent evaporation method using polyvinylalcohol (PVA) as an emulsifier (CP-PVA process). The microspheres were spherical in shape. DSC measurements showed that risperidone crystallinity was greatly reduced due to the homogeneous distribution of risperidone in PLGA microspheres. In vitro drug release profile from the microspheres showed a sigmoidal pattern of negligible initial burst up to 24h and minimal release (time-lag) for 7days. After the lag phase, slow release took a place up to 25days and then rapid release occurred sharply for 1 week. In vivo rat pharmacokinetic profile from the microspheres showed very low blood concentration level at the initial phase (up to 24h) followed by the latent phase up to 21days. At the 3rd week, main phase started and the blood concentration of the drug increased up to the 5th week, and then gradually decreased. The risperidone-loaded PLGA microspheres produced by SEP-AL process showed excellent controlled release characteristics for the effective treatment of schizophrenia patients. PMID:26899975

  15. POST MARKETING SURVEILLANCE STUDY ON RISPERIDONE IN PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J R Zaveri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the commonest psychiatric ailments. It has been estimated that approximately 1% of the population and 15% of the adults suffers from this disease. Risperidone, atypical antipsychotic, acts mainly by 5HT2 blockade action. Produce virtually no extra pyramidal side effects at low dose, has a broad efficacy. But extra pyramidal dysfunction can appear at higher doses. We conducted a post marketing surveillance study on risperidone in 40 patients suffering from schizophrenia at Psychiatric department of Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad. In this study we specially studied its efficacy and safety. The results of this study are consistent with phase III clinical studies on risperidone carried out in Indian patients except its effects on food intake. As far as the efficacy of risperidone in patient with schizophrenia is concerned, it provided good symptomatic relief In term of safety, 7 patients out of 40, experience adverse effects like decrease appetite, constipation, insomnia, EPS and NMS. Patient with NMS was admitted in hospital and was died later on. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 34-36

  16. Dystonia in an Adolescent on Risperidone Following the Discontinuation of Methylphenidate: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Guler, Gulen; Yildirim, Veli; Kutuk, Meryem Ozlem; Fevziye TOROS

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with common comorbidities that include oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, anxiety disorder, and affective disorders. Because of these comorbidities, drug combination treatments and drug-drug interactions are becoming increasingly more frequent. The present case report describes an acute dystonic reaction following the abrupt discontinuation of methylphenidate from a drug regimen with risperidone. Th...

  17. Switching to quetiapine for risperidone-induced amenorrhea: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P K Pardal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost all the antipsychotics can cause hyperprolactinemia-related side-effects like amenorrhea. Quetiapine has been reported to have minimal propensity to cause hyperprolactinemia. We report here two cases of risperidone-induced amenorrhea, who resumed their normal cycle on switching over the medication to quetiapine.

  18. Switching to quetiapine for risperidone-induced amenorrhea: Report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Pardal, P. K.; Raaj Konwar; Jyoti Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Almost all the antipsychotics can cause hyperprolactinemia-related side-effects like amenorrhea. Quetiapine has been reported to have minimal propensity to cause hyperprolactinemia. We report here two cases of risperidone-induced amenorrhea, who resumed their normal cycle on switching over the medication to quetiapine.

  19. Risperidone treatment for ADHD in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Biederman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Biederman, Paul Hammerness, Robert Doyle, Gagan Joshi, Megan Aleardi, Eric MickPediatric Psychopharmacology Research Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USAObjective: Children and adolescents with bipolar disorder are also at high risk of having comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The objective of this study was to estimate improvement in ADHD symptoms in children with bipolar disorder.Methods: This was an open-label, study of risperidone monotherapy for the treatment of pediatric bipolar disorder. Thirty-one children and adolescents 4–15 years of age (7.2 ± 2.8 years of both sexes (71%, N = 22 male with pediatric bipolar disorder (YMRS score = 32.9 ± 8.8 and ADHD (ADHD-RS score = 37.9 ± 8.9 were included in these analyses.Results: Improvement in ADHD symptoms was contingent on improvement in manic symptoms. Although both hyperactive/impulsive (−7.5 ± 5.5.6, p < 0.05 and inattentive (−6.8 ± 5.0, p < 0.05 ADHD symptoms were significantly improved with risperidone, improvement was modest, and only 29% of subjects (N = 6 showed a 30% reduction in ADHD rating scale scores and had a CGI-I ≤ 2.Conclusions: These results suggest that that treatment with risperidone is associated with tangible but generally modest improvement of symptoms of ADHD in children with bipolar disorder.Keywords: ADHD, bipolar disorder, children, risperidone

  20. Sexual dysfunction and hormonal changes in first episode psychosis patients on olanzapine or risperidone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Bruggen; T. van Amelsvoort; L. Wouters; P. Dingemans; L. de Haan; D. Linszen

    2009-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotics interfere with central and peripheral neurotransmitter systems and with hormonal production. In this study we compared the effect of olanzapine and risperidone on hormonal state and sexual function (by using the Questionnaire for Sexual Dysfunction, QSD) in 40 patients with a

  1. Synergistic Effects of Citalopram and Morphine in the Renal Colic Pain Relief; a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Esmailian

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the synergistic effects of opioids and other analgesic drugs such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs have been established in relieving acute pain due to renal calculi, no studies today have evaluated the concomitant administration of opiates and other drugs with analgesic effects, such as serotonin re-uptake inhibitors. Considering the high prevalence of renal colic, the present study was carried out to compare the effect of concomitant prescription of morphine and a placebo with that of morphine and citalopram on the management of acute pain due to renal calculi. Methods: The present double-blind randomized clinical trial was carried out from October 2012 to March 2013 in the Al-Zahra educational Hospital in Isfahan, Iran. A total of 90 patients with acute renal colic pain were randomly divided into two groups of 45 subjects. The subjects in one group received morphine/ placebo and another one morphine/citalopram. The patients’ pain severity was determined by visual analogue scale (VAS before and 20 minutes after administration of medications. In case of persistent pain the second or even third dose was administered and the pain severity was once again determined. Data were analyzed with STATA 11.0 using chi-squared, two-way ANOVA, Bonferroni post hoc test, and log rank test. Results: The decrease in pain severity in the morphine/citalopram group was significantly compared to the morphine/placebo group and the time before administration of the medications (p<0.001. In contrast, administration of morphine/placebo did not have a significant effect on pain severity at this interval (p=0.32. Kaplan-Meier curve showed that the first injection was successful in relieving pain in 15 (33.3% and 26 (57.8% subjects in the morphine/placebo and morphine/citalopram groups, respectively. The second injection of these medications resulted in therapeutic success in 35 (87.8% and 42 (95.6% subjects in the above groups

  2. Risperidone in Children and Adolescents with Conduct Disorder: A Single-Center, Open-Label Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Eyüp Sabri; Kutlu, Ayşe; Çıkoğlu, Sibel; Veznedaroğlu, Baybars; Erermiş, Serpil; Varan, Azmi

    2003-01-01

    Background: Risperidone is one of the most commonly used atypical antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of children and adolescents. However, the data about its use in children and adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) are limited. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and tolerability of risperidone in controlling major symptoms of CD in children and adolescents diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and severe CD. Methods: Children and adolescents were eligible for this single-center, open-label study if they met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for ADHD and ODD and also were diagnosed with severe CD. The patients were treated with risperidone in an open-label fashion for 8 weeks, starting at a daily dosage of 0.25 mg or 0.5 mg (depending on their body weight) in 2 divided doses. Results: The study population comprised 21 children and adolescents (17 boys, 4 girls) with a mean (SD) age of 10.8 (3.6) years. The mean (SD) dosage of risperidone at the end of 8 weeks of treatment was 1.27 (0.42) mg/d (range, 0.75–2.0 mg/d). On the basis of the global improvement subscale of the Clinical Global Impression scale, 16 of 20 patients (80%) were classified as responders. Significant improvements were observed after risperidone treatment in the inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, ODD, and CD subscales of the Turgay DSM-IV–Based Child and Adolescent Behavior Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (parent and teacher forms). No severe adverse events were reported. Conclusions: The results of this study are consistent with previous findings and suggest that risperidone may be an effective and well-tolerated atypical antipsychotic drug for the treatment of children and adolescents with CD. However, further studies, particularly placebo-controlled and double-blinded, are needed to better define the clinical use

  3. Spectrofluorimetric method for quantification of citalopram in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids through oxidation with Ce(IV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jasmin; Jan, M. Rasul; Khan, M. Naeem; Inayatullah

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive and simple spectrofluorimetric method for the quantification of citalopram in a pure form, in pharmaceutical preparations, and in human blood plasma and urine has been described. The proposed method was based on the oxidation of citalopram by Ce(IV) in acidic media to produce fluorescent Ce(III), and on the subsequent measurement of its fluorescence intensity at 353 nm after excitation at 252 nm. All variables affecting the oxidation of citalopram such as Ce(IV) concentration, the type and concentration of acid, temperature and heating time were studied and optimized. Under the optimized experimental conditions the linear range of concentration versus fluorescence intensity was found to lie between 0.02 and 1.4 g/ml. Limits of detection and quantification were determined to be 6.9·10-3 g/ml and 2.3·10-2 g/ml respectively. Effects of excipients commonly used in the quantification of citalopram have been studied and no interferences were found. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine citalopram in pure form, in pharmaceutical preparations, and in biological fluids. Good recoveries in the ranges of 95.31-101.67%, 88.50-96.67%, and 90.0-96.67% were obtained for the pharmaceutical preparations (tablets), blood plasma, and human urine respectively.

  4. Clinical toxicology of citalopram after acute intoxication with the sole drug or in combination with other drugs : overview of 26 cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimmink, Afra; Caminada, Klaartje; Hunfeld, Nicole G M; Touw, Daan J

    2008-01-01

    There is discussion concerning the cardiac safety of citalopram in an overdose. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects and toxicokinetic parameters of citalopram in an overdose as a single drug and in combination with other drugs. Cases observed between 1997 and 2006 were evaluat

  5. Quality of Life and Hormonal, Biochemical, and Anthropometric Profile Between Olanzapine and Risperidone Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Aurigena Antunes; Ribeiro, Susana Barbosa; Dos Santos, Ana Cely Souza; Lemos, Telma Maria Araújo Moura; Medeiros, Caroline Addison Xavier; Guerra, Gerlane Coelho Bernardo; de Araújo Júnior, Raimundo Fernandes; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Rubio-Valera, Maria

    2016-06-01

    This cross-sectional study compared quality of life and side effects in 108 users of olanzapine or risperidone suffering schizophrenia and being attended at psychiatric ambulatory services in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Economic, socio-demographic, anthropometric, biochemical, and hormonal variables were compared. The EuroQoL Five-Dimension Scale (EQ-5D) was used to evaluate quality of life, and side effects were assessed using the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser (UKU) Side Effect Rating Scale and the Simpson-Angus Scale. Data were analysed using the χ(2) test and Student's t test, with a significance level of 5 %.The household incomes of approximately 80 % of patients were <2.0 minimum wages ($678). Anthropometric variables (waist circumference, hip circumference, weight, waist-to-hip ratio) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were noted among male olanzapine users (all p < 0.05). EQ-5D scores showed that olanzapine use significantly impacted self-help ability (p < 0.001). Risperidone users had a mean quality-adjusted life year value of 1. Mean total Simpson-Angus Scale scores was 0.38 for olanzapine users and 0.11 for risperidone users (p < 0.02). Significant differences in UKU were observed for the following items: asthenia/lassitude/fatigue (higher among olanzapine users, p = 0.02), dystonia (higher among olanzapine users, p = 0.01), tremors (higher among olanzapine users, p = 0.03), gynecomastia (higher among risperidone users, p < 0.02), and ejaculatory dysfunction (higher among risperidone users, p < 0.02). Olanzapine users had impaired quality of life, which can be explained in part by adverse motor, biochemical, and hormonal effects characteristic of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26220635

  6. Trabecular bone loss after administration of the second-generation antipsychotic risperidone is independent of weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyl, Katherine J; Dick-de-Paula, Ingrid; Maloney, Ann E; Lotinun, Sutada; Bornstein, Sheila; de Paula, Francisco J A; Baron, Roland; Houseknecht, Karen L; Rosen, Clifford J

    2012-02-01

    Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have been linked to metabolic and bone disorders in clinical studies, but the mechanisms of these side effects remain unclear. Additionally, no studies have examined whether SGAs cause bone loss in mice. Using in vivo and in vitro modeling we examined the effects of risperidone, the most commonly prescribed SGA, on bone in C57BL6/J (B6) mice. Mice were treated with risperidone orally by food supplementation at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg daily for 5 and 8 weeks, starting at 3.5 weeks of age. Risperidone reduced trabecular BV/TV, trabecular number and percent cortical area. Trabecular histomorphometry demonstrated increased resorption parameters, with no change in osteoblast number or function. Risperidone also altered adipose tissue distribution such that white adipose tissue mass was reduced and liver had significantly higher lipid infiltration. Next, in order to tightly control risperidone exposure, we administered risperidone by chronic subcutaneous infusion with osmotic minipumps (0.5 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks) in 7 week old female B6 mice. Similar trabecular and cortical bone differences were observed compared to the orally treated groups (reduced trabecular BV/TV, and connectivity density, and reduced percent cortical area) with no change in body mass, percent body fat, glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity. Unlike in orally treated mice, risperidone infusion reduced bone formation parameters (serum P1NP, MAR and BFR/BV). Resorption parameters were elevated, but this increase did not reach statistical significance. To determine if risperidone could directly affect bone cells, primary bone marrow cells were cultured with osteoclast or osteoblast differentiation media. Risperidone was added to culture medium in clinically relevant doses of 0, 2.5 or 25 ng/ml. The number of osteoclasts was significantly increased by addition in vitro of risperidone while osteoblast differentiation was not altered. These studies indicate that

  7. [18F]altanserin binding to human 5HT2A receptors is unaltered after citalopram and pindolol challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, L. H.; Adams, K. H.; Yndsgaard, S;

    2004-01-01

    /infusion approach designed for attaining steady state in blood and brain 2 hours after the initial [18F]altanserin administration. Three hours after commencement of radiotracer administration, 0.25 mg/kg of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, citalopram (Lundbeck, Valby, Denmark), was administered to all...... condition (120 to 180 minutes) was compared with the stimulated condition (195 to 300 minutes). Despite a pronounced increase in plasma prolactin and two subjects reporting hot flushes compatible with an 5-HT-induced adverse effect, cortical [18F]altanserin binding was insensitive to the citalopram...... challenge, even after pindolol pretreatment. The biochemical and cellular events possibly affecting the unsuccessful translation of the citalopram/pindolol challenge into a change in 5-HT2A receptor binding of [18F]altanserin are discussed...

  8. Adjunctive Aripiprazole Treatment for Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia: An 8-Week Randomized, Open-Label, Comparative Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jingyuan Zhao; Xueqin Song; Xiaoqing Ai; Xiaojing Gu; Guangbiao Huang; Xue Li; Lijuan Pang; Minli Ding; Shuang Ding; Luxian Lv

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive aripiprazole treatment in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Methods One hundred and thirteen patients who were receiving a stable dose of risperidone were randomly assigned to either adjunctive aripiprazole treatment (10 mg/day) (aripiprazole group) or no additional treatment (control group) at a 1:1 ratio for 8 weeks. Schizophrenia symptoms were measured using the Positive an...

  9. Polypharmacy in the management of patients with schizophrenia on risperidone in a tertiary-care hospital in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, SA; Ibrahim, MI Mohamed; Mohammed, F.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted primarily to determine the occurrence of polypharmacy in patients with schizophrenia on risperidone. The secondary aim was to ascertain the incidence of inappropriate prescribing with anticholinergics. A retrospective review of the medical records of all patients who were being followed up at the out-patient clinic of a tertiary-care hospital in Malaysia was conducted. Only patients who were being prescribed risperidone between 1 June 2008 and 31 December 2008 ...

  10. Use of a Direct Observational Measure in a Trial of Risperidone and Parent Training in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    HANDEN, BENJAMIN L.; JOHNSON, CYNTHIA R.; Butter, Eric M.; LECAVALIER, LUC; SCAHILL, LAWRENCE; Aman, Michael G; McDougle, Christopher J.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Mulick, James A.; White, Susan W.; Bearss, Karen; Hollway, Jill A.; Stigler, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    A Structured Observational Analog Procedure (SOAP), an analogue measure of parent-child interactions, was used to assess treatment outcome in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and serious behavior problems. It served as a secondary outcome measure in a 24-week, randomized trial of risperidone (MED; N=49) versus risperidone plus parent training (COMB; n=75) (ages 4–13 years). At 24-weeks, there was 28 % reduction in child inappropriate behavior during a Demand Condition (p=.0002) and 12 %...

  11. Efficacy of an Eight Week Trial of Imipramine and Citalopram in Patients with Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Abbasi-Asl; Abbas Alimadadi; Hasan Khoonsari; Hossein Khalili; Padideh Ghaeli; Mohammad Sanatti; Mahdiyeh Moin; Mansoor Rastegarpanah

    2008-01-01

    "n "nObjective: Mixed anxiety-depressive disorder (MADD) is a condition in which patients have both anxiety and depressive symptoms but do not meet the diagnostic criteria for either an anxiety disorder or a mood disorder. "nThe aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of imipramine and citalopram in the treatment of MADD. "n "nMethods: Fifty one outpatients aged 18 to 55 who were diagnosed with MADD were randomly assigned to receive citalopram or imipramine for 8 weeks. Patients were as...

  12. Changes in prolactin levels and sexual functioning after switching from long-acting injectable risperidone to paliperidone palmitate in young psychotic patients: a case series

    OpenAIRE

    Itziar Montalvo; Laura Ortega; Xavi López; Montse Solé; Rosa Monseny; Joan Franch; Javier Labad

    2012-01-01

    Statement of the problem : Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics have been developed to increase compliance in schizophrenia. Risperidone-LAI was the first LAI atypical antipsychotic, as a biweekly injection. Paliperidone Palmitate (PP) is a recently developed LAI atypical antipsychotic that is administered monthly. PP is hydrolized to paliperidone (9-hydroxyrisperidone), the primary active metabolite of risperidone. Although both risperidone and paliperidone are associated with increas...

  13. Risperidone in the treatment of conduct disorder in preschool children without intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durak Sibel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition Textrevision highlights the especially poor outcomes of early-onset conduct disorder (CD. The strong link between the patient's age at treatment and its efficacy points the importance of early intervention. Risperidone is one of the most commonly studied medications used to treat CD in children and adolescents. The aim of this study is to obtain preliminary data about the efficacy and tolerability of risperidone treatment in otherwise typically developing preschool children with conduct disorder and severe behavioral problems. Method We recruited 12 otherwise normally developing preschoolers (ten boys and two girls with CD for this study. We could not follow up with 4 children at control visits properly; thus, 8 children (six girls, two boys; mean age: 42.4 months completed the study. We treated the patients with risperidone in an open-label fashion for 8 weeks, starting with a daily dosage of 0.125 mg/day or 0.25 mg/day depending on the patient's weight (20 kg children: 0.25 mg/day. Dosage titration and increments were performed at 2-week interval clinical assessments. The Turgay DSM-IV Based Disruptive Behavior Disorders Child and Adolescent Rating & Screening Scale (T-DSM-IV-S as well as the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI assessed treatment efficacy; the Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS and laboratory evaluations assessed treatment safety. Results The mean daily dosage of risperidone at the end of 8 weeks was 0.78 mg/day (SD: 0.39 with a maximum dosage of 1.50 mg/day. Based on the CGI global improvement item, we classified all patients as "responders" (very much or much improved. Risperidone was associated with a 78% reduction in the CGI Severity score. We also detected significant improvements on all of the subscales of the T-DSM-IV-S. Tolerability was good, and serious adverse effects were not observed. We detected

  14. Ionophore-Based Potentiometric Sensors for the Flow-Injection Determination of Promethazine Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Formulations and Human Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suad Mustafa Al-Araji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasticised poly(vinyl chloride-based membranes containing the ionophores (α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins (CD, dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6 and dibenzo-30-crown-10 (DB30C10 were evaluated for their potentiometric response towards promethazine (PM in a flow injection analysis (FIA set-up. Good responses were obtained when β- and γ-CDs, and DB30C10 were used. The performance characteristics were further improved when tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl borate (KTPB was added to the membrane. The sensor based on β-CD, bis(2-ethylhexyl adipate (BEHA and KTPB exhibited the best performance among the eighteen sensor compositions that were tested. The response was linear from 1 x 10−5 to 1 x 10−2 M, slope was 61.3 mV decade−1, the pH independent region ranged from 4.5 to 7.0, a limit of detection of 5.3 x 10−6 M was possible and a lifetime of more than a month was observed when used in the FIA system. Other plasticisers such as dioctyl phenylphosphonate and tributyl phosphate do not show significant improvements in the quality of the sensors. The promising sensors were further tested for the effects of foreign ions (Li+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Cr3+, Fe3+, glucose, fructose. FIA conditions (e.g., effects of flow rate, injection volume, pH of the carrier stream were also studied when the best sensor was used (based on β-CD. The sensor was applied to the determination of PM in four pharmaceutical preparations and human urine that were spiked with different levels of PM. Good agreement between the sensor and the manufacturer’s claimed values (for pharmaceutical preparations was obtained, while mean recoveries of 98.6% were obtained for spiked urine samples. The molecular recognition features of the sensors as revealed by molecular modelling were rationalised by the nature of the interactions and complexation energies between the host and guest molecules.

  15. On-Demand Treatment of Premature Ejaculation with Citalopram: A Randomized Double-Blind Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ghafuri Zahra; Farnia Vahid; Mohseni Mohmmad Ghasem; Raisi Firoozeh; Atharikia Davood

    2009-01-01

    "nAs the most common male sexual disorder premature ejaculation (PE), also referred to as early ejaculation (EE) or rapid ejaculation (RE), affects 30%-40% of sexually active men. Despite the limited number of available studies comparing the efficacy of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI) they have been thought to have beneficial effects for the treatment of patients with PE. In the present study, we assessed the efficacy of on-demand use of citalopram, in the treatment of pr...

  16. Combination of Citalopram and Nortriptyline in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Double – Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Raisi

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The fact that some antidepressants with strong effects on serotonin reuptake blockade fail to relieve obsessive-compulsive symptoms has caused growing interest in investigating noradrenergic function in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD . In light of the above, we undertook a trial to investigate whether the combination of citalopram with nortriptyline is more effective in treating obsessive-compulsive symptoms than citalopram alone. Method: 40 patients who met the DSM-IV criteria for OCD were included in the study. Patients were allocated in a random fashion: 20 patients to citalopram 40mg /day plus nortriptyline 50mg /day, and 20 patients to citalopram 40mg /day plus placebo. Results: Both protocols significantly decreased the scores of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS over the trial period, but the combination of citalopram and nortriptyline showed a significant superiority over citalopram alone in the treatment of OCD. Conclusion: As this study indicates, nortriptyline improves the efficacy of citalopram. In addition, a rapid onset of action is one of the advantages of this combination. This study supports further investigation of the noradrenergic– serotonergic hypothesis in OCD.

  17. Non-destructive quantitative analysis of risperidone in film-coated tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkoula, M G; Kontoyannis, C G

    2008-07-15

    A simple, non-destructive, methodology based on FT-Raman spectroscopy was developed for the quantitative analysis of risperidone in commercially available film-coated tablets. A simple linear regression model was constructed based on standard tablets, prepared using the same manufacturing process as the commercially available. The tablets contained 0.27, 0.54, 1.08, 1.62, 2.16, 3.24 and 4.32 wt% risperidone. The most prominent Raman vibration of the active pharmaceutical ingredient at 1533 cm(-1), recorded using a home-made rotating system, was plotted against concentration. The model was tested on commercial film-coated tablets. The results were compared against those obtained by application of HPLC on the same samples. PMID:18359600

  18. Comparison between risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic agent and haloperidol, a conventional agent used to treat schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An observational and comparative study was conducted to compare the functional outcome between the patients treated with conventional antipsychotic agent haloperidol and typical antipsychotic agent, Risperidone (Risperidal). A total of 32 patients were included in the study with established schizophrenia according to (DSM iv). The data was processed on SSPE 10th version. The primary outcome measure was the improvement of negative symptoms of schizophrenia and secondary outcome measure was to observe the superiority of the atypical drug Risperid one over conventional agent haloperidol regarding side effects. Patients were assessed at baseline, 2nd and 8th week, using four tools of assessment. For treatment group receiving haloperidol mean was 47.2+-11.50 at 8th week and for Risperidone treatment group mean was 43+-14.68. The P values for all the parameters in the Clozapine group were significant as compared to haloperidol. (author)

  19. Suicide attempts in a prospective cohort of patients with schizophrenia treated with sertindole or risperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocq, M A; Naber, D; Lader, M H; Thibaut, F; Drici, M; Everitt, B; Hall, G C; Le Jeunne, C; Mittoux, A; Peuskens, J; Priori, S; Sturkenboom, M; Thomas, S H L; Tanghøj, P; Toumi, M; Mann, R; Moore, N D

    2010-12-01

    The incidence of suicide attempts (fatal and non-fatal) was analysed in a prospective cohort of patients with schizophrenia randomly assigned to sertindole (4905 patients) or risperidone (4904 patients) in a parallel-group open-label study with blinded classification of outcomes (the sertindole cohort prospective study--SCoP). The total exposure was 6978 and 7975 patient-years in the sertindole and risperidone groups, respectively. Suicide mortality in the study was low (0.21 and 0.28 per 100 patients per year with sertindole and risperidone, respectively). The majority (84%) of suicide attempts occurred within the first year of treatment. Cox's proportional hazards model analysis of the time to the first suicide attempt, reported by treating psychiatrists and blindly reviewed by an independent expert group according to the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment (both defining suicide attempts by association of suicidal act and intent to die), showed a lower risk of suicide attempt for sertindole-treated patients than for risperidone-treated patients. The effect was statistically significant with both evaluation methods during the first year of randomized treatment (hazard ratios [95% CI]: 0.5 [0.31-0.82], p=0.006; and 0.57 [0.35-0.92], p=0.02, respectively). With classification by an independent safety committee using a broader definition including all incidences of intentional self-harm, also those without clear suicidal intent, the results were not significant. A history of previous suicide attempts was significantly associated with attempted suicides in both treatment groups. PMID:20926264

  20. Risperidone Long-Acting Injections: Successful Alternative Deltoid Muscle Injections for Refractory Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Arjun; Grace, Jeffery; Olympia, Josie L.; Trigoboff, Eileen; Watson, Thomas; Cushman, Sharon; Newcomer, David

    2008-01-01

    Treatment-resistant paranoid schizophrenia is often addressed with long-term intramuscular preparations of conventional antipsychotics (haloperidol and fluphenazine), which can be associated with the development of painful, lumpy nodules at the injection site. In this article, we present a case example of a 58-year-old male patient with paranoid schizophrenia who was treated with risperidone long-acting injection given into the deltoid muscle instead of the US Food and Drug Administration (FD...

  1. Desipramine enhances the ability of risperidone to decrease alcohol intake in the Syrian golden hamster

    OpenAIRE

    Gulick, Danielle; Chau, David T; Khokhar, Jibran Y.; Dawson, Ree; Green, Alan I.

    2014-01-01

    The atypical antipsychotic clozapine reduces alcohol drinking in patients with schizophrenia. We have proposed that clozapine’s ability to decrease alcohol drinking relates to its weak blockade of the dopamine D2 receptor and potent blockade of the norepinephrine α-2 receptor, as well as its ability to elevate plasma and brain norepinephrine. Another atypical antipsychotic, risperidone, which is a potent blocker of both the dopamine D2 receptor and norepinephrine α-2 receptor, does not decrea...

  2. Anti-depressive effectiveness of olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone and ziprasidone: a pragmatic, randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Løberg Else-Marie; Kroken Rune A; Jørgensen Hugo A; Kjelby Eirik; Johnsen Erik

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Efficacy studies indicate anti-depressive effects of at least some second generation antipsychotics (SGAs). The Bergen Psychosis Project (BPP) is a 24-month, pragmatic, industry-independent, randomized, head-to-head comparison of olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone and ziprasidone in patients acutely admitted with psychosis. The aim of the study is to investigate whether differential anti-depressive effectiveness exists among SGAs in a clinically relevant sample of patient...

  3. Emerging treatments in the management of bipolar disorder – focus on risperidone long acting injection

    OpenAIRE

    El-Hage, Wissam; Surguladze, Simon A.

    2010-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a life-long psychiatric illness characterized by a high frequency of relapses and substantial societal costs. Almost half of the patients are prescribed second generation antipsychotics for treatment of manic states, or as the maintenance therapy. Risperidone long acting injection (RLAI) as a monotherapy or as adjunctive therapy to lithium or valproate for the maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder was approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in United States in...

  4. Review of risperidone for the treatment of pediatric and adolescent bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, Jeffrey R.; Pavuluri, Mani N.

    2008-01-01

    Jeffrey R Bishop1,2, Mani N Pavuluri21Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, Pediatric Mood Disorders Program and Center for Cognitive Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Risperidone is a commonly used medication for the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in children and adolescents. It has been studied as a monotherapy treatment in ...

  5. Risperidone Versus Methylphenidate in Treatment of Preschool Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Arabgol, Fariba; Panaghi, Leily; Nikzad, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric diagnosis among preschool children. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the Risperidone treatment compared to Methylphenidate (MPH) in preschool children with ADHD. Patients and Methods: Thirty three outpatient preschool children, aged 3-6 years, diagnosed with ADHD (The diagnosis of ADHD was established by two child and adolescent psychiatrists according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria), participated i...

  6. CHALLENGE WITH ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTIC DRUGS IN RISPERIDONE INDUCED NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Mendhekar, D.N.; Jiloha, R.C.; M M Mehndiratta; War, L.

    2002-01-01

    There are several reports available on neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) associated with risperidone but when a more stringent criterion is applied there are only a few. Report on challenge and rechallenge with various atypical antipsychotic drugs in re-emergence of post NMS psychosis is scanty. Our aim of presenting this is to highlight the differential response of various atypical antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of post NMS psychosis. This paper reports a young male with mild mental...

  7. Comparison of short term effects of risperidone and paliperidone on serum prolactin levels in female patients

    OpenAIRE

    Albayrak, Yakup; UNSAL, Cuneyt; Beyazyuz, Murat; Kuloglu, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Hyperprolactinemia is an adverse effect, which is related with the use of antipsychotics. All typical antipsychotics are considered to increase serum prolactin levels. Compared with typical antipsychotics, most of the atypical antipsychotics have a reduced tendency for increasing serum prolactin levels. However, effects of all atypical antipsychotics on serum prolactin levels are not always similar. In the present study, we aimed to compare short-term effects of risperidone and pal...

  8. Efficacy and safety of risperidone oral solution in agitation associated with dementia in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Laks Jerson; Engelhardt Eliasz; Marinho Valeska; Rozenthal Marcia; Souza Fernando de Castro e; Bacaltchuk Josué; Stoppe Jr. Alberto; Ferreira R.C.R.; Bottino Cassio; Scalco Mônica

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD) contribute to caregiver burden and institutionalization of elderly. Neuroleptics are prescribed to control agitation. Side effects of typical neuroleptics are harmful, making atypical neuroleptics an indication. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate efficacy and tolerability of risperidone oral solution (ROS) given once daily to demented elderly outpatients with BPSD (agitation). METHOD: Patients (n=26), 76.35±8.63 years, Diagnostic and S...

  9. Risperidone Versus Yokukansan in the Treatment of Severe Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Yuko Furuhashi; Kouichi Shin

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Patients with AD commonly exhibit behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). This study is aimed to compare the efficacy of yokukansan (YKS) and risperidone (RIS) on BPSD in patients with severe Alzheimer’s disease (AD). METHODS: Thirty eight inpatients with AD were investigated. Patients were randomly as-signed to the YKS group (N = 18) or the RIS group (N = 20) and treated for 4 weeks. The primary outcomes were changes in the scores on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory ...

  10. Treatment of anorexia nervosa with long-term risperidone in an outpatient setting: case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kracke, Elsa J; Tosh, Aneesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There are currently few studies focusing on the efficacy of long-term atypical antipsychotics to treat anorexia nervosa in the pediatric population. Case description This case report follows the treatment of a 17 year-old female with anorexia nervosa over her four-year undergraduate career. After two years of multidisciplinary treatment, low-dose risperidone was initiated due to persistence of her disease. She expressed decreased rigidity around meal times, her weight improved an...

  11. Comparison the effectiveness of aripiprazole and risperidone for the treatment of acute bipolar mania

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Akhavan Rezayat; Paria Hebrani; Fatemeh Behdani; Mohamad Salaran; Majid Nabizadeh Marvast

    2014-01-01

    Background: Second-generation antipsychotics, approved for the treatment of mania, are associated with adverse effects such as weight gain and metabolic disorders. Aripiprazole, a recently introduced second-generation antipsychotic, are thought to account for its low propensity for weight gain, metabolic disturbances and sedation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of risperidone versus aripiprazole in the treatment of acute mania. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients wi...

  12. Risperidone treatment for ADHD in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Biederman; Paul Hammerness; Robert Doyle; Gagan Joshi; Megan Aleardi; Eric Mick

    2008-01-01

    Joseph Biederman, Paul Hammerness, Robert Doyle, Gagan Joshi, Megan Aleardi, Eric MickPediatric Psychopharmacology Research Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USAObjective: Children and adolescents with bipolar disorder are also at high risk of having comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of this study was to estimate improvement in ADHD symptoms in children with bipolar disorder.Methods: This was an open-label, study of risperidone monot...

  13. Risperidone long-acting injection: a review of its long term safety and efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer, Michael K

    2008-01-01

    Michael K RainerMemory-Clinic and Psychiatric Department, Donauspital, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: A long-acting form of the second-generation antipsychotic drug risperidone is now broadly available for the treatment of schizophrenia and closely related psychiatric conditions. It combines the advantage of previously available depot formulations for first-generation drugs with the favorable characteristics of the modern “atypical” antipsychotics, namely higher efficacy in the ...

  14. Selective labeling of serotonin uptake sites in rat brain by (/sup 3/H)citalopram contrasted to labeling of multiple sites by (/sup 3/H)imipramine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amato, R.J.; Largent, B.L.; Snowman, A.M.; Snyder, S.H.

    1987-07-01

    Citalopram is a potent and selective inhibitor of neuronal serotonin uptake. In rat brain membranes (/sup 3/H)citalopram demonstrates saturable and reversible binding with a KD of 0.8 nM and a maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) of 570 fmol/mg of protein. The drug specificity for (/sup 3/H)citalopram binding and synaptosomal serotonin uptake are closely correlated. Inhibition of (/sup 3/H)citalopram binding by both serotonin and imipramine is consistent with a competitive interaction in both equilibrium and kinetic analyses. The autoradiographic pattern of (/sup 3/H)citalopram binding sites closely resembles the distribution of serotonin. By contrast, detailed equilibrium-saturation analysis of (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding reveals two binding components, i.e., high affinity (KD = 9 nM, Bmax = 420 fmol/mg of protein) and low affinity (KD = 553 nM, Bmax = 8560 fmol/mg of protein) sites. Specific (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding, defined as the binding inhibited by 100 microM desipramine, is displaced only partially by serotonin. Various studies reveal that the serotonin-sensitive portion of binding corresponds to the high affinity sites of (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding whereas the serotonin-insensitive binding corresponds to the low affinity sites. Lesioning of serotonin neurons with p-chloroamphetamine causes a large decrease in (/sup 3/H)citalopram and serotonin-sensitive (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding with only a small effect on serotonin-insensitive (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding. The dissociation rate of (/sup 3/H)imipramine or (/sup 3/H)citalopram is not altered by citalopram, imipramine or serotonin up to concentrations of 10 microM. The regional distribution of serotonin sensitive (/sup 3/H)imipramine high affinity binding sites closely resembles that of (/sup 3/H)citalopram binding.

  15. Effervescent tablet formulation for enhanced patient compliance and the therapeutic effect of risperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Kareem Abu Bakr; Ibrahim, Howida Kamal; Ghorab, Mahmoud Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Risperidone is a poorly water soluble atypical antipsychotic drug. This work investigated the potential of developing risperidone effervescent tablets to facilitate drug administration and mask drug taste. The solid dispersion technique was selected to improve drug solubility due to its ease of scaling up, reproducibility and affordable cost. Thirty formulas were prepared adopting a 5(1).2(1).3(1) full factorial design. Trehalose, Inulin, pregelatinized starch, carboxymethylcellulose sodium and Eudragit E100 were used as hydrophilic carriers at different ratios. Rotovap, lyophilization and the kneading-oven were applied as solvent evaporation techniques. Differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that the drug was present as amorphous material entrapped within the carrier matrix. Eight tablet blends were prepared using different effervescent mixture ratios with or without binder and lubricant/glidant mixture. All of the blends had acceptable flowability, acceptable effervescence times and immediate drug release that could not be achieved by any of the control formulas. The formula of choice contained 40% effervescent mixture, 5% starch, 1% boric acid, 1% aspartame and sufficient lactose. The relative bioavailability (RB) of risperidone from this formula was 161.41% with a significantly higher extent of absorption compared to the market conventional tablets. This formula may be promising in improving patient compliance and drug efficiency. PMID:24833273

  16. Effects of risperidone treatment on the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide in appetite regulation in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursungoz, Canan; Ak, Mehmet; Yanik, Tulin

    2015-01-30

    Although the use of atypical antipsychotic drugs has been successful in the treatment of schizophrenia, they can cause some complications in the long-term use, including weight gain. Patients using these drugs tend to disrupt treatment primarily due to side effects. The atypical antipsychotic mechanism of action regulates a number of highly disrupted neurotransmitter pathways in the brains of psychotic patients but may also cause impairment of neurohormonal pathways in different brain areas. In this study, we investigated the circulating levels of hypothalamic neurohormones, which are related to appetite regulation; neuropeptide Y (NPY); alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH); cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART); agouti-related peptide (AgRP); and leptin in male Wistar rats, which were treated with risperidone, a serotonin antagonist, for four weeks. Alterations in the mRNA expression levels of these candidate genes in the hypothalamus were also analyzed. We hypothesized that risperidone treatment might alter both hypothalamic and circulating levels of neuropeptides through serotonergic antagonism, resulting in weight gain. Gene expression studies revealed that the mRNA expression levels of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), AgRP, and NPY decreased as well as their plasma levels, except for NPY. Unexpectedly, CART mRNA levels increased when their plasma levels decreased. Because POMC neurons express the serotonin receptor (5HT2C), the serotonergic antagonism of risperidone on POMC neurons may cause an increase in appetite and thus increase food consumption even in a short-term trial in rats. PMID:25449893

  17. Clozapine and risperidone influence on cortisol and estradiol levels in male patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piriu, G; Torac, E; Gaman, L E; Iosif, L; Tivig, I C; Delia, C; Gilca, M; Stoian, I; Atanasiu, V

    2015-01-01

    Estrogens role in schizophrenia patients is a subject, which has gained an increased attention from the medical community. Estrogens have been shown to inhibit dopamine actions, improve neuronal regeneration, and overall, have a protective role in the pathology of schizophrenia. The adjunctive estrogen therapy for men is currently under debate. Antipsychotic medication is known to influence the hypothalamo-hypophyseal - gonadal axis by inducing variable degrees of hyperprolactinemia. Several studies have found that some of the atypical antipsychotics lower cortisol levels in patients and also in healthy controls. We have investigated the effects of clozapine and risperidone on estradiol levels in men with schizophrenia. We have also evaluated the levels of prolactin and cortisol, taking into account the possible influence of antipsychotic drugs on both these hormones. Both prolactin and cortisol also have the potential to regulate sexual hormones biosynthesis. Our study found decreased estradiol levels in men with schizophrenia treated with clozapine and risperidone, while prolactin levels were increased only in the risperidone treated group. Cortisol levels are not statistically significant different between groups. PMID:26664488

  18. The Effect of Risperidone on Cognitive Symptoms of Schizophrenia : A Comparison with Haloperidol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Daneshmand, M.D.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Several studies have demonstrated, that atypical antipsychotics attenuate cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia more than first generation of antipsychotics. Because there was no comprehensive and reliable study on evaluating these effects in Iranian population, the research group decided to compare the effects of haloperidol and risperidone, both Iranian drug laboratories' products, on the cognitive symptoms of patients with schizophrenia.Materials and Methods: 66 patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia, according to DSM-IVTR criteria, who were hospitalized in Razi's Psychiatric Center, Tehran, were included in the study. After 2 weeks of wash-out period, patients were randomized in two groups, treated with haloperidol and risperidone, and in 8 week period basic and weekly MMSE were performed for all.Results: Both drugs improved cognitive symptoms of patients, and the course of improvement started in the 2nd week of treatment with no significant statistical difference.Conclusion: The study didn't confirm the preferentiality of risperidone vs. haloperidol on the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia, which was demonstrated in western articles. Therefore, choosing each drug for treating patients must fulfill on other goals, such as the profile of their side effects.

  19. Preparation and Biological Evaluation of Radioiodinated Risperidone and Lamotrigine as Models for Brain Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain imaging technology is becoming an important tool in both research and clinical care. Due to the sensitivity of brain imaging technology, neuroscientists are able to visualize brain structure and function from the level of individual molecules to the whole brain, recognize and diagnose neurological disorders, develop new strategies for treatment and determine how therapies work. The study aimed to take advantages from drugs that are able to cross the brain barrier for the development of potential radiopharmaceuticals for non-invasive brain imaging. Risperidone and lamotrigine were successfully labeled with 125I via direct electrophilic substitution reaction at 80 degree C. The reaction parameters affecting the preparation process were studied. 125I-risperidone and 125I-lamotrigine gave maximum labeling yield of 89 % ± 3.75 and 97.5 % ± 1.0 %, respectively and their stability were up to 6 and 24 h, respectively. Biodistribution studies showed that maximum uptake of 125I-risperidone and 125I-lamotrigine in the brain of mice were 4.27 % ± 0.38 and 2.45 % ± 0.18 of the injected activity/g tissue organ, at 10

  20. RAPID CHROMATOGRAPHIC AND SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF CITALOPRAM IN RELEVANCE TO PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Das et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the study to measure the sensitivity and accuracy of two techniques, chromatography and spectrophotometry for the direct determination of citalopram in pharmaceutical formulations. Chromatography was performed on SE-30 column (1 m × 3 mm i.d using Nitrogen as a carrier gas (flow rate of 40 ml/min, having retention time of 12.8 min. Calibration curve was found linear in the range of 200-400 µg/ml. LOD and LOQ values were found as 1.1726 µg/ml and 3.5535 µg/ml respectively and the recoveries were in the range of 98.36–100.07%. In spectrophotometry method the absorption spectra were measured at 240 nm for standard and tablets form. Calibration curve was found linear in the range of 2-4 µg/ml. LOD and LOQ values were found as 40.59 ng/ml and 123.0 ng/ml respectively. Recoveries were in the range of 98.53–100.78%. The experimental results obtained indicate that the above proposed methods are specific, sensitive and accurate for the determination of citalopram in pharmaceutical formulations. These methods were also compared statistically and found that there was no significant difference between the two methods in terms of accuracy and precision. Whilst, the chromatographic method developed will applicable for its detection in biological matrices also.

  1. Citalopram-induced hypophagia is enhanced by blockade of 5-HT1A receptors: role of 5-HT2C receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Grignaschi, G.; Invernizzi, R W; Fanelli, E.; Fracasso, C; Caccia, S.; Samanin, R.

    1998-01-01

    The selective 5-hydroxytryptamine reuptake inhibitor citalopram (10 and 20 mg kg−1, i.p.) significantly reduced food intake in male rats (CD-COBS) habituated to eat their daily food during a 4-h period.The 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 (0.3 mg kg−1) administered systemically did not modify feeding but significantly potentiated the reduction in food intake caused by 10 mg kg−1 i.p. citalopram. The dose of 5 mg kg−1 i.p. citalopram was not active in animals pretreated with vehicle but si...

  2. Fate of citalopram during water treatment with O3, ClO2, UV and fenton oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hörsing, Maritha; Kosjek, Tina; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus;

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we investigate the fate of citalopram (CIT) at neutral pH using advanced water treatment technologies that include O3, ClO2 oxidation, UV irradiation and Fenton oxidation. The ozonation resulted in 80% reduction after 30 min treatment. Oxidation with ClO2 removed >90% CIT at a...... resolution and tandem mass spectrometry. Among these desmethyl-citalopram and citalopram N-oxide have been previously identified as human metabolites, while three are novel and published here for the first time. The three TPs are a hydroxylated dimethylamino-side chain derivative, a butyrolactone derivative...

  3. Differential regulation of serotonin-1A receptor stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding in the dorsal raphe nucleus by citalopram and escitalopram

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Dania V.; Burke, Teresa F.; Hensler, Julie G.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of chronic citalopram or escitalopram administration on 5-HT1A receptor function in the dorsal raphe nucleus was determined by measuring [35S]GTPγS binding stimulated by the 5-HT1A receptor agonist (R)-(+)-8-OH-DPAT (1nM-10μM). Although chronic administration of citalopram or escitalopram has been shown to desensitize somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors, we found that escitalopram treatment decreased the efficacy of 5-HT1A receptors to activate G-proteins, whereas citalopram treat...

  4. Partial Purification of the 5-Hydroxytryptamine-Reuptake System from Human Blood Platelets Using a Citalopram-Derived Affinity Resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biessen, E.A.L.; Horn, A.S.; Robillard, G.T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a procedure for the synthesis and application of a citalopram-derived affinity resin in purifying the 5HT-reuptake system from human blood platelets. A two-step scheme has been developed for partial purification, based on wheat germ agglutinin-lectin (WGA) affinity and citalopra

  5. Partial purification of the 5-hydroxytryptophan-reuptake system from human blood platelets using a citalopram-derived affinity resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biessen, E.A.L; Horn, A.S.; Robillard, G.T. (Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands))

    1990-04-03

    This paper describes a procedure for the synthesis and application of a citalopram-derived affinity resin in purifying the 5HT-reuptake system from human blood platelets. A two-step scheme has been developed for partial purification, based on wheat germ agglutinin-lectin (WGA) affinity and citalopram affinity chromatographies. Upon solubilization of the carrier with 1% digitonin, a 50-70-fold increase in specific ({sup 3}H) imipramine binding activity with a 70% recovery could be accomplished through WGA-lectin chromatography. The WGA pool was then subjected to affinity chromatography on citalopram-agarose. At least 90% of the binding capacity adsorbed to the column. Specific elution using 10 {mu}M citalopram resulted in a 22% recovery of binding activity. A 10,000-fold overall purification was obtained by using this two-step procedure. Analysis of the fractions on SDS-PAGE after {sup 125}I labeling revealed specific elution of 78- and 55-kDa proteins concomitant with the appearance of ({sup 3}H) imipramine binding activity. The pharmacological profile of the partially purified reuptake system correlated well with that derived from the crude membrane-bound reuptake system, suggesting a copurification of the 5HT binding activity and ({sup 3}H)imipramine binding activity.

  6. A rhodamine-labeled citalopram analogue as a high-affinity fluorescent probe for the serotonin transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Peng; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard; Løland, Claus Juul;

    2013-01-01

    A novel fluorescent ligand was synthesized as a high-affinity, high specificity probe for visualizing the serotonin transporter (SERT). The rhodamine fluorophore was extended from an aniline substitution on the 5-position of the dihydroisobenzofuran ring of citalopram (2, 1-(3-(dimethylamino)prop...

  7. Relapse in patients with schizophrenia: a comparison between risperidone and haloperidol Recaída em pacientes com esquizofrenia: uma comparação entre risperidona e haloperidol

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Pondé de Sena; Rogério Santos-Jesus; Ângela Miranda-Scippa; Lucas de Castro Quarantini; Irismar Reis de Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare rates of rehospitalization and time to relapse in risperidone vs. haloperidol-treated schizophrenic patients discharged from the hospital. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial comparing risperidone and haloperidol regarding relapse in patients with schizophrenia treated with flexible doses during one year. RESULTS: Twenty patients were assigned to risperidone and 13 to haloperidol. One patient from each group withdrew consent and one patient in the risperidone group was...

  8. Development and Validation of an UPLC-MS/MS Method for Simultaneous Determination of Ibuprofen and Promethazine in Tablets Stored on Board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L.; Chow, D. S.-L.; Daniels, V. R.

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic efficacy and safety of pharmaceuticals remain a critical issue for successful NASA medical operations of long-term space missions on International Space Station (ISS). Medications stored aboard the ISS are subjected to unique environmental factors for extended time periods that may cause physicochemical degradation or alterations in the integrity of formulations that include the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the chemical matrix of the formulation. Degradation of API and adjuvants, in addition to alterations of the chemical matrix of the formulation, can decrease potency and bioavailability and increase the risk due to toxicity of degraded medications. UPLC-MS/MS analysis is efficient and highly sensitive to quantify API content and MS analysis enables the elucidation of the structures of degradation products for each formulation. Therefore the aim of this project was to develop and validate a rapid, specific, and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS assay for the simultaneous determination of ibuprofen and promethazine in tablets stored aboard the ISS.

  9. The antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects following co-treatment with escitalopram and risperidone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminska, K; Rogoz, Z

    2016-06-01

    Several clinical reports have documented a beneficial effect of the addition of a low dose of risperidone to the ongoing treatment with antidepressants, in particular selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), in the treatment of drug-resistant depression and treatment-resistant anxiety disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effect of treatment with the antidepressant escitalopram (SSRI) given separately or jointly with a low dose of risperidone (an atypical antipsychotic) in the forced swim test and in the elevated plus-maze test in rats. The obtained results showed that escitalopram at doses of 2.5 or 5 mg/kg evoked antidepressant-like effect in the forced swim test. Moreover, risperidone at low doses (0.05 or 0.1 mg/kg) enhanced the antidepressant-like activity of escitalopram (1 mg/kg) in this test by increasing the swimming time and decreasing the immobility time in those animals. WAY 100635 (a serotonin 5-HT1A receptor antagonist) at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg abolished the antidepressant-like effect induced by co-administration of escitalopram and risperidone. The active behavior in that test did not reflect an increase in general activity, since the combined treatment with escitalopram and risperidone failed to enhance the exploratory activity of rats. In the following experiment, we showed that escitalopram (5 mg/kg) and mirtazapine (5 or 10 mg/kg) or risperidone (0.1 mg/kg) induced an anxiolytic-like effect in the elevated plus-maze test, and the combined treatment with an ineffective dose of risperidone (0.05 mg/kg) enhanced the anxiolytic-like effects of escitalopram (2.5 mg/kg) or mirtazapine (1 and 2.5 mg/kg) in this test. The obtained results suggest that risperidone applied at a low dose enhances the antidepressant-like activity of escitalopram in the forced swim test, and that 5-HT1A receptors may play some role in these effects. Moreover, a low dose of risperidone may also enhance the anxiolytic-like action of the studied

  10. A comparison of continuous subcutaneous paliperidone infusion and repeated subcutaneous injection of risperidone free-base in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, G; Pittau, B; Casu, G; Peddio, G; Spada, G P; Pira, M; Deriu, A; Portesani, F; Pisu, C; Lazzari, P; Pani, L

    2010-03-01

    It is proposed that to achieve a therapeutic effect in schizophrenia patients, dopamine D(2)-receptor occupancy by antipsychotics within the striatum must exceed 60-65%. However, at high levels of D(2)-receptor occupancy, the risk of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) is increased. Following oral dosing of antipsychotics, peaks and troughs in plasma drug concentrations may be mirrored by fluctuations in D(2)-receptor occupancy. Paliperidone, a novel antipsychotic available as extended-release tablets (paliperidone ER), is the major active metabolite of risperidone and exhibits a plasma pharmacokinetic profile with reduced peak-trough fluctuations and consistent D(2)-receptor occupancy compared with conventional oral antipsychotic formulations. Using formulations that resemble those in clinical practice, this study provides a preclinical evaluation of the pharmacological properties of paliperidone ER and risperidone immediate-release formulation in terms of consistent antipsychotic efficacy over time and extrapyramidal symptom liability. Significant fluctuations in inhibition of d-amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion were observed for repeated subcutaneous (SC) risperidone injections, whereas stable inhibitory efficacy was demonstrated during continuous SC paliperidone infusion. Similarly, significant fluctuations in latency on-bar were observed with repeated SC risperidone injections, whereas significantly lower latency on-bar was demonstrated following continuous SC paliperidone infusion. These results in an animal model suggest that although risperidone and paliperidone demonstrate similar pharmacologic effects, continuous administration of paliperidone achieves more stable antipsychotic efficacy with reduced motor impairment, akin to the effects observed with paliperidone ER in clinical studies. PMID:19640686

  11. Risperidone and Divalproex Differentially Engage the Fronto-Striato-Temporal Circuitry in Pediatric Mania: A Pharmacological Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuluri, Mani N.; Passarotti, Alessandra M.; Fitzgerald, Jacklynn M.; Wegbreit, Ezra; Sweeney, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the impact of risperidone and divalproex on affective and working memory circuitry in patients with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Method: This was a six-week, double-blind, randomized trial of risperidone plus placebo versus divalproex plus placebo for patients with mania (n = 21; 13.6 [plus or minus] 2.5…

  12. Augmentation with a 5-HT1A but not a 5-HT1B receptor antagonist critically depends on the dose of citalopram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, TIFH; Liao, Y; Bosker, FJ; den Boer, JA; Westerink, BHC; Wikstrom, HV

    2000-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-1-(4-nuorophenyl)-5-phtalancarbonitril (citalopram) were determined in order to find optimal conditions for augmentation of its effect on extracellular serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamin

  13. Påvirker protonpumpehemmere serumkonsentrasjonen til de tre selektive serotoninreopptakshemmerne sertralin, citalopram og escitalopram? : En farmakokinetisk studie basert på retrospektive data

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Bakgrunn: Det er kjent at protonpumpehemmere i varierende grad virker som hemmere av CYP2C19. Samtidig er CYP2C19 viktig i metabolismen av de selektive serotoninreopptakshemmerne (SSRI-ene) sertralin, citalopram og escitalopram. Hensikten med denne studien var å undersøke i hvor stor grad de fire protonpumpehemmerne esomeprazol, lansoprazol, omeprazol og pantoprazol påvirker serumkonsentrasjonen av de tre SSRI-ene sertralin, citalopram og escitalopram. Metode: Resultater fra serumkonsentr...

  14. Effects of repeated treatment with fluoxetine and citalopram, 5-HT uptake inhibitors, on 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors in the rat brain.

    OpenAIRE

    Klimek, V; Zak-Knapik, J; Mackowiak, M.

    1994-01-01

    Repeated treatment with fluoxetine and citalopram, which are potent 5-HT reuptake inhibitors, resulted in different regulation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors in the rat brain. Their effects were compared with those of other antidepressants: imipramine, mianserin and levoprotiline. The density of 5-HT1A receptors, labelled with [3H]8-OH-DPAT, in the rat hippocampus was enhanced after citalopram, imipramine, mianserin and levoprotiline, but not altered after fluoxetine administration. [3H]Ketans...

  15. Combination of Citalopram and Nortriptyline in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Double – Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Firoozeh Raisi; Marzieh Tavakoli; Abbas Ali Nasehi

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The fact that some antidepressants with strong effects on serotonin reuptake blockade fail to relieve obsessive-compulsive symptoms has caused growing interest in investigating noradrenergic function in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) . In light of the above, we undertook a trial to investigate whether the combination of citalopram with nortriptyline is more effective in treating obsessive-compulsive symptoms than citalopram alone. Method: 40 patients who met the DSM-IV criteri...

  16. Atypical antipsychotics olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone and risk of acute major cardiovascular events in young and middle-aged adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasternak, Björn; Svanström, Henrik; Ranthe, Mattis F;

    2014-01-01

    risperidone (n = 14,134). The primary outcome was any major cardiovascular event (composite of cardiovascular mortality, acute coronary syndrome, or ischemic stroke) within 1 year following treatment initiation. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) while on current antipsychotic monotherapy......BACKGROUND: A number of serious cardiovascular safety concerns related to the use of atypical antipsychotics, compared with no use, have emerged, but nearly all reports are from studies of older patients. We aimed to compare the risk of cardiovascular events between the three most commonly used...... in the outpatient setting, adjusting for an outcome-specific disease risk score. RESULTS: The crude rate of any major cardiovascular event was 5.3 per 1,000 person-years among olanzapine users, 3.4 in quetiapine users, and 5.2 in risperidone users. Compared with risperidone, the risk of any major cardiovascular...

  17. Response of symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder to treatment with citalopram or placebo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Dan J; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford; Overo, Kerstin Fredricson

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is increasing evidence that the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder lie on discrete dimensions. Relatively little work has, however, explored the relationship between such factors and response to pharmacotherapy. METHOD: Data from a multi-site randomized placebo......-controlled study of citalopram in obsessive-compulsive disorder were analyzed. Factor analysis of individual items and symptom categories of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Checklist were undertaken, and the impact of symptom dimensions on treatment outcomes was analysed. RESULTS: Factor analysis of Yale......-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Checklist individual items yielded 5 factors (contamination/cleaning, harm/checking, aggressive/sexual/religious, hoarding/symmetry, and somatic/hypochondriacal). Hoarding/symmetry was associated with male gender, longer duration of obsessive-compulsive disorder and early onset...

  18. Effect of citalopram in treating hypersexuality in an Alzheimer's disease case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosto, Giuseppe; Talarico, Giuseppina; Lenzi, Gian Luigi; Bruno, Giuseppe

    2008-09-01

    Hypersexuality in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been rarely investigated. Hypersexual behaviours should be classified as a sexual obsession and included in the "obsessive-compulsive disorder-like" spectrum. Hypersexuality has no proven treatment, although reports have described reductions of this behaviour using antiandrogen treatment, H2-receptor antagonists and antipsychotic drugs. Serotonin reuptake blockers seem to be effective in the treatment of sexual obsessions or compulsions and less on paraphilic disturbances. We present the case of a 54-year-old male patient with Alzheimer's disease with compulsive sexual behaviour as reported by his wife. A 18-FDG PET scan evidenced prevalent hypometabolism of the right hemisphere, congruent with neuropsychological evaluation. Donepezil, 10 mg per day, produced cognitive improvement but no effects on sexual behaviour. Therapy with SSRI was subsequently started (citalopram): after 60 days, the patient showed improvement in both the compulsive pursuit of sex acts and the level of frustration when refused. PMID:18810603

  19. Dopamine transporter density assessed with [123]IPT SPECT before and after risperidone treatment in children with tourette's disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourette's disorder (TD), which is characterized by multiple waxing and waning motor tics and one or more vocal tics, is known to be associated with abnormalities in the dopaminergic system. To testify our hypothesis that risperidone would improve tic symptoms of TD patients through the change of the dopaminergic system, we measured the dopamine transporter (DAT) densities between drug-naive children with TD and normal children, and investigated the DAT density before and after treatment with risperidone in drug-naive children with TD, using iodine-123 labelled N-(3-iodopropen-2-yl)-2β-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-chlorophenyl)tropane ([123I]IPT) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). [123I]IPT SPECT imaging and Yale Global Tic Severity Scale-Korean version (YGTSS-K) for assessing the tic symptom severity were carried out before and after treatment with risperidone for 8 weeks in nine drug-naive children with TD. Eleven normal children also underwent SPECT imaging 2 hours after an intravenous administration of [123I]IPT. Drug-naive children with TD had a significantly greater increase in the specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of both basal ganglia compared with the normal children. However, no significant difference in the specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of the basal ganglia before and after treatment with risperidone in children with TD was found, although tic symptoms were significantly improved with risperidone. These findings suggest that DAT densities are directly associated with the pathophysiology of TD, however, that the effect of risperidone on tic symptoms in children with TD is not attributed to the change of dopaminergic system

  20. Optimizing limbic selective D2/D3 receptor occupancy by risperidone: a [123I]-epidepride SPET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Rodrigo A; Erlandsson, Kjell; Jones, Hugh M; Mulligan, Rachel S; Ell, Peter J; Pilowsky, Lyn S

    2003-02-01

    Selective action at limbic cortical dopamine D2-like receptors is a putative mechanism of atypical antipsychotic efficacy with few extrapyramidal side effects. Although risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic with high affinity for D2 receptors, low-dose risperidone treatment is effective without inducing extrapyramidal symptoms. The objective was to test the hypothesis that treatment with low-dose risperidone results in 'limbic selective' D2/D3 receptor blockade in vivo. Dynamic single photon emission tomography (SPET) sequences were obtained over 5 hours after injection of [123I]-epidepride (approximately 150 MBq), using a high-resolution triple-headed brain scanner (Marconi Prism 3000XP). Kinetic modelling was performed using the simplified reference region model to obtain binding potential values. Estimates of receptor occupancy were made relative to a normal volunteer control group (n = 5). Six patients treated with low-dose risperidone (mean = 2.6 mg) showed moderate levels of D2/D3 occupancy in striatum (49.9%), but higher levels of D2/D3 occupancy in thalamus (70.8%) and temporal cortex (75.2%). Occupancy values in striatum were significantly different from thalamus (F (1,4) = 26.3, p < 0.01) and from temporal cortex (F (1,4) = 53.4, p < 0.01). This is the first study to evaluate striatal and extrastriatal occupancy of risperidone. Low dose treatment with risperidone achieves a similar selectivity of limbic cortical over striatal D2/D3 receptor blockade to that of atypical antipsychotics with lower D2/D3 affinity such as clozapine, olanzapine and quetiapine. This finding is consistent with the relevance of 'limbic selective' D2/D3 receptor occupancy to the therapeutic efficacy of atypical antipsychotic drugs. PMID:12544369

  1. Risperidone regulates Dopamine D2-like receptors expression in rat brain in a time-dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Peiyan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Antipsychotics can elicit dopamine super-sensitivity by up-regulation of D2-like receptors (DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4 expression. Nevertheless, the expression profile of dopamine D2-like receptors in different brain regions and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, and changes following risperidone administration were still unclear. In this study, we would investigate the expression of D2-like receptors mRNA in different brain regions and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs in rats after 2, 6 weeks risperidone administration. Methods: The experimental rats were given risperidone (0.25mg/kg/day, i.p., and the control rats were given 0.9% NaCl. The rats were sacrificed at 0 week, 2 weeks and 6 weeks after the drug administration. Expression of the dopamine D2-like receptors was quantified by Real-time PCR method. Results: Dopamine D2-like receptors expressed in all the examined regions of rat brain. Their expression significantly increased 2weeks after risperidone administration in different brain regions. However, the changed expression of DRD2 and DRD3 turned back to the basal level 6weeks later, while the increased DRD4 expression remained in left parietal cortex. Meanwhile, DRD2 and DRD3 but not DRD4 expressed in PBMCs, however, the risperidone could not affect their expression. Conclusions: The risperidone could change the dopamine D2-like receptors expression in a time-dependent manner in different brain regions, which might guide the clinical use in the near future.

  2. Impact of evergreening on patients and health insurance: a meta analysis and reimbursement cost analysis of citalopram/escitalopram antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkhafaji Ali A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background "Evergreening" refers to the numerous strategies whereby owners of pharmaceutical products use patent laws and minor drug modifications to extend their monopoly privileges on the drug. We aimed to evaluate the impact of evergreening through the case study of the antidepressant citalopram and its chiral switch form escitalopram by evaluating treatment efficacy and acceptability for patients, as well as health insurance costs for society. Methods To assess efficacy and acceptability, we performed meta-analyses for efficacy and acceptability. We compared direct evidence (meta-analysis of results of head-to-head trials and indirect evidence (adjusted indirect comparison of results of placebo-controlled trials. To assess health insurance costs, we analyzed individual reimbursement data from a representative sample of the French National Health Insurance Inter-regime Information System (SNIIR-AM from 2003 to 2010, which allowed for projecting these results to the whole SNIIR-AM population (53 million people. Results In the meta-analysis of seven head-to-head trials (2,174 patients, efficacy was significantly better for escitalopram than citalopram (combined odds ratio (OR 1.60 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 2.46. However, for the adjusted indirect comparison of 10 citalopram and 12 escitalopram placebo-controlled trials, 2,984 and 3,777 patients respectively, efficacy was similar for the two drug forms (combined indirect OR 1.03 (0.82 to 1.30. Because of the discrepancy, we could not combine direct and indirect data (test of inconsistency, P = 0.07. A similar discrepancy was found for treatment acceptability. The overall reimbursement cost burden for the citalopram, escitalopram and its generic forms was 120.6 million Euros in 2010, with 96.8 million Euros for escitalopram. Conclusions The clinical benefit of escitalopram versus citalopram remains uncertain. In our case of evergreening, escitalopram represented a substantially

  3. An open-label, multicenter evaluation of the long-term safety and efficacy of risperidone in adolescents with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandina Gahan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on the long-term efficacy, safety, and tolerability of risperidone in adolescents with schizophrenia are limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of maintenance risperidone treatment in adolescents with schizophrenia. Methods This open-label study of adolescents aged 13 to 17 years with schizophrenia was a single extension study of two short-term double-blind risperidone studies and also enrolled subjects directly in open-label risperidone treatment. The risperidone dose was flexible and ranged from 2 to 6 mg/day. Most subjects enrolled for 6 months; a subset enrolled for 12 months. Assessment tools included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total and factor scores, Clinical Global Impressions, Children’s Global Assessment Scale, adverse event (AE monitoring, vital signs, laboratory testing, and extrapyramidal symptom rating scales. Results A total of 390 subjects were enrolled; 48 subjects had received placebo in a previous double-blind study; 292 subjects had received risperidone as part of their participation in one of two previous controlled studies; and 50 subjects were enrolled directly for this study. A total of 279 subjects enrolled for 6 months of treatment, and 111 subjects enrolled for 12 months of treatment. Overall, 264 (67.7% subjects completed this study: 209 of the 279 subjects (75% in the 6-month group and 55 of the 111 subjects (50% in the 12-month group. The median mode dose was 3.8 mg/day. At 6 months, all three groups experienced improvement from open-label baseline in symptoms of schizophrenia as well as general assessments of global functioning. Improvements were generally maintained for the duration of treatment. The most common AEs (≥10% of subjects were somnolence, headache, weight increase, hypertonia, insomnia, tremor, and psychosis. Potentially prolactin-related AEs (PPAEs were reported by 36 (9% subjects. The AE profile in this study was

  4. Double-blind randomized trial of risperidone versus divalproex in pediatric bipolar disorder: fMRI outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Pavuluri, Mani N.; Passarotti, Alessandra M.; Lu, Lisa H.; Carbray, Julie A; Sweeney, John A.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the relative effects of risperidone and divalproex on brain function in pediatric mania. This is a double-blind 6-week fMRI trial with 24 unmedicated manic patients randomized to risperidone or divalproex, and 14 healthy controls (HC) matched for IQ and demographic factors (mean age: 13.1±3.3 years). A pediatric affective color matching task, in which subjects matched the color of a positive, negative or neutral word with one of two colored circles, was administered. The primary ...

  5. Extrapyramidal Symptoms During Risperidone Maintenance Treatment in Schizophrenia: A Prospective, Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Qi-Jing; Li, Xian-Bin; Wang, Zhi-Min; Li, An-Ning; Ma, Xin; Wang, Chuan-Yue

    2016-04-01

    The risperidone maintenance treatment in schizophrenia study was designed to identify the duration of maintenance treatment required with an initial therapeutic dose in contrast to reducing the dose over time. This study investigated extrapyramidal symptoms (EPSs) in different risperidone maintenance treatment paradigms over 1 year. Clinically stabilized patients with schizophrenia (n = 374) were randomized to a no-dose-reduction group and 4-week and 26-week reduction groups, in which the dose was gradually reduced by 50% over 8 weeks and maintained. Extrapyramidal symptoms were assessed at baseline and monthly for 6 months, followed by every 2 months. The Simpson-Angus Scale of Extrapyramidal Symptoms-Chinese version assessed EPS severity. Data were analyzed by a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). The frequency of EPS at baseline was 23.2%, 20.0%, and 21.3% in the 4-week, 26-week, and no-dose-reduction groups, respectively. Risperidone dosage, positive symptoms, and disorganized thoughts at baseline predicted development of EPS. The GLMM indicated that a significant decrease in EPS was maintained, and different trajectories occurred over time across groups. In the 235 patients who continued treatment after 1 year, the incidence of EPS decreased to 4.1%, 2.8%, and 10.0% in the 4-week, 26-week, and no-dose-reduction groups, respectively, whereas the numbers of dropouts because of intolerable EPS were not significantly different (4.8%, 6.7%, and 6.2%, respectively). These novel findings indicate EPSs were tolerable and differentially decreased depending on the dose paradigm during the 1-year treatment period. Future studies should implement a GLMM to investigate antipsychotic adverse effects during long-term treatment. PMID:26848792

  6. Bioequivalence study of a generic Risperidone (Iperdal® in healthy Thai male volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werawath Mahatthanatrakul

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the rate and extent of absorption of a generic risperidone (Iperdal® with a reference formulation (Risperdal® when given orally. The study was an open label, randomized, two-period, two-sequence,single dose cross-over design with a 2 weeks washout period in 16 healthy Thai male volunteers. Single oral dose of two 2-mg tablets of risperidone were administered and serial blood samples were collected from the antecubital vein before and at0.17, 0.33, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 12, 24 and 48 hours post dose. Risperidone plasma concentrations were assayed using a validated High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC-UV method modified from Avenosoet al. (2000. Pharamcokinetic parameters i.e. Cmax, AUC0à48 and Tmax were analyzed by noncompartment analysis. Variations of the data were analyzed by “Two Way Analysis of Variance” (ANOVA. Statistics were tested as stated in USP 28 guidelinefor bioequivalence study. The maximum concentration (Cmax, ng/ml of risperidone for the innovator and the generic product were 31.11±17.24 (range 5.64-56.78 and 32.58±19.77 (range 5.29-84.56 ng/ml, respectively. The area under theplasma concentration-time curve (AUC0®48 of the innovator and the generic product were 160.64±152.89 (range 18.57- 550.32 and 144.03±127.37 (range 16.27-456.0 ng.hr/ml, respectively. The time to maximum concentration (Tmax of theinnovator and the generic product were 0.97±0.41(range 0.5-2 and 1.02±0.32 (range 0.5-1.5 hr, respectively. The 90% confidence interval of the ratio of the ln-transformed of Cmax and AUC0à48 of both preparations were 89.39-112.99% and80.02-107.28% respectively which were within the acceptance range of 80.00-125.00%. Therefore, it can be concluded that both preparations used in this study are bioequivalent in terms of both the rate and extent of absorption.

  7. Application of orange G dye for quantitation of citalopram hydrobromide, donepezil hydrochloride and rabeprazole sodium from tablet formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillai S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Three simple, rapid and accurate visible spectrophotometric methods have been developed using Orange G dye for the quantitative estimation of citalopram hydrobromide, donepezil hydrochloride and rabeprazole sodium from respective tablet formulations. These developed methods are based on formation of chloroform-extractable coloured complex of drug and dye. The extracted coloured complex shows absorption maxima at 476 nm and linearity in the concentration range of 10-50 μg/ml for citalopram hydrobromide (method I; at 482 nm and linearity in the concentration range of 5-35 μg/ml for donepezil hydrochloride (method II and at 477.4 nm with linearity in the concentration range of 10-70 μg/ml for rabeprazole sodium (method III. The results of analysis for all three developed methods were validated statistically and by recovery studies.

  8. Fabrication a new modified electrochemical sensor based on Au-Pd bimetallic nanoparticle decorated graphene for citalopram determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar, Leili; Rounaghi, Gholam Hossein; Es'haghi, Zarrin; Chamsaz, Mahmoud; Tarahomi, Somayeh

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes a simple approach for sensing of citalopram (CTL) using gold-palladium bimetallic nanoparticles (Au-PdNPs) decorated graphene modified gold electrode. Au-PdNPs were deposited at the surface of a graphene modified gold electrode with simple electrodeposition method. The morphology and the electrochemical properties of the modified electrode were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The novel sensor exhibited an excellent catalytic activity towards the oxidation of CTL. The oxidation peak current of CTL, was linear in the range of 0.5-50μM with a detection limit 0.049μM with respect to concentration of citalopram. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for determination of CTL tablet and human plasma samples with satisfactory results. PMID:27612758

  9. Neonatal citalopram exposure decreases serotonergic fiber density in the olfactory bulb of male but not female adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Junlin eZhang; Dennis, Katie A.; Darling, Ryan D.; Loai eAlzghoul; Paul, Ian A.; Simpson, Kimberly L.; Lin, Rick C.S.

    2013-01-01

    Manipulation of serotonin (5HT) during early development has been shown to induce long-lasting morphological changes within the raphe nuclear complex and serotonergic circuitry throughout the brain. Recent studies have demonstrated altered raphe-derived 5HT transporter (SERT) immunoreactive axonal expression in several cortical target sites after brief perinatal exposure to selective 5HT reuptake inhibitors such as citalopram (CTM). Since the serotonergic raphe nuclear complex projects to the...

  10. Effects of citalopram treatment on behavioural, cardiovascular and neuroendocrine response to cholecystokinin tetrapeptide challenge in patients with panic disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Shlik, J; Aluoja, A; Vasar, V; Vasar, E.; Podar, T; Bradwejn, J

    1997-01-01

    Eight patients with panic disorder were administered 20 micrograms of cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4) before and after 8 weeks of treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram. All patients responded to treatment by showing a significant general improvement and reaching a panic-free state for 2 weeks. At the rechallenge with CCK-4, patients displayed a marked reduction in the intensity and number of panic symptoms. The frequency of panic attacks induced with...

  11. Marked Mydriasis and Neuritis Nervi Optici Associated with Galactorrhea Following Citalopram Treatment: A Case Report and Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Horst J.; Heike Zellmer

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a 25-year-old women suffering from major depression who was treated with citalopram for several weeks with doses between 20 mg and 60 mg. She gradually developed marked mydriasis within 2 months after treatment and subsequently neuritis nervi optici. Moreover, abrupt galactorrhea occurred after 2 months of treatment. All neuro-ophthalmological, neurophysiological, clinical laboratory, and neuroradiological diagnostic efforts did not reveal an underlying organic pathophys...

  12. Efficacy and safety evaluation of citalopram and doxepin on sleep quality in comorbid insomnia and anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Junfeng; Chang, Fei; Zu, Hengbing

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are frequently comorbid with insomnia, and sleep disturbance in patients with anxiety disorders is the most common complaint. Antidepressants can affect sleep quality; however, their effect in patients with comorbid insomnia and anxiety disorders is unclear. The aim of the present study was to comprehensively evaluate the dose, treatment duration, treatment efficacy and safety of clinical citalopram and doxepin application in patients with comorbid insomnia and anxiety disor...

  13. Mutational Mapping and Modeling of the Binding Site for (S)-Citalopram in the Human Serotonin Transporter*

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Jacob; Olsen, Lars; Hansen, Kasper B.; Taboureau, Olivier; Jørgensen, Flemming S.; Jørgensen, Anne Marie; Bang-Andersen, Benny; Egebjerg, Jan; Strømgaard, Kristian; Kristensen, Anders S.

    2009-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) regulates extracellular levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) in the brain by facilitating uptake of released 5-hydroxytryptamine into neuronal cells. SERT is the target for widely used antidepressant drugs, including imipramine, fluoxetine, and (S)-citalopram, which are competitive inhibitors of the transport function. Knowledge of the molecular details of the antidepressant binding sites in SERT has been limited due to lack of struct...

  14. Panic attacks 10 years after heart transplantation successfully treated with low-dose citalopram: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Chenyu; ZHUANG, Yamin; Ji, Jianlin; Chen, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Summary Panic attacks are common among patients who have undergone heart transplantation, but there are no clinical guidelines for the treatment of panic attacks in this group of patients. This report describes a 22-year-old woman who experienced panic attacks 10 years after heart transplant surgery. The attacks started after she discovered that the average post-transplantation survival is 10 years. Treated with citalopram 10 mg/d, her symptoms improved significantly after 2 weeks and had com...

  15. Efficacy and safety of risperidone oral solution in agitation associated with dementia in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laks Jerson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD contribute to caregiver burden and institutionalization of elderly. Neuroleptics are prescribed to control agitation. Side effects of typical neuroleptics are harmful, making atypical neuroleptics an indication. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate efficacy and tolerability of risperidone oral solution (ROS given once daily to demented elderly outpatients with BPSD (agitation. METHOD: Patients (n=26, 76.35±8.63 years, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th ed. (DSM-IV criteria for dementia. RSO was given, starting dose of 0.25 mg and increments of 0.25 mg every week. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE assessed cognitive status, Behavioral and Emotional Activities Manifested in Dementia (BEAM-D and Clinical Global Impression (CGI measured BPSD, Extrapiramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS evaluated extrapyramidal symptoms. Cardiovascular side effects were evaluated clinically. RESULTS: There was a 26% reduction in agitation and no cardiovascular side effects in the range from 1.0 to 1.25 mg. Side effects were more prevalent above 2.5 mg. CONCLUSION: Risperidone oral solution improved agitation with good tolerability from 0.5 to 1.25 mg. A single dose with increments of 0.25 mg may be more acceptable to patients and caregivers.

  16. Risperidone long-acting injection: a review of its long term safety and efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K Rainer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael K RainerMemory-Clinic and Psychiatric Department, Donauspital, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: A long-acting form of the second-generation antipsychotic drug risperidone is now broadly available for the treatment of schizophrenia and closely related psychiatric conditions. It combines the advantage of previously available depot formulations for first-generation drugs with the favorable characteristics of the modern “atypical” antipsychotics, namely higher efficacy in the treatment of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia and reduced motor disturbances. Published clinical studies show an objective clinical efficacy (as per psychiatric symptom scores and relapse data that exceeds that of oral atypical antipsychotics when patients are switched to the long-acting injectable form, a low incidence of treatment-emergent extrapyramidal side effects, and very good acceptance by patients. Available data for maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder show equivalence with the oral form instead of superiority, but are still limited. As it seems likely that efficacy benefits are mostly due to the fact that the injectable form reduces the demand for patient compliance to one physician visit every 2 weeks instead of self-administration on a daily or twice-daily basis, additional potential could exist in other psychiatric disorders where atypical antipsychotic drugs are of benefit but where patient adherence to treatment schedules is typically low.Keywords: risperidone, schizophrenia, psychotic disorders, patient compliance; delayed-action preparations, injections, intramuscular

  17. Risperidone-associated adverse drug reactions and CYP2D6 polymorphisms in a South African cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyren M. Dodgen

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: CYP2D6 variation appeared not to be a good pharmacogenetic marker for predicting risperidone-related ADRs in this naturalistic South African cohort. Evaluation of a larger cohort would be needed to confirm these observations, including an examination of the role of potential intermediaries between the hypothesised genetic and clinical phenotypes.

  18. A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial of "Ginkgo Biloba" Added to Risperidone in Patients with Autistic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Elmira; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Rezazadeh, Shams-Ali; Tabrizi, Mina; Rezaei, Farzin; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2012-01-01

    "Ginkgo biloba" has been reported to affect the neurotransmitter system and to have antioxidant properties that could impact the pathogenesis of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Based on these studies, we decided to assess the effectiveness of "Ginkgo biloba" extract (Ginko T.D., Tolidaru, Iran) as an adjunctive agent to risperidone in the treatment of…

  19. Effects of risperidone on core symptoms of autistic disorder based on childhood autism rating scale: An open label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padideh Ghaeli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of risperidone in patients afflicted by autistic disorder especially with regards to its three core symptoms, including "relating to others", "communication skills", and "stereotyped behaviors" based on Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS. Materials and Methods: An 8-week open-label study of risperidone for treatment of autistic disorder in children 4-17 years old was designed. Risperidone dose titration was as follow: 0.02 mg/kg/day at the first week, 0.04 mg/kg/day at the second week, and 0.06 mg/kg/day at the third week and thereafter. The outcome measures were scores obtained by CARS, Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC, and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I scale. Results: Fifteen patients completed this study. After 8 weeks, CARS total score decreased significantly, (P=0.001. At the end of the study, social interactions and verbal communication skills of the patients were significantly improved (P<0.001, P=0.03, respectively. However, stereotypic behaviors did not show any significant change in this study. Increase in appetite and somnolence were the most reported side effects. Conclusion: This study suggests that risperidone may be an effective treatment for the management of core symptoms of autistic disorder.

  20. Add-on effects of a low-dose aripiprazole in resolving hyperprolactinemia induced by risperidone or paliperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Ying; Yang, Fuzhong; Li, Chunbo; Guo, Qian; Wen, Hui; Zhu, Suoyu; Ouyang, Qiong; Shen, Weidi; Sheng, Jianhua

    2016-03-30

    This study investigated the effects of a low-dose aripiprazole adjunctive treatment for risperidone- or paliperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia in Han Chinese women with schizophrenia. After 4 weeks of risperidone or paliperidone treatment, 60 out of 66 patients improved significantly and experienced hyperprolactinemia. They were randomly assigned to the treatment group (aripiprazole adjunctive treatment) (n=30) or control group (non-adjunctive treatment) (n=30). The dosage of risperidone and paliperidone were maintained; and aripiprazole was maintained at 5mg/day during the 8-week study period. The prolactin levels at the end of the 8th week were significantly lower in the treatment group than in the control group. The estradiol level correlated negatively with serum prolactin level both in the treatment group and the control group at the end of the 8th week and the 4th week respectively. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score improved significantly during the 8-week study period in both groups. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse event was similar in two groups. Low-dose aripiprazole adjunctive treatment is effective in relieving risperidone- and paliperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia in female schizophrenic patients without increasing adverse event. PMID:26921057

  1. Waterborne citalopram has anxiolytic effects and increases locomotor activity in the three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, M; Porseryd, T; Hallgren, S; Porsch-Hällström, I; Hansen, S H; Olsén, K H

    2016-04-01

    Citalopram is an antidepressant drug, which acts by inhibiting the re-uptake of serotonin from the synaptic cleft into the pre-synaptic nerve ending. It is one of the most common drugs used in treatment of depression, it is highly lipophilic and frequently found in sewage treatment plant effluents and surface waters around the world. Citalopram and other selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors have, at concentrations that occur in nature, been shown to have behavioural as well as physiological effects on fish and other animals. This study is the result of several different experiments, intended to analyse different aspects of behavioural effects of chronic citalopram exposure in fish. Our model species the three-spine stickleback is common in the entire northern hemisphere and is considered to be a good environmental sentinel species. Female three-spine sticklebacks were exposed to 0, 1.5 and 15μg/l nominal concentrations of citalopram for 21 days and subjected to the novel tank (NT) diving test. In the NT test, the fish exposed to 1.5μg/l, but not the 15μg/l fish made a significantly higher number of transitions to the upper half and stayed there for significantly longer time than the fish exposed to 0μg/l. The 15μg/l group, however, displayed a significantly lower number of freeze bouts and a shorter total freezing time. The test for locomotor activity included in the NT test showed that fish treated with 1.5 and 15μg/l displayed a significantly higher swimming activity than control fish both 5-7 and 15-17min after the start of the experiment. In the next experiment we compared fish exposed to 1.5μg/l and 0.15μg/l to pure water controls with regard to shoaling intensity and found no effect of treatment. In the final experiment the propensity of fish treated with 1.5μg/l to approach an unknown object and aggressive behaviour was investigated using the Novel Object test and a mirror test, respectively. The exposed fish ventured close to the unknown object

  2. Efficacy and Safety of Risperidone and Quetiapine in Adolescents With Bipolar II Disorder Comorbid With Conduct Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Gabriele; Milone, Annarita; Stawinoga, Agnieszka; Veltri, Stefania; Pisano, Simone

    2015-10-01

    Although a frequent co-occurrence between bipolar disorder (BD) and conduct disorder (CD) in youth has been frequently reported, data about pharmacological management are scarce and focused on BD type I. Second generation antipsychotics are frequently used in clinical practice, but no comparative studies are available. The aim of this exploratory study was to compare efficacy and safety of risperidone and quetiapine in a sample of adolescents presenting a BD type II comorbid with CD. Twenty-two patients diagnosed with a structured interview according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, (male/female ratio, 12/10; mean (SD) age 15.0 (1.4) years) were randomized in 2 treatment groups (quetiapine [n = 12] vs risperidone [n = 10]), treated with flexible doses, and followed up for 12 weeks. Efficacy measures assessed manic symptoms, aggression, anxiety, depression, global clinical severity, and impairment. Safety measures included body mass index, serum prolactin, extrapyramidal adverse effects, and electrocardiogram. At the end of the study, all patients improved in all efficacy measures. Both treatments showed similar efficacy in reducing manic symptoms and aggression. Quetiapine was more effective in improving anxiety and depressive symptoms. A change in body mass index was found, and in a post hoc analysis, it was significant only in the risperidone group. Prolactin significantly increased only in the risperidone group. In BD type II, CD comorbidity, quetiapine, or risperidone monotherapy may be effective and relatively safe, although the small sample size, the limited duration of the study, and the design (lack of a blind assessments and of a placebo group) make it difficult to draw definitive conclusions. PMID:26226481

  3. No change of dopamine transporter density in basal ganglia after risperidone treatment in drug-naive children with Tourette's disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourette's disorder (TD), which is characterized by multiple waxing and waning motor tics and one or more vocal tics, is known to be associated with abnormalities in the dopaminergic system. To testify our hypothesis that risperidone would improve tic symptoms of TD patients through the change of the dopaminergic system, we measured the DAT densities between drug-naive children with TD and normal children investigated the DAT density before and after treatment with risperidone in drug-naive children with TD, using lodine-123 labelled N-(3-iodopropen-2-yl)-2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-chlorophenyl) tropane(I-123 IPT) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). I-123 IPT SPECT imaging and Yale Global Tic Severity Scale-Korean version (YGTSS-K) for assessing the tic symptom severity were carried out before and after treatment with risperidone for 8 weeks in eight drug-naive children with TD. Eight normal children also underwent SPECT imaging 2 hours after an intravenous administration of I-123 IPT and carried out both quantitative and qualitative analyses using the obtained SPECT data, which were reconstructed for the assessment of the specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio in the basal ganglia. The drug-naive children with TD had a significantly greater increase in the specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of both basal ganglia compared with the normal children. However, no significant difference in the specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of the basal ganglia before and after treatment with riperidone in children with TD was not found, although tic symptoms were significantly improved with risperidone. These findings suggest that DAT densities are directly associated with the pathophysiology of TD, however, that the effect of risperidone on tic symptoms in children with TD is not attributed to the change of dopaminergic system

  4. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT of anxiety disorders before and after treatment with citalopram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seedat Soraya

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have now examined the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI treatment on brain function in a variety of anxiety disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and social anxiety disorder (social phobia (SAD. Regional changes in cerebral perfusion following SSRI treatment have been shown for all three disorders. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC (OCD, caudate (OCD, medial pre-frontal/cingulate (OCD, SAD, PTSD, temporal (OCD, SAD, PTSD and, thalamic regions (OCD, SAD are some of those implicated. Some data also suggests that higher perfusion pre-treatment in the anterior cingulate (PTSD, OFC, caudate (OCD and antero-lateral temporal region (SAD predicts subsequent treatment response. This paper further examines the notion of overlap in the neurocircuitry of treatment and indeed treatment response across anxiety disorders with SSRI treatment. Methods Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT using Tc-99 m HMPAO to assess brain perfusion was performed on subjects with OCD, PTSD, and SAD before and after 8 weeks (SAD and 12 weeks (OCD and PTSD treatment with the SSRI citalopram. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM was used to compare scans (pre- vs post-medication, and responders vs non-responders in the combined group of subjects. Results Citalopram treatment resulted in significant deactivation (p = 0.001 for the entire group in the superior (t = 4.78 and anterior (t = 4.04 cingulate, right thalamus (t = 4.66 and left hippocampus (t = 3.96. Deactivation (p = 0.001 within the left precentral (t = 4.26, right mid-frontal (t = 4.03, right inferior frontal (t = 3.99, left prefrontal (3.81 and right precuneus (t= 3.85 was more marked in treatment responders. No pattern of baseline activation distinguished responders from non-responders to subsequent pharmacotherapy. Conclusions Although each of the anxiety disorders may be mediated by different

  5. Studies on the interaction between promethazine and human serum albumin in the presence of flavonoids by spectroscopic and molecular modeling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling-Ling; Wang, Zhi-Xin; Wang, Yong-Xia; Liu, Xian-Ping; Yang, Yan-Jie; Gao, Yan-Ping; Wang, Xin; Liu, Bin; Wang, Xin

    2016-09-01

    Fluorescence, absorption, time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC), and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic techniques as well as molecular modeling methods were used to study the binding characterization of promethazine (PMT) to human serum albumin (HSA) and the influence of flavonoids, rutin and baicalin, on their affinity. The results indicated that the fluorescence quenching mechanism of HSA by PMT is a static quenching due to the formation of complex. The reaction was spontaneous and mainly mediated by hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. The binding distance between the tryptophan residue of HSA and PMT is less than 8nm, which indicated that the energy transfer from the tryptophan residue of HSA to PMT occurred. The binding site of PMT on HSA was located in sites I and the presence of PMT can cause the conformational changes of HSA. There was the competitive binding to HSA between PMT and flavonoids because of the overlap of binding sites in HSA. The flavonoids could decrease the association constant and increase the binding distance. In addition, their synergistic effect can further change the conformation of HSA. The decrease in the affinities of PMT binding to HSA in the presence of flavonoids may lead to the increase of free drug in blood, which would affect the transportation or disposition of drug and evoke an adverse or toxic effect. Hence, rationalising dosage and diet regimens should be taken into account in clinical application of PMT. PMID:27315330

  6. The S-enantiomer of R,S-citalopram, increases inhibitor binding to the human serotonin transporter by an allosteric mechanism. Comparison with other serotonin transporter inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fenghua; Larsen, Mads Breum; Sánchez, Connie;

    2005-01-01

    The interaction of the S- and R-enantiomers (escitalopram and R-citalopram) of citalopram, with high- and low-affinity binding sites in COS-1 cell membranes expressing human SERT (hSERT) were investigated. Escitalopram affinity for hSERT and its 5-HT uptake inhibitory potency was in the nanomolar...... range and approximately 40-fold more potent than R-citalopram. Escitalopram considerably stabilised the [3H]-escitalopram/SERT complex via an allosteric effect at a low-affinity binding site. The stereoselectivity between escitalopram and R-citalopram was approximately 3:1 for the [3H]-escitalopram....../hSERT complex. The combined effect of escitalopram and R-citalopram was additive. Paroxetine and sertraline mainly stabilised the [3H]-paroxetine/hSERT complex. Fluoxetine, duloxetine and venlafaxine have only minor effects. 5-HT stabilised the [125I]-RTI-55, [3H]-MADAM, [3H]-paroxetine, [3H]-fluoxetine and [3H...

  7. The S-enantiomer of R, S-citalopram, increases inhibitor binding to the human serotonin transporter by an allosteric mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fenghua; Larsen, Mads; Sanchez, Connie;

    2005-01-01

    The interaction of the S- and R-enantiomers (escitalopram and R-citalopram) of citalopram, with high- and low-affinity binding sites in COS-1 cell membranes expressing human SERT (hSERT) were investigated. Escitalopram affinity for hSERT and its 5-HT uptake inhibitory potency was in the nanomolar...... range and approximately 40-fold more potent than R-citalopram. Escitalopram considerably stabilised the [3H]-escitalopram/SERT complex via an allosteric effect at a low-affinity binding site. The stereoselectivity between escitalopram and R-citalopram was approximately 3:1 for the [3H]-escitalopram....../hSERT complex. The combined effect of escitalopram and R-citalopram was additive. Paroxetine and sertraline mainly stabilised the [3H]-paroxetine/hSERT complex. Fluoxetine, duloxetine and venlafaxine have only minor effects. 5-HT stabilised the [125I]-RTI-55, [3H]-MADAM, [3H]-paroxetine, [3H]-fluoxetine and [3H...

  8. “Positive allosteric modulation of AMPA receptors differentially modulates the behavioural effects of citalopram in mouse models of antidepressant and anxiolytic action”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzpatrick, Ciarán Martin; Larsen, Maria; Madsen, Louise;

    2016-01-01

    serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram (0-10 mg/kg) was investigated in mice, using the APAM LY451646 (0-3 mg/kg). Antidepressant-like effects were assessed with the forced swim test (FST), while anxiolytic-like effects were tested with the elevated zero maze (EZM) and the marble burying test (MBT......). LY451646 (3 mg/kg) increased swim distance in the FST and a sub-active dose of LY451646 (1 mg/kg) enhanced the effect of citalopram in the FST. In the EZM, LY451646 (3 mg/kg) did not show anxiogenic effects alone, but blocked the anxiolytic-like action of citalopram in the EZM, as reflected by an...... increase in the latency to enter the open areas and a decrease in the number of entries and time spent in the open areas in citalopram-treated mice. In the MBT, LY451646 (3 mg/kg) showed no effect alone but significantly attenuated the anxiolytic-like effect of citalopram (1.25-2.5 mg/kg) by increasing the...

  9. Rapid tranquilization for agitated patients in emergency psychiatric rooms: a randomized trial of olanzapine, ziprasidone, haloperidol plus promethazine, haloperidol plus midazolam and haloperidol alone Tranquilização rápida para pacientes agitados nos serviços de emergência psiquiátrica: um ensaio clínico randomisado de olanzapina, ziprasidona, haloperidol mais prometazina, haloperidol mais midazolam e haloperidol em monoterapia

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Baldaçara; Marsal Sanches; Daniel Cruz Cordeiro; Andrea Parolin Jackowski

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of intramuscular olanzapine, ziprasidone, haloperidol plus promethazine, haloperidol plus midazolam and haloperidol alone as the first medication(s) used to treat patients with agitation and aggressive behavior. METHOD: One hundred fifty patients with agitation caused by psychotic or bipolar disorder were randomly assigned under double-blind conditions to receive olanzapine, ziprasidone, haloperidol plus midazolam, haloperidol plus promethazine or halop...

  10. Maternal Pharmacokinetics and Fetal Disposition of (±)-Citalopram during Mouse Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Juan C; Goeden, Nick; Herod, Skyla M; Bonnin, Alexandre

    2016-03-16

    While selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants are commonly prescribed in the treatment of depression, their use during pregnancy leads to fetal drug exposures. According to recent reports, such exposures could affect fetal development and long-term offspring health. A central question is how pregnancy-induced physical and physiological changes in mothers, fetuses, and the placenta influence fetal SSRI exposures during gestation. In this study, we examined the effects of gestational stage on the maternal pharmacokinetics and fetal disposition of the SSRI (±)-citalopram (CIT) in a mouse model. We determined the maternal and fetal CIT serum concentration-time profiles following acute maternal administration on gestational days (GD)14 and GD18, as well as the fetal brain drug disposition. The results show that pregnancy affects the pharmacokinetics of CIT and that maternal drug clearance increases as gestation progresses. The data further show that CIT and its primary metabolite desmethylcitalopram (DCIT) readily cross the placenta into the fetal compartment, and fetal exposure to CIT exceeds that of the mother during gestation 2 h after maternal administration. Enzymatic activity assays revealed that fetal drug metabolic capacity develops in late gestation, resulting in elevated circulating and brain concentrations of DCIT at embryonic day (E)18. Fetal exposure to the SSRI CIT in murine pregnancy is therefore influenced by both maternal gestational stage and embryonic development, suggesting potential time-dependent effects on fetal brain development. PMID:26765210

  11. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome in a patient taking citalopram and Hydroxycut: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetanovich Gregory L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome presents with thunderclap headaches accompanied by mild neurologic deficits and is characterized by multifocal narrowing of the cerebral arteries that resolves over days to weeks. This syndrome may be idiopathic or occur in special contexts, most often involving adrenergic or serotonergic overactivity. To the best of our knowledge, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome has not previously been reported in association with Hydroxycut use in the literature. Case Presentation We report the case of a 65-year-old Caucasian woman on longstanding citalopram who developed reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome two weeks after beginning to take the weight-loss supplement Hydroxycut. Conclusion There are sparse data about the safety of herbal supplements such as Hydroxycut, even though the Food and Drug Administration has banned some herbal ingredients, such as ephedra, that were in this preparation in the past. This case highlights the importance of considering herbal supplements and potential drug interactions in the genesis of otherwise unexplained reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome.

  12. Effectiveness and tolerability of citalopram for the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: an open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirman, Shella; Kronenberg, Sefi; Apter, Alan; Brent, David; Melhem, Nadine; Pick, Nimrod; Carmel, Miri; Frisch, Amos; Weizman, Abraham; Gothelf, Doron

    2010-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness and tolerability of citalopram for the acute treatment of children and adolescents suffering from depression and/or anxiety disorders. As much as 78 outpatients, aged 7-18 years with a diagnosis of depressive and/or anxiety disorder, completed an 8-week open trial with citalopram (20-40 mg/day). Outcome, side effects and suicidality were assessed weekly to bi-weekly using appropriate rating scales. At endpoint 56% of subjects were found to be responders (Clinical Global Impression-Improvement [CGI-I] Scale R) and Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). Most reported adverse events were mild to moderate and did not affect medication adherence. No increase in suicidality was observed during the study. Citalopram was moderately effective, generally well tolerated and safe for the acute treatment of depressed and anxious children and adolescents. PMID:19851705

  13. The Efficacy of Citalopram in the Treatment of Functional Abdominal Pain in Children: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Pourmoghaddas

    2014-04-01

    Eighty six patients completed the trial (43 in each group. Treatment response rate in the citalopram and the placebo group was 55.8% and 39.5% at week 4 (P=0.097 and 72.0% and 53.4% at week 12 (P=0.059, respectively. Controlling for baseline characteristics, more reduction was observed in pain (z=-2.67, P=0.008 and global severity scores (z=-3.08, P=0.002 in the citalopram group compared with the placebo group. Changes in depression, anxiety, and somatization scores were comparable between the two groups. Receiving citalopram (OR=7.718, P=0.006, father education level (OR=3.179, P=0.040, baseline pain score (OR=5.621, P

  14. No change in [¹¹C]CUMI-101 binding to 5-HT(1A) receptors after intravenous citalopram in human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Lars H; Feng, Ling; Haahr, Mette E;

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity of [¹¹C]CUMI-101 to citalopram challenge aiming at increasing extracellular 5-HT. CUMI-101 has agonistic properties in human embryonic kidney 293 cells transfected with human recombinant 5-HT(1A) receptors (Hendry et al. [2011] Nucl...... Med Biol 38:273-277; Kumar et al. [2006] J Med Chem 49:125-134) and has previously been demonstrated to be sensitive to bolus citalopram in monkeys (Milak et al. [2011] J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 31:243-249). We studied six healthy individuals. Two PET-scans were performed on the same day in each...... individual before and after constant infusion of citalopram (0.15 mg/kg). The imaging data were analyzed using two tissue compartment kinetic modeling with metabolite corrected arterial input and Simplified Reference Tissue Modeling using cerebellum as a reference region. There was no significant difference...

  15. Dystonia in an adolescent on risperidone following the discontinuation of methylphenidate: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Gulen; Yildirim, Veli; Kutuk, Meryem Ozlem; Toros, Fevziye

    2015-04-30

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with common comorbidities that include oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, anxiety disorder, and affective disorders. Because of these comorbidities, drug combination treatments and drug-drug interactions are becoming increasingly more frequent. The present case report describes an acute dystonic reaction following the abrupt discontinuation of methylphenidate from a drug regimen with risperidone. The patient experienced acute dystonic reactions on three separate occasions when he forgot to take his methylphenidate medication. The present report informs clinicians about the possible side effects, such as dystonia, when psychostimulant and antipsychotic drug combinations are altered and suggests that the abrupt cessation of stimulants may lead to the development of movement disorders. Therefore, appropriate care is necessary when changing the dose of a drug or abruptly discontinuing a drug from a combination of psychostimulants and antipsychotics. PMID:25912546

  16. Risperidone, quetiapine and chlorpromazine may have induced priapism in an adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytunca, Muharrem Burak; Kose, Sezen; Ozbaran, Burcu; Erermis, Serpil

    2016-01-01

    Priapism is the prolonged, painful erection of penile tissue not accompanied by sexual arousal. Priapism has been established as a rare adverse drug reaction to drugs such as antipsychotics, psychostimulants, antidepressants, and mood stabilizers. Immediate intervention is needed to prevent destructive and irreversible complications, such as erectile dysfunction, disfigurement, inability of the penis to stay erect, and related social/emotional problems. Antipsychotic-induced priapism may result from the alpha receptor occupancy property of those drugs. We report the case of a 13-year-old suffering from attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder plus conduct disorder with priapism related to antipsychotics. Episodes occurred with risperidone plus methylphenidate, quetiapine plus methylphenidate, and chlorpromazine alone. PMID:26542690

  17. Sexual dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia treated with conventional antipsychotics or risperidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liu-Seifert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hong Liu-Seifert1, Bruce J Kinon1, Christopher J Tennant2, Jennifer Sniadecki1, Jan Volavka31Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2CJT Biomedical Consulting, South Lake Tahoe, CA, USA; 3New York University, New York, NY, USAObjective: To better understand sexual dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia and its associations with prolactin and reproductive hormones.Methods: This was a secondary analysis of an open-label, one-day study (N = 402. The primary objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in patients with schizophrenia who had been treated with conventional antipsychotics or risperidone. Other atypical antipsychotics available at the time of the study were not included due to a more favorable prolactin profile.Results: The majority of patients (59% of females and 60% of males reported impairment of sexual function. In postmenopausal females, risk of impaired sexual interest was increased by 31% for every 10 ng/ml increase in prolactin (p = 0.035. In males, lower testosterone was associated with higher prolactin (p < 0.001 and with orgasmic (p = 0.004 and ejaculatory dysfunction (p = 0.028.Conclusion: These findings suggest that hyperprolactinemia may be associated with sexual dysfunction. They also provide more information on the relationships between prolactin, reproductive hormones, and sexual dysfunction. Sexual dysfunction is an understudied yet important consideration in the treatment of schizophrenia. More attention is warranted in this area as it may provide opportunities for improved quality of life and adherence to treatment for patients.Keywords: sexual dysfunction, schizophrenia, hyperprolactinemia, antipsychotics, risperidone

  18. Escitalopram Versus Citalopram and Sertraline: A Double-Blind Controlled, Multi-centric Trial in Indian Patients with Unipolar Major Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Lalit, Vaya; Appaya, Prakash M.; Hegde, Rajendra P.; Mital, Anukant K.; Mittal, Sunil; Nagpal, Rajesh; Palaniappun, Vaiapuri; Ramsubramaniam, C.; Rao, Gundugurti P.; Roy, Krishna; Trivedi, Jitendra K.; Ganpat K. Vankar; Karan, Rajesh S.; Shah, Sweety; Patel, Ronak B.

    2004-01-01

    The present randomized, double blind, parallel group, controlled, multi-centric trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram in comparison with citalopram and sertraline in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Outpatients (N=214) with an ongoing/newly diagnosed ICD-10 major depressive episode and a Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) score of > 18 were randomly assigned to citalopram, 20–40 mg/day (74 patients), escitalopram, 10–20 mg/day (69 pa...

  19. High- and low-affinity binding of S-citalopram to the human serotonin transporter mutated at 20 putatively important amino acid positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plenge, Per; Wiborg, Ove

    2005-01-01

    uptake inhibitors and serotonin (5-HT) have been found on SERT. At one site, uptake inhibitors bind with high-affinity to SERT, thereby blocking the uptake of 5-HT. The other site is a low-affinity allosteric site, which influences the dissociation of uptake inhibitors, such as imipramine, paroxetine......, and citalopram from the first site, when occupied by 5-HT and a few uptake inhibitors like paroxetine and citalopram. In this study, the connection between the high-affinity binding site and the allosteric affinity-modulating site was investigated by introducing 20 single amino acid substitutions into...

  20. A Danish cost-effectiveness model of escitalopram in comparison with citalopram and venlafaxine as first-line treatments for major depressive disorder in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan; Stage, Kurt B; Damsbo, Niels;

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to model the cost-effectiveness of escitalopram in comparison with generic citalopram and venlafaxine in primary care treatment of major depressive disorder (baseline scores 22-40 on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, MADRS) in Denmark. A three......,778 healthcare, DKK 87,786 societal). Remission rates and costs were similar for escitalopram and venlafaxine. Robustness of the findings was verified in multivariate sensitivity analyses. For patients in primary care, escitalopram appears to be a cost-effective alternative to (generic) citalopram, with greater...

  1. Predicting beneficial effects of atomoxetine and citalopram on response inhibition in Parkinson's disease with clinical and neuroimaging measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zheng; Rae, Charlotte L; Nombela, Cristina; Ham, Timothy; Rittman, Timothy; Jones, Peter Simon; Rodríguez, Patricia Vázquez; Coyle-Gilchrist, Ian; Regenthal, Ralf; Altena, Ellemarije; Housden, Charlotte R; Maxwell, Helen; Sahakian, Barbara J; Barker, Roger A; Robbins, Trevor W; Rowe, James B

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies indicate that selective noradrenergic (atomoxetine) and serotonergic (citalopram) reuptake inhibitors may improve response inhibition in selected patients with Parkinson's disease, restoring behavioral performance and brain activity. We reassessed the behavioral efficacy of these drugs in a larger cohort and developed predictive models to identify patient responders. We used a double-blind randomized three-way crossover design to investigate stopping efficiency in 34 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease after 40 mg atomoxetine, 30 mg citalopram, or placebo. Diffusion-weighted and functional imaging measured microstructural properties and regional brain activations, respectively. We confirmed that Parkinson's disease impairs response inhibition. Overall, drug effects on response inhibition varied substantially across patients at both behavioral and brain activity levels. We therefore built binary classifiers with leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) to predict patients' responses in terms of improved stopping efficiency. We identified two optimal models: (1) a "clinical" model that predicted the response of an individual patient with 77-79% accuracy for atomoxetine and citalopram, using clinically available information including age, cognitive status, and levodopa equivalent dose, and a simple diffusion-weighted imaging scan; and (2) a "mechanistic" model that explained the behavioral response with 85% accuracy for each drug, using drug-induced changes of brain activations in the striatum and presupplementary motor area from functional imaging. These data support growing evidence for the role of noradrenaline and serotonin in inhibitory control. Although noradrenergic and serotonergic drugs have highly variable effects in patients with Parkinson's disease, the individual patient's response to each drug can be predicted using a pattern of clinical and neuroimaging features. PMID:26757216

  2. Memantine add on to citalopram in elderly patients with depression: A double-blind placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Omranifard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proper management of depression in elderly population would improve the outcome of the disease and reduce its related disability and mortality. Use of memantine with minimal side effects and drug interaction seems reasonable in the elderly but its antidepressant activity is controversial. The aim of the current research is to investigate the effects of add-on memantine during citalopram therapy in elderly patients with depression, in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind, placebo controlled trial study; elderly patients aged more than 60 years who were recently diagnosed with depression, were enrolled. The selected patients were randomlysplit into two groups, viz. intervention and placebo groups. The intervention was memantine (20 mg daily or identical placebo plus citalopram for 8 weeks. The severity of depression and quality of life was evaluated using Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15, Hamilton Rating Scale for depression (HRSD and World Health Organization Quality of Life WHOQOL-BREF respectively. The mentioned scores were evaluated at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks, after initiating the trial in two studied groups and compared with each other. Results: 28 and 29 patients were studied in the intervention and placebo groups, respectively. Score of GDS-15, HRSD and WHO-QOL-BREF scales at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks, after initiating trial did not change significantly after use of memantine (P > 0.05. There was no significant difference in mean +/- SD of GDS-15, HRSD and WHO-QOL-BREF scales among intervention and placebo groups (P > 0.05. Conclusion: The outcome of this clinical trial did not support the antidepressant effect of add-on memantine in elderly patients with depression receiving citalopram. It is recommended to design further studies considering the limitations of the current study mentioned herein and the effect of memantine with other anti-depressant agents.

  3. 西酞普兰引起肝功能异常%Abnormal hepatic function caused by citalopram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜赛平; 卢晓阳

    2011-01-01

    1例70岁男性患者因咳嗽、咯痰加重,伴发热、气促,给予头孢哌酮钠-舒巴坦钠、万古霉素、奥美拉唑、泼尼松、谷胱甘肽治疗。治疗第8天,因抑郁症给予西酞普兰10 mg,1次/d。第9天丙氨酸转氨酶(ALT)及天冬氨酸转氨酶(AST)分别从47 U/L、52 U/L升至139U/L、145 U/L。第10天因抑郁症状未控制,西酞普兰加量至20mg,1次/d。之后肝酶明显增高,第19天实验室检查示ALT529U/L,ASr 256 U/L。考虑为西酞普兰引起的肝功能异常,遂停用该药,其他合并用药继续应用。随后肝功能水平逐渐下降。%A 70-year-old man received cefoperazone sodium/sulbactam sodium, vancomycin, and oraeprazole for worsened cough and expectoration accompanied by a fever and short of breath. On day 8, he was given citalopram 10 mg once daily for depression. On day 9, his ALT and AST levels increased from 47 U/L and 52 U/L to 139 U/L and 145 U/L, respectively. The dosage of citalopram was increased to 20 mg once daily due to poor control of depression. Subsequently, his hepatic enzyme levels increased markedly and, on day 19, the laboratory tests revealed a ALT level of 529 U/L and a AST level of 256 U/L Abnormal hepatic function was considered to be induced by citalopram, so citalopram was stopped and other drugs were continued. Then his hepatic function gradually returned to normal.

  4. Very Low-Dose Risperidone in First-Episode Psychosis: A Safe and Effective Way to Initiate Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. McGorry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients experiencing a first psychotic episode have high rates of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPSs when treated with the doses of neuroleptics used in multiepisode or chronic schizophrenia. There is some evidence that lower doses may be equally, if not more, effective but less toxic in this population. Here, we report the results of a biphasic open label trial designed to assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of low-dose (2–4 mg/day risperidone treatment in a group of 96 first-episode nonaffective psychosis patients. At the end of the trial, 62% of patients met the response criteria although approximately 80% had achieved a response at some time during the study. Reports of EPS remained low, and there were no dystonic reactions. We conclude that even at a dose of 2 mg/day, risperidone was highly effective in reducing acute symptomatology in a real world sample of young first-episode psychosis patients.

  5. Assessment of effectiveness measures in patients with schizophrenia initiated on risperidone long-acting therapy: the SOURCE study results

    OpenAIRE

    Dirani Riad D; Kozma Chris M; Crivera Concetta; DeSouza Cherilyn; Macfadden Wayne; Mao Lian; Rodriguez Stephen C

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To evaluate effectiveness outcomes in a real-world setting in patients with schizophrenia initiating risperidone long-acting therapy (RLAT). Methods This was a 24-month, multicenter, prospective, longitudinal, observational study in patients with schizophrenia who were initiated on RLAT. Physicians could change treatment during the study as clinically warranted. Data were collected at baseline and subsequently every 3 months up to 24 months. Effectiveness outcomes included...

  6. Relationship between Dose, Drug Levels, and D2 Receptor Occupancy for the Atypical Antipsychotics Risperidone and Paliperidone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votaw, J. R.; Ritchie, J.; Howell, L. L.

    2012-01-01

    Blockade of D2 family dopamine receptors (D2Rs) is a fundamental property of antipsychotics, and the degree of striatal D2R occupancy has been related to antipsychotic and motor effects of these drugs. Recent studies suggest the D2R occupancy of antipsychotics may differ in extrastriatal regions compared with the dorsal striatum. We studied this issue in macaque monkeys by using a within-subjects design. [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography scans were obtained on four different doses of risperidone and paliperidone (the 9-OH metabolite of risperidone) and compared with multiple off-drug scans in each animal. The half-life of the two drugs in these monkeys was determined to be between 3 and 4 h, and drug was administered by a constant infusion through an intragastric catheter. The D2R occupancy of antipsychotic was determined in the caudate, putamen, ventral striatum, and four prefrontal and temporal cortical regions and was related to serum and cerebrospinal fluid drug levels. Repeated 2-week treatment with risperidone or paliperidone did not produce lasting changes in D2R binding potential in any region examined. As expected, D2R binding potential was highest in the caudate and putamen and was approximately one-third that level in the ventral striatum and 2% of that level in the cortical regions. We found dose-dependent D2R occupancy for both risperidone and paliperidone in both basal ganglia and cortical regions of interest. We could not find evidence of regional variation in D2R occupancy of either drug. Comparison of D2R occupancy and serum drug levels supports a target of 40 to 80 ng/ml active drug for these two atypical antipsychotics. PMID:22214649

  7. Effects of Environmental Manipulations and Treatment with Bupropion and Risperidone on Choice between Methamphetamine and Food in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Matthew L; Blough, Bruce E

    2015-08-01

    Preclinical and human laboratory choice procedures have been invaluable in improving our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms of drug reinforcement and in the drug development process for candidate medications to treat drug addiction. However, little is known about the neuropharmacological mechanisms of methamphetamine vs food choice. The aims of this study were to develop a methamphetamine vs food choice procedure and determine treatment effects with two clinically relevant compounds: the monoamine uptake inhibitor bupropion and the dopamine antagonist risperidone. Rhesus monkeys (n=6) responded under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio (FR) 100 schedule) and intravenous methamphetamine injections (0-0.32 mg/kg/injection, FR10 schedule) during 7-day bupropion (0.32-1.8 mg/kg/h) and risperidone (0.001-0.0056 mg/kg/h) treatment periods. For comparison, effects of removing food pellets or methamphetamine injections and FR response requirement manipulations were also examined. Under saline treatment conditions, food was preferred over no methamphetamine or small unit methamphetamine doses (0.01-0.032 mg/kg/injection). Larger methamphetamine doses resulted in greater methamphetamine preference and 0.32 mg/kg/injection methamphetamine maintained near exclusive preference. Removing food availability increased methamphetamine choice, whereas removing methamphetamine availability decreased methamphetamine choice. Methamphetamine choice was not significantly altered when the FR response requirements for food and drug were the same (FR100:FR100 or FR10:FR10). Risperidone treatment increased methamphetamine choice, whereas bupropion treatment did not alter methamphetamine choice up to doses that decreased rates of operant behavior. Overall, these negative results with bupropion and risperidone are concordant with previous human laboratory and clinical trials and support the potential validity of this preclinical methamphetamine vs food

  8. The Therapeutic Effectiveness of Risperidone on Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia in Comparison with Haloperidol: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    MIRABZADEH, Arash; Kimiaghalam, Pooneh; Fadai, Farbod; Samiei, Mercedeh; Daneshmand, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A number of research studies have shown that the new generation of neuroleptic medications can more effectively contribute to treating negative symptoms of schizophrenia compared with the first generation by influence cognitive functioning. The present study examined the therapeutic effectiveness of manufactured Risperidone and Haloperidol in Iran on treating the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Methods This randomized clinical trial (RCT) study examined 100 hospitalized patie...

  9. Adjunctive long-acting risperidone in patients with bipolar disorder who relapse frequently and have active mood symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Haskins John T; Turkoz Ibrahim; Adler Caleb M; Macfadden Wayne; Turner Norris; Alphs Larry

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this exploratory analysis was to characterize efficacy and onset of action of a 3-month treatment period with risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI), adjunctive to an individual's treatment regimen, in subjects with symptomatic bipolar disorder who relapsed frequently and had significant symptoms of mania and/or depression. Methods Subjects with bipolar disorder with ≥4 mood episodes in the past 12 months entered the open-label stabilization phase preced...

  10. Costi ed effetti di Risperidone Long Acting (RLA) rispetto ad antipsicotici atipici nel trattamento dei soggetti schizofrenici in Italia

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo G. Mantovani; Patrizia Berto; Anna D. Ausilio; Bart Heeg

    2004-01-01

    Objective: to estimate the costs and effects of long-acting risperidone (LAR) in the treatment of schizophrenic patients in Italy, as compared to conventional and oral atypical antipsychotics. Methods: a discrete event model was used. The model simulates patients. history for every single therapeutic alternative and selects incident events, on the basis of pre-defined probability distribution-powered, randomized repetitions. The model operates on two types of parameters: patient characteristi...

  11. A six month randomized controlled trial of long acting injectable risperidone 50 and 100mg in treatment resistant schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, H Y; Lindenmayer, J-P; Kwentus, J; Share, D B; Johnson, R; Jayathilake, K

    2014-04-01

    It has been suggested that atypical antipsychotic drugs (A-APDs) other than clozapine may be effective to improve positive symptoms in some patients with treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS), if both the dose is higher, and the duration of the trial longer, than those which have been ineffective in non-TRS (NTRS) patients. This hypothesis was tested with long acting injectable risperidone (Risperdal Consta®, RLAI). One hundred sixty TRS patients selected for persistent moderate-severe delusions or hallucinations, or both, were randomized to RLAI, 50 or 100mg biweekly, in a six month, outpatient, double-blind, multicenter trial. We hypothesized that RLAI, 100mg, would be more effective than RLAI, 50mg. However, both doses produced clinically significant and equivalent improvement in PANSS Total, Positive, and Negative subscale scores, as well as key cognitive, global and functional measures, with increasing response during the course of the study, confirming the value of longer clinical trial duration for patients with TRS, but not superiority of the higher dose. The overall response rate was comparable to that previously reported for clozapine and high dose olanzapine, another A-APD, in TRS. Both doses of RLAI were equally well tolerated, producing minimal extrapyramidal side effects and few drop outs. Plasma levels of the active moiety, risperidone+9-hydroxyrisperidone, during treatment with RLAI 100mg, were comparable to those for 6-8 mg/day oral risperidone, which have not been effective in TRS. Further study of RLAI, ≥ 50-100mg biweekly, should compare it with clozapine and oral risperidone in TRS, with duration of treatment ≥ six months. PMID:24630262

  12. Investigation on the binding activities of citalopram with human and bovine serum albumins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jingjing; Liu, Yan, E-mail: liuyan@fjirsm.ac.cn; Chen, Mingmao; Huang, Huayin; Song, Ling, E-mail: songling@fjirsm.ac.cn

    2014-02-15

    The binding interactions of citalopram (CIT), an efficient antidepressant, with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated by a series of spectroscopic methods including fluorescence, UV–vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD) and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR). The fluorescence quenching and UV–vis absorption studies reveal that CIT could form complexes with both HSA and BSA. The CIT–BSA complex exhibits higher binding affinity than CIT–HSA complex. The thermodynamic study further suggests that the interactions between CIT and SAs are mainly driven by hydrophobic forces and hydrogen bonds. The {sup 1}H NMR analysis indicates that the participation of different functional groups of CIT is unequal in the complexation of CIT–HSA and CIT–BSA. Site marker competitive experiments show that the interactions between CIT and SAs primarily locate at sub-domain II A (site I). The effects of CIT on the conformation of SAs are further analyzed via synchronous fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence and CD spectra techniques. The results prove that the presence of CIT decreases the α-helical content of both SAs and induces the slight unfolding of the polypeptides of protein. Additionally, the conformational change of BSA induced by CIT is larger than that of HSA. -- Highlights: • The difference of binding activity between CIT–BSA and CIT–HSA is first reported. • Use spectroscopic, thermodynamic, and NMR methods. • CIT exhibits higher binding affinity to BSA than to HSA. • The binding forces between CIT and SA have been investigated. • The complexation of CIT–SA induces the conformational change of SA.

  13. Minocycline and risperidone prevent microglia activation and rescue behavioral deficits induced by neonatal intrahippocampal injection of lipopolysaccharide in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furong Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various signs of activation of microglia have been reported in schizophrenia, and it is hypothesized that microglia activation is closely associated with the neuropathology of schizophrenia. METHODS: Neonatal intrahippocampal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, an activator of microglia, was performed in rats at postnatal day 7 (P7, and they were separately given saline, risperidone (0.5 mg/kg, minocycline (40 mg/kg or a combination of both of them at P42 for consecutive 14 days. Behavioral changes (locomotion activity, social interaction, novel object recognition and prepulse inhibition were examined and the number of microglia was assessed by using immunohistochemistry in adulthood. RESULTS: The adult rats in LPS-injected group showed obvious behavioral alteration (e. g. deficits in social interaction, novel object recognition and prepulse inhibition and a dramatic increase of number of activated microglial cells in the hippocampus and other brain regions such as cerebral cortex and thalamus compared to those in saline-injected group. Interestingly, application of either minocycline, risperidone or both of them significantly rescued behavioral deficits and attenuated microglia activation. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that inhibition of microglia activation may be one of mechanisms underlying the antipsychotic effect of minocycline and risperidone.

  14. Minocycline and Risperidone Prevent Microglia Activation and Rescue Behavioral Deficits Induced by Neonatal Intrahippocampal Injection of Lipopolysaccharide in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yu-qiang; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Xianghui; Wu, Renrong; Guo, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Jingping

    2014-01-01

    Background Various signs of activation of microglia have been reported in schizophrenia, and it is hypothesized that microglia activation is closely associated with the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Methods Neonatal intrahippocampal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an activator of microglia, was performed in rats at postnatal day 7 (P7), and they were separately given saline, risperidone (0.5 mg/kg), minocycline (40 mg/kg) or a combination of both of them at P42 for consecutive 14 days. Behavioral changes (locomotion activity, social interaction, novel object recognition and prepulse inhibition) were examined and the number of microglia was assessed by using immunohistochemistry in adulthood. Results The adult rats in LPS-injected group showed obvious behavioral alteration (e. g. deficits in social interaction, novel object recognition and prepulse inhibition) and a dramatic increase of number of activated microglial cells in the hippocampus and other brain regions such as cerebral cortex and thalamus compared to those in saline-injected group. Interestingly, application of either minocycline, risperidone or both of them significantly rescued behavioral deficits and attenuated microglia activation. Conclusion Our results suggest that inhibition of microglia activation may be one of mechanisms underlying the antipsychotic effect of minocycline and risperidone. PMID:24705495

  15. CB-1 receptors modulate the effect of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, citalopram on extracellular serotonin levels in the rat prefrontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, Jelle; Cremers, Thomas I. F. H.; Hofland, Corry M.; Westerink, Ben H. C.

    2011-01-01

    A large percentage of depressed individuals use drugs of abuse, like cannabis. This study investigates the impact of cannabis on the pharmacological effects of the antidepressant citalopram. Using microdialysis in the prefrontal cortex of rats we monitored serotonin levels before and after cannabino

  16. Quetiapine Augments the Effect of Citalopram in Non-Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of 76 Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.C.C. Vulink; D. Denys; S.B.A.H.A. Fluitman; J.C.M. Meinardi; H.G.M. Westenberg

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of quetiapine addition to citalopram in treatment-naive or medication-free obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. Method. Seventy-six patients who met DSM-IV criteria for OCD and who were drug-free or drug-naive at entry were randomly assigned in a 10-week, d

  17. Brief, unidimensional melancholia rating scales are highly sensitive to the effect of citalopram and may have biological validity: Domain Criteria (RDoC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Søren D; Bech, Per; Trivedi, Madhukar H;

    2014-01-01

    -item Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-C30) to that of their unidimensional six-item melancholia subscales (HAM-D6 and IDS-C6). METHODS: A total of 2242 subjects from level 1 (citalopram) of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR* study were included in the analysis...

  18. Location of the Antidepressant Binding Site in the Serotonin Transporter IMPORTANCE OF SER-438 IN RECOGNITION OF CITALOPRAM AND TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Taboureau, Olivier; Hansen, Kasper B.;

    2009-01-01

    antidepressants, including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram and the tricyclic antidepressants imipramine, clomipramine, and amitriptyline. A conservative mutation of Ser-438 to threonine (S438T) selectively increased the K-i values for these antidepressants up to 175-fold. The effects of...

  19. Citalopram with Mirtazapine treatment senile depression%西酞普兰与米氮平治疗老年期抑郁症对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏冬; 刘蕴霞; 席永稳

    2009-01-01

    目的:比较西酞普兰与米氮平治疗老年期抑郁症的疗效和不良反应.方法:将64例老年期抑郁症患者随机分成两组,疗程8周,采用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)和副反应量表(TESS)评定疗效和不良反应.结果:西酞普兰组和米氮平组显效率分别82.35%和76.7%,两组疗效差异无显著性(P>0.05),西酞普兰的不良反应少于米氮平.结论:西酞普兰是一种安全、有效的抗抑郁药.%Objective:To explore the efficacy and side effects of citalopram and mirtazapine in treatment of senile depression.Methods:64 senile depressive patients were randomly divided into two groups for 8 weeks.The trerapeutic response and side effects were evaluated with the HAMD and TESS.Results:The effective rates of citalopram and mirtazapine were 82.35% and 76.7% respectively there were no significant difference in efficacy between the two groups (P>0.05),citalopram had fewer side effects than mirtazapine.Conclusion:Citalopram is a safe and effective antidepressant.

  20. Construction of novel sensitive electrochemical sensor for electro-oxidation and determination of citalopram based on zinc oxide nanoparticles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, Hamed; Afkhami, Abbas; Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Soltani-Felehgari, Farzaneh

    2016-02-01

    A new chemically modified carbon paste electrode (CMCPE) was applied to the simple, rapid, highly selective and sensitive determination of citalopram in human serum and pharmaceutical preparations using adsorptive square wave voltammetry (ASWV). The ZnO nanoparticles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified CPE (ZnO-MWCNT/CPE) electrode was prepared by incorporation of the ZnO nanoparticles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in carbon paste electrode. The limit of detection and the linear range were found to be 0.005 and 0.012 to 1.54μmolL(-1) of citalopram, respectively. The effects of potentially interfering substances on the determination of this compound were investigated and found that the electrode is highly selective. The proposed CMCPE was used to the determination of citalopram in human serum, urine and pharmaceutical samples. This reveals that ZnO-MWCNT/CPE shows excellent analytical performance for the determination of citalopram in terms of very low detection limit, high sensitivity, very good repeatability and reproducibility over other methods reported in the literature. PMID:26652440

  1. Nicotine, but not mecamylamine, enhances antidepressant-like effects of citalopram and reboxetine in the mouse forced swim and tail suspension tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen T., Jesper; Redrobe, John P

    2009-01-01

    with nicotine (0.3 and 1.0mg/kg) and mecamylamine (1 and 3mg/kg). Locomotor activity experiments were performed to rule out non-specific stimulant effects. Nicotine (1.0mg/kg) enhanced the effect of 10mg/kg citalopram and 20mg/kg reboxetine in the mFST. Similarly, nicotine (1.0mg/kg) enhanced the effect of 3...... activity and facilitates serotonin and noradrenaline release. Thus, we hypothesise that nicotine may enhance the behavioural effects of serotonin (e.g., citalopram) and/or noradrenaline (e.g., reboxetine) reuptake inhibitors. Here, we tested if nicotine enhanced the activity of citalopram or reboxetine...... in the mouse forced swim test (mFST) and the mouse tail suspension test (mTST). The potential for mecamylamine to augment antidepressant drug action was also investigated. Sub-threshold and threshold doses of citalopram (3 and 10mg/kg) or reboxetine (3, 10 and 20mg/kg) were tested alone and in combination...

  2. Imaging of serotonin transporters and its blockade by citalopram in patients with major depression using a novel SPECT ligand [123I]-ADAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the midbrain SERT availability in patients with major depression and assessed the relation of SERT occupancy by citalopram to the treatment response. 21 non-medicated patients with major depression and 13 healthy controls were examined by [123I]-ADAM SPECT. The midbrain SERT availability (SERT V3'') was calculated using individual MRI scans. In 13/21 patients SPECT was repeated 7 days after oral medication with citalopram (10 mg/day). We found no significant difference in the mean midbrain SERT availability between the studied patients with major depression and healthy controls (0.86 ± 0.27 vs. 0.71 ± 0.44, p = 0.069). The mean SERT occupancy accounted to 61 %. The degree of SERT blockade by citalopram did not correlate with the reduction in HAMD total score. Treatment with low-dosed citalopram caused individually variable occupancy of the midbrain-SERT and a rapid clinical improvement in 54 % of the investigated patients. (author)

  3. Antipsychotic monotherapy among outpatients with schizophrenia treated with olanzapine or risperidone in Japan: a health care database analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Wenyu Ye,1 Haya Ascher-Svanum,2 Yuka Tanji,3 Jennifer A Flynn,3 Michihiro Takahashi,3,4 Robert R Conley21Lilly Suzhou Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Lilly Research Laboratories Japan, Eli Lilly Japan KK, Kobe, Japan; 4Terauchi-Takahashi Psychiatric Clinic, Ashiya, JapanPurpose: Antipsychotic monotherapy is often recommended over antipsychotic polypharmacy because of fewer adverse events, reduced treatment complexity, and lower medication cost. This study compared the rate and the duration of antipsychotic monotherapy following initiation of olanzapine or risperidone in the treatment of outpatients with schizophrenia in Japan.Methods: Outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia in the Japan Medical Data Center database were identified using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, diagnosis codes. Patients were between 20 and 65 years old, initiated on olanzapine or risperidone therapy between August 2003 and July 2008, and continuously enrolled during the 6 months prior to and the 12 months following the initiation date. Antipsychotic polypharmacy was defined as concurrent use of two or more antipsychotics. The probability of monotherapy during the 12-month follow-up period was assessed using a propensity score-adjusted generalized estimating equation model. Duration of monotherapy was contrasted using a propensity score-adjusted bootstrapping model.Results: After applying all inclusion and exclusion criteria, the final analytic sample consisted of 332 olanzapine- and 496 risperidone-treated outpatients. At treatment initiation, 61.5% of the olanzapine-treated patients and 45.6% of the risperidone-treated patients received antipsychotic monotherapy (P < 0.001. After correcting for background differences, monotherapy was more common among olanzapine-treated patients (P = 0.001. In addition, olanzapine was used as

  4. Maintenance therapy with once-monthly administration of long-acting injectable risperidone in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder: a pilot study of an extended dosing interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naessens Ineke

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several clinical studies have established the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of long-acting risperidone administered once every 2 weeks in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. This report evaluates preliminary efficacy, safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic data for a novel (once-monthly administration of long-acting injectable risperidone 50 mg in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Methods Clinically stable patients participated in a 1-year, open-label, single-arm, multicenter pilot study. During the 4-week lead-in phase, patients received long-acting risperidone 50 mg injections every 2 weeks, with 2 weeks of oral risperidone supplementation. Injections of long-acting risperidone 50 mg every 4 weeks followed for up to 48 weeks, without oral supplementation. The primary endpoint was relapse; other assessments included PANSS, CGI-S, adverse event reports, and determination of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone plasma concentrations. Results Twelve patients in the intent-to-treat population (n = 67 met relapse criteria (17.9%. Relapse risk at 1 year was estimated as 22.4%. Non-statistically significant improvements in symptoms (PANSS and clinical status (CGI-S at endpoint were observed. The most common adverse events included schizophrenia aggravated not otherwise specified (19.5%, anxiety (16.1%, insomnia (16.1%, and headache (11.5%. There were no unexpected safety and tolerability findings. Mean plasma concentrations for risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone were generally stable during the study. Conclusion Once-monthly dosing of long-acting risperidone was well tolerated, associated with a relatively low relapse rate (similar to that reported with other antipsychotics, and maintained the clinically stable baseline status of most patients. Although the results suggest that some symptomatically stable patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder might be safely

  5. Clozapine and olanzapine are better antioxidants than haloperidol, quetiapine, risperidone and ziprasidone in in vitro models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinholi, Francis Fregonesi; Farias, Carine Coneglian de; Bonifácio, Kamila Landucci; Higachi, Luciana; Casagrande, Rúbia; Moreira, Estefânia Gastaldello; Barbosa, Décio Sabbatini

    2016-07-01

    Although the etiopathogenic mechanisms of schizophrenia (SCZ) are unknown, evidences suggest that excessive free radical production or oxidative stress may be involved in the pathophysiology of SCZ. Antipsychotics are the drugs used in the treatment of SCZ but it remains controversial the impact that typical vs. atypical antipsychotics has on the oxidative stress status in SCZ patients. In vitro, the antioxidant capacity of six antipsychotics was assessed by their ability to: decrease or scavenge reactive oxygen species in the neutrophil respiratory burst; donate hydrogen and stabilize the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH); and scavenge 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS(+)). This study demonstrated that both clozapine and olanzapine have antioxidant effects, in vitro, by scavenging superoxide anion on the respiratory burst, donating electron in the ABTS(+) assay and stabilizing the radical DPPH. Ziprasidone significantly scavenged ABTS(+) and stabilized the radical DPPH whereas risperidone significantly reduced the respiratory burst. Haloperidol and quetiapine lacked antioxidant effects. The chemical structure-related antioxidant capacity suggests a possible neuroprotective mechanism of these drugs on the top of their antipsychotic mechanism of action. PMID:27261620

  6. The buccal mucosa as an alternative route for the systemic delivery of risperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemstra, Lars B; Finnin, Barrie C; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of the buccal mucosa for the systemic delivery of risperidone (RISP), and to determine the impact of Azone® (AZ) on the transport of RISP via this route. The permeability of RISP through porcine buccal mucosa was assessed in modified Ussing chambers at various concentrations to determine the mechanisms involved in transport across the tissue. The effect of AZ was assessed by administering AZ 5% (w/w) to the tissue as a pretreatment or together with RISP in solution or in a mucoadhesive gel formulation. RISP permeated the buccal mucosa via a passive diffusion mechanism and pretreatment or coadministration of AZ 5% did not significantly modify the permeation of RISP. Application of a RISP mucoadhesive gel resulted in a steady state flux of 64.65 ± 8.0 µg/cm(2)/h, which when extrapolated to the in vivo setting, is predicted to result in RISP plasma concentrations of 11.2-56.1 µg/L for mucosal application areas between 2 and 10 cm(2). Given that these predicted concentrations are within the therapeutic range of RISP required in humans, delivery of RISP via the buccal mucosa has the potential to result in therapeutically relevant plasma concentrations for the treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:20845457

  7. Excessive weight gain after remission of depression in a schizophrenic patient treated with risperidone: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psarros Constantin

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of atypical antipsychotics in schizophrenic patients has been associated with a risk of weight gain. Similarly, recovery from depression is often followed by improved appetite, greater food intake and potential increase in weight. Case presentation A Caucasian 33-year-old schizophrenic female patient was being treated with 6 mg/day of risperidone and 15 mg/day of clorazepate. She developed depressive symptomatology and 40 mg/day of fluoxetine was gradually added to her treatment regimen for about 9 months. After the remission of depression, and the discontinuation of fluoxetine, she experienced an increase in appetite and subsequently excessive weight gain of 52 kg. Re-administration of fluoxetine did not reverse the situation. The patient developed diabetes mellitus, which was successfully controlled with metformin 1700 mg/day. The addition at first of orlistat 360 mg/day and later of topiramate 200 mg/day has helped her to lose a significant part of the weight gained (30 kg. Conclusion The case suggests a probable association between the remission of depressive symptomatology and weight gain in a schizophrenic patient.

  8. A comparison of low-dose risperidone to paroxetine in the treatment of panic attacks: a randomized, single-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galynker Igor I

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because a large proportion of patients with panic attacks receiving approved pharmacotherapy do not respond or respond poorly to medication, it is important to identify additional therapeutic strategies for the management of panic symptoms. This article describes a randomized, rater-blind study comparing low-dose risperidone to standard-of-care paroxetine for the treatment of panic attacks. Methods Fifty six subjects with a history of panic attacks were randomized to receive either risperidone or paroxetine. The subjects were then followed for eight weeks. Outcome measures included the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (Ham-A, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (Ham-D, the Sheehan Panic Anxiety Scale-Patient (SPAS-P, and the Clinical Global Impression scale (CGI. Results All subjects demonstrated a reduction in both the frequency and severity of panic attacks regardless of treatment received. Statistically significant improvements in rating scale scores for both groups were identified for the PDSS, the Ham-A, the Ham-D, and the CGI. There was no difference between treatment groups in the improvement in scores on the measures PDSS, Ham-A, Ham-D, and CGI. Post hoc tests suggest that subjects receiving risperidone may have a quicker clinical response than subjects receiving paroxetine. Conclusion We can identify no difference in the efficacy of paroxetine and low-dose risperidone in the treatment of panic attacks. Low-dose risperidone appears to be tolerated equally well as paroxetine. Low-dose risperidone may be an effective treatment for anxiety disorders in which panic attacks are a significant component. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT100457106

  9. Dopamine transporter density assessed with [{sup 123}]IPT SPECT before and after risperidone treatment in children with tourette's disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Young Hoon; Kim, Tae Hoon; Ryu, Won Gee [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    2004-02-01

    Tourette's disorder (TD), which is characterized by multiple waxing and waning motor tics and one or more vocal tics, is known to be associated with abnormalities in the dopaminergic system. To testify our hypothesis that risperidone would improve tic symptoms of TD patients through the change of the dopaminergic system, we measured the dopamine transporter (DAT) densities between drug-naive children with TD and normal children, and investigated the DAT density before and after treatment with risperidone in drug-naive children with TD, using iodine-123 labelled N-(3-iodopropen-2-yl)-2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-chlorophenyl)tropane ([{sup 123}I]IPT) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). [{sup 123I}]IPT SPECT imaging and Yale Global Tic Severity Scale-Korean version (YGTSS-K) for assessing the tic symptom severity were carried out before and after treatment with risperidone for 8 weeks in nine drug-naive children with TD. Eleven normal children also underwent SPECT imaging 2 hours after an intravenous administration of [{sup 123}I]IPT. Drug-naive children with TD had a significantly greater increase in the specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of both basal ganglia compared with the normal children. However, no significant difference in the specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of the basal ganglia before and after treatment with risperidone in children with TD was found, although tic symptoms were significantly improved with risperidone. These findings suggest that DAT densities are directly associated with the pathophysiology of TD, however, that the effect of risperidone on tic symptoms in children with TD is not attributed to the change of dopaminergic system.

  10. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Modeling of the D2 and 5-HT2A Receptor Occupancy of Risperidone and Paliperidone in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kozielska, Magdalena; Johnson, MArtin; Reddy, Venkatesh Pilla; Vermeulen, An; Li, Cheryl; Grimwood, Sarah; de Greef, Rik; Groothuis, Geny MM; Danhof, Meindert; Proost, Johannes H

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model was developed to describe the time course of brain concentration and dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptor occupancy (RO) of the atypical antipsychotic drugs risperidone and paliperidone in rats. Methods A population approach was utilized to describe the PK-PD of risperidone and paliperidone using plasma and brain concentrations and D2 and 5-HT2A RO data. A previously published physiology- and mechanism-based (PBPKPD) model ...

  11. Danish physicians' preferences for prescribing escitalopram over citalopram and sertraline to treatment-naïve patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Karen Killerup; Glintborg, Dorte; Moreno, Søren Ilsøe;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether general practitioners, hospital physicians and specialized practitioners in psychiatry have similar preferences for initiating treatment with expensive serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). METHODS: All first-time prescriptions for the SSRIs escitalopram...... the treatment-naïve patients, 19 % were initially prescribed escitalopram. Hospital physicians prescribed escitalopram to 34 % of their treatment-naïve patients, while practitioners specialized in psychiatry prescribed it to 25 %, and general practitioners prescribed it to 17 %. General practitioners......, however, were responsible for initiating 87 % of all treatment-naïve patients. CONCLUSION: The most expensive SSRI, escitalopram, is prescribed as first choice to one in five patients receiving their first antidepressant of escitalopram, citalopram or sertraline. General practitioners made the bulk of all...

  12. Adjunctive Aripiprazole Treatment for Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia: An 8-Week Randomized, Open-Label, Comparative Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyuan Zhao

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive aripiprazole treatment in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia.One hundred and thirteen patients who were receiving a stable dose of risperidone were randomly assigned to either adjunctive aripiprazole treatment (10 mg/day (aripiprazole group or no additional treatment (control group at a 1:1 ratio for 8 weeks. Schizophrenia symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Rating scales and safety assessments (RSESE, BARS, UKU were performed at baseline and at weeks 4 and 8. Serum levels of prolactin were determined at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8. Metabolic parameters were determined at baseline and again at weeks 4 and 8.One hundred and thirteen patients were enrolled in this study, and 107 patients completed the study (54 in the aripiprazole group, and 53 in the control group. PANSS-total scores in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.003 and week 8 (P = 0.007 compared with the control group. PANSS-negative scores in the aripiprazole group also decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.005 and week 8 (P< 0.001 compared with the control group. Serum levels of prolactin in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 2 (P< 0.001, week 4 (P< 0.001, week 6 (P< 0.001 and week 8 (P< 0.001 compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in changes of Fasting Plasma Glucose, Total cholesterol, Triglycerides and High Density Lipoprotein within each group at week 4 and 8 execpt low density lipoproteins. There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups.Adjunctive aripiprazole treatment may be beneficial in reducing serum levels of prolactin and improving negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia.chictr.org ChiCTR-IOR-15006278.

  13. Combination of Risperidone and Paroxetine for Inappropriate Sexual Behaviors in an Adolescent with Autism and Mental Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri HERGÜNER

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Inappropriate hypersexual behaviors have been frequently reported in subjects with autism, however, literature on management of such behaviors in this group is very limited. In this paper, we describe an adolescent with autistic disorder and mental retardation who developed severe inappropriate sexual behaviors and has been treated successfully with risperidone-paroxetine combination. As presence of hypersexual behaviors in individuals with autism is a distressing factor for their family and social environment, appropriate management seems to be essential. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2012; 49: 311-313

  14. Development of Nutraceutical Emulsions as Risperidone Delivery Systems: Characterization and Toxicological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igartúa, Daniela Edith; Calienni, María Natalia; Feas, Daniela Agustina; Chiaramoni, Nadia Silvia; Valle Alonso, Silvia Del; Prieto, María Jimena

    2015-12-01

    Emulsions are gaining increasing interest to be applied as drug delivery systems. The main goal of this work was the formulation of an oil/water nutraceutical emulsion (NE) for oral administration, enriched in omega 3 (ω3) and omega 6 (ω6), and able to encapsulate risperidone (RISP), an antipsychotic drug widely used in the treatment of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). RISP has low solubility in aqueous medium and poor bioavailability because of its metabolism and high protein binding. Coadministration of ω3, ω3, and vitamin E complexed with RISP might increase its bioavailability and induce a synergistic effect on the treatment of ASD. Here, we developed an easy and quick method to obtain NEs and then optimized them. The best formulation was chosen after characterization by particle size, defects of the oil-in-water interface, zeta potential (ZP), and in vitro drug release. The formulation selected was stable over time, with a particle size of around 3 μm, a ZP lower than -20 mV and controlled drug release. To better understand the biochemical properties of the formulation obtained, we studied in vitro toxicity in the Caco-2 cell line. After 4 h of treatment, an increase in cellular metabolism was observed for all RISP concentrations, but emulsions did not change their metabolic rate, except at the highest concentration without drug (25 μg/mL), which showed a significant reduction in metabolism respect to the control. Additionally, locomotor activity and heart rate in zebrafish were measured as parameters of in vivo toxicity. Only the highest concentration (0.625 μg/mL) showed a cardiotoxic effect, which corresponds to the decrease in spontaneous movement observed previously. As all the materials contained in the formulations were US FDA approved, the NE selected would be good candidate for clinical trials. PMID:26359783

  15. A Placebo-Controlled Study of Raloxifene Added to Risperidone in Men with Chronic Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Khodaie-Ardakani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs such as raloxifene have already shown beneficial effects on negative, positive and general psychopathology symptoms in postmenopausal women with schizophrenia. The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the efficacy of raloxifene as an adjuvant agent in the treatment of men with chronic schizophrenia in an 8-week double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. In a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study, forty-six male patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR, were randomized to either raloxifene (120 mg/day or placebo in addition to risperidone (6 mg/day for eight weeks. The assessment was performed using the positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS at baseline, and at weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8. Extrapyramidal symptom rating scale (ESRS at baseline, weeks 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS at baseline and week 8 were also used to assess extrapyramidal symptoms and depression simultaneously. Forty-two patients completed the trial. The raloxifene group showed significantly greater improvement on the negative subscale (P<0.001, the general psychopathology subscale (P=0.002 and total PANSS score (P<0.001 in comparison to the placebo group at the endpoint. There was no significant difference in the reduction of positive symptoms score between the two group (P=0.525. Extrapyramidal symptom rating scale and Hamilton depression rating scale and frequency of other adverse effects were comparable between two groups.This study indicates raloxifene as a potential adjunctive treatment strategy for chronic schizophrenia in men.

  16. Dose-dependent inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 by citalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine and paroxetine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, U; Gram, L F; Vistisen, K;

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this pharmacokinetic study was to investigate the dose-dependent inhibition of model substrates for CYP2D6, CYP2C19 and CYP1A2 by four marketed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs): citalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine and paroxetine. METHODS: The study was...... by sparteine (CYP2D6), mephenytoin (CYP2C19) and caffeine (CYP1A2) tests. Fluoxetine was given at 3-week intervals because of the long half-life of fluoxetine and its metabolite norfluoxetine. Citalopram, fluoxetine and paroxetine were given in doses of 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg and fluvoxamine was given...... fluoxetine are potent inhibitors of CYP2D6, that fluvoxamine and fluoxetine are moderate inhibitors of CYP2C19 and that fluvoxamine is a potent inhibitor of CYP1A2 in humans in vivo. The clinical prediction of interaction from single-dose experiments may have to take the degree of accumulation during steady...

  17. Allosteric effects of R- and S-citalopram on the human 5-HT transporter: evidence for distinct high- and low-affinity binding sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plenge, Per; Gether, Ulrik; Rasmussen, Søren G

    2007-01-01

    cells, and their 5-HT uptake and uptake inhibitor-binding abilities were studied. The hSERT mutations did not alter affinities for 5-HT or paroxetine, but high-affinity binding of S-citalopram was severely affected, particularly by the I172M, and Y95F/I172M mutations - K(i) respectively 4 nM (wild......-type), 35 nM, 1000 nM, and 17.100 nM (mutants). The allosteric site however, in wild-type hSERT and the three mutants was unaffected by the mutations as attenuation of the dissociation rate of the [(3)H]-paroxetine:hSERT complex in the presence of S-citalopram or paroxetine was the same for wild-type h...

  18. The Post-Ovariectomy Interval Affects the Antidepressant-Like Action of Citalopram Combined with Ethynyl-Estradiol in the Forced Swim Test in Middle Aged Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nelly M. Vega Rivera; Alfredo Gallardo Tenorio; Alonso Fernández-Guasti; Erika Estrada Camarena

    2016-01-01

    The use of a combined therapy with low doses of estrogens plus antidepressants to treat depression associated to perimenopause could be advantageous. However the use of these combinations is controversial due to several factors, including the time of intervention in relation to menopause onset. This paper analyzes whether time post-OVX influences the antidepressant-like action of a combination of ethynyl-estradiol (EE2) and citalopram (CIT) in the forced swim test (FST). Middle-aged (15 month...

  19. Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial of the Efficacy of Venlafaxine Versus Citalopram in the Treatment of the Acute Phase of Major Depressive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseini, Fatemeh; Amini, Fariba; Yassini Ardekani, Seyed Mojtaba; Shariat, Neda; Nadi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are many antidepressant medications with different side-effects and efficacy profiles. Objectives: In this study, we compared the efficacy of citalopram and venlafaxine in major depression, which has not yet been studied in Iran. Patients and Methods: In this double-blind, randomized controlled trial study, 39 patients aged 18-54 year old with major depressive disorder were randomly allocated into two groups in Yazd City, Iran, between March 2011 and December 2012. A total o...

  20. Comparing the Efficacy of 8 Weeks Treatment of Cipram® and its Generic Citalopram in Patients With Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Khoonsari, Hasan; Oghazian, Mohammad Bagher; Kargar, Mona; Moin, Mahdiyeh; Khalili, Hossein; Alimadadi, Abbas; Torkamandi, Hassan; Ghaeli, Padideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder (MADD) suffer both anxiety and depression. Antidepressants, especially, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are among agents of choice for treating this condition. Objectives: This study compared the efficacy of Cipram® with its generic, citalopram. Patients and Methods: Forty adult outpatients (between 18 to 55 years of age) with a diagnosis of MADD who met the trial criteria, entered this double-blind, randomized study. Subject...

  1. Antipsychotic-induced metabolic effects in the female rat: Direct comparison between long-acting injections of risperidone and olanzapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersland, Kari M; Skrede, Silje; Røst, Therese H; Berge, Rolf K; Steen, Vidar M

    2015-12-01

    Several antipsychotics have well-known adverse metabolic effects. Studies uncovering molecular mechanisms of such drugs in patients are challenging due to high dropout rates, previous use of antipsychotics and restricted availability of biological samples. Rat experiments, where previously unexposed animals are treated with antipsychotics, allow for direct comparison of different drugs, but have been hampered by the short half-life of antipsychotics in rodents. The use of long-acting formulations of antipsychotics could significantly increase the value of rodent models in the molecular characterization of therapeutic and adverse effects of these agents. However, as long-acting formulations have rarely been used in rodents, there is a need to characterize the basic metabolic phenotype of different antipsychotics. Using long-acting olanzapine injections as a positive control, the metabolic effects of intramuscular long-acting risperidone in female rats were investigated for the first time. Like olanzapine, risperidone induced rapid, significant hyperphagia and weight gain, with concomitant increase in several plasma lipid species. Both drugs also induced weight-independent upregulation of several genes encoding enzymes involved in lipogenesis, but this activation was not confirmed at the protein level. Our findings shed light on the role of drug administration, drug dose and nutritional status in the development of rodent models for adverse metabolic effects of antipsychotic agents. PMID:26378122

  2. Drug induced parkinsonism caused by the concurrent use of donepezil and risperidone in a patient with traumatic brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Si Hyun; Kim, Don-Kyu

    2013-02-01

    A 69-year-old male patient with previous history of traumatic brain injury 5 months ago was admitted to the Department of Neuropsychiatry because of aggressive behavior and delusional features. After starting on 2 mg of risperidone per day, his delusion, anxiety, and aggressive behavior gradually improved. Two weeks later, he was given 10 mg of donepezil per day for his mild cognitive impairment. After 6 weeks of admission in the Department of Neuropsychiatry, he showed parkinsonian features including difficulty in walking, decreased arm swing during walking, narrowed step width, scooped posture, bradykinesia, tremor, and sleep disorder. To rule out the primary Parkinsonism, dopamine transporter imaging technique [18F]fluoropropyl-carbomethoxy-iodopropyl-nor-β-tropane positron emission tomography-computed tomography (18F]FP(IT PET-CT)) was performed, and dopamine transporter activity was not decreased. We considered that his parkinsonian features were associated with the combination of risperidone and donepezil. Both drugs were stopped and symptoms rapidly disappeared in several days. PMID:23526695

  3. Conspicuous by Their Absence: Studies Comparing and Combining Risperidone and Applied Behavior Analysis to Reduce Challenging Behavior in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Marc; Ehrhardt, Kristal; Poling, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Both risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic drug, and function-based behavior-analytic interventions are popular and empirically validated treatments for reducing challenging behavior in children with autism. The kind of research that supports their effectiveness differs, however, and no published study has directly compared their effects or…

  4. Differences in frontal cortical activation by a working memory task after substitution of risperidone for typical antipsychotic drugs in patients with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Honey, Garry D; Bullmore, Edward T.; Soni, William; Varatheesan, Malini; Williams, Steve C R; Sharma, Tonmoy

    1999-01-01

    Antipsychotic drug treatment of schizophrenia may be complicated by side effects of widespread dopaminergic antagonism, including exacerbation of negative and cognitive symptoms due to frontal cortical hypodopaminergia. Atypical antipsychotics have been shown to enhance frontal dopaminergic activity in animal models. We predicted that substitution of risperidone for typical antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia would be associated with enhanced functional activation of frontal...

  5. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Risperidone for the Treatment of Adolescents and Young Adults with Anorexia Nervosa: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Jennifer; Gralla, Jane; Sigel, Eric; Ellert, Swan; Dodge, Mindy; Gardner, Rick; O'Lonergan, Teri; Frank, Guido; Wamboldt, Marianne Z.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory pilot study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of risperidone for the treatment of anorexia nervosa. Method: Forty female subjects 12 to 21 years of age (mean, 16 years) with primary anorexia nervosa in an eating disorders program were randomized to receive…

  6. Comorbid Anxiety and Social Avoidance in Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression: Response to Adding Risperidone to Stimulant and Parent Training; Mediation of Disruptive Symptom Response

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Farmer, Cristan A.; Findling, Robert L; Bukstein, Oscar; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Brown, Nicole V.; Li, Xiaobai; Rundberg-Rivera, E. Victoria; Bangalore, Srihari; Buchan-Page, Kristin; Hurt, Elizabeth A.; Rice, Robert; McNamara, Nora K.; Aman, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In the four-site Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression (TOSCA) study, addition of risperidone to stimulant and parent training moderately improved parent-rated disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) symptoms. This secondary study explores outcomes other than DBD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as measured by the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-4R (CASI-4R).

  7. The effect of citalopram hydrobromide on 5-HT2A receptors in the impulsive-aggressive dog, as measured with 123I-5-I-R91150 SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Involvement of the serotonergic system in impulsive aggression has been demonstrated in both human and animal studies. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of citalopram hydrobromide (a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor) on the 5-HT2A receptor and brain perfusion in impulsive-aggressive dogs by means of single-photon emission computed tomography. The binding index of the radioligand 123I-5-I-R91150 was measured before and after treatment with citalopram hydrobromide in nine impulsive-aggressive dogs. Regional perfusion was measured with 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD). Behaviour was assessed before treatment and again after 6 weeks of treatment. A correlation was found between decreased binding and behavioural improvement in eight out of nine dogs. The 5-HT2A receptor binding index was significantly reduced after citalopram hydrobromide treatment in all cortical regions but not in the subcortical area. None of the dogs displayed alterations in perfusion on the post-treatment scans. This study supports previous findings regarding the involvement of the serotonergic system in impulsive aggression in dogs in general. More specifically, the effect of treatment on the 5-HT2A receptor binding index could be demonstrated and the decreased binding index correlated with behavioural improvement. (orig.)

  8. Differences in frontal cortical activation by a working memory task after substitution of risperidone for typical antipsychotic drugs in patients with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, Garry D.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Soni, William; Varatheesan, Malini; Williams, Steve C. R.; Sharma, Tonmoy

    1999-01-01

    Antipsychotic drug treatment of schizophrenia may be complicated by side effects of widespread dopaminergic antagonism, including exacerbation of negative and cognitive symptoms due to frontal cortical hypodopaminergia. Atypical antipsychotics have been shown to enhance frontal dopaminergic activity in animal models. We predicted that substitution of risperidone for typical antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia would be associated with enhanced functional activation of frontal cortex. We measured cerebral blood oxygenation changes during periodic performance of a verbal working memory task, using functional MRI, on two occasions (baseline and 6 weeks later) in two cohorts of schizophrenic patients. One cohort (n = 10) was treated with typical antipsychotic drugs throughout the study. Risperidone was substituted for typical antipsychotics after baseline assessment in the second cohort (n = 10). A matched group of healthy volunteers (n = 10) was also studied on a single occasion. A network comprising bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal and lateral premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, and posterior parietal cortex was activated by working memory task performance in both the patients and comparison subjects. A two-way analysis of covariance was used to estimate the effect of substituting risperidone for typical antipsychotics on power of functional response in the patient group. Substitution of risperidone increased functional activation in right prefrontal cortex, supplementary motor area, and posterior parietal cortex at both voxel and regional levels of analysis. This study provides direct evidence for significantly enhanced frontal function in schizophrenic patients after substitution of risperidone for typical antipsychotic drugs, and it indicates the potential value of functional MRI as a tool for longitudinal assessment of psychopharmacological effects on cerebral physiology. PMID:10557338

  9. Risperidone induces long-lasting changes in the conditioned avoidance response and accumbal gene expression selectively in animals treated as adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Aung Aung Kywe; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Alexander, Suzanne; Cui, Xiaoying; Burne, Thomas H J; Eyles, Darryl W

    2016-09-01

    Adolescence is a period of dynamic remodeling and maturation in the brain. Exposure to psychotropic drugs during adolescence can potentially alter neural maturation in the adolescent brain subsequently altering neural function at maturity. In this regard, antipsychotic drugs (APDs) are important given a notable global increase in prescription of these APDs to adolescents for a variety of behavioural symptoms and conditions over the past twenty years. However, there is a paucity of data on the long-term consequences of APDs on the adolescent brain. In this preclinical study, we have examined whether the adolescent brain is more susceptible than the adult brain to long-term neural changes induced by risperidone, which is the APD most frequently prescribed to adolescents. Rats were chronically treated (21 days) with 1.3 mg/kg/day risperidone or vehicle either as adolescents (postnatal day (PND) 36-56)) or adults (PND80-100). Behaviour was assessed using the well-described suppression of the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) by APDs. We examined CAR after all animals had reached maturity (PND127). We show that mature rats treated with risperidone as adolescents had increased CAR suppression compared to adults when rechallenged with this same drug. In the nucleus accumbens, significant downregulation of serotonergic 5HT2A receptors and catechol-o-methyl transferase mRNA levels was observed only in the adolescent treated animals. Impaired 5HT2A receptor signaling may explain the increased CAR suppression observed in rats treated with risperidone as adolescents. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), however, did not detect any risperidone-induced long-term brain structural change at maturity. These findings confirm that APD administration during adolescence may produce long-term behavioural and neurochemical alterations. PMID:27130903

  10. No change of dopamine transporter density in basal ganglia after risperidone treatment in drug-naive children with Tourette's disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, W. K.; Ryu, Y. H.; Yoon, M. J.; Chun, K. A.; Lee, J. D. [College of Medicine, Univ. of Yonsei, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Zee, D. Y. [Univ. of Inhwa, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, T. H. [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Tourette's disorder (TD), which is characterized by multiple waxing and waning motor tics and one or more vocal tics, is known to be associated with abnormalities in the dopaminergic system. To testify our hypothesis that risperidone would improve tic symptoms of TD patients through the change of the dopaminergic system, we measured the DAT densities between drug-naive children with TD and normal children investigated the DAT density before and after treatment with risperidone in drug-naive children with TD, using lodine-123 labelled N-(3-iodopropen-2-yl)-2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-chlorophenyl) tropane(I-123 IPT) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). I-123 IPT SPECT imaging and Yale Global Tic Severity Scale-Korean version (YGTSS-K) for assessing the tic symptom severity were carried out before and after treatment with risperidone for 8 weeks in eight drug-naive children with TD. Eight normal children also underwent SPECT imaging 2 hours after an intravenous administration of I-123 IPT and carried out both quantitative and qualitative analyses using the obtained SPECT data, which were reconstructed for the assessment of the specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio in the basal ganglia. The drug-naive children with TD had a significantly greater increase in the specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of both basal ganglia compared with the normal children. However, no significant difference in the specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of the basal ganglia before and after treatment with riperidone in children with TD was not found, although tic symptoms were significantly improved with risperidone. These findings suggest that DAT densities are directly associated with the pathophysiology of TD, however, that the effect of risperidone on tic symptoms in children with TD is not attributed to the change of dopaminergic system.

  11. Comparison of Venlafaxine and Citalopram for Depression%文拉法辛与西酞普兰治疗抑郁症对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘跃刚; 王学廷; 高平来

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of venlafaxine and citalopram in the treatment of depression. Methods Eighty depression patients were randomly treated with oral venlafaxine (venlafaxine treatment group, n=40) or citalopram (citalopram treatment group, n=40) for 6 weeks. Clinical efficacies were assessed with Hamihon Depression Scale (HAMD) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Illness (CGI-SI) and adverse reactions with Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) before treatment and at the end of week 1, 2, 4 and 6. Results The scores of HAMD and CGI-SI significantly decreased in both groups after treatment for 6 weeks (P0.05). Adverse reactions were mild in both groups. Conclusion Both venlafaxine and citalopram are effective and safe for depression with good compliance, and they show equivalent curative efficacies. However, venlafaxine is superior to citalopram for quickly controlling depressive symptoms.%目的:观察文拉法辛与西酞普兰治疗抑郁症的临床疗效和安全性。方法80例抑郁症患者按随机数字表法分为文拉法辛组和西酞普兰组,每组40例,分别口服文拉法辛和西酞普兰,连续观察6周。于治疗开始后的第1、2、4、6周末,采用汉密顿抑郁量表(HAMD)和临床病情严重程度量表(CGI-SI)评定临床疗效,副反应量表(TESS)评定不良反应。结果经过6周治疗2组HAMD和CGI-SI评分均较治疗前显著下降(P0.05)。2组不良反应较轻微。结论文拉法辛与西酞普兰治疗抑郁症疗效均显著,2组疗效相当,但文拉法辛起效更快,控制抑郁症状迅速。两药安全性高,依从性好。

  12. RP-HPLC chiral separation of citalopram%反相高效液相色谱法拆分西酞普兰对映异构体*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌兰辉; 吴松; 卢建勋; 杨慧; 杨庆云

    2012-01-01

    Objective;To establish an HPLC method to separate citalopram enantiomers on ovomucoid chiral column for optical purity detection of escitalopram oxalate. Methods-. The mobile phase was recommended as acetoni-trile-0. 05 mol · L-1 phosphate buffer(pH 7. 0) ( 15.'85)at a flow rate of 1.0 mL · min-1.The column temperature was 30℃ and the detection wavelength was 240 nm. Results; Citalopram enantiomers were separated under the above conditions, the resolution between S - and R - citalopram was 1. 90. The optical purity of escitalopram oxalate was more than 97. 9%. Conclusion; With good resolution and repeatability, the method can be reliably used for chiral separation of citalopram enantiomers, and determination of the optical purity of S - and R - citalopram sample.%目的:建立西酞普兰对映异构体的HPLC手性分析方法,用于草酸艾司西酞普兰光学纯度的分析测定.方法:采用不易变性的卵类粘蛋白键合硅胶(ES - OVM)为手性固定相,以乙腈-0.05 mol·L-1磷酸盐缓冲液(pH 7.0)(15∶85)为流动相,流速为1.0 mL·min-1,柱温30℃,检测波长240nm,对西酞普兰对映异构体进行分离测定.结果:西酞普兰对映异构体在卵粘蛋白柱上实现了良好的分离,分离度为1.90.将该方法应用于手性拆分得到的草酸艾司西酞普兰的光学纯度测定,结果光学纯度大于97.9%.结论:该方法分离度与重现性好,可用于西酞普兰的光学纯度的分析测定及对拆分过程进行监测,结果可靠.

  13. Study on the Industryial Production of Citalopram%西酞普兰工业化生产的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞灵军; 陈志校; 傅智盛

    2012-01-01

    Citalopram was an effective and safe antidepressant which existed in the market for many years and had great market value.To realize the industrial production of citalopram,the process was improved based on the patent US4943590.The improved process was 4-(4-(dimethylamino)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-hydroxy-butyl)-3-(hydroxymetheyl)-benzonitrile was dissolved in toluene at 0 ℃.Toluene sulfochloride was used as acylation reagent,HCl generated in the acylation reaction was absorbed by Na2CO3 water solution(20 wt-%).The conversion rate of the process was higher than 99%,and the purity of the product was more than 99.5%.This improved process was very easy to carry out,those chemical materials were commercialized and cheep,and low pollutant discharge,which can satisty the need of industrialized production.%西酞普兰是一种已经上市多年的抗抑郁症药物,具有巨大的市场价值。本文在专利US4943590报道的工艺基础上进行改进,以4-[4-(二甲胺基)-1-(4-氟苯基)-羟基丁基]-3-(羟甲基)-苯腈为起始原料,以甲苯为溶剂,以对甲苯磺酰氯为酰化试剂,以20%的碳酸钠水溶液为缚酸剂,于0℃反应制备西酞普兰。产品经提纯后,其纯度可达到99.5%以上。该工艺的转化率在99%以上,具有工艺操作条件温和,原料价廉易得,三废排放少的优点,完全可以满足工业化生产的要求。

  14. Adjunctive Aripiprazole Treatment for Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia: An 8-Week Randomized, Open-Label, Comparative Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingyuan; Song, Xueqin; Ai, Xiaoqing; Gu, Xiaojing; Huang, Guangbiao; Li, Xue; Pang, Lijuan; Ding, Minli; Ding, Shuang; Lv, Luxian

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive aripiprazole treatment in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Methods One hundred and thirteen patients who were receiving a stable dose of risperidone were randomly assigned to either adjunctive aripiprazole treatment (10 mg/day) (aripiprazole group) or no additional treatment (control group) at a 1:1 ratio for 8 weeks. Schizophrenia symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Rating scales and safety assessments (RSESE, BARS, UKU) were performed at baseline and at weeks 4 and 8. Serum levels of prolactin were determined at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8. Metabolic parameters were determined at baseline and again at weeks 4 and 8. Results One hundred and thirteen patients were enrolled in this study, and 107 patients completed the study (54 in the aripiprazole group, and 53 in the control group). PANSS-total scores in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.003) and week 8 (P = 0.007) compared with the control group. PANSS-negative scores in the aripiprazole group also decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.005) and week 8 (P< 0.001) compared with the control group. Serum levels of prolactin in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 2 (P< 0.001), week 4 (P< 0.001), week 6 (P< 0.001) and week 8 (P< 0.001) compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in changes of Fasting Plasma Glucose, Total cholesterol, Triglycerides and High Density Lipoprotein within each group at week 4 and 8 execpt low density lipoproteins. There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups. Conclusions Adjunctive aripiprazole treatment may be beneficial in reducing serum levels of prolactin and improving negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Trial Registration chictr.org Chi

  15. Preparation and in-vitro characterization of Risperidone-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes as a potential injectable product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Shukla

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n  "n Background and the purpose of the study: This investigation deals with risperidone cyclodextrin (CD complexation for parenteral administration to improve its aqueous solubility which would be beneficial over immediate and sustained release formulations available in market especially for agitated and non-cooperative psychotic patients. "nMethods: The phase solubility study of the drug with β-CD, hydroxypropyl (HP-β-CD and γ-CD was conducted and CDs with higher stability constants were selected for complexation. The complexes of Risperidone with β-CD and HP-β-CD were prepared by precipitation and vacuum drying methods, respectively. Fourier transform-infrared, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry techniques were used for characterization of complexes. Drug precipitation study of complex's solution in water for injection and 100 ml of 0.1 M pH 7.4 phosphate buffer saline and stability study in accelerated condition were also carried out. "nResults: The stability constants of the CD were in the following order: β-CD (341.953±11.87 M-1 > HP-β-CD (170.817± 5.93 M-1 > γ-CD (93.716 ± 3.25 M-1. CDs with high stability constants were selected to prepare the drug CD complex. The complexation efficiencies of β-CD and HP-β-CD were 95.23 ± 2.27% and 97.59 ±1.97%, respectively. Both types of CDs exhibited complexation at 1:2 molar stoichiometric ratio. The drug precipitation study indicated complete solubility (100% drug dissolution without a trace of precipitate within 5 mins. The complexes were found to be stable for a period of 3 months under accelerated stability conditions. Major conclusion:Stable complexes of risperidone were successfully formulated using both β-CD and HP-β-CD by simple and highly efficient methods of complexation for parenteral administration.

  16. The Comparison of the Effectiveness of Risperidone and Fluoxetine in Combination with Impulse Control Group Therapy on Improving of Impulsivity, and Relapse in Heroin Crack Addicts under Methadone Maintenance Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Rohoallah Hadadi; Hamid reza Fathinaz; Mehdi Karimi; Saeed Akbari; Nafiseh Soltannejad

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of Risperidone and Fluoxetine in combination with impulse control group therapy on improving of impulsivity, and relapse in heroin crack addicts under methadone maintenance therapy. Method: In a semi-experimental study, 39 heroin crack addicts who were under Methadone maintenance treatment selected of addiction withdrawal centers in Tehran. The selected sample was randomly assigned to three groups. First group was under (Risperidone 1...

  17. Enantioseparation of Citalopram by RP-HPLC, Using Sulfobutyl Ether-β-Cyclodextrin as a Chiral Mobile Phase Additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yangfeng; He, Quan Sophia; Cai, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Enantiomeric separation of citalopram (CIT) was developed using a reversed phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) with sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) as a chiral mobile phase additive. The effects of the pH value of aqueous buffer, concentration of chiral additive, composition of mobile phase, and column temperature on the enantioseparation of CIT were investigated on the Hedera ODS-2 C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm × 5.0 um). A satisfactory resolution was achieved at 25°C using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of aqueous buffer (pH of 2.5, 5 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate, and 12 mM SBE-β-CD), methanol, and acetonitrile with a volumetric ratio of 21 : 3 : 1 and flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. This analytical method was evaluated by examining the precision (lower than 3.0%), linearity (regression coefficients close to 1), limit of detection (0.070 µg/mL for (R)-CIT and 0.076 µg/mL for (S)-CIT), and limit of quantitation (0.235 µg/mL for (R)-CIT and 0.254 µg/mL for (S)-CIT). PMID:26880921

  18. Enantioseparation of Citalopram by RP-HPLC, Using Sulfobutyl Ether-β-Cyclodextrin as a Chiral Mobile Phase Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangfeng Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enantiomeric separation of citalopram (CIT was developed using a reversed phase HPLC (RP-HPLC with sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD as a chiral mobile phase additive. The effects of the pH value of aqueous buffer, concentration of chiral additive, composition of mobile phase, and column temperature on the enantioseparation of CIT were investigated on the Hedera ODS-2 C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm × 5.0 um. A satisfactory resolution was achieved at 25°C using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of aqueous buffer (pH of 2.5, 5 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate, and 12 mM SBE-β-CD, methanol, and acetonitrile with a volumetric ratio of 21 : 3 : 1 and flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. This analytical method was evaluated by examining the precision (lower than 3.0%, linearity (regression coefficients close to 1, limit of detection (0.070 µg/mL for (R-CIT and 0.076 µg/mL for (S-CIT, and limit of quantitation (0.235 µg/mL for (R-CIT and 0.254 µg/mL for (S-CIT.

  19. Neonatal citalopram exposure decreases serotonergic fiber density in the olfactory bulb of male but not female adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junlin eZhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation of serotonin (5HT during early development has been shown to induce long-lasting morphological changes within the raphe nuclear complex and serotonergic circuitry throughout the brain. Recent studies have demonstrated altered raphe-derived 5HT transporter (SERT immunoreactive axonal expression in several cortical target sites after brief perinatal exposure to selective 5HT reuptake inhibitors such as citalopram (CTM. Since the serotonergic raphe nuclear complex projects to the olfactory bulb (OB and perinatal 5HT disruption has been shown to disrupt olfactory behaviors, the goal of this study was to further investigate such developmental effects in the OB of CTM exposed animals. Male and female rat pups were exposed to CTM from postnatal day 8-21. After animals reach adulthood (>90 days, OB tissue sections were processed immunohistochemically for SERT antiserum. Our data revealed that the density of the SERT immunoreactive fibers decreased ~40% in the OB of CTM exposed male rats, but not female rats. Our findings support a broad and long-lasting change throughout most of the 5HT system, including the OB, after early manipulation of 5HT. Because dysfunction of the early 5HT system has been implicated in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, these new findings may offer insight into the abnormal olfactory perception often noted in patients with ASD.

  20. A novel voltammetric sensor for citalopram based on multiwall carbon nanotube/(poly(p-aminobenzene sulfonic acid)/β-cyclodextrin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholivand, Mohammad-Bagher; Akbari, Arezoo

    2016-05-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTS) coated with poly p-aminobenzene sulfonic acid/β-cyclodextrin (p-ABSA/β-CD) film was used as an effective strategy for modification of the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Electrochemical study and determination of citalopram (CT) were investigated at the p (p-ABSA)/β-CD/MWCNT/GC using cyclic and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric techniques. The results indicate that the p (p-ABSA)/β-CD/MWCNT/GC significantly enhanced the oxidation peak current of CT. The modified electrode was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV).The fabricated electrochemical sensor exhibits a fast and reversible linear response toward CT within the concentration ranges of 90 nM-1 μM, 1-11 μM and 11-100 μM with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99 and detection limit of 44 nM. The resulting functionalized polymer film features interesting electrochemical properties such good recovery, reproducibility and selectivity toward CT. The applicability of the proposed sensor was tested by determination of CT in pharmaceutical combinations and human body fluids. PMID:26952450

  1. Frequency of sexual dysfunction and other reproductive side-effects in patients with schizophrenia treated with risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, or haloperidol: the results of the EIRE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobes, J; Garc A-Portilla, M P; Rejas, J; Hern Ndez, G; Garcia-Garcia, M; Rico-Villademoros, F; Porras, A

    2003-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotics seem to differ mainly in their tolerability profile. The aim of this cross-sectional study, the Estudio de Investigaci n de Resultados en Esquizofrenia (Outcomes Research Study in Schizophrenia; EIRE study), was to assess in a clinical setting the frequency of several side-effects related to haloperidol, risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine. This article addresses sexual dysfunction and other reproductive side-effects (gynecomastia, menorrhage, amenorrhea, and galactorrhea). We recruited outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria and who had received a single antipsychotic (risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, or haloperidol) for at least 4 weeks. During a single visit, we collected data, including demographic and clinical characteristics, current antipsychotic and concomitant treatment, and adverse effects listed in a modified version of the UKU Scale. We used a Chi-squared test to determine pairs comparisons of the frequency of adverse reactions between treatments. To estimate risk of a given adverse reaction with a given treatment, we used a logistic regression method. We assessed 636 evaluable patients out of 669 recruited. Frequency of sexual dysfunction was high with haloperidol (38.1%) and also with olanzapine (35.3%), quetiapine (18.2%), and risperidone (43.2%). We found the frequency of other reproductive side-effects to be relatively low with all four drugs: haloperidol (6.9%), olanzapine (6.4%), quetiapine (2.7%), and risperidone (11.7%). Sexual dysfunction appeared to be dose-related with haloperidol, risperidone, and olanzapine. Risperidone and olanzapine showed a higher risk of sexual dysfunction and other reproductive sideeffects than haloperidol. Quetiapine showed a lower risk of sexual dysfunction during short-term treatment ( 12 weeks) are lacking. Our results suggest that none of the atypical

  2. Use of haloperidol and risperidone in highly aggressive Swiss Webster mice by applying the model of spontaneous aggression (MSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, Viviane Muniz da Silva; Hoppe, Luanda Yanaan; Araújo-Jorge, Tânia Cremonini de; Azevedo, Marcos José de; Campos, Jerônimo Diego de Souza; Cortez, Célia Martins; Oliveira, Gabriel Melo de

    2016-03-15

    Aggression is defined as the act in which an individual intentionally harms or injures another of their own species. Antipsychotics are a form of treatment used in psychiatric routine. They have been used for decades in treatment of patients with aggressive behavior. Haloperidol and risperidone promote the control of psychiatric symptoms, through their respective mechanisms of action. Experimental models are obtained by behavioral, genetic, and pharmacological manipulations, and use a reduced number of animals. In this context, we applied the model of spontaneous aggression (MSA), originating the presence of highly aggressive mice (AgR) when reassembled in adulthood. We administered haloperidol and risperidone in escalating doses, for ten consecutive days. Using positive and negative control groups, we evaluated the effectiveness of these drugs and the reversal of the aggressive behavior, performing the tail suspension test (TST) and open field test (OFT) on 10th day of treatment and 10 days after its discontinuation. The results showed that both antipsychotic drugs were effective in AgR and reversed the aggressive phenotype, reducing the number of attacks by AgR and the extent of lesions in the subordinate mice (AgD) exposed to the pattern of aggressive behavior (PAB) of the aggressors. This conclusion is based on the reduction in the animals' motor and exploratory activity, and on the reversal of patterns of aggressive behavior. The association between the MSA and experiments with other therapeutic protocols and different antipsychotics can be an important methodology in the study of aggressive behavior in psychiatric patients. PMID:26698401

  3. A randomized, crossover comparison of herbal medicine and bromocriptine against risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hai-Ning; Wang, Chuan-Yue; Sze, Cho Wing; Tong, Yao; Tan, Qing-Rong; Feng, Xiu-Jie; Liu, Rui-Mei; Zhang, Ji-Zhi; Zhang, Yan-Bo; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2008-06-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is a common adverse effect that occurs as a result of antipsychotic therapies, which often results in discontinuation. Empirical evidence has shown that some herbal medicines have suppressive effects on prolactin (PRL) hyperactivities. This study was designed to compare the herbal preparation called Peony-Glycyrrhiza Decoction (PGD) with bromocriptine (BMT), a dopamine agonist widely used for PRL-secreting disorders, in the treatment of risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Twenty schizophrenic women who were under risperidone maintenance treatment, diagnosed with hyperprolactinemia (serum PRL levels >50 mug/L), and currently experiencing oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea were selected for the study. Subjects were randomized to additional treatment with PGD (45 g/d) followed by BMT (5 mg/d) or BMT followed by PGD at the same doses for 4 weeks each, with an interval of 4-week washout period between 2 treatment sessions. The severity of psychotic symptoms, adverse events, serum PRL, estradiol, testosterone, and progesterone levels were examined at baseline and end point. Peony-Glycyrrhiza Decoction treatment produced a significant baseline-end point decrease in serum PRL levels, without exacerbating psychosis and changing other hormones, and the decreased amplitudes were similar to those of BMT (24% vs 21%-38%). Moreover, there was a significantly greater proportion of patients during PGD treatment than BMT treatment showing improvements on adverse effects associated with hyperprolactinemia (56% vs 17%, P = 0.037). These results suggest that the herbal therapy can yield additional benefits while having comparable efficacy in treating antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia in individuals with schizophrenia. PMID:18480682

  4. Costi ed effetti di Risperidone Long Acting (RLA rispetto ad antipsicotici atipici nel trattamento dei soggetti schizofrenici in Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo G. Mantovani

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate the costs and effects of long-acting risperidone (LAR in the treatment of schizophrenic patients in Italy, as compared to conventional and oral atypical antipsychotics. Methods: a discrete event model was used. The model simulates patients. history for every single therapeutic alternative and selects incident events, on the basis of pre-defined probability distribution-powered, randomized repetitions. The model operates on two types of parameters: patient characteristics and time-dependent variables. Patient characteristics (age, sex, illness profile and severity, probability of incurring in an adverse event and potential dangerousness remain fixed during the 5 simulated years. Time-dependent variables are subject to changes and include outpatient visits, severity of psychotic episodes, symptom-scores, compliance, incidence of adverse effects, site of treatment and dangerousness. Three treatments have been selected: scenario 1 begins with LAR, switches to olanzapine and then to clozapine; scenario 2 starts with olanzapine, switches to oral risperidone and ends with clozapine. Direct medical costs have been computed on the basis of psychiatric visits, drug costs and costs of the institution in which the patient is treated (hospital, rehabilitation clinic, etc. Outcome measures were number of psychotic episodes in 5 years, total time spent during these episodes and cumulative score of positive and negative symptoms at 5 years. Information on alternatives, transition probabilities, model structure and health resources utilization were derived from the literature and from a panel of experts. Results: it has been estimated that LAR is economically dominant (more effective at lower cost respect to oral atypical antipsychotics, being able to prevent 0.87 psychotic episodes per patient, with a net cost saving of 4,773 euro per patient. Sub-group analysis indicate that LAR is always more effective than the considered alternatives

  5. Essential Contributions of Serotonin Transporter Inhibition to the Acute and Chronic Actions of Fluoxetine and Citalopram in the SERT Met172 Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackenoff, Alex G; Moussa-Tooks, Alexandra B; McMeekin, Austin M; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Blakely, Randy D

    2016-06-01

    Depression is a common mental illness and a leading cause of disability. The most widely prescribed antidepressant medications are serotonin (5-HT) selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Although there is much support for 5-HT transporter (SERT) antagonism as a basis of antidepressant efficacy, this evidence is indirect and other targets and mechanisms have been proposed. In order to distinguish SERT-dependent and -independent effects of SSRIs, we developed a knock-in mouse model whereby high-affinity interactions of many antidepressants at SERT have been ablated via knock-in substitution (SERT Met172) without disrupting 5-HT recognition or uptake. Here we utilize the C57BL/6J SERT Met172 model to evaluate SERT dependence for the actions of two widely prescribed SSRIs, fluoxetine and citalopram, in tests sensitive to acute and chronic actions of antidepressants. In the tail suspension and forced swim tests, fluoxetine and citalopram fail to reduce immobility in SERT Met172 mice. In addition, SERT Met172 mice are insensitive to chronic fluoxetine and citalopram administration in the novelty induced hypophagia test (NIH) and fail to exhibit enhanced proliferation or survival of hippocampal stem cells. In both acute and chronic studies, SERT Met172 mice maintained sensitivity to paroxetine, an antidepressant that is unaffected by the Met172 mutation. Together, these studies provide definitive support for an essential role of SERT antagonism in the acute and chronic actions of two commonly used SSRIs in these tests, and reinforce the utility of the SERT Met172 model for isolating SERT/5-HT contributions of drug actions in vivo. PMID:26514584

  6. Synthesis and biological evaluation of I-125/I-123-labelled analogues of citalopram and escitalopram as potential radioligands for imaging of the serotonin transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob; Elfving, Betina; Frokjaer, Vibe G.;

    2011-01-01

    Two novel radioligands for the serotonin transporter (SERT), [I-125]{3-[5-iodo-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-1-yl]-propyl}-dimethylamine ([I-125]-2) and S-[I-125]{3-[5-iodo-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-1-yl]-propyl}-dimethylamine ([I-125]-(S)-2) were synthesized in a ...... radioligand in imaging cortical SERT distribution in vivo. These data suggest that the iodine-labelled derivatives of citalopram and escitalopram are not superior to another SPECT tracer for the SERT, namely [I-123] ADAM....

  7. Novel Azido-Iodo Photoaffinity Ligands for the Human Serotonin Transporter Based on the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (S)-Citalopram

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Vivek; Yarravarapu, Nageswari; Lapinsky, David J.; Perley, Danielle; Felts, Bruce; Tomlinson, Michael J.; Vaughan, Roxanne A.; Henry, L. Keith; Lever, John R.; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2015-01-01

    Three photoaffinity ligands (PALs) for the human serotonin transporter (hSERT) were synthesized based on the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), (S)-citalopram (1). The classic 4-azido-3-iodo-phenyl group was appended to either the C-1 or C-5 position of the parent molecule, with variable-length linkers, to generate ligands 15, 22, and 26. These ligands retained high to moderate affinity binding (K i = 24–227 nM) for hSERT, as assessed by [3H]5-HT transport inhibition. When tested ...

  8. Evaluation of S-[[sup 11]C]citalopram as a radioligand for in vivo labelling of 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hume, S.P.; Lammertsma, A.A.; Bench, C.J.; Pike, V.W.; Pascali, C.; Cremer, J.E. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom). M.R.C. Cyclotron Unit); Dolan, R.J. (Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom))

    1992-11-01

    The biologically active S-enantiomer of [N-methyl-[sup 11]C]citalopram was evaluated as a radioligand for in vivo labelling of the 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake site in brain, using ex vivo tissue counting in rats and positron emission tomography in man. In rats, the maximal signal for total versus non-specific binding was approx. 2 at 60-120 min after radioligand injection. Subsequent studies in man failed to identify a specific signal over a 90 min scanning period, due to prolonged retention of non-specific label. (author).

  9. Effects of acute treatment with paroxetine, citalopram and venlafaxine in vivo on noradrenaline and serotonin outflow: a microdialysis study in Swiss mice

    OpenAIRE

    David, D J P; Bourin, M; Jego, G; Przybylski, C; Jolliet, P.; Gardier, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated whether a single administration of a range of doses (1, 4 and 8 mg kg−1, i.p.) of paroxetine, citalopram or venlafaxine may simultaneously increase extracellular levels of 5-HT ([5-HT]ext) and noradrenaline ([NA]ext) by using in vivo microdialysis in the frontal cortex (FCx) of awake, freely moving Swiss mice.In vivo, paroxetine induced similar increases in cortical [5-HT]ext at the three doses tested, and induced a statistically significant increase in cortical [NA]ex...

  10. Evidence that the deficit in sexual behavior in adult rats neonatally exposed to citalopram is a consequence of 5-HT1 receptor stimulation during development

    OpenAIRE

    Maciag, Dorota; Coppinger, David; Paul, Ian A.

    2006-01-01

    Neonatal (postnatal days 8-21) exposure of rats to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), citalopram, results in persistent changes in behavior including decreased sexual activity in adult animals. We hypothesized that this effect was a consequence of abnormal stimulation of serotonergic receptors 5- HT1A or/and 5-HT1B as a result of increased synaptic availability of serotonin during a critical period of development. We examined whether neonatal exposure to a 5-HT1A (8OH-DPAT) an...

  11. Effects of Repeated Citalopram Treatments on Chronic Mild Stress-Induced Growth Associated Protein-43 mRNA Expression in Rat Hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sang-Ha; Choi, Song-Hyen; Lee, Jimin; Kang, Seungwoo; Shin, You-Chan; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Hyun Jung; Shin, Seung Keon; Lee, Min-Soo; Shin, Kyung-Ho

    2008-01-01

    Although growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) is known to play a significant role in the regulation of axonal growth and the formation of new neuronal connections in the hippocampus, there is only a few studies on the effects of acute stress on GAP-43 mRNA expression in the hippocampus. Moreover, the effects of repeated citalopram treatment on chronic mild stress (CMS)-induced changes in GAP-43 mRNA expression in the hippocampus have not been explored before. To explore this question, male r...

  12. Risperidone long-acting injection in Schizophrenia Spectrum Illnesses compared to first generation depot antipsychotics in an outpatient setting in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Lammers, Laura; Zehm, Bree; Williams, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Background Depot formulations of antipsychotics provide a potential solution to the poor adherence to oral therapies in schizophrenia. However, there have been few comparative studies on the effectiveness and tolerability of first and second generation depot antipsychotics in a real clinical practice setting. The objectives of the present study were to compare safety and outcomes in patients with schizophrenia initiated on risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) or first generation antipsych...

  13. Switching from risperidone long-acting injectable to paliperidone long-acting injectable or oral antipsychotics: analysis of a Medicaid claims database

    OpenAIRE

    Voss, Erica A.; Ryan, Patrick B.; Stang, Paul E.; Hough, David; Alphs, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This report examines relapse risk following a switch from risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) to another long-acting injectable antipsychotic [paliperidone palmitate (PP)] versus a switch to oral antipsychotics (APs). Truven Health’s MarketScan Multistate Medicaid Database compared relapses following switches from RLAI. New user cohorts for these two groups were created on the basis of first incidence of exposure to the ‘switched to’ drug. Groups were balanced using 1:1 propensity score...

  14. A comparison of low-dose risperidone to paroxetine in the treatment of panic attacks: a randomized, single-blind study

    OpenAIRE

    Galynker Igor I; Cohen Lisa J; Steele Annie; Yard Samantha; Prosser James M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Because a large proportion of patients with panic attacks receiving approved pharmacotherapy do not respond or respond poorly to medication, it is important to identify additional therapeutic strategies for the management of panic symptoms. This article describes a randomized, rater-blind study comparing low-dose risperidone to standard-of-care paroxetine for the treatment of panic attacks. Methods Fifty six subjects with a history of panic attacks were randomized to recei...

  15. A high-performance liquid chromatographic-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometric method for determination of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, David E; Laycock, John D; Huang, Wei; Foltz, Rodger L

    2004-09-01

    Risperidone, a benzisoxazole derivative, is an antipsychotic agent used for the treatment of schizophrenia. We developed a liquid chromatographic-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-APCI-MS-MS) method with improved sensitivity, selectivity, and dynamic range for determination of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in human plasma. A structural analogue of risperidone, RO68808 (5 ng/mL), is added as the internal standard to 1 mL of human plasma. Plasma is made basic, extracted with pentane/methylene chloride (3:1), the organic phase evaporated to dryness, and the residue is reconstituted in water with 0.1% formic acid/acetonitrile (20:1). For LC-MS-MS analysis, a Metachem Inertsel HPLC column (2.1 x 150 mm, 5-microm particle size) is connected to a Finnigan TSQ7000 tandem MS via the Finnigan API interface. Both electrospray (ESI) and APCI produced predominantly MH(+) ions for the two analytes and the internal standard. Ions detected by selected reaction monitoring correspond to the following transitions: m/z 411 to 191 for risperidone, m/z 427 to 207 for 9-hydroxyrisperidone, and m/z 421 to 201 for the internal standard. APCI provided a larger dynamic range (0.1 to 25 ng/mL) and better precision and accuracy than ESI. Intrarun accuracy and precision determined at 0.1, 0.25, 2.5, and 15 ng/mL were within 12% of target with %CVs not exceeding 10.9%. Interrun accuracy and precision determined at the same concentrations were within 9.6% of target with %CVs not exceeding 6.7%. Analytes were stable in plasma after 24 h at room temperature, 2 freeze-thaw cycles, and 490 days at -20 degrees C. PMID:15516302

  16. Comparison of risperidone and aripiprazole in the treatment of preschool children with disruptive behavior disorder and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Parvin; Hasanpour-Dehkordi, Ali; AmirAhmadi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Although pharmacotherapy with atypical antipsychotics is common in child psychiatry, there has been little research on this issue. To compare the efficacy and safety of risperidone and aripiprazole in the treatment of preschool children with disruptive behavior disorders comorbid with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Randomized clinical trial conducted in a university-affiliated child psychiatry clinic in southwest Iran. Forty 3-6-year-old children, diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder comorbid with ADHD, were randomized to an 8-week trial of treatment with risperidone or aripiprazole (20 patients in each group). Assessment was performed by Conners' rating scale-revised and clinical global impressions scale, before treatment, and at weeks 2, 4, and 8 of treatment. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 16. Mean scores between the two groups were compared by analysis of variance and independent and paired t-test. Mean scores of Conners rating scales were not different between two groups in any steps of evaluation. Both groups had significantly reduced scores in week 2 of treatment (P = 0.00), with no significant change in subsequent measurements. Rates of improvement, mean increase in weight (P = 0.894), and mean change in fasting blood sugar (P = 0.671) were not significantly different between two groups. Mean serum prolactin showed a significant increase in risperidone group (P = 0.00). Both risperidone and aripiprazole were equally effective in reducing symptoms of ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder, and relatively safe, but high rates of side effects suggest the cautious use of these drugs in children. PMID:27144151

  17. Controlled clinical treatment of the domestic Ziprasidone and risperidone%国产齐拉西酮与维思通的临床对照治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永强; 冯金河

    2013-01-01

    Objective:comparison curative effect and untoward effect between Ziprasidone and risperidone. Methods:Sixty patients with schizophrenia were randomly divided into two groups: thirty patients were in Ziprasidone's group and the other thirty patients were in risperidone's group, after treatment for six weekends, used positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS) and treatment emergent symptoms scale (TESS) to evaluate the efficacy. Results: Ziprasidone and risperidone have equal therapy, but the incidence of adverse reaction and symptom severity of Ziprasidone was significantly lower than risperidone, especially, Ziprasidone has a small influence in mammotropic hormone and weight. Conclusion: Ziprasidone for schizophrenia have a good efficacy, few untoward effects and good compliance.%目的对比国产齐拉西酮与维思通的疗效和不良反应。方法对60例精神分裂症患者随机分为国产齐拉西酮组30例和维思通组30例,进行相应的药物治疗,疗程6周,采用PANSS量表和TESS副反应量表进行评价。结果国产齐拉西酮和维思通疗效相当,但国产齐拉西酮的不良反应发生率和症状严重程度显著低于维思通,特别对催乳素和体重的影响明显较小,同时具有良好的依从性。结论国产齐拉西酮治疗精神分裂症疗效确切,不良反应少,依从性好。

  18. Olanzapine vs. Risperidone in Patients with First-Episode Schizophrenia and a Lifetime History of Cannabis Use Disorders: 16-Week Clinical and Substance Use outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Sevy, Serge; Robinson, Delbert G.; Sunday, Suzanne; Napolitano, Barbara; Miller, Rachel; McCormack, Joanne; Kane, John M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of olanzapine and risperidone for the acute treatment of first-episode schizophrenia patients with cannabis use disorders. This secondary analysis of a previously published study included forty-nine first-episode patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, or schizoaffective disorder and a co-occurring lifetime diagnosis of cannabis use disorders randomly assigned to treatment with either olanzapine (n=28) or risp...

  19. Are the Long-Acting Intramuscular Formulations of Risperidone or Paliperidone Palmitate Associated with Post-Injection Delirium/Sedation Syndrome? An Assessment of Safety Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Alphs, Larry; Gopal, Srihari; Karcher, Keith; Kent, Justine; Kern Sliwa, Jennifer; Kushner, Stuart; Nuamah, Isaac; Singh, Jaskaran

    2011-01-01

    Long-acting injectable (LAI) formulations of antipsychotics are valuable treatment alternatives for patients with psychotic disorders, and understanding their safe use is critical. Post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome (PDSS) has been reported following treatment with one atypical antipsychotic LAI. Clinical databases of risperidone LAI and paliperidone palmitate were explored to identify if cases of PDSS had been observed. No cases of PDSS were identified in 15 completed trials of 3,164 ...

  20. Comparison of risperidone and aripiprazole in the treatment of preschool children with disruptive behavior disorder and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Safavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although pharmacotherapy with atypical antipsychotics is common in child psychiatry, there has been little research on this issue. To compare the efficacy and safety of risperidone and aripiprazole in the treatment of preschool children with disruptive behavior disorders comorbid with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Randomized clinical trial conducted in a university-affiliated child psychiatry clinic in southwest Iran. Forty 3-6-year-old children, diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder comorbid with ADHD, were randomized to an 8-week trial of treatment with risperidone or aripiprazole (20 patients in each group. Assessment was performed by Conners′ rating scale-revised and clinical global impressions scale, before treatment, and at weeks 2, 4, and 8 of treatment. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 16. Mean scores between the two groups were compared by analysis of variance and independent and paired t-test. Mean scores of Conners rating scales were not different between two groups in any steps of evaluation. Both groups had significantly reduced scores in week 2 of treatment (P = 0.00, with no significant change in subsequent measurements. Rates of improvement, mean increase in weight (P = 0.894, and mean change in fasting blood sugar (P = 0.671 were not significantly different between two groups. Mean serum prolactin showed a significant increase in risperidone group (P = 0.00. Both risperidone and aripiprazole were equally effective in reducing symptoms of ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder, and relatively safe, but high rates of side effects suggest the cautious use of these drugs in children.

  1. Estudio de biodisponibilidad comparativa de dos formulaciones de risperidona existentes en el mercado chileno A comparative bioavailability study of two formulations of risperidone available in the Chilean market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo E Gaete

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bioavailability of a particular drug can vary according to the formulation used. Therefore, studies of comparative bioavailability of different formulations of a same drug are worthwhile. Aim: To compare the bioavailability of two risperidone formulations available in the Chilean market. Material and methods: The bioavailability of a local risperidone formulation (Spiron® was compared with the original formulation of the drug (Risperdal® in 12 healthy volunteers, aged 19±1 years. A single dose of 3 mg was given orally, using a randomized double blind protocol in two periods. Fifteen blood samples were obtained at regular intervals, until 24 h after drug administration. Risperidone plasma levels were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a computer program that is independent of compartmental analysis. Results: The area under the curve of plasma concentration versus time, from 0 to infinite (ABC0-∞ and from 0 to 24 h (ABC0-24, early exposure (ABC from 0 to maximal time and maximal plasma concentrations were significantly lower for Spiron®. Half life time and time to achieve the maximal concentration were similar for the two formulations. Conclusions: According to bioequivalence tests suggested by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA of the United States (90% confidence interval for the difference of log transformed mean pharmacokinetic parameters, the formulations Risperdal® and Spiron®, cannot be considered interchangeable (Rev Méd Chile 2003; 131: 527-34.

  2. Haloperidol and Risperidone at high concentrations activate an in vitro inflammatory response of RAW 264.7 macrophage cells by induction of apoptosis and modification of cytokine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz Jung, Ivo Emílio; Machado, Alencar Kolinski; da Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Mânica; Barbisan, Fernanda; Azzolin, Verônica Farina; Duarte, Thiago; Duarte, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura; do Prado-Lima, Pedro Antônio Schmidt; Bochi, Guilherme Vargas; Scola, Gustavo; Moresco, Rafael Noal

    2016-05-01

    Antipsychotic drugs, such as haloperidol and risperidone, are used in long-term treatment of psychiatric patients and thus increase the risk of obesity and other metabolic dysfunctions. Available evidence suggests that these drugs have pro-inflammatory effect, which contributes to the establishment of endocrine disturbances. However, results yielded by extant studies are inconsistent. Therefore, in this work, we tested the in vitro effects of different high concentrations of haloperidol and risperidone on the activation of isolated macrophages (RAW 264.7 cell line). The results indicated that macrophages were activated by both drugs. In addition, the activation involved an increase in nitric oxide levels and apoptosis events by modulation of caspases 8 and 3 levels and a decrease of the Bcl-2/BAX gene expression ratio. Cells treated with haloperidol and risperidone also presented higher concentrations of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα) and low levels of IL-6 anti-inflammatory cytokine in a dose-dependent manner. Despite the limitation of cell line studies based solely on macrophages cells, we suggest that antipsychotic drugs could potentially exacerbate inflammatory processes in peripheral tissues (blood and fat). The continued activation of macrophages could contribute to the development of obesity and other endocrine disturbances caused by the use of antipsychotic drugs. PMID:26391290

  3. Effect of paliperidone and risperidone on extracellular glutamate in the prefrontal cortex of rats exposed to prenatal immune activation or MK-801

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roenker, Nicole L.; Gudelsky, Gary; Ahlbrand, Rebecca; Bronson, Stefanie L.; Kern, Joseph R.; Waterman, Heather; Richtand, Neil M.

    2011-01-01

    The NMDA glutamate hypofunction model of schizophrenia is based in part upon acute effects of NMDA receptor blockade in humans and rodents. Several laboratories have reported glutamate system abnormalities following prenatal exposure to immune challenge, a known environmental risk factor for schizophrenia. Here we report indices of NMDA glutamate receptor hypofunction following prenatal immune activation, as well as the effects of treatment during periadolescence with the atypical antipsychotic medications risperidone and paliperidone. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) or saline on gestational day 14. Male offspring were treated orally via drinking water with vehicle, risperidone (0.01 mg/kg/day), or paliperidone (0.01 mg/kg/day) between postnatal days 35 and 56 (periadolescence) and extracellular glutamate levels in the prefrontal cortex were determined by microdialysis at PD 56. Consistent with decreased NMDA receptor function, MK-801 – induced increases in extracellular glutamate concentration were markedly blunted following prenatal immune activation. Further suggesting NMDA receptor hypofunction, prefrontal cortex basal extracellular glutamate was significantly elevated (P<0.05) in offspring of Poly I:C treated dams. Pretreatment with low dose paliperidone or risperidone (0.01 mg/kg/day postnatal days 35–56) normalized prefrontal cortical basal extracellular glutamate (P<0.05 vs. poly I:C vehicle-treatment). Pretreatment with paliperidone and risperidone also prevented the acute MK-801-induced increase in extracellular glutamate. These observations demonstrate decreased NMDA receptor function and elevated extracellular glutamate, two key features of the NMDA glutamate receptor hypofunction model of schizophrenia, during periadolescence following prenatal immune activation. Treatment with the atypical antipsychotic medications paliperidone and risperidone normalized basal extracellular glutamate

  4. 西酞普兰治疗脑梗死后强哭发作的临床研究%Study of citalopram on treatment of pathological crying after cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衣旭华; 龙君; 刘丽娟; 殷军蕾; 林春燕

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy of citalopram on treatment of pathological crying after cerebral infarction.Methods Fifty-two patients with pathological crying symptoms after cerebral infarction were randomly divided into two groups:citalopram treatment group (27 cases) and control group (25cases).Control group had conventional cerebrovascular disease treatment.Citalopram treatment group was treated with citalopram 20 mg/day for 3 months.The response rates and Hasegawa Dementia Scale (HDS) between two groups at the end of treatment were compared.Results There were significant differences in the response rates (88.9% and 36%,respectively) and HDS(8.43±2.21 and 6.24±2.02,respectively) between citalopram group and control group after treatment (P<0.01).Conclusions The study shows that citalopram is effective for treating pathological crying after cerebral infarction.Citalopram can not only control pathological crying,but also improve cognitive function in patients with cerebral infarction.%目的 观察西酞普兰治疗脑梗死后强哭发作的治疗效果.方法 脑梗死后强哭发作患者52例,按入院先后顺序随机分为2组,西酞普兰组27例,对照组25例.对照组给予常规脑血管病治疗,西酞普兰治疗组在此基础上加用西酞普兰20 mg,1次/d,连服3个月,比较2组治疗后总有效率和长谷川痴呆量表积分.结果 西酞普兰组和对照组总有效率分别是88.9%(25/27)和36.0%(9/25);长谷川痴呆量表积分是(8.43±2.21)分和(6.24±2.02)分,两者差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 西酞普兰治疗强哭发作效果好,不但能控制强哭发作,而且能提高患者的认知功能.

  5. Positive allosteric modulation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid glutamate receptors differentially modulates the behavioural effects of citalopram in mouse models of antidepressant and anxiolytic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Ciarán M; Larsen, Maria; Madsen, Louise H; Caballero-Puntiverio, Maitane; Pickering, Darryl S; Clausen, Rasmus P; Andreasen, Jesper T

    2016-09-01

    Drugs that increase monoamine neurotransmission are effective in both anxiety and depression. The therapeutic effects of monoamine-based antidepressant drugs may involve indirect effects on neurotransmission through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid glutamate receptors (AMPAR). Thus, chronic antidepressant treatment increases AMPAR-mediated neurotransmission and AMPAR-positive allosteric modulators have shown antidepressant-like efficacy in rodents. Here, the effect of enhanced AMPAR neurotransmission on the antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like actions of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram (0-10 mg/kg) was investigated in mice using the AMPAR-positive allosteric modulator LY451646 (0-3 mg/kg). Antidepressant-like effects were assessed using the forced-swim test (FST), whereas anxiolytic-like effects were tested using the elevated zero maze (EZM) and the marble burying test. LY451646 (3 mg/kg) increased swim distance in the FST and a subactive dose of LY451646 (1 mg/kg) enhanced the effect of citalopram in the FST. In the EZM, LY451646 (3 mg/kg) did not show anxiogenic effects alone, but blocked the anxiolytic-like action of citalopram in the EZM, as reflected by an increase in the latency to enter the open areas and a decrease in the number of entries and time spent in the open areas in citalopram-treated mice. In the marble burying test, LY451646 (3 mg/kg) showed no effect alone, but significantly attenuated the anxiolytic-like effect of citalopram (1.25-2.5 mg/kg) by increasing the number of marbles buried in citalopram-treated mice. These results suggest that AMPAR neurotransmission plays opposite roles in anxiety and depression as AMPAR potentiation facilitated the antidepressant-like effects of citalopram while attenuating its anxiolytic-like effect. These findings have ramifications in the search for AMPAR-based novel anxiolytic and antidepressant treatments. PMID:27341500

  6. 2种西酞普兰制剂的人体生物等效性研究%Study on Bioequivalence of 2 Kinds of Citalopram Preparations in Healthy Volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄天文; 文隽; 潘文; 李艳; 雷宇

    2012-01-01

    目的:比较西酞普兰胶囊与片剂在健康人体内的生物等效性.方法:20名健康志愿者采用双周期交叉试验,单剂量空腹口服西酞普兰胶囊(受试制剂)与西酞普兰片(参比制剂)各40 mg,以高效液相色谱法测定其西酞普兰血药浓度,药-时数据经3p97软件处理,计算主要药动学参数,并进行2种制剂的生物等效性评价.结果:西酞普兰胶囊与片剂的主要药动学参数分别为tmax(36.9±9.1)、(39.3±6.8)h,cmax(68.7±5.6)、(71.8±6.9)μg·L-1,t1/2(4.3±1.1)、(4.6±1.0)h,AUC0~144h(2 418±636)、(2 483±342)μg·h·L-1,AUC0~∞(2 576±561)、(2 742±371)μg·h·L-1.西酞普兰胶囊的相对生物利用度为(98.8±11.4)%.结论:西酞普兰胶囊与片剂具有生物等效性.%OBJECTIVE: To compare the bioequivalence of Citalopram capsules and Citalopram tablets in healthy volunteers. METHODS: In bi-periodic cross-over study, 20 healthy volunteers were given Citalopram capsule 40 mg (test preparation) and Citalopram tablet 40 mg (reference preparation) orally respectively. The blood concentration of citalopram was determined by HPLC and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with 3p97 software. The bioequivalence of 2 kinds of preparations was evaluated. RESULTS: Main pharmacokinetic parameters of Citalopram capsules vs. Citalopram tablets were as follows: tmax(36.9±9.1)h and (39.3 ±6.8)h;Cmax(68.7 ±5.6)ng·L-1 and (71.8 ±6.9)ug-L-1;rM(4.3± l.l)h and (4.6 ±1.0) h; AUC0~144 h(2 418 ±636)μg·h· L-1 and (2 483 ± 342)μg·h·L-1; AUC0~00 were(2 576 ± 561)μg·h·L-1 and (2 742 ± 371) μg·h·L-1. The relative bioavailability of Citalopram capsules was (98.8 ±11.4)%. CONCLUSION: Citalopram capsule and Citalopram tablet are bioequivalent.

  7. A control study of citalopram and venlafaxine in the treatment of depression%西酞普兰与万拉法新治疗老年抑郁症的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璟; 杨君宏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and side effects of citalopram in the treatment of depression. Methods 108 patients with aged depression were double-blindly assigned to citalopram group and venlafaxine group for 6 weeks. HAMD,CGI and TESS were used to assess the clinical efficacy and side effects. Results Citalopram possessed efficacy similar to venlafaxine. However citalopram had fewer side effects. Conclusion Citalopram may be first drug for treating aged depression.%目的:探讨西酞普兰与万拉法新治疗老年抑郁症的疗效和安全性。方法将108例老年抑郁症患者随机分为两组,各54例,分别给予西酞普兰和万拉法新治疗,疗程6周,采用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、临床疗效总评量表的病情严重程度(CGI-SI)和副反应量表(TESS)评定疗效和不良反应。结果西酞普兰与万拉法新治疗老年性抑郁症疗效相近,但前者不良反应较后者少而轻微。结论西酞普兰可作为治疗老年抑郁症的首选用药。

  8. Comparative study of Parocetine and Citalopram on treatment of depressive patients with attempted suicide%帕罗西汀和西酞普兰治疗抑郁症自杀未遂患者的疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程敏锋; 温盛霖; 钟智勇

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To compare the clinical effect and safty of Parocetine and Citalopram on treatment of depressive patients with attempted suicide. METHODS: Using randomized study,75 cases depressive patients with attempted suicide were evaluated by Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAMD) and Treatment emergent symotoms(TESS). RESULTS:The effective rate of Parocetine after 4 weeks treatment was lower than that of Citalopram (P<0.05). There was significance difference. The significant efficiency had significance difference in two groups after 4 weeks treatment (P<0.05). The side effects of Parocetine and Citalopram had no differences(P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Citalopram is rapidly responsive antidepressant for depressive patients with attempted suicide, and salty of Parocetine and Citalopram are similar.%目的:比较帕罗西汀(赛乐特)和西酞普兰(喜普妙)治疗抑郁症自杀未遂患者的疗效和安全性.方法:用随机对照方法对75例抑郁症自杀未遂患者进行帕罗西汀(试验组)和西酞普兰(对照组)治疗8周,采用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)评定疗效,用副反应量表(TESS)评定不良反应.结果:试验组在治疗后4周的HAMD减分值及减分率低于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P0.05).结论:在系统治疗抑郁症自杀未遂患者时,西酞普兰抗抑郁作用显效快于帕罗西汀,两药安全性相仿.

  9. 西酞普兰与氟西汀治疗脑卒中后抑郁临床对照研究%Citalopram and fluoxetine in t he treatment of post-stroke depression clinical control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段媛卿; 王文泽; 王继禹

    2010-01-01

    Objective Discussion of citalopram and fluoxetine in the treatment of post-stroke depression efficacy and safety of. Methods 82 cases of post-stroke depression were randomly divided into groups of citalopram and fluoxetine groups, treatment of 6 weeks, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and Emergent Symptom Scale(TESS) in pre-treatment and treatment of 1,2,4,6 weekend separately assessed the efficacy and adverse reactions. Results Citalopram and fluoxetine group the overall effect of a considerable, citalopram group effect faster than the fluoxetine group of adverse reactions due to limited light. Conclusion Citalopram in the treatment of post-stroke depression are both effective and safe.%目的 探讨西酞普兰与氟西汀治疗脑卒中后抑郁的疗效和安全性.方法 82例脑卒中后抑郁患者,随机分为西酞普兰组和氟西汀组,治疗6周,采用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)和副反应量表(TESS)于治疗前和治疗1、2、4、6周末分别评定疗效和不良反应.结果 西酞普兰组和氟西汀组总体疗效相当,西酞普兰组起效较快,不良反应较氟西汀组少而轻.结论 西酞普兰治疗脑卒中后抑郁既有效又安全.

  10. 疏血通联合异丙嗪、三磷酸腺苷、维生素B6治疗眩晕症的临床疗效观察%Curative effect observation of Shuxuetong with promethazine, ATP, vitamin B6 treat vertigo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the clinical efficacy of Shuxuetong with promethazine, ATP, vitamin B6 in the treatment of vertigo, provide effective theoretical basis for the treatment of rapid treatment. Methods 60 patients with vertigo were randomly divided into treatment group and control group. Treatment group was treated with Shuxuetong, promethazine,ATP, vitamin B6; the control group was given the treatment of promethazine, 654-2. Comparison of curative effect of two groups of patients after 3h. Results Effective 28 cases in the treatment group after treatment 3h, significantly better than the 20 cases in the control group, P<0.01. Conclusion Shuxuetong combination with promethazine, adenosine triphosphate, vitamin B6 treatment of emergency vertigo is a safe and effective and fast treatment, worthy of clinical application.%目的:探讨疏血通联合异丙嗪、三磷酸腺苷、维生素B6治疗眩晕症的临床疗效,为急诊快速救治提供有效理论依据。方法将60例眩晕症患者随机分为治疗组和对照组。治疗组给予疏血通、异丙嗪、三磷酸腺苷、维生素B6治疗;对照组给予异丙嗪、654-2治疗。对比两组患者在3h后的疗效。结果治疗组在治疗3h后有效26例,明显好于对照组17例,P<0.05。结论疏血通联用异丙嗪、三磷酸腺苷、维生素B6治疗眩晕症是一种安全有效而又快速的治疗手段,值得临床推广应用。

  11. [The study of therapeutic efficacy of two forms of risperidone--rileptid and rispolept in patients with schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhapkin, R V

    2008-01-01

    Generic drugs represent a big part of the Russian pharmaceutical market, a number of registered copies of the same drug manufactured by different pharmaceutical companies being estimated as several tens of drugs that does not mean their equally high quality and complete interchangeability. A choice of optimal price-to-quality ratio of a drug among a great number of analogues is possible only with taking into account a number of factors related to a manufacturer, a drug and a patient. The most important index of interchangeability of generic drugs is their therapeutic equivalence to the original one. A study aimed to compare the therapeutic equivalence of two preparations of risperidone--original rispolept and generic rileptid--has been carried out. The comparison of efficacy and tolerability of the therapy has not revealed differences both in any of the parameters and in any stages of the study. In conclusion, the full therapeutic equivalence of generic drug rileptid to original rispolept is revealed. PMID:18833105

  12. 氟哌啶醇与利培酮对精神分裂症患者生活质量的影响%Effect of Haloperidol and Risperidone on the Life Quality of the Patients with Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任清涛; 闫加民; 李广

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects between ha loperidol and rieperidon e on quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: The patients with schizophrenia treated respectively by haloperidol and risperidone were compared by double blind method. The General Quality of Life Inventory (GQOLI) was used to evaluate the life quality, while the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PA NSS) and the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) were used to assess the eff icacy and side effects. Results: The risperidone group sho wed better effects tha n the haloperidol group in the domains of physical function ,mental health and s ocial function The difference was significant (P<0.01). Conclusion:[ WT5"BZ The quality of life of Schizophrenic patients treated by haloperidol were poorer than that o f risperidone.

  13. Dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding of [123I]epidepride in risperidone-treatment chronic MK-801-induced rat schizophrenia model using nanoSPECT/CT neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Epidepride is a compound with an affinity in picomolar range for D2/D3 receptors. The aim of this work was designed to investigate the diagnostic possibility of [123I]epidepride imaging platform for risperidone-treatment chronic MK-801-induced rat schizophrenia model. Methods: Rats received repeated administration of MK-801 (dissolved in saline, i.p., 0.3 mg/kg/day) or saline for 4 weeks. After 1-week administration of MK-801, rats in MK-801 + risperidone group received risperidone (0.5 mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally 15 min prior to MK-801 administration for the rest of 3-week treatment. We obtained serial [123I]epidepride neuroimages from nanoSPECT/CT and evaluated the alteration of specific binding in striatum and midbrain. Results: Risperidone reversed chronic MK-801-induced decrease in social interaction duration. IHC and ELISA analysis showed consistent results that chronic MK-801 treatment significantly decreased striatal and midbrain D2R expression but repeated risperidone administration reversed the effect of MK-801 treatment. In addition, [123I]epidepride nanoSPECT/CT neuroimaging revealed that low specific [123I]epidepride binding ratios caused by MK-801 in striatum and midbrain were statistically alleviated after 1- and 2-week risperidone administration, respectively. Conclusions: We established a rat schizophrenia model by chronic MK-801 administration for 4 weeks. [123I]Epidepride nanoSPECT neuroimaging can trace the progressive alteration of D2R expression in striatum and midbrain caused by long-lasting MK-801 treatment. Besides diagnosing illness stage of disease, [123I]epidepride can be a useful tool to evaluate therapeutic effects of antipsychotic drug in chronic MK-801-induced rat schizophrenia model

  14. Micelle Enhanced Fluorimetric and Thin Layer Chromatography Densitometric Methods for the Determination of (± Citalopram and its S – Enantiomer Escitalopram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham A. Taha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two sensitive and validated methods were developed for determination of a racemic mixture citalopram and its enantiomer S-(+ escitalopram. The first method was based on direct measurement of the intrinsic fluorescence of escitalopram using sodium dodecyl sulfate as micelle enhancer. This was further applied to determine escitalopram in spiked human plasma, as well as in the presence of common and co-administerated drugs. The second method was TLC densitometric based on various chiral selectors was investigated. The optimum TLC conditions were found to be sensitive and selective for identification and quantitative determination of enantiomeric purity of escitalopram in drug substance and drug products. The method can be useful to investigate adulteration of pure isomer with the cheap racemic form.

  15. Citalopram for treatment of epilepsy and depression: a systematic review%西酞普兰治疗癫痫伴发抑郁的系统评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周娟; 龙燕玲; 吴波; 邹晓毅

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of citalopram in patients with epilepsy and depression.Methods Through adopting Cochrane systematic review methods,we searched Pubmed,Embase,Cochrane Library,the China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP),the China Biological Medicine Database (CBM),the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure full-text journal database (CNKI)(by June,2012),so as to collect the randomized controlled trials(RCTs) about citalopram for the patients with epilepsy and depression,the quality of each trial was assessed,and meta-analysis was conducted.Results Two trials,involving 94 patients were included,and were single-center controlled trials in china.The results of Meta analysis showed that citalopram were more effective than placebo and the outcomes were statistically significant ((R =18.11,95% CI (5.76,56.88),P <0.00001).The two trials reported the adverse events,such as headache,dizziness,nausea,vomiting,insomnia,sedation,etc.No trial assessed quality of life.Conclusions Available evidence suggests that citalopram could obviously improve depressive symptoms of patients with epilepsy and depression.Some patients occur adverse events,but they are generally mild.Further high-quality,large-scale RCTs are needed to confirm these results.%目的 评价西酞普兰治疗癫痫伴发抑郁障碍患者的疗效及安全性.方法 采用Cochrane系统评价的方法,计算机检索Pubmed、Embase、Cochrane Library、中国生物医学期刊文献数据库、中国期刊全文数据库、中文科技期刊全文数据库,检索时间为每个数据库建库到2012年6月,检索语言限制为英文和中文.全面收集西酞普兰治疗癫痫患者伴发抑郁的临床随机对照试验,评价纳入研究质量,进行Meta分析.结果 共纳入2个研究,94例患者,均为国内单中心实验,Meta分析结果显示,西酞普兰对抑郁情绪的改善有效率高于对照组,差异有统计学意义[OR =18.11,95% CI (5.76~56

  16. 西酞普兰与氟西汀治疗抑郁症的疗效比较%Comparison of the effect of citalopram and fluoxetine in the treatment of depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李月霞

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较西酞普兰与氟西汀治疗抑郁症的疗效及不良反应.方法 将46例符合CCMD-3诊断标准的抑郁症患者随机分为西酞普兰组和氟西汀组,疗程6周,用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)和副反应量表(TESS)评定疗效和不良反应.结果 西酞普兰组显效率为75.4%,氟西汀组为74.8%,两组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).两组治疗第2周末HAND评分差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).西酞普兰组TESS评分低于氟西汀组(P<0.05).结论 西酞普兰和氟西汀均有良好的抗抑郁效果.西酞普兰具有起效早、不良反应小的优点.%Objective To compare the effect and side effects of citalopram and fluoxetine in the treatment of depression.Methods 46 cases meet the diagnostic criteria of CCMD-3 in patients with depression were randomly divided into citalopram group and fluoxetine group,treatment for 6 weeks,with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and Emergent Symptom Scale(TESS) assessed the efficacy and adverse reactions.Results The efficiercy in citalopram group was 75.4%,74.8% for the fluoxetine group,the difference between the two groups was not significant ( P>0.05).Affter 2weeks treatment HAMD score between the two groups was significantly different (P < 0.05),TESS score in Citalopram group was lower than the fluoxetine group,the differences were significant ( P < 0.05 ).Conclusion Citalopram and fluoxetine have good antidepressant effects.Citalopram has the advanteges of early onset,cess adverse reactions.

  17. Effectiveness of injectable risperidone long-acting therapy for schizophrenia: data from the US, Spain, Australia, and Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macfadden Wayne

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because wide variations in mental health care utilization exist throughout the world, determining long-term effectiveness of psychotropic medications in a real-world setting would be beneficial to physicians and patients. The purpose of this analysis was to describe the effectiveness of injectable risperidone long-acting therapy (RLAT for schizophrenia across countries. Methods This was a pragmatic analysis of data from two prospective observational studies conducted in the US (Schizophrenia Outcomes Utilization Relapse and Clinical Evaluation [SOURCE]; ClinicalTrials.gov registration number for the SOURCE study: NCT00246194 and Spain, Australia, and Belgium (electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry [eSTAR]. Two separate analyses were performed to assess clinical improvement during the study and estimate psychiatric hospitalization rates before and after RLAT initiation. Clinical improvement was evaluated using the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF scales, and change from baseline was evaluated using paired t tests. Psychiatric hospitalization rates were analyzed using incidence densities, and the bootstrap resampling method was used to examine differences between the pre-baseline and post-baseline periods. Results The initial sample comprised 3,069 patients (US, n = 532; Spain, n = 1,345; Australia, n = 784; and Belgium, n = 408. In all, 24 months of study participation, completed by 39.3% (n = 209, 62.7% (n = 843, 45.8% (n = 359, and 64.2% (n = 262 of patients from the US, Spain, Australia, and Belgium, respectively, were included in the clinical analysis. Improvements compared with baseline were observed on both clinical assessments across countries (P P P Conclusions RLAT in patients with schizophrenia was associated with improvements in clinical and functional outcomes and decreased hospitalization rates in the US, Spain, Australia, and Belgium, despite

  18. Assessment of effectiveness measures in patients with schizophrenia initiated on risperidone long-acting therapy: the SOURCE study results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirani Riad D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate effectiveness outcomes in a real-world setting in patients with schizophrenia initiating risperidone long-acting therapy (RLAT. Methods This was a 24-month, multicenter, prospective, longitudinal, observational study in patients with schizophrenia who were initiated on RLAT. Physicians could change treatment during the study as clinically warranted. Data were collected at baseline and subsequently every 3 months up to 24 months. Effectiveness outcomes included changes in illness severity as measured by Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S scale; functional scores as measured by Personal and Social Performance (PSP scale, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF, and Strauss-Carpenter Levels of Functioning (LOF; and health status (Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 [SF-36]. Life-table methodology was used to estimate the cumulative probability of relapse over time. Adverse events were evaluated for safety. Results 532 patients were enrolled in the study; 209 (39.3% completed the 24-month study and 305 (57.3% had at least 12 months of follow-up data. The mean (SD age of patients was 42.3 (12.8 years. Most patients were male (66.4% and either Caucasian (60.3% or African American (23.7%. All changes in CGI-S from baseline at each subsequent 3-month follow-up visit were statistically significant (p Conclusions Patients with schizophrenia who were initiated on RLAT demonstrated improvements in measures of effectiveness within 3 months, which persisted over 24 months. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00246194

  19. Association studies of genomic variants with treatment response to risperidone, clozapine, quetiapine and chlorpromazine in the Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q; Wu, X; Li, M; Huang, H; Minica, C; Yi, Z; Wang, G; Shen, L; Xing, Q; Shi, Y; He, L; Qin, S

    2016-08-01

    Schizophrenia is a widespread mental disease with a prevalence of about 1% in the world population. Continuous long-term treatment is required to maintain social functioning and prevent symptom relapse of schizophrenia patients. However, there are considerable individual differences in response to the antipsychotic drugs. There is a pressing need to identify more drug-response-related markers. But most pharmacogenomics of schizophrenia have typically focused on a few candidate genes in small sample size. In this study, 995 subjects were selected for discovering the drug-response-related markers. A total of 77 single-nucleotide polymorphisms of 25 genes have been investigated for four commonly used antipsychotic drugs in China: risperidone, clozapine, quetiapine, and chlorpromazine. Significant associations with treatment response for several genes, such as CYP2D6, CYP2C19, COMT, ABCB1, DRD3 and HTR2C have been verified in our study. Also, we found several new candidate genes (TNIK, RELN, NOTCH4 and SLC6A2) and combinations (haplotype rs1544325-rs5993883-rs6269-rs4818 in COMT) that are associated with treatment response to the four drugs. Also, multivariate interactions analysis demonstrated the combination of rs6269 in COMT and rs3813929 in HTR2C may work as a predictor to improve the clinical antipsychotic response. So our study is of great significance to improve current knowledge on the pharmacogenomics of schizophrenia, thus promoting the implementation of personalized medicine in schizophrenia.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 18 August 2015; doi:10.1038/tpj.2015.61. PMID:26282453

  20. Effect of in utero exposure to the atypical anti-psychotic risperidone on histopathological features of the rat placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K P; Singh, Manoj K; Gautam, Shrikant

    2016-04-01

    For clinical management of different forms of psychosis, both classical and atypical anti-psychotic drugs (APDs) are available. These drugs are widely prescribed, even during pregnancy considering their minimal extra-pyramidal side effects and teratogenic potential compared to classical APDs. Among AAPDs, risperidone (RIS) is a first-line drug of choice by physicians. The molecular weight of RIS is 410.49 g/mol; hence, it can easily cross the placental barrier and enter the foetal bloodstream. It is not known whether or not AAPDs like RIS may affect the developing placenta and foetus adversely. Reports on this issue are limited and sketchy. Therefore, this study has evaluated the effects of maternal exposure to equivalent therapeutic doses of RIS on placental growth, histopathological and cytoarchitectural changes, and to establish a relationship between placental dysfunction and foetal outcomes. Pregnant rats (n = 24) were exposed to selected doses (0.8, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg) of RIS from gestation days 6-21. These dams were sacrificed; their placentas and foetuses were collected, morphometrically examined and further processed for histopathological examination. This study revealed that in utero exposure to equivalent therapeutic doses of RIS during organogenesis-induced placental dystrophy (size and weight), disturbed cytoarchitectural organization (thickness of different placental layers), histopathological lesions (necrosis in trophoblast with disruption of trophoblastic septa and rupturing of maternal-foetal interface) and intrauterine growth restriction of the foetuses. It may be concluded that multifactorial mechanisms might be involved in the dysregulation of structure and function of the placenta and of poor foetal growth and development. PMID:27256515

  1. Adjunctive long-acting risperidone in patients with bipolar disorder who relapse frequently and have active mood symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haskins John T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this exploratory analysis was to characterize efficacy and onset of action of a 3-month treatment period with risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI, adjunctive to an individual's treatment regimen, in subjects with symptomatic bipolar disorder who relapsed frequently and had significant symptoms of mania and/or depression. Methods Subjects with bipolar disorder with ≥4 mood episodes in the past 12 months entered the open-label stabilization phase preceding a placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Subjects with significant depressive or manic/mixed symptoms at baseline were analyzed. Significant depressive symptoms were defined as Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS ≥16 and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS t tests; categorical differences were assessed using Fisher exact test. No adjustment was made for multiplicity. Results 162 subjects who relapsed frequently met criteria for significant mood symptoms at open-label baseline; 59/162 (36.4% had depressive symptoms, 103/162 (63.6% had manic/mixed symptoms. Most subjects (89.5% were receiving ≥1 medication for bipolar disorder before enrollment. Significant improvements were observed for the total population on the CGI-BP-S, MADRS, and YMRS scales (p Conclusions Exploratory analysis of changes in overall clinical status and depression/mania symptoms in subjects with symptomatic bipolar disorder who relapse frequently showed improvements in each of these areas after treatment with RLAI, adjunctive to a subject's individualized treatment. Prospective controlled studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  2. Identification and quantification of the antipsychotics risperidone, aripiprazole, pipamperone and their major metabolites in plasma using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijma, Rixt A; van der Nagel, Bart C H; Dierckx, Bram; Dieleman, Gwen C; Touw, Daan J; van Gelder, Teun; Koch, Birgit C P

    2016-06-01

    The antipsychotics risperidone, aripiprazole and pipamperone are frequently prescribed for the treatment in children with autism. The aim of this study was to validate an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the quantification of these antipsychotics in plasma. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assay was developed for the determination of the drugs and metabolites. Gradient elution was performed on a reversed-phase column with a mobile phase consisting of ammonium acetate, formic acid in methanol or in Milli-Q ultrapure water at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The method was validated according to the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. The analytes were found to be stable enough after reconstitution and injection of only 5 μL improved the accuracy and precision in combination with the internal standard. Calibration curves of all five analytes were linear. All analytes were stable for at least 72 h in the autosampler and the high quality control of 9-OH-risperidone was stable for 48 h. The method allows quantification of all analytes. The advantage of this method is the combination of a minimal injection volume, a short run-time, an easy sample preparation method and the ability to quantify all analytes in one run. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26447610

  3. A comparative study between risperidone and ritalin in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder%利培酮治疗注意缺陷障碍对照观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰利明; 薛漳

    2001-01-01

    目的:观察小剂量利培酮治疗注意缺陷障碍(ADHD) 的疗效和安全性。 方法:前瞻性研究,以利他林作为对照,采用 康纳多动症评定量表及不良反应症状量表(TESS)评定,观察4周。 结果:利培酮有效率为77%,利他林为78%;未见锥体外系副反应。 结论:利培酮与利他林的疗效相似,小剂量使用时安全有效。%Objective:To observe the efficacy and security of small doses risperidone in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity diso rder(ADHD). Method:Compared with ritalin group,the patients wer e treated with small doses risperidone for 4 weeks.Conner hyperactivety rating s cale (CHRS) and the treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS) were completed by th em. Results:The efficacy rate in risperidone group was 77%, a nd in ritalin group was 78%. No extrapyramidal side effect was found. C onclusion:It suggests that small doses risperidone is effective and safe in the treatment of ADHD, being similar to ritalin.

  4. Effects of escitalopram, R-citalopram, and reboxetine on serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-10, and depression-like behavior in mice after lipopolysaccharide administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chao; Zhang, Ji-chun; Yao, Wei; Ren, Qian; Yang, Chun; Ma, Min; Han, Mei; Saito, Ryo; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation plays a role in the pathophysiology of depression. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) escitalopram, its inactive enantiomer R-citalopram, and selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (NRI) reboxetine, show anti-inflammatory and antidepressant effects in an inflammation-induced model of depression. Pretreatment with escitalopram (1, 3, or 10mg/kg, i.p.) markedly blocked an increase in the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), after a single administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.5mg/kg). Furthermore, escitalopram (3 or 10mg/kg) significantly increased the serum levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) by a single administration of LPS. In contrast, pretreatment with R-citalopram (10mg/kg, i.p.) or reboxetine (10mg/kg, i.p.) did not affect the alterations in serum levels of TNF-α and IL-10 after LPS administration. Co-administration of reboxetine with escitalopram did not show anti-inflammatory effects. Pretreatment with escitalopram (10mg/kg) significantly attenuated LPS-induced increase of the immobility time in the tail-suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST). In contrast, pretreatment with R-citalopram (10mg/kg), or reboxetine (10mg/kg) did not alter LPS-induced increase of immobility time of TST and FST. Interestingly, co-administration of reboxetine with escitalopram did not show antidepressant effect in this model. These findings suggest that escitalopram, but not R-citalopram and reboxetine, has anti-inflammatory and antidepressant effects in LPS-treated model of depression, and that reboxetine can antagonize the effects of escitalopram in the inflammation model. Therefore, it is likely that serotonergic system plays a key role in the pathophysiology of inflammation-induced depression. PMID:26892759

  5. The effect of citalopram hydrobromide on 5-HT{sub 2A} receptors in the impulsive-aggressive dog, as measured with {sup 123}I-5-I-R91150 SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peremans, K.; Hoybergs, Y.; Gielen, I. [Ghent University, Department of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Merelbeke (Belgium); Audenaert, K.; Vervaet, M.; Heeringen, C. van [Ghent University, Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Gent (Belgium); Otte, A.; Goethals, I.; Dierckx, R. [Ghent University Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Gent (Belgium); Blankaert, P. [Ghent University, Laboratory of Radiopharmacy, Gent (Belgium)

    2005-06-01

    Involvement of the serotonergic system in impulsive aggression has been demonstrated in both human and animal studies. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of citalopram hydrobromide (a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor) on the 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor and brain perfusion in impulsive-aggressive dogs by means of single-photon emission computed tomography. The binding index of the radioligand {sup 123}I-5-I-R91150 was measured before and after treatment with citalopram hydrobromide in nine impulsive-aggressive dogs. Regional perfusion was measured with {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD). Behaviour was assessed before treatment and again after 6 weeks of treatment. A correlation was found between decreased binding and behavioural improvement in eight out of nine dogs. The 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor binding index was significantly reduced after citalopram hydrobromide treatment in all cortical regions but not in the subcortical area. None of the dogs displayed alterations in perfusion on the post-treatment scans. This study supports previous findings regarding the involvement of the serotonergic system in impulsive aggression in dogs in general. More specifically, the effect of treatment on the 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor binding index could be demonstrated and the decreased binding index correlated with behavioural improvement. (orig.)

  6. 银杏叶制剂合并西酞普兰治疗血管性抑郁的对照研究%Contrast Study of Folium Ginkgo Preparation and Citalopram Combined Treatment in Vascular Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈斌华; 齐若兵; 苏雪倩; 夏泳; 赵黎君

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨银杏叶制剂合并西酞普兰治疗血管性抑郁的疗效。[方法]将62例血管性抑郁患者随机分为研究组和治疗组。研究组32例,采用银杏叶制剂合并西酞普兰联合治疗,240mg/d,分3次口服;对照组30例,单用西酞普兰,20mg口服,1次/d。在治疗前和治疗后4周、8周、12周分别用Hamilton抑郁量表(HAMD)评分,根据Hamilton抑郁量表平均分和总有效率评定疗效。[结果]治疗8周后研究组HAMD评分低于对照组(P<0.05),治疗12周后研究组HAMD评分明显低于对照组(P<0.01)。治疗12周后研究组总有效率高于对照组(P<0.05)。[结论]银杏叶制剂合并西酞普兰治疗血管性抑郁的疗效优于单用西酞普兰。%[Objective] To investigate the efficacy of folium ginkgo preparation and citalopram combined treatment in vascular depression. [Methods] Patients with vascular depression (n=62) participated in our treatment study were randomly divided into folium ginkgo preparation in combination with citalopram groupCinvestigation group,n=32) and citalopram single group(contrast group,n = 30),change in depression mood was measured by the Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) .before 4 weeks,8 weeks and 12 weeks after treatment,the effect was evaluated according to the average point of the Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) and the over effective rate. [Results] The HAMD score of the investigation group was lower than the contrast group 8 weeks after treatment, the HAMD score of the investigation group was lower remarkably than the contrast group 12 weeks after treatment, the over effective rate of the investigation group was higher than the contrast group 12 weeks after treatment. [Conclusion] The efficacy of folium ginkgo preparation and citalopram combined treatment in vascular depression was better than citalopram single.

  7. Comparison of Subjective Experiences and Effectiveness of First-Generation Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics and Risperidone Long-Acting Injectables in Patients With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Yin; Lin, Shih-Ku

    2016-10-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to compare the subjective experiences and clinical effects of first-generation long-acting injectable (FGA-LAI) antipsychotics with those of risperidone long-acting injectables (RIS-LAIs) in 434 schizophrenia patients. Compared with the RIS-LAI group, the patients treated with FGA-LAIs had a significantly longer duration of illness and LAI treatment and were older. Our results suggest that patients treated with FGA-LAI have more satisfactory subjective experiences compared with patients treated with RIS-LAI and that both FGA-LAI and RIS-LAI treatments can prevent relapses and hospitalization. Additional longitudinal studies determining the long-term benefits of RIS-LAI are warranted. PMID:27580495

  8. İnsan plazmasında risperidon ve aktif metaboliti 9-hidroksirisperidonun miktar tayini ve yöntem validasyonu

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİRAY, Gökçe

    2008-01-01

    Bu çalışmada atipik nöroleptik ilaçlar arasında önemli bir yere sahip olanrisperidonun ve aktif metaboliti 9-hidroksirisperidonun (paliperidon) insanplazmasından kantitatif tayini için basit ve duyarlı HPLC-MS miktar tayinyönteminin geliştirilmesi ve yöntemin valide edilmesi amaçlanmıştır.İnsan plazmasından sıvı-sıvı ekstraksiyon yöntemiyle risperidon ve aktifmetaboliti 9-hidroksirisperidon ekstre edilmiştir ve kantitatif miktar tayinleri içinHPLC-MS sistemi pozitif iyon ve SIM modun...

  9. Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder - related nightmares and other sleep disturbances with risperidone in combat veterans and victims of domestic and childhood abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Khachiyants

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances including nightmares are often reported as hallmark of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The literature related to the pharmacological treatment of PTSD-related nightmares is sparse and inconclusive. After reviewing the literature it was obvious that currently a limited data on studies supporting the use of antipsychotic medications for the treatment of PTSD are published. Moreover, even more limited scientific evidence is now available to formulate evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of PTSD-related nightmares which are often reported as the most intrusive and disruptive symptom. Objective for this study is to review comprehensively the current research literature which reflects use of antipsychotic medication risperidone for the treatment of PTSD-related nightmares of different etiology.

  10. Adjunctive aripiprazole in the treatment of risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing-Xu; Su, Yun-Ai; Bian, Qing-Tao; Wei, Li-He; Zhang, Rong-Zhen; Liu, Yan-Hong; Correll, Christoph; Soares, Jair C; Yang, Fu-De; Wang, Shao-Li; Zhang, Xiang-Yang

    2015-08-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is an unwanted adverse effect associated with several antipsychotics. The addition of partial dopamine receptor agonist aripiprazole may attenuate antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia effectively. However, the ideal dosing regimen for this purpose is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the dose effects of adjunctive treatment with aripiprazole on prolactin levels and hyperprolactinemia in schizophrenia patients. Stable subjects 18-45 years old with schizophrenia and hyperprolactinemia (i.e., >24 ng/ml for females and >20 ng/ml for males) were randomly assigned to receive 8 weeks of placebo (n=30) or oral aripiprazole 5mg/day (n=30), 10mg/day (n=29), or 20mg/day (n=30) added on to fixed dose risperidone treatment. Serum prolactin levels were measured at baseline and after 2, 4 and 8 weeks; clinical symptoms and side effects were assessed at baseline and week 8 using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impressions Severity scale, Barnes Akathisia Scale, Simpson-Angus Scale and UKU Side Effects Rating Scale. Of 119 randomized patients, 107 (89.9%) completed the 8-week study. At study end, all three aripiprazole doses resulted in significantly lower prolactin levels (beginning at week 2), higher response rates (≥30% prolactin reduction) and higher prolactin normalization rates than placebo. Effects were significantly greater in the 10 and 20mg/day groups than the 5mg/day group. No significant changes were observed in any treatment groups regarding psychopathology and adverse effect ratings. Adjunctive aripiprazole treatment was effective and safe for resolving risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia, producing significant and almost maximal improvements by week 2 without significant effects on psychopathology and side effects. PMID:25981348

  11. Content determination of S-citalopram by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography%HPLC测定S-西酞普兰

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪梅; 刘旭; 严轶琛; 徐江平

    2004-01-01

    目的拆分西酞普兰(R,S-citalopram)对映异构体,建立S-西酞普兰的质量检测方法.方法采用CHIROBIOTIC V手性柱,以甲醇-冰醋酸一三乙胺(100:0.1:0.1)为流动相,检测波长240nm,柱温20℃,流速1.0min/ml.结果 S、R型异构体获得完全分离,S-西酞普兰在10~150μg/m1范围内具有良好线性,(r=0.999 1,n=5).结论该方法简便、准确,可作为S-西酞普兰含量测定及其R型异构体的含量监控方法.

  12. 互为内标法测定患者血浆中氟西汀和西酞普兰的浓度%Determination of Fluoxetine and Citalopram in Patient Plasma Using Each Internal Standard Method by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣晨; 许杜娟; 夏泉; 陈贵海; 戴根苗

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立测定人血浆中氟西汀、西酞普兰的高效液相色谱-荧光(HPLC-FLU)法,为临床用药提供参考.方法:氟西汀和西酞普兰互为内标,血浆样品碱化后经液-液萃取,以Ultimate XB-C18反相色谱柱进行分离,流动相为乙腈:0.02 mol·L-1磷酸氢二钠溶液(35:65,pH 5.0),流速为1.0 ml·min-1,柱温为30℃.荧光检测氟西汀和西酞普兰的激发波长为230 nm,发射波长为305 nm.结果:氟西汀、西酞普兰血药浓度均在15.625~1 000 μg·L-1范围内线性关系良好;平均回收率分别为100.72%和100.94%;分析方法的最低定量限均为5 μg·L-1 ;日内、日间RSD均<3%;冻融稳定性RSD均<10%.结论:本法快速、简便、灵敏、准确,适用于氟西汀、西酞普兰的血药浓度监测及药动学研究.%Objective: To establish an HPLC method with fluorescence detection assay for the determination of fluoxetine and citalopram in the patient plasma and provide a scientific basis for the clinical application. Method: Fluoxetine and citalopram were used as the internal standard for each other. The samples were alkalized and extracted by liquid-liquid extraction. Then the samples were separated on an Ultimate XB-C18 column with the mixture of acetonitrile-0. 02 mol·L-1 disodium hydrogen phosphate ( 35: 65 , pH 5. 0 ) as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 1. 0 ml·min-1. The column temperature was set at 30℃. Fluoxetine and citalopram were detected by fluorescence detection ( Ex=230 nm, Em =305 mn). Result: Linearity was obtained from 15.625 to 1000 μg·L-1 for fluoxetine and citalopram. The LOQ was 5 μg·L-1. The average recovery of fluoxetine and citalopram was 100. 72% and 100. 94% , respectively. Both the inter-day and intra-day RSD were less than 3% . The Freeze-thaw stability RSD was less than 10% . Conclusion: The method is rapid, convenient, sensitive and reliable in the drug determination, adverse reaction control and phannacokinetic study of fluxetine and

  13. 艾司西酞普兰与西酞普兰治疗抑郁症对照观察%A control study of escitalopram vs.citalopram in the treat-ment of depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆占峰; 杨伟; 孙永勋

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨艾司西酞普兰与西酞普兰治疗抑郁症的临床疗效及安全性。方法将60例抑郁症患者按就诊顺序随机分为艾司西酞普兰组和西酞普兰组,每组30例,分别口服艾司西酞普兰、西酞普兰治疗,观察6周。于治疗前后采用汉密顿抑郁量表评定临床疗效,副反应量表评定不良反应。结果治疗第6周末艾司西酞普兰组总有效率为86.67%,西酞普兰组为83.33%,两组比较差异无显著性(P >0.05)。艾司西酞普兰组治疗第1周末起,西酞普兰组治疗第2周末起汉密顿抑郁症量表总分较治疗前显著降低(P 0.05)。艾司西酞普兰组不良反应发生率为43.3%,西酞普兰组为50.0%,两组比较差异无显著性(P >0.05)。结论艾司西酞普兰治疗抑郁症疗效显著,安全性高,与西酞普兰相当。%Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of escitalopram and citalopram in the treatment of depression.Methods Sixty depression patients were divided into two groups of 30 ones each according to visiting order,they took orally escitalopram or citalopram for 6 weeks.Efficacies were assessed with the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD)before and after treatment and adverse reactions with the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS).Results At the end of the 6 st week treatment total effective rate was respectively 86.67% in escitalopram and 83.33% in citalopram group,which showed no significant group difference (P >0.05).The total score of the HAMD since the end of the 1 th week in escitalopram and since the 2 nd in citalopram group lowered more significantly compared with pretreatment (P 0.05).The incidence of adverse reac-tions was 43.3% in escitalopram and 50.0% in citalopram group,which showed no significant group difference (P >0.05 ).Conclusion Both escitalopram and citalopram have an evident effect and higher safety in the treatment of depression.

  14. Analysis on Minimum Cost of Duloxetine and Citalopram in Treating Depression%度洛西汀与西酞普兰治疗抑郁症的最小成本分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧民; 韦德会

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the economic effects and safety of duloxetine and citalopram in the treatment of depression to provide the guidance for clinical rational drug use.Methods Fifty patients with depression were randomly divided into the duloxetine group and the citalopram group,and treated by duloxetine and citalopram for 6 weeks,respectively.The curative efficacies and adverse reactions were compared between the two groups.The evaluation was performed by the pharmacoeconomics cost minimization analysis method.Results The total effective rates in the duloxetine group and the citalopram group were 96.00% and 92.00% respectively,without statistical difference between the two groups existed(P>0.05); the costs were 1 030.88 Yuan and 1 092.09 Yuan,cost/effect ratios(C/E) were 1 073.83 and 1 187.05 respectively.The rate of adverse reactions in the duloxetine group was lower than that in the citalopram group.Conclusion The effects of duloxetine and and citalopram in the treatment of depression are equivalent.Duloxetine has the lower cost and is a better therapeutic scheme for the treatment of depression.%目的 评价度洛西汀与西酞普兰治疗抑郁症的经济效果和安全性,以利临床合理用药.方法 将50例抑郁症患者随机分为度洛西汀组、西酞普兰组,分别给予度洛西汀、西酞普兰治疗6周,比较两组疗效和不良反应,并应用药物经济学最小成本分析法进行评价.结果 度洛西汀组和西酞普兰组总有效率分别为96.00%和92.00%,2组间疗效差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),成本分别为1 030.88元和1 092.09元,成本/效果(C/E)分别为1 073.83和1 187.05,度洛西汀组的不良反应率较西酞普兰组低.结论 度洛西汀和西酞普兰治疗抑郁症疗效相当,度洛西汀治疗成本与不良反应发生率均较低,是治疗抑郁症较佳治疗方案.

  15. Analysis Clinical Efficacy on Escitalopram Citalopram Treatment-resistant Depression%艾司西酞普兰治疗难治性抑郁症的临床疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱强

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察艾司西酞普兰治疗难治性抑郁症的临床疗效。方法选择2013年2月~2013年9月我院收治的难治性抑郁症患者100例为临床研究对象,随机分为观察组(艾司西酞普兰组)和对照组(常规治疗组)两组,每组50例。治疗后观察两组的疗效。结果观察组患者的总有效率、治愈率、显效率高于对照组,两组数据对比,差异明显,P<0.05,具有统计学意义。结论:在治疗难治性抑郁症方面,艾司西酞普兰的效果更明显。%Objective Observtion the division of the clinical efficacy of citalopram in the treatment of refractory depression. Methods Selected 100 cases of patients with treatment-resistant depression for clinical research object from February 2013 to September 2013 in our hospital, were randomly divided into observation group (department of citalopram group) and control group (conventional treatment group) in the two groups, 50 cases in each group. Observed the curative effect on two groups after treatment. Results Observation group of patients with total effective rate, cure rate, the efifciency was higher than the control group, two groups of data contrast, P<0.05, difference statistically significance. Conclusion In terms of treatment-resistant depression, the effect of escitalopram citalopram is obvious.

  16. Effects of S-citalopram associated with cognitive therapy in the treatment of women depression%认知疗法合并艾司西酞普兰治疗女性抑郁症患者的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀苹; 雷彤; 刘丽荣

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effects of S-citalopram associatedted with cognitive therapy in the treatment of women with depression. Method: 60 women patients with depressive disorder were ran domly divided into S-citalopram associated with cognitive treatment group (n = 30) and single S-citalopram group (n =30) for 8 weeks. The efficacy was evaluated with Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD at base line and 1,2,4 and 8-week treatment. Results:There was significant difference in total score of HAMD after two weeks. Research group shows significant effects after one week. There was significant difference in total score after the 1st,2nd,4th,8th week between two groups,Research group decreased more significantly,difference was not significant in side effect. Conclusion: S-citalopram associatedted with cognitive therapy in the treatment of women is an effective and well-tolerated methed, can improve the effect and shorter the duration.%目的:比较艾司西酞普兰合并认知治疗与单用艾司西酞普兰对女性抑郁症患者的疗效.方法:60例女性抑郁症患者随机分为研究组(艾司西酞普兰合并认知治疗组)30例,对照组(单用艾司西酞普兰组)30例,治疗8周.治疗前及治疗1、2、4和8周分别采用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)评定疗效.结果:治疗2周开始,两组HAMD评分均显著下降.研究组治疗1周HAMD明显下降.研究组较对照组HAMD下降更显著.两组不良反应差异无显著性.结论:艾司西酞普兰合并认知治疗对女性抑郁症患者疗效明显,安全性高.

  17. 西酞普兰与阿米替林治疗老年抑郁症对照研究%A Control Study on Citalopram and Amitriptyline in the Treatment of Aged Patients with Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金英; 甘露春; 冯冬梅; 梁颂游

    2006-01-01

    目的探讨治疗老年抑郁症比较理想的药物.方法将100例老年抑郁症患者随机分成两组,观察西酞普兰与阿米替林的疗效及副反应.结果西酞普兰与阿米替林疗效相当,而其副反应明显低于阿米替林.结论西酞普兰(Citalopram)是治疗老年抑郁症较为理想的药物.

  18. A clinical study of combined Citalopram Hydrobromide and psychotherapy in the treatment of depression%氢溴酸西酞普兰联合心理治疗对抑郁症的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泽聪; 龚飞中

    2012-01-01

      目的观察氢溴酸西酞普兰联合心理治疗对抑郁症的疗效。方法对80例符合标准的抑郁症患者随机分成两组,一组是给予氢溴酸西酞普兰联合心理治疗(研究组,n=41),另一组为氢溴酸西酞普兰治疗(对照组,n=39),疗程6周。用汉密顿抑郁量表(HAMD)在治疗前、1、2、4、6周末评定疗效。结果两组总体疗效有显著差异性,心理干预组(研究组)抗抑郁显效更快,治愈率、临床显效率明显高于对照组。结论合并心理治疗不仅可以加快抑郁症状缓解的速度,而且本身心理治疗对抑郁症有一定的疗效,明显提高抑郁症的治疗效果,值得临床推广。%  Objective To observe the clinical ef icacy of Citalopram Hydrobromide combined with Psychotherapy in the treatment of depression. Methods On 80 patients with standard depression were randomly divided into two groups,one group was given citalopram hydrobromide combined with psychological therapy (study group, n=41), another group of citalopram hydrobromide treatment (the control group, n=39), 6 weeks. With Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) before treatment,1,2,4,6 weekend for evaluating ef icacy. Results The two groups have significant dif erences in overal ef icacy, psychological intervention group(Study Group) antidepressant increased speed,the cure rate, the clinical ef ective rate was significantly higher than that of control group. Conclusion The therapeutic effect of combined psychological therapy take a active part earlier than only the use of Citalopram Hydrobromide,and the psychotherapy has a certain effect in depression and improve treatment ef ect in depression, it is worthy of clinical application.

  19. 奎硫平合并西酞普兰治疗老年期抑郁症临床疗效观察%Observation of clinical curative effects on Quetiapine combined with Citalopram in the treatment of senile depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马达休; 周琳钧; 皮静

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨奎硫平合并西肽普兰治疗老年抑郁症的临床疗效和安全性.方法 将60例老年抑郁症患者随机分为两组,每组30例.对照组口服西肽普兰,研究组口服西肽普兰合并奎硫平.于治疗前及治疗后1、2、4周和8周评定汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、老年抑郁量表(GDS)、药物副作用症状量表(TESS).结果 在治疗老年期抑郁症中,研究组在临床疗效、HAMD、GDS评分方面与对照组比较,差异有高度统计学意义(P < 0.01),而在药物副作用方面差异无统计学意义(P > 0.05).结论 老年抑郁症患者,合用喹硫平治疗起效快,疗效好,安全性高,适宜临床使用.%Objective To investigate the clinical curative effects and safety of Quetiapine combined with Citalopram in the treatment of senile depression. Methods Sixty patients with senile depression were randomly divided into two groups, with 30 patients in each group. The control group received the oral administration of Citalopram and the study group received the oral administration of Quetiapine combined with Citalopram. The Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD), geriatric depression scale (GDS) and drug side effects symptom scale (TESS) were used for assessment before the treatment and 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks after treatment. Results In the treatment of patients with senile depression, the study group was significantly different from the control group in the HAMD and GDS scores (P 0.05). Conclusion In the treatment of patients with senile depression, Quetiapine combined with Citalopram is fast, effective and safe, thereby suitable for clinical application.

  20. 西酞普兰对恶性肿瘤患者抑郁症状的随机双盲对照研究%Depession treatment with citalopram in cancer patients: a randomized and controlled clinical trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄健清

    2011-01-01

    目的 以随机双盲对照研究明确西酞普兰在肿瘤患者伴随抑郁症的疗效和安全性。方法 188例恶性肿瘤伴随抑郁症患者随机分为两组,分别给以西酞普兰和安慰剂治疗6周。采用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD-17),汉密尔顿焦虑量表i(HAMA)于治疗前和治疗1、2、4、6周末分别评定疗效。结果 西酞普兰组总有效率62.22%,治疗后HAMD和HA MA评分均较治疗前下降,同安慰剂对照组相比差异有显著性(P<0.05)。两组不良反应发生率轻微,比较差异无显著性(P>0.05)。结论 西酞普兰治疗肿瘤患者伴随抑郁症疗效确切,不良反应轻微。%Objectives To evaluate efficacy and safety of citalopram in the treatment of depression of cancer patients. Methods In the 6-week, randomized, double-blind and parallel controlled clinical trial, 188 patients were randomly divided into citalopram group and placebo group. All the patients were assessed with HAMD-17, HAMA before treatment and after 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks of treatment.Safety measures included adverse reactions observation. Results The total effective rates of the escitalopram group 62.22%. The scores of HAMD 17 and HAMA in citalopram decreased significantly,with statistically difference compared with the baseline and placebo group. Conclutions Citalopram is an effective and safety antidepressant treatment to depression in cancer patients.

  1. 西酞普兰联合认知疗法治疗产后抑郁症对照研究%A control study of citalopram combined with cognitive therapy in postnatal depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜静; 周雅君

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨西酞普兰联合认知疗法治疗产后抑郁症的临床疗效和安全性。方法将64例产后抑郁症患者随机分为两组,每组32例,两组均晨口服西酞普兰治疗,研究组联合认知疗法治疗,观察6周。于治疗前后采用汉密顿抑郁量表评定临床疗效,副反应量表评定不良反应。结果治疗各时段研究组汉密顿抑郁量表评分显著低于对照组(P<0.05),显效时间显著快于对照组( t=3.12,P<0.01);治疗6周末两组显效率、总有效率及不良反应发生率比较差异均无显著性(P>0.05)。结论西酞普兰联合认知疗法治疗产后抑郁症起效快,疗效显著,安全性高,显著优于单用西酞普兰治疗。%Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of citalopram combined with cognitive therapy in postnatal depression (PD) .Methods Sixty-four PD patients were randomly di-vided into two groups of 32 ones each ,both groups took orally citalopram in the morning ,research group was plus cognitive therapy for 6 weeks .Clinical efficacies were assessed with the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) before and after treatment and adverse reactions with the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) .Results The HAMD score in each period was significantly lower (P0 .05) .Conclusion Citalopram combined with cognitive therapy takes effect more rapidly and has an evident effect and higher safety compared with single-use citalopram in the treatment of postnatal depression .

  2. A Comparative Study of Tandospirone Combined Citalopram in Treatment of Depression with Anxiety%坦度螺酮联合西酞普兰治疗伴焦虑症状的抑郁症对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶; 刘晶洁

    2012-01-01

      Objective To study the efficacy of tandospirone combined citalopram on depression with anxiety. Methods A total of 56 patients who met with the criteria of CCMD-3 for depression with anxiety were randomly divided into tandospirone combined citalopram group and citalopram group with the treatment of 6 weeks. The efficacy was evaluated with Hamilton Rating Scale for depression(HAMD) and Hamilton Rating Scale for anxiety(HAMA).The side effects were evaluated with Treatment Emergent Symptoms Scale (TESS). Results The reduce rate of mean score of HAMD and HAMA in intervention group was significantly higher than that of control group. Two groups of side effects was similar. Conclusion Tandospirone combined citalopram has better effect in treatment of depression with anxiety.%  目的探讨坦度螺酮联合西酞普兰治疗伴有焦虑症状的抑郁症疗效。方法将56例伴有焦虑症状的抑郁症患者随机分成两组,各28例。治疗组在用西酞普兰基础上联合使用坦度螺酮治疗,对照组仅用西酞普兰治疗,疗程6周。采用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)评定疗效,采用药物不良反应量表(TESS)于治疗6周末评定不良反应。结果6周末治疗组HAMD和HAMA评分低于对照组。两组不良反应无显著差异。结论坦度螺酮联合西酞普兰治疗伴有焦虑症状的抑郁症的疗效优于单用西酞普兰。

  3. Ageing and Chronic Administration of Serotonin-Selective Reuptake Inhibitor Citalopram Upregulate Sirt4 Gene Expression in the Preoptic Area of Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong eDutt Way

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunction and cognitive deficits are markers of the ageing process. Mammalian sirtuins (SIRT, encoded by sirt 1-7 genes, are known as ageing molecules which are sensitive to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT. Whether the 5-HT system regulates SIRT in the preoptic area (POA, which could affect reproduction and cognition has not been examined. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the effects of citalopram (CIT, 10mg/kg for 4 weeks, wk, a potent selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor and ageing on SIRT expression in the POA of male mice using real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry. Age-related increases of sirt1, sirt4, sirt5, and sirt7 mRNA levels were observed in the POA of 52 wk old mice. Furthermore, 4 wk of chronic CIT treatment started at 8 wk of age also increased sirt2 and sirt4 mRNA expression in the POA. Moreover, the number of SIRT4 immuno-reactive neurons increased with ageing in the medial septum area (12 wk = 1.00±0.15 vs 36 wk = 1.68±0.14 vs 52 wk = 1.54±0.11, p<0.05. In contrast, the number of sirt4-immunopositive cells did not show a statistically significant change with CIT treatment, suggesting that the increase in sirt4 mRNA levels may occur in cells in which sirt4 is already being expressed. Taken together, these studies suggest that CIT treatment and the process of ageing utilize the serotonergic system to up-regulate SIRT4 in the POA as a common pathway to deregulate social cognitive and reproductive functions.

  4. The Post-Ovariectomy Interval Affects the Antidepressant-Like Action of Citalopram Combined with Ethynyl-Estradiol in the Forced Swim Test in Middle Aged Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Rivera, Nelly M; Gallardo Tenorio, Alfredo; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso; Estrada Camarena, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The use of a combined therapy with low doses of estrogens plus antidepressants to treat depression associated to perimenopause could be advantageous. However the use of these combinations is controversial due to several factors, including the time of intervention in relation to menopause onset. This paper analyzes whether time post-OVX influences the antidepressant-like action of a combination of ethynyl-estradiol (EE₂) and citalopram (CIT) in the forced swim test (FST). Middle-aged (15 months old) female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and after one or three weeks treated with EE₂ (1.25, 2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat, s.c.; -48 h) or CIT (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 or 10 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and tested in the FST. In a second experiment, after one or three weeks of OVX, rats received a combination of an ineffective dose of EE₂ (1.25 µg/rat, s.c., -48 h) plus CIT (2.5 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and subjected to the FST. Finally, the uteri were removed and weighted to obtain an index of the peripheral effects of EE₂ administration. EE₂ (2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat) reduced immobility after one but not three weeks of OVX. In contrast, no CIT dose reduced immobility at one or three weeks after OVX. When EE₂ (1.25 µg/rat) was combined with CIT (2.5 mg/kg) an antidepressant-like effect was observed at one but not three weeks post-OVX. The weight of the uteri augmented when EE₂ was administrated three weeks after OVX. The data suggest that the time post-OVX is a crucial factor that contributes to observe the antidepressant-like effect of EE₂ alone or in combination with CIT. PMID:27153072

  5. Neonatal exposure to citalopram, a serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor, programs a delay in the reflex ontogeny in rats Exposição neonatal ao citalopram, um inibidor seletivo da recaptação de serotonina, programa retardo na ontogênese reflexa em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Bomfim de Jesus Deiró

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin influences the growth and development of the nervous system, as well as its behavioral manifestations. The possibility exists that increased brain serotonin availability in young animals modulates their neuro-behavioral responses. This study investigated the body weight gain and reflex ontogeny of neonatal rats treated during the suckling period with two doses of citalopram (5 mg, or 10 mg/kg, sc, daily. The time of the appearance of reflexes (palm grasp righting, free-fall righting, vibrissa placing, auditory startle response, negative geotaxis and cliff avoidance as well as the body weight evolution were recorded. In general, a delay in the time of reflex development and a reduced weight gain were observed in drug-treated animals. These findings suggest that serotoninergic mechanisms play a role in modulating body weight gain and the maturation of most reflex responses during the perinatal period in rats.A serotonina influencia o crescimento e o desenvolvimento do sistema nervoso e sua expressão comportamental. O aumento da disponibilidade de serotonina no cérebro de ratos jovens parece modular as respostas neurocomportamentais. Neste estudo, foram investigados o ganho de peso corporal e a ontogênese dos reflexos em ratos neonatos, tratados diariamente, durante o período de aleitamento, com duas doses de citalopram (5 ou 10 mg/Kg de peso corporal, via subcutânea. Foram avaliados, o tempo de aparecimento dos reflexos (preensão palmar, endireitamento, colocação pelas vibrissas, resposta ao susto, geotáxico negativo e aversão ao precipício, e a evolução do peso corporal. Foi observado atraso no tempo de desenvolvimento de alguns reflexos e redução no ganho de peso corporal. Os achados em ratos sugerem que as alterações no ganho de peso corporal e na maturação dos reflexos são programadas, durante o período perinatal, com participação de mecanismos serotoninérgicos de modulação.

  6. Risperidone long-acting injection in the treatment of schizophrenia: 24-month results from the electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams R

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Richard Williams,1 Ranjith Chandrasena,2 Linda Beauclair,3 Doanh Luong,4 Annette Lam4 On behalf of the e-STAR study group 1Vancouver Island Health Authority, Victoria, BC, Canada; 2Chatham-Kent Health Alliance, Chatham, ON, Canada; 3Allan Memorial Institute, Montreal, QC, Canada; 4Janssen Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada Objective: To assess outcomes over 24 months in Canadian patients with schizophrenia initiated on risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI and participating in the electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry (e-STAR. Materials and methods: Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were enrolled from 24 sites after an independent decision to initiate RLAI. Subsequent patient management was based on usual clinical practice at each site and was not protocol-driven. Relevant data were collected retrospectively by chart review for 12 months prior to RLAI and prospectively for 24 months following RLAI initiation. Results: Patients (n=188 had a mean age of 39.2 years, were 66.3% male, and 27.7% were inpatients at baseline. Twenty-four months after initiating therapy (initial dose =28.7 mg, 34.1% (95% confidence interval 27.2%–42.2% of patients had discontinued RLAI with a mean time to discontinuation of 273.4±196 days. Over the treatment period, there were significant (P<0.001 changes from baseline in Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S; 3.48 versus [vs] 4.31 at baseline, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF; 56.1 vs 48.1, and Personal and Social Performance (PSP; 59.1 vs 46.9 scale scores. In addition, after 12 months, there were significant (P<0.001 decreases in the percentage of patients hospitalized (23.9% vs 58.5% pre-RLAI, mean length of stay (11.4 vs 30.4 days, and number of hospitalizations (0.32 vs 0.87 compared to the 12-month pre-RLAI period. Reductions in hospitalization continued into the second 12 months of therapy, when only 9% of patients were hospitalized and mean length of stay was 2.0 days

  7. The Effects of Escitalopram Compared With Citalopram in the Treatment of Geriatric Depression%艾司西酞普兰与西酞普兰对老年抑郁症的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙洁; 刘瑞龙

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨艾司西酞普兰与西酞普兰治疗老年抑郁症的临床疗效。方法将74例老年抑郁症患者随机分为观察组(艾司西酞普兰联用组)及对照组(西酞普兰联用组),比较两组疗效。结果两组治疗后汉密尔顿抑郁量表、汉密尔顿焦虑量表总分差异显著(P<0.05)。结论艾司西酞普兰治疗老年抑郁症效果显著。%Objective To investigate the clinical efifcacy of escitalopram and citalopram in the treatment of senile depression.Methods 74 cases of elderly patients with depression were randomly divided into observation group (escitalopram group) and control group (citalopram group), the effects of the two groups were compared.Results After treatment, the Hamilton depression rating scale and Hamilton anxiety scale scores of the two groups were signiifcantly different (P<0.05).Conclusion Escitalopram treatment of senile depression is signiifcant.

  8. 西酞普兰通过免疫调节机制治疗脑卒中后抑郁状态%Citalopram in treatment of post stroke depression through its immunoregulatory mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王姗姗; 姜磊

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the expression of TNFα in hypothalamus of rats by observing post stroke depression and its pathogenesis after citalopram treatment .Methods Eighteen rats that underwent open field test were randomly divided into the control group (n=6) and experimental group (n= 12 ). The rats in experimental group were further divided into post stroke depression group (n=6) and citalopram treatment group (n= 6) after left middle cerebral artery occlusion . Behaviors in these two groups were observed by open field test and sugar-water test ,respectively . Expression of TNF-α mRNA in hypothalamus of rats was detected by quantitative polymerase dhain reaction .Results The levels of horizontal and vertical activities and the preference for sug -ar-water were significantly lower in post stroke depression group than in control group (P<0 .01) and significantly higher in citalopram treatment group than in post stroke depression group (P< 0.05). The TNF-α mRNA expression level in hypothalamus was significantly higher in post stroke depression group than in control group (P<0 .05) and significantly lower in post stroke depression group than in citalopram treatment group (P<0 .05 ) .Conclusion Citalopram exerts its therapeutic effect on post stroke depression by down-regulating the expression of TNF-α in hypothalamus of rats .%目的 本研究通过观察脑卒中后抑郁(post stroke depression,PSD)大鼠给予抗抑郁药物西酞普兰干预后,观察下丘脑TNF-α的表达变化,并探讨PSD发病机制和潜在的药物治疗机制.方法 经旷场实验筛选出18只大鼠,随机分为对照组6只,另12只大鼠经过单侧大脑中动脉线栓法后,又随机分为PSD组6只和西酞普兰组6只,经慢性不可预见性应激后,通过旷场实验和糖水实验观察各组大鼠的行为学改变,定量PCR检测各组大鼠下丘脑TNF-α mRNA的表达改变.结果 与对照组比较,PSD组的水平活动、直立探索和糖水喜好明显下

  9. 米氮平与西酞普兰治疗精神分裂症后抑郁的对照研究%Comparative study of mirtazapine and citalopram in the treatment of patients with post-schizophrenic depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛红敏; 陈征; 陆永艳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical efficacy and safety of mirtazapine and citalopram in the treatment of patients with post-schizophrenic depression ( PSD) . Methods A total of 69 patients with post-schizophrenic depression were randomly divided into mirtazapine group and citalopram group treated with mirtazapine and citalopram respectively for 6 weeks. They were measured with Hamilton Depressive Scale ( HAMD) , Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale ( BPRS) and Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale ( TESS) at the baseline and the 2nd, 4th, 6th weekend after treatment. Results At the end of the 6 th week, there was no significant differences in effective rate between mirtazapine group and citalopram group (91.67% vs. 87. 88% , P >0.05). At the end of treatment, total scores of HAMD and BPRS in two groups both decreased significantly when compared with those at baseline (P 0.05 ). Adverse reactions in both groups were mild and the common side effects included sleepiness, dry mouth, nausea, headache, constipation, weight gain and so on. Conclusion Mirtazapine and citalopram have equivalent efficiency and safety in the treatment of patients with post-schizophrenic depression.%目的:比较米氮平与西酞普兰治疗精神分裂症后抑郁的疗效和安全性.方法:把69例符合入组条件的精神分裂症后抑郁患者随机分为米氮平组和西酞普兰组,分别给予米氮平和西酞普兰系统治疗,共6周.应用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、简明精神病量表(BPRS)及副反应量表(TESS)于治疗前和治疗2、4、6周末分别评定疗效和不良反应.结果:米氮平组和西酞普兰组患者治疗有效率分别为91.67%和87.88%,两者差异无显著性意义(P>0.05).两组治疗后HAMD和BPRS评分均较治疗前显著下降(P0.05).两组常见的副作用为嗜睡、口干、恶心、头痛、便秘、体重增加等,程度轻微.结论:米氮平与西酞普兰治疗精神分裂症后抑郁疗效相当,不良反应轻微.

  10. 度洛西汀与西酞普兰治疗抑郁症的对照研究%A comparation study of duloxetine and citalopram in the treatment of depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康明秀

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较度洛西汀与西酞普兰治疗不同症状抑郁症的疗效.方法:将122例符合国际疾病分类第10版抑郁症诊断标准的患者,按不同主诉(精神症状或躯体症状)分为精神症状组60例和躯体症状组62例,每组再随机分为度洛西汀组(30例/30例)和西酞普兰组(30例/32例),分别给予度洛西汀和西酞普兰治疗6周.用汉密尔顿抑郁量表17项(HAMD)评定疗效,用治疗中出现的症状量表(TESS)评定不良反应.结果:在以精神症状为主的患者中,度洛西汀组与西酞普兰组疗效比较差异无显著性(P>0.05);在以躯体症状为主的患者中,以度洛西汀组显效率(76.67%)高于西酞普兰组(53.12%),两组比较差异有显著性(P<0.05).结论:度洛西汀和西酞普兰治疗抑郁症均有效,但度洛西汀起效较快,治疗伴有躯体症状的抑郁症疗效更好.%Objective: To compare efficacy of duloxetine and citalopram in the treatment of depression with different symptoms. Method:122 patients meeting with lCD-10 for depression were divided into psychotic symptom group ( n = 60 ) and somatic symptom group ( n = 62 ), according to their different complaints. Then psychotic symptom group and somatic symptom group were randomly divided into two sub-groups respectively, duloxetine sub-group (n = 30/30) and citalopram sub-group ( n = 30/32) for 6 weeks treatment. The efficacy and the safety were assessed by Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) and the treatment emergent syruptom scale (TESS), respectively. Results:There was no significant difference in the efficacy between duloxetine sub-group and citalopram sub-group in the treatment of depressed patients predominant in psychotic symptoms. The response rate was significantly higher in patients of duloxetine sub-group compared with that in citalopram sub-group 76.67% vs. 53.12% (P < 0.05 ) in the treatment of depressed patients predominant in somatic symptoms. Conclusion: Both duloxetine and citalopram were

  11. Bioequivalence of citalopram in Chinese healthy volunteers%西酞普兰片在中国健康受试者的人体生物等效性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊鹏利; 赵宁民; 张海峰; 马爱玲; 王漪檬

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究2种西酞普兰在健康受试者体内的生物等效性。方法18例健康男性受试者随机分组,自身对照,单次口服西酞普兰片20 mg,测定西酞普兰的血浆浓度,用DAS 2.1软件计算药代动力学参数,并进行方差分析和生物等效性评价。结果试验药与对照药的tmax分别为(4.14±3.10),(3.53±2.05) h;Cmax分别为(32.46±8.29),(34.55±7.05) ng・ mL-1;t1/2分别为(46.99±10.72),(42.91±8.23) h;AUC0-t 分别为(1379.83±301.72),(1455.61±349.93) ng・ h・ mL-1;试验药相对于对照药的生物利用度为(96.00±13.10)%。结论建立的分析方法灵敏、快速、准确,试验药与对照药有生物等效性。%Objective To study the pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of two citalopram preparations .Methods Eighteen healthy volunteers were randomly divided into two groups , whose plasma concentrations of citalopram were determined by UPLC -MS/MS method after single oral dose of 20 mg.The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 2.1.Results The main pharmacokinetic parameters of citalopram in test and reference preparations were as follows:tmax were (4.14 ±3.10), (3.53 ±2.05 ) h; Cmax were ( 32.46 ±8.29 ), ( 34.55 ±7.05 ) ng・ mL-1;t1/2 were ( 46.99 ±10.72 ) , ( 42.91 ±8.23 ) h; AUC0-t were (1379.83 ±301.72), (1455.61 ±349.93) ng・ h・ mL-1, respective-ly.The relative bioavailability of citalopram was ( 96.00 ±13.10 )%. Conclusion The method was proved to be accurate , rapid and sensitive;citalopram in the test preparations was bioequivalent to the reference .

  12. 舒必利合用西酞普兰治疗阻滞性抑郁症的临床研究%Clinical study on sulpiride combined with citalopram in treatment of retardative depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆慧; 韩翠萍

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To observe effects and adverse reactions of sulpiridein treatment of retardative depression. Methods:62 patients with retardative depression were randomly divided into study group( sulpiride combined with citalopram,31 cases) and control group( citalopram, 31 cases) . All the patients were treated for 8 weeks. The adverse reactions were evaluated with Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) and treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS). Results:At the end of 4th, 6th, and 8th week of the treatment, the total score of HAMD and item score of retardative symptom in study group were lower than those of control group, and there werestatisti-cal differences (P<0. 01 or P<0. 05). At the end of 8th week of the treatment, the effective rates of study group and control group were 83. 87% and 58. 06%, respectively, and there was the statistical difference (P<0. 01). For TESS score, the cases in control group had gastrointestinal adverse reactions, such as nausea and vomiting;while no adverse reactions were observed instudy group, and there was the significant difference. Conclusions:The effect of low dosage of sulpiride combined with citalopram is better than citalo-pram alone in the treatment of retardative depression, and it takes effect faster as well. Sulpiride can eliminate nausea, vomiting and other gastrointestinal adverse reactions induced by citalopram.%目的:观察舒必利治疗阻滞性抑郁症的疗效和不良反应。方法:对62例阻滞性抑郁症患者,随机分为合用组(舒必利合并西酞普兰,31例患者)和单用组(单用西酞普兰,31例患者),治疗8周,采用汉密顿抑郁量表(HAMD)和副反应量表(TESS)评定不良反应。结果:治疗第4、6、8周末两组患者间HAMD总分和阻滞症状项目评分比较,合用组患者低于单用组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01或P<0.05);治疗8周末合用组和单用组患者的显效率分别为83.87%和58.06%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);两组患者间TESS评分比

  13. 氢溴酸西酞普兰咀嚼片人体生物利用度和生物等效性研究%Bioavailability and bioequivalence research for chewable tablet of citalopram hydrobromide in healthy volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娟; 李海燕; 郝光涛; 刘泽源

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the relative bioavailability and the bioequivalence between domestic-made chewable tablets (to be tested) and imported tablets (reference) of citalopram hydrobromide and evaluate the bioequi valence of the two preparations. Methods A single dose of 20 mg of chewable tablets or referenced tablet of citalopram hydrobromide was administered with empty stomach by randomized crossover way in 24 healthy male volunteers. The chewable tablet was swallowed after been chewed for 30 ~ 60 s, while the referenced tablet was administered with warm water of 200 mL. The concentrations of the citalopram in plasma were detected by LC-MS/MS method. Results The main pharmacokinetics parameters of the chewable tablets and the referenced tablets were as follows: Cmax ( 16. 56 ± 4. 12) vs. ( 18. 30 ±4. 72) μg/L.Tmax (4. 42 ± 2. 41 ) vs. ( 5. 00 ± 2. 87 ) h, t1/2 (47. 44 ± 7. 74) vs. (48. 43 ± 14. 56 ) h, AUC0-tm(819.74±261. 18) vs. (885.38 ±216. 22) μg·h/L, AUC0-∞ (939.00 ±336. 16) vs. ( 1016. 04 ±315. 32) μg·h /L. The relative bioavailability Fo-tn F0-∞ of the citalopram hydrobromide chewable tablet were 91. 92% ± 15. 10% and 92. 09% ± 15. 52% respectively. Conclusion There are bioequivalence between domestic-made chewable tablets and imported tablets of citalopram hydrobromide.%目的 比较国产氢溴酸西酞普兰咀嚼片与进口氢溴酸西酞普兰片的人体药动学参数及生物利用度,评价二者的生物等效性.方法 24名健康男性受试者随机交叉单剂量服用20 mg受试制剂和参比制剂,受试制荆空腹咀嚼30 ~60 s后直接吞咽,参比制荆空腹用200 mL温开水送服.血浆样品采用高效液相色谱-串联质谱法检测.结果 受试制荆及参比制剂的主要药代动力学参数:cmax分别为(16.56±4.12)、(18.30±4.72)μg/L;Tmax分别为(4.42±2.41)、(5.00±2.87)h;t1/2分别为(47.44±7.74)、(48.43±14.56) h; AUC0-tn分别为(819.74±261.18)、(885.38±216.22)μg·h/L;AUC0-

  14. Randomized Controlled Study on Combination Treatment with Oral Risperidone and Clonazepam versus Initial Treatment with Intramuscular Haloperidol Followed by Oral Risperidone%利培酮口服液合并氯硝西泮与氟哌啶醇肌注后换用利培酮口服液临床对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋幸衍; 徐清; 周德祥; 方馨怡; 陆雅娜; 夏鸣华

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较利培酮口服液合并氯硝西泮片与氟哌啶醇肌注控制精神分裂症兴奋激越症状的疗效和安全性,以及在兴奋激越控制后以利培酮口服液替换氟哌啶醇肌注的疗效及安全性.方法 纳入65例兴奋激越的精神分裂症患者:33例随机分入研究组,利培酮口服液(2~6m/d)合并氯硝西泮(2~4mg/d),第8天起氯硝西泮逐渐减量,共观察49d;32例分入对照组,前7天氟哌啶醇肌注(10~20mg/d),第8天起逐渐替换为利培酮口服液(2~6ml/d),共观察49d.以阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS)及兴奋激越项目(PANSS-EC)和治疗中出现的症状量表(TESS)评定疗效和不良反应,分别在入组时及治疗第7天、第14天、第49天各评定1次.结果 两组有效率比较无显著性差异(x2=0.14,P>0.05).治疗前后比较,两组PANSS总分从治疗第7天起下降有显著性差异(t=2.27,2.39;P均<0.05),从治疗第14天起下降有非常显著性差异(t=3.40,4.30;P均<0.01);两组PANSS-EC评分从治疗第7天起下降并有非常显著性差异(t=7.01,8.44;P均<0.01);两组治疗同期PANSS总分、PANSS-EC评分比较无显著性差异(t=0.49~1.82;P均>0.05).研究组肌强直、震颤、静坐不能的发生率均明显低于对照组(x2=5.63~10.46;P均<0.05).结论 利培酮口服液合并氯硝西泮可有效安全地治疗精神分裂症急性兴奋激越.用氟哌啶醇肌注控制兴奋激越后直接换用利培酮口服液,也能保持疗效.%Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of psychotic agitation in schizophrenic patients comparing combination treatment with oral risperidone and clonazepam versus initial treatment with intramuscular haloperidol followed by oral risperidone. Methods A total of 63 schizophrenic patients with acute psychotic agitation were randomly assigned to two groups. The 33 subjects in the study group were given 7 days of combined treatment with oral risperidone (2 - 6mg/d)and clonazepam(2-4mg

  15. Paliperidone palmitate in non-acute patients with schizophrenia previously unsuccessfully treated with risperidone long-acting therapy or frequently used conventional depot antipsychotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmans, P; Cherubin, P; Keim, S; Llorca, P-M; Cosar, B; Petralia, A; Corrivetti, G; Hargarter, L

    2015-01-01

    PALMFlexS, a prospective multicentre, open-label, 6-month, phase IIIb interventional study, explored tolerability, safety and treatment response in adults (n = 231) with non-acute but symptomatic schizophrenia switching to flexibly dosed paliperidone palmitate (PP) after unsuccessful treatment with risperidone long-acting injectable therapy (RLAT) or conventional depot antipsychotics (APs). Treatment response was measured by change in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score from baseline (BL) to last-observation-carried-forward (LOCF) endpoint (EP). Safety and tolerability assessments included Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS) total score and treatment-emergent adverse events. Significant reductions in mean PANSS total score were observed for all groups (−7.5 to −10.6; p ⩽ 0.01 [BL to LOCF EP]). After switching to PP, more than 50% of all patients achieved ⩾20% and one-third of RLAT-treated patients even achieved ⩾50% improvement in PANSS total score. Across groups, there were significant improvements (p < 0.05) in symptom severity as measured by Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S; trend for improvement with RLAT; p = 0.0568), subjective well-being, medication satisfaction, and patient functioning with PP. PP was generally well tolerated. Clinically relevant benefits were observed in non-acute patients with schizophrenia switched from RLAT or conventional depot APs to PP. PMID:25999398

  16. Paliperidone palmitate in non-acute patients with schizophrenia previously unsuccessfully treated with risperidone long-acting therapy or frequently used conventional depot antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, A; Bergmans, P; Cherubin, P; Keim, S; Llorca, P-M; Cosar, B; Petralia, A; Corrivetti, G; Hargarter, L

    2015-08-01

    PALMFlexS, a prospective multicentre, open-label, 6-month, phase IIIb interventional study, explored tolerability, safety and treatment response in adults (n = 231) with non-acute but symptomatic schizophrenia switching to flexibly dosed paliperidone palmitate (PP) after unsuccessful treatment with risperidone long-acting injectable therapy (RLAT) or conventional depot antipsychotics (APs). Treatment response was measured by change in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score from baseline (BL) to last-observation-carried-forward (LOCF) endpoint (EP). Safety and tolerability assessments included Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS) total score and treatment-emergent adverse events. Significant reductions in mean PANSS total score were observed for all groups (-7.5 to -10.6; p ⩽ 0.01 [BL to LOCF EP]). After switching to PP, more than 50% of all patients achieved ⩾20% and one-third of RLAT-treated patients even achieved ⩾50% improvement in PANSS total score. Across groups, there were significant improvements (p < 0.05) in symptom severity as measured by Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S; trend for improvement with RLAT; p = 0.0568), subjective well-being, medication satisfaction, and patient functioning with PP. PP was generally well tolerated. Clinically relevant benefits were observed in non-acute patients with schizophrenia switched from RLAT or conventional depot APs to PP. PMID:25999398

  17. Use of the second-generation antipsychotic, risperidone, and secondary weight gain are associated with an altered gut microbiota in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, S M; Tyler, B C; Wooldridge, N; Butcher, B D; Burns, T L; Teesch, L M; Oltman, C L; Azcarate-Peril, M A; Kirby, J R; Calarge, C A

    2015-01-01

    The atypical antipsychotic risperidone (RSP) is often associated with weight gain and cardiometabolic side effects. The mechanisms for these adverse events are poorly understood and, undoubtedly, multifactorial in etiology. In light of growing evidence implicating the gut microbiome in the host's energy regulation and in xenobiotic metabolism, we hypothesized that RSP treatment would be associated with changes in the gut microbiome in children and adolescents. Thus, the impact of chronic (>12 months) and short-term use of RSP on the gut microbiome of pediatric psychiatrically ill male participants was examined in a cross-sectional and prospective (up to 10 months) design, respectively. Chronic treatment with RSP was associated with an increase in body mass index (BMI) and a significantly lower ratio of Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes as compared with antipsychotic-naïve psychiatric controls (ratio=0.15 vs 1.24, respectively; Pgut microbiota dominating the RSP-treated participants are enriched for pathways that have been implicated in weight gain, such as short-chain fatty acid production. PMID:26440540

  18. Determination of risperidone in human plasma by HPLC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study in Chinese volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-zhu HUANG; Jian-zhong SHENTU; Junc-hun CHEN; Jian LIU; Hui-li ZHOU

    2008-01-01

    This study presents a rapid, specific and sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for determination of risperidone (RIS) in human serum using paroxetine as an internal standard (IS). An Alltima-C 18separation. The analysis was performed by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) method, and the peak area of the m/z 411.3→ 191.1 transition for RIS was measured versus that of the m/z 330.1→192.1 transition for IS to generate the standard curves. The assay linearity of RIS was confirmed over the range 0.25~50.00 ng/ml and the limit of quantitation was 0.05 ng/ml. The linear range corresponds well with the serum concentrations of the analytes obtained in clinical pharmacokinetic studies. Intraday and interday relative standard deviations were 1.85%~9.09% and 1.56%~4.38%, respectively. The recovery of RIS from serum was in the range of 70.20%~84.50%. The method was successfully applied to investigate the bioequivalence between two kinds of tablets (test versus reference products) in 18 healthy male Chinese volunteers. The result suggests that two formulations are bioequivalent.

  19. Clinical research on sertraline and citalopram in the treatment of Parkinson disease (PD) combined with depression%舍曲林与西酞普兰治疗帕金森病合并抑郁的差别的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛艳国; 李珂; 王献; 洪丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of sertraline and citalopram in the treatment of Parkinson disease (PD) combined with depression. Methods Patients were randomly divided into citalopram group and sertraline group. We used self-rating depression scale to evaluate depression in PD combined with depression. The evaluations were done before the treatment, in the process of treatment (6 weeks) and 12 weeks after the treatment. Results Citalopram group of early onset was faster than the sertraline group. There was no difference in the effect of citalopram group and sertraline group 12 weeks later. Two groups were no serious adverse events. Conclusion Conventional doses of citalopram and sertraline in the treatment of PD combined with depression are safe and effective.%目的:研究舍曲林、西酞普兰治疗帕金森病合并抑郁的疗效及安全性。方法帕金森病合并抑郁患者随机分为舍曲林治疗组及西酞普兰治疗组,采用抑郁自评量表(SDS)在治疗前、治疗6周及治疗12周评价疗效。结果西酞普兰组早期起效快于舍曲林组,但12周后有效率无明显差别,两组均未见严重不良反应。结论常规剂量的舍曲林和西酞普兰治疗帕金森病伴发抑郁均安全有效。

  20. The Post-Ovariectomy Interval Affects the Antidepressant-Like Action of Citalopram Combined with Ethynyl-Estradiol in the Forced Swim Test in Middle Aged Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Rivera, Nelly M.; Gallardo Tenorio, Alfredo; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso; Estrada Camarena, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The use of a combined therapy with low doses of estrogens plus antidepressants to treat depression associated to perimenopause could be advantageous. However the use of these combinations is controversial due to several factors, including the time of intervention in relation to menopause onset. This paper analyzes whether time post-OVX influences the antidepressant-like action of a combination of ethynyl-estradiol (EE2) and citalopram (CIT) in the forced swim test (FST). Middle-aged (15 months old) female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and after one or three weeks treated with EE2 (1.25, 2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat, s.c.; −48 h) or CIT (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 or 10 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and tested in the FST. In a second experiment, after one or three weeks of OVX, rats received a combination of an ineffective dose of EE2 (1.25 µg/rat, s.c., −48 h) plus CIT (2.5 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and subjected to the FST. Finally, the uteri were removed and weighted to obtain an index of the peripheral effects of EE2 administration. EE2 (2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat) reduced immobility after one but not three weeks of OVX. In contrast, no CIT dose reduced immobility at one or three weeks after OVX. When EE2 (1.25 µg/rat) was combined with CIT (2.5 mg/kg) an antidepressant-like effect was observed at one but not three weeks post-OVX. The weight of the uteri augmented when EE2 was administrated three weeks after OVX. The data suggest that the time post-OVX is a crucial factor that contributes to observe the antidepressant-like effect of EE2 alone or in combination with CIT. PMID:27153072

  1. Characterization and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of cross-linked chitosan films as implant for controlled release of citalopram

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Patit P Kundu; Santosh Kumar Jindal; Manish Goswami

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to develop cross-linked chitosan (CH) films that can release drug over an extended period of time and that too in a controlled manner. A solution of different percentages of CH, is prepared in 1% lactic acid, followed by addition of citalopram (CTP) and then reacted with increasing amounts of glutaraldehyde (GL) to obtain films with different cross-linking densities. Prepared films are characterized for their physical and mechanical properties. The films are then subjected to in vitro drug release studies using pH 7.4 phosphate buffer saline (PBS) as dissolution medium and cumulative amount of drug released is calculated. Kinetic analysis of drug release is performed using Power law model and Higuchi’s model.With increase in concentration of CH, water absorption capacity and mechanical strength are increased; whereas, water vapour permeability and elasticity of the films are decreased. The effect of cross-linking agent, GL, is such that with an increase in the amount of GL, water vapour permeability, water absorption capacity and elasticity of the films are decreased; whereas, mechanical strength increased to some extent and then decreased. In vitro release studies indicate that films containing 3% CH, cross-linked with 2–3% GL and films containing 4%CH, cross-linked 1%GL are able to sustain the drug release for a prolonged time along with releasing almost complete drug in a desired period. Out of these batches, films containing 3% CH, cross-linked with 2–3% GL are having sufficient strength, water vapour permeation, water absorption capacity and elongation at break for implantation purpose. The in vitro degradation studies and histopathological studies were carried out with a sample film (batch C3 as in table 1) in rabbit model. In vitro degradation study indicates that the films maintained their integrity for desired implantation. The histopathological studies under optical microscope indicates that on implanting, there is no

  2. The Post-Ovariectomy Interval Affects the Antidepressant-Like Action of Citalopram Combined with Ethynyl-Estradiol in the Forced Swim Test in Middle Aged Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly M. Vega Rivera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of a combined therapy with low doses of estrogens plus antidepressants to treat depression associated to perimenopause could be advantageous. However the use of these combinations is controversial due to several factors, including the time of intervention in relation to menopause onset. This paper analyzes whether time post-OVX influences the antidepressant-like action of a combination of ethynyl-estradiol (EE2 and citalopram (CIT in the forced swim test (FST. Middle-aged (15 months old female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and after one or three weeks treated with EE2 (1.25, 2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat, s.c.; −48 h or CIT (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 or 10 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h and tested in the FST. In a second experiment, after one or three weeks of OVX, rats received a combination of an ineffective dose of EE2 (1.25 µg/rat, s.c., −48 h plus CIT (2.5 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h and subjected to the FST. Finally, the uteri were removed and weighted to obtain an index of the peripheral effects of EE2 administration. EE2 (2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat reduced immobility after one but not three weeks of OVX. In contrast, no CIT dose reduced immobility at one or three weeks after OVX. When EE2 (1.25 µg/rat was combined with CIT (2.5 mg/kg an antidepressant-like effect was observed at one but not three weeks post-OVX. The weight of the uteri augmented when EE2 was administrated three weeks after OVX. The data suggest that the time post-OVX is a crucial factor that contributes to observe the antidepressant-like effect of EE2 alone or in combination with CIT.

  3. Regulation of P-glycoprotein expression in brain capillaries in Huntington's disease and its impact on brain availability of antipsychotic agents risperidone and paliperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Han; Chern, Yijuang; Yang, Hui-Ting; Chen, Hui-Mei; Lin, Chun-Jung

    2016-08-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease marked by an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) tract on the huntingtin (HTT) protein that may cause transcriptional dysfunction. This study aimed to investigate the regulation and function of P-glycoprotein, an important efflux transporter, in brain capillaries in HD. The results showed that, compared with the littermate controls, R6/2 HD transgenic mice with the human mutant HTT gene had higher levels of P-glycoprotein mRNA and protein and enhanced NF-κB activity in their brain capillaries. Higher P-glycoprotein expression was also observed in the brain capillaries of human HD patients. Consistent with this enhanced P-glycoprotein expression, brain extracellular levels and brain-to-plasma ratios of the antipsychotic agents risperidone and paliperidone were significantly lower in R6/2 mice than in their littermate controls. Exogenous expression of human mutant HTT protein with expanded polyQ (mHTT-109Q) in HEK293T cells enhanced the levels of P-glycoprotein transcripts and NF-κB activity compared with cells expressing normal HTT-25Q. Treatment with the IKK inhibitor, BMS-345541, decreased P-glycoprotein mRNA level in cells transfected with mHTT-109Q or normal HTT-25Q In conclusion, mutant HTT altered the expression of P-glycoprotein through the NF-κB pathway in brain capillaries in HD and markedly affected the availability of P-glycoprotein substrates in the brain. PMID:26661162

  4. Marble-burying is enhanced in 3xTg-AD mice, can be reversed by risperidone and it is modulable by handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Lista, Virginia; López-Pousa, Secundino; Giménez-Llort, Lydia

    2015-07-01

    Translational research on behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) is relevant to the study the neuropsychiatric symptoms that strongly affect the quality of life of the human Alzheimer's disease (AD) patient and caregivers, frequently leading to early institutionalization. Among the ethological behavioural tests for rodents, marble burying is considered to model the spectrum of anxiety, psychotic and obsessive-compulsive like symptoms. The present work was aimed to study the behavioural interactions of 12 month-old male 3xTg-AD mice with small objects using the marble-burying test, as compared to the response elicited in age-matched non-transgenic (NTg) mice. The distinction of the classical 'number of buried marbles' but also those left 'intact' and those 'changed' of position of marbles or partially buried (the transitional level of interaction) provided new insights into the modelling of BPSD-like alterations in this AD model. The analysis revealed genotype differences in the behavioural patterns and predominant behaviors. In the NTg mice, predominance was shown in the 'changed or partially buried', while interactions with marble were enhanced in 3xTg-AD mice resulting in an increase of marble burying. Besides, genotype-dependent meaningful correlations were found, with the marble test pattern of 3xTg-AD mice being directly related to neophobia in the corner tests. In both genotypes, the increase of burying was reversed by chronic treatment with risperidone (1mg/kg, s.c.). In 3xTg-AD mice, the repetitive handling of animals during the treatment also exerted modulatory effects. These distinct patterns further characterize the modelling of BPSD-like symptoms in the 3xTg-AD mice, and provide another behavioural tool to assess the benefits of preventive and/or therapeutic strategies, as well as the potential action of risk factors for AD, in this animal model. PMID:25957954

  5. Comparative study on the treatment of depression with mirtazapin,Citalopram and Amitriptyline%米氮平与西酞普兰、阿米替林治疗抑郁症的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴强; 郭平

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较米氮平与西酞普兰、阿米替林治疗抑郁症的疗效、副反应。方法:将120例抑郁症患者随机分为3组,分别给于米氮平、西酞普兰、阿米替林治疗4周。采用汉米尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、副反应量表(TESS),在治疗前,1、2、4周末分别评定疗效、副反应。结果:米氮平组在第1周末即显效,HAMD评分与治疗前以及与另两组比较差异有显著性(P<0.05,P<0.01),而另两组与治疗前比较尚无差异性(P>0.05)。在第2周末差异较治疗前更显著(P<0.01),而且仍然与另两组差异有显著性(P<0.05)。至第4周末三组与治疗前比较差异均极有显著性(P<0.01),但三组间比较无差异性。阿米替林组锥体外系及抗胆碱能副反应最高,消化系统和精神和神经系统副反应西酞普兰组最高。结论:米氮平治疗抑郁症比阿米替林及西酞普兰起效较快,副反应较少。%Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of mirtazapine ,citalopram and Amitriptyline in the treatment of patients with depression .Methods 120 patients with depression were randomly divided into 3 groups, which were treated with mirtazapine ,Citalopram and Amitriptyline 4 weeks,respectively.Hamilton depression scale (HAMD), the treatment emergent symptoms scale (TESS) were measured to assess the efficacy and safety before treatment and the end of 1st,2st,4st week,respectively.Result Compared with base line ,the HAMD increased significantly after a 1-week treatment in mirtazapine,especily after a 2-week treatment,and it had a significant difference , comparing with the other group.while in Citalopram and Amitriptyline ,no significant changes were found.Then compared with base line,every date increased significantly after a 4-week treatment , (P< 0.01).But between each group, no significant changes were found. Among the three groups, the extrapyramidal and anticholinergic side effects was highest in

  6. 艾司西酞普兰与西酞普兰治疗老年性抑郁症的对照研究%Escitalopram and Citalopram in Treatment of Senile Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王巍

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of escitalopram and citalopram in the treatment of senile depression. Methods A total of 80 elder patients met ICD-10 depression diagnostic criteria were randomly divided into escitalopram group and citalopram group,respectively, for a 6 weeksstudy. .Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD)and Trealment Emergent Symp-tom Scale (TESS)were used to observe the effectiveness and aduerse reactions befor treatment and by the end of 1,2,4and6 weeks. Results After 6 weeks of treatment,ghe HAMD scores decreased from (23.49±2.16)and (22.98±2.14)to(7.57±2.94)and (7.92±3.09)in the escitalopram group and the citalopram group respectively,the effective rate was 82.5% and 80%,and the curative rate was 52.5%and 50%.There was no significant difference in the effective and curative rate between the 2 groups.No significant dif-ference was found in main side effects between the 2 groups (P>0.05).Conclusion Ai Sciplan and citalopram in the treatment of patients with senile depression the same, but from the two set of short-term curative effect of long-term efficacy of the same Ai Sciplan Ai Sciplan faster, faster onset.%目的:探讨艾司西酞普兰与西酞普兰对老年性抑郁症的治疗效果和安全性。方法将80例符合ICD-10的抑郁症诊断标准的老年患者,随机分为艾司西酞普兰和西酞普兰组各40例,疗程42 d后。于治疗前及治疗1、2、4及6周末分别使用了汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)和治疗中出现的反应量表(TESS),这两个表格是能够评定疗效以及患者出现不良反应的。结果结果艾司西酞普兰组与西酞普兰组均在第1周末起效,第2周末出现显著疗效。治疗8周后,两组患者HAMD,HAMA评分与治疗前相比均有显著下降,两组间HAMD,HAMA减分率比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)艾司西酞普兰组治疗第1周恶心呕吐的发生率对比西酞普兰组差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论艾司

  7. Therapeutic Effect of Citalopram Combined with Shenshuaining Pill in Treatment of Post-stroke Depression%西酞普兰合并神衰宁丸治疗脑卒中后抑郁症

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程素满; 陈金峰; 李志榕

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨西酞普兰合并神衰宁丸治疗脑卒中后抑郁的临床疗效.方法:将80例脑卒中后抑郁患者随机分为西酞普兰合并神衰宁丸的治疗组和西酞普兰对照组各40例,观察治疗6周.于治疗前及治疗1,2,4,6周末采用汉密顿抑郁量表(HAMD)进行抗抑郁疗效评定,用改良的爱丁堡-斯堪的纳维亚卒中量表(MESSS)进行神经功能康复评定,用治疗中出现的症状量表(TESS)评定药物不良反应.结果:HAMD和TESS评分显示,在第1和2周末治疗组和对照组区别显著(P <0.05);MESSS评分显示:在治疗6周末,治疗组(14.22 ± 4.53)比对照组(17.38±5.10)下降显著(P<0.05).结论:在治疗脑卒中后抑郁中,酞普兰合并神衰宁丸抗抑郁的起效更快,对神经功能的康复效果和患者的耐受性都较好.%Objective: To study the therapeutic effect of citalopram combined with Shenshuaining pill (SSNP) in the treatment of post-stroke depression. Method: Eighty post-stroke depression patients were randomly assigned into treated (citalopram combined with SSNP) and control (citalopram) groups (each n = 40 ) for 6 weeks. Anti-depression therapeutic effect, neural functional impairment and adverse reactions were assessed with the hamilton depression scale (HAMD), the modified Edinburgh-Scandinavia stroke scale (MESSS), and the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale(TESS) respectively. Result: In the treatment group, the scores of the HAMD and TESS distinguished markedly at the end of the 1st and 2st weeks, and the total scores of the MESSS were 14. 22 ±4. 53 in treatment groups at the end of the 6th were, compared with control group( 17.38 ±5. 10), they decreased significantly distinguished ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion: Citalopram combined with SSNP had superior therapeutic effect for neural function recovery, and was a kind of rapid and safe drug in the treatment of post-stroke depression.

  8. Comparison between the effects of Sertraline and Citalopram on the life quality of the depressive disorder%舍曲林和西酞普兰对抑郁症患者生活质量影响的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢玲; 胡君

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨舍曲林和西酞普兰对抑郁症患者生活质量的影响。方法将60例抑郁症患者随机分为两组,每组各30例。分别给予舍曲林和西酞普兰治疗。以生活质量综合问卷(GQLT-74)、汉米尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)评定两组患者生活质量的改变及抑郁状况。结果治疗2个月末时,两组治疗抑郁症疗效相当,西酞普兰副反应少于舍曲林;西酞普兰对抑郁症患者生活质量各维度的影响均具有显著性(P0.05)。结论西酞普兰组与舍曲林组相比,西酞普兰更能改善抑郁症患者的生活质量。%Objective :To explore the effects of Sertraline and Citalopram the social function and life quality of the depressive disorder Citalopram. Methods :60 depressive disorder that are consistent with the diagnostic criteria of depression in ICD-10 were divide drandomly into two groups and treated with Sertraline and Citalopram, respectively . Each group of 30 cases. Before and after the treatment, the depress symptoms were evaluated by HAMD and the life quality was evaluated by GQOLI-74,Results :The curative effect of improving depression symptoms in Citalopram group was equivalent with that of Sertraline group in the end of 2 month treatment. After 2 months treatment, the Citalopram group improved obviously the life quality ( P 0. 05) . Conclusions :Citalopram is more useful for improving he life quality of the depressive disorder than Sertraline.

  9. 西酞普兰与氟西汀治疗中国老年抑郁症患者的系统评价%Citalopram vs. Fluoxetine in Treatment of Senile Patients with Depression in China:A Systematic Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 杜彪; 骆洪

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To compare the clinical efficacy and the adverse reactions between citalopram and fluoxetine in treatment of senile patients with depression in china.METHODS: A total of 11 papers about controlled study comparing clinical efficacy and the adverse reactions between citalopram and fluoxetine for senile patients with depression retrieved from 1994 to 2013 in China were subjected to a meta-analysis.RESULTS:There was no significant difference in clinical efficacy between citalopram and fluoxetine (P>0.05, OR=1.17, 95%CI (0.81-1.68).The incidence rate of headache and sweating in fluoxetine group were significantly higher than in citalopram group ( P0.05 ) .CONCLUSION: Citalopram is as effective as fluoxetine as antidepressants in senile patients in China with similar efficacy, and the adverse drug reaction of citalopram is mild.%目的:比较西酞普兰与氟西汀治疗中国老年抑郁症患者的疗效和不良反应发生率。方法:收集1994—2013年国内所有关于西酞普兰与氟西汀治疗老年抑郁症的随机对照研究文献,应用系统评价方法对检索到的11篇随机对照研究文献进行定量综合分析。结果:西酞普兰与氟西汀的疗效差异无统计学意义[P>0.05,OR=1.17,95%CI(0.81~1.68)],氟西汀组头痛、出汗发生率较酞普兰组多见,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。其他不良反应发生率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:西酞普兰与氟西汀治疗中国老年抑郁症患者的疗效相似,西酞普兰较氟西汀不良反应轻微。

  10. The Comparison of the Effectiveness of Risperidone and Fluoxetine in Combination with Impulse Control Group Therapy on Improving of Impulsivity, and Relapse in Heroin Crack Addicts under Methadone Maintenance Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohoallah Hadadi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of Risperidone and Fluoxetine in combination with impulse control group therapy on improving of impulsivity, and relapse in heroin crack addicts under methadone maintenance therapy. Method: In a semi-experimental study, 39 heroin crack addicts who were under Methadone maintenance treatment selected of addiction withdrawal centers in Tehran. The selected sample was randomly assigned to three groups. First group was under (Risperidone 1 mg daily, impulse control group therapy for 8 sessions of 90 minutes, and methadone maintenance treatment, the second group was under (Fluoxetine 20 mg daily, impulse control group therapy for 8 sessions of 90 minutes, and methadone maintenance therapy, and the third group was under (impulse control group therapy for 8 sessions of 90 minutes, and methadone maintenance therapy. All participants completed the Barratt impulsivity scale (BIS-11 before and immediately after the end of intervention and follow up. Also, Morphine and stimulating drugs in urine were analyzed. Results: The results showed that total impulsivity scores was decreased in post-test but not in follow up. That is, impulsivity decreased in both experimental groups. Results also showed that relapse rate was not significantly differed. Conclusion: The combination of Fluoxetine with Methadone maintenance therapy and impulse control group therapy, was the most effective treatment on reduction of impulsivity, but not on relapse rate, in heroin crack abusers, in the short term.

  11. 1H and 13C NMR Assignments for Amlodipine and Risperidone%氨氯地平和利培酮的1H和13C核磁共振信号归属

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春晖; 李勤; 刘雪辉; 赵兴凯; 崔育新

    2004-01-01

    目的对氨氯地平和利培酮两种药物分子进行核磁共振研究.方法应用一维和二维核磁共振技术,如gCOSY, gHSQC和gHMBC.结果对两种药物分子核磁共振氢谱和碳谱进行了归属,氟碳间的耦合常数对碳谱的解析提供了有利的证据.结论通过核磁共振化学位移和耦合常数的分析,确证了氨氯地平和利培酮两种药物分子的化学结构.%Aim To investigate the NMR spectroscopy of amlodipine and risperidone.Methods 1D NMR and 2D NMR experimental techniques of gCOSY, gHSQC and gHMBC were wsed.Results The assignments of the 1H and 13C NMR data for the two drugs were performed and confirmed by the evidence of JHF and JCF.Conclusion The structures of amlodipine and risperidone were confirmed by careful analysis of regular 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy.

  12. 齐拉西酮与利培酮治疗精神分裂症的临床对照研究%The Comparative Investigation between Ziprasidone and Risperidone in the Treatment of Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘勇; 王皖生; 支瑞瑞

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨齐拉西酮与利培酮治疗精神分裂症的临床疗效与安全性.方法 将60例符合第三版(CCMD-3)诊断的精神分裂症患者随机分为研究组和对照组各30例,分别予以齐拉西酮与利培酮治疗,疗程8周.分别于治疗前及治疗第8周末采用阳性症状和阴性症状量表(positive symptoms and negative symp-toms scale,PANSS)评定疗效,以治疗中出现的不良反应采用副反应量表(treatment emersent symptom scale,TESS)进行评定.结果 治疗8周后,齐拉西酮组的显效率为66.7%,总有效率为86.7%,利培酮组的显效率为70%,总有效率为90%,两组比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).两组PANSS评分治疗后均较治疗前明显下降,两组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).齐拉西酮组引起患者锥体外系副反应,体重增加,女性月经改变等方面的几率明显少于利培酮组.结论 齐拉西酮对精神分裂症疗效与利培酮相当,不良反应较少,依从性好.%Objective To explore the clinical efficacy and safety of ziprasidone and risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods 60 patients cases met the CCMD-3 diagnosis of schizophrenia were randomly assigned to ziprasidone group( n=30)or risperidone group( n=30 ). The efficacy of patients were assessed with the positive symptoms and negative symptoms scale (PANSS), and the side efficacy was evaluated with treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS). Results After 8 weeks treatment,the marked improvement rate was 66.7% and effective rate was 86.7% in ziprasidone group,while 70% and 90% in risperidone group, and there were no significant differences between two groups( P > 0. 05 ). After treatment, the two groups showed significant differences compared with the PANSS. Frequency of extrapyramidal reactions, weight gain, and menstrual changes in women were significantly less in ziprasidone group than in risperidone. Conclusion Ziprasidone was as effective as risperidone for the

  13. Longitudinal Observation on Brain Structure in Patients with Dependence on Sublingual Buprenorphine, Scopolamine and Promethazine in Different Stages of Abstinence%丁丙诺啡舌下片合并东莨菪碱、异丙嗪药物依赖者脑灰质密度的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周旭辉; 王绪轶; 刘军; 郝伟

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察盐酸丁丙诺啡舌下片(sublingual buprenorphine)合并东莨菪碱(scopolamine)、异丙嗪(promethazine)药物依赖者(简称BSP依赖者)脑灰质密度的变化,并比较其与海洛因依赖者脑结构损害的异同.方法:采用基于像素的形态学测量(voxel-based morphometry,VBM)方法对16例BSP依赖者、20例海洛因依赖者停药第3天、第2个月的脑灰质密度进行了组间以及组内自身前后对比研究,并设立18例正常对照者.结果:与正常对照组相比,BSP滥用可导致成瘾者大脑广泛性脑结构损害,表现为灰质密度下降,涉及额叶、顶叶、颞叶、枕叶、岛叶、纹状体等脑区;与海洛因依赖组相比,停药3天BSP依赖组脑区灰质受损程度重于海洛因依赖组,且随着停药时间的延长,BSP依赖者灰质恢复进程慢于海洛因依赖者.结论:BSP滥用可造成依赖者广泛性、严重的脑皮质结构异常,主要集中在额叶等与成瘾关系密切的脑区.BSP滥用较海洛因更易损伤大脑皮质神经元,且大脑灰质恢复进程慢于海洛因依赖组,这提示BSP滥用对大脑皮质神经元的损害在短时间难以恢复.%Objective: Recently, an intravenous abuse of buprenorphine tablets, scopolamine and promethazine solution (BSP) has been emerging among heroin-dependent individuals in some areas of Southern China. The aim of this study was to explore the brain structural pathological changes in the patients with BSP dependence, by three dimensional MRI(3D)and compare their impairment of the brain with that of the heroin addicts. Methods: BSP-dependent patients(n=16), heroin-dependent individuals (n=20) and age/eduction-matched healthy control subjects (n=18) were assessed by 3D during resting state. Patients with BSP and heroin dependence were examined by MRI scanning after 3 days and 2 months of abstinence, while control subjects were tested only once. Results: Compared with health controls, GMD was significantly lower in

  14. Meta-analysis of efficacy and safety of citalopram and fluoxetine for depression in Chinese patients%西酞普兰与氟西汀治疗中国抑郁症患者疗效和安全性的meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭珍珍; 祝漫琴; 李焕德; 成日华; 刘艺平

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较西酞普兰与氟西汀在中国抑郁症患者中的疗效和安全性.方法 计算机检索CBM、CNKI、万方数据库,采用RevMan 5.0软件进行meta分析.结果 西酞普兰与氟西汀抗抑郁治疗6周后,以汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)评定疗效,总有效率的meta分析结果表明,有效率比值比OR值为1.29,其95%的可信区间为0.98~1.69,两者不存在显著性差异.疗程为1、2周时,西酞普兰治疗组的HAMD评分比氟西汀治疗组低,具有统计学差异,即西酞普兰起效速度优于氟西汀;疗程为4、6周时,西酞普兰治疗组的HAMD评分与氟西汀治疗组差异无统计学意义,即两者疗效无统计学差异性.以西酞普兰与氟西汀抗抑郁治疗失败的相对危险度RR比较其不良反应的危险度,结果显示便秘、失眠这2个不良反应的合并RR值分别为0.4 (95%CI 0.24,0.64)和0.54 (95%CI0.34,0.86),表明西酞普兰便秘和失眠不良反应的发生率均低于氟西汀,具有统计学差异.结论 西酞普兰与氟西汀长期治疗效果相当,但西酞普兰起效快于氟西汀,且西酞普兰便秘和失眠不良反应的发生率均低于氟西汀.%Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of citalopram and fluoxetine in Chinese patients with depression. Methods CBM, CNKI, and Wanfang database were searched. Meta-analysis was performed with RevMan 5. 0. Results There was no significant difference in the efficacy between citalopram and fluoxetine by Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) with OR= 1. 29 and 95%CI 0. 98 to 1. 69 after 6 weeks. Citalopram caused greater reduction in HAMD score than fluoxetine after 1 and 2 weeks, suggesting the onset of citalopram was faster than that of fluoxetine. There were no significant differences in the decrease of HAMD scores between citalopram and fluoxetine after 4 and 6 weeks. Incidence of astriction [RR=0. 4, 95%CI 0. 24, 0. 64], insomnia [RR=0. 54, 95%CI 0. 34, 0. 86] induced by the citalopram group was

  15. Efficacy of Citalopram Combined with Low-dose Amitriptyline and Paroxetine in the Treatment of Depression%西酞普兰合并低剂量阿米替林与帕罗西汀治疗抑郁症的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡远帆

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study value and safety of the citalopram combined with low-dose amitriptyline and parosetine in the treatment of depression.Methode Collecting form January 2009 to October 2009in our hospotal out-patient and hospitalization in patients with depression,112 cases were randomly divided into combined low dose of citalopram parosetine amitriptyline group and 56 cases were rand groups,treatment for 6 weeks using hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD)and adverse reactions Scale (TESS)in the treatment of pre-and post assessment of 1,2,4,6weekend efficacy and adverse reactions of drugs.Results Citalopram combined with low-dose amitriptyline and paroxetine in the treatment groups 1~2weeks befor and aftet the HAMD score difference was significant (P0.05),citalopram combined with 46.43%,differenct between two groups was statistically significant(P0.05),西酞普兰合并低剂量阿米替林组不良反应总发生率为26.79%,帕罗西汀则为46.43%,两组差异有显著性(P<0.05).结论 西酞普兰合并低剂量阿米替林与帕罗西汀治疗抑郁症均有效,不良反应较轻,但西酞普兰合并低剂量阿米替林更安全,服用方便,不良反应更小,可作为治疗抑郁症的首选联合药物.

  16. Study on effects of an atypical antipsychotic, risperidone on regional cerebral blood flow with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT in drug-naive and unmedicated schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the underlying mechanisms of intracerebral or clinical actions of the atypical antipsychotic, risperidone (RIS), the effects of RIS on absolute regional cerebral blood flows (rCBFs) measured with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT and correlations between the rCBFs and psychotic symptoms assessed with positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) were investigated in 10 drug-naive and unmedicated schizophrenic patients with acute hallucinatory and delusional state. Both the SPECT and PANSS were repeated before and after oral 2-week administration of RIS 3 mg/day in all of the 10 patients and after subsequent 2-week administration of RIS 4-6 mg/day in half of the patients. The rCBF values were significantly decreased in the left precentral gyrus alone after the low dose of RIS 3 mg/day in comparison with before the RIS dose. The rCBF values were significantly decreased in the right cingulate, postcentral, inferior parietal gyri and the left inferior temporal gyrus after the high dose of RIS 4-6 mg/day in comparison with before the low dose of RIS 3 mg/day. The psychiatric assessment with PANSS showed an improvement of positive and negative symptoms after the low RIS dose and still more after the high RIS dose. Statistical analyses on relationships between the rCBF values and PANSS scores before and after the low RIS dose showed a positive correlation between the rCBF values in the right middle temporal gyrus and hallucinations (mainly auditory hallucination). These results suggest that chronic RIS administration dose-dependently produces a decrease of rCBF in the cerebral cortex in the manner that the low dose decreases rCBF in a few restricted cortical regions, while the high dose induces the rCBF reduction in more widespread cortical regions. The RIS-induced rCBF decrease in the cerebral cortex is considered to be attributable to a secondary inactivation in the cerebral cortex due to D2 dopamine receptor blockade of RIS in the striatum through the cortico

  17. 西酞普兰合并氯氮平治疗有自杀风险的精神分裂症患者的疗效及安全性%The efficacy and safety of combined citalopram and clozapine in the treatment of schizophrenia patient with suicidal risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗娴; 邱育平; 张业祥

    2012-01-01

      To research the efficacy and safety of combined citalopram and clozapine in the treatment of schizophrenia with suicidal risk,A study was contucted in which 46 patients with schizophrenia were randomised divided to study group and control group.The result shows that the efficacy of treatment of Combined Citalopram and Clozapine is better than treatment of Clozapine. the risk of suicide also cecreace by Combined Citalopram and Clozapine.and the safety is equivalent.%  [要] 本文通过46例有自杀风险的精神分裂症患者随机分为研究组(23例)和对照组(23例)探讨西酞普兰合并氯氮平治疗有自杀风险的精神分裂症患者的疗效及安全性。验证了西酞普兰合并氯氮平治疗有自杀风险的精神分裂症患者的疗效好于单用氯氮平,自杀风险降低,安全性相仿。

  18. Clinical Controlled Study on the Effect of Risperidone Microsphere on Schizophrenia%利培酮微球治疗精神分裂症疗效的临床对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦国兴; 甘建光; 田国强

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨利培酮微球治疗精神分裂症的疗效与安全性.方法 选取2007年1月-2009年9月我院就诊的精神分裂症患者35例为试验组,同时选择与试验组诊断相同、性别相同、年龄差异≤5岁,阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS)评分差异≤5分的患者35例为对照组.试验组给予注射用长效利培酮微球25.0 mg或37.5 mg肌肉注射,1次/2周;对照组给予利培酮片1 mg,口服,2次/d,1周内逐步加至3~6 mg/d.观察2组用药剂量、治疗前后PANSS评分、有效率及不良事件发生情况.结果 2、4、6个月时试验组注射用长效利培酮微球平均剂量分别为(31.2±7.0)mg/2周、(33.8±6.6)mg/2周、(30.2±7.0)mg/2周;对照组利培酮片平均剂量分别为(4.5±1.0)mg/d、(4.1±0.8)mg/d、(4.1±0.9)mg/d.试验组与对照组患者治疗前后不同时间PANSS评分比较,差异有统计学意义(F时间=53.34,P<0.01);而两组间PANSS评分比较差异无统计学意义(F组间=0.54,P>0.05);试验组和对照组患者治疗前与治疗2、4、6个月时比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).治疗6个月后,试验组有效31例,有效率为91.2%,无一例复发;对照组有效29例,复发2例,有效率为85.3%,两组有效率比较差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.142,P=0.707).试验组16例(47.1%)发生不良事件,对照组22例(64.7%)发生不良事件,两组不良事件发生率比较差异无统计学意义(χ2=2.15,P>0.05).结论 注射用长效利培酮微球与利培酮片有同等的疗效和安全性,由于长效抗精神病药针剂具有的强制性等先天优点,可以作为精神分裂症维持治疗的一种良好选择.%Objective To investigate clinical efficacy and safety of risperidone microspheres in the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods 35 cases of schizophrenic admitted to our hospital from January 2007 to September 2009 were selected as experiment group, while another 35 patients with the same diagnosis, same sex, age differences ≤ 5 and PANSS

  19. 氢溴酸西酞普兰片合并小剂量米氮平片治疗抑郁症的临床研究%A clinical study of combined Citalopram Hydrobromide and small dose Mirtazapine tablets in the treatment of depression LI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梅; 张小娟; 蒋硕

    2013-01-01

      目的比较氢溴酸西酞普兰片合并小剂量米氮平片与单用氢溴酸西酞普兰片治疗抑郁症的疗效及不良反应.方法将符合标准的88例抑郁症患者分为两组,治疗组给予氢溴酸西酞普兰片合并米氮平片治疗(n=45),对照组予氢溴酸西酞普兰治疗(n=43),疗程6周.用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)在治疗前及治疗1、2、4、6周末评定疗效,用副反应量表(TESS)评定不良反应.结果两组总体疗效有显著差异性(P <0.05):治疗组对抑郁症起效较快,临床治愈率更高,副作用没有明显增加.结论氢溴酸西酞普兰合并小剂量米氮平片治疗抑郁症值得临床推广.%Objective To compare the curative effect of treating and adverse reaction in the treatment for depression between the group take orally Citalopram Hydrobromide tablets with small dose Mirtazapine tablets and the group only take orally Citalopram Hydrobromide tablets. Methods Eighty-eight depression patients were divided into two groups in random, treatment group take orally Citalopram Hydrobromide tablets with small dose Mirtazapine tablets(n=45), control group only take orally Citalopram Hydrobromide tablets(n=43). Course of treatment was six weeks. Adopted Hamilton depression rating scale(HAMD) estimating the curative effect of treating before treatment and 1, 2, 4, 6 weeks for all patients. And adopted Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale(TESS) evaluating adverse reactions for all patients. Results The overall efficacy was significant difference for two groups: the treatment group got effective fast, clinical cure rate was higher, side effects was not significantly increased. Conclusion Takeing orally Citalopram Hydrobromide tablets with small dose Mirtazapine tablets treat depression is worth clinical promoting.

  20. A clinical comparative study of citalopram augmented with aripiprzole on depression%西酞普兰合并阿立派唑治疗抑郁症的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建辉; 国世辉

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy of low-dose aripiprazole combining with citalopram on the depression. Methods A total 57 patients with depression were randomly assigned to the study group and the control group. Either group was treated with a fixed dose 20 mg citalopram per day, and the study group was simultaneously titrated to low dose (5~10mg/d) of aripiprazole at initiating dose 2.5 mg per day within two weeks. They were evaluated with Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD).Clinical Global Impression (CGI-SI) and Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale(TESS) before treatment and at the end of 1st, 2nd, 4th and 6th week after treatment. The study lasted for 6 weeks. Results HAMD total score of either group were 11.54 ± 5.58 and 16.59 ± 6.67 respectively, which had statistically significant difference between two groups(t = 2.961, P0.05). TESS scores were not statistically significant difference between two groups at each point of measure. Conclusion The results suggest low dose of aripiprazole augmentation of citalopram may be effective and safe in the treatment of depression.%目的 探讨小剂量阿立派唑合并西酞普兰治疗抑郁症的疗效和不良反应.方法 将57例抑郁症患者以随机数字法分为研究组和对照组,2组均应用固定剂量西酞普兰20mg/d,研究组同时合并应用小剂量阿立派唑5~10mg/d,2组作6周的持续治疗观察,于人组前及入组后第1,2,4,6周末分别用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、临床疗效总评量表(CGI-SI)及副反应量表(TESS)进行评定.结果 研究组与对照组在治疗后第6周末HAMD评分总分分别为(11.54±5.58)分,(16.59±6.67)分,2组差异有显著性(t=2.961,P0.05).2组TESS评分同期比较均差异无显著性(P>0.05).结论 小剂量阿立派唑在抑郁症的治疗中有增效作用,且安全性较好.

  1. Observation on the therapeutic effect of citalopram combined with trazodone in the treatment of geriatric depression%西肽普兰合并曲唑酮治疗老年抑郁症疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高燕; 严广华; 孙洁

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨西肽普兰合并曲唑酮治疗老年抑郁症的临床疗效.方法:将74例老年抑郁症患者随机分为治疗组(西肽普兰服用剂量为20~40 mg·d-1合并曲唑酮服用剂量50~150 mg·d-1)及对照组(单用西肽普兰)各37例,疗程6周.分别于治疗后1、2、6周末用汉密尔顿抑郁量表,汉密尔顿焦虑量表评定疗效,以症状量表(TESS)评定治疗中出现的不良反应.结果:2组治疗后汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)总分比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),治疗组的不良反应比对照组重,主要表现有头昏、嗜睡,但患者均能耐受.结论:西肽普兰合并曲唑酮治疗抑郁症比对照组临床疗效更好.%OBJECTIVE To observation the efficacy of citalopram in combination with trazodone in the treatment of geriatric depression. METHODS A total of 74 depression patients were randomized into two groups. The patients in research group were treated with citelopram combined with trazodone, those in control group with citelopram. The course of treatment was 6 weeks for both groups. HAMDS HAMA and TESS were used to evaluate the efficacy and side effects at the end of week 1,2, 6. RESULTS The differences between research group and control group before and alter treatment were significant in terms of HAMA and HAMD scores (P<0. 05). Side effects of patients in research group was expressed as dizziness and drowsiness, but tolerable. CONCLUSION The effects of citalopram combined with trazodone in the treatment of geriatric depression were better than those in control group.

  2. 神经生长因子联合西酞普兰对海洛因依赖者脱毒期抑郁及心理渴求症状的疗效观察%Therapeutic effects of nerve growth factor combined with citalopram for depressive and psychological desire of heroin addicts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 汪青松; 吴庆; 张园园

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the therapeutic effects of nerve growth factor combined with citalopram for depressive and psychological desire of heroin. Methods 93 male patients were randomly assigned into two groups,including citalopram treatment group(41) and nerve growth factor(NGF) combined with citalopram treatment group(42) . There was no significant differences in offenders age,length of sentence and BDI-13 rating between the two groups before the treatment. In addition to drug medication methadone and buprenorphine , joint application of nerve growth factors for treatment was conducted for six weeks. Beck Depression self-assessment questionnaire(BDI-13) and the craving were used to evaluate the efficacy of self-rating scale. Results In nerve growth factor combined with citalopram group BDI-13 score and the reduction rates at the end of 2,4,6 week after treatment were statistically different from those in citalopram group(r =3.25,6.12,7.15;r =3. 56,4. 59,6.21,P<0. 05 ) ;craving score at 14,28 ,35,42 day significantly reduced,which was significantly different from citalopram group(r =2. 24,3. 12,3. 21,2. 56 ,P <0. 05 ). Conclusion Nerve growth factor combined with citalopram may be effective alleviating heroin addicts in during and after detoxification of coke depression and psychological desire symptoms.%目的 评价神经生长因子联合西酞普兰对海洛因依赖者的抑郁及心理渴求症状的治疗效果.方法 将93例男性患者随机分为两组,其中西酞普兰治疗组41例;神经生长因子(NGF)联合西酞普兰治疗组42例,治疗前两组罪犯的年龄、刑期及BDI-13评分比较均无统计学差异.除戒毒用药美沙酮及丁丙诺啡外,两组分别应用神经生长因子联合西酞普兰和西酞普兰进行治疗,疗程为6周.采用Beck抑郁自评问卷(BDI-13)及及心理渴求自评量表进行评定疗效.结果 神经生长因子联合西酞普兰组治疗后2、4、6周末BDI-13评分及减分率较西酞普兰

  3. Effects of the genetic polymorphism CYP2 C19 on pharmacokinetics of citalopram in Chinese healthy volunteers%CYP2 C19遗传多态性对中国健康受试者西酞普兰代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娟; 田芳

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究中国健康男性受试者CYP2C19遗传多态性对西酞普兰体内代谢的影响。方法24名中国健康男性受试者空腹单次口服西酞普兰片20 mg,服药前采静脉血,乙二胺四乙酸( EDTA)抗凝,提取DNA,测定其基因型。分别在服药前和服药后一定时间点采静脉血各5 mL,离心取血浆,用HPLC-MS/MS法检测西酞普兰血药浓度,比较不同基因型受试者西酞普兰药代动力学的差异。结果2例受试者(8.33%)为CYP2C19慢代谢;10例为CYP2C19快代谢,其中纯合子12例(50%)、杂合子10例(41.67%)。西酞普兰的代谢受CYP2C19的基因多态性影响较大,但也可能受年龄和体重的影响。结论西酞普兰临床应用时应查明患者CYP2C19基因型,并参考其年龄、体重等情况给药。%Objective To investigate the effets of cytochrome CYP2C19 gene polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics of citalopram in Chinese healthy male volunteers.Methods Twenty-four Chinese healthy male volunteers were orally administered with a single dose of citalopram 20 mg.The venous blood samples were collected , using anticoagulantion EDTA to extract DNA, and the genotype was detected .The blood sam-ples(5 mL) from the bolunteers were collected before and after the ad-ministration of citalopram and plasma was taken .The plasma concentra-tion of citalopram was examined by HPLC -MS/MS method .The geno-type CYP2 C19 was measured by PCR -based sequencing.The measure-ments were performed by HPLC -MS/MS.Pharmacokinetic differences of citalopram on patients with different genotypes were compared .Results Two out of 24 volunteers were poor metabolizing genotype ( PM ) , and 22 were extensive metabolizers (EM).Among the EM 12 were homozy-gotes and 10 were heterozygotes.The pharmacokinetic of citalopram was largely influenced by CYP2 C19 genetic polymorphism , and also effected by the volunteers′age and weight.Conclusion The CYP2 C19 genotype of

  4. E fficacy of Aripiprazole and Risperidone on Memory Function in Patients with Schizophrenia%阿立哌唑和利培酮对首发精神分裂症患者记忆功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡茂荣; 姜淑珍; 占海燕; 胡斌; 鲍成; 余斌; 周朝雄; 吴慧玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy of aripiprazole and risperidone on memory function in patients with schizophrenia. Methods 112 first-episode patients with schizophrenia were random-ized to aripiprazole group(n=56) and risperidone group(n=56). All subjects were assessed with the Wechsler Memory Scale-ⅢSpatial Span Task(WMS-Ⅲ SST), the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Re-vised (HVLT-R) and The Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R).Results Both groups showed no statistical significance in WMS-Ⅲ SST, HVLT-R and BVMT-R scores in the baseline (P>0.05).The performances after 12 weeks of treatment in the both groups was higher than those in the baseline in all tests(P0.05).Aripiprazole group was increased significantly compared with before treatment after treatment WMS-Ⅲ SST score (P<0.05), and after treatment there was a statistical significance between the two groups (P<0.05).Conclusion Memory impairments in the patients with first-episode schizophrenia was im-proved by aripiprazole and risperidone, and effect of aripiprazole on certain memory functions was better than those of risperidone.%目的:探讨阿立哌唑和利培酮对首发精神分裂症患者记忆功能的影响。方法112例首发精神分裂症患者随机分成阿立哌唑组和利培酮组,每组56例。在治疗前和治疗12周末采用韦氏记忆量表-第三版的空间广度测验(WMS-Ⅲ SST)、霍普金斯词汇学习测验-修订版(HVLT-R)、简单视觉空间记忆测验-修订版(BVMT-R)分别对工作记忆、言语记忆和视觉记忆领域进行评定。结果在治疗前,两组的WMS-Ⅲ SST HVLT-R 和BVMT-R得分比较均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。在治疗12周后,两组的HVLT-R 和BVMT-R得分较治疗前比较均有统计学意义(P<0.05)而治疗后两组间比较无统计学意义(P>0.05);阿立哌唑组在治疗后的WMS-Ⅲ SST得分较治疗前显著增加(P<0.05),且治疗后两组间比较有统计学意义(P<0.05

  5. 利培酮对精神分裂症患者血脂和甲状腺激素的影响%Effects of risperidone on lipid and thyroid hormones in schizophrenic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明坤; 刘叶红; 张平; 韩彦超; 万爱华; 周雪丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察利培酮对精神分裂症患者血脂和甲状腺激素的影响。方法入选2011年5月至2011年10月上海精神卫生中心收治的精神分裂症患者41例为研究对象,单用利培酮治疗,疗程8周。分别于治疗前、治疗8周末测定总胆固醇(TC)、三酰甘油(TG)、低密度脂蛋白(LDL -C)、高密度脂蛋白(HDL-C);检测血清三碘甲状腺原氨酸(T3)、甲状腺素(T4)、游离三碘甲状腺原氨酸( FT3)、游离甲状腺素( FT4)和促甲状腺激素( TSH)。比较分析自身治疗前后的差异。结果利培酮治疗后,三酰甘油明显升高,与治疗前比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);T3、FT3、FT4显著下降,差异有统计学意义( P<0.01)。结论临床上用利培酮治疗精神分裂症患者时,可致血脂异常和甲状腺激素水平下降,应加强血脂及甲状腺激素水平监测,保证其治疗的安全性。%Objective To observe the effects of risperidone on lipids and thyroid hormone in patients with schizophrenia.Methods Forty-one cases of schizophrenia patients were enrolled from May to October in 2011 , respectively and were treated with risperidone alone for 8 weeks.The data of the total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density cholesterol ( LDL-C ) , and high density cholesterol ( HDL -C ) were measured before and after treatment.The data of three serum triiodothy-ronine (T3), thyroxine three (T4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine ( FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone ( TSH) were detected.The changes were recorded and compared.Results After risperidone therapy, TG increased significantly compared with before treatment ( P<0.01).The data of T3, FT3 and FT4 decreased significantly ( P<0.01) .Conclusion Risperidone may cause abnormal drop of blood lipid and thyroid hormone level, therefore, related monitors should be strengthened to ensure the safety during treatment of schizophrenia

  6. Observation on long time curative effect and safety of risperidone in treatment of schizophrenia%利培酮治疗精神分裂症长期疗效及安全性临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹国兴; 曹华琼

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To observe the long time curative effect and safety of risperidone in treatment of schizophrenia. Methods:212 schizophrenia patients were treated with risperidone for two years,the average therapeutic dose was ( 2.35 ± 2.61 )mg/d. BPRS and SDSS were used to evaluste the therapeutic effect and TESS was used to evaluate the drug side effects. Results:Risperidone had saftisfactory effect on schizophrenia, 83.6% of the patients was improved, compared with treatment before, there were significant improve on BPRS and SDSS (P < 0.01 ). The main side effects were EPS、anti-AchE response and sinus tachycardia;a patient was diagnosed leukopenia, about 10% patients body weight gain ( P < 0.01 ). Conclusion:Risperidone can effectively and safely improve the symptoms of the patients with schizophrenia, patients can hold healthily social function during the long time curative.%目的:观察利培酮片对精神分裂症长期治疗的有效性、安全性及对社会功能的影响.方法:212例使用利培酮片剂治疗患者.平均剂量为(2.35±2.61)mg/d,疗程2年.用简明精神病量表(Brief psychiatric rating scale,BPRS)评定疗效.用不良反应症状量表(Treatment emergent symptoms scale,TESS)评价药物副反应严重程度.用社会功能缺陷评定量表(Social disbilitv screening schedule,SDSS)评定社会功能的影响程度.结果:利培酮具有良好疗效,有效率83.6%.SDSS量表评定:治疗前后比较有明显差异(P<0.01).药物不良反应主要为锥体外系副反应(Extrapyramideal side effects,EPS)中静坐不能、抗胆碱能反应(视物模糊)、窦性心动过速,症状程度较轻;白细胞减少症1例,约10%患者体重增加(体重增加超过5%)与治疗前有显著性差异(P<0.01).结论:利培酮长期治疗精神分裂症有效且安全,长期服用能够保持良好的社会功能.

  7. Medication adherence in patients with psychotic disorders: an observational survey involving patients before they switch to long-acting injectable risperidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baylé FJ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Franck Jean Baylé,1 Arnaud Tessier,2,3 Sophie Bouju,4 David Misdrahi2,3 1Sainte-Anne Hospital (SHU, Paris V-Descartes University, Paris, 2Hôpital Charles Perrens, Pôle de Psychiatrie Adulte, 3CNRS UMR 5287-INCIA, Bordeaux University, Bordeaux, 4Janssen-Cilag France, Issy Les Moulineaux, Paris, France Background: Maintaining antipsychotic therapy in psychosis is important in preventing relapse. Long-acting depot preparations can prevent covert non-adherence and thus potentially contribute to better patient outcomes. In this observational survey the main objective is to evaluate medication adherence and its determinants for oral treatment in a large sample of patients with psychosis.Methods: In this cross-sectional survey medication adherence for oral treatment was assessed by patients using the patient-rated Medication Adherence Questionnaire (MAQ. Data were collected by physicians on patients with a recent acute psychotic episode before switching to long-acting injectable risperidone. Other evaluations included disease severity (Clinical Global Impression – Severity, patients’ insight (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale item G12, treatment acceptance (clinician-rated Compliance Rating Scale, and therapeutic alliance (patient-rated 4-Point ordinal Alliance Scale.Results: A total of 399 psychiatrists enrolled 1,887 patients (mean age 36.8±11.9 years; 61.6% had schizophrenia. Adherence to oral medication was “low” in 53.2% of patients, “medium” in 29.5%, and “high” in 17.3%. Of patients with psychiatrist-rated active acceptance of treatment, 70% had “medium” or “high” MAQ scores (P<0.0001. Medication adherence was significantly associated with therapeutic alliance (4-Point ordinal Alliance Scale score; P<0.0001. Patient age was significantly associated with adherence: mean age increased with greater adherence (35.6, 36.7, and 38.6 years for patients with “low”, “medium”, and “high” levels of adherence

  8. 银杏叶提取物联合西肽普兰治疗老年抑郁症的研究%The study of late life depression by Egb pluss Citalopram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马永盛; 马洪胜

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨银杏叶提取物( Extract of Ginkgo Biloba ,EGb) 联合西肽普兰( Citalopram) 治疗老年抑郁症(late-life depression)的效果.方法 老年抑郁患者分别进入西肽普兰单药治疗组及西肽普兰联合银杏叶提取物治疗组,并对各治疗阶段进行抑郁量表评分.结果 两组患者抑郁症状均明显改善,银杏叶提取物联合西肽普兰治疗较西肽普兰单药治疗临床疗效更好.结论 老年抑郁症抗抑郁治疗效果较好,银杏叶提取物联合西肽普兰对老年抑郁症有良好治疗效果.

  9. Efficacy and safety of risperidone oral solution in agitation associated with dementia in the elderly Eficácia e segurança de risperidona solução oral na agitação associada a demência em idosos

    OpenAIRE

    Jerson Laks; Eliasz Engelhardt; Valeska Marinho; Marcia Rozenthal; Fernando de Castro e Souza; Josué Bacaltchuk; Alberto Stoppe Jr.; R.C.R. Ferreira; Cassio Bottino; Mônica Scalco

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD) contribute to caregiver burden and institutionalization of elderly. Neuroleptics are prescribed to control agitation. Side effects of typical neuroleptics are harmful, making atypical neuroleptics an indication. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate efficacy and tolerability of risperidone oral solution (ROS) given once daily to demented elderly outpatients with BPSD (agitation). METHOD: Patients (n=26), 76.35±8.63 years, Diagnostic and S...

  10. Determination the concentration of citalopram and its metabolites in rat plasma by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry%超高效液相串联质谱法测定大鼠西酞普兰及其代谢物的血药浓度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春美; 王双虎; 胡国新; 周云芳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop an ultra performance liquid chroma-tography -tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination the concentration of citalopram and its metabolites ( citalopram N-oxide and N -desmethylcitalopram ) in rat plasma.Methods Plasmas were extracted with ethyl acetate.An ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 ( 50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) column was used as the stationary phase.The mobile phase was consisted of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid water with gradient elution pumped at a flow rate of 0.4 mL· min-1.The analytes were detected with positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring ( MRM ) mode and tramadol was used as internal standard.Results Excellent linear calibration curves of citalopram, N-desmethyl-citalopram and citalopram N-oxide were obtained in the concentration range of 0.1-10.0, 0.1-10.0 and 0.01-2.00 ng· mL-1 ( r=0.999 6, 0.999, 0.999 6).The lower limit of quantification were 0.05, 0.05 and 0.01 ng · mL-1.The average recovery was 96.09%-105.33%.The intra and inter day relative standard deviations were all less than 8.69%. Conclusion The method is simple, rapid and sensitive, which is suit-able for pharmacokinetics study of citalopram and its metabolites in rats.%目的:建立快速测定大鼠体内西酞普兰及其代谢物(N-氧化西酞普兰和N-去甲基西酞普兰)浓度的超高效液相串联质谱法。方法用乙酸乙酯萃取法处理血浆,色谱柱为ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18柱(50 mm ×2.1 mm,1.7μm);流动相为乙腈-0.1%甲酸水,梯度洗脱,流速为0.4 mL· min-1;用正离子多离子反应监测( MRM)扫描,内标为曲马多。结果血浆中西酞普兰、N-去甲基西酞普兰和N-氧化西酞普兰的线性范围分别为0.1~10.0,0.1~10.0,0.01~2.00 ng· mL -1(r=0.9991,0.999,0.9996),定量下限分别为0.05,0.05,0.01 ng· mL-1。其回收率分别在96.09%~105.33%。三者的日内、日间精密度均RSD<8.69%。结论

  11. 西酞普兰联合舒必利在有精神病性症状抑郁症治疗中的临床价值分析%Citalopram combined with sulpiride in the analysis of the clinical value of psychotic symptoms in the treatment of depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建

    2015-01-01

    目的:对西酞普兰联合舒必利在有精神病性症状抑郁症治疗中的临床价值进行分析和研究。方法选择2013年4月~2014年4月在本院住院治疗的有精神病性症状的抑郁症患者50例,随机分为对照组和实验组,各25例,对照组行西酞普兰治疗,实验组行西酞普兰联合舒必利治疗,观察两组患者的疗效。结果对照组患者经西酞普兰治疗后,总有效率为68%,明显低于实验组经西酞普兰联合舒必利治疗后的总有效率96%,对照组患者的汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)评分也明显优于实验组,两组间有效率的比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论针对有精神病性症状的抑郁症患者行西酞普兰联合舒必利治疗,具有显著的疗效,值得各医院临床推广使用。%Objective Of citalopram in combination with sulpiride with psychotic symptoms of clinical value in the treatment of depression is analyzed and studied. Methods The data in April 2013-April 2014 in our hospital hospitalization with 50 patients with psychotic symptoms of depression, randomly divided into two groups, each 25 cases, the control line citalopram treatment, the experimental group lines of citalopram in combination with sulpiride treatment, to observe the efifcacy of two groups of patients. Results The patients with the control group after treatment with citalopram, the total effective rate was 68.00%, signiifcantly lower than the experimental group after treatment with citalopram combined sulpiride the total effective rate of 96.00%, the experimental group is obviously better than the control group patients with HAMD scores also, efifcient comparative differences between the two groups have statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusion For patients with psychotic symptoms of depression citalopram combined therapy with sulpiride, has signiifcant curative effect, is worth the clinical promotion use.

  12. A randomized controlled study of Fluoxetine and Citalopram on the treatment of depressive symptom due to Alzheimer's disease%盐酸氟西汀与西酞普兰治疗阿尔茨海默病所致抑郁症状随机对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉; 王京丽; 张海林; 刘英; 吴炬

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of Fluoxetine and Citalopram in treatment of the depressive symptom due to Alzheimer's Disease. Methods: 80 cases of patients were randomly divided into two groups, the patients of two groups were treated with Fluoxetine and Citalopram respectively; the course was 8 weeks; HAMD and TESS was adopted to assess the clinical effect and adverse reaction. Results: HAMD of Citalopram group decreased significantly after two weeks' treatment (P<0.05), and HAMD of Fluoxetine group decreased significantly after four weeks' treatment (P< 0.05). The two groups showed the same effect after 8 weeks. Adverse reactions of two groups were lighter, the incidence of adverse reactions of Citalopram group (38.1%) was lower than Fluoxetine group (60.5%)(P<0.05). Conclusion: Citalopram has quicker effect and better safety than Fluoxetine in the depressive symptom due to AD, long-term effect of two drugs was almost the same. Citalopram is worthy of wide application in treatment of depressive symptom due to AD.%目的:比较盐酸氟西汀与西酞普兰治疗阿尔茨海默病所致抑郁症状的有效性和安全性.方法:将80例受试者随机分为两组,分别给予盐酸氟西汀和西酞普兰治疗,疗程为8周,于治疗前和治疗后2、4、6、8周末分别采用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)和副反应量表(TESS)评定两药的疗效及不良反应.结果:在用药2周后,西酞普兰组HAMD得分较治疗前显著下降(P<0.05),在治疗4周后盐酸氟西汀组较治疗前显著下降(P<0.05),两组在用药8周后,疗效相当(P>0.05).两组不良反应均较轻,西酞普兰组的总体不良反应发生率(38.1%)低于盐酸氟西汀组(60.5%)(P<0.05).结论:在治疗阿尔茨海默病所致抑郁症方面,西酞普兰起效较快,且较盐酸氟西汀安全性好.两组长期使用疗效相当.西酞普兰适合阿尔茨海默病所致抑郁患者服用.

  13. 西酞普兰和舍曲林治疗癫痫性抑郁障碍的临床疗效及安全性研究%Study on the Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Citalopram and Sertraline in the Treatment of Epileptic Depression Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈利广

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical curative effect and security of citalopram and sertraline in treatment of the epileptic depression disorder.Methods 82 cases of epileptic depression disorder can be divided into two groups. Control group using sertraline for treatment,observation group was of citalopram for treatment.ResultsThe clinical curative effect compared between the two groups, P>0.05. Adverse reactions to observation group was obviously less than control group(χ2 = 9.567,P=0.002). Conclusion Epileptic depression disorder patients treated with citalopram and sertraline has significant clinical efficacy,but citalopram’security is significantly higher than that of sertraline.%目的:探讨西酞普兰和舍曲林治疗癫痫性抑郁障碍的临床疗效与安全性。方法将82例癫痫性抑郁障碍患者分为两组,对照组应用舍曲林治疗,观察组应用西酞普兰治疗。结果两组患者临床疗效对比,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);观察组不良反应要少于对照组(χ2=9.567,P=0.002)。结论西酞普兰与舍曲林治疗癫痫性抑郁障碍患者具有临床疗效,但是西酞普兰安全性要高于舍曲林。

  14. To Study the Clinical Effect of Sulpiride Combined Citalopram in the Treatment of Depression with Psychotic Symptoms%舒必利联合西酞普兰治疗伴精神病性症状抑郁症的临床效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪锦华

    2016-01-01

    目的::研究舒必利联合西酞普兰治疗伴精神病性症状抑郁症的临床效果。方法:将某院2013年6月~2015年6月收治的伴精神病性症状抑郁症患者76例,随机分为两组各38例,观察组采用舒必利联合西酞普兰进行治疗,对照组采用西酞普兰治疗,比较两组治疗前后 HAMD、HAMA评分变化和疗效。结果:观察组治疗后 HAMD、HAMA评分均低于对照组,差异均具有统计学意义(均P<0.05);观察组总有效率高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:舒必利联合西酞普兰治疗伴精神病性症状抑郁症效果较单纯西酞普兰治疗更好,值得临床上推广。%Objective:To study the clinical effect of Sulpiride combined citalopram in the treatment with psychotic symptoms.Methods:A total of 76 patients of depression with psychotic symptoms received in a hospital from June 2013 to June 2015 were randomly divided into two groups,each of 38 cases.The observa-tion group were treated with Sulpiride combined citalopram,while the control group were treated with citalo-pram.Then compare the HAMD,HAMA score changes and the clinical effect.Results:After treatment,the HAMD,HAMA score of the observation group were lower than those of the control group,and the differ-ences were statistically significant(P<0.05).The total effective rate of the observation group were higher than that of the control group,and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion:The clinical effect of sulpiride combined citalopram in the treatment of psychotic symptoms of depression is better than that of treating with only citalopram,which is worth of clinical promotion.

  15. Investigation on the Clinical efficacy of Citalopram in Combined with Small Dose of Olanzapine in Elderly Patients with Depression%西酞普兰联合小剂量奥氮平治疗老年抑郁症临床疗效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁景省; 梁炯河

    2012-01-01

      Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of citalopram in combined with small dose of olanzapine in elderly patients with depression.Methods The clinical data of eighty-eight cases of elderly patients with depression who were treated in our hospital from December 2010 to December 2011.then they were divided into control group and observation group by using a random number table,patients in the control group was given citalopram for treatment, patients in the observation group was given small dose of olanzapine drug treatment in the foundation of citalopram,patients were tested by the self-made questionnaire,Self-Rating Anxiety Scale and Self-Rating Depression Scale in the beginning of treatment and after two months’ treatment, respectively.Results The anxiety and depression norm score of the observation group were lower than that in the control group after two months’treatment(P<0.05).Conclusion Citalopram combined with small dose of olanzapine obtained satisfactory curative effect for elderly patients with depression,and it is safe and reliable.%  目的:探讨西酞普兰联合小剂量奥氮平治疗老年抑郁症疗效和安全性.方法:选择2010年12月~2011年12月在我院门诊治疗的50例老年抑郁症患者为研究对象,运用随机数字表法将本研究患者分为对照组和观察组,对照组患者仅给予西酞普兰进行治疗,而观察组患者则使用西酞普兰联合小剂量奥氮平进行治疗,分别于治疗前和治疗后2个月进行自编问卷、焦虑自评量表(SAS)和抑郁自评量表(SDS)测评.结果:治疗2个月后,观察组患者焦虑抑郁标准分明显低于对照组的,差异有显著性(P<0.05).结论:西酞普兰联合小剂量奥氮平是治疗老年抑郁症安全高效的方案,该方案疗效确切,不良反应少.

  16. 舒肝解郁胶囊联合艾司西酞普兰治疗老年脑卒中后抑郁的临床疗效观察%The liver capsule joint resolve depression escitalopram citalopram treatment of depression in older brain after single clinical curative effect observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温慧丽; 王哲; 王俊梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the liver resolve depression capsule combined escitalopram citalopram treatment the clinical curative effect of senile depressive disorder after stroke. Methods To 120 cases of senile patients with depressive disorder after stroke were randomly divided into the control group, n=60 ChanChunYi department of citalopram treatment;N=60 joint group, on the basis of escitalopram citalopram treatment and taking the liver resolve depression capsule eight weeks for a period of treatment, comparing two groups before and after treatment in patients with symptoms was observed. Results After 8 weeks treatment symptoms were improved in both groups, the difference was statistically significant compared with before treatment (P<0.05);Combined treatment group is better than that of control group (P<0.05). Conclusions The liver capsule joint resolve depression escitalopram citalopram treatment of elderly depressive disorder after stroke curative effect.%目的:观察舒肝解郁胶囊联合艾司西酞普兰治疗老年脑卒中后抑郁障碍的临床疗效。方法:将120例老年脑卒中后抑郁障碍患者随机分为对照组n=60,单纯艾司西酞普兰治疗;联合组n=60,在艾司西酞普兰治疗基础上加服舒肝解郁胶囊8周为1个疗程,观察比较两组患者治疗前后症状改善情况。结果:经8周治疗两组症状均有改善,与治疗前比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);联合组疗效优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:舒肝解郁胶囊联合艾司西酞普兰治疗老年脑卒中后抑郁障碍疗效确切。

  17. 阿立哌唑联用西酞普兰治疗难治性抑郁症的临床对照研究%A Comparison Analysis on the Efficacy of Citalopram Combine Ariprazole in the Treatment of Refratory Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳华; 吕凯; 唐玉峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the efficacy and safety of Citalopram combined with Aripiprazole in fhe treatment of refractory de -pression.Methods:68 patients with refractory depression were randomly assigned into two groups , one group was treated with Citalopram and Ariprazole and the other group with Citalopram alone for 8 weeks .The efficacy and side effects were evaluated with Hamilton Depres-sion Rating Scale ﹙HAMD﹚and Treatment Emergent symptom Scale ﹙TESS﹚.Results:After the treatment , the HAMD scores of both groups are lower than before prominently (P0.05).Conclusion:The efficacy and safety of Citalopram combined with Aripiprazole in fhe treatment of refractory depression is better .%目的:观察阿立哌唑联合西酞普兰治疗难治性抑郁症的疗效及安全性。方法:将符合条件的68例难治性抑郁症患者随机分为2组,分别用阿立哌唑联合西酞普兰治疗和单用西酞普兰治疗,疗程8周,采用HAMD评定疗效和TESS评定不良反应。结果:治疗结束后,2组HAMD评分较治疗前均显著降低(P<0.01),试验组治疗效果好(P<0.01)且起效快(P<0.05)。试验组的不良反应较对照组的不良反应发生率高,但不良反应较轻,患者可以耐受,2组不良反应差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。结论:阿立哌唑联合西酞普兰治疗难治性抑郁的疗效优于单用西酞普兰且起效快安全性高。

  18. 西酞普兰与舍曲林治疗中国老年抑郁症患者的系统评价%Citalopram vs.Sertraline in Treatment of Depression in Chinese Senile Patients:A Systematic Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 杜彪; 骆洪

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较西酞普兰与舍曲林治疗中国老年抑郁症患者的疗效及不良反应。方法:通过计算机检索1994—2013年国内关于西酞普兰与舍曲林治疗老年抑郁症的随机对照研究文献,应用系统评价方法对检索到的3篇随机对照研究文献进行定量综合分析。结果:西酞普兰疗效与舍曲林比较差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。舍曲林组发生头昏、便秘者较西酞普兰组多见,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01)。其他不良反应发生率比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:西酞普兰与舍曲林治疗中国老年抑郁症患者的疗效相似,西酞普兰较舍曲林不良反应轻微。%OBJECTIVE:To compare the clinical efficacy and the adverse reactions between citalopram and sertrline in treatment of Chinese senile patients with depression.METHODS:A total of 3 randomized controlled trials comparing citalopram and sertraline in treatment of senile patients with depression retrieved in domestic literature from 1994 to 2013 were subjected to a comprehensive quantitative analysis.RESULTS: There was no significant difference on clinical efficacy between citalopram and sertraline ( P>0.05 ) .The incidence rates of dizziness and constipation in sertraline group were significantly higher than in citalopram group (P0.05 ) .CONCLUSIONS: Eitalopram is as effective as sertraline but with milder adverse drug reactions than the latter in treatment of depression in Chinese senile patients.

  19. Comparative Study on Aripiprazole and Risperidone in the Treatment of Schizophrenia%阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗精神分裂症的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭红波

    2013-01-01

    目的比较阿立哌唑和利培酮对精神分裂症的疗效,为临床用药提供参考。方法以我院2011年1月~2012年9月收治的120例精神分裂症患者为研究对象,将患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组60例。对照组患者应用利培酮,治疗组患者服用阿立哌唑。观察两组的治疗效果以及不良反应。结果治疗组总有效率高于对照组,但是差异不具有统计学意义( P>0.05);两组患者PANSS总分、阳性症状分、阴性症状分、一般精神病理分治疗后明显比治疗前降低(P<0.05),但是组间比较差异不具有统计学意义(P>0.05);治疗组不良反应发生率明显低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论临床对精神分裂症采用阿立哌唑和利培酮治疗效果均较显著,两种药物疗效相似;但是采用阿立哌唑治疗的不良反应发生率少,因此阿立哌唑治可作为临床的首要选择。%Objective Objective To analyze effect of aripiprazole and risperidone in the treatment of schizo-phrenia ,and provide reference for clinical medication choice .Methods 120 cases with schizophrenia from in-patient department in January 2011 to September 2012 were selected .These patients were randomly di-vided into treatment group and control group , 60 cases in each group .Control group received risperidone , and treatment group received aripiprazole .Curative effect and adverse reaction for two groups were observed and compared .Results Total effective rate for treatment group was obviously higher than control group , but there were no significant difference ( P>0 .05 ) .PANSS score , positive symptoms score , negative symp-toms score and general psychopathology score after treatment were obviously lower than the score before treatment ( P0 .05 ) .Incidence of adverse effect was obviously lower than control group ( P<0.05 ) .Conclusion herapeutic effects of aripiprazole and risperi-done in the treatment of

  20. 阿立哌唑和利培酮治疗女性精神分裂症对照研究%Aripiprazole and Risperidone in the Treatment of Female Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜丽艳

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究女性精神分裂症患者运用阿立哌唑和利培酮治疗的临床效果。方法2012年4月~2013年4月间诊治的160例女性精神分裂症患者,将其分为两组,组1使用阿立哌唑进行治疗,组2使用利培酮进行治疗,比较两组患者的临床效果。结果通过对两组患者进行比较,组1有效率为87.5%,组2为90.0%,两组患者临床效果未见明…显差异,无统计学意义(P >0.05);但组2患者的体质量增加情况、椎体外系反应的发生率、泌乳以及月经紊乱情况均比组1高,两组患者差异显著,有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论对于女性精神分裂症治疗上效果上阿立哌唑和利培酮基本一致,但是阿立哌唑更适合用于女性精神分裂症患者。%Objective To study the clinical effect of female schizophrenia with aripiprazole and risperidone in the treatment of patients with. Methods 160 cases of female spirit in 2012 April ~2013 April in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with schizophrenia,it is divided into two groups, group 1 were treated by aripiprazole risperidone group, 2 were treated by comparison of the clinical effects of two groups of patients. Results The two groups of patients were compared, the group has an efficiency of 1 for 87.5%, group 2 to 90%,The patients in the two groups no significant differences in clinical effect, no statistical significance (P>0.05), but the group of 2 patients with body mass increase, extrapyramidal reaction rate, lactation and menstrual disorders are 1 higher than group, the differences between the two groups were significant, with statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusion For the treatment of female schizophrenia aripiprazole and risperidone effect on basically the same,but aripiprazole is more suitable for female patients with schizophrenia.