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Sample records for ciscoes coregonus albula

  1. Genetic population structure of sympatric and allopatric populations of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula complex, Teleostei, Coregonidae

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    Nitz Barbara

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teleost fishes of the Coregonidae are good model systems for studying postglacial evolution, adaptive radiation and ecological speciation. Of particular interest is whether the repeated occurrence of sympatric species pairs results from in-situ divergence from a single lineage or from multiple invasions of one or more different lineages. Here, we analysed the genetic structure of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula complex, examining 271 individuals from 8 lakes in northern Germany using 1244 polymorphic AFLP loci. Six lakes had only one population of C. albula while the remaining two lakes had C. albula as well as a sympatric species (C. lucinensis or C. fontanae. Results AFLP demonstrated a significant population structure (Bayesian θB = 0.22. Lower differentiation between allopatric (θB = 0.028 than sympatric (0.063-0.083 populations contradicts the hypothesis of a sympatric origin of taxa, and there was little evidence for stocking or ongoing hybridization. Genome scans found only three loci that appeared to be under selection in both sympatric population pairs, suggesting a low probability of similar mechanisms of ecological segregation. However, removal of all non-neutral loci decreased the genetic distance between sympatric pairs, suggesting recent adaptive divergence at a few loci. Sympatric pairs in the two lakes were genetically distinct from the six other C. albula populations, suggesting introgression from another lineage may have influenced these two lakes. This was supported by an analysis of isolation-by-distance, where the drift-gene flow equilibrium observed among allopatric populations was disrupted when the sympatric pairs were included. Conclusions While the population genetic data alone can not unambiguously uncover the mode of speciation, our data indicate that multiple lineages may be responsible for the complex patterns typically observed in Coregonus. Relative differences within and among lakes raises

  2. Semen biology of vendace (Coregonus albula L.).

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    Dietrich, Grzegorz J; Dietrich, Mariola; Hliwa, Piotr; Stabinski, Robert; Nynca, Joanna; Andronowska, Aneta; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the morphometry and motility parameters of vendace (Coregonus albula) spermatozoa. Morphometric parameters of vendace sperm head and tail were of values similar to rainbow trout. The effects of pH, sodium, potassium and calcium ion concentrations on computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) sperm motility characteristics were tested. Vendace sperm was motile in a wide pH range of 6.0-10.5 with the optimum pH established at 9.0. Increases in potassium and calcium ions caused decreases in the percentage of motile sperm. The CASA parameters and erratic sperm movement pattern of vendace spermatozoa were similar to whitefish (C. lavaretus) sperm motility, suggesting that there is a coregonid-specific sperm motility pattern.

  3. [Detection of the mitochondrial DNA haplotype characteristic of the least cisco (Coregonus sardinella, Valenciennes, 1848) in the vendace (C. albula, Linnaeus, 1758) population of Vodlozero (the Baltic Sea basin)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovikova, E A; Makhrov, A A

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial ND-1 gene in the vendace population in lake Vodlozero (the eastern part of the Baltic Sea basin) revealed a sequence variant that is closely related to that of the least cisco of Siberia (the Indigirka River). Thus, together with the results of morphological and allozyme analysis of this population performed earlier, the results obtained in this study are suggestive of the immigration of the least cisco to the Baltic Sea basin during the last glaciation.

  4. Status of the shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) in Lake Superior

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    Hoff, Michael H.; Todd, Thomas N.

    2004-01-01

    The shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) was historically found in Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior, but has been extirpated in Lakes Huron and Michigan apparently as the result of commercial overharvest. During 1999-2001, we conducted an assessment of shortjaw cisco abundance in five areas, spanning the U.S. waters of Lake Superior, and compared our results with the abundance measured at those areas in 1921-1922. The shortjaw cisco was found at four of the five areas sampled, but abundances were so low that they were not significantly different from zero. In the four areas where shortjaw ciscoes were found, abundance declined significantly by 99% from the 1920s to the present. To increase populations of this once economically and ecologically important species in Lake Superior, an interagency rehabilitation effort is needed. Population monitoring is recommended to assess population trends and to evaluate success of rehabilitation efforts.

  5. Evaluating sampling strategies for larval cisco (Coregonus artedi)

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    Myers, J.T.; Stockwell, J.D.; Yule, D.L.; Black, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    To improve our ability to assess larval cisco (Coregonus artedi) populations in Lake Superior, we conducted a study to compare several sampling strategies. First, we compared density estimates of larval cisco concurrently captured in surface waters with a 2 x 1-m paired neuston net and a 0.5-m (diameter) conical net. Density estimates obtained from the two gear types were not significantly different, suggesting that the conical net is a reasonable alternative to the more cumbersome and costly neuston net. Next, we assessed the effect of tow pattern (sinusoidal versus straight tows) to examine if propeller wash affected larval density. We found no effect of propeller wash on the catchability of larval cisco. Given the availability of global positioning systems, we recommend sampling larval cisco using straight tows to simplify protocols and facilitate straightforward measurements of volume filtered. Finally, we investigated potential trends in larval cisco density estimates by sampling four time periods during the light period of a day at individual sites. Our results indicate no significant trends in larval density estimates during the day. We conclude estimates of larval cisco density across space are not confounded by time at a daily timescale. Well-designed, cost effective surveys of larval cisco abundance will help to further our understanding of this important Great Lakes forage species.

  6. Diversity in shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, T.N.; Steinhilber, M.

    2002-01-01

    Shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) exhibit morphological variability across their geographic range in North America and could comprise more than one distinct morph or taxon. To investigate this, principal components analysis was applied to a data set that consisted of four variables from nine localities. All data were obtained from digital images of the specimens and the excised first gill arch. Confidence ellipses (95%) about the means of bivariate distributions of the principal components revealed that some populations were distinct from the others, but a continuity of overlap clouded understanding of pattern among the variation. Most populations had more and longer gillrakers than shortjaw cisco from George Lake (Manitoba) and Basswood Lake (Ontario) that had fewer and shorter gillrakers. This analysis supports the existence of a short- and few-rakered morph and a long- and many-rakered morph. However, most populations of shortjaw cisco from the Great Lakes across Canada to the Arctic share a similar morphology and likely represent a single, widespread species.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of least cisco Coregonus sardinella in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, V M; Causey, D; López, J A

    2017-03-01

    This study presents the first detailed analysis of the mitochondrial DNA diversity of least cisco Coregonus sardinella in Alaska using a 678 bp segment of the control region (D-loop) of the mitochondrial genome. Findings suggest that the history of C. sardinella in Alaska differs from that of other species of Coregonus present in the state and surrounding regions. The examined populations of C. sardinella are genetically diverse across Alaska. Sixty-eight distinct mitochondrial haplotypes were identified among 305 individuals sampled from nine locations. The haplotype minimum spanning network and phylogeny showed a modest level of geographic segregation among haplotypes, suggesting high levels of on-going or recent connectivity among distant populations. Observed ΦST values and the results of homogeneity and AMOVAs indicate incipient genetic differentiation between aggregations in three broad regional groups. Sites north of the Brooks Range formed one group, sites in the Yukon and Selawik Rivers formed a second group and sites south of the Yukon drainage formed the third group. Overall, the sequence data showed that a large proportion of mtDNA genetic variation in C. sardinella is shared across Alaska, but this variation is not homogeneously distributed across all regions and for all haplotype groups.

  8. [Polymorphism and structure of the population of Proteocephalus longicollis Zeder, 1800 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae) in the vendace Coregonus albula L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikieva, L V; Kharin, V N; Spektor, E N

    2004-01-01

    Polymorphism and phenotypic diversity of a hostal ecoform of Proteocephalus longicollis from its typical host, the vendace, Coregonus albula L., were studied. A complex phenotypic structure of the parasite population and presence of morphologically different groupings were revealed. We distinguished four groupings based on the external characters and three groupings based on the feed and reproduction features; among latter groupings one has very specific variations of features. We conclude that P. longicollis has high intraspecific and intrapopulation heterogeneity, and the host plays a stabilising role in the parasite species formation.

  9. Biology and status of the shortnose cisco Coregonus reighardi Koelz in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Shane A.; Todd, Thomas N.

    1995-01-01

    The shortnose cisco, Coregonus reighardi, a member of the endemic species assemblage of Coregoninae in the Laurentian Great Lakes, was commercially important until overfishing and competition pressures from induced planktivores extirpated the species in Lakes Michigan and Ontario. Spawning shortnose ciscoes have been collected from Lake Huron and Georgian Bay of Lake Huron since 1956, however, no individuals have been collected from these habitats since 1985. Shortnose ciscoes were not collected during surveys of the cisco fishery of Georgian Bay during the summer of 1992 and spring of 1993. The lack of captures in the last eight years coupled with captures of only lone individuals in the last 16 years suggests the species may be extinct in all of the Laurentian system. The life history traits examined for Lake Huron shortnose ciscoes were similar to the conditions recorded for Lake Michigan and Ontario shortnose ciscoes, although Lake Huron fish were smaller.

  10. Temperature tolerance of young-of-the-year cisco, Coregonus artedii

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    Edsall, Thomas A.; Colby, Peter J.

    1970-01-01

    Young-of-the-year ciscoes (Coregonus artedii) acclimated to 2, 5, 10, 20 and 25 C and tested for tolerance to high and low temperatures provide the first detailed description of the thermal tolerance of coregonids in North America. The upper ultimate lethal temperature of the young ciscoes was 26 C (6 C higher than the maximum sustained temperature tolerated by adult ciscoes in nature) and the ultimate lower lethal temperature approached 0 C (near that commonly tolerated in nature by adult ciscoes). The temperature of 26 C is slightly higher than the lowest ultimate upper lethal temperature recorded for North American freshwater fishes; however, published information on the depth distributions of fishes in the Great Lakes suggests that some of the other coregonids may be less tolerant of high temperatures than the cisco.

  11. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from the Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis)

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    Ramey, A.; Graziano, S.L.; Nielsen, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for the Arctic cisco, Coregonus autumnalis. Loci were evaluated in 21 samples from the Colville River subsistence fishery. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 18. Observed heterozygosity of loci varied from 0.10 to 1.00, and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.09 to 0.92. All eight microsatellite markers were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The loci presented here will be useful in describing population structure and exploring populations of origin for Arctic cisco. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES: Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from the Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, A; Graziano, S L; Nielsen, J L

    2008-03-01

    Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for the Arctic cisco, Coregonus autumnalis. Loci were evaluated in 21 samples from the Colville River subsistence fishery. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 18. Observed heterozygosity of loci varied from 0.10 to 1.00, and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.09 to 0.92. All eight microsatellite markers were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The loci presented here will be useful in describing population structure and exploring populations of origin for Arctic cisco.

  13. Update COSEWIC status report on the shortjaw cisco, Coregonus zenithicus, in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Thomas N.

    2003-01-01

    Extirpated in most of the Great Lakes, the shortjaw cisco, Coregonus zenithicus, is currently found in Lakes Superior and Nipigon in addition to at least 22 Canadian lakes. The species exhibits morphological and genetic variability throughout its range and may consist of more than one distinct taxon. However, a common morph is widely distributed from the Great Lakes to the Northwest Territories, consistent with a hypothesis of preglacial origin for the species. Shortjaw ciscoes have declined because of excessive exploitation by food fisheries, habitat degradation, and predation and competition with introduced and exotic species such as alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus, and rainbow smelt, Osmerus mordax. The status of the species in most Canadian lakes is unknown, but continuing declines in those lakes that have been monitored suggest that the shortjaw cisco should be considered as threatened throughout its range.

  14. Males exceed females in PCB concentrations of cisco (Coregonus artedi) from Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Yule, Daniel L.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Berglund, Eric K.; Isaac, Edmund J.

    2014-01-01

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 25 male and 25 female age-7 ciscoes (Coregonus artedi) captured from a spawning aggregation in Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, during November 2010. We also determined PCB concentrations in the ovaries and somatic tissue of five additional female ciscoes (ages 5–22). All 55 of these ciscoes were in ripe or nearly ripe condition. Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect toward a difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes, as females grew substantially faster than males. Results showed that the PCB concentration of males (mean = 141 ng/g) was 43% greater than that of females (mean = 98 ng/g), and this difference was highly significant (P Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could explain males being higher than females in PCB concentration by only 3–7%. We concluded that the higher PCB concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure, originating from greater activity and a higher resting metabolic rate. Mean PCB concentration in the cisco eggs was well below the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and Ontario Ministry of Environment guidelines of 2000 and 844 ng/g, respectively, and this finding may have implications for the cisco roe fishery currently operating in Lake Superior.

  15. Males exceed females in PCB concentrations of cisco (Coregonus artedi) from Lake Superior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P; Yule, Daniel L; Chernyak, Sergei M; Begnoche, Linda J; Berglund, Eric K; Isaac, Edmund J

    2014-09-15

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 25 male and 25 female age-7 ciscoes (Coregonus artedi) captured from a spawning aggregation in Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, during November 2010. We also determined PCB concentrations in the ovaries and somatic tissue of five additional female ciscoes (ages 5-22). All 55 of these ciscoes were in ripe or nearly ripe condition. Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect toward a difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes, as females grew substantially faster than males. Results showed that the PCB concentration of males (mean = 141 ng/g) was 43% greater than that of females (mean = 98 ng/g), and this difference was highly significant (Pcisco eggs was well below the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and Ontario Ministry of Environment guidelines of 2000 and 844 ng/g, respectively, and this finding may have implications for the cisco roe fishery currently operating in Lake Superior.

  16. Ontogenetic shifts in morphology and resource use of cisco Coregonus artedi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, A M; Vecsei, P; Pratt, T C; Krueger, C C; Power, M; Reist, J D

    2013-02-01

    Two previously described lacustrine cisco Coregonus spp. morphs [i.e. a small (cisco Coregonus artedi. Geometric body shape did not differ between the two size classes nor could they be differentiated by 24 size-corrected linear measurements, indicating that the two groups had similar phenotypes. Strong, positive correlations between all linear characters and geometric centroid size (a composite variable of fish body length, mass and age) suggested that body morphology changed with age as fish grew. Total gillraker number (N(GR)) increased with L(F) according to: N(GR) = 36.3 + 0.034L(F). Differences in gillraker number and phenotype with age and size were explained by shifts in habitat and trophic resource use. Relative abundance within 0-30, 30-60, 60-90 and >90 m depth strata differed between size classes suggesting that morphology changed when fish shifted their habitat as they grew older. Large C. artedi had lower δ(13)C and slightly higher δ(15)N, indicating greater reliance on pelagic prey resources (i.e. more or larger zooplankton, such as Mysis spp.), compared to small C. artedi, which relied slightly more on benthic prey. Gillraker shape and number have always been used as key diagnostic characters in coregonine taxonomy; based on the findings presented here, ontogenetic shifts should be accounted for in resulting classifications.

  17. Analysis of three cisco forms (Coregonus, Salmonidae) from Lake Saganaga and adjacent lakes near the Minnesota/Ontario border

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etnier, DA; Skelton, CE

    2003-01-01

    Based on examination of 655 ciscoes from Lake Saganaga, a Minnesota/Ontario border lake, three forms, about 90% separable on gill raker counts, are present. Form L, with the lowest gill raker counts (26-40, mean = 31.9, n = 96) is tentatively identified as Coregonus zenithicus. Form M, with intermed

  18. Identification of a haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex in the Alaskan Least Cisco (Coregonus sardinella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, S M; Boger, J K; Michael, V; Duffy, L K

    1992-01-01

    The hemoglobin and a hemoglobin binding protein have been characterized in the Arctic fish (Coregonus sardinella). The evolutionary significance of the hemoglobin and plasma protein differences between fish and mammals is still unresolved. Blood samples from the Alaskan Least Cisco were separated into plasma and hemoglobin fractions and the proteins in these fractions were analyzed both by alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis, by isolelectric focusing, and by capillary electrophoresis. Staining the plasma proteins gels with o-dianisidine revealed hemoglobin containing protein complexes. A hemoglobin-containing band was observed in hemolyzed plasma which did not migrate with free hemoglobin, and is believed to be hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex. Size exclusion chromatography further characterized the hemoglobin as disassociating freely into dimers, and hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex having a molecular weight greater then 200,000 daltons.

  19. Seasonal changes in partial, reverse diel vertical migrations of cisco Coregonus artedi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrenstorff, T D; Hrabik, T R

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) document changes in partial, reverse diel vertical migrations (DVM) patterns of cisco Coregonus artedi in Ten Mile Lake, MN, U.S.A., throughout the year and (2) evaluate the mechanisms that may cause shifts in migration behaviour. Results indicated that C. artedi vertical distributions remained deep in the water column during the day and night of the spring and autumn, which was related to a low risk, low reward strategy. During summer, a partial migration occurred where a portion of the population remained deeper according to the low risk, low reward strategy, while the other portion performed a more extensive high risk, high reward reverse DVM. In winter, C. artedi did not migrate because there were only low risk, low reward conditions present at all depths. The extensive partial, reverse DVM during summer probably increased the growth potential of C. artedi, helping individuals survive in a lake with low zooplankton prey resources.

  20. Foraging and predation risk for larval cisco (Coregonus artedi) in Lake Superior: a modelling synthesis of empirical survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jared T.; Yule, Daniel L.; Jones, Michael L.; Quinlan, Henry R.; Berglund, Eric K.

    2014-01-01

    The relative importance of predation and food availability as contributors to larval cisco (Coregonus artedi) mortality in Lake Superior were investigated using a visual foraging model to evaluate potential predation pressure by rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) and a bioenergetic model to evaluate potential starvation risk. The models were informed by observations of rainbow smelt, larval cisco, and zooplankton abundance at three Lake Superior locations during the period of spring larval cisco emergence and surface-oriented foraging. Predation risk was highest at Black Bay, ON, where average rainbow smelt densities in the uppermost 10 m of the water column were >1000 ha−1. Turbid conditions at the Twin Ports, WI-MN, affected larval cisco predation risk because rainbow smelt remained suspended in the upper water column during daylight, placing them alongside larval cisco during both day and night hours. Predation risk was low at Cornucopia, WI, owing to low smelt densities (cisco survival at Black Bay and to a lesser extent at Twin Ports, and that starvation may be a major source of mortality at all three locations. The framework we describe has the potential to further our understanding of the relative importance of starvation and predation on larval fish survivorship, provided information on prey resources available to larvae are measured at sufficiently fine spatial scales and the models provide a realistic depiction of the dynamic processes that the larvae experience.

  1. Genetics, recruitment, and migration patterns of Arctic Cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) in the Colville River, Alaska and Mackenzie River, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Ramey, Andy M.; Turner, S.; Mueter, Franz J.; Murphy, S.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis have a complex anadromous life history, many aspects of which remain poorly understood. Some life history traits of Arctic cisco from the Colville River, Alaska, and Mackenzie River basin, Canada, were investigated using molecular genetics, harvest data, and otolith microchemistry. The Mackenzie hypothesis, which suggests that Arctic cisco found in Alaskan waters originate from the Mackenzie River system, was tested using 11 microsatellite loci and a single mitochondrial DNA gene. No genetic differentiation was found among sample collections from the Colville River and the Mackenzie River system using molecular markers (P > 0.19 in all comparisons). Model-based clustering methods also supported genetic admixture between sample collections from the Colville River and Mackenzie River basin. A reanalysis of recruitment patterns to Alaska, which included data from recent warm periods and suspected changes in atmospheric circulation patterns, still finds that recruitment is correlated to wind conditions. Otolith microchemistry (Sr/Ca ratios) confirmed repeated, annual movements of Arctic cisco between low-salinity habitats in winter and marine waters in summer.

  2. Cisco (Coregonus artedii) mortalities in a southern Michigan lake, July 1968

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Peter J.; Brooke, Larry T.

    1969-01-01

    Cisco die-offs are common in the summer in certain lakes of northern Indiana and southern Michigan, along the southern boundary of the national distribution of coregonine fishes. Although numerous cisco die-offs have been reported, few, if any, have been accompanied by environmental information at the time of the die-off. On 31 July and 1 August 1968, we investigated a cisco die-off on Halfmoon Lake, on the border of Washtenaw and Livingston Counties, Michigan.

  3. [Dynamics of parasite communities in an age series of Arctic Cisco Coregonus migratorius (Georgi, 1775)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugarov, Zh N; Pronin, N M

    2013-01-01

    Parasite communities of Arctic cisco from Chivyrkui Bay of Lake Baikal have been analyzed at levels of a host individual (infracommunity), a individual age group of a host-(assemblages of infracommunities), and a host population (component community). Significant positive correlations of parameters of species richness (number of parasite species, Margalef and Menhinick indices) with the age of Arctic cisco were recorded only at the level of parasite inffacommunities. The absence of linear positive correlations between the parameters of species richness and the age of Arctic cisco at the level of assemblages of parasite infracommunities were revealed for the first time for fish of Lake Baikal. The peculiarity of the dynamics of parasite communities of. Arctic cisco is determined by specific features of the host physiology and ecology, primarily by the age dynamics of the feeding spectrum.

  4. Repeat surveys of spawning cisco (Coregonus artedi) in western Lake Superior: timing, distribution and composition of spawning stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Daniel L.; Schreiner, Donald R.; Addison, Peter A.; Seider, Michael J.; Evrard, Lori M.; Geving, Steven A.; Quinlan, Henry R.

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic (AC) and midwater trawl (MT) surveys of spawning cisco (Coregonus artedi) in Lake Superior have been combined with commercial yield to estimate exploitation. To time surveys properly, it is important to understand when adults typically arrive at spawning grounds and how numbers change as the spawning season progresses. We conducted repeat autumn surveys during nighttime hours at coastal sites where commercial roe fisheries occur. Spawner densities increased significantly from October to mid-November, but differences measured at sites sampled from mid- to late-November were comparatively small. Spawners occupied the upper 20–30 m of the water column during mid-November before utilizing a wider range of depths by late-November. We compared repeat AC densities to temporal trends of catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) in suspended commercial gillnets and found good agreement within sites. Because different gillnet mesh sizes were used in each roe fishery. CPUE and AC density were poorly correlated among sites. We recommend that future surveys be conducted between mid- and late-November, and that MT gear be used to measure cisco densities in the uppermost 10 m of the water column where AC estimates may be conservative. Given the short temporal window for assessing spawner density, we believe both AC-MT and gillnet surveys will be needed to ensure that harvest of different stocks is kept at a sustainable level.

  5. Can pelagic forage fish and spawning cisco (Coregonus artedi) biomass in the western arm of Lake Superior be assessed with a single summer survey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, D.L.; Stockwell, J.D.; Schreiner, D.R.; Evrard, L.M.; Balge, M.; Hrabik, T.R.

    2009-01-01

    Management efforts to rehabilitate lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Superior have been successful and the recent increase in their numbers has led to interest in measuring biomass of pelagic prey fish species important to these predators. Lake Superior cisco Coregonus artedi currently support roe fisheries and determining the sustainability of these fisheries is an important management issue. We conducted acoustic and midwater trawl surveys of the western arm of Lake Superior during three periods: summer (July-August), October, and November 2006 to determine if a single survey can be timed to estimate biomass of both prey fish and spawning cisco. We evaluated our methods by comparing observed trawl catches of small (cisco increased substantially in November, while small bloater Coregonus hoyi biomass was lower. We compared our summer 2006 estimates of total fish biomass to the results of a summer survey in 1997 and obtained similar results. We conclude that the temporal window for obtaining biomass estimates of pelagic prey species in the western arm of Lake Superior is wide (July through October), but estimating spawning cisco abundance is best done with a November survey.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of lake cisco (Coregonus artedi): evidence supporting extensive secondary contacts between two glacial races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeon, J; Bernatchez, L

    2001-04-01

    The comparative molecular phylogeography of regional fish fauna has revealed the wide distribution of young clades in freshwater fishes of formerly glaciated areas as well as interspecific incongruences in their refugial origins and recolonization routes. In this study, we employed single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and sequence analyses to describe mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphism among 27 populations of the lake cisco (Coregonus artedi) from its entire range of distribution in order to evaluate the hypothesis of dual glacial refuges proposed by Bernatchez & Dodson against the traditional view that this species is solely of Mississippian origin. Results indicate that this taxon is composed of two closely related groups that are widely distributed and intermixed over most of the sampled range. The estimated level of divergence (0.48%), the contrast in the geographical distribution of each group, as well as the general distribution of C. artedi in North America together support the hypothesis that one group dispersed from a Mississippian refuge via the proglacial lakes, while the other is of Atlantic origin and also took advantages of earlier dispersal routes towards eastern Hudson Bay drainages. However, the signal of past range fragmentation revealed by a nested clade analysis was weak, and did not allow to formally exclude the hypothesis of a single Mississippian origin for both lineages. Comparisons with the phylogeographic patterns of other Nearctic freshwater fishes suggest that the salinity tolerance and thermal sensitivity of lake cisco may have been determinant for its extensive postglacial dispersal. The presence or co-occurrence of sympatric or allopatric eco/morphotypes were not found to be necessarily associated with the presence of both haplotype groups.

  7. Long-term increases in young-of-the-year growth of Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis and environmental influences.

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    von Biela, V R; Zimmerman, C E; Moulton, L L

    2011-01-01

    Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis young-of-year (YOY) growth was used as a proxy to examine the long-term response of a high-latitude fish population to changing climate from 1978 to 2004. YOY growth increased over time (r² = 0·29) and was correlated with monthly averages of the Arctic oscillation index, air temperature, east wind speed, sea-ice concentration and river discharge with and without time lags. Overall, the most prevalent correlates to YOY growth were sea-ice concentration lagged 1 year (significant correlations in 7 months; r² = 0·14-0·31) and Mackenzie River discharge lagged 2 years (significant correlations in 8 months; r² = 0·13-0·50). The results suggest that decreased sea-ice concentrations and increased river discharge fuel primary production and that life cycles of prey species linking increased primary production to fish growth are responsible for the time lag. Oceanographic studies also suggest that sea ice concentration and fluvial inputs from the Mackenzie River are key factors influencing productivity in the Beaufort Sea. Future research should assess the possible mechanism relating sea ice concentration and river discharge to productivity at upper trophic levels.

  8. Long-term increases in young-of-the-year growth of Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis and environmental influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Biela, V.R.; Zimmerman, C.E.; Moulton, L.L.

    2011-01-01

    Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis young-of-year (YOY) growth was used as a proxy to examine the long-term response of a high-latitude fish population to changing climate from 1978 to 2004. YOY growth increased over time (r2 = 0??29) and was correlated with monthly averages of the Arctic oscillation index, air temperature, east wind speed, sea-ice concentration and river discharge with and without time lags. Overall, the most prevalent correlates to YOY growth were sea-ice concentration lagged 1 year (significant correlations in 7 months; r2 = 0??14-0??31) and Mackenzie River discharge lagged 2 years (significant correlations in 8 months; r2 = 0??13-0??50). The results suggest that decreased sea-ice concentrations and increased river discharge fuel primary production and that life cycles of prey species linking increased primary production to fish growth are responsible for the time lag. Oceanographic studies also suggest that sea ice concentration and fluvial inputs from the Mackenzie River are key factors influencing productivity in the Beaufort Sea. Future research should assess the possible mechanism relating sea ice concentration and river discharge to productivity at upper trophic levels. Journal of Fish Biology ?? 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles. No claim to original US government works.

  9. Genetic stock assessment of spawning arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) populations by flow cytometric determination of DNA content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, S F; Bickham, J W

    1991-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in cellular DNA content was measured in five Coregonus autumnalis spawning populations from the Mackenzie River drainage, Canada, using flow cytometry. The rivers assayed were the Peel, Arctic Red, Mountain, Carcajou, and Liard rivers. DNA content was determined from whole blood preparations of fish from all rivers except the Carcajou, for which kidney tissue was used. DNA content measurements of kidney and blood preparations of the same fish from the Mountain River revealed statistically indistinguishable results. Mosaicism was found in blood preparations from the Peel, Arctic Red, Mountain, and Liard rivers, but was not observed in kidney tissue preparations from the Mountain or Carcajou rivers. The Liard River sample had significantly elevated mean DNA content relative to the other four samples; all other samples were statistically indistinguishable. Significant differences in mean DNA content among spawning stocks of a single species reinforces the need for adequate sample sizes of both individuals and populations when reporting "C" values for a particular species.

  10. Genetic signs of multiple colonization events in Baltic ciscoes with radiation into sympatric spring- and autumn-spawners confined to early postglacial arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delling, Bo; Palm, Stefan; Palkopoulou, Eleftheria; Prestegaard, Tore

    2014-11-01

    Presence of sympatric populations may reflect local diversification or secondary contact of already distinct forms. The Baltic cisco (Coregonus albula) normally spawns in late autumn, but in a few lakes in Northern Europe sympatric autumn and spring- or winter-spawners have been described. So far, the evolutionary relationships and taxonomic status of these main life history forms have remained largely unclear. With microsatellites and mtDNA sequences, we analyzed extant and extinct spring- and autumn-spawners from a total of 23 Swedish localities, including sympatric populations. Published sequences from Baltic ciscoes in Germany and Finland, and Coregonus sardinella from North America were also included together with novel mtDNA sequences from Siberian C. sardinella. A clear genetic structure within Sweden was found that included two population assemblages markedly differentiated at microsatellites and apparently fixed for mtDNA haplotypes from two distinct clades. All sympatric Swedish populations belonged to the same assemblage, suggesting parallel evolution of spring-spawning rather than secondary contact. The pattern observed further suggests that postglacial immigration to Northern Europe occurred from at least two different refugia. Previous results showing that mtDNA in Baltic cisco is paraphyletic with respect to North American C. sardinella were confirmed. However, the inclusion of Siberian C. sardinella revealed a more complicated pattern, as these novel haplotypes were found within one of the two main C. albula clades and were clearly distinct from those in North American C. sardinella. The evolutionary history of Northern Hemisphere ciscoes thus seems to be more complex than previously recognized.

  11. Study of Coregonus Populations in the Zone of Intergradation between the Vendace and Least Cisco: the Role of the Environment in Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borovikova Elena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers showed that the Least Cisco gradually spread from Siberia to Europe until the last glaciation. This was accompanied by gradual replacement of "typically Siberian" gene variants with "typically European" ones. Morphological traits also changed as the species expanded, the changes in the body proportions being apparently adaptive. They are likely to reflect the transition of the cisco from the semi-anadromous life history type to the lacustrine type, which is more characteristic of the European form. Thus, the speciation of the vendace is clearly adaptive, at least with respect to some traits. It should be noted, however, that the results of this study raise doubt as to whether the vendace has entirely diverged from the Least Cisco, and the speciation has completed.

  12. Arctic cisco stomach content data, Prudhoe Bay, August 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set documents the stomach contents of age-0 Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) captured in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska in August 2009. The analysis of this data...

  13. Arctic cisco stable isotope data, Prudhoe Bay, August 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set documents the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of age-0 Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) captured in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska in August 2009....

  14. Spatial synchrony in cisco recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jared T.; Yule, Daniel L.; Jones, Michael L.; Ahrenstorff, Tyler D.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Ebener, Mark P.; Berglund, Eric K.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the spatial scale of recruitment variability for disparate cisco (Coregonus artedi) populations in the Great Lakes (n = 8) and Minnesota inland lakes (n = 4). We found that the scale of synchrony was approximately 400 km when all available data were utilized; much greater than the 50-km scale suggested for freshwater fish populations in an earlier global analysis. The presence of recruitment synchrony between Great Lakes and inland lake cisco populations supports the hypothesis that synchronicity is driven by climate and not dispersal. We also found synchrony in larval densities among three Lake Superior populations separated by 25–275 km, which further supports the hypothesis that broad-scale climatic factors are the cause of spatial synchrony. Among several candidate climate variables measured during the period of larval cisco emergence, maximum wind speeds exhibited the most similar spatial scale of synchrony to that observed for cisco. Other factors, such as average water temperatures, exhibited synchrony on broader spatial scales, which suggests they could also be contributing to recruitment synchrony. Our results provide evidence that abiotic factors can induce synchronous patterns of recruitment for populations of cisco inhabiting waters across a broad geographic range, and show that broad-scale synchrony of recruitment can occur in freshwater fish populations as well as those from marine systems.

  15. Managing Cisco network security

    CERN Document Server

    Knipp, Eric

    2002-01-01

    An in-depth knowledge of how to configure Cisco IP network security is a MUST for anyone working in today''s internetworked world"There''s no question that attacks on enterprise networks are increasing in frequency and sophistication..."-Mike Fuhrman, Cisco Systems Manager, Security ConsultingManaging Cisco Network Security, Second Edition offers updated and revised information covering many of Cisco''s security products that provide protection from threats, detection of network security incidents, measurement of vulnerability and policy compliance and management of security policy across an extended organization. These are the tools that network administrators have to mount defenses against threats. Chapters also cover the improved functionality and ease of the Cisco Secure Policy Manger software used by thousands of small-to-midsized businesses and a special section on the Cisco Aironet Wireless Security Solutions.Security from a real-world perspectiveKey coverage of the new technologies offered by the Cisc...

  16. Decline of shortjaw cisco in Lake Superior: the role of overfishing and risk of extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte, Charles R.; Hoff, Michael H.; Gorman, Owen T.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Schneeberger, Philip J.; Todd, Thomas N.

    2010-01-01

    Recent reviews have further documented the decline of the shortjaw cisco Coregonus zenithicus in Lake Superior. This fish was the most abundant deepwater cisco species in Lake Superior in the early 1920s but presently makes up less than 1% of all deepwater ciscoes (i.e., including shortjaw cisco, bloater C. hoyi, and kiyi C. kiyi) captured in biological surveys. Directed overfishing of deepwater cisco species during the 1930s and again during the mid-1960s and 1970s has been suggested as the cause of the shortjaw cisco's demise. In this paper, we re-examined the overfishing hypothesis by using historical and recent survey data to estimate the proportion of the historical commercial fishery landings that comprised shortjaw ciscoes. We developed time series of estimated harvest and relative abundance for all statistical districts in Michigan waters of Lake Superior during 1929–1996, for which aggregate catch and effort data were available but not previously examined. The spatial distribution of the fishery and the relationships of catch to fishing effort were examined for evidence of overfishing. Our analysis suggested that directed overfishing was probably not the cause of shortjaw cisco demise, as this species appeared to be declining in all statistical districts regardless of the intensity of the fishery. A count-based population viability analysis indicated that quasi-extinction of the shortjaw cisco is highly probable in the near future. We propose an alternative hypothesis based on the decline of Lake Superior's keystone predator, the lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, which resulted in an expansion of the population of its principal prey, the cisco C. artedi, due to release from predation pressure. Competitive or predation interactions between the cisco and shortjaw cisco may be more likely explanations for the demise of the latter species.

  17. Successional change in the Lake Superior fish community: population trends in ciscoes, rainbow smelt, and lake trout, 1958-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Owen T.

    2012-01-01

    The Lake Superior fish community underwent massive changes in the second half of the 20th century. Those changes are largely reflected in changes in abundance of the adults of principal prey species, the ciscoes (Coregonus spp.), the invasive rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), and the principal predator, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). To better understand changes in species abundances, a comprehensive series of gillnet and bottom trawl data collected from 1958 to 2008 were examined. In the late 1950s/early 1960s, smelt abundance was at its maximum, wild lake trout was at its minimum, and an abundance of hatchery lake trout was increasing rapidly. The bloater (Coregonus hoyi) was the prevalent cisco in the lake; abundance was more than 300% greater than the next most abundant cisco, shortjaw cisco (C. zenithicus), followed by kiyi (C. kiyi) and lake cisco (C. artedi). By the mid-1960s, abundance of hatchery lake trout was nearing maximum, smelt abundance was beginning to decline, and abundances of all ciscoes declined, but especially that of shortjaw cisco and kiyi. By the late 1970s, recovery of wild lake trout stocks was well underway and abundances of hatchery lake trout and smelt were declining and the ciscoes were reaching their nadir. During 1980–1990, the fish community underwent a dramatic shift in organization and structure. The rapid increase in abundance of wild lake trout, concurrent with a rapid decline in hatchery lake trout, signaled the impending recovery. Rainbow smelt abundance dropped precipitously and within four years, lake cisco and bloater populations rebounded on the heels of a series of strong recruitment events. Kiyi populations showed signs of recovery by 1989, and shortjaw by 2000, though well below historic maximum abundances. High abundance of adult smelt prior to 1980 appears to be the only factor linked to recruitment failure in the ciscoes. Life history traits of the cisco species were examined to better understand their different

  18. Cisco IOS Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Dooley, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Thoroughly revised and expanded, Cisco IOS Cookbook, 2nd Edition, adds sections on MPLS, Security, IPv6, and IP Mobility, and presents solutions to the most common configuration problems. If you work with Cisco routers, you need a book like this to help you solve problems quickly and effectively. Even if you're experienced, the solutions and extensive explanations will give you new ideas and insights into router configuration. And if you're not experienced--if you've just been given responsibility for managing a network with Cisco routers--this book could be a job-saver.

  19. Cisco Networking Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    McMillan, Troy

    2011-01-01

    An engaging approach for anyone beginning a career in networking As the world leader of networking products and services, Cisco products are constantly growing in demand. Yet, few books are aimed at those who are beginning a career in IT--until now. Cisco Networking Essentials provides a solid foundation on the Cisco networking products and services with thorough coverage of fundamental networking concepts. Author Troy McMillan applies his years of classroom instruction to effectively present high-level topics in easy-to-understand terms for beginners. With this indispensable full-color resour

  20. Mark retention of calcein in Cisco and Bloater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Mackey, Gregg; Nash, Kendra; Chiavelli, Richard; Johnson, James H.; Kehler, Thomas; Ringler, Neil H.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012, a multi-agency initiative to restore these native forage species has been under way. Evaluating the restoration success of Cisco Coregonus artedi and Bloater C. hoyi in Lake Ontario waters requires methods to identify stocked fish. However, juvenile Cisco and Bloater are fragile; thus, mass marking techniques that reduce the handling of individual fish are required and have not previously been evaluated. In 2014–2015 we evaluated the usefulness of calcein (SE-MARK) as a marker on bony structures, including the otolith. Juvenile Bloater and Cisco (14, 100, 128 d old) were immersed in a calcein bath at 5,000 mg/L of water for 4 min to apply the chemical marker. Observations of the marking retention were evaluated 8 d following the treatment. All fish immersed in calcein had strong brilliant marks (rating scale 3) on all bony structures including scales, fin rays, jaw bones, and vertebrate. The otolith was the only hard structure that did not show a brilliant marking due to the opaque nature of the structure. Our results suggest that calcein produces a strong discernable mark on hard bony structures of Cisco and Bloater; however, long-term retention needs further study.

  1. Spawning habitat unsuitability: an impediment to cisco rehabilitation in Lake Michigan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Rutherford, Edward S.; Blouin, Marc A.; Sederberg, Bryan J.; Elliott, Jeff R.

    2011-01-01

    The cisco Coregonus artedi was one of the most important native prey fishes in Lake Michigan and in the other four Laurentian Great Lakes. Most of the cisco spawning in Lake Michigan was believed to have occurred in Green Bay. The cisco population in Lake Michigan collapsed during the 1950s, and the collapse was attributed in part to habitat degradation within Green Bay. Winter water quality surveys of lower Green Bay during the 1950s and 1960s indicated that the bottom dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was less than 2 mg/L throughout much of the lower bay, and most cisco eggs would not successfully hatch at such low DO concentrations. To determine present-day spawning habitat suitability in lower Green Bay, we compared cisco egg survival in lower Green Bay with survival at a reference site (St. Marys River, Michigan–Ontario) during 2009. We also conducted winter water quality surveys in lower Green Bay and the St. Marys River during 2009 and 2010. Cisco egg survival in lower Green Bay averaged 65.3%, which was remarkably similar to and not significantly different from the mean at the St. Marys River site (64.0%). Moreover, the lowest bottom DO concentrations recorded during the winter surveys were 11.2 mg/L in lower Green Bay and 12.7 mg/L in the St. Marys River. These relatively high DO concentrations would not be expected to have any negative effect on cisco egg survival. We conclude that winter water quality conditions in lower Green Bay were suitable for successful hatching of cisco eggs and that water quality during the egg incubation period did not represent an impediment to cisco rehabilitation in Lake Michigan. Our approach to determining spawning habitat suitability for coregonids would be applicable to other aquatic systems.

  2. Cisco ASM Router

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    One of the two "ASM/2-32EM" boxes installed in 1988, from "Cisco Systems Inc." - then an unknown 20-employee company in Menlo Park, California (USA). This is one of the first two Cisco boxes to appear in Switzerland, and possibly Europe. The 220v power supply was a special modification made for use at CERN. They supported IP address filtering, which seemed just what CERN needed to help protect the new Cray XMP-48 super computer from network hackers. The two ASM boxes were both routers and terminal servers. They protected a secure private Ethernet segment used by the Cray project, as well as providing secure terminal connections to that segment, including CERN's first dialback terminal service, which allowed Cray and CERN system analysts to work on the machine from home, using another Cisco feature called TACACS. (Kindly offered by B. Segal who discovered this company while at a Usenix Conference in Phoenix, Arizona in June 1987.)

  3. Implementing Cisco UCS solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Farhan

    2013-01-01

    A tutorial-based approach which will help you understand the practical methodologies and deploying of Cisco UCS components.If you are a professional such as a system, network, or storage administrator who is responsible for Cisco UCS deployments, this is the perfect book for you. You should have some basic knowledge of the server's architecture, network, and storage technologies. Familiarity with virtualization technologies is also recommended (though not necessary) as the majority of real-world UCS deployments run virtualized loads. Knowledge of Nexus OS is not necessary as the majority of th

  4. Reassessment of the predatory effects of rainbow smelt on ciscoes in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jared T.; Jones, Michael L.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Yule, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence from small lakes suggests that predation on larval ciscoes Coregonus artedi by nonnative rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax can lead to cisco suppression or extirpation. However, evidence from larger lakes has led to equivocal conclusions. In this study, we examine the potential predation effects of rainbow smelt in two adjacent but contrasting embayments in Lake Superior (Thunder and Black bays, Ontario). During May 2006, we sampled the ichthyoplankton, pelagic fish communities, and diet composition of rainbow smelt in both bays. Using acoustics and midwater trawling, we estimated rainbow smelt densities to be 476 ± 34/ha (mean ± SE) in Thunder Bay and 3,435 ± 460/ha in Black Bay. We used a bioenergetics model to estimate the proportion of cisco larvae consumed by rainbow smelt. Our results suggest that predation by rainbow smelt accounts for 15–52% and 37–100% of the mortality of larval ciscoes in Thunder and Black bays, respectively, depending on the predator feeding rate and the scale of predator–prey overlap. We also examined the sensitivity of past conclusions (based on 1974 field collections) to assumptions of temporal overlap between rainbow smelt and larval ciscoes and estimates of rainbow smelt abundance derived from bottom trawl samples. After adjusting these parameters to reflect current understanding, we found that the previous predation estimates may have been conservative. We conclude that rainbow smelt may have been a more important contributor to the demise and slow recovery of ciscoes in Lake Superior than previously thought.

  5. The spatial scale for cisco recruitment dynamics in Lake Superior during 1978-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Benjamin J.; Hansen, Michael J.; Gorman, Owen T.

    2012-01-01

    The cisco Coregonus artedi was once the most abundant fish species in the Great Lakes, but currently cisco populations are greatly reduced and management agencies are attempting to restore the species throughout the basin. To increase understanding of the spatial scale at which density-independent and density-dependent factors influence cisco recruitment dynamics in the Great Lakes, we used a Ricker stock–recruitment model to identify and quantify the appropriate spatial scale for modeling age-1 cisco recruitment dynamics in Lake Superior. We found that the recruitment variation of ciscoes in Lake Superior was best described by a five-parameter regional model with separate stock–recruitment relationships for the western, southern, eastern, and northern regions. The spatial scale for modeling was about 260 km (range = 230–290 km). We also found that the density-independent recruitment rate and the rate of compensatory density dependence varied among regions at different rates. The density-independent recruitment rate was constant among regions (3.6 age-1 recruits/spawner), whereas the rate of compensatory density dependence varied 16-fold among regions (range = −0.2 to −2.9/spawner). Finally, we found that peak recruitment and the spawning stock size that produced peak recruitment varied among regions. Both peak recruitment (0.5–7.1 age-1 recruits/ha) and the spawning stock size that produced peak recruitment (0.3–5.3 spawners/ha) varied 16-fold among regions. Our findings support the hypothesis that the factors driving cisco recruitment operate within four different regions of Lake Superior, suggest that large-scale abiotic factors are more important than small-scale biotic factors in influencing cisco recruitment, and suggest that fishery managers throughout Lake Superior and the entire Great Lakes basin should address cisco restoration and management efforts on a regional scale in each lake.

  6. Food resource effects on diel movements and body size of cisco in north-temperate lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrenstorff, Tyler D; Hrabik, Thomas R; Jacobson, Peter C; Pereira, Donald L

    2013-12-01

    The movement patterns and body size of fishes are influenced by a host of physical and biological conditions, including temperature and oxygen, prey densities and foraging potential, growth optimization, and predation risk. Our objectives were to (1) investigate variability in vertical movement patterns of cisco (Coregonus artedi) in a variety of inland lakes using hydroacoustics, (2) explore the causal mechanisms influencing movements through the use of temperature/oxygen, foraging, growth, and predation risk models, and (3) examine factors that may contribute to variations in cisco body size by considering all available information. Our results show that cisco vertical movements vary substantially, with different populations performing normal diel vertical migrations (DVM), no DVM, and reverse DVM in lakes throughout Minnesota and northern Wisconsin, USA. Cisco populations with the smallest body size were found in lakes with lower zooplankton densities. These smaller fish showed movements to areas of highest foraging or growth potential during the day and night, despite moving out of preferred temperature and oxygen conditions and into areas of highest predation risk. In lakes with higher zooplankton densities, cisco grew larger and had movements more consistent with behavioral thermoregulation and predator avoidance, while remaining in areas with less than maximum foraging and growth potential. Furthermore, the composition of potential prey items present in each lake was also important. Cisco that performed reverse DVM consumed mostly copepods and cladocerans, while cisco that exhibited normal DVM or no migration consumed proportionally more macro-zooplankton species. Overall, our results show previously undocumented variation in migration patterns of a fish species, the mechanisms underlying those movements, and the potential impact on their growth potential.

  7. 2008 Spawning Cisco Investigations in the Canadian Waters of Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Daniel; Addison, Peter A.; Evrard, Lori M.; Cullis, Ken I.; Cholwek, Gary A.

    2009-01-01

    The Great Lakes Science Center of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) is working cooperatively with the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR) on a threeyear study to develop standard procedures for acoustic and midwater trawl (AC-MT) assessments of spawning cisco Coregonus artedi that the OMNR can carry forward as a management activity. In year two (2008), we conducted an AC-MT survey of the northern shore from Nipigon Bay to Thunder Bay. Spawning-cisco (> 250 mm total length) densities were lowest near Nipigon Bay (cisco in Thunder Bay during the 2008 fishery at 4% for ages 1-5, 8.7% for ages 6-12, and 4.4% for ages ≥ 13. Lake Superior fishery managers recently recommended that annual exploitation of adult female lake cisco be kept below 10-15%. Recruitment of cisco since 2003 has been low and there is a strong probability the Thunder Bay stock will decline into the future. Using a simple population dynamics approach we estimated that if the current total allowable catch (TAC) quota is held constant, exploitation fractions could exceed 10% by 2010 and 15% by 2011. Our 2008 collections suggested the survey of Black Bay was likely conducted before all spawners had returned there to spawn. Our data also suggested that cisco collected in Black Bay and east of this site in mid-November may be from the same stock. During November 2009 we will attempt to get better definition of the area occupied by cisco around Black Bay and also determine when surveys should be conducted at this location.

  8. Morphometric variation among spawning cisco aggregations in the Laurentian Great Lakes: are historic forms still present?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Daniel L.; Moore, Seth A.; Ebener, Mark P.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Pratt, Thomas C.; Salawater, Lorrie L.; Connerton, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Cisco (Coregonus artedi Leseur, formerly lake herring Leucichthys artedi Leseur) populations in each of the Laurentian Great Lakes collapsed between the late 1920s and early 1960s following a multitude of stressors, and never recovered in Lakes Michigan, Erie and Ontario. Prior to their collapse, Koelz (1929) studied Leucichthys spp. in the Great Lakes basin and provided a description of their diversity. Three cisco morphotypes were described; a ‘slim terete’morphotype (L. artedi artedi), a ‘deep compressed’ morphotype (L. artedi albus), and a deep-bodied form resembling tullibee in western Canadian lakes (L. artedi manitoulinus). Based on body measurements of 159 individuals (Koelz 1929), we used discriminant function analysis (DFA) to discriminate historic morphotypes. Shapes of historic morphotypes were found to vary significantly (Pillai’s trace = 1.16, P cisco. Important discriminating measurements included body depth, eye diameter, and dorsal fin base and height. Between October-November of 2007-2011, we sampled cisco from 16 Great Lakes sites collecting digital photographs of over 1, 700 individuals. We applied the DFA model to their body measurements and classified each individual to a morphotype. Contemporary cisco from Lakes Superior, Ontario and Michigan were predominantly classified as artedi, while the most common classifications from northern Lake Huron were albus and manitoulinus. Finding historic morphotypes is encouraging because it suggests that the morphological variation present prior to their collapse still exists. We conclude that contemporary cisco having shapes matching the missing historic morphotypes in the lower lakes warrant special consideration as potential donor populations in reestablishment efforts.

  9. Spawning Cisco investigations in Canada waters of Lake Superior during 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Daniel L.; Evrard, Lori M.; Cholwek, Gary A.; Addison, Peter A.; Cullis, Ken I.

    2008-01-01

    Cisco Coregonus artedi form pre-spawning aggregations in Lake Superior during November with the bulk of spawning occurring during late November through early December (Dryer and Beil 1964). Eggs are broadcast into open water (Smith 1956) with fertilized eggs settling to the lakebed (Dryer and Beil 1964). Peak hatching occurs the following May (United States Geological Survey – Great Lakes Science Center, GLSC, unpublished data). Interannual variability in year class strength is high, but tends to be synchronous across different regions of Lake Superior (Bronte et al. 2003). November 2005 sampling of Thunder Bay showed 14 year-classes were present with the oldest fish being from the 1984 year-class (Yule et al. 2008). The ciscoes sampled were predominantly from five year classes that hatched during 1988, 1989, 1990, 1998, and 2003. These same strong year-classes were found in the western arm of Lake Superior during November 2006 (GLSC, unpublished data). Growth is rapid in the first few years of life with minimal growth after age-8 (Yule et al. 2008). Ciscoes exceeding 250 mm total length (TL) are typically sexually mature (Yule et al. 2006b, 2008). Thunder Bay ciscoes have high annual survival with rates for females and males averaging 0.80 and 0.75, respectively; females have higher rates of fishing-induced mortality compared to males but lower rates of natural mortality (Yule et al. 2008). Some Lake Superior stocks are currently commercially fished with the bulk of harvest occurring during November when fishers target females for their roe. The bulk of fish are harvested from Thunder Bay using suspended gillnets with mesh sizes ranging from 79-89 mm stretch measure. Ciscoes younger then age-5 make up a very small proportion (<0.1%) of the harvest (Yule, et al. 2008).

  10. IT Kolledž on esimene CISCO akadeemia Eestis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    2001.a. nov.-st sai IT Kolledž esimeseks Cisco Võrguakadeemiaks Eestis IT Kolledži ja Cisco vahel sõlmitud lepingu alusel. Cisco akadeemiad pakuvad praktilise suunitlusega rahvusvaheliselt tunnustatud arvutivõrkude-alast baaskoolitust

  11. Speciation reversal in European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus (L. caused by competitor invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shripathi Bhat

    Full Text Available Invasion of exotic species has caused the loss of biodiversity and imparts evolutionary and ecological changes in the introduced systems. In northern Fennoscandia, European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus (L. is a highly polymorphic species displaying adaptive radiations into partially reproductively isolated and thus genetically differentiated sympatric morphs utilizing the planktivorous and benthivorous food niche in many lakes. In 1993, Lake Skrukkebukta was invaded by vendace (Coregonus albula (L. which is a zooplanktivorous specialist. The vendace displaced the densely rakered whitefish from its preferred pelagic niche to the benthic habitat harbouring the large sparsely rakered whitefish. In this study, we investigate the potential influence of the vendace invasion on the breakdown of reproductive isolation between the two whitefish morphs. We inferred the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation between the two morphs collected at the arrival (1993 and 15 years after (2008 the vendace invasion using 16 microsatellite loci and gill raker numbers, the most distinctive adaptive phenotypic trait between them. The comparison of gill raker number distributions revealed two modes growing closer over 15 years following the invasion. Bayesian analyses of genotypes revealed that the two genetically distinct whitefish morphs that existed in 1993 had collapsed into a single population in 2008. The decline in association between the gill raker numbers and admixture values over 15 years corroborates the findings from the Bayesian analysis. Our study thus suggests an apparent decrease of reproductive isolation in a morph-pair of European whitefish within 15 years (≃ 3 generations following the invasion of a superior trophic competitor (vendace in a subarctic lake, reflecting a situation of "speciation in reverse".

  12. Speciation reversal in European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus (L.)) caused by competitor invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Shripathi; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Knudsen, Rune; Gjelland, Karl Øystein; Fevolden, Svein-Erik; Bernatchez, Louis; Præbel, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Invasion of exotic species has caused the loss of biodiversity and imparts evolutionary and ecological changes in the introduced systems. In northern Fennoscandia, European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus (L.)) is a highly polymorphic species displaying adaptive radiations into partially reproductively isolated and thus genetically differentiated sympatric morphs utilizing the planktivorous and benthivorous food niche in many lakes. In 1993, Lake Skrukkebukta was invaded by vendace (Coregonus albula (L.)) which is a zooplanktivorous specialist. The vendace displaced the densely rakered whitefish from its preferred pelagic niche to the benthic habitat harbouring the large sparsely rakered whitefish. In this study, we investigate the potential influence of the vendace invasion on the breakdown of reproductive isolation between the two whitefish morphs. We inferred the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation between the two morphs collected at the arrival (1993) and 15 years after (2008) the vendace invasion using 16 microsatellite loci and gill raker numbers, the most distinctive adaptive phenotypic trait between them. The comparison of gill raker number distributions revealed two modes growing closer over 15 years following the invasion. Bayesian analyses of genotypes revealed that the two genetically distinct whitefish morphs that existed in 1993 had collapsed into a single population in 2008. The decline in association between the gill raker numbers and admixture values over 15 years corroborates the findings from the Bayesian analysis. Our study thus suggests an apparent decrease of reproductive isolation in a morph-pair of European whitefish within 15 years (≃ 3 generations) following the invasion of a superior trophic competitor (vendace) in a subarctic lake, reflecting a situation of "speciation in reverse".

  13. Effects of lake trout refuges on lake whitefish and cisco in the Apostle Islands Region of Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccarino-Crowe , Chiara M.; Taylor, William W.; Hansen, Michael J.; Seider, Michael J.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Lake trout refuges in the Apostle Islands region of Lake Superior are analogous to the concept of marine protected areas. These refuges, established specifically for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and closed to most forms of recreational and commercial fishing, were implicated as one of several management actions leading to successful rehabilitation of Lake Superior lake trout. To investigate the potential significance of Gull Island Shoal and Devils Island Shoal refuges for populations of not only lake trout but also other fish species, relative abundances of lake trout, lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), and cisco (Coregonus artedi) were compared between areas sampled inside versus outside of refuge boundaries. During 1982–2010, lake trout relative abundance was higher and increased faster inside the refuges, where lake trout fishing was prohibited, than outside the refuges. Over the same period, lake whitefish relative abundance increased faster inside than outside the refuges. Both evaluations provided clear evidence that refuges protected these species. In contrast, trends in relative abundance of cisco, a prey item of lake trout, did not differ significantly between areas inside and outside the refuges. This result did not suggest indirect or cascading refuge effects due to changes in predator levels. Overall, this study highlights the potential of species-specific refuges to benefit other fish species beyond those that were the refuges' original target. Improved understanding of refuge effects on multiple species of Great Lakes fishes can be valuable for developing rationales for refuge establishment and predicting associated fish community-level effects.

  14. CCNA Cisco Certified Network Associate Study Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Learn from the Best - Cisco Networking Authority Todd LammleWritten by Cisco networking authority Todd Lammle, this comprehensive guide has been completely updated to reflect the latest CCNA 640-802 exam. Todd's straightforward style provides lively examples, hands on and written labs, easy-to-understand analogies, and real-world scenarios that will not only help you prepare for the exam, but also give you a solid foundation as a Cisco networking professional.This Study Guide teaches you how toDescribe how a network worksConfigure, verify and troubleshoot a switch with VLANs and interswitch co

  15. Bilingualism, Biculturalism, and the Cisco Kid Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Gary D.

    2007-01-01

    The Cisco Kid was born over 100 years ago in 1907 from the pen of the genial and bilious author O. Henry (William Sydney Porter, 1862-1910). He is still going strong both in film and television. Before 1913, the year when films became long features, dozens of short films were based on the character. After 1913, feature films either used the actual…

  16. How systematic age underestimation can impede understanding of fish population dynamics: Lessons learned from a Lake Superior cisco stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, D.L.; Stockwell, J.D.; Black, J.A.; Cullis, K.I.; Cholwek, G.A.; Myers, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    Systematic underestimation of fish age can impede understanding of recruitment variability and adaptive strategies (like longevity) and can bias estimates of survivorship. We suspected that previous estimates of annual survival (S; range = 0.20-0.44) for Lake Superior ciscoes Coregonus artedi developed from scale ages were biased low. To test this hypothesis, we estimated the total instantaneous mortality rate of adult ciscoes from the Thunder Bay, Ontario, stock by use of cohort-based catch curves developed from commercial gill-net catches and otolith-aged fish. Mean S based on otolith ages was greater for adult females (0.80) than for adult males (0.75), but these differences were not significant. Applying the results of a study of agreement between scale and otolith ages, we modeled a scale age for each otolith-aged fish to reconstruct catch curves. Using modeled scale ages, estimates of S (0.42 for females, 0.36 for males) were comparable with those reported in past studies. We conducted a November 2005 acoustic and midwater trawl survey to estimate the abundance of ciscoes when the fish were being harvested for roe. Estimated exploitation rates were 0.085 for females and 0.025 for males, and the instantaneous rates of fishing mortality were 0.089 for females and 0.025 for males. The instantaneous rates of natural mortality were 0.131 and 0.265 for females and males, respectively. Using otolith ages, we found that strong year-classes at large during November 2005 were caught in high numbers as age-1 fish in previous annual bottom trawl surveys, whereas weak or absent year-classes were not. For decades, large-scale fisheries on the Great Lakes were allowed to operate because ciscoes were assumed to be short lived and to have regular recruitment. We postulate that the collapse of these fisheries was linked in part to a misunderstanding of cisco biology driven by scale-ageing error. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  17. Bedload transport monitoring with acoustic sensors in the Swiss Albula mountain river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickenmann, Dieter; Antoniazza, Gilles; Wyss, Carlos R.; Fritschi, Bruno; Boss, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    Bedload transport measurements with acoustic sensors were obtained during summer 2015 in the Albula River in Switzerland. An impact plate measuring system was used with geophone and accelerometer sensors. This system provides indirect estimations of bedload transport in water courses. In April 2015, 30 impact sensors were installed in a new permanent measuring station to monitor continuously bedload transport in a mountain river with a large annual rate of sediment transport (around 90 000 m3 yr-1). Records of the first year of measurement showed that (i) the signal response in terms of geophone and accelerometer impulses is comparable for both types of sensors; (ii) there is a good correlation between discharge data and impulses recorded by both types of sensors; (iii) the critical discharge at the start of bedload transport is around 5 m3 s-1; (iv) a mean calibration factor for the geophone impulses can be estimated which is in a similar range as values determined from other sites with field calibration measurements.

  18. Mission E-Possible: The Cisco E-Learning Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galagan, Patricia A.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the electronic learning program prescribed by Cisco director John Chambers. To respond to his challenge that the program would have to be exemplary and serve thousands, stakeholders integrated the company's e-learning initiatives. (JOW)

  19. Guide to Cisco Routers Configuration Becoming a Router Geek

    CERN Document Server

    Alani, Mohammed M

    2012-01-01

    This work provides a guide to the configuration of Cisco routers, from tasks for beginners to advanced operations. A collection of detailed "how-to" instructions are presented, which will be of use to all professionals and students who engage with Cisco routers in the field or in the lab. The guide starts with the simple step-by-step task of connecting the router and performing basic configuration, before building up to complex and sensitive operations such as router IOS upgrade and Site-to-Site VPNs.

  20. ADHOC MOBILE WIRELESS NETWORK ENHANCEMENT BASED ON CISCO DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. Khedr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adhoc wireless networks become one of the most researchable areas in the studying of routing protocols depending on the Open System Interconnection (OSI Model. This paper use Cisco devices as a reference to enhance the performance of the network. This enhancement will be due to high processing, reliability, average cost, power consumption and accessibility. The aim of this research not only to get the cost down, it also to choose a time to time device to process the data as rapid as it can. Using NAT, Access List and DHCP protocols defined in Cisco (Graphical Unit Interface GUI of the (Command Line Interface CLI, the task can be made.

  1. Cisco CCNA/CCENT Exam 640-802, 640-822, 640-816 Preparation Kit With Cisco Router Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Dale

    2009-01-01

    Three exams, two certifications, one complete Cisco training solution for networking professionals! .. .. The CCNA exam is an entry-level IT certification from Cisco Systems for professionals installing and maintaining route and switched networks. The current exam material covers networking concepts along with new and updated content on network security fundamentals and the basics of wireless networking. .. .. This book can be used as a study guide for either track you choose to receive your CCNA – the single exam, 640-802 or the combined 640-822 and 640-816, and for the CCENT certification wh

  2. CCNA Experimental Environment Simulation with Cisco Packet Tracer%使用Cisco Packet Tracer模拟CCNA实验环境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金恒; 王煜林

    2010-01-01

    Cisco Packet Tracer是一款由Cisco公司发布的网络辅助学习工具,它能够给思科课程爱好者提供一个设计、配置网络及排除网络故障的网络模拟环境.根据的实验需求,在Cisco Packet Tracer模拟器上设计了两个实用的CCNA实验拓朴,让思科学习者能够更好地学习网络.

  3. Status of the deepwater cisco population of Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1964-01-01

    The species and size composition and the abundance of the cisco (Leucichthys spp.) population of Lake Michigan have undergone drastic changes since the sea lamprey became established in the 1940's. The changes were measured by the catches of gill nets of identical specifications fished at the same seasons, depths, and locations in 1930-32, 1954-55, and 1960-61. The two largest ciscoes (johannae and nigripinnis), exploited heavily in a highly selective fishery from the midnineteenth century to the early 1900's, were only sparsely represented in the catch in the 1930's and were absent from catches of the comparison surveys in 1954-55 and 1960-61. The species of intermediate size (alpenae, artedi, kiyi, reighardi, and zenithicus) constituted about two-thirds of the cisco stocks of the deepwater zone in the 1930's but declined to 23.9 and 6.4 percent in the 1950's and 1960's, respectively. Major causes of change were the increased fishing pressure and sea lamprey predation that accompanied the disappearance of the lake trout. The small, slow-growing cisco (hoyi) - the primary food of lake trout - which was not fished intensively, and was too small to suffer greatly from sea lamprey predation, increased from 31.0 percent of the catch in the 1930's to 76.1 percent in the 1950's and 93.6 percent in the 1960's. Consequences of the extreme imbalance of the cisco population have been a reduction in mean size of all species, extension of the range of the very abundant hoyi (formerly most abundant in moderately shallow areas) to almost all depths and sections of the lake, and possibly introgressive hybridization among the various species. The primary change in the fishery has been a shift from gill nets to more extensive use of trawls which can take the now abundant smaller fish.

  4. [Differential expression of DTSsa4 Tc1-like transposons in closely related populations of Baikal ciscoes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychenko, O S; Sukhanova, L V; Azhikina, T L; Sverdlov, E D

    2009-01-01

    Two representatives of Baikal ciscoes - lake cisco and omul - diverged from a common ancestor as recently as 10-20 thousand years ago. We have found an increasing expression level of DTSsa4 Tc1-like DNA transposons in cisco and omul brains. The mapping of the sequences of these transposons from Salmo salar and Danio rerio genomes has shown that in some cases, these transposons are located in the 5' and 3' regions, as well as in the promoter regions of various genes. Probably, Tc1-like transposons affect the activity of neighboring genes, providing the adaptive divergence of the cisco population.

  5. The Operating Modes and Implementing of Cisco IPS%Cisco IPS的工作模式及部署

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹淑玲

    2013-01-01

      入侵防御系统(Intrusion Prevention System,IPS)是在入侵检测系统(Intrusion Detection System,IDS)的基础上发展而来的,它不但具有IDS 强大的基于数据包的入侵检测功能,还具有主动、智能的防御功能。目前,IPS已经成为网络安全的一个重要研究方向,相应产品的数量也在逐年增多。首先分析了Cisco IPS产品的四种工作模式及其特点,然后根据企业网的安全需求提出入侵防御解决方案,通过将Cisco IPS安全设备串联在互联网出入口,实时拦截数据流量中各种类型的恶意攻击流量,把攻击拦截在企业网络之外,保护了企业的信息资产。%Intrusion prevention system is a new network security technology based on intrusion detection system. An IPS has the capability to detect and prevent misuse and abuse of, and unauthorized access to, network resources. In networking today, IPS is one of the important researches in network security, and IPS product quantity is increasing year by year. This paper analyzes the four operating modes of cisco IPS products, and then illustrates a typical network IPS deployment, The Cisco IPS is deployed at the network entry point and protect the company resources in real time.

  6. Based on Cisco SLA technology application of network management research%基于Cisco SLA技术应用的网络管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄惪

    2014-01-01

    随着社会的不断发展,我国的各大企业加强了对网络监控管理的研究.本文主要对基于Cisco SLA技术应用的网络管理进行了研究,并且进行了相应的探讨,对Cisco SLA的设置方式进行了相应的研究,并且提出了Cisco SLA技术的优缺点.

  7. 78 FR 73109 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Benjamin and Cisco, TX; De Beque, CO; Port Lions, AK; Rule and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Benjamin and Cisco, TX; De Beque, CO; Port Lions, AK... at De Beque, Colorado; Channel 237C3 at Benjamin, Texas; Channel 261C3 at Cisco, Texas; Channel 288C2..., Channel 237C3; by removing Cisco, Channel 261C3; by removing Channel 288C2 at Rule; and by...

  8. Cisco Networking Academy: Next-Generation Assessments and Their Implications for K-12 Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meredith

    2014-01-01

    To illuminate the possibilities for next-generation assessments in K-12 schools, this case study profiles the Cisco Networking Academy, which creates comprehensive online training curriculum to teach networking skills. Since 1997, the Cisco Networking Academy has served more than five million high school and college students and now delivers…

  9. CCNA Cisco Certified Network Associate Study Guide: Exam 640-801

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd

    2006-01-01

    Here's the book you need to prepare for Cisco's revised CCNA exam, 640-801. This new edition of the best-selling CCNA Study Guide provides in-depth coverage of every CCNA exam objective, practical information on Cisco internetworking solutions and hundreds of challenging review questions.

  10. CCNA Cisco Certified Network Associate Deluxe Study Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Deluxe Edition of Best-Selling CCNA Study GuideThis comprehensive, enhanced version of the Sybex CCNA Study Guide provides certification candidates with the additional tools they need to prepare for this popular exam. With additional bonus exams and flashcards, as well as the exclusive CCNA Virtual Lab, Platinum Edition, this comprehensive guide has been completely updated to reflect the latest CCNA 640-802 exam. Written by Cisco Authority Todd Lammle, whose straightforward style provides lively examples, hands-on and written labs, easy-to-understand analogies, and real-world scenarios that wi

  11. Cisco Router and Switch Forensics Investigating and Analyzing Malicious Network Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Dale

    2009-01-01

    Cisco IOS (the software that runs the vast majority of Cisco routers and all Cisco network switches) is the dominant routing platform on the Internet and corporate networks. This widespread distribution, as well as its architectural deficiencies, makes it a valuable target for hackers looking to attack a corporate or private network infrastructure. Compromised devices can disrupt stability, introduce malicious modification, and endanger all communication on the network. For security of the network and investigation of attacks, in-depth analysis and diagnostics are critical, but no book current

  12. USING CISCO NETWORK COMPONENTS TO IMPROVE NIDPS PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Bul’ajoul

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Network Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems (NIDPSs are used to detect, prevent and report evidence of attacks and malicious traffic. Our paper presents a study where we used open source NIDPS software. We show that NIDPS detection performance can be weak in the face of high-speed and high-load traffic in terms of missed alerts and missed logs. To counteract this problem, we have proposed and evaluated a solution that utilizes QoS, queues and parallel technologies in a multi-layer Cisco Catalyst Switch to increase NIDPSs detection performance. Our approach designs a novel QoS architecture to organise and improve throughput-forwardplan traffic in a layer 3 switch in order to improve NIDPS performance.

  13. 安全卫士——Cisco Secure PIX Firewall 506

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Cisco Secure PIX Firewall 506是具有世界水平的Cisco Secure PIX Firewall系列的一员,它提供所有的防火墙级的防护和对IP安全(IPsec)虚拟专网(VPN)的兼容性,使您可以用最严密的方法来保护您的内部网络,阻止外部世界的侵犯。

  14. Specific Applications of Cisco Packet Tracer in Network Teaching%Cisco Packet Tracer在网络教学中的特殊应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴刚

    2011-01-01

    Cisco Packet Tracer不仅可以提供Cisco认证考试的练习环境,在计算机网络教学中也有一些特殊的应用.Cisco Packet Tracer模拟模式可用于仿真PDU转发流程;物理工作区可用于展示现实环境;活动向导可用于技能考评.这些应用可以解决教学中的疑难问题.

  15. Simulation and Validation of Cisco Lethal Conditions in Minnesota Lakes under Past and Future Climate Scenarios Using Constant Survival Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Jiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fish habitat in lakes is strongly constrained by water temperature (T and available dissolved oxygen (DO that are changed under climate warming. A one dimensional, dynamic water quality model MINLAKE2012 was used for T and DO simulation over 48 years. A fish habitat model FishHabitat2013 using simulated T and DO profiles as input was developed to determine lethal conditions of cisco Corgenous artedi in Minnesota lakes. Twenty-three lakes that had observations of cisco mortality or survival in the unusually warm summer of 2006 were used for model validation. The cisco habitat model used a lethal temperature of 22.1 °C and DO survival limit of 3 mg/L determined through model validation and sensitivity analysis. Cisco lethal conditions in 12 shallow, 16 medium-depth, and 30 deep virtual lakes were then simulated. Isopleths of total number of years with cisco kill and average cisco kill days for the years with kills under past (1961–2008 and future climate were generated to understand/extrapolate climate impacts on cisco in 620 Minnesota lakes. Shallow and medium-depth lakes are projected to not be good candidates for cisco refuge lakes, but deep lakes are possible cisco refuge lakes based on lethal condition projection under future warmer climate.

  16. PCB concentrations of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) vary by sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Ebener, Mark P.; Sepulveda, Maria S.

    2015-01-01

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 26 female lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and 34 male lake whitefish from northern Lake Huron. In 5 of the 26 female lake whitefish, we also determined PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 60 ng/g and 80 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 34% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Based on the PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 2.5%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain, to any degree, the higher PCB concentrations observed in males compared with females. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being only 0.7% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the growth dilution effect contributed very little to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. We conclude that males were higher than females in PCB concentration most likely due to a higher rate of energy expenditure, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate. A higher rate of energy expenditure leads to a higher rate of food consumption, which, in turn, leads to a higher PCB accumulation rate.

  17. 78 FR 42036 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Port Lions, AK, De Beque, CO, Benjamin, Cisco, Rule, and Shamrock, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Port Lions, AK, De Beque, CO, Benjamin, Cisco, Rule... 237C3; Cisco, Channel 261C3; Rule, Channel 288C2; and Shamrock, Channel 225C2. BILLING CODE 6712-01-P...

  18. The occurrence of the longjaw cisco, Leucichthys alpenae, in Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, W.B.; Smith, Stanford H.

    1962-01-01

    The longjaw cisco, Leucichthys alpenae, is shown to be a species new to the Lake Erie fauna. The taxonomic work on Lake Erie ciscoes is reviewed. Thirty three specimens of L. alpenae taken in 1946, 1947 and 1957 are compared morphometrically with Leucichthys artedi of Lake Erie, the only other cisco species in the lake. L. alpenae has a longer and deeper head, longer maxillary and fewer gill rakers. L. alpenae is more distinct from L. artedi in Lake Huron than in Lake Erie. The rate of growth of L. alpenae in Lake Erie compares favourably with that in Lake Michigan.

  19. Performance evaluation of 10GBASE optical transceivers for Cisco 10-gigabit Ethernet switching architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Cain, Jeff C.

    2002-09-01

    This paper presents the process and methodology employed to perform evaluation and analyses for the optical interface that delivers and receives 10Gb/s Ethernet traffic on Cisco's industrial leading switching architecture. Especially, we examined in detail the optical properties for commercially available 10GBASE-LR transceiver modules, with respect to IEEE 802.3ae specifications. The sampled results under room temperature are listed for comparison. Eye diagrams were recorded as a function of transmission distance, as well as temperature variation. System stability issues are also studied following a brief introduction to Cisco standard ODVT (Optical Design Verification Test) procedure.

  20. Physiological disturbance and recovery dynamics of bonefish (Albula vulpes), a tropical marine fish, in response to variable exercise and exposure to air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suski, Cory D; Cooke, Steven J; Danylchuk, Andy J; O'Connor, Constance M; Gravel, Marie-Ange; Redpath, Tara; Hanson, Kyle C; Gingerich, Andrew J; Murchie, Karen J; Danylchuk, Sascha E; Koppelman, Jeffrey B; Goldberg, Tony L

    2007-11-01

    Current understanding of the stress response in fishes has largely come from studies of freshwater-adapted salmonids, with proportionately few comparative studies having examined marine fishes. The current study sought to quantify the magnitude of physiological disturbances, recovery dynamics, and post-exercise behaviour in bonefish (Albula vulpes; a tropical marine fish) exposed to several different exercise and air exposure regimens. Results showed that metabolic disturbances (lactate production, hyperglycemia) increased following exercise and exposure to air, and that the magnitude of metabolic disturbance was proportional to the duration of the stressful event. Fish required between 2-4 h to return to resting values. Exercise and exposure to air also resulted in significant increases in plasma Ca2+, Cl- and Na+, but the magnitude of these ionic changes did not vary with exercise or exposure to air duration and required over 4-h to return to baseline levels. Mortality following exercise was observed only for fish that had been exposed to air for 3 min and not in fish that had been exposed to air for 1 min. Together, results from this study provide a physiological basis for management strategies that can improve the post-release survival of bonefish that have been caught during a catch-and-release angling event.

  1. The Caballero Revisited: Postmodernity in "The Cisco Kid", "The Mask of Zorro", and "Shrek II"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leen, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the achievement of the postmodern caballero films and the relevance of the social bandit myth for Chicano resistance. The continued relevance of the social bandit myth is clearly demonstrated by "The Cisco Kid" and "The Mask of Zorro." Both films show how initially flawed or directionless characters can…

  2. Mercury Accumulation, and the Mercury-PCB-Sex Interaction, in Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis)

    OpenAIRE

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Mark P. Ebener; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2016-01-01

    We determined whole-fish Hg concentrations of 26 female and 34 male adult lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) from northern Lake Huron captured during November 2010. Subsampling from these 60 fish, Hg concentration was also determined in both somatic tissue and ovaries (n = 5), while methylmercury (MeHg) concentration was determined in whole fish (n = 18). Bioenergetics modeling was used to assess the growth dilution effect on the difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes. Mean wh...

  3. 2009 Spawning cisco investigations in the Canadian waters of Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Daniel L.; Cholwek, Gary A.; Evrard, Lori M.; E. Berglund,; K.I. Cullis,

    2010-01-01

    We sampled with acoustics (AC) and midwater trawls (MT) to determine cisco abundance in Lake Superior’s Thunder and Black bays during 8-14 November, 2009. Total abundance of spawning-size (≥ 250 mm total length) ciscoes was estimated at 6.25 million in Thunder Bay and 1.12 million in Black Bay. Exploitation fractions of market-size (≥ age 6) females from Thunder and Black bays for 2009 were estimated at 7.1% and 11.3%, respectively; below the recommended maximum annual harvest of 15% recently adopted by Lake Superior fisheries managers. Given Thunder Bay spawner densities are on a downward trajectory, and recruitment since the 2003 year-class has been low, it is likely the exploitation fractions will increase in the future. After 2010, the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR) will carry on the AC program as a management activity. It is likely suspended experimental gill net (GN) samples will be used to ground truth future AC samples. In 2009, we characterized the length and age structure of Thunder Bay ciscoes using both MT samples and GN samples. Females represented 49% of the MT catch, but only 39% in GN samples. Catching a smaller proportion of females in GN samples resulted in a lower female population estimate and a higher estimated exploitation fraction (10.4%) compared to MT samples (7.1%). Experimental gill net effort was limited to 10-11.8 m water column depths where midwater trawl samples also caught roughly 40% females. Ciscoes ≥ age 17 (≥ 1992 year class) were common in Black Bay, but rare in Thunder Bay suggesting: 1) the stocks may be distinct; and 2) total mortality of ciscoes returning to spawn in Black Bay in recent years has been lower than ciscoes returning to Thunder Bay. Our mid-November 2009 effort to assess the Black Bay stock by sampling outside of the 3 bay in the lake proper was deemed successful, but this should be confirmed by sampling the Black Bay region during both mid- and late-November 2010.

  4. 基于CISCOIP/TV媒体播放的设计与实现%Design and Realization of Based on Cisco IP/TV Media Playing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐春

    2011-01-01

    本文介绍了IP/TV的相关知识及CISCO IP/TV的工作原理,说明了JSP、JavaBeans技术在改造CISCO IP/TV客户端软件方面特有的优势,介绍了一种开发CISCO IP/TV的方法。%This article introduced the relevant knowledge about IP/TV and CISCO IP/TV theories,then shows the unique advantages of the jsp and javaBeans technology in the reform of cisco IP/TV client software.In the end described a method how to develop CISCO IP/TV

  5. CISCO: Cooled Infrared Spectrograph and Camera for OHS on the Subaru Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohara, Kentaro; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Maihara, Toshinori; Oya, Shin; Tsukamoto, Hiroyuki; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Terada, Hiroshi; Goto, Miwa; Iwai, Jun'ichi; Tanabe, Hirohisa; Hata, Ryuji; Taguchi, Tomoyuki; Harashima, Takashi

    2002-04-01

    This paper describes a Cooled Infrared Spectrograph and Camera for OHS (CISCO), mounted on the Nasmyth focus of the Subaru telescope. It is primarily designed as a back-end camera of the OH-Airglow Suppressor (OHS), and is also used as an independent, general-purpose near-infrared camera/spectrograph. CISCO is based on a single 1024 × 1024 format HgCdTe HAWAII array detector, and is capable of either wide-field imaging of 1'.8 × 1'.8 field-of-view or low-resolution spectroscopy from 0.9 to 2.4 μm. The limiting magnitudes measured during test observations were found to be J=23.5 mag and K' = 22.4 mag (imaging, 1" aperture, S/N = 5, 1hr exposure).

  6. CISCO Cooled Infrared Spectrograph and Camera for OHS on the Subaru Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Motohara, K; Maihara, T; Oya, S; Tsukamoto, H; Imanishi, M; Terada, H; Goto, M; Iwai, J; Tanabe, H; Hata, R; Taguchi, T; Harashima, T

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a Cooled Infrared Spectrograph and Camera for OHS (CISCO), mounted on the Nasmyth focus of the Subaru telescope. It is primarily designed as a back-end camera of the OH-Airglow Suppressor (OHS), and is also used as an independent, general-purpose near-infrared camera/spectrograph. CISCO is based on a single 1024x1024 format HgCdTe HAWAII array detector, and is capable of either wide-field imaging of 1.8'x1.8' field-of-view or low-resolution spectroscopy from 0.9 to 2.4 um. The limiting magnitudes measured during test observations were found to be J=23.5mag and K'=22.4mag (imaging, 1" aperture, S/N=5, 1 hr exposure).

  7. Recovery of Cisco Router' Password%Cisco路由器的口令恢复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锋

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1 Cisco路由器口令的类别 (1)有效密码口令(enabled secret password):是一种安全级别最高的加密口令,适用于Cisco IOS10.3(2)以后的版本,在路由器的配置表中以加密的形式出现.

  8. 支持iSCSI和FCIP两种协议Cisco MDS 9000 IP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭军

    2003-01-01

    近日,Cisco发布了MDS 9000IP存储服务模块,该模块同时支持SCSI和IFCIP(IP光纤通道)。并能通过客户现有的联网基础设施.确保经济高效和远距离的SAN连接。IP存储服务模块与Cisco MDS 9000 SAN系

  9. How Cisco Systems Used Enterprise Architecture Capability to Sustain Acquisition-Based Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppenberg, Gustav; Shanks, Graeme; Henningsson, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Value-creating acquisitions are a major challenge for many firms. The case of Cisco Systems shows that an advanced enterprise architecture (EA) capability can contribute to the four phases of the acquisition process: pre-acquisition preparation, acquisition selection, acquisition integration and ...... and post-integration management. Cisco’s EA capability improves its ability to rapidly capture value from acquisitions and to sustain its acquisition-based growth strategy over time....

  10. The effects of temperature on sex determination in the bloater Coregonus hoyi: a hypothesis test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, Gary W.; Allen, Jeffrey D.

    1995-01-01

    The hypothesis that temperature was an epigamic factor in bloater (Coregonus hoyi) sex determination in Lake Michigan was tested by rearing bloater larvae in the laboratory at 6, 11, and 15 degrees C for the first 80 days after hatching. The percentages of females of fish exposed to the three treatment temperatures did not differ significantly from the expected, 50%. Therefore, the null hypothesis, that temperature did not influence bloater sex determination within the confines of this study, could not be rejected. Our study of bloater sex determination was an attempt to explain the extreme female predominance (> 95%) that occurred in the Lake Michigan bloater population during the 1960s.

  11. Research on the Security of Network with Cisco Router%基于Cisco路由器的网络安全研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    介绍采用Cisco路由器阻止各种常见的网络攻击.%Cisco router is a device frequently used in network. Some kinds of method on using Cisco router to avoid network attack have been described.

  12. The ACL Analyses on Cisco Routers%Cisco路由器ACL剖析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴刚

    2010-01-01

    访问控制列表是Cisco IOS防火墙的核心技术,它包括标准ACL、扩展ACL、命名ACL、基于时间的ACL,动态ACL,自反ACL、基于上下文的访问控制(CBAC)等,这些ACL技术从简到繁、从网络层到应用层,为网络的边界安全提供了灵活的解决方案.

  13. CISCO SYSTEM’S STRATEGIC USE OF THE INTERNET AND BUSINESS APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Celebi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Information systems are the key decision component of a firm’s business strategy. Cisco made use of internet and its information systems to accomplish its following strategies: to create a business ecology market its technology to networking world; to create a virtual organization and outsourcing many operational and customer services and focusing its resources on its own core product innovation strategy; to showcase its own internet use as a marketing tool. Cisco’s strategy enabled it to sustain high growth rates throughout 1990s. In late 2000, however Cisco’s market collapsed and experienced a loss of billions of dollars in unsold inventory.

  14. Cisco Networking Academy Program for high school students: Formative & summative evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford-Wesley, Deanne

    This study examined the effectiveness of the Cisco Network Technology Program in enhancing students' technology skills as measured by classroom strategies, student motivation, student attitude, and student learning. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to determine the effectiveness of this program. The study focused on two 11th grade classrooms at Hamtramck High School. Hamtramck, an inner-city community located in Detroit, is racially and ethnically diverse. The majority of students speak English as a second language; more than 20 languages are represented in the school district. More than 70% of the students are considered to be economically at risk. Few students have computers at home, and their access to the few computers at school is limited. Purposive sampling was conducted for this study. The sample consisted of 40 students, all of whom were trained in Cisco Networking Technologies. The researcher examined viable learning strategies in teaching a Cisco Networking class that focused on a web-based approach. Findings revealed that the Cisco Networking Academy Program was an excellent vehicle for teaching networking skills and, therefore, helping to enhance computer skills for the participating students. However, only a limited number of students were able to participate in the program, due to limited computer labs and lack of qualified teaching personnel. In addition, the cumbersome technical language posed an obstacle to students' success in networking. Laboratory assignments were preferred by 90% of the students over lecture and PowerPoint presentations. Practical applications, lab projects, interactive assignments, PowerPoint presentations, lectures, discussions, readings, research, and assessment all helped to increase student learning and proficiency and to enrich the classroom experience. Classroom strategies are crucial to student success in the networking program. Equipment must be updated and utilized to ensure that students are

  15. Environmental and genetic contributions to morphological differentiation in ciscoes (Coregoninae) of the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Thomas N.; Smith, Gerald R.; Cable, Louella E.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory-produced progeny of Coregonus alpenae, C. zenithicus, C. hoyi, and C. kiyi and their wild parents were used to examine the contributions of genotype and environment to morphology. Morphological differences between parents and offspring were generally greater than those between species, indicating strong environmental effects. The phenotypic effects on most characters can probably be attributed to different developmental temperatures and perhaps to stresses in the hatchery not encountered in the Great Lakes. Genetic differences were inferred from morphological differences between offspring of different species raised under identical conditions. Genetic differences were demonstrated between C. hoyi and C. kiyi but not betweenC. alpenae and C. zenithicus which suggested that our samples of C. alpenae and C. zenithicusrepresented only a single species. The presence of unique stocks of coregonines in the Great Lakes, as well as of several species, suggests that management strategies should focus on both levels of diversity.Key words: Salmonidae, Coregoninae, Coregonus, morphology, Great Lakes, development, stocks

  16. Investigating the Impact of the Cisco 21st Century Schools Initiative on Forrest County School District. Summative Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Harouna; Meade, Terri; Pierson, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Camille; Roy, Amanda; Williams, Hakim

    2009-01-01

    Located in southern Mississippi, the Forrest County School District (FCSD) consists of six schools: three K-6 elementary schools, two K-8 elementary-middle schools, and one high school (grades 9-12), all of which have been involved in the Cisco Initiative since its inception. The district employed 16 administrators, 7 technology staff members, and…

  17. Investigating the Impact of the Cisco 21st Century Schools Initiative on Forrest County Agricultural High School. Summative Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Harouna; Meade, Terri; Pierson, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Camille; Roy, Amanda; Williams, Hakim

    2009-01-01

    Forrest County Agricultural High School (FCAHS) is located in Brooklyn, a small rural town in southern Mississippi and part of the Hattiesburg Metropolitan Statistical Area. Unlike the other schools that participated in the Cisco 21S initiative, FCAHS is not part of a larger school district. Therefore, the unit of analysis throughout this summary…

  18. Investigating the Impact of the Cisco 21st Century Schools Initiative on Harrison County School District. Summative Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Harouna; Meade, Terri; Pierson, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Camille; Roy, Amanda; Williams, Hakim

    2009-01-01

    There are 21 schools in the Harrison County School District (HCSD), located in southern Mississippi, in the Gulfport/Biloxi metropolitan area. Of those, only Harrison Central 9th Grade (HC9) and Harrison County High School (HCHS) participated in the Cisco 21S Initiative--therefore, this summary will focus on only administrators, teachers,…

  19. Comprehensive Comparison of VoIP SIP Protocol Problems and Cisco VoIP System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TALAL AL-KHAROBI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Voice over IP (VoIP, use of the packet switched internet for telephony, has improved substantially in the past few years. On the other hand, VoIP has many challenges that do not exist in the public switched telephone network (PSTN, a circuit switched system. VoIP is an application running on the internet, and therefore inherits the internet’s security issues. It is important to realise that VoIP is a relatively young technology, and with any new technology, security typically improves with maturity. This paper provides a comprehensive comparison of a VoIP SIP protocol and CISCO VoIP system. The comparison involves the investigation of the vulnerabilities that target both systems and how secure each system is. With this comparison we present our conclusion on which system is more secure.

  20. Clustering the Parameters of Rhythmographic Analysis of the Events of the Corporate Network Traffic of the Cisco MARS System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis V. Lozhkarev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the clustering of the parameters of rhythmographic analysis of the events of the corporate network traffic of the Cisco MARS system. The author dwells upon classifying clustering methods and illustrates a conceptual clustering algorithm. The author infers that, firstly, the results of processing experimental data derived from network traffic logs substantiate the applicability of the methodology of rhythmographic analysis, which is accepted in cardiology, in the analysis of the rhythm of appearance of events in the Cisco MARS system; secondly, the results of clustering the fragments of the rhythm of events substantiate the effectiveness of the approach proposed; thirdly, the practical application of automatic detection of anomalies in network traffic events requires further research.

  1. ICND2 MAESTRO - An Android App Companion and Cisco IOS Command Guide for Interconnecting Networking Devices 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomar B. Maestro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop and Android application specifically for AMA Computer College - Makati, to improve ICND 2 (CCNA R&S Modules 3 and 4 classes as well as to motivate and inspire Cisco Networking Academy students and instructors The cross platform application which is available for Android contains 18 summarized chapters from the 2 modules of ICND 2, as well as exercises, command guides, glossary of terms and cheat sheets. It also contains a quiz page that could help students review for examinations. Video tutorials are also made available for study. The software was evaluated on the basis of efficiency, reliability, accuracy, and user-friendliness, with the goals of being more efficient and user-friendly when compared with references provided by Cisco and other online resources, while maintaining a high level of accuracy and reliability.

  2. Mercury accumulation, and the mercury-PCB-sex interaction, in lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Ebener, Mark P.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2016-01-01

    We determined whole-fish Hg concentrations of 26 female and 34 male adult lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) from northern Lake Huron captured during November 2010. Subsampling from these 60 fish, Hg concentration was also determined in both the somatic tissue and ovaries (n=5), while methylmercury (MeHg) concentration was determined in whole fish (n=18). Bioenergetics modeling was used to assess the growth dilution effect on the difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes. Mean whole-fish Hg concentration in females (59.9 ng/g) was not significantly different from mean whole-fish Hg concentration in males (54.4 ng/g). MeHg accounted for 91% of the mercury found in the lake whitefish. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect did not contribute to a difference in Hg concentration between the sexes. We estimated that females increased in Hg concentration by 17.9%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Using PCB data for the same 60 lake whitefish from a previous study, we detected a significant interaction between sex and contaminant type (Hg or PCBs), which was attributable to males being significantly higher in PCB concentration than females. Males may be eliminating Hg at a faster rate than females.

  3. Mercury Accumulation, and the Mercury-PCB-Sex Interaction, in Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P. Madenjian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We determined whole-fish Hg concentrations of 26 female and 34 male adult lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis from northern Lake Huron captured during November 2010. Subsampling from these 60 fish, Hg concentration was also determined in both somatic tissue and ovaries (n = 5, while methylmercury (MeHg concentration was determined in whole fish (n = 18. Bioenergetics modeling was used to assess the growth dilution effect on the difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes. Mean whole-fish Hg concentration in females (59.9 ng/g was not significantly different from mean whole-fish Hg concentration in males (54.4 ng/g. MeHg accounted for 91% of the mercury found in the lake whitefish. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect did not contribute to the difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes. We estimated that females increased in Hg concentration by 17.9%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Using polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB data for the same 60 lake whitefish from a previous study, we detected a significant interaction between sex and contaminant type (Hg or PCBs, which was attributable to males being significantly higher in PCB concentration than females. Males may be eliminating Hg at a faster rate than females.

  4. Parasites of Bloater Coregonus hoyi (Salmonidae) from Lake Michigan, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Muzzall, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    In total, 158 bloaters Coregonus hoyi collected in September and October 2011 from 4 Lake Michigan, U.S.A., ports were examined for parasites. The ports included Waukegan (WK), Illinois; Port Washington (PW) and Sturgeon Bay (SB), Wisconsin; and Saugatuck (SG), Michigan. Parasites found in bloaters by port were cestodes Cyathocephalus truncatus (WK, PW, and SB) and Eubothrium salvelini (WK, PW, SB, and SG); the nematode Cystidicola farionis (WK, PW, SB, and SG); acanthocephalans Acanthocephalus dirus (WK and PW), Echinorhynchus salmonis (WK, PW, and SB), and Neoechinorhynchus tumidus (SB); and the copepod Salmincola corpulentus (WK and PW). Gravid individuals of all parasite species were found except for E. salvelini and A. dirus. Cystidicola farionis had the highest prevalence at each port, and the highest mean intensity and mean abundance at PW. The numbers of C. farionis at PW were significantly higher than those at WK and SB. Echinorhynchus salvelini had the highest mean intensities and mean abundances at WK, SB, and SG. The values for parasite species richness in bloaters were similar among ports. The total numbers of parasites were similar between WK and PW, but they were higher at these ports than at SB. The parasite faunas of bloaters were characterized by autogenic helminth species.

  5. Net trophic transfer efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners to lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) from their food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, C.P.; O'Connor, D.V.; Rediske, R.R.; O'Keefe, J. P.; Pothoven, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) were fed rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in four laboratory tanks over a 133-d experiment. At the start of the experiment, 10 to 14 of the fish in each tank were sacrificed, and the concentrations of 40 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners within these fish were determined. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener concentrations were also determined in the 15 lake whitefish remaining in each of the four tanks at the end of the experiment as well as in the rainbow smelt fed to the lake whitefish. Each lake whitefish was weighed at the start and the end of the experiment, and the amount of food eaten by the lake whitefish during the experiment was tracked. Using these measurements, net trophic transfer efficiency (??) from the rainbow smelt to the lake whitefish in each of the four tanks was calculated for each of the 40 PCB congeners. Results showed that ?? decreased exponentially as log KOW for the congeners increased from 6 to 8. Further, ?? averaged 0.70 for the tetrachloro congeners but averaged only 0.45 for the higher chlorinated congeners. ?? 2008 SETAC.

  6. Heavy metal contents in whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) along a pollution gradient in a subarctic watercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, Per-Arne; Kashulin, Nikolay A; Terentjev, Petr; Gjelland, Karl Øystein; Koroleva, Irina M; Dauvalter, Vladimir A; Sandimirov, Sergey; Kashulin, Alexander; Knudsen, Rune

    2011-11-01

    Metallurgic industry is a source of serious environmental pollution related to the emission of heavy metals. Freshwater systems are focal points for pollution, acting as sinks for contaminants that may end up in fish and humans. The Pasvik watercourse in the border area between Finland, Norway and Russia is located in the vicinity of the Pechenganickel metallurgic enterprises, and the lower part of the watershed drains the Nikel smelters directly through Lake Kuetsjarvi. Heavy metal (Ni, Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb and Hg) concentrations in environment (water and sediments) and whitefish Coregonus lavaretus tissue (gills, liver, kidney and muscle) were contrasted between five lake localities situated along a spatial gradient of increasing distance (5-100 km) to the smelters. The heavy metal concentrations, in particular Ni, Cu and Cd, were highly elevated in Kuetsjarvi, but steeply declined with increasing distance to the smelters and were moderate or low in the other four localities. The study demonstrates that the majority of metal emissions and runoffs are deposited near the pollution source, and only moderate amounts of the heavy metal contaminants seem to be transported at further distances. Bioaccumulation of Hg occurred in all investigated tissues, and higher Hg concentrations in planktivorous versus benthivorous whitefish furthermore indicated that pelagic foraging is associated with higher levels of Hg biomagnification. Potential population ecology impacts of high heavy metal contaminations where mainly observed in whitefish in Kuetsjarvi, which showed depletions in growth rate, condition factor and size and age at maturation.

  7. Cretaceous plutonic rocks in the Donner Lake-Cisco Grove area, northern Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulow, Matthew J.; Hanson, Richard E.; Girty, Gary H.; Girty, Melissa S.; Harwood, David S.

    1998-01-01

    The northernmost occurrences of extensive, glaciated exposures of the Sierra Nevada batholith occur in the Donner Lake-Cisco Grove area of the northern Sierra Nevada. The plutonic rocks in this area, which are termed here the Castle Valley plutonic assemblage, crop out over an area of 225 km2 and for the most part are shown as a single undifferentiated mass on previously published geological maps. In the present work, the plutonic assemblage is divided into eight separate intrusive units or lithodemes, two of which each consist of two separate plutons. Compositions are dominantly granodiorite and tonalite, but diorite and granite form small plutons in places. Spectacular examples of comb layering and orbicular texture occur in the diorites. U-Pb zircon ages have been obtained for all but one of the main units and range from ~120 to 114 Ma, indicating that the entire assemblage was emplaced in a narrow time frame in the Early Cretaceous. This is consistent with abundant field evidence that many of the individual phases were intruded penecontemporaneously. The timing of emplacement correlates with onset of major Cretaceous plutonism in the main part of the Sierra Nevada batholith farther south. The emplacement ages also are similar to isotopic ages for gold-quartz mineralization in the Sierran foothills west of the study area, suggesting a direct genetic relationship between the voluminous Early Cretaceous plutonism and hydrothermal gold mineralization.

  8. Efficient and stable transformation of Lactuca sativa L. cv. Cisco (lettuce) plastids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamoto, Hirosuke; Yamashita, Atsushi; Asao, Hiroshi; Okumura, Satoru; Takase, Hisabumi; Hattori, Masahira; Yokota, Akiho; Tomizawa, Ken-Ichi

    2006-04-01

    Transgenic plastids offer unique advantages in plant biotechnology, including high-level foreign protein expression. However, broad application of plastid genome engineering in biotechnology has been largely hampered by the lack of plastid transformation systems for major crops. Here we describe the development of a plastid transformation system for lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. cv. Cisco. The transforming DNA carries a spectinomycin-resistance gene (aadA) under the control of lettuce chloroplast regulatory expression elements, flanked by two adjacent lettuce plastid genome sequences allowing its targeted insertion between the rbcL and accD genes. On average, we obtained 1 transplastomic lettuce plant per bombardment. We show that lettuce leaf chloroplasts can express transgene-encoded GFP to approximately 36% of the total soluble protein. All transplastomic T0 plants were fertile and the T1 progeny uniformly showed stability of the transgene in the chloroplast genome. This system will open up new possibilities for the efficient production of edible vaccines, pharmaceuticals, and antibodies in plants.

  9. Annual suspended-sediment loads in the Colorado River near Cisco, Utah, 1930-82

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Colorado River upstream of gaging station 09180500 near Cisco, Utah, drains about 24,100 square miles in Utah and Colorado. Altitudes in the basin range from 12,480 feet near the headwaters to 4,090 feet at station 09180500. The average annual precipitation for 1894-1982 near the station was 7.94 inches. The average annual precipitation near the headwaters often exceeds 50 inches. Rocks ranging in age from Precambrian to Holocene are exposed in the drainage basin upstream from station 09180500. Shale, limestone, siltstone, mudstone, and sandstone probably are the most easily eroded rocks in the basin, and they contribute large quantities of sediment to the Colorado River. During 1930-82, the U.S. Geological Survey collected records of fluvial sediment at station 09180500. Based on these records, the mean annual suspended-sediment load was 11,390,000 tone, ranging from 2,038,000 tons in water year 1981 to 35,700,000 tons in water year 1938. The minimum daily load of 14 tons was on August 22, 1960, and the maximum daily load of 2,790,000 tons was on October 14, 1941. (USGS)

  10. Asynchrony in the inter-annual recruitment of lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis in the Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zischke, Mitchell K.; Bunnell, David; Troy, Cary D.; Berglund, Eric K.; Caroffino, David C.; Ebener, Mark P.; He, Ji X.; Sitar, Shawn P.; Hook, Tomas O.

    2017-01-01

    Spatially separated fish populations may display synchrony in annual recruitment if the factors that drive recruitment success, particularly abiotic factors such as temperature, are synchronised across broad spatial scales. We examined inter-annual variation in recruitment among lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) populations in lakes Huron, Michigan and Superior using fishery-dependent and -independent data from 1971 to 2014. Relative year-class strength (RYCS) was calculated from catch-curve residuals for each year class across multiple sampling years. Pairwise comparison of RYCS among datasets revealed no significant associations either within or between lakes, suggesting that recruitment of lake whitefish is spatially asynchronous. There was no consistent correlation between pairwise agreement and the distance between datasets, and models to estimate the spatial scale of recruitment synchrony did not fit well to these data. This suggests that inter-annual recruitment variation of lake whitefish is asynchronous across broad spatial scales in the Great Lakes. While our method primarily evaluated year-to-year recruitment variation, it is plausible that recruitment of lake whitefish varies at coarser temporal scales (e.g. decadal). Nonetheless, our findings differ from research on some other Coregonus species and suggest that local biotic or density-dependent factors may contribute strongly to lake whitefish recruitment rather than inter-annual variability in broad-scale abiotic factors.

  11. IPv6 and IPsec Tests of a Space-Based Asset, the Cisco Router in Low Earth Orbit (CLEO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William; Stewart, David; Wood, Lloyd; Jackson, Chris; Northam, James; Wilhelm, James

    2008-01-01

    This report documents the design of network infrastructure to support testing and demonstrating network-centric operations and command and control of space-based assets, using IPv6 and IPsec. These tests were performed using the Cisco router in Low Earth Orbit (CLEO), an experimental payload onboard the United Kingdom--Disaster Monitoring Constellation (UK-DMC) satellite built and operated by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL). On Thursday, 29 March 2007, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cisco Systems and SSTL performed the first configuration and demonstration of IPsec and IPv6 onboard a satellite in low Earth orbit. IPv6 is the next generation of the Internet Protocol (IP), designed to improve on the popular IPv4 that built the Internet, while IPsec is the protocol used to secure communication across IP networks. This demonstration was made possible in part by NASA s Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) and shows that new commercial technologies such as mobile networking, IPv6 and IPsec can be used for commercial, military and government space applications. This has direct application to NASA s Vision for Space Exploration. The success of CLEO has paved the way for new spacebased Internet technologies, such as the planned Internet Routing In Space (IRIS) payload at geostationary orbit, which will be a U.S. Department of Defense Joint Capability Technology Demonstration. This is a sanitized report for public distribution. All real addressing has been changed to psueco addressing.

  12. Summary of investigations on the morphometry of the cisco, Leucichthys artedi (Le Sueur), in the lakes of the northeastern highlands, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hile, Ralph

    1936-01-01

    The morphometric studies on the cisco or lake herring, Leucichthys artedi (Le Sueur), which are briefly summarized in this paper are part of a program of investigation of the fishes of the lakes in the northeastern highland district, Wisconsin. For the morphometric studies, 1,548 specimens were employed, all of them collected in the summers of 1931 and 1932 from four 'type' lakes, selected on the basis of their size, depth, and physicochemical and biological characteristics. Of this number 753 individuals were used to determine the general nature of the morphological variations in the Trout Lake, Muskellunge Lake, Silver Lake, and Clear Lakes cisco populations, while 795, collected from Muskellunge Lake in 1932 were employed in a detailed examination of certain morphological differences between the 1928 and 1929 year classes of that population. An attempt is made in this paper to present all the important conculsions, together with a small amount of illustrative material.

  13. Raising Network Security with Access-list of Cisco Router%利用Cisco路由器的Access-list提高网络安全

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林辉

    2001-01-01

    文中以Cisco2500系列路由器为说明对象,以Cisco—IOS11.2版本为例,深入挖掘访问列表(Access-list)的控制功能,讨论如何更好地利用和发挥现有设备的潜能,提高网络安全性能。

  14. Assessing feeding competition between lake whitefish Core-gonus clupeaformis and round whitefish Prosopium cyl-indraceum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew MACPHERSON, John A. HOLMES, Andrew M. MUIR,David L. G. NOAKES

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We collected lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis and round whitefish Prosopium cylindraceum from the main basin of Lake Huron and Georgian Bay in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America to investigate details of diet and feeding tactics of these species in different seasons. Lake whitefish supports important commercial fisheries in Lake Huron and both species make use of habitats near the Bruce Nuclear Power Development, on the eastern shore of Lake Huron. Most fish of both species showed generalist feeding behavior, but some lake whitefish appeared to show specialist prey selection. The invasive spiny water flea Bythotrephes longimanus was an important component of the diet of both species. There was considerable dietary overlap between the whitefish species, but the ecological implications of these dietary overlaps are mitigated by the fact that dominant prey species differed in most seasons. We conclude that the potential for ecologically significant interactions between lake whitefish and round whitefish resulting from competition for similar benthic food resources in the main basin of Lake Huron is probably low [Current Zoology 56 (1: 109–117 2010].

  15. Characterizing seasonal and diel vertical movement and habitat use of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in Clear Lake, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydlewski, Joseph; Gorsky, Dimitry; Balsey, David

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal and daily vertical activity of lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis was studied in Clear Lake, Maine (253 ha), using acoustic telemetry from November 2004 to June 2009. Twenty adult lake whitefish were tagged with acoustic tags that had either a depth sensor or both depth and temperature sensors to assess vertical habitat use at a seasonal and daily resolution. Vertical habitat selection varied seasonally and was strongly influenced by temperature. Between December and April, when the lake was covered with ice, surface temperature was below 2°C and tagged individuals occupied deep areas of the lake (∼15 m). After ice-out, fish ascended into shallow waters (∼5 m), responding to increased water temperature and possibly to greater foraging opportunity. When surface water temperatures exceeded 20°C, fish descended below the developing thermocline (∼9 m), where they remained until surface temperatures fell below 20°C; fish then ascended into shallower depths, presumably for feeding and spawning. Through the winter, fish remained in thermal habitats that were warmer than the surface temperatures; in the summer, they selected depths with thermal habitats below 15°C. Though the amplitude varied greatly across seasons, lake whitefish displayed a strong diurnal pattern of activity as measured by vertical velocities. Fish were twofold more active during spring, summer, and fall than during winter. Lake whitefish exhibited diel vertical migrations, rising in the water column during nighttime and occupying deeper waters during the day. This pattern was more pronounced in the spring and fall and far less prominent during winter and summer. The strong linkage between temperature and habitat use may limit the current range of lake whitefish and may be directly impacted by climatic change.

  16. Long-term changes of the crustacean zooplankton community in Lake Mjøsa, the largest lake in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarl Eivind LØVIK

    2003-08-01

    (Coregonus albula, one of the most important planktivorous fish species, as also described by earlier studies. However it also demonstrated top down control on cladocerans in years with especially large stocks of cisco.

  17. Primeiro registro da quenquém cisco-da-Amazônia Acromyrmex hystrix Latreille (Formicidae: Myrmicinae para o estado do Maranhão, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Dáttilo

    2010-12-01

    Abstract. It is recorded, for the first time, using pitfall traps, four workers of ant “quenquém-cisco-da-Amazônia”, Acromyrmex hystrix (Latreille (Formicidae: Myrmicinae in a cave at state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil. However, we could not imply any additional information about the abundance of this species in the region once that this record was accidental. The region where the individuals were found is placed at border of state of Maranhão and state of Tocantins suggesting that this species also occurs in this state.

  18. Inquiry Based Computer Network Teaching in Higher Vocational Colleges Based on Cisco Network Academy%基于思科网院的高职计算机网络基础课程教学的探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨畅

    2014-01-01

    CISCO Network Academy of the CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate) course system of interactive teaching, perfect training, examination, inspection link and teaching software, at the end of each chapter, the teacher will set up online quiz to conducive to the students timely and accurately find focus and difficult problems and consolidate the contents. The basis of computer network is an important part of talent network technology professional training program. In this paper, taking the CISCO Networking Academy Teaching Practice for example, conducted a preliminary study and exploration for the teaching system of the course design mode.%思科网络学院的CCNA(Cisco Certified Network Associate)课程体系有完善的交互式教、练、考、验环节及教学软件,在每个章节结束,教师都会设置在线的测验以利于学生及时准确地发现不足和巩固所学内容的重点和难点。计算机网络基础是网络技术专业人才培养方案的重要组成部分。文中以思科网院教学实践为例,针对该课程的教学系统设计模式进行了初步的研究和探索。

  19. Spatial and temporal dynamics of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) health indicators: linking individual-based indicators to a management-relevant endpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tyler; Jones, Michael L.; Ebener, Mark P.; Arts, Michael T.; Brenden, Travis O.; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Wright, Gregory M.; Faisal, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    We examined the spatial and temporal dynamics of health indicators in four lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) stocks located in northern lakes Michigan and Huron from 2003 to 2006. The specific objectives were to (1) quantify spatial and temporal variability in health indicators; (2) examine relationships among nutritional indicators and stock-specific spatial and temporal dynamics of pathogen prevalence and intensity of infection; and (3) examine relationships between indicators measured on individual fish and stock-specific estimates of natural mortality. The percent of the total variation attributed to spatial and temporal sources varied greatly depending on the health indicator examined. The most notable pattern was a downward trend in the concentration of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), observed in all stocks, in the polar lipid fraction of lake whitefish dorsal muscle tissue over the three study years. Variation among stocks and years for some indicators were correlated with the prevalence and intensity of the swimbladder nematode Cystidicola farionis, suggesting that our measures of fish health were related, at some level, with disease dynamics. We did not find relationships between spatial patterns in fish health indicators and estimates of natural mortality rates for the stocks. Our research highlights the complexity of the interactions between fish nutritional status, disease dynamics, and natural mortality in wild fish populations. Additional research that identifies thresholds of health indicators, below (or above) which survival may be reduced, will greatly help in understanding the relationship between indicators measured on individual fish and potential population-level effects.

  20. Croissance et alimentation des larves de corégones (Coregonus lavaretus dans le lac d'Annecy de mars à avril 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRETENOY L.

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available La capture de plus de 400 larves de Coregonus lavaretus à 7 dates différentes dans le lac d'Annecy de mars à avril 1996 a permis d'étudier conjointement leur croissance et l'évolution de leur régime alimentaire. Les larves capturées ont une taille comprise entre 8,5 et 20 mm et un stade larvaire allant de 0 à 4, ces deux paramètres étant fortement liés. À mesure qu'elles grandissent, les larves qui consomment d'abord préférentiellement les stades larvaires des copépodes, puis leurs stades adultes, se nourrissent ensuite majoritairement de cladocères. La comparaison des structures de taille des proies ingérées et du zooplancton présent dans le lac conduit à évoquer la notion d'expérience acquise par les larves pour expliquer cette dérive alimentaire.

  1. The effects of increased constant incubation temperature and cumulative acute heat shock exposures on morphology and survival of Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Abigail H; Eme, John; Mueller, Casey A; Manzon, Richard G; Somers, Christopher M; Boreham, Douglas R; Wilson, Joanna Y

    2016-04-01

    Increasing incubation temperatures, caused by global climate change or thermal effluent from industrial processes, may influence embryonic development of fish. This study investigates the cumulative effects of increased incubation temperature and repeated heat shocks on developing Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) embryos. We studied the effects of three constant incubation temperatures (2°C, 5°C or 8°C water) and weekly, 1-h heat shocks (+3°C) on hatching time, survival and morphology of embryos, as these endpoints may be particularly susceptible to temperature changes. The constant temperatures represent the predicted magnitude of elevated water temperatures from climate change and industrial thermal plumes. Time to the pre-hatch stage decreased as constant incubation temperature increased (148d at 2°C, 92d at 5°C, 50d at 8°C), but weekly heat shocks did not affect time to hatch. Mean survival rates and embryo morphometrics were compared at specific developmental time-points (blastopore, eyed, fin flutter and pre-hatch) across all treatments. Constant incubation temperatures or +3°C heat-shock exposures did not significantly alter cumulative survival percentage (~50% cumulative survival to pre-hatch stage). Constant warm incubation temperatures did result in differences in morphology in pre-hatch stage embryos. 8°C and 5°C embryos were significantly smaller and had larger yolks than 2°C embryos, but heat-shocked embryos did not differ from their respective constant temperature treatment groups. Elevated incubation temperatures may adversely alter Lake Whitefish embryo size at hatch, but weekly 1-h heat shocks did not affect size or survival at hatch. These results suggest that intermittent bouts of warm water effluent (e.g., variable industrial emissions) are less likely to negatively affect Lake Whitefish embryonic development than warmer constant incubation temperatures that may occur due to climate change.

  2. Metabolic enzymes activity and histomorphology in the liver of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) and pike (Esox lucius L.) inhabiting a mineral contaminated lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churova, Maria V; Murzina, Svetlana A; Meshcheryakova, Olga V; Nemova, Nina N

    2014-12-01

    The effects of wastewater from a mining and ore-dressing mill on fish in Lake Kostomukshskoe, which is used as a cesspool of circulating water and for storage of industrial wastes produced by the Kostomuksha mining and ore-dressing mill in northwest Russia, were studied. The lake is characterized by heavy mineralization, high pH, elevated levels of K(+), Li(+), SO4 (2-), NO(2-), Cl(-), Li, Mn, and Ni, and the presence of a fine-dispersed mechanical suspension. To assess the impact of contamination on fish and determine the mechanisms of their adaptation, we investigated the biochemical indices and histology of the liver of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) and pike (Esox lucius L.) inhabiting Lake Kostomukshskoe, downstream Lake Koyvas (64° 47' 30° 59'), and Lake Kamennoe, which is located in a nature preserve and has not been affected by anthropogenic activity (64° 28' 30° 13'). Changes were detected in the activity of metabolic enzymes (cytochrome c oxidase (COX), lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) in the liver. Specifically, the COX activity in the liver of both fish species from the contaminated lake decreased, indicating a low level of aerobic metabolism. Lipid infiltration was the most visible and widespread change observed in the liver of both fish species; therefore, it can be considered a marker of such long-term contamination. Lesions in pike liver demonstrated a wider range of severity than in those of whitefish. In summary, metabolic enzyme activity and histomorphology of the liver of whitefish and pike differed among lakes in a species-specific manner. The changes in enzyme activity and histomorphological alterations in fish that were observed can be applied for evaluation of freshwater systems that may be subjected to mineral pollution.

  3. Try Talk on Distribution and Management Scheme of CISCO and H3C Switches in Practice%试谈在实践中CISCO和H3C交换机的配通和管理方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鑫

    2013-01-01

    介绍了CISCO和H3C交换机的基本知识,分析了CISCO和H3C的主要功能配置和管理方案,在实践中总结出CISCO/H3C交换机的配置规律和管理方案,以优化网络拓扑结构、通信性能和应用需求,使得不同厂家生产的交换机可以顺利配通.

  4. The effects of chronic cadmium exposure on repeat swimming performance and anaerobic metabolism in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Jessie L.; McGeer, James C., E-mail: jmcgeer@wlu.ca

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Exposure to 18 nM waterborne Cd induced plasma Ca loss that recovered by day 30 for lake whitefish but not brown trout. • Ucrit measured after an initial swim to 85% of Ucrit and a 30 min rest period was reduced in 18 nM Cd exposed fish compared to controls. • Swimming to 85% of Ucrit resulted in decreased muscle glycogen and increased lactate that was not recovered in the 30 min recovery period. • Second swim impairment is not related to metabolic processes in white muscle. - Abstract: This study investigates the effect of chronic Cd exposure on the ability to perform repeat swim challenges in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Fish were exposed to waterborne Cd (18 nM) in moderately hard water (120 mg L{sup −1} CaCO{sub 3}) for 30 days. This level of exposure has been shown to cause sublethal physiological disruption and acclimation responses but no impairment of sustained swimming capacity (U{sub crit}) in single swim challenges. Swim trials were done over the course of the exposure and each one consisted of an initial swim to 85% of the U{sub crit} of control fish, a 30 min recovery period and finally a second swim challenge to determine U{sub crit}. Plasma and tissue samples were collected before and after each of the swim periods. As expected from previous studies, Cd exposure resulted in significant accumulation of Cd in gills, liver and kidney but not in white muscle. Exposure also induced a loss of plasma Ca followed by subsequent recovery (in lake whitefish but not brown trout) with few mortalities (100% survival for lake whitefish and 93% for brown trout). Both control and exposed fish swam to 85% of the single swim U{sub crit} and no differences in performance were seen. The Ucrit of unexposed controls in the second swim challenges were not different from the single swim Ucrit. However, second swim performance was significantly reduced in Cd exposed fish, particularly after a week of exposure

  5. The effects of chronic cadmium exposure on repeat swimming performance and anaerobic metabolism in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Jessie L; McGeer, James C

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effect of chronic Cd exposure on the ability to perform repeat swim challenges in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Fish were exposed to waterborne Cd (18nM) in moderately hard water (120mgL(-1) CaCO3) for 30 days. This level of exposure has been shown to cause sublethal physiological disruption and acclimation responses but no impairment of sustained swimming capacity (Ucrit) in single swim challenges. Swim trials were done over the course of the exposure and each one consisted of an initial swim to 85% of the Ucrit of control fish, a 30min recovery period and finally a second swim challenge to determine Ucrit. Plasma and tissue samples were collected before and after each of the swim periods. As expected from previous studies, Cd exposure resulted in significant accumulation of Cd in gills, liver and kidney but not in white muscle. Exposure also induced a loss of plasma Ca followed by subsequent recovery (in lake whitefish but not brown trout) with few mortalities (100% survival for lake whitefish and 93% for brown trout). Both control and exposed fish swam to 85% of the single swim Ucrit and no differences in performance were seen. The Ucrit of unexposed controls in the second swim challenges were not different from the single swim Ucrit. However, second swim performance was significantly reduced in Cd exposed fish, particularly after a week of exposure where 31% and 38% reductions were observed for brown trout and lake whitefish respectively. Swimming to 85% Ucrit resulted in metabolic expenditure with little recovery after 30min. Few differences were observed between control and Cd exposed fish with the exception of a reduction in resting white muscle ATP stores of Cd exposed fish after 1 week of exposure. The results show that chronic sublethal Cd exposure results in an impairment of swimming ability in repeat swim challenges but this impairment is generally not related to metabolic processes

  6. Reproductive isolation, evolutionary distinctiveness and setting conservation priorities: The case of European lake whitefish and the endangered North Sea houting (Coregonus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mensberg Karen-Lise D

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adaptive radiation within fishes of the Coregonus lavaretus complex has created numerous morphs, posing significant challenges for taxonomy and conservation priorities. The highly endangered North Sea houting (C. oxyrhynchus; abbreviated NSH has been considered a separate species from European lake whitefish (C. lavaretus; abbreviated ELW due to morphological divergence and adaptation to oceanic salinities. However, its evolutionary and taxonomic status is controversial. We analysed microsatellite DNA polymorphism in nine populations from the Jutland Peninsula and the Baltic Sea, representing NSH (three populations, two of which are reintroduced and ELW (six populations. The objectives were to: 1 analyse postglacial recolonization of whitefish in the region; 2 assess the evolutionary distinctiveness of NSH, and 3 apply several approaches for defining conservation units towards setting conservation priorities for NSH. Results Bayesian cluster analyses of genetic differentiation identified four major groups, corresponding to NSH and three groups of ELW (Western Jutland, Central Jutland, Baltic Sea. Estimates of historical migration rates indicated recolonization in a north-eastern direction, suggesting that all except the Baltic Sea population predominantly represent postglacial recolonization via the ancient Elbe River. Contemporary gene flow has not occurred between NSH and ELW, with a divergence time within the last 4,000 years suggested from coalescence methods. NSH showed interbreeding with ELW when brought into contact by stocking. Thus, reproductive isolation of NSH was not absolute, although possible interbreeding beyond the F1 level could not be resolved. Conclusion Fishes of the C. lavaretus complex in the Jutland Peninsula originate from the same recolonization event. NSH has evolved recently and its species status may be questioned due to incomplete reproductive isolation from ELW, but it was shown to merit

  7. Characteristics, stratigraphic architecture, and time framework of multi-order mixed siliciclastic and carbonate depositional sequences, outcropping Cisco Group (Late Pennsylvanian and Early Permian), Eastern Shelf, north-central Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wan; Kominz, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    The Cisco Group on the Eastern Shelf of the Midland Basin is composed of fluvial, deltaic, shelf, shelf-margin, and slope-to-basin carbonate and siliciclastic rocks. Sedimentologic and stratigraphic analyses of 181 meter-to-decimeter-scale depositional sequences exposed in the up-dip shelf indicated that the siliciclastic and carbonate parasequences in the transgressive systems tracts (TST) are thin and upward deepening, whereas those in highstand systems tracts (HST) are thick and upward shallowing. The sequences can be subdivided into five types on the basis of principal lithofacies, and exhibit variable magnitude of facies shift corresponding to variable extents of marine transgression and regression on the shelf. The sequence stacking patterns and their regional persistence suggest a three-level sequence hierarchy controlled by eustasy, whereas local and regional changes in lithology, thickness, and sequence type, magnitude, and absence were controlled by interplay of eustasy, differential shelf subsidence, depositional topography, and pattern of siliciclastic supply. The outcropping Cisco Group is highly incomplete with an estimated 6-11% stratigraphic completeness. The average duration of deposition of the major (third-order) sequences is estimated as 67-102 ka on the up-dip shelf and increases down dip, while the average duration of the major sequence boundaries (SB) is estimated as 831-1066 ka and decreases down dip. The nondepositional and erosional hiatus on the up-dip shelf was represented by lowstand deltaic systems in the basin and slope.

  8. Coordination-induced spin crossover (CISCO) through axial bonding of substituted pyridines to nickel-porphyrins: sigma-donor versus pi-acceptor effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, Steffen; Bornholdt, Claudia; Köhler, Felix; Sönnichsen, Frank D; Näther, Christian; Tuczek, Felix; Herges, Rainer

    2010-09-03

    Nickel-porphyrins, with their rigid quadratic planar coordination framework, provide an excellent model to study the coordination-induced spin crossover (CISCO) effect because bonding of one or two axial ligands to the metal center leads to a spin transition from S=0 to S=1. Herein, both equilibrium constants K(1S) and K(2), and for the first time also the corresponding thermodynamic parameters DeltaH(1S), DeltaH(2), DeltaS(1S), and DeltaS(2), are determined for the reaction of a nickel-porphyrin (Ni-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin) with different 4-substituted pyridines by temperature-dependent NMR spectroscopy. The association constants K(1S) and K(2) are correlated with the basicity of the 4-substituted pyridines (R: OMe>H>CO(2)Et>NO(2)) whereas the DeltaH(1S) values exhibit a completely different order (OMeCO(2)Et>NO(2)). 4-Nitropyridine exhibits the largest binding enthalpy, which, however, is overcompensated by a large negative binding entropy. We attribute the large association enthalpy of nitropyridine with porphyrin to the back donation of electrons from the Ni d(xz) and d(yz) orbitals into the pi orbitals of pyridine, and the negative association entropy to a decrease in vibrational and internal rotation entropy of the more rigid porphyrin-pyridine complex. Back donation for the nitro- and cyanopyridine complexes is also confirmed by IR spectroscopy, and shows a shift of the N-O and C-N vibrations, respectively, to lower wave numbers. X-ray structures of 2:1 complexes with nitro-, cyano-, and dimethylaminopyridine provide further indication of a back donation. A further trend has been observed: the more basic the pyridine the larger is K(1S) relative to K(2). For nitropyridine K(2) is 17 times larger than K(1S) and in the case of methoxypyridine K(2) and K(1S) are almost equal.

  9. GnRH在性成熟高白鲑神经系统及性腺中的分布定位%An Immunocytochemical Localization of GnRH in the Nerve System and Gonad of Mature Coregonus peled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玉洁; 贾斌; 柳建新; 李志远; 张莉

    2011-01-01

    摘要:应用免疫组织化学方法,系统观察性成熟期高白鲑(Coregonus peled)神经系统及性腺中的促性腺激素释放激素( GnRH)的分布情况。结果表明,GnRH在大脑、小脑、中脑、脊髓、延髓中免疫阳性反应明显,且主要分布在神经元内。GnRH免疫阳性细胞在卵巢和精巢中均有分布,而且其阳性部位在卵巢主要分布于小生长期卵母细胞;在精巢中主要分布于间质细胞和精原细胞中。本文讨论了GnRH直接或间接参与高白鲑性腺发育成熟调节的可能性。%Immunocytochemical staining technique was used to study the expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the nervous system and gonad of Coregonus peled. The results showed that there were GnRH immunoreactive endocrine cells in the cerebrum,cerebellum,diencephalon,medulla oblongata,and spinal cord. There were GnRH immunoreactive endocrine cells in the ovary and testis. The positive staining was observed mainly in the small growing oocyte, and in the interstitial cells and spermatogonia. The possible physiological function and morphological evidence of GnRH regulation on the development of gonad in C. Peled were discussed.

  10. Cisco Router Configuration with IP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiqur Rahman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks. Routers perform the "traffic directing" functions on the Internet. A data packet is typically forwarded from one router to another through the networks that constitute the internetwork until it reaches its destination node. A router is connected to two or more data lines from different networks (as opposed to a network switch, which connects data lines from one single network. When a data packet comes in on one of the lines, the router reads the address information in the packet to determine its ultimate destination. Then, using information in its routing table or routing policy, it directs the packet to the next network on its journey. This creates an overlay internetwork. The most familiar type of routers are home and small office routers that simply pass data, such as web pages, email, IM, and videos between the home computers and the Internet. An example of a router would be the owner's cable or DSL router, which connects to the Internet through an ISP. More sophisticated routers, such as enterprise routers, connect large business or ISP networks up to the powerful core routers that forward data at high speed along the optical fiber lines of the Internet backbone. Though routers are typically dedicated hardware devices, use of software-based routers has grown increasingly common.

  11. Habitat coupling in a large lake system: delivery of an energy subsidy by an offshore planktivore to the nearshore zone of Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Jason D.; Yule, Daniel L.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Sierszen, Michael E.; Isaac, Edmund J.

    2014-01-01

    1. We hypothesised that the autumn spawning migration of Lake Superior cisco (Coregonus artedi) provides a resource subsidy, in the form of energy-rich cisco eggs, from the offshore pelagic to the nearshore benthic community over winter, when alternate prey production is likely to be low. 2. We tested this hypothesis using fish and macroinvertebrate surveys, fish population demographics, diet and stable isotope analyses, and bioenergetics modelling. 3. The benthic, congeneric lake whitefish (C. clupeaformis) was a clear beneficiary of cisco spawning. Cisco eggs represented 16% of lake whitefish annual consumption in terms of biomass, but 34% of energy (because of their high energy density: >10 kJ g wet mass−1). Stable isotope analyses were consistent with these results and suggest that other nearshore fish species may also rely on cisco eggs. 4. The lipid content of lake whitefish liver almost doubled from 26 to 49% between November and March, while that of muscle increased from 14 to 26% over the same period, suggesting lake whitefish were building, rather than depleting, lipid reserves during winter. 5. In the other Laurentian Great Lakes, where cisco populations remain very low and rehabilitation efforts are underway, the offshore-to-nearshore ecological link apparent in Lake Superior has been replaced by non-native planktivorous species. These non-native species spawn in spring have smaller eggs and shorter incubation periods. The rehabilitation of cisco in these systems should reinstate the onshore subsidy as it has in Lake Superior.

  12. Physiological and ecological effects of increasing temperature on fish production in lakes of Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Michael P.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2014-01-01

    Lake ecosystems in the Arctic are changing rapidly due to climate warming. Lakes are sensitive integrators of climate-induced changes and prominent features across the Arctic landscape, especially in lowland permafrost regions such as the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. Despite many studies on the implications of climate warming, how fish populations will respond to lake changes is uncertain for Arctic ecosystems. Least Cisco (Coregonus sardinella) is a bellwether for Arctic lakes as an important consumer and prey resource. To explore the consequences of climate warming, we used a bioenergetics model to simulate changes in Least Cisco production under future climate scenarios for lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain. First, we used current temperatures to fit Least Cisco consumption to observed annual growth. We then estimated growth, holding food availability, and then feeding rate constant, for future projections of temperature. Projected warmer water temperatures resulted in reduced Least Cisco production, especially for larger size classes, when food availability was held constant. While holding feeding rate constant, production of Least Cisco increased under all future scenarios with progressively more growth in warmer temperatures. Higher variability occurred with longer projections of time mirroring the expanding uncertainty in climate predictions further into the future. In addition to direct temperature effects on Least Cisco growth, we also considered changes in lake ice phenology and prey resources for Least Cisco. A shorter period of ice cover resulted in increased production, similar to warming temperatures. Altering prey quality had a larger effect on fish production in summer than winter and increased relative growth of younger rather than older age classes of Least Cisco. Overall, we predicted increased production of Least Cisco due to climate warming in lakes of Arctic Alaska. Understanding the implications of increased production of Least Cisco to

  13. Обеспечение безопасности оборудования Cisco Systems с помощью списков контроля доступа

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Учебное пособие раскрывает вопросы практического применения методов и средств защиты информации в компьютерных сетях. В качестве платформы для построения защищенных сетей рассмотрены технологии и программно-аппаратные комплексы фирмы Cisco Systems. В пособии рассмотрены основные команды операционной системы Cisco IOS, вопросы администрирования маршрутизаторов и межсетевых экранов, способы обнаружения сетевых компьютерных атак на базе комплексов Cisco IDS Sensor и Cisco MARS. Основной акцент в...

  14. Comparing climate change and species invasions as drivers of coldwater fish population extirpations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna Sharma

    Full Text Available Species are influenced by multiple environmental stressors acting simultaneously. Our objective was to compare the expected effects of climate change and invasion of non-indigenous rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax on cisco (Coregonus artedii population extirpations at a regional level. We assembled a database of over 13,000 lakes in Wisconsin, USA, summarising fish occurrence, lake morphology, water chemistry, and climate. We used A1, A2, and B1 scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC of future temperature conditions for 15 general circulation models in 2046-2065 and 2081-2100 totalling 78 projections. Logistic regression indicated that cisco tended to occur in cooler, larger, and deeper lakes. Depending upon the amount of warming, 25-70% of cisco populations are predicted to be extirpated by 2100. In addition, cisco are influenced by the invasion of rainbow smelt, which prey on young cisco. Projecting current estimates of rainbow smelt spread and impact into the future will result in the extirpation of about 1% of cisco populations by 2100 in Wisconsin. Overall, the effect of climate change is expected to overshadow that of species invasion as a driver of coldwater fish population extirpations. Our results highlight the potentially dominant role of climate change as a driver of biotic change.

  15. Reflections on American Patent Inducement of Infringement Rules---Comment on Commil USA, LLC.v.Cisco System, Inc.Case%对美国专利引诱侵权规则的几点思考--兼评美国Commil公司诉Cisco公司引诱侵权案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓文

    2016-01-01

    最近,美国最高法院提审了“Commil公司诉Cisco公司”专利引诱侵权案,就专利引诱侵权提出了新的判断规则,并就“积极引诱”行为的主观意图认定标准作了进一步确认。文章从分析美国专利引诱侵权方面的立法及最新司法判例出发,对主观意图认定标准作了进一步探讨,并对提出的最新判断规则进行了评述。%Recently, the US Supreme Court arraigned "Commil USA,LLC.V.Cisco System, Inc."patent inducement of infringement case , proposing a new judge rule on the case .What's more, the standards on subjective intention of"actively induces infringement"have been further identified .This thesis is prepare to analysis the latest legislative and judicial precedents about the patent inducement of infringement in the United States , making further discussion about "actively induces"recognized standards .Also, it's going to make commentary about the new rule that the US Supreme Court proposed .

  16. Content comparison of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in traditionally smoked freshwater fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Pietrzak-Fiećko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the content of chosen PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene in meat of different freshwater fish species that were traditionally (directly smoked. The survey covered 16 freshwater fish samples of four species: rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, carp (Cyprinus carpio, vendace (Coregonus albula and eel (Anguilla anguilla. Average content of sum of four PAHs in meat of trout, carp, vendace and eel was: 2.73, 8.23, 6.45 and 3.65 µg/kg of meat, respectively. Maximum levels of chosen PAHs in meat of examined fish species were not exceeded by any of the samples. Conducted studies confirmed that meat of traditionally smoked trout, carp, vendace and eel is safe in terms of content of the analysed PAHs.

  17. A Performance Support Tool for Cisco Training Program Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Angela D.; Bothra, Jashoda; Sharma, Priya

    2004-01-01

    Performance support systems can play an important role in corporations by managing and allowing distribution of information more easily. These systems run the gamut from simple paper job aids to sophisticated computer- and web-based software applications that support the entire corporate supply chain. According to Gery (1991), a performance…

  18. Plasticity in habitat use determines metabolic response of fish to global warming in stratified lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Susan; Kirillin, Georgiy; Mehner, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    We used a coupled lake physics and bioenergetics-based foraging model to evaluate how the plasticity in habitat use modifies the seasonal metabolic response of two sympatric cold-water fishes (vendace and Fontane cisco, Coregonus spp.) under a global warming scenario for the year 2100. In different simulations, the vertically migrating species performed either a plastic strategy (behavioral thermoregulation) by shifting their population depth at night to maintain the temperatures occupied at current in-situ observations, or a fixed strategy (no thermoregulation) by keeping their occupied depths at night but facing modified temperatures. The lake physics model predicted higher temperatures above 20 m and lower temperatures below 20 m in response to warming. Using temperature-zooplankton relationships, the density of zooplankton prey was predicted to increase at the surface, but to decrease in hypolimnetic waters. Simulating the fixed strategy, growth was enhanced only for the deeper-living cisco due to the shift in thermal regime at about 20 m. In contrast, simulating the plastic strategy, individual growth of cisco and young vendace was predicted to increase compared to growth currently observed in the lake. Only growth rates of older vendace are reduced under future global warming scenarios irrespective of the behavioral strategy. However, performing behavioral thermoregulation would drive both species into the same depth layers, and hence will erode vertical microhabitat segregation and intensify inter-specific competition between the coexisting coregonids.

  19. Concentration of mercury in muscles of predatory and non-predatory fish from lake Pluszne (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łuczyńska Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The study examined the concentration of total mercury and correlation coefficients between fish size or FCF (condition factor and the content of Hg in muscle tissue of six freshwater fish: bream (Abramis brama L., roach (Rutilus rutilus L., whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L., vendace (Coregonus albula L., perch (Perca fluviatilis L., and pike (Esox lucius L.. Material and Methods: The fish were caught from the Lake Pluszne located in the Olsztyn Lake District (Poland. Mercury was analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry using Milestone DMA-80 (with dual-cell. Results: The content of the element in the muscles of the examined fish was as follows: pike (0.197 mg/kg ≈ perch (0.173 mg/kg > vendace (0.114 mg/kg ≈ roach (0.095 mg/kg and roach ≈ whitefish (0.065 mg/kg, and whitefish ≈ bream (0.042 mg/kg (p ≤ 0.05. In all cases, the content of mercury correlated positively with the body weight and total length of the fish. Only the correlation coefficients between mercury concentration and weight or length of bream were slightly higher (0.979 and 0.977 respectively, p ≤ 0.001. The length and weight relationship of the fish was also determined. Conclusion: The results showed that the levels of mercury were lower than the maximum acceptable limit established by the Commission Regulation (EC No 629/2008 of 2 July 2008. Thus, they are safe from consumer health point of view.

  20. REARING OF PELED (COREGONUS PELED Gmelin IN POLYCULTURE WITH CYPRINIDS (CYPRINIDAE AND STURGEONS (ACIPENSERIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kurinenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the results of rearing and provide aquaculture-biological characteristic of peled reared in polyculture with sturgeons and cyprinids based on pond technology. Methodology. The material for the studies were fry, young-of-the-year, yearlings and age-1+ peled produced from eggs exported in March 2009 from Russian Federation. Rearing of peled was carried out based on the technology developed by the All-Union Scientific and Research Institute of Pond Fish Culture for coregonids with the use of methodical recommendations on the biotechnology of industrial rearing of seed coregonids. Studies were carried out at the pond fish farm “Korop” of Lviv region. Water supply of rearing ponds was done by self-flow. The investigation of fish diet and hydrobiological studies were carried out using conventional methods. Findings. We performed a study of fish egg incubation and produced larvae with their further rearing in floating cages to the fingerling stage. Rearing of peled in polyculture allows increasing the fish productivity parameters at the first year of rearing by 1.3%, at the second year by 0.9%. Average weights of age-1 and age-1+ peled were 185.3 g and 450 g, respectively. In these rearing conditions, daily growth of the young-of-the-year was within 0.1-1.5 g, age-1+ – 1.1-3.3 g. As a positive result of rearing, we should note high weight gain during winter period that was more than 50%. We also investigated qualitative and quantitative composition of zooplankton and peled juvenile diet. Originality. The works of peled rearing based on pond technology in polyculture with sturgeons and cyprinids were carried out in the conditions of Ukraine for the first time. Practical value. The results of the performed works along with similar previous works on peled rearing in ponds will be used for the creation of methodical recommendations on rearing of peled seeds, which will be used by Ukrainian fish farms in future.

  1. Islands in the ice stream: were spawning habitats for native salmonids in the Great Lakes created by paleo-ice streams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Stephen; Binder, Thomas R.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Menzies, John; Eyles, Nick; Janssen, John; Muir, Andrew M.; Esselman, Peter C.; Wattrus, Nigel J.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis and cisco Coregonus artedi are salmonid fishes native to the Laurentian Great Lakes that spawn on rocky substrates in the fall and early winter. After comparing the locations of spawning habitat for these species in the main basin of Lake Huron with surficial substrates and the hypothesized locations of fast-flowing Late Wisconsinan paleo-ice streams, we hypothesize that much of the spawning habitat for these species in Lake Huron is the result of deposition and erosion by paleo-ice streams. This hypothesis may represent a new framework for the identification and protection of spawning habitat for these native species, some of which are currently rare or extirpated in some of the Great Lakes. We further suggest that paleo-ice streams may have been responsible for the creation of native salmonid spawning habitat elsewhere in the Great Lakes and in other glaciated landscapes.

  2. Terrestrial and marine trophic pathways support young-of-year growth in a nearshore Arctic fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Biela, Vanessa R.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Cohn, Brian R.; Welker, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    River discharge supplies nearshore communities with a terrestrial carbon source that is often reflected in invertebrate and fish consumers. Recent studies in the Beaufort Sea have documented widespread terrestrial carbon use among invertebrates, but only limited use among nearshore fish consumers. Here, we examine the carbon source and diet of rapidly growing young-of-year Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) using stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N) from muscle and diet analysis (stomach contents) during a critical and previously unsampled life stage. Stable isotope values (δ15N and δ13C) may differentiate between terrestrial and marine sources and integrate over longer time frames (weeks). Diet analysis provides species-specific information, but only from recent foraging (days). Average δ13C for all individuals was −25.7 ‰, with the smallest individuals possessing significantly depleted δ13C values indicative of a stronger reliance of terrestrial carbon sources as compared to larger individuals. Average δ15N for all individuals was 10.4 ‰, with little variation among individuals. As fish length increased, the proportion of offshore Calanus prey and neritic Mysis prey increased. Rapid young-of-year growth in Arctic cisco appears to use terrestrial carbon sources obtained by consuming a mixture of neritic and offshore zooplankton. Shifts in the magnitude or phenology of river discharge and the delivery of terrestrial carbon may alter the ecology of nearshore fish consumers.

  3. Desain Topologi Jaringan Kabel Nirkabel PDII-LIPI dengan Cisco Three-Layered Hierarchical menggunakan NDLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD TEGUH KURNIAWAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Saat ini Teknologi Informasi (TI merupakan salah satu hal yang penting dalam suatu perusahaan. Dalam penerapan TI diperlukan infrastruktur jaringan yang dapat mendukung pertukaran informasi baik melalui intranet mauapun internet yang diakses melalui kabel maupun nirkabel. Salah satu pendukung Infrastruktur jaringan adalah topologi jaringan yang handal.  PDII-LIPI (Pusat Dokumentasi dan Informasi Ilmiah - Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia Jakarta merupakan lembaga di bawah LIPI yang berfokus pada tiga kegiatan yaitu  jasa  dokumentasi,  jasa  informasi, pembinaan dan pengembangan bidang dokumentasi informasi. Untuk mendukung proses bisnis berbasis TI di PDII-LIPI diperlukan infrastruktur jaringan yang memadai. Oleh karena itu, pada penelitian ini dilakukan perancangan infrastruktur jaringan kabel dan nirkabel di PDII-LIPI dengan menggunakan metode Network Development Life Cycle (NDLC. Metode ini berguna dalam mengembangkan infrastruktur jaringan kabel dan nirkabel dan dapat memantau kinerja jaringan. Dengan penelitian ini diharapkan dapat membantu PDII-LIPI dalam membangun, dan mengembangkan infrastruktur jaringan kabel dan nirkabel agar lebih optimal dalam mendukung proses bisnis yang ada. Kata Kunci : topologi jaringan, kabel, nirkabel, NDLC, PDII-LIPI. ABSTRACT Information Technology (IT has significant influence to a company. The robust network IT infrastructure should be installed earlier, supporting the information exchange through internet or intranet and it also should be easily accessible via wired or wireless network.  PDII-LIPI (Pusat Dokumentasi dan Informasi Ilmiah - Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia Jakarta is an organization under LIPI which focuses on three processes for instance the documentation services, the  information services and the development of  documentation services. PDII-LIPI has already used IT to support those businesses so they must carefully choose the best network IT infrastructure. To achieve this objective, we propose a research which design wired and wireless network infrastructure at PDII – LIPI. We use Network Development Life Cycle (NDLC as a method for solving problem. This method is very useful in developing wired and wireless network infrastructure and it can monitor network performance. We expect the research can help PDII - LIPI in building and developing the infrastructure of wired and wireless networks to be more optimized in supporting existing business processes. Keywords : network topology, wired, wireless, NDLC, PDII-LIPI.

  4. The age, growth, and distribution of the longjaw cisco, Leucichthys alpenae Koelz, in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobes, Frank W.

    1949-01-01

    The longjaw (Leucichthys alpenae) was found at all of the 109 stations fished in the open lake during 1930–1932 and at 29 of the 32 stations in Green Bay in 1930 and 1932. Koelz (1929) found the longjaw at 35 localities, 33 of which were different from those fished in 1930–1932. The species was most abundant in water with a depth of less than 70 fathoms, but was found as deep as 97 fathoms. The longjaw was estimated to be about 4 1/3 times as abundant along the east shore of southern Lake Michigan as along the west shore in 1930 and 1931. The abundance along the east shore in 1930–1931 was estimated to be approximately equal to that in northern Lake Michigan in 1932. The best explanation for the relative scarcity of L. alpenae along the west shore is that a more intensive fishery, with smaller sizes of mesh, was operating on a separate population.

  5. Delivering an Intelligent Foundation for RFID: Maximizing Network Efficiency with Cisco RFID Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) is one of today s most anticipated technologies for a broad range of enterprises. Based on the promise of lower operating costs combined with more accurate product and asset information, organizations .Rfrom manufacturers to government agencies, retailers to healthcare providers , Rare introducing RFID technologies in the supply chain, for asset tracking and management, and for security and regulatory purposes.

  6. Real-time DDoS attack detection for Cisco IOS using NetFlow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeg, van der Daniël; Hofstede, Rick; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    2015-01-01

    Flow-based DDoS attack detection is typically performed by analysis applications that are installed on or close to a flow collector. Although this approach allows for easy deployment, it makes detection far from real-time and susceptible to DDoS attacks for the following reasons. First, the fact tha

  7. WIRELESS ADHOC MULTI ACCESS NETWORKS OPTIMIZATION USING OSPF ROUTING PROTOCOL BASED ON CISCO DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. Khedr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most attractive field for research for researchers and authors so the Wireless adhoc networks. So, this paper will describe the background and basic features of Open Short Path First (OSPF routing protocol due to multi-access networks. Explaining and practice on the OSPF configuration commands. Describe, modify and calculate the metric (Cost used by OSPF due to adhoc networks. Illustrating the Election parameters made by DR/BDR (Designated and Back Designated Routers used in multi-access wireless networks. This paper will use OSPF routing protocol because of its average administrative distance with all routing protocols.

  8. Analysis of Cisco Open Network Environment (ONE) OpenFlow Controller Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    or match criteria to ports that are not connected) as well as the ability to install and uninstall a flow from switches without deleting it entirely...Port recognition Not explicit Yes Install/ uninstall flows NA Yes Set dynamic flows Requires code manipulation Yes 6 5.2 OpenFlow Control Channel...Setup The initial handshake between the controller and switch was monitored using packet analysis tools capable of understanding OpenFlow protocol

  9. Contrasting population and life history responses of a young morph-pair of European whitefish to the invasion of a specialised coregonid competitor, vendace.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odd Terje Sandlund

    Full Text Available Invasions of non-native species represent a global problem of great scientific interest. Here we study in detail the response in population and life history characteristics of closely related native species, with divergent habitat preferences, that are impacted by an invading species over a sufficient time period to allow a new stable state to become established. A time series of 20 years starting at the first occurrence of the invader (vendace Coregonus albula (L. allows exploration of the long term population and life history response of two ecologically, morphologically, and genetically different native sympatric morphs (DR- and SR- of congeneric whitefish C. lavaretus (L.. The whitefish morphs are taxonomically equally related to the invading vendace, but only the planktivorous DR-whitefish share its pelagic niche. We would expect that the ecological differences between the whitefish morphs may be used as a predictor of competitive effects. Vendace exhibited an initial boom-and-bust development, and has continued to fluctuate in density. The responses of the pelagic DR-whitefish were: i an immediate habitat shift, ii a subsequent population decline caused by increased annual mortality, and iii a new stable state at a lower density and apparently relaxed competition. The ecologically more distant benthivorous SR-whitefish also showed significant, but a much more limited response during this process, indicating damped indirect interactions through the food-web. This long-term case-study found that in two native eco-species equally related to the invader, only one of the eco-species was highly affected. Direct competition for resources is obviously important for species interactions, whereas the taxonomic relatedness per se seems to offer little predictive power for invasion effects.

  10. 77 FR 61330 - Policies Regarding Mobile Spectrum Holdings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... significant investment in new facilities.'' \\35\\ \\32\\ See Cisco White Paper, Cisco Visual Networking Index....cisco.com/en/US/solutions/collateral/ns341/ns525/ns537/ns705/ns827/white_paper_c11-520862.pdf (last... Sept. 6, 2012). \\34\\ See Cisco White Paper, Cisco Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data...

  11. Postglacial recolonization patterns and genetic relationships among whitefish ( Coregonus sp.) populations in Denmark, inferred from mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons; Berg, Søren

    1999-01-01

    of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) segments, The endangered North Sea houting (classified as C. oxyrhynchus) differs morphologically and physiologically from other Danish whitefish (C. lavaretus). However, limited divergence of North Sea houting was observed both at the level of mtDNA and microsatellites....... The implications of these results for the conservation status of North Sea houting are discussed in the light of current definitions of evolutionary significant units. Both mtDNA and microsatellite data indicated that postglacial recolonization by C. lavaretus in Denmark was less likely to have taken place from...

  12. Ontogenetic differentiation of swimming performance and behaviour in relation to habitat availability in the endangered North Sea houting (Coregonus oxyrinchus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Brandt; Jensen, Lasse Fast; Schulz, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    ). We compared laboratory swimming performance data with water speeds in North Sea houting spawning areas in the Danish River Vidaa. Results showed that the water speeds present in 95% and 85% of the water column caused downstream displacement of larvae and juveniles, respectively. However, areas...... and behaviour, including the potential of habitat complexity to influence dispersal rates. By testing larval and juvenile North Sea houting in a laboratory, we examined (1) swimming performance measured as maximum swimming performance (Umax) and routine swimming speed (Uroutine) and (2) the potential of habitat...... complexity (i.e., cover providing shade) to influence dispersal behaviour in an indoor stream channel. The Umax and the Uroutine were 9.4 and 4.6 cm s−1, respectively, in the larvae [body length (BL) s−1: 7.3 and 3.5, respectively], and 25.2 and 16.3 cm s−1 in the juveniles (BL s−1: 7.0 and 5.2, respectively...

  13. Additive genetic variation for tolerance to estrogen pollution in natural populations of Alpine whitefish (Coregonus sp., Salmonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazzola, Gregory; Chèvre, Nathalie; Wedekind, Claus

    2014-11-01

    The evolutionary potential of natural populations to adapt to anthropogenic threats critically depends on whether there exists additive genetic variation for tolerance to the threat. A major problem for water-dwelling organisms is chemical pollution, and among the most common pollutants is 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), the synthetic estrogen that is used in oral contraceptives and that can affect fish at various developmental stages, including embryogenesis. We tested whether there is variation in the tolerance to EE2 within Alpine whitefish. We sampled spawners from two species of different lakes, bred them in vitro in a full-factorial design each, and studied growth and mortality of embryos. Exposure to EE2 turned out to be toxic in all concentrations we tested (≥1 ng/L). It reduced embryo viability and slowed down embryogenesis. We found significant additive genetic variation in EE2-induced mortality in both species, that is, genotypes differed in their tolerance to estrogen pollution. We also found maternal effects on embryo development to be influenced by EE2, that is, some maternal sib groups were more susceptible to EE2 than others. In conclusion, the toxic effects of EE2 were strong, but both species demonstrated the kind of additive genetic variation that is necessary for an evolutionary response to this type of pollution.

  14. The age, growth, sexual maturity, and sex ratio of the common whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchill), of Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oosten, John

    1939-01-01

    During five years (1939-43) of nutritional research on pen-reared bobwhite quail at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, observations on picking among birds of all ages showed the following results: 1. Picking occurred on all grains tested: corn, wheat, oats, oat groats, barley, millet, buckwheat, kaffir, and mixtures of cereals. The lowest incidence was with buckwheat as the sole grain in a growing diet....2. Picking occurred on all levels of fiber from one to 11per cent in a growing diet....3. Picking occurred on various grinds of corn, barley, and oats, but was least when these cereals were ground in a hammer mill with 3/32 inch mesh screen....4. The incidence was as high on diets containing animal protein as on those containing no animal protein. ....5. After picking began, the addition of one or two per cent of salt to the diet for several days was effective, in many instances, in checking the disorder. Results at the Refuge and the answers to questionnaires from 222 private propagators of gamebirds showed that in two-thirds. of the cases, treatment with an increased quantity of salt successfully stopped the trouble. As a preventative, however, salt was of little value. Picking occurred on both low and high levels of salt.....6. Supplementing the regular diet with certain feed concentrates such as fishmeal, soybean oil meal, liver meal, or chopped greens offered in a separate feeder for a day or two, was as efficacious as the addition of salt.....7. More picking occurred among quail chicks on a 22 per cent level of protein than on higher levels.....8. There was less picking on diets relished by the birds than on those seemingly unpalatable.....9. There was no correlation. between the amount of floor space per chick and the incidence of picking.....10. Increasing the feeding and drinking space seemed to have a marked beneficial effect.....11. Some adult birds on wire floors resorted to self-picking of their feet after the toes were frost-bitten.

  15. A study of fluctuating asymmetry in hybrids of dwarf and normal lake whitefish ecotypes (Coregonus clupeaformis) from different glacial races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G; Bernatchez, L

    1999-12-01

    Fish ecotypes found in north temperate lakes are increasingly used as model organisms to explore patterns and processes of population divergence that may ultimately cause speciation. Processes involved in their reproductive isolation are, however, still poorly understood. Recent experimental studies on whitefish ecotypes from different glacial races revealed that embryonic mortality of hybrids was 2.4-4.7 times higher than for parental forms. In this study, we compared fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in morphological traits of these same hybrid and pure crosses to test the hypothesis that genetic stress observed in hybrids at embryonic stages is also manifested at later developmental stages. Twelve morphological traits were used to measure asymmetry. Variable degrees of asymmetry were observed depending on traits and crosses, however there was no significant difference in FA among crosses. These results thus provided no evidence in support of the working hypothesis and indicated that genetic stress may differ among life stages. It is more likely that high hybrid embryonic mortality acts together with ecological factors at later stages to increase further the extent of reproductive isolation between sympatric whitefish ecotypes.

  16. Mitogenome sequencing reveals shallow evolutionary histories and recent divergence time between morphologically and ecologically distinct European whitefish (Coregonus spp.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Magnus W.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Orlando, Ludovic;

    2012-01-01

    the evolutionary history of the endangered Danish North Sea houting (NSH) and other closely related Danish and Baltic European lake whitefish (ELW). Two well-supported clades were found within both ELW and NSH, probably reflecting historical introgression via Baltic migrants. Although ELW and NSH...... colonized Denmark following the last glacial maximum, Bayesian Serial SimCoal analysis showed consistency with a scenario of long-term stability, resulting from a rapid initial sixfold population expansion. The findings illustrate the utility of mitogenome data for resolving recent intraspecific divergence...

  17. Seasonally dynamic diel vertical migrations of Mysis diluviana, coregonine fishes, and siscowet lake trout in the pelagia of western Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrenstorff, Tyler D.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Yule, Daniel L.; Sass, Greg G.

    2011-01-01

    Diel vertical migrations are common among many aquatic species and are often associated with changing light levels. The underlying mechanisms are generally attributed to optimizing foraging efficiency or growth rates and avoiding predation risk (μ). The objectives of this study were to (1) assess seasonal and interannual changes in vertical migration patterns of three trophic levels in the Lake Superior pelagic food web and (2) examine the mechanisms underlying the observed variability by using models of foraging, growth, and μ. Our results suggest that the opossum shrimp Mysis diluviana, kiyi Coregonus kiyi, and siscowet lake trout Salvelinus namaycush migrate concurrently during each season, but spring migrations are less extensive than summer and fall migrations. In comparison with M. diluviana, kiyis, and siscowets, the migrations by ciscoes C. artedi were not as deep in the water column during the day, regardless of season. Foraging potential and μ probably drive the movement patterns of M. diluviana, while our modeling results indicate that movements by kiyis and ciscoes are related to foraging opportunity and growth potential and receive a lesser influence from μ. The siscowet is an abundant apex predator in the pelagia of Lake Superior and probably undertakes vertical migrations in the water column to optimize foraging efficiency and growth. The concurrent vertical movement patterns of most species are likely to facilitate nutrient transport in this exceedingly oligotrophic ecosystem, and they demonstrate strong linkages between predators and prey. Fishery management strategies should use an ecosystem approach and should consider how altering the densities of long-lived top predators produces cascading effects on the nutrient cycling and energy flow in lower trophic levels.

  18. Investigating the Impact of the Cisco 21st Century Schools Initiative on Hattiesburg Public School District. Summative Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Harouna; Meade, Terri; Pierson, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Camille; Roy, Amanda; Williams, Hakim

    2009-01-01

    The Hattiesburg Public School District (HPSD) is a small urban school system located in southern Mississippi. Of the almost 4,500 students enrolled in its nine schools, 92 percent are African American and 90 percent receive free or reduced lunch. Currently, HPSD employs 34 administrators, 375 teachers, and 11 technology specialists. When the 21st…

  19. Ally or Acquire? Case Studies of Compaq and Cisco as Additional Tests of the External Technology Life Cycle Model

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Edward B.; Liu, Kathy Wenyun

    2003-01-01

    In our first paper we proposed a dynamic theory relating alliances and acquisitions to the evolution of a technology and the market it serves. Industry structure and critical success factors change as the underlying technology evolves from phase to phase, competitive pressures exerted on a firm vary, and companies respond by adopting changing approaches to inter- firm collaboration. During the fluid phase new technology companies often form marketing alliances with established technology firm...

  20. 75 FR 43555 - Hewlett Packard; Hewlett Packard-Enterprise Business Services Formerly Known as Electronic Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ...., Dell Computer Corp., EMC Corp., EMC Corp. Total, Cisco Systems Capital Corporation, Microsoft Corp..., Cisco Systems Capital Corp., Microsoft Corp., Symantec Corp., Xerox Corp., VMWare, Inc.,...

  1. 75 FR 63509 - Hewlett Packard, Hewlett Packard-Enterprise Business Services, Formerly Known as Electronic Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ...., Dell Computer Corp., EMC Corp., EMC Corp. Total, Cisco Systems Capital Corporation, Microsoft Corp.... Total, Cisco Systems Capital Corp., Microsoft Corp., Symantec Corp., Xerox Corp., VMWare, Inc.,...

  2. Evaluating the importance of abiotic and biotic drivers on Bythotrephes biomass in Lakes Superior and Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Kevin M.; Bunnell, David B.; Diana, James S.; Adams, Jean V.; Mychek-Londer, Justin G.; Warner, David M.; Yule, Daniel; Vinson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The ability of planktivorous fishes to exert top-down control on Bythotrephes potentially has far-reaching impacts on aquatic food-webs, given previously described effects of Bythotrephes on zooplankton communities. We estimated consumption of Bythotrephes by planktivorous and benthivorous fishes, using bioenergetics and daily ration models at nearshore (18 m), intermediate (46 m), and offshore (110 m) depths along one western Lake Superior transect (April, and September-November) and two northern Lake Michigan transects (April, July, September). In Lake Superior, consumption (primarily by cisco Coregonus artedi) exceeded Bythotrephes production at all offshore sites in September-November (up to 396% of production consumed) and at the intermediate site in November (842%) with no evidence of consumption nearshore. By comparing Bythotrephes biomass following months of excessive consumption, we conservatively concluded that top-down control was evident only at the offshore site during September-October. In Lake Michigan, consumption by fishes (primarily alewife Alosa pseudoharengus) exceeded production at nearshore sites (up to 178%), but not in deeper sites (models, temperature, and not fish consumption, not zooplankton prey density, best explained variability in Bythotrephes biomass. The non-linear pattern revealed Bythotrephes to increase with temperature up to 16 °C, and then decline between 16 and 23 °C. We discuss how temperature likely has direct negative impacts on Bythotrephes when temperatures near 23 °C, but speculate that predation also contributes to declining biomass when temperatures exceed 16 °C.

  3. 75 FR 10439 - Cognitive Radio Technologies and Software Defined Radios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... clarification filed by Cisco Systems, Inc. (``Cisco'') requesting that the Commission clarify: (1) The... of software that controls security measures in software defined radios. 3. In responding to the Cisco... response to the Cisco petition for reconsideration that raised the issue of using open source software...

  4. Comparative analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes suggests that relaxed purifying selection is driving high nonsynonymous evolutionary rate of the NADH2 gene in whitefish (Coregonus ssp.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars Magnus W.; Rodrigues da Fonseca, Rute Andreia; Bernatchez, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have recently reported evidence for positive selection acting on the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome), emphasizing its potential role in adaptive divergence and speciation. In this study we searched 107 full mitogenomes of recently diverged species and lineages of whitefish (Core...

  5. Investigation of wild caught whitefish, Coregonus lavaretus (L.), for infection with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and experimental challenge of whitefish with VHSV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Kjær, Torben Egil; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    into contact with farmed rainbow trout. All samples were examined on cell cultures. No viruses were isolated. Three viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) isolates of different origin were tested in infection trials by immersion and intraperitoneal (IP) injection, using 1.5 g farmed whitefish: an isolate...... in the spread of VHSV in Denmark is probably not significant. The experimental studies, however, showed that whitefish are potential carriers of VHSV as they suffer only low mortality after infection but continue to carry virus....

  6. Exogenous thyroid hormones regulate the activity of citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase in warm- but not cold-acclimated lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Megan A; Regish, Amy M; McCormick, Stephen D; Manzon, Richard G

    2017-02-14

    Thermal acclimation is known to elicit metabolic adjustments in ectotherms, but the cellular mechanisms and endocrine control of these shifts have not been fully elucidated. Here we examined the relationship between thermal acclimation, thyroid hormones and oxidative metabolism in juvenile lake whitefish. Impacts of thermal acclimation above (19 °C) or below (8 °C) the thermal optimum (13 °C) and exposure to exogenous thyroid hormone (60 µg T4/g body weight) were assessed by quantifying citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase activities in liver, red muscle, white muscle and heart. Warm acclimation decreased citrate synthase activity in liver and elevated both citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase activities in red muscle. In contrast, induction of hyperthyroidism in warm-acclimated fish stimulated a significant increase in liver citrate synthase and heart cytochrome c oxidase activities, and a decrease in the activity of both enzymes in red muscle. No change in citrate synthase or cytochrome c oxidase activities was observed following cold acclimation in either the presence or absence of exogenous thyroid hormones. Collectively, our results indicate that thyroid hormones influence the activity of oxidative enzymes more strongly in warm-acclimated than in cold-acclimated lake whitefish, and they may play a role in mediating metabolic adjustments observed during thermal acclimation.

  7. Illumina Sequencing Reveals Aberrant Expression of MicroRNAs and Their Variants in Whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus Liver after Exposure to Microcystin-LR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Brzuzan

    Full Text Available Molecular analyses show that challenging fish with microcystin-LR (MC-LR causes perturbations of microRNA (miRNA signaling. However, the significance and scope of these alterations is currently unknown. To address this issue, we studied miRNA gene expression in the liver of juvenile whitefish, C. lavaretus, during 28 days of exposure to a subacute dose of MC-LR (100 μg·kg-1 body mass. Using genomic resources of Atlantic salmon (AGKD03, the mature miRNA library of Atlantic salmon (miRBase-21 and bioinformatics tools (sRNAbench, we discovered and annotated a total of 377 distinct mature miRNAs belonging to 93 families of evolutionary conserved miRNAs, as well as 24 novel mature miRNA candidates that were mapped to 14 distinct S. salar miRNA precursors. miRNA-Seq transcriptome profiling of liver tissues revealed differential miRNA expression in control and treated fish at 14 days (73 miRNAs were modulated and at 28 days (83 miRNAs of the treatment, subsequently validated by qPCR for nine selected differentially expressed miRNAs. Additional qPCR study confirmed the miRNA-Seq data and revealed consistent, aberrant miRNAs expression profile in the later phase of MC-LR hepatotoxicity (7-28 d. Functional annotation analysis revealed that the aberrantly expressed miRNAs have target genes involved in cytoskeletal remodeling, cell metabolism, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis; dysregulation of these processes in liver cells leads to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in humans. To enable deeper insight into the molecular responses of liver cells in fish exposed to MC-LR, we expanded the miRNAome analysis by inclusion of miRNA variants (isomiRs profiles, and we showed that the isomiR profiles of liver specific MiR122, and a few other miRNAs, correlated with MC-LR treatment. Given the importance of isomiRs for disease biology in mammals, we believe that further research focused on the miRNA isoforms will bring us closer to better understanding the molecular mechanisms of MC-LR hepatotoxicity.

  8. Can migration mitigate the effects of ecosystem change? Patterns of dispersal, energy acquisition and allocation in Great Lakes lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Michael D.; Ebener, Mark P.; Wagner, Tyler

    2012-01-01

    Migration can be a behavioural response to poor or declining home range habitat quality and can occur when the costs of migration are overcome by the benefi ts of encountering higher-quality resources elsewhere. Despite dramatic ecosystem-level changes in the benthic food web of the Laurentian Great Lakes since the colonization of dreissenid mussels, coincident changes in condition and growth rates among benthivorous lake whitefi sh populations have been variable. We hypothesized that this variation could be in part mitigated by differences in migratory habits among populations, where increased migration distance can result in an increased probability of encountering high-quality habitat (relative to the home range). Results from four Great Lakes populations support this hypothesis; relative growth rates increased regularly with migration distance. The population with the largest average migration distance also had the least reduction in size-at-age during a period of signifi cant ecosystem change and among the highest estimated consumption and activity rates. In comparison, the population with the greatest declines in size-at-age was among the least mobile, demonstrating only moderate rates of consumption and activity. The least mobile population of lake whitefi sh was supported by a remnant Diporeia population and has experienced only moderate temporal growth declines. Our study provides evidence for the potential role of migration in mitigating the effects of ecosystem change on lake whitefi sh populations.

  9. Cisco系列路由器密码恢复的研究与实践%Research and Practice for Password Recovery of Cisco Series Router

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘加勤

    2004-01-01

    就Cisco系列路由器密码丢失问题做出探讨.由于Cisco公司的网络设备是整个网络行业的行业标准,大多网络产品在制造时都模仿了Cisco公司的产品,掌握Cisco公司产品的使用,也就能熟练运用其他网络产品了.

  10. Geologic map of the Duncan Peak and southern part of the Cisco Grove 7 1/2' quadrangles, Placer and Nevada Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, David S.; Fisher, G. Reid; Waugh, Barbara J.

    1995-01-01

    This map covers an area of 123 km2 on the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, an uplifted and west-tilted range in eastern California (fig. 1). The area is located 20 km west of Donner Pass, which lies on the east escarpment of the range, and about 80 km east of the Great Valley Province. Interstate Highway 80 is the major route over the range at this latitude and secondary roads, which spur off from this highway, provide access to the northern part of the area. None of the secondary roads crosses the deep canyon cut by the North Fork of the American River, however, and access to the southern part of the area is provided by logging roads that spur off from the Foresthill Divide Road that extends east from Auburn to the Donner Pass area (fig. 1).

  11. Comércio eletrônico, modelos de negócios e a dinâmica organizacional : caso Cisco

    OpenAIRE

    Rufino, Mônica Soares

    2010-01-01

    Trata dos modelos de negócio que as empresas adotam para implantar o comércio eletrônico e obter vantagens competitivas. Aborda as características dos modelos de negócio, assim como, as estratégias e a dinâmica organizacional inerentes ao processo.

  12. Secure, Network-Centric Operations of a Space-Based Asset: Cisco Router in Low Earth Orbit (CLEO) and Virtual Mission Operations Center (VMOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William; Stewart, Dave; Shell, Dan; Wood, Lloyd; Paulsen, Phil; Jackson, Chris; Hodgson, Dave; Notham, James; Bean, Neville; Miller, Eric

    2005-01-01

    This report documents the design of network infrastructure to support operations demonstrating the concept of network-centric operations and command and control of space-based assets. These demonstrations showcase major elements of the Transformal Communication Architecture (TCA), using Internet Protocol (IP) technology. These demonstrations also rely on IP technology to perform the functions outlined in the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Space Link Extension (SLE) document. A key element of these demonstrations was the ability to securely use networks and infrastructure owned and/or controlled by various parties. This is a sanitized technical report for public release. There is a companion report available to a limited audience. The companion report contains detailed networking addresses and other sensitive material and is available directly from William Ivancic at Glenn Research Center.

  13. Radium-226 in water, sediments, and fish from lakes near the city of Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clulow, F V; Davé, N K; Lim, T P; Avadhanula, R

    1998-01-01

    Ra-226 was measured by alpha-emission spectroscopy in water, sediments, and fish (tissues and gut contents), from five lakes in a watershed containing U mining and milling operations at Elliot Lake, Ontario, and from control lakes in an adjacent non-industrialized watershed. Ra-226 transfer parameters from lake water and sediments to fish tissues, and annual intakes by humans consuming fish, were estimated. Mean dissolved 226Ra levels ranged from approximately 76 mBq litre(-1) in water of the most affected lake, to Ra-226 levels in lake trout muscle were low and showed erratic variation among lakes whereas levels in whitefish muscle did not vary significantly among study and control sites. Lake herring (= cisco, Coregonus artedii), a planktivorous fish taken only from Quirke Lake, had mean 226Ra levels of 18 and 1.4 mBq g(-1) dry wt in bone and muscle, respectively. Gut 226Ra levels, highest in lake trout from McCabe and Quirke Lakes (126 +/- 53, 64 +/- 44 mBq g(-1) dry wt, respectively), and just detectable in McCabe and Elliot Lake whitefish (24 +/- 2, 36 +/- 14 mBq g(-1) dry wt, respectively), were below detection in lake trout and whitefish from other lakes. Concentration ratios (CRs) of 226Ra from water to muscle ranged from 8 to 14 in lake trout, 7 to 14 in whitefish, and 4 to 6 in lake herring. The water to bone CRs varied from 81 to 142, 314 to 548, and 126 to 272 in the same species. CRs were always 2 mSv year(-1)) and the public dose limit (5 mSv year(-1)).

  14. Use of classification trees to apportion single echo detections to species: Application to the pelagic fish community of Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Daniel L.; Adams, Jean V.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Vinson, Mark R.; Woiak, Zebadiah; Ahrenstroff, Tyler D.

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic methods are used to estimate the density of pelagic fish in large lakes with results of midwater trawling used to assign species composition. Apportionment in lakes having mixed species can be challenging because only a small fraction of the water sampled acoustically is sampled with trawl gear. Here we describe a new method where single echo detections (SEDs) are assigned to species based on classification tree models developed from catch data that separate species based on fish size and the spatial habitats they occupy. During the summer of 2011, we conducted a spatially-balanced lake-wide acoustic and midwater trawl survey of Lake Superior. A total of 51 sites in four bathymetric depth strata (0–30 m, 30–100 m, 100–200 m, and >200 m) were sampled. We developed classification tree models for each stratum and found fish length was the most important variable for separating species. To apply these trees to the acoustic data, we needed to identify a target strength to length (TS-to-L) relationship appropriate for all abundant Lake Superior pelagic species. We tested performance of 7 general (i.e., multi-species) relationships derived from three published studies. The best-performing relationship was identified by comparing predicted and observed catch compositions using a second independent Lake Superior data set. Once identified, the relationship was used to predict lengths of SEDs from the lake-wide survey, and the classification tree models were used to assign each SED to a species. Exotic rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) were the most common species at bathymetric depths 100 m (384 million; 6.0 kt). Cisco (Coregonus artedi) were widely distributed over all strata with their population estimated at 182 million (44 kt). The apportionment method we describe should be transferable to other large lakes provided fish are not tightly aggregated, and an appropriate TS-to-L relationship for abundant pelagic fish species can be determined.

  15. A Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for the Detection and Quantification of Epizootic Epitheliotropic Disease Virus (EEDV; Salmonid Herpesvirus 3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenney, Gavin W; Barbash, Patricia A; Coll, John A

    2016-03-01

    Epizootic epitheliotropic disease virus (EEDV; salmonid herpesvirus [SalHV3]; family Alloherpesviridae) causes a systemic disease of juvenile and yearling Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush. No cell lines are currently available for the culture and propagation of EEDV, so primary diagnosis is limited to PCR and electron microscopy. To better understand the pervasiveness of EEDV (carrier or latent state of infection) in domesticated and wild Lake Trout populations, we developed a sensitive TaqMan quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to detect the presence of the EEDV terminase gene in Lake Trout tissues. This assay was able to detect a linear standard curve over nine logs of plasmid dilution and was sensitive enough to detect single-digit copies of EEDV. The efficiency of the PCR assay was 99.4 ± 0.06% (mean ± SD), with a 95% confidence limit of 0.0296 (R(2) = 0.994). Methods were successfully applied to collect preliminary data from a number of species and water bodies in the states of Pennsylvania, New York, and Vermont, indicating that EEDV is more common in wild fish than previously known. In addition, through the development of this qPCR assay, we detected EEDV in a new salmonid species, the Cisco Coregonus artedi. The qPCR assay was unexpectedly able to detect two additional herpesviruses, the Atlantic Salmon papillomatosis virus (ASPV; SalHV4) and the Namaycush herpesvirus (NamHV; SalHV5), which both share high sequence identity with the EEDV terminase gene. With these unexpected findings, we subsequently designed three primer sets to confirm initial TaqMan qPCR assay positives and to differentiate among EEDV, ASPV, and NamHV by detecting the glycoprotein genes via SYBR Green qPCR. Received April 20, 2015; accepted November 10, 2015.

  16. 75 FR 36646 - Notice of a Waiver of Section 1605 of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... district reported that the existing VoIP system comprises Cisco telephones, servers, and software as well as American Power Conversion (APC) power supply and surge suppression equipment. While both Cisco and... District has provided information to the Department documenting that there are no Cisco telephones,...

  17. Facing the IT Talent Squeeze in a Networked Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Ten years ago, Cisco began working with schools on a pilot initiative called the Cisco Networking Academy. Today, the Networking Academy program operates in more than 160 countries, comprising a network of more than 7,600 schools that teach the information technology skills essential in a global economy. Cisco Networking Academy has partnered with…

  18. 用SNMP管理Cisco设备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞祥

    2006-01-01

    我们单位骨干交换机多数采用Cisco系列,三层交换机为Cisco 3550,二层交换机为Cisco 2950和Cisco 2924,路由器为Cisco7507,防火墙为Cisco PIX 520。最近我利用SNMP例管软件对Cisco设备进行了图形化界面、实时监测的网络管理,下面介绍一下具体的实现办法。

  19. Kakskümmend kaks kala eesti rahvausundis. III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mall Hiiemäe

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic herring Clupea harengus membras, a local subspecies of the North Atlantic herring which had reached the Baltic Sea nearly 5,000 years ago, is probably the most important food fish (for salting both in the coastal regions as well as everywhere else in Estonia. The need to determine the exact time of fishing has inspired nearly 30% of its popular names, mainly on the basis of orientation to phenological phenomena or popular festivals.Vendace/whitefish? Coregonus albula and rudds Rutilus rutilus and Scardinius erythrophthalmus, as common fresh-water fishes, are mentioned mostly in relation to omens. According to a legend the smelt Osmerus eperlanus smelled of horsemeat, as the fish were believed to have been born of drowned horses. According to ichthyologists, reports stating that the freshwater form of this species usually found in Lake Peipus had also been discovered in Estonia's largest inland-lake (Lake Võrtsjärv date back to the 19th century. By the mid-20th century the species had disappeared from Lake Võrtsjärv. A popular belief accuses the competing Russian fishers who had used magic to make the fish disappear (Orthodox peoples ate primarily fish during the Lent.The Baltic cod Gadus morhua callarias was traditionally caught with trawl-lines, as suggest the words of the spelling song in the article. The making of cod line was also associated with magic. Similar to the pike, the Baltic cod was considered a mythological being of the underworld (it has been called a one-eyed hog, piglet, etc.. The outward appearance of the fish has become to be thought as resembling the face of the Evil One (cf. Loorits 1926: US 95.Various long-jawed species of fish have been popularly called 'windfish'. In coastal villages people used to hang the windfish outside and use it as a windsock. The coming of garpike Belone belone to the coastal waters before the Midsummer Day indicates the beginning of the Baltic herring's fishing season

  20. 250台Cisco ISR 2800入驻河北农行思科最新型路由器助力金融网络统一平台建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ 互联网领域的全球领先厂商--思科系统公司对外宣布,在中国农业银行河北省分行(简称河北农行)最近实施的三级网络改造工程中,全省250个区县级支行全部采用了思科公司最新的集成多业务路由器ISR 2800,这是思科ISR集成多业务路由器发布以来在国内最大规模部署的几个案例之一.

  1. 近期路由器/防火墙漏洞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Cisco CSA用户系统权限提升漏洞,Ciseo IOS操作系统中HTTP服务HTML代码注入漏洞,Cisco PIX6.3/7.0欺骗TCPSYN报文拒绝服务漏洞,Cisco 7920无线IP电话固定SNMP团体字符串漏洞,

  2. CISCO公司将给圣荷西市带来繁荣和财富

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    广瀛

    2000-01-01

    CISCO 公司将要购买硅谷圣荷西市的寇幽特谷地(Coyote Valley),建立 CISCO 公司一个能容纳两万员工的,该公司最大的工作营地。这个计划要花费十三亿美元,是 CISCO 公司又一大手笔。表面看起来是 CISCO 公司的扩展计划,但实际

  3. Cisco在中国电信市场中发挥重要作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Cisco Systems 公司近日与中国电信签订了扩大组建 ChinaNet(“163网”)和中国多媒体服务网(“169网”)全国主干网项目,这是 Cisco 在中国市场所赢得的一系列电信项目中又一创举。Cisco 总裁兼首席执行官 John Chambers 先生9月18日在北京宣布,中国电信已经选用 Cisco 设备。

  4. Continuously Connected With Mobile IP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Cisco Systems developed Cisco Mobile Networks, making IP devices mobile. With this innovation, a Cisco router and its connected IP devices can roam across network boundaries and connection types. Because a mobile user is able to keep the same IP address while roaming, a live IP connection can be maintained without interruption. Glenn Research Center jointly tested the technology with Cisco, and is working to use it on low-earth-orbiting research craft. With Cisco's Mobile Networks functionality now available in Cisco IOS Software release 12.2(4)T, the commercial advantages and benefits are numerous. The technology can be applied to public safety, military/homeland security, emergency management services, railroad and shipping systems, and the automotive industry. It will allow ambulances, police, firemen, and the U.S. Coast Guard to stay connected to their networks while on the move. In the wireless battlefield, the technology will provide rapid infrastructure deployment for U.S. national defense. Airline, train, and cruise passengers utilizing Cisco Mobile Networks can fly all around the world with a continuous Internet connection. Cisco IOS(R) Software is a registered trademark of Cisco Systems.

  5. Nokia sai vastukäivaid soovitusi / Annika Matson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matson, Annika, 1976-

    2005-01-01

    Ajalehe Business andmetel kaalub Cisco Systems Nokia ostmist. Analüütikute hinnangul on uudis spekulatsioon. Diagramm: Spekulatsioon kergitas Nokia aktsiat. Tabel: Esmaspäeval antud soovitused Nokia aktsiale. Vt. samas Cisco Systemsilt oodati kasumi kasvu 16 protsendi võrra

  6. Offshore Fish Community: Ecological Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The offshore (>80 m) fish community of Lake Superior is made up of predominately native species. The most prominent species are deepwater sculpin, kiyi, cisco, siscowet lake trout, burbot, and the exotic sea lamprey. Bloater and shortjaw cisco are also found in the offshore zone...

  7. Wang Shutong: A Woman Who Enjoys Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    "My friends tell me I am lucky. When Microsoft became a giant, I was already workingthere. At the time Cisco ranked first in terms of market value, I was marketing general manag-er of Cisco China, and when network fever swept across China, Ijoinedjoyo.com," says WangShutong, her eyes gleaming.

  8. FastLane: Agile Drop Notification for Datacenter Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    gifts from Amazon Web Services, Google, SAP, Cisco, Clearstory Data, Cloudera, Ericsson, Facebook, FitWave, General Electric, Hortonworks, Huawei ...Google, SAP, Cisco, Clearstory Data, Cloudera, Ericsson, Facebook, FitWave, General Electric, Horton- 12 works, Huawei , Intel, Microsoft, NetApp, Oracle

  9. 业界动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Cisco公司日前推出了帮助网络管理员部署、监视和调试安全服务和大规模VPN的新软件Cisco Works2000 VPN/安全蓝图设计的。Cisco Works2000 VPN/安全管理解决方案将Cisco Works2000 Routed WAN(RWAN)和Cisco的局域网管理解决方案结合在一起,为进行电子商务提供了基于Internet的综合管理产品。

  10. CCENT study guide exam 100-101 (ICND1)

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd

    2013-01-01

    The latest offering from Cisco Expert Todd Lammle for the New CCENT Certification Written by industry expert and Cisco networking guru, Todd Lammle, CCENT Study Guide improves on the popular Sybex Study Guide approach by providing 100 percent coverage of the ICND1 (#100-101) exam objectives. The book contains detailed information and examples on crucial Cisco networking topics, and provides practical examples and insights drawn from Todd's almost 30 years of real-world experience. You'll also have access to dozens of hands-on labs to get the necessary experience needed to pass

  11. CCNA Security Study Guide, Exam 640-553

    CERN Document Server

    Boyles, Tim

    2010-01-01

    A complete study guide for the new CCNA Security certification exam. In keeping with its status as the leading publisher of CCNA study guides, Sybex introduces the complete guide to the new CCNA security exam. The CCNA Security certification is the first step towards Cisco's new Cisco Certified Security Professional (CCSP) and Cisco Certified Internetworking Engineer-Security. With a foreword by CCNA networking authority Todd Lammle, CCNA Security Study Guide fully covers every exam objective. The companion CD includes the Sybex Test Engine, flashcards, and a PDF of the book.: The CCNA Securit

  12. 给网络刹车

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓东

    2005-01-01

    我们公司的网络拓扑图如下:集团用户A(VLANl)和集团用户B(VLAN2)分别接入公司汇聚交换机以Cisco 3550的载Fa0/1和Fa0/8上互联网,Cisco 3550其它端口有个人用户上互联网,Cisco 3550的Fa0/48和路由器Cisco 2621的E0/0对接,路由器的S0/0接入电信的城域网。

  13. CISCO接班人辞职创新业

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方晓

    2000-01-01

    人们公认的 CISCO 公司未来接班人,执行副总裁唐纳德·李斯特文(Donald J.Listwin)突然决定辞职,他要到一家小公司当首席执行官(CEO)。这个消息不仅在 CISCO 公司内部引起了震动,也让高科技产业同仁感到突然和不解。CISCO 公司目前是如日中天、闻名于世界的高科技大公司,能到CISCO 公司工作已是很多人羡慕的

  14. Roheliste sõrmedega moto- ja itimees / Endo Viires ; interv. Merlis Nõgene

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viires, Endo

    2007-01-01

    Võrguseadmeid ja kommunikatsioonilahendusi pakkuva Cisco Eesti juht räägib IT-müügimehe tööst, konkurentsist ja koolitusest, infotehnoloogia tulevikust, oma perekonnast ja hobidest. Kommenteerib sõber Tarmo Katmuk

  15. Vilistlastest kutseõpetajad Tartu kutsekoolidest / Jaan Sakson, Toomas Lepik, Margit Tennosaar, Kairi Partsioja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Küsimustele vastavad metalliala kutseõpetaja Jaan Sakson, CISCO labori instruktor Toomas Lepik, veebidisaini ja e-kaubanduse kutseõpetaja Margit Tennosaar ja kelneri eriala õpilane kairi Partsioja

  16. 75 FR 17803 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Company (``GE''); Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. (``GS''); Microsoft Corporation (``MSFT''); Qualcomm, Inc... Devices, Inc. (``AMD''); AMR Corporation (``AMR''); Caterpillar, Inc. (``CAT''); Cisco Systems, Inc... Financial Bear 3X Shares (``FAZ''); SPDR Gold Trust (``GLD''); Intel Corporation (``INTC''); JPMorgan...

  17. FastLane: An Agile Congestion Signaling Mechanism for Improving Datacenter Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    Cloudera, Ericsson, Facebook, General Electric, Hortonworks, Huawei , Intel, Microsoft, NetApp, Oracle, Quanta, Samsung, Splunk, VMware and Yahoo...Web Services, Google, SAP, Blue Goji, Cisco, Clearstory Data, Cloud- era, Ericsson, Facebook, General Electric, Hortonworks, Huawei , Intel, Microsoft

  18. Cisco路由器的备份与恢复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余海

    2005-01-01

    笔者在日常工作中总结积累了一些Cisco 2600路由器的ISO以及配置文件的备份和恢复方法,在此与大家分享.由于这些方法同样适用于与Cisco 2600相近的路由器,故文中通称为Cisco路由器.

  19. Speech Quality Monitoring in Czech National Research Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rozhon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with techniques of measuring and assessment of the voice transmitted in IP networks and describes design of quality measurement, which can be used for Cisco Gateways. Cisco gateways send Calculated Planning Impairment Factor in every CDR (Call Detail Record. Our design is based on collection of CDR's, their storing into SQL database and their visualization through web page. This design was implemented and successfully tested in CESNET network.

  20. 近期路由器/防火墙漏洞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Cisco安全监控分析和响应系统默认管理口令漏洞;Ciseo Aironet无线接人点ARP攻击拒绝服务的漏洞;Cisco IOS SGBP畸形报文存住远程拒绝服务的漏洞;Cisco CallManager解决办案端11管理拒绝服务漏洞;……

  1. Analyzing the Effects of the Weapon Systems Acquisition Reform Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-28

    Parachutist Badge, and Air Assault Badge. He is also a member of the Honorable Order of Saint Barbara and holds certifications in Joint Firepower control...member of the Order of Saint George and holds Cisco Certified Network Associate, Cisco Certified Network Associate-Voice, and Certified Ethical Hacker...secretary of war, Simon Cameron, due to contracting “corruption and mismanagment” (Schwartz, 2013, p. 12). Other acquisition reforms continued in

  2. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ia10 and Vip3Aa protein interactions and their toxicity in Spodoptera spp. (Lepidoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, V B; Mendes, D R P; Fernandes, O A; Desidério, J A; Lemos, M V F

    2013-02-01

    The polyphagous pests belonging to the genus Spodoptera are considered to be among the most important causes of damage and are widely distributed throughout the Americas'. Due to the extensive use of genetically modified plants containing Bacillus thuringiensis genes that code for insecticidal proteins, resistant insects may arise. To prevent the development of resistance, pyramided plants, which express multiple insecticidal proteins that act through distinct mode of actions, can be used. This study analyzed the mechanisms of action for the proteins Cry1Ia10 and Vip3Aa on neonatal Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera albula, Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera cosmioides larvae. The interactions of these toxins with receptors on the intestinal epithelial membrane were also analyzed by binding biotinylated toxins to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) from the intestines of these insects. A putative receptor of approximately 65 kDa was found by ligand blotting in all of these species. In vitro competition assays using biotinylated proteins have indicated that Vip3Aa and Cry1Ia10 do not compete for the same receptor for S. frugiperda, S. albula and S. cosmioides and that Vip3Aa was more efficient than Cry1Ia10 when tested individually, by bioassays. A synergistic effect of the toxins in S. frugiperda, S. albula and S. cosmioides was observed when they were combined. However, in S. eridania, Cry1Ia10 and Vip3Aa might compete for the same receptor and through bioassays Cry1Ia10 was more efficient than Vip3Aa and showed an antagonistic effect when the proteins were combined. These results suggest that using these genes to develop pyramided plants may not prove effective in preventing the development of resistance in S. eridiana.

  3. Lake trout demographics in relation to burbot and coregonine populations in the Algonquin Highlands, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that lake trout populations change in relation to cisco, lake whitefish, round whitefish and burbot populations in lakes in the Algonquin Highlands region of Ontario. Lake trout population change is greatest where cisco and lake whitefish are present. Lake trout populations in lakes without either coregonine tend to have small adults and many juveniles. Where cisco or lake whitefish are present, adult lake trout are large, juvenile abundance is low, and the stock-recruit relationship appears to be uncoupled likely due to a larval bottleneck. Lake trout populations in these lakes may be sensitive to overfishing and recruitment failure. Lake trout populations do not appear to change in relation to round whitefish. There appears to be an indirect positive change on juvenile lake trout abundance through reductions in the density of benthic coregonines in the presence of large, hypolimnetic burbot. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  4. 近期其他漏洞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    IBMDB2存在多个拒绝服务漏洞;IBM Director中存在多个拒绝服务和信息泄露漏洞;Cisco IOS中GRE报文存在路由选项解析时溢出漏洞;Cisco网络准入控制NAC存在代理安装安全绕过漏洞;Cisco VPN 3000集线器FTP管理任意文件访问漏洞……

  5. New Phone System Coming to NCI Campus at Frederick | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Travis Fouche and Trent McKee, Guest Writers Beginning in September, phones at the NCI Campus at Frederick will begin to be replaced, as the project to upgrade the current phone system ramps up. Over the next 16 months, the Information Systems Program (ISP) will be working with Facilities Maintenance and Engineering and Computer & Statistical Services to replace the current Avaya phone system with a Cisco Unified Communications phone system. The Cisco system is already in use at the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF).

  6. Network Warrior

    CERN Document Server

    Donahue, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Pick up where certification exams leave off. With this practical, in-depth guide to the entire network infrastructure, you'll learn how to deal with real Cisco networks, rather than the hypothetical situations presented on exams like the CCNA. Network Warrior takes you step by step through the world of routers, switches, firewalls, and other technologies based on the author's extensive field experience. You'll find new content for MPLS, IPv6, VoIP, and wireless in this completely revised second edition, along with examples of Cisco Nexus 5000 and 7000 switches throughout. Topics include: An

  7. Mobile Router Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, David H.; Bell, Terry L.; Kachmar, Brian A.; Shell, Dan; Leung, Kent

    2002-01-01

    Cisco Systems and NASA have been performing joint research on mobile routing technology under a NASA Space Act Agreement. Cisco developed mobile router technology and provided that technology to NASA for applications to aeronautic and space-based missions. NASA has performed stringent performance testing of the mobile router, including the interaction of routing and transport-level protocols. This paper describes mobile routing, the mobile router, and some key configuration parameters. In addition, the paper describes the mobile routing test network and test results documenting the performance of transport protocols in dynamic routing environments.

  8. A review of the past and present status of anadromous fish species in the Netherlands: is restocking the Rhine feasible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de S.J.

    2002-01-01

    The paper reviews the past, present and future of eight anadromous fish species inhabiting the Lower Rhine (The Netherlands), viz. -sturgeon (Acipenser sturio), whitefish and houting (Coregonus lavaretus, C. oxyrinchus), smelt (Osmerus eperlanus), allis and twaite shad (Alosa alosa, A. fallax), sea

  9. Uuring osutab Eesti madalale konkurentsivõimele IT-vallas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Võrgutehnoloogiafirma Cisco Systems'i tellitud ja 31 Ida- ja Lääne-Euroopa riigis läbiviidud uuringu tulemusest, millest selgus, et Eestis kasvab IT-spetsialistide puudujääk. Vt. samas: Skype näeb võimalusi laienemiseks

  10. Validation and Adaptation of Router and Switch Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boltjes, B.; Fernandez Diaz, I.; Kock, B.A.; Langeveld, R.J.G.M.; Schoenmaker, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes validating OPNET models of key devices for the next generation IP-based tactical network of the Royal Netherlands Army (RNLA). The task of TNO-FEL is to provide insight in scalability and performance of future deployed networks. Because validated models ol key Cisco equipment we

  11. Kellel on kõige kiirem internetiühendus? / Kuldar Kullasepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kullasepp, Kuldar, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 22. sept. lk. 14. Oxfordi ülikooli ja Cisco Systems uuringust, mille tulemusena reastati maailma kvaliteetsemat internetiühendust pakkuvad riigid, Eestit esimese kümne hulgas pole. Tabel: Esikümme

  12. Suhtle kodukontoris töötajatega sobivaimate kanalite kaudu / Endo Viires

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viires, Endo

    2006-01-01

    Cisco tellitud ja firma Pearn Kandola läbiviidud uuringu kohaselt on virtuaalselt suhtlevad meeskonnad ebaefektiivsemad kui need, mille liikmed eelistavad vahetut suhtlust. Liigne e-posti tähtsustamine, teadetele vastamata jätmine ja valede suhtluskanalite kasutamine võib vähendada meeskonnaliikmete vahelist usaldust. Lisa: Näpunäiteid edukaks virtuaalseks suhtlemiseks

  13. Eestis on juba puudu üle 400 IT-spetsialisti / Kai Simson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Simson, Kai

    2006-01-01

    Cisco Systemsi poolt 31 Ida- ja Lääne-Euroopa riigis tehtud uuringu kohaselt on Eesti IT-spetsialistidega varustatuse paremusjärjestuses alles 28. kohal. Vt. samas lühiintervjuud e-Riigi Akadeemia direktori Ivar Talloga

  14. The Alignment of Morality and Profitability in Corporate Social Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Semeniuk (Joanna)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractNowadays most of the big companies pride themselves on their social responsibility. When visiting the websites of IBM, Cisco, ING, Philips, BP, etc., one will easily find a tab called ‘corporate social responsibility’, or ‘sustainability’.1 Here, companies describe how they contribute to

  15. V JeS ostraja nehvatka spetsialistov v IT-sektore / Ksenia Repson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Repson, Ksenia

    2006-01-01

    Võrgutehnoloogia firma Cisco Systems poolt tellitud ning 31 Euroopa riigis läbiviidud infotehnoloogiaalase uuringu tulemustest. Eesti on piirkonna riikide paremusjärjestuses 28. kohal, Eestis on praegu vajaka üle 400 IT-spetsialisti, aastaks 2008 võib eeldatav spetsialistide puudujääk kasvada 1000 inimeseni

  16. The Move to Mobile: Where Is a Campus's Place in the Mobile Space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Lydia

    2012-01-01

    At the end of 2010, for the first time ever, smartphones outsold PCs. Mobile device adoption rates continue to rise rapidly around the world. A recent forecast by Cisco found that global mobile data traffic more than doubled last year, and by the end of 2012, the number of mobile devices in use will outnumber the world's population. In the United…

  17. An improvement of tree-Rule firewall for a large network: supporting large rule size and low delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chomsiri, Thawatchai; He, Xiangjian; Nanda, Priyadarsi; Tan, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Firewalls are important network devices which provide first hand defense against network threat. This level of defense is depended on firewall rules. Traditional firewalls, i.e., Cisco ACL, IPTABLES, Check Point and Juniper NetScreen firewall use listed rule to regulate packet flows. However, the li

  18. A Three-Stage Colonel Blotto Game with Applications to Cyber-Physical Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-15

    organizations: AFOSR (\\#FA9550-06-1-0244), BT, Cisco, DoCoMo USA Labs, EADS, ESCHER, HP, IBM, iCAST , Intel, Microsoft, ORNL, Pirelli, Qualcomm, Sun...ESCHER, HP, IBM, iCAST , Intel, Microsoft, ORNL, Pirelli, Qualcomm, Sun, Symantec, TCS, Telecom Italia, and United Technologies. 1 updated number of

  19. DexterNet: An Open Platform for Heterogeneous Body Sensor Networks and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-19

    number CCF-0424422) and the following organizations: AFOSR (#FA9550-06-1-0244), Cisco, British Telecom, ESCHER, HP, IBM, iCAST , Intel, Microsoft, ORNL...ESCHER, HP, IBM, iCAST , Intel, Microsoft, ORNL, Pirelli, Qualcomm, Sun, Symantec, Telecom Italia and United Technologies. This work was also supported

  20. The Security of Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-24

    ESCHER, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, iCAST , Intel, Microsoft, ORNL, Pirelli, Qualcomm, Sun, Symantec, Telecom Italia, and United Technologies; in part by...Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR #FA9550- 06-1-0244), Cisco, British Telecom, ESCHER, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, iCAST , Intel, Mi- crosoft

  1. Systems and Software Producibility Collaboration and Experimental Environment (SPRUCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-23

    allocated network resources to different network topologies & behavior • Current ISISlab infrastructure – 4 IBM BladeCenters & 7 Cisco switches – Per... BladeCenter : 14 blades, 4 Gbps network I/O modules; 1 mgmt module – Per blade: two 2.8GHz Xeon CPUs, 1GB RAM, 4GB HD, 4Gbps network interfaces

  2. "One-Size-Does-Not-Fit-All": Teaching MBA Students Different ERP Implementation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Viswanath

    2008-01-01

    This teaching tip discusses an approach to educating MBA students regarding strategies to select, design, and implement enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. The teaching approach presented here discusses how to teach students about different strategies based success stories from three different organizations, namely Cisco, Tektronix, and…

  3. MUOS: Application in Naval Helicopter Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    day TV, low light TV, a Laser rangefinder/designator, and night vision device (NVD) compatible target marker. Subsequent upgrades to include the...http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/voice/voice-quality/7934-bwidth- consume.html CMC TacView system selected for USCG MH-65 Dolphin . (2012

  4. Network Management Temporal Database System Based on XTACACS Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper first analyzes the basic concepts of Cisco router user certification, XTACACS certification protocol and describes the data architecture of user data protocol, then defines a kind of doubly temporal databases and log-in transaction processing based on network management property, at last, introduces implementation technology and method.

  5. Assessment of Learning in Digital Interactive Social Networks: A Learning Analytics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark; Gochyyev, Perman; Scalise, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes initial field-test results from data analytics used in the work of the Assessment and Teaching of 21st Century Skills (ATC21S) project, on the "ICT Literacy--Learning in digital networks" learning progression. This project, sponsored by Cisco, Intel and Microsoft, aims to help educators around the world enable…

  6. Three Years After: Next Steps in the War on Terror

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    to a change in the objectives of terrorism—in particular, the growth in terrorism with religious and millennial motivations. He and colleagues from...first visit to San Fran- cisco and was asked how she liked the city, and she said, “Oh, it’s quite beautiful . But it’s so far from the ocean.” Shultz

  7. Mobile network architecture of the long-range WindScanner system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Nikola; Lea, Guillaume; Hansen, Per

    to the acquisition of the mobile network connections with static public IP addresses. The architecture consists of a hardware VPN solution based on the network appliances Z1 and MX60 from Cisco Meraki with additional 3G or 4G dongles. With the presented network architecture and appropriate configuration, we fulfill...

  8. 2002 Industry Studies: Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    coms, new tech giants, and venerable blue chips all hype their earnings. Cisco Systems, Inc. subtracts payroll taxes on employee stock options in its...sustained. Private sector stock options and other benefits are still lucrative attractions for the non-governmental positions. As well, the Federal

  9. Service-Oriented Architecture Afloat: A Capabilities-Based Prioritization Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    packet to arrive is the first to leave—or by Cisco Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED). WRED works by having the network router (ADNS in this...statistics for engineers and scientists (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Higher Education. Horton, M. C. (2012). Examination of a capabilities-based

  10. Analisis Unjuk Kerja Aplikasi VoIP Call Android di Jaringan MANET [Performance Analysis of VoIP Call Application Android in MANET (Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Ari Setyawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis kinerja aplikasi  VoIP call android di jaringan MANET (mobile ad hoc network.  Hasil pengujian menunjukan bahwa aplikasi VoIP call android dapat digunakan di jaringan MANET. Delay yang dihasilkan paling besar di pengujian indoor dengan jarak 11-15 meter yakni sebesar 0,014624811 seconds. Packet loss yang dihasilkan pada range 1%-2% sedangkan standar packet loss yang ditetapkan oleh CISCO untuk layanan aplikasi VoIP adalah < 5%. Jitter yang dihasilkan yakni antara 0,01-0,06 seconds sedangkan standar yang ditetapkan oleh CISCO adalah ≤ 30 ms atau 0,03 seconds. Throughput yang dihasilkan pada proses pengujian yakni antar 161 kbps-481 kbps. *****This study aims to analyze the performance of VOIP call android application in the MANET (mobile ad hoc network. The results showed that VoIP applications could be implemented in MANET network. The highest  delay is produced in indoor testing  with distance of 11-15 meters,  which is equal to 0.014624811 seconds. Packet loss is generated in the range of 1% -2%, while packet loss standards set by Cisco for VoIP application services are <5%. The jitter is between 0.01 to 0.06 seconds, while the standard set by CISCO is ≤ 30 ms or 0.03 seconds. Throughput generated in the testing process is between 161 kbps-481 kbps.

  11. 77 FR 40688 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... Depositary Receipts/ SPDRs (``SPY''), Bank of America Corporation (``BAC''), Citigroup, Inc. (``C''), Cisco Systems, Inc. (``CSCO''), Ford Motor Company Common Stock (``F''), Intel Corp (``INTC''), Microsoft Corporation (``MSFT''), JP Morgan Chase & Co. (``JPM''), SPDR Gold Shares (``GLD''), iShares Silver...

  12. 78 FR 39326 - Notice Pursuant To the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Opendaylight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ...., Gatineau, Quebec City, CANADA; Intel Corporation, Santa Clara, CA; Juniper Networks, Sunnyvale, CA; Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA; NEC Corporation, Tokyo, JAPAN; PLUMgrid Inc., Sunnyvale, CA; Radware LTD..., CA; Ciena Corporation, Hanover, MD; Cisco Systems Inc., San Jose, CA; Citrix Systems, Inc.,...

  13. The Smart/Empire Tipster IR System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    State Transducer for Extracting Information from Natural-Language Text. In E. Roche andY. Schabes , editor, Finite-State Language Processing, pages 383...Fran- cisco, CA, 1997. Morgan Kaufmann. [ 16] Roche, E. and Schabes , Y., editor. Finite State De- vices for Natural Language Processing. MIT Press

  14. Cognitive Adaptability: The Role of Metacognition and Feedback in Entrepreneural Decision Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Branson of Virgin -Atlantic, and Paul Orfalea of Kinko’s describe cognitive strategies such as thinking in pictures, employing analogies, and...cognitively adaptable in an environment that is inherently dynamic. 10 Entrepreneurs such as John Chambers of Cisco Corporation, Charles Schwab, Richard

  15. Environmental Assessment for North Warning System (Alaska)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-10

    providing coverage farther to the north, and thus cannot fulfill the NWS mission, because of ionospheric interference caused by the aurora borealis (the...fish, including boreal smelt, Arctic cod, cisco, char, whitefish, grayling, fourhorn sculpin, Alaska blackfish, and ninespine stickleback, seasonally

  16. Factors Impacting Adult Learner Achievement in a Technology Certificate Program on Computer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delialioglu, Omer; Cakir, Hasan; Bichelmeyer, Barbara A.; Dennis, Alan R.; Duffy, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the factors impacting the achievement of adult learners in a technology certificate program on computer networks. We studied 2442 participants in 256 institutions. The participants were older than age 18 and were enrolled in the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) technology training program as "non-degree" or…

  17. Army Communicator. Volume 34, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    sustain commercial IT industry standards certifica- tions (e.g. CCIE , CCNA, MCSE, CISSP, CompTIA Secu- rity +, CompTIA Network + and others) to do...implement a communications renovation plan at COB Q-West, Iraq. IT Lingo • CCIE - Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert is the highest level of professional

  18. Brave New World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2007-01-01

    Across the globe, progressive universities are embracing any number of MUVEs (multi-user virtual environments), 3D environments, and "immersive" virtual reality tools. And within the next few months, several universities are expected to test so-called "telepresence" videoconferencing systems from Cisco Systems and other leading technology…

  19. 78 FR 9985 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ...''). Company name Symbol Cisco Systems, Inc CSCO Dell Inc DELL Facebook, Inc FB Intel Corporation INTC..., believes that that the increased $0.0020 MPL credit in all Tape C Securities will have the desired effect... rule change that are filed with the Commission, and all written communications relating to the...

  20. Multi-Resource Fair Queueing for Packet Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    Huawei , Intel, MarkLogic, Microsoft, NetApp, Oracle, Quanta, Splunk, VMware and by DARPA (contract #FA8650-11-C-7136). Multi-Resource Fair Queueing for...Google PhD Fellowship, gifts from Amazon Web Services, Google, SAP, Blue Goji, Cisco, Cloud- era, Ericsson, General Electric, Hewlett Packard, Huawei

  1. Perancangan dan Implementasi Instrusion Detection System di Jaringan Universitas Diponegoro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyakso Anindito Nugroho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of information technology gives the advantage of open access for its users, but a new problem arises that there is a threat from unauthorized users. Intrusion Detection System (IDS is applied to assist administrator to monitoring network security. IDS displays illegal access information in a raw form which is require more time to read the detected threats. This final project aims to design an IDS with web application which is made for pulling information on IDS sensor database, then processing and representing them in tables and graphs that are easy to understand. The web application also has IpTables firewall module to block attacker's IP address. The hardware used is Cisco IPS 4240, two computers Compaq Presario 4010F as client and gateway, and Cisco Catalyst 2960 switch. The software used is Ubuntu 12.0 LTS Precise operating system, BackTrack 5 R1 operating system, PHP 5.4 programming language, MySQL 5 database, and web-based system configuration tool Webmin. Testing is done using several BackTrack applications with the aim of Cisco IPS 4240 is capable of detecting accordance with the applicable rules. Each events of any attack attempt or threat was obtained from IDS sensor database in XML form. XML file is sent using Security Device Event Exchange (SDEE protocol. The web application is tested by looking at the output tables and graphs that displays the appropriate results of sensor detection. This study generated an intrusion detection system that is easier to monitor. Network packets copied by the Cisco 2960 switch and then forwarded to the sensor. Intruder detection is done by Cisco IPS 4240 sensor. Log detection processed by the web application into tables and graphs. Intrusion detection systems are intended to improve network security.

  2. H.323 Based Collaborative Environment for High Energy and Nuclear Physics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TeijiNakamura; KiyoharuHashimoto; 等

    2001-01-01

    After having evaluated various H.323 products for these two years,KEK and Japanese HENP community started to move from ISDN(H.320)-based video conferencing environment into IP(H.323)-based one.Primary reason for the move is to cut down the ever increasing ISDN communication cost.At the same time the H.323 can offer us more powerful collaborative environment.In order to make KEK to be a center for the H.323-based collaborative environment in Japan,Picture Tel's LIVE GATEWAY as a H.320/H.323 gateway ,which is essential for the smooth transition,Cisco IP/VA 3510 as a H.323/MCU,and Cisco 2610 as a gatekeeper were installed at KEK in March 2001,And the transition started.In this paper,we'll describe the collaborative environment which our users can have,together with its operational results.

  3. Investigating operation of the Internet in orbit: Five years of collaboration around CLEO

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Lloyd; Eddy, Wes; Stewart, Dave; Northam, James; Jackson, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The Cisco router in Low Earth Orbit (CLEO) was launched into space as an experimental secondary payload onboard the UK Disaster Monitoring Constellation (UK-DMC) satellite in September 2003. The UK-DMC satellite is one of an increasing number of DMC satellites in orbit that rely on the Internet Protocol (IP) for command and control and for delivery of data from payloads. The DMC satellites, built by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL), have imaged the effects of Hurricane Katrina, the Indian Ocean Tsunami, and other events for disaster relief under the International Space and Major Disasters Charter. It was possible to integrate the Cisco mobile access router into the UK-DMC satellite as a result of the DMC satellites' adoption of existing commercial networking standards, using IP over Frame Relay over standard High-Level Data Link Control, or HDLC (ISO 13239) on standard serial interfaces. This approach came from work onboard SSTL's earlier UoSAT-12 satellite

  4. Stream Control Transmission Protocol Steganography

    CERN Document Server

    Fraczek, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a new transport layer protocol that is due to replace TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) protocols in future IP networks. Currently, it is implemented in such operating systems like BSD, Linux, HP-UX or Sun Solaris. It is also supported in Cisco network devices operating system (Cisco IOS) and may be used in Windows. This paper describes potential steganographic methods that may be applied to SCTP and may pose a threat to network security. Proposed methods utilize new, characteristic SCTP features like multi-homing and multistreaming. Identified new threats and suggested countermeasures may be used as a supplement to RFC 5062, which describes security attacks in SCTP protocol and can induce further standard modifications.

  5. Dynamic Routing of IP Traffic Based on QOS Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kriška

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article looks into the current state of the art of dynamic routing protocols with respect to their possibilities to react to changes in the Quality of Service when selecting the best route towards a destination network. New options that could leverage information about the ever changing QoS parameters for data communication are analysed and a Cisco Performance Routing solution is described more in detail. The practical part of this work focuses on a design and implementation of a test bed that provides ascalable laboratory architecture to manipulate QoS parameters of different data communications flowing through it. The test bed is used in various use cases that were used to evaluate Cisco Performance Routing optimization capabilities in different scenarios.

  6. A Comparison of OSPFv3 and EIGRPv6 in a Small IPv6 Enterprise Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard John Whitfield

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the Internet slowly transitions towards IPv6, the routing protocols that are used to forward traffic across this global network must adapt to support this gradual transition. Two of the most frequently discussed interior dynamic routing protocols today are the IETF’s OSPF and Cisco’s EIGRP routing protocol. A wealth of papers have compared OSPF and EIGRP in terms of converge times and resource usage, however few papers have assessed the performance of each when implementing their respective security mechanisms. Therefore a comparison of OSPFv3 and EIGRPv6 will be conducted using dedicated Cisco hardware. This paper will firstly introduce each protocol and its security mechanisms, before conducting a comparison of OSPFv3 and EIGRPv6 using Cisco equipment. After discussing the simulation results, a conclusion will be drawn to reveal the findings of this paper and which protocol performs the best upon implementing their respective security mechanisms within a small IPv6 enterprise network.

  7. 示范高职《路由与交换》课程双语教学的实施与探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁慧洁

    2009-01-01

    结合自身教学经验和行业CCAI国际认证讲师资质,将网络技术专业必修课课程内容融入目前行业认可的技术含量极高的Cisco Academy的CCNA(Cisco Certified Network Assitant)课程体系,开展双语教学改革.通过延伸和扩展双语教学,使教学环节与全球行业标准相接轨,旨在使学生能够了解全球相关行业内最新的前沿技术和管理规范,增强学生进入企业后国际化的学习能力、拓展能力及竞争能力.

  8. Estimation of the value-at-risk parameter: Econometric analysis and the extreme value theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Zorica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper different aspects of value-at-risk estimation are considered. Daily returns of CISCO, INTEL and NASDAQ stock indices are analyzed for period: September 1996 - September 2006. Methods that incorporate time varying variability and heavy tails of the empirical distributions of returns are implemented. The main finding of the paper is that standard econometric methods underestimate the value-at-risk parameter if heavy tails of the empirical distribution are not explicitly taken into account. .

  9. Küberrünnakuid tehti nii Lapimaalt kui Iisraelist / Risto Berendson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Berendson, Risto, 1975-

    2007-01-01

    Riigi Infosüsteemide Arenduskeskuse osakonnajuhataja Hillar Aarelaid rääkis küberkaitset puudutaval seminaril maikuus Eestit põhiliselt Venemaalt tabanud küberrünnakute tõrjumisest, kus aitasid kaasa ka parajasti Viru hotellis konverentsi pidanud 200 välismaist IT-spetsialisti. Rahvusvahelise firma Cisco esindaja, arvutiturbe tippspetsialisti Ivica Ostojici esinemisest. Vt. samas: Häkkimine kahe sekundiga

  10. 关于ACL的教学实验设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂青

    2014-01-01

    ACL(Access Control List,访问控制列表)是局域网技术与组网工程课程中非常重要的内容,利用Cisco Packet Tracer6.0配合学习ACL的配置,并利用模拟软件进行辅助教学,可以使学生更好地理解ACL。

  11. Intelligent Advanced Communications IP Telephony Feasibility for the U.S. Navy. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    the vocal tract and the vibration of the vocal chord . If the model of the vocal tract and its vibrations is good, then the error between the actual...from Department of Computer Science at the Columbia University, University of Maryland Advanced Computer Studies, Cisco Systems Inc., and Vocal ...for several open source VoIP software packages, with a special focus of VOCAL , Vovida’s own open communication application library. While VOCAL is the

  12. ISNS PPL/QPL Test Report: Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN). Revision 2.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    4 3. LESSONS LEARNED ................................................................................................................ 5 3.1 System...Aironet 340 Series Components: The Cisco Aironet 340 series client adapters and access points are designed to provide for wireless comunication between...Traffic Encrypted Traffic Hub 1 Fujitsu 567 10.10.12.5 eth0 eth1 ISNS PPL/QPL Test Report: WLAN, rev. 2000.2 5 Section 3:Lessons Learned 3. LESSONS

  13. Exploitation of RF-DNA for Device Classification and Verification Using GRLVQI Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    3 GSM Global System for Mobile Communications . . . . . . . . . . . 4 RFID Radio Frequency Identification...Bluetooth [40], and Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID ) [23,95]. The work in [44, 45, 47, 56–58, 71–73, 76, 81, 93, 94] focused on inherent PHY layer...signals used for experimental demonstration were collected from two laptops using Cisco AIR-CB21G-A-K9 WiFi cards operating as a peer-to-peer Ad hoc

  14. ML-o-Scope: A Diagnostic Visualization System for Deep Machine Learning Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-16

    images scraped from the web . Despite its small size, CIFAR- 10’s origins make it a rich and challenging data set for object classification. ML-o-scope... Web Services, Google, SAP, The Thomas and Stacey Siebel Foundation, Apple, Inc., Cisco, Cloudera, EMC, Ericsson, Facebook, GameOnTalis, Guavus, HP...exploratory analysis ap- plied to convolutional neural network pipeline optimiza- tion. ML-o-scope is a light-weight web application that allows users

  15. Mobile network architecture of the long-range WindScanner system

    OpenAIRE

    Vasiljevic, Nikola; Lea, Guillaume; Hansen, Per; Jensen, Henrik M

    2016-01-01

    In this report we have presented the network architecture of the long-range WindScanner system that allows utilization of mobile network connections without the use of static public IP addresses. The architecture mitigates the issues of additional fees and contractual obligations that are linked to the acquisition of the mobile network connections with static public IP addresses. The architecture consists of a hardware VPN solution based on the network appliances Z1 and MX60 from Cisco Meraki...

  16. A Fully Computerized Method to Backup the Router Configuration File

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan H.Majeed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fully computerized method to backup the router configuration file. The method consists of a friendly graphical interface programmed by Java programming language The proposed method is compared with the two existing methods, namely: TFTP server method and Copy/Paste method. The comparison reveals that the proposed method has many advantages over the existing ones. The proposed method has been implemented on Cisco routers (series 2500, 2600 and 2800

  17. A Definitive Interoperability Test Methodology for the Malicious Activity Simulation Tool (MAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    at Scott Air Force Base (AFB), IL will be discussed here. U.S. Strategic Command’s (STRATCOM) range, the STRATCOM Cyber Operations Range ( SCOR ), in...Downstream from [five] of the PE routers are interactive bases that are composed of the standard Cisco design model for networks (Core Layer...adopts the NGEN operating model and support structure.” [46] 3. Next Generation Enterprise Network (NGEN) NGEN represents the next evolution of

  18. Early T-Precursor Thymocytes as Potential Target Cells for HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-22

    routine thorac- .ded in the final cell suspension. Six parameter ic surgery on children with congenital heart ab- ’flow cytometry was then carried out to...tissue was removed in the course of routine thoracic surgery cisco, CA). Propidium iodide (PI) (I pg/ml) was included in the final cell on children with...I1987. Mod- A monoclonal anti-pani-T-cell antibody. Tralisplanunion 36:293. ulationt of* CD4 antigen expression onl human gingival Laingcrianis’ 17

  19. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 73, Number 5, November 1930

    Science.gov (United States)

    1930-11-01

    countries due to boycotts against British goods,and Afridi disorders rampant on the northwestern frontier; an outgrowth of Russian subversivepropaganda...arrival, students were met at all railroad, bus , ’and steam- ship terminals and conducted directly to the processing plant where, out- wardly, they...the Philippines, sailing San Fran- cisco, November 19. 2nd Lieut. Montgomery B. Raymond, is granted leave of absence for three months, to take effect

  20. Neuroperformance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    presented at AIC webserver (Dell PowerEdge R310, 4 core Intel® Xeon® X3470, 16Gb memory , 4Tb raid 5 disk capacity), the collaborators in the project... memory , 14Tb raid 5 disk space) that is protected behind AIC firewall. The firewall and VPN services are provided by a Cisco ASA5520 appliance and...efficient: Patterns of brain activation and effective connectivity associated with better cognitive performance in nicotine -deprived smokers. Addiction

  1. Phalanx. Volume 47, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    staff, for making this event a great success by any measure ! This month, we are seeing an- other first for MORS: a workshop that grew out of a...software programs (Go-To-Meeting™ by Citrix, WebEx™ by Cisco, and Google Hang- Out™ Google), and length of presen - tation (ranging from 5 to 60...computer. Each webinar topic was selected by the planning team for its value in the following professional sectors: aca- demia, defense, government

  2. Packet Tracer network simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Jesin, A

    2014-01-01

    A practical, fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to successfully create networks and simulate them using Packet Tracer.Packet Tracer Network Simulator is aimed at students, instructors, and network administrators who wish to use this simulator to learn how to perform networking instead of investing in expensive, specialized hardware. This book assumes that you have a good amount of Cisco networking knowledge, and it will focus more on Packet Tracer rather than networking.

  3. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    Britain, and precipitated a European Union meeting on December 1, 2011, that designated an additional 180 Iranian entities, mostly those linked to...dollar as of mid- September 2012 – including a precipitous decline from about 23,000 to the dollar to the 28,000 to the dollar level in the first two...Benelux; IRISL China; Asia Marine Network; CISCO Shipping; and IRISL Malta September 17, 2008: Firms affiliated to the Ministry of Defense, including

  4. 77 FR 56883 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... rebates for Bank of America Corporation (``BAC''), Citigroup, Inc. (``C''), Cisco Systems, Inc. (``CSCO... maker Non-customer \\1\\ IWM, QQQ and SPY: Rebate to Add Liquidity \\2\\ $0. 00 \\2\\ $0.15 N/A Fee to Add Liquidity \\3\\ 0.1 8 \\3\\ 0.1 8 0.4 5 Rebate to Remove Liquidity 0.12 N/A N/A Fee to Remove Liquidity N/A...

  5. Capabilities of the Large-Scale Sediment Transport Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    experiments in wave/current environments. INTRODUCTION : The LSTF (Figure 1) is a large-scale laboratory facility capable of simulating conditions...into a cDAQ-9184 CompactDAQ Chassis via a 16- channel NI 9220. The four offshore wave gauge signals are broadcasted wirelessly via a National...Instrument 9201 paired with a cDAQ-9191. A wireless router then moves this data onto the local area network. A Cisco SG 200 switch is used to manage the

  6. 基于CDP协议网络攻击的安全防范%The Security of Network Attacks Based on CDP Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜宝华

    2011-01-01

    CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol) is one of Cisco's data link layer discovery protocol that runs on Cisco routers,bridges,access servers and switches and other devices used to find and view details of a neighbor important agreements,such as IP address,software version,platform, performance,and the native VLAN.Intruders often use denial of service (DOS) attacks such as access to these information,and use this information for CDP deception,resulting in significant security threats.%CDP( Cisco Discovery Protocol )是思科的一个数据链路层的发现协议,运行在思科路由器、网桥、接入服务器和交换机等设备上,用来发现和查看相邻设备详细信息的一种重要协议,如IP地址、软件版本、平台、性能和本机VLAN等。入侵者通常利用拒绝服务(DoS)等攻击获得这些信息,并利用这些信息进行CDP欺骗,造成很大的安全威胁。

  7. Spatial distribution of the estuarine ichthyofauna of the Rio Formoso (Pernambuco, Brazil, with emphasis on reef fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa C. G. de Paiva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to identify species of reef fish that use the Rio Formoso estuary (northeastern Brazil as a refuge and natural nursery and to describe the spatial distribution of the estuary fish fauna in rainy and dry seasons. A total of 5475 specimens, across 78 species and 39 families, were analyzed; 51.3% of the species were of reef origin. Among these, Eucinostomus melanopterus (Bleeker, 1863, E. gula (Cuvier, 1830, and Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus, 1758, in this order, were the most abundant in the upper estuary; S. greeleyi Gilbert, 1900, E. melanopterus, and Lutjanus synagris (Linnaeus, 1758 were the most abundant in the mid estuary; and E. gula and Albula vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758 in the lower estuary. The percentages of reef species were 39.2%, 54.2% and 66.7% for the upper, mid and lower regions, respectively. The greatest diversity was found in the upper estuary and greatest abundance occurred in the mid region. The type of sediment was a strong determinant of the spatial distribution of fish fauna. The most abundant species were found in a mesohaline (5-18 to euhaline (30-40 salinity regimen, suggesting some capacity for osmotic regulation. The fish fauna of the Rio Formoso estuary receives a direct influence from the reefs and coastal region between Sirinhaém and Tamandaré, thereby providing a greater richness of reef fish.

  8. Associations between omega-3 fatty acids, selenium content, and mercury levels in wild-harvested fish from the Dehcho Region, Northwest Territories, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Ellen S; Aristizabal Henao, Juan J; Kornobis, Katherine M; Hanning, Rhona M; Majowicz, Shannon E; Liber, Karsten; Stark, Ken D; Low, George; Swanson, Heidi K; Laird, Brian D

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the risks and benefits of eating wild-harvested fish from the Northwest Territories, Canada, levels of total mercury (HgT) and selenium (Se) and composition of omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) were measured in muscle tissue of fish harvested from lakes in the Dehcho Region, Northwest Territories, Canada. Average HgT levels ranged from 0.057 mg/kg (cisco) to 0.551 mg/kg (northern pike), while average n-3 FA concentrations ranged from 101 mg/100 g (burbot) to 1,689 mg/100 g (lake trout). In contrast to HgT and n-3 FA, mean Se concentrations were relatively similar among species. Consequently, species such as lake whitefish, cisco, and longnose sucker displayed the highest nutrient levels relative to HgT content. Levels of HgT tended to increase with fish size, while Se and n-3 FA levels were typically not associated with fork length or fish weight. Interestingly, HgT concentration was occasionally inversely related to tissue nutrient content. Significant negative correlations were observed between Hg and n-3 FA for lake trout, northern pike, and walleye. There were also significant negative correlations between Hg and Se noted for lake whitefish, cisco, and northern pike. Samples with the highest nutritional content displayed, on occasion, lower levels of HgT. This study provides valuable information for the design of probabilistic models capable of refining public health messaging related to minimizing Hg risks and maximizing nutrient levels in wild-harvested fish in the Canadian subarctic.

  9. Application of Mobile Router to Military Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David H.; Ivancic, William D.; Bell, Terry L.; Kachmar, Brian A.; Shell, Dan; Leung, Kent

    2002-01-01

    Cisco Systems and NASA Glenn Research Center under a NASA Space Act Agreement have been performing joint networking research to apply Internet technologies and protocols to space-based communications. During this time, Cisco Systems developed the mobile-router which NASA and Cisco jointly tested. The early field trials of this technology have been successfully completed. The mobile-router is software code that resides in a network router. A Mobile-Router allows entire networks to roam while maintaining connectivity to the Internet. This router code is pertinent to a myriad of applications for both the government and commercial sectors. This technology will be applied to the wireless battlefield. NASA and the Department of Defense will utilize this technology for near-planetary observation and sensing spacecraft. It is the enabling technology for communication via the Internet or Intranets to aircraft. Information such as weather, air traffic control, voice and video can be easily and inexpensively transmitted to the aircraft using Internet protocols. The mobile router can be incorporated into emergency vehicles particularly ambulances and life-flight aircraft to provide real-time connectivity back to the hospital and healthcare experts. Commercial applications include entertainment services, IP telephone, and Internet connectivity for cruise ships, commercial shipping, tour busses, aircraft, and eventually cars. This paper will briefly describe the mobile router operation. An upcoming wide area network field test with application to US Coast Guard communications will be described. The paper will also highlight military and government networks that will benefit from the deployment of mobile router and the associated applications.

  10. To succeed in the long-term, focus on the middle-term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Geoffrey A

    2007-01-01

    When a mature company fails to endure over the long term, it's often due to the "Horizon 2 vacuum," argues Moore, author of Crossing the Chasm and several other books on innovation strategy, and managing director of the consulting firm TCG Advisors. The reference is to the strategic horizons outlined by McKinsey's Mehrdad Baghai and colleagues in The Alchemy of Growth: Horizon 1 is today's cash-generating business, Horizon 2 is the set of innovations just being commercialized, and Horizon 3 consists of forward-thinking R&D. Most companies understand they must invest in their future, so the funding and management of Horizon 3 is not the problem. The trouble starts when those innovations are brought to market and must compete with the mainstay business for company resources. They disappear from top management's radar screen and suffer a level of neglect few ventures could survive. Cisco Systems is one company that has recognized the problem and tried to address it. To begin with, CEO John Chambers has insulated Horizon 2 projects from many of the pressures of Horizon 1--for example, by reorchestrating sales coverage so that emerging markets won't be neglected. He has also kick-started some Horizon 2 businesses by augmenting them with acquisitions, increasing their scale, and giving them more management attention. For the same reason, he has challenged his head of product development to think in terms of new businesses, not simply new products--knowing that the latter tend to get lost in salespeople's bags. Most important, Cisco is handicapping its Horizon 2 projects so that they need not compete head-to-head with established businesses. Their success is judged by metrics that are appropriate to new businesses, and they are given the benefit of Cisco's best managerial talent.

  11. Low Cost, Low Complexity Sensor Design for Non-Cooperative Geolocation via Received Signal Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    sent through a low pass filter (FLT3) where the 26 signal experiences slight power loss due to filter coloration. The signal is amplified by operational...Markets”. PELOUS Group, NJ, Tech. Rep., 2001. 9. “Wi-Fi Location-Based Services (4.1 Desing Guidie)”, May 2008. URL http: //www.cisco.com/en/US/docs...Architectures, Algorithms and Experiments ”. URL http://paduaresearch.cab.unipd.it/1046/1/EWSN08. 12. Chen, Y. and H. Kobayshi. “Signal Strength Based

  12. Implementation of “Traslator Strategy” For Migration of Ipv4 to Ipv6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. K.R.R.Mohan Rao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the Translator strategy for migration of IPv4 to Ipv6 implemented in Cisco packet tracer. It describes the design and configuration of network devices and packet transfer between devices of IPv4 and IPv6 networks using NAT-PT as transition mechanism. First major version of IP, IPv4 is the dominant protocol of internet.IPv6 is developed to deal with long anticipated problem of IPv4 running out of addresses. The migration from IPv4 to IPv6 must be implemented node by node by using auto-configuration procedures to eliminate the need to configure IPv6 hosts manually.

  13. Enterprise network with software Asterisk PBX based on the PLC technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Maar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the software Asterisk PBX solution design in enterprise PLC network (Power Line Communication. The description of the installation and configuration of software Asterisk PBX is involved in the design. The secure interconnection of two enterprise PLC network is implemented via the telecommunication tunnel with security grant using the Cisco routers. The connection between two Asterisk PBXs is designed in context of the establishment of the tunnel. The subject of the article is also cross/connection of exchanges Asterisk PBX and hardware PBX - IP Panasonic PBX K-NS500.

  14. Ipv6在高校校园网中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毅; 陈华

    2010-01-01

    文章对ipv6基本概念,ipv6的实现技术及实现ipv6的现行技术进行了阐述,结合学校校园网的ipv6实际解决方案,系统描述了ipv6在网络出口设备Cisco6503上的配置和在ipv6在网络核心设备Cisc06513上的配置,以及ipv6在我校校园网中的实际应用.

  15. Improved Multicast Traffic Scheduling Scheme in the Packet-Switching Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Mei-na; SONG Jun-de; LI Hong-wen

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a new switching scheme of switch fabric, which is named Multicast-enabled Protocol Agnostic Forwarding Engine (M-PAFE). M-PAFE is a central scheduling crossbar-based switch fabric with embedded Combined Input and Output Queue from the queuing view. An extra switching path is dedicated for multicast cell processing in M-PAFE. And the simulation results are provided to evaluate the performance of M-PAFE in comparison with ESLIP, which is a well-known algorithm implemented in Cisco 12000 routers.

  16. Handbook of fiber optic data communication a practical guide to optical networking

    CERN Document Server

    DeCusatis, Casimer

    2008-01-01

    The third edition of this Handbook provides a comprehensive, easy to use guide to the field of optical fiber data communications. Written by experts in the industry from major companies such as IBM, Cisco and Nortel, the Handbook is a key reference for optical fiber technology, networking, protocols, applications, manufacturing, and future directions. It includes chapters on all the major industry standards, written by the same experts who developed them.This edition contains new material on transceiver form factors (QSFP, SFP +, XFP, X2), manufacturing standards, including JEDEC and R

  17. Strategic Retrenchment and Renewal in the American Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Hoover spent a few months pulling ore carts for an American mining firm before convincing a San Fran- cisco law firm specializing in mining...sanctimonious, peace, Gandhi -like, Christ-like at- titude (like) they’re the greatest, the world’s biggest democracy and Pakistan is one of the most horrible...further defined 170 by experience, as . . . nations evolve new means by which they can live with each other in peace.”15 Cart - er’s sense of

  18. El impacto de la capacitación sobre la adopción de mejores prácticas administrativas y el desempeño de las MiPyME en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Monge-González, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Juan Antonio; Torrentes-García, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Mediante una evaluación cuasi-experimental, este trabajo estudia el impacto de una capacitación tendiente a mejorar las prácticas administrativas y el desempeño de un grupo de micro, pequeñas y medianas empresas (MiPyME) clientes de una entidad de microfinanzas que opera en Costa Rica (ACORDE). Para ello, se capacitó a un grupo de clientes de ACORDE en mejores prácticas administrativas mediante el Programa de Capacitación Negocio en Crecimiento (PCNC) diseñado por Cisco Entrepreneur Institute...

  19. CCNA routing and switching study guide exams 100-101, 200-101, and 200-120

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Prepare for the new CCNA exams with this Todd Lammle study guide Cisco author, speaker, and trainer Todd Lammle is considered the authority on all things networking, and his books have sold almost a million copies worldwide. This all-purpose CCNA study guide methodically covers all the objectives of the ICND1 (100-101) and ICND2 (200-101) exams as well as providing additional insight for those taking CCNA Composite (200-120) exam. It thoroughly examines operation of IP data networks, LAN switching technologies, IP addressing (IPv4/IPv6), IP routing technologies, IP services, network device s

  20. CCSP complete study guide exams 642-501, 642-511, 642-521, 642-531, 642-541

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd; Lancaster, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Wade Edwards, CCIE, has over 15 years of networking experience and has been actively involved in the computer industry for over 24 years. Todd Lammle, CCNP is CEO and Chief Scientist of RouterSim, LLC and President of GlobalNet Training, Inc., and is the author of the best-selling CCNA: Cisco Certified Network Associate Study Guide from Sybex. Tom Lancaster, CCIE, is a consultant with IBM Global Services. Justin Menga, CCIE, is a Network Solutions Architect in the wireless and e-infrastructure field in New Zealand. Eric Quinn, CCSI, CCNP + Voice is an Arizona-based instructor and secur

  1. CCNA Wireless Study Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd

    2010-01-01

    A complete guide to the CCNA Wireless exam by leading networking authority Todd Lammle. The CCNA Wireless certification is the most respected entry-level certification in this rapidly growing field. Todd Lammle is the undisputed authority on networking, and this book focuses exclusively on the skills covered in this Cisco certification exam. The CCNA Wireless Study Guide joins the popular Sybex study guide family and helps network administrators advance their careers with a highly desirable certification.: The CCNA Wireless certification is the most respected entry-level wireless certification

  2. CCNA ICND2 study guide exam 200-101

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Let Todd Lammle prepare you to ace the CCNA ICND2 exam If you already have your CCENT, the ICND2 exam is all you need to earn the CCNA certification. This new study guide from Cisco networking authority Todd Lammle covers 100 percent of the objectives for the exam. Topics include operating IP data networks, understanding switching and routing technologies, working with IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, and troubleshooting. A robust set of study tools, including a network simulator that can be used with the book's hands-on labs and practice exams, gives you added confidence as you prepare. Written by

  3. 移动用户访问乌江公司内部网络的实现%Achievement of mobile phone user visiting internal network of Wujiang Hydropower development Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林; 黄志婕

    2006-01-01

    贵州乌江水电开发有限责任公司利用现有Cisco2620路由器通过VPN相关技术实现远程移动用户与公司内部网络的连接,满足了职工异地对公司内部网络信息访问的要求.本文介绍了Cisco路由器上的详细配置,并就可能出现的问题进行了阐述.

  4. What is a Fog Node A Tutorial on Current Concepts towards a Common Definition

    OpenAIRE

    Tordera, Eva Marin; Masip-Bruin, Xavi; Garcia-Alminana, Jordi; Jukan, Admela; Ren, Guang-Jie; Zhu, Jiafeng; Farre, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Fog computing has emerged as a promising technology that can bring the cloud applications closer to the physical IoT devices at the network edge. While it is widely known what cloud computing is, and how data centers can build the cloud infrastructure and how applications can make use of this infrastructure, there is no common picture on what fog computing and a fog node, as its main building block, really is. One of the first attempts to define a fog node was made by Cisco, qualifying a fog ...

  5. CCNA Certification All-In-One For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Angelescu, Silviu

    2010-01-01

    A complete preparation guide for the entry-level networking CCNA certification. If you're planning to advance your career by taking the all-important Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA), this is the study guide you need! Seven minibooks cover all the concepts and topics on which you'll be tested, covering the latest version of the exam. Each part of the exam is covered thoroughly in its own section, so you can readily find the information you want to study. Plenty of review questions help you prepare, and the companion CD-ROM includes the highly rated Dummies Test Engine so you can test y

  6. CCNA Voice Study Guide, Exam 640-460

    CERN Document Server

    Froehlich, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The ultimate guide to the new CCNA voice network administrator certification exam. The new CCNA Voice exam tests candidates on their ability to implement a Cisco VoIP solution. Network administrators of voice systems will appreciate that the CCNA Voice Study Guide focuses completely on the information required by the exam. Along with hands-on labs and an objective map showing where each objective is covered, this guide includes a CD with the Sybex Test Engine, flashcards, and entire book in PDF format.: The new CCNA Voice certification will be valuable for administrators of voice network syste

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE PROTECTED EXTENSIBLE AUTHENTICATION PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Rana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF has proposednew protocols for highly secured wireless networking. Thepurpose of this paper is to implement one such proposedsecurity protocol - PEAP (Protected ExtensibleAuthentication Protocol [1]. PEAP was jointly developedby Microsoft, Cisco and RSA security. The protocolimplementation is done on the server end of a Client/Servernetwork model on a RADIUS server (RemoteAuthentication Dial-in User Service. The proposedprotocol - PEAP provides for Client identity protection andkey generation thus preventing unauthorized user accessand protecting or encrypting the data against maliciousactivities.

  8. Desempeño de la combustión de desechos industriales en un reactor de lecho fluidizado burbujeante

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Contreras, Gonzalo Guillermo; Serrano Rico, Juan Carlos; Palacios Restrepo, Jhon Alexander

    2010-01-01

    El presente estudio muestra los resultados obtenidos al medir el desempeño de la combustión de biomasa (cisco de café y cascarilla de arroz) en un reactor de lecho fluidizado burbujeante. Al analizar los porcentajes de CO2, O2 y CO obtenidos en los gases de escape, se definieron las variables que afectan la combustión de esta biomasa y también los puntos óptimos de combustión y operación del reactor. Se sugieren alternativas para la utilización y aprovechamiento de este tipo de materia prima,...

  9. Estimation of invertebrate production from patterns of fish predation in western Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy B.; Mason, Doran M.; Bronte, Charles R.; Kitchell, James F.

    1998-01-01

    We used bioenergetic models for lake herring Coregonus artedi, bloater Coregonus hoyi, and rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax to estimate consumption of zooplankton,Mysis, andDiporeia in western Lake Superior for selected years between 1978 and 1995. Total invertebrate biomass consumed yearly ranged from 2.5 to 38 g/m2 with nearly 40% consumed between August and October in all years. Copepod zooplankton represented the largest proportion of biomass collectively consumed by the three species (81%), although rainbow smelt consumed almost twice as much Mysis as zooplankton. Growth efficiency was highest for rainbow smelt (3.84–16.64%) and lower for the coregonids (1.91–12.26%). In the absence of quantitative secondary production values, we suggest our estimates of predatory demand provide a conservative range of the minimum invertebrate production in western Lake Superior during the past 20 years.

  10. Cisco的用人之道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    股易

    2001-01-01

    1997年Cisco被评为美国《工业周刊》100家管理最佳公司,列第一位;1999年 Cisco被评为 100家网上最受欢迎的公司第一名;2000年,《财富》杂志将Cisco公司列为美国100佳工作场所的第4名。 员工当“猎头” Cisco有大概10%的应聘者是通过员工互相介绍进来的,Cisco有一项特别的鼓励机制,鼓励员工介绍人加入Cisco,方式有点像航空公司累积旅程。员工介绍一个人来面试就给一个点数,每过一道面试关又有一个点数,如果员工最后被Cisco

  11. Analytical Performance Evaluation of Different Switch Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sans

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The virtualization of the network access layer has opened new doors in how we perceive networks. With this virtualization of the network, it is possible to transform a regular PC with several network interface cards into a switch. PC-based switches are becoming an alternative to off-the-shelf switches, since they are cheaper. For this reason, it is important to evaluate the performance of PC-based switches. In this paper, we present a performance evaluation of two PC-based switches, using Open vSwitch and LiSA, and compare their performance with an off-the-shelf Cisco switch. The RTT, throughput, and fairness for UDP are measured for both Ethernet and Fast Ethernet technologies. From this research, we can conclude that the Cisco switch presents the best performance, and both PC-based switches have similar performance. Between Open vSwitch and LiSA, Open vSwitch represents a better choice since it has more features and is currently actively developed.

  12. Building Model for the University of Mosul Computer Network Using OPNET Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modhar Modhar A. Hammoudi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at establishing a model in OPNET (Optimized Network Engineering Tool simulator for the University of Mosul computer network. The proposed network model was made up of two routers (Cisco 2600, core switch (Cisco6509, two servers, ip 32 cloud and 37 VLANs. These VLANs were connected to the core switch using fiber optic cables (1000BaseX. Three applications were added to test the network model. These applications were FTP (File Transfer Protocol, HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol and VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol. The results showed that the proposed model had a positive efficiency on designing and managing the targeted network and can be used to view the data flow in it. Also, the simulation results showed that the maximum number of VoIP service users could be raised upto 5000 users when working under IP Telephony. This means that the ability to utilize VoIP service in this network can be maintained and is better when subjected to IP telephony scheme.

  13. Offshore Fish Community: Ecological Interactions | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The offshore (>80 m) fish community of Lake Superior is made up of predominately native species. The most prominent species are deepwater sculpin, kiyi, cisco, siscowet lake trout, burbot, and the exotic sea lamprey. Bloater and shortjaw cisco are also found in the offshore zone. Bloater is abundant in the offshore zone but appears restricted to depths shallower than 150 m (Selgeby and Hoff 1996; Stockwell et al. 2010), although it occuppied greater depths several decades ago (Dryer 1966; Peck 1977). Shortjaw is relatively rare in the offshore zone (Hoff and Todd 2004; Gorman and Hoff 2009; Gorman and Todd 2007). Lake whitefish is also known to frequent bathymetric depths >100 m (Yule et al. 2008b). In this chapter, we develop a conceptual model of the offshore food web based on data collected during 2001-2005 and on inferences from species interactions known for the nearshore fish community. We then develop a framework for examination of energy and nutrient movements within the pelagic and benthic habitats of the offshore zone and across the offshore and nearshore zones. To document research results.

  14. Scalable Networking for Cloud Datacenters

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Andy will discuss the architectural evolution of Ethernet networks and switch architectures as they are being designed to address much larger cloud networking applications that require predictable throughput and latency.About the speakerAs Chief Development Officer, Andy Bechtolsheim is responsible for the overall product development and technical direction of Arista Networks.Previously Andy was a Founder and Chief System Architect at Sun Microsystems, where most recently he was responsible for industry standard server architecture. Andy was also a Founder and President of Granite Systems, a Gigabit Ethernet startup acquired by Cisco Systems in 1996. From 1996 until 2003 Andy served as VP/GM of the Gigabit Systems Business Unit at Cisco that developed the very successful Catalyst 4500 family of switches. Andy was also a Founder and President of Kealia, a next generation server company acquired by Sun in 2004.Andy received an M.S. in Computer Engineering from Carnegie Mellon University in 1976 and was a Ph.D. ...

  15. Seasonal blood chemistry response of sub-tropical nearshore fishes to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Aaron D; Zuckerman, Zachary C; Stewart, Heather A; Suski, Cory D

    2014-01-01

    Climate change due to anthropogenic activity will continue to alter the chemistry of the oceans. Future climate scenarios indicate that sub-tropical oceans will become more acidic, and the temperature and salinity will increase relative to current conditions. A large portion of previous work has focused on how future climate scenarios may impact shell-forming organisms and coral reef fish, with little attention given to fish that inhabit nearshore habitats; few studies have examined multiple challenges concurrently. The purpose of this study was to quantify the blood-based physiological response of nearshore fishes to a suite of seawater conditions associated with future climate change. Fish were exposed to an acute (30 min) increase in salinity (50 ppt), acidity (decrease in pH by 0.5 units) or temperature (7-10°C), or temperature and acidity combined, and held in these conditions for 6 h. Their physiological responses were compared across seasons (i.e. summer vs. winter). Bonefish (Albula vulpes) exposed to environmental challenges in the summer experienced a suite of blood-based osmotic and ionic disturbances relative to fish held in ambient conditions, with thermal challenges (particularly in the summer) being the most challenging. Conversely, no significant treatment effects were observed for yellowfin mojarra (Gerres cinereus) or checkered puffer (Sphoeroides testudineus) in either season. Together, results from this study demonstrate that acute climate-induced changes to thermal habitat will be the most challenging for sub-tropical fishes (particularly in the summer) relative to salinity and pH stressors, but significant variation across species exists.

  16. Feeding competition between larval lake whitefish and lake herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Hudson, Patrick L.

    1995-01-01

    The potential for competition for food between larval lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and lake herring (C. artedi) 1- to 8-wk of age was explored in a series of 1-h laboratory feeding studies. Feeding started at 2-wk post-hatch. Learning and fish size appear to be more important than prey density at the onset of feeding. Species differed in their feeding behavior and consumption noticeably by 5-wk and substantially by 8-wk. Lake whitefish generally were more aggressive foragers than lake herring, attacking and capturing more prey. At high plankton density at 8-wk, lake herring feeding was depressed in mixed-fish treatments. This difference in competitive food consumption between the two coregonids occurs at a critical life stage, and when combined with other biotic and abiotic factors, may have a significant impact on recruitment.

  17. Grey seal predation on forage fish in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Aro; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Aho, Teija;

    has increased accordingly. The diet of grey seal in the Baltic consists of ca. 20 fish species. The most abundant prey items in the Baltic proper are Baltic herring, sprat, and cod, and in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay Baltic herring, Coregonus sp., Baltic salmon, and sea trout. An adult seal...... consumes on average round 4.5 kg fish per day, of which 55% are clupeoids in the Baltic Main basin and 70% in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. According to acoustic estimates, predator– prey distribution patterns, migration patterns, and multispecies analysis (SMS), the predation effect of grey seals...... on Baltic herring and sprat stocks is still at a very low level. Hence, with present grey seal stock sizes, the impact of seal predation can be ignored in whole Baltic‐scale herring and sprat stock management considerations. Locally, however, grey seal–fishery interactions play an important role and should...

  18. Induced hatching to avoid infectious egg disease in whitefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Claus

    2002-01-08

    Reacting to a threat before physical contact, e.g., induced by air- or water-borne substances, appears to be an elegant way of defense. The reaction may be behavioral, developmental, morphological, or physiological, and it can involve a shift in niche or life history. Hatching from eggs is a shift in niche and in life history. From niche shift and life history models, one would predict that the timing of hatching is, to some degree, phenotypically plastic, i.e., early or delayed hatching is likely to be inducible. Temporary increased larval mortality (e.g., increased predation on larvae) would favor delayed hatching, while relatively high egg mortality would favor early hatching. Here, I show experimentally that eggs of the whitefish (Coregonus sp.) hatch earlier in the presence of a virulent egg parasite and that this early hatching is induced by water-borne cues emitted from infected eggs.

  19. Changes in the Lake Michigan food web following dreissenid mussel invasions: A synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Bunnell, David B.; Warner, David M.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Fahnenstiel, Gary L.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Vanderploeg, Henry A.; Tsehaye, Iyob; Claramunt, Randall M.; Clark, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    Using various available time series for Lake Michigan, we examined changes in the Lake Michigan food web following the dreissenid mussel invasions and identified those changes most likely attributable to these invasions, thereby providing a synthesis. Expansion of the quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) population into deeper waters, which began around 2004, appeared to have a substantial predatory effect on both phytoplankton abundance and primary production, with annual primary production in offshore (> 50 m deep) waters being reduced by about 35% by 2007. Primary production likely decreased in nearshore waters as well, primarily due to predatory effects exerted by the quagga mussel expansion. The drastic decline inDiporeia abundance in Lake Michigan during the 1990s and 2000s has been attributed to dreissenid mussel effects, but the exact mechanism by which the mussels were negatively affecting Diporeia abundance remains unknown. In turn, decreased Diporeiaabundance was associated with reduced condition, growth, and/or energy density in alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsonii), and bloater (Coregonus hoyi). However, lake-wide biomass of salmonines, top predators in the food web, remained high during the 2000s, and consumption of alewives by salmonines actually increased between the 1980–1995 and 1996–2011 time periods. Moreover, abundance of the lake whitefish population, which supports Lake Michigan's most valuable commercial fishery, remained at historically high levels during the 2000s. Apparently, counterbalancing mechanisms operating within the complex Lake Michigan food web have enabled salmonines and lake whitefish to retain relatively high abundances despite reduced primary production.

  20. An Overview of the Most Important Reference Architectures for Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan Daniel ZOTA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have presented the main characteristics of the most important reference archi-tectures designed for the cloud computing environment. Specifically, we have introduced the proposed architectures of the worldwide cloud computing companies like Cisco, IBM and VMware and we also had a look at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST reference architecture which is the starting point for all proposed architectures in the field. As one would expect, the provider dependent reference architectures are written is such a way to suit the services and products of the company, while NIST’s architecture is a more general model with more comprehensive architectural details that we highlighted in this article. In the end of the article we draw out some conclusions regarding the existing reference architectures for cloud computing.

  1. Parenting Strategies in Modern and Emerging Economies : Introduction to the Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kermyt G; Starkweather, Kathrine E

    2017-03-09

    Independent of ecology, subsistence strategy, social complexity, or other aspects of socioecology, the altricial nature of young humans requires mothers to have help raising their offspring. What seems to be context-dependent, however, is who the helpers are, how they invest, and what the impacts of that investment are. In a series of papers that focus on parental and alloparental investment across five populations, this special issue of Human Nature uses evolutionary theory to examine how socioecological context influences modes of direct parental investment among the boat-dwelling Shodagor of Bangladesh (Starkweather), modes of indirect paternal investment in the modern United States (Anderson), and the biological outcome of paternal investment for men in Jamaica (Gray et al.), as well as direct alloparental investment among village Bangladeshis (Perry) and indirect alloparental investment in breastfeeding practices in the United States (Cisco).

  2. Analisis Kinerja EIGRP dan OSPF pada Topologi Ring dan Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI ARYANTA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol dan OSPF (Open Shortest Path Fisrt adalah routing protokol yang banyak digunakan pada suatu jaringan komputer. EIGRP hanya dapat digunakan pada perangkat Merk CISCO, sedangkan OSPF dapat digunakan pada semua merk jaringan. Pada penelitian ini dibandingkan delay dan rute dari kedua routing protokol yang diimplementasikan pada topologi Ring dan Mesh. Cisco Packet Tracer 5.3 digunakan untuk mensimulasikan kedua routing protokol ini. Skenario pertama adalah perancangan jaringan kemudian dilakukan pengujian waktu delay 100 kali dalam 5 kasus. Skenario kedua dilakukan pengujian trace route untuk mengetahui jalur yang dilewati paket data lalu memutus link utama. Pada skenario kedua juga dilakukan perbandingan nilai metric dan cost hasil simulasi dengan perhitungan rumus. Skenario ketiga dilakukan pengujian waktu konvergensi untuk setiap routing protokol pada setiap topologi. Hasilnya EIGRP lebih cepat 386 µs daripada OSPF untuk topologi Ring sedangkan OSPF lebih cepat 453 µs daripada EIGRP untuk topologi Mesh. Hasil trace route menunjukan rute yang dipilih oleh routing protokol yaitu nilai metric dan cost yang terkecil. Waktu konvergensi rata-rata topologi Ring pada EIGRP sebesar 12,75 detik dan 34,5 detik pada OSPF sedangkan topologi Mesh di EIGRP sebesar 13 detik dan 35,25 detik di OSPF. Kata Kunci : EIGRP, OSPF, Packet Tracer 5.3, Ring, Mesh, Konvergensi ABSTRACT EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol and OSPF (Open Shortest Path Fisrt is the routing protocol that is widely used in a computer network. EIGRP can only be used on devices Brand CISCO, while OSPF can be used on all brands of network. In this study comparison of both the delay and the routing protocol implemented on Ring and Mesh topology. Cisco Packet Tracer 5.3 is used to simulate both the routing protocol. The first scenario is the design of the network and then do the test of time delay 100 times in 5 cases. The

  3. Analisa Performansi Algoritma Admission CAC Dan Lucent Pada Berbagai Karakteristik Trafik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tora Fahrudin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Jaringan Metro Ethernet umumnya didefinisikan sebagai bridge dari suatu jaringan atau menghubungkan wilayah yang terpisah bisa juga menghubungkan LAN dengan WAN atau backbone network yang umumnya dimiliki oleh service provider. Admission control adalah suatu mekanisme yang mencegah jaringan mengalami over-loaded. Jika QoS yang diminta tidak dapat disediakan, maka jaringan tidak akan mengirimkan tanda ke aplikasi untuk memulai mengirimkan data. Jika aplikasi telah memulai pengiriman data, maka sumber daya pada jaringan yang sudah dipesan aplikasi tersebut akan terus dikelola secara end-to-end sampai aplikasi tersebut selesai.  Didalam penelitian ini akan di lihat pengaruh Algoritma Lucent dan CAC pada Router Cisco yang di implementasikan dengan simulasi OPNET 14.0. Akan dilihat performansi dari 2 buah alogoritma tersebut, dengan karakteristik Distribusi trafik yang berbeda beda untuk 3 layanan, voice, video dan data.

  4. LSIPCIe闪存适配器助力Cisco和EMC实现应用加速

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    LSI公司日前宣布正在与Cisco和EMC开展合作。共同将PCIe闪存高速缓存技术卓越的应用加速优势应用于部署广泛的创新型Cisco UCSB系列刀片服务器。该解决方案将EMC VFcache智能缓存软件与LSI的第二代PCIe闪存适配器系列LSINytro WarpDrive卡相结合,能进一步加速应用性能,改善EMC存储环境下Cisco服务器的响应时间。

  5. Analisa Horizontal Handover Terhadap Qos Layanan Streaming Multimedia E-Learning Pada Jaringan WLAN 802.11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I M.O. Widyantara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this globalization era, the state of the user who no longer occupies in a single place, but always moving, it is necessary to continuity of communication that will cause a handover. This paper intends to analyze the effect of 802.11 WLAN horizontal handover to the QoS of streaming e-learning. Methods of data collection process using the Cisco 3500 series access point that supports handover with existing network systems, ad-hoc network and type of hard handover. The results of the data analysis showed that the handover process is able to improve the QoS by gradually restored gradually, to get back to normal QoS

  6. Analysis Of MPLS VPN Resistance To External Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pólkowski Marcin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents analysis and possible reactions of MPLS network on unauthorized access and on device’s failure. Five Cisco routers joined into a core network were used to conduct the project. The devices were connected into a classic reliability model with envelope shape. The key aspects of the research were incidents’ simulation in line with previously prepared scenarios as well as diagnosis of network’s reactions to a particular type of a device failure. These effects were modelled using special devices such as analysers and generators of data traffic. Additionally, the range of the project included measuring convergence time of the routing protocols acting inside the network combined with analysis of reactions to forced changes of route.

  7. Basic security measures for IEEE 802.11 wireless networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar P. Sarmiento

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a tutorial/discussion of three commonly-used IEEE 802.11 wireless network security standards: WEP, WPA and WPA2. A detailed analysis of the RC4 algorithm supporting WEP is presented, including its vulnera-bilities. The WPA and WPA2 encryption protocols’ most relevant aspects and technical characteristics are reviewed for a comparative analysis of the three standards in terms of the security they provide. Special attention has been paid to WEP encryption by using an educational simulation tool written in C++ Builder for facilitating the unders-tanding of this protocol at academic level. Two practical cases of wireless security configurations using Cisco net-working equipment are also presented: configuring and enabling WPA-Personal and WPA2-Personal (these being security options used by TKIP and AES, respectively.

  8. Analysis on Digital Crime and Emergence of Technical Challenges with Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya avanthi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The most recent technology release Forbes, Cisco reveals adoption of cloud computing in a global scale. As for storage estimated the average data storage consumed per average household grow from 464 gigabytes. One of the cloud key effects the benefit of digital marketing is that is has provided marketers to approach potential customers at the same time example who is watching TV and texting on the couch used to be out of reach of digital marketers. Organizations deploying infrastructure into remote virtualized environments hosted by third parties significant implications for forensic investigators vendors’ enforcement corporate compliance and audit departments. Digital forensic assumes control and management assets during the conduct of an investigation and overviews the cloud computing how establishes digital procedures will be validated in investigation

  9. DEFINICIÓN DE UN MODELO DE SEGURIDAD PARA LA RED DE INVESTIGACIÓN DE TECNOLOGÍA AVANZADA DE LA UNIVERSIDAD DISTRITAL “FRANCISCO JOSÉ DE CALDAS” RITA-UD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rocha

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los aspectos más importantes dentro de las networking se relaciona con la protección de la información. Este trabajo permite identificar los aspectos más importantes a considerar en la definición de un modelo de seguridad para la red de investigación de tecnología avanzada de la Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas RITA-UD basado en la aplicación de las normas ISO27001 y NTC-ISO/IEC17799.El diseño final obtenido es una propuesta para la implementación de un Firewall Cisco ASA5520.

  10. Application of Knowledge Based Systems in a B-to-B environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malis, Martin; Svensson, Carsten; Hvam, Lars

    2002-01-01

    As a result of globalisation, supply networks are getting increasingly complex and extended, the exchange of knowledge becomes a critical parameter for the improvement of efficiency. This article describes the architecture of a web-based expert system that enables knowledge based product...... information to reach several companies within a network. The day-to-day interaction for design and purchase of products in a B-to-B environment will be in focus. It is illustrated how the use of web-based expert systems can improve the efficiency in the sales process significantly. The use of configurators...... has changed the daily interaction between a company and its suppliers. Large multinational companies (e.g. Dell and Cisco) have demonstrated how the use of web-based expert systems can revolutionize the sale of customized products and change market paradigms. The companies have reached new levels...

  11. 万豪国际集团正式启用客用网真会议室

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    万豪国际集团近日宣布其位于上海明天广场JW万豪酒店与AT&T,思科及上海信天通信(信天通信)合作.正式启动万豪在中国内地首间、世界第八间万豪虚拟会议室(Virtual Meetings by Marriott with AT&T and Cisco TelePresence)。这间全新的网真会议室连接了全球另外七家拥有网真会议室的万豪酒店,一百多家AT&T Business Exchanse公司用户和组织及客用思科网真会议室一同为客人提供崭新的会议体验。

  12. Architecture and Performance of a Tag Switching Wide Area Netwotk

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, T; Vistoli, C

    1999-01-01

    Tag switching and MPLS (MultiProtocol Label Switching) combine IP routing exibility with the efficiency of cell switching techniques to address the need of scalable infrastructures, of a wider range of services and of the support $9 of advanced applications. We present the model and the configuration of several tag switching networks in the local and wide area. In particular, we focus on the design of a scalable IP architecture and its application in a wide area $9 testbed based on tag switching, a MPLS implementation by CISCO.The protocol and the network performance have been analysed in terms of functionality, software stability, round trip time, route recovery time and throughput.Results $9 show that tag switching is a promising and viable technique for the implementation of scalable and integrated networks.

  13. Experimental Analysis of the Fault Tolerance of the PIM-SM IP Multicast Routing Protocol under GNS3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Lencse

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available PIM-SM is the most commonly used IP multicast routing protocol in IPTV systems. Its fault tolerance is examined by experimenting on a mesh topology multicast test network built up by Cisco routers under GNS3. Different fault scenarios are played and different parameters of the PIM-SM and of the OSPF protocols are examined if they influence and how they influence the outage time of an IPTV service. The failure of the Rendezvous Point (RP of the given IP multicast group as well as the complete failure of a router in the media forwarding path of the multicast stream are examined. A method is given how the service outage time caused by the complete failure of a router can be limited by an appropriate choice of the Dead Interval parameter of OSPF.

  14. Does it help teaching? Instructors’ perceptions of a technology enhanced standards-based educational program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Çakır, Barbara A. Bichelmeyer, Thomas Duffy, Alan Dennis, JoAnne Bunnage

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent accountability movements in the education world gave rise to standards-based curriculum, which provides a teaching and learning environment with high quality instructional materials. An example to such learning environment is Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA program. This study investigates high school teachers’ perceptions and experiences of CCNA program in their classrooms. 357 high school teachers in the United States who teach in the CCNA program completed an online survey measuring their perceptions about standards-based curriculum and testing. The results show that teachers generally accept standards-based curriculum and testing as a teaching tool, spend less time on student feedback and would like to see some features of the curriculum applied to other regular high school subjects such as mathematics and science.

  15. Does it help teaching? Instructors’ perceptions of a technology enhanced standards-based educational program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Çakır

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent accountability movements in the education world gave rise to standards-based curriculum, which provides a teaching and learning environment with high quality instructional materials. An example to such learning environment is Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA program. This study investigates high school teachers’ perceptions and experiences of CCNA program in their classrooms. 357 high school teachers in the United States who teach in the CCNA program completed an online survey measuring their perceptions about standards-based curriculum and testing. The results show that teachers generally accept standards-based curriculum and testing as a teaching tool, spend less time on student feedback and would like to see some features of the curriculum applied to other regular high school subjects such as mathematics and science.

  16. 警惕新经济的殖民主义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯力

    2000-01-01

    斯达克的7只股票雄赳赳气昂昂跨过太平洋,冠冕堂皇地来到香港联交所挂牌上市了。这7只股票分别是:微软(Microsoft)、英特尔(Intel)、思科(Cisco)、戴尔电脑(Dell)、应用材料(Applied Material)、安进(Amgen)及星巴克(Starbucks),个个都是行业的巨兽,投资的明星。从媒体披露的信息看,各方面无不对此感到大为欢欣鼓舞:交易所与经纪行以为找到了佣金增收的新途径:投资者以为找到了发财致富的新金矿。

  17. Reinventing the Platform Core Through Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppenberg, Gustav; Henningsson, Stefan; Eaton, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Digital platform leaders need to continuously innovate the platform core to drive the technological trajectory of the overall architecture and business system, of which the platform is a core element. This papers analyses the potential of and challenges to completing this task through...... the acquisition and integration of companies presenting innovative technologies of relevance to the platform core. Using a revelatory case study of Cisco Systems, we develop the explanatory notion of ‘coring acquisition’. In this type of acquisition value is created through the acquisition of companies...... that provide products external to the acquirer that can be assimilated into the platform core. This creates value through the transformational process that we term ‘coring’. We also analyze how the benefits of coring acquisitions are contingent on challenges concerning the integration of acquisitions offering...

  18. 基于供应链模式的逆向物流战略发展分析及策略——以思科逆向物流体系建立为例%Reverse Logistics Development Strategy Based on Supply Chain Mode: A Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷碧遥

    2011-01-01

    After a value analysis of reverse logistics, the paper explains the importance of promoting it from operational funtion to strategic objective, puts forth the improved implementation strategy in light of the development status of reverse logistics in China and finally analyzes the establishment of the reverse logistics system in a case study on CISCO.%通过逆向物流的价值分析阐明将其从运营层面提高到战略层面的重要意义;再结合我国逆向物流的发展现状,提出可改进的实施策略;最后以思科公司为例分析其逆向物流体系的建立.

  19. Scrum and Temporal Distance-Based Global Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa Fowzi Alotaibi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Global software development (GSD is one of modern trends in software engineering. The last years has witnessed a significant increase in the adoption of Agile in GSD .This paper considers the issue by examining whether Scrum practices used in mitigation of temporal distance-based GSD coordination challenges. We were used Cisco TelePresence tool in Synchronization communication for simulation of face to face meetings. We were designed a simple algorithm to help project managers in determining the appropriate strategies. This algorithm is based on the temporal difference between the sites. This is may be great or simple. Through temporal difference, we calculated number of working hours overlapping. Which are classified in the three cases and each case has number of strategies are sufficient to overcome this challenges.

  20. EVALUACIÓN EXPERIMENTAL DE LAS VELOCIDADES MÍNIMAS DE FLUIDIZACIÓN PARA MEZCLAS DE CARBÓN RIPIO Y RESIDUOS AGRÍCOLAS COLOMBIANOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS GÓMEZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Un estudio sistemático experimental se lleva a cabo para determinar las propiedades fluido-dinámicas como la distribución del tamaño de partícula, la densidad de bulto, la velocidad de fluidización, etc. para mezclas de carbón ripio, residuo de las minas de Colombia, y residuos agrícolas como la cascarilla de arroz, aserrín y cisco de café. A partir de los resultados se recomendaron las mezclas que mejores condiciones fluido dinámicas presentaron en frio para su posterior evaluación en el proceso de co-gasificación.

  1. 将"洋"职业资格证书引入必修课

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁慧洁

    2006-01-01

    根据目前社会上职业资格证书的企业需求度和认证及培训机构不够完善的现状,将教学必修课程内容融入全球认可的、技术含量极高的CCNA(Cisco Certified Network Assistant)职业资格认证当中,通过延伸校内相应必修课程的考核工作,使教学环节和行业标准接轨,可使在校学生了解全球产业成熟的技术标准和管理规范,增强学生进入企业后的技术应用能力和竞争能力.

  2. 互联网流媒体标准ISMA2.0介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊联欢

    2005-01-01

    ISMA全称为Internet Steaming Media Alliance,即“互联网流媒体联盟”.是一个非盈利性标准组织.其宗旨为促进在IP网络上传输流媒体内容采用和使用公开的视频、音频和其它相关数据标准,以利于相关产品和内容的互联互通性。ISMA成立于2000年,初始成员为Apple、Cisco Systems、IBM、Kasenna Inc.,Philips和Sun Microsystems,除此之外现有成员还包括American OnIine Inc.,

  3. Knowledge Management through the Equilibrium Pattern Model for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarirete, Akila; Noble, Elizabeth; Chikh, Azeddine

    Contemporary students are characterized by having very applied learning styles and methods of acquiring knowledge. This behavior is consistent with the constructivist models where students are co-partners in the learning process. In the present work the authors developed a new model of learning based on the constructivist theory coupled with the cognitive development theory of Piaget. The model considers the level of learning based on several stages and the move from one stage to another requires learners' challenge. At each time a new concept is introduced creates a disequilibrium that needs to be worked out to return back to its equilibrium stage. This process of "disequilibrium/equilibrium" has been analyzed and validated using a course in computer networking as part of Cisco Networking Academy Program at Effat College, a women college in Saudi Arabia. The model provides a theoretical foundation for teaching especially in a complex knowledge domain such as engineering and can be used in a knowledge economy.

  4. Securing Mobile Networks in an Operational Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, David H.; Bell, Terry L.; Paulsen, Phillip E.; Shell, Dan

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a network demonstration and three month field trial of mobile networking using mobile-IPv4. The network was implemented as part of the US Coast Guard operational network which is a ".mil" network and requires stringent levels of security. The initial demonstrations took place in November 2002 and a three month field trial took place from July through September of 2003. The mobile network utilized encryptors capable of NSA-approved Type 1 algorithms, mobile router from Cisco Systems and 802.11 and satellite wireless links. This paper also describes a conceptual architecture for wide-scale deployment of secure mobile networking in operational environments where both private and public infrastructure is used. Additional issues presented include link costs, placement of encryptors and running routing protocols over layer-3 encryption devices.

  5. Security Optimization of VTP Model in an Enterprise VLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv O. Verma

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available VLANs are extensively used in enterprise network to ease management of hosts to improve scalability and flexibility. Despite their wide usage in enterprise network, VLAN security is a greater concern for the network administrator due to very little attention has been paid on error prone, unsystematic, high risk of misconfiguration in the design and management of enterprise VLAN network. Our paper demonstrates the security optimization techniques in designing VLAN both for Inter-VLAN communication and addressing VTP issues. We proposed various security aspects like access-lists based layer 3 securities in Inter-VLAN routing, deactivating native VLAN 1 to secure Layer 2 traffic in VTP model, Application of authentication on VTP server and non-negotiating Dynamic Trunking Protocol mode to counter the effect of inserting a rogue switch/trunk with higher config revision number. Unless otherwise stated this paper is based upon configuration {&} hardware implementation in a Cisco environment

  6. AONBench: A Methodology for Benchmarking XML Based Service Oriented Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Waheed

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Service Oriented Architectures (SOA and applications increasingly rely on network infrastructure instead of back-end servers. Cisco system Application Oriented Networking (AON initiative exemplifies this trend. Benchmarking such infrastructure and their services is expected to play an important role in the networking industry. We present AONBech specifications and methodology to benchmark networked XML application servers and appliances. AONBench is not a benchmarking tool. It is a specification and methodology for performance measurements, which leverages from existing XML microbenchmarks and uses HTTP for end-to-end communication. We implement AONBench specifications for end-to-end performance measurements through public domain HTTP load generation tool ApacheBench and Apache web server. We present three case studies of using AONBench for architecting real application oriented networking products.

  7. Conducting Real-Time Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study via Telepractice: A Preliminary Feasibility and Reliability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Clare L; Ward, Elizabeth C; Hill, Anne J; Phillips, Nick; Porter, Linda

    2016-06-01

    A small number of studies have examined the feasibility of conducting videofluoroscopic swallow studies (VFSS) via telepractice. While the results have confirmed this potential, the systems tested to date have either reported issues that impacted the ability to analyze/interpret the VFSS recordings in real time, or they were not designed to enable real-time interpretation. Further system design is needed to establish a telepractice model that enables the VFSS assessment to be both guided and interpreted live in real time. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility and reliability of using a telepractice system to enable live VFSS assessment. Twenty adult patients underwent a VFSS assessment directed by a telepractice SLP with competency in VFSS located in another room of the hospital. The telepractice clinician led the sessions using a C20 Cisco TelePresence System. This was linked in real time via a secure telehealth network (at 4 megabits per second (Mbit/s)) to a C60 Cisco TelePresence System located in a fluoroscopy suite, connected to the digital fluoroscopy system. Levels of agreement were calculated between the telepractice clinician and a face-to-face clinician who simultaneously rated the VFSS in real time. High levels of agreement for swallowing parameters (range = 75-100 %; k = -0.34 to 1.0) and management decisions (range = 70-100 %, k = 0.64-1.0) were found. A post-session questionnaire revealed clinicians agreed that the telepractice system enabled successful remote assessment of VFSS. The findings support the potential to conduct live VFSS assessment via a telepractice model.

  8. Development of a simulated Internet for education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Smith

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the early stages of research and development of an educational environment designed to enable learners to participate in remote, group based large-scale activities based on local area network and wide area network technologies working on a range of systems and within different learning situations, such as in class group work, remote group work or independent learning. The environment covers specifically routing, switching and wireless principles in the domain of computer networking. This is accomplished using the ‘multiuser functionality' feature found within the Cisco Academy programme, Packet Tracer application. The initial research explores how a ‘virtual Internet' can be implemented to enable learners to engage with the scale and complexity of the Internet without interacting with active routing infrastructures thereby interfering with others. Different communities of interest from Cisco Systems as well as their Academy Programme academic affiliates have contributed to the development of the resource as well as to research into how individuals participate in learning as a result of using this software. This paper tells the story of the iterative action research process with two initial learning situations of ‘remote many' participation and ‘in class many' participation in a large scale networking exercise. As research is still in the development process, this paper explores the experiences and observations gathered from engaging with the two learning scenarios, describing how each interaction exercise was perceived by participants and their educators. Initial findings from both activities indicate that the concept of an ‘Internet on the Internet' to deliver simulated practical learning has considerable potential and brings an alternative dimension to the practical learning experience. Research is ongoing, with the work in this paper informing the continual iterative process.

  9. Design and implementation of 780 MHz IoT development platform%780MHz物联网开发平台的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王平; 彭杰; 严冬

    2012-01-01

    Based on RF technology, embedded technology, and wireless network technology, a development platform of internet of things that works in 780 MHz is designed. The wireless transceiver module, sensor measure module, embedded gateway module and other various function module of the platform are introduced in detail. The 6L0WPAN protocol stack is integrated in the platform which accomplished the end-to-end all IPv6 test in Cisco and realized the interconnection of wireless sensor network and 3G network. Then we can exploit many application systems more conveniently with the platform, such as smart home, environmental monitoring, and intelligent transportation application system and so on.%利用射频技术、嵌入式技术和无线网络技术,设计了一种基于780 MHz频段的物联网(Internet of Things,IoT)开发平台.对平台的无线收发模块,传感器测量模块,嵌入式网关核心模块及各个功能模块进行了详细介绍.平台集成了6LoWPAN协议栈,在思科系统中国研发中心(CISCO)通过了端到端的全IPv6测试,实现了无线传感网(wire-less sensor network,WSN)与3G网络的互联.利用平台能够方便地开发智能家居、环境监测,智能交通等应用系统.

  10. 扩展光网络服务空间思科推出7600光服务路由器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@凭借其在开发高端路由器方面的传统优势,思科系统公司近日推出了7600光服务路由器(Cisco 7600 OSR),面向提供IP服务的服务供应商。此款高性能路由器提供了在光传输速度下所需要的多样化的IP服务,使得服务供应商得以在满足他们的客户对更快速、更高性能网络的需求的同时创造高利润的、增值的服务。同时也意味着服务供应商们在提供视频语音综合、基于网络的安全性、电子化学习之类的“电子应用”方面能比他们的竞争者提供一个更为广阔的互联网服务选择空间。“尽管对于服务供应商来说有能力提供高速的接入确实依然很重要,但是增加新的服务却可以带来新的商机。”Treillage网络策略公司的负责 人Deb Mielke这样说。“Cisco 7600 OSR综合了IP服务集和在单平台下高性能的特征,这定将吸引许多服务供应商来关注如何在他们的网络中把这些性能扩展到极限。”

  11. 人民邮电出版社

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    地址:北京崇文区夕照寺街14号邮编:10006电话:(010)67129212 67129218传真:(010)6712921121天学通 Java 2(第3版) [美]RogersCadenhead 等2003.7 483页16开54.00元21天学通 Visual Studio.NET 2003 [美]Jason Beres 2003.8 470页 16开 55.00元CCNP 思科网络技术学院教程(第七学期)多层交换(思科网络技术学院教程丛书) [美]Cisco Systems 公司 2003.7 469页16开60.00元CCIE 路由与交换认证考试指南(英文版)(1CD)(cisco 职业认证培训系列丛书)[美]A.AnthonyBruno 2003.8 741页16开 88.00元Java 编码规范(英文版)Allan Vermeulen等 2003.7 128页 32开 11.80元C++Builder 程序员学习数据结构(1CD) 严仕伟 2003.7 304页 16开 36.00元基于 MPLS 的流量工程 [美]Eric Osborne等 2003.7 448页 16开 62.00元部署 VoIP 解决方案[美]Jonathan DavidsonTina Fox 2003.7 428页 16开 55.00元游戏编程精粹3(1CD) Dante Treglia

  12. Effect of permafrost on the formation of organic carbon pools and their physical-chemical properties in the Eastern Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, B.; Alewell, C.; Kneisel, C.; Meusburger, K.; Egli, M.

    2012-04-01

    Alpine soils contain a relatively large amount of organic matter (OM) even at elevations above the present-days timberline. Current climatic conditions and the occurrence of discontinuous and sporadic permafrost in the mountains result in a low turnover rate and therefore accumulation of OM. Alpine ecosystems are highly sensitive to environmental changes and therefore may become a potential source of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) due to global warming. The expected changes in thermal and hydrological conditions in permafrost soils will not only influence OM degradation processes within the soil. Especially in alpine regions, soil erosion processes might be affected and potentially promote the mineralization of OM. However, the knowledge about the biogeochemistry and OM-stabilization processes and rates in permafrost soils in alpine regions is scarce, which makes it difficult to predict climate-carbon feedbacks. Our aim is to determine and compare the quantity, allocation and mean residence time of OM and the potential erosion processes in permafrost soils and adjacent unfrozen soils (distance between permafrost/non-permafrost soils max. 200m) at three locations in the Eastern Swiss Alps (Val Bever, Albula). Bulk soil, labile (oxidized by H2O2) and stable fractions (H2O2-resistant) were analyzed for their C-content and characterized using DRIFT (Diffuse Reflection Infrared Fourier Transform). Additionally, selected soil samples were 14C-dated. This approach has been applied for the first time in high alpine regions. To estimate the degree of disturbance, soil erosion has been qualitatively assessed by relating the OM-delta13C values of the soil profiles of interest to undisturbed reference profiles. We found rather well-developed soil profiles and a relatively high amount of OM at both types of sites (permafrost/non-permafrost), leading to the assumption that these soils developed over a certain period under a different (warmer) climate. This fact is supported by

  13. La moneda como ofrenda en los manantiales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Abad Varela

    1992-01-01

    aguas termales de Albula ^'. De Nerón nos dice que cuando reconstruyó su casa en Roma después del incendio, la famosa domus áurea, hizo llegar a las salas de baño agua de mar y de Albula *"*. Por las aras recogidas en las fuentes termales, sabemos que las divinidades que más se sintieron favorecidas con estas ofrendas monetales fueron las Ninfas y las aguas que más beneficios causaron o por las que se sintieron más agradecidos los visitantes fueron las de aguas sulfuradas- cálcicas, es decir, las que se recomiendan principalmente para los problemas de dermatosis herpética, neurosis y catarros crónicos de las vías respiratorias ^^ sin que ésto signifique que hubiese alguna relación entre las cualidades de las aguas y las divinidades a quienes se dedicaron las aras. Finalmente, conviene señalar que son éstas las únicas conclusiones a las que nos atrevemos a llegar partiendo de las informaciones que tenemos. No obstante, deseamos que en un futuro se produzcan más hallazgos en lugares tan particulares como los señalados, fuentes, ríos y lagos, que nos permitan confirmar o desmentir con más precisión nuestras hipótesis. Para que ésto suceda animo desde aquí a los arqueólogos para que busquen este tipo de yacimientos y tengan en cuenta sus ofrendas, tratándolas con cuidado por su mal estado, y no tardando en darlas a conocer como tales.This paper deals with the finding of thirty one cases of possible monetary offerings to the divinities in the waters of the Spanish península. The largest number of cases involve springs, which make up 74.19 % of the total, of which 78.26 % are hyperthermal springs with temperatures ranging between 15 and 70 C. Most of these springs are to be found ín the West of Spaín. They are mainly connected with the Nymphis, except in the North West, where they are offered up to Apollini, to judge from the devotional alters which can be sean. It would appear, from the coins collected, that the custom of throwing stipes to the

  14. Mobile Router Developed and Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center, under a NASA Space Act Agreement with Cisco Systems, has been performing joint networking research to apply Internet-based technologies and protocols to space-based communications. As a result of this research, NASA performed stringent performance testing of the mobile router, including the interaction of routing and the transport-level protocol. In addition, Cisco Systems developed the mobile router for both commercial and Government markets. The code has become part of the Cisco Systems Internetworking Operating System (IOS) as of release 12.2 (4) T--which will make this capability available to the community at large. The mobile router is software code that resides in a network router and enables entire networks to roam while maintaining connectivity to the Internet. This router code is pertinent to a myriad of applications for both Government and commercial sectors, including the "wireless battlefield." NASA and the Department of Defense will utilize this technology for near-planetary observation and sensing spacecraft. It is also a key enabling technology for aviation-based information applications. Mobile routing will make it possible for information such as weather, air traffic control, voice, and video to be transmitted to aircraft using Internet-based protocols. This technology shows great promise in reducing congested airways and mitigating aviation disasters due to bad weather. The mobile router can also be incorporated into emergency vehicles (such as ambulances and life-flight aircraft) to provide real-time connectivity back to the hospital and health-care experts, enabling the timely application of emergency care. Commercial applications include entertainment services, Internet protocol (IP) telephone, and Internet connectivity for cruise ships, commercial shipping, tour buses, aircraft, and eventually cars. A mobile router, which is based on mobile IP, allows hosts (mobile nodes) to seamlessly "roam" among various IP

  15. Perancangan dan Analisis Redistribution Routing Protocol OSPF dan EIGRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI ARYANTA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak OSPF (Open Shortest Path First dan EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol adalah dua routing protokol yang banyak digunakan dalam jaringan komputer. Perbedaan karakteristik antar routing protokol menimbulkan masalah dalam pengiriman paket data. Teknik redistribution adalah solusi untuk melakukan komunikasi antar routing protokol. Dengan menggunakan software Cisco Packet Tracer 5.3 pada penelitian ini dibuat simulasi OSPF dan EIGRP yang dihubungkan oleh teknik redistribution, kemudian dibandingkan kualitasnya dengan single routing protokol EIGRP dan OSPF. Parameter pengujian dalam penelitian ini adalah nilai time delay dan trace route. Nilai trace route berdasarkan perhitungan langsung cost dan metric dibandingkan dengan hasil simulasi. Hasilnya dapat dilakukan proses redistribution OSPF dan EIGRP. Nilai delay redistribution lebih baik 1% dibanding OSPF dan 2-3% di bawah EIGRP tergantung kepadatan traffic. Dalam perhitungan trace route redistribution dilakukan 2 perhitungan, yaitu cost untuk area OSPF dan metric pada area EIGRP. Pengambilan jalur utama dan alternatif pengiriman paket berdasarkan nilai cost dan metric yang terkecil, hal ini terbukti berdasarkan perhitungan dan simulasi. Kata kunci: OSPF, EIGRP, Redistribution, Delay, Cost, Metric. Abstract OSPF (Open Shortest Path First and EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol are two routing protocols are widely used in computer networks. Differences between the characteristics of routing protocols pose a problem in the delivery of data packets. Redistribution technique is the solution for communication between routing protocols. By using the software Cisco Packet Tracer 5.3 in this study were made simulating OSPF and EIGRP redistribution linked by technique, then compared its quality with a single EIGRP and OSPF routing protocols. Testing parameters in this study is the value of the time delay and trace route. Value trace route based on direct calculation of cost

  16. Fine-Scale Ecological and Genetic Population Structure of Two Whitefish (Coregoninae) Species in the Vicinity of Industrial Thermal Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Carly F; Eberts, Rebecca L; Morgan, Thomas D; Boreham, Douglas R; Lance, Stacey L; Manzon, Richard G; Martino, Jessica A; Rogers, Sean M; Wilson, Joanna Y; Somers, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Thermal pollution from industrial processes can have negative impacts on the spawning and development of cold-water fish. Point sources of thermal effluent may need to be managed to avoid affecting discrete populations. Correspondingly, we examined fine-scale ecological and genetic population structure of two whitefish species (Coregonus clupeaformis and Prosopium cylindraceum) on Lake Huron, Canada, in the immediate vicinity of thermal effluent from nuclear power generation. Niche metrics using δ13C and δ15N stable isotopes showed high levels of overlap (48.6 to 94.5%) in resource use by adult fish captured in areas affected by thermal effluent compared to nearby reference locations. Isotopic niche size, a metric of resource use diversity, was 1.3- to 2.8-fold higher than reference values in some thermally affected areas, indicative of fish mixing. Microsatellite analyses of genetic population structure (Fst, STRUCTURE and DAPC) indicated that fish captured at all locations in the vicinity of the power plant were part of a larger population extending beyond the study area. In concert, ecological and genetic markers do not support the presence of an evolutionarily significant unit in the vicinity of the power plant. Thus, future research should focus on the potential impacts of thermal emissions on development and recruitment.

  17. Impact of fishing and stocking practices on Coregonid diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anneville, Orlane; Lasne, Emilien; Guillard, Jean; Eckmann, Reiner; Stockwell, Jason D.; Gillet, Christian; Yule, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Fish species diversity can be lost through interacting stressors including habitat loss, stocking and overfishing. Although a multitude of stressors have played a role in the global decline of coregonid (Coregonus spp.) diversity, a number of contemporary studies have identified habitat loss stemming from eutrophication as the primary cause. Unfortunately, reconstructing the role of fishing and stocking practices can be difficult, because these records are incomplete or appear only in hard-to-access historic grey literature. Based on an illustrative set of historic and contemporary studies, we describe how fisheries management practices may have contributed to coregonid diversity loss in European and North American lakes. We provide case studies examining how fishing and stocking may reduce coregonid diversity through demographic decline and introgressive hybridization. In some lakes, fisheries management practices may have led to a loss of coregonid diversity well before issues with habitat degradation manifested. Our review suggests that fish conservation policies could beneficially consider the relative importance of all stressors, including management practices, as potential drivers of diversity loss.

  18. Mercury distribution and lipid oxidation in fish muscle: Effects of washing and isoelectric protein precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Ren, L.; Egelandsdal, B.; Richards, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all the mercury (Hg) in whole muscle from whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and walleye (Sander vitreus) was present as methyl mercury (MeHg). The Hg content in whole muscle from whitefish and walleye was 0.04-0.09 and 0.14-0.81 ppm, respectively. The myofibril fraction contained approximately three-fourths of the Hg in whitefish and walleye whole muscle. The sarcoplasmic protein fraction (e.g., press juice) was the next most abundant source of Hg. Isolated myosin, triacylglycerols, and cellular membranes contained the least Hg. Protein isolates prepared by pH shifting in the presence of citric acid did not decrease Hg levels. Addition of cysteine during washing decreased the Hg content in washed muscle probably through the interaction of the sulfhydryl group in cysteine with MeHg. Primary and secondary lipid oxidation products were lower during 2 ??C storage in isolates prepared by pH shifting compared to those of washed or unwashed mince from whole muscle. This was attributed to removing some of the cellular membranes by pH shifting. Washing the mince accelerated lipid peroxide formation but decreased secondary lipid oxidation products compared to that of the unwashed mince. This suggested that there was a lipid hydroperoxide generating system that was active upon dilution of aqueous antioxidants and pro-oxidants. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. Male Investments in High Quality Sperm Improve Fertilization Success, but May Have Negative Impact on Offspring Fitness in Whitefish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekäläinen, Jukka; Soler, Carles; Veentaus, Sami; Huuskonen, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    Many ejaculate traits show remarkable variation in relation to male social status. Males in disfavoured (subordinate) mating positions often invest heavily on sperm motility but may have less available resources on traits (e.g., secondary sexual ornaments) that improve the probability of gaining matings. Although higher investments in sperm motility can increase the relative fertilization success of subordinate males, it is unclear whether status-dependent differences in sperm traits could have any consequences for offspring fitness. We tested this possibility in whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) by experimentally fertilizing the eggs of 24 females with the sperm of either highly-ornamented (large breeding tubercles, dominant) or less-ornamented (small tubercles, subordinate) males (split-clutch breeding design). In comparison to highly-ornamented individuals, less-ornamented males had higher sperm motility, which fertilized the eggs more efficiently, but produced embryos with impaired hatching success. Also offspring size and body condition were lower among less-ornamented males. Furthermore, sperm motility was positively associated with the fertilization success and offspring size, but only in highly-ornamented males. Together our results indicate that male investments on highly motile (fertile) sperm is not necessarily advantageous during later offspring ontogeny and that male status-dependent differences in sperm phenotype may have important effects on offspring fitness in different life-history stages. PMID:26389594

  20. Hydroacoustic estimates of abundance and spatial distribution of pelagic prey fishes in western Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Doran M.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Harvey, Chris J.; Kitchell, James F.; Schram, Stephen T.; Bronte, Charles R.; Hoff, MIchael H.; Lozano, Stephen J.; Trebitz, Anett S.; Schreiner, Donald R.; Lamon, E. Conrad; Hrabik, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    Lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) are a valuable prey resource for the recovering lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior. However, prey biomass may be insufficient to support the current predator demand. In August 1997, we assessed the abundance and spatial distribution of pelagic coregonines and rainbow smelt in western Lake Superior by combining a 120 kHz split beam acoustics system with midwater trawls. Coregonines comprised the majority of the midwater trawl catches and the length distributions for trawl caught fish coincided with estimated sizes of acoustic targets. Overall mean pelagic prey fish biomass was 15.56 kg ha−1 with the greatest fish biomass occurring in the Apostle Islands region (27.98 kg ha−1), followed by the Duluth Minnesota region (20.22 kg ha−1), and with the lowest biomass occurring in the open waters of western Lake Superior (9.46 kg ha−1). Biomass estimates from hydroacoustics were typically 2–134 times greater than estimates derived from spring bottom trawl surveys. Prey fish biomass for Lake Superior is about order of magnitude less than acoustic estimates for Lakes Michigan and Ontario. Discrepancies observed between bioenergetics-based estimates of predator consumption of coregonines and earlier coregonine biomass estimates may be accounted for by our hydroacoustic estimates.

  1. Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Brown, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

  2. Visual sensitivity of deepwater fishes in Lake Superior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A Harrington

    Full Text Available The predator-prey interactions in the offshore food web of Lake Superior have been well documented, but the sensory systems mediating these interactions remain unknown. The deepwater sculpin, (Myoxocephalus thompsoni, siscowet (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet, and kiyi (Coregonus kiyi inhabit low light level environments. To investigate the potential role of vision in predator-prey interactions, electroretinography was used to determine visual sensitivity for each species. Spectral sensitivity curves revealed peak sensitivity at 525 nm for each species which closely corresponds to the prevalent downwelling light spectrum at depth. To determine if sufficient light was available to mediate predator-prey interactions, visual sensitivity was correlated with the intensity of downwelling light in Lake Superior to construct visual depth profiles for each species. Sufficient daytime irradiance exists for visual interactions to approximately 325 m for siscowet and kiyi and 355 m for the deepwater sculpin during summer months. Under full moon conditions, sufficient irradiance exists to elicit ERG response to light available at approximately 30 m for the siscowet and kiyi and 45 m for the deepwater sculpin. Visual interactions are therefore possible at the depths and times when these organisms overlap in the water column indicating that vision may play a far greater role at depth in deep freshwater lakes than had been previously documented.

  3. Impacts of degraded DNA on restriction enzyme associated DNA sequencing (RADSeq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Carly F; Glenn, Travis C; McArthur, Andrew G; Boreham, Douglas R; Kieran, Troy; Lance, Stacey; Manzon, Richard G; Martino, Jessica A; Pierson, Todd; Rogers, Sean M; Wilson, Joanna Y; Somers, Christopher M

    2015-11-01

    Degraded DNA from suboptimal field sampling is common in molecular ecology. However, its impact on techniques that use restriction site associated next-generation DNA sequencing (RADSeq, GBS) is unknown. We experimentally examined the effects of in situDNA degradation on data generation for a modified double-digest RADSeq approach (3RAD). We generated libraries using genomic DNA serially extracted from the muscle tissue of 8 individual lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) following 0-, 12-, 48- and 96-h incubation at room temperature posteuthanasia. This treatment of the tissue resulted in input DNA that ranged in quality from nearly intact to highly sheared. All samples were sequenced as a multiplexed pool on an Illumina MiSeq. Libraries created from low to moderately degraded DNA (12-48 h) performed well. In contrast, the number of RADtags per individual, number of variable sites, and percentage of identical RADtags retained were all dramatically reduced when libraries were made using highly degraded DNA (96-h group). This reduction in performance was largely due to a significant and unexpected loss of raw reads as a result of poor quality scores. Our findings remained consistent after changes in restriction enzymes, modified fold coverage values (2- to 16-fold), and additional read-length trimming. We conclude that starting DNA quality is an important consideration for RADSeq; however, the approach remains robust until genomic DNA is extensively degraded.

  4. Thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs from the upper Great Lakes are related to maternal diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, S.C.; Rinchard, J.; Ebener, M.P.; Tillitt, D.E.; Munkittrick, K.R.; Parrott, J.L.; Allen, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Thiamine deficiency is responsible for reproductive impairment in several species of salmonines in the Great lakes, and is thought to be caused by the consumption of prey containing thiaminase, a thiamine-degrading enzyme. Because thiaminase levels are extremely high in dreissenid mussels, fish that prey on them may be susceptible to thiamine deficiency. We determined thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis eggs from the upper Laurentian Great Lakes to assess the potential for thiamine deficiency and to determine if thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs were related to maternal diet. Mean thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs were highest in Lake Huron, intermediate in Lake Superior, and lowest in Lake Michigan. Some fish had thiamine concentrations below putative thresholds for lethal and sublethal effects in salmonines, suggesting that some larval lake whitefish may currently be at risk of at least sublethal effects of low thiamine concentrations, although thiamine thresholds are unknown for lake whitefish. Egg thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs were statistically significantly related to isotopic carbon signatures, suggesting that egg thiamine levels were related to maternal diet, but low egg thiamine concentrations did not appear to be associated with a diet of dreissenids. Egg thiamine concentrations were not statistically significantly related to multifunction oxidase induction, suggesting that lower egg thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish were not related to contaminant exposure.

  5. Genetic diversity of lake whitefish in lakes Michigan and Huron: sampling, standardization, and research priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Wendylee; VanDeHey, Justin A.; Sloss, Brian L.

    2010-01-01

    We combined data from two laboratories to increase the spatial extent of a genetic data set for lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis from lakes Huron and Michigan and saw that genetic diversity was greatest between lakes, but that there was also structuring within lakes. Low diversity among stocks may be a reflection of relatively recent colonization of the Great Lakes, but other factors such as recent population fluctuation and localized stresses such as lamprey predation or heavy exploitation may also have a homogenizing effect. Our data suggested that there is asymmetrical movement of lake whitefish between Lake Huron and Lake Michigan; more genotypes associated with Lake Michigan were observed in Lake Huron. Adding additional collections to the calibrated set will allow further examination of diversity in other Great Lakes, answer questions regarding movement among lakes, and estimate contributions of stocks to commercial yields. As the picture of genetic diversity and population structure of lake whitefish in the Great Lakes region emerges, we need to develop methods to combine data types to help identify important areas for biodiversity and thus conservation. Adding genetic data to existing models will increase the precision of predictions of the impacts of new stresses and changes in existing pressures on an ecologically and commercially important species.

  6. Ecology of the Lake Huron fish community, 1970-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobiesz, Norine E.; McLeish, David A.; Eshenroder, Randy L.; Bence, James R.; Mohr, Lloyd C.; Ebener, Mark P.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Woldt, Aaron P.; Johnson, James E.; Argyle, Ray L.; Makarewicz, Joseph C.

    2005-01-01

    We review the status of the Lake Huron fish community between 1970 and 1999 and explore the effects of key stressors. Offshore waters changed little in terms of nutrient enrichment, while phosphorus levels declined in inner Saginaw Bay. Introduced mussels (Dreissena spp.) proliferated and may have caused a decline in Diporeia spp. This introduction could have caused a decline in lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) growth and condition, with serious repercussions for commercial fisheries. Bythotrephes, an exotic predatory cladoceran, and other new exotics may be influencing the fish community. Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) remained prevalent, but intensive control efforts on the St. Mary's River may reduce their predation on salmonines. Overfishing was less of a problem than in the past, although fishing continued to reduce the amount of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) spawning biomass resulting from hatchery-reared fish planted to rehabilitate this species. Massive stocking programs have increased the abundance of top predators, but lake trout were rehabilitated in only one area. Successful lake trout rehabilitation may require lower densities of introduced pelagic prey fish than were seen in the 1990s, along with continued stocking of hatchery-reared lake trout and control of sea lamprey. Such reductions in prey fish could limit Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) fisheries.

  7. Absence of fractionation of mercury isotopes during trophic transfer of methylmercury to freshwater fish in captivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sae Yun; Blum, Joel D.; Carvan, Michael J.; Basu, Niladri; Head, Jessica A.; Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.

    2012-01-01

    We performed two controlled experiments to determine the amount of mass-dependent and mass-independent fractionation (MDF and MIF) of methylmercury (MeHg) during trophic transfer into fish. In experiment 1, juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were raised in captivity on commercial food pellets and then their diet was either maintained on unamended food pellets (0.1 μg/g MeHg) or was switched to food pellets with 1.0 μg/g or 4.0 μg/g of added MeHg, for a period of 2 months. The difference in δ202Hg (MDF) and Δ199Hg (MIF) between fish tissues and food pellets with added MeHg was within the analytical uncertainty (δ202Hg, 0.07 ‰; Δ199Hg, 0.06 ‰), indicating no isotope fractionation. In experiment 2, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were raised in captivity on food pellets and then shifted to a diet of bloater (Coregonus hoyi) for 6 months. The δ202Hg and Δ199Hg of the lake trout equaled the isotopic composition of the bloater after 6 months, reflecting reequilibration of the Hg isotopic composition of the fish to new food sources and a lack of isotope fractionation during trophic transfer. We suggest that the stable Hg isotope ratios in fish can be used to trace environmental sources of Hg in aquatic ecosystems.

  8. Potential effects of climate change on the growth of fishes from different thermal guilds in Lakes Michigan and Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Chun; Madenjian, Charles P.; Bunnell, David B.; Lofgren, Brent M.; Perroud, Marjorie

    2015-01-01

    We used a bioenergetics modeling approach to investigate potential effects of climate change on the growth of two economically important native fishes: yellow perch (Perca flavescens), a cool-water fish, and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), a cold-water fish, in deep and oligotrophic Lakes Michigan and Huron. For assessing potential changes in fish growth, we contrasted simulated fish growth in the projected future climate regime during the period 2043-2070 under different prey availability scenarios with the simulated growth during the baseline (historical reference) period 1964-1993. Results showed that effects of climate change on the growth of these two fishes are jointly controlled by behavioral thermoregulation and prey availability. With the ability of behavioral thermoregulation, temperatures experienced by yellow perch in the projected future climate regime increased more than those experienced by lake whitefish. Thus simulated future growth decreased more for yellow perch than for lake whitefish under scenarios where prey availability remains constant into the future. Under high prey availability scenarios, simulated future growth of these two fishes both increased but yellow perch could not maintain the baseline efficiency of converting prey consumption into body weight. We contended that thermal guild should not be the only factor used to predict effects of climate change on the growth of a fish, and that ecosystem responses to climate change should be also taken into account.

  9. Reevaluation of lake trout and lake whitefish bioenergetics models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steve A.; Kao, Yu-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Using a corrected algorithm for balancing the energy budget, we reevaluated the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the laboratory and for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in the laboratory and in the field. For lake trout, results showed that the bioenergetics model slightly overestimated food consumption by the lake trout when they were fed low and intermediate rations, whereas the model predicted food consumption by lake trout fed ad libitum without any detectable bias. The slight bias in model predictions for lake trout on restricted rations may have been an artifact of the feeding schedule for these fish, and we would therefore recommend application of the Wisconsin lake trout bioenergetics model to lake trout populations in the field without any revisions to the model. Use of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for coregonids resulted in overestimation of food consumption by lake whitefish both in the laboratory and in the field by between 20 and 30%, on average. This overestimation of food consumption was most likely due to overestimation of respiration rate. We therefore adjusted the respiration component of the bioenergetics model to obtain a good fit to the observed consumption in our laboratory tanks. The adjusted model predicted the consumption in the laboratory and the field without any detectable bias. Until a detailed lake whitefish respiration study can be conducted, we recommend application of our adjusted version of the Wisconsin generalized coregonid bioenergetics model to lake whitefish populations in the field.

  10. Dreissenid mussels are not a "dead end" in Great Lakes food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenijan, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Schneeberger, Philip J.; Ebener, Mark P.; Mohr, Lloyd C.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Bence, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Dreissenid mussels have been regarded as a “dead end” in Great Lakes food webs because the degree of predation on dreissenid mussels, on a lakewide basis, is believed to be low. Waterfowl predation on dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes has primarily been confined to bays, and therefore its effects on the dreissenid mussel population have been localized rather than operating on a lakewide level. Based on results from a previous study, annual consumption of dreissenid mussels by the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) population in central Lake Erie averaged only 6 kilotonnes (kt; 1 kt = one thousand metric tons) during 1995–2002. In contrast, our coupling of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) population models with a lake whitefish bioenergetics model revealed that lake whitefish populations in Lakes Michigan and Huron consumed 109 and 820 kt, respectively, of dreissenid mussels each year. Our results indicated that lake whitefish can be an important predator on dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes, and that dreissenid mussels do not represent a “dead end” in Great Lakes food webs. The Lake Michigan dreissenid mussel population has been estimated to be growing more than three times faster than the Lake Huron dreissenid mussel population during the 2000s. One plausible explanation for the higher population growth rate in Lake Michigan would be the substantially higher predation rate by lake whitefish on dreissenid mussels in Lake Huron.

  11. Tolerance of whitefish embryos to Pseudomonas fluorescens linked to genetic and maternal effects, and reduced by previous exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Siebenthal, Beat A; Jacob, Alain; Wedekind, Claus

    2009-03-01

    Juvenile or adult fish can alter their behaviour and rely on an innate and adaptive immune system to avoid/counteract pathogens, while fish embryos have to depend on egg characteristics and may be partly protected by their developing immune system that is building up from a certain age on. We developed an infection protocol that allows testing the reaction of individual whitefish embryos (Coregonus palaea) to repeated exposures to Pseudomonas fluorescens, an opportunistic bacterial fish pathogen. We used a full-factorial in vitro breeding design to separately test the effects of paternal and maternal contributions to the embryos' susceptibility to different kinds of pathogen exposure. We found that a first non-lethal exposure had immunosuppressive effects: pre-exposed embryos were more susceptible to future challenges with the same pathogen. At intermediate and high levels of pathogen intensity, maternal effects turned out to be crucial for the embryos' tolerance to infection. Paternal (i.e. genetic) effects played a significant role at the strongest level of infection, i.e. the embryos' own genetics already explained some of the variation in embryo susceptibility. Our findings suggest that whitefish embryos are largely protected by maternally transmitted substances, but build up some own innate immunocompetence several days before hatching.

  12. Fishery-induced selection on an Alpine whitefish: quantifying genetic and environmental effects on individual growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusslé, Sébastien; Bornand, Christophe N; Wedekind, Claus

    2009-05-01

    Size-selective fishing, environmental changes and reproductive strategies are expected to affect life-history traits such as the individual growth rate. The relative contribution of these factors is not clear, particularly whether size-selective fishing can have a substantial impact on the genetics and hence on the evolution of individual growth rates in wild populations. We analysed a 25-year monitoring survey of an isolated population of the Alpine whitefish Coregonus palaea. We determined the selection differentials on growth rate, the actual change of growth rate over time and indicators of reproductive strategies that may potentially change over time. The selection differential can be reliably estimated in our study population because almost all the fish are harvested within their first years of life, i.e. few fish escape fishing mortality. We found a marked decline in average adult growth rate over the 25 years and a significant selection differential for adult growth, but no evidence for any linear change in reproductive strategies over time. Assuming that the heritability of growth in this whitefish corresponds to what was found in other salmonids, about a third of the observed decline in growth rate would be linked to fishery-induced evolution. Size-selective fishing seems to affect substantially the genetics of individual growth in our study population.

  13. MHC-linked susceptibility to a bacterial infection, but no MHC-linked cryptic female choice in whitefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, C; Walker, M; Portmann, J; Cenni, B; Müller, R; Binz, T

    2004-01-01

    Non-random gamete fusion is one of several potential cryptic female choice mechanisms that have been postulated and that may enhance the survival probability of the offspring. Previous studies have found that gamete fusion in mice is influenced by genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. Here we test (i) whether there is MHC-dependent gamete fusion in whitefish (Coregonus sp.) and (ii) whether there is a link between the MHC and embryo susceptibility to an infection by the bacterium Pseudomonas fuorescens. We experimentally bred whitefish and reared sibships in several batches that either experienced or did not experience strong selection by P. fluorescens. We then determined the MHC class II B1 genotype of 1016 surviving larvae of several full sibships. We found no evidence for MHC-linked gamete fusion. However, in one of seven sibships we found a strong connection between the MHC class II genotype and embryo susceptibility to P. fluorescens. This connection was still significant after correcting for multiple testing. Hence, the MHC class II genotype can considerably influence embryo survival in whitefish, but gamete fusion seems to be random with respect to the MHC.

  14. Stakeholder views of management and decision support tools to integrate climate change into Great Lakes Lake Whitefish management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Abigail J.; Taylor, William W.; McCright, Aaron M.

    2016-01-01

    Decision support tools can aid decision making by systematically incorporating information, accounting for uncertainties, and facilitating evaluation between alternatives. Without user buy-in, however, decision support tools can fail to influence decision-making processes. We surveyed fishery researchers, managers, and fishers affiliated with the Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis fishery in the 1836 Treaty Waters of Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior to assess opinions of current and future management needs to identify barriers to, and opportunities for, developing a decision support tool based on Lake Whitefish recruitment projections with climate change. Approximately 64% of 39 respondents were satisfied with current management, and nearly 85% agreed that science was well integrated into management programs. Though decision support tools can facilitate science integration into management, respondents suggest that they face significant implementation barriers, including lack of political will to change management and perceived uncertainty in decision support outputs. Recommendations from this survey can inform development of decision support tools for fishery management in the Great Lakes and other regions.

  15. Diet and prey selection by Lake Superior lake trout during springs 1986-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, B.A.; Hrabik, T.R.; Ebener, M.P.; Gorman, O.T.; Schreiner, D.R.; Schram, S.T.; Sitar, S.P.; Mattes, W.P.; Bronte, C.R.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the diet and prey selectivity of lean (Salvelinus namaycush namaycush) and siscowet lake trout (S. n. siscowet) collected during spring (April–June) from Lake Superior during 1986–2001. We estimated prey selectivity by comparing prey numerical abundance estimates from spring bottom trawl surveys and lake trout diet information in similar areas from spring gill net surveys conducted annually in Lake Superior. Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) was the most common prey and was positively selected by both lean and siscowet lake trout throughout the study. Selection by lean lake trout for coregonine (Coregonus spp.) prey increased after 1991 and corresponded with a slight decrease in selection for rainbow smelt. Siscowet positively selected for rainbow smelt after 1998, a change that was coincident with the decrease in selection for this prey item by lean lake trout. However, diet overlap between lean and siscowet lake trout was not strong and did not change significantly over the study period. Rainbow smelt remains an important prey species for lake trout in Lake Superior despite declines in abundance.

  16. Seasonal Variations in the Use of Profundal Habitat among Freshwater Fishes in Lake Norsjø, Southern Norway, and Subsequent Effects on Fish Mercury Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Robin Olk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is based on monthly sampling of fish from grates mounted at an industrial water intake, located at a depth of 50 m in Lake Norsjø (Southern Norway during the year 2014, to investigate seasonal variations in the use of the profundal habitat and subsequent variations in total Hg-concentrations in profundal fish. Data on various fish present in a cold and dark hypolimnion of a large, deep, dimictic lake within the upper temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere are rare. While predominant species such as A. charr (Salvelinus alpinus and E. smelt (Osmerus eperlanus were continuously present in this habitat, whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus occupied this habitat primarily during wintertime, while other common species like brown trout (Salmo trutta, perch (Perca fluviatilis and northern pike (Esox lucius were almost absent. Besides stomach analyses (diet and biometry, stable isotope analyses (δ15N and δ13C and total mercury (Tot-Hg analyses were carried out on the caught fish. The δ13C signature and stomach analyses revealed a combined profundal-pelagic diet for all three species, A. charr with the most profundal-based diet. Length was the strongest predictor for Hg in whitefish and A. charr, while age was the strongest explanatory variable for Hg in E. smelt. A. charr was the only species exhibiting seasonal variation in Hg, highest during winter and spring.

  17. Diet of yellow-billed loons (Gavia adamsii) in Arctic lakes during the nesting season inferred from fatty acid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, T B; Schmutz, Joel A.; Bromaghin, Jeffrey; Iverson, S J; Padula, V. M.; Rosenberger, A E

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the dietary habits of yellow-billed loons (Gavia adamsii) can give important insights into their ecology, however, studying the diet of loons is difficult when direct observation or specimen collection is impractical. We investigate the diet of yellow-billed loons nesting on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska using quantitative fatty acid signature analysis. Tissue analysis from 26 yellow-billed loons and eleven prey groups (nine fish species and two invertebrate groups) from Arctic lakes suggests that yellow-billed loons are eating high proportions of Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis), broad whitefish (Coregonus nasus) and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) during late spring and early summer. The prominence of blackfish in diets highlights the widespread availability of blackfish during the early stages of loon nesting, soon after spring thaw. The high proportions of broad whitefish and three-spined stickleback may reflect a residual signal from the coastal staging period prior to establishing nesting territories on lakes, when loons are more likely to encounter these species. Our analyses were sensitive to the choice of calibration coefficient based on data from three different species, indicating the need for development of loon-specific coefficients for future study and confirmation of our results. Regardless, fish that are coastally distributed and that successfully overwinter in lakes are likely key food items for yellow-billed loons early in the nesting season.

  18. An ecological basis for future fish habitat restoration efforts in the Huron-Erie Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondorp, Darryl W.; Roseman, Edward F.; Manny, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    This perspective describes the major natural and anthropogenic forces driving change in the abundance and quality of fish habitats in the Huron-Erie Corridor (HEC), the Great Lakes connecting channel comprised of the St. Clair River, the Lake St. Clair, and the Detroit River. Channels connecting the Laurentian Great Lakes discharge large volumes of water equal to or greater than most other large rivers in the world that is of consistent high quality and volume, all year. Owing to creation of the St. Lawrence Seaway through the Great Lakes, the connecting channels have been modified by dredging over 200 km of deep-draft shipping lanes with a maintained depth of no less than 8.2 m. Combined with modification of their shorelines for housing and industries, use of the connecting channels for discharges of industrial and municipal wastes and shipping has resulted in numerous beneficial use impairments, such as restrictions on fish and wildlife consumption, degradation of fish and wildlife populations, and losses of fish and wildlife habitat. Various options for remediation of native fish populations and their habitats in the Great Lakes connecting channels, including construction of spawning habitat for threatened and high-value food fishes, such as lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), walleye (Sander vitreus), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), have been implemented successfully in two of the channels, and form the basis for further recommended research described in this article.

  19. Annulus formation on scales of four species of coregonids reared under artificial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogman, Walter J.

    1968-01-01

    Scales from known-age coregonids reared in the laboratory were examined to determine when annuli formed and to learn possible factors of their formation. Scales were taken monthly from marked fish for periods up to 21 months. Scales were also examined from fish that died and from preserved specimens of young-of-the-year for each species. Two marks formed on almost all scales each calender year. The stronger formed during March-April and the weaker in October-November. Both marks had all the usual characteristics of an annulus but the spring mark was considered the annulus and the fall mark an accessory check. The annulus formed during a period of constant temperatures and of little change in growth or increasing growth. The accessory check formed during a period of declining temperatures (1-5 degrees F, or 0.6-2.8 degrees C, per month) and of little change in growth or declining growth. Most fish grew throughout the winter; the only exceptions were one bloater (Coregonus hoyi) and several of the largest lake whitefish (C. clupeaformis). Fish were always given all the food they would eat to eliminate availability of food as a factor of mark formation. The temperature of the water during the winter (50 ±. 0.3 F; 10.0 ±. 0.2 C) did not arrest metabolic activity. The growth rate was related more closely to day length than to other variables examined.

  20. Net trophic transfer efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from its prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O’Keefe, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were fed bloater (Coregonus hoyi) in eight laboratory tanks over a 135-d experiment. At the start of the experiment, four to nine fish in each tank were sacrificed, and the concentrations of 75 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners within these fish were determined. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener concentrations were also determined in the 10 lake trout remaining in each of the eight tanks at the end of the experiment as well as in the bloater fed to the lake trout. Each lake trout was weighed at the start and the end of the experiment, and the amount of food eaten by the lake trout was recorded. Using these measurements, net trophic transfer efficiency (γ) from the bloater to the lake trout in each of the eight tanks was calculated for each of the 75 congeners. Results showed that γ did not vary significantly with the degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners, and γ averaged 0.66 across all congeners. However,γ did show a slight, but significant, decrease as logKOW increased from 6.0 to 8.2. Activity level of the lake trout did not have a significant effect on γ.

  1. Testing for synchrony in recruitment among four Lake Michigan fish species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, David; Höök, Tomas O.; Troy, Cary D.; Liu, Wentao; Madenjian, Charles P.; Adams, Jean V.

    2017-01-01

    In the Great Lakes region, multiple fish species display intra-specific spatial synchrony in 28 recruitment success, with inter-annual climate variation hypothesized as the most likely driver. 29 In Lake Michigan, we evaluated whether climatic or other physical variables could also induce 30 spatial synchrony across multiple species, including bloater (Coregonus hoyi), rainbow smelt 31 (Osmerus mordax), yellow perch (Perca flavescens), and alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus). The 32 residuals from stock-recruitment relationships revealed yellow perch recruitment to be correlated 33 with recruitment of both rainbow smelt (r = 0.37) and alewife (r = 0.36). Across all four species, 34 higher than expected recruitment occurred in 5 years between 1978 and 1987 and then switched 35 to lower than expected recruitment in 5 years between 1996 and 2004. Generalized additive 36 models revealed warmer spring and summer water temperatures and lower wind speeds 37 corresponded to higher than expected recruitment for the nearshore-spawning species, and 38 overall variance explained ranged from 14% (yellow perch) to 61% (alewife). For all species 39 but rainbow smelt, higher recruitment also occurred in extremely high or low years of the North 40 Atlantic Oscillation index. Future development of indices that describe the physical Great Lakes 41 environment could improve understanding of how climate can synchronize fish populations 42 within and across species.

  2. Effects of body size, condition, and lipid content on the survival of juvenile lake herring during rapid cooling events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangle, K.L.; Sutton, T.M.; Kinnunen, R.E.; Hoff, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Juvenile lake herring Coregonus artedi were exposed to rapid cooling events during two laboratory experiments to determine the effects of body size, physiological condition, and lipid content on survival. The first experiment was conducted at the onset of winter, exposing small (50 to 85 mm) and large (85 to 129 mm) fish to a decline in water temperature from 12 to 2??C at a rate of 1??C/hr. During this experiment, both large and small individuals exposed to a rapid cooling event experienced no mortality or abnormal behaviors. Separate fish were then maintained under thermal and photoperiod regimes that mimicked those in Lake Superior from October through May. Fish in each size class were maintained at two feeding treatments: Artemia ad libitum and no food. At the completion of the winter period, these lake herring were subjected to the same rapid cooling event conducted in the first experiment. During the experiment, lake herring exhibited no mortality or abnormal behaviors despite treatment-dependent differences in condition and lipid content. Our results indicate that mortality due to rapid cooling events does not appear to contribute to the recruitment variability observed for juvenile lake herring in Lake Superior.

  3. The great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo at lower lake Constance/Germany: dietary composition and impact on commercial fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaye-Siessegger J.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available At lower lake Constance, the number of cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo has greatly increased during the last 15 years. An investigation of their diet can help to estimate the impact on fish and fisheries. Therefore, 282 cormorants were collected for stomach content analysis in autumn/winter 2011/12 and 2012/13. A total of 4019 fish or hard parts of 16 species were identified in the diet of cormorants. Fish length and weight were reconstructed from dimensions of hard parts using regression equations. Perch was the most frequent species (composition by number = 41.5%. Based on composition by weight, the most important species in the diet of cormorants was tench (Tinca tinca with 47.0%, followed by Northern pike (Esox lucius, perch (Perca fluviatilis and European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus with 23.9%, 7.2% and 6.9%, respectively. The dietary composition significantly differed between autumn and winter. Fish of high commercial value played a considerable part in the cormorants’ diet. The impact of cormorants on grayling (Thymallus thymallus could not be assessed due to the low number of birds from the spawning grounds of grayling at the outlet of lower lake Constance.

  4. Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyfield, Dale C; Fitzsimons, John D; Tillitt, Donald E; Brown, Scott B

    2009-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

  5. Fine-Scale Ecological and Genetic Population Structure of Two Whitefish (Coregoninae Species in the Vicinity of Industrial Thermal Emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly F Graham

    Full Text Available Thermal pollution from industrial processes can have negative impacts on the spawning and development of cold-water fish. Point sources of thermal effluent may need to be managed to avoid affecting discrete populations. Correspondingly, we examined fine-scale ecological and genetic population structure of two whitefish species (Coregonus clupeaformis and Prosopium cylindraceum on Lake Huron, Canada, in the immediate vicinity of thermal effluent from nuclear power generation. Niche metrics using δ13C and δ15N stable isotopes showed high levels of overlap (48.6 to 94.5% in resource use by adult fish captured in areas affected by thermal effluent compared to nearby reference locations. Isotopic niche size, a metric of resource use diversity, was 1.3- to 2.8-fold higher than reference values in some thermally affected areas, indicative of fish mixing. Microsatellite analyses of genetic population structure (Fst, STRUCTURE and DAPC indicated that fish captured at all locations in the vicinity of the power plant were part of a larger population extending beyond the study area. In concert, ecological and genetic markers do not support the presence of an evolutionarily significant unit in the vicinity of the power plant. Thus, future research should focus on the potential impacts of thermal emissions on development and recruitment.

  6. TelePresence in Rural Medical Education: A Mixed Methods Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Gray

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to rural health workforce shortages, universities and training providers offer rural and remote clinical placements. This has led to development of educational methods to counter the barriers of distance. In this emerging field, recent improvements in technology have provided solutions including the use of sophisticated videoconferencing systems such as the Cisco TelePresence model CTS-500. This paper evaluates the use of TelePresence in diverse medical education activities using a mixed methods design—questionnaires n=60, individual interviews n=33, and observed practice of activities n=22. TelePresence was found to be beneficial to learning and teaching and superior to other systems participants had used. In particular, the audiovisual quality, resulting intimacy, convenience, and ease of use facilitated teaching and learning, while the fixed camera and poorly arranged physical environment were found to be limitations. The system is best suited for small group activities. Clinical skills-based activities are viable. It is recommended that technical support be available during setup and use and a picture-in-picture mode be included and improved integration of office suite software to provide a joint workspace for display of presentations, images, editing or annotation of documents, and file sharing.

  7. Method of construction of rational corporate network using the simulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Pakhomovа

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Search for new options of the transition from Ethernet technology. Methodology. Physical structuring of the Fast Ethernet network based on hubs and logical structuring of Fast Ethernet network using commutators. Organization of VLAN based on ports grouping and in accordance with the standard IEEE 802 .1Q. Findings. The options for improving of the Ethernet network are proposed. According to the Fast Ethernet and VLAN technologies on the simulation models in packages NetCraker and Cisco Packet Traker respectively. Origiality. The technique of designing of local area network using the VLAN technology is proposed. Practical value.Each of the options of "Dniprozaliznychproekt" network improving has its advantages. Transition from the Ethernet to Fast Ethernet technology is simple and economical, it requires only one commutator, when the VLAN organization requires at least two. VLAN technology, however, has the following advantages: reducing the load on the network, isolation of the broadcast traffic, change of the logical network structure without changing its physical structure, improving the network security. The transition from Ethernet to the VLAN technology allows you to separate the physical topology from the logical one, and the format of the ÌEEE 802.1Q standard frames allows you to simplify the process of virtual networks implementation to enterprises.

  8. Simulasi Kinerja Jaringan Nirkabel IEEE-802.11a dan IEEE-802.11g Menggunakan NS-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helm Fitriawan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless network uses transmission media based on radio waves. This type of networks is mainly useddue to its efficiency and mobility in data exchanging. This paper reports the modeling and simulation of wirelessnetworks based on Cisco Aironet 1130ag access point devices with IEEE 802.11a and IEEE 802.11g standards. Themodeling and simulation are performed using network simulator version 2 (NS-2 that is installed on operationsystem Linux Ubuntu v.10.10. The NS-2 is commonly used and works well in numerous types of network simulation. From simulation, we obtain quality of service parameters by employing several simulation scenarios in terms ofnumber of nodes, distances, and packet data sizes. It can be concluded from simulation results that the IEEE 802.11gnetworks transfer data with better quality than those of IEEE 802.11a networks.  Furthermore, the IEEE 802.11gnetworks provide a higher throughput, with smaller amount of delay and packet loss percentage compared to thoseof IEEE 802.11a networks.

  9. A Survey on Current Repertoire for 5G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aamir Nadeem

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellular technology progressed miraculously in the last decade. It has redefined communication paradigm. Statistics provided by Ericson and Cisco show the number of mobile connected devices will reach figures of 9.2 billion and 11.6 billion respectively by 2020. Overall connected devices will surpass 50 billion then. Extremely higher data rates, zero latency, massively scalable, connecting everything anywhere is what that 5G promises. To meet such ambitious goals which apparently seems challenging, the tools and technologies that mobile communication has in its repertoire and what it needs more either enhancement in existing solutions or new solution or joint venture of both, is a question that demands an answer. To realize 5G, evolution and revolution both approaches are being employed. Evolution seeks enhancements in existing technologies while revolution looks for new innovations and technologies. Extension in frequency spectrum, network densification, MIMO, carrier aggregation, CentralizedRAN, HetNets, and Network Functionality Virtualization are the key enablers. This paper disseminates information about ongoing research and development of 5G

  10. The Role of Reusable Learning Objects in Occupational Therapy Entry-Level Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan M. Gee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Out of early research, Cisco Systems (1999 have built an impressive foundation that advocates for reusable learning objects (RLOs. As the need for online methods for delivering both formal and informal educational content has increased, the prospect of greater influence through carefully constructed RLOs has grown. RLOs are any digital resource that can be used and reused to enhance online learning. RLOs typically are small, discrete, self-contained digital objects that may be sequenced, combined, and used within a variety of instructional activities. RLOs have been implemented in nursing, pharmacy, and physician assistant programs. However, there is a lack of literature regarding RLOs in occupational therapy education. An attitudinal survey was administered to occupational therapy students after they had used an RLO focused on goal writing. Student preferences toward RLO content, instructional design, and eLearning were generally positive. Nearly three-quarters of the students who responded to the survey indicated that the RLO presented was beneficial. All respondents noted that they would use the RLO for future occupational therapy courses. It is argued that incorporating RLOs offers a cost-effective, efficient learning tool, and also adds credibility to the given curriculum program as being innovative with instructing occupational-therapy related concepts.

  11. Aplikasi Algoritma Biseksi dan Newton-Raphson dalam Menaksir Nilai Volatilitas Implied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Dharmawan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatilitas adalah suatu besaran yang mengukuran seberapa jauh suatu harga sahambergerak dalam suatu periode tertentu dapat juga diartikan sebagai persentase simpanganbaku dari perubahan harga harian suatu saham. Menurut teori yang dikembangkan oleh Black-Scholes in 1973, semua harga opsi dengan ’underlying asset’ dan waktu jatuh tempo yang samatetapi memiliki nilai exercise yang berbeda akan memiliki nilai volatilitas implied yang sama.Model Black-Scholes dapat dipakai mengestimasi nilai volatilitas implied dari suatu sahamdengan mencari sulusi numerik dari persamaan invers dari model Black-Scholes. Makalah inimendemonstrasikan bagaimana menghitung nilai volatilitas implied suatu saham dengan mengasumsikanbahwa model Black-schole adalah benar dan suatu kontrak opsi dengan denganumur kontrak yang sama akan memiliki harga yang sama. Menggunakan data harga opsi SonyCorporation (SNE, Cisco Systems, Inc (CSCO, dan Canon, Inc (CNJ diperoleh bahwa, ImpliedVolatility memberikan harga yang lebih murah dibandingkan dengan harga opsi darivolatilitas yang dihitung dari data historis. Selain itu, dari hasil iterasi yang diperoleh, metodeNewton-Raphson lebih cepat konvergen dibandingkan dengan metode Bisection.

  12. Implementasi Cloud Computing Menggunakan Metode Pengembangan Sistem Agile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Much Aziz Muslim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing merupakan sebuah teknologi yang menyediakan layanan terhadap sumber daya komputasi melalui sebuah jaringan. Sumber daya yang di sediakan di dalam cloud computing meliputi mesin, media penyimpanan data, sistem operasi dan program aplikasi. Fitur dari cloud computing dipercaya akan jauh lebih hemat dan memuaskan. Masalah yang muncul adalah bagaimana mengimplementasi Cloud Computing dengan menggunakan Windows Azure Pack dan bagaimana provisioning Windows Azure Pack SQL Database. Fokus pada penelitian ini adalah pada proses deploying dan provisioning SQL Database Server. Pengimplementasian cloud computing menggunakan metode pengembangan sistem agile dengan langkah-langkah meliputi perencanaan, implementasi, pengujian (test, dokumentasi, deployment dan pemeliharaan. Untuk menjalankan proses tersebut kebutuhan perangkat yang dipersiapkan meliputi perangkat keras seperti PC Server Cisco UCS C240 M3S2, Hardisk 8753 GB, 256 GB RAM, bandwith minimal 1 Mbps dan kebutuhan perangkat lunak meliputi Windows Server 2012 R2, VMM, Windows Azure Pack, IIS, SQL Server 2012 dan Web Patform Installer. Hasil dari implementasi cloud computing menggunakan metode pengembangan sistem agile adalah terbentuknya sebuah sistem cloud hosting provider dengan menggunakan Windows Azure Pack dan SQL Server 2012 sebagai sistem utama dan pengelolaan database menggunakan Microsoft SQL Server Management 

  13. Late Paleozoic paleolatitude and paleogeography of the Midland basin, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.A. (Mobil Exploration and Producing U.S., Midland, TX (United States)); Golonka, J. (Mobil Exploration and Producing Services Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)); Reid, A.M.; Reid, S.T. (Consulting Geologist, Midland, TX (United States))

    1992-04-01

    During the Late Pennsylvanian through Early Permian, the Midland basin was located in the low latitudes. In the Desmoinesian (Strawn), the basin was astride the equator; during the Missourian (Canyon), the center of the basin had migrated northward so it was located at 1-2N latitude. In the Virgilian (Cisco), the basin center was located around 2-4N latitude, and by the Wolfcampian, it was positioned at around 4-6N latitude. From the Desmoinesian (312 Ma) through the Missourian (306 Ma), the relative motion of the basin was 63NE. Later during the Virgilian (298 Ma) to Wolfcampian (280 Ma), the direction of motion was 24NE. This change in motion reflects a major tectonic event, occurring between the Missourian and Virgilian, that greatly modifed the movement of the Laurentian (North American) plate. At that time, Laurentia had collided with Gondwana and become part of the supercontinent Pangea. Throughout the late Paleozoic, Laurentia was rotated so the Midland basin was oriented 43{degree} northeast from its current setting. Late Paleozoic paleogeography and paleolatitude controlled the direction of prevailing winds and ocean currents, thereby influencing the distribution of carbonate facies in the Midland basin. Present prevailing winds and ocean currents have been shown to have a major impact on modern carbonate sedimentation and facies distribution in Belize, the Bahamas and Turks, and Caicos. A clearer understanding of how late Paleozoic latitude and geography affected sedimentation helps explain and predict the distribution of carbonates throughout the Midland basin.

  14. A First

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The first International Grid Networking Workshop (GNEW2004) was held at CERN from March 15 to 16. The workshop was jointly organised by CERN/DataTAG, DANTE, INRIA and TERENA in Europe, ESnet and Internet2 in the USA and was sponsored by Cisco Systems. 81 people from 55 different academic institutes and 10 representatives of 7 private sector companies took part in the GNEW2004 workshop. Some of the members of the DataTAG Project team with an American colleague. From left to right: Martin Fluckiger, Stan Cannon, Paolo Moroni, Sylvain Ravot (Caltech), Elise Guyot, Daniel Davids, Olivier Martin, Rosy Mondardini and Edoardo Martelli. "The main lesson learnt from the workshop was that the traditional Internet-type shared packet switched network infrastructures are unlikely to be sufficient to meet the needs of future, data-intensive Grids such as the one CERN and its partners are developing for LHC Computing Grid (LCG). So-called "end to end" solutions, similar to those for telephone networks, using optically swi...

  15. E-Learning and the Changing Face of Corporate Training and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Zornada

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Internet technologies and the advent of e-learning applications inmany organisations have made a fundamental difference to the way organisations deliver training and development content, activities and experiences to their employees. Some of the organisations at the forefront of deploying e-learning technologies have been global corporations and/or transaction processing intensive organisations, who typically have difficulties assembling their staff for traditional classroom based training activities, either due to logistical difficulties or because of the impact this would have on work flows and business continuity. Such organisations have developed approaches to e-learning and competency development that overcome the logistical problems of conventional training by making innovative use of e-learning. This paper examines the approaches used by several leading global, Australian and Asian organisations, including Cisco Systems, Motorola, Qantas and several others by drawing on a field study conducted by the writer during 2003–2004. It attempts to identify some key emerging trends and practices in the field, and lessons that can be learnt from the experiences of organisations reviewed, for the successful deployment of e-learning strategies.

  16. TOWARDS: 3D INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Swapnali R. Ghadge

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In today’s ever-shifting media landscape, it can be a complex task to find effective ways to reach your desired audience. As traditional media such as television continue to lose audience share, one venue in particular stands out for its ability to attract highly motivated audiences and for its tremendous growth potential the 3D Internet. The concept of '3D Internet' has recently come into the spotlight in the R&D arena, catching the attention of many people, and leading to a lot of discussions. Basically, one can look into this matter from a few different perspectives: visualization and representation of information, and creation and transportation of information, among others. All of them still constitute research challenges, as no products or services are yet available or foreseen for the near future. Nevertheless, one can try to envisage the directions that can be taken towards achieving this goal. People who take part in virtual worlds stay online longer with a heightened level of interest. To take advantage of that interest, diverse businesses and organizations have claimed an early stake in this fast-growing market. They include technology leaders such as IBM, Microsoft, and Cisco, companies such as BMW, Toyota, Circuit City, Coca Cola, and Calvin Klein, and scores of universities, including Harvard, Stanford and Penn State.

  17. Developing Computer Network Based on EIGRP Performance Comparison and OSPF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalu Zazuli Azhar Mardedi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the computer network systems technologies that are growing rapidly at this time is internet. In building the networks, a routing mechanism is needed to integrate the entire computer with a high degree of flexibility. Routing is a major part in giving a performance to the network. With many existing routing protocols, network administrators need a reference comparison of the performance of each type of the routing protocol. One such routing is Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF. This paper only focuses on the performance of both the routing protocol on the network topology hybrid. Network services existing internet access speeds average of 8.0 KB/sec and 2 MB bandwidth. A backbone network is used by two academies, they are Academy of Information Management and Computer (AIMC and Academy of Secretary and Management (ASM, with 2041 clients and it caused slow internet access. To solve the problems, the analysis and comparison of performance between the Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF will be applied. Simulation software Cisco Packet Tracer 6.0.1 is used to get the value and to verify the results of its use.

  18. Research on Stress Testing of OSPF Protocol Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Yong (崔勇); Xu Ke; Xu Mingwei; Wu Jianping

    2003-01-01

    The stability and robustness of routing protocol implementations (RPI) in a router are becoming more and more important with the growth of Internet scale. A novel approach named stress testing is proposed to test the properties of RPI. Compared with some traditional test techniques, stress testing is remarkably necessary to inspect and analyze RPI. The test environment is proposed and the test process of OSPF RPI is illustrated by a stochastic Petri Net model with large-scale route simulation and OSPF protocol emulation. Based on this model, the integrated performance tester (IP-TEST) is designed and developed, with which we test a CISCO2600 router. With mathematical methods, we find that the computational complexity of OSPF implementation in this router is O((lnN)4)to the number of its routing table entries. This experiment shows that this technique can inspect the stability, the computational complexity and the scalability of RPI. Furthermore, it can also be widely used with other routing protocols, such as RIP and BGP.

  19. SURVEY ON E-BUSINESS MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.SALEEM BASHA,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the turbulence of internet and e-business, company can only survey with the periodical reinventing their ebusiness models, because business model of a firm can only capture the snap shot of the current value chain. This snap shot cannot survive longer with their competitors. Companies must decide how and when to implement e-business model. The choice should be based on an overall assessment that includes an evaluation of costs and benefits and well-defined goals that are dependent on whether the decision was based on businessor strategic criteria. In this paper we surveyed the e-business model of various authors. Dell, Cisco and Bata are the three revolutionary new business models of business to business e-commerce models that have come out for the successful business. However, these models are not appropriate for every organization. In addition to these new paradigms for individual firms, other changes in business-to-business e-commerce are occurring that are revolutionizing the traditional paradigms.

  20. Bathymetric distribution of fish in the Apostle Islands region, Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryer, William R.

    1966-01-01

    Records of seasonal and “all-season” (April-December) bathymetric distribution are given for 17 species of fish taken in bottom trawls and experimental gill nets fished on the bottom in 1958–63 in the Apostle Islands region of Lake Superior. The data are based on catches from 578 trawl tows at 2–59 fathoms and 301,900 linear feet of gill nets fished at 2–89 fathoms. Size of the fish varied widely among different species from the same gear and the same species from different gears. Seasonal differences in depth distribution were greatest for lake trout, bloaters, round whitefish, and older smelt, which exhibited an inshore movement in the summer and fall, and for longnose suckers, which migrated to deeper water with progress of the seasons. The all-season bathymetric distributions varied considerably among species. Round whitefish, 0- and I-group smelt, longnose suckers, ninespine sticklebacks, and johnny darters were most abundant at < 10 fathoms. Concentrations of lake trout, lake herring, lake whitefish, older smelt, trout-perch, and burbot were greatest at 10–29 fathoms. Pygmy whitefish were most common at 30–39 fathoms, bloaters and spoonhead sculpins at 40–49 fathoms, and shortjaw ciscoes, slimy sculpins, and fourhorn sculpins at 50–59 fathoms. The kiyi was most abundant at 70–79 fathoms.

  1. Router Agent Technology for Policy-Based Network Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward T.; Sudhir, Gurusham; Chang, Hsin-Ping; James, Mark; Liu, Yih-Chiao J.; Chiang, Winston

    2011-01-01

    This innovation can be run as a standalone network application on any computer in a networked environment. This design can be configured to control one or more routers (one instance per router), and can also be configured to listen to a policy server over the network to receive new policies based on the policy- based network management technology. The Router Agent Technology transforms the received policies into suitable Access Control List syntax for the routers it is configured to control. It commits the newly generated access control lists to the routers and provides feedback regarding any errors that were faced. The innovation also automatically generates a time-stamped log file regarding all updates to the router it is configured to control. This technology, once installed on a local network computer and started, is autonomous because it has the capability to keep listening to new policies from the policy server, transforming those policies to router-compliant access lists, and committing those access lists to a specified interface on the specified router on the network with any error feedback regarding commitment process. The stand-alone application is named RouterAgent and is currently realized as a fully functional (version 1) implementation for the Windows operating system and for CISCO routers.

  2. Updated streamflow reconstructions for the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, C.A.; Gray, S.T.; Meko, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Updated proxy reconstructions of water year (October-September) streamflow for four key gauges in the Upper Colorado River Basin were generated using an expanded tree ring network and longer calibration records than in previous efforts. Reconstructed gauges include the Green River at Green River, Utah; Colorado near Cisco, Utah; San Juan near Bluff, Utah; and Colorado at Lees Ferry, Arizona. The reconstructions explain 72-81% of the variance in the gauge records, and results are robust across several reconstruction approaches. Time series plots as well as results of cross-spectral analysis indicate strong spatial coherence in runoff variations across the subbasins. The Lees Ferry reconstruction suggests a higher long-term mean than previous reconstructions but strongly supports earlier findings that Colorado River allocations were based on one of the wettest periods in the past 5 centuries and that droughts more severe than any 20th to 21st century event occurred in the past. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Video as a Medium for Learning and Teaching

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Videos play an important role in today's digital era. According to Cisco®, video (business and consumer combined) was  59% of the total Internet traffic in 2014. Video is permeating our educational institutions, transforming the way we teach, learn, study, communicate and work (Kaltura Report 2015). But are videos always the best choice? In this lecture we examine the benefits of the use of video in learning as well as its limits.Tips on how to minimize those limits will be explained.Example short videos that demonstrate success (or not) stories will be shown.Finally, guidelines for making good videos for education will be given. NB! All Academic Training lectures are recorded but not webcasted. The recording will be linked from this event and the CDS Academic Training collection. Participation is free. No registration needed. Bio: Pedro de Freitas has realized a MSc in learning & teaching technologies and MSc in Psychology in the University of Geneva. His thesis subject ...

  4. Does embedding an ICT certification help align tertiary programs with industry?: A study of CCNA workplace perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep Rajendran

    Full Text Available In the last decade there has been an international drive to determine the needs of the ICT industry and skills required by graduates. The intention is to ensure tertiary education is aligned with industry and to suitably prepare students for employment. Among the various initiatives, embedding of industry certification training is one method commonly used to help achieve this. This paper first looks at the literature on industry alignment and the embedding of ICT certifications. It then gives an overview of the changes in the networking courses taught at Wintec over the last ten years. A study of workplace perceptions of the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA courses at this institute is also described, with conclusions drawn about the effectiveness of embedding this certification. In particular the paper investigates how well the courses meet the needs of the ICT industry in the Hamilton/Waikato region. CCNA course topics that are found to be most useful in the workplace are highlighted, as well as the perceived value of the courses for new employees, employers and for people in their career.

  5. Quantitation of microorganic compounds in waters of the Great Lakes by adsorption on activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Stacy L.; Kempe, Lloyd L.; Graham, E. S.; Beeton, Alfred M.

    1963-01-01

    Microorganic compounds in waters of Lakes Michigan and Huron have been sampled by adsorption on activated carbon in filters installed aboard the M/V Cisco and at the Hammond Bay Laboratory of the U.S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. The organic compounds were eluted from the carbon according to techniques developed at the U.S. Public Health Service. On the assumption that chloroform eluates represent less polar compounds from industrial sources and alcohol eluates the more polar varieties of natural origin, plots of chloroform eluates against alcohol eluates appear to be useful in judging water qualities. Based upon these criteria, the data in this paper indicate that both the waters of northern Lake Michigan and of Lake Huron, in the vicinity of Hammond Bay, Michigan, are relatively free from pollution. The limnetic waters of Lake Michigan showed a particularly high ratio of alcohol to chloroform eluates. Data for monthly samples indicated that this ratio fluctuated seasonally. The periodicity of the fluctuations was similar to those of lake levels and water temperatures.

  6. Realization of Monitoring IP Traffic%主机数据流量检测的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪飞; 闫欣; 王申强

    2012-01-01

    Host's traffic anomaly of distribute network often reflected if the host suffered malicious programs of virus and Trojan became to puppet machine. So, Monitoring host's traffic could find potential dangerous earlier. The paper researched the basic method of monitoring host's traffic based on Cisco router, and given specific program realization method and network hardware environment configuring method.%分布式网络环境中主机数据流量的异常通常反映出主机是否遭受病毒、木马等恶意程序的入侵而成为网络攻击中的傀儡机,因此,对主机数据流量进行监测可以尽早发现潜在的危险。研究了基于Cisco路由器的主机数据流量检测的基本方法,并给出了具体的程序实现方法和网络硬件环境配置方法。

  7. Grüt: A Gardening Sensor Kit for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valpreda, Fabrizio; Zonda, Ilaria

    2016-02-16

    Food waste is one of the main problems in our society. This is mainly caused by people's behaviors and attitudes, which influence the whole food chain, from production to final consumption. In fact, food is generally perceived as a commodity by adults, who transmit this behavior to children, who in turn do not develop any consciousness about food's source. One way to reduce the problem seems to be by changing consumers' attitudes, which develop during the early years of childhood. Research has shown that after attending school garden classes, children's food-related behavior changes. Growing crops is not always easy--it can't be done in the domestic space, and this lead to a loss of the long term positive effects. This paper presents a project that tries to teach children how to grow their own food indoors and outdoors, mixing real and virtual reality, connecting something natural like a plant to the Internet of Things (or IOT, a network of physical objects virtually connected to each other and to the web). The use of sensors related to an app makes this process more fun and useful for educational purposes. The aim of the project is to change children's attitude towards food, increasing their knowledge about production and consumption, in order to reduce waste on a long term basis. The research has been developed in collaboration with Cisco NL and MediaLAB Amsterdam. The user testing has been executed with Dutch children in Amsterdam.

  8. Salinization of the Upper Colorado River - Fingerprinting Geologic Salt Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Grauch, Richard I.

    2009-01-01

    Salt in the upper Colorado River is of concern for a number of political and socioeconomic reasons. Salinity limits in the 1974 U.S. agreement with Mexico require the United States to deliver Colorado River water of a particular quality to the border. Irrigation of crops, protection of wildlife habitat, and treatment for municipal water along the course of the river also place restrictions on the river's salt content. Most of the salt in the upper Colorado River at Cisco, Utah, comes from interactions of water with rock formations, their derived soil, and alluvium. Half of the salt comes from the Mancos Shale and the Eagle Valley Evaporite. Anthropogenic activities in the river basin (for example, mining, farming, petroleum exploration, and urban development) can greatly accelerate the release of constituents from these geologic materials, thus increasing the salt load of nearby streams and rivers. Evaporative concentration further concentrates these salts in several watersheds where agricultural land is extensively irrigated. Sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate show the greatest promise for fingerprinting the geologic sources of salts to the upper Colorado River and its major tributaries and estimating the relative contribution from each geologic formation. Knowing the salt source, its contribution, and whether the salt is released during natural weathering or during anthropogenic activities, such as irrigation and urban development, will facilitate efforts to lower the salt content of the upper Colorado River.

  9. The Hyperion Project: Partnership for an Advaned Technology Cluster Testbed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seager, M; Leininger, M

    2008-04-28

    The Hyperion project offers a unique opportunity to participate in a community-driven testing and development resource at a scale beyond what can be accomplished by one entity alone. Hyperion is a new strategic technology partnership intended to support the member-driven development and testing at scale. This partnership will allow commodity clusters to scale up to meet the growing demands of customers multi-core petascale simulation environments. Hyperion will tightly couple together the outstanding research and development capabilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory with leading technology companies, including Cisco, Data Direct Networks, Dell, Intel, LSI, Mellanox, Qlogic, RedHat, SuperMicro and Sun. The end goal of this project is to revolutionize cluster computing in fundamental ways by providing the critical software and hardware components for a highly scalable simulation environment. This environment will include support for high performance networking, parallel file systems, operating system, and cluster management. This goal will be achieved by building a scalable technology cluster testbed that will be fully dedicated to the partners and provide: (1) A scalable development testing and benchmarking environment for critical enabling Linux cluster technologies; (2) An evaluation testbed for new hardware and software technologies; and (3) A vehicle for forming long term collaborations.

  10. Nature of a Strongly-Lensed Submillimeter Galaxy SMM J14011+0252

    CERN Document Server

    Motohara, K; Iwamuro, F; Eto, S; Shima, T; Mochida, D; Maihara, T; Nakanishi, K; Kashikawa, N

    2004-01-01

    We have carried out near-infrared JHK spectroscopy of a gravitationally lensed submillimeter galaxy SMM J14011+0252 at z=2.565, using OHS and CISCO on the Subaru telescope. This object consists of two optical components, J1 and J2, which are lensed by the cluster Abell 1835. J1 suffers additional strong lensing by a foreground galaxy at z=0.25 in the cluster. The rest-optical H-alpha, H-beta, and [O II]3727 lines are detected in both J1 and J2, and [N II]6548,6583 lines are also detected in J1. A diagnosis of emission-line ratios shows that the excitation source of J1 is stellar origin, consistent with previous X-ray observations. The continua of J1 and J2 show breaks at rest 4000A, indicating relatively young age. Combined with optical photometry, we have carried out model spectrum fitting of J2 and find that it is a very young (~50 Myr) galaxy of rather small mass (~10e8 M_sol) which suffers some amount of dust extinction. A new gravitational lensing model is constructed to assess both magnification factor ...

  11. 具有加密多功能的无线传声器系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔志发

    2006-01-01

    @@ 在世界范围内,Telex在无线方面的业绩非常突出.Telex和EV这两种品牌的产品几乎被任何一架美国生产的国防或民用飞机所采用.Telex在无线网络方面是无线行业中值得信赖的WISP和OEM厂商,是Cisco,Avaya,Proxim and Harris等世界无线电工业界的巨头供货商.Telex intercoms(内部交换系统)在美国主流广播电视、演艺界、职业体育比赛、芝加哥交易所、核电厂和NASA(美国宇航局)的控制室等地方被极为广泛地采用,近期将完工的中国国家大剧院就全面地采用了它的产品.

  12. Performance Comparison of SDN Solutions for Switching Dedicated Long-Haul Connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    We consider scenarios with two sites connected over a dedicated, long-haul connection that must quickly fail-over in response to degradations in host-to-host application performance. We present two methods for path fail-over using OpenFlowenabled switches: (a) a light-weight method that utilizes host scripts to monitor the application performance and dpctl API for switching, and (b) a generic method that uses two OpenDaylight (ODL) controllers and REST interfaces. The restoration dynamics of the application contain significant statistical variations due to the controllers, north interfaces and switches; in addition, the variety of vendor implementations further complicates the choice between different solutions. We present the impulse-response method to estimate the regressions of performance parameters, which enables a rigorous and objective comparison of different solutions. We describe testing results of the two methods, using TCP throughput and connection rtt as main parameters, over a testbed consisting of HP and Cisco switches connected over longhaul connections emulated in hardware by ANUE devices. The combination of analytical and experimental results demonstrates that dpctl method responds seconds faster than ODL method on average, while both methods restore TCP throughput.

  13. 物联网的边界计算模型:雾计算%A boundary calculation model of IoT fog computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志和

    2014-01-01

    在物联网和云计算带来技术变革和带动产业发展的过程中,由于网络接入设备激增,而网络带宽有限的情况下,思科公司推出了雾计算的概念。首先探讨雾计算的特征和应用模式,然后分析雾计算的“雾节点”与云计算的“云节点”以及物联网的“物节点”的互操作方法,并总结了雾计算的用例,最后给出了前景展望。%During the process of technological change and industry development brought by IoT and cloud computing, Cisco Corporation launched the concept of fog computing because of the surging network access equipments and limited network bandwidth. First, the characteristics and application mode of fog computing are discussed. Then the interoperation method among“the fog nodes”of fog computing,“the cloud nodes”of cloud computing and“the entity nodes”of IoT is analyzed. The examples of fog computing are summarized. The prospect forecast is put forward.

  14. Practice Research about Multiple applications of the Hospital network Connected with Multiple Lines%多线路接入医院网络实现多种应用的实践研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧志文; 伍平阳; 罗志恒; 禤睿平

    2013-01-01

    Taking Cisco ASA5550 as access device to configure the interface of telecom Internet, healthcare private networks and Uninet, so that these networks can be overally planned and then be connected with the internal network to ensure the security of network management and standard management. Meanwhile the problems caused by multiple lines connected to the network such as complex network topologies and high equipment costs are solved.%  选用思科ASA5550作为接入设备,对电信互联网、医保专用网、联通互联网实施接口配置,对这些外来线路进行统一规划后再与内部网络连接,以达到安全网络管理与规范管理的效果。同时解决了因多条线路接入导致网络拓扑复杂、设备成本高等问题。

  15. 基于BYOD的移动校园网研究%Research of Mobile Campus Network based on BYOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文杰

    2015-01-01

    BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) advocates that teachers and students use"comes with equipment"to carry out teach-ing and work. to cultivate students to make full use of the information environment of the ability of autonomous learning, and improve the students' information literacy, is an important development trend of mobile network. This paper analyzes the content and present situation of BYOD, and puts forward the BYOD solution of mobile campus network based on ISE Cisco technology.%BYOD(Bring Your Own Device)倡导师生使用"自带设备"开展教学和工作,有利于培养学生充分利用信息环境进行自主学习的能力,同时提高学生的信息化素养,是移动校园网的一个重要发展趋势.该文分析了BYOD的内涵和现状,结合Cisco的ISE技术提出了移动校园网的BYOD解决方案.

  16. Overview of MPEG internet video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R. G.; Li, G.; Park, S.; Kim, J.; Huang, T.; Jang, E. S.; Gao, W.

    2015-09-01

    MPEG has produced standards that have provided the industry with the best video compression technologies. In order to address the diversified needs of the Internet, MPEG issued the Call for Proposals (CfP) for internet video coding in July, 2011. It is anticipated that any patent declaration associated with the Baseline Profile of this standard will indicate that the patent owner is prepared to grant a free of charge license to an unrestricted number of applicants on a worldwide, non-discriminatory basis and under other reasonable terms and conditions to make, use, and sell implementations of the Baseline Profile of this standard in accordance with the ITU-T/ITU-R/ISO/IEC Common Patent Policy. Three different codecs had responded to the CfP, which are WVC, VCB and IVC. WVC was proposed jointly by Apple, Cisco, Fraunhofer HHI, Magnum Semiconductor, Polycom and RIM etc. it's in fact AVC baseline. VCB was proposed by Google, and it's in fact VP8. IVC was proposed by several Universities (Peking University, Tsinghua University, Zhejiang University, Hanyang University and Korea Aerospace University etc.) and its coding tools was developed from Zero. In this paper, we give an overview of the coding tools in IVC, and evaluate its performance by comparing it with WVC, VCB and AVC High Profile.

  17. Characterizing and Improving Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, Steven A; Proebstel, Elliot P.

    2007-11-01

    Due to ever-increasing quantities of information traversing networks, network administrators are developing greater reliance upon statistically sampled packet information as the source for their intrusion detection systems (IDS). Our research is aimed at understanding IDS performance when statistical packet sampling is used. Using the Snort IDS and a variety of data sets, we compared IDS results when an entire data set is used to the results when a statistically sampled subset of the data set is used. Generally speaking, IDS performance with statistically sampled information was shown to drop considerably even under fairly high sampling rates (such as 1:5). Characterizing and Improving Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems4AcknowledgementsThe authors wish to extend our gratitude to Matt Bishop and Chen-Nee Chuah of UC Davis for their guidance and support on this work. Our thanks are also extended to Jianning Mai of UC Davis and Tao Ye of Sprint Advanced Technology Labs for their generous assistance.We would also like to acknowledge our dataset sources, CRAWDAD and CAIDA, without which this work would not have been possible. Support for OC48 data collection is provided by DARPA, NSF, DHS, Cisco and CAIDA members.

  18. 引入国际行业资格认证推进"双证书制度"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁慧洁

    2008-01-01

    笔者就目前社会上职业资格证书的企业高热需求度和高等职业技术院校对"双证书"制度推行的需求,结合自身教学经验,浅谈将教学必修课程内容融合至社会乃至全球认可的,技术含量极高的CCNA(Cisco Certified Network Assistant)职业资格认证当中.通过延伸校内相应必修课程的考核工作,将教学环节和待业标准相接轨,使在校学生就能了解全球产业成熟的技术标准和管理规范,增强了学生进入企业后的技术能力和竞争力.

  19. 引入国际行业资格认证 推进“双证书制度”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁慧洁

    2008-01-01

    笔者就目前社会上职业资格证书的企业高热需求度和高等职些技术院较对“双证书”制度推行的需求.结合自身教学经验.浅谈将教学必修课程内容融合至社会乃至全球认可的,技术含量极高的CCNA(Cisco Certified Network Assistant)职业资格认证当中,通过延伸校内相应必修课程的考核工作,将教学环节和行业标准相接轨,使在校学生就能了解全球产业成熟的技术标准和管理规范,增强了学生进入了企业后的技术能力和竞争力.

  20. Boson NetSim在高校计算机网络教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周跃; 朱毓

    2009-01-01

    计算机网络是现阶段高校培养计算机专业人才的专业课程,网络设备教学方面一直以世界网络巨头思科设备教学为主流,且强调实验实践.但在教学过程存在网络实验设备不足、价格昂贵、设备更新速度较快等原因,导致一般学校很难满足实际要求.而网络模拟软件一般都可以在网上下载,使用方便,不受时间和地点限制,是网络设备和网络协议配置的好工具.网络模拟软件也有很多种,如Boson NetSim、ciscoPacket Tracer、Routersim、sybex Toddrouter CIM等.本文对Boson Netsim计算机网络课程教学中的应用进行介绍.

  1. 基于VL AN技术的多校区网络架构研究%Study on Multi-campus Network Architecture Based on the VLAN Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彬; 和刚

    2016-01-01

    文章以VLAN和VPN技术的实现为基础,研究高校同地多校区的网络架构,通过PACKET TRACER环境下模拟构建多校区网络,利用思科(CCNA)语言进行路由器和交换机配置、VLAN、VPN的建立连接来实现高校网络构建,从而实现了不同校区之间的同一VLAN之间的通信。%Based on the VLAN and the realization of VPN technology, research university with multi-campus network architecture, through the PACKET TRACER environment to simulate the construction of multi-campus network, use the cisco conifgure routers and switches (CCNA) language, VLAN, VPN connection is established to realize the network construction. Between different campus so as to achieve the communication between the same VLAN.

  2. 谈国家未来网络安全和相关企业的发展--华为入美受阻后的思索%A Study on the Future of National Network Security and the Development of Related Enterprises--Reflection on the Blocking of Huawei’s Access to US

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石龙

    2013-01-01

      针对华为、中兴入美遇阻事件,从企业规模、市场占有率、技术成熟度、员工待遇和地位、人才培养模式、知识产权保护等方面对思科和华为进行了理性的对比分析,指出了我国网络安全和相关企业发展现状,并提出了我国网络安全相关企业长远发展的对策建议。%Based on the event that Huawei, ZTE were blocked when trying to enter the United States, the paper rationally analyzes Cisco and Huawei, from enterprise scale, market share, technology maturity, employees treatment and status, personnel training mode, intellectual property protection, etc. It reveals the development status of Chinese network security and related enterprises, and puts forward suggestions for the long-term development of Chinese enterprises related to network security.

  3. Lake Ontario zooplankton in 2003 and 2008: community changes and vertical redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudstam, Lars G.; Holeck, Kristen T.; Bowen, Kelly L.; Watkins, James M.; Weidel, Brian C.; Luckey, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    Lake-wide zooplankton surveys are critical for documenting and understanding food web responses to ecosystem change. Surveys in 2003 and 2008 during the binational intensive field year in Lake Ontario found that offshore epilimnetic crustacean zooplankton declined by a factor of 12 (density) and factor of 5 (biomass) in the summer with smaller declines in the fall. These declines coincided with an increase in abundance of Bythotrephes and are likely the result of direct predation by, or behavioral responses to this invasive invertebrate predator. Whole water column zooplankton density also declined from 2003 to 2008 in the summer and fall (factor of 4), but biomass only declined in the fall (factor of 2). The decline in biomass was less than the decline in density because the average size of individual zooplankton increased. This was due to changes in the zooplankton community composition from a cyclopoid/bosminid dominated community in 2003 to a calanoid dominated community in 2008. The increase in calanoid copepods was primarily due to the larger species Limnocalanus macrurus and Leptodiaptomus sicilis. These coldwater species were found in and below the thermocline associated with a deep chlorophyll layer. In 2008, most of the zooplankton biomass resided in or below the thermocline during the day. Increased importance of copepods in deeper, colder water may favor cisco and rainbow smelt over alewife because these species are better adapted to cold temperatures than Alewife.

  4. A Principal Design and Recommended Solutions for Developing Secure Techniques Used In Ids for WLAN and Wired LAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Sehgal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A Wireless Local Area Network (LAN is a Radio frequency (RF data communications system. WLANs transmit and receive data Over the Air (OTA and thus collectively combine data connectivity with ease of mobility. Wireless LANs today provide wireless access to vital network resources such as large, multi-location enterprises, small and medium size enterprises as well as Hospitals, Hotel, Airports and homes. Wireless LANs are being widely recognized as a viable, cost-effective general-purpose solution in providing high-speed real-time access to information3. An Intrusion Detection System (IDS is a program that analyzes what happens or has happened during an execution and tries to find indications that the computer has been misused. IDSs can be classified as the tools and methods that monitor computer systems and network traffic to identify. In my Research work I will define that how WLAN is more secure than wired LAN and which pattern used in the Cisco IDS.

  5. Evaluation of methods to estimate lake herring spawner abundance in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, D.L.; Stockwell, J.D.; Cholwek, G.A.; Evrard, L.M.; Schram, S.; Seider, M.; Symbal, M.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, commercial fishers harvested Lake Superior lake herring Coregonus artedi for their flesh, but recently operators have targeted lake herring for roe. Because no surveys have estimated spawning female abundance, direct estimates of fishing mortality are lacking. The primary objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of using acoustic techniques in combination with midwater trawling to estimate spawning female lake herring densities in a Lake Superior statistical grid (i.e., a 10′ latitude × 10′ longitude area over which annual commercial harvest statistics are compiled). Midwater trawling showed that mature female lake herring were largely pelagic during the night in late November, accounting for 94.5% of all fish caught exceeding 250 mm total length. When calculating acoustic estimates of mature female lake herring, we excluded backscattering from smaller pelagic fishes like immature lake herring and rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax by applying an empirically derived threshold of −35.6 dB. We estimated the average density of mature females in statistical grid 1409 at 13.3 fish/ha and the total number of spawning females at 227,600 (95% confidence interval = 172,500–282,700). Using information on mature female densities, size structure, and fecundity, we estimate that females deposited 3.027 billion (109) eggs in grid 1409 (95% confidence interval = 2.356–3.778 billion). The relative estimation error of the mature female density estimate derived using a geostatistical model—based approach was low (12.3%), suggesting that the employed method was robust. Fishing mortality rates of all mature females and their eggs were estimated at 2.3% and 3.8%, respectively. The techniques described for enumerating spawning female lake herring could be used to develop a more accurate stock–recruitment model for Lake Superior lake herring.

  6. Integrating subsistence practice and species distribution modeling: assessing invasive elodea’s potential impact on Native Alaskan subsistence of Chinook salmon and whitefish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luizza, Matthew; Evangelista, Paul; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; West, Amanda; Stewart, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Alaska has one of the most rapidly changing climates on earth and is experiencing an accelerated rate of human disturbance, including resource extraction and transportation infrastructure development. Combined, these factors increase the state’s vulnerability to biological invasion, which can have acute negative impacts on ecological integrity and subsistence practices. Of growing concern is the spread of Alaska’s first documented freshwater aquatic invasive plant Elodea spp. (elodea). In this study, we modeled the suitable habitat of elodea using global and state-specific species occurrence records and environmental variables, in concert with an ensemble of model algorithms. Furthermore, we sought to incorporate local subsistence concerns by using Native Alaskan knowledge and available statewide subsistence harvest data to assess the potential threat posed by elodea to Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and whitefish (Coregonus nelsonii) subsistence. State models were applied to future climate (2040–2059) using five general circulation models best suited for Alaska. Model evaluations indicated that our results had moderate to strong predictability, with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve values above 0.80 and classification accuracies ranging from 66 to 89 %. State models provided a more robust assessment of elodea habitat suitability. These ensembles revealed different levels of management concern statewide, based on the interaction of fish subsistence patterns, known spawning and rearing sites, and elodea habitat suitability, thus highlighting regions with additional need for targeted monitoring. Our results suggest that this approach can hold great utility for invasion risk assessments and better facilitate the inclusion of local stakeholder concerns in conservation planning and management.

  7. Rodent neurotoxicity bioassays for screening contaminated Great Lakes fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, M.K.; Hoffman, R. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Gerstenberger, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Veterinary Biosciences; Dellinger, J.A. [Medical Coll. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, MI (United States). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1996-03-01

    Standard laboratory rat neurotoxicity protocols were used to study the consequences resulting from the consumption of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Superior (LS) and the consumption of carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Little Lake Butte des Morte (LLBM) near Oshkosh, Wisconsin, USA. Two 90-d subchronic studies are described, including a 45-d exposure to fish diets using male Sprague-Dawley hooded rats, and a 90-d exposure to fish diets using female rats of the same species. Behavioral alterations were tested using a battery of behavioral tests. In addition, pharmacologic challenges using apomorphine and D-amphetamine were administered to the rats to reveal latent neurotoxic effects. Cumulative fish consumption data were recorded daily, weight gain recorded weekly, and behavior data collected prior to exposure, and on days 7, 14, 55 {+-} 2, 85 {+-} 2. Motor activity data were collected on days 30 {+-} 2, 60 {+-} 2, and 90 {+-} 2 of the feeding protocols. Brain tissue from rodents fed these fish were subsequently analyzed for either mercury (Hg) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Mercury concentrations were increased in the brains of the walleye-fed rats, and PCB concentrations ranged from 0.5 nl/L to 10 nl/L in the brains of rats fed carp from LLBM, a Lake Michigan tributary. Adult male rats fed LLBM carp for 45 d exhibited the greatest behavior responses to the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine on the accelerating rotarod, although these differences were not significant. The 90-d exposure of LS walleye or Hg-spiked LS walleye resulted in behavior alterations on tactile startle response and second footsplay. D-Amphetamine challenge caused changes in tactile startle response, second footsplay, and accelerating rotarod performance after consuming walleye diets. Rats fed LLBM carp had altered behavioral responses to apomorphine on the accelerating rotarod.

  8. Identification of Cryptosporidium Species in Fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Leman in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Certad

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite that can cause severe diarrhea in a wide range of vertebrates including humans, is increasingly recognized as a parasite of a diverse range of wildlife species. However, little data are available regarding the identification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in wild aquatic environments, and more particularly in edible freshwater fish. To evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidiumspp. in fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman in France, 41 entire fish and 100 fillets (cuts of fish flesh were collected from fishery suppliers around the lake. Nested PCR using degenerate primers followed by sequence analysis was used. Five fish species were identified as potential hosts of Cryptosporidium: Salvelinus alpinus, Esox lucius, Coregonus lavaretus, Perca fluviatilis, and Rutilus rutilus. The presence of Cryptosporidium spp. was found in 15 out of 41 fish (37%, distributed as follows: 13 (87% C. parvum, 1 (7% C. molnari, and 1 (7% mixed infection (C. parvum and C. molnari. C. molnari was identified in the stomach, while C. parvum was found in the stomach and intestine. C. molnari was also detected in 1 out of 100 analyzed fillets. In order to identify Cryptosporidium subtypes, sequencing of the highly polymorphic 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60 was performed. Among the C. parvum positive samples, three gp60 subtypes were identified: IIaA15G2R1, IIaA16G2R1, and IIaA17G2R1. Histological examination confirmed the presence of potential developmental stages of C. parvum within digestive epithelial cells. These observations suggest that C. parvum is infecting fish, rather than being passively carried. Since C. parvum is a zoonotic species, fish potentially contaminated by the same subtypes found in terrestrial mammals would be an additional source of infection for humans and animals, and may also contribute to the contamination of the environment with this parasite. Moreover, the risk of human transmission is strengthened by

  9. Identification of Cryptosporidium Species in Fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman) in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certad, Gabriela; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Gantois, Nausicaa; Hammouma-Ghelboun, Ourida; Pottier, Muriel; Guyot, Karine; Benamrouz, Sadia; Osman, Marwan; Delaire, Baptiste; Creusy, Colette; Viscogliosi, Eric; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Aliouat-Denis, Cecile Marie; Follet, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite that can cause severe diarrhea in a wide range of vertebrates including humans, is increasingly recognized as a parasite of a diverse range of wildlife species. However, little data are available regarding the identification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in wild aquatic environments, and more particularly in edible freshwater fish. To evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidiumspp. in fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman) in France, 41 entire fish and 100 fillets (cuts of fish flesh) were collected from fishery suppliers around the lake. Nested PCR using degenerate primers followed by sequence analysis was used. Five fish species were identified as potential hosts of Cryptosporidium: Salvelinus alpinus, Esox lucius, Coregonus lavaretus, Perca fluviatilis, and Rutilus rutilus. The presence of Cryptosporidium spp. was found in 15 out of 41 fish (37%), distributed as follows: 13 (87%) C. parvum, 1 (7%) C. molnari, and 1 (7%) mixed infection (C. parvum and C. molnari). C. molnari was identified in the stomach, while C. parvum was found in the stomach and intestine. C. molnari was also detected in 1 out of 100 analyzed fillets. In order to identify Cryptosporidium subtypes, sequencing of the highly polymorphic 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) was performed. Among the C. parvum positive samples, three gp60 subtypes were identified: IIaA15G2R1, IIaA16G2R1, and IIaA17G2R1. Histological examination confirmed the presence of potential developmental stages of C. parvum within digestive epithelial cells. These observations suggest that C. parvum is infecting fish, rather than being passively carried. Since C. parvum is a zoonotic species, fish potentially contaminated by the same subtypes found in terrestrial mammals would be an additional source of infection for humans and animals, and may also contribute to the contamination of the environment with this parasite. Moreover, the risk of human transmission is strengthened by the

  10. Lake whitefish diet, condition, and energy density in Lake Champlain and the lower four Great Lakes following dreissenid invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Seth J.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Lantry, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis support some of the most valuable commercial freshwater fisheries in North America. Recent growth and condition decreases in Lake Whitefish populations in the Great Lakes have been attributed to the invasion of the dreissenid mussels, zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha and quagga mussels D. bugensis, and the subsequent collapse of the amphipod, Diporeia, a once-abundant high energy prey source. Since 1993, Lake Champlain has also experienced the invasion and proliferation of zebra mussels, but in contrast to the Great Lakes, Diporeia were not historically abundant. We compared the diet, condition, and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain after the dreissenid mussel invasion to values for those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Lake Whitefish were collected using gill nets and bottom trawls, and their diets were quantified seasonally. Condition was estimated using Fulton's condition factor (K) and by determining energy density. In contrast to Lake Whitefish from some of the Great Lakes, those from Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish did not show a dietary shift towards dreissenid mussels, but instead fed primarily on fish eggs in spring, Mysis diluviana in summer, and gastropods and sphaeriids in fall and winter. Along with these dietary differences, the condition and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain were high compared with those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario after the dreissenid invasion, and were similar to Lake Whitefish from Lake Erie; fish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario consumed dreissenids, whereas fish from Lake Erie did not. Our comparisons of Lake Whitefish populations in Lake Champlain to those in the Great Lakes indicate that diet and condition of Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish were not negatively affected by the dreissenid mussel invasion.

  11. Comparison of thiaminase activity in fish using the radiometric and 4-nitrothiophenol colorimetric methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Hanes, J.W.; Brown, L.; Kraft, C.E.; Begley, T.P.

    2010-01-01

    Thiaminase induced thiamine deficiency occurs in fish, humans, livestock and wild animals. A non-radioactive thiaminase assay was described in 2007, but a direct comparison with the radioactive 14C-thiamine method which has been in use for more than 30years has not been reported. The objective was to measure thiaminase activity in forage fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, and slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus) consumed by predators that manifest thiamine deficiency using both methods. Modifications were made to the colorimetric assay to improve repeatability. Modification included a change in assay pH, enhanced sample clean-up, constant assay temperature (37??C), increase in the concentration of 4-nitrothiophenol (4NTP) and use of a spectrophotometer fitted with a 0.2cm cell. A strong relationship between the two assays was found for 51 alewife (R2=0.85), 36 smelt (R2=0.87) and 20 sculpin (R2=0.82). Thiaminase activity in the colorimetric assay was about 1000 times higher than activity measured by the radioactive method. Application of the assay to fish species from which no thiaminase activity has previously been reported resulted in no 4NTP thiaminase activity being found in bloater Coregonus hoyi, lake trout Salvelinus namaycusch, steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss or Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. In species previously reported to contain thiaminase, 4NTP thiaminase activity was measured in bacteria Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus, gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum, quagga mussel Dreissena bugensis and zebra mussels D. polymorpha. ?? 2010.

  12. Evaluation of a lake whitefish bioenergetics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; O'Connor, Daniel V.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Schneeberger, Philip J.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Argyle, Ray L.; Brandt, Stephen B.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis in the laboratory and in the field. For the laboratory evaluation, lake whitefish were fed rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax in four laboratory tanks during a 133-d experiment. Based on a comparison of bioenergetics model predictions of lake whitefish food consumption and growth with observed consumption and growth, we concluded that the bioenergetics model furnished significantly biased estimates of both food consumption and growth. On average, the model overestimated consumption by 61% and underestimated growth by 16%. The source of the bias was probably an overestimation of the respiration rate. We therefore adjusted the respiration component of the bioenergetics model to obtain a good fit of the model to the observed consumption and growth in our laboratory tanks. Based on the adjusted model, predictions of food consumption over the 133-d period fell within 5% of observed consumption in three of the four tanks and within 9% of observed consumption in the remaining tank. We used polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as a tracer to evaluate model performance in the field. Based on our laboratory experiment, the efficiency with which lake whitefish retained PCBs from their food (I?) was estimated at 0.45. We applied the bioenergetics model to Lake Michigan lake whitefish and then used PCB determinations of both lake whitefish and their prey from Lake Michigan to estimate p in the field. Application of the original model to Lake Michigan lake whitefish yielded a field estimate of 0.28, implying that the original formulation of the model overestimated consumption in Lake Michigan by 61%. Application of the bioenergetics model with the adjusted respiration component resulted in a field I? estimate of 0.56, implying that this revised model underestimated consumption by 20%.

  13. Adrenocortical and adrenomedullary homologs in eight species of adult and developing teleosts: morphology, histology, and immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi Milano, E; Basari, F; Chimenti, C

    1997-12-01

    Morphology, histology, and immunohistochemistry of the adrenocortical and adrenomedullary homologs (adrenal glands) of the following developing and adult teleosts were examined: Salmoniformes-Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), Salmo trutta fario (brown trout), Coregonus lavaretus (white fish); Cyprinodontiformes-Gambusia affinis (mosquito fish). Perciformes-Dicentrarchus labrax (sea bass), Sparus aurata (sea bream), Diplodus sargus (white bream), Oblada melanura (saddled bream). The anatomical relationships of the gland with the renal system and venous vessels were also noted. In adults of all species steroidogenic and catecholaminergic chromaffin cells were found in the head kidney, which is pronephric in origin and subsequently transformed into a hematopoietic lymphatic organ. In Perciformes, chromaffin cells are distributed around the anterior and posterior cardinal veins and ducts of Cuvier; in Salmoniformes, around the posterior cardinal veins and in the hematopoietic tissue; and in G. affinis, around the ducts of Cuvier and posterior cardinal veins, while a few are visible also around the sinus venosus. In Perciformes and Salmoniformes, numerous chromaffin cells are also present in the posterior kidney, derived from the opisthonephros, in contact with the caudal vein. Steroidogenic cells are always confined to the head kidney. During development chromaffin and steroidogenic cells appear early after hatching in the pronephric kidney, at the level of the ducts of Cuvier and of the cephalic part of the posterior cardinal veins. Later, chromaffin cells in Perciformes reach the anterior cardinal veins, and subsequently, in both Perciformes and Salmoniformes, they reach the developing posterior kidney. Their localization along the posterior kidney is still in progress about 4 months after hatching and is completed about a year after hatching. These findings support the concept that the structure of the adrenal gland in teleosts is intermediate between that of the

  14. Population synchrony of a native fish across three Laurentian Great Lakes: Evaluating the effects of dispersal and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, D.B.; Adams, J.V.; Gorman, O.T.; Madenjian, C.P.; Riley, S.C.; Roseman, E.F.; Schaeffer, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Climate and dispersal are the two most commonly cited mechanisms to explain spatial synchrony among time series of animal populations, and climate is typically most important for fishes. Using data from 1978-2006, we quantified the spatial synchrony in recruitment and population catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) for bloater (Coregonus hoyi) populations across lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron. In this natural field experiment, climate was highly synchronous across lakes but the likelihood of dispersal between lakes differed. When data from all lakes were pooled, modified correlograms revealed spatial synchrony to occur up to 800 km for long-term (data not detrended) trends and up to 600 km for short-term (data detrended by the annual rate of change) trends. This large spatial synchrony more than doubles the scale previously observed in freshwater fish populations, and exceeds the scale found in most marine or estuarine populations. When analyzing the data separately for within- and between-lake pairs, spatial synchrony was always observed within lakes, up to 400 or 600 km. Conversely, between-lake synchrony did not occur among short-term trends, and for long-term trends, the scale of synchrony was highly variable. For recruit CPUE, synchrony occurred up to 600 km between both lakes Michigan and Huron (where dispersal was most likely) and lakes Michigan and Superior (where dispersal was least likely), but failed to occur between lakes Huron and Superior (where dispersal likelihood was intermediate). When considering the scale of putative bloater dispersal and genetic information from previous studies, we concluded that dispersal was likely underlying within-lake synchrony but climate was more likely underlying between-lake synchrony. The broad scale of synchrony in Great Lakes bloater populations increases their probability of extirpation, a timely message for fishery managers given current low levels of bloater abundance. ?? Springer-Verlag 2009.

  15. Coupling age-structured stock assessment and fish bioenergetics models: a system of time-varying models for quantifying piscivory patterns during the rapid trophic shift in the main basin of Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ji X.; Bence, James R.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Dobiesz, Norine E.; Fielder, David G.; Johnson, James E.; Ebener, Mark P.; Cottrill, Adam R.; Mohr, Lloyd C.; Koproski, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    We quantified piscivory patterns in the main basin of Lake Huron during 1984–2010 and found that the biomass transfer from prey fish to piscivores remained consistently high despite the rapid major trophic shift in the food webs. We coupled age-structured stock assessment models and fish bioenergetics models for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), walleye (Sander vitreus), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). The model system also included time-varying parameters or variables of growth, length–mass relations, maturity schedules, energy density, and diets. These time-varying models reflected the dynamic connections that a fish cohort responded to year-to-year ecosystem changes at different ages and body sizes. We found that the ratio of annual predation by lake trout, Chinook salmon, and walleye combined with the biomass indices of age-1 and older alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) increased more than tenfold during 1987–2010, and such increases in predation pressure were structured by relatively stable biomass of the three piscivores and stepwise declines in the biomass of alewives and rainbow smelt. The piscivore stability was supported by the use of alternative energy pathways and changes in relative composition of the three piscivores. In addition, lake whitefish became a new piscivore by feeding on round goby (Neogobius melanostomus). Their total fish consumption rivaled that of the other piscivores combined, although fish were still a modest proportion of their diet. Overall, the use of alternative energy pathways by piscivores allowed the increases in predation pressure on dominant diet species.

  16. Identification of Cryptosporidium Species in Fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman) in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certad, Gabriela; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Gantois, Nausicaa; Hammouma-Ghelboun, Ourida; Pottier, Muriel; Guyot, Karine; Benamrouz, Sadia; Osman, Marwan; Delaire, Baptiste; Creusy, Colette; Viscogliosi, Eric; Aliouat-Denis, Cecile Marie; Follet, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite that can cause severe diarrhea in a wide range of vertebrates including humans, is increasingly recognized as a parasite of a diverse range of wildlife species. However, little data are available regarding the identification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in wild aquatic environments, and more particularly in edible freshwater fish. To evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidiumspp. in fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman) in France, 41 entire fish and 100 fillets (cuts of fish flesh) were collected from fishery suppliers around the lake. Nested PCR using degenerate primers followed by sequence analysis was used. Five fish species were identified as potential hosts of Cryptosporidium: Salvelinus alpinus, Esox lucius, Coregonus lavaretus, Perca fluviatilis, and Rutilus rutilus. The presence of Cryptosporidium spp. was found in 15 out of 41 fish (37%), distributed as follows: 13 (87%) C. parvum, 1 (7%) C. molnari, and 1 (7%) mixed infection (C. parvum and C. molnari). C. molnari was identified in the stomach, while C. parvum was found in the stomach and intestine. C. molnari was also detected in 1 out of 100 analyzed fillets. In order to identify Cryptosporidium subtypes, sequencing of the highly polymorphic 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) was performed. Among the C. parvum positive samples, three gp60 subtypes were identified: IIaA15G2R1, IIaA16G2R1, and IIaA17G2R1. Histological examination confirmed the presence of potential developmental stages of C. parvum within digestive epithelial cells. These observations suggest that C. parvum is infecting fish, rather than being passively carried. Since C. parvum is a zoonotic species, fish potentially contaminated by the same subtypes found in terrestrial mammals would be an additional source of infection for humans and animals, and may also contribute to the contamination of the environment with this parasite. Moreover, the risk of human transmission is strengthened by the

  17. Planktivory in the changing Lake Huron zooplankton community: Bythotrephes consumption exceeds that of Mysis and fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, D.B.; Davis, B.M.; Warner, D.M.; Chriscinske, M.A.; Roseman, E.F.

    2011-01-01

    Oligotrophic lakes are generally dominated by calanoid copepods because of their competitive advantage over cladocerans at low prey densities. Planktivory also can alter zooplankton community structure. We sought to understand the role of planktivory in driving recent changes to the zooplankton community of Lake Huron, a large oligotrophic lake on the border of Canada and the United States. We tested the hypothesis that excessive predation by fish (rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, bloater Coregonus hoyi) and invertebrates (Mysis relicta, Bythotrephes longimanus) had driven observed declines in cladoceran and cyclopoid copepod biomass between 2002 and 2007. We used a field sampling and bioenergetics modelling approach to generate estimates of daily consumption by planktivores at two 91-m depth sites in northern Lake Huron, U.S.A., for each month, May-October 2007. Daily consumption was compared to daily zooplankton production. Bythotrephes was the dominant planktivore and estimated to have eaten 78% of all zooplankton consumed. Bythotrephes consumption exceeded total zooplankton production between July and October. Mysis consumed 19% of all the zooplankton consumed and exceeded zooplankton production in October. Consumption by fish was relatively unimportant - eating only 3% of all zooplankton consumed. Because Bythotrephes was so important, we explored other consumption estimation methods that predict lower Bythotrephes consumption. Under this scenario, Mysis was the most important planktivore, and Bythotrephes consumption exceeded zooplankton production only in August. Our results provide no support for the hypothesis that excessive fish consumption directly contributed to the decline of cladocerans and cyclopoid copepods in Lake Huron. Rather, they highlight the importance of invertebrate planktivores in structuring zooplankton communities, especially for those foods webs that have both Bythotrephes and Mysis. Together, these species occupy the epi-, meta- and

  18. A shift in bloater consumption in Lake Michigan between 1993 and 2011 and its effects on Diporeia and Mysis prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothoven, Steven A.; Bunnell, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine individual and population consumption by Bloater Coregonus hoyi in Lake Michigan during three time periods with variable Bloater density: 1993–1996 (high), 1998–2002 (intermediate), and 2009–2011 (low). Despite declines in Bloater abundance between 1993 and 2011, our results did not show any density-dependent compensatory response in annual individual consumption, specific consumption, or proportion of maximum consumption consumed. Diporeia spp. accounted for a steadily decreasing fraction of annual consumption, and Bloater were apparently unable to eat enough Mysis diluviana or other prey to account for the loss of Diporeia in the environment. The fraction of production of both Diporeia and Mysis that was consumed by the Bloater population decreased over time so that the consumption-to-production ratio for Diporeia + Mysis was 0.74, 0.26, and 0.14 in 1993–1996, 1998–2002, and 2009–2011, respectively. Although high Bloater numbers in the 1980s to 1990s may have had an influence on populations of Diporeia, Bloater were not the main factor driving Diporeia to a nearly complete disappearance because Diporeia continued to decline when Bloater predation demands were lessening. Thus, there appears to be a decoupling in the inverse relationship between predator and prey abundance in Lake Michigan. Compared with Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, the other dominant planktivore in the lake, Bloater have a lower specific consumption and higher gross conversion efficiency (GCE), indicating that the lake can support a higher biomass of Bloater than Alewife. However, declines in Bloater GCE since the 1970s and the absence of positive responses in consumption variables following declines in abundance suggest that productivity in Lake Michigan might not be able to support the same biomass of Bloater as in the past.

  19. MHC class I expression dependent on bacterial infection and parental factors in whitefish embryos (Salmonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Emily S; Wilkins, Laetitia G E; Wedekind, Claus

    2013-10-01

    Ecological conditions can influence not only the expression of a phenotype, but also the heritability of a trait. As such, heritable variation for a trait needs to be studied across environments. We have investigated how pathogen challenge affects the expression of MHC genes in embryos of the lake whitefish Coregonus palaea. In order to experimentally separate paternal (i.e. genetic) from maternal and environmental effects, and determine whether and how stress affects the heritable variation for MHC expression, embryos were produced in full-factorial in vitro fertilizations, reared singly, and exposed at 208 degree days (late-eyed stage) to either one of two strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens that differ in their virulence characteristics (one increased mortality, while both delayed hatching time). Gene expression was assessed 48 h postinoculation, and virulence effects of the bacterial infection were monitored until hatching. We found no evidence of MHC class II expression at this stage of development. MHC class I expression was markedly down-regulated in reaction to both pseudomonads. While MHC expression could not be linked to embryo survival, the less the gene was expressed, the earlier the embryos hatched within each treatment group, possibly due to trade-offs between immune function and developmental rate or further factors that affect both hatching timing and MHC expression. We found significant additive genetic variance for MHC class I expression in some treatments. That is, changes in pathogen pressures could induce rapid evolution in MHC class I expression. However, we found no additive genetic variance in reaction norms in our study population.

  20. 'Good-genes' and 'compatible-genes' effects in an Alpine whitefish and the information content of breeding tubercles over the course of the spawning season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Claus; Evanno, Guillaume; Urbach, Davnah; Jacob, Alain; Müller, Rudolf

    2008-09-01

    Some models of sexual selection predict that individuals vary in their genetic quality and reveal some of this variation in their secondary sexual characteristics. Alpine whitefish (Coregonus sp.) develop breeding tubercles shortly before their spawning season. These tubercles are epidermal structures that are distributed regularly along the body sides of both males and females. There is still much unexplained variation in the size of breeding tubercles within both sexes and with much overlap between the sexes. It has been suggested that breeding tubercles function to maintain body contact between the mating partners during spawning, act as weapons for defence of spawning territories, or are sexual signals that reveal aspects of genetic quality. We took two samples of whitefish from their spawning place, one at the beginning and one around the peak of spawning season. We found that females have on average smaller breeding tubercles than males, and that tubercle size partly reveals the stage of gonad maturation. Two independent full-factorial breeding experiments revealed that embryo mortality was significantly influenced by male and female effects. This finding demonstrates that the males differed in their genetic quality (because offspring get nothing but genes from their fathers). Tubercle size was negatively linked to some aspects of embryo mortality in the first breeding experiment but not significantly so in the second. This lack of consistency adds to inconsistent results that were reported before and suggests that (i) some aspects of genetic quality are not revealed in breeding tubercles while others are, or (ii) individuals vary in their signaling strategies and the information content of breeding tubercles is not always reliable. Moreover, the fact that female whitefish have breeding tubercles of significant size while males seem to have few reasons to be choosy suggests that the tubercles might also serve some functions that are not linked to sexual

  1. Changes in consumption by alewives and lake whitefish after dreissenid mussel invasions in Lakes Michigan and Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothoven, S.A.; Madenjian, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Growth of alewives Alosa pseudoharengus and lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis has declined since the arrival and spread of dreissenid mussels in Lakes Michigan and Huron. Alewives are the main forage for the salmonids in Lake Michigan, and lake whitefish are the most important commercial species in both lakes. Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine consumption by the average individual fish before and after the dreissenid invasion and to provide insight into the invasion's effects on fish growth and food web dynamics. Alewives feed on both Zooplankton and benthic macroinvertebrates, and lake whitefish are benthivores. Annual consumption of zooplankton by an average alewife in Lake Michigan was 37% lower and consumption of benthic macroinvertebrates (amphipods Diporeia spp., opossum shrimp Mysis relicta, and Chironomidae) was 19% lower during the postinvasion period (1995-2005) than during the preinvasion period (1983-1994). Reduced consumption by alewives corresponded with reduced alewife growth. In Lakes Michigan and Huron, consumption of nonmollusk macroinvertebrates (Diporeia spp., opossum shrimp, Chironomidae) by the average lake whitefish was 46-96% lower and consumption of mollusks (mainly dreissenids and gastropods) was 2-5 times greater during the postinvasion period than during the preinvasion period. Even though total food consumption by lake whitefish did not differ between the two periods in Lake Huron or the Southern Management Unit in Lake Michigan, postinvasion weight at age was at least 38% lower than preinvasion weight at age. Under the current postinvasion diet regime, consumption by lake whitefish would have to increase by up to 122% to achieve preinvasion growth rates. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  2. Energy density of bloaters in the upper Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothoven, Steven A.; Bunnell, David B.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Gorman, Owen T.; Roseman, Edward F.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the energy density of bloaters Coregonus hoyi as a function of fish size across Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Superior in 2008–2009 and assessed how differences in energy density are related to factors such as biomass density of bloaters and availability of prey. Additional objectives were to compare energy density between sexes and to compare energy densities of bloaters in Lake Michigan between two time periods (1998–2001 and 2008–2009). For the cross-lake comparisons in 2008, energy density increased with fish total length (TL) only in Lake Michigan. Mean energy density adjusted for fish size was 8% higher in bloaters from Lake Superior than in bloaters from Lake Huron. Relative to fish in these two lakes, small (175 mm TL) bloaters had higher energy density. In 2009, energy density increased with bloater size, and mean energy density adjusted for fish size was about 9% higher in Lake Michigan than in Lake Huron (Lake Superior was not sampled during 2009). Energy density of bloaters in Lake Huron was generally the lowest among lakes, reflecting the relatively low densities of opossum shrimp Mysis diluviana and the relatively high biomass of bloaters reported for that lake. Other factors, such as energy content of prey, growing season, or ontogenetic differences in energy use strategies, may also influence cross-lake variation in energy density. Mean energy density adjusted for length was 7% higher for female bloaters than for male bloaters in Lakes Michigan and Huron. In Lake Superior, energy density did not differ between males and females. Finally, energy density of bloaters in Lake Michigan was similar between the periods 2008–2009 and 1998–2001, possibly due to a low population abundance of bloaters, which could offset food availability changes linked to the loss of prey such as the amphipods Diporeia spp.

  3. Diet shifts by planktivorous and benthivorous fishes in northern Lake Michigan in response to ecosystem changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, David B.; Davis, Bruce M.; Chriscinske, Margret Ann; Keeler, Kevin M.; Mychek-Londer, Justin G.

    2015-01-01

    In Lake Michigan, diets of planktivorous and benthivorous fishes have varied over the past decades, in part owing to food web changes. To update diet information and compare them to a similar effort in 1994–1995, we analyzed the diets of seven benthivorous and planktivorous fish species collected along two northern Lake Michigan transects that spanned nearshore (18 m), intermediate (46 m), and offshore (91, 110, 128 m) bottom depths during spring, summer, and autumn of 2010. Calanoid copepods (e.g., Limnocalanus macrurus, Leptodiaptomus sicilis, and Senecella calanoides) comprised a majority of the diets in at least one season for all sizes of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), bloater (Coregonus hoyi), and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax). Similarly, Mysis diluviana was the highest proportion in at least one season for large sizes of alewife, bloater, and rainbow smelt, as well as slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) and deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsonii). The diets of the remaining two species, ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) and round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), were dominated by herbivorous cladocerans or dreissenid mussels, respectively. Interspecific diet overlap was minimal at 18 and 46 m. In offshore waters, however, overlap was relatively high, driven by frequent consumption of Mysis. Relative to 1994–1995, 2010 diets revealed increased feeding on calanoid copepods and Mysis, with corresponding declining consumption of Diporeia spp. and herbivorous cladocerans. Relative diet weight was also higher in 1994–1995 than in 2010 for small and large bloater and both sculpin species. We hypothesize that the shifts in diets are reflective of community-level changes in invertebrate prey availability.

  4. Isotopic structure of Lake Whitefish in Lake Huron: Evidence for regional and local populations based on resource use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberts, Rebecca L.; Wissel, Bjorn; Simpson, Gavin L.; Crawford, Stephen S.; Stott, Wendylee; Hanner, Robert H.; Manzon, Richard G.; Wilson, Joanna Y.; Boreham, Douglas R.; Somers, Christopher M.

    2017-01-01

    Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis is the most commercially valuable species in Lake Huron. The fishery for this species has historically been managed based on 25 management units (17 in Canada, 8 in the USA). However, congruence between the contemporary population structure of Lake Whitefish and management units is poorly understood. We used stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N), food web markers that reflect patterns in resource use (i.e., prey, location, habitat), to assess the population structure of spawning-phase Lake Whitefish collected from 32 sites (1,474 fish) across Lake Huron. We found large isotopic variation among fish from different sites (ranges: δ13C = 10.2‰, δ15N = 5.5‰) and variable niche size and levels of overlap (standard ellipse area = 1.0–4.3‰2). Lake Huron contained spawning-phase fish from four major isotopic clusters largely defined by extensive variation in δ13C, and the isotopic composition of fish sampled was spatially structured both within and between lake basins. Based on cluster compositions, we identified six putative regional groups, some of which represented sites of high diversity (three to four clusters) and others with less (one to two clusters). Analysis of isotopic values from Lake Whitefish collected from summer feeding locations and baseline prey items showed similar isotopic variation and established spatial linkage between spawning-phase and summer fish. Our results show that summer feeding location contributes strongly to the isotopic structure we observed in spawning-phase fish. One of the regional groups we identified in northern Georgian Bay is highly distinct based on isotopic composition and possibly ecologically unique within Lake Huron. Our findings are congruent with several previous studies using different markers (genetics, mark–recapture), and we conclude that current management units are generally too small and numerous to reflect the population structure of Lake Whitefish

  5. MARCH5 gene is duplicated in rainbow trout, but only fish-specific gene copy is up-regulated after VHSV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebl, Alexander; Köbis, Judith M; Fischer, Uwe; Takizawa, Fumio; Verleih, Marieke; Wimmers, Klaus; Goldammer, Tom

    2011-12-01

    Ubiquitination regulates the activity, stability, and localization of a wide variety of proteins. Several mammalian MARCH ubiquitin E3 ligase proteins have been suggested to control cell surface immunoreceptors. The mitochondrial protein MARCH5 is a positive regulator of Toll-like receptor 7-mediated NF-κB activation in mammals. In the present study, duplicated MARCH5-like cDNA sequences were isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) comprising open reading frames of 882 bp (MARCH5A) and 885 bp (MARCH5B), respectively. Trout MARCH5A and MARCH5B-encoding sequences share only 65% sequence identity. Phylogenetic analyses including an additionally isolated MARCH5-like sequence from whitefish (Coregonus maraena) suggest that teleosts possess an additional MARCH5 gene copy resulting from a fish-specific whole genome duplication. Coding sequences of MARCH5A and MARCH5B genes from trout are distributed over six exons. Hypothetical MARCH5 proteins from trout comprise four transmembrane helices and a single motif similar to a RING variant domain (RINGv) including eight highly conserved cysteine and histidine residues. A 'reverse-northern blot' analysis revealed furthermore a MARCH5B Δexon5 transcript variant. Both MARCH5 genes from trout show a strain-, tissue- and cell-specific expression profile indicating different functional roles. Fish-specific MARCH5A gene for instance might be involved in defense mechanisms, since in vivo-challenge with the viral pathogen VHSV caused a significant 1.7-fold elevated copy number of the respective gene in gills four days after infection, whereas MARCH5B transcript level did not increase.

  6. Integrating subsistence practice and species distribution modeling: assessing invasive elodea's potential impact on Native Alaskan subsistence of Chinook salmon and whitefish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luizza, Matthew W.; Evangelista, Paul H.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; West, Amanda; Stewart, Heather

    2016-07-01

    Alaska has one of the most rapidly changing climates on earth and is experiencing an accelerated rate of human disturbance, including resource extraction and transportation infrastructure development. Combined, these factors increase the state's vulnerability to biological invasion, which can have acute negative impacts on ecological integrity and subsistence practices. Of growing concern is the spread of Alaska's first documented freshwater aquatic invasive plant Elodea spp. (elodea). In this study, we modeled the suitable habitat of elodea using global and state-specific species occurrence records and environmental variables, in concert with an ensemble of model algorithms. Furthermore, we sought to incorporate local subsistence concerns by using Native Alaskan knowledge and available statewide subsistence harvest data to assess the potential threat posed by elodea to Chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and whitefish ( Coregonus nelsonii) subsistence. State models were applied to future climate (2040-2059) using five general circulation models best suited for Alaska. Model evaluations indicated that our results had moderate to strong predictability, with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve values above 0.80 and classification accuracies ranging from 66 to 89 %. State models provided a more robust assessment of elodea habitat suitability. These ensembles revealed different levels of management concern statewide, based on the interaction of fish subsistence patterns, known spawning and rearing sites, and elodea habitat suitability, thus highlighting regions with additional need for targeted monitoring. Our results suggest that this approach can hold great utility for invasion risk assessments and better facilitate the inclusion of local stakeholder concerns in conservation planning and management.

  7. The influence of alewife year-class strength on prey selection and abundance of age-1 Chinook salmon in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, D.M.; Kiley, C.S.; Claramunt, R.M.; Clapp, D.F.

    2008-01-01

    We used growth and diet data from a fishery-independent survey of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, acoustic estimates of prey density and biomass, and statistical catch-at-age modeling to study the influence of the year-class strength of alewife Alosa pseudoharengus on the prey selection and abundance of age-1 Chinook salmon in Lake Michigan during the years 1992-1996 and 2001-2005. Alewives age 2 or younger were a large part of age-1 Chinook salmon diets but were not selectively fed upon by age-1 Chinook salmon in most years. Feeding by age-1 Chinook salmon on alewives age 2 or younger became selective as the biomass of alewives in that young age bracket increased, and age-1 Chinook salmon also fed selectively on young bloaters Coregonus hoyi when bloater density was high. Selection of older alewives decreased at high densities of alewives age 2 or younger and, in some cases, high densities of bloater. The weight and condition of age-1 Chinook salmon were not related to age-1 Chinook salmon abundance or prey abundance, but the abundance of age-1 Chinook salmon in year t was positively related to the density of age-0 alewives in year t - 1. Our results suggest that alewife year-class strength exerts a positive bottom-up influence on age-1 Chinook salmon abundance, prey switching behavior by young Chinook salmon contributing to the stability of the predator-prey relationship between Chinook salmon and alewives. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  8. Egg deposition by lithophilic-spawning fishes in the Detroit and Saint Clair Rivers, 2005–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Carson G.; Craig, Jaquelyn M.; Roseman, Edward F.; Fischer, Jason L.; Manny, Bruce A.; Kennedy, Gregory W.

    2017-03-14

    A long-term, multiseason, fish egg sampling program conducted annually on the Detroit (2005–14) and Saint Clair (2010–14) Rivers was summarized to identify where productive fish spawning habitat currently exists. Egg mats were placed on the river bottom during the spring and fall at historic spawning areas and candidate fish spawning habitat restoration sites throughout both rivers. Widespread evidence was found of lithophilic spawning by numerous native fish species, including walleye (Sander vitreus), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), suckers (Catostomidae spp.), and trout-perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus). Walleye, lake whitefish, and suckers spp. spawned in nearly every region of each river in all years on both reef and nonreef substrates. Lake sturgeon eggs were collected almost exclusively over constructed reefs. Catch-per-unit effort of walleye, lake whitefish, and sucker eggs was much greater in the Detroit River than in the Saint Clair River, while Saint Clair River sites supported the greatest collections of lake sturgeon eggs. Collections during this study of lake sturgeon eggs on man-made spawning reefs suggest that artificial reefs may be an effective tool for restoring fish populations in the Detroit and Saint Clair Rivers; however, the quick response of lake sturgeon to spawn on newly constructed reefs and the fact that walleye, lake whitefish, and sucker eggs were often collected over substrate with little interstitial space to protect eggs from siltation and predators suggests that lack of suitable spawning habitat may continue to limit reproduction of lithophilic-spawning fish species in the Saint Clair-Detroit River System.

  9. Perancangan dan Analisis Perbandingan Implementasi OSPF pada Jaringan IPv4 dan IPv6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULINE RAHMIATI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak OSPF (Open Shortest Path First adalah suatu routing protokol bersifat terbuka dan didukung oleh berbagai perangkat network. IPv4 telah mencapai batas maksimum dalam jumlah alamat sehingga IPv6 merupakan solusi dalam hal tersebut. Seperti IPv4, IPv6 juga sudah mulai diimplementasikan untuk routing protokol OSPF, oleh karena itu pada penelitian ini akan dirancang suatu routing protokol OSPF IPv6 dan sebagai bahan perbandingan akan dibandingkan dengan OSPF IPv4. Software Cisco Packet Tracer 5.3 digunakan untuk mensimulasikan perancangan jaringan yang dibuat. Pada penelitian ini akan dibandingkan 2 buah jaringan berbasis routing protokol OSPF, yaitu OSPF untuk IPv4 dan IPv6. Skenario pertama dilakukan 100 kali dalam 5 kasus untuk mengetahui nilai delay OSPF IPv4 dan OSPF IPv6. Skenario kedua dilakukan pemutusan link dilakukan sebanyak 30 kali, hal yang dilihat dari pengujian ini adalah hasil trace route dari cost yang ada. Skenario ketiga dilakukan dengan mengamati waktu konvergensi dari OSPF IPv4 dan IPv6. Secara keseluruhan nilai delay OSPF IPv6 lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan OSPF IPv4 sebesar 3-6%, Trace route dan nilai cost pada OSPF IPv6 dan OSPF IPv4 sama tetapi nilai delay OSPF IPv6 lebih kecil sebesar 3-6% dan waktu konvergensi OSPF IPv4 bernilai sama dengan OSPF IPv6 yaitu 10 detik. Kata kunci: OSPF, IPv4, Ipv6, delay, konvergensi Abstract OSPF (Open Shortest Path First is a routing protocol that opened and supported by a wide range of network devices. IPv4 has reached the maximum limit on the number of addresses that IPv6 are a solution in this case. Same as IPv4, IPv6 also has begun to be implemented for the OSPF routing protocol, therefore this study wiould design an IPv6 OSPF routing protocol and as a comparison will be compared to IPv4 OSPF. Cisco Packet Tracer 5.3 software was used to simulate the made network design. This research would compare two pieces of network-based routing protocol OSPF, OSPF for IPv4 and IPv6. The

  10. The development of PCB signal integrity test technology%PCB信号完整性测试技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丰; 苏新虹; 胡新星

    2014-01-01

    随着电子产品和设备工作频率和速率的提高,PCB信号完整性研究是近年来炙手可热的技术点。如何测试PCB信号完整性才是最准确的争论一直没有停止且随着技术的发展愈加激烈。大体上,IBM、CISCO等大公司在信号测试方面各具特色,INTEL也逐渐形成了一套单独的测试方法。除此之外,对于大批量PCB生产中的插入损耗监控也是一大课题。本文将对PCB信号完整性测试技术的发展和现状做一个简要总结,对比各种测试方法的优劣。%PCB signal integrity research has been a popular technology for a very long time. It never stopped the argument on how to measure SI as the best method. Mainly there are important companies like IBM and CISCO who own their own spectacular measurement coupons and procedure, also INTEL had developed an effective method on testing insertion loss too. Besides,figuring out how to supervise insertion loss in volume manufacture of PCB is still a long road. The article will give a brief summary on the developing and status of testing signal integrity, which would be compared to each other as well.

  11. inclusion 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried Swoboda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Das Sonderpädagogische Zentrum Holzhausergasse, Wien, Österreich, ist ein Schulstandort für junge Menschen mit Behinderung. Die Schule hat einen Schwerpunkt in der Berufsvorbereitung und ist durch eine sehr gute Vernetzung Vorreiter bei der Vorbereitung auf den Arbeitsmarkt. Der Zweite Schwerpunkt umfasst die Schiene der „Kulturellen Bildung“ nach der „UNESCO – Road Map for Arts Education“. Über Kooperationen, der Teilnahme an Kunstprojekten und Wettbewerben wird zu neuen Lernmethoden und –strukturen geforscht.Das technische Gymnasium „Stredná priemyselná škola“ liegt in Myjava, in der westlichen Slowakei. Das Oberstufengymnasium ist spezialisiert auf Technik, Elektronik, Maschinenbau, Mechatronik und Logistik. Die Schule hat einen ITC-Schwerpunkt und ist in das „Microsoft IT Academy Programm“ sowie die „Cisco Network Academy“ eingebettet.Das Projekt verknüpfte zwei Aspekte. Einerseits galt es Aktivitäten zur „media literacy“ zu setzen andererseits sollten die Schwerpunkte Diversität, Interkulturalität und sprachliche Annäherung behandelt werden. Es wurde ein „virtueller Projektraum“ („virtual space“ installiert. Dieser Raum sollte einen „fake“, einen „virtuellen Schwindel“, ermöglichen und zugleich Spielraum des Zueinanderfindens sein.Der „virtual space“ bestand aus einer Skype–Verbindung der beiden Schulen, in den einerseits Gegenstände geteilt und andererseits das Kartenspiel UNO als „Fake“ gespielt wurde. Die Aktionen fanden zwischen November 2012 und Februar 2013 im zweiwöchentlichen Rhythmus statt. An fixierten Terminen trafen sich die beiden Gruppen via Skype in den so genannten „Sessions“ und kommunizierten miteinander

  12. Simulations Of Laser Cooling In An Ultracold Neutral Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langin, Thomas; Strickler, Trevor; Pohl, Thomas; Vrinceanu, Daniel; Killian, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold neutral plasmas (UNPs) generated by photoionization of laser-cooled, magneto-optically trapped neutral gases, are useful systems for studying strongly coupled plasmas. Coupling is parameterized by Γi, the ratio of the average nearest neighbor Coulomb interaction energy to the ion kinetic energy. For typical UNPs, Γi is currently limited to ~ 3 . For alkaline earth ions, higher Γi can be achieved by laser-cooling. Using Molecular Dynamics and a quantum trajectories approach, we have simulated laser-cooling of Sr+ ions interacting through a Yukawa potential. The simulations include re-pumping from two long-lived D-states, and are conducted at experimentally achievable parameters (density n = 2 e+14 m-3, size σ0 = 4 mm, Te = 19 K). Laser-cooling is shown to both reduce the temperature by a factor of 2 over relevant timescales (tens of μ s) and slow the electron thermal-pressure driven radial expansion of the UNP. We also discuss the unique aspects of laser-cooling in a highly collisional system; in particular, the effect of collisions on dark state formation due to the coupling of the P3/2 state to both the S1/2 (via the cooling transition) and the D5/2 (via a re-pump transition) states. Supported by NSF and DoE, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the NDSEG Program, and NIH NCRR S10RR02950, an IBM SUR Award in partnership with CISCO, Qlogic and Adaptive Computing.

  13. Grüt: A Gardening Sensor Kit for Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Valpreda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Food waste is one of the main problems in our society. This is mainly caused by people’s behaviors and attitudes, which influence the whole food chain, from production to final consumption. In fact, food is generally perceived as a commodity by adults, who transmit this behavior to children, who in turn do not develop any consciousness about food’s source. One way to reduce the problem seems to be by changing consumers’ attitudes, which develop during the early years of childhood. Research has shown that after attending school garden classes, children’s food-related behavior changes. Growing crops is not always easy—it can’t be done in the domestic space, and this lead to a loss of the long term positive effects. This paper presents a project that tries to teach children how to grow their own food indoors and outdoors, mixing real and virtual reality, connecting something natural like a plant to the Internet of Things (or IOT, a network of physical objects virtually connected to each other and to the web. The use of sensors related to an app makes this process more fun and useful for educational purposes. The aim of the project is to change children’s attitude towards food, increasing their knowledge about production and consumption, in order to reduce waste on a long term basis. The research has been developed in collaboration with Cisco NL and MediaLAB Amsterdam. The user testing has been executed with Dutch children in Amsterdam.

  14. CAGE BREEDING OF WARM WATER FRESHWATER FISH SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Safner

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s, Croatia became actively involved in the contemporary trend of breeding fish in floating cages. In addition to various species of marine fishes, breeding was attempted with trout, carp, catfish, cisco and salmon. Of the above freshwater fish species, specific standards were established only for the cage breeding of rainbow trout. Cage breeding of the remaining species remained at the level of occasional attempts, with more of an experimental than a commercial character. The regular attempts to master this technique for cage breeding of warm water freshwater fish species were aimed at achieving the known benefits of such breeding, such as simplicity of implementing technological measures, easier establishment of the breeding system, simpler manipulation, the possibility of denser colonies per unit volume with a high level of production, easier adaptations to market conditions and fewer initial structural investments. Despite the many advantages, the main reasons for the lack of greater implementation of the cage breeding technology for warm water species of freshwater fish include problems in obtaining the appropriate category and quantity of healthy fry, the specificity and applicability of physical and chemical properties of the recipients and human error. In evaluating the advantages and disadvantages, the final decision on the justification of cage breeding for individual warm water freshwater species must be based on both biological and economic factors. Based on the knowledge of cage breeding acquired to date, the rule for virtually all intensive breeding systems is that it is only recommended for those species with high market demand and a high market price. The technology that demands nutrition with highly concentrated feed and other production expenditures is costly, and is therefore not profitable with less expensive fish species. Furthermore, production must be market oriented, i.e. the appropriate market research measures

  15. Development of an Efficient Secured E-Learning Tool through Smart Firewall Load Balancing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bala Krishnan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available E-Learning has definite benefits over traditional classroom training. For E-Learning, various ELearning Tools have been proposed. However, users need to wait for long time to get response from Knowledge Database, which is called as E-Learning Data Server, if many users are online. And providing security to this E-Server is a challenging one. To address these issues, this work has proposed an efficient E-Learning Model through Smart Firewall Load Balancing Technique. Firewall is a device which is designed to permit or deny network transmissions based upon a set of rules and is frequently used to protect networks from unauthorized access while permitting legitimate communications to pass. Many personal computer Operating Systems contains software-based firewalls which is used to protect the system against threats from the public Internet. Many Routers that pass data between Networks contain firewall components and, conversely, many firewalls can perform basic routing functions. Existing Firewall Technologies such as Cisco PIX Firewalls and Checkpoint FireWall-1 provide various software tools that allowing firewalls as Clustered or Grouped and these Configured Firewalls will share their loads. The main objectives of the existing technologies are to improve the Resource Utilization along with performance and Security. This is one of the serious problems. ie the required performance can’t be achieved. This research work is introduced a Adaptive Scheduler, which focuses both the Performance and Security along with Resource Utilization, and also this proposed approach reduced the firewall rules, which minimize the delay and hence this proposed work improved the Throughput, which improved the E-Server Performance in terms of Throughput, Delay and Security Strength.

  16. Silo busting: how to execute on the promise of customer focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Ranjay

    2007-05-01

    For many senior executives, shifting from selling products to selling solutions--packages of products and services--is a priority in today's increasingly commoditized markets. Companies, however, aren't always structured to make that shift. Knowledge and expertise often reside in silos, and many companies have trouble harnessing their resources across those boundaries in a way that customers value and are willing to pay for. Some companies--like GE Healthcare, Best Buy, and commercial real estate provider Jones Lang LaSalle (JLL)--have restructured themselves around customer needs to deliver true solutions. They did so by engaging in four sets of activities: COORDINATION: To deliver customer-focused solutions, three things must occur easily across boundaries: information sharing, division of labor, and decision making. Sometimes this involves replacing traditional silos with customer-focused ones, but more often it entails transcending existing boundaries. JLL has experimented with both approaches. COOPERATION: Customer-centric companies, such as Cisco Systems, develop metrics for customer satisfaction and incentives that reward customer-focused cooperation. Most also shake up the power structure so that people who are closest to customers have the authority to act on their behalf. CAPABILITY: Delivering customer-focused solutions requires some employees to be generalists instead of specialists. They need experience with more than one product or service, a deep knowledge of customer needs, and the ability to traverse internal boundaries. CONNECTION: By combining their offerings with those of a partner, companies can cut costs even as they create higher-value solutions, as Starbucks has found through its diverse partnerships. To stand out in a commoditized market, companies must understand what customers value. Ultimately, some customers may be better off purchasing products and services piecemeal.

  17. Can online conference systems improve veterinary education? A study about the capability of online conferencing and its acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Michael; Fischer, Martin R; Tipold, Andrea; Ehlers, Jan P

    2012-01-01

    In veterinary medicine, there is an ongoing need for students, educators, and veterinarians to exchange the latest knowledge in their respective fields and to learn about unusual cases, emerging diseases, and treatment. Networking among veterinary faculties is developing rapidly, but conferences and meetings can be difficult to attend because of time limitations and travel costs. The current study examines acceptance of synchronous online conferences, seminars, meetings, and lectures by veterinarians and students. First, an online survey on the use of communication technology in veterinary medicine was made available for 15 weeks to every German-speaking veterinary university and via professional journals and an online veterinary forum. A total of 1,776 persons (620 veterinarians and 1,156 students) participated. Most reported using the Internet at least once per day; more than half reported using instant messengers. Most participants used the Internet for communication, but less than half used Skype. Second, to test the spectrum of tools for online conferences, a variety of "virtual classroom" systems (netucate systems iLinc, Adobe Acrobat Connect Pro, Cisco WebEx, Skype) were used to deliver student lectures, veterinary continuing-education courses, and academic conferences at the University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover (TiHo). Of 591 participants in 63 online events, 99.4% rated the virtual events as enjoyable, 96.1% found them useful, and 92.4% said that they learned a lot. Participants noted that the courses were not tied to a certain place, and thus saved time and travel costs. Online conference systems thus offer new opportunities to provide information in veterinary medicine.

  18. Dosificación de hormigones ligeros con cascarilla de café

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Salazar C.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo hace parte de la línea de investigación que, sobre materiales de construcción, ha venido trabajando la sección de construcciones agrícolas del Departamento de Ingeniería Agrícola de esta Universidad. Se ha querido por tanto ahondar en un material de común conocimiento y aplicación pero que dosificado con áridos orgánicos provenientes de desechos de la agroindustria, como es el caso de la cascarilla o cisco de café, no se conoce ni su comportamiento mecánico ni sus propiedades térmicas. Se pensó, además, en que siendo Colombia el segundo productor mundial de café, debería estudiarse un subproducto de su beneficio como lo es la cascarilla, para contribuir en la racionalización de sus desperdicios. Fue así como nació esta idea que condujo a revisar literatura al respecto, visitar entidades del ramo como la Federación Nacional de Cafeteros, encontrándose que el tema propuesto de la dosificación de un hormigón con dicho árido no había sido desarrollado anteriormente. Concebido lo anterior se propuso el tema como proyecto de grado en el Departamento, el cual se presenta en este artículo siguiendo las etapas que fueron necesarias para determinar el proporcionamiento cemento-agua-cascarilla.

  19. 开放式创新理念与经典实践研究%Study on Conception of Open Innovation and Its Classic Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云峰; 陈武

    2012-01-01

    随着技术发展的突飞猛进和知识经济时代的不断深入发展,传统的封闭式创新模式已经不能适应企业创新发展需要,开放式创新开始受到企业的高度重视。分析了开放式创新的兴起动因,研究了传统封闭式创新模式和开放式创新模式的基本理念,阐释了开放式创新的内涵,介绍了英特尔、宝洁、飞利浦和思科公司的开放式创新的典型实践,提出了开放式创新实践的基本经验以及对我国央企的启示。%With the rapid advancement of technology and further development of the knowledge economy, traditional model of closed innovation can no longer meet the need of enterprises for innovation and development, hence enterprises begin to attach great importance to the open innovation model. This paper analyzes the causes for the rise of open innovation, elaborates on the basic theory of both the traditional closed innovation and the open innovation models, and then explains the connotation of open innovation. By introducing the typical practices of open innovation in Intel, Procter & Gamble, Philips and Cisco Systems lnc, a summary is presented of the basic experience of open innovation and its revelations for Chinese central state-owned enterprises.

  20. Use of the Delay-Tolerant Networking Bundle Protocol from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lloyd; Ivancic, William D.; Eddy, Wesley M.; Stewart, Dave; Northam, James; Jackson, Chris; daSilvaCuriel, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC), constructed by Survey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL), is a multisatellite Earth-imaging low-Earth-orbit sensor network where captured image swaths are stored onboard each satellite and later downloaded from the satellite payloads to a ground station. Store-and-forward of images with capture and later download gives each satellite the characteristics of a node in a Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN). Originally developed for the Interplanetary Internet, DTNs are now under investigation in an Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) DTN research group (RG), which has developed a bundle architecture and protocol. The DMC is currently unique in its adoption of the Internet Protocol (IP) for its imaging payloads and for satellite command and control, based around reuse of commercial networking and link protocols. These satellites use of IP has enabled earlier experiments with the Cisco router in Low Earth Orbit (CLEO) onboard the constellation's UK-DMC satellite. Earth images are downloaded from the satellites using a custom IPbased high-speed transfer protocol developed by SSTL, Saratoga, which tolerates unusual link environments. Saratoga has been documented in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) for wider adoption. We experiment with use of DTNRG bundle concepts onboard the UKDMC satellite, by examining how Saratoga can be used as a DTN convergence layer to carry the DTNRG Bundle Protocol, so that sensor images can be delivered to ground stations and beyond as bundles. This is the first successful use of the DTNRG Bundle Protocol in a space environment. We use our practical experience to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the Bundle Protocol for DTN use, paying attention to fragmentation, custody transfer, and reliability issues.

  1. 新建本科院校通信工程实验室建设的研究%Research on construction of communication engineering laboratory in new underg raduate colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光灿; 张刚林; 黄飞江; 陈威兵

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design principles of communication engineering laboratory .It introduces an equipment composition program of a data communications laboratory built together with Cisco , and an experiment projects supported by the laboratory ; introduces a hardware inventory list and software configuration of optical transmission and program-controlled switch laboratory built together with ZTE ;also introduces test objectives and some pilot projects of both optical transmission laboratory and program-controlled exchange laboratory .Its teaching practice shows that the laboratory equipment fully integrates the current mainstream communication technology and the typical engineering applications ;it simulates the real online runtime environment , so it is able to realize the employment-oriented communications professional engineering education .%提出了通信工程实验室建设设计的原则,介绍了长沙学院与思科公司共建数据通信实验室的设备构成方案和实验室所能支撑的实验项目,与中兴公司共建光传输和程控交换实验室的硬件组成和软件配置选择,介绍了光传输实验室实验目的和部分实验项目,程控交换实验室实验目的和部分实验项目。教学实践证明,这些实验室设备充分结合了当前主流通信技术及典型工程应用,模拟了真实的在局运行环境,能够真正实现以就业为导向的通信专业工程教育。

  2. Fog Computing to protect real and sensitivity information in Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thogaricheti Ashwini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing can simply be described as computing based on the internet. In the past, people depended on physical computer storage or servers to run their programs. However, with the introduction of cloud computing, people as well as business enterprises can now access their programs through the internet. Due this ease, software companies and other agencies are shifting more towards cloud computing environment. To achieve better operational efficiency in many organizations and small or medium agencies is using Cloud environment for managing their data. It is a combination of a number of computing strategies and concepts such as Service Oriented Architecture (SOA, virtualization and other which rely on the Internet. Cloud Computing provides an easy way for accessing, managing and computation of user data, but it also has some severe security risks. Very common risks now days are data theft attacks. Data theft considered one of the top threats to cloud computing by the Cloud Security Alliance is. To deal with such cases and malicious intruders there are some techniques which are used to secure user data. A new technology called “Fog computing” is gaining attention of the cloud users nowadays. Fog computing improves the Quality of service and also reduces latency. According to Cisco, due to its wide geographical distribution the Fog computing is well suited for real time analytics and big data.Fog computing is a paradigm that extends Cloud computing and services to the edge of the network. Similar to Cloud, Fog provides data, compute, storage, and application services to end-users.

  3. Transforming giants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2008-01-01

    Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big.

  4. La inocencia de Giulio. Andreotti no fue absuelto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Cavalli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde su espectáculo solista Kabum!... come un paio di impossibilità (2006, estrenado bajo la dirección artística de Paolo Rossi, la dramaturgia de Giulio Cavalli (Milán, 1977 se ha caracterizado por tener una fuerte orientación cívica. Dos de sus obras de ese mismo año, 2006, pueden dar cuenta de ello: (Re Carlo (non torna dalla battaglia di Poitiers, sobre los trágicos hechos ocurridos durante la reunión del G8 en Génova en 2001, y Linate 8 ottobre 2001: la strage, sobre el acccidente aéreo que costó la vida a 118 pesonas. Aunque posteriormente ha ampliado su teatro a otros temas, como en Bambini a dondolo (2007, un drama sobre el turismo sexual infantil, han sido sus intensos espectáculos sobre la mafia los que han acabado por darle no solo una mayor repercusión, sino también la obligación de vivir desde entonces bajo escolta policial antes las continuas amenazas y planes de asesinato por parte de la 'Ndrangheta. Entre las obras de esta temática destacan Do ut Des (2009 o la que aquí presentamos, L'innocenza di Giulio (2011, más tarde convertida en libro con el título L'innocenza di Giulio: Andreotti e la mafia (Milán: Chiarelettere, 2012. Para su último proyecto, L’amico degli eroi, sobre las conexiones con la mafia de Marcello dell'Utri, ha contado, al igual que en los anteriores, con el acompañamiento musical de Cisco Bellotti.

  5. When to ally & when to acquire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Jeffrey H; Kale, Prashant; Singh, Harbir

    2004-01-01

    Acquisitions and alliances are two pillars of growth strategy. But most businesses don't treat the two as alternative mechanisms for attaining goals. Consequently, companies take over firms they should have collaborated with, and vice versa, and make a mess of both acquisitions and alliances. It's easy to see why companies don't weigh the relative merits and demerits of acquisitions and alliances before choosing horses for courses. The two strategies differ in many ways: Acquisition deals are competitive, based on market prices, and risky; alliances are cooperative, negotiated, and not so risky. Companies habitually deploy acquisitions to increase scale or cut costs and use partnerships to enter new markets, customer segments, and regions. Moreover, a company's initial experiences often turn into blinders. If the firm pulls off an alliance or two, it tends to enter into alliances even when circumstances demand acquisitions. Organizational barriers also stand in the way. In many companies, an M&A group, which reports to the finance head, handles acquisitions, while a separate business development unit looks after alliances. The two teams work out of different locations, jealously guard turf, and, in effect, prevent companies from comparing the advantages and disadvantages of the strategies. But companies could improve their results, the authors argue, if they compared the two strategies to determine which is best suited to the situation at hand. Firms such as Cisco that use acquisitions and alliances appropriately grow faster than rivals do. The authors provide a framework to help organizations systematically decide between acquisition and alliance by analyzing three sets of factors: the resources and synergies they desire, the marketplace they compete in, and their competencies at collaborating.

  6. Research on the Quality of Network Service Based on Simulation Experiment Environment%基于仿真实验环境下对网络服务质量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许小华

    2015-01-01

    In view of the current deployment status of metropolitan area network differentiated quality of service the experimental environment based on Cisco network is designed,and the BGP/MPLS VPN network,MPLS DifferServ and DS-TE application models are build. Four businesses QoS parameters of VPN intracity networks are analyzed. The results show that under the lack of network resources,DS-TE application model enhances the IP metropolitan area network differentiated quality of service,and the DS-TE imoproves the problems of service quality of different VPN service,different business of a VPN,services between VPN and non-VPN in one or a combination of the LSP tunnel .%针对目前城域网差别化服务质量的部署现状,设计了基于Cisco网络实验环境并搭建BGP/MPLS VPN网络,部署MPLS DifferServ和DS-TE应用模型。通过对穿越城域网VPN的四种业务的QoS参数进行分析,结果表明在网络资源匮乏的情况下,DS-TE应用模型很好地提升了IP城域网差别化服务质量,DS-TE改善了在一条或一组LSP隧道为不同VPN业务、同一VPN不同业务以及VPN业务和非VPN业务之间的服务质量问题。

  7. Bioaccumulation of toxaphene congeners in the lake superior food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, D.C.G.; Whittle, D.M.; De Vault, D. S.; Bronte, C.R.; Karlsson, H.; Backus, S.; Teixeira, C.

    2004-01-01

    The bioaccumulation and biotransformation of toxaphene was examined in the food webs of Lake Superior and Siskiwit Lake (Isle Royale) using congener specific analysis as well as stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen to characterize food webs. Toxaphene concentrations (calculated using technical toxaphene) in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the western basin of Lake Superior (N = 95) averaged (±SD) 889 ± 896 ng/g wet wt and 60 ± 34 ng/g wet wt in Siskiwit Lake. Major congeners in lake trout were B8-789 (P38), B8-2226 (P44), B9-1679 (P50), and B9-1025 (P62). Toxaphene concentrations were found to vary seasonally, especially in lower food web organisms in Lake Superior and to a lesser extent in Siskiwit Lake. Toxaphene concentrations declined significantly in lake herring (Coregonus artedii), rainbow smelt (Omerus mordax), and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) as well as in zooplankton (> 102 &mn;m) and Mysis (Mysis relicta) between May and October. The seasonal variation may reflect seasonal shifts in the species abundance within the zooplankton community. Trophic magnification factors (TMF) derived from regressions of toxaphene congener concentrations versus δ15N were > 1 for most octa- and nonachlorobornanes in Lake Superior except B8-1413 (P26) and B9-715. Log bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for toxaphene congeners in lake trout (ng/g lipid/ng/L dissolved) ranged from 4.54 to 9.7 and were significantly correlated with log octanol-water partition coefficients. TMFs observed for total toxaphene and congener B9-1679 in Lake Superior were similar to those in Arctic lakes, as well as to previous studies in the Great Lakes, which suggests that the bioaccumulation behavior of toxaphene is similar in pelagic food webs of large, cold water systems. However, toxaphene concentrations were lower in lake trout from Siskiwit Lake and lakes in northwestern Ontario than in Lake Superior possibly because of shorter food chains and greater reliance on zooplankton or

  8. Zooplankton communities in a large prealpine lake, Lake Constance: comparison between the Upper and the Lower Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard MAIER

    2005-08-01

    reproduction of zooplanktivorous European whitefish, Coregonus lavaretus, which feeds highly selectively on large cladocerans and which is of great economic significance for the whole region. Another possibility could be that the lack of large Cladocera in the Lower Lake is a result of strong fish predation which could be a consequence of lake morphology.

  9. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program Hatcheries Division: Ford Hatchery, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike; Polacek, Matt; Knuttgen, Kamia

    2002-11-01

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife implemented the Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Project (BLFEP) in September 2001 with funds from the Bonneville Power Administration. The first year of the BLFEP was used to gather historic information, establish methods and protocols, collect limnology data, and conduct the first seasonal fish surveys. Water quality parameters were collected monthly from February to May and bi-monthly from June to August. Banks Lake water temperatures began to increase in April and stratification was apparent by June at all 3 limnology collection sites. By late August, the thermocline had dropped to nearly 20 m deep, with 19-20 C temperatures throughout the epilimnion. Dissolved oxygen levels were generally above 10 mg/L until mid summer when dissolved oxygen dropped near or below 5 mg/L below 20-m deep. Secchi depths ranged from 3-10 m and varied by location and date. Nearshore and offshore fish surveys were conducted in May and July using boat electrofishing, fyke net, gill net, and hydroacoustic surveys. Smallmouth bass Micropterous dolomieui (24%) and lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis (20%) dominated the nearshore species composition in May; however, by July yellow perch Perca flavescens (26%) were the second most common species to smallmouth bass (30%). Lake whitefish dominated the offshore catch during May (72%) and July (90%). The May hydroacoustic survey revealed highest densities of fish in the upper 1/3 of the water column in the mid- to northern sections of the reservoir near Steamboat Rock. In the future, data from seasonal surveys will be used to identify potential factors that may limit the production and harvest of kokanee, rainbow trout, and various spiny-rayed fishes in Banks Lake. The limiting factors that will be examined consist of: abiotic factors including water temperature, dissolved oxygen levels, habitat, exploitation and entrainment; and biotic factors including food limitation and predation. The BLFEP

  10. Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Project Annual Report : Fiscal Year 2001 (September 1, 2001 to August 31, 2002).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polacek, Matt; Knuttgen, Kamia; Baldwin, Casey; Woller, Heather

    2003-03-01

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife implemented the Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Project (BLFEP) in September 2001 with funds from the Bonneville Power Administration. The first year of the BLFEP was used to gather historic information, establish methods and protocols, collect limnology data, and conduct the first seasonal fish surveys. Water quality parameters were collected monthly from February to May and bi-monthly from June to August. Banks Lake water temperatures began to increase in April and stratification was apparent by June at all 3 limnology collection sites. By late August, the thermocline had dropped to nearly 20 m deep, with 19-20 C temperatures throughout the epilimnion. Dissolved oxygen levels were generally above 10 mg/L until mid summer when dissolved oxygen dropped near or below 5 mg/L below 20-m deep. Secchi depths ranged from 3-10 m and varied by location and date. Nearshore and offshore fish surveys were conducted in May and July using boat electrofishing, fyke net, gill net, and hydroacoustic surveys. Smallmouth bass Micropterous dolomieui (24%) and lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis (20%) dominated the nearshore species composition in May; however, by July yellow perch Perca flavescens (26%) were the second most common species to smallmouth bass (30%). Lake whitefish dominated the offshore catch during May (72%) and July (90%). The May hydroacoustic survey revealed highest densities of fish in the upper 1/3 of the water column in the mid- to northern sections of the reservoir near Steamboat Rock. In the future, data from seasonal surveys will be used to identify potential factors that may limit the production and harvest of kokanee, rainbow trout, and various spiny-rayed fishes in Banks Lake. The limiting factors that will be examined consist of: abiotic factors including water temperature, dissolved oxygen levels, habitat, exploitation and entrainment; and biotic factors including food limitation and predation. The BLFEP

  11. Phosphorus decreases in Lake Geneva but climate warming hampers the recovery of pristine oligochaete communities whereas chironomids are less affected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Lang

    2016-03-01

    temperature, the recovery of the pristine oligochaete community was perhaps impeded in 2009 because the transfer of organic matter to the sediment was increased by the impact of fish (mostly Coregonus feeding selectively on zooplankton. Finally, many micro pollutants (pesticides, drugs, and other substances which are present in the lake could have negatively affected sensitive oligochaete species.   

  12. Large-scale changes in bloater growth and condition in Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Carson G.; Roseman, Edward F.; Keeler, Kevin M.; O'Brien, Timothy P.; Riley, Stephen C.

    2016-01-01

    Native Bloaters Coregonus hoyi have exhibited multiple strong year-classes since 2005 and now are the most abundant benthopelagic offshore prey fish in Lake Huron, following the crash of nonnative AlewivesAlosa pseudoharengus and substantial declines in nonnative Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax. Despite recent recoveries in Bloater abundance, marketable-size (>229 mm) Bloaters remain scarce. We used annual survey data to assess temporal and spatial dynamics of Bloater body condition and lengths at age in the main basin of Lake Huron from 1973 to 2014. Basinwide lengths at age were modeled by cohort for the 1973–2003 year-classes using a von Bertalanffy growth model with time-varying Brody growth coefficient (k) and asymptotic length () parameters. Median Bloater weights at selected lengths were estimated to assess changes in condition by modeling weight–length relations with an allometric growth model that allowed growth parameters to vary spatially and temporally. Estimated Bloater lengths at age declined 14–24% among ages 4–8 for all year-classes between 1973 and 2004. Estimates of  declined from a peak of 394 mm (1973 year-class) to a minimum of 238 mm (1998 year-class). Observed mean lengths at age in 2014 were at all-time lows, suggesting that year-classes comprising the current Bloater population would have to follow growth trajectories unlike those characterizing the 1973–2003 year-classes to attain marketable size. Furthermore, estimated weights of 250-mm Bloaters (i.e., a large, commercially valuable size-class) declined 17% among all regions from 1976 to 2007. Decreases in body condition of large Bloaters are associated with lower lipid content and may be linked to marked declines in abundance of the amphipodsDiporeia spp. in Lake Huron. We hypothesize that since at least 1976, large Bloaters have become more negatively buoyant and may have incurred an increasingly greater metabolic cost performing diel vertical migrations to prey upon the opossum

  13. Potential health risks posed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in muscle tissues of fishes from the Athabasca and Slave Rivers, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohiozebau, Ehimai; Tendler, Brett; Codling, Garry; Kelly, Erin; Giesy, John P; Jones, Paul D

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are released to the environment from oil sands operations and from natural sources in Alberta, Canada. Concentrations of 16 USEPA priority PAHs were measured in tissues of fishes collected from three locations on the Athabasca River in Alberta and two downstream locations on the Slave River in the Northwest Territories, Canada. A total of 425 individual fish were collected including 89 goldeye (Hiodon alosoides), 93 whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), 104 northern pike/jackfish (Esox lucius), 96 walleye (Sander vitreus) and 43 burbot/loche mariah/mariah (Lota lota). Fish were sampled during the summer and fall of 2011 and spring of 2012. Dorsal muscle of fishes from upstream reaches of the Athabasca River, close to oil sands extraction and upgrading activities, contained greater concentrations of individual PAHs than concentrations in muscle of fishes from further downstream in the Slave River. Concentrations of the sum of USEPA indicator PAHs (∑PAHs) in fishes collected in the vicinity of Fort McKay, closest to oil sands activities, varied among seasons with average concentrations ranging from 11 (burbot, summer) to 1.2 × 10(2) ng/g, wm (burbot, spring) with a mean of 48 ng/g, wm. Concentrations of ∑PAHs in fishes collected in the vicinity of Fort Resolution, the location most distant from oil sands activities, also varied among species and seasons, with average concentrations ranging from 4.3 (whitefish, summer) to 33 ng/g, wm (goldeye, summer) with a mean of 13 ng/g, wm. Significant differences in concentrations of ∑PAHs in muscle were observed within goldeye, jackfish, walleye and whitefish among sites. Health risks posed by PAHs to humans were assessed probabilistically using a B[a]P equivalents approach (B[a]Peq). The average lifetime risk of additional cancers for humans who consumed fish was deemed to be within an 'acceptable' range of risk (i.e., less than 10(-6)).

  14. Sustainability of the Lake Superior fish community: Interactions in a food web context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchell, James F.; Cox, Sean P.; Harvey, Chris J.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Mason, Doran M.; Schoen, Kurt K.; Aydin, Kerim; Bronte, Charles; Ebener, Mark; Hansen, Michael; Hoff, Michael; Schram, Steve; Schreiner, Don; Walters, Carl J.

    2000-01-01

    The restoration and rehabilitation of the native fish communities is a long-term goal for the Laurentian Great Lakes. In Lake Superior, the ongoing restoration of the native lake trout populations is now regarded as one of the major success stories in fisheries management. However, populations of the deepwater morphotype (siscowet lake trout) have increased much more substantially than those of the nearshore morphotype (lean lake trout), and the ecosystem now contains an assemblage of exotic species such as sea lamprey, rainbow smelt, and Pacific salmon (chinook, coho, and steelhead). Those species play an important role in defining the constraints and opportunities for ecosystem management. We combined an equilibrium mass balance model (Ecopath) with a dynamic food web model (Ecosim) to evaluate the ecological consequences of future alternative management strategies and the interaction of two different sets of life history characteristics for fishes at the top of the food web. Relatively rapid turnover rates occur among the exotic forage fish, rainbow smelt, and its primary predators, exotic Pacific salmonids. Slower turnover rates occur among the native lake trout and burbot and their primary prey—lake herring, smelt, deepwater cisco, and sculpins. The abundance of forage fish is a key constraint for all salmonids in Lake Superior. Smelt and Mysis play a prominent role in sustaining the current trophic structure. Competition between the native lake trout and the exotic salmonids is asymmetric. Reductions in the salmon population yield only a modest benefit for the stocks of lake trout, whereas increased fishing of lake trout produces substantial potential increases in the yields of Pacific salmon to recreational fisheries. The deepwater or siscowet morphotype of lake trout has become very abundant. Although it plays a major role in the structure of the food web it offers little potential for the restoration of a valuable commercial or recreational fishery

  15. The composition of the B2B brand value and its influeneing factors%B2B品牌价值的构成及其影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏

    2012-01-01

    At present, most of the existing home and abroad brands Theory and Strategy for B2C products, such as Haier, Samsung, Coca-Cola. These enterprises is the B2C brand value through analysis and implemen- tation of B2C brand strategy as an instance of the well-known enterprises. However, research to date on B2B brand value is still rare. At the same time, along with Cisco, IBM, GE and other B2B enterprise has created a strong brand, and enhance competitive advantage and establish a good corporate image, creating a huge eco- nomic benefits. The growing number of scholars to see the importance and necessity of the analysis and the value of B2B brand. This paper first succinctly described in the B2B market, the importance of brand value and indis- pensability; then focus on analysis of two dimensions: the value of B2B brand and then analyzed the value of the brand function of four elements: the functional value, emotional value, and then analyzed the relationship be- tween relationship values and environmental values.%目前,国内外现有的品牌理论与策略大多数针对的是B2C产品,如海尔、三星、可口可乐等。与此同时,随着思科、IBM、GE等一些B2B企业制造了强有力的品牌,增强了竞争优势,树立了良好的企业形象,创造了巨大的经济效益。越来越多的学者看到了分析和建立B2B品牌价值的重要性和必要性。本文首先简明扼要地阐述B2B市场中,品牌价值的重要性和不可或缺性;而后重点分析构成B2B品牌价值的两个维度:而后分析了影响品牌功能价值的四个要素:功能价值、情感价值、而后分析了关系价值和环境价值。

  16. IPv6单播路由协议的新特性与应用研究%Research on New Features of IPv6 Unicast Routing Protocol and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴许俊; 王巍

    2013-01-01

    当前中小城市的下一代互联网建设比较迟缓,主要原因是对IPv6路由协议认识不足,缺少组网实践经验和工程技术指导。文中详细阐述了IPv6单播路由协议具备的新特性和工作机制,包括常用RIPng、OSPFv3、IPv6-IS-IS和BGP4+,使用思科仿真软件平台分别应用上述几种路由协议开展不同场景下的组网应用,设计了典型网络方案,给出了配置中的关键代码并分析了路由协议的运行状态和路由信息。仿真实验验证了IPv6单播路由协议的新特性,具有较好的工程技术实用价值,有助于促进现实IPv4网络向IPv6过渡的进程。%The next generation Internet construction delays in small-medium cities,the main reason is less familiar to IPv6 unicast routing protocol,practical experience insufficient and technical instruction shortage. Discuss the new features and working mechanism of IPv6 uni-cast routing protocol,including RIPng、OSPFv3、IPv6-IS-IS and BGP4+,develop applicatons in different network scenarios in Cisco sim-ulation platform,design the typical network scheme,present the key code and analyze protocol running state and routing information. The experiment proves the new features of IPv6 unicast routing protocol,it has a good technical guidance value and helps to accelerate the transitional process from IPv4 to IPv6.

  17. Analysis of cloud IT systems data center IP network design points%云化IT系统数据中心IP组网设计要点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高鹰

    2013-01-01

      随着云计算的日益普及,传统的烟囱式“三明治”扩展多层结构的单一IT系统组网无法适应满足现代大型数据中心多租户多系统的要求,本文参考思科和H3C公司提出的VMDC组网结构,给出了多租户IT支撑系统数据中心IP组网扁平化、接入无差异化的“精简多层”组网架构设计要点,并通过一则实际工程案例的设计运用予以介绍说明。实践证明,通过对精简多层组网结构的设计运用,能有效提高网络设备端口、带宽利用率,同时可满足多系统间安全域隔离及资源共享的需求。%  With the growing popularity of cloud computing, the traditional extended multi-layer structure of a single IT system network, like a chimney "sandwich", can not meet the requirements of large-scale multi-tenant and multi-system in data center. In this paper, refer to Cisco and H3C VMDC network architecture, design points of compacted multi-layer structure for multi-tenant IT system data center network, which includes fattening network architecture, no differentiated access, etc, is mentioned. The design points are introduced by the use of the design of an actual project. Practice proved that through the use of compacted multi-layer structure design, can effectively improve the network device port, bandwidth utilization, and to meet the needs of multi-system security domain isolation and resource sharing.

  18. An investigation of the efficacy of collaborative virtual reality systems for moderated remote usability testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalil Madathil, Kapil; Greenstein, Joel S

    2017-02-27

    Collaborative virtual reality-based systems have integrated high fidelity voice-based communication, immersive audio and screen-sharing tools into virtual environments. Such three-dimensional collaborative virtual environments can mirror the collaboration among usability test participants and facilitators when they are physically collocated, potentially enabling moderated usability tests to be conducted effectively when the facilitator and participant are located in different places. We developed a virtual collaborative three-dimensional remote moderated usability testing laboratory and employed it in a controlled study to evaluate the effectiveness of moderated usability testing in a collaborative virtual reality-based environment with two other moderated usability testing methods: the traditional lab approach and Cisco WebEx, a web-based conferencing and screen sharing approach. Using a mixed methods experimental design, 36 test participants and 12 test facilitators were asked to complete representative tasks on a simulated online shopping website. The dependent variables included the time taken to complete the tasks; the usability defects identified and their severity; and the subjective ratings on the workload index, presence and satisfaction questionnaires. Remote moderated usability testing methodology using a collaborative virtual reality system performed similarly in terms of the total number of defects identified, the number of high severity defects identified and the time taken to complete the tasks with the other two methodologies. The overall workload experienced by the test participants and facilitators was the least with the traditional lab condition. No significant differences were identified for the workload experienced with the virtual reality and the WebEx conditions. However, test participants experienced greater involvement and a more immersive experience in the virtual environment than in the WebEx condition. The ratings for the virtual

  19. Experience with Delay-Tolerant Networking from Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, W.; Eddy, W. M.; Stewart, D.; Wood, L.; Northam, J.; Jackson, C.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the first use from space of the Bundle Protocol for Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) and lessons learned from experiments made and experience gained with this protocol. The Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC), constructed by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL), is a multiple-satellite Earth-imaging low-Earth-orbit sensor network in which recorded image swaths are stored onboard each satellite and later downloaded from the satellite payloads to a ground station. Store-and-forward of images with capture and later download gives each satellite the characteristics of a node in a disruption-tolerant network. Originally developed for the Interplanetary Internet, DTNs are now under investigation in an Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) DTN research group (RG), which has developed a bundle architecture and protocol. The DMC is technically advanced in its adoption of the Internet Protocol (IP) for its imaging payloads and for satellite command and control, based around reuse of commercial networking and link protocols. These satellites use of IP has enabled earlier experiments with the Cisco router in Low Earth Orbit (CLEO) onboard the constellation s UK-DMC satellite. Earth images are downloaded from the satellites using a custom IP-based high-speed transfer protocol developed by SSTL, Saratoga, which tolerates unusual link environments. Saratoga has been documented in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) for wider adoption. We experiment with the use of DTNRG bundle concepts onboard the UK-DMC satellite, by examining how Saratoga can be used as a DTN convergence layer to carry the DTNRG Bundle Protocol, so that sensor images can be delivered to ground stations and beyond as bundles. Our practical experience with the first successful use of the DTNRG Bundle Protocol in a space environment gives us insights into the design of the Bundle Protocol and enables us to identify issues that must be addressed before wider deployment of the Bundle Protocol

  20. The physiology and toxicology of salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water quality criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finn, Roderick Nigel [Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Allegaten 41, N-5020 Bergen (Norway)]. E-mail: nigel.finn@bio.uib.no

    2007-03-30

    The purpose of this review is to collate physiological knowledge on salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water quality criteria. Salmonid genera reviewed include Coregonus, Thymallus, Salvelinus, Salmo, and Oncorhynchus spp. When physiological data for salmonids are lacking, the zebrafish and medaka models are included. The primary focus is on the underlying mechanisms involved in the hydro-mineral, thermal, and respiratory biology with an extended section on the xenobiotic toxicology of the early stages. Past and present data reveal that the eggs of salmonids are among the largest shed by any broadcast spawning teleost. Once ovulated, the physicochemical properties of the ovarian fluid provide temporary protection from external perturbations and maintain the eggs in good physiological condition until spawning. Following fertilisation and during early development the major structures protecting the embryo from poor water quality are the vitelline membrane, the enveloping layer and the chorion. The vitelline membrane is one of the least permeable membranes known, while the semi-permeable chorion provides both physical and chemical defense against metals, pathogens, and xenobiotic chemicals. In part these structures explain the lower sensitivity of the eggs to chemical imbalance compared to the larvae, however the lower metabolic rate and the chronology of gene expression and translational control suggest that developmental competence also plays a decisive role. In addition, maternal effect genes provide a defense potential until the mid-blastula transition. The transition between maternal effect genes and zygotic genes is a critical period for the embryo. The perivitelline fluids are an important trap for cations, but are also the major barrier to diffusion of gases and solutes. Acidic environmental pH interferes with acid-base and hydromineral balance but also increases the risk of aluminium and heavy metal intoxication. These risks are ameliorated somewhat by

  1. 北欧湖泊鱼类状况调查:酸化、富营养化和放养活动对现有鱼类品种组成的影响%Fish Status Survey of Nordic Lakes: Effects of Acidification, Eutrophication and Stocking Activity on Present Fish Species Composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JouniTammi; MagnusAppelberg; UlrikaBeier; TrygveHesthagen; AnttiLappalainen; MarttiRask; 李康民; 李佩珍

    2003-01-01

    1995~1997年间对挪威、瑞典和芬兰的3821个湖泊的鱼类种群状况做了评估。采用分层随机抽样从芬诺斯堪的亚(芬兰,挪威、瑞典,丹麦的总称)所有面积≥0.04km2的126482个湖泊中选择调查湖泊。分析了湖泊的水化学,湖内鱼类状况则从邮件调查问卷中获得。鱼类种群损失发生最为频繁的地区在挪威南部酸化最严重的地区,而在芬诺斯堪的亚东部最少。根据调查问卷,鳟(Salmo trutta)、拟鲤(Rutilus rutilus)、北极红点鲑(Salvelinus alpinus)和鲈鱼(Percafluviatilis)鱼群损失的数量估计超过10000条。这些品种的鱼群潜在地受低碱性湖水影响的数量超过11000条。大约有3300个湖泊显示出总磷高于25μg/L,品种以鲤科鱼为主,这在芬诺斯堪的亚东部、芬兰西南最为明显。这次调查并未显示出鱼类品种由于富营养化而灭绝。l/3的湖泊人工放养了至少一个新的鱼类品种,最常放养的品种有鳟、白鲑(Coregonus lavaretus s.l.)、北极红点鲑、虹鳟(Oncorhynchus mykiss)、梭鲈(Stizostedion lucioperca)、茴鱼(Thymallus thymallus)、狗鱼(Esox lucius)、欧鳊(Abramis brama)、丁秽(Tinca tinca)和欧Gui(Tinca tinca)和欧Gui(Phoxinus phoxinus)。在芬诺斯堪的亚湖泊。这些品种的人工放养量估计超过52000群,因此,北欧湖泊现有鱼类品种的数量最近受放养的影响超过了因环境变化如酸化等而损失造成的影响。

  2. Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polacek, Matt; Knuttgen, Kamia; Shipley, Rochelle

    2003-11-01

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife implemented the Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Project (BLFEP) in September 2001 with funds from the Bonneville Power Administration. Fiscal Year (FY) 2001 of the BLFEP was used to gather historic information, establish methods and protocols, collect limnology data, and conduct the first seasonal fish surveys. FY 2002 was used to continue seasonal fish and lakewide creel surveys and adjust methods and protocols as needed. Water quality parameters were collected monthly from February to May and bi-monthly from June to August. Banks Lake water temperatures began to increase in April and stratification was apparent by June at all 3 limnology collection sites. By late August, the thermocline had dropped to nearly 20 meters deep, with 16-17 C temperatures throughout the epilimnion. Dissolved oxygen levels were generally above 10 mg/L until August when dissolved oxygen dropped near or below 5 mg/L below 20-meters deep. Secchi depths ranged from 2.5-8 meters and varied by location and date. Nearshore and offshore fish surveys were conducted in October 2002 and May and July 2003 using boat electrofishing, fyke net, gill net, and hydroacoustic surveys. Yellow Perch Perca flavescens (32 %) and cottid spp. (22 %) dominated the nearshore species composition in October; however, by May yellow perch (12 %) were the third most common species followed by smallmouth bass Micropterous dolomieui (34 %) and lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis (14 %). Lake whitefish dominated the offshore catch during October (78 %) and May (81 %). Fish diet analysis indicated that juvenile fishes consumed primarily insects and zooplankton, while adult piscivores consumed cottids spp. and yellow perch most frequently. For FY 2002, the following creel statistics are comprehensive through August 31, 2003. The highest angling pressure occurred in June 2003, when anglers were primarily targeting walleye and smallmouth bass. Boat anglers utilized Steamboat

  3. IPv6 and IEEE 1888: Fundamental Infrastructure and Protocol for Smart Grid%IPv6和IEEE1888:国际智能电网的基础架构和协议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷展

    2012-01-01

    With rapid development of Intemet, information technologies have deployed widely into many application fields. For example, IP,Internet of Things and cloud computing have been widely used in green industry and smart energy. Recently IP for Smart Object Alliance (IPSO Alliance ) published lPv6 and IEEE 1888 based white paper for Smart Grid infrastructure and protocol, joint with many leading enterprises in international industry chain, including Cisco, Itron, Duke Energy, as well as domestic China Telecom and BII Group. As a core protocol for next generation Internet, IPv6 provides broad develop space for smart grid. IEEE 1888 protocol constructs a uniform control and management platform for smart terminals to access Internet. This paper mainly introduced this white paper, beginning from network requirements, analysed necessity for smart grid to adopting IPv6 and IEEE 1888 as fimdamental infrastructure and protocol. Finally this paper discussed key technologies and related technical standards in detail. This paper provided a comprehensive overview for the last kilometer to smart grid.%随着互联网的发展,信息技术深入到各行各业,如IP,物联网,云计算等技术被广泛地应用于绿色节能、智慧能源中。最近国际物联网联盟IPSO集合国内外产业领头公司.国外的如Cisco,Itron,Duke Energy,国内的如中国电信,天地互连公司,联合发布了以IPv6和IEEE1888为国际智能电网基础架构和协议的白皮书。其中,IPv6协议作为下一代互联网的基础协议为智能电网信息化提供了更广阔的空间。而IEEE1888开放标准为末端智能终端接入互联网提供了统一的管控平台。本文主要介绍该白皮书的内容,从智能电网最后一公里的网络需求入手,讲述智能电网为什么需要IPv6和IEEE1888作为基础通信架构和协议.详细解析白皮书中关于IPv6通信基础架构的关键技术模块和相关技术标准。为国际智

  4. A Study on the High-Tech Enterprises' M & A---Based on the Strategic Target%高新技术企业并购研究--基于战略目标

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽英

    2014-01-01

    Recently the world has entered a new era of technological competition, the state of the global technical resources and the R&D system as well as the accelerated pace of technological change has altered the original way of industrial competition. The technological competition supported by the speed has become the mainstream. Acquiring technical advantages through M&A has turned into a new option. The high-tech enterprises have been the focus of global M&A market because of their high growth and expected profitability. Company may radically ensure that the target's strategy matches with theirs by choosing acquisition targets based on the company's strategy. The paper explores the characteristics and laws of the high-tech industry's development, finding that a large number of M&A transactions happened between high-tech enterprises and technology-based small businesses which determined by the law of development of high-tech industry. The essence of high-tech M&A is talent acquisition and M&A in various stages has different motives and target. The paper offers references and inspirations to M&A target selection of high-tech enterprises in China by studying the M&A strategy and target selection of Cisco.%目前全球已进入一个新的技术竞争时代,全球技术资源状态与研发体系以及技术变更速度的加快已经改变了原来的产业竞争方式,以速度为支撑的技术竞争已经成为主流,通过并购获得技术优势成为新的选择。高新技术企业凭借其高成长性和未来预期的高收益性目前已成为全球并购市场的焦点。企业基于战略来选择并购目标可以从根本上保证目标企业与自己的战略匹配。文章对高新技术行业发展的特点与规律进行研究,发现高新技术企业广泛大量并购技术型小企业是由高新技术行业的发展规律决定的,高新技术企业收购的实质是收购人才,在不同发展阶段其并购的动因与目标也不同。

  5. Cyber Friendly Fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Roberts, Adam D.

    2011-09-01

    . The network is essentially divided into a production component that hosts the web and network services, and a user component that hosts thirty employee workstations and other end devices. The organization's network is separated from the Internet by a Cisco ASA network security device that both firewalls and detects intrusions. Business sensitive information is stored in various servers. This includes data comprising thousands of internal documents, such as finance and technical designs, email messages for the organization's employees including the CEO, CFO, and CIO, the organization's source code, and Personally Identifiable client data. Release of any of this information to unauthorized parties would have a significant, detrimental impact on the organization's reputation, which would harm earnings. The valuable information stored in these servers pose obvious points of interest for an adversary. We constructed several scenarios around this environment to support studies in cyber SA and cyber FF that may be run in the test range. We describe mitigation strategies to combat cyber FF including both training concepts and suggestions for decision aids and visualization approaches. Finally, we discuss possible future research directions.

  6. 企业知识转移生态学模型%The ecological model for knowledge transfer in enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋天颖; 程聪

    2012-01-01

    Efficient knowledge transfer has become one of the key factors to establish competitive advantage for the enterprises. Based on the perspective of ecology, the enterprises knowledge includes four ecological characteristics, such as scattered distribution, embedding dependent, dynamic inheritance, and incremental cumulative, is proposed. On this basis, an ecological model of knowledge transfer is built. In this model, knowledge chains and knowledge networks in enterprises are formed by the interrelation among knowledge individual, knowledge group, and knowledge community. Among them, individual knowledge transfer lays emphasis on the knowledge transfer and perfection of staff themselves, group knowledge transfer focuses on the integration and creation of team knowledge, while community knowledge transfer concerns about the overall efficiency of knowledge application in enterprises. Furthermore, some ultra -ecological characteristics are offered in the process of knowledge transfer in enterprises' ecological systems. Finally, combining with the case of Cisco knowledge transfer, some enlightenment and recommendations to increase the efficiency of knowledge transfer of enterprises'ecological systems are put forward.%高效知识转移已经成为企业建立竞争优势的关键因素之一。文章基于生态学的视角,提出了企业知识具有散落分布性、嵌入依附性、动态继承性和增量积累性等四方面生态学特征。在此基础上,构建了企业知识转移生态学模型,在该模型中,知识个体、知识种群与知识群落间知识的相互联系构成了企业知识链与知识网。其中,个体知识转移强调员工自身知识的迁移与完善,种群知识转移侧重团队知识的整合与创造,而群落知识转移则关注企业知识应用的整体效率。此外,研究还发现,企业生态系统中的知识在转移过程中还呈现啮一些超生态学特征。最后,文章结合思科公

  7. Comparative research on technological innovation and technological diffusion of magnates in communication equipment industry%通信设备巨头技术创新布局与扩散比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋天华; 于光; 石春生

    2011-01-01

    专利引文是衡量技术创新的重要指标。以著名的德温特(DII)创新系统的数据,对通信设备行业两家重要企业思科与华为的专利引文进行分析。结果显示,一些中国高技术企业经过多年的技术创新,其研发效率已经追上世界一流的跨国企业;中国企业的技术扩散主要是在国内,国际间技术扩散刚刚起步,影响力较小;而跨国企业技术扩散是全球性的,影响力处于龙头地位;追赶型企业技术创新是力求突破的锥型布局,领先企业是平衡型的哑铃布局;企业的技术创新布局主导着它们的技术扩散方向,中国企业技术创新与扩散的宽度大,但是优势技术少,技术深度低。而跨国企业优势技术多,技术扩散的深度高,技术专业化程度比较高。%Patent citation is one of important indicators surveying technological innovation. By analyzing DII' S patent citations of two top enterprises Cisco and Huawei in communications equipments industry, their innovation and technology diffusion are explored. Results argue that through long - term innovation, the efficiency of some Chinese high - technological firms in R&D has caught up with that of some top multinationals; Technological diffusion of Chinese enterprises mainly distributes in domestic firms. Its technological internationalization just starts now and has the weak influence. And the multinational technological diffusion is global and has the strong influence; Technological innovation of the pursuing enterprise displays a awl - shaped distribution, and technological innovation of the advanced enterprise shows a dumbbell distribution; the distribution of technological innovation leads the direction of technological diffusion; The distribution width of technological innovation and diffusion for Chinese enterprises are widen, however, its top technologies are fewer, the technical specialization level is low, and multinational

  8. Starburst clusters in the Galactic center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Maryam

    2014-09-01

    The central region of the Galaxy is the most active site of star formation in the Milky Way, where massive stars have formed very recently and are still forming today. The rich population of massive stars in the Galactic center provide a unique opportunity to study massive stars in their birth environment and probe their initial mass function, which is the spectrum of stellar masses at their birth. The Arches cluster is the youngest among the three massive clusters in the Galactic center, providing a collection of high-mass stars and a very dense core which makes this cluster an excellent site to address questions about massive star formation, the stellar mass function and the dynamical evolution of massive clusters in the Galactic center. In this thesis, I perform an observational study of the Arches cluster using K_{s}-band imaging obtained with NAOS/CONICA at the VLT combined with Subaru/Cisco J-band data to gain a full understanding of the cluster mass distribution out to its tidal radius for the first time. Since the light from the Galactic center reaches us through the Galactic disc, the extinction correction is crucial when studying this region. I use a Bayesian method to construct a realistic extinction map of the cluster. It is shown in this study that the determination of the mass of the most massive star in the Arches cluster, which had been used in previous studies to establish an upper mass limit for the star formation process in the Milky Way, strongly depends on the assumed slope of the extinction law. Assuming the two regimes of widely used infrared extinction laws, I show that the difference can reach up to 30% for individually derived stellar masses and Δ A_{Ks}˜ 1 magnitude in acquired K_{s}-band extinction, while the present-day mass function slope changes by ˜ 0.17 dex. The present-day mass function slope derived assuming the more recent extinction law, which suggests a steeper wavelength dependence for the infrared extinction law, reveals

  9. Integrated Synthesis of the Permian Basin: Data and Models for Recovering Existing and Undiscovered Oil Resources from the Largest Oil-Bearing Basin in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Jackson; Katherine Jackson

    2008-09-30

    Large volumes of oil and gas remain in the mature basins of North America. This is nowhere more true than in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico. A critical barrier to recovery of this vast remaining resource, however, is information. Access to accurate geological data and analyses of the controls of hydrocarbon distribution is the key to the knowledge base as well as the incentives needed by oil and gas companies. The goals of this project were to collect, analyze, synthesize, and deliver to industry and the public fundamental information and data on the geology of oil and gas systems in the Permian Basin. This was accomplished in two ways. First we gathered all available data, organized it, and placed it on the web for ready access. Data include core analysis data, lists of pertinent published reports, lists of available cores, type logs, and selected PowerPoint presentations. We also created interpretive data such as type logs, geological cross sections, and geological maps and placed them in a geospatially-registered framework in ARC/GIS. Second, we created new written syntheses of selected reservoir plays in the Permian basin. Although only 8 plays were targeted for detailed analysis in the project proposal to DOE, 14 were completed. These include Ellenburger, Simpson, Montoya, Fusselman, Wristen, Thirtyone, Mississippian, Morrow, Atoka, Strawn, Canyon/Cisco, Wolfcamp, Artesia Group, and Delaware Mountain Group. These fully illustrated reports include critical summaries of published literature integrated with new unpublished research conducted during the project. As such these reports provide the most up-to-date analysis of the geological controls on reservoir development available. All reports are available for download on the project website and are also included in this final report. As stated in our proposal, technology transfer is perhaps the most important component of the project. In addition to providing direct access to data and reports through

  10. Psychovisual masks and intelligent streaming RTP techniques for the MPEG-4 standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecocci, Alessandro; Falconi, Francesco

    2003-06-01

    like: DivX, Xvid, and Cisco"s Mpeg-4IP, have been analyzed but, as for today, they do not support VO). The original code has been deeply modified to integrate the SLIC and to adapt it for real-time streaming. A personal RTP (Real Time Protocol) has been defined and a Client-Server application has been developed. The viewer can decode and demultiplex the stream in real-time, while adapting to the changing modalities adopted by the Server according to the current video content. The proposed codec works as follows: the image background is separated by means of a segmentation module and it is transmitted by means of a wavelet compression scheme similar to that used in the JPEG2000. The VO are coded separately and multiplexed with the background stream. At the receiver the stream is demultiplexed to obtain the background and the VO that are subsequently pasted together. The final quality depends on many factors, in particular: the quantization parameters, the Group Of Video Object (GOV) length, the GOV structure (i.e. the number of I-P-B VOP), the search area for motion compensation. These factors are strongly related to the following measurement parameters (that have been defined during the development): the Objects Apparent Size (OAS) in the scene, the Video Object Incidence factor (VOI), the temporal correlation (measured through the Normalized Mean SAD, NMSAD). The SLIC module analyzes the currently transmitted video and selects the most appropriate settings by choosing from a predefined set of transmission modalities. For example, in the case of a highly temporal correlated sequence, the number of B-VOP is increased to improve the compression ratio. The strategy for the selection of the number of B-VOP turns out to be very different from those reported in the literature for B-frames (adopted for MPEG-1 and MPEG-2), due to the different behaviour of the temporal correlation when limited only to moving objects. The SLIC module also decides how to transmit the background

  11. Worldwide Eutrophication of Water Bodies: Causes, Concerns, Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prepas, E. E.; Charette, T.

    2003-12-01

    as pike, perch, and bass, as compared to deep-dwelling, cold-water fishes like salmon, trout, and cisco ( Ryding and Rast, 1989). (9K)Figure 1. Suggested changes in various characteristics of lakes with eutrophication (reproduced by permission of Cambridge University Press from Welch, E. B., Ecological Effects of Waste Water, 1980, p. 273).

  12. Healthcare @ the speed of thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, J D

    1999-05-01

    It is daunting to realize that we have just touched the surface of health-related Internet web sites. The use of the Internet as a vital patient care tool is a very real prospect on the near horizon. Yet most hospital systems and physicians groups today just use the Net to post "billboards.'' In the rest of America, the Internet has been much more than a billboard. It has changed the way business is conducted. There's e-mail. There's e-trading for those who invest. On mother's day moms receive e-cards, and there is e-commerce which includes buying and selling online, and also collecting and organizing data that will help a business serve customers better, building that relationship. The Internet is a transaction tool. The latest survey indicates that the volume of commerce on the Net has grown 300% this year over last. According to a survey sponsored by Cisco Systems. Net sales volume accounts for $200 billion and is doubling every 6 months. And, the search for health information is among the top three reasons people use the web. The surveys indicate that people would like better communication with their physicians and most would like to communicate by e-mail. Yet, very few physicians are interested. As part of the research for this article we reviewed dozens of web sites for hospitals and medical groups. While some of these sites are attractive, most simply don't do anything more than provide maps and telephone numbers. People might as well look in the Yellow Pages for the information they can find on th web. Meanwhile, a number of well-funded health sites have sprung up just in the past few months. We searched the web to find sites that would actually allow people to interact in ways that went beyond just finding information. Clearly there is movement toward the ability to conduct transactions over the Net, i.e, patient monitoring, checking on status of claims, ask-a-doc, etc. But, we are just at the front end of this movement and physicians and hospitals have an

  13. Successful online learning – the five Ps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim FLOOD

    2004-04-01

    host organisation to achieve the elusive sixth P of online learning –Praxis– the practical application of learning. 1 http://iet.open.ac.uk/ 2 John Chambers, President and CEO of Cisco Systems, quoted in The New York Times in 1998: "The next big killer application for the Internet is going to be education. Education over the Internet is going to be so big, it is going to make e-mail usage look like a rounding error." 3 http://www.brandonhall.com/public/execsums/execsum_adkins1.pdf Biodata of Author: For the last eight years Jim has been involved in developing and delivering online courses and in particular exploring what is appropriate and effective use of new media technologies to facilitate learning. This has included appointing and training tutors to support learners studying in an online environment. Before joining COROUS (a department of the Open University, he was a Sub-Dean in the Faculty of Technology at the Open University. Most of Jim's career has centred on teaching engineering and promoting an interest and excitement about science and technology. His involvement has included: teaching in schools writing programmes for schools television series running staff development sessions for teachers advising government committees on the school curriculum teaching at undergraduate and postgraduate levels giving lectures to young people on maths, science and technology. Two markers of Jim's success in this field were the award of an international prize for a television series on science education and the award of an Institute of Director's prize for a course he developed at Loughborough University. Jim has recently been invited to speak on e-learning at conferences in London, Paris, Berlin and Amsterdam. He also contributes articles to specialist journals in the field of training and e-learning. Home page: http://www.corous.com To engage in a dialogue on this topic, email Jim Flood at jimflood@btinternet.com

  14. THE HANDBOOK OF BLENDED LEARNING:Global Perspectives, Local Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Alev ATES

    2009-10-01

    , Charles R. Graham introduces readers with emergence of blended learning, and defines blended learning as ―BL systems combine face-to-face instruction with computer mediated instruction‖. He claims that;generally, people chose BL for three reasons: improved pedagogy, increased access and flexibility, increased cost-effectiveness.He presents existing blended learning models using by many sectors and organizationsand discusses the importance and usefulness of BL for now and in the future. ElliottMasie also provides reasons for creating blended learning and claims that it is animperative which reflects the blended nature of our world and learning process. On the other hand, Jennifer Hofmann mentions the chronology of learning delivery technologies before identifying the need for a blended solution. She presents many headings starting with ―How do we..?‖ which provide practical solutions andexplanations for the instructors who wish to try blended learning designs but uncertain about it. Ellen D. Wagner welcomes the readers to ―a world of occasionally connected, fully interactive digital experiences‖ and asks them ―what instructional paradigm couldbe better suited for exploiting the potential of education unplugged than blended learning‖. She discusses the importance of interaction comprehensively and reviewed various models of instructional interaction.In Part Two: Corporate blended learning models and perspectives, the authors provide blended learning models and frameworks of six major corporations which are IBM, Sun Microsystems, Microsoft, Avaya, Cisco, and Oracle and discusses many issues regardingvarious BL experiences. In Part Three: Higher education blended learning models and perspectives, higher education (HE models for BL from universities in New Zealand, Wales and UK are presented besides BL examples and institutional strategies fromWebCT officers.Barbara Ross and Karen Gage imply that although hybrid (or blended courses do not fit easily