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Sample records for ciscoes coregonus albula

  1. Genetic structure of the cisco (Coregonus albula L.) from lakes of glacial origin in northern Poland

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    Kirczuk L.; Rymaszewska A.; Czerniawski R.; Pilecka-Rapacz M.; Domagała J.

    2015-01-01

    European cisco (Coregonus albula L.) is one of the most precious species of the European lake ichtyofauna, however, due to progressive eutrophication of water, the range of its occurrence has decreased. Deteriorating ecological conditions are the main cause of this decline in population, and most of the existing populations in lakes are maintained thanks to reintroduction. Thus, it is important to determine the genetic structure of the European cisco. The study involve...

  2. Genetic population structure of sympatric and allopatric populations of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula complex, Teleostei, Coregonidae

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    Nitz Barbara

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teleost fishes of the Coregonidae are good model systems for studying postglacial evolution, adaptive radiation and ecological speciation. Of particular interest is whether the repeated occurrence of sympatric species pairs results from in-situ divergence from a single lineage or from multiple invasions of one or more different lineages. Here, we analysed the genetic structure of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula complex, examining 271 individuals from 8 lakes in northern Germany using 1244 polymorphic AFLP loci. Six lakes had only one population of C. albula while the remaining two lakes had C. albula as well as a sympatric species (C. lucinensis or C. fontanae. Results AFLP demonstrated a significant population structure (Bayesian θB = 0.22. Lower differentiation between allopatric (θB = 0.028 than sympatric (0.063-0.083 populations contradicts the hypothesis of a sympatric origin of taxa, and there was little evidence for stocking or ongoing hybridization. Genome scans found only three loci that appeared to be under selection in both sympatric population pairs, suggesting a low probability of similar mechanisms of ecological segregation. However, removal of all non-neutral loci decreased the genetic distance between sympatric pairs, suggesting recent adaptive divergence at a few loci. Sympatric pairs in the two lakes were genetically distinct from the six other C. albula populations, suggesting introgression from another lineage may have influenced these two lakes. This was supported by an analysis of isolation-by-distance, where the drift-gene flow equilibrium observed among allopatric populations was disrupted when the sympatric pairs were included. Conclusions While the population genetic data alone can not unambiguously uncover the mode of speciation, our data indicate that multiple lineages may be responsible for the complex patterns typically observed in Coregonus. Relative differences within and among lakes raises

  3. [Detection of the mitochondrial DNA haplotype characteristic of the least cisco (Coregonus sardinella, Valenciennes, 1848) in the vendace (C. albula, Linnaeus, 1758) population of Vodlozero (the Baltic Sea basin)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovikova, E A; Makhrov, A A

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial ND-1 gene in the vendace population in lake Vodlozero (the eastern part of the Baltic Sea basin) revealed a sequence variant that is closely related to that of the least cisco of Siberia (the Indigirka River). Thus, together with the results of morphological and allozyme analysis of this population performed earlier, the results obtained in this study are suggestive of the immigration of the least cisco to the Baltic Sea basin during the last glaciation.

  4. Status of the shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) in Lake Superior

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    Hoff, Michael H.; Todd, Thomas N.

    2004-01-01

    The shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) was historically found in Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior, but has been extirpated in Lakes Huron and Michigan apparently as the result of commercial overharvest. During 1999-2001, we conducted an assessment of shortjaw cisco abundance in five areas, spanning the U.S. waters of Lake Superior, and compared our results with the abundance measured at those areas in 1921-1922. The shortjaw cisco was found at four of the five areas sampled, but abundances were so low that they were not significantly different from zero. In the four areas where shortjaw ciscoes were found, abundance declined significantly by 99% from the 1920s to the present. To increase populations of this once economically and ecologically important species in Lake Superior, an interagency rehabilitation effort is needed. Population monitoring is recommended to assess population trends and to evaluate success of rehabilitation efforts.

  5. Evaluating sampling strategies for larval cisco (Coregonus artedi)

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    Myers, J.T.; Stockwell, J.D.; Yule, D.L.; Black, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    To improve our ability to assess larval cisco (Coregonus artedi) populations in Lake Superior, we conducted a study to compare several sampling strategies. First, we compared density estimates of larval cisco concurrently captured in surface waters with a 2 x 1-m paired neuston net and a 0.5-m (diameter) conical net. Density estimates obtained from the two gear types were not significantly different, suggesting that the conical net is a reasonable alternative to the more cumbersome and costly neuston net. Next, we assessed the effect of tow pattern (sinusoidal versus straight tows) to examine if propeller wash affected larval density. We found no effect of propeller wash on the catchability of larval cisco. Given the availability of global positioning systems, we recommend sampling larval cisco using straight tows to simplify protocols and facilitate straightforward measurements of volume filtered. Finally, we investigated potential trends in larval cisco density estimates by sampling four time periods during the light period of a day at individual sites. Our results indicate no significant trends in larval density estimates during the day. We conclude estimates of larval cisco density across space are not confounded by time at a daily timescale. Well-designed, cost effective surveys of larval cisco abundance will help to further our understanding of this important Great Lakes forage species.

  6. [Polymorphism and structure of the population of Proteocephalus longicollis Zeder, 1800 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae) in the vendace Coregonus albula L].

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    Anikieva, L V; Kharin, V N; Spektor, E N

    2004-01-01

    Polymorphism and phenotypic diversity of a hostal ecoform of Proteocephalus longicollis from its typical host, the vendace, Coregonus albula L., were studied. A complex phenotypic structure of the parasite population and presence of morphologically different groupings were revealed. We distinguished four groupings based on the external characters and three groupings based on the feed and reproduction features; among latter groupings one has very specific variations of features. We conclude that P. longicollis has high intraspecific and intrapopulation heterogeneity, and the host plays a stabilising role in the parasite species formation.

  7. Diversity in shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) in North America

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    Todd, T.N.; Steinhilber, M.

    2002-01-01

    Shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) exhibit morphological variability across their geographic range in North America and could comprise more than one distinct morph or taxon. To investigate this, principal components analysis was applied to a data set that consisted of four variables from nine localities. All data were obtained from digital images of the specimens and the excised first gill arch. Confidence ellipses (95%) about the means of bivariate distributions of the principal components revealed that some populations were distinct from the others, but a continuity of overlap clouded understanding of pattern among the variation. Most populations had more and longer gillrakers than shortjaw cisco from George Lake (Manitoba) and Basswood Lake (Ontario) that had fewer and shorter gillrakers. This analysis supports the existence of a short- and few-rakered morph and a long- and many-rakered morph. However, most populations of shortjaw cisco from the Great Lakes across Canada to the Arctic share a similar morphology and likely represent a single, widespread species.

  8. Biology and status of the shortnose cisco Coregonus reighardi Koelz in the Laurentian Great Lakes

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    Webb, Shane A.; Todd, Thomas N.

    1995-01-01

    The shortnose cisco, Coregonus reighardi, a member of the endemic species assemblage of Coregoninae in the Laurentian Great Lakes, was commercially important until overfishing and competition pressures from induced planktivores extirpated the species in Lakes Michigan and Ontario. Spawning shortnose ciscoes have been collected from Lake Huron and Georgian Bay of Lake Huron since 1956, however, no individuals have been collected from these habitats since 1985. Shortnose ciscoes were not collected during surveys of the cisco fishery of Georgian Bay during the summer of 1992 and spring of 1993. The lack of captures in the last eight years coupled with captures of only lone individuals in the last 16 years suggests the species may be extinct in all of the Laurentian system. The life history traits examined for Lake Huron shortnose ciscoes were similar to the conditions recorded for Lake Michigan and Ontario shortnose ciscoes, although Lake Huron fish were smaller.

  9. Temperature tolerance of young-of-the-year cisco, Coregonus artedii

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    Edsall, Thomas A.; Colby, Peter J.

    1970-01-01

    Young-of-the-year ciscoes (Coregonus artedii) acclimated to 2, 5, 10, 20 and 25 C and tested for tolerance to high and low temperatures provide the first detailed description of the thermal tolerance of coregonids in North America. The upper ultimate lethal temperature of the young ciscoes was 26 C (6 C higher than the maximum sustained temperature tolerated by adult ciscoes in nature) and the ultimate lower lethal temperature approached 0 C (near that commonly tolerated in nature by adult ciscoes). The temperature of 26 C is slightly higher than the lowest ultimate upper lethal temperature recorded for North American freshwater fishes; however, published information on the depth distributions of fishes in the Great Lakes suggests that some of the other coregonids may be less tolerant of high temperatures than the cisco.

  10. Impact of Feed Rations on Growth, Selected Body Parameters and Maturation of Vendace, Coregonus Albula L., Reared in RAS

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    Szczepkowska Bożena

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vendace, Coregonus albula L., was reared to commercial size in a recirculating system. Three different feed rations were applied during the ten-month-long experiment. The feed rations impacted fish growth rates, and fish in the different groups achieved body weights of 26.6 g to 57.5 g. The final survival in all groups was similar from 44.3% among the fish fed the smallest feed ration to 53.2% in the group receiving the largest feed ration. No differences were noted in the share of viscera, peritoneal fat, or in the hepatosomatic indexes, but there were differences in the gonadosomatic indexes. After thermal stimulation, only males achieved sexual maturity. The number of mature fish was similar in all groups and ranged from 17.8 to 21.3% of all fish. The results of the present study indicated that vendace can achieve commercial size in an intensive rearing period of ten months in RAS.

  11. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from the Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis)

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    Ramey, A.; Graziano, S.L.; Nielsen, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for the Arctic cisco, Coregonus autumnalis. Loci were evaluated in 21 samples from the Colville River subsistence fishery. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 18. Observed heterozygosity of loci varied from 0.10 to 1.00, and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.09 to 0.92. All eight microsatellite markers were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The loci presented here will be useful in describing population structure and exploring populations of origin for Arctic cisco. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES: Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from the Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, A; Graziano, S L; Nielsen, J L

    2008-03-01

    Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for the Arctic cisco, Coregonus autumnalis. Loci were evaluated in 21 samples from the Colville River subsistence fishery. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 18. Observed heterozygosity of loci varied from 0.10 to 1.00, and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.09 to 0.92. All eight microsatellite markers were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The loci presented here will be useful in describing population structure and exploring populations of origin for Arctic cisco.

  13. Update COSEWIC status report on the shortjaw cisco, Coregonus zenithicus, in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Thomas N.

    2003-01-01

    Extirpated in most of the Great Lakes, the shortjaw cisco, Coregonus zenithicus, is currently found in Lakes Superior and Nipigon in addition to at least 22 Canadian lakes. The species exhibits morphological and genetic variability throughout its range and may consist of more than one distinct taxon. However, a common morph is widely distributed from the Great Lakes to the Northwest Territories, consistent with a hypothesis of preglacial origin for the species. Shortjaw ciscoes have declined because of excessive exploitation by food fisheries, habitat degradation, and predation and competition with introduced and exotic species such as alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus, and rainbow smelt, Osmerus mordax. The status of the species in most Canadian lakes is unknown, but continuing declines in those lakes that have been monitored suggest that the shortjaw cisco should be considered as threatened throughout its range.

  14. Males exceed females in PCB concentrations of cisco (Coregonus artedi) from Lake Superior.

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    Madenjian, Charles P; Yule, Daniel L; Chernyak, Sergei M; Begnoche, Linda J; Berglund, Eric K; Isaac, Edmund J

    2014-09-15

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 25 male and 25 female age-7 ciscoes (Coregonus artedi) captured from a spawning aggregation in Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, during November 2010. We also determined PCB concentrations in the ovaries and somatic tissue of five additional female ciscoes (ages 5-22). All 55 of these ciscoes were in ripe or nearly ripe condition. Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect toward a difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes, as females grew substantially faster than males. Results showed that the PCB concentration of males (mean = 141 ng/g) was 43% greater than that of females (mean = 98 ng/g), and this difference was highly significant (Pcisco eggs was well below the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and Ontario Ministry of Environment guidelines of 2000 and 844 ng/g, respectively, and this finding may have implications for the cisco roe fishery currently operating in Lake Superior.

  15. Ontogenetic shifts in morphology and resource use of cisco Coregonus artedi.

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    Muir, A M; Vecsei, P; Pratt, T C; Krueger, C C; Power, M; Reist, J D

    2013-02-01

    Two previously described lacustrine cisco Coregonus spp. morphs [i.e. a small (cisco Coregonus artedi. Geometric body shape did not differ between the two size classes nor could they be differentiated by 24 size-corrected linear measurements, indicating that the two groups had similar phenotypes. Strong, positive correlations between all linear characters and geometric centroid size (a composite variable of fish body length, mass and age) suggested that body morphology changed with age as fish grew. Total gillraker number (N(GR)) increased with L(F) according to: N(GR) = 36.3 + 0.034L(F). Differences in gillraker number and phenotype with age and size were explained by shifts in habitat and trophic resource use. Relative abundance within 0-30, 30-60, 60-90 and >90 m depth strata differed between size classes suggesting that morphology changed when fish shifted their habitat as they grew older. Large C. artedi had lower δ(13)C and slightly higher δ(15)N, indicating greater reliance on pelagic prey resources (i.e. more or larger zooplankton, such as Mysis spp.), compared to small C. artedi, which relied slightly more on benthic prey. Gillraker shape and number have always been used as key diagnostic characters in coregonine taxonomy; based on the findings presented here, ontogenetic shifts should be accounted for in resulting classifications.

  16. Analysis of three cisco forms (Coregonus, Salmonidae) from Lake Saganaga and adjacent lakes near the Minnesota/Ontario border

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etnier, DA; Skelton, CE

    2003-01-01

    Based on examination of 655 ciscoes from Lake Saganaga, a Minnesota/Ontario border lake, three forms, about 90% separable on gill raker counts, are present. Form L, with the lowest gill raker counts (26-40, mean = 31.9, n = 96) is tentatively identified as Coregonus zenithicus. Form M, with intermed

  17. Males exceed females in PCB concentrations of cisco (Coregonus artedi) from Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Yule, Daniel L.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Berglund, Eric K.; Isaac, Edmund J.

    2014-01-01

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 25 male and 25 female age-7 ciscoes (Coregonus artedi) captured from a spawning aggregation in Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, during November 2010. We also determined PCB concentrations in the ovaries and somatic tissue of five additional female ciscoes (ages 5–22). All 55 of these ciscoes were in ripe or nearly ripe condition. Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect toward a difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes, as females grew substantially faster than males. Results showed that the PCB concentration of males (mean = 141 ng/g) was 43% greater than that of females (mean = 98 ng/g), and this difference was highly significant (P g, respectively. Based on these PCB determinations for the ovaries and somatic tissue, we concluded that release of eggs by females at previous spawnings was not a contributing factor to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could explain males being higher than females in PCB concentration by only 3–7%. We concluded that the higher PCB concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure, originating from greater activity and a higher resting metabolic rate. Mean PCB concentration in the cisco eggs was well below the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and Ontario Ministry of Environment guidelines of 2000 and 844 ng/g, respectively, and this finding may have implications for the cisco roe fishery currently operating in Lake Superior.

  18. Seasonal changes in partial, reverse diel vertical migrations of cisco Coregonus artedi.

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    Ahrenstorff, T D; Hrabik, T R

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) document changes in partial, reverse diel vertical migrations (DVM) patterns of cisco Coregonus artedi in Ten Mile Lake, MN, U.S.A., throughout the year and (2) evaluate the mechanisms that may cause shifts in migration behaviour. Results indicated that C. artedi vertical distributions remained deep in the water column during the day and night of the spring and autumn, which was related to a low risk, low reward strategy. During summer, a partial migration occurred where a portion of the population remained deeper according to the low risk, low reward strategy, while the other portion performed a more extensive high risk, high reward reverse DVM. In winter, C. artedi did not migrate because there were only low risk, low reward conditions present at all depths. The extensive partial, reverse DVM during summer probably increased the growth potential of C. artedi, helping individuals survive in a lake with low zooplankton prey resources.

  19. Identification of a haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex in the Alaskan Least Cisco (Coregonus sardinella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, S M; Boger, J K; Michael, V; Duffy, L K

    1992-01-01

    The hemoglobin and a hemoglobin binding protein have been characterized in the Arctic fish (Coregonus sardinella). The evolutionary significance of the hemoglobin and plasma protein differences between fish and mammals is still unresolved. Blood samples from the Alaskan Least Cisco were separated into plasma and hemoglobin fractions and the proteins in these fractions were analyzed both by alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis, by isolelectric focusing, and by capillary electrophoresis. Staining the plasma proteins gels with o-dianisidine revealed hemoglobin containing protein complexes. A hemoglobin-containing band was observed in hemolyzed plasma which did not migrate with free hemoglobin, and is believed to be hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex. Size exclusion chromatography further characterized the hemoglobin as disassociating freely into dimers, and hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex having a molecular weight greater then 200,000 daltons.

  20. Foraging and predation risk for larval cisco (Coregonus artedi) in Lake Superior: a modelling synthesis of empirical survey data

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    Myers, Jared T.; Yule, Daniel L.; Jones, Michael L.; Quinlan, Henry R.; Berglund, Eric K.

    2014-01-01

    The relative importance of predation and food availability as contributors to larval cisco (Coregonus artedi) mortality in Lake Superior were investigated using a visual foraging model to evaluate potential predation pressure by rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) and a bioenergetic model to evaluate potential starvation risk. The models were informed by observations of rainbow smelt, larval cisco, and zooplankton abundance at three Lake Superior locations during the period of spring larval cisco emergence and surface-oriented foraging. Predation risk was highest at Black Bay, ON, where average rainbow smelt densities in the uppermost 10 m of the water column were >1000 ha−1. Turbid conditions at the Twin Ports, WI-MN, affected larval cisco predation risk because rainbow smelt remained suspended in the upper water column during daylight, placing them alongside larval cisco during both day and night hours. Predation risk was low at Cornucopia, WI, owing to low smelt densities (cisco survival at Black Bay and to a lesser extent at Twin Ports, and that starvation may be a major source of mortality at all three locations. The framework we describe has the potential to further our understanding of the relative importance of starvation and predation on larval fish survivorship, provided information on prey resources available to larvae are measured at sufficiently fine spatial scales and the models provide a realistic depiction of the dynamic processes that the larvae experience.

  1. Genetics, recruitment, and migration patterns of Arctic Cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) in the Colville River, Alaska and Mackenzie River, Canada

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    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Ramey, Andy M.; Turner, S.; Mueter, Franz J.; Murphy, S.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis have a complex anadromous life history, many aspects of which remain poorly understood. Some life history traits of Arctic cisco from the Colville River, Alaska, and Mackenzie River basin, Canada, were investigated using molecular genetics, harvest data, and otolith microchemistry. The Mackenzie hypothesis, which suggests that Arctic cisco found in Alaskan waters originate from the Mackenzie River system, was tested using 11 microsatellite loci and a single mitochondrial DNA gene. No genetic differentiation was found among sample collections from the Colville River and the Mackenzie River system using molecular markers (P > 0.19 in all comparisons). Model-based clustering methods also supported genetic admixture between sample collections from the Colville River and Mackenzie River basin. A reanalysis of recruitment patterns to Alaska, which included data from recent warm periods and suspected changes in atmospheric circulation patterns, still finds that recruitment is correlated to wind conditions. Otolith microchemistry (Sr/Ca ratios) confirmed repeated, annual movements of Arctic cisco between low-salinity habitats in winter and marine waters in summer.

  2. Cisco (Coregonus artedii) mortalities in a southern Michigan lake, July 1968

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Peter J.; Brooke, Larry T.

    1969-01-01

    Cisco die-offs are common in the summer in certain lakes of northern Indiana and southern Michigan, along the southern boundary of the national distribution of coregonine fishes. Although numerous cisco die-offs have been reported, few, if any, have been accompanied by environmental information at the time of the die-off. On 31 July and 1 August 1968, we investigated a cisco die-off on Halfmoon Lake, on the border of Washtenaw and Livingston Counties, Michigan.

  3. [Dynamics of parasite communities in an age series of Arctic Cisco Coregonus migratorius (Georgi, 1775)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugarov, Zh N; Pronin, N M

    2013-01-01

    Parasite communities of Arctic cisco from Chivyrkui Bay of Lake Baikal have been analyzed at levels of a host individual (infracommunity), a individual age group of a host-(assemblages of infracommunities), and a host population (component community). Significant positive correlations of parameters of species richness (number of parasite species, Margalef and Menhinick indices) with the age of Arctic cisco were recorded only at the level of parasite inffacommunities. The absence of linear positive correlations between the parameters of species richness and the age of Arctic cisco at the level of assemblages of parasite infracommunities were revealed for the first time for fish of Lake Baikal. The peculiarity of the dynamics of parasite communities of. Arctic cisco is determined by specific features of the host physiology and ecology, primarily by the age dynamics of the feeding spectrum.

  4. Repeat surveys of spawning cisco (Coregonus artedi) in western Lake Superior: timing, distribution and composition of spawning stocks

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    Yule, Daniel L.; Schreiner, Donald R.; Addison, Peter A.; Seider, Michael J.; Evrard, Lori M.; Geving, Steven A.; Quinlan, Henry R.

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic (AC) and midwater trawl (MT) surveys of spawning cisco (Coregonus artedi) in Lake Superior have been combined with commercial yield to estimate exploitation. To time surveys properly, it is important to understand when adults typically arrive at spawning grounds and how numbers change as the spawning season progresses. We conducted repeat autumn surveys during nighttime hours at coastal sites where commercial roe fisheries occur. Spawner densities increased significantly from October to mid-November, but differences measured at sites sampled from mid- to late-November were comparatively small. Spawners occupied the upper 20–30 m of the water column during mid-November before utilizing a wider range of depths by late-November. We compared repeat AC densities to temporal trends of catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) in suspended commercial gillnets and found good agreement within sites. Because different gillnet mesh sizes were used in each roe fishery. CPUE and AC density were poorly correlated among sites. We recommend that future surveys be conducted between mid- and late-November, and that MT gear be used to measure cisco densities in the uppermost 10 m of the water column where AC estimates may be conservative. Given the short temporal window for assessing spawner density, we believe both AC-MT and gillnet surveys will be needed to ensure that harvest of different stocks is kept at a sustainable level.

  5. Can pelagic forage fish and spawning cisco (Coregonus artedi) biomass in the western arm of Lake Superior be assessed with a single summer survey?

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    Yule, D.L.; Stockwell, J.D.; Schreiner, D.R.; Evrard, L.M.; Balge, M.; Hrabik, T.R.

    2009-01-01

    Management efforts to rehabilitate lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Superior have been successful and the recent increase in their numbers has led to interest in measuring biomass of pelagic prey fish species important to these predators. Lake Superior cisco Coregonus artedi currently support roe fisheries and determining the sustainability of these fisheries is an important management issue. We conducted acoustic and midwater trawl surveys of the western arm of Lake Superior during three periods: summer (July-August), October, and November 2006 to determine if a single survey can be timed to estimate biomass of both prey fish and spawning cisco. We evaluated our methods by comparing observed trawl catches of small (cisco increased substantially in November, while small bloater Coregonus hoyi biomass was lower. We compared our summer 2006 estimates of total fish biomass to the results of a summer survey in 1997 and obtained similar results. We conclude that the temporal window for obtaining biomass estimates of pelagic prey species in the western arm of Lake Superior is wide (July through October), but estimating spawning cisco abundance is best done with a November survey.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of lake cisco (Coregonus artedi): evidence supporting extensive secondary contacts between two glacial races.

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    Turgeon, J; Bernatchez, L

    2001-04-01

    The comparative molecular phylogeography of regional fish fauna has revealed the wide distribution of young clades in freshwater fishes of formerly glaciated areas as well as interspecific incongruences in their refugial origins and recolonization routes. In this study, we employed single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and sequence analyses to describe mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphism among 27 populations of the lake cisco (Coregonus artedi) from its entire range of distribution in order to evaluate the hypothesis of dual glacial refuges proposed by Bernatchez & Dodson against the traditional view that this species is solely of Mississippian origin. Results indicate that this taxon is composed of two closely related groups that are widely distributed and intermixed over most of the sampled range. The estimated level of divergence (0.48%), the contrast in the geographical distribution of each group, as well as the general distribution of C. artedi in North America together support the hypothesis that one group dispersed from a Mississippian refuge via the proglacial lakes, while the other is of Atlantic origin and also took advantages of earlier dispersal routes towards eastern Hudson Bay drainages. However, the signal of past range fragmentation revealed by a nested clade analysis was weak, and did not allow to formally exclude the hypothesis of a single Mississippian origin for both lineages. Comparisons with the phylogeographic patterns of other Nearctic freshwater fishes suggest that the salinity tolerance and thermal sensitivity of lake cisco may have been determinant for its extensive postglacial dispersal. The presence or co-occurrence of sympatric or allopatric eco/morphotypes were not found to be necessarily associated with the presence of both haplotype groups.

  7. Long-term increases in young-of-the-year growth of Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis and environmental influences.

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    von Biela, V R; Zimmerman, C E; Moulton, L L

    2011-01-01

    Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis young-of-year (YOY) growth was used as a proxy to examine the long-term response of a high-latitude fish population to changing climate from 1978 to 2004. YOY growth increased over time (r² = 0·29) and was correlated with monthly averages of the Arctic oscillation index, air temperature, east wind speed, sea-ice concentration and river discharge with and without time lags. Overall, the most prevalent correlates to YOY growth were sea-ice concentration lagged 1 year (significant correlations in 7 months; r² = 0·14-0·31) and Mackenzie River discharge lagged 2 years (significant correlations in 8 months; r² = 0·13-0·50). The results suggest that decreased sea-ice concentrations and increased river discharge fuel primary production and that life cycles of prey species linking increased primary production to fish growth are responsible for the time lag. Oceanographic studies also suggest that sea ice concentration and fluvial inputs from the Mackenzie River are key factors influencing productivity in the Beaufort Sea. Future research should assess the possible mechanism relating sea ice concentration and river discharge to productivity at upper trophic levels.

  8. Genetic signs of multiple colonization events in Baltic ciscoes with radiation into sympatric spring- and autumn-spawners confined to early postglacial arrival.

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    Delling, Bo; Palm, Stefan; Palkopoulou, Eleftheria; Prestegaard, Tore

    2014-11-01

    Presence of sympatric populations may reflect local diversification or secondary contact of already distinct forms. The Baltic cisco (Coregonus albula) normally spawns in late autumn, but in a few lakes in Northern Europe sympatric autumn and spring- or winter-spawners have been described. So far, the evolutionary relationships and taxonomic status of these main life history forms have remained largely unclear. With microsatellites and mtDNA sequences, we analyzed extant and extinct spring- and autumn-spawners from a total of 23 Swedish localities, including sympatric populations. Published sequences from Baltic ciscoes in Germany and Finland, and Coregonus sardinella from North America were also included together with novel mtDNA sequences from Siberian C. sardinella. A clear genetic structure within Sweden was found that included two population assemblages markedly differentiated at microsatellites and apparently fixed for mtDNA haplotypes from two distinct clades. All sympatric Swedish populations belonged to the same assemblage, suggesting parallel evolution of spring-spawning rather than secondary contact. The pattern observed further suggests that postglacial immigration to Northern Europe occurred from at least two different refugia. Previous results showing that mtDNA in Baltic cisco is paraphyletic with respect to North American C. sardinella were confirmed. However, the inclusion of Siberian C. sardinella revealed a more complicated pattern, as these novel haplotypes were found within one of the two main C. albula clades and were clearly distinct from those in North American C. sardinella. The evolutionary history of Northern Hemisphere ciscoes thus seems to be more complex than previously recognized.

  9. Genetic stock assessment of spawning arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) populations by flow cytometric determination of DNA content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, S F; Bickham, J W

    1991-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in cellular DNA content was measured in five Coregonus autumnalis spawning populations from the Mackenzie River drainage, Canada, using flow cytometry. The rivers assayed were the Peel, Arctic Red, Mountain, Carcajou, and Liard rivers. DNA content was determined from whole blood preparations of fish from all rivers except the Carcajou, for which kidney tissue was used. DNA content measurements of kidney and blood preparations of the same fish from the Mountain River revealed statistically indistinguishable results. Mosaicism was found in blood preparations from the Peel, Arctic Red, Mountain, and Liard rivers, but was not observed in kidney tissue preparations from the Mountain or Carcajou rivers. The Liard River sample had significantly elevated mean DNA content relative to the other four samples; all other samples were statistically indistinguishable. Significant differences in mean DNA content among spawning stocks of a single species reinforces the need for adequate sample sizes of both individuals and populations when reporting "C" values for a particular species.

  10. Study of Coregonus Populations in the Zone of Intergradation between the Vendace and Least Cisco: the Role of the Environment in Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borovikova Elena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers showed that the Least Cisco gradually spread from Siberia to Europe until the last glaciation. This was accompanied by gradual replacement of "typically Siberian" gene variants with "typically European" ones. Morphological traits also changed as the species expanded, the changes in the body proportions being apparently adaptive. They are likely to reflect the transition of the cisco from the semi-anadromous life history type to the lacustrine type, which is more characteristic of the European form. Thus, the speciation of the vendace is clearly adaptive, at least with respect to some traits. It should be noted, however, that the results of this study raise doubt as to whether the vendace has entirely diverged from the Least Cisco, and the speciation has completed.

  11. Arctic cisco stomach content data, Prudhoe Bay, August 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set documents the stomach contents of age-0 Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) captured in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska in August 2009. The analysis of this data...

  12. Arctic cisco stable isotope data, Prudhoe Bay, August 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set documents the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of age-0 Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) captured in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska in August 2009....

  13. Spatial synchrony in cisco recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jared T.; Yule, Daniel L.; Jones, Michael L.; Ahrenstorff, Tyler D.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Ebener, Mark P.; Berglund, Eric K.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the spatial scale of recruitment variability for disparate cisco (Coregonus artedi) populations in the Great Lakes (n = 8) and Minnesota inland lakes (n = 4). We found that the scale of synchrony was approximately 400 km when all available data were utilized; much greater than the 50-km scale suggested for freshwater fish populations in an earlier global analysis. The presence of recruitment synchrony between Great Lakes and inland lake cisco populations supports the hypothesis that synchronicity is driven by climate and not dispersal. We also found synchrony in larval densities among three Lake Superior populations separated by 25–275 km, which further supports the hypothesis that broad-scale climatic factors are the cause of spatial synchrony. Among several candidate climate variables measured during the period of larval cisco emergence, maximum wind speeds exhibited the most similar spatial scale of synchrony to that observed for cisco. Other factors, such as average water temperatures, exhibited synchrony on broader spatial scales, which suggests they could also be contributing to recruitment synchrony. Our results provide evidence that abiotic factors can induce synchronous patterns of recruitment for populations of cisco inhabiting waters across a broad geographic range, and show that broad-scale synchrony of recruitment can occur in freshwater fish populations as well as those from marine systems.

  14. Managing Cisco network security

    CERN Document Server

    Knipp, Eric

    2002-01-01

    An in-depth knowledge of how to configure Cisco IP network security is a MUST for anyone working in today''s internetworked world"There''s no question that attacks on enterprise networks are increasing in frequency and sophistication..."-Mike Fuhrman, Cisco Systems Manager, Security ConsultingManaging Cisco Network Security, Second Edition offers updated and revised information covering many of Cisco''s security products that provide protection from threats, detection of network security incidents, measurement of vulnerability and policy compliance and management of security policy across an extended organization. These are the tools that network administrators have to mount defenses against threats. Chapters also cover the improved functionality and ease of the Cisco Secure Policy Manger software used by thousands of small-to-midsized businesses and a special section on the Cisco Aironet Wireless Security Solutions.Security from a real-world perspectiveKey coverage of the new technologies offered by the Cisc...

  15. Decline of shortjaw cisco in Lake Superior: the role of overfishing and risk of extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte, Charles R.; Hoff, Michael H.; Gorman, Owen T.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Schneeberger, Philip J.; Todd, Thomas N.

    2010-01-01

    Recent reviews have further documented the decline of the shortjaw cisco Coregonus zenithicus in Lake Superior. This fish was the most abundant deepwater cisco species in Lake Superior in the early 1920s but presently makes up less than 1% of all deepwater ciscoes (i.e., including shortjaw cisco, bloater C. hoyi, and kiyi C. kiyi) captured in biological surveys. Directed overfishing of deepwater cisco species during the 1930s and again during the mid-1960s and 1970s has been suggested as the cause of the shortjaw cisco's demise. In this paper, we re-examined the overfishing hypothesis by using historical and recent survey data to estimate the proportion of the historical commercial fishery landings that comprised shortjaw ciscoes. We developed time series of estimated harvest and relative abundance for all statistical districts in Michigan waters of Lake Superior during 1929–1996, for which aggregate catch and effort data were available but not previously examined. The spatial distribution of the fishery and the relationships of catch to fishing effort were examined for evidence of overfishing. Our analysis suggested that directed overfishing was probably not the cause of shortjaw cisco demise, as this species appeared to be declining in all statistical districts regardless of the intensity of the fishery. A count-based population viability analysis indicated that quasi-extinction of the shortjaw cisco is highly probable in the near future. We propose an alternative hypothesis based on the decline of Lake Superior's keystone predator, the lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, which resulted in an expansion of the population of its principal prey, the cisco C. artedi, due to release from predation pressure. Competitive or predation interactions between the cisco and shortjaw cisco may be more likely explanations for the demise of the latter species.

  16. Successional change in the Lake Superior fish community: population trends in ciscoes, rainbow smelt, and lake trout, 1958-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Owen T.

    2012-01-01

    The Lake Superior fish community underwent massive changes in the second half of the 20th century. Those changes are largely reflected in changes in abundance of the adults of principal prey species, the ciscoes (Coregonus spp.), the invasive rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), and the principal predator, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). To better understand changes in species abundances, a comprehensive series of gillnet and bottom trawl data collected from 1958 to 2008 were examined. In the late 1950s/early 1960s, smelt abundance was at its maximum, wild lake trout was at its minimum, and an abundance of hatchery lake trout was increasing rapidly. The bloater (Coregonus hoyi) was the prevalent cisco in the lake; abundance was more than 300% greater than the next most abundant cisco, shortjaw cisco (C. zenithicus), followed by kiyi (C. kiyi) and lake cisco (C. artedi). By the mid-1960s, abundance of hatchery lake trout was nearing maximum, smelt abundance was beginning to decline, and abundances of all ciscoes declined, but especially that of shortjaw cisco and kiyi. By the late 1970s, recovery of wild lake trout stocks was well underway and abundances of hatchery lake trout and smelt were declining and the ciscoes were reaching their nadir. During 1980–1990, the fish community underwent a dramatic shift in organization and structure. The rapid increase in abundance of wild lake trout, concurrent with a rapid decline in hatchery lake trout, signaled the impending recovery. Rainbow smelt abundance dropped precipitously and within four years, lake cisco and bloater populations rebounded on the heels of a series of strong recruitment events. Kiyi populations showed signs of recovery by 1989, and shortjaw by 2000, though well below historic maximum abundances. High abundance of adult smelt prior to 1980 appears to be the only factor linked to recruitment failure in the ciscoes. Life history traits of the cisco species were examined to better understand their different

  17. Cisco Networking Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    McMillan, Troy

    2011-01-01

    An engaging approach for anyone beginning a career in networking As the world leader of networking products and services, Cisco products are constantly growing in demand. Yet, few books are aimed at those who are beginning a career in IT--until now. Cisco Networking Essentials provides a solid foundation on the Cisco networking products and services with thorough coverage of fundamental networking concepts. Author Troy McMillan applies his years of classroom instruction to effectively present high-level topics in easy-to-understand terms for beginners. With this indispensable full-color resour

  18. Mark retention of calcein in Cisco and Bloater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Mackey, Gregg; Nash, Kendra; Chiavelli, Richard; Johnson, James H.; Kehler, Thomas; Ringler, Neil H.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012, a multi-agency initiative to restore these native forage species has been under way. Evaluating the restoration success of Cisco Coregonus artedi and Bloater C. hoyi in Lake Ontario waters requires methods to identify stocked fish. However, juvenile Cisco and Bloater are fragile; thus, mass marking techniques that reduce the handling of individual fish are required and have not previously been evaluated. In 2014–2015 we evaluated the usefulness of calcein (SE-MARK) as a marker on bony structures, including the otolith. Juvenile Bloater and Cisco (14, 100, 128 d old) were immersed in a calcein bath at 5,000 mg/L of water for 4 min to apply the chemical marker. Observations of the marking retention were evaluated 8 d following the treatment. All fish immersed in calcein had strong brilliant marks (rating scale 3) on all bony structures including scales, fin rays, jaw bones, and vertebrate. The otolith was the only hard structure that did not show a brilliant marking due to the opaque nature of the structure. Our results suggest that calcein produces a strong discernable mark on hard bony structures of Cisco and Bloater; however, long-term retention needs further study.

  19. Spawning habitat unsuitability: an impediment to cisco rehabilitation in Lake Michigan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Rutherford, Edward S.; Blouin, Marc A.; Sederberg, Bryan J.; Elliott, Jeff R.

    2011-01-01

    The cisco Coregonus artedi was one of the most important native prey fishes in Lake Michigan and in the other four Laurentian Great Lakes. Most of the cisco spawning in Lake Michigan was believed to have occurred in Green Bay. The cisco population in Lake Michigan collapsed during the 1950s, and the collapse was attributed in part to habitat degradation within Green Bay. Winter water quality surveys of lower Green Bay during the 1950s and 1960s indicated that the bottom dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was less than 2 mg/L throughout much of the lower bay, and most cisco eggs would not successfully hatch at such low DO concentrations. To determine present-day spawning habitat suitability in lower Green Bay, we compared cisco egg survival in lower Green Bay with survival at a reference site (St. Marys River, Michigan–Ontario) during 2009. We also conducted winter water quality surveys in lower Green Bay and the St. Marys River during 2009 and 2010. Cisco egg survival in lower Green Bay averaged 65.3%, which was remarkably similar to and not significantly different from the mean at the St. Marys River site (64.0%). Moreover, the lowest bottom DO concentrations recorded during the winter surveys were 11.2 mg/L in lower Green Bay and 12.7 mg/L in the St. Marys River. These relatively high DO concentrations would not be expected to have any negative effect on cisco egg survival. We conclude that winter water quality conditions in lower Green Bay were suitable for successful hatching of cisco eggs and that water quality during the egg incubation period did not represent an impediment to cisco rehabilitation in Lake Michigan. Our approach to determining spawning habitat suitability for coregonids would be applicable to other aquatic systems.

  20. Reassessment of the predatory effects of rainbow smelt on ciscoes in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jared T.; Jones, Michael L.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Yule, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence from small lakes suggests that predation on larval ciscoes Coregonus artedi by nonnative rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax can lead to cisco suppression or extirpation. However, evidence from larger lakes has led to equivocal conclusions. In this study, we examine the potential predation effects of rainbow smelt in two adjacent but contrasting embayments in Lake Superior (Thunder and Black bays, Ontario). During May 2006, we sampled the ichthyoplankton, pelagic fish communities, and diet composition of rainbow smelt in both bays. Using acoustics and midwater trawling, we estimated rainbow smelt densities to be 476 ± 34/ha (mean ± SE) in Thunder Bay and 3,435 ± 460/ha in Black Bay. We used a bioenergetics model to estimate the proportion of cisco larvae consumed by rainbow smelt. Our results suggest that predation by rainbow smelt accounts for 15–52% and 37–100% of the mortality of larval ciscoes in Thunder and Black bays, respectively, depending on the predator feeding rate and the scale of predator–prey overlap. We also examined the sensitivity of past conclusions (based on 1974 field collections) to assumptions of temporal overlap between rainbow smelt and larval ciscoes and estimates of rainbow smelt abundance derived from bottom trawl samples. After adjusting these parameters to reflect current understanding, we found that the previous predation estimates may have been conservative. We conclude that rainbow smelt may have been a more important contributor to the demise and slow recovery of ciscoes in Lake Superior than previously thought.

  1. Cisco ASM Router

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    One of the two "ASM/2-32EM" boxes installed in 1988, from "Cisco Systems Inc." - then an unknown 20-employee company in Menlo Park, California (USA). This is one of the first two Cisco boxes to appear in Switzerland, and possibly Europe. The 220v power supply was a special modification made for use at CERN. They supported IP address filtering, which seemed just what CERN needed to help protect the new Cray XMP-48 super computer from network hackers. The two ASM boxes were both routers and terminal servers. They protected a secure private Ethernet segment used by the Cray project, as well as providing secure terminal connections to that segment, including CERN's first dialback terminal service, which allowed Cray and CERN system analysts to work on the machine from home, using another Cisco feature called TACACS. (Kindly offered by B. Segal who discovered this company while at a Usenix Conference in Phoenix, Arizona in June 1987.)

  2. Implementing Cisco UCS solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Farhan

    2013-01-01

    A tutorial-based approach which will help you understand the practical methodologies and deploying of Cisco UCS components.If you are a professional such as a system, network, or storage administrator who is responsible for Cisco UCS deployments, this is the perfect book for you. You should have some basic knowledge of the server's architecture, network, and storage technologies. Familiarity with virtualization technologies is also recommended (though not necessary) as the majority of real-world UCS deployments run virtualized loads. Knowledge of Nexus OS is not necessary as the majority of th

  3. The spatial scale for cisco recruitment dynamics in Lake Superior during 1978-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Benjamin J.; Hansen, Michael J.; Gorman, Owen T.

    2012-01-01

    The cisco Coregonus artedi was once the most abundant fish species in the Great Lakes, but currently cisco populations are greatly reduced and management agencies are attempting to restore the species throughout the basin. To increase understanding of the spatial scale at which density-independent and density-dependent factors influence cisco recruitment dynamics in the Great Lakes, we used a Ricker stock–recruitment model to identify and quantify the appropriate spatial scale for modeling age-1 cisco recruitment dynamics in Lake Superior. We found that the recruitment variation of ciscoes in Lake Superior was best described by a five-parameter regional model with separate stock–recruitment relationships for the western, southern, eastern, and northern regions. The spatial scale for modeling was about 260 km (range = 230–290 km). We also found that the density-independent recruitment rate and the rate of compensatory density dependence varied among regions at different rates. The density-independent recruitment rate was constant among regions (3.6 age-1 recruits/spawner), whereas the rate of compensatory density dependence varied 16-fold among regions (range = −0.2 to −2.9/spawner). Finally, we found that peak recruitment and the spawning stock size that produced peak recruitment varied among regions. Both peak recruitment (0.5–7.1 age-1 recruits/ha) and the spawning stock size that produced peak recruitment (0.3–5.3 spawners/ha) varied 16-fold among regions. Our findings support the hypothesis that the factors driving cisco recruitment operate within four different regions of Lake Superior, suggest that large-scale abiotic factors are more important than small-scale biotic factors in influencing cisco recruitment, and suggest that fishery managers throughout Lake Superior and the entire Great Lakes basin should address cisco restoration and management efforts on a regional scale in each lake.

  4. Food resource effects on diel movements and body size of cisco in north-temperate lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrenstorff, Tyler D; Hrabik, Thomas R; Jacobson, Peter C; Pereira, Donald L

    2013-12-01

    The movement patterns and body size of fishes are influenced by a host of physical and biological conditions, including temperature and oxygen, prey densities and foraging potential, growth optimization, and predation risk. Our objectives were to (1) investigate variability in vertical movement patterns of cisco (Coregonus artedi) in a variety of inland lakes using hydroacoustics, (2) explore the causal mechanisms influencing movements through the use of temperature/oxygen, foraging, growth, and predation risk models, and (3) examine factors that may contribute to variations in cisco body size by considering all available information. Our results show that cisco vertical movements vary substantially, with different populations performing normal diel vertical migrations (DVM), no DVM, and reverse DVM in lakes throughout Minnesota and northern Wisconsin, USA. Cisco populations with the smallest body size were found in lakes with lower zooplankton densities. These smaller fish showed movements to areas of highest foraging or growth potential during the day and night, despite moving out of preferred temperature and oxygen conditions and into areas of highest predation risk. In lakes with higher zooplankton densities, cisco grew larger and had movements more consistent with behavioral thermoregulation and predator avoidance, while remaining in areas with less than maximum foraging and growth potential. Furthermore, the composition of potential prey items present in each lake was also important. Cisco that performed reverse DVM consumed mostly copepods and cladocerans, while cisco that exhibited normal DVM or no migration consumed proportionally more macro-zooplankton species. Overall, our results show previously undocumented variation in migration patterns of a fish species, the mechanisms underlying those movements, and the potential impact on their growth potential.

  5. 2008 Spawning Cisco Investigations in the Canadian Waters of Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Daniel; Addison, Peter A.; Evrard, Lori M.; Cullis, Ken I.; Cholwek, Gary A.

    2009-01-01

    The Great Lakes Science Center of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) is working cooperatively with the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR) on a threeyear study to develop standard procedures for acoustic and midwater trawl (AC-MT) assessments of spawning cisco Coregonus artedi that the OMNR can carry forward as a management activity. In year two (2008), we conducted an AC-MT survey of the northern shore from Nipigon Bay to Thunder Bay. Spawning-cisco (> 250 mm total length) densities were lowest near Nipigon Bay (cisco in Thunder Bay during the 2008 fishery at 4% for ages 1-5, 8.7% for ages 6-12, and 4.4% for ages ≥ 13. Lake Superior fishery managers recently recommended that annual exploitation of adult female lake cisco be kept below 10-15%. Recruitment of cisco since 2003 has been low and there is a strong probability the Thunder Bay stock will decline into the future. Using a simple population dynamics approach we estimated that if the current total allowable catch (TAC) quota is held constant, exploitation fractions could exceed 10% by 2010 and 15% by 2011. Our 2008 collections suggested the survey of Black Bay was likely conducted before all spawners had returned there to spawn. Our data also suggested that cisco collected in Black Bay and east of this site in mid-November may be from the same stock. During November 2009 we will attempt to get better definition of the area occupied by cisco around Black Bay and also determine when surveys should be conducted at this location.

  6. Morphometric variation among spawning cisco aggregations in the Laurentian Great Lakes: are historic forms still present?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Daniel L.; Moore, Seth A.; Ebener, Mark P.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Pratt, Thomas C.; Salawater, Lorrie L.; Connerton, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Cisco (Coregonus artedi Leseur, formerly lake herring Leucichthys artedi Leseur) populations in each of the Laurentian Great Lakes collapsed between the late 1920s and early 1960s following a multitude of stressors, and never recovered in Lakes Michigan, Erie and Ontario. Prior to their collapse, Koelz (1929) studied Leucichthys spp. in the Great Lakes basin and provided a description of their diversity. Three cisco morphotypes were described; a ‘slim terete’morphotype (L. artedi artedi), a ‘deep compressed’ morphotype (L. artedi albus), and a deep-bodied form resembling tullibee in western Canadian lakes (L. artedi manitoulinus). Based on body measurements of 159 individuals (Koelz 1929), we used discriminant function analysis (DFA) to discriminate historic morphotypes. Shapes of historic morphotypes were found to vary significantly (Pillai’s trace = 1.16, P cisco. Important discriminating measurements included body depth, eye diameter, and dorsal fin base and height. Between October-November of 2007-2011, we sampled cisco from 16 Great Lakes sites collecting digital photographs of over 1, 700 individuals. We applied the DFA model to their body measurements and classified each individual to a morphotype. Contemporary cisco from Lakes Superior, Ontario and Michigan were predominantly classified as artedi, while the most common classifications from northern Lake Huron were albus and manitoulinus. Finding historic morphotypes is encouraging because it suggests that the morphological variation present prior to their collapse still exists. We conclude that contemporary cisco having shapes matching the missing historic morphotypes in the lower lakes warrant special consideration as potential donor populations in reestablishment efforts.

  7. Spawning Cisco investigations in Canada waters of Lake Superior during 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Daniel L.; Evrard, Lori M.; Cholwek, Gary A.; Addison, Peter A.; Cullis, Ken I.

    2008-01-01

    Cisco Coregonus artedi form pre-spawning aggregations in Lake Superior during November with the bulk of spawning occurring during late November through early December (Dryer and Beil 1964). Eggs are broadcast into open water (Smith 1956) with fertilized eggs settling to the lakebed (Dryer and Beil 1964). Peak hatching occurs the following May (United States Geological Survey – Great Lakes Science Center, GLSC, unpublished data). Interannual variability in year class strength is high, but tends to be synchronous across different regions of Lake Superior (Bronte et al. 2003). November 2005 sampling of Thunder Bay showed 14 year-classes were present with the oldest fish being from the 1984 year-class (Yule et al. 2008). The ciscoes sampled were predominantly from five year classes that hatched during 1988, 1989, 1990, 1998, and 2003. These same strong year-classes were found in the western arm of Lake Superior during November 2006 (GLSC, unpublished data). Growth is rapid in the first few years of life with minimal growth after age-8 (Yule et al. 2008). Ciscoes exceeding 250 mm total length (TL) are typically sexually mature (Yule et al. 2006b, 2008). Thunder Bay ciscoes have high annual survival with rates for females and males averaging 0.80 and 0.75, respectively; females have higher rates of fishing-induced mortality compared to males but lower rates of natural mortality (Yule et al. 2008). Some Lake Superior stocks are currently commercially fished with the bulk of harvest occurring during November when fishers target females for their roe. The bulk of fish are harvested from Thunder Bay using suspended gillnets with mesh sizes ranging from 79-89 mm stretch measure. Ciscoes younger then age-5 make up a very small proportion (<0.1%) of the harvest (Yule, et al. 2008).

  8. IT Kolledž on esimene CISCO akadeemia Eestis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    2001.a. nov.-st sai IT Kolledž esimeseks Cisco Võrguakadeemiaks Eestis IT Kolledži ja Cisco vahel sõlmitud lepingu alusel. Cisco akadeemiad pakuvad praktilise suunitlusega rahvusvaheliselt tunnustatud arvutivõrkude-alast baaskoolitust

  9. CCNA Cisco Certified Network Associate Study Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Learn from the Best - Cisco Networking Authority Todd LammleWritten by Cisco networking authority Todd Lammle, this comprehensive guide has been completely updated to reflect the latest CCNA 640-802 exam. Todd's straightforward style provides lively examples, hands on and written labs, easy-to-understand analogies, and real-world scenarios that will not only help you prepare for the exam, but also give you a solid foundation as a Cisco networking professional.This Study Guide teaches you how toDescribe how a network worksConfigure, verify and troubleshoot a switch with VLANs and interswitch co

  10. Reproduction, blood and plasma parameters and gill histology of vendace (Coregonus albula L.) in long-term exposure to acidity and aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, Pekka J; Keinänen, Marja; Peuranen, Seppo; Tigerstedt, Christina

    2003-03-01

    Vendace were exposed to pHs 4.75 and 5.25 with or without added aluminum (200 microg=7.4 micromol AlL(-1)) from late endogenous vitellogenesis in July through the spawning period. At the normal time of spawning, when 48% of the control females had already released their eggs, 50% of females at pH 4.75+Al had completely unovulated oocytes. The final proportions of completely ovulated females were 14%, 36%, 25%, 61%, and 81% at pH 4.75+Al, pH 4.75, pH 5.25+Al, pH 5.25, and in the control group, respectively. Delayed testes regression was seen in males at pH 4.75+Al. A clear decrease in plasma Na(+) and Cl(-) and an increase in blood glucose concentration was detected only near spawning time, from October to November, coincident with Al accumulation inside the gill tissue. It is concluded that seasonal changes, probably related to reproductive physiology or to the decrease in water temperature, are associated with the increase in Al toxicity in vendace. PMID:12651182

  11. A Customer Relationship Management System to Target Customers at Cisco

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Bhaskar

    2004-01-01

    This case describes the implementation of an Internet empowered Customer Relationship Management (CRM) at Cisco Systems Inc. After describing the organizational background of Cisco, the case takes the student into the issues that the executives faced after the market crash in 2001. John Chambers, Cisco CEO, and his team decided to strengthen Cisco’s relationship with the customers so that the company could emerge stronger when the markets recovered. Questions are raised as to the implementa...

  12. Bilingualism, Biculturalism, and the Cisco Kid Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Gary D.

    2007-01-01

    The Cisco Kid was born over 100 years ago in 1907 from the pen of the genial and bilious author O. Henry (William Sydney Porter, 1862-1910). He is still going strong both in film and television. Before 1913, the year when films became long features, dozens of short films were based on the character. After 1913, feature films either used the actual…

  13. How systematic age underestimation can impede understanding of fish population dynamics: Lessons learned from a Lake Superior cisco stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, D.L.; Stockwell, J.D.; Black, J.A.; Cullis, K.I.; Cholwek, G.A.; Myers, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    Systematic underestimation of fish age can impede understanding of recruitment variability and adaptive strategies (like longevity) and can bias estimates of survivorship. We suspected that previous estimates of annual survival (S; range = 0.20-0.44) for Lake Superior ciscoes Coregonus artedi developed from scale ages were biased low. To test this hypothesis, we estimated the total instantaneous mortality rate of adult ciscoes from the Thunder Bay, Ontario, stock by use of cohort-based catch curves developed from commercial gill-net catches and otolith-aged fish. Mean S based on otolith ages was greater for adult females (0.80) than for adult males (0.75), but these differences were not significant. Applying the results of a study of agreement between scale and otolith ages, we modeled a scale age for each otolith-aged fish to reconstruct catch curves. Using modeled scale ages, estimates of S (0.42 for females, 0.36 for males) were comparable with those reported in past studies. We conducted a November 2005 acoustic and midwater trawl survey to estimate the abundance of ciscoes when the fish were being harvested for roe. Estimated exploitation rates were 0.085 for females and 0.025 for males, and the instantaneous rates of fishing mortality were 0.089 for females and 0.025 for males. The instantaneous rates of natural mortality were 0.131 and 0.265 for females and males, respectively. Using otolith ages, we found that strong year-classes at large during November 2005 were caught in high numbers as age-1 fish in previous annual bottom trawl surveys, whereas weak or absent year-classes were not. For decades, large-scale fisheries on the Great Lakes were allowed to operate because ciscoes were assumed to be short lived and to have regular recruitment. We postulate that the collapse of these fisheries was linked in part to a misunderstanding of cisco biology driven by scale-ageing error. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  14. Mission E-Possible: The Cisco E-Learning Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galagan, Patricia A.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the electronic learning program prescribed by Cisco director John Chambers. To respond to his challenge that the program would have to be exemplary and serve thousands, stakeholders integrated the company's e-learning initiatives. (JOW)

  15. ADHOC MOBILE WIRELESS NETWORK ENHANCEMENT BASED ON CISCO DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. Khedr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adhoc wireless networks become one of the most researchable areas in the studying of routing protocols depending on the Open System Interconnection (OSI Model. This paper use Cisco devices as a reference to enhance the performance of the network. This enhancement will be due to high processing, reliability, average cost, power consumption and accessibility. The aim of this research not only to get the cost down, it also to choose a time to time device to process the data as rapid as it can. Using NAT, Access List and DHCP protocols defined in Cisco (Graphical Unit Interface GUI of the (Command Line Interface CLI, the task can be made.

  16. Guide to Cisco Routers Configuration Becoming a Router Geek

    CERN Document Server

    Alani, Mohammed M

    2012-01-01

    This work provides a guide to the configuration of Cisco routers, from tasks for beginners to advanced operations. A collection of detailed "how-to" instructions are presented, which will be of use to all professionals and students who engage with Cisco routers in the field or in the lab. The guide starts with the simple step-by-step task of connecting the router and performing basic configuration, before building up to complex and sensitive operations such as router IOS upgrade and Site-to-Site VPNs.

  17. Cisco CCNA/CCENT Exam 640-802, 640-822, 640-816 Preparation Kit With Cisco Router Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Dale

    2009-01-01

    Three exams, two certifications, one complete Cisco training solution for networking professionals! .. .. The CCNA exam is an entry-level IT certification from Cisco Systems for professionals installing and maintaining route and switched networks. The current exam material covers networking concepts along with new and updated content on network security fundamentals and the basics of wireless networking. .. .. This book can be used as a study guide for either track you choose to receive your CCNA – the single exam, 640-802 or the combined 640-822 and 640-816, and for the CCENT certification wh

  18. CCNA Experimental Environment Simulation with Cisco Packet Tracer%使用Cisco Packet Tracer模拟CCNA实验环境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金恒; 王煜林

    2010-01-01

    Cisco Packet Tracer是一款由Cisco公司发布的网络辅助学习工具,它能够给思科课程爱好者提供一个设计、配置网络及排除网络故障的网络模拟环境.根据的实验需求,在Cisco Packet Tracer模拟器上设计了两个实用的CCNA实验拓朴,让思科学习者能够更好地学习网络.

  19. Status of the deepwater cisco population of Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1964-01-01

    The species and size composition and the abundance of the cisco (Leucichthys spp.) population of Lake Michigan have undergone drastic changes since the sea lamprey became established in the 1940's. The changes were measured by the catches of gill nets of identical specifications fished at the same seasons, depths, and locations in 1930-32, 1954-55, and 1960-61. The two largest ciscoes (johannae and nigripinnis), exploited heavily in a highly selective fishery from the midnineteenth century to the early 1900's, were only sparsely represented in the catch in the 1930's and were absent from catches of the comparison surveys in 1954-55 and 1960-61. The species of intermediate size (alpenae, artedi, kiyi, reighardi, and zenithicus) constituted about two-thirds of the cisco stocks of the deepwater zone in the 1930's but declined to 23.9 and 6.4 percent in the 1950's and 1960's, respectively. Major causes of change were the increased fishing pressure and sea lamprey predation that accompanied the disappearance of the lake trout. The small, slow-growing cisco (hoyi) - the primary food of lake trout - which was not fished intensively, and was too small to suffer greatly from sea lamprey predation, increased from 31.0 percent of the catch in the 1930's to 76.1 percent in the 1950's and 93.6 percent in the 1960's. Consequences of the extreme imbalance of the cisco population have been a reduction in mean size of all species, extension of the range of the very abundant hoyi (formerly most abundant in moderately shallow areas) to almost all depths and sections of the lake, and possibly introgressive hybridization among the various species. The primary change in the fishery has been a shift from gill nets to more extensive use of trawls which can take the now abundant smaller fish.

  20. [Differential expression of DTSsa4 Tc1-like transposons in closely related populations of Baikal ciscoes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychenko, O S; Sukhanova, L V; Azhikina, T L; Sverdlov, E D

    2009-01-01

    Two representatives of Baikal ciscoes - lake cisco and omul - diverged from a common ancestor as recently as 10-20 thousand years ago. We have found an increasing expression level of DTSsa4 Tc1-like DNA transposons in cisco and omul brains. The mapping of the sequences of these transposons from Salmo salar and Danio rerio genomes has shown that in some cases, these transposons are located in the 5' and 3' regions, as well as in the promoter regions of various genes. Probably, Tc1-like transposons affect the activity of neighboring genes, providing the adaptive divergence of the cisco population.

  1. Based on Cisco SLA technology application of network management research%基于Cisco SLA技术应用的网络管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄惪

    2014-01-01

    随着社会的不断发展,我国的各大企业加强了对网络监控管理的研究.本文主要对基于Cisco SLA技术应用的网络管理进行了研究,并且进行了相应的探讨,对Cisco SLA的设置方式进行了相应的研究,并且提出了Cisco SLA技术的优缺点.

  2. The construction of the Cisco PIX firewall system in the library%构筑图书馆Cisco PIX防火墙系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏青; 石骏骥

    2005-01-01

    介绍了防火墙技术以及Cisco PIX防火墙的一些功能和作用,并针对大学图书馆网络安全问题给出了Cisco PIX防火墙在图书馆网络上的一个具体的应用,就如何对Cisco PIX防火墙进行配置,构建一个安全的防火墙系统作了详细的说明.

  3. The Operating Modes and Implementing of Cisco IPS%Cisco IPS的工作模式及部署

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹淑玲

    2013-01-01

      入侵防御系统(Intrusion Prevention System,IPS)是在入侵检测系统(Intrusion Detection System,IDS)的基础上发展而来的,它不但具有IDS 强大的基于数据包的入侵检测功能,还具有主动、智能的防御功能。目前,IPS已经成为网络安全的一个重要研究方向,相应产品的数量也在逐年增多。首先分析了Cisco IPS产品的四种工作模式及其特点,然后根据企业网的安全需求提出入侵防御解决方案,通过将Cisco IPS安全设备串联在互联网出入口,实时拦截数据流量中各种类型的恶意攻击流量,把攻击拦截在企业网络之外,保护了企业的信息资产。%Intrusion prevention system is a new network security technology based on intrusion detection system. An IPS has the capability to detect and prevent misuse and abuse of, and unauthorized access to, network resources. In networking today, IPS is one of the important researches in network security, and IPS product quantity is increasing year by year. This paper analyzes the four operating modes of cisco IPS products, and then illustrates a typical network IPS deployment, The Cisco IPS is deployed at the network entry point and protect the company resources in real time.

  4. 78 FR 73109 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Benjamin and Cisco, TX; De Beque, CO; Port Lions, AK; Rule and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Benjamin and Cisco, TX; De Beque, CO; Port Lions, AK... at De Beque, Colorado; Channel 237C3 at Benjamin, Texas; Channel 261C3 at Cisco, Texas; Channel 288C2..., Channel 237C3; by removing Cisco, Channel 261C3; by removing Channel 288C2 at Rule; and by...

  5. CCNA Cisco Certified Network Associate Study Guide: Exam 640-801

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd

    2006-01-01

    Here's the book you need to prepare for Cisco's revised CCNA exam, 640-801. This new edition of the best-selling CCNA Study Guide provides in-depth coverage of every CCNA exam objective, practical information on Cisco internetworking solutions and hundreds of challenging review questions.

  6. Cisco Networking Academy: Next-Generation Assessments and Their Implications for K-12 Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meredith

    2014-01-01

    To illuminate the possibilities for next-generation assessments in K-12 schools, this case study profiles the Cisco Networking Academy, which creates comprehensive online training curriculum to teach networking skills. Since 1997, the Cisco Networking Academy has served more than five million high school and college students and now delivers…

  7. 一种 Cisco IOS 内存溢出攻击检测方法%Memory overflow attack detection method for Cisco IOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭飞; 武东英; 刘胜利; 肖达; 王东霞

    2016-01-01

    “棱镜门”事件的曝出,使得 Cisco 路由器的安全性问题越来越受到重视。从提升网络环境安全性的角度出发,提出了一种基于动态污点分析的 Cisco IOS 内存溢出攻击检测方法。首先,通过分析 Cisco IOS 的指令格式,根据指令的特点制定相应的污点传播规则,实现了对 Cisco IOS 的动态污点分析;其次,通过定位 Cisco IOS 中的安全库函数来确定安全性检测点,并通过检查安全库函数参数的污点属性来判定攻击。实验结果证明,该方法可以有效地检测针对 Cisco IOS 的内存溢出攻击,并可以追踪攻击的来源,有利于网络安全性的提升。%The exposure of “prism”,making the Cisco router’s security issues receive more and more attention.From the point of enhancing the cyper security,this paper proposed a memory overflow attack detection method based on dynamic taint analysis for Cisco IOS.Firstly,by analyzing the command format of Cisco IOS,it made different taint propagation rules for ap-propriate instructions and realizes the dynamic tainted analysis of Cisco IOS.Secondly,by positioning the security library func-tions in Cisco IOS to detectmine the safety detection points,it determined attack based on the taint property checking of para-meters of security library functions.Experiment results demonstrate that the method can effectively detect the memory overflow attack to Cisoc IOS,trace the source of attack and is helpful to enhance the security of network.

  8. Genetic structure of whitefish (Coregonus maraena) in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Jens; Florin, Ann-Britt; Mo, Kerstin; Aho, Teija; Ryman, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Stocks of whitefish ( Coregonus maraena) in the northern part of the Baltic Sea have in many areas declined drastically during recent years. Causes for the decline are yet not fully understood, but knowledge on the genetic population structure of the species is pivotal for future conservation measures. In this study we analyse the genetic variation at seven microsatellite loci for whitefish from 18 different sites along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea. We found a strong dependence of isolation by distance ( R = 0.73), and a week but rather fine scaled genetic structure. In addition, there were differences between more northern and southern sites in the population genetic structure, where the degree of differentiation appears to be stronger in the north compared to the south. The results suggest that whitefish is a species suitable for local management with a regional context of the management strategy. In addition, the findings corroborate what is previously known for other coastal fish species in the Baltic Sea, such as perch and pike, suggesting that the majority of gene flow occurs between adjacent areas. Finally, our results highlight the potential for genetic subdivision even when the dependence of isolation by distance is strong.

  9. Preliminary evaluation of a lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) bioenergetics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Schneeberger, Philip J.; O'Connor, Daniel V.; Brandt, Stephen B.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a preliminary evaluation of a lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) bioenergetics model by applying the model to size-at-age data for lake whitefish from northern Lake Michigan. We then compared estimates of gross growth efficiency (GGE) from our bioenergetis model with previously published estimates of GGE for bloater (C. hoyi) in Lake Michigan and for lake whitefish in Quebec. According to our model, the GGE of Lake Michigan lake whitefish decreased from 0.075 to 0.02 as age increased from 2 to 5 years. In contrast, the GGE of lake whitefish in Quebec inland waters decreased from 0.12 to 0.05 for the same ages. When our swimming-speed submodel was replaced with a submodel that had been used for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan and an observed predator energy density for Lake Michigan lake whitefish was employed, our model predicted that the GGE of Lake Michigan lake whitefish decreased from 0.12 to 0.04 as age increased from 2 to 5 years.

  10. CCNA Cisco Certified Network Associate Deluxe Study Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Deluxe Edition of Best-Selling CCNA Study GuideThis comprehensive, enhanced version of the Sybex CCNA Study Guide provides certification candidates with the additional tools they need to prepare for this popular exam. With additional bonus exams and flashcards, as well as the exclusive CCNA Virtual Lab, Platinum Edition, this comprehensive guide has been completely updated to reflect the latest CCNA 640-802 exam. Written by Cisco Authority Todd Lammle, whose straightforward style provides lively examples, hands-on and written labs, easy-to-understand analogies, and real-world scenarios that wi

  11. Physiological disturbance and recovery dynamics of bonefish (Albula vulpes), a tropical marine fish, in response to variable exercise and exposure to air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suski, Cory D; Cooke, Steven J; Danylchuk, Andy J; O'Connor, Constance M; Gravel, Marie-Ange; Redpath, Tara; Hanson, Kyle C; Gingerich, Andrew J; Murchie, Karen J; Danylchuk, Sascha E; Koppelman, Jeffrey B; Goldberg, Tony L

    2007-11-01

    Current understanding of the stress response in fishes has largely come from studies of freshwater-adapted salmonids, with proportionately few comparative studies having examined marine fishes. The current study sought to quantify the magnitude of physiological disturbances, recovery dynamics, and post-exercise behaviour in bonefish (Albula vulpes; a tropical marine fish) exposed to several different exercise and air exposure regimens. Results showed that metabolic disturbances (lactate production, hyperglycemia) increased following exercise and exposure to air, and that the magnitude of metabolic disturbance was proportional to the duration of the stressful event. Fish required between 2-4 h to return to resting values. Exercise and exposure to air also resulted in significant increases in plasma Ca2+, Cl- and Na+, but the magnitude of these ionic changes did not vary with exercise or exposure to air duration and required over 4-h to return to baseline levels. Mortality following exercise was observed only for fish that had been exposed to air for 3 min and not in fish that had been exposed to air for 1 min. Together, results from this study provide a physiological basis for management strategies that can improve the post-release survival of bonefish that have been caught during a catch-and-release angling event.

  12. Cisco Router and Switch Forensics Investigating and Analyzing Malicious Network Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Dale

    2009-01-01

    Cisco IOS (the software that runs the vast majority of Cisco routers and all Cisco network switches) is the dominant routing platform on the Internet and corporate networks. This widespread distribution, as well as its architectural deficiencies, makes it a valuable target for hackers looking to attack a corporate or private network infrastructure. Compromised devices can disrupt stability, introduce malicious modification, and endanger all communication on the network. For security of the network and investigation of attacks, in-depth analysis and diagnostics are critical, but no book current

  13. Cisco PIX防火墙的冗余设计及配置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜志峰

    2001-01-01

    @@ 随着网络技术的飞速发展,网络上的不安全因素越来越多,为了保证网络安全,许多企业采用了Cisco PIX硬件防火墙.如何正确进行方案设计和配置,在实际应用中显得尤为重要.下面介绍Cisco PIX的冗余配置.

  14. 安全卫士——Cisco Secure PIX Firewall 506

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Cisco Secure PIX Firewall 506是具有世界水平的Cisco Secure PIX Firewall系列的一员,它提供所有的防火墙级的防护和对IP安全(IPsec)虚拟专网(VPN)的兼容性,使您可以用最严密的方法来保护您的内部网络,阻止外部世界的侵犯。

  15. Effective method for analysis of Cisco IOS image injection attack%一种有效的Cisco IOS映像注入攻击分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾诚; 刘胜利; 肖达; 陈立根

    2013-01-01

    针对Cisco IOS映像注入攻击提出了一种基于虚拟化的恶意代码分析方法.通过虚拟化技术的研究,设计实现了虚拟化分析平台CDAP(Cisco dynamic analysis platform),为IOS系统提供了运行环境,在此基础上,采用指令信息截获与过滤技术、数据跟踪技术对注入到IOS映像中的恶意代码进行分析.使用该方法可对遭受IOS注入攻击的多型号多版本的Cisco IOS映像进行分析.实验结果证明了该方法的有效性.

  16. Ontogenetic differentiation of swimming performance and behaviour in relation to habitat availability in the endangered North Sea houting (Coregonus oxyrinchus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Brandt; Jensen, Lasse Fast; Schulz, Carsten;

    2012-01-01

    The survival of the highly endangered, anadromous fish species North Sea houting (Coregonus oxyrinchus) depends on the correct timing of downstream dispersal during its early ontogenetic stages. To date, however, no studies have investigated the ontogenetic differentiation of swimming performance...

  17. USING CISCO NETWORK COMPONENTS TO IMPROVE NIDPS PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Bul’ajoul

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Network Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems (NIDPSs are used to detect, prevent and report evidence of attacks and malicious traffic. Our paper presents a study where we used open source NIDPS software. We show that NIDPS detection performance can be weak in the face of high-speed and high-load traffic in terms of missed alerts and missed logs. To counteract this problem, we have proposed and evaluated a solution that utilizes QoS, queues and parallel technologies in a multi-layer Cisco Catalyst Switch to increase NIDPSs detection performance. Our approach designs a novel QoS architecture to organise and improve throughput-forwardplan traffic in a layer 3 switch in order to improve NIDPS performance.

  18. Specific Applications of Cisco Packet Tracer in Network Teaching%Cisco Packet Tracer在网络教学中的特殊应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴刚

    2011-01-01

    Cisco Packet Tracer不仅可以提供Cisco认证考试的练习环境,在计算机网络教学中也有一些特殊的应用.Cisco Packet Tracer模拟模式可用于仿真PDU转发流程;物理工作区可用于展示现实环境;活动向导可用于技能考评.这些应用可以解决教学中的疑难问题.

  19. Simulation and Validation of Cisco Lethal Conditions in Minnesota Lakes under Past and Future Climate Scenarios Using Constant Survival Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Jiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fish habitat in lakes is strongly constrained by water temperature (T and available dissolved oxygen (DO that are changed under climate warming. A one dimensional, dynamic water quality model MINLAKE2012 was used for T and DO simulation over 48 years. A fish habitat model FishHabitat2013 using simulated T and DO profiles as input was developed to determine lethal conditions of cisco Corgenous artedi in Minnesota lakes. Twenty-three lakes that had observations of cisco mortality or survival in the unusually warm summer of 2006 were used for model validation. The cisco habitat model used a lethal temperature of 22.1 °C and DO survival limit of 3 mg/L determined through model validation and sensitivity analysis. Cisco lethal conditions in 12 shallow, 16 medium-depth, and 30 deep virtual lakes were then simulated. Isopleths of total number of years with cisco kill and average cisco kill days for the years with kills under past (1961–2008 and future climate were generated to understand/extrapolate climate impacts on cisco in 620 Minnesota lakes. Shallow and medium-depth lakes are projected to not be good candidates for cisco refuge lakes, but deep lakes are possible cisco refuge lakes based on lethal condition projection under future warmer climate.

  20. Diversity along a speciation continuum : ecology and morphology of northern European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus)

    OpenAIRE

    Siwertsson, Anna

    2012-01-01

    How new species are formed is still a major question in evolutionary biology. In ecological speciation, natural selection drives the evolution of slight distinctions between individuals into extensive differences between species. In this thesis, early stages of an ecologically driven speciation process are addressed using ecological and morphological data from a large number of European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) populations in northern Fennoscandia. Northern Fennoscandia is an area ...

  1. 78 FR 42036 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Port Lions, AK, De Beque, CO, Benjamin, Cisco, Rule, and Shamrock, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Port Lions, AK, De Beque, CO, Benjamin, Cisco, Rule... 237C3; Cisco, Channel 261C3; Rule, Channel 288C2; and Shamrock, Channel 225C2. BILLING CODE 6712-01-P...

  2. The occurrence of the longjaw cisco, Leucichthys alpenae, in Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, W.B.; Smith, Stanford H.

    1962-01-01

    The longjaw cisco, Leucichthys alpenae, is shown to be a species new to the Lake Erie fauna. The taxonomic work on Lake Erie ciscoes is reviewed. Thirty three specimens of L. alpenae taken in 1946, 1947 and 1957 are compared morphometrically with Leucichthys artedi of Lake Erie, the only other cisco species in the lake. L. alpenae has a longer and deeper head, longer maxillary and fewer gill rakers. L. alpenae is more distinct from L. artedi in Lake Huron than in Lake Erie. The rate of growth of L. alpenae in Lake Erie compares favourably with that in Lake Michigan.

  3. Performance evaluation of 10GBASE optical transceivers for Cisco 10-gigabit Ethernet switching architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Cain, Jeff C.

    2002-09-01

    This paper presents the process and methodology employed to perform evaluation and analyses for the optical interface that delivers and receives 10Gb/s Ethernet traffic on Cisco's industrial leading switching architecture. Especially, we examined in detail the optical properties for commercially available 10GBASE-LR transceiver modules, with respect to IEEE 802.3ae specifications. The sampled results under room temperature are listed for comparison. Eye diagrams were recorded as a function of transmission distance, as well as temperature variation. System stability issues are also studied following a brief introduction to Cisco standard ODVT (Optical Design Verification Test) procedure.

  4. The Caballero Revisited: Postmodernity in "The Cisco Kid", "The Mask of Zorro", and "Shrek II"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leen, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the achievement of the postmodern caballero films and the relevance of the social bandit myth for Chicano resistance. The continued relevance of the social bandit myth is clearly demonstrated by "The Cisco Kid" and "The Mask of Zorro." Both films show how initially flawed or directionless characters can realize their…

  5. 基于CISCOIP/TV媒体播放的设计与实现%Design and Realization of Based on Cisco IP/TV Media Playing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐春

    2011-01-01

    本文介绍了IP/TV的相关知识及CISCO IP/TV的工作原理,说明了JSP、JavaBeans技术在改造CISCO IP/TV客户端软件方面特有的优势,介绍了一种开发CISCO IP/TV的方法。%This article introduced the relevant knowledge about IP/TV and CISCO IP/TV theories,then shows the unique advantages of the jsp and javaBeans technology in the reform of cisco IP/TV client software.In the end described a method how to develop CISCO IP/TV

  6. 2009 Spawning cisco investigations in the Canadian waters of Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Daniel L.; Cholwek, Gary A.; Evrard, Lori M.; E. Berglund,; K.I. Cullis,

    2010-01-01

    We sampled with acoustics (AC) and midwater trawls (MT) to determine cisco abundance in Lake Superior’s Thunder and Black bays during 8-14 November, 2009. Total abundance of spawning-size (≥ 250 mm total length) ciscoes was estimated at 6.25 million in Thunder Bay and 1.12 million in Black Bay. Exploitation fractions of market-size (≥ age 6) females from Thunder and Black bays for 2009 were estimated at 7.1% and 11.3%, respectively; below the recommended maximum annual harvest of 15% recently adopted by Lake Superior fisheries managers. Given Thunder Bay spawner densities are on a downward trajectory, and recruitment since the 2003 year-class has been low, it is likely the exploitation fractions will increase in the future. After 2010, the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR) will carry on the AC program as a management activity. It is likely suspended experimental gill net (GN) samples will be used to ground truth future AC samples. In 2009, we characterized the length and age structure of Thunder Bay ciscoes using both MT samples and GN samples. Females represented 49% of the MT catch, but only 39% in GN samples. Catching a smaller proportion of females in GN samples resulted in a lower female population estimate and a higher estimated exploitation fraction (10.4%) compared to MT samples (7.1%). Experimental gill net effort was limited to 10-11.8 m water column depths where midwater trawl samples also caught roughly 40% females. Ciscoes ≥ age 17 (≥ 1992 year class) were common in Black Bay, but rare in Thunder Bay suggesting: 1) the stocks may be distinct; and 2) total mortality of ciscoes returning to spawn in Black Bay in recent years has been lower than ciscoes returning to Thunder Bay. Our mid-November 2009 effort to assess the Black Bay stock by sampling outside of the 3 bay in the lake proper was deemed successful, but this should be confirmed by sampling the Black Bay region during both mid- and late-November 2010.

  7. CISCO: Cooled Infrared Spectrograph and Camera for OHS on the Subaru Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohara, Kentaro; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Maihara, Toshinori; Oya, Shin; Tsukamoto, Hiroyuki; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Terada, Hiroshi; Goto, Miwa; Iwai, Jun'ichi; Tanabe, Hirohisa; Hata, Ryuji; Taguchi, Tomoyuki; Harashima, Takashi

    2002-04-01

    This paper describes a Cooled Infrared Spectrograph and Camera for OHS (CISCO), mounted on the Nasmyth focus of the Subaru telescope. It is primarily designed as a back-end camera of the OH-Airglow Suppressor (OHS), and is also used as an independent, general-purpose near-infrared camera/spectrograph. CISCO is based on a single 1024 × 1024 format HgCdTe HAWAII array detector, and is capable of either wide-field imaging of 1'.8 × 1'.8 field-of-view or low-resolution spectroscopy from 0.9 to 2.4 μm. The limiting magnitudes measured during test observations were found to be J=23.5 mag and K' = 22.4 mag (imaging, 1" aperture, S/N = 5, 1hr exposure).

  8. CISCO Cooled Infrared Spectrograph and Camera for OHS on the Subaru Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Motohara, K; Maihara, T; Oya, S; Tsukamoto, H; Imanishi, M; Terada, H; Goto, M; Iwai, J; Tanabe, H; Hata, R; Taguchi, T; Harashima, T

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a Cooled Infrared Spectrograph and Camera for OHS (CISCO), mounted on the Nasmyth focus of the Subaru telescope. It is primarily designed as a back-end camera of the OH-Airglow Suppressor (OHS), and is also used as an independent, general-purpose near-infrared camera/spectrograph. CISCO is based on a single 1024x1024 format HgCdTe HAWAII array detector, and is capable of either wide-field imaging of 1.8'x1.8' field-of-view or low-resolution spectroscopy from 0.9 to 2.4 um. The limiting magnitudes measured during test observations were found to be J=23.5mag and K'=22.4mag (imaging, 1" aperture, S/N=5, 1 hr exposure).

  9. Recovery of Cisco Router' Password%Cisco路由器的口令恢复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锋

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1 Cisco路由器口令的类别 (1)有效密码口令(enabled secret password):是一种安全级别最高的加密口令,适用于Cisco IOS10.3(2)以后的版本,在路由器的配置表中以加密的形式出现.

  10. 支持iSCSI和FCIP两种协议Cisco MDS 9000 IP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭军

    2003-01-01

    近日,Cisco发布了MDS 9000IP存储服务模块,该模块同时支持SCSI和IFCIP(IP光纤通道)。并能通过客户现有的联网基础设施.确保经济高效和远距离的SAN连接。IP存储服务模块与Cisco MDS 9000 SAN系

  11. How Cisco Systems Used Enterprise Architecture Capability to Sustain Acquisition-Based Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppenberg, Gustav; Shanks, Graeme; Henningsson, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Value-creating acquisitions are a major challenge for many firms. The case of Cisco Systems shows that an advanced enterprise architecture (EA) capability can contribute to the four phases of the acquisition process: pre-acquisition preparation, acquisition selection, acquisition integration...... and post-integration management. Cisco’s EA capability improves its ability to rapidly capture value from acquisitions and to sustain its acquisition-based growth strategy over time....

  12. Research on the Security of Network with Cisco Router%基于Cisco路由器的网络安全研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    介绍采用Cisco路由器阻止各种常见的网络攻击.%Cisco router is a device frequently used in network. Some kinds of method on using Cisco router to avoid network attack have been described.

  13. Adaptive radiation of the European whitefish Coregonus lavaretus (L.) in the Pasvik watercourse: the genetic description of a new morph

    OpenAIRE

    Couton, Marjorie

    2012-01-01

    Sympatric occurring fish morphs in postglacial lakes usually exhibit differences in morphology and physiology driven by adaptations to differential trophic niches. The European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus (L.)) is a highly variable fish species, with more than 200 intraspecific forms described in Europe. The morphs usually differ in their number of gill-rakers, therefore this trait has been traditionally used for whitefish classification. According to this taxonomy, three different morphs ...

  14. 基于CISCO PIX防火墙构建固定IP地址客户端的VPN网络设计%The Design of VPN Network with Static IP Client Based on CISCO PIX Firewall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文晓临; 于洪珍

    2006-01-01

    文章介绍了VPN虚拟专用网和CISCO PIX硬件防火墙的特点,详细阐述了基于CISCO PIX实现在VPN网络中自动分配客户端固定IP地址的思路和方法,列出了具体的配置程序代码,并举例说明了实际应用的情况.实践证明,该方法易于管理、安全稳定,适用于中小型企事业单位和厂矿院校.

  15. Environmental and genetic contributions to morphological differentiation in ciscoes (Coregoninae) of the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Thomas N.; Smith, Gerald R.; Cable, Louella E.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory-produced progeny of Coregonus alpenae, C. zenithicus, C. hoyi, and C. kiyi and their wild parents were used to examine the contributions of genotype and environment to morphology. Morphological differences between parents and offspring were generally greater than those between species, indicating strong environmental effects. The phenotypic effects on most characters can probably be attributed to different developmental temperatures and perhaps to stresses in the hatchery not encountered in the Great Lakes. Genetic differences were inferred from morphological differences between offspring of different species raised under identical conditions. Genetic differences were demonstrated between C. hoyi and C. kiyi but not betweenC. alpenae and C. zenithicus which suggested that our samples of C. alpenae and C. zenithicusrepresented only a single species. The presence of unique stocks of coregonines in the Great Lakes, as well as of several species, suggests that management strategies should focus on both levels of diversity.Key words: Salmonidae, Coregoninae, Coregonus, morphology, Great Lakes, development, stocks

  16. Cisco Networking Academy Program for high school students: Formative & summative evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford-Wesley, Deanne

    This study examined the effectiveness of the Cisco Network Technology Program in enhancing students' technology skills as measured by classroom strategies, student motivation, student attitude, and student learning. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to determine the effectiveness of this program. The study focused on two 11th grade classrooms at Hamtramck High School. Hamtramck, an inner-city community located in Detroit, is racially and ethnically diverse. The majority of students speak English as a second language; more than 20 languages are represented in the school district. More than 70% of the students are considered to be economically at risk. Few students have computers at home, and their access to the few computers at school is limited. Purposive sampling was conducted for this study. The sample consisted of 40 students, all of whom were trained in Cisco Networking Technologies. The researcher examined viable learning strategies in teaching a Cisco Networking class that focused on a web-based approach. Findings revealed that the Cisco Networking Academy Program was an excellent vehicle for teaching networking skills and, therefore, helping to enhance computer skills for the participating students. However, only a limited number of students were able to participate in the program, due to limited computer labs and lack of qualified teaching personnel. In addition, the cumbersome technical language posed an obstacle to students' success in networking. Laboratory assignments were preferred by 90% of the students over lecture and PowerPoint presentations. Practical applications, lab projects, interactive assignments, PowerPoint presentations, lectures, discussions, readings, research, and assessment all helped to increase student learning and proficiency and to enrich the classroom experience. Classroom strategies are crucial to student success in the networking program. Equipment must be updated and utilized to ensure that students are

  17. The ACL Analyses on Cisco Routers%Cisco路由器ACL剖析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴刚

    2010-01-01

    访问控制列表是Cisco IOS防火墙的核心技术,它包括标准ACL、扩展ACL、命名ACL、基于时间的ACL,动态ACL,自反ACL、基于上下文的访问控制(CBAC)等,这些ACL技术从简到繁、从网络层到应用层,为网络的边界安全提供了灵活的解决方案.

  18. CISCO SYSTEM’S STRATEGIC USE OF THE INTERNET AND BUSINESS APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Celebi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Information systems are the key decision component of a firm’s business strategy. Cisco made use of internet and its information systems to accomplish its following strategies: to create a business ecology market its technology to networking world; to create a virtual organization and outsourcing many operational and customer services and focusing its resources on its own core product innovation strategy; to showcase its own internet use as a marketing tool. Cisco’s strategy enabled it to sustain high growth rates throughout 1990s. In late 2000, however Cisco’s market collapsed and experienced a loss of billions of dollars in unsold inventory.

  19. Mercury accumulation, and the mercury-PCB-sex interaction, in lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Ebener, Mark P.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2016-01-01

    We determined whole-fish Hg concentrations of 26 female and 34 male adult lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) from northern Lake Huron captured during November 2010. Subsampling from these 60 fish, Hg concentration was also determined in both the somatic tissue and ovaries (n=5), while methylmercury (MeHg) concentration was determined in whole fish (n=18). Bioenergetics modeling was used to assess the growth dilution effect on the difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes. Mean whole-fish Hg concentration in females (59.9 ng/g) was not significantly different from mean whole-fish Hg concentration in males (54.4 ng/g). MeHg accounted for 91% of the mercury found in the lake whitefish. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect did not contribute to a difference in Hg concentration between the sexes. We estimated that females increased in Hg concentration by 17.9%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Using PCB data for the same 60 lake whitefish from a previous study, we detected a significant interaction between sex and contaminant type (Hg or PCBs), which was attributable to males being significantly higher in PCB concentration than females. Males may be eliminating Hg at a faster rate than females.

  20. Effects of temperature on embryonic development of lake herring (Coregonus artedii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Peter J.; Brooke, L.T.

    1973-01-01

    Embryonic development of lake herring (Coregonus artedii) was observed in the laboratory at 13 constant temperatures from 0.0 to 12.1 C and in Pickerel Lake (Washtenaw County, Michigan) at natural temperature regimes. Rate of development during incubation was based on progression of the embryos through 20 identifiable stages. An equation was derived to predict development stage at constant temperatures, on the general assumption that development stage (DS) is a function of time (days, D) and temperature (T). The equation should also be useful in interpreting estimates from future regressions that include other environmental variables that affect egg development. A second regression model, derived primarily for fluctuating temperatures, related development rate for stage j (DRj), expressed as the reciprocal of time, to temperature (x). The generalized equation for a development stage is: DRj = abx cx2 dx3. In general, time required for embryos to reach each stage of development in Pickerel Lake agreed closely with the time predicted from this equation, derived from our laboratory observations. Hatching time was predicted within 1 day in 1969 and within 2 days in 1970. We used the equations derived with the second model to predict the effect of the superimposition of temperature increases of 1 and 2 C on the measured temperatures in Pickerel Lake. Conceivably, hatching dates could be affected sufficiently to jeopardize the first feeding of lake herring through loss of harmony between hatching date and seasonal food availability.

  1. Mercury Accumulation, and the Mercury-PCB-Sex Interaction, in Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P. Madenjian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We determined whole-fish Hg concentrations of 26 female and 34 male adult lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis from northern Lake Huron captured during November 2010. Subsampling from these 60 fish, Hg concentration was also determined in both somatic tissue and ovaries (n = 5, while methylmercury (MeHg concentration was determined in whole fish (n = 18. Bioenergetics modeling was used to assess the growth dilution effect on the difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes. Mean whole-fish Hg concentration in females (59.9 ng/g was not significantly different from mean whole-fish Hg concentration in males (54.4 ng/g. MeHg accounted for 91% of the mercury found in the lake whitefish. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect did not contribute to the difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes. We estimated that females increased in Hg concentration by 17.9%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Using polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB data for the same 60 lake whitefish from a previous study, we detected a significant interaction between sex and contaminant type (Hg or PCBs, which was attributable to males being significantly higher in PCB concentration than females. Males may be eliminating Hg at a faster rate than females.

  2. Parasites of Bloater Coregonus hoyi (Salmonidae) from Lake Michigan, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Muzzall, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    In total, 158 bloaters Coregonus hoyi collected in September and October 2011 from 4 Lake Michigan, U.S.A., ports were examined for parasites. The ports included Waukegan (WK), Illinois; Port Washington (PW) and Sturgeon Bay (SB), Wisconsin; and Saugatuck (SG), Michigan. Parasites found in bloaters by port were cestodes Cyathocephalus truncatus (WK, PW, and SB) and Eubothrium salvelini (WK, PW, SB, and SG); the nematode Cystidicola farionis (WK, PW, SB, and SG); acanthocephalans Acanthocephalus dirus (WK and PW), Echinorhynchus salmonis (WK, PW, and SB), and Neoechinorhynchus tumidus (SB); and the copepod Salmincola corpulentus (WK and PW). Gravid individuals of all parasite species were found except for E. salvelini and A. dirus. Cystidicola farionis had the highest prevalence at each port, and the highest mean intensity and mean abundance at PW. The numbers of C. farionis at PW were significantly higher than those at WK and SB. Echinorhynchus salvelini had the highest mean intensities and mean abundances at WK, SB, and SG. The values for parasite species richness in bloaters were similar among ports. The total numbers of parasites were similar between WK and PW, but they were higher at these ports than at SB. The parasite faunas of bloaters were characterized by autogenic helminth species.

  3. Effects of origin and season on the lipids and sensory quality of European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomela, Jukka-Pekka; Lundén, Saara; Kaimainen, Mika; Mattila, Saila; Kallio, Heikki; Airaksinen, Susanna

    2016-04-15

    The effect of variation in origin and season on the lipids and sensory quality of European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) was studied. The proportion of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) of the total phospholipid fatty acids in fillets was considerably higher in spring compared with autumn. Farmed fish contained 3-4 times more lipids than wild fish. Combined, the fillets of farmed fish contained 2-3 times more eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid than the fillets of wild fish. Contents of vitamin D were high both in farmed and wild fish. Aroma of raw farmed whitefish was less algae-like than wild one. Raw farmed whitefish was harder, less springy, and lighter in flesh color than wild whitefish. Cooked, farmed fish had slightly stronger flavor than wild fish. There was no significant difference in pleasantness between whitefish of different origin in any of the evaluated characteristics. Both farmed and wild European whitefish caught in autumn and spring proved to have a high content of n-3 fatty acids and vitamin D, and hence they serve as a good source of nutritionally important lipids. PMID:26675838

  4. Investigating the Impact of the Cisco 21st Century Schools Initiative on Harrison County School District. Summative Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Harouna; Meade, Terri; Pierson, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Camille; Roy, Amanda; Williams, Hakim

    2009-01-01

    There are 21 schools in the Harrison County School District (HCSD), located in southern Mississippi, in the Gulfport/Biloxi metropolitan area. Of those, only Harrison Central 9th Grade (HC9) and Harrison County High School (HCHS) participated in the Cisco 21S Initiative--therefore, this summary will focus on only administrators, teachers,…

  5. Investigating the Impact of the Cisco 21st Century Schools Initiative on Forrest County Agricultural High School. Summative Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Harouna; Meade, Terri; Pierson, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Camille; Roy, Amanda; Williams, Hakim

    2009-01-01

    Forrest County Agricultural High School (FCAHS) is located in Brooklyn, a small rural town in southern Mississippi and part of the Hattiesburg Metropolitan Statistical Area. Unlike the other schools that participated in the Cisco 21S initiative, FCAHS is not part of a larger school district. Therefore, the unit of analysis throughout this summary…

  6. Investigating the Impact of the Cisco 21st Century Schools Initiative on Forrest County School District. Summative Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Harouna; Meade, Terri; Pierson, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Camille; Roy, Amanda; Williams, Hakim

    2009-01-01

    Located in southern Mississippi, the Forrest County School District (FCSD) consists of six schools: three K-6 elementary schools, two K-8 elementary-middle schools, and one high school (grades 9-12), all of which have been involved in the Cisco Initiative since its inception. The district employed 16 administrators, 7 technology staff members, and…

  7. Verification of a model for predicting the effect of inconstant temperature on embryonic development of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, William H.; Brooke, L.T.; Stone, Linda J.

    1977-01-01

    Eggs stripped from lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) spawning in Lake Michigan were incubated in the laboratory at temperatures similar to those on whitefish spawning grounds in Lake Michigan during December-April. Observed times from fertilization to attainment of each of 21 developmental stages were used to test a model that predicts the rate of development at daily fluctuating temperatures; the model relates rate of development for any given stage j, expressed as the reciprocal of time (Rj), to temperature (T). The generalized equation for a developmental stage is Rj = abTcT??.

  8. Migration history of North Sea houting (Coregonus oxyrinchus L.) caught in Lake IJsselmeer (The Netherlands) inferred from scale transects of 88SR:44 Ca ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borcherding, J.; Pickhardt, C.; Winter, H.V.; Becker, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    North Sea houting, Coregonus oxyrinchus, became extinct in the River Rhine in the 1940 s and was reintroduced in the 1990 s. To study the migration history of individuals, the 88Sr:44Ca ratio of scales of 39 houting (10¿44 cm TL) caught in Lake IJsselmeer was analysed using laser ablation inductivel

  9. Comprehensive Comparison of VoIP SIP Protocol Problems and Cisco VoIP System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TALAL AL-KHAROBI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Voice over IP (VoIP, use of the packet switched internet for telephony, has improved substantially in the past few years. On the other hand, VoIP has many challenges that do not exist in the public switched telephone network (PSTN, a circuit switched system. VoIP is an application running on the internet, and therefore inherits the internet’s security issues. It is important to realise that VoIP is a relatively young technology, and with any new technology, security typically improves with maturity. This paper provides a comprehensive comparison of a VoIP SIP protocol and CISCO VoIP system. The comparison involves the investigation of the vulnerabilities that target both systems and how secure each system is. With this comparison we present our conclusion on which system is more secure.

  10. Clustering the Parameters of Rhythmographic Analysis of the Events of the Corporate Network Traffic of the Cisco MARS System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis V. Lozhkarev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the clustering of the parameters of rhythmographic analysis of the events of the corporate network traffic of the Cisco MARS system. The author dwells upon classifying clustering methods and illustrates a conceptual clustering algorithm. The author infers that, firstly, the results of processing experimental data derived from network traffic logs substantiate the applicability of the methodology of rhythmographic analysis, which is accepted in cardiology, in the analysis of the rhythm of appearance of events in the Cisco MARS system; secondly, the results of clustering the fragments of the rhythm of events substantiate the effectiveness of the approach proposed; thirdly, the practical application of automatic detection of anomalies in network traffic events requires further research.

  11. Comparative Study of the CSR Initiatives of Microsoft, IBM, Google, Sun Microsystems and Cisco Systems in the Gulf Region

    OpenAIRE

    Sikander, Huzaifa

    2008-01-01

    An integral part of the MBA degree at University of Nottingham is the management project worth 60 credits which marks the completion of the degree. I got a chance to do my management project with Microsoft Corporation Gulf and was working with three other friends of mine. The project was a comparative study of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives of Microsoft with IBM, Google, Sun Microsystems and Cisco Systems. I was working in the project with three other friends of mine an...

  12. Efficient and stable transformation of Lactuca sativa L. cv. Cisco (lettuce) plastids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamoto, Hirosuke; Yamashita, Atsushi; Asao, Hiroshi; Okumura, Satoru; Takase, Hisabumi; Hattori, Masahira; Yokota, Akiho; Tomizawa, Ken-Ichi

    2006-04-01

    Transgenic plastids offer unique advantages in plant biotechnology, including high-level foreign protein expression. However, broad application of plastid genome engineering in biotechnology has been largely hampered by the lack of plastid transformation systems for major crops. Here we describe the development of a plastid transformation system for lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. cv. Cisco. The transforming DNA carries a spectinomycin-resistance gene (aadA) under the control of lettuce chloroplast regulatory expression elements, flanked by two adjacent lettuce plastid genome sequences allowing its targeted insertion between the rbcL and accD genes. On average, we obtained 1 transplastomic lettuce plant per bombardment. We show that lettuce leaf chloroplasts can express transgene-encoded GFP to approximately 36% of the total soluble protein. All transplastomic T0 plants were fertile and the T1 progeny uniformly showed stability of the transgene in the chloroplast genome. This system will open up new possibilities for the efficient production of edible vaccines, pharmaceuticals, and antibodies in plants.

  13. Annual suspended-sediment loads in the Colorado River near Cisco, Utah, 1930-82

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Colorado River upstream of gaging station 09180500 near Cisco, Utah, drains about 24,100 square miles in Utah and Colorado. Altitudes in the basin range from 12,480 feet near the headwaters to 4,090 feet at station 09180500. The average annual precipitation for 1894-1982 near the station was 7.94 inches. The average annual precipitation near the headwaters often exceeds 50 inches. Rocks ranging in age from Precambrian to Holocene are exposed in the drainage basin upstream from station 09180500. Shale, limestone, siltstone, mudstone, and sandstone probably are the most easily eroded rocks in the basin, and they contribute large quantities of sediment to the Colorado River. During 1930-82, the U.S. Geological Survey collected records of fluvial sediment at station 09180500. Based on these records, the mean annual suspended-sediment load was 11,390,000 tone, ranging from 2,038,000 tons in water year 1981 to 35,700,000 tons in water year 1938. The minimum daily load of 14 tons was on August 22, 1960, and the maximum daily load of 2,790,000 tons was on October 14, 1941. (USGS)

  14. Cretaceous plutonic rocks in the Donner Lake-Cisco Grove area, northern Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulow, Matthew J.; Hanson, Richard E.; Girty, Gary H.; Girty, Melissa S.; Harwood, David S.

    1998-01-01

    The northernmost occurrences of extensive, glaciated exposures of the Sierra Nevada batholith occur in the Donner Lake-Cisco Grove area of the northern Sierra Nevada. The plutonic rocks in this area, which are termed here the Castle Valley plutonic assemblage, crop out over an area of 225 km2 and for the most part are shown as a single undifferentiated mass on previously published geological maps. In the present work, the plutonic assemblage is divided into eight separate intrusive units or lithodemes, two of which each consist of two separate plutons. Compositions are dominantly granodiorite and tonalite, but diorite and granite form small plutons in places. Spectacular examples of comb layering and orbicular texture occur in the diorites. U-Pb zircon ages have been obtained for all but one of the main units and range from ~120 to 114 Ma, indicating that the entire assemblage was emplaced in a narrow time frame in the Early Cretaceous. This is consistent with abundant field evidence that many of the individual phases were intruded penecontemporaneously. The timing of emplacement correlates with onset of major Cretaceous plutonism in the main part of the Sierra Nevada batholith farther south. The emplacement ages also are similar to isotopic ages for gold-quartz mineralization in the Sierran foothills west of the study area, suggesting a direct genetic relationship between the voluminous Early Cretaceous plutonism and hydrothermal gold mineralization.

  15. Assessing feeding competition between lake whitefish Core-gonus clupeaformis and round whitefish Prosopium cyl-indraceum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew MACPHERSON, John A. HOLMES, Andrew M. MUIR,David L. G. NOAKES

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We collected lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis and round whitefish Prosopium cylindraceum from the main basin of Lake Huron and Georgian Bay in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America to investigate details of diet and feeding tactics of these species in different seasons. Lake whitefish supports important commercial fisheries in Lake Huron and both species make use of habitats near the Bruce Nuclear Power Development, on the eastern shore of Lake Huron. Most fish of both species showed generalist feeding behavior, but some lake whitefish appeared to show specialist prey selection. The invasive spiny water flea Bythotrephes longimanus was an important component of the diet of both species. There was considerable dietary overlap between the whitefish species, but the ecological implications of these dietary overlaps are mitigated by the fact that dominant prey species differed in most seasons. We conclude that the potential for ecologically significant interactions between lake whitefish and round whitefish resulting from competition for similar benthic food resources in the main basin of Lake Huron is probably low [Current Zoology 56 (1: 109–117 2010].

  16. Host-parasite relationships and geographic distribution of Salmincola corpulentus (Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae) on bloater (Coregonus hoyi) stocks in Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Charles A.; Stedman, Ralph M.

    1990-01-01

    Examination of the branchial cavities of 8347 adult bloaters (Coregonus hoyi) collected from seven locations in Lake Huron for parasitic copepods yielded only the lernaeopodid Salmincola corpulentus; its distribution was limited to bloaters collected in the southern two-thirds of the lake. The infections were highest off Au Sable Point and on Six Fathom Bank, where 12 and 22%, of the bloaters examined were infected, respectively. All copepods seen were sexually mature females. The dorsal anterior portion of the branchial rim was the preferred site of attachment. The prevalence of S. corpulentus increased with length of the bloaters, reaching a maximum of 40% in fish longer than 330 mm; none were seen in bloaters shorter than 182 mm. The mean intensity of S. corpulentus was unusually low (1.0–1.9) for a lernaeopodid copepod and the maximum number of copepods found on a single bloater was five. Prevalences of copepods differed significantly (P < 0.05) between bloaters collected at different geographic locations, suggesting that S. corpulentus may be of value in bloater stock determination.

  17. Effect of different constant incubation temperatures on egg survival and embryonic development in lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, L.T.

    1975-01-01

    Eggs of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) were incubated in a constant-flow incubator at constant temperatures of 0.5, 2.0, 4.0, 5.9, 7.8, and 10.0 C. The time from fertilization to median hatch was inversely related to temperature, and ranged from 41.7 days at 10.0 C to 182 days at 0.5 C. The percentage hatch was highest (70.9-73.3%) at 4.0, 5.9, and 7.8 C, and was greatly reduced (6.0-28.4%) at 0.5, 2.0, and 10.0 C. The mortality of embryos was greatest during the early stages of development. Abnormally developed fry were most frequent (85.9% of the hatch) at 10.0 C, and least frequent (2.8%) at 4.0 C. Mean lengths of fry at hatching were shorter at 7.8 and 10.0 C (12.4 and 8.8 mm, respectively) than at lower temperatures (13.1 to 13.5 mm). The optimum temperature range for incubation of lake whitefish eggs was 3.2 to 8.1 C. Equations were derived for predicting development time to 20 successive stages, and to hatching, at constant incubation temperatures and at fluctuating daily mean water temperatures.

  18. Morphological divergence and origin of sympatric populations of European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) in Lake Femund, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østbye, K; Naesje, T F; Bernatchez, L; Sandlund, O T; Hindar, K

    2005-05-01

    Combining morphological and genetic analysis, we compared patterns of diversification within and between morphs among sympatric European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) populations in Lake Femund, Norway. Seven external populations, from potential colonization routes into Lake Femund were included. We found that deep-, shallow-, river- and bay spawning populations are distinct morphs in Lake Femund. Within morphs, populations range from being similar genetically (Fst=0-0.005) among deep-spawning populations to being highly differentiated (Fst=0.153) between bay-spawning populations. Between morphs, genetic differences ranged from a low (Fst=0.008-0.022) between deep- and shallow-spawning populations to high difference (Fst=0.125-0.143) between shallow- and bay-spawning populations. A higher proportion of molecular variance was seen among (3.9%) than within morphs (2.8%). The adaptive gene combinations behind the four morphs seem to have originated within the lake, although the lake could have been colonized from more than one source population. PMID:15842498

  19. Life history characteristics of a recovering lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis stock in the Detroit River, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Edward F.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Manny, Bruce A.; Boase, James; McFee, James; Tallman, Ross F.; Howland, Kimberly L.; Rennie, Michael D.; Mills, Kenneth; Tallman, Ross F.; Howland, Kimberly L.; Rennie, Michael D.; Mills, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    The Detroit River is part of a channel connecting Lakes Huron and Erie and was once a prolific spawning area for lake whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis. Large numbers of lake whitefish migrated into the river to spawn where they were harvested by commercial fisheries and for fish culture operations. Prior to our study, the last lake whitefish was landed from the Detroit River in 1925. Loss of spawning habitat during shipping channel construction and over-fishing, likely reduced lake whitefish spawning runs. Because lake whitefish are recovering in Lake Erie, and spawning in the western basin, we suspected they may also be spawning in the Detroit River. We sampled in the Detroit River for lake whitefish adults and eggs in October–December 2005–07 and for larvae during March–May 2006–08. A total of 15 spawning-ready lake whitefish from 4 to 18 years old, were collected. Viable eggs were collected during mid-November 2006–07; highest egg densities were found mid-river. Sac-fry whitefish larvae were collected in the river and near the river mouth. No whitefish larvae were retained in the river. Because high numbers of larvae were collected from mid- and downstream river sites, reproduction of lake whitefish in the Detroit River could contribute substantially to the Lake Erie lake whitefish metapopulation.

  20. IPv6 and IPsec Tests of a Space-Based Asset, the Cisco Router in Low Earth Orbit (CLEO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William; Stewart, David; Wood, Lloyd; Jackson, Chris; Northam, James; Wilhelm, James

    2008-01-01

    This report documents the design of network infrastructure to support testing and demonstrating network-centric operations and command and control of space-based assets, using IPv6 and IPsec. These tests were performed using the Cisco router in Low Earth Orbit (CLEO), an experimental payload onboard the United Kingdom--Disaster Monitoring Constellation (UK-DMC) satellite built and operated by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL). On Thursday, 29 March 2007, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cisco Systems and SSTL performed the first configuration and demonstration of IPsec and IPv6 onboard a satellite in low Earth orbit. IPv6 is the next generation of the Internet Protocol (IP), designed to improve on the popular IPv4 that built the Internet, while IPsec is the protocol used to secure communication across IP networks. This demonstration was made possible in part by NASA s Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) and shows that new commercial technologies such as mobile networking, IPv6 and IPsec can be used for commercial, military and government space applications. This has direct application to NASA s Vision for Space Exploration. The success of CLEO has paved the way for new spacebased Internet technologies, such as the planned Internet Routing In Space (IRIS) payload at geostationary orbit, which will be a U.S. Department of Defense Joint Capability Technology Demonstration. This is a sanitized report for public distribution. All real addressing has been changed to psueco addressing.

  1. Characterizing seasonal and diel vertical movement and habitat use of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in Clear Lake, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydlewski, Joseph; Gorsky, Dimitry; Balsey, David

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal and daily vertical activity of lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis was studied in Clear Lake, Maine (253 ha), using acoustic telemetry from November 2004 to June 2009. Twenty adult lake whitefish were tagged with acoustic tags that had either a depth sensor or both depth and temperature sensors to assess vertical habitat use at a seasonal and daily resolution. Vertical habitat selection varied seasonally and was strongly influenced by temperature. Between December and April, when the lake was covered with ice, surface temperature was below 2°C and tagged individuals occupied deep areas of the lake (∼15 m). After ice-out, fish ascended into shallow waters (∼5 m), responding to increased water temperature and possibly to greater foraging opportunity. When surface water temperatures exceeded 20°C, fish descended below the developing thermocline (∼9 m), where they remained until surface temperatures fell below 20°C; fish then ascended into shallower depths, presumably for feeding and spawning. Through the winter, fish remained in thermal habitats that were warmer than the surface temperatures; in the summer, they selected depths with thermal habitats below 15°C. Though the amplitude varied greatly across seasons, lake whitefish displayed a strong diurnal pattern of activity as measured by vertical velocities. Fish were twofold more active during spring, summer, and fall than during winter. Lake whitefish exhibited diel vertical migrations, rising in the water column during nighttime and occupying deeper waters during the day. This pattern was more pronounced in the spring and fall and far less prominent during winter and summer. The strong linkage between temperature and habitat use may limit the current range of lake whitefish and may be directly impacted by climatic change.

  2. Climate change projections for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) recruitment in the 1836 Treaty Waters of the Upper Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Abigail J.; Taylor, William W.; Beard, T. Douglas; Lofgren, Brent M.

    2015-01-01

    Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) is an ecologically, culturally, and economically important species in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Lake whitefish have been a staple food source for thousands of years and, since 1980, have supported the most economically valuable (annual catch value ≈ US$16.6 million) and productive (annual harvest ≈ 7 million kg) commercial fishery in the upper Great Lakes (Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior). Climate changes, specifically changes in temperature, wind, and ice cover, are expected to impact the ecology, production dynamics, and value of this fishery, because the success of recruitment to the fishery has been linked with these climatic factors. We used linear regression to determine the relationship between fall and spring air temperature indices, fall wind speed, winter ice cover, and lake whitefish recruitment in 13 management units located in the 1836 Treaty Waters of the Upper Great Lakes ceded by the Ottawa and Chippewa nations, a culturally and commercially important region for the lake whitefish fishery. In eight of 13 management units evaluated, models with climate variables explained significantly more variation in recruitment than models with only the stock-recruitment relationship, using corrected Akaike’s Information Criterion comparisons (ΔAICc > 3). Isolating the climate-recruitment relationship and projecting recruitment with the Coupled Hydrosphere-Atmosphere Research Model (CHARM) indicated the potential for increased lake whitefish recruitment in the majority of the 1836 Treaty Waters management units, given projected changes in climate. These results can inform adaptive management strategies by providing anticipated implications of climate on lake whitefish recruitment.

  3. Long-term changes of the crustacean zooplankton community in Lake Mjøsa, the largest lake in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarl Eivind LØVIK

    2003-08-01

    (Coregonus albula, one of the most important planktivorous fish species, as also described by earlier studies. However it also demonstrated top down control on cladocerans in years with especially large stocks of cisco.

  4. Investigation of wild caught whitefish, Coregonus lavaretus (L.), for infection with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and experimental challenge of whitefish with VHSV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Kjær, Torben Egil; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    One hundred and forty-eight wild whitefish, Coregonus lavaretus (L.), were caught by electrofishing and sampled for virological examination in December 1999 and 2000, during migration from the brackish water feeding grounds to the freshwater spawning grounds, where the whitefish may come into con......One hundred and forty-eight wild whitefish, Coregonus lavaretus (L.), were caught by electrofishing and sampled for virological examination in December 1999 and 2000, during migration from the brackish water feeding grounds to the freshwater spawning grounds, where the whitefish may come...... into contact with farmed rainbow trout. All samples were examined on cell cultures. No viruses were isolated. Three viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) isolates of different origin were tested in infection trials by immersion and intraperitoneal (IP) injection, using 1.5 g farmed whitefish: an isolate...... from wild caught marine fish, a farmed rainbow trout isolate with a suspected marine origin and a classical freshwater isolate. The isolates were highly pathogenic by IP injection where 99-100% of the whitefish died. Using an immersion challenge the rainbow trout isolates were moderately pathogenic...

  5. Summary of investigations on the morphometry of the cisco, Leucichthys artedi (Le Sueur), in the lakes of the northeastern highlands, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hile, Ralph

    1936-01-01

    The morphometric studies on the cisco or lake herring, Leucichthys artedi (Le Sueur), which are briefly summarized in this paper are part of a program of investigation of the fishes of the lakes in the northeastern highland district, Wisconsin. For the morphometric studies, 1,548 specimens were employed, all of them collected in the summers of 1931 and 1932 from four 'type' lakes, selected on the basis of their size, depth, and physicochemical and biological characteristics. Of this number 753 individuals were used to determine the general nature of the morphological variations in the Trout Lake, Muskellunge Lake, Silver Lake, and Clear Lakes cisco populations, while 795, collected from Muskellunge Lake in 1932 were employed in a detailed examination of certain morphological differences between the 1928 and 1929 year classes of that population. An attempt is made in this paper to present all the important conculsions, together with a small amount of illustrative material.

  6. Raising Network Security with Access-list of Cisco Router%利用Cisco路由器的Access-list提高网络安全

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林辉

    2001-01-01

    文中以Cisco2500系列路由器为说明对象,以Cisco—IOS11.2版本为例,深入挖掘访问列表(Access-list)的控制功能,讨论如何更好地利用和发挥现有设备的潜能,提高网络安全性能。

  7. Primeiro registro da quenquém cisco-da-Amazônia Acromyrmex hystrix Latreille (Formicidae: Myrmicinae para o estado do Maranhão, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Dáttilo

    2010-12-01

    Abstract. It is recorded, for the first time, using pitfall traps, four workers of ant “quenquém-cisco-da-Amazônia”, Acromyrmex hystrix (Latreille (Formicidae: Myrmicinae in a cave at state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil. However, we could not imply any additional information about the abundance of this species in the region once that this record was accidental. The region where the individuals were found is placed at border of state of Maranhão and state of Tocantins suggesting that this species also occurs in this state.

  8. Inquiry Based Computer Network Teaching in Higher Vocational Colleges Based on Cisco Network Academy%基于思科网院的高职计算机网络基础课程教学的探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨畅

    2014-01-01

    CISCO Network Academy of the CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate) course system of interactive teaching, perfect training, examination, inspection link and teaching software, at the end of each chapter, the teacher will set up online quiz to conducive to the students timely and accurately find focus and difficult problems and consolidate the contents. The basis of computer network is an important part of talent network technology professional training program. In this paper, taking the CISCO Networking Academy Teaching Practice for example, conducted a preliminary study and exploration for the teaching system of the course design mode.%思科网络学院的CCNA(Cisco Certified Network Associate)课程体系有完善的交互式教、练、考、验环节及教学软件,在每个章节结束,教师都会设置在线的测验以利于学生及时准确地发现不足和巩固所学内容的重点和难点。计算机网络基础是网络技术专业人才培养方案的重要组成部分。文中以思科网院教学实践为例,针对该课程的教学系统设计模式进行了初步的研究和探索。

  9. Inter and intra-population phenotypic and genotypic structuring in the European whitefish Coregonus lavaretus, a rare freshwater fish in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, C E; Bean, C W; Dodd, J A; Down, A; Etheridge, E C; Gowans, A R D; Hooker, O; Knudsen, R; Lyle, A A; Winfield, I J; Præbel, K

    2016-02-01

    This study revealed between-lake genetic structuring between Coregonus lavaretus collected from the only two native populations of this species in Scotland, U.K. (Lochs Eck and Lomond) evidenced by the existence of private alleles (12 in Lomond and four in Eck) and significant genetic differentiation (FST = 0·056) across 10 microsatellite markers. Juvenile C. lavaretus originating from eggs collected from the two lakes and reared in a common-garden experiment showed clear phenotypic differences in trophic morphology (i.e. head and body shape) between these populations indicating that these characteristics were, at least partly, inherited. Microsatellite analysis of adults collected from different geographic regions within Loch Lomond revealed detectable and statistically significant but relatively weak genetic structuring (FST = 0·001-0·024) and evidence of private alleles related to the basin structure of the lake. Within-lake genetic divergence patterns suggest three possibilities for this observed pattern: (1) differential selection pressures causing divergence into separate gene pools, (2) a collapse of two formerly divergent gene pools and (3) a stable state maintained by balancing selection forces resulting from spatial variation in selection and lake heterogeneity. Small estimates of effective population sizes for the populations in both lakes suggest that the capacity of both populations to adapt to future environmental change may be limited. PMID:26748995

  10. Croissance et alimentation des larves de corégones (Coregonus lavaretus dans le lac d'Annecy de mars à avril 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRETENOY L.

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available La capture de plus de 400 larves de Coregonus lavaretus à 7 dates différentes dans le lac d'Annecy de mars à avril 1996 a permis d'étudier conjointement leur croissance et l'évolution de leur régime alimentaire. Les larves capturées ont une taille comprise entre 8,5 et 20 mm et un stade larvaire allant de 0 à 4, ces deux paramètres étant fortement liés. À mesure qu'elles grandissent, les larves qui consomment d'abord préférentiellement les stades larvaires des copépodes, puis leurs stades adultes, se nourrissent ensuite majoritairement de cladocères. La comparaison des structures de taille des proies ingérées et du zooplancton présent dans le lac conduit à évoquer la notion d'expérience acquise par les larves pour expliquer cette dérive alimentaire.

  11. Spatial and temporal dynamics of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) health indicators: linking individual-based indicators to a management-relevant endpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tyler; Jones, Michael L.; Ebener, Mark P.; Arts, Michael T.; Brenden, Travis O.; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Wright, Gregory M.; Faisal, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    We examined the spatial and temporal dynamics of health indicators in four lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) stocks located in northern lakes Michigan and Huron from 2003 to 2006. The specific objectives were to (1) quantify spatial and temporal variability in health indicators; (2) examine relationships among nutritional indicators and stock-specific spatial and temporal dynamics of pathogen prevalence and intensity of infection; and (3) examine relationships between indicators measured on individual fish and stock-specific estimates of natural mortality. The percent of the total variation attributed to spatial and temporal sources varied greatly depending on the health indicator examined. The most notable pattern was a downward trend in the concentration of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), observed in all stocks, in the polar lipid fraction of lake whitefish dorsal muscle tissue over the three study years. Variation among stocks and years for some indicators were correlated with the prevalence and intensity of the swimbladder nematode Cystidicola farionis, suggesting that our measures of fish health were related, at some level, with disease dynamics. We did not find relationships between spatial patterns in fish health indicators and estimates of natural mortality rates for the stocks. Our research highlights the complexity of the interactions between fish nutritional status, disease dynamics, and natural mortality in wild fish populations. Additional research that identifies thresholds of health indicators, below (or above) which survival may be reduced, will greatly help in understanding the relationship between indicators measured on individual fish and potential population-level effects.

  12. The effects of increased constant incubation temperature and cumulative acute heat shock exposures on morphology and survival of Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Abigail H; Eme, John; Mueller, Casey A; Manzon, Richard G; Somers, Christopher M; Boreham, Douglas R; Wilson, Joanna Y

    2016-04-01

    Increasing incubation temperatures, caused by global climate change or thermal effluent from industrial processes, may influence embryonic development of fish. This study investigates the cumulative effects of increased incubation temperature and repeated heat shocks on developing Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) embryos. We studied the effects of three constant incubation temperatures (2°C, 5°C or 8°C water) and weekly, 1-h heat shocks (+3°C) on hatching time, survival and morphology of embryos, as these endpoints may be particularly susceptible to temperature changes. The constant temperatures represent the predicted magnitude of elevated water temperatures from climate change and industrial thermal plumes. Time to the pre-hatch stage decreased as constant incubation temperature increased (148d at 2°C, 92d at 5°C, 50d at 8°C), but weekly heat shocks did not affect time to hatch. Mean survival rates and embryo morphometrics were compared at specific developmental time-points (blastopore, eyed, fin flutter and pre-hatch) across all treatments. Constant incubation temperatures or +3°C heat-shock exposures did not significantly alter cumulative survival percentage (~50% cumulative survival to pre-hatch stage). Constant warm incubation temperatures did result in differences in morphology in pre-hatch stage embryos. 8°C and 5°C embryos were significantly smaller and had larger yolks than 2°C embryos, but heat-shocked embryos did not differ from their respective constant temperature treatment groups. Elevated incubation temperatures may adversely alter Lake Whitefish embryo size at hatch, but weekly 1-h heat shocks did not affect size or survival at hatch. These results suggest that intermittent bouts of warm water effluent (e.g., variable industrial emissions) are less likely to negatively affect Lake Whitefish embryonic development than warmer constant incubation temperatures that may occur due to climate change.

  13. The effects of increased constant incubation temperature and cumulative acute heat shock exposures on morphology and survival of Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Abigail H; Eme, John; Mueller, Casey A; Manzon, Richard G; Somers, Christopher M; Boreham, Douglas R; Wilson, Joanna Y

    2016-04-01

    Increasing incubation temperatures, caused by global climate change or thermal effluent from industrial processes, may influence embryonic development of fish. This study investigates the cumulative effects of increased incubation temperature and repeated heat shocks on developing Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) embryos. We studied the effects of three constant incubation temperatures (2°C, 5°C or 8°C water) and weekly, 1-h heat shocks (+3°C) on hatching time, survival and morphology of embryos, as these endpoints may be particularly susceptible to temperature changes. The constant temperatures represent the predicted magnitude of elevated water temperatures from climate change and industrial thermal plumes. Time to the pre-hatch stage decreased as constant incubation temperature increased (148d at 2°C, 92d at 5°C, 50d at 8°C), but weekly heat shocks did not affect time to hatch. Mean survival rates and embryo morphometrics were compared at specific developmental time-points (blastopore, eyed, fin flutter and pre-hatch) across all treatments. Constant incubation temperatures or +3°C heat-shock exposures did not significantly alter cumulative survival percentage (~50% cumulative survival to pre-hatch stage). Constant warm incubation temperatures did result in differences in morphology in pre-hatch stage embryos. 8°C and 5°C embryos were significantly smaller and had larger yolks than 2°C embryos, but heat-shocked embryos did not differ from their respective constant temperature treatment groups. Elevated incubation temperatures may adversely alter Lake Whitefish embryo size at hatch, but weekly 1-h heat shocks did not affect size or survival at hatch. These results suggest that intermittent bouts of warm water effluent (e.g., variable industrial emissions) are less likely to negatively affect Lake Whitefish embryonic development than warmer constant incubation temperatures that may occur due to climate change. PMID:27033035

  14. Habitat selection and indirect interactions in fish communities

    OpenAIRE

    Beier, Ulrika

    2013-01-01

    To increase the understanding of freshwater lake ecosystems, I have studied the habitat selection of perch (Perca fluviatilis L.), roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)), and vendace (Coregonus albula (L.)). These fish species use the pelagic and the littoral-benthic habitats in lakes to different extents. Perch and roach are omnivorous, and perch become piscivorous at larger sizes. Vendace is a pelagic species specialized in eating zooplankton. Vendace was expected to affect biotic interactions and ha...

  15. The effects of chronic cadmium exposure on repeat swimming performance and anaerobic metabolism in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Jessie L; McGeer, James C

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effect of chronic Cd exposure on the ability to perform repeat swim challenges in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Fish were exposed to waterborne Cd (18nM) in moderately hard water (120mgL(-1) CaCO3) for 30 days. This level of exposure has been shown to cause sublethal physiological disruption and acclimation responses but no impairment of sustained swimming capacity (Ucrit) in single swim challenges. Swim trials were done over the course of the exposure and each one consisted of an initial swim to 85% of the Ucrit of control fish, a 30min recovery period and finally a second swim challenge to determine Ucrit. Plasma and tissue samples were collected before and after each of the swim periods. As expected from previous studies, Cd exposure resulted in significant accumulation of Cd in gills, liver and kidney but not in white muscle. Exposure also induced a loss of plasma Ca followed by subsequent recovery (in lake whitefish but not brown trout) with few mortalities (100% survival for lake whitefish and 93% for brown trout). Both control and exposed fish swam to 85% of the single swim Ucrit and no differences in performance were seen. The Ucrit of unexposed controls in the second swim challenges were not different from the single swim Ucrit. However, second swim performance was significantly reduced in Cd exposed fish, particularly after a week of exposure where 31% and 38% reductions were observed for brown trout and lake whitefish respectively. Swimming to 85% Ucrit resulted in metabolic expenditure with little recovery after 30min. Few differences were observed between control and Cd exposed fish with the exception of a reduction in resting white muscle ATP stores of Cd exposed fish after 1 week of exposure. The results show that chronic sublethal Cd exposure results in an impairment of swimming ability in repeat swim challenges but this impairment is generally not related to metabolic processes

  16. The effects of chronic cadmium exposure on repeat swimming performance and anaerobic metabolism in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Jessie L; McGeer, James C

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effect of chronic Cd exposure on the ability to perform repeat swim challenges in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Fish were exposed to waterborne Cd (18nM) in moderately hard water (120mgL(-1) CaCO3) for 30 days. This level of exposure has been shown to cause sublethal physiological disruption and acclimation responses but no impairment of sustained swimming capacity (Ucrit) in single swim challenges. Swim trials were done over the course of the exposure and each one consisted of an initial swim to 85% of the Ucrit of control fish, a 30min recovery period and finally a second swim challenge to determine Ucrit. Plasma and tissue samples were collected before and after each of the swim periods. As expected from previous studies, Cd exposure resulted in significant accumulation of Cd in gills, liver and kidney but not in white muscle. Exposure also induced a loss of plasma Ca followed by subsequent recovery (in lake whitefish but not brown trout) with few mortalities (100% survival for lake whitefish and 93% for brown trout). Both control and exposed fish swam to 85% of the single swim Ucrit and no differences in performance were seen. The Ucrit of unexposed controls in the second swim challenges were not different from the single swim Ucrit. However, second swim performance was significantly reduced in Cd exposed fish, particularly after a week of exposure where 31% and 38% reductions were observed for brown trout and lake whitefish respectively. Swimming to 85% Ucrit resulted in metabolic expenditure with little recovery after 30min. Few differences were observed between control and Cd exposed fish with the exception of a reduction in resting white muscle ATP stores of Cd exposed fish after 1 week of exposure. The results show that chronic sublethal Cd exposure results in an impairment of swimming ability in repeat swim challenges but this impairment is generally not related to metabolic processes

  17. Try Talk on Distribution and Management Scheme of CISCO and H3C Switches in Practice%试谈在实践中CISCO和H3C交换机的配通和管理方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鑫

    2013-01-01

    介绍了CISCO和H3C交换机的基本知识,分析了CISCO和H3C的主要功能配置和管理方案,在实践中总结出CISCO/H3C交换机的配置规律和管理方案,以优化网络拓扑结构、通信性能和应用需求,使得不同厂家生产的交换机可以顺利配通.

  18. Characteristics, stratigraphic architecture, and time framework of multi-order mixed siliciclastic and carbonate depositional sequences, outcropping Cisco Group (Late Pennsylvanian and Early Permian), Eastern Shelf, north-central Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wan; Kominz, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    The Cisco Group on the Eastern Shelf of the Midland Basin is composed of fluvial, deltaic, shelf, shelf-margin, and slope-to-basin carbonate and siliciclastic rocks. Sedimentologic and stratigraphic analyses of 181 meter-to-decimeter-scale depositional sequences exposed in the up-dip shelf indicated that the siliciclastic and carbonate parasequences in the transgressive systems tracts (TST) are thin and upward deepening, whereas those in highstand systems tracts (HST) are thick and upward shallowing. The sequences can be subdivided into five types on the basis of principal lithofacies, and exhibit variable magnitude of facies shift corresponding to variable extents of marine transgression and regression on the shelf. The sequence stacking patterns and their regional persistence suggest a three-level sequence hierarchy controlled by eustasy, whereas local and regional changes in lithology, thickness, and sequence type, magnitude, and absence were controlled by interplay of eustasy, differential shelf subsidence, depositional topography, and pattern of siliciclastic supply. The outcropping Cisco Group is highly incomplete with an estimated 6-11% stratigraphic completeness. The average duration of deposition of the major (third-order) sequences is estimated as 67-102 ka on the up-dip shelf and increases down dip, while the average duration of the major sequence boundaries (SB) is estimated as 831-1066 ka and decreases down dip. The nondepositional and erosional hiatus on the up-dip shelf was represented by lowstand deltaic systems in the basin and slope.

  19. Coordination-induced spin crossover (CISCO) through axial bonding of substituted pyridines to nickel-porphyrins: sigma-donor versus pi-acceptor effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, Steffen; Bornholdt, Claudia; Köhler, Felix; Sönnichsen, Frank D; Näther, Christian; Tuczek, Felix; Herges, Rainer

    2010-09-01

    Nickel-porphyrins, with their rigid quadratic planar coordination framework, provide an excellent model to study the coordination-induced spin crossover (CISCO) effect because bonding of one or two axial ligands to the metal center leads to a spin transition from S=0 to S=1. Herein, both equilibrium constants K(1S) and K(2), and for the first time also the corresponding thermodynamic parameters DeltaH(1S), DeltaH(2), DeltaS(1S), and DeltaS(2), are determined for the reaction of a nickel-porphyrin (Ni-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin) with different 4-substituted pyridines by temperature-dependent NMR spectroscopy. The association constants K(1S) and K(2) are correlated with the basicity of the 4-substituted pyridines (R: OMe>H>CO(2)Et>NO(2)) whereas the DeltaH(1S) values exhibit a completely different order (OMeCO(2)Et>NO(2)). 4-Nitropyridine exhibits the largest binding enthalpy, which, however, is overcompensated by a large negative binding entropy. We attribute the large association enthalpy of nitropyridine with porphyrin to the back donation of electrons from the Ni d(xz) and d(yz) orbitals into the pi orbitals of pyridine, and the negative association entropy to a decrease in vibrational and internal rotation entropy of the more rigid porphyrin-pyridine complex. Back donation for the nitro- and cyanopyridine complexes is also confirmed by IR spectroscopy, and shows a shift of the N-O and C-N vibrations, respectively, to lower wave numbers. X-ray structures of 2:1 complexes with nitro-, cyano-, and dimethylaminopyridine provide further indication of a back donation. A further trend has been observed: the more basic the pyridine the larger is K(1S) relative to K(2). For nitropyridine K(2) is 17 times larger than K(1S) and in the case of methoxypyridine K(2) and K(1S) are almost equal.

  20. Cisco Router Configuration with IP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiqur Rahman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks. Routers perform the "traffic directing" functions on the Internet. A data packet is typically forwarded from one router to another through the networks that constitute the internetwork until it reaches its destination node. A router is connected to two or more data lines from different networks (as opposed to a network switch, which connects data lines from one single network. When a data packet comes in on one of the lines, the router reads the address information in the packet to determine its ultimate destination. Then, using information in its routing table or routing policy, it directs the packet to the next network on its journey. This creates an overlay internetwork. The most familiar type of routers are home and small office routers that simply pass data, such as web pages, email, IM, and videos between the home computers and the Internet. An example of a router would be the owner's cable or DSL router, which connects to the Internet through an ISP. More sophisticated routers, such as enterprise routers, connect large business or ISP networks up to the powerful core routers that forward data at high speed along the optical fiber lines of the Internet backbone. Though routers are typically dedicated hardware devices, use of software-based routers has grown increasingly common.

  1. Kakskümmend kaks kala eesti rahvausundis. III

    OpenAIRE

    Mall Hiiemäe

    2000-01-01

    The Baltic herring Clupea harengus membras, a local subspecies of the North Atlantic herring which had reached the Baltic Sea nearly 5,000 years ago, is probably the most important food fish (for salting) both in the coastal regions as well as everywhere else in Estonia. The need to determine the exact time of fishing has inspired nearly 30% of its popular names, mainly on the basis of orientation to phenological phenomena or popular festivals.Vendace/whitefish? Coregonus albula and rudds Rut...

  2. Habitat coupling in a large lake system: delivery of an energy subsidy by an offshore planktivore to the nearshore zone of Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Jason D.; Yule, Daniel L.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Sierszen, Michael E.; Isaac, Edmund J.

    2014-01-01

    1. We hypothesised that the autumn spawning migration of Lake Superior cisco (Coregonus artedi) provides a resource subsidy, in the form of energy-rich cisco eggs, from the offshore pelagic to the nearshore benthic community over winter, when alternate prey production is likely to be low. 2. We tested this hypothesis using fish and macroinvertebrate surveys, fish population demographics, diet and stable isotope analyses, and bioenergetics modelling. 3. The benthic, congeneric lake whitefish (C. clupeaformis) was a clear beneficiary of cisco spawning. Cisco eggs represented 16% of lake whitefish annual consumption in terms of biomass, but 34% of energy (because of their high energy density: >10 kJ g wet mass−1). Stable isotope analyses were consistent with these results and suggest that other nearshore fish species may also rely on cisco eggs. 4. The lipid content of lake whitefish liver almost doubled from 26 to 49% between November and March, while that of muscle increased from 14 to 26% over the same period, suggesting lake whitefish were building, rather than depleting, lipid reserves during winter. 5. In the other Laurentian Great Lakes, where cisco populations remain very low and rehabilitation efforts are underway, the offshore-to-nearshore ecological link apparent in Lake Superior has been replaced by non-native planktivorous species. These non-native species spawn in spring have smaller eggs and shorter incubation periods. The rehabilitation of cisco in these systems should reinstate the onshore subsidy as it has in Lake Superior.

  3. Physiological and ecological effects of increasing temperature on fish production in lakes of Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Michael P.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2014-01-01

    Lake ecosystems in the Arctic are changing rapidly due to climate warming. Lakes are sensitive integrators of climate-induced changes and prominent features across the Arctic landscape, especially in lowland permafrost regions such as the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. Despite many studies on the implications of climate warming, how fish populations will respond to lake changes is uncertain for Arctic ecosystems. Least Cisco (Coregonus sardinella) is a bellwether for Arctic lakes as an important consumer and prey resource. To explore the consequences of climate warming, we used a bioenergetics model to simulate changes in Least Cisco production under future climate scenarios for lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain. First, we used current temperatures to fit Least Cisco consumption to observed annual growth. We then estimated growth, holding food availability, and then feeding rate constant, for future projections of temperature. Projected warmer water temperatures resulted in reduced Least Cisco production, especially for larger size classes, when food availability was held constant. While holding feeding rate constant, production of Least Cisco increased under all future scenarios with progressively more growth in warmer temperatures. Higher variability occurred with longer projections of time mirroring the expanding uncertainty in climate predictions further into the future. In addition to direct temperature effects on Least Cisco growth, we also considered changes in lake ice phenology and prey resources for Least Cisco. A shorter period of ice cover resulted in increased production, similar to warming temperatures. Altering prey quality had a larger effect on fish production in summer than winter and increased relative growth of younger rather than older age classes of Least Cisco. Overall, we predicted increased production of Least Cisco due to climate warming in lakes of Arctic Alaska. Understanding the implications of increased production of Least Cisco to

  4. Empirical evaluation of predator-driven diel vertical migration in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, J.D.; Hrabik, T.R.; Jensen, O.P.; Yule, D.L.; Balge, M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies on Lake Superior suggest that diel vertical migration (DVM) of prey (generalized Coregonus spp.) may be influenced by the density of predatory siscowet (Salvelinus namaycush). We empirically evaluated this hypothesis using data from acoustic, midwater trawl, and bottom trawl sampling at eight Lake Superior sites during three seasons in 2005 and a subset of sites in 2006. We expected the larger-bodied cisco (Coregonus artedi) to exhibit a shallower DVM compared with the smaller-bodied kiyi (Coregonus kiyi). Although DVM of kiyi and cisco were consistent with expectations of DVM as a size-dependent, predator-mediated process, we found no relationship between siscowet density and the magnitude of DVM of either coregonid. Cisco appear to have a size refuge from siscowet predation. Kiyi and siscowet co-occur in demersal habitat > 150 m during the day, where visual predation is unlikely, suggesting predator avoidance is not a factor in the daytime distribution of kiyi. Seasonal patterns of kiyi DVM were consistent with reported DVM of their primary prey Mysis relicta. Our results suggest that consideration of nonvisual foraging, rather than lightbased foraging theory (i.e., the antipredation window), is necessary to understand the processes driving DVM in deepwater systems.

  5. Morphological cladistic study of coregonine fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G.R.; Todd, T.N.

    1992-01-01

    A cladistic analysis of 50 characters from 26 taxa of coregonine fishes and two outgroup taxa yields a phylogenetic tree with two major branches, best summarized as two genera - Prosopium and Coregonus. Presence of teeth on the palatine, long maxillae, and long supra-maxillae are primitive, whereas loss of teeth, short or notched maxillae, and short supermaxillae are derived traits. P. coulteri and C. huntsmani are morphologically and phylogenetically primitive members of their groups. The widespread species, P. cylindraceum and P. williamsoni are morphologically advanced in parallel with the subgenus Coregonus (whitefishes): they share subterminal mouths, short jaws, and reduced teeth. Prosopium gemmifer parallels the ciscoes, subgenus Leucichthys. The whitefishes, C. ussuriensis, C. lavaretus, C. clupeaformis, and C. nasus are a monophyletic group, the subgenus Coregonus. The subgenus Leucichthys is a diverse, relatively plesiomorphic assemblage, widespread in the Holarctic region. This assemblage includes the inconnu, Stenodus.

  6. Firepower, Next Generation firewall from Cisco

    OpenAIRE

    Isaksson, Rickard

    2015-01-01

    As there is more and more threats on the internet the need for security is more crucial than ever for the companies to look into their solutions to protect their information. To be able to see how an attack works, we discus and show how an attack is progressing in this thesis we compare the difference between traditional and Next Generation firewalls. We also compare three different vendors to compare different functions and security performance. By using Systemair AB as testing ground and ha...

  7. Prey selection by the Lake Superior fish community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Edmund J.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Gamble, Allison E.

    2012-01-01

    Mysis diluviana is an important prey item to the Lake Superior fish community as found through a recent diet study. We further evaluated this by relating the quantity of prey found in fish diets to the quantity of prey available to fish, providing insight into feeding behavior and prey preferences. We describe the seasonal prey selection of major fish species collected across 18 stations in Lake Superior in spring, summer, and fall of 2005. Of the major nearshore fish species, bloater (Coregonus hoyi), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) consumed Mysis, and strongly selected Mysis over other prey items each season. However, lake whitefish also selected Bythotrephes in the fall when Bythotrephes were numerous. Cisco (Coregonus artedi), a major nearshore and offshore species, fed largely on calanoid copepods, and selected calanoid copepods (spring) and Bythotrephes (summer and fall). Cisco also targeted prey similarly across bathymetric depths. Other major offshore fish species such as kiyi (Coregonus kiyi) and deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsoni) fed largely on Mysis, with kiyi targeting Mysis exclusively while deepwater sculpin did not prefer any single prey organism. The major offshore predator siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet) consumed deepwater sculpin and coregonines, but selected deepwater sculpin and Mysis each season, with juveniles having a higher selection for Mysis than adults. Our results suggest that Mysis is not only a commonly consumed prey item, but a highly preferred prey item for pelagic, benthic, and piscivorous fishes in nearshore and offshore waters of Lake Superior.

  8. Comparing climate change and species invasions as drivers of coldwater fish population extirpations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna Sharma

    Full Text Available Species are influenced by multiple environmental stressors acting simultaneously. Our objective was to compare the expected effects of climate change and invasion of non-indigenous rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax on cisco (Coregonus artedii population extirpations at a regional level. We assembled a database of over 13,000 lakes in Wisconsin, USA, summarising fish occurrence, lake morphology, water chemistry, and climate. We used A1, A2, and B1 scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC of future temperature conditions for 15 general circulation models in 2046-2065 and 2081-2100 totalling 78 projections. Logistic regression indicated that cisco tended to occur in cooler, larger, and deeper lakes. Depending upon the amount of warming, 25-70% of cisco populations are predicted to be extirpated by 2100. In addition, cisco are influenced by the invasion of rainbow smelt, which prey on young cisco. Projecting current estimates of rainbow smelt spread and impact into the future will result in the extirpation of about 1% of cisco populations by 2100 in Wisconsin. Overall, the effect of climate change is expected to overshadow that of species invasion as a driver of coldwater fish population extirpations. Our results highlight the potentially dominant role of climate change as a driver of biotic change.

  9. Reflections on American Patent Inducement of Infringement Rules---Comment on Commil USA, LLC.v.Cisco System, Inc.Case%对美国专利引诱侵权规则的几点思考--兼评美国Commil公司诉Cisco公司引诱侵权案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓文

    2016-01-01

    最近,美国最高法院提审了“Commil公司诉Cisco公司”专利引诱侵权案,就专利引诱侵权提出了新的判断规则,并就“积极引诱”行为的主观意图认定标准作了进一步确认。文章从分析美国专利引诱侵权方面的立法及最新司法判例出发,对主观意图认定标准作了进一步探讨,并对提出的最新判断规则进行了评述。%Recently, the US Supreme Court arraigned "Commil USA,LLC.V.Cisco System, Inc."patent inducement of infringement case , proposing a new judge rule on the case .What's more, the standards on subjective intention of"actively induces infringement"have been further identified .This thesis is prepare to analysis the latest legislative and judicial precedents about the patent inducement of infringement in the United States , making further discussion about "actively induces"recognized standards .Also, it's going to make commentary about the new rule that the US Supreme Court proposed .

  10. Content comparison of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in traditionally smoked freshwater fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Pietrzak-Fiećko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the content of chosen PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene in meat of different freshwater fish species that were traditionally (directly smoked. The survey covered 16 freshwater fish samples of four species: rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, carp (Cyprinus carpio, vendace (Coregonus albula and eel (Anguilla anguilla. Average content of sum of four PAHs in meat of trout, carp, vendace and eel was: 2.73, 8.23, 6.45 and 3.65 µg/kg of meat, respectively. Maximum levels of chosen PAHs in meat of examined fish species were not exceeded by any of the samples. Conducted studies confirmed that meat of traditionally smoked trout, carp, vendace and eel is safe in terms of content of the analysed PAHs.

  11. Trophic connections in Lake Superior Part I: the offshore fish community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, A.E.; Hrabik, T.R.; Stockwell, J.D.; Yule, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    Detailed diet linkages within the offshore (> 80 m bathymetric depth) food web of Lake Superior are currently not well identified. We used analyses of fish stomach contents to create an empirically based food web model of the Lake Superior offshore fish community. Stomachs were collected seasonally (spring, summer, and fall) from nine offshore locations in 2005, using bottom and midwater trawls. In total, 2643 stomachs representing 12 fish species were examined. The predominant fish species collected were deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsonii), siscowet (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet), kiyi (Coregonus kiyi), and cisco (Coregonus artedi). Mysis diluviana was the most common prey item, indicating that changes in Mysis abundance could have a profound impact on the entire offshore food web. Mysis was the primary diet item of deepwater sculpin (≥ 53% by mass) and kiyi (≥ 96% by mass) regardless of depth or season. The invasive Bythotrephes was an important diet component of the pelagic cisco in summer and fall. Deepwater sculpin were the primary diet item of siscowet (≥ 52% by mass), with coregonines appearing in the diet of larger (> 400 mm) siscowet. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis indicated that there were no statistically significant seasonal or site-specific differences in diets of deepwater sculpin, cisco, or kiyi. Site was the primary structuring factor in siscowet diets. Generally, in Lake Superior, the diet items of the dominant offshore species did not appear to be in danger from those types of major ecological shifts occurring in the lower Laurentian Great Lakes.

  12. Fish resource data from the Snare River, Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive fish sampling and tagging program was conducted on the Snare River, Northwest Territories, in order to collect baseline data on the fish populations in sections of the river altered by hydroelectric projects. Fish populations were sampled from May to July 1977 in five sections of the river that were influenced by development of hydropower at three dams currently on line; 530 tagged fish were also released. The biweekly catch composition in experimental gill nets for each study area and the catch per gill net mesh size are presented for walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), lake cisco (Coregonus artedi), northern pike (Esox lucius), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus). Age-specific data on length, weight, age, sex, and maturity are also included. 7 refs., 12 figs., 42 tabs

  13. A Performance Support Tool for Cisco Training Program Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Angela D.; Bothra, Jashoda; Sharma, Priya

    2004-01-01

    Performance support systems can play an important role in corporations by managing and allowing distribution of information more easily. These systems run the gamut from simple paper job aids to sophisticated computer- and web-based software applications that support the entire corporate supply chain. According to Gery (1991), a performance…

  14. Long-term effects of extreme weather events and eutrophication on the fish community of shallow Lake Peipsi (Estonia/Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Külli Kangur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The fish kill in lake Peipsi (Estonia/Russia during the extraordinarily hot summer of 2010 evoked an investigation into the effects of environmental extremes and long-term eutrophication on the fish community of the lake. Current data on lake Peipsi indicate that temperature extremes and synergistic interactions with eutrophication have led to a radical restructuring of the fish community. Commercial landings of lake smelt, Osmerus eperlanus eperlanus m. spirinchus (Pallas, the previous dominant species of the fish community, have decreased dramatically since the 1930s, these declines being coupled with summer heat waves coinciding with low water levels. Gradual decline in smelt stock and catches was significantly related to a decline of near-bottom oxygen conditions and to a decrease in water transparency. The first documented fish kill in 1959 occurred only in the southern, most shallow and eutrophic lake (lake Pihkva. Recently, summer fish kill have become more frequent, involving larger areas of the lake. In addition to the cold-water species, e.g. smelt and vendace Coregonus albula (L., the abundance of bottom-dwelling fishes such as ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus (L. and juvenile fish have significantly decreased after the 2010 heat wave probably due to hypoxia and warm water temperatures. This study showed that fish community structure in large shallow lakes may be very vulnerable to water temperature increases, especially temperature extremes in combination with eutrophication.

  15. Potential strategies for recovery of lake whitefish and lake herring stocks in eastern Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, K.; Stapanian, M.A.; Ryan, P.A.; Holm, E.

    2007-01-01

    Lake Erie sustained large populations of ciscoes (Salmonidae: Coregoninae) 120 years ago. By the end of the 19th century, abundance of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) had declined drastically. By 1925, the lake herring (a cisco) population (Coregonus artedii) had collapsed, although a limited lake herring fishery persisted in the eastern basin until the 1950s. In the latter part of the 20th century, the composition of the fish community changed as oligotrophication proceeded. Since 1984, a limited recovery of lake whitefish has occurred, however no recovery was evident for lake herring. Current ecological conditions in Lake Erie probably will not inhibit recovery of the coregonine species. Recovery of walleye (Sander vitreus) and efforts to rehabilitate the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Erie will probably assist recovery because these piscivores reduce populations of alewife (Alosa psuedoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), which inhibit reproductive success of coregonines. Although there are considerable spawning substrates available to coregonine species in eastern Lake Erie, eggs and fry would probably be displaced by storm surge from most shoals. Site selection for stocking or seeding of eggs should consider the reproductive life cycle of the stocked fish and suitable protection from storm events. Two potential sites in the eastern basin have been identified. Recommended management procedures, including commercial fisheries, are suggested to assist in recovery. Stocking in the eastern basin of Lake Erie is recommended for both species, as conditions are adequate and the native spawning population in the eastern basin is low. For lake herring, consideration should be given to match ecophenotypes as much as possible. Egg seeding is recommended. Egg seeding of lake whitefish should be considered initially, with fingerling or yearling stocking suggested if unsuccessful. Spawning stocks of whitefish in the western basin of Lake

  16. To Cisco IOS type 7 passwords encryptions improvement%对Cisco IOS类型7口令加密的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓峰; 李育泽

    2009-01-01

    本文针对Ciseo IOS类型7加密口令的破解工具,分析了他的缺陷,在其原有算法的基础上进行了改进,利用文中程序生成的类型7加密字符串,不会被流行的破解工具破解.

  17. Islands in the ice stream: were spawning habitats for native salmonids in the Great Lakes created by paleo-ice streams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Stephen; Binder, Thomas R.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Menzies, John; Eyles, Nick; Janssen, John; Muir, Andrew M.; Esselman, Peter C.; Wattrus, Nigel J.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis and cisco Coregonus artedi are salmonid fishes native to the Laurentian Great Lakes that spawn on rocky substrates in the fall and early winter. After comparing the locations of spawning habitat for these species in the main basin of Lake Huron with surficial substrates and the hypothesized locations of fast-flowing Late Wisconsinan paleo-ice streams, we hypothesize that much of the spawning habitat for these species in Lake Huron is the result of deposition and erosion by paleo-ice streams. This hypothesis may represent a new framework for the identification and protection of spawning habitat for these native species, some of which are currently rare or extirpated in some of the Great Lakes. We further suggest that paleo-ice streams may have been responsible for the creation of native salmonid spawning habitat elsewhere in the Great Lakes and in other glaciated landscapes.

  18. Lake Michigan: Man's effects on native fish stocks and other biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, LaRue; McLain, Alberton L.

    1973-01-01

    Man's activities have caused great changes in Lake Michigan in the past 120 years. Although changes in water chemistry and lower biota have been generally modest (except locally), those in native fish stocks have been vast. Exploitation, exotic fish species, and eutrophication and other forms of pollution all have played a role in bringing about the changes (mostly declines in abundance) in fish populations. Exploitation resulted in a noticeable reduction in abundance of certain native species (especially whitefish) soon after the establishment of the commercial fishery in the 1840's. By the 1930's the sturgeon and the two largest deepwater ciscoes (Coregonus nigripinnis and C. johannae) became severely depleted. Other species- whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and lake herring (C. artedii)- remained important commercially, but at a lower level of production than originally; greatly increased fishing effort and efficiency were required to maintain even these decreased catches. The catch of intermediate-size ciscoes held relatively stable, but again only through sharply increased fishing effort and efficiency. The earliest serious effects of exotic fish species on native fish stocks may have been during the 1930's, when smelt (Osmerus mordax), first became abundant. Powerful influences by exotics were not obvious, however, until the 1940's, when the sea lamprey's (Petromyzon marinus) predation on several species, particularly the lake trout, became critical. In the 1950's the sea lamprey was joined by the alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), another exotic strongly deleterious to several native fish. The alewife apparently inhibited reproduction of deepwater ciscoes, yellow perch (Perca flavescens), deepwater sculpins (Myoxocephalus quadricornis), emerald shiners (Notropis atherinoides), and perhaps others (through competing with young, or feeding on them). At the same time, however, the alewife as a prolific forage fish has made

  19. WIRELESS ADHOC MULTI ACCESS NETWORKS OPTIMIZATION USING OSPF ROUTING PROTOCOL BASED ON CISCO DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. Khedr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most attractive field for research for researchers and authors so the Wireless adhoc networks. So, this paper will describe the background and basic features of Open Short Path First (OSPF routing protocol due to multi-access networks. Explaining and practice on the OSPF configuration commands. Describe, modify and calculate the metric (Cost used by OSPF due to adhoc networks. Illustrating the Election parameters made by DR/BDR (Designated and Back Designated Routers used in multi-access wireless networks. This paper will use OSPF routing protocol because of its average administrative distance with all routing protocols.

  20. The age, growth, and distribution of the longjaw cisco, Leucichthys alpenae Koelz, in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobes, Frank W.

    1949-01-01

    The longjaw (Leucichthys alpenae) was found at all of the 109 stations fished in the open lake during 1930–1932 and at 29 of the 32 stations in Green Bay in 1930 and 1932. Koelz (1929) found the longjaw at 35 localities, 33 of which were different from those fished in 1930–1932. The species was most abundant in water with a depth of less than 70 fathoms, but was found as deep as 97 fathoms. The longjaw was estimated to be about 4 1/3 times as abundant along the east shore of southern Lake Michigan as along the west shore in 1930 and 1931. The abundance along the east shore in 1930–1931 was estimated to be approximately equal to that in northern Lake Michigan in 1932. The best explanation for the relative scarcity of L. alpenae along the west shore is that a more intensive fishery, with smaller sizes of mesh, was operating on a separate population.

  1. Real-time DDoS attack detection for Cisco IOS using NetFlow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeg, van der Daniël; Hofstede, Rick; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    2015-01-01

    Flow-based DDoS attack detection is typically performed by analysis applications that are installed on or close to a flow collector. Although this approach allows for easy deployment, it makes detection far from real-time and susceptible to DDoS attacks for the following reasons. First, the fact tha

  2. Delivering an Intelligent Foundation for RFID: Maximizing Network Efficiency with Cisco RFID Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) is one of today s most anticipated technologies for a broad range of enterprises. Based on the promise of lower operating costs combined with more accurate product and asset information, organizations .Rfrom manufacturers to government agencies, retailers to healthcare providers , Rare introducing RFID technologies in the supply chain, for asset tracking and management, and for security and regulatory purposes.

  3. Afectos, optimismo disposicional e optimismo irrealista: estudo de caso cisco Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Tomaz, Cátia Daniela Silva Antunes

    2012-01-01

    Projecto de Mestrado em Gestão / Classificação JEL: M1 - Business Administration (M12 - Personnel Management; Executive Compensation); M5 - Personnel Economics (M51 - Firm Employment Decisions; Promotions); J2 - Demand and Supply of Labor (J24 - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity) Para gerir é preciso decidir e numa empresa, normalmente, os colaboradores têm de decidir perante as mais variadas situações com um grau maior ou menor de risco e complexid...

  4. 基于pemu的cisco pix硬件防火墙实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷运理

    2011-01-01

    防火墙技术是信息安全课程中一门重要的内容,本文结合高职院校学生培养目标,开发了基于pemu的pix 525防火墙硬件实验平台,该硬件实验平台具有成本低廉和真实企业的应用实验环境.

  5. Comprehensive Comparison of VoIP SIP Protocol Problems and Cisco VoIP System

    OpenAIRE

    TALAL AL-KHAROBI; Mohmmed Abduallah Al-Mehdhar

    2012-01-01

    Voice over IP (VoIP), use of the packet switched internet for telephony, has improved substantially in the past few years. On the other hand, VoIP has many challenges that do not exist in the public switched telephone network (PSTN), a circuit switched system. VoIP is an application running on the internet, and therefore inherits the internet’s security issues. It is important to realise that VoIP is a relatively young technology, and with any new technology, security typically improves with ...

  6. Contrasting population and life history responses of a young morph-pair of European whitefish to the invasion of a specialised coregonid competitor, vendace.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odd Terje Sandlund

    Full Text Available Invasions of non-native species represent a global problem of great scientific interest. Here we study in detail the response in population and life history characteristics of closely related native species, with divergent habitat preferences, that are impacted by an invading species over a sufficient time period to allow a new stable state to become established. A time series of 20 years starting at the first occurrence of the invader (vendace Coregonus albula (L. allows exploration of the long term population and life history response of two ecologically, morphologically, and genetically different native sympatric morphs (DR- and SR- of congeneric whitefish C. lavaretus (L.. The whitefish morphs are taxonomically equally related to the invading vendace, but only the planktivorous DR-whitefish share its pelagic niche. We would expect that the ecological differences between the whitefish morphs may be used as a predictor of competitive effects. Vendace exhibited an initial boom-and-bust development, and has continued to fluctuate in density. The responses of the pelagic DR-whitefish were: i an immediate habitat shift, ii a subsequent population decline caused by increased annual mortality, and iii a new stable state at a lower density and apparently relaxed competition. The ecologically more distant benthivorous SR-whitefish also showed significant, but a much more limited response during this process, indicating damped indirect interactions through the food-web. This long-term case-study found that in two native eco-species equally related to the invader, only one of the eco-species was highly affected. Direct competition for resources is obviously important for species interactions, whereas the taxonomic relatedness per se seems to offer little predictive power for invasion effects.

  7. Postglacial recolonization patterns and genetic relationships among whitefish ( Coregonus sp.) populations in Denmark, inferred from mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons; Berg, Søren

    1999-01-01

    of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) segments, The endangered North Sea houting (classified as C. oxyrhynchus) differs morphologically and physiologically from other Danish whitefish (C. lavaretus). However, limited divergence of North Sea houting was observed both at the level of mtDNA and microsatellites...

  8. Additive genetic variation for tolerance to estrogen pollution in natural populations of Alpine whitefish (Coregonus sp., Salmonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazzola, Gregory; Chèvre, Nathalie; Wedekind, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary potential of natural populations to adapt to anthropogenic threats critically depends on whether there exists additive genetic variation for tolerance to the threat. A major problem for water-dwelling organisms is chemical pollution, and among the most common pollutants is 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), the synthetic estrogen that is used in oral contraceptives and that can affect fish at various developmental stages, including embryogenesis. We tested whether there is variation in the tolerance to EE2 within Alpine whitefish. We sampled spawners from two species of different lakes, bred them in vitro in a full-factorial design each, and studied growth and mortality of embryos. Exposure to EE2 turned out to be toxic in all concentrations we tested (≥1 ng/L). It reduced embryo viability and slowed down embryogenesis. We found significant additive genetic variation in EE2-induced mortality in both species, that is, genotypes differed in their tolerance to estrogen pollution. We also found maternal effects on embryo development to be influenced by EE2, that is, some maternal sib groups were more susceptible to EE2 than others. In conclusion, the toxic effects of EE2 were strong, but both species demonstrated the kind of additive genetic variation that is necessary for an evolutionary response to this type of pollution. PMID:25553069

  9. The age, growth, sexual maturity, and sex ratio of the common whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchill), of Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oosten, John

    1939-01-01

    During five years (1939-43) of nutritional research on pen-reared bobwhite quail at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, observations on picking among birds of all ages showed the following results: 1. Picking occurred on all grains tested: corn, wheat, oats, oat groats, barley, millet, buckwheat, kaffir, and mixtures of cereals. The lowest incidence was with buckwheat as the sole grain in a growing diet....2. Picking occurred on all levels of fiber from one to 11per cent in a growing diet....3. Picking occurred on various grinds of corn, barley, and oats, but was least when these cereals were ground in a hammer mill with 3/32 inch mesh screen....4. The incidence was as high on diets containing animal protein as on those containing no animal protein. ....5. After picking began, the addition of one or two per cent of salt to the diet for several days was effective, in many instances, in checking the disorder. Results at the Refuge and the answers to questionnaires from 222 private propagators of gamebirds showed that in two-thirds. of the cases, treatment with an increased quantity of salt successfully stopped the trouble. As a preventative, however, salt was of little value. Picking occurred on both low and high levels of salt.....6. Supplementing the regular diet with certain feed concentrates such as fishmeal, soybean oil meal, liver meal, or chopped greens offered in a separate feeder for a day or two, was as efficacious as the addition of salt.....7. More picking occurred among quail chicks on a 22 per cent level of protein than on higher levels.....8. There was less picking on diets relished by the birds than on those seemingly unpalatable.....9. There was no correlation. between the amount of floor space per chick and the incidence of picking.....10. Increasing the feeding and drinking space seemed to have a marked beneficial effect.....11. Some adult birds on wire floors resorted to self-picking of their feet after the toes were frost-bitten.

  10. Mitogenome sequencing reveals shallow evolutionary histories and recent divergence time between morphologically and ecologically distinct European whitefish (Coregonus spp.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Magnus W.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Orlando, Ludovic;

    2012-01-01

    the evolutionary history of the endangered Danish North Sea houting (NSH) and other closely related Danish and Baltic European lake whitefish (ELW). Two well-supported clades were found within both ELW and NSH, probably reflecting historical introgression via Baltic migrants. Although ELW and NSH...

  11. 77 FR 61330 - Policies Regarding Mobile Spectrum Holdings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... significant investment in new facilities.'' \\35\\ \\32\\ See Cisco White Paper, Cisco Visual Networking Index....cisco.com/en/US/solutions/collateral/ns341/ns525/ns537/ns705/ns827/white_paper_c11-520862.pdf (last... Sept. 6, 2012). \\34\\ See Cisco White Paper, Cisco Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data...

  12. Seasonally dynamic diel vertical migrations of Mysis diluviana, coregonine fishes, and siscowet lake trout in the pelagia of western Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrenstorff, Tyler D.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Yule, Daniel L.; Sass, Greg G.

    2011-01-01

    Diel vertical migrations are common among many aquatic species and are often associated with changing light levels. The underlying mechanisms are generally attributed to optimizing foraging efficiency or growth rates and avoiding predation risk (μ). The objectives of this study were to (1) assess seasonal and interannual changes in vertical migration patterns of three trophic levels in the Lake Superior pelagic food web and (2) examine the mechanisms underlying the observed variability by using models of foraging, growth, and μ. Our results suggest that the opossum shrimp Mysis diluviana, kiyi Coregonus kiyi, and siscowet lake trout Salvelinus namaycush migrate concurrently during each season, but spring migrations are less extensive than summer and fall migrations. In comparison with M. diluviana, kiyis, and siscowets, the migrations by ciscoes C. artedi were not as deep in the water column during the day, regardless of season. Foraging potential and μ probably drive the movement patterns of M. diluviana, while our modeling results indicate that movements by kiyis and ciscoes are related to foraging opportunity and growth potential and receive a lesser influence from μ. The siscowet is an abundant apex predator in the pelagia of Lake Superior and probably undertakes vertical migrations in the water column to optimize foraging efficiency and growth. The concurrent vertical movement patterns of most species are likely to facilitate nutrient transport in this exceedingly oligotrophic ecosystem, and they demonstrate strong linkages between predators and prey. Fishery management strategies should use an ecosystem approach and should consider how altering the densities of long-lived top predators produces cascading effects on the nutrient cycling and energy flow in lower trophic levels.

  13. Using multiple gears to assess acoustic detectability and biomass of fish species in lake superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, D.L.; Adams, J.V.; Stockwell, J.D.; Gorman, O.T.

    2007-01-01

    Recent predator demand and prey supply studies suggest that an annual daytime bottom trawl survey of Lake Superior underestimates prey fish biomass. A multiple-gear (acoustics, bottom trawl, and midwater trawl) nighttime survey has been recommended, but before abandoning a long-term daytime survey the effectiveness of night sampling of important prey species must be verified. We sampled three bottom depths (30, 60, and 120 m) at a Lake Superior site where the fish community included all commercially and ecologically important species. Day and night samples were collected within 48 h at all depths during eight different periods (one new and one full moon period during both early summer and late summer to early fall over 2 years). Biomass of demersal and benthic species was higher in night bottom trawl samples than in day bottom trawl samples. Night acoustic collections showed that pelagic fish typically occupied water cooler than 15°C and light levels less than 0.001 lx. Using biomass in night bottom trawls and acoustic biomass above the bottom trawl path, we calculated an index of acoustic detectability for each species. Ciscoes Coregonus artedi, kiyis C. kiyi, and rainbow smeltOsmerus mordax left the bottom at night, whereas bloaters C. hoyi stayed nearer the bottom. We compared the biomass of important prey species estimated with two survey types: day bottom trawls and night estimates of the entire water column (bottom trawl biomass plus acoustic biomass). The biomass of large ciscoes (>200 mm) was significantly greater when measured at night than when measured during daylight, but the differences for other sizes of important species did not vary significantly by survey type. Nighttime of late summer is a period when conditions for biomass estimation are largely invariant, and all important prey species can be sampled using a multiple-gear approach.

  14. 76 FR 36154 - In the Matter of Certain Equipment for Communications Networks, Including Switches, Routers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... served: Cisco Systems, Inc., 170 West Tasman Drive, San Jose, CA 95134-1706; Cisco Consumer Products LLC, 120 Theory Drive, Irvine, CA 92617. Cisco Systems International B.V., Harrlerbergweg 13-19,...

  15. 76 FR 68785 - Certain Communications Equipment, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same, Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... in WLANs and cameras. The complaint names as respondents Cisco Systems, Inc. of San Jose, CA; Cisco Consumer Products LLC of Irvine, CA; Cisco Systems International B.V. of Amsterdam, Netherlands;...

  16. Investigating the Impact of the Cisco 21st Century Schools Initiative on Hattiesburg Public School District. Summative Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Harouna; Meade, Terri; Pierson, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Camille; Roy, Amanda; Williams, Hakim

    2009-01-01

    The Hattiesburg Public School District (HPSD) is a small urban school system located in southern Mississippi. Of the almost 4,500 students enrolled in its nine schools, 92 percent are African American and 90 percent receive free or reduced lunch. Currently, HPSD employs 34 administrators, 375 teachers, and 11 technology specialists. When the 21st…

  17. Comparative Study of the CSR Intiatives of Microsoft, IBM, Google, Sun Microsystems & Cisco Systems in the Gulf Region

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazinoori, Seyed Amirhossein

    2008-01-01

    As an integral part of our MBA course, we had to attend the final 60 credits of the course which was based on the dissertation. On the other side another option also suggested by the university and that was participating in managerial report related to one organization which was possible to attend as an individual and also it was possible to approach the project as a group and after that each member write the individual report based on his/her participation and contribution to the group repor...

  18. Method- and species-specific detection probabilities of fish occupancy in Arctic lakes: Implications for design and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Trevor B.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Whitman, Matthew; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2013-01-01

    Studies examining species occurrence often fail to account for false absences in field sampling. We investigate detection probabilities of five gear types for six fish species in a sample of lakes on the North Slope, Alaska. We used an occupancy modeling approach to provide estimates of detection probabilities for each method. Variation in gear- and species-specific detection probability was considerable. For example, detection probabilities for the fyke net ranged from 0.82 (SE = 0.05) for least cisco (Coregonus sardinella) to 0.04 (SE = 0.01) for slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus). Detection probabilities were also affected by site-specific variables such as depth of the lake, year, day of sampling, and lake connection to a stream. With the exception of the dip net and shore minnow traps, each gear type provided the highest detection probability of at least one species. Results suggest that a multimethod approach may be most effective when attempting to sample the entire fish community of Arctic lakes. Detection probability estimates will be useful for designing optimal fish sampling and monitoring protocols in Arctic lakes.

  19. 76 FR 76436 - Certain Communication Equipment, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same, Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... served: Cisco Systems, Inc., 170 West Tasman Drive, San Jose, CA 95134. Cisco Consumer Products LLC, 120 Theory Drive, Irvine, CA 92617. Cisco Systems International B.V., Haarlerbergpark, Haarlerbergweg 13-19, 1101 CH, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Cisco-Linksys LLC, 121 Theory Drive, Irvine, CA 92617....

  20. Can migration mitigate the effects of ecosystem change? Patterns of dispersal, energy acquisition and allocation in Great Lakes lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Michael D.; Ebener, Mark P.; Wagner, Tyler

    2012-01-01

    Migration can be a behavioural response to poor or declining home range habitat quality and can occur when the costs of migration are overcome by the benefi ts of encountering higher-quality resources elsewhere. Despite dramatic ecosystem-level changes in the benthic food web of the Laurentian Great Lakes since the colonization of dreissenid mussels, coincident changes in condition and growth rates among benthivorous lake whitefi sh populations have been variable. We hypothesized that this variation could be in part mitigated by differences in migratory habits among populations, where increased migration distance can result in an increased probability of encountering high-quality habitat (relative to the home range). Results from four Great Lakes populations support this hypothesis; relative growth rates increased regularly with migration distance. The population with the largest average migration distance also had the least reduction in size-at-age during a period of signifi cant ecosystem change and among the highest estimated consumption and activity rates. In comparison, the population with the greatest declines in size-at-age was among the least mobile, demonstrating only moderate rates of consumption and activity. The least mobile population of lake whitefi sh was supported by a remnant Diporeia population and has experienced only moderate temporal growth declines. Our study provides evidence for the potential role of migration in mitigating the effects of ecosystem change on lake whitefi sh populations.

  1. Illumina Sequencing Reveals Aberrant Expression of MicroRNAs and Their Variants in Whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) Liver after Exposure to Microcystin-LR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzuzan, Paweł; Florczyk, Maciej; Łakomiak, Alicja; Woźny, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Molecular analyses show that challenging fish with microcystin-LR (MC-LR) causes perturbations of microRNA (miRNA) signaling. However, the significance and scope of these alterations is currently unknown. To address this issue, we studied miRNA gene expression in the liver of juvenile whitefish, C. lavaretus, during 28 days of exposure to a subacute dose of MC-LR (100 μg·kg-1 body mass). Using genomic resources of Atlantic salmon (AGKD03), the mature miRNA library of Atlantic salmon (miRBase-21) and bioinformatics tools (sRNAbench), we discovered and annotated a total of 377 distinct mature miRNAs belonging to 93 families of evolutionary conserved miRNAs, as well as 24 novel mature miRNA candidates that were mapped to 14 distinct S. salar miRNA precursors. miRNA-Seq transcriptome profiling of liver tissues revealed differential miRNA expression in control and treated fish at 14 days (73 miRNAs were modulated) and at 28 days (83 miRNAs) of the treatment, subsequently validated by qPCR for nine selected differentially expressed miRNAs. Additional qPCR study confirmed the miRNA-Seq data and revealed consistent, aberrant miRNAs expression profile in the later phase of MC-LR hepatotoxicity (7–28 d). Functional annotation analysis revealed that the aberrantly expressed miRNAs have target genes involved in cytoskeletal remodeling, cell metabolism, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis; dysregulation of these processes in liver cells leads to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in humans. To enable deeper insight into the molecular responses of liver cells in fish exposed to MC-LR, we expanded the miRNAome analysis by inclusion of miRNA variants (isomiRs) profiles, and we showed that the isomiR profiles of liver specific MiR122, and a few other miRNAs, correlated with MC-LR treatment. Given the importance of isomiRs for disease biology in mammals, we believe that further research focused on the miRNA isoforms will bring us closer to better understanding the molecular mechanisms of MC-LR hepatotoxicity. PMID:27391076

  2. A Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for the Detection and Quantification of Epizootic Epitheliotropic Disease Virus (EEDV; Salmonid Herpesvirus 3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenney, Gavin W; Barbash, Patricia A; Coll, John A

    2016-03-01

    Epizootic epitheliotropic disease virus (EEDV; salmonid herpesvirus [SalHV3]; family Alloherpesviridae) causes a systemic disease of juvenile and yearling Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush. No cell lines are currently available for the culture and propagation of EEDV, so primary diagnosis is limited to PCR and electron microscopy. To better understand the pervasiveness of EEDV (carrier or latent state of infection) in domesticated and wild Lake Trout populations, we developed a sensitive TaqMan quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to detect the presence of the EEDV terminase gene in Lake Trout tissues. This assay was able to detect a linear standard curve over nine logs of plasmid dilution and was sensitive enough to detect single-digit copies of EEDV. The efficiency of the PCR assay was 99.4 ± 0.06% (mean ± SD), with a 95% confidence limit of 0.0296 (R(2) = 0.994). Methods were successfully applied to collect preliminary data from a number of species and water bodies in the states of Pennsylvania, New York, and Vermont, indicating that EEDV is more common in wild fish than previously known. In addition, through the development of this qPCR assay, we detected EEDV in a new salmonid species, the Cisco Coregonus artedi. The qPCR assay was unexpectedly able to detect two additional herpesviruses, the Atlantic Salmon papillomatosis virus (ASPV; SalHV4) and the Namaycush herpesvirus (NamHV; SalHV5), which both share high sequence identity with the EEDV terminase gene. With these unexpected findings, we subsequently designed three primer sets to confirm initial TaqMan qPCR assay positives and to differentiate among EEDV, ASPV, and NamHV by detecting the glycoprotein genes via SYBR Green qPCR. Received April 20, 2015; accepted November 10, 2015.

  3. Linking mercury exposure to habitat and feeding behaviour in Beaufort Sea beluga whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loseto, L. L.; Stern, G. A.; Deibel, D.; Connelly, T. L.; Prokopowicz, A.; Lean, D. R. S.; Fortier, L.; Ferguson, S. H.

    2008-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) levels in the Beaufort Sea beluga population have been increasing since the 1990's. Ultimately, it is the Hg content of prey that determines beluga Hg levels. However, the Beaufort Sea beluga diet is not understood, and little is known about the diet Hg sources in their summer habitat. During the summer, they segregate into social groups based on habitat use leading to the hypothesis that they may feed in different food webs explaining Hg dietary sources. Methyl mercury (MeHg) and total mercury (THg) levels were measured in the estuarine-shelf, Amundsen Gulf and epibenthic food webs in the western Canadian Arctic collected during the Canadian Arctic Shelf Exchange Study (CASES) to assess their dietary Hg contribution. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report MeHg levels in estuarine fish and epibenthic invertebrates from the Arctic Ocean. Although the Mackenzie River is a large source of Hg, the estuarine-shelf prey items had the lowest MeHg levels, ranging from 0.1 to 0.27 μg/g dry weight (dw) in arctic cisco ( Coregonus autumnalis) and saffron cod ( Eleginus gracilis) respectively. Highest MeHg levels occurred in fourhorn sculpin ( Myoxocephalus quadricornis) (0.5 μg/g dw) from the epibenthic food web. Beluga hypothesized to feed in the epibenthic and Amundsen Gulf food webs had the highest Hg levels matching with high Hg levels in associated food webs, and estuarine-shelf belugas had the lowest Hg levels (2.6 μg/g dw), corresponding with the low food web Hg levels, supporting the variation in dietary Hg uptake. The trophic level transfer of Hg was similar among the food webs, highlighting the importance of Hg sources at the bottom of the food web as well as food web length. We propose that future biomagnification studies incorporate predator behaviour with food web structure to assist in the evaluation of dietary Hg sources.

  4. A Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for the Detection and Quantification of Epizootic Epitheliotropic Disease Virus (EEDV; Salmonid Herpesvirus 3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenney, Gavin W; Barbash, Patricia A; Coll, John A

    2016-03-01

    Epizootic epitheliotropic disease virus (EEDV; salmonid herpesvirus [SalHV3]; family Alloherpesviridae) causes a systemic disease of juvenile and yearling Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush. No cell lines are currently available for the culture and propagation of EEDV, so primary diagnosis is limited to PCR and electron microscopy. To better understand the pervasiveness of EEDV (carrier or latent state of infection) in domesticated and wild Lake Trout populations, we developed a sensitive TaqMan quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to detect the presence of the EEDV terminase gene in Lake Trout tissues. This assay was able to detect a linear standard curve over nine logs of plasmid dilution and was sensitive enough to detect single-digit copies of EEDV. The efficiency of the PCR assay was 99.4 ± 0.06% (mean ± SD), with a 95% confidence limit of 0.0296 (R(2) = 0.994). Methods were successfully applied to collect preliminary data from a number of species and water bodies in the states of Pennsylvania, New York, and Vermont, indicating that EEDV is more common in wild fish than previously known. In addition, through the development of this qPCR assay, we detected EEDV in a new salmonid species, the Cisco Coregonus artedi. The qPCR assay was unexpectedly able to detect two additional herpesviruses, the Atlantic Salmon papillomatosis virus (ASPV; SalHV4) and the Namaycush herpesvirus (NamHV; SalHV5), which both share high sequence identity with the EEDV terminase gene. With these unexpected findings, we subsequently designed three primer sets to confirm initial TaqMan qPCR assay positives and to differentiate among EEDV, ASPV, and NamHV by detecting the glycoprotein genes via SYBR Green qPCR. Received April 20, 2015; accepted November 10, 2015. PMID:26980561

  5. Radium-226 in water, sediments, and fish from lakes near the city of Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clulow, F V; Davé, N K; Lim, T P; Avadhanula, R

    1998-01-01

    Ra-226 was measured by alpha-emission spectroscopy in water, sediments, and fish (tissues and gut contents), from five lakes in a watershed containing U mining and milling operations at Elliot Lake, Ontario, and from control lakes in an adjacent non-industrialized watershed. Ra-226 transfer parameters from lake water and sediments to fish tissues, and annual intakes by humans consuming fish, were estimated. Mean dissolved 226Ra levels ranged from approximately 76 mBq litre(-1) in water of the most affected lake, to Ra-226 levels in lake trout muscle were low and showed erratic variation among lakes whereas levels in whitefish muscle did not vary significantly among study and control sites. Lake herring (= cisco, Coregonus artedii), a planktivorous fish taken only from Quirke Lake, had mean 226Ra levels of 18 and 1.4 mBq g(-1) dry wt in bone and muscle, respectively. Gut 226Ra levels, highest in lake trout from McCabe and Quirke Lakes (126 +/- 53, 64 +/- 44 mBq g(-1) dry wt, respectively), and just detectable in McCabe and Elliot Lake whitefish (24 +/- 2, 36 +/- 14 mBq g(-1) dry wt, respectively), were below detection in lake trout and whitefish from other lakes. Concentration ratios (CRs) of 226Ra from water to muscle ranged from 8 to 14 in lake trout, 7 to 14 in whitefish, and 4 to 6 in lake herring. The water to bone CRs varied from 81 to 142, 314 to 548, and 126 to 272 in the same species. CRs were always 2 mSv year(-1)) and the public dose limit (5 mSv year(-1)).

  6. Evaluating the importance of abiotic and biotic drivers on Bythotrephes biomass in Lakes Superior and Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Kevin M.; Bunnell, David B.; Diana, James S.; Adams, Jean V.; Mychek-Londer, Justin G.; Warner, David M.; Yule, Daniel; Vinson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The ability of planktivorous fishes to exert top-down control on Bythotrephes potentially has far-reaching impacts on aquatic food-webs, given previously described effects of Bythotrephes on zooplankton communities. We estimated consumption of Bythotrephes by planktivorous and benthivorous fishes, using bioenergetics and daily ration models at nearshore (18 m), intermediate (46 m), and offshore (110 m) depths along one western Lake Superior transect (April, and September-November) and two northern Lake Michigan transects (April, July, September). In Lake Superior, consumption (primarily by cisco Coregonus artedi) exceeded Bythotrephes production at all offshore sites in September-November (up to 396% of production consumed) and at the intermediate site in November (842%) with no evidence of consumption nearshore. By comparing Bythotrephes biomass following months of excessive consumption, we conservatively concluded that top-down control was evident only at the offshore site during September-October. In Lake Michigan, consumption by fishes (primarily alewife Alosa pseudoharengus) exceeded production at nearshore sites (up to 178%), but not in deeper sites (< 15%). Evidence for top-down control in the nearshore was not supported, however, as Bythotrephes never subsequently declined. Using generalized additive models, temperature, and not fish consumption, not zooplankton prey density, best explained variability in Bythotrephes biomass. The non-linear pattern revealed Bythotrephes to increase with temperature up to 16 °C, and then decline between 16 and 23 °C. We discuss how temperature likely has direct negative impacts on Bythotrephes when temperatures near 23 °C, but speculate that predation also contributes to declining biomass when temperatures exceed 16 °C.

  7. Secure, Network-Centric Operations of a Space-Based Asset: Cisco Router in Low Earth Orbit (CLEO) and Virtual Mission Operations Center (VMOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William; Stewart, Dave; Shell, Dan; Wood, Lloyd; Paulsen, Phil; Jackson, Chris; Hodgson, Dave; Notham, James; Bean, Neville; Miller, Eric

    2005-01-01

    This report documents the design of network infrastructure to support operations demonstrating the concept of network-centric operations and command and control of space-based assets. These demonstrations showcase major elements of the Transformal Communication Architecture (TCA), using Internet Protocol (IP) technology. These demonstrations also rely on IP technology to perform the functions outlined in the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Space Link Extension (SLE) document. A key element of these demonstrations was the ability to securely use networks and infrastructure owned and/or controlled by various parties. This is a sanitized technical report for public release. There is a companion report available to a limited audience. The companion report contains detailed networking addresses and other sensitive material and is available directly from William Ivancic at Glenn Research Center.

  8. Cisco系列路由器密码恢复的研究与实践%Research and Practice for Password Recovery of Cisco Series Router

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘加勤

    2004-01-01

    就Cisco系列路由器密码丢失问题做出探讨.由于Cisco公司的网络设备是整个网络行业的行业标准,大多网络产品在制造时都模仿了Cisco公司的产品,掌握Cisco公司产品的使用,也就能熟练运用其他网络产品了.

  9. Geologic map of the Duncan Peak and southern part of the Cisco Grove 7 1/2' quadrangles, Placer and Nevada Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, David S.; Fisher, G. Reid; Waugh, Barbara J.

    1995-01-01

    This map covers an area of 123 km2 on the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, an uplifted and west-tilted range in eastern California (fig. 1). The area is located 20 km west of Donner Pass, which lies on the east escarpment of the range, and about 80 km east of the Great Valley Province. Interstate Highway 80 is the major route over the range at this latitude and secondary roads, which spur off from this highway, provide access to the northern part of the area. None of the secondary roads crosses the deep canyon cut by the North Fork of the American River, however, and access to the southern part of the area is provided by logging roads that spur off from the Foresthill Divide Road that extends east from Auburn to the Donner Pass area (fig. 1).

  10. Evaluating the Cisco Networking Academy Program's Instructional Model against Bloom's Taxonomy for the purpose of Information Security Education for Organizational End-users

    OpenAIRE

    Niekerk, J. F. Van; Thomson, K.

    2010-01-01

    Organizational end-user information security end-user education is becoming increasingly more important in the current information society. Without the active co-operation of knowledgeable employees, organizations cannot effectively protect their valuable information resources. Most current information security educational programs lack a theoretical basis. This paper briefly examines the use of Bloom's learning taxonomy to help address this lack of theoretical basis. The paper further invest...

  11. 77 FR 48520 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... Partners II L.P.; Industrial Growth Partners III, L.P. 07/18/2012 20121004 G Cisco Systems, Inc.; News Corporation; Cisco Systems, Inc. 20121071 G Silver Lake Sumeru Fund, LP; Velocity Technology Enterprises,...

  12. Facing the IT Talent Squeeze in a Networked Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Ten years ago, Cisco began working with schools on a pilot initiative called the Cisco Networking Academy. Today, the Networking Academy program operates in more than 160 countries, comprising a network of more than 7,600 schools that teach the information technology skills essential in a global economy. Cisco Networking Academy has partnered with…

  13. 75 FR 36646 - Notice of a Waiver of Section 1605 of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... district reported that the existing VoIP system comprises Cisco telephones, servers, and software as well as American Power Conversion (APC) power supply and surge suppression equipment. While both Cisco and... District has provided information to the Department documenting that there are no Cisco telephones,...

  14. 77 FR 21996 - Certain Equipment for Communications Networks, Including Switches, Routers, Gateways, Bridges...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ...,633,966; and 5,841,360. 76 FR 36154-55 (June 21, 2011). The Notice of Investigation named the following as respondents: Cisco Systems, Inc. of San Jose, California; Cisco Consumer Products LLC of Irvine, California; Cisco Systems International B.V. of Amsterdam, Netherlands; and Scientific Atlanta LLC...

  15. 77 FR 53234 - Certain Communication Equipment, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same, Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... Farmington Hills, Michigan. 76 FR 76436-37 (Dec. 7, 2011). The complaint alleges a violation of section 337... Investigation named a number of respondents, including Avaya of Basking Ridge, New Jersey; Cisco Consumer Products LLC of Irvine, California, Cisco Systems International B.V. of the Netherlands, Cisco-Linksys...

  16. 78 FR 25767 - Certain Static Random Access Memories and Products Containing Same; Commission Determination To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ..., California (``Cypress''). 76 FR 45295 (July 28, 2011). The complaint alleged violations of section 337 of the.... of Melville, New York (``Nu Horizons''); Cisco Systems, Inc. of San Jose, California (``Cisco... respondents remain in the investigation: GSI, Cisco, and Avnet (collectively, ``Respondents''). On October...

  17. Kakskümmend kaks kala eesti rahvausundis. III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mall Hiiemäe

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic herring Clupea harengus membras, a local subspecies of the North Atlantic herring which had reached the Baltic Sea nearly 5,000 years ago, is probably the most important food fish (for salting both in the coastal regions as well as everywhere else in Estonia. The need to determine the exact time of fishing has inspired nearly 30% of its popular names, mainly on the basis of orientation to phenological phenomena or popular festivals.Vendace/whitefish? Coregonus albula and rudds Rutilus rutilus and Scardinius erythrophthalmus, as common fresh-water fishes, are mentioned mostly in relation to omens. According to a legend the smelt Osmerus eperlanus smelled of horsemeat, as the fish were believed to have been born of drowned horses. According to ichthyologists, reports stating that the freshwater form of this species usually found in Lake Peipus had also been discovered in Estonia's largest inland-lake (Lake Võrtsjärv date back to the 19th century. By the mid-20th century the species had disappeared from Lake Võrtsjärv. A popular belief accuses the competing Russian fishers who had used magic to make the fish disappear (Orthodox peoples ate primarily fish during the Lent.The Baltic cod Gadus morhua callarias was traditionally caught with trawl-lines, as suggest the words of the spelling song in the article. The making of cod line was also associated with magic. Similar to the pike, the Baltic cod was considered a mythological being of the underworld (it has been called a one-eyed hog, piglet, etc.. The outward appearance of the fish has become to be thought as resembling the face of the Evil One (cf. Loorits 1926: US 95.Various long-jawed species of fish have been popularly called 'windfish'. In coastal villages people used to hang the windfish outside and use it as a windsock. The coming of garpike Belone belone to the coastal waters before the Midsummer Day indicates the beginning of the Baltic herring's fishing season

  18. 用SNMP管理Cisco设备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞祥

    2006-01-01

    我们单位骨干交换机多数采用Cisco系列,三层交换机为Cisco 3550,二层交换机为Cisco 2950和Cisco 2924,路由器为Cisco7507,防火墙为Cisco PIX 520。最近我利用SNMP例管软件对Cisco设备进行了图形化界面、实时监测的网络管理,下面介绍一下具体的实现办法。

  19. Comparative analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes suggests that relaxed purifying selection is driving high nonsynonymous evolutionary rate of the NADH2 gene in whitefish (Coregonus ssp.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Magnus W.; Rodrigues da Fonseca, Rute Andreia; Bernatchez, Louis;

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have recently reported evidence for positive selection acting on the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome), emphasizing its potential role in adaptive divergence and speciation. In this study we searched 107 full mitogenomes of recently diverged species and lineages of whitefish (Core...

  20. Trophodynamics of some PFCs and BFRs in a western Canadian Arctic marine food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomy, Gregg T; Pleskach, Kerri; Ferguson, Steve H; Hare, Jonathon; Stern, Gary; Macinnis, Gordia; Marvin, Chris H; Loseto, Lisa

    2009-06-01

    The trophodynamics of per- and polyfluorinated compounds and bromine-based flame retardants were examined in components of a marine food web from the western Canadian Arctic. The animals studied and their relative trophic status in the food web, established using stable isotopes of nitrogen (delta15N), were beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) > ringed seal (Phoca hispida) > Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) > Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) approximately equal to Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) > pelagic amphipod (Themisto libellula) > Arctic copepod (Calanus hyperboreus). For the brominated diphenyl ethers, the lipid adjusted concentrations of the seven congeners analyzed (Sigma7BDEs: -47, -85, -99, -100, -153, -154, and -209) ranged from 205.4 +/- 52.7 ng/g in Arctic cod to 2.6 +/- 0.4 ng/g in ringed seals. Mean Sigma7BDEs concentrations in Arctic copepods, 16.4 ng/g (n = 2, composite sample), were greater than those in the top trophic level (TL) marine mammals and suggests that (i) Arctic copepods are an important dietary component that delivers BDEs to the food web and (ii) because these compounds are bioaccumulative, metabolism and depletion of BDE congeners in top TL mammals is an important biological process. There were differences in the concentration profiles of the isomers of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in the food web. The most notable difference was observed for beluga, where the alpha-isomer was enriched (accounting for approximately 90% of the SigmaHBCD body burden), relative to its primary prey species, Arctic cod, where the alpha-isomer accounted for only 20% of the SigmaHBCD body burden (beta: 4% and gamma: 78%). For the C8-C11 perfluorinated carboxylic acids, the trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were all greater than unity and increased with increasing carbon chain length. PFOS and its neutral precursor, PFOSA, also had TMF values greater than one. There were also pronounced differences in the PFOSA to PFOS ratio in ringed seal (0.04) and in

  1. Habitat use by fishes of Lake Superior. I. Diel patterns of habitat use in nearshore and offshore waters of the Apostle Islands region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, O.T.; Yule, D.L.; Stockwell, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Diel patterns of distribution of fishes in nearshore (15–80 m depth) and offshore (>80 m) waters of the Apostle Islands region of Lake Superior were described using bottom trawls, mid-water trawls, and acoustic gear during day and night sampling. These data revealed three types of diel migration: diel vertical migration (DVM), diel bank migration (DBM), and no migration. DVM was expressed by fishes migrating from benthopelagic to pelagic strata and DBM was expressed by fishes migrating horizontally from deeper waters in the day to shallower waters at night while remaining within the benthopelagic stratum. Most fishes that did not exhibit diel migration showed increased nighttime densities as a result of increased activity and movement from benthic to benthopelagic strata. Rainbow Smelt (Osmerus mordax), Cisco (Coregonus artedi), Bloater (C. hoyi), Kiyi (C. kiyi), juvenile Trout-Perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus), and adult siscowet (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet) exhibited DVM. Lake Whitefish (C. clupeaformis), lean Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush namaycush), and juvenile siscowet exhibited DBM. Adult Trout-Perch and adult Pygmy Whitefish (Prosopium coulteri) exhibited a mixture of DBM and DVM. Burbot (Lota lota), Slimy Sculpin (Cottus cognatus), Spoonhead Sculpin (C. ricei), and Deepwater Sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsonii) did not exhibit diel migration, but showed evidence of increased nocturnal activity. Ninespine Stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) exhibited a mixture of DVM and non-migration. Juvenile Pygmy Whitefish did not show a diel change in density or depth distribution. Species showing ontogenetic shifts in depth distribution with larger, adult life stages occupying deeper waters included, Rainbow Smelt, lean and siscowet Lake Trout, Lake Whitefish, Pygmy Whitefish, Ninespine Stickleback and Trout-Perch. Of these species, siscowet also showed an ontogenetic shift from primarily DBM as juveniles to primarily DVM as adults. Across all depths, fishes

  2. 近期路由器/防火墙漏洞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Cisco CSA用户系统权限提升漏洞,Ciseo IOS操作系统中HTTP服务HTML代码注入漏洞,Cisco PIX6.3/7.0欺骗TCPSYN报文拒绝服务漏洞,Cisco 7920无线IP电话固定SNMP团体字符串漏洞,

  3. Dicty_cDB: SSH632 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 011 |BX005011.6 Zebrafish DNA sequence from clone CH211-59F19 in linkage group 23. 36 0.81 3 CB483928 |CB483928.1 ccluwtbl001019 Core...gonus clupeaformis head Coregonus clupeaformis cDNA, mRN

  4. Dicty_cDB: CHE152 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 21955.20 Human DNA sequence from clone RP1-62D2 on chromosome 6. 40 8.4 1 CB483546 |CB483546.1 ccluwtbl008005 Coreg...onus clupeaformis head Coregonus clupeaformis cDNA, mRNA sequence. 40 8.4 1 dna update 2004. 2. 3 Hom

  5. CISCO公司将给圣荷西市带来繁荣和财富

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    广瀛

    2000-01-01

    CISCO 公司将要购买硅谷圣荷西市的寇幽特谷地(Coyote Valley),建立 CISCO 公司一个能容纳两万员工的,该公司最大的工作营地。这个计划要花费十三亿美元,是 CISCO 公司又一大手笔。表面看起来是 CISCO 公司的扩展计划,但实际

  6. Cisco在中国电信市场中发挥重要作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Cisco Systems 公司近日与中国电信签订了扩大组建 ChinaNet(“163网”)和中国多媒体服务网(“169网”)全国主干网项目,这是 Cisco 在中国市场所赢得的一系列电信项目中又一创举。Cisco 总裁兼首席执行官 John Chambers 先生9月18日在北京宣布,中国电信已经选用 Cisco 设备。

  7. 77 FR 56883 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... rebates for Bank of America Corporation (``BAC''), Citigroup, Inc. (``C''), Cisco Systems, Inc. (``CSCO''), Ford Motor Company Common Stock (``F''), Intel Corp (``INTC''), Microsoft Corporation (``MSFT''),...

  8. Continuously Connected With Mobile IP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Cisco Systems developed Cisco Mobile Networks, making IP devices mobile. With this innovation, a Cisco router and its connected IP devices can roam across network boundaries and connection types. Because a mobile user is able to keep the same IP address while roaming, a live IP connection can be maintained without interruption. Glenn Research Center jointly tested the technology with Cisco, and is working to use it on low-earth-orbiting research craft. With Cisco's Mobile Networks functionality now available in Cisco IOS Software release 12.2(4)T, the commercial advantages and benefits are numerous. The technology can be applied to public safety, military/homeland security, emergency management services, railroad and shipping systems, and the automotive industry. It will allow ambulances, police, firemen, and the U.S. Coast Guard to stay connected to their networks while on the move. In the wireless battlefield, the technology will provide rapid infrastructure deployment for U.S. national defense. Airline, train, and cruise passengers utilizing Cisco Mobile Networks can fly all around the world with a continuous Internet connection. Cisco IOS(R) Software is a registered trademark of Cisco Systems.

  9. Cisco IOS-based Access Control Lists in the Campus Network Application%基于思科IOS的访问控制列表在校园网中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建伟

    2011-01-01

    介绍了基于思科IOS的访问控制列表的作用及应用规则,结合校园网的实际,给出了标准访问控制列表、扩展访问控制列表、反向访问控制列表和基于时间的访问控制列表在校园网中的应用实例.

  10. The IPv6 address to explore and practice based on Cisco device%基于Cisco设备的IPv6地址探讨与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何媛

    2014-01-01

    本文通过探讨IPv4向IPv6过渡的必然性,分析了IPv4向IPv6过渡所需的关键技术,以及IPv6普及所面临的问题;并通过具体案例在Cisco设备上完成了IPv6 over IPv4隧道技术的参考配置.

  11. 75 FR 10439 - Cognitive Radio Technologies and Software Defined Radios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... Order 1. On March 17, 2005, the Commission adopted the Cognitive Radio Report and Order, 70 FR 23032... Memorandum Opinion and Order (MO&O), 72 FR 31190, June 6, 2007, which responded to two petitions filed in... clarification filed by Cisco Systems, Inc. (``Cisco'') requesting that the Commission clarify: (1)...

  12. Nokia sai vastukäivaid soovitusi / Annika Matson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matson, Annika, 1976-

    2005-01-01

    Ajalehe Business andmetel kaalub Cisco Systems Nokia ostmist. Analüütikute hinnangul on uudis spekulatsioon. Diagramm: Spekulatsioon kergitas Nokia aktsiat. Tabel: Esmaspäeval antud soovitused Nokia aktsiale. Vt. samas Cisco Systemsilt oodati kasumi kasvu 16 protsendi võrra

  13. 75 FR 63509 - Hewlett Packard, Hewlett Packard-Enterprise Business Services, Formerly Known as Electronic Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... 5, 2010 (75 FR 10322). The notice was amended on July 13, 2010 to correct the impact date. The...., Dell Computer Corp., EMC Corp., EMC Corp. Total, Cisco Systems Capital Corporation, Microsoft Corp.... Total, Cisco Systems Capital Corp., Microsoft Corp., Symantec Corp., Xerox Corp., VMWare, Inc.,...

  14. 75 FR 43555 - Hewlett Packard; Hewlett Packard-Enterprise Business Services Formerly Known as Electronic Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... the Federal Register on March 5, 2010 (75 FR 10322). The worker group covered by TA-W-72,933 is...., Dell Computer Corp., EMC Corp., EMC Corp. Total, Cisco Systems Capital Corporation, Microsoft Corp..., Cisco Systems Capital Corp., Microsoft Corp., Symantec Corp., Xerox Corp., VMWare, Inc.,...

  15. Offshore Fish Community: Ecological Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The offshore (>80 m) fish community of Lake Superior is made up of predominately native species. The most prominent species are deepwater sculpin, kiyi, cisco, siscowet lake trout, burbot, and the exotic sea lamprey. Bloater and shortjaw cisco are also found in the offshore zone...

  16. Wang Shutong: A Woman Who Enjoys Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    "My friends tell me I am lucky. When Microsoft became a giant, I was already workingthere. At the time Cisco ranked first in terms of market value, I was marketing general manag-er of Cisco China, and when network fever swept across China, Ijoinedjoyo.com," says WangShutong, her eyes gleaming.

  17. CCNA Security Study Guide, Exam 640-553

    CERN Document Server

    Boyles, Tim

    2010-01-01

    A complete study guide for the new CCNA Security certification exam. In keeping with its status as the leading publisher of CCNA study guides, Sybex introduces the complete guide to the new CCNA security exam. The CCNA Security certification is the first step towards Cisco's new Cisco Certified Security Professional (CCSP) and Cisco Certified Internetworking Engineer-Security. With a foreword by CCNA networking authority Todd Lammle, CCNA Security Study Guide fully covers every exam objective. The companion CD includes the Sybex Test Engine, flashcards, and a PDF of the book.: The CCNA Securit

  18. 业界动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Cisco公司日前推出了帮助网络管理员部署、监视和调试安全服务和大规模VPN的新软件Cisco Works2000 VPN/安全蓝图设计的。Cisco Works2000 VPN/安全管理解决方案将Cisco Works2000 Routed WAN(RWAN)和Cisco的局域网管理解决方案结合在一起,为进行电子商务提供了基于Internet的综合管理产品。

  19. CCENT study guide exam 100-101 (ICND1)

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd

    2013-01-01

    The latest offering from Cisco Expert Todd Lammle for the New CCENT Certification Written by industry expert and Cisco networking guru, Todd Lammle, CCENT Study Guide improves on the popular Sybex Study Guide approach by providing 100 percent coverage of the ICND1 (#100-101) exam objectives. The book contains detailed information and examples on crucial Cisco networking topics, and provides practical examples and insights drawn from Todd's almost 30 years of real-world experience. You'll also have access to dozens of hands-on labs to get the necessary experience needed to pass

  20. 使用GNS3模拟网络实验室%Use GNS3 to Simulate Network Laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王煜林; 王金恒

    2010-01-01

    GNS3是一款能够模拟真实IOS的网络虚拟软件,它不仅可以模拟路由器、交换机,还可以模拟CiscoPIX、Cisco ASA、Cisco IDS、Juniper路由器等设备.通过在GNS3模拟器上实现"单臂路由"的实验,演示了该软件实现思科网络实验室中的实验.

  1. CISCO接班人辞职创新业

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方晓

    2000-01-01

    人们公认的 CISCO 公司未来接班人,执行副总裁唐纳德·李斯特文(Donald J.Listwin)突然决定辞职,他要到一家小公司当首席执行官(CEO)。这个消息不仅在 CISCO 公司内部引起了震动,也让高科技产业同仁感到突然和不解。CISCO 公司目前是如日中天、闻名于世界的高科技大公司,能到CISCO 公司工作已是很多人羡慕的

  2. Roheliste sõrmedega moto- ja itimees / Endo Viires ; interv. Merlis Nõgene

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viires, Endo

    2007-01-01

    Võrguseadmeid ja kommunikatsioonilahendusi pakkuva Cisco Eesti juht räägib IT-müügimehe tööst, konkurentsist ja koolitusest, infotehnoloogia tulevikust, oma perekonnast ja hobidest. Kommenteerib sõber Tarmo Katmuk

  3. Vilistlastest kutseõpetajad Tartu kutsekoolidest / Jaan Sakson, Toomas Lepik, Margit Tennosaar, Kairi Partsioja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Küsimustele vastavad metalliala kutseõpetaja Jaan Sakson, CISCO labori instruktor Toomas Lepik, veebidisaini ja e-kaubanduse kutseõpetaja Margit Tennosaar ja kelneri eriala õpilane kairi Partsioja

  4. 给网络刹车

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓东

    2005-01-01

    我们公司的网络拓扑图如下:集团用户A(VLANl)和集团用户B(VLAN2)分别接入公司汇聚交换机以Cisco 3550的载Fa0/1和Fa0/8上互联网,Cisco 3550其它端口有个人用户上互联网,Cisco 3550的Fa0/48和路由器Cisco 2621的E0/0对接,路由器的S0/0接入电信的城域网。

  5. Cisco路由器的备份与恢复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余海

    2005-01-01

    笔者在日常工作中总结积累了一些Cisco 2600路由器的ISO以及配置文件的备份和恢复方法,在此与大家分享.由于这些方法同样适用于与Cisco 2600相近的路由器,故文中通称为Cisco路由器.

  6. Speech Quality Monitoring in Czech National Research Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Voznak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with techniques of measuring and assessment of the voice transmitted in IP networks and describes design of quality measurement, which can be used for Cisco Gateways. Cisco gateways send Calculated Planning Impairment Factor in every CDR (Call Detail Record. Our design is based on collection of CDR's, their storing into SQL database and their visualization through web page. This design was implemented and successfully tested in CESNET network.

  7. 近期路由器/防火墙漏洞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Cisco安全监控分析和响应系统默认管理口令漏洞;Ciseo Aironet无线接人点ARP攻击拒绝服务的漏洞;Cisco IOS SGBP畸形报文存住远程拒绝服务的漏洞;Cisco CallManager解决办案端11管理拒绝服务漏洞;……

  8. E-education: implications for knowledge transfer via global co-operative education

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Elaine; Szewcow, Ury; Navarro, Karla Felix

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports on a radical and ongoing learning and teaching experiment in which a private multinational organization (Cisco) and traditional learning institutions (schools, colleges and universities) have combined to deliver a form of global co-operative education. From 1998, the Cisco Network Academy Program (CNAP) has been integrated into both undergraduate and postgraduate Internetworking courses in the Faculty of Information Technology at the University of Technology Syd...

  9. Application and security of wireless network in hospital%无线网络在医院中的应用及安全

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鲲; 曲强

    2006-01-01

    本文通过对 Cisco无线网络 AP的实验和应用,参照 Cisco的相关技术标准,对 Cisco Aironet 1100和 Cisco Aironet 350系列无线网卡做了性能,安全性和可扩展性评价,提出了在医院实现无线网络的可行方法.

  10. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ia10 and Vip3Aa protein interactions and their toxicity in Spodoptera spp. (Lepidoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, V B; Mendes, D R P; Fernandes, O A; Desidério, J A; Lemos, M V F

    2013-02-01

    The polyphagous pests belonging to the genus Spodoptera are considered to be among the most important causes of damage and are widely distributed throughout the Americas'. Due to the extensive use of genetically modified plants containing Bacillus thuringiensis genes that code for insecticidal proteins, resistant insects may arise. To prevent the development of resistance, pyramided plants, which express multiple insecticidal proteins that act through distinct mode of actions, can be used. This study analyzed the mechanisms of action for the proteins Cry1Ia10 and Vip3Aa on neonatal Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera albula, Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera cosmioides larvae. The interactions of these toxins with receptors on the intestinal epithelial membrane were also analyzed by binding biotinylated toxins to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) from the intestines of these insects. A putative receptor of approximately 65 kDa was found by ligand blotting in all of these species. In vitro competition assays using biotinylated proteins have indicated that Vip3Aa and Cry1Ia10 do not compete for the same receptor for S. frugiperda, S. albula and S. cosmioides and that Vip3Aa was more efficient than Cry1Ia10 when tested individually, by bioassays. A synergistic effect of the toxins in S. frugiperda, S. albula and S. cosmioides was observed when they were combined. However, in S. eridania, Cry1Ia10 and Vip3Aa might compete for the same receptor and through bioassays Cry1Ia10 was more efficient than Vip3Aa and showed an antagonistic effect when the proteins were combined. These results suggest that using these genes to develop pyramided plants may not prove effective in preventing the development of resistance in S. eridiana. PMID:23220241

  11. Pavanelliella pavanellii Kritsky e Boeger, 1998 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) parasito das cavidades nasais de Pimelodus maculatus Lac., 1803, "mandi", das bacias do Rio São Francisco e do Rio Paraná, Brasil Pavanelliella pavanellii KRITSKY & BOEGER, 1998 (MONOGENEA: DACTYLOGYRIDAE) PARASITE OF THE NASAL CAVITIES OF Pimelodus maculatus LAC., 1803, FROM THE BASINS OF THE SAO FRAN- CISCO AND PARANÁ RIVERS, BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Marilia C. Brasil-Sato; Gilberto C. Pavanelli

    2000-01-01

    Espécimes de monogenóideos parasitos das cavidades nasais de Pimelodus maculatus dos rios São Francisco e Paraná foram encontrados e identificados como Pavanelliella pavanellii. Prevalência, intensidade média e abundância média de P. pavanellii em P. maculatus são apresentadas para os dois sistemas hídricos. Resultados da análise ecológica relacionados à períodos de seca e cheia do rio Paraná evidenciaram elevação da abundância média de P. pavanelli no período de cheia, no qual a temperatura ...

  12. Palomuurien IPv6-migraatio

    OpenAIRE

    Leinonen, Riku

    2011-01-01

    Tämän työn tarkoituksena on ollut tutkia Cisco ASA -palomuurien IPv6-ominaisuuksia ja sitä, mitä pitää ottaa huomioon IPv6-osoitteisiin siirtyessä, erityisesti Cisco ASA 5510 -palomuureissa. Työssä selvitettiin, miten saatiin käytössä olevaan IPv4-palomuuriin lisättyä IPv6-liikenne ja mitä eri IPv6-tunneleita voitiin toteuttaa eri Cisco ASA –käyttöjärjestelmäversioilla. Työssä selvitettiin myös miten natiivi IPv6-palomuuri liitettiin verkkoon. Työ on tehty Optimiratkaisut Oy:n toimeksiantona ...

  13. Network Warrior

    CERN Document Server

    Donahue, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Pick up where certification exams leave off. With this practical, in-depth guide to the entire network infrastructure, you'll learn how to deal with real Cisco networks, rather than the hypothetical situations presented on exams like the CCNA. Network Warrior takes you step by step through the world of routers, switches, firewalls, and other technologies based on the author's extensive field experience. You'll find new content for MPLS, IPv6, VoIP, and wireless in this completely revised second edition, along with examples of Cisco Nexus 5000 and 7000 switches throughout. Topics include: An

  14. 近期其他漏洞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    IBMDB2存在多个拒绝服务漏洞;IBM Director中存在多个拒绝服务和信息泄露漏洞;Cisco IOS中GRE报文存在路由选项解析时溢出漏洞;Cisco网络准入控制NAC存在代理安装安全绕过漏洞;Cisco VPN 3000集线器FTP管理任意文件访问漏洞……

  15. Todd Lammle's CCNA/CCENT IOS commands survival guide exams 100-101, 200-101, and 200-120

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Your Guide to CCENT and CCNA IOS Commands This book is an ideal supplement to Todd Lammle's CCENT and CCNA Study Guides, and a great quick reference for any Cisco networking administrator. Covering IOS version 15, each chapter begins with a short introduction, explaining what tasks will be discussed, followed by detailed explanations of and examples of the commands. The book includes an easy-to-navigate table of commands broken into the following topic areas: Internetworking and TCP/IP  Cisco command line interface (CLI) and Security Device Manager (SDM) Router Configuration LAN Switch Conf

  16. The internet of everything sustainable advantages and synergies in clustered retail

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Gustavo José Ramos de

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Everything (IoE) is a concept introduced by Cisco as the succeeding phase of the Internet of Things (IoT), consisting in creating a network connection of objects, people, processes and data (Cisco 2013). The novelty in this concept is that instead of referring simply to the network connection of physical objects, the IoE allows for connected ‘things’ to send higher-level information back to machines, computers, and people for further evaluation and decision maki...

  17. Factors Impacting Adult Learner Achievement in a Technology Certificate Program on Computer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delialioglu, Omer; Cakir, Hasan; Bichelmeyer, Barbara A.; Dennis, Alan R.; Duffy, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the factors impacting the achievement of adult learners in a technology certificate program on computer networks. We studied 2442 participants in 256 institutions. The participants were older than age 18 and were enrolled in the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) technology training program as "non-degree" or…

  18. Algorithms and estimators for summarization of unaggregated data streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Edith; Duffield, Nick; Kaplan, Haim;

    2014-01-01

    . A summarization algorithm, such as Cisco's sampled NetFlow, is applied to IP packet streams that consist of multiple interleaving IP flows. We develop sampling algorithms and unbiased estimators which address sources of inefficiency in current methods. First, we design tunable algorithms whereas currently...

  19. Kellel on kõige kiirem internetiühendus? / Kuldar Kullasepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kullasepp, Kuldar, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 22. sept. lk. 14. Oxfordi ülikooli ja Cisco Systems uuringust, mille tulemusena reastati maailma kvaliteetsemat internetiühendust pakkuvad riigid, Eestit esimese kümne hulgas pole. Tabel: Esikümme

  20. Validation and Adaptation of Router and Switch Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boltjes, B.; Fernandez Diaz, I.; Kock, B.A.; Langeveld, R.J.G.M.; Schoenmaker, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes validating OPNET models of key devices for the next generation IP-based tactical network of the Royal Netherlands Army (RNLA). The task of TNO-FEL is to provide insight in scalability and performance of future deployed networks. Because validated models ol key Cisco equipment we

  1. Uuring osutab Eesti madalale konkurentsivõimele IT-vallas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Võrgutehnoloogiafirma Cisco Systems'i tellitud ja 31 Ida- ja Lääne-Euroopa riigis läbiviidud uuringu tulemusest, millest selgus, et Eestis kasvab IT-spetsialistide puudujääk. Vt. samas: Skype näeb võimalusi laienemiseks

  2. Analisis Unjuk Kerja Aplikasi VoIP Call Android di Jaringan MANET [Performance Analysis of VoIP Call Application Android in MANET (Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Ari Setyawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis kinerja aplikasi  VoIP call android di jaringan MANET (mobile ad hoc network.  Hasil pengujian menunjukan bahwa aplikasi VoIP call android dapat digunakan di jaringan MANET. Delay yang dihasilkan paling besar di pengujian indoor dengan jarak 11-15 meter yakni sebesar 0,014624811 seconds. Packet loss yang dihasilkan pada range 1%-2% sedangkan standar packet loss yang ditetapkan oleh CISCO untuk layanan aplikasi VoIP adalah < 5%. Jitter yang dihasilkan yakni antara 0,01-0,06 seconds sedangkan standar yang ditetapkan oleh CISCO adalah ≤ 30 ms atau 0,03 seconds. Throughput yang dihasilkan pada proses pengujian yakni antar 161 kbps-481 kbps. *****This study aims to analyze the performance of VOIP call android application in the MANET (mobile ad hoc network. The results showed that VoIP applications could be implemented in MANET network. The highest  delay is produced in indoor testing  with distance of 11-15 meters,  which is equal to 0.014624811 seconds. Packet loss is generated in the range of 1% -2%, while packet loss standards set by Cisco for VoIP application services are <5%. The jitter is between 0.01 to 0.06 seconds, while the standard set by CISCO is ≤ 30 ms or 0.03 seconds. Throughput generated in the testing process is between 161 kbps-481 kbps.

  3. The Alignment of Morality and Profitability in Corporate Social Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Semeniuk (Joanna)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractNowadays most of the big companies pride themselves on their social responsibility. When visiting the websites of IBM, Cisco, ING, Philips, BP, etc., one will easily find a tab called ‘corporate social responsibility’, or ‘sustainability’.1 Here, companies describe how they contribute to

  4. V JeS ostraja nehvatka spetsialistov v IT-sektore / Ksenia Repson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Repson, Ksenia

    2006-01-01

    Võrgutehnoloogia firma Cisco Systems poolt tellitud ning 31 Euroopa riigis läbiviidud infotehnoloogiaalase uuringu tulemustest. Eesti on piirkonna riikide paremusjärjestuses 28. kohal, Eestis on praegu vajaka üle 400 IT-spetsialisti, aastaks 2008 võib eeldatav spetsialistide puudujääk kasvada 1000 inimeseni

  5. Assessment of Learning in Digital Interactive Social Networks: A Learning Analytics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark; Gochyyev, Perman; Scalise, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes initial field-test results from data analytics used in the work of the Assessment and Teaching of 21st Century Skills (ATC21S) project, on the "ICT Literacy--Learning in digital networks" learning progression. This project, sponsored by Cisco, Intel and Microsoft, aims to help educators around the world enable…

  6. Suhtle kodukontoris töötajatega sobivaimate kanalite kaudu / Endo Viires

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viires, Endo

    2006-01-01

    Cisco tellitud ja firma Pearn Kandola läbiviidud uuringu kohaselt on virtuaalselt suhtlevad meeskonnad ebaefektiivsemad kui need, mille liikmed eelistavad vahetut suhtlust. Liigne e-posti tähtsustamine, teadetele vastamata jätmine ja valede suhtluskanalite kasutamine võib vähendada meeskonnaliikmete vahelist usaldust. Lisa: Näpunäiteid edukaks virtuaalseks suhtlemiseks

  7. An improvement of tree-Rule firewall for a large network: supporting large rule size and low delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chomsiri, Thawatchai; He, Xiangjian; Nanda, Priyadarsi; Tan, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Firewalls are important network devices which provide first hand defense against network threat. This level of defense is depended on firewall rules. Traditional firewalls, i.e., Cisco ACL, IPTABLES, Check Point and Juniper NetScreen firewall use listed rule to regulate packet flows. However, the li

  8. Mobile network architecture of the long-range WindScanner system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Nikola; Lea, Guillaume; Hansen, Per;

    to the acquisition of the mobile network connections with static public IP addresses. The architecture consists of a hardware VPN solution based on the network appliances Z1 and MX60 from Cisco Meraki with additional 3G or 4G dongles. With the presented network architecture and appropriate configuration, we fulfill...

  9. Eestis on juba puudu üle 400 IT-spetsialisti / Kai Simson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Simson, Kai

    2006-01-01

    Cisco Systemsi poolt 31 Ida- ja Lääne-Euroopa riigis tehtud uuringu kohaselt on Eesti IT-spetsialistidega varustatuse paremusjärjestuses alles 28. kohal. Vt. samas lühiintervjuud e-Riigi Akadeemia direktori Ivar Talloga

  10. Application of Knowledge Based Systems in a B-to-B environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malis, Martin; Svensson, Carsten; Hvam, Lars

    2002-01-01

    has changed the daily interaction between a company and its suppliers. Large multinational companies (e.g. Dell and Cisco) have demonstrated how the use of web-based expert systems can revolutionize the sale of customized products and change market paradigms. The companies have reached new levels...

  11. 75 FR 18250 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... FR 13189 (March 18, 2010) (SR-Phlx-2010-33). NASDAQ currently assesses a $0.30 per contract routing... (``AMR''); Caterpillar, Inc. (``CAT''); Cisco Systems, Inc. (``CSCO''); Ford Motor Company (``F... Gold Trust (``GLD''); Intel Corporation (``INTC''); JPMorgan Chase & Co. (``JPM''), Las Vegas...

  12. Varying Tutorial Modality and Interface Restriction to Maximize Transfer in a Complex Simulation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrath, Michael C.; Nihalani, Priya K.; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2011-01-01

    In 2 experiments, 241 undergraduates with low domain knowledge viewed a tutorial on how to use Packet Tracer (PT), a computer-networking training simulation developed by the Cisco Networking Academy. Participants were then tested on retention of tutorial content and transfer using PT. Tutorial modality (text, narration, or narration plus text) was…

  13. 78 FR 39326 - Notice Pursuant To the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Opendaylight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... are: Alcatel-Lucent USA Inc., Mountain View, CA; Arista Networks Inc., Santa Clara, CA; Big Switch..., MD; Cisco Systems Inc., San Jose, CA; Citrix Systems, Inc., Santa Clara, CA; Cyan Inc., Petaluma, CA...; Intel Corporation, Santa Clara, CA; Juniper Networks, Sunnyvale, CA; Microsoft Corporation, Redmond,...

  14. Network Management Temporal Database System Based on XTACACS Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper first analyzes the basic concepts of Cisco router user certification, XTACACS certification protocol and describes the data architecture of user data protocol, then defines a kind of doubly temporal databases and log-in transaction processing based on network management property, at last, introduces implementation technology and method.

  15. 75 FR 42809 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ...''), Cisco Systems, Inc. (``CSCO''), Diamonds Trust, Series 1 (``DIA''), Amazon.com , Inc. (``AMZN''), United... liquidity. The text of the proposed rule change is available on the Exchange's Web site ( http://www.ise.com... RSQT, and (iv) Professional. See Securities Exchange Act Release Nos. 61684 (March 10, 2010), 75...

  16. 75 FR 50015 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    .... (``FCX''), Cisco Systems, Inc. (``CSCO''), Diamonds Trust, Series 1 (``DIA''), Amazon.com , Inc. (``AMZN... proposed rule change is available on the Exchange's Web site ( http://www.ise.com ), at the principal... Exchange Act Release Nos. 61684 (March 10, 2010), 75 FR 13189 (March 18, 2010); 61932 (April 16, 2010),...

  17. 75 FR 26830 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... & Gold, Inc. (``FCX''), Cisco Systems, Inc. (``CSCO''), Diamonds Trust, Series 1 (``DIA''), Amazon.com... the proposed rule change is available on the Exchange's Web site ( http://www.ise.com ), at the...) Professional. See Securities Exchange Act Release Nos. 61684 (March 10, 2010), 75 FR 13189 (March 18,...

  18. 75 FR 54682 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... & Gold, Inc. (``FCX''), Cisco Systems, Inc. (``CSCO''), Diamonds Trust, Series 1 (``DIA''), Amazon.com... proposed rule change is available on the Exchange's Web site ( http://www.ise.com ), at the principal..., and (ii) Broker- Dealer. See Securities Exchange Act Release Nos. 61684 (March 10, 2010), 75 FR...

  19. "One-Size-Does-Not-Fit-All": Teaching MBA Students Different ERP Implementation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Viswanath

    2008-01-01

    This teaching tip discusses an approach to educating MBA students regarding strategies to select, design, and implement enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. The teaching approach presented here discusses how to teach students about different strategies based success stories from three different organizations, namely Cisco, Tektronix, and…

  20. Partnering with Business Amplifies Students' Career Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Ernie

    2010-01-01

    It's becoming common for schools and community colleges to join with leaders of the business and industry community to create public-private partnerships to create new and enhanced opportunities for both parties. By creating a public-private partnership between schools, the local business community, and organizations like Cisco, Florida State…

  1. Student and Instructor Perceptions of the Usefulness of Computer-Based Microworlds in Supporting the Teaching and Assessment of Computer Networking Skills: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbagh, Nada; Beattie, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Skill shortages in the area of computer network troubleshooting are becoming increasingly acute. According to research sponsored by Cisco's Learning Institute, the demand for professionals with computer networking skills in the United States and Canada will outpace the supply of workers with those skills by an average of eight percent per year…

  2. Brave New World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2007-01-01

    Across the globe, progressive universities are embracing any number of MUVEs (multi-user virtual environments), 3D environments, and "immersive" virtual reality tools. And within the next few months, several universities are expected to test so-called "telepresence" videoconferencing systems from Cisco Systems and other leading technology…

  3. Rapid parallel adaptive radiations from a single hybridogenic ancestral population

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Alan G; Vonlanthen, Pascal; Seehausen, Ole

    2010-01-01

    The Alpine lake whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) species complex is a classic example of a recent radiation, associated with colonization of the Alpine lakes following the glacial retreat (less than 15 kyr BP). They have formed a unique array of endemic lake flocks, each with one to six described sympatric species differing in morphology, diet and reproductive ecology. Here, we present a genomic investigation of the relationships between and within the lake flocks. Comparing the signal between...

  4. The influence of northern pike on the diet of brown trout

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The predation of the northern pike (Esox lucius) has recently been found to initiate divergence in the size structuration of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) in Scandinavian lakes. The whitefish community responds to the predation with two different strategies: avoiding the pike by feeding in the pelagic zone with the cost of limited growth, or feeding in the littoral zone, delaying maturation to reach a size which is less subject to predation (Öhlund 2012). Brown trout (Salmo trutta) is an op...

  5. Growth of whitefish ecotypes : A comparison of individual growth rates in monomorphic and polymorphic populations

    OpenAIRE

    Olajos, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    In resource polymorphism, ecological opportunity and selective predatory pressure can be considered key factors in phenotypic divergence. In post-glacial lakes of Scandinavia, the European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) is a common species and has repeatedly diverged along the benthic - pelagic resource axis. Recent studies suggest that predation by northern pike (Esox lucius L.) induces rapid divergence in whitefish, leading to two reproductively isolated ecotypes: a dwarf planktivore an...

  6. Phenotypic and genetic divergence within single whitefish form – detecting the potential for future divergence

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Eckmann, Reiner; Oppelt, Claus; Behrmann-Godel, Jasminca

    2013-01-01

    Human-induced nutrient input can change the selection regime and lead to the loss of biodiversity. For example, eutrophication caused speciation reversal in polymorphic whitefish populations through a flattening of littoral–pelagic selection gradients. We investigated the current state of phenotypic and genetic diversity in whitefish (Coregonus macrophthalmus) in a newly restored lake whose nutrient load has returned to pre-eutrophication levels and found that whitefish spawning at different ...

  7. On the origin of species: insights from the ecological genomics of lake whitefish

    OpenAIRE

    Bernatchez, Louis; Renaut, Sébastien; Whiteley, Andrew R; Derome, Nicolas; Jeukens, Julie; Landry, Lysandre; Lu, Guoqing; Nolte, Arne W; Østbye, Kjartan; Rogers, Sean M; St-Cyr, Jérôme

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the large amount of ecological information supporting the role of natural selection as a main cause of population divergence and speciation, an understanding of the genomic basis underlying those processes is in its infancy. In this paper, we review the main findings of a long-term research programme that we have been conducting on the ecological genomics of sympatric forms of whitefish (Coregonus spp.) engaged in the process of speciation. We present this system as an example ...

  8. Stream Control Transmission Protocol Steganography

    CERN Document Server

    Fraczek, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a new transport layer protocol that is due to replace TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) protocols in future IP networks. Currently, it is implemented in such operating systems like BSD, Linux, HP-UX or Sun Solaris. It is also supported in Cisco network devices operating system (Cisco IOS) and may be used in Windows. This paper describes potential steganographic methods that may be applied to SCTP and may pose a threat to network security. Proposed methods utilize new, characteristic SCTP features like multi-homing and multistreaming. Identified new threats and suggested countermeasures may be used as a supplement to RFC 5062, which describes security attacks in SCTP protocol and can induce further standard modifications.

  9. 示范高职《路由与交换》课程双语教学的实施与探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁慧洁

    2009-01-01

    结合自身教学经验和行业CCAI国际认证讲师资质,将网络技术专业必修课课程内容融入目前行业认可的技术含量极高的Cisco Academy的CCNA(Cisco Certified Network Assitant)课程体系,开展双语教学改革.通过延伸和扩展双语教学,使教学环节与全球行业标准相接轨,旨在使学生能够了解全球相关行业内最新的前沿技术和管理规范,增强学生进入企业后国际化的学习能力、拓展能力及竞争能力.

  10. Dynamic Routing of IP Traffic Based on QOS Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kriška

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article looks into the current state of the art of dynamic routing protocols with respect to their possibilities to react to changes in the Quality of Service when selecting the best route towards a destination network. New options that could leverage information about the ever changing QoS parameters for data communication are analysed and a Cisco Performance Routing solution is described more in detail. The practical part of this work focuses on a design and implementation of a test bed that provides ascalable laboratory architecture to manipulate QoS parameters of different data communications flowing through it. The test bed is used in various use cases that were used to evaluate Cisco Performance Routing optimization capabilities in different scenarios.

  11. Modelování protokolů HSRP a GLBP pro redundanci brány

    OpenAIRE

    Holuša, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá rozborem protokolů zajišťujících redundanci síťové brány. Jsou zde popsány protokoly Hot standby router protocol, Virtual router redundancy protocol a Gateway load balancing protocol. Zároveň jsou u jednotlivých protokolů uvedeny možnosti konfigurace na zařízeních Cisco s uvedením podporované verze Cisco IOS. Dále je součástí práce návrh a implementace dvou těchto protokolů Hot standby router protocol a Gateway load balancing protocol do simulačního prostředí OM...

  12. Comparison of VPN Application to Multiple Platforms%多种平台的VPN应用比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴刚

    2011-01-01

    VPN技术提供更好的企业网络安全性,有多个技术体系,而且在多种平台上可以配置实现.分析主要的VPN隧道技术的区别,并对Cisco IOS、Linux、Windows三种系统平台的VPN配置步骤进行详细的解析,以展示平台之间的配置特色及异同.%VPN technology provides better network security. There are more technology architectures. It can be realized by configuration on multiple platforms. This paper analyzes the differences of tunneling technologies of VPN, and explain the VPN configuration steps in detail on the Cisco IOS, Linux, Windows etc. It displays configuration features and differences on the platforms.

  13. A Comparison of OSPFv3 and EIGRPv6 in a Small IPv6 Enterprise Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard John Whitfield

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the Internet slowly transitions towards IPv6, the routing protocols that are used to forward traffic across this global network must adapt to support this gradual transition. Two of the most frequently discussed interior dynamic routing protocols today are the IETF’s OSPF and Cisco’s EIGRP routing protocol. A wealth of papers have compared OSPF and EIGRP in terms of converge times and resource usage, however few papers have assessed the performance of each when implementing their respective security mechanisms. Therefore a comparison of OSPFv3 and EIGRPv6 will be conducted using dedicated Cisco hardware. This paper will firstly introduce each protocol and its security mechanisms, before conducting a comparison of OSPFv3 and EIGRPv6 using Cisco equipment. After discussing the simulation results, a conclusion will be drawn to reveal the findings of this paper and which protocol performs the best upon implementing their respective security mechanisms within a small IPv6 enterprise network.

  14. Investigating operation of the Internet in orbit: Five years of collaboration around CLEO

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Lloyd; Eddy, Wes; Stewart, Dave; Northam, James; Jackson, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The Cisco router in Low Earth Orbit (CLEO) was launched into space as an experimental secondary payload onboard the UK Disaster Monitoring Constellation (UK-DMC) satellite in September 2003. The UK-DMC satellite is one of an increasing number of DMC satellites in orbit that rely on the Internet Protocol (IP) for command and control and for delivery of data from payloads. The DMC satellites, built by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL), have imaged the effects of Hurricane Katrina, the Indian Ocean Tsunami, and other events for disaster relief under the International Space and Major Disasters Charter. It was possible to integrate the Cisco mobile access router into the UK-DMC satellite as a result of the DMC satellites' adoption of existing commercial networking standards, using IP over Frame Relay over standard High-Level Data Link Control, or HDLC (ISO 13239) on standard serial interfaces. This approach came from work onboard SSTL's earlier UoSAT-12 satellite

  15. MPLS二层VPN的技术实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    留立群

    2007-01-01

    目前,MPLS网络已经是下一代核心网络的发展方向,在各类MPLS技术的VPN方式中最具有竞争力的是MPLS的二层VPN和MPLS三层VPN。本文阐述了MPLS二层VPN的基本原理,对Cisco Ethernet Over MPLS技术进行分析并给出了配置实例。

  16. Estimation of the value-at-risk parameter: Econometric analysis and the extreme value theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Zorica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper different aspects of value-at-risk estimation are considered. Daily returns of CISCO, INTEL and NASDAQ stock indices are analyzed for period: September 1996 - September 2006. Methods that incorporate time varying variability and heavy tails of the empirical distributions of returns are implemented. The main finding of the paper is that standard econometric methods underestimate the value-at-risk parameter if heavy tails of the empirical distribution are not explicitly taken into account. .

  17. A Fully Computerized Method to Backup the Router Configuration File

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan H.Majeed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fully computerized method to backup the router configuration file. The method consists of a friendly graphical interface programmed by Java programming language The proposed method is compared with the two existing methods, namely: TFTP server method and Copy/Paste method. The comparison reveals that the proposed method has many advantages over the existing ones. The proposed method has been implemented on Cisco routers (series 2500, 2600 and 2800

  18. Küberrünnakuid tehti nii Lapimaalt kui Iisraelist / Risto Berendson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Berendson, Risto, 1975-

    2007-01-01

    Riigi Infosüsteemide Arenduskeskuse osakonnajuhataja Hillar Aarelaid rääkis küberkaitset puudutaval seminaril maikuus Eestit põhiliselt Venemaalt tabanud küberrünnakute tõrjumisest, kus aitasid kaasa ka parajasti Viru hotellis konverentsi pidanud 200 välismaist IT-spetsialisti. Rahvusvahelise firma Cisco esindaja, arvutiturbe tippspetsialisti Ivica Ostojici esinemisest. Vt. samas: Häkkimine kahe sekundiga

  19. 在PIX防火墙上实现VPN%VPN Configuration of PIX Firewall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺春光

    2005-01-01

    本文主要介绍了PIX防火墙的基本配置,以及在PIX上实现VPN的一些必须配置.虽然是以Cisco PIX防火墙为依托,但VPN的配置和说明适用于大多数VPN设备,只是命令不尽相同而已.

  20. Specialized organizations and ambidextrous clusters in the open innovation paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrary, Michel

    2011-01-01

    By comparing Lucent Technologies and Cisco Systems over twenty years, one illustrates that a firm that outsources exploration through an Acquisition and Development (A&D) strategy of start-ups and exploitation specialization can be more innovative and competitive than an ambidextrous organization. The success of an A&D strategy depends on the embeddedness of the firm in the network of organizations comprised of an open innovation system and supported by an inter-organizational process of inno...

  1. Holistic Evaluation of Novel Adaptation Logics for DASH and SVC

    OpenAIRE

    Sieber, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Streaming of videos has become the major traffic generator in today's Internet and the video traffic share is still increasing. According to Cisco's annual Visual Networking Index report, in 2012, 60% of the global Internet IP traffic was generated by video streaming services. Furthermore, the study predicts further increase to 73% by 2017. At the same time, advances in the fields of mobile communications and embedded devices lead to a widespread adoption of Internet video enabled mobile and ...

  2. The role and effectiveness of e-learning for the industry

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Victor

    2015-01-01

    This book identifies the current role and effectiveness of e-learning and its key issues in an industrial context. The first objective is to identify the role of e-learning, particularly in staff training and executive education, where e-learning (online, computer-based or videoconferencing learning) has made significant impacts and contributions to several organisations such as the Royal Bank of Scotland, Cisco and Cap Gemini Earnst and Young. The second objective of this research is to unde...

  3. The role and effectiveness of e-learning: key issues in an industrial context

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Victor

    2003-01-01

    This paper identifies the current role and effectiveness of e-learning and its key issues in an industrial context. The first objective is to identify the role of e-learning, particularly in staff training and executive education, where e-learning (online, computer-based or videoconferencing learning) has made significant impacts and contributions to several organisations such as the Royal Bank of Scotland, Cisco and Cap Gemini Earnst Young. With e-learning, staff train-ing and executive educ...

  4. 关于ACL的教学实验设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂青

    2014-01-01

    ACL(Access Control List,访问控制列表)是局域网技术与组网工程课程中非常重要的内容,利用Cisco Packet Tracer6.0配合学习ACL的配置,并利用模拟软件进行辅助教学,可以使学生更好地理解ACL。

  5. The Role of Reusable Learning Objects in Occupational Therapy Entry-Level Education

    OpenAIRE

    Gee, Bryan M.; Jane Strickland; Lisa Salazar

    2014-01-01

    Out of early research, Cisco Systems (1999) have built an impressive foundation that advocates for reusable learning objects (RLOs). As the need for online methods for delivering both formal and informal educational content has increased, the prospect of greater influence through carefully constructed RLOs has grown. RLOs are any digital resource that can be used and reused to enhance online learning. RLOs typically are small, discrete, self-contained digital objects that may be sequenced, co...

  6. THE ROLE OF AN INTEGRATED E-LEARNING PLATFORM IN INCREASING THE PROCESSMANAGEMENT EFFICIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    Ph. D Student Mihai Logofatu Alexandru Constantin

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to present the steps taken and solutions implemented at the Cisco Networking Academy of the University of Bucharest in order to increase the process-management efficiency and the student satisfaction degree, mainly via the implementation of an own e-learning learning platform.The results are a significant improvement of work relationships, due to the fact that everyone's responsibilities are clearly defined together with the expectations for each employee. Furthermore, product...

  7. An identifier-locator approach to host multihoming

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, B; Bhatti, S. N.

    2014-01-01

    We are grateful to Cisco for their University Research Programmme (URP) in supporting this work. Date of Acceptance: 24/01/2014 Host multihoming allows individual hosts to be multiply connected to the network, e.g. by concurrent use of two network prefixes, each network prefix tied to a separate network interface. Such multihoming capability improves the host's ability to implement such features as load-balancing, fail-over and multi-path transport protocols. However, IP does not directly ...

  8. LISP - The separation of network node's locator and identifier

    OpenAIRE

    Šubrt, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the features and functionality of LISP protocol (Locator / ID Separation Protocol), its possible use in the network infrastructure and description of the requirements necessary for its successful implementation. Part of this thesis is also the setting of modules to support the network protocol on FreeBSD and then connecting the station to the experimental network, operated by Cisco Systems. The reachability of the test station in the experimental netwo...

  9. Packet Tracer network simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Jesin, A

    2014-01-01

    A practical, fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to successfully create networks and simulate them using Packet Tracer.Packet Tracer Network Simulator is aimed at students, instructors, and network administrators who wish to use this simulator to learn how to perform networking instead of investing in expensive, specialized hardware. This book assumes that you have a good amount of Cisco networking knowledge, and it will focus more on Packet Tracer rather than networking.

  10. Mobile context-aware game for the next generation

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Maomao; Mitchell, Keith; McCaffery, Duncan; Finney, Joe; Friday, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    Traditional networked multiplayer games are typically confined to be played on desktop computers. With the recent advances in mobile networking, context-aware computing, and sensor-based computing, researchers and game designers are able to explore the potential of combining these new technologies together to develop mobile networked, context-aware, augmented reality multiplayer games. As part of the new research collaboration between Lancaster University, Cisco Systems, Microsoft Research an...

  11. Unified Fabric: Data Centre Bridging and FCoE Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsalan Iqbal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade cloud computing has become the buzzword in IT world. The implementation of cloud based computing and storage technology changed the way of how network infrastructure is built inside an enterprise. As technology has improved and the cloud based storage systems become more affordable, a number of enterprises started outsourcing their data management due to a number of reasons. But still a majority of large enterprises and SMB (small medium businesses prefer to manage their own in-house data centers and storage area networks. The reason being is the control, security and integrity of stored data on cloud storage servers. In this paper, we will discuss the most commonly implemented SAN technology, fibre channel (FC in comparison with the new technology called Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE. These results will help SAN engineers and designers select the best technology between the two in terms of performance, scalability, cost, maintenance, space, cooling, equipment, cabling, management, adapters, labor cost and manpower. Implementation of FC and FCoE has been done to explore the different features of both technologies. Furthermore, how to build a reliable, scalable and secure storage area network has been demonstrated. This study has been carried out on Cisco Nexus, Cisco MDS and Cisco UCS platform.

  12. Spatial distribution of the estuarine ichthyofauna of the Rio Formoso (Pernambuco, Brazil, with emphasis on reef fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa C. G. de Paiva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to identify species of reef fish that use the Rio Formoso estuary (northeastern Brazil as a refuge and natural nursery and to describe the spatial distribution of the estuary fish fauna in rainy and dry seasons. A total of 5475 specimens, across 78 species and 39 families, were analyzed; 51.3% of the species were of reef origin. Among these, Eucinostomus melanopterus (Bleeker, 1863, E. gula (Cuvier, 1830, and Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus, 1758, in this order, were the most abundant in the upper estuary; S. greeleyi Gilbert, 1900, E. melanopterus, and Lutjanus synagris (Linnaeus, 1758 were the most abundant in the mid estuary; and E. gula and Albula vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758 in the lower estuary. The percentages of reef species were 39.2%, 54.2% and 66.7% for the upper, mid and lower regions, respectively. The greatest diversity was found in the upper estuary and greatest abundance occurred in the mid region. The type of sediment was a strong determinant of the spatial distribution of fish fauna. The most abundant species were found in a mesohaline (5-18 to euhaline (30-40 salinity regimen, suggesting some capacity for osmotic regulation. The fish fauna of the Rio Formoso estuary receives a direct influence from the reefs and coastal region between Sirinhaém and Tamandaré, thereby providing a greater richness of reef fish.

  13. To succeed in the long-term, focus on the middle-term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Geoffrey A

    2007-01-01

    When a mature company fails to endure over the long term, it's often due to the "Horizon 2 vacuum," argues Moore, author of Crossing the Chasm and several other books on innovation strategy, and managing director of the consulting firm TCG Advisors. The reference is to the strategic horizons outlined by McKinsey's Mehrdad Baghai and colleagues in The Alchemy of Growth: Horizon 1 is today's cash-generating business, Horizon 2 is the set of innovations just being commercialized, and Horizon 3 consists of forward-thinking R&D. Most companies understand they must invest in their future, so the funding and management of Horizon 3 is not the problem. The trouble starts when those innovations are brought to market and must compete with the mainstay business for company resources. They disappear from top management's radar screen and suffer a level of neglect few ventures could survive. Cisco Systems is one company that has recognized the problem and tried to address it. To begin with, CEO John Chambers has insulated Horizon 2 projects from many of the pressures of Horizon 1--for example, by reorchestrating sales coverage so that emerging markets won't be neglected. He has also kick-started some Horizon 2 businesses by augmenting them with acquisitions, increasing their scale, and giving them more management attention. For the same reason, he has challenged his head of product development to think in terms of new businesses, not simply new products--knowing that the latter tend to get lost in salespeople's bags. Most important, Cisco is handicapping its Horizon 2 projects so that they need not compete head-to-head with established businesses. Their success is judged by metrics that are appropriate to new businesses, and they are given the benefit of Cisco's best managerial talent.

  14. Application of Mobile Router to Military Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David H.; Ivancic, William D.; Bell, Terry L.; Kachmar, Brian A.; Shell, Dan; Leung, Kent

    2002-01-01

    Cisco Systems and NASA Glenn Research Center under a NASA Space Act Agreement have been performing joint networking research to apply Internet technologies and protocols to space-based communications. During this time, Cisco Systems developed the mobile-router which NASA and Cisco jointly tested. The early field trials of this technology have been successfully completed. The mobile-router is software code that resides in a network router. A Mobile-Router allows entire networks to roam while maintaining connectivity to the Internet. This router code is pertinent to a myriad of applications for both the government and commercial sectors. This technology will be applied to the wireless battlefield. NASA and the Department of Defense will utilize this technology for near-planetary observation and sensing spacecraft. It is the enabling technology for communication via the Internet or Intranets to aircraft. Information such as weather, air traffic control, voice and video can be easily and inexpensively transmitted to the aircraft using Internet protocols. The mobile router can be incorporated into emergency vehicles particularly ambulances and life-flight aircraft to provide real-time connectivity back to the hospital and healthcare experts. Commercial applications include entertainment services, IP telephone, and Internet connectivity for cruise ships, commercial shipping, tour busses, aircraft, and eventually cars. This paper will briefly describe the mobile router operation. An upcoming wide area network field test with application to US Coast Guard communications will be described. The paper will also highlight military and government networks that will benefit from the deployment of mobile router and the associated applications.

  15. To succeed in the long-term, focus on the middle-term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Geoffrey A

    2007-01-01

    When a mature company fails to endure over the long term, it's often due to the "Horizon 2 vacuum," argues Moore, author of Crossing the Chasm and several other books on innovation strategy, and managing director of the consulting firm TCG Advisors. The reference is to the strategic horizons outlined by McKinsey's Mehrdad Baghai and colleagues in The Alchemy of Growth: Horizon 1 is today's cash-generating business, Horizon 2 is the set of innovations just being commercialized, and Horizon 3 consists of forward-thinking R&D. Most companies understand they must invest in their future, so the funding and management of Horizon 3 is not the problem. The trouble starts when those innovations are brought to market and must compete with the mainstay business for company resources. They disappear from top management's radar screen and suffer a level of neglect few ventures could survive. Cisco Systems is one company that has recognized the problem and tried to address it. To begin with, CEO John Chambers has insulated Horizon 2 projects from many of the pressures of Horizon 1--for example, by reorchestrating sales coverage so that emerging markets won't be neglected. He has also kick-started some Horizon 2 businesses by augmenting them with acquisitions, increasing their scale, and giving them more management attention. For the same reason, he has challenged his head of product development to think in terms of new businesses, not simply new products--knowing that the latter tend to get lost in salespeople's bags. Most important, Cisco is handicapping its Horizon 2 projects so that they need not compete head-to-head with established businesses. Their success is judged by metrics that are appropriate to new businesses, and they are given the benefit of Cisco's best managerial talent. PMID:17642127

  16. CCNA Wireless Study Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd

    2010-01-01

    A complete guide to the CCNA Wireless exam by leading networking authority Todd Lammle. The CCNA Wireless certification is the most respected entry-level certification in this rapidly growing field. Todd Lammle is the undisputed authority on networking, and this book focuses exclusively on the skills covered in this Cisco certification exam. The CCNA Wireless Study Guide joins the popular Sybex study guide family and helps network administrators advance their careers with a highly desirable certification.: The CCNA Wireless certification is the most respected entry-level wireless certification

  17. CCSP complete study guide exams 642-501, 642-511, 642-521, 642-531, 642-541

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd; Lancaster, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Wade Edwards, CCIE, has over 15 years of networking experience and has been actively involved in the computer industry for over 24 years. Todd Lammle, CCNP is CEO and Chief Scientist of RouterSim, LLC and President of GlobalNet Training, Inc., and is the author of the best-selling CCNA: Cisco Certified Network Associate Study Guide from Sybex. Tom Lancaster, CCIE, is a consultant with IBM Global Services. Justin Menga, CCIE, is a Network Solutions Architect in the wireless and e-infrastructure field in New Zealand. Eric Quinn, CCSI, CCNP + Voice is an Arizona-based instructor and secur

  18. CCNA routing and switching study guide exams 100-101, 200-101, and 200-120

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Prepare for the new CCNA exams with this Todd Lammle study guide Cisco author, speaker, and trainer Todd Lammle is considered the authority on all things networking, and his books have sold almost a million copies worldwide. This all-purpose CCNA study guide methodically covers all the objectives of the ICND1 (100-101) and ICND2 (200-101) exams as well as providing additional insight for those taking CCNA Composite (200-120) exam. It thoroughly examines operation of IP data networks, LAN switching technologies, IP addressing (IPv4/IPv6), IP routing technologies, IP services, network device s

  19. CCNA Certification All-In-One For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Angelescu, Silviu

    2010-01-01

    A complete preparation guide for the entry-level networking CCNA certification. If you're planning to advance your career by taking the all-important Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA), this is the study guide you need! Seven minibooks cover all the concepts and topics on which you'll be tested, covering the latest version of the exam. Each part of the exam is covered thoroughly in its own section, so you can readily find the information you want to study. Plenty of review questions help you prepare, and the companion CD-ROM includes the highly rated Dummies Test Engine so you can test y

  20. CCNA Voice Study Guide, Exam 640-460

    CERN Document Server

    Froehlich, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The ultimate guide to the new CCNA voice network administrator certification exam. The new CCNA Voice exam tests candidates on their ability to implement a Cisco VoIP solution. Network administrators of voice systems will appreciate that the CCNA Voice Study Guide focuses completely on the information required by the exam. Along with hands-on labs and an objective map showing where each objective is covered, this guide includes a CD with the Sybex Test Engine, flashcards, and entire book in PDF format.: The new CCNA Voice certification will be valuable for administrators of voice network syste

  1. Implementation of “Traslator Strategy” For Migration of Ipv4 to Ipv6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. K.R.R.Mohan Rao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the Translator strategy for migration of IPv4 to Ipv6 implemented in Cisco packet tracer. It describes the design and configuration of network devices and packet transfer between devices of IPv4 and IPv6 networks using NAT-PT as transition mechanism. First major version of IP, IPv4 is the dominant protocol of internet.IPv6 is developed to deal with long anticipated problem of IPv4 running out of addresses. The migration from IPv4 to IPv6 must be implemented node by node by using auto-configuration procedures to eliminate the need to configure IPv6 hosts manually.

  2. Sustaining an Acquisition-based Growth Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Toppenberg, Gustav; Shanks, Graeme

    Value creating acquisitions are a major challenge for many firms. Our case study of Cisco Systems shows that an advanced Enterprise Architecture (EA) capability can contribute to the acquisition process through a) preparing the acquirer to become ‘acquisition ready’, b) identifying resource...... complementarity, c) directing and governing the integration process, and d) post-acquisition evaluation of the achieved integration and proposing ways forward. Using the EA capability in the acquisition process improves Cisco’s ability to rapidly capture value from its acquisitions and to sustain its acquisition...

  3. ANALYSIS OF THE PROTECTED EXTENSIBLE AUTHENTICATION PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Rana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF has proposednew protocols for highly secured wireless networking. Thepurpose of this paper is to implement one such proposedsecurity protocol - PEAP (Protected ExtensibleAuthentication Protocol [1]. PEAP was jointly developedby Microsoft, Cisco and RSA security. The protocolimplementation is done on the server end of a Client/Servernetwork model on a RADIUS server (RemoteAuthentication Dial-in User Service. The proposedprotocol - PEAP provides for Client identity protection andkey generation thus preventing unauthorized user accessand protecting or encrypting the data against maliciousactivities.

  4. CCNA ICND2 study guide exam 200-101

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Let Todd Lammle prepare you to ace the CCNA ICND2 exam If you already have your CCENT, the ICND2 exam is all you need to earn the CCNA certification. This new study guide from Cisco networking authority Todd Lammle covers 100 percent of the objectives for the exam. Topics include operating IP data networks, understanding switching and routing technologies, working with IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, and troubleshooting. A robust set of study tools, including a network simulator that can be used with the book's hands-on labs and practice exams, gives you added confidence as you prepare. Written by

  5. NetFlow-verkonvalvonta

    OpenAIRE

    Liukkonen, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    Verkonvalvonnalla on tärkeä rooli varsinkin suurten verkkojen ylläpidossa. Verkossa voi liikkua paljon erilaista dataa, joten verkonvalvojan on hyödyllistä ymmärtää, millainen verkkoliikenne kuormittaa verkkoa eniten. Perinteinen SNMP:llä toteutettu verkonvalvontajärjestelmä ei tarjoa yksityiskohtaista tietoa verkkoliikenteen sisällöstä. Cisco Systemsin kehittämällä NetFlowlla on mahdollista päästä tarkemmin käsiksi verkossa liikkuvien pakettien tietoihin ja näin ollen saada selville erilaisi...

  6. 新的IT自动化热门话题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    汉诺威博览会今后也将仍然是工业自动化技术方面的领军者,博览会主任Sepp Heckmann在介绍IT工业自动化的新倡议时也这样说。其后面隐藏着的是目前盛行的从办公层面到生产层面的以太网基础上的联网。该项倡议的发起者是Cisco Europe公司与Harting KGaA公司。

  7. Analisis Unjuk Kerja Aplikasi VoIP Call Android di Jaringan MANET [Performance Analysis of VoIP Call Application Android in MANET (Mobile Ad Hoc Network)

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan Ari Setyawan

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis kinerja aplikasi  VoIP call android di jaringan MANET (mobile ad hoc network).  Hasil pengujian menunjukan bahwa aplikasi VoIP call android dapat digunakan di jaringan MANET. Delay yang dihasilkan paling besar di pengujian indoor dengan jarak 11-15 meter yakni sebesar 0,014624811 seconds. Packet loss yang dihasilkan pada range 1%-2% sedangkan standar packet loss yang ditetapkan oleh CISCO untuk layanan aplikasi VoIP adalah < 5%. Jitter yang dihasilkan ...

  8. The Alignment of Morality and Profitability in Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Semeniuk, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    textabstractNowadays most of the big companies pride themselves on their social responsibility. When visiting the websites of IBM, Cisco, ING, Philips, BP, etc., one will easily find a tab called ‘corporate social responsibility’, or ‘sustainability’.1 Here, companies describe how they contribute to the community and balance their impact on the environment. Why do they do that? There is a long tradition of moral considerations for commerce. In the early days of capitalism, the goal of the bus...

  9. Proto-Clusters with Evolved Populations around Radio Galaxies at z~2.5

    OpenAIRE

    Kajisawa, Masaru; Kodama, Tadayuki; Tanaka, Ichi; Yamada, Toru; Bower, Richard

    2006-01-01

    We report a discovery of proto-cluster candidates around high redshift radio galaxies at z~2.5 on the basis of clear statistical excess of colour-selected galaxies around them seen in the deep near-infrared imaging data obtained with CISCO on Subaru Telescope. We have observed six targets, all at similar redshifts at z~2.5, and our data reach to J=23.5, H=22.6 and K=21.8 (5 sigma) and cover a 1.6' x 1.6' field centered on each radio galaxy. We apply colour cuts in JHKs in order to exclusively...

  10. Handbook of fiber optic data communication a practical guide to optical networking

    CERN Document Server

    DeCusatis, Casimer

    2008-01-01

    The third edition of this Handbook provides a comprehensive, easy to use guide to the field of optical fiber data communications. Written by experts in the industry from major companies such as IBM, Cisco and Nortel, the Handbook is a key reference for optical fiber technology, networking, protocols, applications, manufacturing, and future directions. It includes chapters on all the major industry standards, written by the same experts who developed them.This edition contains new material on transceiver form factors (QSFP, SFP +, XFP, X2), manufacturing standards, including JEDEC and R

  11. Improved Multicast Traffic Scheduling Scheme in the Packet-Switching Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Mei-na; SONG Jun-de; LI Hong-wen

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a new switching scheme of switch fabric, which is named Multicast-enabled Protocol Agnostic Forwarding Engine (M-PAFE). M-PAFE is a central scheduling crossbar-based switch fabric with embedded Combined Input and Output Queue from the queuing view. An extra switching path is dedicated for multicast cell processing in M-PAFE. And the simulation results are provided to evaluate the performance of M-PAFE in comparison with ESLIP, which is a well-known algorithm implemented in Cisco 12000 routers.

  12. The Impact of Duplicate Orders on Demand Estimation and Capacity Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Mor Armony; Erica L. Plambeck

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by a $2.2 billion inventory write-off by Cisco Systems, we investigate how duplicate orders can lead a manufacturer to err in estimating the demand rate and customers' sensitivity to delay, and to make faulty decisions about capacity investment. We consider a manufacturer that sells through two distributors. If a customer finds that his distributor is out of stock, then he will sometimes seek to make a purchase from the other distributor; if the latter is also out of stock, the cust...

  13. Fish of Bear Lake, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios, Patsy; Luecke, Chris; Robinson, Justin

    2007-01-01

    There are 13 species of fish found in the waters of Bear Lake. Of those 13, 4 are endemic (found only in Bear Lake). The 4 endemics species are Bonneville cisco, Bonneville whitefish, Bear Lake whitefish, and Bear Lake sculpin. Five of the remaining 9 fish species are native to the region, and 4 are exotic introductions. These native fishes are the Bonneville cutthroat trout, Utah sucker, redside shiner, speckled dace and Utah chub. The exotic fishes are lake trout, common carp, yellow p...

  14. Reinventing the Platform Core Through Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppenberg, Gustav; Henningsson, Stefan; Eaton, Ben

    2016-01-01

    the acquisition and integration of companies presenting innovative technologies of relevance to the platform core. Using a revelatory case study of Cisco Systems, we develop the explanatory notion of ‘coring acquisition’. In this type of acquisition value is created through the acquisition of companies...... that provide products external to the acquirer that can be assimilated into the platform core. This creates value through the transformational process that we term ‘coring’. We also analyze how the benefits of coring acquisitions are contingent on challenges concerning the integration of acquisitions offering...

  15. Ipv6在高校校园网中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毅; 陈华

    2010-01-01

    文章对ipv6基本概念,ipv6的实现技术及实现ipv6的现行技术进行了阐述,结合学校校园网的ipv6实际解决方案,系统描述了ipv6在网络出口设备Cisco6503上的配置和在ipv6在网络核心设备Cisc06513上的配置,以及ipv6在我校校园网中的实际应用.

  16. Implementation of “Traslator Strategy” For Migration of Ipv4 to Ipv6

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K. R. R. Mohan Rao; Saiteja Kanneganti

    2015-01-01

    This paper is focused on the Translator strategy for migration of IPv4 to Ipv6 implemented in Cisco packet tracer. It describes the design and configuration of network devices and packet transfer between devices of IPv4 and IPv6 networks using NAT-PT as transition mechanism. First major version of IP, IPv4 is the dominant protocol of internet.IPv6 is developed to deal with long anticipated problem of IPv4 running out of addresses. The migration from IPv4 to IPv6 must be implemente...

  17. Seasonal blood chemistry response of sub-tropical nearshore fishes to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Aaron D; Zuckerman, Zachary C; Stewart, Heather A; Suski, Cory D

    2014-01-01

    Climate change due to anthropogenic activity will continue to alter the chemistry of the oceans. Future climate scenarios indicate that sub-tropical oceans will become more acidic, and the temperature and salinity will increase relative to current conditions. A large portion of previous work has focused on how future climate scenarios may impact shell-forming organisms and coral reef fish, with little attention given to fish that inhabit nearshore habitats; few studies have examined multiple challenges concurrently. The purpose of this study was to quantify the blood-based physiological response of nearshore fishes to a suite of seawater conditions associated with future climate change. Fish were exposed to an acute (30 min) increase in salinity (50 ppt), acidity (decrease in pH by 0.5 units) or temperature (7-10°C), or temperature and acidity combined, and held in these conditions for 6 h. Their physiological responses were compared across seasons (i.e. summer vs. winter). Bonefish (Albula vulpes) exposed to environmental challenges in the summer experienced a suite of blood-based osmotic and ionic disturbances relative to fish held in ambient conditions, with thermal challenges (particularly in the summer) being the most challenging. Conversely, no significant treatment effects were observed for yellowfin mojarra (Gerres cinereus) or checkered puffer (Sphoeroides testudineus) in either season. Together, results from this study demonstrate that acute climate-induced changes to thermal habitat will be the most challenging for sub-tropical fishes (particularly in the summer) relative to salinity and pH stressors, but significant variation across species exists.

  18. Analytical Performance Evaluation of Different Switch Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sans

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The virtualization of the network access layer has opened new doors in how we perceive networks. With this virtualization of the network, it is possible to transform a regular PC with several network interface cards into a switch. PC-based switches are becoming an alternative to off-the-shelf switches, since they are cheaper. For this reason, it is important to evaluate the performance of PC-based switches. In this paper, we present a performance evaluation of two PC-based switches, using Open vSwitch and LiSA, and compare their performance with an off-the-shelf Cisco switch. The RTT, throughput, and fairness for UDP are measured for both Ethernet and Fast Ethernet technologies. From this research, we can conclude that the Cisco switch presents the best performance, and both PC-based switches have similar performance. Between Open vSwitch and LiSA, Open vSwitch represents a better choice since it has more features and is currently actively developed.

  19. Building Model for the University of Mosul Computer Network Using OPNET Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modhar Modhar A. Hammoudi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at establishing a model in OPNET (Optimized Network Engineering Tool simulator for the University of Mosul computer network. The proposed network model was made up of two routers (Cisco 2600, core switch (Cisco6509, two servers, ip 32 cloud and 37 VLANs. These VLANs were connected to the core switch using fiber optic cables (1000BaseX. Three applications were added to test the network model. These applications were FTP (File Transfer Protocol, HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol and VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol. The results showed that the proposed model had a positive efficiency on designing and managing the targeted network and can be used to view the data flow in it. Also, the simulation results showed that the maximum number of VoIP service users could be raised upto 5000 users when working under IP Telephony. This means that the ability to utilize VoIP service in this network can be maintained and is better when subjected to IP telephony scheme.

  20. Cisco的用人之道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    股易

    2001-01-01

    1997年Cisco被评为美国《工业周刊》100家管理最佳公司,列第一位;1999年 Cisco被评为 100家网上最受欢迎的公司第一名;2000年,《财富》杂志将Cisco公司列为美国100佳工作场所的第4名。 员工当“猎头” Cisco有大概10%的应聘者是通过员工互相介绍进来的,Cisco有一项特别的鼓励机制,鼓励员工介绍人加入Cisco,方式有点像航空公司累积旅程。员工介绍一个人来面试就给一个点数,每过一道面试关又有一个点数,如果员工最后被Cisco

  1. Monitorování provozu VoIP pomocí technologie OnePK

    OpenAIRE

    Spišiak, Matej

    2014-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá novou proprietární technologií od Cisco Systems zvanou OnePK (One Platform Kit). Soustřeďuje se na možnosti použití v oblasti zberu statistických dat o VoIP provozu. Používá DataPath service set, ktorý zabezpečuje sběr paketů ze síťových zařízení firmy Cisco. DataPath service set posílá pakety na vstup aplikace, která tvoří VoIP statistiku z příchozích SIP paketů. Tato aplikace a provedené testy na technologii OnePK jsou výsledky této práce....

  2. Coal Rank and Stratigraphy of Pennsylvanian Coal and Coaly Shale Samples, Young County, North-Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Edgar H.; Breton, Caroline; Hackley, Paul C.

    2007-01-01

    Vitrinite reflectance measurements were made to determine the rank of selected subsurface coal and coaly shale samples from Young County, north-central Texas, for the National Coal Resources Database System State Cooperative Program conducted by the Bureau of Economic Geology at The University of Texas at Austin. This research is the continuation of a pilot study that began in adjacent Archer County, and forms part of a larger investigation of the coalbed methane resource potential of Pennsylvanian coals in north-central Texas. A total of 57 samples of coal and coaly shale fragments were hand-picked from drill cuttings from depths of about 2,000 ft in five wells, and Ro determinations were made on an initial 10-sample subset. Electric-log correlation of the sampled wells indicates that the collected samples represent coal and coaly shale layers in the Strawn (Pennsylvanian), Canyon (Pennsylvanian), and Cisco (Pennsylvanian-Permian) Groups. Coal rank in the initial sample subset ranges from lignite (Ro=0.39), in a sample from the Cisco Group at a depth of 310 to 320 ft, to high volatile bituminous A coal (Ro=0.91) in a sample from the lower part of the Canyon Group at a depth of 2,030 to 2,040 ft.

  3. Scalable Networking for Cloud Datacenters

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Andy will discuss the architectural evolution of Ethernet networks and switch architectures as they are being designed to address much larger cloud networking applications that require predictable throughput and latency.About the speakerAs Chief Development Officer, Andy Bechtolsheim is responsible for the overall product development and technical direction of Arista Networks.Previously Andy was a Founder and Chief System Architect at Sun Microsystems, where most recently he was responsible for industry standard server architecture. Andy was also a Founder and President of Granite Systems, a Gigabit Ethernet startup acquired by Cisco Systems in 1996. From 1996 until 2003 Andy served as VP/GM of the Gigabit Systems Business Unit at Cisco that developed the very successful Catalyst 4500 family of switches. Andy was also a Founder and President of Kealia, a next generation server company acquired by Sun in 2004.Andy received an M.S. in Computer Engineering from Carnegie Mellon University in 1976 and was a Ph.D. ...

  4. AAA安全管理系统在数字图书馆中的应用%Application of AAA Secure Management Information System to Digital Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷向康

    2009-01-01

    针对当前数字图书馆网络系统设备中普遍存在的安全隐患问题,提出在各网络设备中使用基于AAA(认证、授权、记账)的方法,在管理和控制端,使用一套Cisco Secure ACS(思科安全访问控制服务器)软件, 用TACACS+或RADIUS协议与ACS进行通信认证.AAA安全管理系统部署后,成功地解决了这一难题,实验证明本方法行之有效.%In order to overcome the common obstacle of secure and peril problems of the switchs in digital library networks, this paper develops the method based on AAA(Authentication、Authorization、Accounting) in client switchs of networks and Cisco Secure ACS(Access Control Server)in management server,by communication between switchs and ACS through protocol of TACACS+ or RADIUS.The method is tested successfully and proved effectively in our ditital library.

  5. 基于Web IOU和VMware的虚拟网络实验室研究%Research on Virtual Network Laboratory Based on Web IOU and Vmware

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄睿; 周伟

    2013-01-01

    Network laboratory requires a lot of network equipment, simulator often be used to simulate the network equipment. Analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of Cisco Packet Tracer, GNS3, Web Iou, proposed virtual network laboratory based on Web Iou and Vmware,it shows that using Web IOU and Vmware to construct the virtual network laboratory is feasible,and test the Web IOU and Vmware resources occupancy.%网络实验室需要大量的网络设备,在教学实验中往往采用模拟器模拟网络设备。在分析了Cisco Packet Tracer、GNS3、Web Iou网络设备模拟器的优缺点后,提出了基于Web Iou和Vmware的虚拟网络实验室,用案例证实了Web IOU和Vmware构建虚拟网络实验室的可行性,并测试了Web IOU和Vmware的资源占用情况。

  6. FOOD HABITS AND ONTOGENETIC CHANGES IN THE DIET OF WHITEFISH LARVAE IN LAKE ANNECY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNEVILLE O.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The ontogenetic changes in the diet of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus larvae were investigated during three consecutive years in a deep peri-alpine lake. Identification of the feeding habits of larvae in relation to their larval stage was performed using a PCA% in order to take into account the individual variability in larval diet. Although whitefish larvae are planktivorous, the present study points out ontogenetic changes in diet. While young larval stages are opportunistic feeders on small copepods, older stages feed preferentially on Daphnia sp.. Strong inter-annual variability has been observed in the dietary overlap between the successive larval stages. We show that the density and availability of the potential prey will affect the dynamics of the ontogenetic changes in the diet. Furthermore, it could probably alter the intra-specific competition between larval stages.

  7. Feeding competition between larval lake whitefish and lake herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Hudson, Patrick L.

    1995-01-01

    The potential for competition for food between larval lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and lake herring (C. artedi) 1- to 8-wk of age was explored in a series of 1-h laboratory feeding studies. Feeding started at 2-wk post-hatch. Learning and fish size appear to be more important than prey density at the onset of feeding. Species differed in their feeding behavior and consumption noticeably by 5-wk and substantially by 8-wk. Lake whitefish generally were more aggressive foragers than lake herring, attacking and capturing more prey. At high plankton density at 8-wk, lake herring feeding was depressed in mixed-fish treatments. This difference in competitive food consumption between the two coregonids occurs at a critical life stage, and when combined with other biotic and abiotic factors, may have a significant impact on recruitment.

  8. Cisco路由器口令恢复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锋

    2000-01-01

    一、Cisco路由器口令类别1.有效密码口令(enabled secret password): 是一种安全级别最高的加密口令,适用于Cisco IOS 10.3 (2) 以后的版本,在路由器的配置表中以密码的形式出现。 2.有效口令(enabled password):安全级别次高的非加密口令。当有效密码口令没设置时,使用该口令。3.终端口令(console password):用于防止非法或未授权用户修改路由器配置,在用户通过主控终端对路由器进行设置时,使用该口令。二、口令恢复原理:1.内部内存种类(以2500系列为例)。Cisco 路由器保存了几种不同的配置参数,并存放在不同的内存模块中。Cisco2500系列路由器的内存:ROM、闪存(flash memory)、不可变RAM(NVRAM)、RAM和动态内存(DRAM)等五种。作用如下:一般地,路由器启动时,首先运行ROM中的程序,进行系统自检及引导,然后运行FLASH中的IOS ,并在NVRAM中寻找路由器配置,并装入DRAM中。2.口令恢复的关键在于对配置登记码(Configuration Register Value)进行修改,从而让路由器从不同...

  9. EVALUACIÓN EXPERIMENTAL DE LAS VELOCIDADES MÍNIMAS DE FLUIDIZACIÓN PARA MEZCLAS DE CARBÓN RIPIO Y RESIDUOS AGRÍCOLAS COLOMBIANOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS GÓMEZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Un estudio sistemático experimental se lleva a cabo para determinar las propiedades fluido-dinámicas como la distribución del tamaño de partícula, la densidad de bulto, la velocidad de fluidización, etc. para mezclas de carbón ripio, residuo de las minas de Colombia, y residuos agrícolas como la cascarilla de arroz, aserrín y cisco de café. A partir de los resultados se recomendaron las mezclas que mejores condiciones fluido dinámicas presentaron en frio para su posterior evaluación en el proceso de co-gasificación.

  10. Does it help teaching? Instructors’ perceptions of a technology enhanced standards-based educational program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Çakır

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent accountability movements in the education world gave rise to standards-based curriculum, which provides a teaching and learning environment with high quality instructional materials. An example to such learning environment is Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA program. This study investigates high school teachers’ perceptions and experiences of CCNA program in their classrooms. 357 high school teachers in the United States who teach in the CCNA program completed an online survey measuring their perceptions about standards-based curriculum and testing. The results show that teachers generally accept standards-based curriculum and testing as a teaching tool, spend less time on student feedback and would like to see some features of the curriculum applied to other regular high school subjects such as mathematics and science.

  11. 将"洋"职业资格证书引入必修课

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁慧洁

    2006-01-01

    根据目前社会上职业资格证书的企业需求度和认证及培训机构不够完善的现状,将教学必修课程内容融入全球认可的、技术含量极高的CCNA(Cisco Certified Network Assistant)职业资格认证当中,通过延伸校内相应必修课程的考核工作,使教学环节和行业标准接轨,可使在校学生了解全球产业成熟的技术标准和管理规范,增强学生进入企业后的技术应用能力和竞争能力.

  12. Does it help teaching? Instructors’ perceptions of a technology enhanced standards-based educational program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Çakır, Barbara A. Bichelmeyer, Thomas Duffy, Alan Dennis, JoAnne Bunnage

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent accountability movements in the education world gave rise to standards-based curriculum, which provides a teaching and learning environment with high quality instructional materials. An example to such learning environment is Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA program. This study investigates high school teachers’ perceptions and experiences of CCNA program in their classrooms. 357 high school teachers in the United States who teach in the CCNA program completed an online survey measuring their perceptions about standards-based curriculum and testing. The results show that teachers generally accept standards-based curriculum and testing as a teaching tool, spend less time on student feedback and would like to see some features of the curriculum applied to other regular high school subjects such as mathematics and science.

  13. Analisa Horizontal Handover Terhadap Qos Layanan Streaming Multimedia E-Learning Pada Jaringan WLAN 802.11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I M.O. Widyantara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this globalization era, the state of the user who no longer occupies in a single place, but always moving, it is necessary to continuity of communication that will cause a handover. This paper intends to analyze the effect of 802.11 WLAN horizontal handover to the QoS of streaming e-learning. Methods of data collection process using the Cisco 3500 series access point that supports handover with existing network systems, ad-hoc network and type of hard handover. The results of the data analysis showed that the handover process is able to improve the QoS by gradually restored gradually, to get back to normal QoS

  14. Analisa Performansi Algoritma Admission CAC Dan Lucent Pada Berbagai Karakteristik Trafik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tora Fahrudin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Jaringan Metro Ethernet umumnya didefinisikan sebagai bridge dari suatu jaringan atau menghubungkan wilayah yang terpisah bisa juga menghubungkan LAN dengan WAN atau backbone network yang umumnya dimiliki oleh service provider. Admission control adalah suatu mekanisme yang mencegah jaringan mengalami over-loaded. Jika QoS yang diminta tidak dapat disediakan, maka jaringan tidak akan mengirimkan tanda ke aplikasi untuk memulai mengirimkan data. Jika aplikasi telah memulai pengiriman data, maka sumber daya pada jaringan yang sudah dipesan aplikasi tersebut akan terus dikelola secara end-to-end sampai aplikasi tersebut selesai.  Didalam penelitian ini akan di lihat pengaruh Algoritma Lucent dan CAC pada Router Cisco yang di implementasikan dengan simulasi OPNET 14.0. Akan dilihat performansi dari 2 buah alogoritma tersebut, dengan karakteristik Distribusi trafik yang berbeda beda untuk 3 layanan, voice, video dan data.

  15. Experimental Analysis of the Fault Tolerance of the PIM-SM IP Multicast Routing Protocol under GNS3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Lencse

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available PIM-SM is the most commonly used IP multicast routing protocol in IPTV systems. Its fault tolerance is examined by experimenting on a mesh topology multicast test network built up by Cisco routers under GNS3. Different fault scenarios are played and different parameters of the PIM-SM and of the OSPF protocols are examined if they influence and how they influence the outage time of an IPTV service. The failure of the Rendezvous Point (RP of the given IP multicast group as well as the complete failure of a router in the media forwarding path of the multicast stream are examined. A method is given how the service outage time caused by the complete failure of a router can be limited by an appropriate choice of the Dead Interval parameter of OSPF.

  16. Scrum and Temporal Distance-Based Global Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa Fowzi Alotaibi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Global software development (GSD is one of modern trends in software engineering. The last years has witnessed a significant increase in the adoption of Agile in GSD .This paper considers the issue by examining whether Scrum practices used in mitigation of temporal distance-based GSD coordination challenges. We were used Cisco TelePresence tool in Synchronization communication for simulation of face to face meetings. We were designed a simple algorithm to help project managers in determining the appropriate strategies. This algorithm is based on the temporal difference between the sites. This is may be great or simple. Through temporal difference, we calculated number of working hours overlapping. Which are classified in the three cases and each case has number of strategies are sufficient to overcome this challenges.

  17. Analysis Of MPLS VPN Resistance To External Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pólkowski Marcin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents analysis and possible reactions of MPLS network on unauthorized access and on device’s failure. Five Cisco routers joined into a core network were used to conduct the project. The devices were connected into a classic reliability model with envelope shape. The key aspects of the research were incidents’ simulation in line with previously prepared scenarios as well as diagnosis of network’s reactions to a particular type of a device failure. These effects were modelled using special devices such as analysers and generators of data traffic. Additionally, the range of the project included measuring convergence time of the routing protocols acting inside the network combined with analysis of reactions to forced changes of route.

  18. DEFINICIÓN DE UN MODELO DE SEGURIDAD PARA LA RED DE INVESTIGACIÓN DE TECNOLOGÍA AVANZADA DE LA UNIVERSIDAD DISTRITAL “FRANCISCO JOSÉ DE CALDAS” RITA-UD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rocha

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los aspectos más importantes dentro de las networking se relaciona con la protección de la información. Este trabajo permite identificar los aspectos más importantes a considerar en la definición de un modelo de seguridad para la red de investigación de tecnología avanzada de la Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas RITA-UD basado en la aplicación de las normas ISO27001 y NTC-ISO/IEC17799.El diseño final obtenido es una propuesta para la implementación de un Firewall Cisco ASA5520.

  19. Security Optimization of VTP Model in an Enterprise VLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv O. Verma

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available VLANs are extensively used in enterprise network to ease management of hosts to improve scalability and flexibility. Despite their wide usage in enterprise network, VLAN security is a greater concern for the network administrator due to very little attention has been paid on error prone, unsystematic, high risk of misconfiguration in the design and management of enterprise VLAN network. Our paper demonstrates the security optimization techniques in designing VLAN both for Inter-VLAN communication and addressing VTP issues. We proposed various security aspects like access-lists based layer 3 securities in Inter-VLAN routing, deactivating native VLAN 1 to secure Layer 2 traffic in VTP model, Application of authentication on VTP server and non-negotiating Dynamic Trunking Protocol mode to counter the effect of inserting a rogue switch/trunk with higher config revision number. Unless otherwise stated this paper is based upon configuration {&} hardware implementation in a Cisco environment

  20. AONBench: A Methodology for Benchmarking XML Based Service Oriented Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Waheed

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Service Oriented Architectures (SOA and applications increasingly rely on network infrastructure instead of back-end servers. Cisco system Application Oriented Networking (AON initiative exemplifies this trend. Benchmarking such infrastructure and their services is expected to play an important role in the networking industry. We present AONBech specifications and methodology to benchmark networked XML application servers and appliances. AONBench is not a benchmarking tool. It is a specification and methodology for performance measurements, which leverages from existing XML microbenchmarks and uses HTTP for end-to-end communication. We implement AONBench specifications for end-to-end performance measurements through public domain HTTP load generation tool ApacheBench and Apache web server. We present three case studies of using AONBench for architecting real application oriented networking products.

  1. LSIPCIe闪存适配器助力Cisco和EMC实现应用加速

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    LSI公司日前宣布正在与Cisco和EMC开展合作。共同将PCIe闪存高速缓存技术卓越的应用加速优势应用于部署广泛的创新型Cisco UCSB系列刀片服务器。该解决方案将EMC VFcache智能缓存软件与LSI的第二代PCIe闪存适配器系列LSINytro WarpDrive卡相结合,能进一步加速应用性能,改善EMC存储环境下Cisco服务器的响应时间。

  2. Basic security measures for IEEE 802.11 wireless networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar P. Sarmiento

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a tutorial/discussion of three commonly-used IEEE 802.11 wireless network security standards: WEP, WPA and WPA2. A detailed analysis of the RC4 algorithm supporting WEP is presented, including its vulnera-bilities. The WPA and WPA2 encryption protocols’ most relevant aspects and technical characteristics are reviewed for a comparative analysis of the three standards in terms of the security they provide. Special attention has been paid to WEP encryption by using an educational simulation tool written in C++ Builder for facilitating the unders-tanding of this protocol at academic level. Two practical cases of wireless security configurations using Cisco net-working equipment are also presented: configuring and enabling WPA-Personal and WPA2-Personal (these being security options used by TKIP and AES, respectively.

  3. An Overview of the Most Important Reference Architectures for Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan Daniel ZOTA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have presented the main characteristics of the most important reference archi-tectures designed for the cloud computing environment. Specifically, we have introduced the proposed architectures of the worldwide cloud computing companies like Cisco, IBM and VMware and we also had a look at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST reference architecture which is the starting point for all proposed architectures in the field. As one would expect, the provider dependent reference architectures are written is such a way to suit the services and products of the company, while NIST’s architecture is a more general model with more comprehensive architectural details that we highlighted in this article. In the end of the article we draw out some conclusions regarding the existing reference architectures for cloud computing.

  4. PIX在高校校园网中的规划与配置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴子平

    2004-01-01

    刘流:相信我们的读者中一定有不少是校园网的网管员,他们也比较渴望从我们的杂志中获取有关校园网安全的知识,以保护各自所在的校园网的安全。为此,我们特意策划了一篇关于校园网安全的文章,主要讲述如何结合Cisco PIX防火墙保障校园网的安全,以飨广大校园网的网管员朋友们!

  5. 警惕新经济的殖民主义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯力

    2000-01-01

    斯达克的7只股票雄赳赳气昂昂跨过太平洋,冠冕堂皇地来到香港联交所挂牌上市了。这7只股票分别是:微软(Microsoft)、英特尔(Intel)、思科(Cisco)、戴尔电脑(Dell)、应用材料(Applied Material)、安进(Amgen)及星巴克(Starbucks),个个都是行业的巨兽,投资的明星。从媒体披露的信息看,各方面无不对此感到大为欢欣鼓舞:交易所与经纪行以为找到了佣金增收的新途径:投资者以为找到了发财致富的新金矿。

  6. Konvergované řešení hovorových služeb

    OpenAIRE

    Mácha, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Rozvoj technologie VoIP je neodmyslitelně spojen s faktory rychlého růstu kvality a rychlosti připojení k Internetu. Nasazení technologie VoIP se stalo jednou z klíčových oblastí konvergence komunikačních a informačních systémů. Mezi cíle diplomové práce patřilo prostudovat problematiku IP telefonie, přenosu hlasu v datových sítích, podle architektur H.323, SIP a Cisco. Dále navrhnout a zprovoznit experimentální pracoviště zmíněných architektur a podle možností vybavení laboratoře zajistit je...

  7. Analysis on Digital Crime and Emergence of Technical Challenges with Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya avanthi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The most recent technology release Forbes, Cisco reveals adoption of cloud computing in a global scale. As for storage estimated the average data storage consumed per average household grow from 464 gigabytes. One of the cloud key effects the benefit of digital marketing is that is has provided marketers to approach potential customers at the same time example who is watching TV and texting on the couch used to be out of reach of digital marketers. Organizations deploying infrastructure into remote virtualized environments hosted by third parties significant implications for forensic investigators vendors’ enforcement corporate compliance and audit departments. Digital forensic assumes control and management assets during the conduct of an investigation and overviews the cloud computing how establishes digital procedures will be validated in investigation

  8. DEFINICIÓN DE UN MODELO DE SEGURIDAD PARA LA RED DE INVESTIGACIÓN DE TECNOLOGÍA AVANZADA DE LA UNIVERSIDAD DISTRITAL “FRANCISCO JOSÉ DE CALDAS” RITA-UD

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Rocha; Hector C. Manta; Carlos A. Junca; Danilo E. Rodriguez

    2011-01-01

    Uno de los aspectos más importantes dentro de las networking se relaciona con la protección de la información. Este trabajo permite identificar los aspectos más importantes a considerar en la definición de un modelo de seguridad para la red de investigación de tecnología avanzada de la Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas RITA-UD basado en la aplicación de las normas ISO27001 y NTC-ISO/IEC17799.El diseño final obtenido es una propuesta para la implementación de un Firewall Cisco ASA...

  9. NASDAQ Enters Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    THE NASDAQ Representative Office in Shanghai was established in October 2002, just at the time NASDAQ announced it was pulling out of Japan. The implications of these events are clear.The establishment of the NASDAQ Shanghai Representative Office is an important link in the company’s overseas expansion. When NASDAQ first opened for business in early 1971, it was merely an automated system of quotations. After 30 years’ development, its scale approaches that of the 100-year-old New York Stock Exchange, having produced giants such as Microsoft, Intel and Cisco. When the IT bubble burst at the end of the 20th century NASDAQ weathered some unprecedented setbacks, causing it to drop from 5,000 to less than

  10. Mobiili-IP

    OpenAIRE

    Piiponniemi, Petri

    2012-01-01

    Tässä työssä tutustuttiin mobiili-IP:hen. Mobiili-IP tarkoittaa sitä, että sama IP-osoite on käytössä kotiverkkoon, oli käyttäjän yhteys tai sijainti sitten mikä tahansa. Tavoitteena oli tuoda esille mitä mobiili-IP tarkoittaa ja mitkä ovat sen eri kom-ponentit. Tässä työssä oli myös esimerkkinä mobiili-IP:n käyttöönotto Cisco 1841-reitittimellä. Eri komennot esitettiin listauksena ja lopussa oli selitys mitä tehtiin. Opinnäytetyö aloitettiin keräämällä tietoja internetistä ja Ciscon julka...

  11. Adopting Internet Standards for Orbital Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lloyd; Ivancic, William; da Silva Curiel, Alex; Jackson, Chris; Stewart, Dave; Shell, Dave; Hodgson, Dave

    2005-01-01

    After a year of testing and demonstrating a Cisco mobile access router intended for terrestrial use onboard the low-Earth-orbiting UK-DMC satellite as part of a larger merged ground/space IP-based internetwork, we reflect on and discuss the benefits and drawbacks of integration and standards reuse for small satellite missions. Benefits include ease of operation and the ability to leverage existing systems and infrastructure designed for general use, as well as reuse of existing, known, and well-understood security and operational models. Drawbacks include cases where integration work was needed to bridge the gaps in assumptions between different systems, and where performance considerations outweighed the benefits of reuse of pre-existing file transfer protocols. We find similarities with the terrestrial IP networks whose technologies we have adopted and also some significant differences in operational models and assumptions that must be considered.

  12. 万豪国际集团正式启用客用网真会议室

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    万豪国际集团近日宣布其位于上海明天广场JW万豪酒店与AT&T,思科及上海信天通信(信天通信)合作.正式启动万豪在中国内地首间、世界第八间万豪虚拟会议室(Virtual Meetings by Marriott with AT&T and Cisco TelePresence)。这间全新的网真会议室连接了全球另外七家拥有网真会议室的万豪酒店,一百多家AT&T Business Exchanse公司用户和组织及客用思科网真会议室一同为客人提供崭新的会议体验。

  13. Knowledge Management through the Equilibrium Pattern Model for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarirete, Akila; Noble, Elizabeth; Chikh, Azeddine

    Contemporary students are characterized by having very applied learning styles and methods of acquiring knowledge. This behavior is consistent with the constructivist models where students are co-partners in the learning process. In the present work the authors developed a new model of learning based on the constructivist theory coupled with the cognitive development theory of Piaget. The model considers the level of learning based on several stages and the move from one stage to another requires learners' challenge. At each time a new concept is introduced creates a disequilibrium that needs to be worked out to return back to its equilibrium stage. This process of "disequilibrium/equilibrium" has been analyzed and validated using a course in computer networking as part of Cisco Networking Academy Program at Effat College, a women college in Saudi Arabia. The model provides a theoretical foundation for teaching especially in a complex knowledge domain such as engineering and can be used in a knowledge economy.

  14. 基于供应链模式的逆向物流战略发展分析及策略——以思科逆向物流体系建立为例%Reverse Logistics Development Strategy Based on Supply Chain Mode: A Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷碧遥

    2011-01-01

    After a value analysis of reverse logistics, the paper explains the importance of promoting it from operational funtion to strategic objective, puts forth the improved implementation strategy in light of the development status of reverse logistics in China and finally analyzes the establishment of the reverse logistics system in a case study on CISCO.%通过逆向物流的价值分析阐明将其从运营层面提高到战略层面的重要意义;再结合我国逆向物流的发展现状,提出可改进的实施策略;最后以思科公司为例分析其逆向物流体系的建立.

  15. Conducting Real-Time Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study via Telepractice: A Preliminary Feasibility and Reliability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Clare L; Ward, Elizabeth C; Hill, Anne J; Phillips, Nick; Porter, Linda

    2016-06-01

    A small number of studies have examined the feasibility of conducting videofluoroscopic swallow studies (VFSS) via telepractice. While the results have confirmed this potential, the systems tested to date have either reported issues that impacted the ability to analyze/interpret the VFSS recordings in real time, or they were not designed to enable real-time interpretation. Further system design is needed to establish a telepractice model that enables the VFSS assessment to be both guided and interpreted live in real time. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility and reliability of using a telepractice system to enable live VFSS assessment. Twenty adult patients underwent a VFSS assessment directed by a telepractice SLP with competency in VFSS located in another room of the hospital. The telepractice clinician led the sessions using a C20 Cisco TelePresence System. This was linked in real time via a secure telehealth network (at 4 megabits per second (Mbit/s)) to a C60 Cisco TelePresence System located in a fluoroscopy suite, connected to the digital fluoroscopy system. Levels of agreement were calculated between the telepractice clinician and a face-to-face clinician who simultaneously rated the VFSS in real time. High levels of agreement for swallowing parameters (range = 75-100 %; k = -0.34 to 1.0) and management decisions (range = 70-100 %, k = 0.64-1.0) were found. A post-session questionnaire revealed clinicians agreed that the telepractice system enabled successful remote assessment of VFSS. The findings support the potential to conduct live VFSS assessment via a telepractice model.

  16. Development of a simulated Internet for education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Smith

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the early stages of research and development of an educational environment designed to enable learners to participate in remote, group based large-scale activities based on local area network and wide area network technologies working on a range of systems and within different learning situations, such as in class group work, remote group work or independent learning. The environment covers specifically routing, switching and wireless principles in the domain of computer networking. This is accomplished using the ‘multiuser functionality' feature found within the Cisco Academy programme, Packet Tracer application. The initial research explores how a ‘virtual Internet' can be implemented to enable learners to engage with the scale and complexity of the Internet without interacting with active routing infrastructures thereby interfering with others. Different communities of interest from Cisco Systems as well as their Academy Programme academic affiliates have contributed to the development of the resource as well as to research into how individuals participate in learning as a result of using this software. This paper tells the story of the iterative action research process with two initial learning situations of ‘remote many' participation and ‘in class many' participation in a large scale networking exercise. As research is still in the development process, this paper explores the experiences and observations gathered from engaging with the two learning scenarios, describing how each interaction exercise was perceived by participants and their educators. Initial findings from both activities indicate that the concept of an ‘Internet on the Internet' to deliver simulated practical learning has considerable potential and brings an alternative dimension to the practical learning experience. Research is ongoing, with the work in this paper informing the continual iterative process.

  17. Design and implementation of 780 MHz IoT development platform%780MHz物联网开发平台的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王平; 彭杰; 严冬

    2012-01-01

    Based on RF technology, embedded technology, and wireless network technology, a development platform of internet of things that works in 780 MHz is designed. The wireless transceiver module, sensor measure module, embedded gateway module and other various function module of the platform are introduced in detail. The 6L0WPAN protocol stack is integrated in the platform which accomplished the end-to-end all IPv6 test in Cisco and realized the interconnection of wireless sensor network and 3G network. Then we can exploit many application systems more conveniently with the platform, such as smart home, environmental monitoring, and intelligent transportation application system and so on.%利用射频技术、嵌入式技术和无线网络技术,设计了一种基于780 MHz频段的物联网(Internet of Things,IoT)开发平台.对平台的无线收发模块,传感器测量模块,嵌入式网关核心模块及各个功能模块进行了详细介绍.平台集成了6LoWPAN协议栈,在思科系统中国研发中心(CISCO)通过了端到端的全IPv6测试,实现了无线传感网(wire-less sensor network,WSN)与3G网络的互联.利用平台能够方便地开发智能家居、环境监测,智能交通等应用系统.

  18. 人民邮电出版社

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    地址:北京崇文区夕照寺街14号邮编:10006电话:(010)67129212 67129218传真:(010)6712921121天学通 Java 2(第3版) [美]RogersCadenhead 等2003.7 483页16开54.00元21天学通 Visual Studio.NET 2003 [美]Jason Beres 2003.8 470页 16开 55.00元CCNP 思科网络技术学院教程(第七学期)多层交换(思科网络技术学院教程丛书) [美]Cisco Systems 公司 2003.7 469页16开60.00元CCIE 路由与交换认证考试指南(英文版)(1CD)(cisco 职业认证培训系列丛书)[美]A.AnthonyBruno 2003.8 741页16开 88.00元Java 编码规范(英文版)Allan Vermeulen等 2003.7 128页 32开 11.80元C++Builder 程序员学习数据结构(1CD) 严仕伟 2003.7 304页 16开 36.00元基于 MPLS 的流量工程 [美]Eric Osborne等 2003.7 448页 16开 62.00元部署 VoIP 解决方案[美]Jonathan DavidsonTina Fox 2003.7 428页 16开 55.00元游戏编程精粹3(1CD) Dante Treglia

  19. Passage of north temperate fish through the Cowan Dam Denil fishway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish passage through a standard Denil fishway under low tailwater conditions was studied at Cowan Dam in Saskatchewan in 1990. In 1991 and 1992, fish passage through an experimental two-level Denil fishway was studied at the same location under similar flow conditions. Six species of fish used the Cowan Dam Denil fishway in 1990: northern pike, walleye, white sucker, longnose sucker, cisco, and lake whitefish. Tag returns suggest that most fish that congregate below Cowan Dam in the spring originate in Lac Ile-a-la-Crosse 150-200 km downstream. Northern pike waited until spawning had been completed before ascending the fishway. Only 12.1% of the pike congregated below the dam are estimated to have ascended the fishway. During 1990 and 1991, the number of pike ascending the fishway appeared to decline as water velocities in the standard and two-level Denil fishways increased. Mean pike length also declined over the period of fish movement, and as water velocities in the standard Denil declined. Walleye did not appear to have any difficulty ascending the standard Denil in 1990, but they did appear to have difficulty ascending the two-level Denil in 1991. Only 29% of the white suckers that ascended the fishway did so prior to spawning. According to recaptures of tagged fish, 58.8% of white suckers present in the tailwater pool ascended the standard Denil in 1990. White suckers also appeared to be able to ascend the two-level Denil without difficulty. Of the longnose suckers, 98% ascended the fishway prior to spawning in 1990, and appeared to ascend both the standard and two-level fishways without obvious delay or difficulty. Only small numbers of cisco and lake whitefish utilized the standard Denil fishway in 1990. 68 refs., 56 figs., 24 tabs

  20. [Approach to Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) phylogeny based on the sequence of the cytocrhome oxydase I (COI) mitochondrial gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldamando, Clara Inés; Marquez, Edna Judith

    2012-09-01

    The genus Spodoptera includes 30 species of moths considered important pests worldwide, with a great representation in the Western Hemisphere. In general, Noctuidae species have morphological similarities that have caused some difficulties for assertive species identification by conventional methods. The purpose of this work was to generate an approach to the genus phylogeny from several species of the genus Spodoptera and the species Bombyx mori as an out group, with the use of molecular tools. For this, a total of 102 S. frugiperda larvae were obtained at random in corn, cotton, rice, grass and sorghum, during late 2006 and early 2009, from Colombia. We took ADN samples from the larval posterior part and we analyzed a fragment of 451 base pairs of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxydase I (COI), to produce a maximum likelihood (ML) tree by using 62 sequences (29 Colombian haplotypes were used). Our results showed a great genetic differentiation (K2 distances) amongst S. frugiperda haplotypes from Colombia and the United States, condition supported by the estimators obtained for haplotype diversity and polymorphism. The obtained ML tree clustered most of the species with bootstrapping values from 73-99% in the interior branches; with low values also observed in some of the branches. In addition, this tree clustered two species of the Eastern hemisphere (S littoralis and S. litura) and eight species of the Western hemisphere (S. androgea, S. dolichos, S. eridania, S. exigua, S. frugiperda, S. latifascia, S. ornithogalli and S. pulchella). In Colombia, S. frugiperda, S. ornithogalli and S. albula represent a group of species referred as "the Spodoptera complex" of cotton crops, and our work demonstrated that sequencing a fragment of the COI gene, allows researchers to differentiate the first two species, and thus it can be used as an alternative method to taxonomic keys based on morphology. Finally, the ML tree did not cluster S. frugiperda with S. ornithogalli

  1. Modelling of surface-water temperature for the estimation of the Czech fishery productivity under the climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svobodová, Eva; Trnka, Miroslav; Kopp, Radovan; Mareš, Jan; Dubrovský, Martin; Spurný, Petr; Žalud, Zděněk

    2015-04-01

    Freshwater fish production is significantly correlated with water temperature which is expected to increase under the climate change. This study is dealing with the estimation of the change of water temperature in productive ponds and its impact on the fishery in the Czech Republic. Calculation of surface-water temperature which was based on three-day mean of the air temperature was developed and tested in several ponds in three main fish production areas. Output of surface-water temperature model was compared with measured data and showed that the lower range of model accuracy is surface-water temperature 3°C, under this temperature threshold the model loses its predictive competence. In the expecting of surface-water temperature above the temperature 3°C the model has proved the well consistence between observed and modelled surface-water temperature (R 0.79 - 0.96). Verified model was applied in the conditions of climate change determined by the pattern scaling method, in which standardised scenarios were derived from five global circulation models MPEH5, CSMK3, IPCM4, GFCM21 and HADGEM. Results were evaluated with regard to thresholds which characterise the fish species requirements on water temperature. Used thresholds involved the upper temperature threshold for fish survival and the tolerable number of days in continual period with mentioned threshold surface-water temperature. Target fish species were Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), Maraene whitefish (Coregonus maraena), Northern whitefish (Coregonus peled) and Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykis). Results indicated the limitation of the Czech fish-farming in terms of i) the increase of the length of continual periods with surface-water temperature above the threshold appropriate to given fish species toleration, ii) the increase of the number of continual periods with surface-water temperature above the threshold, both appropriate to given fish species toleration, and iii) the increase of overall number of

  2. Mobile Router Developed and Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center, under a NASA Space Act Agreement with Cisco Systems, has been performing joint networking research to apply Internet-based technologies and protocols to space-based communications. As a result of this research, NASA performed stringent performance testing of the mobile router, including the interaction of routing and the transport-level protocol. In addition, Cisco Systems developed the mobile router for both commercial and Government markets. The code has become part of the Cisco Systems Internetworking Operating System (IOS) as of release 12.2 (4) T--which will make this capability available to the community at large. The mobile router is software code that resides in a network router and enables entire networks to roam while maintaining connectivity to the Internet. This router code is pertinent to a myriad of applications for both Government and commercial sectors, including the "wireless battlefield." NASA and the Department of Defense will utilize this technology for near-planetary observation and sensing spacecraft. It is also a key enabling technology for aviation-based information applications. Mobile routing will make it possible for information such as weather, air traffic control, voice, and video to be transmitted to aircraft using Internet-based protocols. This technology shows great promise in reducing congested airways and mitigating aviation disasters due to bad weather. The mobile router can also be incorporated into emergency vehicles (such as ambulances and life-flight aircraft) to provide real-time connectivity back to the hospital and health-care experts, enabling the timely application of emergency care. Commercial applications include entertainment services, Internet protocol (IP) telephone, and Internet connectivity for cruise ships, commercial shipping, tour buses, aircraft, and eventually cars. A mobile router, which is based on mobile IP, allows hosts (mobile nodes) to seamlessly "roam" among various IP

  3. Testing for synchrony in recruitment among four Lake Michigan fish species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, David; Höök, Tomas O.; Troy, Cary D.; Liu, Wentao; Madenjian, Charles P.; Adams, Jean V.

    2016-01-01

    In the Great Lakes region, multiple fish species display intra-specific spatial synchrony in 28 recruitment success, with inter-annual climate variation hypothesized as the most likely driver. 29 In Lake Michigan, we evaluated whether climatic or other physical variables could also induce 30 spatial synchrony across multiple species, including bloater (Coregonus hoyi), rainbow smelt 31 (Osmerus mordax), yellow perch (Perca flavescens), and alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus). The 32 residuals from stock-recruitment relationships revealed yellow perch recruitment to be correlated 33 with recruitment of both rainbow smelt (r = 0.37) and alewife (r = 0.36). Across all four species, 34 higher than expected recruitment occurred in 5 years between 1978 and 1987 and then switched 35 to lower than expected recruitment in 5 years between 1996 and 2004. Generalized additive 36 models revealed warmer spring and summer water temperatures and lower wind speeds 37 corresponded to higher than expected recruitment for the nearshore-spawning species, and 38 overall variance explained ranged from 14% (yellow perch) to 61% (alewife). For all species 39 but rainbow smelt, higher recruitment also occurred in extremely high or low years of the North 40 Atlantic Oscillation index. Future development of indices that describe the physical Great Lakes 41 environment could improve understanding of how climate can synchronize fish populations 42 within and across species.

  4. Ecology of the Lake Huron fish community, 1970-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobiesz, Norine E.; McLeish, David A.; Eshenroder, Randy L.; Bence, James R.; Mohr, Lloyd C.; Ebener, Mark P.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Woldt, Aaron P.; Johnson, James E.; Argyle, Ray L.; Makarewicz, Joseph C.

    2005-01-01

    We review the status of the Lake Huron fish community between 1970 and 1999 and explore the effects of key stressors. Offshore waters changed little in terms of nutrient enrichment, while phosphorus levels declined in inner Saginaw Bay. Introduced mussels (Dreissena spp.) proliferated and may have caused a decline in Diporeia spp. This introduction could have caused a decline in lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) growth and condition, with serious repercussions for commercial fisheries. Bythotrephes, an exotic predatory cladoceran, and other new exotics may be influencing the fish community. Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) remained prevalent, but intensive control efforts on the St. Mary's River may reduce their predation on salmonines. Overfishing was less of a problem than in the past, although fishing continued to reduce the amount of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) spawning biomass resulting from hatchery-reared fish planted to rehabilitate this species. Massive stocking programs have increased the abundance of top predators, but lake trout were rehabilitated in only one area. Successful lake trout rehabilitation may require lower densities of introduced pelagic prey fish than were seen in the 1990s, along with continued stocking of hatchery-reared lake trout and control of sea lamprey. Such reductions in prey fish could limit Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) fisheries.

  5. Stock structure of Lake Baikal omul as determined by whole-body morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte, Charles R.; Fleischer, G.W.; Maistrenko, S.G.; Pronin, N.M.

    1999-01-01

    In Lake Baikal, three morphotypes of omul Coregonus autumnalis migratorius are recognized; the littoral, pelagic, and deep-water forms. Morphotype assignment is difficult, and similar to that encountered in pelagic and deep-water coregonines in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Principal component analysis revealed separation of all three morphotypes based on caudal peduncle length and depth, length and depth of the body between the dorsal and anal fin, and distance between the pectoral and the pelvic fins. Strong negative loadings were associated with head measurements. Omul of the same morphotype captured at different locations were classified to location of capture using step-wise discriminant function analysis. Jackknife correct classifications ranged from 43 to 78% for littoral omul from five locations, and 45–86% for pelagic omul from four locations. Patterns of location misclassification of littoral omul suggested that the sub-population structure, hence stock affinity, may be influenced by movements and intermixing of individuals among areas that are joined bathymetrically. Pelagic omul were more distinguishable by site and may support a previous hypothesis of a spawning-based rather than a foraging-based sub-population structure. Omul morphotypes may reflect adaptations to both ecological and local environmental conditions, and may have a genetic basis.

  6. Absence of fractionation of mercury isotopes during trophic transfer of methylmercury to freshwater fish in captivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sae Yun; Blum, Joel D.; Carvan, Michael J.; Basu, Niladri; Head, Jessica A.; Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.

    2012-01-01

    We performed two controlled experiments to determine the amount of mass-dependent and mass-independent fractionation (MDF and MIF) of methylmercury (MeHg) during trophic transfer into fish. In experiment 1, juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were raised in captivity on commercial food pellets and then their diet was either maintained on unamended food pellets (0.1 μg/g MeHg) or was switched to food pellets with 1.0 μg/g or 4.0 μg/g of added MeHg, for a period of 2 months. The difference in δ202Hg (MDF) and Δ199Hg (MIF) between fish tissues and food pellets with added MeHg was within the analytical uncertainty (δ202Hg, 0.07 ‰; Δ199Hg, 0.06 ‰), indicating no isotope fractionation. In experiment 2, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were raised in captivity on food pellets and then shifted to a diet of bloater (Coregonus hoyi) for 6 months. The δ202Hg and Δ199Hg of the lake trout equaled the isotopic composition of the bloater after 6 months, reflecting reequilibration of the Hg isotopic composition of the fish to new food sources and a lack of isotope fractionation during trophic transfer. We suggest that the stable Hg isotope ratios in fish can be used to trace environmental sources of Hg in aquatic ecosystems.

  7. Comparative recruitment dynamics of Alewife and Bloater in Lakes Michigan and Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collingsworth, Paris D.; Bunnell, David B.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Riley, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    The predictive power of recruitment models often relies on the identification and quantification of external variables, in addition to stock size. In theory, the identification of climatic, biotic, or demographic influences on reproductive success assists fisheries management by identifying factors that have a direct and reproducible influence on the population dynamics of a target species. More often, models are constructed as one-time studies of a single population whose results are not revisited when further data become available. Here, we present results from stock recruitment models for Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and Bloater Coregonus hoyi in Lakes Michigan and Huron. The factors that explain variation in Bloater recruitment were remarkably consistent across populations and with previous studies that found Bloater recruitment to be linked to population demographic patterns in Lake Michigan. Conversely, our models were poor predictors of Alewife recruitment in Lake Huron but did show some agreement with previously published models from Lake Michigan. Overall, our results suggest that external predictors of fish recruitment are difficult to discern using traditional fisheries models, and reproducing the results from previous studies may be difficult particularly at low population sizes.

  8. Male Investments in High Quality Sperm Improve Fertilization Success, but May Have Negative Impact on Offspring Fitness in Whitefish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekäläinen, Jukka; Soler, Carles; Veentaus, Sami; Huuskonen, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    Many ejaculate traits show remarkable variation in relation to male social status. Males in disfavoured (subordinate) mating positions often invest heavily on sperm motility but may have less available resources on traits (e.g., secondary sexual ornaments) that improve the probability of gaining matings. Although higher investments in sperm motility can increase the relative fertilization success of subordinate males, it is unclear whether status-dependent differences in sperm traits could have any consequences for offspring fitness. We tested this possibility in whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) by experimentally fertilizing the eggs of 24 females with the sperm of either highly-ornamented (large breeding tubercles, dominant) or less-ornamented (small tubercles, subordinate) males (split-clutch breeding design). In comparison to highly-ornamented individuals, less-ornamented males had higher sperm motility, which fertilized the eggs more efficiently, but produced embryos with impaired hatching success. Also offspring size and body condition were lower among less-ornamented males. Furthermore, sperm motility was positively associated with the fertilization success and offspring size, but only in highly-ornamented males. Together our results indicate that male investments on highly motile (fertile) sperm is not necessarily advantageous during later offspring ontogeny and that male status-dependent differences in sperm phenotype may have important effects on offspring fitness in different life-history stages. PMID:26389594

  9. Diet and prey selection by Lake Superior lake trout during springs 1986-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, B.A.; Hrabik, T.R.; Ebener, M.P.; Gorman, O.T.; Schreiner, D.R.; Schram, S.T.; Sitar, S.P.; Mattes, W.P.; Bronte, C.R.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the diet and prey selectivity of lean (Salvelinus namaycush namaycush) and siscowet lake trout (S. n. siscowet) collected during spring (April–June) from Lake Superior during 1986–2001. We estimated prey selectivity by comparing prey numerical abundance estimates from spring bottom trawl surveys and lake trout diet information in similar areas from spring gill net surveys conducted annually in Lake Superior. Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) was the most common prey and was positively selected by both lean and siscowet lake trout throughout the study. Selection by lean lake trout for coregonine (Coregonus spp.) prey increased after 1991 and corresponded with a slight decrease in selection for rainbow smelt. Siscowet positively selected for rainbow smelt after 1998, a change that was coincident with the decrease in selection for this prey item by lean lake trout. However, diet overlap between lean and siscowet lake trout was not strong and did not change significantly over the study period. Rainbow smelt remains an important prey species for lake trout in Lake Superior despite declines in abundance.

  10. Strontium and zinc concentrations in otoliths of common fish species in the northern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lill, J.-O.; Himberg, M.; Harju, L.; Ek, P.; Lindroos, A.; Wiklund, T.; Gunnelius, K.; Smått, J.-H.; Heselius, S.-J.; Hägerstrand, H.

    2014-01-01

    Otoliths of perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius) and European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) caught at different locations in the northern Baltic Sea along the Finnish west coast and at some rivers and lakes were subjected to elemental analyses with particle induced X-ray emission and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The strontium concentration in otoliths from whitefish (˜3300 μg/g) was 2-3 times higher than that of perch and pike (˜1400 μg/g), while within species the strontium concentration of otoliths from fish caught at different locations was in the same range. The strontium concentrations were lowest in fish from the lakes (˜450 μg/g). Whitefish otoliths contained more zinc (˜60 μg/g) than those of pike (˜30 μg/g), while the zinc concentration in perch otoliths were below the detection limit. No spatial intraspecies variations in zinc concentrations were observed. X-ray diffraction showed that the otoliths consisted of aragonite solely.

  11. Thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs from the upper Great Lakes are related to maternal diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, S.C.; Rinchard, J.; Ebener, M.P.; Tillitt, D.E.; Munkittrick, K.R.; Parrott, J.L.; Allen, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Thiamine deficiency is responsible for reproductive impairment in several species of salmonines in the Great lakes, and is thought to be caused by the consumption of prey containing thiaminase, a thiamine-degrading enzyme. Because thiaminase levels are extremely high in dreissenid mussels, fish that prey on them may be susceptible to thiamine deficiency. We determined thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis eggs from the upper Laurentian Great Lakes to assess the potential for thiamine deficiency and to determine if thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs were related to maternal diet. Mean thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs were highest in Lake Huron, intermediate in Lake Superior, and lowest in Lake Michigan. Some fish had thiamine concentrations below putative thresholds for lethal and sublethal effects in salmonines, suggesting that some larval lake whitefish may currently be at risk of at least sublethal effects of low thiamine concentrations, although thiamine thresholds are unknown for lake whitefish. Egg thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs were statistically significantly related to isotopic carbon signatures, suggesting that egg thiamine levels were related to maternal diet, but low egg thiamine concentrations did not appear to be associated with a diet of dreissenids. Egg thiamine concentrations were not statistically significantly related to multifunction oxidase induction, suggesting that lower egg thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish were not related to contaminant exposure.

  12. Feeding ecology of lake whitefish larvae in eastern Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Wallbridge, Tim; Chiavelli, Rich

    2009-01-01

    We examined the feeding ecology of larval lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in Chaumont Bay, Lake Ontario, during April and May 2004-2006. Larvae were collected with towed ichthyoplankton nets offshore and with larval seines along the shoreline. Larval feeding periodicity was examined from collections made at 4-h intervals over one 24-h period in 2005. Inter-annual variation in diet composition (% dry weight) was low, as was spatial variation among collection sites within the bay. Copepods (81.4%), primarily cyclopoids (59.1%), were the primary prey of larvae over the 3-year period. Cladocerans (8.1%; mainly daphnids, 6.7%) and chironomids (7.3%) were the other major prey consumed. Larvae did not exhibit a preference for any specific prey taxa. Food consumption of lake whitefish larvae was significantly lower at night (i.e., 2400 and 0400 h). Substantial variation in diet composition occurred over the 24-h diel study. For the 24-h period, copepods were the major prey consumed (50.4%) and their contribution in the diet ranged from 29.3% (0400 h) to 85.9% (1200 h). Chironomids made up 33.4% of the diel diet, ranging from 8.0% (0800 h) to 69.9% (0400 h). Diel variation in the diet composition of lake whitefish larvae may require samples taken at several intervals over a 24-h period to gain adequate representation of their feeding ecology.

  13. Diet niches of major forage fish in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, B.M.; Savino, J.F.; Ogilvie, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    A large complex of coregonine species historically dominated the fish community of Lake Michigan. The current species complex is simplified with one remaining coregonine, bloater (Coregonus hoyi), deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsoni), slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), and two dominant invaders, alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax). To better understand the diet relationships of the major offshore forage fishes now in Lake Michigan, diets of bloater, alewife, rainbow smelt, deepwater sculpin, and slimy sculpin were compared. The three sites, chosen to represent northern, central, and southern components of the lake, were sampled during spring, summer, and fall in 1994, and spring and fall in 1995. Forage fishes had diverse and variable diets, with niches differentiated by prey type or location. Diporeia hoyi, Mysis relicta, and zooplankton were the major diet items. The index of relative importance showed benthic (slimy and deepwater sculpins) and pelagic (alewife, rainbow smelt) feeding strategies with opportunistic bloaters incorporating both feeding strategies. Highest diet overlaps were between species of sculpin, and between large and small bloaters; both groups partitioned food by size. Though competition for food may be minimized by spatial segregation of potential competitors, the forage fish in Lake Michigan apparently partition food resources. Fishery management models incorporating food habits of pelagic forage fish would need to take into account diet variation associated with location and season. ?? 2007 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

  14. Reevaluation of lake trout and lake whitefish bioenergetics models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steve A.; Kao, Yu-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Using a corrected algorithm for balancing the energy budget, we reevaluated the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the laboratory and for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in the laboratory and in the field. For lake trout, results showed that the bioenergetics model slightly overestimated food consumption by the lake trout when they were fed low and intermediate rations, whereas the model predicted food consumption by lake trout fed ad libitum without any detectable bias. The slight bias in model predictions for lake trout on restricted rations may have been an artifact of the feeding schedule for these fish, and we would therefore recommend application of the Wisconsin lake trout bioenergetics model to lake trout populations in the field without any revisions to the model. Use of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for coregonids resulted in overestimation of food consumption by lake whitefish both in the laboratory and in the field by between 20 and 30%, on average. This overestimation of food consumption was most likely due to overestimation of respiration rate. We therefore adjusted the respiration component of the bioenergetics model to obtain a good fit to the observed consumption in our laboratory tanks. The adjusted model predicted the consumption in the laboratory and the field without any detectable bias. Until a detailed lake whitefish respiration study can be conducted, we recommend application of our adjusted version of the Wisconsin generalized coregonid bioenergetics model to lake whitefish populations in the field.

  15. Phenotypic and genetic divergence within a single whitefish form - detecting the potential for future divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Eckmann, Reiner; Oppelt, Claus; Behrmann-Godel, Jasminca

    2013-12-01

    Human-induced nutrient input can change the selection regime and lead to the loss of biodiversity. For example, eutrophication caused speciation reversal in polymorphic whitefish populations through a flattening of littoral-pelagic selection gradients. We investigated the current state of phenotypic and genetic diversity in whitefish (Coregonus macrophthalmus) in a newly restored lake whose nutrient load has returned to pre-eutrophication levels and found that whitefish spawning at different depths varied phenotypically and genetically: individuals spawning at shallower depth had fewer gill rakers, faster growth, and a morphology adapted to benthic feeding, and they showed higher degrees of diet specialization than deeper spawning individuals. Microsatellite analyses complemented the phenotype analyses by demonstrating reproductive isolation along different spawning depths. Our results indicate that whitefish still retain or currently regain phenotypic and genetic diversity, which was lost during eutrophication. Hence, the population documented here has a potential for future divergence because natural selection can target phenotypes specialized along re-established littoral-pelagic selection gradients. The biodiversity, however, will have better chances to return if managers acknowledge the evolutionary potential within the local whitefish and adapt fishing and stocking measures. PMID:24478795

  16. Monitoring mercury in freshwater fish in the oil sands region of Northern Alberta : spatial and temporal comparisons to regional mercury concentrations in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Regional Aquatics Monitoring Program (RAMP) was launched to provide a better understanding of the potential effects of oil sands development on aquatic systems, and to address issues important to communities of northern Alberta, such as mercury concentrations in fish. Muskeg dewatering, deforestation, flooding, and air emissions are among the potential mercury sources entering the aquatic systems within the oil sands region. RAMP collects non-lethal tissue samples on an annual basis for mercury analysis from northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Sander vitreus), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in various rivers and lakes within the oil sands region. The purpose is to evaluate the suitability of fisheries resources for human consumption and to evaluate the potential cumulative biological effects on fish. A mercury database was developed based on studies in other regions in Alberta and across Canada in order to provide a regional context to the RAMP monitoring results. Data points from 1975 to 2009 were mapped to evaluate spatial and temporal differences in mercury concentrations and any exceedances of subsistence and general consumption guidelines. This monitoring effort has been instrumental in determining whether changes in mercury concentrations in fish are localized to a specific waterbody or regional in nature.

  17. Visual sensitivity of deepwater fishes in Lake Superior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A Harrington

    Full Text Available The predator-prey interactions in the offshore food web of Lake Superior have been well documented, but the sensory systems mediating these interactions remain unknown. The deepwater sculpin, (Myoxocephalus thompsoni, siscowet (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet, and kiyi (Coregonus kiyi inhabit low light level environments. To investigate the potential role of vision in predator-prey interactions, electroretinography was used to determine visual sensitivity for each species. Spectral sensitivity curves revealed peak sensitivity at 525 nm for each species which closely corresponds to the prevalent downwelling light spectrum at depth. To determine if sufficient light was available to mediate predator-prey interactions, visual sensitivity was correlated with the intensity of downwelling light in Lake Superior to construct visual depth profiles for each species. Sufficient daytime irradiance exists for visual interactions to approximately 325 m for siscowet and kiyi and 355 m for the deepwater sculpin during summer months. Under full moon conditions, sufficient irradiance exists to elicit ERG response to light available at approximately 30 m for the siscowet and kiyi and 45 m for the deepwater sculpin. Visual interactions are therefore possible at the depths and times when these organisms overlap in the water column indicating that vision may play a far greater role at depth in deep freshwater lakes than had been previously documented.

  18. Hydroacoustic estimates of abundance and spatial distribution of pelagic prey fishes in western Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Doran M.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Harvey, Chris J.; Kitchell, James F.; Schram, Stephen T.; Bronte, Charles R.; Hoff, MIchael H.; Lozano, Stephen J.; Trebitz, Anett S.; Schreiner, Donald R.; Lamon, E. Conrad; Hrabik, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    Lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) are a valuable prey resource for the recovering lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior. However, prey biomass may be insufficient to support the current predator demand. In August 1997, we assessed the abundance and spatial distribution of pelagic coregonines and rainbow smelt in western Lake Superior by combining a 120 kHz split beam acoustics system with midwater trawls. Coregonines comprised the majority of the midwater trawl catches and the length distributions for trawl caught fish coincided with estimated sizes of acoustic targets. Overall mean pelagic prey fish biomass was 15.56 kg ha−1 with the greatest fish biomass occurring in the Apostle Islands region (27.98 kg ha−1), followed by the Duluth Minnesota region (20.22 kg ha−1), and with the lowest biomass occurring in the open waters of western Lake Superior (9.46 kg ha−1). Biomass estimates from hydroacoustics were typically 2–134 times greater than estimates derived from spring bottom trawl surveys. Prey fish biomass for Lake Superior is about order of magnitude less than acoustic estimates for Lakes Michigan and Ontario. Discrepancies observed between bioenergetics-based estimates of predator consumption of coregonines and earlier coregonine biomass estimates may be accounted for by our hydroacoustic estimates.

  19. On the origin of species: insights from the ecological genomics of lake whitefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatchez, Louis; Renaut, Sébastien; Whiteley, Andrew R; Derome, Nicolas; Jeukens, Julie; Landry, Lysandre; Lu, Guoqing; Nolte, Arne W; Ostbye, Kjartan; Rogers, Sean M; St-Cyr, Jérôme

    2010-06-12

    In contrast to the large amount of ecological information supporting the role of natural selection as a main cause of population divergence and speciation, an understanding of the genomic basis underlying those processes is in its infancy. In this paper, we review the main findings of a long-term research programme that we have been conducting on the ecological genomics of sympatric forms of whitefish (Coregonus spp.) engaged in the process of speciation. We present this system as an example of how applying a combination of approaches under the conceptual framework of the theory of adaptive radiation has yielded substantial insight into evolutionary processes in a non-model species. We also discuss how the joint use of recent biotechnological developments will provide a powerful means to address issues raised by observations made to date. Namely, we present data illustrating the potential offered by combining next generation sequencing technologies with other genomic approaches to reveal the genomic bases of adaptive divergence and reproductive isolation. Given increasing access to these new genomic tools, we argue that non-model species studied in their ecological context such as whitefish will play an increasingly important role in generalizing knowledge of speciation. PMID:20439281

  20. Historic and modern abundance of wild lean lake trout in Michigan waters of Lake Superior: Implications for restoration goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilberg, Michael J.; Hansen, Michael J.; Bronte, Charles R.

    2003-01-01

    Populations of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Superior collapsed in the late 1950s due to overfishing and predation by sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus. A binational effort to restore the lean morphotype of lake trout began with the stocking of hatchery-reared fish followed by the chemical control of sea lampreys and closure of the commercial fishery. Previous comparisons of the contemporary abundance of wild lean lake trout with that from historic commercial fishery statistics indicate that abundance was higher historically. However, this conclusion may be biased because several factors—the inclusion of siscowet (the “fat” morphotype of lake trout) in the catch statistics, the soak time of nets, seasonal effects on catch per effort, and the confounding effects of effort targeted at lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis—were not accounted for. We developed new indices of historic lean lake trout abundance that correct for these biases and compared them with the assessment data from 1984 to 1998 in Michigan waters of Lake Superior. The modern (1984–1998) abundance of wild lean lake trout is at least as high as that during 1929–1943 in six of eight management areas but lower in one area. Measures to promote and protect naturally reproducing populations have been more successful than previously realized.

  1. Effects of body size, condition, and lipid content on the survival of juvenile lake herring during rapid cooling events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangle, K.L.; Sutton, T.M.; Kinnunen, R.E.; Hoff, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Juvenile lake herring Coregonus artedi were exposed to rapid cooling events during two laboratory experiments to determine the effects of body size, physiological condition, and lipid content on survival. The first experiment was conducted at the onset of winter, exposing small (50 to 85 mm) and large (85 to 129 mm) fish to a decline in water temperature from 12 to 2??C at a rate of 1??C/hr. During this experiment, both large and small individuals exposed to a rapid cooling event experienced no mortality or abnormal behaviors. Separate fish were then maintained under thermal and photoperiod regimes that mimicked those in Lake Superior from October through May. Fish in each size class were maintained at two feeding treatments: Artemia ad libitum and no food. At the completion of the winter period, these lake herring were subjected to the same rapid cooling event conducted in the first experiment. During the experiment, lake herring exhibited no mortality or abnormal behaviors despite treatment-dependent differences in condition and lipid content. Our results indicate that mortality due to rapid cooling events does not appear to contribute to the recruitment variability observed for juvenile lake herring in Lake Superior.

  2. Strontium and zinc concentrations in otoliths of common fish species in the northern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otoliths of perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius) and European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) caught at different locations in the northern Baltic Sea along the Finnish west coast and at some rivers and lakes were subjected to elemental analyses with particle induced X-ray emission and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The strontium concentration in otoliths from whitefish (∼3300 μg/g) was 2–3 times higher than that of perch and pike (∼1400 μg/g), while within species the strontium concentration of otoliths from fish caught at different locations was in the same range. The strontium concentrations were lowest in fish from the lakes (∼450 μg/g). Whitefish otoliths contained more zinc (∼60 μg/g) than those of pike (∼30 μg/g), while the zinc concentration in perch otoliths were below the detection limit. No spatial intraspecies variations in zinc concentrations were observed. X-ray diffraction showed that the otoliths consisted of aragonite solely

  3. Overview of MPEG internet video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R. G.; Li, G.; Park, S.; Kim, J.; Huang, T.; Jang, E. S.; Gao, W.

    2015-09-01

    MPEG has produced standards that have provided the industry with the best video compression technologies. In order to address the diversified needs of the Internet, MPEG issued the Call for Proposals (CfP) for internet video coding in July, 2011. It is anticipated that any patent declaration associated with the Baseline Profile of this standard will indicate that the patent owner is prepared to grant a free of charge license to an unrestricted number of applicants on a worldwide, non-discriminatory basis and under other reasonable terms and conditions to make, use, and sell implementations of the Baseline Profile of this standard in accordance with the ITU-T/ITU-R/ISO/IEC Common Patent Policy. Three different codecs had responded to the CfP, which are WVC, VCB and IVC. WVC was proposed jointly by Apple, Cisco, Fraunhofer HHI, Magnum Semiconductor, Polycom and RIM etc. it's in fact AVC baseline. VCB was proposed by Google, and it's in fact VP8. IVC was proposed by several Universities (Peking University, Tsinghua University, Zhejiang University, Hanyang University and Korea Aerospace University etc.) and its coding tools was developed from Zero. In this paper, we give an overview of the coding tools in IVC, and evaluate its performance by comparing it with WVC, VCB and AVC High Profile.

  4. TOWARDS: 3D INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Swapnali R. Ghadge

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In today’s ever-shifting media landscape, it can be a complex task to find effective ways to reach your desired audience. As traditional media such as television continue to lose audience share, one venue in particular stands out for its ability to attract highly motivated audiences and for its tremendous growth potential the 3D Internet. The concept of '3D Internet' has recently come into the spotlight in the R&D arena, catching the attention of many people, and leading to a lot of discussions. Basically, one can look into this matter from a few different perspectives: visualization and representation of information, and creation and transportation of information, among others. All of them still constitute research challenges, as no products or services are yet available or foreseen for the near future. Nevertheless, one can try to envisage the directions that can be taken towards achieving this goal. People who take part in virtual worlds stay online longer with a heightened level of interest. To take advantage of that interest, diverse businesses and organizations have claimed an early stake in this fast-growing market. They include technology leaders such as IBM, Microsoft, and Cisco, companies such as BMW, Toyota, Circuit City, Coca Cola, and Calvin Klein, and scores of universities, including Harvard, Stanford and Penn State.

  5. 基于VL AN技术的多校区网络架构研究%Study on Multi-campus Network Architecture Based on the VLAN Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彬; 和刚

    2016-01-01

    文章以VLAN和VPN技术的实现为基础,研究高校同地多校区的网络架构,通过PACKET TRACER环境下模拟构建多校区网络,利用思科(CCNA)语言进行路由器和交换机配置、VLAN、VPN的建立连接来实现高校网络构建,从而实现了不同校区之间的同一VLAN之间的通信。%Based on the VLAN and the realization of VPN technology, research university with multi-campus network architecture, through the PACKET TRACER environment to simulate the construction of multi-campus network, use the cisco conifgure routers and switches (CCNA) language, VLAN, VPN connection is established to realize the network construction. Between different campus so as to achieve the communication between the same VLAN.

  6. Does embedding an ICT certification help align tertiary programs with industry?: A study of CCNA workplace perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep Rajendran

    Full Text Available In the last decade there has been an international drive to determine the needs of the ICT industry and skills required by graduates. The intention is to ensure tertiary education is aligned with industry and to suitably prepare students for employment. Among the various initiatives, embedding of industry certification training is one method commonly used to help achieve this. This paper first looks at the literature on industry alignment and the embedding of ICT certifications. It then gives an overview of the changes in the networking courses taught at Wintec over the last ten years. A study of workplace perceptions of the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA courses at this institute is also described, with conclusions drawn about the effectiveness of embedding this certification. In particular the paper investigates how well the courses meet the needs of the ICT industry in the Hamilton/Waikato region. CCNA course topics that are found to be most useful in the workplace are highlighted, as well as the perceived value of the courses for new employees, employers and for people in their career.

  7. 引入国际行业资格认证 推进“双证书制度”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁慧洁

    2008-01-01

    笔者就目前社会上职业资格证书的企业高热需求度和高等职些技术院较对“双证书”制度推行的需求.结合自身教学经验.浅谈将教学必修课程内容融合至社会乃至全球认可的,技术含量极高的CCNA(Cisco Certified Network Assistant)职业资格认证当中,通过延伸校内相应必修课程的考核工作,将教学环节和行业标准相接轨,使在校学生就能了解全球产业成熟的技术标准和管理规范,增强了学生进入了企业后的技术能力和竞争力.

  8. 引入国际行业资格认证推进"双证书制度"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁慧洁

    2008-01-01

    笔者就目前社会上职业资格证书的企业高热需求度和高等职业技术院校对"双证书"制度推行的需求,结合自身教学经验,浅谈将教学必修课程内容融合至社会乃至全球认可的,技术含量极高的CCNA(Cisco Certified Network Assistant)职业资格认证当中.通过延伸校内相应必修课程的考核工作,将教学环节和待业标准相接轨,使在校学生就能了解全球产业成熟的技术标准和管理规范,增强了学生进入企业后的技术能力和竞争力.

  9. Boson NetSim在高校计算机网络教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周跃; 朱毓

    2009-01-01

    计算机网络是现阶段高校培养计算机专业人才的专业课程,网络设备教学方面一直以世界网络巨头思科设备教学为主流,且强调实验实践.但在教学过程存在网络实验设备不足、价格昂贵、设备更新速度较快等原因,导致一般学校很难满足实际要求.而网络模拟软件一般都可以在网上下载,使用方便,不受时间和地点限制,是网络设备和网络协议配置的好工具.网络模拟软件也有很多种,如Boson NetSim、ciscoPacket Tracer、Routersim、sybex Toddrouter CIM等.本文对Boson Netsim计算机网络课程教学中的应用进行介绍.

  10. Method of construction of rational corporate network using the simulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Pakhomovа

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Search for new options of the transition from Ethernet technology. Methodology. Physical structuring of the Fast Ethernet network based on hubs and logical structuring of Fast Ethernet network using commutators. Organization of VLAN based on ports grouping and in accordance with the standard IEEE 802 .1Q. Findings. The options for improving of the Ethernet network are proposed. According to the Fast Ethernet and VLAN technologies on the simulation models in packages NetCraker and Cisco Packet Traker respectively. Origiality. The technique of designing of local area network using the VLAN technology is proposed. Practical value.Each of the options of "Dniprozaliznychproekt" network improving has its advantages. Transition from the Ethernet to Fast Ethernet technology is simple and economical, it requires only one commutator, when the VLAN organization requires at least two. VLAN technology, however, has the following advantages: reducing the load on the network, isolation of the broadcast traffic, change of the logical network structure without changing its physical structure, improving the network security. The transition from Ethernet to the VLAN technology allows you to separate the physical topology from the logical one, and the format of the ÌEEE 802.1Q standard frames allows you to simplify the process of virtual networks implementation to enterprises.

  11. Implementasi Cloud Computing Menggunakan Metode Pengembangan Sistem Agile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Much Aziz Muslim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing merupakan sebuah teknologi yang menyediakan layanan terhadap sumber daya komputasi melalui sebuah jaringan. Sumber daya yang di sediakan di dalam cloud computing meliputi mesin, media penyimpanan data, sistem operasi dan program aplikasi. Fitur dari cloud computing dipercaya akan jauh lebih hemat dan memuaskan. Masalah yang muncul adalah bagaimana mengimplementasi Cloud Computing dengan menggunakan Windows Azure Pack dan bagaimana provisioning Windows Azure Pack SQL Database. Fokus pada penelitian ini adalah pada proses deploying dan provisioning SQL Database Server. Pengimplementasian cloud computing menggunakan metode pengembangan sistem agile dengan langkah-langkah meliputi perencanaan, implementasi, pengujian (test, dokumentasi, deployment dan pemeliharaan. Untuk menjalankan proses tersebut kebutuhan perangkat yang dipersiapkan meliputi perangkat keras seperti PC Server Cisco UCS C240 M3S2, Hardisk 8753 GB, 256 GB RAM, bandwith minimal 1 Mbps dan kebutuhan perangkat lunak meliputi Windows Server 2012 R2, VMM, Windows Azure Pack, IIS, SQL Server 2012 dan Web Patform Installer. Hasil dari implementasi cloud computing menggunakan metode pengembangan sistem agile adalah terbentuknya sebuah sistem cloud hosting provider dengan menggunakan Windows Azure Pack dan SQL Server 2012 sebagai sistem utama dan pengelolaan database menggunakan Microsoft SQL Server Management 

  12. Aplikasi Algoritma Biseksi dan Newton-Raphson dalam Menaksir Nilai Volatilitas Implied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Dharmawan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatilitas adalah suatu besaran yang mengukuran seberapa jauh suatu harga sahambergerak dalam suatu periode tertentu dapat juga diartikan sebagai persentase simpanganbaku dari perubahan harga harian suatu saham. Menurut teori yang dikembangkan oleh Black-Scholes in 1973, semua harga opsi dengan ’underlying asset’ dan waktu jatuh tempo yang samatetapi memiliki nilai exercise yang berbeda akan memiliki nilai volatilitas implied yang sama.Model Black-Scholes dapat dipakai mengestimasi nilai volatilitas implied dari suatu sahamdengan mencari sulusi numerik dari persamaan invers dari model Black-Scholes. Makalah inimendemonstrasikan bagaimana menghitung nilai volatilitas implied suatu saham dengan mengasumsikanbahwa model Black-schole adalah benar dan suatu kontrak opsi dengan denganumur kontrak yang sama akan memiliki harga yang sama. Menggunakan data harga opsi SonyCorporation (SNE, Cisco Systems, Inc (CSCO, dan Canon, Inc (CNJ diperoleh bahwa, ImpliedVolatility memberikan harga yang lebih murah dibandingkan dengan harga opsi darivolatilitas yang dihitung dari data historis. Selain itu, dari hasil iterasi yang diperoleh, metodeNewton-Raphson lebih cepat konvergen dibandingkan dengan metode Bisection.

  13. Grüt: A Gardening Sensor Kit for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valpreda, Fabrizio; Zonda, Ilaria

    2016-02-16

    Food waste is one of the main problems in our society. This is mainly caused by people's behaviors and attitudes, which influence the whole food chain, from production to final consumption. In fact, food is generally perceived as a commodity by adults, who transmit this behavior to children, who in turn do not develop any consciousness about food's source. One way to reduce the problem seems to be by changing consumers' attitudes, which develop during the early years of childhood. Research has shown that after attending school garden classes, children's food-related behavior changes. Growing crops is not always easy--it can't be done in the domestic space, and this lead to a loss of the long term positive effects. This paper presents a project that tries to teach children how to grow their own food indoors and outdoors, mixing real and virtual reality, connecting something natural like a plant to the Internet of Things (or IOT, a network of physical objects virtually connected to each other and to the web). The use of sensors related to an app makes this process more fun and useful for educational purposes. The aim of the project is to change children's attitude towards food, increasing their knowledge about production and consumption, in order to reduce waste on a long term basis. The research has been developed in collaboration with Cisco NL and MediaLAB Amsterdam. The user testing has been executed with Dutch children in Amsterdam.

  14. Simulasi Kinerja Jaringan Nirkabel IEEE-802.11a dan IEEE-802.11g Menggunakan NS-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helm Fitriawan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless network uses transmission media based on radio waves. This type of networks is mainly useddue to its efficiency and mobility in data exchanging. This paper reports the modeling and simulation of wirelessnetworks based on Cisco Aironet 1130ag access point devices with IEEE 802.11a and IEEE 802.11g standards. Themodeling and simulation are performed using network simulator version 2 (NS-2 that is installed on operationsystem Linux Ubuntu v.10.10. The NS-2 is commonly used and works well in numerous types of network simulation. From simulation, we obtain quality of service parameters by employing several simulation scenarios in terms ofnumber of nodes, distances, and packet data sizes. It can be concluded from simulation results that the IEEE 802.11gnetworks transfer data with better quality than those of IEEE 802.11a networks.  Furthermore, the IEEE 802.11gnetworks provide a higher throughput, with smaller amount of delay and packet loss percentage compared to thoseof IEEE 802.11a networks.

  15. TelePresence in Rural Medical Education: A Mixed Methods Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Gray

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to rural health workforce shortages, universities and training providers offer rural and remote clinical placements. This has led to development of educational methods to counter the barriers of distance. In this emerging field, recent improvements in technology have provided solutions including the use of sophisticated videoconferencing systems such as the Cisco TelePresence model CTS-500. This paper evaluates the use of TelePresence in diverse medical education activities using a mixed methods design—questionnaires n=60, individual interviews n=33, and observed practice of activities n=22. TelePresence was found to be beneficial to learning and teaching and superior to other systems participants had used. In particular, the audiovisual quality, resulting intimacy, convenience, and ease of use facilitated teaching and learning, while the fixed camera and poorly arranged physical environment were found to be limitations. The system is best suited for small group activities. Clinical skills-based activities are viable. It is recommended that technical support be available during setup and use and a picture-in-picture mode be included and improved integration of office suite software to provide a joint workspace for display of presentations, images, editing or annotation of documents, and file sharing.

  16. E-Learning and the Changing Face of Corporate Training and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Zornada

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Internet technologies and the advent of e-learning applications inmany organisations have made a fundamental difference to the way organisations deliver training and development content, activities and experiences to their employees. Some of the organisations at the forefront of deploying e-learning technologies have been global corporations and/or transaction processing intensive organisations, who typically have difficulties assembling their staff for traditional classroom based training activities, either due to logistical difficulties or because of the impact this would have on work flows and business continuity. Such organisations have developed approaches to e-learning and competency development that overcome the logistical problems of conventional training by making innovative use of e-learning. This paper examines the approaches used by several leading global, Australian and Asian organisations, including Cisco Systems, Motorola, Qantas and several others by drawing on a field study conducted by the writer during 2003–2004. It attempts to identify some key emerging trends and practices in the field, and lessons that can be learnt from the experiences of organisations reviewed, for the successful deployment of e-learning strategies.

  17. A Principal Design and Recommended Solutions for Developing Secure Techniques Used In Ids for WLAN and Wired LAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Sehgal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A Wireless Local Area Network (LAN is a Radio frequency (RF data communications system. WLANs transmit and receive data Over the Air (OTA and thus collectively combine data connectivity with ease of mobility. Wireless LANs today provide wireless access to vital network resources such as large, multi-location enterprises, small and medium size enterprises as well as Hospitals, Hotel, Airports and homes. Wireless LANs are being widely recognized as a viable, cost-effective general-purpose solution in providing high-speed real-time access to information3. An Intrusion Detection System (IDS is a program that analyzes what happens or has happened during an execution and tries to find indications that the computer has been misused. IDSs can be classified as the tools and methods that monitor computer systems and network traffic to identify. In my Research work I will define that how WLAN is more secure than wired LAN and which pattern used in the Cisco IDS.

  18. The Role of Reusable Learning Objects in Occupational Therapy Entry-Level Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan M. Gee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Out of early research, Cisco Systems (1999 have built an impressive foundation that advocates for reusable learning objects (RLOs. As the need for online methods for delivering both formal and informal educational content has increased, the prospect of greater influence through carefully constructed RLOs has grown. RLOs are any digital resource that can be used and reused to enhance online learning. RLOs typically are small, discrete, self-contained digital objects that may be sequenced, combined, and used within a variety of instructional activities. RLOs have been implemented in nursing, pharmacy, and physician assistant programs. However, there is a lack of literature regarding RLOs in occupational therapy education. An attitudinal survey was administered to occupational therapy students after they had used an RLO focused on goal writing. Student preferences toward RLO content, instructional design, and eLearning were generally positive. Nearly three-quarters of the students who responded to the survey indicated that the RLO presented was beneficial. All respondents noted that they would use the RLO for future occupational therapy courses. It is argued that incorporating RLOs offers a cost-effective, efficient learning tool, and also adds credibility to the given curriculum program as being innovative with instructing occupational-therapy related concepts.

  19. SURVEY ON E-BUSINESS MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.SALEEM BASHA,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the turbulence of internet and e-business, company can only survey with the periodical reinventing their ebusiness models, because business model of a firm can only capture the snap shot of the current value chain. This snap shot cannot survive longer with their competitors. Companies must decide how and when to implement e-business model. The choice should be based on an overall assessment that includes an evaluation of costs and benefits and well-defined goals that are dependent on whether the decision was based on businessor strategic criteria. In this paper we surveyed the e-business model of various authors. Dell, Cisco and Bata are the three revolutionary new business models of business to business e-commerce models that have come out for the successful business. However, these models are not appropriate for every organization. In addition to these new paradigms for individual firms, other changes in business-to-business e-commerce are occurring that are revolutionizing the traditional paradigms.

  20. Developing Computer Network Based on EIGRP Performance Comparison and OSPF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalu Zazuli Azhar Mardedi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the computer network systems technologies that are growing rapidly at this time is internet. In building the networks, a routing mechanism is needed to integrate the entire computer with a high degree of flexibility. Routing is a major part in giving a performance to the network. With many existing routing protocols, network administrators need a reference comparison of the performance of each type of the routing protocol. One such routing is Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF. This paper only focuses on the performance of both the routing protocol on the network topology hybrid. Network services existing internet access speeds average of 8.0 KB/sec and 2 MB bandwidth. A backbone network is used by two academies, they are Academy of Information Management and Computer (AIMC and Academy of Secretary and Management (ASM, with 2041 clients and it caused slow internet access. To solve the problems, the analysis and comparison of performance between the Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF will be applied. Simulation software Cisco Packet Tracer 6.0.1 is used to get the value and to verify the results of its use.

  1. 物联网的边界计算模型:雾计算%A boundary calculation model of IoT fog computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志和

    2014-01-01

    在物联网和云计算带来技术变革和带动产业发展的过程中,由于网络接入设备激增,而网络带宽有限的情况下,思科公司推出了雾计算的概念。首先探讨雾计算的特征和应用模式,然后分析雾计算的“雾节点”与云计算的“云节点”以及物联网的“物节点”的互操作方法,并总结了雾计算的用例,最后给出了前景展望。%During the process of technological change and industry development brought by IoT and cloud computing, Cisco Corporation launched the concept of fog computing because of the surging network access equipments and limited network bandwidth. First, the characteristics and application mode of fog computing are discussed. Then the interoperation method among“the fog nodes”of fog computing,“the cloud nodes”of cloud computing and“the entity nodes”of IoT is analyzed. The examples of fog computing are summarized. The prospect forecast is put forward.

  2. Preliminary hydrologic budget studies, Indian Creek watershed and vicinity, Western Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary quantitative estimates of ground-water discharge into the Colorado River System in the western Paradox Basin were prepared on the basis of existing climatological and streamflow records. Ground-water outflow to the river was deduced as a residual from hydrologic budget equations for two different study areas: (1) the region between gaging stations at Cisco, Green River, and Hite, Utah; and (2) the Indian Creek watershed. An empirical correlation between recharge rates and precipitation amounts derived for several basins in eastern Nevada was applied to estimate recharge amounts for the Indian Creek watershed. A simple Darcian flow model was then used to approximate the ground-water flux outward from the watershed for comparison. Salinity measurements in the Colorado River were also used to approximate ground-water outflow to a river reach in Cataract Canyon in order to provide another comparison with the hydrologic budget results. Although these estimates should be considered only gross approximations, all approaches used provide values of ground-water outflow that are much less than estimates of similar parameters provided by the US Geological Survey in recent hydrologic reconnaissance reports. Estimates contained herein will be refined in future numerical modeling and data collection studies

  3. Lake Ontario zooplankton in 2003 and 2008: community changes and vertical redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudstam, Lars G.; Holeck, Kristen T.; Bowen, Kelly L.; Watkins, James M.; Weidel, Brian C.; Luckey, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    Lake-wide zooplankton surveys are critical for documenting and understanding food web responses to ecosystem change. Surveys in 2003 and 2008 during the binational intensive field year in Lake Ontario found that offshore epilimnetic crustacean zooplankton declined by a factor of 12 (density) and factor of 5 (biomass) in the summer with smaller declines in the fall. These declines coincided with an increase in abundance of Bythotrephes and are likely the result of direct predation by, or behavioral responses to this invasive invertebrate predator. Whole water column zooplankton density also declined from 2003 to 2008 in the summer and fall (factor of 4), but biomass only declined in the fall (factor of 2). The decline in biomass was less than the decline in density because the average size of individual zooplankton increased. This was due to changes in the zooplankton community composition from a cyclopoid/bosminid dominated community in 2003 to a calanoid dominated community in 2008. The increase in calanoid copepods was primarily due to the larger species Limnocalanus macrurus and Leptodiaptomus sicilis. These coldwater species were found in and below the thermocline associated with a deep chlorophyll layer. In 2008, most of the zooplankton biomass resided in or below the thermocline during the day. Increased importance of copepods in deeper, colder water may favor cisco and rainbow smelt over alewife because these species are better adapted to cold temperatures than Alewife.

  4. Performance Comparison of SDN Solutions for Switching Dedicated Long-Haul Connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    We consider scenarios with two sites connected over a dedicated, long-haul connection that must quickly fail-over in response to degradations in host-to-host application performance. We present two methods for path fail-over using OpenFlowenabled switches: (a) a light-weight method that utilizes host scripts to monitor the application performance and dpctl API for switching, and (b) a generic method that uses two OpenDaylight (ODL) controllers and REST interfaces. The restoration dynamics of the application contain significant statistical variations due to the controllers, north interfaces and switches; in addition, the variety of vendor implementations further complicates the choice between different solutions. We present the impulse-response method to estimate the regressions of performance parameters, which enables a rigorous and objective comparison of different solutions. We describe testing results of the two methods, using TCP throughput and connection rtt as main parameters, over a testbed consisting of HP and Cisco switches connected over longhaul connections emulated in hardware by ANUE devices. The combination of analytical and experimental results demonstrates that dpctl method responds seconds faster than ODL method on average, while both methods restore TCP throughput.

  5. Grüt: A Gardening Sensor Kit for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valpreda, Fabrizio; Zonda, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Food waste is one of the main problems in our society. This is mainly caused by people's behaviors and attitudes, which influence the whole food chain, from production to final consumption. In fact, food is generally perceived as a commodity by adults, who transmit this behavior to children, who in turn do not develop any consciousness about food's source. One way to reduce the problem seems to be by changing consumers' attitudes, which develop during the early years of childhood. Research has shown that after attending school garden classes, children's food-related behavior changes. Growing crops is not always easy--it can't be done in the domestic space, and this lead to a loss of the long term positive effects. This paper presents a project that tries to teach children how to grow their own food indoors and outdoors, mixing real and virtual reality, connecting something natural like a plant to the Internet of Things (or IOT, a network of physical objects virtually connected to each other and to the web). The use of sensors related to an app makes this process more fun and useful for educational purposes. The aim of the project is to change children's attitude towards food, increasing their knowledge about production and consumption, in order to reduce waste on a long term basis. The research has been developed in collaboration with Cisco NL and MediaLAB Amsterdam. The user testing has been executed with Dutch children in Amsterdam. PMID:26891301

  6. 基于BYOD的移动校园网研究%Research of Mobile Campus Network based on BYOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文杰

    2015-01-01

    BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) advocates that teachers and students use"comes with equipment"to carry out teach-ing and work. to cultivate students to make full use of the information environment of the ability of autonomous learning, and improve the students' information literacy, is an important development trend of mobile network. This paper analyzes the content and present situation of BYOD, and puts forward the BYOD solution of mobile campus network based on ISE Cisco technology.%BYOD(Bring Your Own Device)倡导师生使用"自带设备"开展教学和工作,有利于培养学生充分利用信息环境进行自主学习的能力,同时提高学生的信息化素养,是移动校园网的一个重要发展趋势.该文分析了BYOD的内涵和现状,结合Cisco的ISE技术提出了移动校园网的BYOD解决方案.

  7. Taking Science to Special Needs and At-Risk Youth in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, D. K.; Yager, D.; Blair, J.; McCully, D.; Alameda, E.; Crawford, K.

    2009-12-01

    Youth in Juvenile Detention Facilities do attend (in-house) school, but rarely receive any instruction in science. We report on a new program to bring science to students at the Santa Clara County Juvenile Detention Facilitirs. Working in partnership with the Knock Out Dog Fighting campaign put together by Kris Crawford of For Pits Sake, Inc., our program provides alternatives to inappropriate behavior so often seen in inner city environments by introducing students to hands-on, inquiry based science activities. Likewise, we report on using similar materials to provide hands-on science activities to special needs students in Santa Clara and Santa Cruz Counties through “Take Flight for Kids” events organized by Dean McCully of Cisco Systems. Through “Take Flight for Kids”, amateur pilots offer special needs students rides in light aircraft and invite them to explore science and other activities through a community fair hosted by hundreds of local organizations. The fair highlights science opportunities and is supported and attended by a wide variety of NASA, NSF, and other science-related organizations. Our poster will focus on techniques and materials we use to excite special young people about science and opportunities for them in STEM fields.

  8. Challenges in Developing XML-Based Learning Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auksztol, Jerzy; Przechlewski, Tomasz

    There is no doubt that modular design has many advantages, including the most important ones: reusability and cost-effectiveness. In an e-leaming community parlance the modules are determined as Learning Objects (LOs) [11]. An increasing amount of learning objects have been created and published online, several standards has been established and multiple repositories developed for them. For example Cisco Systems, Inc., "recognizes a need to move from creating and delivering large inflexible training courses, to database-driven objects that can be reused, searched, and modified independent of their delivery media" [6]. The learning object paradigm of education resources authoring is promoted mainly to reduce the cost of the content development and to increase its quality. A frequently used metaphor of Learning Objects paradigm compares them to Lego Logs or objects in Object-Oriented program design [25]. However a metaphor is only an abstract idea, which should be turned to something more concrete to be usable. The problem is that many papers on LOs end up solely in metaphors. In our opinion Lego or OO metaphors are gross oversimplificatation of the problem as there is much easier to develop Lego set or design objects in OO program than develop truly interoperable, context-free learning content1.

  9. VPN (Virtual Private Network) Performance Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virtual Private Networks (VPN) is an important technology allowing for secure communications through insecure transmission media (i.e., Internet) by adding authentication and encryption to the existing protocols. This paper describes some VPN performance indicators measured over international communication links. An ISDN based VPN link was established between the Joint Research Centre, Ispra site, Italy, and EURATOM Safeguards in Luxembourg. This link connected two EURATOM Safeguards FAST surveillance stations, and used different vendor solutions hardware (Cisco router 1720 and Nokia CC-500 Gateway). To authenticate and secure this international link, we have used several methods at the different levels of the seven-layered ISO network protocol stack (i.e., Callback feature, CHAP - Challenge Handshake Protocol - authentication protocol). The tests made involved the use of different encryption algorithms and the way session secret keys are periodically renewed, considering these elements influence significantly the transmission throughput. Future tests will include the use of a wide variety of wireless media transmission and terminal equipment technologies, in particular PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants) and Notebook PCs. These tests aim at characterising the functionality of VPNs whenever field inspectors wish to contact headquarters to access information from a central archive database or transmit local measurements or documents. These technologies cover wireless transmission needs at different geographical scales: roombased level Bluetooth, floor or building level Wi-Fi and region or country level GPRS

  10. Salinization of the Upper Colorado River - Fingerprinting Geologic Salt Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Grauch, Richard I.

    2009-01-01

    Salt in the upper Colorado River is of concern for a number of political and socioeconomic reasons. Salinity limits in the 1974 U.S. agreement with Mexico require the United States to deliver Colorado River water of a particular quality to the border. Irrigation of crops, protection of wildlife habitat, and treatment for municipal water along the course of the river also place restrictions on the river's salt content. Most of the salt in the upper Colorado River at Cisco, Utah, comes from interactions of water with rock formations, their derived soil, and alluvium. Half of the salt comes from the Mancos Shale and the Eagle Valley Evaporite. Anthropogenic activities in the river basin (for example, mining, farming, petroleum exploration, and urban development) can greatly accelerate the release of constituents from these geologic materials, thus increasing the salt load of nearby streams and rivers. Evaporative concentration further concentrates these salts in several watersheds where agricultural land is extensively irrigated. Sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate show the greatest promise for fingerprinting the geologic sources of salts to the upper Colorado River and its major tributaries and estimating the relative contribution from each geologic formation. Knowing the salt source, its contribution, and whether the salt is released during natural weathering or during anthropogenic activities, such as irrigation and urban development, will facilitate efforts to lower the salt content of the upper Colorado River.

  11. Research on Stress Testing of OSPF Protocol Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Yong (崔勇); Xu Ke; Xu Mingwei; Wu Jianping

    2003-01-01

    The stability and robustness of routing protocol implementations (RPI) in a router are becoming more and more important with the growth of Internet scale. A novel approach named stress testing is proposed to test the properties of RPI. Compared with some traditional test techniques, stress testing is remarkably necessary to inspect and analyze RPI. The test environment is proposed and the test process of OSPF RPI is illustrated by a stochastic Petri Net model with large-scale route simulation and OSPF protocol emulation. Based on this model, the integrated performance tester (IP-TEST) is designed and developed, with which we test a CISCO2600 router. With mathematical methods, we find that the computational complexity of OSPF implementation in this router is O((lnN)4)to the number of its routing table entries. This experiment shows that this technique can inspect the stability, the computational complexity and the scalability of RPI. Furthermore, it can also be widely used with other routing protocols, such as RIP and BGP.

  12. Deska: Tool for Central Administration of a Grid Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrát, Jan; Krejčová, Martina; Hubík, Tomáš; Kerpl, Lukáš

    2011-12-01

    Running a typical Tier-2 site requires mastering quite a few tools for fabric management. Keeping an inventory of installed HW machines, their roles and detailed information, from IP addresses to rack locations, is typically done using various in-house applications ranging from simple spreadsheets to web applications. Such solutions, whose documentation usually leaves much to be desired, typically do not prevent a significant duplication of information, and therefore the data therein quickly become obsolete. After having deployed Cfengine as one of a few sites in the WLCG environment, the Prague Tier-2 site set forth to further automate the fabric management, developing the Deska project. The aim of the system is to provide a central place to perform changes, from adding new machines or moving them between racks to changing their assigned service roles and additional metadata. The database provides an authoritative source of information from which all other systems and services (like DHCP servers, Ethernet switches or the Cfengine system) pull their data, using newly developed configuration adaptors. An easy-to-use command line interface modelled after the Cisco IOS-based switches was developed, enabling the data center administrators to easily change any information in an intuitive way. We provide an overview of the current status of the implementation and describe our design choices aimed at further reducing the system engineers' workload.

  13. 浅析NetFlow技术及其在网络流量监测分析中的应用%A Brief Introduction about NetFlow and its Application on NetWork Traffic Analasys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓莹

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of internet/intranet, how to analyse network traffic becomes a new problem. CISCO provides an efficient way to this proble NetFlow. Firstly, introduce the NetFlow technology briefly, then it introduce NetFlow'sproeessing part, output data, versions and system structure, Finally, provide its application on network traffic analysis system.%InterneVIntranet正在迅猛发展,已经对流量统计和管理技术提出了新的需求,为此,思科公司在其IOS交换体系结构中引入一种新的交换技术——NetFlow交换。首先简要介绍了NetFlow技术,然后详细分析了NetFlow的处理机制、输出格式、实用版本以及系统组成,最后,阐述了NetFlow在网络流量监测分析中的应用。

  14. Updated streamflow reconstructions for the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, C.A.; Gray, S.T.; Meko, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Updated proxy reconstructions of water year (October-September) streamflow for four key gauges in the Upper Colorado River Basin were generated using an expanded tree ring network and longer calibration records than in previous efforts. Reconstructed gauges include the Green River at Green River, Utah; Colorado near Cisco, Utah; San Juan near Bluff, Utah; and Colorado at Lees Ferry, Arizona. The reconstructions explain 72-81% of the variance in the gauge records, and results are robust across several reconstruction approaches. Time series plots as well as results of cross-spectral analysis indicate strong spatial coherence in runoff variations across the subbasins. The Lees Ferry reconstruction suggests a higher long-term mean than previous reconstructions but strongly supports earlier findings that Colorado River allocations were based on one of the wettest periods in the past 5 centuries and that droughts more severe than any 20th to 21st century event occurred in the past. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Možnosti nasazení protokolu IPv6 ve firemní LAN síti

    OpenAIRE

    Kšica, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Cílem práce bylo vytvořit ucelený přehled o stavu a možnostech nasazení IPv6 protokolu ve firemní LAN síti. Zmapoval jsem možnosti a implementace nejpoužívanějších operačních systémů MS Windows XP, Linux, FreeBSD, směrovačů Cisco, služeb DNS a DHCPv6. Součástí práce je návrh a realizace způsobu rozdělení IPv6 adres pro lokální sít s připojením IPv6 sítě k internetu. Práce zahrnuje průzkum trhu ISP v ČR, schopnost komunikace v novém IPv6 protokolu. The goal of this thesis is ...

  16. Late Paleozoic paleolatitude and paleogeography of the Midland basin, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.A. (Mobil Exploration and Producing U.S., Midland, TX (United States)); Golonka, J. (Mobil Exploration and Producing Services Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)); Reid, A.M.; Reid, S.T. (Consulting Geologist, Midland, TX (United States))

    1992-04-01

    During the Late Pennsylvanian through Early Permian, the Midland basin was located in the low latitudes. In the Desmoinesian (Strawn), the basin was astride the equator; during the Missourian (Canyon), the center of the basin had migrated northward so it was located at 1-2N latitude. In the Virgilian (Cisco), the basin center was located around 2-4N latitude, and by the Wolfcampian, it was positioned at around 4-6N latitude. From the Desmoinesian (312 Ma) through the Missourian (306 Ma), the relative motion of the basin was 63NE. Later during the Virgilian (298 Ma) to Wolfcampian (280 Ma), the direction of motion was 24NE. This change in motion reflects a major tectonic event, occurring between the Missourian and Virgilian, that greatly modifed the movement of the Laurentian (North American) plate. At that time, Laurentia had collided with Gondwana and become part of the supercontinent Pangea. Throughout the late Paleozoic, Laurentia was rotated so the Midland basin was oriented 43{degree} northeast from its current setting. Late Paleozoic paleogeography and paleolatitude controlled the direction of prevailing winds and ocean currents, thereby influencing the distribution of carbonate facies in the Midland basin. Present prevailing winds and ocean currents have been shown to have a major impact on modern carbonate sedimentation and facies distribution in Belize, the Bahamas and Turks, and Caicos. A clearer understanding of how late Paleozoic latitude and geography affected sedimentation helps explain and predict the distribution of carbonates throughout the Midland basin.

  17. Plain deltamorphostructures, highly promising oil and gas reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanev, D.

    1981-01-01

    Based on published data, an examination is made of the geographic distribution of oil and gas fields in the European and Asian sectors of the Soviet Union, Asia, Africa, North and South America, Near East and Central Europe. Most of the large and giant fields are concentrated in river valleys, delta plains and delta shelf. In the examples of the rivers of Niger, Ganges, Mississippi, Orinoco and the Cisco system in Central Texas, an analysis was made of the development, structure and lithology of the delta. It is believed that the plain forms formed on the paleodelta formations are inherited underwater and abovewater deltas with characteristic relief and structure. With regard for the structural features of the river valleys and the continuous mountain relief of the Danube, Irtysh, Kuban, Niger and Mississippi Rivers a conclusion was drawn that the base and the mountain slopes are favorable for the formation of oil and gas accumulations, and at the coast line in the delta zones in its historical development retreated into the depth of the continent, remaining linked to the water area of the World Ocean. It is assumed that the conditions of plain delta morphostructures are the most favorable for localizing giant oil and gas fields.

  18. A First

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The first International Grid Networking Workshop (GNEW2004) was held at CERN from March 15 to 16. The workshop was jointly organised by CERN/DataTAG, DANTE, INRIA and TERENA in Europe, ESnet and Internet2 in the USA and was sponsored by Cisco Systems. 81 people from 55 different academic institutes and 10 representatives of 7 private sector companies took part in the GNEW2004 workshop. Some of the members of the DataTAG Project team with an American colleague. From left to right: Martin Fluckiger, Stan Cannon, Paolo Moroni, Sylvain Ravot (Caltech), Elise Guyot, Daniel Davids, Olivier Martin, Rosy Mondardini and Edoardo Martelli. "The main lesson learnt from the workshop was that the traditional Internet-type shared packet switched network infrastructures are unlikely to be sufficient to meet the needs of future, data-intensive Grids such as the one CERN and its partners are developing for LHC Computing Grid (LCG). So-called "end to end" solutions, similar to those for telephone networks, using optically swi...

  19. Trophic connections in Lake Superior Part II: the nearshore fish community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, A.E.; Hrabik, T.R.; Yule, D.L.; Stockwell, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    We use detailed diet analyses of the predominant planktivorous, benthivorous and piscivorous fish species from Lake Superior to create a nearshore (bathymetric depths Mysis diluviana and Diporeia spp). Although the piscivorous fishes like lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) fed to a lesser extent on Diporeia and Mysis, they were still strongly connected to these macroinvertebrates, which were consumed by their primary prey species (sculpin spp., rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, and coregonines). The addition of Bythotrephes to summer/fall cisco and lake whitefish diets, and the decrease in rainbow smelt in lean lake trout diets (replaced by coregonines) were the largest observed differences relative to historic Lake Superior diet studies. Although the offshore food web of Lake Superior was simpler than nearshore in terms of number of fish species present, the two areas had remarkably similar food web structures, and both fish communities were primarily supported by Mysis and Diporeia. We conclude that declines in Mysis or Diporeia populations would have a significant impact on energy flow in Lake Superior. The food web information we generated can be used to better identify management strategies for Lake Superior.

  20. Quality of service provision assessment in the healthcare information and telecommunications infrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babulak, Eduard

    2006-01-01

    The continuous increase in the complexity and the heterogeneity of corporate and healthcare telecommunications infrastructures will require new assessment methods of quality of service (QoS) provision that are capable of addressing all engineering and social issues with much faster speeds. Speed and accessibility to any information at any time from anywhere will create global communications infrastructures with great performance bottlenecks that may put in danger human lives, power supplies, national economy and security. Regardless of the technology supporting the information flows, the final verdict on the QoS is made by the end user. The users' perception of telecommunications' network infrastructure QoS provision is critical to the successful business management operation of any organization. As a result, it is essential to assess the QoS Provision in the light of user's perception. This article presents a cost effective methodology to assess the user's perception of quality of service provision utilizing the existing Staffordshire University Network (SUN) by adding a component of measurement to the existing model presented by Walker. This paper presents the real examples of CISCO Networking Solutions for Health Care givers and offers a cost effective approach to assess the QoS provision within the campus network, which could be easily adapted to any health care organization or campus network in the world. PMID:16137920

  1. Autonomous Satellite Operations Via Secure Virtual Mission Operations Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric; Paulsen, Phillip E.; Pasciuto, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The science community is interested in improving their ability to respond to rapidly evolving, transient phenomena via autonomous rapid reconfiguration, which derives from the ability to assemble separate but collaborating sensors and data forecasting systems to meet a broad range of research and application needs. Current satellite systems typically require human intervention to respond to triggers from dissimilar sensor systems. Additionally, satellite ground services often need to be coordinated days or weeks in advance. Finally, the boundaries between the various sensor systems that make up such a Sensor Web are defined by such things as link delay and connectivity, data and error rate asymmetry, data reliability, quality of service provisions, and trust, complicating autonomous operations. Over the past ten years, researchers from the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), General Dynamics, Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL), Cisco, Universal Space Networks (USN), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Naval Research Laboratory, the DoD Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) Office, and others have worked collaboratively to develop a virtual mission operations capability. Called VMOC (Virtual Mission Operations Center), this new capability allows cross-system queuing of dissimilar mission unique systems through the use of a common security scheme and published application programming interfaces (APIs). Collaborative VMOC demonstrations over the last several years have supported the standardization of spacecraft to ground interfaces needed to reduce costs, maximize space effects to the user, and allow the generation of new tactics, techniques and procedures that lead to responsive space employment.

  2. Prevalence of Diphyllobothrium latum (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidae) plerocercoids in fish species from four Italian lakes and risk for the consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustinelli, Andrea; Menconi, Vasco; Prearo, Marino; Caffara, Monica; Righetti, Marzia; Scanzio, Tommaso; Raglio, Annibale; Fioravanti, Maria Letizia

    2016-10-17

    In recent years there has been a re-emergence of diphyllobothriasis by Diphyllobothrium latum (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidae) in Italy, France and Switzerland, where in the past this fish-borne zoonosis was widespread and then virtually disappeared. A change in eating habits such as the consumption of raw/undercooked freshwater fish, has led to an increased risk for consumers of ingesting infective larvae of D. latum. A survey on the factors responsible for the re-emergence of human diphyllobothriasis in Italy was carried out from March 2013 to December 2014. The aim of this study was to assess the diffusion of D. latum plerocercoids in the fish populations of the sub-alpine lakes of Maggiore, Como, Iseo and Garda, updating the scarce historical data and assessing a preliminary "risk level" of the lacustrine environments and fish species under investigation. A total of 2228 fish belonging to 5 species, 690 from Lake Maggiore, 500 from Lake Como, 655 from Lake Iseo and 383 from Lake Garda were submitted to parasitological examination. The presence of D. latum plerocercoid larvae was detected in 6.6%, 25.4% and 7.6% of perch (Perca fluviatilis) from Lakes Maggiore, Como and Iseo respectively. The parasite was also present in pike (Esox lucius) with prevalence values ranging from 71.4 to 84.2% and in 3.6-3.8% of burbot (Lota lota) from Lakes Iseo and Como. Fish from Lake Garda were negative as well as sampled whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) and shad (Alosa fallax lacustris). The results of this survey showed a widespread presence of D. latum plerocercoid larvae in Maggiore, Como and Iseo fish populations. Urban fecal contamination of water is still a key issue to be resolved, together with the improvement of communication with consumers regarding the best dietary habits and the most effective processes of parasite inactivation, required for the consumption of raw/undercooked fish caught in high-risk areas.

  3. Planktivory in the changing Lake Huron zooplankton community: Bythotrephes consumption exceeds that of Mysis and fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, D.B.; Davis, B.M.; Warner, D.M.; Chriscinske, M.A.; Roseman, E.F.

    2011-01-01

    Oligotrophic lakes are generally dominated by calanoid copepods because of their competitive advantage over cladocerans at low prey densities. Planktivory also can alter zooplankton community structure. We sought to understand the role of planktivory in driving recent changes to the zooplankton community of Lake Huron, a large oligotrophic lake on the border of Canada and the United States. We tested the hypothesis that excessive predation by fish (rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, bloater Coregonus hoyi) and invertebrates (Mysis relicta, Bythotrephes longimanus) had driven observed declines in cladoceran and cyclopoid copepod biomass between 2002 and 2007. We used a field sampling and bioenergetics modelling approach to generate estimates of daily consumption by planktivores at two 91-m depth sites in northern Lake Huron, U.S.A., for each month, May-October 2007. Daily consumption was compared to daily zooplankton production. Bythotrephes was the dominant planktivore and estimated to have eaten 78% of all zooplankton consumed. Bythotrephes consumption exceeded total zooplankton production between July and October. Mysis consumed 19% of all the zooplankton consumed and exceeded zooplankton production in October. Consumption by fish was relatively unimportant - eating only 3% of all zooplankton consumed. Because Bythotrephes was so important, we explored other consumption estimation methods that predict lower Bythotrephes consumption. Under this scenario, Mysis was the most important planktivore, and Bythotrephes consumption exceeded zooplankton production only in August. Our results provide no support for the hypothesis that excessive fish consumption directly contributed to the decline of cladocerans and cyclopoid copepods in Lake Huron. Rather, they highlight the importance of invertebrate planktivores in structuring zooplankton communities, especially for those foods webs that have both Bythotrephes and Mysis. Together, these species occupy the epi-, meta- and

  4. Adrenocortical and adrenomedullary homologs in eight species of adult and developing teleosts: morphology, histology, and immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi Milano, E; Basari, F; Chimenti, C

    1997-12-01

    Morphology, histology, and immunohistochemistry of the adrenocortical and adrenomedullary homologs (adrenal glands) of the following developing and adult teleosts were examined: Salmoniformes-Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), Salmo trutta fario (brown trout), Coregonus lavaretus (white fish); Cyprinodontiformes-Gambusia affinis (mosquito fish). Perciformes-Dicentrarchus labrax (sea bass), Sparus aurata (sea bream), Diplodus sargus (white bream), Oblada melanura (saddled bream). The anatomical relationships of the gland with the renal system and venous vessels were also noted. In adults of all species steroidogenic and catecholaminergic chromaffin cells were found in the head kidney, which is pronephric in origin and subsequently transformed into a hematopoietic lymphatic organ. In Perciformes, chromaffin cells are distributed around the anterior and posterior cardinal veins and ducts of Cuvier; in Salmoniformes, around the posterior cardinal veins and in the hematopoietic tissue; and in G. affinis, around the ducts of Cuvier and posterior cardinal veins, while a few are visible also around the sinus venosus. In Perciformes and Salmoniformes, numerous chromaffin cells are also present in the posterior kidney, derived from the opisthonephros, in contact with the caudal vein. Steroidogenic cells are always confined to the head kidney. During development chromaffin and steroidogenic cells appear early after hatching in the pronephric kidney, at the level of the ducts of Cuvier and of the cephalic part of the posterior cardinal veins. Later, chromaffin cells in Perciformes reach the anterior cardinal veins, and subsequently, in both Perciformes and Salmoniformes, they reach the developing posterior kidney. Their localization along the posterior kidney is still in progress about 4 months after hatching and is completed about a year after hatching. These findings support the concept that the structure of the adrenal gland in teleosts is intermediate between that of the

  5. The Microbiota of Freshwater Fish and Freshwater Niches Contain Omega-3 Fatty Acid-Producing Shewanella Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Frank E; McGraw, Joseph E; Jensen, Brittany J; Bishop, Sydney S; Lokken, James P; Dorff, Kellen J; Ripley, Michael P; Munro, James B

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 30 years ago, it was discovered that free-living bacteria isolated from cold ocean depths could produce polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (20:5n-3) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22:6n-3), two PUFA essential for human health. Numerous laboratories have also discovered that EPA- and/or DHA-producing bacteria, many of them members of the Shewanella genus, could be isolated from the intestinal tracts of omega-3 fatty acid-rich marine fish. If bacteria contribute omega-3 fatty acids to the host fish in general or if they assist some bacterial species in adaptation to cold, then cold freshwater fish or habitats should also harbor these producers. Thus, we undertook a study to see if these niches also contained omega-3 fatty acid producers. We were successful in isolating and characterizing unique EPA-producing strains of Shewanella from three strictly freshwater native fish species, i.e., lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and walleye (Sander vitreus), and from two other freshwater nonnative fish, i.e., coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and seeforellen brown trout (Salmo trutta). We were also able to isolate four unique free-living strains of EPA-producing Shewanella from freshwater habitats. Phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses suggest that one producer is clearly a member of the Shewanella morhuae species and another is sister to members of the marine PUFA-producing Shewanella baltica species. However, the remaining isolates have more ambiguous relationships, sharing a common ancestor with non-PUFA-producing Shewanella putrefaciens isolates rather than marine S. baltica isolates despite having a phenotype more consistent with S. baltica strains. PMID:26497452

  6. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) populations in Lake Superior and their restoration in 1959-1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Peck, James W.; Schorfhaar, Richard G.; Selgeby, James H.; Schreiner, Donald R.; Schram, Stephen T.; Swanson, Bruce L.; MacCallum, Wayne R.; Burnham-Curtis, Mary K.; Curtis, Gary L.; Heinrich, John W.; Young, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    Naturally-reproducing populations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) have been reestablished in most of Lake Superior, but have not been restored to 1929-1943 average abundance. Progress toward lake trout restoration in Lake Superior is described, management actions are reviewed, and the effectiveness of those actions is evaluated; especially stocking lake trout as a tool for building spawning stocks, and subsequently, populations of wild recruits. Widespread destruction of lake trout stocks in the 1950s due to an intense fishery and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation resulted in lower overall phenotypic diversity than was previously present. Stocking of yearling lake trout, begun in the 1950s, produced high densities of spawners that reproduced wherever inshore spawning habitat was widespread. Sea lampreys were greatly reduced, beginning in 1961, using selective chemical toxicants and barrier dams, but continue to exert substantial mortality. Fishery regulation was least effective in Wisconsin, where excessive gillnet effort caused high by-catch of lake trout until 1991, and in eastern Michigan, where lake trout restoration was deferred in favor of a tribal fishery for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in 1985. Restoration of stocks was quicker in offshore areas where remnant wild lake trout survived and fishing intensity was low, and was slower in inshore areas where stocked lake trout reproduced successfully and fishing intensity was high. Inshore stocks of wild lake trout are currently about 61 % of historic abundance in Michigan and 53% in Wisconsin. Direct comparison of modern and historic abundances of inshore lake trout stocks in Minnesota and Ontario is impossible due to lack of historic stock assessment data. Stocks in Minnesota are less abundant at present than in Michigan or Wisconsin, and stocks in Ontario are similar to those in Michigan. Further progress in stock recovery can only be achieved if sea lampreys are depressed and if

  7. A shift in bloater consumption in Lake Michigan between 1993 and 2011 and its effects on Diporeia and Mysis prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothoven, Steven A.; Bunnell, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine individual and population consumption by Bloater Coregonus hoyi in Lake Michigan during three time periods with variable Bloater density: 1993–1996 (high), 1998–2002 (intermediate), and 2009–2011 (low). Despite declines in Bloater abundance between 1993 and 2011, our results did not show any density-dependent compensatory response in annual individual consumption, specific consumption, or proportion of maximum consumption consumed. Diporeia spp. accounted for a steadily decreasing fraction of annual consumption, and Bloater were apparently unable to eat enough Mysis diluviana or other prey to account for the loss of Diporeia in the environment. The fraction of production of both Diporeia and Mysis that was consumed by the Bloater population decreased over time so that the consumption-to-production ratio for Diporeia + Mysis was 0.74, 0.26, and 0.14 in 1993–1996, 1998–2002, and 2009–2011, respectively. Although high Bloater numbers in the 1980s to 1990s may have had an influence on populations of Diporeia, Bloater were not the main factor driving Diporeia to a nearly complete disappearance because Diporeia continued to decline when Bloater predation demands were lessening. Thus, there appears to be a decoupling in the inverse relationship between predator and prey abundance in Lake Michigan. Compared with Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, the other dominant planktivore in the lake, Bloater have a lower specific consumption and higher gross conversion efficiency (GCE), indicating that the lake can support a higher biomass of Bloater than Alewife. However, declines in Bloater GCE since the 1970s and the absence of positive responses in consumption variables following declines in abundance suggest that productivity in Lake Michigan might not be able to support the same biomass of Bloater as in the past.

  8. Integrating subsistence practice and species distribution modeling: assessing invasive elodea's potential impact on Native Alaskan subsistence of Chinook salmon and whitefish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luizza, Matthew W.; Evangelista, Paul H.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; West, Amanda; Stewart, Heather

    2016-07-01

    Alaska has one of the most rapidly changing climates on earth and is experiencing an accelerated rate of human disturbance, including resource extraction and transportation infrastructure development. Combined, these factors increase the state's vulnerability to biological invasion, which can have acute negative impacts on ecological integrity and subsistence practices. Of growing concern is the spread of Alaska's first documented freshwater aquatic invasive plant Elodea spp. (elodea). In this study, we modeled the suitable habitat of elodea using global and state-specific species occurrence records and environmental variables, in concert with an ensemble of model algorithms. Furthermore, we sought to incorporate local subsistence concerns by using Native Alaskan knowledge and available statewide subsistence harvest data to assess the potential threat posed by elodea to Chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and whitefish ( Coregonus nelsonii) subsistence. State models were applied to future climate (2040-2059) using five general circulation models best suited for Alaska. Model evaluations indicated that our results had moderate to strong predictability, with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve values above 0.80 and classification accuracies ranging from 66 to 89 %. State models provided a more robust assessment of elodea habitat suitability. These ensembles revealed different levels of management concern statewide, based on the interaction of fish subsistence patterns, known spawning and rearing sites, and elodea habitat suitability, thus highlighting regions with additional need for targeted monitoring. Our results suggest that this approach can hold great utility for invasion risk assessments and better facilitate the inclusion of local stakeholder concerns in conservation planning and management.

  9. Integrating subsistence practice and species distribution modeling: assessing invasive elodea’s potential impact on Native Alaskan subsistence of Chinook salmon and whitefish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luizza, Matthew; Evangelista, Paul; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; West, Amanda; Stewart, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Alaska has one of the most rapidly changing climates on earth and is experiencing an accelerated rate of human disturbance, including resource extraction and transportation infrastructure development. Combined, these factors increase the state’s vulnerability to biological invasion, which can have acute negative impacts on ecological integrity and subsistence practices. Of growing concern is the spread of Alaska’s first documented freshwater aquatic invasive plant Elodea spp. (elodea). In this study, we modeled the suitable habitat of elodea using global and state-specific species occurrence records and environmental variables, in concert with an ensemble of model algorithms. Furthermore, we sought to incorporate local subsistence concerns by using Native Alaskan knowledge and available statewide subsistence harvest data to assess the potential threat posed by elodea to Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and whitefish (Coregonus nelsonii) subsistence. State models were applied to future climate (2040–2059) using five general circulation models best suited for Alaska. Model evaluations indicated that our results had moderate to strong predictability, with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve values above 0.80 and classification accuracies ranging from 66 to 89 %. State models provided a more robust assessment of elodea habitat suitability. These ensembles revealed different levels of management concern statewide, based on the interaction of fish subsistence patterns, known spawning and rearing sites, and elodea habitat suitability, thus highlighting regions with additional need for targeted monitoring. Our results suggest that this approach can hold great utility for invasion risk assessments and better facilitate the inclusion of local stakeholder concerns in conservation planning and management.

  10. Rodent neurotoxicity bioassays for screening contaminated Great Lakes fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, M.K.; Hoffman, R. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Gerstenberger, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Veterinary Biosciences; Dellinger, J.A. [Medical Coll. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, MI (United States). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1996-03-01

    Standard laboratory rat neurotoxicity protocols were used to study the consequences resulting from the consumption of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Superior (LS) and the consumption of carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Little Lake Butte des Morte (LLBM) near Oshkosh, Wisconsin, USA. Two 90-d subchronic studies are described, including a 45-d exposure to fish diets using male Sprague-Dawley hooded rats, and a 90-d exposure to fish diets using female rats of the same species. Behavioral alterations were tested using a battery of behavioral tests. In addition, pharmacologic challenges using apomorphine and D-amphetamine were administered to the rats to reveal latent neurotoxic effects. Cumulative fish consumption data were recorded daily, weight gain recorded weekly, and behavior data collected prior to exposure, and on days 7, 14, 55 {+-} 2, 85 {+-} 2. Motor activity data were collected on days 30 {+-} 2, 60 {+-} 2, and 90 {+-} 2 of the feeding protocols. Brain tissue from rodents fed these fish were subsequently analyzed for either mercury (Hg) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Mercury concentrations were increased in the brains of the walleye-fed rats, and PCB concentrations ranged from 0.5 nl/L to 10 nl/L in the brains of rats fed carp from LLBM, a Lake Michigan tributary. Adult male rats fed LLBM carp for 45 d exhibited the greatest behavior responses to the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine on the accelerating rotarod, although these differences were not significant. The 90-d exposure of LS walleye or Hg-spiked LS walleye resulted in behavior alterations on tactile startle response and second footsplay. D-Amphetamine challenge caused changes in tactile startle response, second footsplay, and accelerating rotarod performance after consuming walleye diets. Rats fed LLBM carp had altered behavioral responses to apomorphine on the accelerating rotarod.

  11. Construction of shipping channels in the Detroit River—History and environmental consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, David H.; Manny, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    The Detroit River is one of the most biologically diverse areas in the Great Lakes basin. It has been an important international shipping route since the 1820s and is one of the busiest navigation centers in the United States. Historically, it supported one of the most profitable Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) commercial fisheries in the Great Lakes. Since 1874, the lower Detroit River has been systematically and extensively modified, by construction of deepwater channels, to facilitate commercial shipping. Large-scale dredging, disposal of dredge spoils, and construction of water-level compensating works has greatly altered channel morphology and flow dynamics of the river, disrupting ecological function and fishery productivity of the river and influencing Great Lakes water levels. From 1874 to 1968, major construction projects created 96.5 kilometers (60 miles) of shipping channels, removed over 46,200,000 m3 of material, covered 4,050 hectares (40.5 square kilometers) of river bottom with dredge spoils, and built 85 hectares of above-waterline compensating works at a total cost of US$283 million. Interest by industries and government agencies to develop the river further for shipping is high and increasing. Historically, as environmental protection agencies were created, construction impacts on natural resources were increasingly addressed during the planning process and, in some cases, assessments of these impacts greatly altered or halted proposed construction projects. Careful planning of future shipping-channel construction and maintenance projects, including a thorough analysis of the expected environmental impacts, could greatly reduce financial costs and ecological damages as compared to past shipping-channel construction projects.

  12. Evaluation of a lake whitefish bioenergetics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; O'Connor, Daniel V.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Schneeberger, Philip J.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Argyle, Ray L.; Brandt, Stephen B.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis in the laboratory and in the field. For the laboratory evaluation, lake whitefish were fed rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax in four laboratory tanks during a 133-d experiment. Based on a comparison of bioenergetics model predictions of lake whitefish food consumption and growth with observed consumption and growth, we concluded that the bioenergetics model furnished significantly biased estimates of both food consumption and growth. On average, the model overestimated consumption by 61% and underestimated growth by 16%. The source of the bias was probably an overestimation of the respiration rate. We therefore adjusted the respiration component of the bioenergetics model to obtain a good fit of the model to the observed consumption and growth in our laboratory tanks. Based on the adjusted model, predictions of food consumption over the 133-d period fell within 5% of observed consumption in three of the four tanks and within 9% of observed consumption in the remaining tank. We used polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as a tracer to evaluate model performance in the field. Based on our laboratory experiment, the efficiency with which lake whitefish retained PCBs from their food (I?) was estimated at 0.45. We applied the bioenergetics model to Lake Michigan lake whitefish and then used PCB determinations of both lake whitefish and their prey from Lake Michigan to estimate p in the field. Application of the original model to Lake Michigan lake whitefish yielded a field estimate of 0.28, implying that the original formulation of the model overestimated consumption in Lake Michigan by 61%. Application of the bioenergetics model with the adjusted respiration component resulted in a field I? estimate of 0.56, implying that this revised model underestimated consumption by 20%.

  13. Adaptive Radiation along a Thermal Gradient: Preliminary Results of Habitat Use and Respiration Rate Divergence among Whitefish Morphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahilainen, Kimmo Kalevi; Patterson, William Paul; Sonninen, Eloni; Harrod, Chris; Kiljunen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive radiation is considered an important mechanism for the development of new species, but very little is known about the role of thermal adaptation during this process. Such adaptation should be especially important in poikilothermic animals that are often subjected to pronounced seasonal temperature variation that directly affects metabolic function. We conducted a preliminary study of individual lifetime thermal habitat use and respiration rates of four whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus (L.)) morphs (two pelagic, one littoral and one profundal) using stable carbon and oxygen isotope values of otolith carbonate. These morphs, two of which utilized pelagic habitats, one littoral and one profundal recently diverged via adaptive radiation to exploit different major niches in a deep and thermally stratified subarctic lake. We found evidence that the morphs used different thermal niches. The profundal morph had the most distinct thermal niche and consistently occupied the coldest thermal habitat of the lake, whereas differences were less pronounced among the shallow water pelagic and littoral morphs. Our results indicated ontogenetic shifts in thermal niches: juveniles of all whitefish morphs inhabited warmer ambient temperatures than adults. According to sampling of the otolith nucleus, hatching temperatures were higher for benthic compared to pelagic morphs. Estimated respiration rate was the lowest for benthivorous profundal morph, contrasting with the higher values estimated for the other morphs that inhabited shallower and warmer water. These preliminary results suggest that physiological adaptation to different thermal habitats shown by the sympatric morphs may play a significant role in maintaining or strengthening niche segregation and divergence in life-history traits, potentially contributing to reproductive isolation and incipient speciation. PMID:25405979

  14. Coupling age-structured stock assessment and fish bioenergetics models: a system of time-varying models for quantifying piscivory patterns during the rapid trophic shift in the main basin of Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ji X.; Bence, James R.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Dobiesz, Norine E.; Fielder, David G.; Johnson, James E.; Ebener, Mark P.; Cottrill, Adam R.; Mohr, Lloyd C.; Koproski, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    We quantified piscivory patterns in the main basin of Lake Huron during 1984–2010 and found that the biomass transfer from prey fish to piscivores remained consistently high despite the rapid major trophic shift in the food webs. We coupled age-structured stock assessment models and fish bioenergetics models for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), walleye (Sander vitreus), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). The model system also included time-varying parameters or variables of growth, length–mass relations, maturity schedules, energy density, and diets. These time-varying models reflected the dynamic connections that a fish cohort responded to year-to-year ecosystem changes at different ages and body sizes. We found that the ratio of annual predation by lake trout, Chinook salmon, and walleye combined with the biomass indices of age-1 and older alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) increased more than tenfold during 1987–2010, and such increases in predation pressure were structured by relatively stable biomass of the three piscivores and stepwise declines in the biomass of alewives and rainbow smelt. The piscivore stability was supported by the use of alternative energy pathways and changes in relative composition of the three piscivores. In addition, lake whitefish became a new piscivore by feeding on round goby (Neogobius melanostomus). Their total fish consumption rivaled that of the other piscivores combined, although fish were still a modest proportion of their diet. Overall, the use of alternative energy pathways by piscivores allowed the increases in predation pressure on dominant diet species.

  15. Population synchrony of a native fish across three Laurentian Great Lakes: Evaluating the effects of dispersal and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, D.B.; Adams, J.V.; Gorman, O.T.; Madenjian, C.P.; Riley, S.C.; Roseman, E.F.; Schaeffer, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Climate and dispersal are the two most commonly cited mechanisms to explain spatial synchrony among time series of animal populations, and climate is typically most important for fishes. Using data from 1978-2006, we quantified the spatial synchrony in recruitment and population catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) for bloater (Coregonus hoyi) populations across lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron. In this natural field experiment, climate was highly synchronous across lakes but the likelihood of dispersal between lakes differed. When data from all lakes were pooled, modified correlograms revealed spatial synchrony to occur up to 800 km for long-term (data not detrended) trends and up to 600 km for short-term (data detrended by the annual rate of change) trends. This large spatial synchrony more than doubles the scale previously observed in freshwater fish populations, and exceeds the scale found in most marine or estuarine populations. When analyzing the data separately for within- and between-lake pairs, spatial synchrony was always observed within lakes, up to 400 or 600 km. Conversely, between-lake synchrony did not occur among short-term trends, and for long-term trends, the scale of synchrony was highly variable. For recruit CPUE, synchrony occurred up to 600 km between both lakes Michigan and Huron (where dispersal was most likely) and lakes Michigan and Superior (where dispersal was least likely), but failed to occur between lakes Huron and Superior (where dispersal likelihood was intermediate). When considering the scale of putative bloater dispersal and genetic information from previous studies, we concluded that dispersal was likely underlying within-lake synchrony but climate was more likely underlying between-lake synchrony. The broad scale of synchrony in Great Lakes bloater populations increases their probability of extirpation, a timely message for fishery managers given current low levels of bloater abundance. ?? Springer-Verlag 2009.

  16. Changes in depth occupied by Great Lakes lake whitefish populations and the influence of survey design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Michael D.; Weidel, Brian C.; Claramunt, Randy; Dunlob, Erin S.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding fish habitat use is important in determining conditions that ultimately affect fish energetics, growth and reproduction. Great Lakes lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) have demonstrated dramatic changes in growth and life history traits since the appearance of dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes, but the role of habitat occupancy in driving these changes is poorly understood. To better understand temporal changes in lake whitefish depth of capture (Dw), we compiled a database of fishery-independent surveys representing multiple populations across all five Laurentian Great Lakes. By demonstrating the importance of survey design in estimating Dw, we describe a novel method for detecting survey-based bias in Dw and removing potentially biased data. Using unbiased Dw estimates, we show clear differences in the pattern and timing of changes in lake whitefish Dw between our reference sites (Lake Superior) and those that have experienced significant benthic food web changes (lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario). Lake whitefish Dw in Lake Superior tended to gradually shift to shallower waters, but changed rapidly in other locations coincident with dreissenid establishment and declines in Diporeia densities. Almost all lake whitefish populations that were exposed to dreissenids demonstrated deeper Dw following benthic food web change, though a subset of these populations subsequently shifted to more shallow depths. In some cases in lakes Huron and Ontario, shifts towards more shallow Dw are occurring well after documented Diporeia collapse, suggesting the role of other drivers such as habitat availability or reliance on alternative prey sources.

  17. Discrimination of freshwater fish species by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization- Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria Lauceri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we discriminate three freshwater fish species (the shad Alosa agone Scopoli 1786, the whitefish Coregonus macrophthalmus Nüsslin1882 and the roach Rutilus rutilus Linnaeus 1758 by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization- Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS using both muscle and liver tissues. The technology enables to analyze tissues after a simple single-step extraction procedure without any further purification. The molecular profile of muscle tissues showed the most intense peaks at m/z range of 11,354.0 (±2.0 SD Da, 3508.5 (±1.5 SD Da and 8567.2 (±1.1 SD Da for the shad, the whitefish and the roach respectively. The molecular profiles of liver tissues exhibit most of the highest peak intensities in the range between 2000 and 6000 m/z values. The roach shows the clearest pattern with high intensities detected at mass ranges between 3000 and 3550 Da with maxima at m/z 3035.2 (±0.2 Da and 3468.7 (±0.3 Da. The shad shows a shared high peak at m/z 3429.0 (±0.3 Da. The whitefish shows a group of major peaks in the m/z range of 3000-3700 Da with the highest being at 3635 (±0.3 Da. The overall signal pattern generated is highly specific for each species and, according to cluster analyses based on the total number of peaks, we could discriminate the three species.

  18. Adaptive radiation along a thermal gradient: preliminary results of habitat use and respiration rate divergence among whitefish morphs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmo Kalevi Kahilainen

    Full Text Available Adaptive radiation is considered an important mechanism for the development of new species, but very little is known about the role of thermal adaptation during this process. Such adaptation should be especially important in poikilothermic animals that are often subjected to pronounced seasonal temperature variation that directly affects metabolic function. We conducted a preliminary study of individual lifetime thermal habitat use and respiration rates of four whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus (L. morphs (two pelagic, one littoral and one profundal using stable carbon and oxygen isotope values of otolith carbonate. These morphs, two of which utilized pelagic habitats, one littoral and one profundal recently diverged via adaptive radiation to exploit different major niches in a deep and thermally stratified subarctic lake. We found evidence that the morphs used different thermal niches. The profundal morph had the most distinct thermal niche and consistently occupied the coldest thermal habitat of the lake, whereas differences were less pronounced among the shallow water pelagic and littoral morphs. Our results indicated ontogenetic shifts in thermal niches: juveniles of all whitefish morphs inhabited warmer ambient temperatures than adults. According to sampling of the otolith nucleus, hatching temperatures were higher for benthic compared to pelagic morphs. Estimated respiration rate was the lowest for benthivorous profundal morph, contrasting with the higher values estimated for the other morphs that inhabited shallower and warmer water. These preliminary results suggest that physiological adaptation to different thermal habitats shown by the sympatric morphs may play a significant role in maintaining or strengthening niche segregation and divergence in life-history traits, potentially contributing to reproductive isolation and incipient speciation.

  19. Adaptive radiation along a thermal gradient: preliminary results of habitat use and respiration rate divergence among whitefish morphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahilainen, Kimmo Kalevi; Patterson, William Paul; Sonninen, Eloni; Harrod, Chris; Kiljunen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive radiation is considered an important mechanism for the development of new species, but very little is known about the role of thermal adaptation during this process. Such adaptation should be especially important in poikilothermic animals that are often subjected to pronounced seasonal temperature variation that directly affects metabolic function. We conducted a preliminary study of individual lifetime thermal habitat use and respiration rates of four whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus (L.)) morphs (two pelagic, one littoral and one profundal) using stable carbon and oxygen isotope values of otolith carbonate. These morphs, two of which utilized pelagic habitats, one littoral and one profundal recently diverged via adaptive radiation to exploit different major niches in a deep and thermally stratified subarctic lake. We found evidence that the morphs used different thermal niches. The profundal morph had the most distinct thermal niche and consistently occupied the coldest thermal habitat of the lake, whereas differences were less pronounced among the shallow water pelagic and littoral morphs. Our results indicated ontogenetic shifts in thermal niches: juveniles of all whitefish morphs inhabited warmer ambient temperatures than adults. According to sampling of the otolith nucleus, hatching temperatures were higher for benthic compared to pelagic morphs. Estimated respiration rate was the lowest for benthivorous profundal morph, contrasting with the higher values estimated for the other morphs that inhabited shallower and warmer water. These preliminary results suggest that physiological adaptation to different thermal habitats shown by the sympatric morphs may play a significant role in maintaining or strengthening niche segregation and divergence in life-history traits, potentially contributing to reproductive isolation and incipient speciation. PMID:25405979

  20. Lake morphometry and resource polymorphism determine niche segregation between cool- and cold-water-adapted fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Brian; Harrod, Chris; Kahilaineni, Kimmo K

    2014-02-01

    Climate change is increasing ambient temperatures in Arctic and subarctic regions, facilitating latitudinal range expansions of freshwater fishes adapted to warmer water temperatures. The relative roles of resource availability and interspecific interactions between resident and invading species in determining the outcomes of such expansions has not been adequately evaluated. Ecological interactions between a cool-water adapted fish, the perch (Perca fluviatilis), and the cold-water adapted European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus), were studied in both shallow and deep lakes with fish communities dominated by (1) monomorphic whitefish, (2) monomorphic whitefish and perch, and (3) polymorphic whitefish and perch. A combination of stomach content, stable-isotope, and invertebrate prey availability data were used to identify resource use and niche overlap among perch, the trophic generalist large sparsely rakered (LSR) whitefish morph, and the pelagic specialist densely rakered (DR) whitefish morph in 10 subarctic lakes at the contemporary distribution limit of perch in northern Scandinavia. Perch utilized its putative preferred littoral niche in all lakes. LSR whitefish utilized both littoral and pelagic resources in monomorphic whitefish-dominated lakes. When found in sympatry with perch, LSR whitefish exclusively utilized pelagic prey in deep lakes, but displayed niche overlap with perch in shallow littoral lakes. DR whitefish was a specialist zooplanktivore, relegating LSR whitefish from pelagic habitats, leading to an increase in niche overlap between LSR whitefish and perch in deep lakes. Our results highlight how resource availability (lake depth and fish community) governs ecological interactions between native and invading species, leading to different outcomes even at the same latitudes. These findings suggest that lake morphometry and fish community structure data should be included in bioclimate envelope-based models of species distribution shifts

  1. Coexistence and origin of trophic ecotypes of pygmy whitefish, Prosopium coulterii, in a south-western Alaskan lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowell, C P; Quinn, T P; Taylor, E B

    2012-12-01

    Ecologically, morphologically and genetically distinct populations within single taxa often coexist in postglacial lakes and have provided important model systems with which to investigate ecological and evolutionary processes such as niche partitioning and ecological speciation. Within the Salmonidae, these species complexes have been well studied, particularly within the Coregonus clupeaformis-C. laveratus (lake and European whitefish, respectively) group, but the phenomenon has been less well documented in the other whitefish genera, Prosopium and Stenodus. Here, we examined the morphology, feeding biology and genetic structure of three putative forms of the pygmy whitefish, Prosopium coulterii (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1892), first reported from Chignik Lake, south-western Alaska, over 40 years ago. Field collections and morphological analyses resolved a shallow water ( 30 m), low gill raker form and a deepwater, high gill raker count (> 15 gill rakers) form. The two low gill raker count forms fed almost exclusively on benthic invertebrates (mostly chironomids), while the deepwater, high gill raker count form fed almost exclusively on zooplankton; differences in diet were also reflected in differences both in δ(13) C and δ(15) N stable isotopes. All three forms were characterized by the same major mitochondrial DNA clade that has been associated with persistence in, and postglacial dispersal from, a Beringian glacial refugium. Analysis of variation at nine microsatellite DNA loci indicated low, but significant differentiation among forms, especially between the two low gill raker count forms and the high gill raker count form. The extent of differentiation along phenotypic (considerable) and genetic (subtle) axes among the Chignik Lake forms is similar to that found among distinct taxa of Prosopium found in pre-glacial Bear Lake (Utah-Idaho, USA) which is probably at least ten times older than Chignik Lake. Our analyses illustrate the potential for the

  2. Evaluation of methods to estimate lake herring spawner abundance in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, D.L.; Stockwell, J.D.; Cholwek, G.A.; Evrard, L.M.; Schram, S.; Seider, M.; Symbal, M.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, commercial fishers harvested Lake Superior lake herring Coregonus artedi for their flesh, but recently operators have targeted lake herring for roe. Because no surveys have estimated spawning female abundance, direct estimates of fishing mortality are lacking. The primary objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of using acoustic techniques in combination with midwater trawling to estimate spawning female lake herring densities in a Lake Superior statistical grid (i.e., a 10′ latitude × 10′ longitude area over which annual commercial harvest statistics are compiled). Midwater trawling showed that mature female lake herring were largely pelagic during the night in late November, accounting for 94.5% of all fish caught exceeding 250 mm total length. When calculating acoustic estimates of mature female lake herring, we excluded backscattering from smaller pelagic fishes like immature lake herring and rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax by applying an empirically derived threshold of −35.6 dB. We estimated the average density of mature females in statistical grid 1409 at 13.3 fish/ha and the total number of spawning females at 227,600 (95% confidence interval = 172,500–282,700). Using information on mature female densities, size structure, and fecundity, we estimate that females deposited 3.027 billion (109) eggs in grid 1409 (95% confidence interval = 2.356–3.778 billion). The relative estimation error of the mature female density estimate derived using a geostatistical model—based approach was low (12.3%), suggesting that the employed method was robust. Fishing mortality rates of all mature females and their eggs were estimated at 2.3% and 3.8%, respectively. The techniques described for enumerating spawning female lake herring could be used to develop a more accurate stock–recruitment model for Lake Superior lake herring.

  3. Laboratory Estimation of Net Trophic Transfer Efficiencies of PCB Congeners to Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Its Prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; David, Solomon R.

    2014-01-01

    A technique for laboratory estimation of net trophic transfer efficiency (γ) of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to piscivorous fish from their prey is described herein. During a 135-day laboratory experiment, we fed bloater (Coregonus hoyi) that had been caught in Lake Michigan to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) kept in eight laboratory tanks. Bloater is a natural prey for lake trout. In four of the tanks, a relatively high flow rate was used to ensure relatively high activity by the lake trout, whereas a low flow rate was used in the other four tanks, allowing for low lake trout activity. On a tank-by-tank basis, the amount of food eaten by the lake trout on each day of the experiment was recorded. Each lake trout was weighed at the start and end of the experiment. Four to nine lake trout from each of the eight tanks were sacrificed at the start of the experiment, and all 10 lake trout remaining in each of the tanks were euthanized at the end of the experiment. We determined concentrations of 75 PCB congeners in the lake trout at the start of the experiment, in the lake trout at the end of the experiment, and in bloaters fed to the lake trout during the experiment. Based on these measurements, γ was calculated for each of 75 PCB congeners in each of the eight tanks. Mean γ was calculated for each of the 75 PCB congeners for both active and inactive lake trout. Because the experiment was replicated in eight tanks, the standard error about mean γ could be estimated. Results from this type of experiment are useful in risk assessment models to predict future risk to humans and wildlife eating contaminated fish under various scenarios of environmental contamination. PMID:25226430

  4. Identification of Cryptosporidium Species in Fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman) in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certad, Gabriela; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Gantois, Nausicaa; Hammouma-Ghelboun, Ourida; Pottier, Muriel; Guyot, Karine; Benamrouz, Sadia; Osman, Marwan; Delaire, Baptiste; Creusy, Colette; Viscogliosi, Eric; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Aliouat-Denis, Cecile Marie; Follet, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite that can cause severe diarrhea in a wide range of vertebrates including humans, is increasingly recognized as a parasite of a diverse range of wildlife species. However, little data are available regarding the identification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in wild aquatic environments, and more particularly in edible freshwater fish. To evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidiumspp. in fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman) in France, 41 entire fish and 100 fillets (cuts of fish flesh) were collected from fishery suppliers around the lake. Nested PCR using degenerate primers followed by sequence analysis was used. Five fish species were identified as potential hosts of Cryptosporidium: Salvelinus alpinus, Esox lucius, Coregonus lavaretus, Perca fluviatilis, and Rutilus rutilus. The presence of Cryptosporidium spp. was found in 15 out of 41 fish (37%), distributed as follows: 13 (87%) C. parvum, 1 (7%) C. molnari, and 1 (7%) mixed infection (C. parvum and C. molnari). C. molnari was identified in the stomach, while C. parvum was found in the stomach and intestine. C. molnari was also detected in 1 out of 100 analyzed fillets. In order to identify Cryptosporidium subtypes, sequencing of the highly polymorphic 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) was performed. Among the C. parvum positive samples, three gp60 subtypes were identified: IIaA15G2R1, IIaA16G2R1, and IIaA17G2R1. Histological examination confirmed the presence of potential developmental stages of C. parvum within digestive epithelial cells. These observations suggest that C. parvum is infecting fish, rather than being passively carried. Since C. parvum is a zoonotic species, fish potentially contaminated by the same subtypes found in terrestrial mammals would be an additional source of infection for humans and animals, and may also contribute to the contamination of the environment with this parasite. Moreover, the risk of human transmission is strengthened by the

  5. Identification of Cryptosporidium Species in Fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Leman in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Certad

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite that can cause severe diarrhea in a wide range of vertebrates including humans, is increasingly recognized as a parasite of a diverse range of wildlife species. However, little data are available regarding the identification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in wild aquatic environments, and more particularly in edible freshwater fish. To evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidiumspp. in fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman in France, 41 entire fish and 100 fillets (cuts of fish flesh were collected from fishery suppliers around the lake. Nested PCR using degenerate primers followed by sequence analysis was used. Five fish species were identified as potential hosts of Cryptosporidium: Salvelinus alpinus, Esox lucius, Coregonus lavaretus, Perca fluviatilis, and Rutilus rutilus. The presence of Cryptosporidium spp. was found in 15 out of 41 fish (37%, distributed as follows: 13 (87% C. parvum, 1 (7% C. molnari, and 1 (7% mixed infection (C. parvum and C. molnari. C. molnari was identified in the stomach, while C. parvum was found in the stomach and intestine. C. molnari was also detected in 1 out of 100 analyzed fillets. In order to identify Cryptosporidium subtypes, sequencing of the highly polymorphic 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60 was performed. Among the C. parvum positive samples, three gp60 subtypes were identified: IIaA15G2R1, IIaA16G2R1, and IIaA17G2R1. Histological examination confirmed the presence of potential developmental stages of C. parvum within digestive epithelial cells. These observations suggest that C. parvum is infecting fish, rather than being passively carried. Since C. parvum is a zoonotic species, fish potentially contaminated by the same subtypes found in terrestrial mammals would be an additional source of infection for humans and animals, and may also contribute to the contamination of the environment with this parasite. Moreover, the risk of human transmission is strengthened by

  6. REVA使RFID实现网络化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋蕊聪

    2009-01-01

    总部位于美国马萨诸塞州,具有领先的自动识别技术即RFID的Reva公司成立于2004年,以研发RFID网络基础架构而著称,是业界公认的领军企业,在RFID网络基础架构开发以及标准的建立方面享有盛誉。该公司由数家投资公司和技术公司参与,Cisco、SAP等都对其有投资。Cisco Systems公司提供资金和技术标准合作;SAP Ventures提供资金、技术与战略合作关系.Reva公司的标签处理器(TAP)能在各种环境下提高RFID系统的效率,改善管理,和提供更准确的标签读写数据。Reva的产品面向用户,在全球各地有多个合作伙伴提供本地化技术支持。现阶段已经采用Reva产品和解决方案的客户包括麦德龙集团、惠普、索尼等诸多世界知名企业。

  7. La inocencia de Giulio. Andreotti no fue absuelto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Cavalli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde su espectáculo solista Kabum!... come un paio di impossibilità (2006, estrenado bajo la dirección artística de Paolo Rossi, la dramaturgia de Giulio Cavalli (Milán, 1977 se ha caracterizado por tener una fuerte orientación cívica. Dos de sus obras de ese mismo año, 2006, pueden dar cuenta de ello: (Re Carlo (non torna dalla battaglia di Poitiers, sobre los trágicos hechos ocurridos durante la reunión del G8 en Génova en 2001, y Linate 8 ottobre 2001: la strage, sobre el acccidente aéreo que costó la vida a 118 pesonas. Aunque posteriormente ha ampliado su teatro a otros temas, como en Bambini a dondolo (2007, un drama sobre el turismo sexual infantil, han sido sus intensos espectáculos sobre la mafia los que han acabado por darle no solo una mayor repercusión, sino también la obligación de vivir desde entonces bajo escolta policial antes las continuas amenazas y planes de asesinato por parte de la 'Ndrangheta. Entre las obras de esta temática destacan Do ut Des (2009 o la que aquí presentamos, L'innocenza di Giulio (2011, más tarde convertida en libro con el título L'innocenza di Giulio: Andreotti e la mafia (Milán: Chiarelettere, 2012. Para su último proyecto, L’amico degli eroi, sobre las conexiones con la mafia de Marcello dell'Utri, ha contado, al igual que en los anteriores, con el acompañamiento musical de Cisco Bellotti.

  8. Grüt: A Gardening Sensor Kit for Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Valpreda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Food waste is one of the main problems in our society. This is mainly caused by people’s behaviors and attitudes, which influence the whole food chain, from production to final consumption. In fact, food is generally perceived as a commodity by adults, who transmit this behavior to children, who in turn do not develop any consciousness about food’s source. One way to reduce the problem seems to be by changing consumers’ attitudes, which develop during the early years of childhood. Research has shown that after attending school garden classes, children’s food-related behavior changes. Growing crops is not always easy—it can’t be done in the domestic space, and this lead to a loss of the long term positive effects. This paper presents a project that tries to teach children how to grow their own food indoors and outdoors, mixing real and virtual reality, connecting something natural like a plant to the Internet of Things (or IOT, a network of physical objects virtually connected to each other and to the web. The use of sensors related to an app makes this process more fun and useful for educational purposes. The aim of the project is to change children’s attitude towards food, increasing their knowledge about production and consumption, in order to reduce waste on a long term basis. The research has been developed in collaboration with Cisco NL and MediaLAB Amsterdam. The user testing has been executed with Dutch children in Amsterdam.

  9. Simulations Of Laser Cooling In An Ultracold Neutral Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langin, Thomas; Strickler, Trevor; Pohl, Thomas; Vrinceanu, Daniel; Killian, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold neutral plasmas (UNPs) generated by photoionization of laser-cooled, magneto-optically trapped neutral gases, are useful systems for studying strongly coupled plasmas. Coupling is parameterized by Γi, the ratio of the average nearest neighbor Coulomb interaction energy to the ion kinetic energy. For typical UNPs, Γi is currently limited to ~ 3 . For alkaline earth ions, higher Γi can be achieved by laser-cooling. Using Molecular Dynamics and a quantum trajectories approach, we have simulated laser-cooling of Sr+ ions interacting through a Yukawa potential. The simulations include re-pumping from two long-lived D-states, and are conducted at experimentally achievable parameters (density n = 2 e+14 m-3, size σ0 = 4 mm, Te = 19 K). Laser-cooling is shown to both reduce the temperature by a factor of 2 over relevant timescales (tens of μ s) and slow the electron thermal-pressure driven radial expansion of the UNP. We also discuss the unique aspects of laser-cooling in a highly collisional system; in particular, the effect of collisions on dark state formation due to the coupling of the P3/2 state to both the S1/2 (via the cooling transition) and the D5/2 (via a re-pump transition) states. Supported by NSF and DoE, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the NDSEG Program, and NIH NCRR S10RR02950, an IBM SUR Award in partnership with CISCO, Qlogic and Adaptive Computing.

  10. Dosificación de hormigones ligeros con cascarilla de café

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Salazar C.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo hace parte de la línea de investigación que, sobre materiales de construcción, ha venido trabajando la sección de construcciones agrícolas del Departamento de Ingeniería Agrícola de esta Universidad. Se ha querido por tanto ahondar en un material de común conocimiento y aplicación pero que dosificado con áridos orgánicos provenientes de desechos de la agroindustria, como es el caso de la cascarilla o cisco de café, no se conoce ni su comportamiento mecánico ni sus propiedades térmicas. Se pensó, además, en que siendo Colombia el segundo productor mundial de café, debería estudiarse un subproducto de su beneficio como lo es la cascarilla, para contribuir en la racionalización de sus desperdicios. Fue así como nació esta idea que condujo a revisar literatura al respecto, visitar entidades del ramo como la Federación Nacional de Cafeteros, encontrándose que el tema propuesto de la dosificación de un hormigón con dicho árido no había sido desarrollado anteriormente. Concebido lo anterior se propuso el tema como proyecto de grado en el Departamento, el cual se presenta en este artículo siguiendo las etapas que fueron necesarias para determinar el proporcionamiento cemento-agua-cascarilla.

  11. CAGE BREEDING OF WARM WATER FRESHWATER FISH SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Safner

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s, Croatia became actively involved in the contemporary trend of breeding fish in floating cages. In addition to various species of marine fishes, breeding was attempted with trout, carp, catfish, cisco and salmon. Of the above freshwater fish species, specific standards were established only for the cage breeding of rainbow trout. Cage breeding of the remaining species remained at the level of occasional attempts, with more of an experimental than a commercial character. The regular attempts to master this technique for cage breeding of warm water freshwater fish species were aimed at achieving the known benefits of such breeding, such as simplicity of implementing technological measures, easier establishment of the breeding system, simpler manipulation, the possibility of denser colonies per unit volume with a high level of production, easier adaptations to market conditions and fewer initial structural investments. Despite the many advantages, the main reasons for the lack of greater implementation of the cage breeding technology for warm water species of freshwater fish include problems in obtaining the appropriate category and quantity of healthy fry, the specificity and applicability of physical and chemical properties of the recipients and human error. In evaluating the advantages and disadvantages, the final decision on the justification of cage breeding for individual warm water freshwater species must be based on both biological and economic factors. Based on the knowledge of cage breeding acquired to date, the rule for virtually all intensive breeding systems is that it is only recommended for those species with high market demand and a high market price. The technology that demands nutrition with highly concentrated feed and other production expenditures is costly, and is therefore not profitable with less expensive fish species. Furthermore, production must be market oriented, i.e. the appropriate market research measures

  12. Fog Computing to protect real and sensitivity information in Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thogaricheti Ashwini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing can simply be described as computing based on the internet. In the past, people depended on physical computer storage or servers to run their programs. However, with the introduction of cloud computing, people as well as business enterprises can now access their programs through the internet. Due this ease, software companies and other agencies are shifting more towards cloud computing environment. To achieve better operational efficiency in many organizations and small or medium agencies is using Cloud environment for managing their data. It is a combination of a number of computing strategies and concepts such as Service Oriented Architecture (SOA, virtualization and other which rely on the Internet. Cloud Computing provides an easy way for accessing, managing and computation of user data, but it also has some severe security risks. Very common risks now days are data theft attacks. Data theft considered one of the top threats to cloud computing by the Cloud Security Alliance is. To deal with such cases and malicious intruders there are some techniques which are used to secure user data. A new technology called “Fog computing” is gaining attention of the cloud users nowadays. Fog computing improves the Quality of service and also reduces latency. According to Cisco, due to its wide geographical distribution the Fog computing is well suited for real time analytics and big data.Fog computing is a paradigm that extends Cloud computing and services to the edge of the network. Similar to Cloud, Fog provides data, compute, storage, and application services to end-users.

  13. Development of an Efficient Secured E-Learning Tool through Smart Firewall Load Balancing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bala Krishnan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available E-Learning has definite benefits over traditional classroom training. For E-Learning, various ELearning Tools have been proposed. However, users need to wait for long time to get response from Knowledge Database, which is called as E-Learning Data Server, if many users are online. And providing security to this E-Server is a challenging one. To address these issues, this work has proposed an efficient E-Learning Model through Smart Firewall Load Balancing Technique. Firewall is a device which is designed to permit or deny network transmissions based upon a set of rules and is frequently used to protect networks from unauthorized access while permitting legitimate communications to pass. Many personal computer Operating Systems contains software-based firewalls which is used to protect the system against threats from the public Internet. Many Routers that pass data between Networks contain firewall components and, conversely, many firewalls can perform basic routing functions. Existing Firewall Technologies such as Cisco PIX Firewalls and Checkpoint FireWall-1 provide various software tools that allowing firewalls as Clustered or Grouped and these Configured Firewalls will share their loads. The main objectives of the existing technologies are to improve the Resource Utilization along with performance and Security. This is one of the serious problems. ie the required performance can’t be achieved. This research work is introduced a Adaptive Scheduler, which focuses both the Performance and Security along with Resource Utilization, and also this proposed approach reduced the firewall rules, which minimize the delay and hence this proposed work improved the Throughput, which improved the E-Server Performance in terms of Throughput, Delay and Security Strength.

  14. inclusion 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried Swoboda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Das Sonderpädagogische Zentrum Holzhausergasse, Wien, Österreich, ist ein Schulstandort für junge Menschen mit Behinderung. Die Schule hat einen Schwerpunkt in der Berufsvorbereitung und ist durch eine sehr gute Vernetzung Vorreiter bei der Vorbereitung auf den Arbeitsmarkt. Der Zweite Schwerpunkt umfasst die Schiene der „Kulturellen Bildung“ nach der „UNESCO – Road Map for Arts Education“. Über Kooperationen, der Teilnahme an Kunstprojekten und Wettbewerben wird zu neuen Lernmethoden und –strukturen geforscht.Das technische Gymnasium „Stredná priemyselná škola“ liegt in Myjava, in der westlichen Slowakei. Das Oberstufengymnasium ist spezialisiert auf Technik, Elektronik, Maschinenbau, Mechatronik und Logistik. Die Schule hat einen ITC-Schwerpunkt und ist in das „Microsoft IT Academy Programm“ sowie die „Cisco Network Academy“ eingebettet.Das Projekt verknüpfte zwei Aspekte. Einerseits galt es Aktivitäten zur „media literacy“ zu setzen andererseits sollten die Schwerpunkte Diversität, Interkulturalität und sprachliche Annäherung behandelt werden. Es wurde ein „virtueller Projektraum“ („virtual space“ installiert. Dieser Raum sollte einen „fake“, einen „virtuellen Schwindel“, ermöglichen und zugleich Spielraum des Zueinanderfindens sein.Der „virtual space“ bestand aus einer Skype–Verbindung der beiden Schulen, in den einerseits Gegenstände geteilt und andererseits das Kartenspiel UNO als „Fake“ gespielt wurde. Die Aktionen fanden zwischen November 2012 und Februar 2013 im zweiwöchentlichen Rhythmus statt. An fixierten Terminen trafen sich die beiden Gruppen via Skype in den so genannten „Sessions“ und kommunizierten miteinander

  15. Silo busting: how to execute on the promise of customer focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Ranjay

    2007-05-01

    For many senior executives, shifting from selling products to selling solutions--packages of products and services--is a priority in today's increasingly commoditized markets. Companies, however, aren't always structured to make that shift. Knowledge and expertise often reside in silos, and many companies have trouble harnessing their resources across those boundaries in a way that customers value and are willing to pay for. Some companies--like GE Healthcare, Best Buy, and commercial real estate provider Jones Lang LaSalle (JLL)--have restructured themselves around customer needs to deliver true solutions. They did so by engaging in four sets of activities: COORDINATION: To deliver customer-focused solutions, three things must occur easily across boundaries: information sharing, division of labor, and decision making. Sometimes this involves replacing traditional silos with customer-focused ones, but more often it entails transcending existing boundaries. JLL has experimented with both approaches. COOPERATION: Customer-centric companies, such as Cisco Systems, develop metrics for customer satisfaction and incentives that reward customer-focused cooperation. Most also shake up the power structure so that people who are closest to customers have the authority to act on their behalf. CAPABILITY: Delivering customer-focused solutions requires some employees to be generalists instead of specialists. They need experience with more than one product or service, a deep knowledge of customer needs, and the ability to traverse internal boundaries. CONNECTION: By combining their offerings with those of a partner, companies can cut costs even as they create higher-value solutions, as Starbucks has found through its diverse partnerships. To stand out in a commoditized market, companies must understand what customers value. Ultimately, some customers may be better off purchasing products and services piecemeal. PMID:17494254

  16. Can online conference systems improve veterinary education? A study about the capability of online conferencing and its acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Michael; Fischer, Martin R; Tipold, Andrea; Ehlers, Jan P

    2012-01-01

    In veterinary medicine, there is an ongoing need for students, educators, and veterinarians to exchange the latest knowledge in their respective fields and to learn about unusual cases, emerging diseases, and treatment. Networking among veterinary faculties is developing rapidly, but conferences and meetings can be difficult to attend because of time limitations and travel costs. The current study examines acceptance of synchronous online conferences, seminars, meetings, and lectures by veterinarians and students. First, an online survey on the use of communication technology in veterinary medicine was made available for 15 weeks to every German-speaking veterinary university and via professional journals and an online veterinary forum. A total of 1,776 persons (620 veterinarians and 1,156 students) participated. Most reported using the Internet at least once per day; more than half reported using instant messengers. Most participants used the Internet for communication, but less than half used Skype. Second, to test the spectrum of tools for online conferences, a variety of "virtual classroom" systems (netucate systems iLinc, Adobe Acrobat Connect Pro, Cisco WebEx, Skype) were used to deliver student lectures, veterinary continuing-education courses, and academic conferences at the University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover (TiHo). Of 591 participants in 63 online events, 99.4% rated the virtual events as enjoyable, 96.1% found them useful, and 92.4% said that they learned a lot. Participants noted that the courses were not tied to a certain place, and thus saved time and travel costs. Online conference systems thus offer new opportunities to provide information in veterinary medicine. PMID:22951464

  17. OFDM——第四代移动通信的主流技术%OFDM—Main Technology of 4G Mobile Communication System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈良明; 韩泽耀

    2008-01-01

    正交频分复用(OFDM)是一种特殊的多载波数字调制技术.不像常规的单载波技术,如AM/FM (调幅/调频)在某一时刻只用单一频率发送单一信号,OFDM在经过特别计算的正交频率上同时发送多路高速信号.OFDM技术的最大优点是对抗频率选择性衰落或窄带干扰,同时又提高了频谱利用率.OFDM已经吸引了许多世界级电信设备制造商包括Alc atel-Lucent,Nortel(北电网络),Cisco,Nokia等公司的极大兴趣和认可,纷纷开始对其关键技术和标准进行研究和开发,希望能够在无线通信领域新的潜在市场中首先占领制高点,一些公司希望OFDM能推动更高速的第四代移动通信系统(4G)的形成.人们开始集中越来越多的精力开发OFDM技术在移动通信领域的应用,在无线宽带接入及未来4G领域中,OFDM技术都将成为继CDMA技术之后的又一核心技术.介绍了OFDM的原理和技术优势,分析了现存几种类型OFDM技术的特点,展望了OFDM标准化和在第四代移动通信系统的应用.

  18. 新版CCNP,追逐你的梦想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春

    2005-01-01

    思科系统公司(Cisco Systems,Inc.)是全球领先的互联网设备供应商。思科公司提供业界范围最广的网络硬件产品.互联网操作系统(IOS)软件、网络设计和实施等专业技术支持,并与合作伙伴合作提供网络维护、优化等方面的技术支持和专业化培训服务。思科还是美国最成功的公司之一。从1984年思科公司生产第一台路由器以来.该公司在其进入的每一个领域都占有第一或第二的市场份额,成为市场的领导者。恩科公司深知作为全球领先的跨国公司,应承担更多的社会责任和社会义务.“尽其所能,尽其所长”是回馈社会最好的方式。从长处着手.思科的选择便是“网络技术学院”。从那一刻开始,它就被定位为“非营利网络技术教育项目”.并做为思科向社会回报的方式,得到了持续蓬勃的发展。

  19. The effect of the 'no net loss' of habitat guiding principle on Manitoba Hydro's Conawapa project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential effect of the 'no net loss' principle on Manitoba Hydro's Conawapa hydroelectric project is assessed, including an examination of the process by which the no net loss principle will likely be implemented at the site, based on a review of past applications of the policy. The no net loss principle was developed by the federal Department of Fisheries of Oceans (DFO) as part of their 1986 Policy for the Management of Fish Habitats. The overall objective of the policy is to achieve a net gain of the productive capacity of fish habitats in Canada. Application of the policy to specific developments is based upon maintaining the productive capacity of fish habitats as well as the needs of users groups. The policy has not yet been applied to an inland hydroelectric project. Achieving no net losses may be difficult in regard to large projects such as a hydro dam, however a review of past applications of the policy reveal a number of concepts that have been employed by the DFO when applying the no net loss principle. These concepts were applied to the Conawapa project to make recommendations to achieve no net loss if the project is developed. Mitigation and compensation measures must be developed for both brook trout and lake sturgeon habitat, and should include a combination of habitat enhancement and increased protection and compliance. Measures should also be developed for other species such as lake cisco and lake whitefish, both of which may be a food source for beluga whales. The Conawapa forebay may be given consideration as compensation for lost habitat. 81 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Leading clever people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffee, Rob; Jones, Gareth

    2007-03-01

    In an economy driven by ideas and intellectual know-how, top executives recognize the importance of employing smart, highly creative people. But if clever people have one defining characteristic, it's that they do not want to be led. So what is a leader to do? The authors conducted more than 100 interviews with leaders and their clever people at major organizations such as PricewaterhouseCoopers, Cisco Systems, Novartis, the BBC, and Roche. What they learned is that the psychological relationships effective leaders have with their clever people are very different from the ones they have with traditional followers. Those relationships can be shaped by seven characteristics that clever people share: They know their worth--and they know you have to employ them if you want their tacit skills. They are organizationally savvy and will seek the company context in which their interests are most generously funded. They ignore corporate hierarchy; although intellectual status is important to them, you can't lure them with promotions. They expect instant access to top management, and if they don't get it, they may think the organization doesn't take their work seriously. They are plugged into highly developed knowledge networks, which both increases their value and makes them more of a flight risk. They have a low boredom threshold, so you have to keep them challenged and committed. They won't thank you--even when you're leading them well. The trick is to act like a benevolent guardian: to grant them the respect and recognition they demand, protect them from organizational rules and politics, and give them room to pursue private efforts and even to fail. The payoff will be a flourishing crop of creative minds that will enrich your whole organization. PMID:17348171

  1. Turning great strategy into great performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, Michael C; Steele, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Despite the enormous time and energy that goes into strategy development, many companies have little to show for their efforts. Indeed, research by the consultancy Marakon Associates suggests that companies on average deliver only 63% of the financial performance their strategies promise. In this article, Michael Mankins and Richard Steele of Marakon present the findings of this research. They draw on their experience with high-performing companies like Barclays, Cisco, Dow Chemical, 3M, and Roche to establish some basic rules for setting and delivering strategy: Keep it simple, make it concrete. Avoid long, drawn-out descriptions of lofty goals and instead stick to clear language describing what your company will and won't do. Debate assumptions, not forecasts. Create cross-functional teams drawn from strategy, marketing, and finance to ensure the assumptions underlying your long-term plans reflect both the real economics of your company's markets and its actual performance relative to competitors. Use a rigorous analytic framework. Ensure that the dialogue between the corporate center and the business units about market trends and assumptions is conducted within a rigorous framework, such as that of "profit pools". Discuss resource deployments early. Create more realistic forecasts and more executable plans by discussing up front the level and timing of critical deployments. Clearly identify priorities. Prioritize tactics so that employees have a clear sense of where to direct their efforts. Continuously monitor performance. Track resource deployment and results against plan, using continuous feedback to reset assumptions and reallocate resources. Reward and develop execution capabilities. Motivate and develop staff. Following these rules strictly can help narrow the strategy-to-performance gap. PMID:16028817

  2. Silo busting: how to execute on the promise of customer focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Ranjay

    2007-05-01

    For many senior executives, shifting from selling products to selling solutions--packages of products and services--is a priority in today's increasingly commoditized markets. Companies, however, aren't always structured to make that shift. Knowledge and expertise often reside in silos, and many companies have trouble harnessing their resources across those boundaries in a way that customers value and are willing to pay for. Some companies--like GE Healthcare, Best Buy, and commercial real estate provider Jones Lang LaSalle (JLL)--have restructured themselves around customer needs to deliver true solutions. They did so by engaging in four sets of activities: COORDINATION: To deliver customer-focused solutions, three things must occur easily across boundaries: information sharing, division of labor, and decision making. Sometimes this involves replacing traditional silos with customer-focused ones, but more often it entails transcending existing boundaries. JLL has experimented with both approaches. COOPERATION: Customer-centric companies, such as Cisco Systems, develop metrics for customer satisfaction and incentives that reward customer-focused cooperation. Most also shake up the power structure so that people who are closest to customers have the authority to act on their behalf. CAPABILITY: Delivering customer-focused solutions requires some employees to be generalists instead of specialists. They need experience with more than one product or service, a deep knowledge of customer needs, and the ability to traverse internal boundaries. CONNECTION: By combining their offerings with those of a partner, companies can cut costs even as they create higher-value solutions, as Starbucks has found through its diverse partnerships. To stand out in a commoditized market, companies must understand what customers value. Ultimately, some customers may be better off purchasing products and services piecemeal.

  3. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program Hatcheries Division: Ford Hatchery, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike; Polacek, Matt; Knuttgen, Kamia

    2002-11-01

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife implemented the Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Project (BLFEP) in September 2001 with funds from the Bonneville Power Administration. The first year of the BLFEP was used to gather historic information, establish methods and protocols, collect limnology data, and conduct the first seasonal fish surveys. Water quality parameters were collected monthly from February to May and bi-monthly from June to August. Banks Lake water temperatures began to increase in April and stratification was apparent by June at all 3 limnology collection sites. By late August, the thermocline had dropped to nearly 20 m deep, with 19-20 C temperatures throughout the epilimnion. Dissolved oxygen levels were generally above 10 mg/L until mid summer when dissolved oxygen dropped near or below 5 mg/L below 20-m deep. Secchi depths ranged from 3-10 m and varied by location and date. Nearshore and offshore fish surveys were conducted in May and July using boat electrofishing, fyke net, gill net, and hydroacoustic surveys. Smallmouth bass Micropterous dolomieui (24%) and lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis (20%) dominated the nearshore species composition in May; however, by July yellow perch Perca flavescens (26%) were the second most common species to smallmouth bass (30%). Lake whitefish dominated the offshore catch during May (72%) and July (90%). The May hydroacoustic survey revealed highest densities of fish in the upper 1/3 of the water column in the mid- to northern sections of the reservoir near Steamboat Rock. In the future, data from seasonal surveys will be used to identify potential factors that may limit the production and harvest of kokanee, rainbow trout, and various spiny-rayed fishes in Banks Lake. The limiting factors that will be examined consist of: abiotic factors including water temperature, dissolved oxygen levels, habitat, exploitation and entrainment; and biotic factors including food limitation and predation. The BLFEP

  4. Species-level and community-level data analyses reveal spatial differences and temporal change in the crustacean zooplankton of a large Canadian lake (Lake Simcoe, Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu TUDORANCEA

    2001-08-01

    representation by large-bodied zooplankton species in the latter years of the study was consistent with declining stocks of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax and lake herring (Coregonus artedii, suggesting the associated relaxation of predation pressure as a possible cause. Several species indicative of eutrophic states (Acanthocyclops vernalis, Chydorus sphaericus and Bosmina longirostris were common in the samples. The scarcity of the calanoid Senecella calanoides and the absence of another classic oligotrophic indicator calanoid, Limnocalanus macrurus in the Lake Simcoe samples suggests impairment of their deep, cold-water habitat and is consistent with the modelled historical loss of hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen in Lake Simcoe.

  5. Phosphorus decreases in Lake Geneva but climate warming hampers the recovery of pristine oligochaete communities whereas chironomids are less affected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Lang

    2016-03-01

    temperature, the recovery of the pristine oligochaete community was perhaps impeded in 2009 because the transfer of organic matter to the sediment was increased by the impact of fish (mostly Coregonus feeding selectively on zooplankton. Finally, many micro pollutants (pesticides, drugs, and other substances which are present in the lake could have negatively affected sensitive oligochaete species.   

  6. Zooplankton communities in a large prealpine lake, Lake Constance: comparison between the Upper and the Lower Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard MAIER

    2005-08-01

    reproduction of zooplanktivorous European whitefish, Coregonus lavaretus, which feeds highly selectively on large cladocerans and which is of great economic significance for the whole region. Another possibility could be that the lack of large Cladocera in the Lower Lake is a result of strong fish predation which could be a consequence of lake morphology.

  7. A synthesis of ecological and fish-community changes in Lake Ontario, 1970-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, E.L.; Casselman, J.M.; Dermott, R.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Gal, G.; Holeck, K. T.; Hoyle, J.A.; Johannsson, O.E.; Lantry, B.F.; Makarewicz, J.C.; Millard, E.S.; Munawar, I.F.; Munawar, M.; O'Gorman, R.; Owens, R.W.; Rudstam, L. G.; Schaner, T.; Stewart, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed stressors associated with ecological and fishcommunity changes in Lake Ontario since 1970, when the first symposium on Salmonid Communities in Oligotrophic Lakes (SCOL I) was held (J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 29: 613-616). Phosphorus controls implemented in the early 1970s were undeniably successful; lower food-web studies showed declines in algal abundance and epilimnetic zooplankton production and a shift in pelagic primary productivity toward smaller organisms. Stressors on the fish community prior to 1970 such as exploitation, sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation, and effects of nuisance populations of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) were largely ameliorated by the 1990s. The alewife became a pivotal species supporting a multi-million-dollar salmonid sport fishery, but alewife-induced thiamine deficiency continued to hamper restoration and sustainability of native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Expanding salmonine populations dependent on alewife raised concerns about predator demand and prey supply, leading to reductions in salmonine stocking in the early 1990s. Relaxation of the predation impact by alewives and their shift to deeper water allowed recovery of native fishes such as threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides). The return of the Lake Ontario ecosystem to historical conditions has been impeded by unplanned introductions. Establishment of Dreissena spp. led to increased water clarity and increased vectoring of lower trophic-level production to benthic habitats and contributed to the collapse of Diporeia spp. populations, behavioral modifications of key fish species, and the decline of native lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Despite reduced productivity, exotic-species introductions, and changes in the fish community, offshore Mysis relicta populations remained relatively stable. The effects of climate and climate change on the population abundance and dynamics of Lake Ontario

  8. Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Project Annual Report : Fiscal Year 2001 (September 1, 2001 to August 31, 2002).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polacek, Matt; Knuttgen, Kamia; Baldwin, Casey; Woller, Heather

    2003-03-01

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife implemented the Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Project (BLFEP) in September 2001 with funds from the Bonneville Power Administration. The first year of the BLFEP was used to gather historic information, establish methods and protocols, collect limnology data, and conduct the first seasonal fish surveys. Water quality parameters were collected monthly from February to May and bi-monthly from June to August. Banks Lake water temperatures began to increase in April and stratification was apparent by June at all 3 limnology collection sites. By late August, the thermocline had dropped to nearly 20 m deep, with 19-20 C temperatures throughout the epilimnion. Dissolved oxygen levels were generally above 10 mg/L until mid summer when dissolved oxygen dropped near or below 5 mg/L below 20-m deep. Secchi depths ranged from 3-10 m and varied by location and date. Nearshore and offshore fish surveys were conducted in May and July using boat electrofishing, fyke net, gill net, and hydroacoustic surveys. Smallmouth bass Micropterous dolomieui (24%) and lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis (20%) dominated the nearshore species composition in May; however, by July yellow perch Perca flavescens (26%) were the second most common species to smallmouth bass (30%). Lake whitefish dominated the offshore catch during May (72%) and July (90%). The May hydroacoustic survey revealed highest densities of fish in the upper 1/3 of the water column in the mid- to northern sections of the reservoir near Steamboat Rock. In the future, data from seasonal surveys will be used to identify potential factors that may limit the production and harvest of kokanee, rainbow trout, and various spiny-rayed fishes in Banks Lake. The limiting factors that will be examined consist of: abiotic factors including water temperature, dissolved oxygen levels, habitat, exploitation and entrainment; and biotic factors including food limitation and predation. The BLFEP

  9. Large-scale changes in bloater growth and condition in Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Carson G.; Roseman, Edward F.; Keeler, Kevin M.; O'Brien, Timothy P.; Riley, Stephen C.

    2016-01-01

    Native Bloaters Coregonus hoyi have exhibited multiple strong year-classes since 2005 and now are the most abundant benthopelagic offshore prey fish in Lake Huron, following the crash of nonnative AlewivesAlosa pseudoharengus and substantial declines in nonnative Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax. Despite recent recoveries in Bloater abundance, marketable-size (>229 mm) Bloaters remain scarce. We used annual survey data to assess temporal and spatial dynamics of Bloater body condition and lengths at age in the main basin of Lake Huron from 1973 to 2014. Basinwide lengths at age were modeled by cohort for the 1973–2003 year-classes using a von Bertalanffy growth model with time-varying Brody growth coefficient (k) and asymptotic length () parameters. Median Bloater weights at selected lengths were estimated to assess changes in condition by modeling weight–length relations with an allometric growth model that allowed growth parameters to vary spatially and temporally. Estimated Bloater lengths at age declined 14–24% among ages 4–8 for all year-classes between 1973 and 2004. Estimates of  declined from a peak of 394 mm (1973 year-class) to a minimum of 238 mm (1998 year-class). Observed mean lengths at age in 2014 were at all-time lows, suggesting that year-classes comprising the current Bloater population would have to follow growth trajectories unlike those characterizing the 1973–2003 year-classes to attain marketable size. Furthermore, estimated weights of 250-mm Bloaters (i.e., a large, commercially valuable size-class) declined 17% among all regions from 1976 to 2007. Decreases in body condition of large Bloaters are associated with lower lipid content and may be linked to marked declines in abundance of the amphipodsDiporeia spp. in Lake Huron. We hypothesize that since at least 1976, large Bloaters have become more negatively buoyant and may have incurred an increasingly greater metabolic cost performing diel vertical migrations to prey upon the opossum

  10. Improving Streamflow Forecasts Using Predefined Sea Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, A.; Ahmad, S.

    2011-12-01

    With the increasing evidence of climate variability, water resources managers in the western United States are faced with greater challenges of developing long range streamflow forecast. This is further aggravated by the increases in climate extremes such as floods and drought caused by climate variability. Over the years, climatologists have identified several modes of climatic variability and their relationship with streamflow. These climate modes have the potential of being used as predictor in models for improving the streamflow lead time. With this as the motivation, the current research focuses on increasing the streamflow lead time using predefine climate indices. A data driven model i.e. Support Vector Machine (SVM) based on the statistical learning theory is used to predict annual streamflow volume 3-year in advance. The SVM model is a learning system that uses a hypothesis space of linear functions in a Kernel induced higher dimensional feature space, and is trained with a learning algorithm from the optimization theory. Annual oceanic-atmospheric indices, comprising of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), El Niño-Southern Oscillations (ENSO), and a new Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data set of "Hondo" Region for a period of 1906-2005 are used to generate annual streamflow volumes. The SVM model is applied to three gages i.e. Cisco, Green River, and Lees Ferry in the Upper Colorado River Basin in the western United States. Based on the performance measures the model shows very good forecasts, and the forecast are in good agreement with measured streamflow volumes. Previous research has identified NAO and ENSO as main drivers for extending streamflow forecast lead-time in the UCRB. Inclusion of "Hondo Region" SST information further improve the model's forecasting ability. The overall results of this study revealed that the annual streamflow of the UCRB is significantly influenced by

  11. Experience with Delay-Tolerant Networking from Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, W.; Eddy, W. M.; Stewart, D.; Wood, L.; Northam, J.; Jackson, C.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the first use from space of the Bundle Protocol for Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) and lessons learned from experiments made and experience gained with this protocol. The Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC), constructed by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL), is a multiple-satellite Earth-imaging low-Earth-orbit sensor network in which recorded image swaths are stored onboard each satellite and later downloaded from the satellite payloads to a ground station. Store-and-forward of images with capture and later download gives each satellite the characteristics of a node in a disruption-tolerant network. Originally developed for the Interplanetary Internet, DTNs are now under investigation in an Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) DTN research group (RG), which has developed a bundle architecture and protocol. The DMC is technically advanced in its adoption of the Internet Protocol (IP) for its imaging payloads and for satellite command and control, based around reuse of commercial networking and link protocols. These satellites use of IP has enabled earlier experiments with the Cisco router in Low Earth Orbit (CLEO) onboard the constellation s UK-DMC satellite. Earth images are downloaded from the satellites using a custom IP-based high-speed transfer protocol developed by SSTL, Saratoga, which tolerates unusual link environments. Saratoga has been documented in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) for wider adoption. We experiment with the use of DTNRG bundle concepts onboard the UK-DMC satellite, by examining how Saratoga can be used as a DTN convergence layer to carry the DTNRG Bundle Protocol, so that sensor images can be delivered to ground stations and beyond as bundles. Our practical experience with the first successful use of the DTNRG Bundle Protocol in a space environment gives us insights into the design of the Bundle Protocol and enables us to identify issues that must be addressed before wider deployment of the Bundle Protocol

  12. Valence Tautomerism in One-Dimensional Coordination Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drath, Olga; Gable, Robert W; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Murray, Keith S; Poneti, Giordano; Sorace, Lorenzo; Boskovic, Colette

    2016-05-01

    The combination of the divergent bis-pyridyl linking ligands 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane (1,2-bpe), 4,4'-trans-azopyridine (azpy), and 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane (1,3-bpp) with cobalt and 3,5-di-tert-butyldioxolene (3,5-dbdiox) ligands has afforded the complexes [Co(3,5-dbdiox)2(1,2-bpe)]∞ (1), [Co(3,5-dbdiox)2(azpy)]∞ (2), [trans-Co(3,5-dbdiox)2(1,3-bpp)]∞ (3a), and [cis-Co(3,5-dbdiox)2(1,3-bpp)]∞ (3b). All species are 1D coordination polymers that crystallize as solvated forms; the geometric isomers 3a,b cocrystallize. Complexes 1, 2, and 3a exhibit around the Co centers a trans disposition of the N-donor atoms from the pyridyl linkers, while an unusual cis disposition is evident in 3b. Single-crystal X-ray structural analysis at 100 or 130 K of solvated forms of these complexes indicates that all complexes possess the {Co(III)(3,5-dbcat)(3,5-dbsq)} (3,5-dbcat = 3,5-di-tert-butylcatecholate; 3,5-dbsq = 3,5-di-tert-butylsemiquinonate) charge distribution at the temperature of data collection. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility studies reveal that 1, 1·1.5MeCN·2H2O, 2·2EtOH, and 3·MeCN·H2O (3 = 3a·3b) all exhibit thermally induced valence tautomeric (VT) transitions above 200 K. Multiple heating and cooling cycles indicate that in some cases the behavior is strongly dependent on desolvation processes. Most notably, further desolvation of 1·1.5MeCN·2H2O above 340 K affords χmT values that suggest unusual ferromagnetic coupling in the {hs-Co(II)(3,5-dbsq)2} valence tautomer. Compound 3·MeCN·H2O exhibits a two-step VT transition that may be ascribed to the presence of the cis and trans geometric isomers. Compounds 1, 1·1.5MeCN·2H2O, 2·2EtOH, and 3·MeCN·H2O all also exhibit a single photoinduced VT transition, comparable to those generally observed for nonpolymeric cobalt-dioxolene complexes. PMID:27058604

  13. The composition of the B2B brand value and its influeneing factors%B2B品牌价值的构成及其影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏

    2012-01-01

    At present, most of the existing home and abroad brands Theory and Strategy for B2C products, such as Haier, Samsung, Coca-Cola. These enterprises is the B2C brand value through analysis and implemen- tation of B2C brand strategy as an instance of the well-known enterprises. However, research to date on B2B brand value is still rare. At the same time, along with Cisco, IBM, GE and other B2B enterprise has created a strong brand, and enhance competitive advantage and establish a good corporate image, creating a huge eco- nomic benefits. The growing number of scholars to see the importance and necessity of the analysis and the value of B2B brand. This paper first succinctly described in the B2B market, the importance of brand value and indis- pensability; then focus on analysis of two dimensions: the value of B2B brand and then analyzed the value of the brand function of four elements: the functional value, emotional value, and then analyzed the relationship be- tween relationship values and environmental values.%目前,国内外现有的品牌理论与策略大多数针对的是B2C产品,如海尔、三星、可口可乐等。与此同时,随着思科、IBM、GE等一些B2B企业制造了强有力的品牌,增强了竞争优势,树立了良好的企业形象,创造了巨大的经济效益。越来越多的学者看到了分析和建立B2B品牌价值的重要性和必要性。本文首先简明扼要地阐述B2B市场中,品牌价值的重要性和不可或缺性;而后重点分析构成B2B品牌价值的两个维度:而后分析了影响品牌功能价值的四个要素:功能价值、情感价值、而后分析了关系价值和环境价值。

  14. Psychovisual masks and intelligent streaming RTP techniques for the MPEG-4 standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecocci, Alessandro; Falconi, Francesco

    2003-06-01

    like: DivX, Xvid, and Cisco"s Mpeg-4IP, have been analyzed but, as for today, they do not support VO). The original code has been deeply modified to integrate the SLIC and to adapt it for real-time streaming. A personal RTP (Real Time Protocol) has been defined and a Client-Server application has been developed. The viewer can decode and demultiplex the stream in real-time, while adapting to the changing modalities adopted by the Server according to the current video content. The proposed codec works as follows: the image background is separated by means of a segmentation module and it is transmitted by means of a wavelet compression scheme similar to that used in the JPEG2000. The VO are coded separately and multiplexed with the background stream. At the receiver the stream is demultiplexed to obtain the background and the VO that are subsequently pasted together. The final quality depends on many factors, in particular: the quantization parameters, the Group Of Video Object (GOV) length, the GOV structure (i.e. the number of I-P-B VOP), the search area for motion compensation. These factors are strongly related to the following measurement parameters (that have been defined during the development): the Objects Apparent Size (OAS) in the scene, the Video Object Incidence factor (VOI), the temporal correlation (measured through the Normalized Mean SAD, NMSAD). The SLIC module analyzes the currently transmitted video and selects the most appropriate settings by choosing from a predefined set of transmission modalities. For example, in the case of a highly temporal correlated sequence, the number of B-VOP is increased to improve the compression ratio. The strategy for the selection of the number of B-VOP turns out to be very different from those reported in the literature for B-frames (adopted for MPEG-1 and MPEG-2), due to the different behaviour of the temporal correlation when limited only to moving objects. The SLIC module also decides how to transmit the background

  15. The physiology and toxicology of salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water quality criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this review is to collate physiological knowledge on salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water quality criteria. Salmonid genera reviewed include Coregonus, Thymallus, Salvelinus, Salmo, and Oncorhynchus spp. When physiological data for salmonids are lacking, the zebrafish and medaka models are included. The primary focus is on the underlying mechanisms involved in the hydro-mineral, thermal, and respiratory biology with an extended section on the xenobiotic toxicology of the early stages. Past and present data reveal that the eggs of salmonids are among the largest shed by any broadcast spawning teleost. Once ovulated, the physicochemical properties of the ovarian fluid provide temporary protection from external perturbations and maintain the eggs in good physiological condition until spawning. Following fertilisation and during early development the major structures protecting the embryo from poor water quality are the vitelline membrane, the enveloping layer and the chorion. The vitelline membrane is one of the least permeable membranes known, while the semi-permeable chorion provides both physical and chemical defense against metals, pathogens, and xenobiotic chemicals. In part these structures explain the lower sensitivity of the eggs to chemical imbalance compared to the larvae, however the lower metabolic rate and the chronology of gene expression and translational control suggest that developmental competence also plays a decisive role. In addition, maternal effect genes provide a defense potential until the mid-blastula transition. The transition between maternal effect genes and zygotic genes is a critical period for the embryo. The perivitelline fluids are an important trap for cations, but are also the major barrier to diffusion of gases and solutes. Acidic environmental pH interferes with acid-base and hydromineral balance but also increases the risk of aluminium and heavy metal intoxication. These risks are ameliorated somewhat by

  16. The physiology and toxicology of salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water quality criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finn, Roderick Nigel [Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Allegaten 41, N-5020 Bergen (Norway)]. E-mail: nigel.finn@bio.uib.no

    2007-03-30

    The purpose of this review is to collate physiological knowledge on salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water quality criteria. Salmonid genera reviewed include Coregonus, Thymallus, Salvelinus, Salmo, and Oncorhynchus spp. When physiological data for salmonids are lacking, the zebrafish and medaka models are included. The primary focus is on the underlying mechanisms involved in the hydro-mineral, thermal, and respiratory biology with an extended section on the xenobiotic toxicology of the early stages. Past and present data reveal that the eggs of salmonids are among the largest shed by any broadcast spawning teleost. Once ovulated, the physicochemical properties of the ovarian fluid provide temporary protection from external perturbations and maintain the eggs in good physiological condition until spawning. Following fertilisation and during early development the major structures protecting the embryo from poor water quality are the vitelline membrane, the enveloping layer and the chorion. The vitelline membrane is one of the least permeable membranes known, while the semi-permeable chorion provides both physical and chemical defense against metals, pathogens, and xenobiotic chemicals. In part these structures explain the lower sensitivity of the eggs to chemical imbalance compared to the larvae, however the lower metabolic rate and the chronology of gene expression and translational control suggest that developmental competence also plays a decisive role. In addition, maternal effect genes provide a defense potential until the mid-blastula transition. The transition between maternal effect genes and zygotic genes is a critical period for the embryo. The perivitelline fluids are an important trap for cations, but are also the major barrier to diffusion of gases and solutes. Acidic environmental pH interferes with acid-base and hydromineral balance but also increases the risk of aluminium and heavy metal intoxication. These risks are ameliorated somewhat by

  17. Implications of climate change for the fishes of the British Isles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, C T; Harrod, C

    2009-04-01

    temperatures are likely to favour cool-adapted (e.g. Perca fluviatilis) and warm-adapted freshwater fishes (e.g. roach Rutilus rutilus and other cyprinids) whose distribution and reproductive success may currently be constrained by temperature rather than by cold-adapted species (e.g. salmonids). Species that occur in Britain and Ireland that are at the edge of their distribution will be most affected, both negatively and positively. Populations of conservation importance (e.g.Salvelinus alpinus and Coregonus spp.) may decline irreversibly. However, changes in food-web dynamics and physiological adaptation, for example because of climate change, may obscure or alter predicted responses. The residual inertia in climate systems is such that even a complete cessation in emissions would still leave fishes exposed to continued climate change for at least half a century. Hence, regardless of the success or failure of programmes aimed at curbing climate change, major changes in fish communities can be expected over the next 50 years with a concomitant need to adapt management strategies accordingly. PMID:20735625

  18. Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polacek, Matt; Knuttgen, Kamia; Shipley, Rochelle

    2003-11-01

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife implemented the Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Project (BLFEP) in September 2001 with funds from the Bonneville Power Administration. Fiscal Year (FY) 2001 of the BLFEP was used to gather historic information, establish methods and protocols, collect limnology data, and conduct the first seasonal fish surveys. FY 2002 was used to continue seasonal fish and lakewide creel surveys and adjust methods and protocols as needed. Water quality parameters were collected monthly from February to May and bi-monthly from June to August. Banks Lake water temperatures began to increase in April and stratification was apparent by June at all 3 limnology collection sites. By late August, the thermocline had dropped to nearly 20 meters deep, with 16-17 C temperatures throughout the epilimnion. Dissolved oxygen levels were generally above 10 mg/L until August when dissolved oxygen dropped near or below 5 mg/L below 20-meters deep. Secchi depths ranged from 2.5-8 meters and varied by location and date. Nearshore and offshore fish surveys were conducted in October 2002 and May and July 2003 using boat electrofishing, fyke net, gill net, and hydroacoustic surveys. Yellow Perch Perca flavescens (32 %) and cottid spp. (22 %) dominated the nearshore species composition in October; however, by May yellow perch (12 %) were the third most common species followed by smallmouth bass Micropterous dolomieui (34 %) and lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis (14 %). Lake whitefish dominated the offshore catch during October (78 %) and May (81 %). Fish diet analysis indicated that juvenile fishes consumed primarily insects and zooplankton, while adult piscivores consumed cottids spp. and yellow perch most frequently. For FY 2002, the following creel statistics are comprehensive through August 31, 2003. The highest angling pressure occurred in June 2003, when anglers were primarily targeting walleye and smallmouth bass. Boat anglers utilized Steamboat

  19. Comparative research on technological innovation and technological diffusion of magnates in communication equipment industry%通信设备巨头技术创新布局与扩散比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋天华; 于光; 石春生

    2011-01-01

    专利引文是衡量技术创新的重要指标。以著名的德温特(DII)创新系统的数据,对通信设备行业两家重要企业思科与华为的专利引文进行分析。结果显示,一些中国高技术企业经过多年的技术创新,其研发效率已经追上世界一流的跨国企业;中国企业的技术扩散主要是在国内,国际间技术扩散刚刚起步,影响力较小;而跨国企业技术扩散是全球性的,影响力处于龙头地位;追赶型企业技术创新是力求突破的锥型布局,领先企业是平衡型的哑铃布局;企业的技术创新布局主导着它们的技术扩散方向,中国企业技术创新与扩散的宽度大,但是优势技术少,技术深度低。而跨国企业优势技术多,技术扩散的深度高,技术专业化程度比较高。%Patent citation is one of important indicators surveying technological innovation. By analyzing DII' S patent citations of two top enterprises Cisco and Huawei in communications equipments industry, their innovation and technology diffusion are explored. Results argue that through long - term innovation, the efficiency of some Chinese high - technological firms in R&D has caught up with that of some top multinationals; Technological diffusion of Chinese enterprises mainly distributes in domestic firms. Its technological internationalization just starts now and has the weak influence. And the multinational technological diffusion is global and has the strong influence; Technological innovation of the pursuing enterprise displays a awl - shaped distribution, and technological innovation of the advanced enterprise shows a dumbbell distribution; the distribution of technological innovation leads the direction of technological diffusion; The distribution width of technological innovation and diffusion for Chinese enterprises are widen, however, its top technologies are fewer, the technical specialization level is low, and multinational

  20. A Study on the High-Tech Enterprises' M & A---Based on the Strategic Target%高新技术企业并购研究--基于战略目标

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽英

    2014-01-01

    Recently the world has entered a new era of technological competition, the state of the global technical resources and the R&D system as well as the accelerated pace of technological change has altered the original way of industrial competition. The technological competition supported by the speed has become the mainstream. Acquiring technical advantages through M&A has turned into a new option. The high-tech enterprises have been the focus of global M&A market because of their high growth and expected profitability. Company may radically ensure that the target's strategy matches with theirs by choosing acquisition targets based on the company's strategy. The paper explores the characteristics and laws of the high-tech industry's development, finding that a large number of M&A transactions happened between high-tech enterprises and technology-based small businesses which determined by the law of development of high-tech industry. The essence of high-tech M&A is talent acquisition and M&A in various stages has different motives and target. The paper offers references and inspirations to M&A target selection of high-tech enterprises in China by studying the M&A strategy and target selection of Cisco.%目前全球已进入一个新的技术竞争时代,全球技术资源状态与研发体系以及技术变更速度的加快已经改变了原来的产业竞争方式,以速度为支撑的技术竞争已经成为主流,通过并购获得技术优势成为新的选择。高新技术企业凭借其高成长性和未来预期的高收益性目前已成为全球并购市场的焦点。企业基于战略来选择并购目标可以从根本上保证目标企业与自己的战略匹配。文章对高新技术行业发展的特点与规律进行研究,发现高新技术企业广泛大量并购技术型小企业是由高新技术行业的发展规律决定的,高新技术企业收购的实质是收购人才,在不同发展阶段其并购的动因与目标也不同。

  1. IPv6 and IEEE 1888: Fundamental Infrastructure and Protocol for Smart Grid%IPv6和IEEE1888:国际智能电网的基础架构和协议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷展

    2012-01-01

    With rapid development of Intemet, information technologies have deployed widely into many application fields. For example, IP,Internet of Things and cloud computing have been widely used in green industry and smart energy. Recently IP for Smart Object Alliance (IPSO Alliance ) published lPv6 and IEEE 1888 based white paper for Smart Grid infrastructure and protocol, joint with many leading enterprises in international industry chain, including Cisco, Itron, Duke Energy, as well as domestic China Telecom and BII Group. As a core protocol for next generation Internet, IPv6 provides broad develop space for smart grid. IEEE 1888 protocol constructs a uniform control and management platform for smart terminals to access Internet. This paper mainly introduced this white paper, beginning from network requirements, analysed necessity for smart grid to adopting IPv6 and IEEE 1888 as fimdamental infrastructure and protocol. Finally this paper discussed key technologies and related technical standards in detail. This paper provided a comprehensive overview for the last kilometer to smart grid.%随着互联网的发展,信息技术深入到各行各业,如IP,物联网,云计算等技术被广泛地应用于绿色节能、智慧能源中。最近国际物联网联盟IPSO集合国内外产业领头公司.国外的如Cisco,Itron,Duke Energy,国内的如中国电信,天地互连公司,联合发布了以IPv6和IEEE1888为国际智能电网基础架构和协议的白皮书。其中,IPv6协议作为下一代互联网的基础协议为智能电网信息化提供了更广阔的空间。而IEEE1888开放标准为末端智能终端接入互联网提供了统一的管控平台。本文主要介绍该白皮书的内容,从智能电网最后一公里的网络需求入手,讲述智能电网为什么需要IPv6和IEEE1888作为基础通信架构和协议.详细解析白皮书中关于IPv6通信基础架构的关键技术模块和相关技术标准。为国际智

  2. Starburst clusters in the Galactic center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Maryam

    2014-09-01

    The central region of the Galaxy is the most active site of star formation in the Milky Way, where massive stars have formed very recently and are still forming today. The rich population of massive stars in the Galactic center provide a unique opportunity to study massive stars in their birth environment and probe their initial mass function, which is the spectrum of stellar masses at their birth. The Arches cluster is the youngest among the three massive clusters in the Galactic center, providing a collection of high-mass stars and a very dense core which makes this cluster an excellent site to address questions about massive star formation, the stellar mass function and the dynamical evolution of massive clusters in the Galactic center. In this thesis, I perform an observational study of the Arches cluster using K_{s}-band imaging obtained with NAOS/CONICA at the VLT combined with Subaru/Cisco J-band data to gain a full understanding of the cluster mass distribution out to its tidal radius for the first time. Since the light from the Galactic center reaches us through the Galactic disc, the extinction correction is crucial when studying this region. I use a Bayesian method to construct a realistic extinction map of the cluster. It is shown in this study that the determination of the mass of the most massive star in the Arches cluster, which had been used in previous studies to establish an upper mass limit for the star formation process in the Milky Way, strongly depends on the assumed slope of the extinction law. Assuming the two regimes of widely used infrared extinction laws, I show that the difference can reach up to 30% for individually derived stellar masses and Δ A_{Ks}˜ 1 magnitude in acquired K_{s}-band extinction, while the present-day mass function slope changes by ˜ 0.17 dex. The present-day mass function slope derived assuming the more recent extinction law, which suggests a steeper wavelength dependence for the infrared extinction law, reveals

  3. Cyber Friendly Fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Roberts, Adam D.

    2011-09-01

    . The network is essentially divided into a production component that hosts the web and network services, and a user component that hosts thirty employee workstations and other end devices. The organization's network is separated from the Internet by a Cisco ASA network security device that both firewalls and detects intrusions. Business sensitive information is stored in various servers. This includes data comprising thousands of internal documents, such as finance and technical designs, email messages for the organization's employees including the CEO, CFO, and CIO, the organization's source code, and Personally Identifiable client data. Release of any of this information to unauthorized parties would have a significant, detrimental impact on the organization's reputation, which would harm earnings. The valuable information stored in these servers pose obvious points of interest for an adversary. We constructed several scenarios around this environment to support studies in cyber SA and cyber FF that may be run in the test range. We describe mitigation strategies to combat cyber FF including both training concepts and suggestions for decision aids and visualization approaches. Finally, we discuss possible future research directions.

  4. 企业知识转移生态学模型%The ecological model for knowledge transfer in enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋天颖; 程聪

    2012-01-01

    Efficient knowledge transfer has become one of the key factors to establish competitive advantage for the enterprises. Based on the perspective of ecology, the enterprises knowledge includes four ecological characteristics, such as scattered distribution, embedding dependent, dynamic inheritance, and incremental cumulative, is proposed. On this basis, an ecological model of knowledge transfer is built. In this model, knowledge chains and knowledge networks in enterprises are formed by the interrelation among knowledge individual, knowledge group, and knowledge community. Among them, individual knowledge transfer lays emphasis on the knowledge transfer and perfection of staff themselves, group knowledge transfer focuses on the integration and creation of team knowledge, while community knowledge transfer concerns about the overall efficiency of knowledge application in enterprises. Furthermore, some ultra -ecological characteristics are offered in the process of knowledge transfer in enterprises' ecological systems. Finally, combining with the case of Cisco knowledge transfer, some enlightenment and recommendations to increase the efficiency of knowledge transfer of enterprises'ecological systems are put forward.%高效知识转移已经成为企业建立竞争优势的关键因素之一。文章基于生态学的视角,提出了企业知识具有散落分布性、嵌入依附性、动态继承性和增量积累性等四方面生态学特征。在此基础上,构建了企业知识转移生态学模型,在该模型中,知识个体、知识种群与知识群落间知识的相互联系构成了企业知识链与知识网。其中,个体知识转移强调员工自身知识的迁移与完善,种群知识转移侧重团队知识的整合与创造,而群落知识转移则关注企业知识应用的整体效率。此外,研究还发现,企业生态系统中的知识在转移过程中还呈现啮一些超生态学特征。最后,文章结合思科公

  5. Integrated Synthesis of the Permian Basin: Data and Models for Recovering Existing and Undiscovered Oil Resources from the Largest Oil-Bearing Basin in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Jackson; Katherine Jackson

    2008-09-30

    Large volumes of oil and gas remain in the mature basins of North America. This is nowhere more true than in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico. A critical barrier to recovery of this vast remaining resource, however, is information. Access to accurate geological data and analyses of the controls of hydrocarbon distribution is the key to the knowledge base as well as the incentives needed by oil and gas companies. The goals of this project were to collect, analyze, synthesize, and deliver to industry and the public fundamental information and data on the geology of oil and gas systems in the Permian Basin. This was accomplished in two ways. First we gathered all available data, organized it, and placed it on the web for ready access. Data include core analysis data, lists of pertinent published reports, lists of available cores, type logs, and selected PowerPoint presentations. We also created interpretive data such as type logs, geological cross sections, and geological maps and placed them in a geospatially-registered framework in ARC/GIS. Second, we created new written syntheses of selected reservoir plays in the Permian basin. Although only 8 plays were targeted for detailed analysis in the project proposal to DOE, 14 were completed. These include Ellenburger, Simpson, Montoya, Fusselman, Wristen, Thirtyone, Mississippian, Morrow, Atoka, Strawn, Canyon/Cisco, Wolfcamp, Artesia Group, and Delaware Mountain Group. These fully illustrated reports include critical summaries of published literature integrated with new unpublished research conducted during the project. As such these reports provide the most up-to-date analysis of the geological controls on reservoir development available. All reports are available for download on the project website and are also included in this final report. As stated in our proposal, technology transfer is perhaps the most important component of the project. In addition to providing direct access to data and reports through

  6. Predicting Porosity and Permeability for the Canyon Formation, SACROC Unit (Kelly-Snyder Field), Using the Geologic Analysis via Maximum Likelihood System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -based, probabilistic clustering analysis procedure is successfully applied to generate a high-resolution reservoir characterization outcome. The approach was applied in the Pennsylvanian-Permian reef carbonates (Cisco and Canyon Formations) of a subregion of the SACROC Unit, Horseshoe Atoll, Permian Basin, Texas, and acknowledged as a highly complex carbonate reservoir. Due to the modest results achieved with the application of soft-computing methodologies to the available information (no crosswell data at hand), the original project target about creating a data-driven device relating surface seismic information, crosswell seismic attributes, geophysical logs and core parameters for the prediction of core-scale porosity and permeability profiles in locations where only 3D surface seismic data was available, had to be reformulated. It was shown that 3D seismic information was not capable of capturing the degree of vertical variability of SACROC. As a consequence, available seismic information was unincorporated from posterior reservoir characterization tasks, and a combination of data-driven procedures and geostatistical methods was utilized for reservoir characterization purposes. A selected area within the SACROC Unit platform was used for this study. The suitable logs for the creation of an 'intelligent' log-to-core device were not present for all wells. These logs were gamma ray (GR), neutron porosity (NPHI), bulk density (RHOB), and delta time (DT). It was necessary to create a first 'intelligent' tool, a log-to-log model to provide synthetic logs of RHOB and DT (or eventually of acoustic impedance derived from them) at well locations where only GR and NPHI were available (the most common situation in this reservoir). Once the 'ideal' logs were completed, a second model, a log-to-core device, provides core scale estimates of porosity and permeability (P and P). The validity of these soft-computing devices was checked using 'holdout' wells. In this way, 'core' parameter profiles

  7. A rule-based approach for the correlation of alarms to support Disaster and Emergency Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria, M.; Minei, G.; Lersi, V.; Pasquariello, D.; Monti, C.; Saitto, A.

    2009-04-01

    application as CiscoWorks, HP OpenView NNM and Operation, BMC Patrol, etc. Analysis of text of an alarm can detect some keywords that allow to classify the particular event. The inference rules were developed by means an analysis about news regard real emergency found by web reaserches. We have seen that often a kind of emergency is characterized by more keyword. Keywords are not uniquely associated with a specific emergency, but they can be shared by different types of emergencies (such as. keyword "landslide" can be associated both emergency "landslide" and emergency "Flood"). However, the identification of two or more keywords associated with a particular type of emergency identified in most cases the correct type of emergency. So, for example, if text contains words as "water", "flood", "overflowing", "landslide" o other words belonging to the set of defined keywords or words that have some root of keywords, the system "decides" that this alarm belongs to specific typology, in this case "flood typology". The system has the memory of this information, so if a new alarm is reported and belongs to one of the typology already identified, it proceeds with the comparison of coordinates. The comparison between the centers of the alarms allows to see if they describe an area inscribed in an ideal circle that has centered on the first alarm and radius defined by the typology above mentioned. If this happens the system CI6 creates an emergency that has centered on the centre of that area and typology equal to that of the alarms. It follows that an emergency is represented by at least two alarms. Thus, the system suggests to manager (CI6's user) the possibility that most alarms can concern same events and makes a classification of this event. It is important to stress that CI6 is a system of decision support, hence also this service is limited to providing advice to the user to facilitate his task, leaving him the decision to accept it or not. REFERENCES SEC (Simple Event Correlator

  8. Healthcare @ the speed of thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, J D

    1999-05-01

    It is daunting to realize that we have just touched the surface of health-related Internet web sites. The use of the Internet as a vital patient care tool is a very real prospect on the near horizon. Yet most hospital systems and physicians groups today just use the Net to post "billboards.'' In the rest of America, the Internet has been much more than a billboard. It has changed the way business is conducted. There's e-mail. There's e-trading for those who invest. On mother's day moms receive e-cards, and there is e-commerce which includes buying and selling online, and also collecting and organizing data that will help a business serve customers better, building that relationship. The Internet is a transaction tool. The latest survey indicates that the volume of commerce on the Net has grown 300% this year over last. According to a survey sponsored by Cisco Systems. Net sales volume accounts for $200 billion and is doubling every 6 months. And, the search for health information is among the top three reasons people use the web. The surveys indicate that people would like better communication with their physicians and most would like to communicate by e-mail. Yet, very few physicians are interested. As part of the research for this article we reviewed dozens of web sites for hospitals and medical groups. While some of these sites are attractive, most simply don't do anything more than provide maps and telephone numbers. People might as well look in the Yellow Pages for the information they can find on th web. Meanwhile, a number of well-funded health sites have sprung up just in the past few months. We searched the web to find sites that would actually allow people to interact in ways that went beyond just finding information. Clearly there is movement toward the ability to conduct transactions over the Net, i.e, patient monitoring, checking on status of claims, ask-a-doc, etc. But, we are just at the front end of this movement and physicians and hospitals have an

  9. Worldwide Eutrophication of Water Bodies: Causes, Concerns, Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prepas, E. E.; Charette, T.

    2003-12-01

    nitrogen gas (N2) to ammonia (NH3). Nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria make up less than 1% of the total biomass of phytoplankton in estuaries of the Atlantic coast of North America, whereas in lakes they often make up more than 50% of phytoplankton biomass (reviewed in Howarth, 1988). An increase in water clarity can also spur the growth of aquatic vegetation in systems where the clarity of water is poor from high concentrations of suspended particles.The biodiversity of most aquatic systems decreases with eutrophication (Figure 1). Phytoplankton species diversity is reduced in highly productive systems. Cyanobacteria are usually dominant in eutrophic systems because these organisms are better adapted to conditions of high nutrients (Smith, 1986; Trimbee and Prepas, 1987; Watson et al., 1997). In addition, fish and macro-invertebrate species diversity can decrease with eutrophication. Depletion of dissolved oxygen in deep water is associated with eutrophication and can lead to a loss or displacement of species intolerant of such conditions ( Ludsin et al., 2001). In eutrophic lakes of North America, characteristic fish types are surface-dwelling, warm water fishes such as pike, perch, and bass, as compared to deep-dwelling, cold-water fishes like salmon, trout, and cisco ( Ryding and Rast, 1989). (9K)Figure 1. Suggested changes in various characteristics of lakes with eutrophication (reproduced by permission of Cambridge University Press from Welch, E. B., Ecological Effects of Waste Water, 1980, p. 273).

  10. Estimating the proportion of river and sea spawning whitefish in catches from the brackish Gulf of Bothnia (Baltic Sea by gill raker counting, genotyping and otolith chemistry analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Hägerstrand

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus is a commercially and recreationally important species in the Gulf of Bothnia (Figure 1, where the salinity of the surface water increases from ~2 ‰ to ~6 ‰ in the north-south (~725 km direction. Two sympatric ecotypes with similar outer features occur: stationary sea spawning whitefish and migrating anadromous river spawning whitefish (Lehtonen 1981. The two types mix in sea away from breeding locations and off breeding time. River spawning whitefish can undertake long feeding and spawning migrations, e.g. between the north and the south of the gulf. The river spawning whitefish abundantly occur at feeding grounds in the south where they stay for years, until maturing. Mainly due to anthropogenic destruction of the spawning rivers, the river spawning whitefish has diminished during last decades and is presently listed among endangered species (Helcom 2013. A reliable assessment of the two ecotypes and their subpopulations is a prerequisite for taking effective actions for stock preservation. In order to compare methods for whitefish ecotype identification we undertook genotyping, otolith chemistry analysis and gill raker counting on river and sea spawning whitefish populations. Materials and methods. Whitefish to undergo spawning was sampled from rivers along the Finnish west coast (river spawners and at sea from known spawning sites close to the southern feeding grounds at the Åland Islands and the Archipelago Sea (sea spawners (Himberg et al. 2015, Figure 1. Gill rakers were counted on the left outer arch. Data on gill raker number was also collected from literature. Genetic diversity was assessed by nine microsatellite markers (Ozerov et al. 2015. Two methods were used for otolith (sagittae chemistry analysis. Otoliths were dissolved and analyzed for elemental concentrations with ICP-OES (Hägerstrand et al. 2015, or polished to the core and analyzed for core strontium concentration by PIXE

  11. Successful online learning – the five Ps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim FLOOD

    2004-04-01

    host organisation to achieve the elusive sixth P of online learning –Praxis– the practical application of learning. 1 http://iet.open.ac.uk/ 2 John Chambers, President and CEO of Cisco Systems, quoted in The New York Times in 1998: "The next big killer application for the Internet is going to be education. Education over the Internet is going to be so big, it is going to make e-mail usage look like a rounding error." 3 http://www.brandonhall.com/public/execsums/execsum_adkins1.pdf Biodata of Author: For the last eight years Jim has been involved in developing and delivering online courses and in particular exploring what is appropriate and effective use of new media technologies to facilitate learning. This has included appointing and training tutors to support learners studying in an online environment. Before joining COROUS (a department of the Open University, he was a Sub-Dean in the Faculty of Technology at the Open University. Most of Jim's career has centred on teaching engineering and promoting an interest and excitement about science and technology. His involvement has included: teaching in schools writing programmes for schools television series running staff development sessions for teachers advising government committees on the school curriculum teaching at undergraduate and postgraduate levels giving lectures to young people on maths, science and technology. Two markers of Jim's success in this field were the award of an international prize for a television series on science education and the award of an Institute of Director's prize for a course he developed at Loughborough University. Jim has recently been invited to speak on e-learning at conferences in London, Paris, Berlin and Amsterdam. He also contributes articles to specialist journals in the field of training and e-learning. Home page: http://www.corous.com To engage in a dialogue on this topic, email Jim Flood at jimflood@btinternet.com

  12. THE HANDBOOK OF BLENDED LEARNING:Global Perspectives, Local Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Alev ATES

    2009-10-01

    , Charles R. Graham introduces readers with emergence of blended learning, and defines blended learning as ―BL systems combine face-to-face instruction with computer mediated instruction‖. He claims that;generally, people chose BL for three reasons: improved pedagogy, increased access and flexibility, increased cost-effectiveness.He presents existing blended learning models using by many sectors and organizationsand discusses the importance and usefulness of BL for now and in the future. ElliottMasie also provides reasons for creating blended learning and claims that it is animperative which reflects the blended nature of our world and learning process. On the other hand, Jennifer Hofmann mentions the chronology of learning delivery technologies before identifying the need for a blended solution. She presents many headings starting with ―How do we..?‖ which provide practical solutions andexplanations for the instructors who wish to try blended learning designs but uncertain about it. Ellen D. Wagner welcomes the readers to ―a world of occasionally connected, fully interactive digital experiences‖ and asks them ―what instructional paradigm couldbe better suited for exploiting the potential of education unplugged than blended learning‖. She discusses the importance of interaction comprehensively and reviewed various models of instructional interaction.In Part Two: Corporate blended learning models and perspectives, the authors provide blended learning models and frameworks of six major corporations which are IBM, Sun Microsystems, Microsoft, Avaya, Cisco, and Oracle and discusses many issues regardingvarious BL experiences. In Part Three: Higher education blended learning models and perspectives, higher education (HE models for BL from universities in New Zealand, Wales and UK are presented besides BL examples and institutional strategies fromWebCT officers.Barbara Ross and Karen Gage imply that although hybrid (or blended courses do not fit easily