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Sample records for cisalhamento vertical em

  1. Resistência inter e intra-agregados em ensaios de cisalhamento direto de um nitossolo vermelho distrófico Inter and intra-aggregate strength in direct shear tests of a typic hapludox

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    João Alfredo Braida

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Para solos agregados, a envoltória da resistência ao cisalhamento pode ser dividida em dois segmentos, com declividades e interceptos diferentes. Um primeiro segmento mais inclinado e com intercepto menor representaria a envoltória de ruptura definida pelo atrito e coesão interagregados, enquanto o segundo segmento, menos inclinado e com intercepto maior, seria a envoltória definida pelo atrito e coesão intra-agregados. O presente estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar se a envoltória de resistência ao cisalhamento de agregados do horizonte superficial de um Nitossolo Vermelho pode ser subdividida em segmentos distintos, com coeficientes angulares diferentes, e se isso está relacionado à existência de agregados nele. Inicialmente, amostras coletadas na superfície de um Nitossolo Vermelho distrófico latossólico de textura argilosa foram submetidas ao ensaio de cisalhamento direto com pressões normais de 24,4; 48,9; 98,2; 196,4; 294,6; 392,8 e 491,8 kPa. Posteriormente, o ensaio foi realizado com amostras de agregados de cinco classes de diâmetro: For aggregated soils the Mohr failure line can be separated into two straight lines, with different slopes and intercepts. In the range of low normal load, when the slope is very steep and the intercept is small, the failure line is defined by the friction and cohesion inter-aggregates, while for the higher load range the slope becomes smaller and intercept is larger, which defines the intra-aggregate friction and cohesion. Therefore, for aggregated soils the normal load range used in the direct shear test affects the final result. The present study was carried out with the objective of evaluating if the Mohr failure line of a Red Latosolic Nitisol can be subdivided in different segments, with different steepness and intercepts, and if this is related to the existence of soil aggregates. Initially, soil surface samples of a Typic Hapludox (Nitossolo Vermelho Distrófico latoss

  2. Viscosidade extensional e em cisalhamento de suspensões acidificadas de amido de amaranto e caseinato de sódio Extensional and shear viscosity of acidified amaranth starch-sodium caseinate suspensions

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    Angela Maria Gozzo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as viscosidades extensional e em cisalhamento de suspensões acidificadas de amido de amaranto-caseinato de sódio. Sistemas mistos de amido de amaranto-caseinato de sódio acidificados com glucona-delta-lactona (GDL foram estudados por ensaios reológicos em compressão biaxial e cisalhamento. Os efeitos da velocidade de acidificação (lenta e rápida e pH final (neutro e no ponto isoelétrico da caseína foram avaliados considerando as interações entre os biopolímeros e sua consequente influência nos parâmetros reológicos. Todas as amostras apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico, no entanto, a adição de caseinato de sódio nas suspensões de amido, em pH neutro, promoveu um efeito negativo sobre a viscosidade aparente. Amostras acidificadas apresentaram um aumento na complexidade do sistema devido à formação da rede de amido e caseína, observando que a força necessária para o escoamento foi sempre maior para as amostras contendo concentrações maiores de caseinato. Isso mostra que a agregação e gelificação da proteína promovidas pela acidificação, impediram a microsseparação de fases. Esta rede foi mais forte em sistemas gelificados lentamente, devido à formação de uma rede de proteína mais organizada. Apesar da técnica de compressão biaxial imperfeita ser limitada para avaliação de determinados sistemas, neste estudo, mostrou ser um modo prático e eficiente de se mensurar o comportamento reológico.Extensional and shear viscosity of acidified amaranth starch-sodium caseinate suspensions were evaluated. Mixed systems of amaranth starch-sodium caseinate acidified with glucone-delta-lactone (GDL were studied using rheological measurements under biaxial compression and shear. The effects of the acidification rate (slow and fast and final pH (neutral and isoelectric point of casein were evaluated considering the interactions between biopolymers and their influence on the rheological parameters

  3. AVALIAÇÃO DOS COEFICIENTES DE SEGURANÇA DOS CÓDIGOS NORMATIVOS PARA REFORÇOS AO CISALHAMENTO EM VIGAS DE CONCRETO ARMADO REFORÇADAS COM PRFC

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    Nara Villanova Menon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O problema da avaliação do cisalhamento em vigas de concreto armado reforçadas por polímeros reforçados com fibras (PRF é um assunto muito complexo. As atuais normas/códigos mais importantes e recomendações de pesquisadores quantificam o cisalhamento por meio de uma simples soma das contribuições do concreto (Vc, do aço (Vsw, e do PRF (Vf. Apresentar comparações entre as formulações analíticas dos mais importantes códigos e recomendações disponíveis na literatura e avaliar os coeficientes de segurança propostos utilizando dados obtidos de resultados provenientes de investigações experimentais é o objetivo deste trabalho. Desenvolveu-se uma série de comparações entre as normas e recomendações NBR 6118 (2014, EUROCODE 2 (1992, ACI 318M (2011, ACI 440.2R (2008, fib BULLETIN 14 - TG 9.3 (2001 e CNR-DT 200 (2004. A base de dados foi feita pelos resultados experimentais de 30 vigas de concreto armado reforçadas. Observou-se que algumas normas são mais restritivas em relação às outras, oferecendo uma menor contribuição ao reforço, sendo, portanto, mais seguras. As informações permitiram demonstrar através de gráficos que o comportamento esperado, possível devido ao uso dos coeficientes de segurança, mantiveram os valores de cálculo muito abaixo dos valores de ruptura. Este trabalho pretende contribuir para a melhor utilização da combinação das principais normas utilizadas. ABSTRACT: The problem of the evaluation of the shear strength in RC beams strengthened with fibre-reinforced polymers (FRP is a very complex subject. The actual most important codes/recommendations quantify the nominal shear strength by a simple sum of the contributions to concrete (Vc, steel (Vsw, and FRP (Vf. This paper presents a broad comparison between the experimental results sourced from a number of experimental investigations and the analytical formulation of the most important codes/recommendations available in

  4. Comparative study of the dental substrate used in shear bond strength tests Estudo comparativo do tipo de substrato dental utilizado em testes de resistência de união ao cisalhamento

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    Murilo Baena Lopes

    2003-06-01

    amostras cada, de acordo com o sistema de união utilizado: 1 Scotchbond Multi-Uso (SBMU; e 2 Clearfil Liner Bond 2V (CLB2V. Em seguida, confeccionou-se um cilindro do compósito Z100 (4 mm de diâmetro x 5 mm de altura utilizando-se uma matriz bipartida, para submeter os corpos-de-prova ao ensaio de cisalhamento numa máquina de ensaio Instron com velocidade de 0,5 mm/min. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias, ao teste de Tukey (5%. Em esmalte, não se verificou diferença estatística entre os dentes humanos e bovinos para os materiais SBMU (7,36 MPa, humano; e 8,24 MPa, bovino e CLB2V (10,01 MPa, humano; e 7,95 MPa, bovino. Verificou-se que o SBMU apresentou média estatisticamente inferior em dentina humana (7,01 MPa, quando comparado à dentina bovina (11,74 MPa. Para o material CLB2V, não houve diferença estatística entre os substratos humano (7,43 MPa e bovino (9,27 MPa.

  5. Resistência ao cisalhamento de solos e taludes vegetados com capim vetiver

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    Michele Cristina Rufino Barbosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Taludes vegetados são mais resistentes contra movimentos de massa e erosão pela água. A vegetação contribui para a estabilidade do solo, principalmente pelo aumento da resistência ao cisalhamento por meio do reforço oferecido pelas raízes. As espécies vegetais que mais têm sido eficientes na estabilização de taludes instáveis são as gramíneas, pertencentes à família Poaceae. Um exemplar dessa família, capim vetiver (Chrysopogonzizanioides (L. Roberty, tem se revelado muito eficaz nessa estabilização. Com o objetivo de avaliar a melhoria dos parâmetros de resistência ao cisalhamento oferecida ao solo pelas raízes do capim vetiver com o tempo de plantio, realizaram-se experimentos de cisalhamento direto por meio de amostras indeformadas de solo sem vegetação e cultivadas com capim vetiver na idade de um, dois, três e quatro anos de plantio. Também foram realizados experimentos de cisalhamento direto em talude do mesmo solo sem vegetação e com cobertura desse capim. Os resultados do ensaio de cisalhamento direto das amostras de talude de solo foram avaliados por três métodos de equilíbrio limite para verificação de um fator de segurança médio nos taludes. A partir dos ensaios de cisalhamento direto, determinaram-se os parâmetros de resistência ao cisalhamento (intercepto de coesão e ângulo de atrito interno, verificando que o capim vetiver proporcionou incremento de coesão aparente ao solo, sendo esse destacado após três anos de plantio do capim. Esse capim promoveu melhoria nos parâmetros de resistência com consequente elevação do fator de segurança de taludes e aumento da resistência ao cisalhamento de solos, o que auxiliou na estabilização de taludes em planos superficiais de ruptura.

  6. Resistência ao cisalhamento e grau de intemperismo de cinco solos na região de Lavras (MG

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    W. W. Rocha

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente os parâmetros da resistência ao cisalhamento dos solos podem ser uma ferramenta muito útil na estabilização de taludes e recuperação de voçorocas, bem como na adoção de práticas mecânicas de conservação para os solos agrícolas. Com o objetivo de avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento de cinco solos da região de Lavras (MG e sua relação com o grau de intemperismo, realizou-se um experimento, utilizando uma prensa de cisalhamento direto, a qual permite ensaiar amostras indeformadas de solos. Essas amostras foram coletadas na profundidade de 0-0,03 m e submetidas ao ensaio de cisalhamento, para a definição das envoltórias de resistência e obtenção da coesão aparente (C e o ângulo de atrito interno (φ. Observou-se que C, de forma geral, foi maior para solos que apresentaram maior densidade, umidade a -0,01 MPa e maior teor de areia. Os valores de (φ foram maiores nos solos com maiores teores de argila. O Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico (LVAd e o Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico típico (PVAd, com densidades do solo, teores de areia e umidade a -0,01MPa maiores, apresentaram maiores resistências ao cisalhamento em relação ao Latossolo Vermelho distrófico (LVd, Cambissolo Háplico Tb distrófico (CXbd e Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico (LVdf, que apresentaram maiores teores de argila e matéria orgânica. Para a classe dos Latossolos, a resistência ao cisalhamento foi maior onde os índices Ki e Kr foram mais elevados, graças à estrutura em blocos apresentada pelo LVAd, que condicionou maior resistência ao cisalhamento. Do ponto de vista da resistência ao cisalhamento, os solos LVAd e PVAd mostraram-se mais resistentes a voçorocamento e ao preparo do solo.

  7. Avaliação da resistência ao cisalhamento de dois compósitos colados em superfície condicionada com primer autocondicionante Evaluation of the shear bond strength of two composites bonded to conditioned surface with self-etching primer

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    Matheus Melo Pithon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento e o índice de remanescente de adesivo (IRA dos compósitos Eagle Bond e Orthobond em superfície de esmalte condicionada com Transbond Plus Self-Etching Primer. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 75 incisivos inferiores permanentes bovinos divididos em cinco grupos (n=15. Nos grupos 1, 2 e 4, as colagens foram realizadas com Transbond XT, Orthobond e Eagle Bond, respectivamente, seguindo as recomendações dos fabricantes. Nos grupos 3 e 4, antes da colagem com o Orthobond e o Eagle Bond, respectivamente, a superfície dentária foi condicionada com o ácido-primer Transbond Plus Self-Etching Primer. Após a colagem, realizou-se o ensaio de cisalhamento de toda amostra à velocidade de 0,5mm/min em máquina Instron de ensaios mecânicos. RESULTADOS:os resultados (em MPa mostraram não haver diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre os grupos 1, 2, 3 e 5 (p>0,05. Entretanto, esses grupos foram estatisticamente superiores ao grupo 4 (pOBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength and the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI between the composites Eagle Bond and Orthobond bonded to an enamel surface conditioned with Transbond Plus Self-Etching Primer. METHODS: Seventy-five bovine permanent mandibular incisors, divided into five groups (n=15 were used. In Groups 1, 2 and 4, the bonds were performed with Transbond XT, Orthobond and Eagle Bond respectively, in accordance with the manufacturers' recommendations. In Groups 3 and 4, before bonding with Orthobond and Eagle Bond, respectively, the tooth surface was conditioned with the acid primer Transbond Plus Self-Etching Primer. After bonding the shear test was performed for all samples at a speed of 0.5 mm per minute in an Instron mechanical test machine. RESULTS: The results (MPa showed that there were no statistically significant differences among Groups 1, 2, 3 and 5 (p>0.05. However, these groups were

  8. Análise de pressões em silo vertical de alvenaria de tijolos Analysis of pressures in vertical silo of masonry of bricks

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    Marineide J. Diniz

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetiva-se com este trabalho, determinar as pressões verticais e horizontais nas paredes e no fundo de um silo cilíndrico, com altura/diâmetro igual a 1 e comparar as pressões teóricas obtidas através de normas internacionais. O silo foi construído em alvenaria de tijolos de 8 furos, fixando-lhe externamente nove cintas de aço. A metodologia e as técnicas aplicadas foram as indicadas pelas normas, com as devidas adaptações necessárias. Determinaram-se as propriedades de fluxo do produto na Máquina de Cisalhamento Direto Translacional (Jenike Shear Cell. Calcularam-se as pressões teóricas, de acordo com as recomendações das normas DIN 1055, ACI 313 e ISO 11697. O produto utilizado nos ensaios foi a areia, em razão da sua densidade ser aproximadamente duas vezes maior à maioria dos cereais. Para medição das pressões o silo foi instrumentado com 6 células de pressão, das quais 4 fixadas na parede e 2 no fundo do silo, além de conectadas a um sistema de aquisição de dados. Através da análise dos dados obtidos de forma experimental, juntamente com o conhecimento das propriedades do produto, conclui-se que o tipo de silo estudado apresenta potencial que permite a sua utilização para armazenamento de grãos nas propriedades rurais.The objective of this research was to determine the vertical and horizontal pressures on the walls and at the bottom of a cylindrical silo with height/diameter equal to 1 and to compare the obtained theoretical pressures through international rules. The silo was built in masonry of bricks, with 8 holes fixing externally nine steel braces. The applied methodology and techniques had been the ones as indicated by the rules with the necessary adaptations. The stream properties of the product were determined in the shearing machine translational direct Jenike Shear Cell. The theoretical pressures were calculated in agreement with the recommendations of the rules DIN 1055, ACI 313 and ISO 11697. The

  9. Analysis of the coefficient of variation in shear and tensile bond strength tests Análise do coeficiente de variação em testes de resistência da união ao cisalhamento e tração

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    Fábio Lourenço Romano

    2005-09-01

    coeficiente de variação (CV em experimentos in vitro que envolveram testes de resistência ao cisalhamento e / ou tração. Foram analisados 50 trabalhos de periódicos nacionais e internacionais, sendo que todos avaliaram a adesão em ensaios laboratoriais. Foram coletados em cada artigo dados estatísticos que permitiram estimar o coeficiente de variação, pois nenhum deles apresentava esta medida calculada. Os dados coletados foram organizados em Planilha Excel, sendo a normalidade da amostra testada pelo teste de Shapiro Wilk (alfa=0,05 utilizando o programa Statistical Analysis System (SAS. Pela análise dos dados, tendo os mesmos apresentados distribuição normal (p>0,05 foi encontrado um CV médio de 6,11 com desvio-padrão de 1,83. A partir destes dados foram propostas faixas de classificação para o coeficiente de variação, ou seja, este coeficiente deve ser considerado baixo até um valor de 2,44; médio entre 2,44 - 7,94, alto entre 7,94 - 9.78 e muito alto acima de 9,78. Esta classificação poderá ser usada como guia para experimentos de adesão, facilitando o planejamento, revelando a precisão e validade dos dados.

  10. Resistência ao cisalhamento de dentes submetidos a duas técnicas de clareamento, pós-restaurados ou não

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    SIQUEIRA Evandro Luiz

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores testaram a resistência ao cisalhamento de dentes submetidos a duas técnicas de clareamento. Foram utilizados 50 incisivos centrais superiores, divididos em 5 grupos, a saber: controle (só abertura coronária, clareamento sem calor, clareamento catalisado por calor controlado, clareamento catalisado por calor controlado e restauração com resina composta de última geração e dentes hígidos. Após o teste de cisalhamento, constatou-se que, nos dentes submetidos ao clareamento dental com perborato de sódio/Peridrol com ou sem aplicações de calor controlado, apesar de estes apresentarem leve diminuição da resistência ao cisalhamento, esta não é estatisticamente significante quando comparada com a dos dentes em que se executa o acesso endodôntico sem clareamento. A restauração do dente após o clareamento dental com adesivo dentinário de 4ª geração e resina fotopolimerizada aumenta a resistência do elemento dental clareado. Não existem diferenças estatísticas de resistência ao cisalhamento entre dentes clareados sem o uso de calor e aqueles em que o calor foi empregado de forma controlada, como preconizado neste estudo. Dentes hígidos apresentam resistência maior do que os dentes clareados com calor, sem calor e aqueles não clareados, com significância estatística no nível de 5%. Já com os dentes clareados e restaurados, os dentes hígidos não mostraram diferenças estatísticas significantes

  11. Erodibilidade e tensão crítica de cisalhamento no canal de drenagem de estrada rural não pavimentada

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    Adriana G. Enriquez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A erosão em estradas não pavimentadas associada ao escoamento superficial gera grande impacto ambiental, sendo a principal causa de inundação, contaminação da água e alteração da fauna aquatica, entre outros, tornando-se necessário desenvolver estratégias de prevenção e controle. Para isto, a obtenção de valores confiáveis dos índices de resistência do solo ao processo erosivo é premente; sentido em que este trabalho teve, como objetivo, determinar os índices de erodibilidade e a tensão crítica de cisalhamento em canal de drenagem construído em uma estrada não pavimentada implantada em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo. O estudo foi realizado em uma estrada não pavimentada do município de Viçosa, MG, que apresentava problemas de erosao utilizando-se um simulador de escoamento para determinação direta no campo. Os dados de erodibilidade e tensão crítica de cisalhamento foram obtidos com base na técnica de identidade de modelos. O valor de erodibilidade determinado foi de 0,0044 g cm-2 min-1 Pa-1, ao qual foi associado um intervalo de confiança com 95% de probabilidade de 0,0035 a 0,0053 g cm-2 min-1 Pa-1. A tensão crítica de cisalhamento obtida foi de 7,61 Pa.

  12. Resistência ao cisalhamento de solos e taludes vegetados com capim vetiver Shear strength of soils and slopes covered with vetiver

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    Michele Cristina Rufino Barbosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Taludes vegetados são mais resistentes contra movimentos de massa e erosão pela água. A vegetação contribui para a estabilidade do solo, principalmente pelo aumento da resistência ao cisalhamento por meio do reforço oferecido pelas raízes. As espécies vegetais que mais têm sido eficientes na estabilização de taludes instáveis são as gramíneas, pertencentes à família Poaceae. Um exemplar dessa família, capim vetiver (Chrysopogonzizanioides (L. Roberty, tem se revelado muito eficaz nessa estabilização. Com o objetivo de avaliar a melhoria dos parâmetros de resistência ao cisalhamento oferecida ao solo pelas raízes do capim vetiver com o tempo de plantio, realizaram-se experimentos de cisalhamento direto por meio de amostras indeformadas de solo sem vegetação e cultivadas com capim vetiver na idade de um, dois, três e quatro anos de plantio. Também foram realizados experimentos de cisalhamento direto em talude do mesmo solo sem vegetação e com cobertura desse capim. Os resultados do ensaio de cisalhamento direto das amostras de talude de solo foram avaliados por três métodos de equilíbrio limite para verificação de um fator de segurança médio nos taludes. A partir dos ensaios de cisalhamento direto, determinaram-se os parâmetros de resistência ao cisalhamento (intercepto de coesão e ângulo de atrito interno, verificando que o capim vetiver proporcionou incremento de coesão aparente ao solo, sendo esse destacado após três anos de plantio do capim. Esse capim promoveu melhoria nos parâmetros de resistência com consequente elevação do fator de segurança de taludes e aumento da resistência ao cisalhamento de solos, o que auxiliou na estabilização de taludes em planos superficiais de ruptura.Vegetated slopes are more resistant to mass movement and erosion by water. The vegetation contributes to the soil stability, especially by increasing the shear strength provided by roots. Plant species that have

  13. Geometria e evolução do feixe de zonas de cisalhamento Manhuaçu - Santa Margarida, Orógeno Araçuaí, MG Geometry and evolution of the Manhuaçu-Santa Margarida shear zone system, Araçuai Orogen, MG

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    Cláudio Maurício Teixeira da Silva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Feixe de Zonas de Cisalhamento Manhuaçu-Santa Margarida de orientação geral NS estende-se por, aproximadamente, 300 km na região leste de Minas Gerais. Como uma das principais estruturas do núcleo cristalino do Orógeno Araçuaí, é constituído por um conjunto de zonas de cisalhamento dúcteis, que, em mapa, mostram traços sigmoidais. O seu segmento norte é composto por zonas de cisalhamento reversas que promovem o transporte de material em direção a oeste e, subordinadamente, por zonas transcorrentes dextrais. Os segmentos central e sul são dominados por zonas transcorrentes dextrais. O desenvolvimento do feixe deu-se em quatro fases deformacionais neoproterozóicas. A primeira fase promoveu a nucleação do conjunto de zonas reversas, que ficaram parcialmente preservadas no segmento norte do feixe. Durante a segunda fase, as zonas preexistentes experimentaram, de norte para sul, uma rotação progressiva para a vertical e para a direção NE-SW, além de intensa reativação transcorrente dextral. A terceira fase gerou zonas de cisalhamento normais de ocorrência restrita ao segmento norte. Na quarta fase, formaram-se falhas transversais e juntas. Em sua terminação sul, o feixe, dominado por zonas transcorrentes dextrais, rotaciona-se até confundir-se com as estruturas da porção NW da Faixa Ribeira. Tal fato implica que as estruturas dessa porção do feixe são de mesma idade, ou algo mais velhas que as transcorrências dextrais, que marcam o quadro tectônico do segmento NW da Faixa Ribeira.The N-S trending Manhuaçu-Santa Margarida shear zone system extends for ca. 300 km in eastern Minas Gerais. As one of the main structures of the crystalline core of the Neoproterozoic Araçuaí Orogen, the Manhuaçu-Santa Margarida system is made up of a series of ductile shear zones, which show a sigmoidal trace in map view. The northern segment of the system mainly consists of west-verging thrusts and subordinate dextral strike

  14. Vertical Mulching e manejo da água em semeadura direta Vertical Mulching and water management in no tillage system

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    Sandra Maria Garcia

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A intensa mobilização do solo no sistema cultivo convencional causou degradação da estrutura, compactação e adensamento do solo abaixo da camada arável, reduzindo a macroporosidade e a taxa de infiltração de água no solo, com conseqüente aumento de escoamento superficial, de erosão e de assoreamento de rios e de reservatórios. A semeadura direta, que protege a superfície do solo, praticamente controlou a perda por erosão hídrica, os terraços foram eliminados, pelos agricultores, e a conseqüência foi maior escoamento superficial do que no sistema cultivo convencional. Com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento hidrológico do vertical mulching em semeadura direta, em relação ao escoamento superficial, realizou-se esta pesquisa nos anos agrícolas 2002/2003 e 2003/2004, em Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico, na região fisiográfica do planalto médio do Rio Grande do Sul, isto é, um experimento em escala de campo, com parcelas sem vertical mulching, com vertical mulching a cada 10 m e com vertical mulching a cada 5 m, no delineamento de blocos ao acaso com três repetições. Sulcos em nível, perpendiculares ao declive, com dimensões de 0,08 m de largura por x 0,38 m de profundidade, foram abertos e preenchidos com palha compactada o suficiente para prevenir desmoronamento das paredes do sulco. No ciclo da cultura da soja e do trigo foram simuladas chuvas com duas intensidades, 70 e 106 mm h-1. Foram determinados o escoamento superficial, a taxa de infiltração básica de água no solo e a concentração de nutrientes e de CO no escoamento superficial. Os resultados indicam que o vertical mulching na semeadura direta reduz, significativamente, o volume do escoamento superficial aumenta a taxa de infiltração básica de água no solo e reduz também as perdas totais de nutrientes e de CO devido ao menor volume de água no escoamento superficial.Intensive soil mobilization in the conventional tillage system has caused

  15. Avaliação in vitro da resistência ao cisalhamento e liberação de flúor de dois cimentos de ionômero de vidro reforçado por resina = In vitro evaluation of shear bond strength and fluoride release from two resin-reinforced glass ionomer cements

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    Pithon, Matheus Melo

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os cimentos de ionômero de vidro reforçados com resina Fuji Ortho LC e Fuji Ortho Band (GC América Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) quanto a resistência ao cisalhamento e liberação de flúor. Para avaliação da resistência ao cisalhamento utilizou-se 60 incisivos inferiores permanentes bovinos divididos em três grupos (n = 15). No Grupo 1, 2 e 3, as colagens foram realizadas com Transbond XT, Fuji Ortho LC e Fuji Ortho Band respectivamente. Após a colagem realizou-...

  16. Resistência ao cisalhamento da colagem com compósitos utilizando potencializador de adesão Shear bond strength of composites using an adhesion booster

    OpenAIRE

    Edivaldo de Morais; Fábio Lourenço Romano; Lourenço Correr Sobrinho; Américo Bortolazzo Correr; Maria Beatriz Borges de Araújo Magnani

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento dos compósitos Transbond XT e Concise Ortodôntico utilizando o potencializador de adesão Ortho Primer. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 90 incisivos bovinos divididos em seis grupos (n=15). Todos os dentes receberam profilaxia com pedra-pomes e condicionamento do esmalte com ácido fosfórico. No Grupo I, utilizou-se Transbond XT de maneira convencional. O Grupo II foi semelhante ao I, porém, aplicou-se o Ortho Primer ao invés do XT Primer. No Grup...

  17. Gastroplastia vertical com bandagem em y-de-roux: análise de resultados Results of roux-en-y vertical banded gastroplasty

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    Antonio Carlos Valezi

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar prospectivamente os resultados de pacientes obesos mórbidos submetidos a gastroplastia vertical com bandagem em Y-de-Roux no Hospital Universitário da Universidade Estadual de Londrina. MÉTODO: Analisamos consecutivamente 250 pacientes, sem cirurgia bariátrica prévia, que foram submetidos à cirurgia que associa a gastroplastia vertical com bandagem e derivação gastrojejunal em Y-de-Roux. Os parâmetros utilizados para análise dos resultados foram, morbidade, mortalidade e redução ponderal. O seguimento dos pacientes foi de, no mínimo, um ano. O índice de massa corpórea médio foi de 46 Kg/m². RESULTADOS: A incidência de complicações operatórias que exigiram reoperação foi de 2 %. Não houve óbito na presente série. Após um a três anos de "follow-up", observamos uma redução do peso pré-operatório em média de 37,5%. Acompanhando a perda de peso, detectamos uma importante melhora nas comorbidades, e, em alguns casos, controle total da doença associada com a obesidade. CONCLUSÕES: A gastroplastia vertical com bandagem em Y-de-Roux foi,em nosso serviço, efetiva em produzir perda de peso intensa e duradoura associada à baixa taxa de morbi-mortalidade.BACKGROUND: To analyze prospectively the results of patients submitted to vertical banded gastroplasty-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass at the Hospital Universitário, Universidade Estadual de Londrina. METHODS: We analized mortality, morbidity and weight loss of 250 consecutive patients with no previous bariatric surgery who were submitted to a combination of vertical banded gastroplasty and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Patients were followed up at least for one year. They had a mean body mass index of 46 Kg/M2. RESULTS: The incidence of complications that required reoperation was 2%. No deaths ocurred in the present study. After a follow up of one to three years we noticed an average decrease of 37.5% in the pre-operative weight. In addition to the weight loss we

  18. Avaliação in vitro da resistência ao cisalhamento e liberação de flúor de dois cimentos de ionômero de vidro reforçado por resina = In vitro evaluation of shear bond strength and fluoride release from two resin-reinforced glass ionomer cements

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    Pithon, Matheus Melo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os cimentos de ionômero de vidro reforçados com resina Fuji Ortho LC e Fuji Ortho Band (GC América Corporation, Tokyo, Japan quanto a resistência ao cisalhamento e liberação de flúor. Para avaliação da resistência ao cisalhamento utilizou-se 60 incisivos inferiores permanentes bovinos divididos em três grupos (n = 15. No Grupo 1, 2 e 3, as colagens foram realizadas com Transbond XT, Fuji Ortho LC e Fuji Ortho Band respectivamente. Após a colagem realizou-se o ensaio de cisalhamento de toda amostra à velocidade de 0,5 mm por minuto. A liberação de flúor dos materiais foram medidas durante 28 dias (1h, 24 h, 3, 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias através de eletrodo íon seletivo conectado a um analisador de íons. Os resultados demonstraram que quanto a resistência ao cisalhamento (MPa houve diferenças estatísticas entre os grupos 1 e 3, 2 e 3 (p > 0,05. Quanto a liberação de flúor os resultados evidenciaram diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos 1 e 3 e 2 e 3 em todos os tempos (p = 0. 00 e entre os grupos 1 e 2 na avaliação de 3 dias de liberação de flúor (p = 0. 00. Baseado nos resultados obtidos conclui-se que os materiais Transbond XT e Fuji Ortho possuem melhor resistência ao cisalhamento porém menor liberação de flúor quando comparado ao Fuji Ortho Band

  19. Influence of chisel width on shear bond strength of composite to enamel = Influência da largura do cinzel sobre a resistência ao cisalhamento da união esmalte/resina composta

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    Oliveira, Antônio Carlos Castellan de

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a influência de diferentes larguras de cinzel sobre a resistência de união ao cisalhamento na interface esmalte dental/resina composta. Metodologia: As coroas de 60 dentes incisivos bovinos foram incluídas em resina acrílica e as superfícies vestibulares de esmalte foram planificadas e condicionadas com ácido fosfórico a 35 %. O sistema adesivo Single Bond (3M/ESPE e de resina composta Z-250 (3M/ESPE foram utilizados para fabricar restaurações cilíndricas de resina composta perpendiculares à superfície plana do esmalte condicionado. Para o teste de cisalhamento, os espécimes foram submetidos ao ensaio mecânico com cinzéis de 0,5 mm, 1,0 mm, 2,0 mm ou 3,0 mm de largura da parte ativa romba, em uma máquina de ensaio universal à velocidade de 0,5 mm/min. Os dados obtidos foram analisados por análise de variância e teste de Duncan ao nível de significância de 5 %. Resultados: As médias de resistência de união ao cisalhamento dos grupos testados foram: 0,5 mm – 19,66 MPa; 1,0 mm – 18,78 MPa; 2,0 mm – 16,77 MPa; 3,0 mm –16,06 MPa. Houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos de 0,5 e 3,0 mm (P=0,045, com uma relação inversa entre resistência de união ao cisalhamento e largura do cinzel. Conclusão: Os resultados sugerem que a resistência de união ao cisalhamento sofre influência da largura do cinzel utilizado no ensaio

  20. AIDS em gestantes: possibilidade de reduzir a transmissão vertical

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    Fernanda Scherer Wiethäuper

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, buscamos investigar o conhecimento que gestantes possuem sobre a transmissão vertical, o comprometimento do feto e o significado do resultado soropositivo que a identifica como infectada pelo HIV. A pesquisa exploratória, de natureza qualitativa, foi desenvolvida em Unidades Sanitárias de São Leopoldo/RS. A análise permitiu captar a percepção de 63 gestantes entre 16 e 40 anos sobre os motivos e os significados para realização do teste, os conhecimentos e vivências do cotidiano e as perspectivas e cuidados com o bebê. Os resultados trazem um alerta aos profissionais que atuam no pré-natal, visto que necessitam atender uma complexidade de situações que emergem quando se vincula gestação e AIDS.

  1. Efeito da degradação ambiental nas propriedades de cisalhamento de compósitos PPS/fibra de carbono Effect of environmental degradation on shear properties of PPS /carbon fiber composites

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    Anahi P. Costa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Os compósitos termoplásticos avançados são uma alternativa a compósitos termorrígidos em algumas aplicações aeronáuticas, devido a ganhos em propriedades. Dentre as matrizes termoplásticas, o PPS (poli sulfeto de fenileno destaca-se devido às suas características estruturais. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a influência do condicionamento ambiental sobre o comportamento de resistência ao cisalhamento de PPS / fibras de carbono. Por esta razão, amostras deste material foram condicionadas em solução salina, em banho higrotérmico e sob radiação UV. Após estes condicionamentos os corpos-de-prova foram avaliados quanto a sua resistência aos cisalhamentos interlaminar (ILSS e Iosipescu e os resultados obtidos foram comparados. Quando comparado ao valor de cisalhamento interlaminar obtido do compósito não-climatizado (58,4 ± 1,9 MPa, os valores de cisalhamento interlaminar ILSS decaíram em torno de 14 e 3%, respectivamente, após banho higrotérmico e banho salino. Sob condicionamento por radiação UV houve um decréscimo de 2% após exposição por 300 horas, 11% após 600 horas e 9% após 900 horas. Já o laminado ensaiado pelo método Iosipescu teve uma tensão de cisalhamento no plano de 109,2 ± 0,4 MPa. Com condicionamentos, teve um decréscimo de 6% após banho higrotérmico e 12% após banho salino. A exposição à radiação UV provocou na resistência de cisalhamento no plano um decaimento de 6% para o condicionamento de 300 horas, 10% para o condicionamento de 600 horas e 14% para o condicionamento por 900 horas.Advanced thermoplastic composites are an alternative to thermoset composites in many aeronautical applications owing to their superior properties. Among the thermoplastic matrix, PPS (poly phenylene sulfide stands out due to its structural characteristics. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of environmental conditioning on the shear behavior of PPS / carbon fiber composites

  2. Influence of chisel width on shear bond strength of composite to enamel = Influência da largura do cinzel sobre a resistência ao cisalhamento da união esmalte/resina composta

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Antônio Carlos Castellan de

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo: Avaliar a influência de diferentes larguras de cinzel sobre a resistência de união ao cisalhamento na interface esmalte dental/resina composta. Metodologia: As coroas de 60 dentes incisivos bovinos foram incluídas em resina acrílica e as superfícies vestibulares de esmalte foram planificadas e condicionadas com ácido fosfórico a 35 %. O sistema adesivo Single Bond (3M/ESPE) e de resina composta Z-250 (3M/ESPE) foram utilizados para fabricar restaurações cilíndricas de resina compost...

  3. Coesão e resistência ao cisalhamento relacionadas a atributos físicos e químicos de um Latossolo Amarelo de tabuleiro costeiro Cohesion and shear strength as related to physical and chemical properties of a Yellow Latosol of coastal plain

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    Apolino José Nogueira da Silva

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Os solos coesos de tabuleiros costeiros têm como característica peculiar horizontes minerais subsuperficiais, que apresentam consistência friável quando úmidos, porém, quando secos, têm consistência dura, muito dura ou extremamente dura. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de estudar o comportamento mecânico de horizontes coesos e não-coesos de um Latossolo Amarelo de tabuleiro costeiro por meio de características de cisalhamento relacionadas com propriedades físicas, químicas e teor de água do solo. Os resultados mostraram que a coesão do solo e a resistência ao cisalhamento aumentaram expressivamente com a redução do teor de água no horizonte coeso. Este horizonte apresentou os maiores valores de densidade do solo, microporosidade e óxidos de Fe, Si e Al, resultando em maiores valores de coesão do solo e resistência ao cisalhamento, em relação aos horizontes não-coesos. Os maiores valores de coesão do solo resultaram em maiores valores de resistência à penetração no horizonte coeso, em relação aos não-coesos. As características de cisalhamento (coesão do solo, ângulo de atrito interno e resistência ao cisalhamento mostraram-se sensíveis à identificação de horizontes coesos em solos de tabuleiros costeiros.The cohesive soils of Brazilian coastal plain have subsurface horizon with a peculiar characteristic - when wet the consistency is friablet, but of hard, very hard or extremely hard consistency when dry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mechanical characteristics of cohesive and non-cohesive horizons of a Yellow Latosol of coastal tableland based on shear parameters related with soil physical and chemical properties and moisture. The results showed that soil cohesion and shear strength increased substantially with the reduction of the water content in the cohesive horizon. The cohesive horizon presented the highest values of bulk density, microporosity and Fe, Si and Al oxides, resulting in

  4. Resistência ao cisalhamento de um selante associado a componentes de um sistema adesivo dental Shear bond strength of an enamel sealant using components of a dental adhesive system

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    Zilda Maria MUSSOLINO

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Cilindros de selante, padronizados, foram unidos ao esmalte das superfícies vestibulares de incisivos bovinos, após serem planificadas e condicionadas, com ácido fosfórico a 37%, durante 30 segundos. Foram utilizados 40 dentes, aleatoriamente divididos em 4 grupos, cujas coroas foram secionadas, de modo a obter-se duas porções, cervical e incisal. No Grupo I, após o condicionamento, aplicou-se o selante Fluroshield; no Grupo II, antes da aplicação do selante, uma camada do "primer" do Probond foi aplicada; no Grupo III, após o "primer", aplicou-se o adesivo do Probond; e no Grupo IV, somente o adesivo foi aplicado antes do selante. Os espécimes foram armazenados em água a 37°C, durante 36 horas, e então submetidos aos ensaios de cisalhamento. A análise estatística revelou significante diminuição na resistência ao cisalhamento, quando o "primer" foi aplicado previamente ao selante, enquanto a resistência ao cisalhamento do selante foi semelhante quando o adesivo do Probond foi aplicado, com ou sem o "primer". A resistência ao cisalhamento do selante ao esmalte é maior no terço incisal que no terço cervical da coroa.Standardized cylinders of sealants were bonded to the flattened labial enamel of bovine incisor teeth that had previously been subjected to 37% phosphoric acid gel for 30 seconds. A total of 40 teeth were tested, randomly divided in four groups of 10 teeth each. In Group I, the sealant Fluroshield was applied after etching; in Group II after etching, the "primer" of Probond was used before the sealant; in Group III after etching, the bond of Probond was used after the "primer"; and in Group IV only the bond was applied before the sealant. Specimens were stored in water at 37°C during 36 hours, before shear testing using a Universal Testing Machine. There was significant reduction in shear bond strength of the sealant when only the "primer" was used previously to the application of the sealant. There were no

  5. Resistência ao cisalhamento de um latossolo sob diferentes uso e manejo Shear strength of a latosol under different use and management

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    R. B. Silva

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available A resistência do solo ao cisalhamento é uma importante propriedade dinâmica do solo, a qual vem sendo desconsiderada na maioria das pesquisas que investigam a influência do uso e manejo, assim como os estados de consistência , sobre o comportamento da estrutura dos solos agrícolas. Isto tem contribuído para a adoção de estratégias quase sempre equivocadas, tendo, como conseqüência, o depauperamento das propriedades físicas e mecânicas do solo. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a resistência ao cisalhamento de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico submetido ao preparo convencional e semeadura direta, tendo, como tratamento-testemunha, o cerradão, considerando diferentes conteúdos de água: 0,05; 0,16; 0,18 e 0,38 kg kg-1. Com base nos resultados encontrados, verificou-se que a resistência ao cisalhamento do solo, avaliada na profundidade de 0-0,05 m do Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, foi influenciada pelo aumento da umidade, tipo de uso e manejo. De maneira geral, as equações ajustadas conforme o modelo de Coulomb constataram maior resistência do solo ao cisalhamento no cerradão, seguido do preparo convencional e semeadura direta. A menor resistência ao cisalhamento do solo estudado, corroborada pelo menor atrito interno (tg f e maior coesão aparente (c, especificamente nos teores de água 0,16 e 0,27 kg kg-1 (contemplando, portanto, a faixa friável do solo, confere à semeadura direta a condição de maior possibilidade de preservação da sustentabilidade da estrutura do Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. A predição da tensão de cisalhamento apresentou-se sensível aos efeitos da variação do teor de água no solo, ao tipo de uso, podendo contribuir, particularmente, em estudos da sustentabilidade da estrutura dos solos agrícolas, a qual normalmente é comprometida em áreas cujo tráfego e preparo do solo são realizados inadequadamente.Shear soil strength is an important dynamic property of the soil, as well as

  6. Proposta de medição da posição vertical da laringe em repouso Proposal of measurement of vertical larynx position at rest

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    Osiris de Oliveira Camponês do Brasil

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo propor uma forma de medir a posição vertical da laringe (PVL no pescoço, em repouso, de adultos jovens sem queixas vocais. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Estudo de coorte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Participaram da pesquisa 68 sujeitos, faixa etária de 18 a 44 anos de idade, sendo 33 do sexo feminino e 35 do sexo masculino. Os pontos de referência utilizados para a pesquisa foram os ângulos da mandíbula direito e esquerdo (AMD e AME, o centro do arco da cartilagem cricóidea (CC e o centro da fúrcula esternal (FE. Para a obtenção das medidas, os sujeitos foram orientados a permanecerem sentados com a cabeça em hiperextensão máxima. Os materiais utilizados foram um compasso e uma régua de 20cm. RESULTADOS: A obtenção das medidas se mostrou ser de fácil realização e não apresentou qualquer tipo de desconforto aos participantes. Houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os sexos feminino e masculino quanto à posição vertical da laringe, sendo que as mulheres apresentaram a laringe em posição mais alta que os homens. A posição vertical da laringe foi de fácil obtenção e parece ser um parâmetro muito interessante no acompanhamento clínico intra-sujeitos.AIM: The purpose of this research is to propose a procedure to measure the vertical larynx position in the neck at rest in young adults without vocal complaint. STUDY DESIGN: Transversal cohort study. MATERIAL AND METHOD: There were 68 subjects, aged between 18 to 44 years, 33 female and 35 male. The anatomical landmarks used for this research study were the right and left jaw angle (RJA and LJA, the centre of the cricoid arch cartilage (CC and the centre of the sternal furculum (SF. In order to obtain the measures, the subjects were asked to be sitting still with their heads stretched up to the highest possible position. The devices used were a drawing compass and a 20-centimeter ruler. RESULTS: The measurement procedure

  7. Resistência ao Cisalhamento Interlaminar de Compósitos com Resina Epóxi com Diferentes Arranjos das Fibras na Presença de Vazios

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    Costa Michelle L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A presença de vazios em compósitos estruturais pode ter efeitos significativos. Em geral, os vazios diminuem a resistência estática e a vida em fadiga de laminados. Essa influência é bastante pronunciada na resistência ao cisalhamento interlaminar, compressão, entre outras, onde as propriedades mecânicas da matriz exercem maior influência sobre o comportamento do compósito. O presente artigo descreve o estudo do efeito da porosidade na resistência ao cisalhamento interlaminar de sistemas de compósitos de tecido e tape (fitas unidirecionais de carbono aglutinados com matriz epóxi. Os laminados foram produzidos de maneira semelhante, bem como o processo de introdução de vazios (na faixa de 0a 12% de porosidade.Os compósitos foram avaliados por análises microscópicas e inspeção ultra-sônica e os valores de atenuação medidos foram convertidos em coeficientes de absorção para permitir uma normalização dos dados. O critério de fratura de Mar-Lin apresentou bom ajuste, mostrando-se adequado para o estudo de porosidade em compósitos. Por meio desse critério foi determinado que somente os laminados com porosidade acima de 0,9% para tecido de carbono/epóxi e acima de 0,75% para laminados de tape de carbono/epóxi é que apresentam redução de suas propriedades mecânicas

  8. CARACTERIZAÇÃO DE ARGAMASSAS PARA USO EM SISTEMAS DE VEDAÇÃO VERTICAL EXTERNO (SVVE

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    Vagner Arruda de Castro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas publicou em maio de 2010 uma nova norma de desempenho, a NBR 15.575, referente as edificações de até cinco pavimentos. Essa norma trará impactos importantes a fabricantes de materiais, projetistas, construtoras e prestadores de serviços, portanto os laboratórios de construção civil, como o LCC do IFRN, devem estar atentos a implicações destas normas, buscando gerar conhecimento a cerca dos aspectos nela envolvida, quanto para estarem aptos a avaliarem os materiais de construção e os sistemas construtivos empregados nas edificações abordadas na norma. Dentro deste contexto este artigo pretende caracterizar argamassas de revestimento para uso em sistema de vedação vertical externo (SVVE compostos de blocos cerâmicos, revestidos com argamassas em diferentes composições, visando propor inovações tecnológicas aplicados ao processo de produção de SVVE, objetivando a melhoria de desempenho, qualidade e custo dos SVVE. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: argamassa de revestimento, sistemas de vedação vertical externo, propriedades no estado fresco.

  9. Resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes metálicos utilizando sistema adesivo autocondicionante Shear bond strength evaluation of metallic brackets using self-etching system

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    Camilo Aquino Melgaço

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes metálicos colados com sistema autocondicionante utilizado imediatamente e após 2, 5 e 9 dias depois da ativação e armazenagem. MÉTODOS: utilizaram-se 64 dentes bovinos divididos igualmente em quatro grupos e devidamente preparados para receber a colagem dos braquetes. Em T1, realizou-se a ativação de 7 blisters de adesivos autocondicionantes (de acordo com as normas do fabricante e procedeu-se à colagem imediata apenas dos braquetes do grupo I. Os adesivos ativados foram, então, armazenados à temperatura de 4ºC e reutilizados em períodos de 2 dias (T2, 5 dias (T3 e 9 dias (T4 para a colagem dos braquetes dos grupos II, III e IV, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: não se observou diferença estatística quando comparados os valores médios de tensão para resistência ao cisalhamento entre os grupos I, II e III. Entretanto, diferença estatística foi encontrada quando esses valores foram comparados aos do grupo IV. CONCLUSÃO: o armazenamento do adesivo autocondicionante depois de ativado, à temperatura média de 4ºC, por até 5 dias, parece não afetar os resultados quanto às tensões de resistência ao cisalhamento; novos estudos são necessários para avaliação das demais características do material quando de sua utilização por período de tempo prolongado após sua ativação.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the shear bond strength of metallic brackets using the self-etching system after its activation and storage for 2, 5 and 9 day periods. METHODS: A total of 64 bovine teeth were divided in four groups and prepared to receive the brackets. Initially, seven self-etching primer blisters were activated and used to bond the brackets of group I. The blisters were store at a constant temperature of 4ºC for 2, 5 and 9 days and used to bond the brackets of groups II, III and IV, respectively. RESULTS: No statistic difference was found in shear bond strength comparing groups I, II

  10. Transmissão vertical do HIV em Fortaleza: revelando a situação epidemiológica em uma capital do nordeste

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    Cavalcante Maria do Socorro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar as condutas que visam a redução da transmissão vertical do HIV nas grávidas infectadas atendidas nas maternidades públicas de Fortaleza. MÉTODOS: estudo descritivo no qual os bancos de dados do SINASC, SINAN e LACEN foram cruzados, procurando-se identificar as grávidas infectadas pelo HIV, seguido de busca ativa das informações complementares em prontuários médicos nas maternidades públicas. RESULTADOS: foram identificadas 138 grávidas infectadas pelo HIV. Observou-se que 35,5% destas já conheciam o status sorológico antes da gravidez e 48,6% foram diagnosticadas durante a gravidez. Das 101 grávidas que se souberam infectadas antes ou durante a gravidez, apenas 47,5% utilizaram, de forma correta, todas as etapas da profilaxia, incluindo as condutas para o recém-nascido. Associação estatisticamente significante foi encontrada entre o conhecimento prévio da sorologia para o HIV e realização de todas as etapas adequadas de profilaxia (p<0,001. CONCLUSÕES: encontrou-se elevado número de mulheres que não tiveram acesso às diferentes estratégias para redução da transmissão vertical, especialmente entre aquelas que engravidaram sem conhecimento de seu status sorológico. Faz-se necessária a contínua sensibilização e capacitação de todos os profissionais de saúde envolvidos com a assistência às mulheres, em geral, e às grávidas em especial, tendo em vista a aplicação correta das condutas para a redução da transmissão vertical do HIV.

  11. Distribuição vertical e horizontal de temperaturas do ar em ambientes protegidos Vertical and horizontal distribution of air temperature in a plastic greenhouse

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    Raquel A. Furlan

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado na área experimental do Departamento de Engenharia Rural da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", Piracicaba, SP, Brasil, em dois ambientes protegidos construídos no sentido leste-oeste, com área total de 112 m² e coberto com plástico (150 micra, tratado contra raios ultravioleta. Para caracterizar a distribuição espacial da temperatura do ar no ambiente protegido, instalaram-se termopares (cobre-constantã formando malhas, com espaçamento horizontal entre eles de 3,0 m e nas alturas de 0,5, 1,0, 2,0, 3,0 e 4,0 m em relação ao solo. Os dados foram armazenados a cada 15 min por sistemas automáticos de aquisição de dados nos ambientes protegidos. O sistema de nebulização constituiu-se de duas linhas com 70 bocais totais, instalados a uma altura de 3,0 m, utilizando-se uma pressão de trabalho de 200 kPa. A nebulização não afetou o gradiente vertical de temperatura, que manteve a tendência de aumento de temperatura com a altura, em relação ao nível do solo, enquanto o efeito na redução de temperatura pelo sistema de nebulização somente foi eficaz durante a realização da mesma. Para a representação da distribuição espacial de temperatura do ar no ambiente protegido nos diferentes níveis de altura, construiu-se superfícies isotérmicas a partir dos resultados. Verifica-se que a nebulização apresentou maior efeito na homogeneização da distribuição de temperatura no ambiente protegido no nível referente a 2,0 m de altura, em relação ao solo.This work was conducted in the experimental area of the Department of Rural Engineering of "Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz", University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. Two greenhouses were installed in the east-west direction, with 6.4 m of width, 17.5 m of length and 3.0 m high, with total area of 112 m²; covered by plastic of 150 micra thickness, treated against ultra violet rays. To characterize the

  12. Shear bond strength after dentin bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide agents Resistência ao cisalhamento da dentina após clareamento com peróxido de carbamida a 10%

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    Roberta Tarkany Basting

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study evaluated the shear bond strength (SBS of dentin treated with two 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching agents 15 days after bleaching and storage in artificial saliva. Dentin fragments were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 20 for the treatment with the two different bleaching agents (Rembrandt 10% or Opalescence 10% or with a placebo agent, applied to the tooth surface for 8 hours a day. During the remaining time, the specimens were stored in artificial saliva. After 42 days, the fragments were stored in artificial saliva for 14 days. Another group (n = 20 was exposed to distilled and deionized water for 56 days. An adhesive system and microhybrid composite resin were used to prepare specimens for the SBS test. SBS tests were performed and the fractured surfaces were visually examined using a stereoscope at 30 X magnification. The analysis of variance (ANOVA and SIDAK tests showed higher SBS values for dentin treated with Opalescence 10% than for dentin treated with Rembrandt 10% or placebo. Groups treated with Rembrandt 10%, Opalescence 10% or placebo did not differ from the group treated with distilled and deionized water. Ten percent carbamide peroxide agents or a placebo agent caused no differences in SBS of dentin after 15 days of storage in artificial saliva.Este estudo in vitro avaliou a resistência ao cisalhamento da dentina submetida ao tratamento com dois agentes clareadores contendo peróxido de carbamida a 10% depois de 15 dias de clareamento e armazenagem em saliva artificial. Fragmentos de dentina foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em 3 grupos (n = 20 para receber o tratamento com dois diferentes agentes clareadores (Rembrandt a 10% ou Opalescence a 10% ou com um agente placebo, aplicados na superfície dental por 8 horas diárias. No restante do tempo, os espécimens permaneceram imersos em saliva artificial. Após o tratamento por 42 dias, os fragmentos foram armazenados em saliva artificial por 14 dias. Outro

  13. Resistência ao cisalhamento da colagem com compósitos utilizando potencializador de adesão Shear bond strength of composites using an adhesion booster

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    Edivaldo de Morais

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento dos compósitos Transbond XT e Concise Ortodôntico utilizando o potencializador de adesão Ortho Primer. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 90 incisivos bovinos divididos em seis grupos (n=15. Todos os dentes receberam profilaxia com pedra-pomes e condicionamento do esmalte com ácido fosfórico. No Grupo I, utilizou-se Transbond XT de maneira convencional. O Grupo II foi semelhante ao I, porém, aplicou-se o Ortho Primer ao invés do XT Primer. No Grupo III, após condicionamento, o esmalte foi contaminado com saliva, aplicou-se o Ortho Primer e colagem com Transbond XT. No Grupo IV, utilizou-se o Concise Ortodôntico de maneira convencional. O Grupo V foi semelhante ao IV, porém, utilizou-se o Ortho Primer ao invés da resina fluida. No Grupo VI, após condicionamento, o esmalte foi contaminado com saliva, aplicou-se o Ortho Primer e colagem com Concise. Os corpos de prova foram armazenados em água destilada em estufa a 37ºC por 24h e submetidos ao ensaio de resistência ao cisalhamento. Os dados foram submetidos à ANOVA e ao teste de Tukey (5%. RESULTADOS: a resistência da colagem no Grupo IV foi estatisticamente superior à dos Grupos II, III e VI (p0,05. O Transbond XT e o Concise utilizados convencionalmente obtiveram os maiores valores adesivos. O Ortho Primer em esmalte seco atuou efetivamente como agente de união dos compósitos avaliados. Em esmalte contaminado, a colagem com Concise obteve baixa resistência adesiva.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of the Transbond XT and Concise Orthodontics composites using the Ortho Primer adhesion booster. METHODS: The sample consisted of 90 bovine incisors divided in 6 groups (n=15. All teeth were submitted to prophylaxes with pumice stone and etching with phosphoric acid. In Group I the Transbond XT was used conventionally. Group II was similar to Group I, however, Ortho Primer was used instead of XT

  14. Avaliação da resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes colados com resinas ortodônticas fluoretadas Evaluation of shear bond strength of brackets bonded with orthodontic fluoride-releasing composite resins

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    Marcia Cristina Rastelli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes metálicos colados com resinas que contêm flúor, comparando-as a uma resina convencional; e analisar a quantidade de adesivo remanescente na superfície do esmalte. MÉTODOS: sessenta pré-molares foram divididos aleatoriamente em 3 grupos: Grupo I - Concise (3M, Grupo II - Ultrabond (Aditek do Brasil e Grupo III - Rely-a-Bond (Reliance. Após a colagem dos braquetes, as amostras foram termocicladas (500 ciclos nas temperaturas de 5°C e 55°C. Após 48 horas, foram submetidas aos ensaios mecânicos de cisalhamento na direção oclusocervical, com velocidade de carga de 0,5mm/min, em uma máquina MTS 810. RESULTADOS: foram observadas resistências médias ao cisalhamento de 24,54±6,98MPa para o Grupo I, de 11,53±6,20MPa para o Grupo II e de 16,46±5,72MPa para o Grupo III. A Análise de Variância determinou diferença estatística entre as médias de resistência ao cisalhamento entre os grupos (p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the shear bond strength of stainless steel brackets bonded with fluoride releasing composite resins, comparing them with a conventional resin and to analyze the amount of resin left on the enamel surface. METHODS: Sixty premolars were randomly divided into three groups: Group I - Concise (3M, Group II - Ultrabond (Aditek do Brasil and Group III - Rely-a-Bond (Reliance. After bonding, the samples were thermocycled (500 cycles at 5ºC and 55ºC temperatures. After 48 hours they were subjected to shear bond strength testing, in the occluso-gingival direction, using an MTS 810 Universal Testing Machine with load speed of 0.5 mm/min. RESULTS: The results demonstrated a mean shear bond strength of 24.54 ± 6.98 MPa for Group I, 11.53 ± 6.20 MPa for Group II, and 16.46 ± 5.72 MPa for Group III. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA determined a statistical difference in the mean shear bond strengths between groups (p < 0.001. The Tukey test evidenced that the averages of the

  15. Sistemas de estacionamento vertical modulado em estrutura metálica

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    Ezequiel Mendonça Rezende

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Um dos maiores problemas das grandes cidades está relacionado ao envelhecimento dos centros urbanos associado à falência de toda a estrutura viária para receber um sistema de trânsito cada vez mais conturbado. Em função de toda essa situação, vêm sendo implementadas políticas públicas no sentido de revitalizar os centros urbanos. Concomitantemente, vem ocorrendo uma procura de melhoria nos transportes coletivos. Assim, espera-se resolver parte desse quadro de problemas, o qual vem sendo intensificado com a questão da falta de vagas para o estacionamente de veículos nos referidos centros urbanos. Surge, dessa forma, um novo enfoque para a questão dos estacionamentos, sendo, então, criadas novas propostas para a solução de tal problema. Para a criação de novos espaços de estacionamento nessas regiões centrais, é necessário buscar soluções criativas que adotem um aumento da densidade de armazenamento de veículos em determinados locais. Uma das possibilidades é a implantação de edifícios modulados em estrutura metálica, totalmente automatizados, que consistem, praticamente, em simples estruturas, sem a necessidade do uso de lajes para pisos, ou mesmo, de elementos de fechamentos. Como exemplo desses edifícios modulados, podemos citar os galpões de armazenamento de grandes atacadistas existentes no Brasil. Esses edifícios, por suas próprias características, não permitem o acesso do usuário ao seu interior, já que os veículos são conduzidos por equipamentos totalmente robotizados.One of the greatest problems of a big city is associated with the aging of urban downtown centers and the failure of the traffic structure to support a traffic system that becomes more and more chaotic every day. While a growth of public policies which encourage downtown revitalization and the improvement of mass transportation should help revert part of this scenario, ironically it aggravates the already complex parking problem in

  16. Prevalência de HIV em gestantes e transmissão vertical segundo perfil socioeconômico, Vitória, ES

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    Anne Caroline Barbosa Cerqueira Vieira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência de infecção por HIV em gestantes e a taxa de transmissão vertical, segundo o perfil socioeconômico dos bairros de residência das mães. MÉTODOS: Estudo ecológico exploratório utilizando a base de dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação de gestantes HIV-positivas e aids em crianças notificadas entre 2000 e 2006 em Vitória, ES. Para análise das informações socioeconômicas foi utilizado o Índice de Qualidade Urbana. A prevalência de HIV em gestantes e a taxa de transmissão vertical foram calculadas. A distribuição espacial dos casos foi realizada no programa Terraview 3.2.0. Para verificar a associação entre a qualidade urbana e a prevalência de HIV em gestantes utilizou-se o modelo de regressão de Poisson. RESULTADOS: Um total de 137 gestantes e 14 crianças infectadas por transmissão vertical foi notificado no período. Sete crianças correspondiam a mães HIV-positivas sem notificação de caso no período analisado. A prevalência de infecção em gestantes no período foi de 0,44% e a taxa de transmissão vertical foi de 9,7%. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de infecção por HIV em gestantes e a transmissão vertical associam-se à qualidade urbana do bairro de residência, indicando que os bairros com menor qualidade urbana devem ser priorizados quanto às ações para redução da transmissão vertical.

  17. Maternidade e projetos vitais em jovens infectadas com HIV por transmissão vertical

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    Ana Paula Eid, Brasil

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available (analítico Este artículo relata una investigación cualitativa con el objetivo de analizar a través de entrevistas narrativas, autobiográficas, cómo los jóvenes VIH positivos, infectadas con trasmisión vertical, construyen sus proyectos de vida y sobretodo de maternidad. El análisis de las entrevistas se basó teóricamente en Análisis Crítico del Discurso (ACD. Emergieron dos ejes de discusión: Proyecto Vital y Maternidad. Las narrativas apuntan hacia una construcción de proyecto vital basadas en cuatro elementos complementarios: estudio, trabajo, conyugalidad y futuro. El eje discursivo Maternidad, se comprehende a través de seis elementos clave: la maternidad, embarazo planeado y no planeado, parto y puerperio, la lactancia, El VIH versus hijo(a sano(a y culpa y responsabilidad. Factores particulares, como prejuicio, aspiraciones y miedos, atraviesan la cotidianidad de quien vive con VIH/Sida. Las participantes perciben que la sociedad no las considera aptas para crear una familia y luchar por sus proyectos de vida.

  18. Flutuação populacional e distribuição vertical de Brevicoryne brassicae (L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae em couve Populational fluctuation and vertical (within-plant distribution of Brevicoryne brassicae (L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae on kale

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    Francisco J. Cividanes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da dinâmica populacional e da distribuição vertical de insetos pragas em plantas hospedeiras é fundamental para o desenvolvimento de programas de manejo integrado de pragas. No presente trabalho efetuou-se um levantamento populacional de formas ápteras do pulgão Brevicoryne brassicae (L., visando determinar a época de maior densidade populacional e a distribuição vertical em plantas de couve, (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC., cultivadas em Jaboticabal, SP. O estudo foi realizado durante as safras de brássicas de 1998 e 1999, efetuando-se correção da acidez do solo por meio de aplicação de calcário apenas no campo utilizado em 1998. A amostragem dos pulgões foi feita visualmente em folhas classificadas em três categorias: apical, mediana e basal. Nas duas safras estudadas, a infestação de B. brassicae na couve atingiu a maior densidade populacional em setembro, diminuindo rapidamente a seguir. Nos dois campos não se observou a mesma distribuição de B. brassicae em folhas apicais, medianas e basais. Os fatores que podem ter contribuído para as diferenças observadas no padrão de distribuição do pulgão devem estar relacionados com a precipitação pluvial e o calcário magnesiano.The knowledge of the population dynamics and vertical distribution of insect pests in host plants are fundamental for the development of programs of integrated pest management. In the present work, a population survey of apterous cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L., was carried out aiming to determine the period when this aphid reachs the highest population density and the within-plant distributions on its common host, kale, Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC., cultivated in Jaboticabal, State of São Paulo. The study took place during the 1998 and 1999 Brassica seasons, and limestone treatment was only made in the field cultivated in 1998. The cabbage aphid was sampled by visual search on leaves classified in three

  19. Caracterização Mecânica de Compósitos de Poliamida/Fibra de Carbono Via Ensaios de Cisalhamento Interlaminar e de Mecânica da Fratura Mechanical Characterization of Polyamide/Carbon Fiber Composites by Using Interlaminar Shear Strength and Fracture Mechanical Tests

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    Edson C. Botelho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Compósitos termoplásticos a partir de poliamidas 6 e 6,6 e tecido de fibras de carbono com 40, 50 e 60 % em volume de reforço foram processados via moldagem por compressão a quente e caracterizados por ensaios mecânicos destrutivos (cisalhamento interlaminar em três pontos (short-beam, cisalhamento interlaminar por compressão (CST e ensaios de mecânica da fratura e por inspeção não-destrutiva (ultra-som e microscopias óptica e eletrônica de varredura. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que os compósitos termoplásticos processados apresentaram uma distribuição homogênea do polímero no reforço. Entretanto, nos compósitos com maior quantidade de poliamida (40 % de reforço foram observadas regiões ricas em matriz entre as camadas de tecido. Os ensaios de mecânica da fratura (DCB e ENF e de cisalhamento interlaminar em três pontos não apresentaram falha interlaminar, não sendo observada a propagação de trincas de forma homogênea e retilínea no interior do material. Em função destes resultados foi utilizado o ensaio de cisalhamento por compressão, desenvolvido no Institute of Polymer Research Dresden da Alemanha, que permitiu uma caracterização mais precisa dos compósitos termoplásticos estudados. Foi observado também, a partir dos ensaios de CST, que os compósitos obtidos da poliamida 6,6 apresentaram um aumento no valor do cisalhamento interlaminar de até 20 % com o aumento do volume de fibras.Thermoplastics composites of polyamide 6 and 6.6 reinforced with carbon fiber fabric were obtained by compression molding and characterized by destructive (short-beam, compression shear (CST and fracture mechanics testing as well as by non-destructive inspection (ultrasound analysis, optical and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that, in general, the matrix was homogeneously distributed about the reinforcing fabric. However, for the composites with higher polyamide content (>50% matrix-rich regions were

  20. Bloqueio do plexo braquial, por via infraclavicular vertical, em paciente com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica: relato de caso

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    Conceição Diogo Brüggemann da; Helayel Pablo Escovedo; Cecato Fernanda

    2006-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Os pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC) têm risco aumentado de complicações pós-operatórias, sobretudo quando submetidos à anestesia geral. O bloqueio do plexo braquial representa uma alternativa para estes pacientes em intervenções cirúrgicas de membros superiores. O objetivo deste relato foi apresentar um caso de bloqueio do plexo braquial, por via infraclavicular vertical em paciente com DPOC com fratura de cotovelo. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do...

  1. Estudo comparativo in vitro da resistência ao cisalhamento da colagem e do índice de remanescente adesivo entre os compósitos Concise e Fill Magic A in vitro comparative stuabout shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index of the Concdy ise and Fill Magic composites

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    Matheus Melo Pithon

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar a resistência ao cisalhamento da colagem e o Índice de Remanescente Adesivo (IRA entre os compósitos Concise e Fill Magic Orthodontic. METODOLOGIA: a amostra consistiu de 24 incisivos inferiores permanentes bovinos divididos em dois grupos. No primeiro grupo foram colados 12 braquetes com o compósito Concise e no segundo grupo 12 com o compósito Fill Magic Orthodontic. Foi feito o ensaio de cisalhamento e a avaliação do IRA de toda a amostra. RESULTADO E CONCLUSÃO: não foram encontradas diferenças estatísticas significantes entre as colagens, nos dois itens avaliados.AIM: to compare the shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index (IRA between the composites Concise and Fill Magic Orthodontic. METHODS: the sample consisted of 24 cattle permanent low incisors divided in two groups. In the first group 12 brackets were bonded with the Concise composite and in the second group 12 with the Fill Magic Orthodontic composite. The tests of the shear and the evaluation of the ARI were developed with the whole sample. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: there were not significant statistic differences between the composites in the two evaluated items.

  2. Knoop hardness of enamel and shear bond strength of brackets bonded with composite resin with and without fluoride Dureza Knoop do esmalte e resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes colados com resina composta com e sem flúor

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    Silvia Amélia Scudeler Vedovello

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the Knoop hardness of enamel, shear bond strength and failure pattern (adhesive, bracket/resin interface or mixed after bonding and debonding brackets, using resin composite with fluoride (Ortho Lite Cure, Ortho Source® and without fluoride (Orthobond, Morelli®. METHODS: Fragments (6 mm x 6 mm of 40 bovine incisor crowns were embedded in acrylic self-polymerizing resin. The Knoop hardness measurements were performed before and after bonding metal brackets. The specimens were divided into two groups, according to composite resin: with fluoride (Ortho Lite Cure, Ortho Source® and without fluoride (Orthobond, Morelli®. After bonding, the specimens were submitted to demineralization and remineralization cycling for 14 days. Shear bond strength testing was performed in a universal test machine (EMIC, at 5 mm/min crosshead speed. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in shear bond strength between Groups I and II. After demineralization and remineralization procedures (DE/RE, the specimens bonded with Ortho Lite Cure showed higher Knoop hardness than Orthobond. For both groups there was predominance of failure at bracket/resin interface. CONCLUSION: specimens bonded with fluoride resin composite showed higher microhardness after DE/RE cycling than those bonded with resin composite without fluoride, although no difference in shear bond strength was found.OBJETIVO: o propósito deste estudo foi avaliar a dureza Knoop do esmalte, resistência ao cisalhamento e padrão de falha (adesiva; interface braquete/resina; e mista após a colagem e descolagem de braquetes, utilizando uma resina composta com flúor (Ortho Lite Cure, Ortho Source® e uma sem flúor (Orthobond, Morelli®. MÉTODOS: fragmentos (6mm x 6mm de 40 coroas de incisivos bovinos foram embutidos em resina acrílica autopolimerizável. A dureza Knoop foi avaliada antes e após a colagem dos braquetes metálicos. Os corpos de prova

  3. The diagnostic challenge of vertical root fracture in endodontically treated teeth: a case report = O desafio diagnóstico de fratura radicular vertical em dentes endodonticamente tratados: relato de caso

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    Freitas, Pollyanna Queiroz

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo: Apresentar o desafio de diagnosticar Fratura Radicular Vertical (FRV) em um incisivo lateral inferior esquerdo tratado endodonticamente e discutir os métodos diagnósticos empregados para obtenção do diagnóstico conclusivo. Descrição do Caso: Após 16 meses do término do tratamento, a paciente relatou dor à mastigação. Clinicamente apresentava uma fístula disto-lingual ativa e profundidade de sondagem de 9-mm na face distal do dente 32. Radiograficamente apresentava perda óssea dis...

  4. Avaliação da resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes da técnica lingual colados sobre superfície cerâmica Evaluation of shear strength of lingual brackets bonded to ceramic surfaces

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    Michele Balestrin Imakami

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes metálicos (American Orthodontics utilizados na técnica lingual, colados em facetas de cerâmica. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 40 corpos de prova divididos em quatro grupos de 10, de acordo com o material de colagem e do preparo da porcelana: Grupo I -resina Sondhi Rapid-Set e ácido fluorídrico; Grupo II -resina Sondhi Rapid-Set e óxido de alumínio; Grupo III -resina Transbond XT e ácido fluorídrico; e Grupo IV -resina Transbond XT e óxido de alumínio. Previamente à colagem, os braquetes foram preparados com base de resina de carga pesada (Z-250 e as facetas de cerâmica receberam aplicação de silano. O teste de cisalhamento foi realizado por uma máquina de ensaios Kratos à uma velocidade de 0,5mm/min. RESULTADOS: os resultados obtidos foram analisados estatisticamente através do teste de Tukey (pOBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear strength of lingual metal brackets (American Orthodontics bonded to ceramic veneers. METHODS: A total of 40 specimens were divided into four groups of 10, according to bonding material and ceramics preparation: Group I -Sondhi Rapid-Set resin and Hydrofluoric acid, Group II -Sondhi Rapid-Set resin and aluminum oxide, Group III -Transbond XT resin and Hydrofluoric acid, and Group IV -Transbond XT resin and aluminum oxide. Prior to bonding, the brackets were prepared with heavy-duty resin base (Z-250 and the ceramic veneers were treated with silane. The shear test was conducted with a Kratos testing machine at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. RESULTS: The results were statistically analyzed by the Tukey test (p<0.05 and showed a statistically significant difference between groups I (2.77 MPa and IV (6.00 MPa, and between groups III (3.33 MPa and IV. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the bonding of lingual brackets to ceramic surfaces exhibited greater shear strength when aluminum oxide was used in association with the two resins utilized in

  5. Transmissão vertical do HIV em população atendida no serviço de referência Vertical transmission of HIV in the population treated at a reference center

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    Sueli Teresinha Cruz Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar a taxa de transmissão vertical do HIV e avaliar os fatores envolvidos em partes materna e fetal. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado no Serviço de Atendimento Especializado. Foram investigados 102 prontuários de mulheres com HIV que deram à luz a recém-nascidos vivos. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de 6,6% de transmissão vertical. Entre as crianças infectadas: 40,0% de mães sem pré-natal e 75% sem a profilaxia com anti-retrovirais durante o pré-natal, 50,0% sem profilaxia com AZT com oral e amamentado. Entre as crianças não infectadas: 91,5% iniciaram a profilaxia com AZT oral ao nascimento e 84,1% das mães receberam ARV. CONCLUSÃO: A ocorrência de transmissão vertical do HIV no serviço de referência correspondeu a 6,6%, o que indica uma alta prevalência.OBJECTIVE: To identify the rate of vertical transmission of HIV and assess the factors involved in maternal and fetal share. METHODS: Cross-sectional study conducted in the Specialized Care Service. We investigated 102 clinical records of HIV positive women who had given birth to live newborns. The primary variable was the occurrence of vertical transmission of HIV and the secondary variables were the factors associated with vertical transmission of HIV. RESULTS: Prevalence of 6.6% of vertical transmission. Among the infected children: 40.0% of mothers with out prenatal care and 75% without prophylaxis with antiretroviral drugs during the prenatal, 50.0% without AZT prophylaxis with oral and breast-fed. Among the uninfected children: 91.5% were started on prophylaxis with oral AZT at birth and 84.1% of mothers received ARV delivery. CONCLUSION: The occurrence of vertical transmission of HIV in the reference service corresponded to 6.6%, indicating a high prevalence.

  6. Bloqueio do plexo braquial, por via infraclavicular vertical, em paciente com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica: relato de caso Bloqueo del plexo braquial, por vía infraclavicular vertical, en paciente con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica: relato de caso Infraclavicular vertical brachial plexus blockade in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Diogo Brüggemann da Conceição; Pablo Escovedo Helayel; Fernanda Cecato

    2006-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Os pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC) têm risco aumentado de complicações pós-operatórias, sobretudo quando submetidos à anestesia geral. O bloqueio do plexo braquial representa uma alternativa para estes pacientes em intervenções cirúrgicas de membros superiores. O objetivo deste relato foi apresentar um caso de bloqueio do plexo braquial, por via infraclavicular vertical em paciente com DPOC com fratura de cotovelo. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do...

  7. Avaliação da capacidade preditiva da bioimpedância tetrapolar segmentada vertical na detecção do excesso de peso em adolescentes

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    Felipe Silva Neves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Objetivo Analisar a capacidade preditiva da bioimpedância tetrapolar segmentada vertical na detecção do excesso de peso em adolescentes com o uso da bioimpedância tetrapolar horizontal como referência. Métodos Estudo transversal feito com 411 alunos de 10 a 14 anos, de ambos os sexos, matriculados em escolas públicas e privadas, selecionados por processo amostral aleatório simples e estratificados de acordo com sexo, idade e proporção em cada instituição. Foi feita avaliação antropométrica e analisada a composição corporal por meio das bioimpedâncias bipolar vertical, tetrapolar horizontal e tetrapolar segmentada vertical. Foram construídas as curvas ROC com base nos cálculos de sensibilidade/especificidade para cada ponto das diferentes medições possíveis de gordura corporal do equipamento em questão. Posteriormente, foram executados os seguintes testes estatíticos: t de Student, correlação de Pearson e qui-quadrado de McNemar. Para a interpretação das variáveis, usou-se o software SPSS 17.0. Resultados A amostra foi composta por 53,7% meninas e 46,3% meninos. Do total, 20% e 12,5% exibiram, respectivamente, sobrepeso e obesidade. Os gráficos das medidas dos segmentos corporais refletiram-se em altos valores de sensibilidade e especificidade, além de elevadas áreas sob a curva ROC, que variaram de 0,83 a 0,95 para meninas e de 0,92 a 0,98 para meninos, o que sugere um desempenho levemente superior para o sexo masculino. O percentual de gordura total foi apontado como o critério mais eficiente do equipamento para a detecção do excesso de peso, enquanto a gordura segmentar do tronco apresentou-se como um indicador de precisão inferior. Conclusão A aparelho comportou-se satisfatoriamente na predição do excesso de peso.

  8. Acesso transeptal vertical ampliado em reoperações valvares mitrais com átrio esquerdo pequeno Extended vertical transseptal approach in mitral valve reoperation with a small left atrium

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    Walter Vosgrau Fagundes

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a abordagem transeptal vertical ampliada em reoperações da valva mitral com átrio esquerdo pequeno. MÉTODO: De janeiro de 2001 a dezembro de 2002, 15 pacientes portadores de doença valvar mitral com indicação de reintervenção cirúrgica, átrio esquerdo pequeno (menor ou igual a 4,0 cm e fibrilação atrial crônica, foram submetidos à abordagem transeptal vertical ampliada da valva mitral. Nove pacientes (pt eram do sexo feminino. A idade variou de 22 a 48 anos. As indicações cirúrgicas foram: disfunção de prótese mitral (seis pt; insuficiência mitral (cinco pt e dupla lesão mitral (quatro pt. Três pacientes apresentavam insuficiência aórtica associada e um pt, insuficiência tricúspide. Nove (60% pacientes encontravam-se em ICC CF III da NYHA e seis (40%, em CF IV. RESULTADOS: A exposição do aparelho valvar mitral foi excelente. O tempo de circulação extracorpórea variou de 65 a 150 min (média = 95min. Foram implantadas próteses em todos os pacientes (15 mitrais, três aórticas e um tricúspide. A mortalidade hospitalar foi de 6,7%, com um óbito devido a baixo débito cardíaco e falência de múltiplos órgãos. Um (6,7% paciente apresentou broncopneumonia na fase hospitalar. Dez pacientes permaneceram com fibrilação atrial, três pt reverteram para ritmo sinusal e um evoluiu com ritmo juncional. A permanência hospitalar média foi de 8,2 dias. Doze (85,7% pacientes encontram-se em CF I e dois (14,3% em CF II. A curva atuarial de sobrevida é de 92,5 % em 22 meses de seguimento. CONCLUSÃO: A técnica cirúrgica empregada proporciona excelente visibilização do aparelho valvar mitral, com baixo índice de complicações.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the extended vertical transseptal approach in mitral valve reoperation with a small left atrium. METHOD: From January 2001 to December 2002, 15 patients with previous mitral operations, small left atrium and atrial fibrillation

  9. Resistência ao cisalhamento de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo submetido ao tráfego de um trator agrícola Shear strength of a Red Yellow Argissolo under agricultural tractor traffic

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    Jackson A. Barbosa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A principal causa da compactação dos solos agrícolas é o tráfego de tratores e máquinas, em sua maioria montados sobre rodados pneumáticos. Quando um rodado se desloca sobre uma superfície são geradas tensões perpendiculares e tangenciais a ela, as quais, denominadas ainda tensões normal e cisalhante, são transmitidas à massa de solo, a partir da área de contato rodado-solo. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do tráfego de um trator agrícola, em diferentes condições operacionais, nos parâmetros curva tensão-deformação, tensão cisalhante máxima e deformação máxima de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x2x3, constituído por dois tipos de rodados pneumáticos agrícolas (rodados de configuração diagonal e configuração radial, duas pressões de insuflagem dos rodados (168 e 98 kPa e três níveis de patinagem dos rodados (0,10, 0,20 e 0,30 m m-1, com quatro repetições, perfazendo o total de quarenta e oito unidades (ou parcelas experimentais. Os ensaios de cisalhamento direto foram realizados em amostras indeformadas, usando-se uma prensa de cisalhamento da marca Ele International. Os resultados mostraram que o tráfego do trator agrícola, em condições elevadas de pressão de insuflagem e patinagem, causa deslocamento das curvas tensão-deformação para regiões de maiores tensões cisalhantes, podendo ensejar degradação da estrutura do solo.The main cause of the compaction of agricultural soils, is the traffic of tractors and machines, with pneumatic tires. When one tire roll on a soft soil, normal and tangencial strengths are applied to it. The tire-soil interface defines characteristics of transmission to the soil mass of these strengths. The main objective of this work was to assess soil reology due to agricultural traffic. The experimental design was a completly randomized (factorial, consisting of two types of tires

  10. Soil shear strength under non-irrigated and irrigated short duration grazing systems Resistência ao cisalhamento de um solo sob pastejo rotacionado com e sem irrigação

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    Rita de Cássia Ribeiro Carvalho

    2010-06-01

    alteração física nesse solo; e propor, usando propriedades da física do solo, um índice de correção para cálculo da Taxa de lotação para pastagens. As atividades de campo ocorreram no período de março de 2006 a março de 2007 na Fazenda Experimental da Fundação de Ensino Superior de Passos, unidade associada à Universidade do Estado de Minas Gerais. Foram utilizados 6 hectares, sendo: 2 ha de mata, 2 ha de pastagem irrigada e 2 ha de pastagem não irrigada. A forrageira usada foi a Brachiaria brizanta cv MG-5 Vitória. A área da pastagem foi dividida em piquetes. Dois lotes distintos de animais foram usados: um para a área irrigada e outro para a área não irrigada. Nas áreas, foram coletadas amostras indeformadas de solo, as quais foram submetidas ao ensaio de cisalhamento direto. As envoltórias de resistência ao cisalhamento em uma tensão de 6 kPa para pastagem irrigada apresentaram tensão cisalhante superior à da pastagem não irrigada. A pastagem irrigada e mata natural apresentaram tensão cisalhante superior à da pastagem não irrigada na tensão de 6 kPa. Na tensão de 33 kPa não foram encontradas diferenças na resistência ao cisalhamento entre os manejos e uso. A coesão aparente foi responsável pelas possíveis alterações da estrutura do solo. Os valores para fator de correção foram muito próximos a 1, o que pode indicar uma possível compactação em períodos de manejo prolongados.

  11. Influência do agente de união na resistência ao cisalhamento da interface titânio/polímero de vidro Bonding agent influence on shear bond strength of titanium/polyglass interface

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    Denise Kanashiro Oyafuso

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Há poucas informações em relação à efetividade da união entre compósitos e superfícies metálicas. Este estudo avaliou a influência de dois agentes de união na resistência ao cisalhamento da interface formada pelo titânio comercialmente puro (Ti cp e um compósito (Artglass/ Heraeus Kulzer. Vinte estruturas metálicas (4mm de diâmetro e 5mm de altura de titânio grau 1 foram fundidas, jateadas com partículas de óxido de alumínio (250ìm e separadas em dois grupos. Para cada grupo foi utilizado um agente de união (Sistema Siloc-Pre ou Retention Flow como procedimento anterior à aplicação do material opaco. Sobre este foram aplicados camadas do polímero referente à dentina com o auxílio de uma matriz de teflon. A manipulação e polimerização foram realizadas de acordo com as recomendações do fabricante. Os corpos-de-prova foram armazenados em água destilada por 24 horas à 37ºC e termociclados (5º e 55ºC/ 500ciclos. O teste de resistência ao cisalhamento foi realizado em uma máquina de ensaios universal (Instron com velocidade de 5mm/min. Os dados foram tratados estatisticamente pela Análise de Variância one-way (á=0,5. Os resultados indicaram que o sistema adesivo Retention Flow foi estatisticamente melhor do que o Siloc, com médias de 20,74MPa e 11,65MPa, respectivamente. Foi possível concluir que o sistema de união influenciou na adesão entre o titânio grau I e o polímero de vidro estudado.There is little information regarding bond strengths of polyglass to metal alloys. This study evaluated the influence of bonding system on shear bond strength of a composite resin (Artglass/Heraeus Kulzer to cast titanium (Ti. Twenty metallic structures (4mm in diameter, 5mm thick of titanium grade I were cast shaped and abraded with 250mm aluminum oxide and separated into two groups. For each group was applied one bonding system (Siloc or Retention Flow before opaque and dentin polymer superposition. This procedure

  12. Reavaliação e Novos Dados Geocronológicos (Ar/Ar, Rb/Sr e Sm/Nd do Batólito Pelotas no Rio Grande do Sul: Implicações Petrogenéticas e Idade de Reativação das Zonas de Cisalhamento

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    Ruy Paulo Philipp

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O Batólito Pelotas é constituído por suítes graníticas com idades U/Pb (em zircão, Evaporação e SHRIMP e Pb/Pb (emzircão, por evaporação situadas no intervalo de 575 a 633 Ma, com um padrão de idade mais antigo entre 625 e 635 Ma (SuítePinheiro Machado e outro mais novo entre 575 e 600 Ma (Suítes Viamão, Encruzilhada do Sul e Dom Feliciano. As razõesisotópicas Sr87/Sr86 situadas entre 0,7060 a 0,7016, juntamente com valores de eNd fortemente negativos (em geral, entre -5 a -10 e idades modelos TDM (entre 1600 e 2200 Ma, indicam a predominância de processos de reciclagem de materiais deuma crosta provavelmente Paleoproterozóica (Ciclo Transamazônico. Por outro lado, a presença de magmatismo básico efeições de misturas de magmas nas Suítes Pinheiro Machado, Viamão, Encruzilhada e Dom Feliciano associados com magmatismoalcalino (Sienito Piquiri, com idade Pb/Pb (em zircão, por evaporação entre 610 e 615 Ma, sugerem também contribuiçãomantélica na constituição do batólito. As idades Ar/Ar aqui obtidas a partir de rochas miloníticas de zonas de cisalhamento (debaixo e alto ângulo que afetam o batólito sugerem a existência de um importante evento tectônico ocorrido entre 540 e530 Ma. Este evento teria sido responsável pela reativação em regime transpressivo de zonas de cisalhamento mais antigas,relacionadas com a colocação das suítes graníticas do batólito, e geração de estruturas-em-flor positiva em vários domínios domesmo. Esta tectônica parece se articular no espaço e no tempo com a tectônica extensional relacionada com a instalação daBacia do Camaquã.

  13. Efeito da temperatura e taxa de cisalhamento nas propriedades de escoamento da polpa de Cupuaçu (T. grandiflorum Schum integral Effect of temperature and shear rate in the properties of whole flow Cupuassu pulp (Theobroma grandiflorum

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    Gilvanete Maria Ferreira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento reológico da polpa de cupuaçu integral foi determinado na faixa de temperatura de 10 a 60ºC. Os efeitos da temperatura e da taxa de deformação foram avaliados por meio de testes em cisalhamento estacionário. As análises reológicas foram conduzidas num reômetro Thermo Haake RheoStress 1. Os reogramas foram descritos pelos modelos reológicos de Ostwald-de-Waelle e o de Herschel-Bulkley. As curvas de escoamento mais bem ajustadas pelo modelo de Ostwald-de-Waelle. O produto apresentou comportamento pseudoplástico, e o índice de comportamento de fluxo (n decresceu com o aumento da temperatura. O efeito da temperatura sobre a viscosidade aparente foi descrita por uma equação tipo Arrhenius e discutida em termos de energia de ativação. Essa energia aumentou com o aumento da taxa de deformação, sendo obtidos valores na faixa de 1 a 2 kcal/gmol.The rheological behavior of the entire cupuassu pulp was determined in the temperature range 10 - 60ºC. The effects of temperature and deformation rate were evaluated by means of shear flow tests. Rheometry analyses were conducted with a Thermo Haake RheoStress 1 system. Rheograms were described by models by Ostwald-of-Waelle and Herschel-Bulkley. The Ostwald-of-Waelle model successfully represented pulp flow behavior. The product presented shear-thinning behavior and the flow behavior index (n decreased with the increase of temperature. The effect of temperature on the apparent viscosity in cupuassu pulp was described by an Arrhenius equation and discussed in terms of activation energy. The increase in shear rate caused an energy increase, and values were obtained in the range of a line from 1 to 2 kcal/gmol.

  14. AVALIAÇÃO DA RESISTÊNCIA AO CISALHAMENTO E À DELAMINAÇÃO EM MADEIRA LAMINADA COLADA

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    Carlito Calil Neto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Glued Laminated Wood has a large range of applications. In Brazil, its employment as cross-piece poles for overhead electrical power has attracted the attention of companies in the industry, motivated by the potential use of this material. Among the factors that influence the mechanical performance of Glulam solutions stand out efficiency and affinity of the adhesives to the species of wood used, the type of treatment and moisture content of wood veneer, motivating the development of new research on this topic. This research aimed to investigate, by Design of Experiments (DOE, the influence of wood (pinus, teca, eucalipto, adhesive (Purbond; Cascophen and treatment (CCA, CCB, CCBS in the variable responses shear strength and delamination, consisting in the same combination factors evaluated in ANEEL/EESCPD220- 07 project: Head Crosshead Glulam Series. The results of the statistical analysis showed that the species factor expressed significant effect for both response variables evaluated, did not occur with adhesive and treatment factors. Moisture content was significant in the wood evaluated when analyzed the shear strength, and the teca wood showed the highest shear strength and also relating to the delamination.

  15. Efeito do Uso do Estabilizador Active Ankle System® na Altura do Salto Vertical em Jogadores de Voleibol Effect of the Use of the Active Ankle System Stabilizer in The Vertical Jump Height in Volleyball Players

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    Marco Túlio Saldanha dos Anjos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVO: Na prática do voleibol, as entorses de tornozelo representam 25 a 50% das lesões agudas. Medidas preventivas, como estabilizadores dinâmicos de tornozelo (EDT, são frequentemente utilizadas, porém, há controvérsias se esse dispositivo pode ou não interferir no desempenho esportivo. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o efeito do EDT Active Ankle System® (AAS na altura do salto vertical em jogadoras de voleibol. MÉTODOS: Selecionou-se uma amostra de conveniência de 14 atletas entre 14 e 18 anos de idade, do gênero feminino. Estas foram instruídas a saltar simulando o gesto esportivo do ataque e do bloqueio com e sem o EDT, sobre placas de contato conectadas a um computador portátil que, através de um programa, calculava a altura do salto vertical. Previamente, foi feito um estudo-piloto para determinação do coeficiente de correlação intraclasse para as quatro condições de teste (n = 4, no qual os valores encontrados foram: ataque com EDT, 0,95; ataque sem EDT, 0,76; bloqueio com EDT, 0,92; bloqueio sem EDT, 0,89. Os dados de altura de cada tipo de salto vertical nas condições com e sem EDT foram comparadas através de testes t de Student para amostras pareadas. RESULTADOS: Para um nível de significância de α = 0,05, não foi encontrada diferença significativa entre os saltos do ataque com o EDT (0,41 + 0,073m e sem o EDT (0,41 + 0,086m, p = 0,517. Também não foi encontrada diferença significativa para os saltos do bloqueio com o EDT (0,31 ± 0,048m e sem o EDT (0,32 ± 0,050m, p = 0,06. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados do presente estudo apontam para não interferência do uso do EDT AAS no desempenho do salto vertical em atletas de voleibol.INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: In volleyball practice, ankle sprains represent 25 to 50% of the acute injuries. Preventive measures such as dynamic ankle bracing (DAB are very often used; however, there is controversy on whether this would affect athletic

  16. Vertical distribution of phytoplankton functional groups in a tropical shallow lake: driving forces on a diel scale Distribuição vertical de grupos funcionais fitoplanctônicos em um lago tropical raso: forças direcionadoras em escala nictemeral

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    Luciana Gomes Barbosa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study analyzed the vertical distribution of phytoplankton functional groups in two diel cycles in a warm monomictic shallow tropical lake; METHODS: Sampling of the abiotic variables, phytoplankton and zooplankton communities was performed at intervals of 3 hours over 24 hours in vertical profiles, in the stratification (February and circulation (July periods; RESULTS: The high thermal stability and the partial atelomixis favored the coexistence of functional groups that are sensitive to destratification, N A and F, composed by desmids and Chlorophyceae coccoids, and groups S2 and Lo, which persisted during the circulation, and were composed by filamentous cyanobacteria which do not fix N2 and dinoflagellates, respectively. The discontinuity in the vertical distribution of the functional groups, with dominance of N A and F in the epilimnion and R and Lo in the metalimnion and hypolimnion, was characteristic of the stratification, and differences between the daytime and nighttime periods were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction of 80% of the biomass of the NA group during the mixing period indicates the influence of thermal stability and partial atelomixis as determinant factors in the compartmentalization of functional groups, restricting daytime vertical migration (DVM and loss by sedimentation during the stratification period.OBJETIVO: Analisar a distribuição vertical dos grupos funcionais fitoplanctônicos em dois ciclos nictemerais em um lago tropical monomítico raso; MÉTODOS: As amostragens das variáveis abióticas, comunidades fitoplanctônica e zooplanctônica foram realizadas a intervalos de 3 horas ao longo de 24 horas em perfis verticais, nos períodos de estratificação (fevereiro e de circulação (julho; RESULTADOS: A elevada estabilidade térmica e a atelomixia parcial favoreceram a coexistência de grupos funcionais sensíveis a desestratificação N A e F, compostos por desmidias e clorofícias cocoides e

  17. Analysis of gene order data supports vertical inheritance of the leukotoxin operon and genome rearrangements in the 5' flanking region in genus <em>Mannheimia>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Kuhnert, Peter; Frey, Joachim;

    2007-01-01

    examined the gene order in the 5' flanking region of the leukotoxin operon and found that the 5' flanking gene strings, hslVU-lapB-artJ-lktC and xylAB-lktC, are peculiar to M. haemolytica + M. glucosida and M. granulomatis, respectively, whereas the gene string hslVU-lapB-lktC is present in M. ruminalis......, the supposed sister group of M. haemolytica + M. glucosida, and in the most ancient subclade M. varigena. In M. granulomatis, we found remnants of the gene string hslVU-lapB-lktC in the xylB-lktC intergenic region. CONCLUSIONS: These observations indicate that the gene string hslVU-lapB-lktC is more ancient...... than the hslVU-lapB-artJ-lktC and xylAB-lktC gene strings. The presence of (remnants of) the ancient gene string hslVU-lapB-lktC among any subclades within genus Mannheimia supports that it has been vertically inherited from the last common ancestor of genus Mannheimia to any ancestor of the diverging...

  18. Estudo da gastrinemia pré e pós-operatória em pacientes submetidos à gastroplastia vertical com banda e reconstrução em Y de Roux por obesidade mórbida The behaviour of pre and post operative gastrinemia in patients submitted to vertical banded gastroplasty with Roux-em-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity

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    Edmundo Anderi Jr

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as concentrações pré e pós-operatória da gastrina sérica, hormônio fundamental na produção do ácido clorídrico gástrico, correlacionando-as com as complicações cloridropépticas pós-cirúrgicas, em pacientes submetidos à gastroplastia vertical com banda e reconstrução em Y de Roux (GVBYR. MÉTODO: Foram incluídos neste estudo, 20 pacientes com Índice de Massa Corpórea (IMC superior a 40 Kg/m² selecionados após rigorosa avaliação psicológica. A dosagem da gastrina foi realizada no pré e no pós-operatório. Neste mesmo período todos os pacientes forma também submetidos a exame endoscópico com biópsia para estudo histopatológico. RESULTADOS: As quantidades de gastrina produzidas antes e após o tratamento cirúrgico não diferiram significativamente (p= 0,4281. Nenhum paciente apresentou alteração endoscópica ou histológica até o 2º mês de pós-operatório. CONCLUSÃO: Após a realização da GVBYR ocorre uma adaptação do tubo digestivo, de modo a manter a sua fisiologia, conduzindo-nos à convicção da segurança dessa técnica no tratamento da obesidade mórbida.BACKGROUND: This present study shows the preoperative and postoperative serum gastric, a fundamental hormone in the production of gastric chloridric acid, correlating these findings with postoperative complications, in patients submitted to GVBYR. METHODS: We selected 20 patients with body mass index (BMI over 40 Kg/m² after a rigorous psychological evaluation. Serum gatrin was measured in the preoperative and postoperative periods. These patients were also submitted to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy for histological analysis. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between preoperative and postoperative serum gastrin (p= 0.4281. CONCLUSION: Our results show that GVBYR leads to a digestive tract adaptation after surgery, in order to maintain its physiology, suggesting that this procedure is safe

  19. Prevenção da transmissão vertical do HIV: atitude dos obstetras em Salvador, Brasil Prevention of HIV vertical transmission: obstetricians'atitude in Salvador, Brasil

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    João Paulo Queiroz Farias

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar as atitudes e conhecimento dos obstetras das maternidades públicas da cidade de Salvador (MPS sobre as recomendações do Ministério da Saúde para a profilaxia da transmissão vertical do vírus humano da imunodeficiência (HIV e terapia antiretroviral em gestantes. Avaliou-se também a influência das condições de trabalho, disponibilidade da testagem rápida e da terapia antiretroviral em relação à aplicação destas recomendações. MÉTODOS: realizou-se um estudo de corte transversal entre agosto e novembro de 2005, envolvendo 129/152 (85% dos obstetras de todas as MPS. Utilizou-se como instrumento um questionário anônimo, estruturado e auto-explicativo, com questões sobre as características da população, condições de trabalho e disponibilidade de insumos, conhecimento e atitudes relacionadas ao aconselhamento e testagem para o HIV e condutas com as pacientes (uso da zidovudina (AZT, reconhecimento de fatores de risco, escolha e manejo da via de parto e cuidados no puerpério. RESULTADOS: dos obstetras, 69% referiram conhecer integralmente as recomendações do Ministério da Saúde; 90,7% concordaram com a solicitação compulsória da testagem rápida para o HIV; 63,6% escolheram a cesariana para via de parto; 38% contra-indicaram o parto por via vaginal; 37,5% recomendaram isolamento das pacientes soropositivas e 58,1% indicaram laqueadura tubária. A maioria (90% dos sujeitos referiram a existência de fatores prejudiciais à aplicabilidade das recomendações, sendo que os mais apontados foram a realização inadequada e a indisponibilidade das informações do pré-natal na admissão. Embora a testagem rápida estivesse disponível, apenas um terço dos entrevistados afirmou que o resultado estava sempre disponível em tempo hábil. CONCLUSÕES: algumas atitudes relacionadas à assistência à gestante com HIV foram discordantes das recomendações do Ministério da Saúde. Na opinião dos

  20. Evaluation of shear bond strength of different treatments of ceramic bracket surfaces Avaliação da resistência ao cisalhamento de diferentes tratamentos na superfície de braquetes cerâmicos

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    Patrícia Helou Ramos Andrade

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the bonding strength of the ceramic bracket and composite resin restoration interface, using four types of treatment on the base of the bracket. METHODOLOGY: 48 photoactivated composite resin discs were used (FiltekTM Z250 contained in specimens and divided into 4 groups of 12 specimens for each group according to the type of treatment performed on the base of the brackets. Once the brackets were bonded, the specimens were subjected to shear stress carried out in a universal testing machine (MTS: 810 Material Test System calibrated with a fixed speed of 0.5 mm / minute. The values obtained were recorded and compared by means of appropriate statistical tests - analysis of variance and then Tukey's test. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The surfaces of ceramic brackets conditioned with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 1 minute, followed by aluminum oxide blasting, 50µ, after silane application and primer application, was considered the best method to prepare surfaces of ceramic brackets prior to orthodontic esthetic bonding.OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência à união da interface entre braquete cerâmico e restauração de resina composta, empregando quatro tipos de tratamento na base do braquete. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 48 discos de resina fotoativada (Filtek® Z250 incluídos em corpos de prova, divididos em quatro grupos, com 12 espécimes em cada grupo, de acordo com o tipo de tratamento realizado na base do braquete. Uma vez colados os braquetes, os corpos de prova foram submetidos à tensão de cisalhamento, realizado numa máquina universal de ensaios (MTS: 810 Material Test System calibrada com velocidade fixa de 0,5mm/min. Os valores obtidos foram registrados e comparados por meio de médias, utilizando-se testes estatísticos adequados (análise de Variância e, posteriormente, teste de Tukey. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: o condicionamento das superfícies dos braquetes cerâmicos com ácido hidrofluorídrico a 10% por 1 minuto

  1. Correlações entre parâmetros de força obtidos durante o salto vertical e o sprint de 10 metros em estudantes universitários

    OpenAIRE

    Roque, João Pedro Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Ensino de Educação Física dos Ensino Básico e Secundário O objectivo deste estudo foi examinar quais os parâmetros de força (medidos durante o salto vertical) que melhor se relacionam com a capacidade de sprint, e se essas relações estão de acordo com estudos já publicados. Foram avaliados 25 sujeitos do sexo masculino (estudantes universitários). Para os sujeitos se familiarizarem com os testes de salto vertical (numa Multipower) e de sprint de 10m, foram realiz...

  2. Transmissão vertical do HIV: situação encontrada em uma maternidade de Teresina Transmisión vertical del HIV: situación encontrada en una maternidade de Teresina Vertical transmission of HIV: situation found in a maternity of Teresina

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    Liliam Mendes de Araújo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Oaumento dos casos de AIDS em mulheres evidencia um progressivo aumento da transmissão vertical do HIV, no Brasil e no Piauí. Considerando a relevância do tema o presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar as condições da implementação das normas e medidas recomendadas pelo Ministério da Saúde para prevenir a transmissão vertical do HIV em uma maternidade de Teresina - PI. O caminho teórico-metodológico compreendeu o estudo da dinâmica organizacional e dos seus atores, por meio de abordagem qualitativa. Para obtenção dos dados foram realizadas 17 entrevistas semi-estruturadas. Os resultados mostraram que as recomendações do Ministério da Saúde não foram atendidas na sua totalidade evidenciando a precariedade da assistência prestada para o binômio mãe/filho.El aumento de los casos de AIDS en mujeres, evidencia un progresivo aumento de la transmisión vertical de lo HIV en el Brasil, e en el Piauí. Considerando la relevancia del tema, el presente estudio tuve como objetivo analizar las condiciones de la implementación de las reglas y medidas recomendadas por el Ministerio de la Salud para prevenir la transmisión vertical del HIV en una maternidad de Teresina-PI. El camino teórico-metodológico comprendió el estudio de la dinámica organizacional y de sus actores, a través del abordaje cualitativa.. Para la obtención de los datos fueran realizados 17 entrevistas medio-estructuradas. Los resultados mostraran que las recomendaciones del Ministerio de la Salud non fueran atendidas en la suya totalidad, evidenciando la precariedad de la asistencia prestada, para el binomio madre / hijo.The increase of the number of cases of AIDS among women reveals a progressive increase of the vertical transmission of HIV in Brazil, as well as in Piauí. Considering the relevance of the subject, this study had as objective to analyze the conditions of the implementation of the rules and measures recommended by the Ministry of Health to

  3. Climatologia da estrutura vertical da atmosfera em novembro para Belém-PA Climatology of the atmospheric vertical structure over the Belém-PA city during november

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    Daniela dos Santos Ananias

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Usando um conjunto de dados para um período de 26 anos (1982 a 2007, este trabalho apresentou um estudo diagnóstico sobre a estrutura vertical da temperatura do ar, temperatura do ponto de orvalho e umidade relativa sobre a região de Belém-PA, durante o mês de novembro. As análises foram conduzidas para duas composições contrastantes no que se refere ao regime de precipitação: a composição dos anos chuvosos e a composição dos anos secos, as quais foram estabelecidas objetivamente pelo método dos percentis. Os resultados apresentados permitiram concluir que a principal diferença observada nos perfis de temperatura e umidade atmosférica, comparando-se os perfis dos anos chuvosos e secos, ocorre na camada atmosférica entre os médios e altos níveis da troposfera (entre os níveis padrões de 700 hPa e 400 hPa. Nesta camada, a diferença entre as temperaturas do ar e do ponto de orvalho é significativamente maior e o contraste de umidade associado à convecção também apresenta os maiores valores. Em geral, as composições demonstraram que os perfis de temperatura anomalamente mais quente (frio e os de umidade anomalamente mais úmido (seco associam-se aos anos com registro de chuva acima (abaixo do normal na região de Belém.The present work reports a diagnostic study on the vertical structure of air temperature, dew point temperature and relative humidity over the region of Belém-PA (eastern Amazon, based on monthly dataset for a period of 26 years (1982 to 2007. The focus is on the transition period from dry to wet season in the eastern Amazon, i.e., the month of November. Two contrasting composites in relation to the rainfall regime were considered: the wet and the dry year's composites, which were established objectively by the percentiles method. The results showed that the main difference observed in the temperature and humidity profiles, comparing dry and wet years, occurs in the atmospheric layer between the middle

  4. Estudo in vivo e in vitro com e sem termociclagem, da resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes colados com fonte de luz halógena In vivo and in vitro study, with or without thermocycling, of shear bond strength of brackets bonded with halogen light

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    Sérgio Milton Martins de Oliveira Penido

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência de braquetes metálicos colados em dentes humanos com resina polimerizada com luz halógena por meio de ensaios mecânicos de cisalhamento. METODOLOGIA: para este estudo foram realizados ensaios in vivo com dinamômetro portátil digital e in vitro com máquina de ensaios mecânicos universal com e sem termociclagem, complementado pelo Índice de Adesivo Remanescente (IAR. Braquetes Edgewise Standard (Abzil foram colados utilizando adesivo Transbond Plus Self Etching Primer (SEP e Resina Transbond XT. Foram formados 3 grupos com 10 dentes em cada um deles. No GI os braquetes foram colados nos segundos pré-molares dos pacientes. Nos GII e GIII utilizaram-se primeiros pré-molares extraídos por motivos ortodônticos. Os ensaios mecânicos do GI foram realizados 24 horas após a polimerização diretamente na boca dos pacientes com dinamômetro portátil digital. No GII os corpos-de-prova foram armazenados em água destilada e levados à estufa a 37ºC durante 24 horas e, posteriormente, submetidos à termociclagem, com 1000 ciclos a 5 e 55ºC. No GIII os corpos-de-prova foram armazenados em água destilada em temperatura ambiente por 24 horas e posteriormente submetidos aos ensaios mecânicos. RESULTADOS: os valores médios da resistência ao cisalhamento em Megapascal foram de: GI = 4,39; GII = 7,11 e GIII = 7,35. Após a descolagem foram realizadas fotografias das áreas de colagem, tanto dos dentes submetidos a testes in vivo quanto in vitro e ampliadas 5x para facilitar a visualização. As imagens obtidas foram analisadas, classificadas de acordo com o IAR e, por meio de gráficos de dispersão, foi verificada a relação entre a resistência ao cisalhamento e este índice. CONCLUSÃO: a média dos ensaios mecânicos realizados in vivo foi estatisticamente menor em relação aos ensaios in vitro. Não houve diferenças na resistência ao cisalhamento in vitro entre o grupo termociclado e o n

  5. Influência do tempo pós-fixação na resistência ao cisalhamento de bráquetes colados com diferentes materiais Influence of post-fixation time on shear bond strength of brackets fixed with different bonding materials

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    Lourenço CORRER SOBRINHO

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a resistência ao cisalhamento da união, nos tempos pós-fixação de 10 minutos e 24 horas, de quatro materiais para colagem de bráquetes e os tipos de falhas na fratura. Foram utilizados 64 pré-molares humanos recém-extraídos embutidos em resina. As faces vestibulares de 32 pré-molares foram condicionadas com ácido fosfórico a 35%, por 30 segundos e em 16 deles, os bráquetes foram colados com Concise Ortodôntico (3M e nos demais com resina composta Z100 (3M. Em 32 dentes, os bráquetes foram colados sem condicionamento do esmalte, com ionômeros de vidro Fuji I (GC e Fuji Ortho LC (GC. Após a fixação, 32 corpos-de-prova foram armazenados em água destilada a 37ºC, por 10 minutos e o restante por 24 horas e submetidos ao teste de cisalhamento numa máquina com velocidade de 0,5 mm/min. Os resultados submetidos à ANOVA e ao teste de Tukey (5% mostraram que os maiores valores de resistência ao cisalhamento aos 10 minutos e 24 horas foram observados com o Concise Ortodôntico, com diferença estatística significativa em relação ao Fuji Ortho LC, Z100 e Fuji I. Nenhuma diferença estatística foi observada entre Fuji Ortho LC, Z100 e Fuji I. Os autores concluíram que o Concise Ortodôntico apresentou maiores valores de resistência ao cisalhamento em relação aos outros materiais, nos tempos de 10 minutos e 24 horas, os valores obtidos no período de 24 horas foram superiores em relação aos de 10 minutos, para todos materiais e um grande número de falhas adesivas foi observada para o Fuji I, Concise Ortodôntico e Z100.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of four bonding materials for brackets, 10 minutes and 24 hours after their fixation, as well as the kinds of fracture observed. The buccal surfaces of 32 premolars were etched for 30 seconds with 35% phosphoric acid, and brackets were bonded using Orthodontic Concise (3M and Z100 (3M. In other 32 premolars, brackets were

  6. Respostas neuromusculares dos membros inferiores durante protocolo intermitente de saltos verticais em voleibolistas Neuromuscular responses of the lower limb muscles during vertical jumping in volleyball athletes

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    Caroline Tosini Felicissimo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o desempenho e as respostas eletromiográficas dos músculos Reto Femoral, Bíceps Femoral e Gastrocnêmio Medial durante protocolo de saltos verticais. Participaram 13 voleibolistas do sexo feminino (15,6 ± 0,9 anos. Inicialmente foi realizado um protocolo de potência máxima (três saltos máximos, seguido do protocolo de resistência de saltos (ciclos de três saltos máximos em aproximadamente 10 segundos (s - um salto a cada três s, com recuperação de 15 s. O tempo de duração do protocolo de resistência foi de 20 minutos. Foi usada a técnica do salto com contramovimento sem ajuda dos braços, sobre tapete de contato. Para tratamento dos dados os saltos foram divididos em quatro períodos com 12 ciclos cada um. Os resultados mostraram queda na altura dos saltos de aproximadamente 1,3cm entre os períodos de 1 a 4, sendo que, essa queda foi mais significativa nos 3º e 4º períodos em comparação ao 1º e 2º. Entretanto, com relação às variáveis RMS e FM, não ocorreu alteração nas respostas eletromiográficas entre músculos e períodos. Concluiu-se, assim, que a fadiga pode depender de variáveis psicofisiológicas, ao nível do SNC, que também influem no desempenho.The purpose of this study was to analyze the performance and the electromyographic responses of the muscles Rectus Femoris, Biceps Femoris and Gastrocnemius Medialis during vertical jumping protocol. Participated 13 female volleyball players (15,6 ± 0,9 years. Initially was performed a protocol of maximum power (three maximum jumps, followed by resistance jumps protocol (cycles of three maximum jumps in about 10 seconds (s - one jump every three s, with recovery of 15s. The duration of resistance protocol was 20 minutes. Technique used was countermovement jump without the aid of arms on a mat of contact. The data collected during the jumps were divided into four periods containing 12 cycles each. The results showed a

  7. Radiação solar e distribuição vertical de área foliar em floresta - Reserva Biológica do Cuieiras ZF2, Manaus Solar radiation and vertical leaf area distribution in forest - Reserva Biológica do Cueiras ZF02, Manaus

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    Arí de O. Marques Filho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, a distribuição vertical de área foliar em floresta é investigada em conexão com o regime de radiação, usando as medidas de radiação solar realizadas no período de julho a novembro de 2001, na Reserva Biológica do Cuieiras - Manaus ZF2, km 14 e km 34, na Amazônia Central. Técnicas experimentais de amostragem de radiação no interior de coberturas vegetais de grande porte são utilizadas, com dispositivos de suporte móveis constituídos por reticulados modulares, que permitem a disposição dos sensores de radiação em diferentes níveis de uma mesma vertical no interior da cobertura. Inversão de modelos radiativos em coberturas vegetais densas permite as análises sobre a distribuição vertical de área foliar. A variabilidade espacial de área foliar (IAF, função a(z é estabelecida para os dois sítios experimentais a partir de medidas de radiação solar, individualizadas em três verticais em cada um desses locais. O índice de área foliar total médio (IAF da vegetação local para o sítio experimental do km 14 alcançou o valor de 6,4 e para o sítio experimental do km 34 o valor de 6,1. Uma análise comparativa é desenvolvida sobre distribuições verticais de área foliar obtidas em sítios experimentais da Amazônia, usando o mesmo sistema de medidas de radiação solar.In this work, the vertical leaf area distribution is investigated in connection with radiation regime, using the measurements of solar radiation made om July to November 2001 at the experimental site of Reserva Biológica do Cuieiras, Manaus, ZF2 km 14 and km 34, in Central Amazonia. A sampling technique is used for the radiation measurements inside two tall canopy covers, having a mobile support apparatus, made up of modular ame, which allows placement of the radiation sensors at different heights along a vertical line within the canopy. Inversion of the solar radiation physical model allowed a determination of the leaf area density

  8. Distribuição vertical dos sistemas de polinização bióticos em áreas de cerrado sentido restrito no Triângulo Mineiro, MG, Brasil Vertical distribution of biotic pollination systems in cerrado sensu stricto in the Triângulo Mineiro, MG, Brazil

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    Cláudia Inês da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Alguns fatores podem influenciar a distribuição dos recursos florais e sistemas de polinização bióticos nos ecossistemas, como por exemplo, o clima, a altitude, a região geográfica, fragmentação de áreas naturais e as diferenças na composição florística na estratificação vertical. Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a distribuição dos sistemas de polinização bióticos na estratificação vertical em fragmentos de cerrado sentido restrito no Triângulo Mineiro. Não houve diferença significativa (χ²0,05,9 =14,17; p = 0,12 na riqueza florística geral entre os fragmentos, nem quando comparada em separado para cada estrato (arbóreo, arbustivo, herbáceo e liana, estando o estrato arbustivo mais bem representado. Da mesma forma, não houve diferenças significativas entre fragmentos quanto aos sistemas de polinização (χ²0,05,21 =13,80; p = 0,8778, sendo a polinização por abelhas mais comum, correspondendo ao menos 85% das espécies de plantas em cada fragmento. Em termos relativos, as plantas polinizadas por abelhas foram dominantes em todos os estratos, chegando a 100% das lianas e herbáceas em alguns fragmentos. Neste estudo, com base na composição florística e distribuição dos sistemas de polinização na estratificação vertical, podemos caracterizar um mosaico vertical no cerrado sentido restrito, que tem implicações na sustentabilidade das comunidades no cerrado, assim como os mosaicos horizontais de fitofisionomias.Several factors can influence the distribution of floral resources and pollination systems in ecosystems, such as climate, altitude, geographic region, fragmentation of natural areas and differences in floristic composition along the vertical stratification. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution of the vertical stratification of biotic pollination systems in cerrado (sensu stricto fragments in the Triângulo Mineiro. There was no significant difference (χ²0.05,9=14.17; P = 0.12 in

  9. Estratificação vertical de abelhas Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae em uma área de Mata Atlântica, Paraíba, Brasil Vertical stratification of Euglossina Bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae in an area of the Atlantic Rainforest, Paraíba State, Brazil

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    Celso F. Martins

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Existem poucos estudos sobre distribuição vertical de insetos, principalmente de Hymenoptera Apiformes. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar se existe estratificação vertical entre as espécies de Euglossina em áreas de Mata Atlântica, através da comparação da riqueza, abundância e diversidade em dois estratos, sub-bosque (1,5 m e copa (10-12 m. Para isso, foram realizadas coletas mensais na Reserva Biológica Guaribas, de maio a dezembro de 2002, utilizando seis armadilhas contendo fragrâncias artificiais: eugenol, eucaliptol, escatol, beta ionona, acetato de benzila e vanilina, distribuídas nos dois estratos. Foram coletados 1.151 indivíduos pertencentes a 11 espécies e três gêneros de Euglossina. No estrato de sub-bosque a abundância e a diversidade foram maiores, em números absolutos, e a riqueza foi significativamente maior que no estrato de copa.There are few studies regarding vertical distribution of insects, mainly of Hymenoptera Apiformes. The goal of this study was to verify if vertical stratification exists among the species of Euglossina in Atlantic Rainforest areas, trough the comparison of the richness, abundance and diversity in two strata, sub-forest (1.5 m and canopy (10-12 m. For that, monthly collections where carried out in the Guaribas Biological Reserve from May to December of 2002. Six traps containing artificial fragrances: eugenol, eucalyptol, skatol, beta ionone, benzyl acetate and vanillin, distributed in two strata were used. A total of 1,151 individuals belonging to 11 species and three genera of Euglossina was collected. The abundance and diversity were higher in the sub-forest stratum in absolute number and richness was significantly higher compared with the canopy.

  10. Resistência ao cisalhamento de solos e taludes vegetados com capim vetiver Shear strength of soils and slopes covered with vetiver

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Cristina Rufino Barbosa; Hernani Mota de Lima

    2013-01-01

    Taludes vegetados são mais resistentes contra movimentos de massa e erosão pela água. A vegetação contribui para a estabilidade do solo, principalmente pelo aumento da resistência ao cisalhamento por meio do reforço oferecido pelas raízes. As espécies vegetais que mais têm sido eficientes na estabilização de taludes instáveis são as gramíneas, pertencentes à família Poaceae. Um exemplar dessa família, capim vetiver (Chrysopogonzizanioides (L.) Roberty), tem se revelado muito eficaz nessa esta...

  11. Posicionamento palpebral superior e inferior em diferentes graus de rotação ocular ao longo do meridiano vertical Upper and lower eyelid position in different degrees of downgaze and upgaze

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    Dante Augusto Mastropietro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Quantificar a relação entre o posicionamento do olho e das pálpebras, em diferentes posições do olhar, ao longo do meridiano vertical, em indivíduos normais. MÉTODOS: Foi quantificada a posição das pálpebras superior e inferior e do olho, de dez indivíduos normais, por meio do processamento da imagem da fenda palpebral usando o programa NIH Image. Foram medidas as distâncias margem-centro pupilar superior e inferior em sete posições do olhar ao longo do meridiano vertical, ou seja -30, -20, -10, 0, +10, +20 e +30 graus (sinais: negativos infraducção e positivos supraducção. RESULTADOS: Em relação à distância margem superior-centro da pupila, nota-se que o maior valor é obtido na posição primária do olhar, ou seja, tanto quando se olha para cima, como para baixo, essa distância diminui. A redução na distância margem superior-centro da pupila é um pouco maior no olhar para cima. Em relação à distância margem inferior-centro da pupila, nota-se que o valor é maior no olhar para cima e menor no olhar para baixo, em relação à posição primária do olhar. No que tange à fenda palpebral, pode-se notar que no olhar para cima a fenda aumenta até 20 graus de rotação ocular. No olhar para baixo, ela diminui. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados do presente trabalho mostram que a altura da fenda palpebral varia de acordo com a amplitude da mirada vertical e que considerações sobre o valor da magnitude da distância entre a margem palpebral e o centro da pupila devem levar em conta o grau de rotação ocular vertical.PURPOSE: To quantify the relation between eye and eyelids placement in different positions during downgaze and upgaze in healthy subjects. METHODS: The position of the eye and eyelids of 10 healthy individuals was quantified by palpebral fissure image processing with NIH Image software. Upper and lower mid-pupil margin distance was measured in 7 positions: -30, -20, -10, 0, +10, +20 and +30 degrees

  12. Evaluation of the shear bond strength of the union between two CoCr-alloys and a dental ceramic Avaliação da resistência ao cisalhamento da união entre duas ligas a base de CoCr e uma cerâmica

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    Mariana Pretti

    2004-12-01

    ao ensaio de resistência ao cisalhamento em máquina de ensaios universal (EMIC, com auxílio de dispositivo desenvolvido para tal propósito, sob velocidade constante de 0,5mm/min. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: As médias de resistência obtidas foram 48,387 MPa para a liga Wirobond C, com desvio padrão de 17,718, e 55,956 MPa para a Remanium 2000, com desvio padrão de 17,198. Após análise de variância foi possível observar que não há diferença estatisticamente significante entre os valores de resistência ao cisalhamento das duas ligas metalocerâmicas.

  13. Assessment of shear bond strength of brackets bonded by direct and indirect techniques: an in vitro study Avaliação da resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes colados pelas técnicas direta e indireta: estudo in vitro

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    Roberto Hideo Shimizu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study was designed to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS of orthodontic metal brackets bonded by direct and indirect techniques. METHODS: Thirty healthy human maxillary premolar teeth were used. The teeth were divided into three groups of 10 teeth each: Group I - indirect bonding with SondhiTM Rapid-Set system (3M/Unitek, Group II - indirect bonding with TransbondTM XT adhesive system (3M/Unitek and Group III - direct bonding with TransbondTM XT adhesive system (3M/Unitek. After bonding and obtaining the specimens for the study, the specimens were subjected to SBS testing in a universal testing machine (Emic, model DL-500. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied to ascertain that the data had a normal distribution and the Bartlett test to check whether there was homogeneity of variance. One-factor analysis of variance was performed and, subsequently, Tukey's test for paired means. A 5% significance level was adopted. RESULTS: The results of Group I were 67.6 (N and 5.9 (MPa; Group II, 68.9 (N and 6.1 (MPa and Group III (control, 92.5 (N and 8.1 (MPa. CONCLUSION: It can therefore be concluded that the means for Group III were significantly higher compared with Groups I and II in both Newton (N and Megapascal (MPa values. The means attained by the indirect bonding technique used in Groups I and II, however, exhibited no statistically significant differences.OBJETIVO: objetivou-se com esse trabalho avaliar, em um estudo realizado in vitro, a resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes metálicos ortodônticos colados pelas técnicas direta e indireta. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 30 dentes pré-molares superiores humanos hígidos. Os dentes foram divididos em três grupos de 10 dentes: Grupo I - colagem indireta com sistema Sondhi Rapid-Set (3M/Unitek; Grupo II - colagem indireta com sistema Transbond XT (3M/Unitek; e Grupo III - colagem direta com sistema Transbond XT (3M/Unitek. Após realização das colagens e confec

  14. Prevalência de HIV em gestantes e transmissão vertical segundo perfil socioeconômico, Vitória, ES Factores asociados a recidiva en hanseníasis en Mato Grosso, Centro-oeste de Brasil HIV prevalence in pregnant women and vertical transmission in according to socioeconomic status, Southeastern Brazil

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    Anne Caroline Barbosa Cerqueira Vieira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência de infecção por HIV em gestantes e a taxa de transmissão vertical, segundo o perfil socioeconômico dos bairros de residência das mães. MÉTODOS: Estudo ecológico exploratório utilizando a base de dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação de gestantes HIV-positivas e aids em crianças notificadas entre 2000 e 2006 em Vitória, ES. Para análise das informações socioeconômicas foi utilizado o Índice de Qualidade Urbana. A prevalência de HIV em gestantes e a taxa de transmissão vertical foram calculadas. A distribuição espacial dos casos foi realizada no programa Terraview 3.2.0. Para verificar a associação entre a qualidade urbana e a prevalência de HIV em gestantes utilizou-se o modelo de regressão de Poisson. RESULTADOS: Um total de 137 gestantes e 14 crianças infectadas por transmissão vertical foi notificado no período. Sete crianças correspondiam a mães HIV-positivas sem notificação de caso no período analisado. A prevalência de infecção em gestantes no período foi de 0,44% e a taxa de transmissão vertical foi de 9,7%. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de infecção por HIV em gestantes e a transmissão vertical associam-se à qualidade urbana do bairro de residência, indicando que os bairros com menor qualidade urbana devem ser priorizados quanto às ações para redução da transmissão vertical.OBJETIVO: Analizar factores asociados a la ocurrencia de recidiva en hanseníasis. MÉTODOS: Estudio retrospectivo caso-control con 159 pacientes mayores de 15 años diagnosticados con hanseníasis en cinco municipios del Estado de Mato Grosso, Centro-oeste de Brasil, cuyas unidades de salud eran consideradas de referencia para el atendimiento. El grupo de casos incluyó 53 individuos con recidiva de 2005 a 2007 y fue comparado con el grupo control (106 con alta por cura en 2005, pareados por sexo y clasificación operacional. Se usaron datos del Sistema de Informaci

  15. Avaliação da relação entre disfunção temporomandibular e dimensão vertical de oclusão em crianças de 7 A 12 anos

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    Rubia Garcia Lopes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo verificar se existe relação entre a presença de disfunção temporomandibular (DTM relacionada à variabilidade da dimensão vertical de oclusão em crianças e adolescentes na faixa etária de 7 a 12 anos. Métodos foram avaliadas 96 crianças e adolescentes do Instituto Rogacionista em São Paulo. A pesquisa diagnóstica da disfunção temporomandibular foi por meio do Índice de Helkimo e exame clínico posterior. Para a mensuração dos dados referentes à dimensão vertical foram empregadas as distâncias comissura labial - canto externo do olho e base do nariz – mento. A comparação dos valores médios das medidas antropométricas entre os gêneros e os grupos com e sem disfunção temporomandibular foi realizada empregando-se a análise de variância (ANOVA complementada pelo teste least significance diference. Resultados a dimensão vertical de oclusão demonstrou medidas distintas nas crianças e adolescentes em todas as faixas etárias avaliadas, foram observadas alterações significantes dessa medida nas idades de 10 e 12 anos de ambos os gêneros. Conclusão pode -se concluir que na amostra estudada houve relação direta entre a presença  de DTM e  Dimensão vertical de oclusão (DVO, correlação positiva entre as medidas  comissura labial – canto do olho externo e Násio – Mento no sexo feminino e alterações significantes na dimensão vertical de oclusão nas idades de 10 e 12 anos para ambos os sexos.

  16. Efeitos do tratamento da Classe II divisão 1 em pacientes dolicofaciais tratados segundo a Terapia Bioprogressiva (AEB cervical e arco base inferior), com ênfase no controle vertical Treatment effects on Class II division 1 high angle patients treated according to the Bioprogressive therapy (cervical headgear and lower utility arch), with emphasis on vertical control

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane Santini Tamburús; João Sarmento Pereira Neto; Vânia Célia Vieira de Siqueira; Weber Luiz Tamburús

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: o presente estudo investigou o controle vertical e os efeitos do tratamento ortodôntico em pacientes dolicofaciais, empregando o AEB cervical e o arco base inferior. MÉTODOS: foi realizada a avaliação cefalométrica de 26 pacientes dolicofaciais com Classe II, divisão 1, idade média de 114 meses. O tratamento ortodôntico envolveu a utilização do AEB cervical na arcada superior e arco base na arcada inferior, até a obtenção da chave de oclusão normal dos molares, e finalizado segundo ...

  17. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV: risk factors and missed opportunities for prevention among pregnant women attending health services in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil Transmissão vertical do HIV: fatores associados e perdas de oportunidades de intervenção em gestantes atendidas em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Dalva Turchi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate the risk of vertical HIV transmission and assess the associated factors and missed opportunities for prevention in a cohort of HIV+ pregnant women (1995-2001 treated in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil, with follow-up of their children until 2005. Three data sources were compared: Information System on Reportable Diseases (SINAN, Information System on HIV+ Pregnant Women and Exposed Children (SISGHIV, and patient clinical charts. The study estimated the vertical transmission rates, factors associated with vertical transmission, and use of antiretroviral therapy. 276 HIV+ women were identified (322 pregnancies, and there were 70 HIV+ children. Overall risk of vertical HIV transmission was 27.8%. The vertical transmission rate was 40.8% in the group without prophylaxis and 1% in the group with adequate prophylaxis, i.e., a 97.5% reduction in transmission risk. Year of delivery, consultation with a specialist, and no history of injecting drug use were factors associated with adequate use of antiretroviral therapy. The study showed an important reduction in the risk of vertical transmission in pregnant women who received adequate therapy, besides identifying missed opportunities for prevention.Os objetivos foram estimar o risco de transmissão vertical do HIV e avaliar fatores associados e perdas de oportunidades de prevenção em coorte de gestantes HIV+ (1995-2001, atendidas em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil, com seguimento das crianças até 2005. Foi realizada conciliação de três fontes de dados: Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN, Sistema de Informação de Gestantes HIV Positivas e Crianças Expostas (SISGHIV e prontuários médicos. Foram estimados os percentuais de transmissão vertical, fatores associados à transmissão vertical e ao uso de terapia anti-retroviral. Foram identificadas 276 mulheres HIV+ (322 gestações e os desfechos foram 70 crianças HIV+. O risco de transmiss

  18. Deslocamento vertical de nematóides entomopatogênicos (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae na busca por Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae em laboratório e casa-de-vegetação Vertical displacement of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae in search of Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae under laboratory and greenhouse conditions

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    Viviane Sandra Alves

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Vários fatores devem ser considerados na avaliação da eficiência de um entomopatógeno no controle de um inseto-praga. Com relação aos nematóides entomopatogênicos, além da patogenicidade e virulência, é importante conhecer a capacidade de busca, pois quanto maior sua eficiência, maior a chance de encontro com o hospedeiro. Assim, neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o deslocamento vertical de nematóides entomopatogênicos (Heterorhabditis, visando ao controle da cochonilha-da-raiz-do-cafeeiro Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley. Para avaliação em laboratório, foi feito teste em coluna de areia de 5 cm (em delineamento inteiramente casualizado onde os isolados CCA e JPM3 foram aplicados em suspensão aquosa no topo da coluna em três concentrações (50, 100 e 500 JIs/inseto, com avaliação da mortalidade após 5 dias. No experimento de coluna de solo, foi usada uma coluna de 25 cm, composta por cinco extratos de 5 cm. Foram utilizados dois isolados (CCA e JPM3 e dois métodos de aplicação: cadáver infectado e suspensão aquosa, ambos avaliados nas diferentes profundidades. O experimento foi conduzido num delineamento fatorial 3x2x5, em condições de casa-de-vegetação. No experimento de coluna de areia, não houve diferença entre os isolados avaliados e ambos alcançaram valor de 92% de mortalidade. No experimento de deslocamento em coluna de solo, observou-se que JPM3 foi mais eficiente que CCA, nos dois métodos de aplicação avaliados. Quanto aos métodos de aplicação, o de suspensão aquosa apresentou melhores resultados para os dois isolados, e JPM3 aplicado em suspensão aquosa, foi o melhor tratamento em quase todas as profundidades avaliadas.Many factors must be considered in evaluating the efficiency of an entomopathogen in the control of an insect pest. With regards to entomopathogenic nematodes, in addition to their pathogenicity and virulence, it is important to know the ability to search the host, which is

  19. Estudo comparativo da resistência adesiva da interface resina/braquete, sob esforços de cisalhamento, empregando três resinas compostas e três tipos de tratamento na base do braquete Comparative study of the shear bond strength of the resin/bracket interface, using three different resin composites and three different treatments in the base of the bracket

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    Adriano Lia Mondelli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: considerando que, até o momento, a união braquete/resina é conseguida mecânica e quimicamente, esse estudo propôs avaliar: 1 a eficiência da metodologia empregada para avaliação da força de união da interface resina/braquete; 2 a resistência adesiva da interface resina/braquete sob esforços de cisalhamento, empregando três marcas comerciais de resina composta (Concise ortodôntico, Transbond-XT e Filtek-Z-250; 3 o efeito, nesta resistência adesiva, do jateamento com óxido de alumínio, aplicado na base do braquete metálico, associado ou não ao sistema adesivo resinoso dentário. METODOLOGIA: para avaliar a união adesiva, especificamente na interface resina/braquete, empregou-se uma máquina universal de ensaios e o teste preconizado foi o de cisalhamento. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: após análise estatística (análise de Variância e, posteriormente, teste de Tukey e discussão dos resultados, conclui-se que: a ocorrência de 12,5% de fraturas coesivas pode ser considerada mínima, indicando que a metodologia empregada pode ser considerada confiável para avaliar especificamente a força de união da interface resina/braquete; em relação aos tipos de materiais empregados, sem nenhum tratamento prévio, as resinas compostas Concise ortodôntico, Transbond-XT e Filtek-Z-250 apresentaram valores similares de resistência adesiva sob esforços de cisalhamento; os tratamentos que incluíam a aplicação do adesivo específico, com ou sem jateamento com óxido de alumínio na base do braquete, foram mais efetivos para a resina composta Concise ortodôntico, quando comparados ao seu grupo controle; os tratamentos de jateamento com óxido de alumínio, associado ou não ao adesivo específico na base do braquete, foram mais efetivos estatisticamente para a resina composta Transbond-XT, quando comparados ao seu grupo controle; para a resina composta Filtek-Z-250, quando utilizado o adesivo Single Bond na base do braquete

  20. Determining the amount of anhydrous alcohol evaporated in vertical cylindrical tanks; Determinacao da quantidade de alcool etilico anidro evaporado em tanques cilindricos verticais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Elcio Cruz de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In order to assess the anhydrous alcohol evaporated amount in vertical cylindrical tanks was developed a calculation methodology based on the rate of mass transfer of the product, the Reynolds number and the mass transfer coefficient. An Excel spreadsheet was prepared with data entry of the tank and physical and chemical properties of the product (temperature and density). For a temperature of 50 deg C, the volume evaporated reaches values of 0.8% by day. (author)

  1. Fauna de flebotomíneos (Diptera: Psychodidae em fragmentos de floresta ao redor de conjuntos habitacionais na cidade de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil. I. Estratificação Vertical Sand flies fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae in forest fragments around housing complexes in the Manaus municipality, state of Amazonas, Brazil. I. Vertical Stratification

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    Marlisson Augusto Costa Feitosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available No período de janeiro a agosto de 1999 foram realizadas coletas de flebotomíneos (Diptera: Psychodidae em duas áreas de floresta residual (Estrada do Turismo e Cidade de Deus, na periferia da cidade de Manaus (AM, tendo o objetivo de verificar as espécies e a estratificação vertical. Foram utilizadas armadilhas luminosas tipo CDC, colocadas nos fragmentos de florestas a um e dez metros de altura. Foram capturados 7.516 flebotomíneos distribuídos em 45 espécies; 4.836 espécimes, de 36 espécies, na estrada de Turismo e 2.680 exemplares, de 40 espécies, na Cidade de Deus. Predominaram na Estrada do Turismo Lutzomyia umbratilis e L. ubiquitalis e na Cidade de Deus, L. umbratilis e L. anduzei. A presença de algumas espécies, apenas em certas áreas, indica a adaptabilidade destes flebotomíneos em áreas sobre ação antrópica.Between January and August of 1999, a study was carried out on the phlebotomine (Diptera: Psychodidae sand flies occurrence in two areas of residual forest (Estrada do Turismo and Cidade de Deus, in the periphery of Manaus, AM. The objective of this study was to verify the Phlebotominae sand fly fauna and vertical stratification. CDC light traps were placed in the forests, one to ten meters in height. A total of 7.516 sand flies, distributed in 45 species, were captured: 4.836 specimens of 36 species in the Estrada do Turismo and 2.680 individuals of 40 species in the Cidade de Deus.Predominant in the Estrada do Turismo were the species Lutzomyia umbratilis and L. ubiquitalis were as L. umbratilis and L. anduzei prevailed in the Cidade de Deus. Different Phlebotominae sand fly species in certain areas, showed an adaptation of these sand flies to areas of human activity.

  2. Experimental analysis of minimum shear stress to drag particles in a horizontal bed; Analise experimental da tensao de cisalhamento minima para arraste de particulas em um leito horizontal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornelas, Breno Almeida; Soares, Edson Jose [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo. Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (Brazil)], e-mails: bad@ucl.br, edson@ct.ufes.br; Quirino Filho, Joao Pedro; Loureiro, Bruno Venturini [Faculdade do Centro Leste (UCL). Laboratorio de Fluidos e Fenomenos de Transporte (Brazil)], e-mails: joaoquirino@ucl.br, brunovl@ucl.br

    2009-12-15

    Efficient hole cleaning is still a challenge in well bore drilling to produce oil and gas. The critical point is the horizontal drilling that inherently tends to form a bed of sediment particles at the well bottom during drilling. The cuttings bed erosion depends mainly on the shear stress promoted by the drilling fluid flow. The shear stress required to cause drag in the cuttings bed is investigated according to the fluid and particles properties, using an experimental assembly, composed of: a system for fluid circulation, a particle box, a pump system and measuring equipment. The observation area is a box below the flow line in an acrylic duct used to calibrate sand particles. The test starts with the pumps in a low frequency which is increased in steps. At each frequency level, images are captured of carried particles and the established flow rate is recorded. The images are analyzed when the dragged particle is no longer random and sporadic, but becomes permanent. The shear stress is identified by the PKN correlation (by Prandtl, von Karman, and Nikuradse) for the minimum flow rate necessary to cause drag. Results were obtained for just water and water-glycerin solution flows. (author)

  3. Determination of threshold shear stress to drag particles in cuttings bed; Determinacao da tensao de cisalhamento minima para arraste de particulas em um leito fluidizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Bruno Venturini; Siqueira, Renato do Nascimento [Faculdade do Centro Leste (UCL), Serra, ES (Brazil). Lab. de Fenomenos de Transporte], e-mail: brunovl@ucl.br, e-mail: renatons@ucl.br

    2006-07-01

    Drilling of horizontal wells for oil and gas production needs an efficient cleaning process due to settling of particles removed during the drilling process, which settles on the inferior part of the annular space between the drilling column and the walls of the well. The erosion of the bed is an important physical phenomenon to petroleum and gas industry since it can improve the opening of the wells. This work aims to estimate the threshold shear stress necessary to start the erosion process in a sediment bed. An experimental apparatus was built from simplifications of the problem in order to measure the flow rate and identify the beginning of the process. The experiment consists of a rectangular duct with aspect ratio ({lambda} = h/b) of 1/3 and non dimensional length (L{sup *} = L/h) of 75. The sediment bed to be eroded was placed at 60< x{sup *}<66. Using the flow rate and the boundary conditions, a discretization of the problem was carried out to permit a computational solution using the finite volume method and hence, determine the shear stress. This work used particles with up to 3.0 mm and modeled the flow considering a bed with equivalent roughness. (author)

  4. Avaliação da resistência adesiva por cisalhamento de uma resina composta em dentina bovina com diferentes técnicas adesivas

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    Rodrigo Tatith Pereira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of three adhesive systems (Single Bond with convencional etching technics; Single Bond without etching; Clearfill SE Bond in bovine dentin. Thirty healthy bovine teeth were submitted to a regular wear, objecting to expose a plane dentin surface, where adhesive systems and composite resins restoration were applicated. Shear bond strength of those specimen were tested in an universal testing machine. The found results have shown that the Single Bond adhesive with convencional etching technics presented higher statistically shear bond strengh than the other systems, wich haven't presented significant difference.

  5. Dispersão, distribuição espacial e estratificação vertical da comunidade arbórea em um fragmento florestal no Planalto Catarinense

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    Marcelo Negrini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar as estratégias de dispersão de propágulos, a distribuição espacial e a estratificação vertical de espécies arbóreas em um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Mista em Lages, SC. Para amostragem da vegetação arbórea, foram alocadas 25 parcelas de 400 m² (20 m x 20 m e todos os indivíduos arbóreos dentro das parcelas com diâmetro a altura do peito (DAP, medido a 1,30 m do solo maior ou igual a 5 cm foram identificados e tiveram sua altura estimada. Para complementar a lista florística, foram feitos caminhamentos aleatórios no fragmento objetivando identificar espécies arbóreas não amostradas nas parcelas. As espécies foram classificadas segundo: i a sua síndrome de dispersão em zoocórica, anemocórica ou autocórica; ii o padrão de distribuição espacial dos indivíduos, considerando-se a distribuição aleatória, agregada e uniforme; iii a posição no estrato vertical da floresta, como sendo dos estratos superior, intermediário ou inferior. Do total de 87 espécies amostradas, 80,5% foram classificadas como zoocóricas, 16,1% como anemocóricas e 3,4% como autocóricas. Verificou-se a predominância de espécies com distribuição espacial aleatória e pertencente ao estrato superior, com altura superior ou igual a 12,45 m. Os resultados indicam a importância da fauna silvestre para a manutenção do funcionamento ecológico do fragmento estudado, uma vez que a maior parte das espécies são zoocóricas. O conhecimento desses atributos das populações arbóreas pode subsidiar estratégias de conservação e manejo de fragmentos florestais na região, uma vez que permite conhecer melhor a ecologia das espécies.

  6. Shear bond strength of self-etch and total-etch adhesives to bovine enamel and dentin = Resistência ao cisalhamento de adesivo autocondicionante e convencional ao esmalte e dentina bovinos

    OpenAIRE

    Raposo, Carolina Carramilo; Santana, Ivone Lima

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo: Avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento de adesivo autocondicionante e adesivo convencional ao esmalte e dentina bovinos. Metodologia: As superfícies vestibulares de 28 incisivos mandibulares bovinos foram lixadas, sob refrigeração, para obtenção de superfícies de esmalte ou dentina planas. Um adesivo autocondicionante de passo único e um convencional de três passos foram utilizados de acordo com as instruções dos fabricantes (Adper Easy One and Adper Scotchbond, respectivamente). ...

  7. Efeitos do tratamento da Classe II divisão 1 em pacientes dolicofaciais tratados segundo a Terapia Bioprogressiva (AEB cervical e arco base inferior, com ênfase no controle vertical Treatment effects on Class II division 1 high angle patients treated according to the Bioprogressive therapy (cervical headgear and lower utility arch, with emphasis on vertical control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Santini Tamburús

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o presente estudo investigou o controle vertical e os efeitos do tratamento ortodôntico em pacientes dolicofaciais, empregando o AEB cervical e o arco base inferior. MÉTODOS: foi realizada a avaliação cefalométrica de 26 pacientes dolicofaciais com Classe II, divisão 1, idade média de 114 meses. O tratamento ortodôntico envolveu a utilização do AEB cervical na arcada superior e arco base na arcada inferior, até a obtenção da chave de oclusão normal dos molares, e finalizado segundo a Terapia Bioprogressiva, com duração média de 56 meses. Foram avaliados os valores de FMA, SN.GoGn, ANB, Fg-S, S-FPm, comprimento maxilar, comprimento mandibular, AFP (altura facial posterior, AFA (altura facial anterior, IAF (índice de altura facial, ângulo do plano oclusal, ângulo do plano palatino, QT (queixo total, LS (lábio superior e ângulo Z. RESULTADOS: o tratamento promoveu estabilidade dos planos mandibular, oclusal e palatino. Ocorreu a correção anteroposterior das bases apicais, verificada pela redução significativa da grandeza ANB. A maxila apresentou um suave deslocamento anterior,com um suave aumento da dimensão anteroposterior.A mandíbula apresentou melhora de seu posicionamento em relação à base do crânio e sua dimensão anteroposterior aumentou significativamente. As alturas faciais posterior e anterior permaneceram em equilíbrio, não alterando significativamente o IAF. O perfil tegumentar apresentou melhora significativa. CONCLUSÃO: o tratamento realizado promoveu a correção das bases apicais, com controle dos planos horizontais e das alturas faciais, sendo efetivo no controle vertical.OBJECTIVE: This study investigated vertical control and the effects of orthodontic treatment on dolichofacial patients, using cervical headgear (CHG and lower utility arch. METHODS: Cephalometric assessment of 26 dolichofacial patients with Class II, division 1, and mean age of 114 months. Orthodontic treatment involved

  8. Espectro e distribuição vertical das estratégias de dispersão de diásporos do componente arbóreo em uma floresta estacional no sul do Brasil Spectrum and vertical distribution of diaspore dispersal modes in a seasonal forest in Southern Brazil

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    Eduardo Luís Hettwer Giehl

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A dispersão de diásporos é um evento de elevada importância para as espécies vegetais, que dispõem de diversas estratégias para este fim. O presente estudo teve por objetivos conhecer e caracterizar o espectro das diferentes estratégias de dispersão do componente arbóreo em uma floresta estacional de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil (próximo às coordenadas 53º54'W e 29º38'S e, a partir desses dados, investigar sua relação com os estratos verticais da floresta. Foram amostrados todos os indivíduos com perímetro à altura do peito > 15 cm, em 100 unidades amostrais de 10×10 m. A caracterização das estratégias de dispersão foi realizada por meio de observações a campo de frutos e potenciais dispersores, e consulta à bibliografia especializada. Foram amostradas 58 espécies pertencentes a 26 famílias botânicas. Dessas espécies, 74% apresentaram estratégia de dispersão zoocórica; 24%, estratégia de dispersão anemocórica e apenas Gymnanthes concolor Spreng. apresentou a estratégia autocórica. Analisando-se a proporção das estratégias de dispersão por meio da densidade relativa, verificou-se que 80% dos indivíduos são zoocóricos, 12% anemocóricos e 8% autocóricos. Para a floresta analisada foram encontradas diferenças significativas nos padrões de distribuição vertical das espécies agrupadas de acordo com a estratégia de dispersão. A zoocoria ocorreu em espécies de todos os estratos, enquanto a autocoria ficou limitada ao sub-bosque. Já a anemocoria foi mais importante entre as espécies com indivíduos emergentes.Diaspore dispersal is presumed to have great fitness for plants, which could be enhanced by different dispersal modes. Our aim was to generate a dispersal spectrum and to seek for analyze relative ecological importance of tree-species dispersal modes in a seasonal forest in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (approximately 53º54'W and 29º38'S and, with these data, to

  9. Shear bond strength of glass-ionomer cements to dentin: Effects of dentin depth and type of material activation Resistência ao cisalhamento da união de cimentos de ionômero de vidro à dentina: Efeitos da profundidade do substrato e do tipo de ativação do material

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    Elda PISANESCHI

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine, through the shear bond strength of in vitro tests, that the type of glass-ionomer cements (conventional or hybrid and dentin depth (superficial or deep are factors that may influence the adhesion of these materials to the dentin structure. Specimens of two conventional glass-ionomer cements (Vidrion R® - SS White and Chelon Fil®- Espe and a hybrid-glass ionomer cement (Vitremer® - 3M were separated in groups and prepared for the shear bond strength test. The results submitted to statistical analysis were (all values are in MPa: Group I - Vidrion R - superficial dentin 1.97 (± 0.56; deep dentin 3.15 (± 1.51; Group II - Chelon Fil - superficial dentin 2.43 (± 1.43; deep dentin 3.21 (± 0.89; and Group III - Vitremer - superficial dentin 7.04 (± 2.04; deep dentin 10.30 (± 1.99. There were significant differences between dentin depth and type of materialsA proposta deste trabalho foi determinar, através da resistência ao cisalhamento em testes in vitro, se o tipo de cimento de ionômero de vidro, convencional ou híbrido, e a profundidade de dentina, superficial ou profunda, são fatores que influenciam a adesão desses materiais na estrutura dentinária. Espécimes de dois cimentos convencionais (Vidrion R® - SSWhite e Chelon Fil®- Espe e um cimento de ionômero de vidro híbrido (Vitremer®- 3M foram divididos em grupos. Os resultados (todos os valores em MPa submetidos à análise estatística foram: Grupo I - Vidrion R - dentina superficial, 1,97 (± 0,56; dentina profunda, 3,15 (± 1,51; Grupo II - Chelon Fil - dentina superficial, 2,43 (± 1,43; dentina profunda, 3,21 (± 0,89; e Grupo III - Vitremer - dentina superficial, 7,04 (± 2,04; dentina profunda, 10,30(± 1,99. Houve diferenças significantes entre a profundidade de dentina e o tipo de ativação do material

  10. Mobilidade vertical de cátions influenciada pelo método de aplicação de cloreto de potássio em solos com carga variável Vertical mobility of cations as influenced by the method of potassium chloride application to variable charge soils

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    Paulo Roberto Ernani

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A magnitude da mobilidade vertical dos nutrientes no perfil afeta o contato destes com as raízes e a lixiviação e, por isso, influencia a época e o método de aplicação dos fertilizantes ao solo. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a mobilidade de K em solos de acordo com o método de aplicação e a dose de cloreto de potássio. O experimento foi realizado em 1998, em colunas de lixiviação com 7,5 cm de diâmetro e 35 cm de altura. Os tratamentos consistiram de doses de K (0, 150 e 300 mg kg-1, aplicadas sobre a superfície ou incorporadas até 15 cm de profundidade em dois solos ácidos. A cada sete dias, durante oito semanas, foram adicionados 300 mL de água destilada sobre a superfície de cada coluna. A solução percolada foi coletada no dia seguinte, e nela foram determinados o volume e as concentrações de Ca, Mg e K. A aplicação de KCl sobre a superfície dos solos promoveu a descida de K para profundidades superiores a 10 cm. Apesar disso, a lixiviação de K foi pequena, porém aumentou com a dose e com a incorporação do fertilizante ao solo e foi mais intensa nas primeiras percolações. A adição de KCl aumentou expressivamente a percolação de Ca e Mg durante as cinco primeiras percolações, o que pode representar aumento temporário na disponibilidade desses cátions às plantas, pois coincide com o período de implantação das culturas, em que a exigência das plantas por nutrientes é alta. Mesmo nesses solos com alto tamponamento, a adição de K sobre a superfície promoveu bom aprofundamento do nutriente no perfil sem, contudo, proporcionar grande lixiviação.The magnitude of the vertical movement of nutrients in the soil profile determines their contact with plant roots and leaching, thus affecting the timing and method of fertilizer application. This study aimed to assess the K mobility in the soil as influenced by rate and method of potassium chloride addition. The experiment was carried out in 1998

  11. Características de fluxo e projeto de tremonhas cônicas em silos verticais Flow characteristics and design of conical hoppers in vertical silos

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    José P. Lopes Neto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Para que projetos de silos verticais que envolvam armazenagem de produtos sólidos sejam seguros e confiáveis, é importante que se conheça o maior número de variáveis possíveis, tais como: propriedades de fluxo, geometria do silo e tipo de fluxo desejado. No intuito de validar as teorias de predição de fluxo e o dimensionamento de silos, foram determinadas as propriedades de fluxo de três produtos sólidos, analisadas e testadas as teorias de tipo de fluxo e de dimensionamento de tremonhas de Jenike e Enstad, respectivamente, além de comparados os resultados com os obtidos experimentalmente em modelo reduzido de silo de seção semicircular. Os resultados experimentais corroboram com a metodologia de tipo de fluxo de Jenike e de tremonhas cônicas de Enstad. Os valores de orifício de descarga calculados pelo método de Jenike se demonstraram superdimensionados, sendo 45% superior ao necessário para obtenção de fluxo.For design involving storage of bulk solids to be safe and reliable, it is important to know a large number of variables such as flow properties, geometry of silos and flow pattern. With the objective to validate prediction using flow theories and silo design procedures, the flow properties of three bulk solids were determined and Jenike's flow theory and Enstad's hopper design equations were applied and compared with those obtained experimentally in a reduced model of silo of semicircular section. The experimental results confirm the method of Jenike and Enstad for flow pattern and hopper design, respectively. The values of discharge orifice obtained by Jenike's equation are demonstrated to be oversized, being 45% higher than needed to provide flow.

  12. Produção hidropônica de morangueiro em sistema de colunas verticais, sob cultivo protegido Hydroponic strawberry production in vertical columns system under protected cultivation

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    Eunice Oliveira Calvete

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo do morangueiro fora do solo possibilita a eliminação do uso de produtos para desinfecção, reduzindo o consumo de frutos contaminados e a agressão ao meio ambiente, além de proporcionar melhor aproveitamento da área e maior facilidade de manejo da cultura. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, em ambiente protegido e colunas verticais, dois sistemas de irrigação: gotejamento por estacas (externo e autocompensante (interno; dois tipos de substratos: Horta 2 e Tabaco 1; com e sem drenagem. A cultivar utilizada foi a Oso Grande. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos dispostos em parcela subsubdividida, com três repetições. Com base nos rendimentos obtidos nos terços superior, médio e inferior das colunas, o sistema de irrigação mais indicado é o gotejamento por estacas (externo, com drenagem na extremidade inferior da coluna. Os substratos não diferem quanto à produção, mas Horta 2 incrementa o teor de antocianina nos frutos.Since strawberry cultivation in soil less system does not needs disinfection products, it decreases fruits and environmental contamination. Besides it provides a better utilization of the area and makes easy the management of the culture. The objective of this work was to evaluate two irrigation systems: dripping for props (outside and self compensate (inside; and two types of substrates: Horta 2 and Tabaco 1; with or without draining, on the cultivar Oso Grande of strawberry. The experiment was carried out under protected cultivation and in vertical columns conditions. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with three replications, and the treatments were arranged in a split-plot. The strawberry yield found in the upper, medium, and lower positions of the columns indicates that the dripping for props (outside is the most efficient irrigation system, since drainage is used in the lower extremity of the column. Although there were no differences substrates, Horta

  13. Vertical Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Núñez, Antonio José

    2012-01-01

    El fin de la instalación es producir frutas y verduras utilizando la menor superficie posible en planta, debido a la escasez y encarecimiento de esta, incremento de la población y desertificación. Para ello esta modalidad de plantación, Vertical farming, utiliza el desarrollo en altura, aprovechando la superficie lo máximo posible combinado con una nueva técnica, hidroponia, que es la forma de cultivar las plantas sin tierra. Facultad de Ciencias de la Empresa Universidad...

  14. Occurrence and within-plant distribution of red mite in cotton upland = Ocorrência e distribuição vertical de ácaro-vermelho em algodoeiro herbáceo.

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    João Gutemberg Leite Moraes

    2014-12-01

    realizado no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Brasil. A cultivar de algodoeiro utilizada foi a CNPA-2H. Inicialmente, a espécie de acarino foi coletada, posta em solução de álcool a 70% e enviada para identificação. Posteriormente, procurou-se validar uma metodologia pela qual os avaliadores utilizavam uma escala de notas. Em seguida, procedeu-se ao estudo da distribuição vertical do ácaro vermelho em algodoeiro, para se definir uma unidade amostral para o ácaro. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3x8, com 10 repetições. Para análise, os valores de notas foram transformados para grau de infestação. A espécie de ácaro-vermelho identificada foi Tetranychus aff. yusti McGregor. Verificou-se que a metodologia adotada permitiu discriminar a infestação do ácaro-vermelho em algodoeiro, e a unidade amostral para a referida praga foi a quarta folha a partir do ápice.

  15. Curvatura vertical de vertentes em microbacias pela análise de modelos digitais de elevação Curvature slope profile in watersheds through analysis of digital elevation models

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    Márcio de M. Valeriano

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetiva desenvolver e avaliar um procedimento simples para mapear a curvatura vertical de vertentes, a partir de Modelos Digitais de Elevação (MDE com recursos básicos de Sistemas de Informação Geográfica (SIG. Este método se baseia em janelas móveis de 3x3 pixels e foi desenvolvido para fazer o cálculo geométrico da segunda derivada através do perfil de vertente. Os testes envolveram MDE de seis microbacias de diferentes tipos de relevo, krigados a partir de curvas de nível de diferentes especificações cartográficas. Para a programação de procedimentos universalmente adaptáveis, o cálculo de curvatura demandou a resolução espacial como uma das entradas, de modo a resultar em valores absolutos comparáveis, com diferença de declividade (em porcentagem por distância horizontal (100 m como unidade. A sobreposição dos resultados de derivação, calculada nas direções dos oito pixels vizinhos em cada posição da janela, foi coordenada em octantes, pela classe de orientação das vertentes. Guiada por interpretação visual, a colocação de limites de formas conhecidas de relevo subsidiou o estabelecimento de limiares arbitrários de curvatura para a classificação dos perfis de vertentes (côncavo, convexo e retilíneo.This study aims at the development and evaluation of a simple approach to map profile curvature from Digital Elevation Models (DEM with basic resources of Geographical Information Systems (GIS. This method is based on local 3x3 pixel windows and designed to perform geometrically the second order derivative through the downslope profile. Contour-based kriged DEM of six watersheds from different terrain types and with varied data specifications were used for the tests. To program universally flexible procedures, the curvature calculation required the DEM spatial resolution as one of the inputs, so as to calculate a comparable absolute value, with slope difference (in percentage ratio per

  16. Substituição de milho por glicerina bruta em dietas para suínos em terminação

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    A.P.C. Gomide

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da substituição do milho por glicerina bruta em dietas para suínos em terminação. Foram utilizados 80 suínos, machos castrados, híbrido comercial, com média de peso de 67kg, em um experimento em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e oito repetições, com dois animais por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos foram: 0,0; 4,0; 8,0; 12,0 e 16,0% de glicerina bruta em substituição ao milho nas dietas. A substituição do milho por glicerina bruta não afetou as características de desempenho (P>0,05. Observaram-se efeito linear crescente de tratamento (P<0,05 sobre a espessura de toucinho na carcaça e efeito linear decrescente de tratamento (P<0,05 sobre a perda de líquido no descongelamento e na força de cisalhamento. A glicerina bruta pode substituir em até 16,0% do milho da dieta para suínos em terminação, sem prejuízos do desempenho e rendimento de carcaça, com melhoras na qualidade da carne.

  17. Tratamento da escoliose em crianças com paralisia cerebral utilizando a prótese vertical expansível de titânio para costela (VEPTR Tratamiento de la escoliosis en niños con parálisis cerebral mediante la prótesis vertical expansible de titanio para las costillas (VEPTR Treatment of scoliosis in children with cerebral palsy using the vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyomori de Quental Tyba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o uso da prótese vertical expansível de titânio (VEPTR como opção de tratamento inicial da escoliose em crianças de baixa idade portadoras de paralisia cerebral. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 10 pacientes portadores de paralisia cerebral (PC tratados com VEPTR pelo grupo de escoliose da AACD de São Paulo. Caracterizavam-se por imaturidade esquelética e escoliose progressiva; sem deformidade grave no plano sagital. Realizamos avaliação da curva pelo método de Cobb no pré e pós-operatório e após dois anos de seguimento. RESULTADOS: A correção obtida com o uso do VEPTR no pós-operatório imediato foi em média de 41,4% nas radiografias iniciais sem tração (p = 0,005 e 9,1% (p = 0,055 nas radiografias com tração. Após quatro meses de pós-operatório mantiveram-se ganhos de 27,2% com relação ao início. Houve correção da obliquidade pélvica de 10,2º no pré-operatório para 5,4º em média (p = 0,007. As complicações ocorreram em seis pacientes (60% e em apenas um paciente foi necessária a retirada do VEPTR. CONCLUSÃO: O VEPTR é um método que obteve correção significativa no tratamento provisório das escolioses na PC, apesar de frequentes complicações de baixa morbidade.OBJETIVO: Evaluar el uso de la prótesis vertical expansible de titanio (VEPTR como opción de tratamiento inicial para la escoliosis en niños pequeños con parálisis cerebral. MÉTODOS: 10 pacientes con parálisis cerebral (PC fueron evaluados y tratados con VEPTR por el grupo de escoliosis de la AACD en Sao Paulo. Caracterizados por escoliosis progresiva inmadurez esquelética, sin deformidad grave en el plano sagital. Se evaluó la curva por el método de Cobb en el preoperatorio, posoperatorio, y después de dos años de seguimiento. RESULTADOS: LA CORRECCIón, obtenida con el uso de VEPTR en el posoperatorio inmediato, fue en promedio 41,4% en relación a las radiografías iniciales sin tracción (p = 0,005 y 9,1% (p = 0

  18. Avaliação da resistência de força explosiva em voleibolistas através de testes de saltos verticais Assessment of explosive strength-endurance in volleyball players through vertical jumping test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Eduardo Hespanhol

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste estudo foi verificar a existência de diferenças entre o teste de salto vertical com natureza contínua de 60 segundos (TSVC e o teste de salto vertical com natureza intermitente de quatro séries de 15 segundos (TSVI. Os dados foram obtidos através de amostra composta por 10 voleibolistas do sexo masculino (19,01 ± 1,36 anos; 191,5 ± 5,36cm; e 81,74 ± 7,45kg, todos com participação voluntária. As variáveis estudadas foram: as estimativas do pico de potência (PP, potência média (PM e o índice de fadiga (IF. O desempenho estimado através dos testes TSVC, com duração de 60 segundos, e o TSVI foi determinado em quatro séries de 15 segundos, com 10 segundos de recuperação entre cada série. Os dados foram determinados através da estatística descritiva e do teste de Wilcoxon; o nível de significância utilizado foi de p The aim of this study was to verify the differences between the continuous jump test of 60 seconds (CJ60 sec and the intermittent jump test of 4 sets of 15 seconds (IJ4x15 sec. The sample was composed of 10 male volleyball players with 19.01 ± 1.36 years, 191.5 ± 5.36 cm height and 81.74 ± 7.45 of body mass, who participated in this research as volunteers. The variables studied were estimated as the peak power (PP, mean power (MP and fatigue index (FI. These performances were measured through tests of vertical jump with duration the 60 seconds and with the performance of 4 sets of 15 seconds with 10 seconds of recovery between the sets. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and the Wilcoxon test. The significance level was of p < 0.05. It was possible to analyze that the continuous and the intermittent jump test presented significant differences in MP (p < 0.05, FI (p < 0.01, and in the number of the vertical jump in 60 seconds (p < 0.01, and the height in 60 seconds exercise (p < 0.05. The MP found in IJ4x15sec was significantly higher than in the CJ60 sec in volleyball

  19. Comportamento da cultura do sorgo em função do tipo de rodas compactadoras e cargas verticais impostas na operação de semeadura Behavior of sorghum crop according to the press whells type and vertical loads imposed in the sowing operation

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    Jorge W. Cortez

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O sorgo pode ser cultivado em áreas e situações ambientais secas e quentes, em que a produtividade de outros cereais é antieconômica. Quando a semeadura do sorgo é realizada de modo eficiente, os benefícios podem ser verificados em sua produtividade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento da cultura do sorgo semeado sob três níveis de carga vertical impostas sobre as rodas compactadoras das semeadoras-adubadoras. O experimento foi conduzido na FAZU - Faculdades Associadas de Uberaba (MG, no delineamento em blocos ao acaso, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com três modelos de rodas compactadoras e três cargas verticais, com cinco repetições. Observou-se que não houve efeito dos tratamentos tipo de rodas compactadoras e cargas em relação aos dias para emergência, mas a regressão linear mostrou significância para carga vertical. A altura, o teor médio de água das plantas e a produção de matéria verde e seca do sorgo não diferiram entre os tratamentos.Sorghum can be cultivated in areas and environmental situations droughts and hot, which other cereals productivity is uneconomical. When sorghum sowing is accomplished in an efficient way benefits can be verified in productivity. The objective of this work was to evaluate the behavior of sorghum sowed under three levels of vertical load imposed on the press wheels of the seeder. The experiment was carried out in FAZU - Faculdades Associadas de Uberaba (MG, Brazil, with plots arranged in randomized complete block design in split-plot, with three models of press wheels and three vertical loads with five repetitions. It was observed that there were not effect of the press wheels and loads treatments in relation to the days for emergency, but the lineal regression showed significant for vertical load. The height, the medium moisture of the plants and the production of green and dry matter of the sorghum did not differ among the treatments.

  20. Análise da ocorrência dos fluxos e Jatos de Nível Baixo no perfil vertical do vento na baixa atmosfera em Manaus (AM Analysis of the occurrence of streams and Low Level Jets in the vertical wind profile at the lower-atmosphere of Manaus city

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    Cleber Souza Corrêa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo apresenta uma análise sobre as estruturas verticais nos baixos níveis da atmosfera tropical, região norte do Brasil, utilizando dados de radiossondagem realizadas na cidade de Manaus. Foi descrito um modelo dinâmico que envolve fluxos/Jatos de Nível Baixo (JNB entre os níveis de 950 hPa e 926 hPa, entre 860 hPa e 880 hPa (correspondendo aproximadamente ao nível intermediário de 850 hPa e ao terceira camada mais alta entre 800 hPa e 700 hPa (níveis médios. Esses fluxos e Jatos caracterizam um processo dinâmico de intenso transporte de energia e massa, criando uma estrutura estratificada turbulenta muito eficiente na geração de convecção na região tropical, demonstrando a influência da Camada Limite Planetária Tropical (CLPT na geração de convecção em meso escala.This study presents an analysis of the vertical structure of the low level tropical atmosphere, north region of Brazil, using radiosonde data at Manaus. A dynamical model involving flow/Low Level Jet (LLJ between the 950hPa and 926 hPa levels, between 860 hPa and 880 hPa levels (correspounding to 850 hPa intermediary level and in the third higher layer between 800 hPa and 700 hPa levels (middle levels is described. These streams and jets characterise a dynamical process of intense energy and mass transport, creating a turbulent stratified structure which is very efficient in producing convection at tropical region, demonstrating the influence of the Tropical Planetary Boundary Layer (TPLB, in the mesoscale convection generation.

  1. Vertical Transport of Subwavelength Localized Surface Electromagnetic Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Fei; Zhang, Youming; Shi, Xihang; Yang, Zhaoju; Zhang, Baile

    2015-01-01

    Transport of subwavelength electromagnetic (EM) energy has been achieved through near-field coupling of highly confined surface EM modes supported by plasmonic nanoparticles, in a configuration usually staying on a two-dimensional (2D) substrate. Vertical transport of similar modes along the third dimension, on the other hand, can bring more flexibility in designs of functional photonic devices, but this phenomenon has not been observed in reality. In this paper, designer (or spoof) surface plasmon resonators (plasmonic meta-atoms) are stacked in the direction vertical to their individual planes in demonstrating vertical transport of subwavelength localized surface EM modes. Dispersion relation of this vertical transport is determined from coupled mode theory and is verified with near-field transmission spectrum and field mapping with a microwave near-field scanning stage. This work extends the near-field coupled resonator optical waveguide (CROW) theory into the vertical direction, and may find applications ...

  2. Atributos de qualidade da carne de paca (Agouti paca: perfil sensorial e força de cisalhamento Quality attributes of paca meat (Agouti paca: sensory profile and shear force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gomes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as características sensoriais e determinou-se a força de cisalhamento de cortes de carne de paca (Agouti paca. As análises foram realizadas nos cortes desossados de paleta, lombo e pernil de nove pacas, preparados por cocção até a temperatura interna de 70ºC. A avaliação de aspecto, cor, sabor, odor e maciez foi realizada pela aplicação de teste afetivo a 146 provadores, utilizando-se escala hedônica, e a força de cisalhamento foi determinada pela técnica Warner Bratzler. Na avaliação sensorial, os cortes de paleta, lombo e pernil de paca mostraram diferença significativa (p0,05 entre os cortes, que se mostraram igualmente macios. A carne de paca apresentou-se sensorialmente semelhante à carne suína e com boa aceitação pelos consumidores. O estudo evidenciou o potencial da paca como uma espécie silvestre para a produção comercial de carne para o mercado de carnes vermelhas ou exóticas.Sensory characteristics and shear force of paca meat (Agouti paca were assessed in this study. Analyses were performed in the bonelessshoulder,loin andhamobtained from nine paca carcassesprepared by cookinguntil reaching the internal temperatureof 70°C. The evaluation of flavor, aroma, color, appearance and tenderness was carried out by the application of an affective test using the hedonic scaleand a 146 consumer panel. Shear force was determined by the Warner-Bratzler technique. Shoulder, loin and ham had significant differences (p 0.05 among the cuts, which were similarly tender. Paca meat was found to resemble pork meat in sensory evaluation and had good acceptance by consumers. This study showed the potential of paca (Agouti paca asa wild species for meat production in the red or exotic meat market.

  3. Avaliação de risco para úlcera por pressão em pacientes críticos

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    Flávia Sampaio Latini Gomes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pacientes acamados apresentam risco de desenvolver úlceras por pressão e representam um grupo prioritário para o estudo e identificação deste agravo. Para tal, utilizam-se instrumentos de avaliação específicos para o problema. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de úlcera por pressão em pacientes adultos internados em CTIs. Trata-se de um estudo seccional analítico no qual foram avaliados 140 pacientes, internados em 22 CTIs, utilizando-se a escala de Braden. Os resultados mostraram que pacientes internados por 15 dias ou mais apresentavam alguma categoria de risco. As maiores freqüências de úlcera por pressão foram encontradas em pacientes que estavam nas categorias: percepção sensorial (completamente limitado, umidade (constantemente úmida, mobilidade (completamente imobilizado, atividade (acamado, nutrição (adequado e fricção e cisalhamento (problema. Conclui-se que a utilização dessa escala traduz-se em estratégia importante no cuidar de pacientes em terapia intensiva.

  4. Erosão em sulcos em diferentes preparos e estados de consolidação do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Schäfer

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O preparo e a consolidação do solo alteram a sua capacidade em resistir à erosão em sulcos. Com o objetivo de estudar a erosão em sulcos em diferentes preparos e consolidação do solo, conhecer o diâmetro mediano dos sedimentos transportados e determinar a erodibilidade em sulcos (Kr e a tensão crítica de cisalhamento (τc do solo, foi realizado um experimento no campo, em 1997/98, em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico arênico. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de: preparo convencional recente (CR, preparo convencional consolidado (consolidação de dois meses (CC, plantio direto sem palha (PDS e plantio direto com palha (PDC, 94% de cobertura. Usou-se chuva simulada de intensidade constante (65 mm h-1 até escoamento aproximadamente constante de água no solo. Em seguida, na extremidade superior do sulco, foram adicionadas descargas líquidas (Q crescentes de 0,0002 m³ s-1 até 0,0010 m³ s-1, para os tratamentos CR e CC, e de 0,0004 m³ s-1 até 0,0020 m³ s-1, para os tratamentos PDS e PDC, sendo as amostras coletadas na parte inferior de cada sulco. As parcelas foram delimitadas por chapas metálicas cravadas no solo no sentido do declive (0,20 m de largura por 6,00 m de comprimento. O valor de Kr determinado foi de 0,012 kg N-1 s-1 e o τc foi de 2,61 N m-2. A desagregação, as perdas de solo e o diâmetro mediano dos sedimentos apresentaram a seguinte seqüência em magnitude: CR, CC, PDS e PDC, particularmente nas maiores Q. O regime de escoamento foi turbulento supercrítico, com exceção da primeira Q aplicada, onde o regime foi laminar subcrítico, para o PDC, graças à presença de resíduos culturais, e laminar supercrítico, para os demais tratamentos. A consolidação e a cobertura do solo alteram o regime do escoamento e reduzem a erosão em sulcos e seus efeitos são complementares.

  5. Escrita Escolar Brasileira: a escrita vertical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos André Xavier Villela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O exame grafoscópico visa essencialmente a determinar se duas escritas partiram ou não de um mesmo punho. A fim de buscar dados empíricos capazes de melhor embasar uma valoração de raridade, diversos pesquisadores se dedicaram ao estudo dos sistemas de escrita. O presente trabalho analisa algumas bibliografias nacionais e estrangeiras que descrevem como se deu o alvorecer da escrita vertical e sua implantação no universo escolar brasileiro. Foi a partir das últimas décadas do século XIX que alógrafos cursivos verticais começaram a ser utilizados para o ensino da escrita. Os novos sistemas, sob a denominação escrita vertical, tiveram presença marcante em todo o mundo ocidental, sendo até hoje os sistemas predominantes em diversos países.

  6. Comportamento produtivo da videira 'Niagara Rosada' em diferentes sistemas de condução, com e sem cobertura plástica, durante as safras de inverno e de verão Evaluation of vertical and "y" training systems and overhead plastic cover on 'Niagara Rosada' grape yield, during summer and winter growing seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Hernandes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Na região de Jundiaí (SP, os produtores de uva de mesa utilizam principalmente a cultivar Niagara Rosada. Atualmente, para aumentar a renda, o viticultor usa algumas alternativas tecnológicas que têm sido preconizadas, como o cultivo em manjedoura na forma de Y, em substituição ao sistema de condução em espaldeira; a poda extemporânea que permite duas safras por ano (de verão e de inverno e o uso de cobertura plástica para a proteção dos cachos contra intempéries e doenças. Portanto, foi desenvolvido um experimento visando a caracterizar a influência do sistema de condução, do uso de cobertura plástica e da poda extemporânea na produção e no tamanho dos cachos de 'Niagara Rosada'. Os resultados obtidos durante as safras de verão (2008 e 2009 e de inverno (2009 e 2010 permitiram verificar que, no sistema de condução em Y, foram obtidas maiores produções e tamanho de cacho em relação ao espaldeira. O uso de cobertura plástica no sistema em Y propiciou aumento de produção devido ao incremento em número e massa dos cachos. Também foi verificado que tanto a produção quanto a massa do cacho foram superiores na safra de verão em comparação à de inverno.The Niagara Rosada is the most important table grape cultivar for growers from Jundiaí region (São Paulo, Brazil. Currently, aiming to increase the grower benefit some technological alternatives have been recommended such as training system in a Y shape on replacement to unilateral single cordon with three vertical catch wires; application of off-season pruning that allows to obtain two harvests per year (summer and winter and the use of plastic overhead cover to protect the vine's clusters against hailstorm and diseases occurrence. Therefore a field trial was carried out aiming to characterize the influence of the "Y" trellis system and the use of plastic overhead cover on yield and cluster size of 'Niagara Rosada' table grape. The obtained results during the

  7. Signatures of Currency Vertices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Petter

    2009-03-01

    Many real-world networks have broad degree distributions. For some systems, this means that the functional significance of the vertices is also broadly distributed, in other cases the vertices are equally significant, but in different ways. One example of the latter case is metabolic networks, where the high-degree vertices — the currency metabolites — supply the molecular groups to the low-degree metabolites, and the latter are responsible for the higher-order biological function, of vital importance to the organism. In this paper, we propose a generalization of currency metabolites to currency vertices. We investigate the network structural characteristics of such systems, both in model networks and in some empirical systems. In addition to metabolic networks, we find that a network of music collaborations and a network of e-mail exchange could be described by a division of the vertices into currency vertices and others.

  8. Simulação do deslocamento de potássio em colunas verticais de solo não-saturado Potassium displacement simulation in vertical columns of unsaturated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarbas H. Miranda

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo do transporte de água e potássio em solo não-saturado é importante, tanto do ponto de vista do ambiente quanto do econômico. Assim sendo, o uso da modelagem computacional é importante, pois permite de maneira precisa e rápida o monitoramento do deslocamento de solutos, importante na prevenção de impactos ao ambiente. No presente trabalho, teve-se o objetivo de avaliar a simulação do deslocamento do íon potássio em colunas de solo não-saturado, utilizando o modelo MIDI, bem como apresentar a determinação dos parâmetros de transporte do íon potássio em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, fase arenosa. Concluiu-se que o modelo foi capaz de simular de maneira satisfatória o perfil de umidade e o deslocamento do íon potássio.Water and solute transport studies in unsaturated soil are important for both economical and environmental points of view and, in this sense, it should be emphasized the increase of agricultural use of urban and industrial residues, to the water resources and fertilizers saving. Thus, the computational modeling use is important, because it allows the monitoring of solute displacement, necessary to the environmental impacts prevention in a precise and fast way. The main objective of the present work is to simulate the displacement of potassium ion in unsaturated soil columns, using the MIDI model, as well as to present transport parameters determination of the potassium ion in a Red Yellowish Latossol, sandy phase. The obtained results allowed concluding that the model was capable to adequately simulate the potassium ion displacement.

  9. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  10. Comparative study of the dental substrate used in shear bond strength tests Estudo comparativo do tipo de substrato dental utilizado em testes de resistência de união ao cisalhamento

    OpenAIRE

    Murilo Baena Lopes; Mário Alexandre Coelho Sinhoreti; Lourenço Correr Sobrinho; Simonides Consani

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare shear bond strength values obtained in human enamel and dentin with the values obtained in bovine teeth using two adhesive systems with different actions. Forty human tooth half-crowns and forty bovine tooth crowns were flattened to a minimum plain area of 5 mm in diameter. The samples were divided in four groups of 20 specimens each: 1) human enamel; 2) bovine enamel; 3) human dentin; 4) bovine dentin. The samples of each group were divided in 2 subgr...

  11. Shear bond strength of two bonding systems on dentin surfaces prepared with Er:YAG laser; Resistencia de uniao ao cisalhamento de dois sistemas adesivos em superficies dentinarias preparadas com laser de Er:YAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Magro, Eduardo

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the shear bond strength of two bonding dentin systems, one 'one step' (Single Bond - 3M) and one 'self-etching' (Prompt-L-ESPE), when applied on dentin surfaces prepared with Er:YAG laser (2,94{mu}m) that underwent ar not, acid etched. Forty one human molars just extracted were selected and after the cut with diamond disc and included in acrylic resin, resulting in 81 specimens (hemi crowns). After, the specimens were divided in one group treated with sand paper and another two groups treated with Er:YAG laser with 200 mJ and 250 mJ of energy and 2 Hz of frequency. Next, the prepared surfaces received three treatments with following application: 1) acid + Single Bond + Z 250 resin, 2) prompt-L-Pop + Z 250 resin, and 3) acid without, Single Bond + Z 250 resin. The Z 250 resin was applied and photopolymerized in increments on a Teflon matrix that belonged to an apparatus called 'Assembly Apparatus' machine producing cylinders of 3,5 mm of diameter and 5 mm of height. After these specimens were submitted to thermo cycling during 1 minute the 55 deg C and during 1 minute with 5 deg C with a total of 500 cycles for specimen, and the measures of shear bond strength were abstained using EMIC model DL 2000 rehearsed machine, with speed of 0,5 mm/min, measuring the final rupture tension (Mpa). The results showed an statistic superiority of 5% of probability level in dentin flattened with sandpaper and with laser using 200 mJ of energy with aspect to the ones flattened with laser using 250 mJ of energy. It was observed that using 'Single Bond' bonding dentin system the marks were statistically superior at 5% of probability with reference to the use of the Prompt-L-Pop adhesive system. So, it was concluded that Er:YAG Laser with 200 mJ of energy produced similar dentin cavity prepare than sandpaper and Single Bond seemed the best bonding agent system between restorative material and dentin. (author)

  12. Comportamento reológico e efeito da temperatura da polpa de pequi em diferentes concentrações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Piancó de Sousa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Apesar do elevado potencial econômico da polpa pequi ainda são escassos os trabalhos sobre suas propriedades físicas utilizadas em projetos e processos industriais. Diante disso, objetivou-se estudar o comportamento reológico da polpa de pequi com diferentes teores de sólidos solúveis totais (6, 8, 10 e 12 °Brix e em diferentes temperaturas (25, 30, 35, 40, 45 e 50 °C. As medidas experimentais foram realizadas em viscosímetro Brookfield e os modelos reológicos de Ostwald-de-Waelle, Herschel-Bulkley e Mizrahi-Berk foram ajustados aos dados experimentais de tensão de cisalhamento e taxa de deformação. Dos modelos reológicos testados, os melhores ajustes foram observados empregando-se o modelo de Mizrahi-Berk. A polpa de pequi apresentou tendência de diminuição da viscosidade aparente com o aumento da taxa de deformação, comportando-se como fluido não newtoniano com características pseudoplásticas.

  13. Otimização do processo de dispersão de nanotubos de carbono em poliuretano termorrígido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnovaldo Carvalho Lopes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Neste trabalho foi desenvolvido um processo empregando misturador de alto cisalhamento e moinho de rolos para dispersar MWCNTs (multiwalled carbon nanotubes puros e modificados em poliol visando a preparação de concentrados de 3% em massa. Condições otimizadas no trabalho permitiram a obtenção de suspensões com menor número e tamanho de agregados de MWCNTs. Compósitos contendo 0,5% em massa de MWCNTs foram preparados por diluição dos concentrados em poliol usando mistura mecânica seguida de cura. Resultados de microscopia indicaram que as melhores dispersões foram obtidas com os MWCNTs modificados, os quais permitiram um aumento na tensão na ruptura, no alongamento e uma melhor preservação da estabilidade térmica. Além disso, valores de condutividade elétrica sugerem que o compósito possa ser empregado para dissipação eletrostática. Dessa forma, os resultados obtidos demonstram que a modificação covalente da superfície dos MWCNTs e a utilização de estratégias eficientes de dispersão são essenciais para melhorar as propriedades finais dos nanocompósitos.

  14. Experimental analysis of ultrasonic signals in air-water vertical upward for void fraction measurement using neural networks; Analise experimental dos sinais ultra-sonicos em escoamentos verticais bifasicos para medicao da fracao de vazios atraves de redes neurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, Milton Y.; Massignan, Joao P.D.; Daciuk, Rafael J.; Neves Junior, Flavio; Arruda, Lucia V.R. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Rheology of emulsion mixtures and void fraction measurements of multiphase flows requires proper instrumentation. Sometimes it is not possible to install this instrumentation inside the pipe or view the flow. Ultrasound technology has characteristics compatible with the requirements of the oil industry. It can assist the production of heavy oil. This study provides important information for an analysis of the feasibility of developing non-intrusive equipment. These probes can be used for measurement of multiphase void fraction and detect the flow pattern using ultrasound. Experiments using simulated upward air-water vertical two-phase flow show that there is a correlation between the acoustic attenuation and the concentration of the gas phase. Experimental data were obtained through the prototype developed for ultrasonic data acquisition. This information was processed and used as input parameters for a neural network classifier. Void fractions ({proportional_to}) were analyzed between 0% - 16%, in increments of 1%. The maximum error of the neural network for the classification of the flow pattern was 6%. (author)

  15. Avaliação cefalométrica das alterações verticais e ântero-posteriores em pacientes Classe II esquelética, tratados com aparelho extrabucal de tração cervical ou combinada Cephalometric evaluation of anteroposterior and vertical changes in skeletal Class II patients treated with cervical or combined traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márlio Vinícius de Oliveira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar cefalometricamente as alterações ântero-posteriores e verticais em pacientes Classe II esquelética (ANB > 5°, tratados com aparelho extrabucal cervical (grupo 1 associado a aparelho fixo do tipo Edgewise ou tratados com aparelho extrabucal de tração combinada (grupo 2 associado ao mesmo. METODOLOGIA: a amostra consistiu-se de 60 radiografias cefalométricas laterais obtidas nas fases pré-tratamento e pós-tratamento de 30 indivíduos leucodermas, sendo 13 do gênero masculino e 17 do feminino. A idade média dos 15 pacientes do grupo 1, no pré-tratamento, era de 10 anos e 7 meses, e no pós-tratamento era de 13 anos e 9 meses. Os 15 pacientes do grupo 2 apresentavam idade média, no pré-tratamento, de 11 anos e 5 meses e no pós-tratamento a idade média era de 14 anos e 9 meses. As medidas cefalométricas iniciais e finais foram analisadas e comparadas pelo teste t de Student. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: não houve alteração significante no padrão de crescimento facial durante o tratamento em nenhum dos grupos avaliados. Nos pacientes do grupo 2, que possuíam tendência de crescimento vertical (GoGn-SN> 36°, o aparelho extrabucal de tração combinada, mesmo não provocando efeito extrusivo sobre os molares superiores, não foi capaz de diminuir o ângulo do plano mandibular. A maxila apresentou uma restrição no seu deslocamento anterior e verticalmente manteve-se estável. A mandíbula expressou seu crescimento e deslocou-se anteriormente, porém manteve sua inclinação inalterada. A relação maxilomandibular apresentou uma melhora significante com redução sensível do ANB.AIM: To evaluate the antero-posterior and vertical changes in patients with skeletal Class II malocclusions (ANB > 5º by means of the cephalometry. The patients had been treated with either cervical traction device (Group 1 or combined traction device (Group 2 both in association with a Edgewise-type device. METHODS: The sample consisted

  16. Vertical market participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrader, Alexander; Martin, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    Firms that operate at both levels of vertically related Cournot oligopolies will purchase some input supplies from independent rivals, even though they can produce the good at a lower cost, driving up input price for nonintegrated firms at the final good level. Foreclosure, which avoids this stra...

  17. Trade elasticity and vertical specialisation

    OpenAIRE

    Ines Buono; Filippo Vergara Caffarelli

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows that vertical specialisation can increase the elasticity of trade to income, hence explaining dramatic events such as the great trade collapse. We argue that a change in the extent of vertical specialisation affects the elasticity of trade to income, while a mere change in global production levels for a given extent of vertical specialisation does not. In the model we show that only large demand shocks induce firms to vary the extent of vertical specialisation. Using panel da...

  18. GPS, su datum vertical.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Dörries

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La introducción de la metodología GPS en aplicaciones topográficas y geodésicas pone en notoria evidencia la clásica separación de sistemas de referencia en horizontal y vertical. Con GPS el posicionamiento es tridimensional, pero el concepto de altura difiere del clásico. Si se desea utilizar la información altimétrica debe contemplarse la ondulación del geoide.

  19. Vertical organic transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100 nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-μm structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted. (topical review)

  20. Hidráulica do escoamento e transporte de sedimentos em sulcos em solo franco-argilo-arenoso Flow hydraulics and sediment transport in rills of a sandy clay loam soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramon Barros Cantalice

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A erosão em sulcos caracteriza-se pelo escoamento superficial concentrado de uma lâmina d'água com tensão de cisalhamento suficiente para desagregar o solo, que deforma o sulco e altera as características hidráulicas do escoamento responsável pela dinâmica de formação dos sulcos. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: avaliar as condições hidráulicas do escoamento em sulcos de erosão, que podem fornecer subsídios importantes às relações de erosão, e determinar as taxas de desagregação do solo, a erodibilidade do solo e a tensão crítica de cisalhamento, além de quantificar o transporte de sedimentos em sulcos por meio de expressões baseadas em variáveis hidráulicas. Para tanto, sulcos foram pré-formados em um solo de textura franco-argilo-arenosa, num campo com declive médio de 0,067 m m-1, e submetidos à aplicação de chuva simulada com intensidade de 74 mm h-1, durante 80 min, tendo sido aplicados nos sulcos, nos últimos 20 min, fluxos extras de escoamento superficial de 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 L min-1. Os resultados mostraram que o regime de escoamento nos sulcos caracterizou-se como sendo de transição subcrítico a turbulento subcrítico. As taxas de desagregação do solo obtidas foram lineares às tensões de cisalhamento desenvolvidas, para uma erodibilidade em sulcos (Kr de 0,0024 kg N-1 s-1 e uma tensão crítica de cisalhamento (tauc de 2,75 Pa. Duas funções baseadas na potência do escoamento foram ajustadas para estimar o transporte de sedimentos nos sulcos de erosão, as quais explicaram 53 % da variação experimental, refletindo não só a dificuldade de ajuste de modelos de estimativa do transporte sólido às lâminas de escoamento pouco espessas que ocorrem nas áreas de cultivo agrícola, mas também a diversidade física e mineralógica das partículas e dos agregados do solo estudado.Rill erosion is characterized by concentrated surface water flow, with enough shear stress and detachment

  1. Fractografia de compósito estrutural aeronáutico submetido ao ensaio de tenacidade à fratura interlaminar em Modo II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Maurício Cândido

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A fractografia consiste no estudo detalhado da morfologia da superfície de fratura de materiais. Para isto, a técnica de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV é usualmente utilizada para determinar a causa de falha e a relação do modo de falha com a microestrutura do material em análise. Essas informações permitem estabelecer analogia entre estrutura, propriedade e processamento do material com a iniciação e a propagação da falha. Neste estudo, a análise fractográfica é utilizada para investigar os aspectos que caracterizaram a falha por delaminação em Modo II de laminados poliméricos de uso estrutural. Para isto, espécimes com um inserto de Teflon® introduzido no plano médio de uma das extremidades do laminado (End-Notched foram submetidos ao ensaio de carregamento em flexão em quatro pontos. Os espécimes foram preparados a partir de um laminado fabricado em autoclave, com camadas (0º, 90º de material pré-impregnado de tecido bidirecional em estilo plain weave de fibras de carbono IM7/resina epóxi M21. Os resultados da análise mostram que a superfície de fratura é muito irregular, com a visualização de fibras e impressões de fibras na matriz. Aspectos fractográficos de cúspides e formatos de concha, originados durante o cisalhamento da matriz polimérica, são também observados.

  2. Direct Observation of Ultralow Vertical Emittance using a Vertical Undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, Kent

    2015-09-17

    In recent work, the first quantitative measurements of electron beam vertical emittance using a vertical undulator were presented, with particular emphasis given to ultralow vertical emittances [K. P. Wootton, et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams, 17, 112802 (2014)]. Using this apparatus, a geometric vertical emittance of 0.9 ± 0.3 pm rad has been observed. A critical analysis is given of measurement approaches that were attempted, with particular emphasis on systematic and statistical uncertainties. The method used is explained, compared to other techniques and the applicability of these results to other scenarios discussed.

  3. Vertical guidance of shearers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mining Engineers have always been aware of the basic need to avoid contamination of the mined product, by controlling the cutting horizon at the coal face. The ability to maintain the optimum cutting horizon results in more effective roof control and ensures a safer and more efficient working environment, for men and machinery. The cost of treatment in the surface coal preparation plant is reduced. Transportation through the total mine system of material finally destined for the spoil heap is minimised. A reduction in product contamination is achieved and makes more effective use of the mine capacity. These benefits make possible significant improvements in productivity and financial returns. Exploitation of micro computer based systems has enabled the successful development of equipment which employs sensors to detect the very low natural gamma radiation from roof strata; to determine and allow control of the position of the cut relative to the roof and floor. This paper reviews the experience gained by the National Coal Board, particularly in South Yorkshire Area, with the vertical steering of ranging drum shearers. It outlines the benefits and considers the future for this technology and its contribution to total coal face automation

  4. Vertical Collective Action: Addressing Vertical Asymmetries in Watershed Management

    OpenAIRE

    Cárdenas, Juan-Camilo; Rodriguez, Luz Angela; Johnson, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Watersheds and irrigation systems have the characteristic of connecting people vertically by water flows. The location of users along these systems defines their role in the provision and appropriation of water which adds complexity to the potential for cooperation. Verticality thus imposes a challenge to collective action. This paper presents the results of field experiments conducted in four watersheds of Colombia (South America) and Kenya (East Africa) to study the role that location plays...

  5. Reference Gene Selection in the Desert Plant <em>Eremosparton songoricuem>m>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao-Yuan Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available <em>Eremosparton songoricum em>(Litv. Vass. (<em>E. songoricumem> is a rare and extremely drought-tolerant desert plant that holds promise as a model organism for the identification of genes associated with water deficit stress. Here, we cloned and evaluated the expression of eight candidate reference genes using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. The expression of these candidate reference genes was analyzed in a diverse set of 20 samples including various <em>E. songoricumem> plant tissues exposed to multiple environmental stresses. GeNorm analysis indicated that expression stability varied between the reference genes in the different experimental conditions, but the two most stable reference genes were sufficient for normalization in most conditions.<em> EsEFem> and <em>Esα-TUB> were sufficient for various stress conditions, <em>EsEF> and <em>EsACT> were suitable for samples of differing germination stages, and <em>EsGAPDH>and <em>Es>UBQ em>were most stable across multiple adult tissue samples. The <em>Es18Sem> gene was unsuitable as a reference gene in our analysis. In addition, the expression level of the drought-stress related transcription factor <em>EsDREB2em>> em>verified the utility of<em> E. songoricumem> reference genes and indicated that no single gene was adequate for normalization on its own. This is the first systematic report on the selection of reference genes in <em>E. songoricumem>, and these data will facilitate future work on gene expression in this species.

  6. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    2016-01-01

    We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between four different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor (headquarter) intensity. Final......-good producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all...... increasing when intermediate-input trade or final-goods trade is liberalised. Finally, we provide guidance for testing the open-economy property rights theory of the firm using firm-level data and surprisingly show that the relationship between factor (headquarter) intensity and the likelihood of vertical...

  7. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  8. Latossolo vermelho-amarelo reforçado com fibras de polipropileno de distribuição aleatória: estudo em laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Pinto da Trindade

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi caracterizar geotecnicamente em laboratório o produto fibrossolo, com vistas a aplicações em obras de engenharia civil. Trabalhou-se com um tipo de solo, de textura argilosa, e pode-se quantificar, experimentalmente, via resultados de ensaios de compressão simples (na energia do ensaio de compactação Proctor Normal, o teor ótimo de fibra. Para esse teor ótimo, foram realizados ensaios triaxiais do tipo CID/Sat em corpos de prova compactados na mesma energia. Através desse trabalho foi possível: (i avaliar a influência do teor de umidade nos parâmetros de resistência mecânica das misturas solo-fibra; (ii avaliar a influência das fibras nos parâmetros de resistência ao cisalhamento do solo em estudo.This paper was directed to the laboratory geotechnical characterization of the material called fibersoil for civil engineering purposes. One soil was used throughout the study, encompassing a clayey soil. Unconfined compression testing data were used to determine the soil optimum fiber content. Fibersoil specimens prepared at the optimum fiber content were tested under triaxial compression (CID/Sat. From the laboratory testing program data it was possible: (i to evaluate the influence of the water content on the mechanical response of the fibersoils; (ii to evaluate the influence of the fibers on the soil shear strength parameters.

  9. Backward integration, forward integration, and vertical foreclosure

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegel, Yossi

    2013-01-01

    I show that partial vertical integration may either alleviates or exacerbate the concern for vertical foreclosure relative to full vertical integration and I examine its implications for consumer welfare.

  10. Coexistence of Strategic Vertical Separation and Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jos

    2003-01-01

    -part tariff, exclusive dealing) contract with its retailer. Coexistence emerges when more than two vertical Cournot oligopolists supply close substitutes. When vertical integration and separation coexist, welfare could be improved by reducing the number of vertically separating firms. The scope...

  11. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Luminescent Property of Cd (II Complex with <em>N-Benzenesulphonyl-L>-leucine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xishi Tai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A new trinuclear Cd (II complex [Cd3(L6(2,2-bipyridine3] [L =<em> Nem>-phenylsulfonyl-L>-leucinato] has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. The results show that the complex belongs to the orthorhombic, space group<em> Pem>212121 with<em> aem> = 16.877(3 Å, <em>b> em>= 22.875(5 Å, <em>c em>= 29.495(6 Å, <em>α> em>= <emem>= <emem>= 90°, <em>V> em>= 11387(4 Å3, <em>Z> em>= 4, <em>Dc>= 1.416 μg·m−3, <emem>= 0.737 mm−1, <em>F> em>(000 = 4992, and final <em>R>1 = 0.0390, <em>ωR>2 = 0.0989. The complex comprises two seven-coordinated Cd (II atoms, with a N2O5 distorted pengonal bipyramidal coordination environment and a six-coordinated Cd (II atom, with a N2O4 distorted octahedral coordination environment. The molecules form one dimensional chain structure by the interaction of bridged carboxylato groups, hydrogen bonds and p-p interaction of 2,2-bipyridine. The luminescent properties of the Cd (II complex and <em>N-Benzenesulphonyl-L>-leucine in solid and in CH3OH solution also have been investigated.

  12. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Properties of Three <em>Actinidia> (<em>Actinidia> <em>kolomikta>, <em>Actinidia argutaem>, <em>Actinidia> <em>chinensis> Extracts <em>in Vitroem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Ren Liu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, vitamin C content, and antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts from different kiwifruit varieties (<em>Actinidia> <em>kolomikta>, <em>Actinidia argutaem>, <em>Actinidia> <em>chinensis> were determined in this study. Multiple scavenging activity assays including the hydroxyl radical, O2·radical, DPPH, and the ABTS+ radical scavenging activity assays were used to identify the antioxidant activities of <em>Actinidia> extracts. The cell viability of HepG2 and HT-29 cells was also examined in this study. The results demonstrated that the <em>Actinidia kolomiktaem> extract had a higher antioxidant activity than the other two <em>Actinidia> extracts. There is a positive correlation between antioxidant activity and the polyphenols and vitamin C content in all three extracts (<em>R>2 ≥ 0.712, <em>p> em>< 0.05. The <em>Actinidia argutaem> extract had the highest inhibitory effect on HepG2 and HT-29 cell growth. These results provide new insight into the health functions of fruit and demonstrate that <em>Actinidia> extracts can potentially have health benefits.

  13. <em>α>-Glucosidase Inhibitory Constituents from <em>Acanthopanax senticosusem> Harm Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Xue Kuang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A new triterpene glycoside, 3-<em>O-[(α>-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2]-[<em>β>-D-glucuronopyranosyl-6-<em>O>-methyl ester]-olean-12-ene-28-olic acid (1 and a new indole alkaloid, 5-methoxy-2-oxoindolin-3-acetic acid methyl ester (5 were isolated from the leaves of <em>Acanthopanax senticosusem> Harms along with six known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined by means of 2D-NMR experiments and chemical methods. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their glycosidase inhibition activities and compound 6 showed significant <em>α>-glucosidase inhibition activity.

  14. Misturas de um solo laterítico com cimento e bentonita para uso em cortinas verticais Mixtures of a lateritic soil with cement and bentonite for slurry wall purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Batista

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available É crescente mundo afora o uso de cortinas verticais para contenção da contaminação em água subterrânea. Os solos lateríticos, pela sua ampla distribuição no Brasil, possuem grande potencial de aplicação nessas obras. Entretanto algumas questões ainda carecem de maior investigação, como a interação e compatibilidade desses solos com a bentonita e o cimento, principais aditivos usados para melhorar as propriedades das cortinas. O presente artigo avalia propriedades de um solo laterítico e suas misturas com bentonita e cimento, incluindo a investigação de parâmetros geotécnicos mecânicos e hidráulicos. A campanha laboratorial consistiu de ensaios de caracterização física, físico-química e mineralógica, de condutividade hidráulica, de compressão simples e de cisalhamento direto. Os resultados demonstram que a adição de 3% de bentonita em amostras compactadas não trouxe a diminuição esperada da condutividade hidráulica do solo laterítico, ainda que tenha proporcionado um considerável incremento na resistência ao cisalhamento da mistura.There is an increasing worldwide demand for slurry walls to contain contaminated groundwater. Lateritic soils, due to their wide distribution in the Brazilian territory, have great potential to be used in these cases. However, some issues remain uncertain and need investigation, including the interaction and compatibility of these soils with bentonite or cement, the most used additives to improve their geotechnical properties. This work evaluates some mechanical and hydraulic properties of a lateritic soil sample and its mixtures with bentonite and cement. The laboratorial procedures consisted of physical, physico-chemical and mineralogical characterization, hydraulic conductivity, uniaxial compression and direct shearing testing. The results demonstrate that the addition of 3% of bentonite in compacted samples did not decrease the hydraulic conductivity of the lateric soil as

  15. Alligning vertical collection relevance with user intent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Ke; Demeester, Thomas; Nguyen, Dong; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Trieschnigg, Dolf

    2014-01-01

    Selecting and aggregating different types of content from multiple vertical search engines is becoming popular in web search. The user vertical intent, the verticals the user expects to be relevant for a particular information need, might not correspond to the vertical collection relevance, the vert

  16. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders

    We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor intensity as observed in data. Final-g...... property rights theory of the firm using firm-level data. Finally, we notice that our model's sorting pattern is in line with recent evidence when the wage difference across countries is not too big.......We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor intensity as observed in data. Final...... increasing when intermediate-input or final-goods trade is liberalised and when the fixed cost of vertical integration is reduced. At the same time, one observes firms that shift away from either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting. Further, we provide guidance for testing the open-economy...

  17. Hybrid Vertical-Cavity Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a light source (2) for light circuits on a silicon platform (3). A vertical laser cavity is formed by a gain region (101) arranged between a top mirror (4) and a bottom grating-mirror (12) in a grating region (11) in a silicon layer (10) on a substrate. A waveguide...

  18. Estruturação "em rosário" dos depósitos de quartzo hidrotermal do Morro do Juá (Gouveia, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Luiz de Sá C. Chaves

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Veios de quartzo hidrotermal ocorrem na área a oeste do Morro do Juá (Gouveia-MG, definindo uma forma típica "em rosário", controlada pela estratigrafia e estruturas da área. Os veios, normalmente zonados, ocorrem em quartzitos grossos da Formação São João da Chapada (Supergrupo Espinhaço, que sobrepõem xistos do Supergrupo Rio Paraúna e são capeados por metabasitos. Apresentam atitudes preferenciais com pólos centralizados em N05ºE/73ºNW e N18ºE/74ºSE, os quais indicam, respectivamente, suas prováveis direções de condução e alojamento. A gênese desses veios condiciona-se à formação de zonas de cisalhamento durante o Ciclo Brasiliano.Hydrothermal quartz veins occur west of the Juá Hill (Gouveia-MG. They form a typical "rosario"- shape structure, which is controlled by the stratigraphy and tectonic setting of the area. The veins are usually zoned and have been observed emplaced in quartzites of the São João da Chapada Formation (Espinhaço Supergroup. The latter covers mica-schists of the Rio Paraúna Supergroup and is overlain by a sill of metabasic rock. Main attitude of the quartz veins (around N05ºE/73ºNW e N18ºE/74ºSE indicate possible conduction direction and emplacement. Genetically these veins are related to the formation of shear zones during the Brasiliano Cycle.

  19. Three New Myrsinol Diterpenes from <em>Euphorbia proliferaem> and Their Neuroprotective Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanqiang Guo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Three new myrsinol diterpenes were isolated from the roots of<em> em>>Euphorbia proliferaem>. Their structures were elucidated as 2<em>α-O>-isobutyryl-3<em>β>,5<em>α>,7<em>β>,10,15<em>β-penta-O>-acetyl-14<em>α-O>-benzoyl-10,18-dihydromyrsinol (1, 2<em>α-O>-isobutyryl-3<em>β-O>-propion-yl-5<em>α>,7<em>β>,10,15<em>β-tetra-O>-acetyl-10,18-dihydromyrsinol (2, and 2<em>α>,14<em>α-di-O>-benzoyl-3<em>β>,5<em>α>,7<em>β>,10,15<em>β-penta-O>-acetyl-10,18-dihydromyrsinol (3 on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses (IR, ESI-MS, HR-ESI-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR. Their neuroprotective activities were evaluated and compounds 1 and 2 showed neuroprotective effects against MPP+-induced neuronal cell death in SH-SY5Y cells.

  20. Brazilian consumers' perception of tenderness of beef steaks classified by shear force and taste Percepção pelos consumidores brasileiros da maciez da carne classificada pela força de cisalhamento e sabor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Francisquine Delgado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of consumer perception of meat tenderness and taste is essential to forecast a Brazilian quality value-based beef market. This study aimed to verify perception of tender (WBSF 4.8 kg strip loin steak or uncharacteristic (calcium-treated/Ca-IM and normal (non-calcium/NO-Ca meat taste by consumers according to gender, age, education and income levels. Steaks were previously classified by shear force measurements as tender or tough. Each consumer was served a paired sample of one tender and of one tough steak, which were either Ca-IM or NO-Ca treated before tenderness classification. Three hundred and eight consumers answered a nine-point intensity (tenderness and hedonic (taste scales evaluation questionnaire. Among consumers, 82.2% indicated beef as first choice meat products, 75.3% had beef at least four times a week; 39.3% considered taste as the most important meat attribute and 30.2% considered tenderness; 75.8% were males; 73.6% were 21 to 55 years old; 56.7% had college education; 76.6% had monthly income higher than US $ 435,00. Tender steaks were scored highest (P O conhecimento da percepção de maciez e sabor da carne bovina pelo consumidor é essencial para vislumbrar um mercado brasileiro que pague por qualidade. Este estudo avaliou a percepção diferenciada de contra-filé macio (WBSF 4.8 kg, ou ainda com sabor não característico (imersão em Ca/ Ca-IM ou normal (sem cálcio/ NO-Ca de acordo com sexo, faixa etária, e nível de escolaridade formal e renda dos consumidores. Os bifes foram pareados em amostras macia/dura e Ca-IM/NO-Ca, e servidos a 308 consumidores que responderam a um questionário apresentando escalas de intensidade (maciez e hedônica (sabor de nove pontos. O perfil dos consumidores mostrava que: 82,2% indicaram carne bovina como sua primeira escolha entre as carnes; 75,3% consumiam carne bovina pelo menos quatro vezes por semana; 39,3% consideravam sabor como o atributo mais importante durante o

  1. Estimating vertical and lateral pressures in periodically structured montmorillonite clay particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A. Narsilio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Given a montmorillonitic clay soil at high porosity and saturated by monovalent counterions, we investigate the particle level responses of the clay to different external loadings. As analytical solutions are not possible for complex arrangements of particles, we employ computational micromechanical models (based on the solution of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations using the finite element method, to estimate counterion and electrical potential distributions for particles at various angles and distances from one another. We then calculate the disjoining pressures using the Van't Hoff relation and Maxwell stress tensor. As the distance between the clay particles decreases and double-layers overlap, the concentration of counterions in the micropores among clay particles increases. This increase lowers the chemical potential of the pore fluid and creates a chemical potential gradient in the solvent that generates the socalled 'disjoining' or 'osmotic' pressure. Because of this disjoining pressure, particles do not need to contact one another in order to carry an 'effective stress'. This work may lead towards theoretical predictions of the macroscopic load deformation response of montmorillonitic soils based on micromechanical modelling of particles.Dada uma argila montmorilonítica de alta porosidade e saturada por counteríons monovalentes, investigamos as respostas da argila ao nível de partículas para diferentes cargas externas. Como soluções analíticas não são possíveis para arranjos complexos de partículas, empregamos modelos computacionais micro-mecânicos (baseados na solução das equações de Poisson-Nernst-Planck, utilizando o método de elementos finitos, para estimar counteríons e distribuições de potencial elétrico para partículas em diversos ângulos e distâncias uma da outra. Nós então calculamos as pressões de separação usando a relação de Van't Hoff e a tensão de cisalhamento de Maxwell. À medida que a

  2. INTERNATIONAL SPECIALIZATION AND VERTICAL DIFFERENTIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furia Donatella

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, market segmentation and intra-industry trade have become increasingly relevant. The underlying hypothesis of our work is that distinct articles have heterogeneous potential for vertical differentiation, implying that different patterns of international specialization should be identifiable. We carry out an analysis on revealed comparative advantage (through the Lafay Index in specific sectors of interest. Then we highlight the emergence of diverse degrees of product quality differentiation among sectors (through the Relative Quality Index. Results confirm our hypothesis. Indeed it appears that only certain goods, for which the pace of either creative or technological innovation (or both is particularly fast, present a high degree of vertical differentiation and market segmentation. This allows countries to specialize in a particular product variety and gain market power position for that variety. These findings should be taken in due consideration when designing trade policies.

  3. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The exploration of the vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. The consortium has submitted over 25 different designs for the Fermilab organized MPW run organized for the first time.

  4. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattione, Paul [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  5. Strategic Inventories in Vertical Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan Anand; Ravi Anupindi; Yehuda Bassok

    2008-01-01

    Classical reasons for carrying inventory include fixed (nonlinear) production or procurement costs, lead times, nonstationary or uncertain supply/demand, and capacity constraints. The last decade has seen active research in supply chain coordination focusing on the role of incentive contracts to achieve first-best levels of inventory. An extensive literature in industrial organization that studies incentives for vertical controls largely ignores the effect of inventories. Does the ability to ...

  6. NASA-Ames vertical gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    A national facility, the NASA-Ames vertical gun range (AVGR) has an excellent reputation for revealing fundamental aspects of impact cratering that provide important constraints for planetary processes. The current logistics in accessing the AVGR, some of the past and ongoing experimental programs and their relevance, and the future role of this facility in planetary studies are reviewed. Publications resulting from experiments with the gun (1979 to 1984) are listed as well as the researchers and subjects studied.

  7. Vertical axis wind turbine acoustics

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Charlie

    2014-01-01

    Increasing awareness of the issues of climate change and sustainable energy use has led to growing levels of interest in small-scale, decentralised power generation. Small-scale wind power has seen significant growth in the last ten years, partly due to the political support for renewable energy and the introduction of Feed In Tariffs, which pay home owners for generating their own electricity. Due to their ability to respond quickly to changing wind conditions, small-scale vertical axis...

  8. Industrial Chain: Industrial Vertical Definition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YifeiDu; GuojunJiang; ShimingLi

    2004-01-01

    Like value chain and supply chain, “industrial chain” becomes the focus of attention. The implication of “industrial chain” has gained a large range of extension. It not only expresses the industrial “chain” structure and relationship of “back and forward”in order or “up and down” in direction, but also it represents a cluster of large scale of firms in an area or colony. It is a network, or a community. Consequently, we conclude that “industrial chain” is a synthesis of industrial chain, industrial cluster, or industrial network.In this article, firstly we will distinguish industry chain from industry. An industry is the collection of firms that have the same attribute, so an industry can be defined by firm collection of certain attribute. We indicate that industrial chain is a kind of vertical and orderly industrial link. It is defined according to a series of specific product or service created. Secondly we analyze the vertical orderly defiinition process from the aspects of social division of labor and requirement division, self-organization system, and value analysis.Non-symmetry and depending on system or community of large scale of industrial units lead to entire industry to “orderly” structure. On the other hand, the draught of diversity and complexity of requirement simultaneously lead to entire industry to be more “orderly”. Along with processes of self-organization, industrial will appi'oach the state of more orderly and steady, and constantly make industrial chain upgrade. Each firm or unit, who will gain the value, has to establish channels of value, which we called “industrial value chain”. Lastly,we discuss the consequence of vertical and orderly definition, which is exhibited by a certain relationship body. The typical forms of industrial chain include industrial cluster, strategy alliance and vertical integration etc.

  9. Poligonación Vertical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Dörries

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La poligonación vertical es un método de medición de diferencias de altura que aprovecha las posibilidades de las estaciones totales. Se presta fundamentalmente para líneas de nivelación entre nodos formando red. El nombre se debe a que las visuales sucesivas se proyectan sobre aristas verticales en lugar de un plano horizontal, como ocurre en la poligonación convencional.

  10. Neonatal Phosphate Nutrition Alters <em>in em>Vivo> and <em>in em>Vitro> Satellite Cell Activity in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad H. Stahl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite cell activity is necessary for postnatal skeletal muscle growth. Severe phosphate (PO4 deficiency can alter satellite cell activity, however the role of neonatal PO4 nutrition on satellite cell biology remains obscure. Twenty-one piglets (1 day of age, 1.8 ± 0.2 kg BW were pair-fed liquid diets that were either PO4 adequate (0.9% total P, supra-adequate (1.2% total P in PO4 requirement or deficient (0.7% total P in PO4 content for 12 days. Body weight was recorded daily and blood samples collected every 6 days. At day 12, pigs were orally dosed with BrdU and 12 h later, satellite cells were isolated. Satellite cells were also cultured <em>in vitroem> for 7 days to determine if PO4 nutrition alters their ability to proceed through their myogenic lineage. Dietary PO4 deficiency resulted in reduced (<em>P> < 0.05 sera PO4 and parathyroid hormone (PTH concentrations, while supra-adequate dietary PO4 improved (<em>P> < 0.05 feed conversion efficiency as compared to the PO4 adequate group. <em>In vivoem> satellite cell proliferation was reduced (<em>P> < 0.05 among the PO4 deficient pigs, and these cells had altered <em>in vitroem> expression of markers of myogenic progression. Further work to better understand early nutritional programming of satellite cells and the potential benefits of emphasizing early PO4 nutrition for future lean growth potential is warranted.

  11. [Vertical fractures: apropos of 2 clinical cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix Mañes Ferrer, J; Micò Muñoz, P; Sánchez Cortés, J L; Paricio Martín, J J; Miñana Laliga, R

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the study is to present a clinical review of the vertical root fractures. Two clinical cases are presented to demonstrates the criteria for obtaining a correct diagnosis of vertical root fractures. PMID:1659859

  12. [Vertical fractures: apropos of 2 clinical cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix Mañes Ferrer, J; Micò Muñoz, P; Sánchez Cortés, J L; Paricio Martín, J J; Miñana Laliga, R

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the study is to present a clinical review of the vertical root fractures. Two clinical cases are presented to demonstrates the criteria for obtaining a correct diagnosis of vertical root fractures.

  13. Constituents from <em>Vigna em>vexillata> and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Feng Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of <em>Vigna em>genus are important food resources and there have already been many reports regarding their bioactivities. In our preliminary bioassay, the chloroform layer of methanol extracts of<em> V. vexillata em>demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory bioactivity. Therefore, the present research is aimed to purify and identify the anti-inflammatory principles of <em>V. vexillataem>. One new sterol (1 and two new isoflavones (2,3 were reported from the natural sources for the first time and their chemical structures were determined by the spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. In addition, 37 known compounds were identified by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Among the isolates, daidzein (23, abscisic acid (25, and quercetin (40 displayed the most significant inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release.

  14. Vertically aligned nanostructure scanning probe microscope tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillorn, Michael A.; Ilic, Bojan; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2006-12-19

    Methods and apparatus are described for cantilever structures that include a vertically aligned nanostructure, especially vertically aligned carbon nanofiber scanning probe microscope tips. An apparatus includes a cantilever structure including a substrate including a cantilever body, that optionally includes a doped layer, and a vertically aligned nanostructure coupled to the cantilever body.

  15. Aspectos Tectônicos das Intrusões dos Granitos do Cerne, Passa Três e Rio Abaixo, Sudeste do Pré-cambriano Paranaense. Estudo Baseado em Datações 39Ar-40Ar em Micas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Fadel Cury

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Os stocks graníticos do Cerne, Passa Três e Rio Abaixo são representados por corpos elípticos, alongados segundo NE-SW(granitos do Cerne e Passa Três e com formas “ovóides” (Granito Rio Abaixo, intrusivos nas seqüências metavulcanossedimentaresda porção sudeste do Cinturão Ribeira, no Estado do Paraná. Esses corpos são representados principalmente por biotitasienogranitos,monzogranitos e quartzo-sienitos porfiríticos, com megacristais de microclínio, isótropos ou com foliação de fluxomagmático, podendo apresentar termos deformados em regiões restritas às zonas de contato. Mostram afinidades petrológicas,geoquímicas e geocronológicas, com características semelhantes aos granitos tipo-A, porém, enriquecidos em Ba, Sr e Zr. Análises40Ar-39Ar em biotitas do Granito do Cerne indicaram idade integrada de 557 ± 2 Ma, valor este relativamente próximo à idade decristalizaç��o dos zircões de aproximadamente 563 Ma, definida por Cury (2003. Determinações 40Ar-39Ar obtidas em rochasencaixantes (muscovitas xistos das vizinhanças do Granito do Cerne apresentam idades mais antigas (800-1200 Ma, o quepermite concluir que a intrusão do granito, bem como o evento metamórfico regional ocorrido durante o Ciclo Brasiliano, nãoatingiram temperaturas suficientes para apagar o registro isotópico das muscovitas (T < 300oC. Os stocks graníticos do Cerne,Passa Três e Rio Abaixo representam magmatismo tardi-orogênico no contexto das deformações presentes no Domínio Apiaí eao arco-magmático Três Córregos-Cunhaporanga (630-590 Ma, relacionado aos estágios finais de transpressão, onde suacolocação é intimamente associada às zonas de cisalhamento transcorrente e desenvolvimento das grandes antiformas e sinformas.Tal período (Proterozóico Superior/Cambriano representa um importante marco na região, associado aos ajustes finais relacionadosà aglutinação do Supercontinente Gondwana.

  16. The Antimicrobial Efficacy of <em>Elaeis guineensisem>: Characterization, <em>in Vitroem> and <em>in Vivoem> Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The urgent need to treat multi-drug resistant pathogenic microorganisms in chronically infected patients has given rise to the development of new antimicrobials from natural resources. We have tested <em>Elaeis guineensis em>Jacq> em>(Arecaceae methanol extract against a variety of bacterial, fungal and yeast strains associated with infections. Our studies have demonstrated that <em>E. guineensisem> exhibits excellent antimicrobial activity <em>in vitroem> and <em>in vivoem> against the bacterial and fungal strains tested. A marked inhibitory effect of the <em>E. guineensisem> extracts was observed against <em>C. albicansem> whereby <em>E. guineensisem> extract at ½, 1, or 2 times the MIC significantly inhibited <em>C. albicansem> growth with a noticeable drop in optical density (OD of the bacterial culture. This finding confirmed the anticandidal activity of the extract on <em>C. albicansem>. Imaging using scanning (SEM and transmission (TEM electron microscopy was done to determine the major alterations in the microstructure of the extract-treated <em>C. albicansem>. The main abnormalities noted via SEM and TEM studies were the alteration in morphology of the yeast cells. <em>In vivoem> antimicrobial activity was studies in mice that had been inoculated with <em>C. albicansem> and exhibited good anticandidal activity. The authors conclude that the extract may be used as a candidate for the development of anticandidal agent.<em> em>

  17. Evaluation of Pseudopteroxazole and Pseudopterosin Derivatives against <em>Mycobacterium> <em>tuberculosis> and Other Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm W. B. McCulloch

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudopterosins and pseudopteroxazole are intriguing marine natural products that possess notable antimicrobial activity with a commensurate lack of cytotoxicity. New semi-synthetic pseudopteroxazoles, pseudopteroquinoxalines and pseudopterosin congeners along with simple synthetic mimics of the terpene skeleton were synthesized. In order to build structure-activity relationships, a set of 29 new and previously reported compounds was assessed for <em>in> <em>vitro> antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. A number of congeners exhibited antimicrobial activity against a range of Gram-positive bacteria including <em>Mycobacterium> <em>tuberculosis> H37Rv, with four displaying notable antitubercular activity against both replicating and non-replicating persistent forms of <em>M.> <em>tuberculosis>. One new semi-synthetic compound, 21-((1<em>H>-imidazol-5-ylmethyl-pseudopteroxazole (7a, was more potent than the natural products pseudopterosin and pseudopteroxazole and exhibited equipotent activity against both replicating and non-replicating persistent forms of <em>M.> <em>tuberculosis> with a near absence of <em>in> <em>vitro> cytotoxicity. Pseudopteroxazole also exhibited activity against strains of <em>M.> <em>tuberculosis> H37Rv resistant to six clinically used antibiotics.

  18. Convection in a vertical channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisserand, J-C; Creyssels, M; Gibert, M; Castaing, B; Chilla, F, E-mail: Francesca.Chilla@ens-lyon.f [Universite de Lyon, ENS Lyon, UMR 5672 CNRS, 46 Allee d' Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 7 (France)

    2010-07-15

    The flow generated by heat convection in a long, vertical channel is studied by means of particle imagery velocimetry techniques, with the help of the thermal measurements from a previous paper (Gibert et al 2009 Phys. Fluids 21 035109). We analyse the mean velocity profiles and the Reynolds stresses, and compare the present results with the previous ones obtained in a larger cell and at a larger Reynolds number. We calculate the horizontal temperature profile and the related horizontal heat flux. The pertinence of effective turbulent diffusivity and viscosity is confirmed by the low value of the associated mixing length. We study the one-point and two-point statistics of both velocity components. We show how the concept of turbulent viscosity explains the relations between the local probability density functions (pdf) of fluctuations for temperature, vertical and horizontal velocity components. Despite the low Reynolds number values explored, some conclusions can be drawn about the small scale velocity differences and the related energy cascade.

  19. Efficient Heterologous Transformation of <em>Chlamydomonas> reinhardtiiem> <em>npq2em> Mutant with the Zeaxanthin Epoxidase Gene Isolated and Characterized from<em> Chlorella zofingiensisem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Rodríguez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the violaxanthin cycle, the violaxanthin de-epoxidase and zeaxanthin epoxidase catalyze the inter-conversion between violaxanthin and zeaxanthin in both plants and green algae. The zeaxanthin epoxidase gene from the green microalga <em>Chlorella zofingiensisem> (<em>Czzep> has been isolated<em>. em>This gene encodes a polypeptide of 596 amino acids. A single copy of <em>Czzep> has been found in the <em>C. zofingiensisem> genome by Southern blot analysis. qPCR analysis has shown that transcript levels of <em>Czzep> were increased after zeaxanthin formation under high light conditions. The functionality of <em>Czzep> gene by heterologous genetic complementation in the <em>Chlamydomonas> mutant <em>npq2em>, which lacks zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP activity and accumulates zeaxanthin in all conditions, was analyzed. The <em>Czzep> gene was adequately inserted in the pSI105 vector and expressed in <em>npq2em>. The positive transformants were able to efficiently convert zeaxanthin into violaxanthin, as well as to restore their maximum quantum efficiency of the PSII (Fv/Fm. These results show that <em>Chlamydomonas> can be an efficient tool for heterologous expression and metabolic engineering for biotechnological applications.

  20. Dermatoses em renais cronicos em terapia dialitica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Batista Peres

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: As desordens cutâneas e das mucosas são comuns em pacientes em hemodiálise a longo prazo. A diálise prolonga a expectativa de vida, dando tempo para a manifestação destas anormalidades. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a prevalência de problemas dermatológicos em pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC em hemodiálise. Métodos: Cento e quarenta e cinco pacientes com doença renal crônica em hemodiálise foram estudados. Todos os pacientes foram completamente analisados para as alterações cutâneas, de cabelos, mucosas e unhas por um único examinador e foram coletados dados de exames laboratoriais. Os dados foram armazenados em um banco de dados do Microsolft Excel e analisados por estatística descritiva. As variáveis contínuas foram comparadas pelo teste t de Student e as variáveis categóricas utilizando o teste do qui-quadrado ou o teste Exato de Fischer, conforme adequado. Resultados: O estudo incluiu 145 pacientes, com idade média de 53,6 ± 14,7 anos, predominantemente do sexo masculino (64,1% e caucasianos (90,0%. O tempo médio de diálise foi de 43,3 ± 42,3 meses. As principais doenças subjacentes foram: hipertensão arterial em 33,8%, diabetes mellitus em 29,6% e glomerulonefrite crônica em 13,1%. As principais manifestações dermatológicas observadas foram: xerose em 109 (75,2%, equimose em 87 (60,0%, prurido em 78 (53,8% e lentigo em 33 (22,8% pacientes. Conclusão: O nosso estudo mostrou a presença de mais do que uma dermatose por paciente. As alterações cutâneas são frequentes em pacientes em diálise. Mais estudos são necessários para melhor caracterização e manejo destas dermatoses.

  1. Bioassay-Guided Isolation and Identification of Cytotoxic Compounds from <em>Gymnosperma> <em>glutinosum> Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rodríguez-Padilla

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay-guided fractionation of hexane extracts of<em> Gymnosperma glutinosumem> (Asteraceae leaves, collected in North Mexico, afforded the known compounds hentriacontane (1 and (+-13<em>S>,14<em>R>,15-trihydroxy-<em>ent>-labd-7-ene (2, as well as the new <em>ent>-labdane diterpene (−-13<em>S>,14<em>R>,15-trihydroxy-7-oxo-<em>ent>-labd-8(9-ene (3. In addition, D-glycero-D-galactoheptitol (4 was isolated from the methanolic extract of this plant. Their structures were established on the basis of high-field 1D- and 2D NMR methods supported by HR-MS data. The cytotoxic activity was determined by using the <em>in vitroem> L5178Y-R lymphoma murine model. Hentriacontane (1 and the new <em>ent>-labdane 3 showed weak cytotoxicity, whereas the <em>ent>-labdane 2 showed significant (<em>p> < 0.05 and concentration dependent cytotoxicity (up to 78% against L5178Y-R cells at concentrations ranging from 7.8 to 250 µg/mL.

  2. Perfil de ácidos graxos de cadeia longa e qualidade da carne de novilhos terminados em confinamento com diferentes níveis de monensina sódica na dieta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes Luís Fernando Glasenapp de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a composição química e a qualidade da carne de 48 novilhos das raças Charolês, Nelore e suas cruzas, terminados em confinamento, recebendo à vontade uma dieta com 52% de silagem de milho e 48% de concentrado, adicionada com 0, 100 ou 200mg/dia de monensina sódica, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado. A dieta apresentou 12,3% de proteína bruta e 58,3% de fibra em detergente neutro. A monensina foi fornecida misturada com o concentrado. A adição da monensina não alterou o teor de matéria seca, de proteína bruta e de extrato etéreo do músculo Longissimus dorsi dos animais (P>0,05, assim como não influenciou a perda de líquidos durante o descongelamento ou à cocção, a força de cisalhamento, a maciez, a cor e o marmoreio (P>0,05. No entanto, a palatabilidade e suculência diminuíram linearmente com a inclusão de monensina na dieta (P0,05, mas aumentou linearmente o teor dos isômeros cis e trans do oleato (C18:1 n9c e C18:1 n9t. Embora tenha aumentado o teor destes ácidos graxos insaturados específicos, a adição da monensina diminuiu a qualidade da carne dos animais, principalmente por palatabilidade e à suculência.

  3. Reference Gene Selection in the Desert Plant <em>Eremosparton songoricuem>m>

    OpenAIRE

    Dao-Yuan Zhang; Yuan-Ming Zhang; Wood, Andrew J.; Xiao-Shuang Li; Hong-Lan Yang

    2012-01-01

    <em>Eremosparton songoricum em>(Litv.) Vass. (<em>E. songoricumem>) is a rare and extremely drought-tolerant desert plant that holds promise as a model organism for the identification of genes associated with water deficit stress. Here, we cloned and evaluated the expression of eight candidate reference genes using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. The expression of these candidate reference genes was analyzed in a diverse set...

  4. Precise determination of muon and EM shower contents from shower universality property

    CERN Document Server

    Yushkov, A; Aramo, C; D'Urso, D; Guarino, F; Valore, L

    2011-01-01

    We present two new aspects of Extensive Air Shower (EAS) development universality allowing to make accurate estimation of muon and electromagnetic (EM) shower contents in two independent ways. In the first case, to get muon (or EM) signal in water Cherenkov detectors it is enough to know the vertical depth of shower maximum and the total signal. In the second case, the EM signal can be calculated from the primary particle energy and the zenith angle. In both cases the parameterizations of muon and EM signals are almost independent on primary particle nature, energy and zenith angle.

  5. Vertical distribution of sediment concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sai-hua HUANG; Zhi-lin SUN; Dan XU; Shan-shan XIA

    2008-01-01

    A simple formula is proposed to predict the vertical distribution of a suspended load concentration in a 2D steady turbulent flow.The proposed formula significantly improves the well-known Rouse formula where sediment concentration has an infinitely large value at the channel bottom and a zero value at the water surface.Based on this formula and the logarithmic ve-locity profile,a theoretical elementary function for the transport rate of a suspended load is developed.This equation improves the Einstein equation in which the unit-width suspended sediment discharge must be solved by numerical integration and a contra-diction between the lower limit of the integral and that of velocity distribution exists.

  6. Competitive avoidance not edaphic specialization drives vertical niche partitioning among sister species of ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujic, Alija B; Durall, Daniel M; Spatafora, Joseph W; Kennedy, Peter G

    2016-02-01

    Soil depth partitioning is thought to promote the diversity of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal communities, but little is known about whether it is controlled by abiotic or biotic factors. In three bioassay experiments, we tested the role of vertical soil heterogeneity in determining the distributions and competitive outcomes of the EM sister species Rhizopogon vinicolor and Rhizopogon vesiculosus. We planted Pseudotsuga menziesii seedlings into soils that were either a homogenized mix of upper and lower depths or vertically stratified combinations mimicking natural field conditions. We found that both species colonized the upper or lower soil depths in the absence of competition, suggesting that their distributions were not limited by abiotic edaphic factors. In competition within homogeneous soils, R. vesiculosus completely excluded colonization by R. vinicolor, but R. vinicolor was able to persist when soils were stratified. The amount of colonization by R. vinicolor in the stratified soils was also significantly correlated with the number of multilocus genotypes present. Taken together, our findings suggest that the differential vertical distributions of R. vinicolor and R. vesiculosus in natural settings are probably attributable to competition rather than edaphic specialization, but that soil heterogeneity may play a key role in promoting EM fungal diversity. PMID:26391726

  7. Antimicrobial Activity of Geranium Oil against Clinical Strains<em> em>of <em>Staphylococcus aureusem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sienkiewicz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the antibacterial properties of geranium oil obtained from <em>Pelargonium graveolensem> Ait. (family <em>Geraniaceae>, against one standard <em>S. aureus em>strain ATCC 433000 and seventy clinical <em>S. aureusem> strains. The agar dilution method was used for assessment of bacterial growth inhibition at various concentrations of geranium oil. Susceptibility testing of the clinical strains to antibiotics was carried out using the disk-diffusion and E-test methods. The results of our experiment showed that the oil from <em>P. graveolensem> has strong activity against all of the clinical <em>S. aureusem> isolates—including multidrug resistant strains, MRSA strains and MLSB-positive strains—exhibiting MIC values of 0.25–2.50 μL/mL.

  8. International EMS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhelle, Audun; Lossius, Hans Morten; Silfvast, Tom;

    2004-01-01

    is the only country that has emergency medicine (EM) as a recognised speciality but there is a need for more fully trained specialists in EM; (4) Norway: the ordinary ground ambulance is pointed out as the weakest link in the EM chain and a health reform demands extensive co-operation between the new health...

  9. Efeitos do grau de cozimento na qualidade de cortes de Supraspinatus acondicionado a vácuo em embalagem cook-in Effects of cooking degree on quality of vacuum-packed Supraspinatus cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Gonçalves

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o efeito do grau de cozimento na cor, perda de peso e força de cisalhamento em cortes no músculo Supraspinatus. Os músculos foram excisados de 18 meias-carcaças de Nelore e pesados antes e após retirada do excesso de tecido conjuntivo externo para cálculo de rendimento (porção comestível. Em cada corte foram medidos o pH final e a cor, fazendo-se, individualmente, o acondicionamento em embalagens tipo cook-in. O cozimento foi feito em tacho com água observando-se as temperaturas internas finais (ponto frio correspondentes ao cozimento "mal-passado", "ao ponto" e "bem-passado" e tempos de cozimento estimados, previamente, para promover a pasteurização (respectivamente, 60-62 ºC/300min, 70-72 ºC/120min. e 75-77 ºC/90min. Para cada tratamento foram destinados 6 músculos de pesos similares. Os dados obtidos indicam que a cor produto "mal-passado" foi ligeiramente mais vermelha que a do produto "ao ponto", mas o produto "bem-passado" foi fortemente afetado pelo tratamento. Como era esperado, o produto "bem-passado" apresentou maior perda de peso na cocção em relação aos produtos "ao ponto" e "mal-passado" (34,07, 24,83, e 21,66%, respectivamente. Os valores da força de cisalhamento aumentaram do produto "malpassado" para o "bem-passado" (4,71, 5,57, e 6,03kgf, respectivamente, sendo o "mal-passado" classificado como macio.The effects of the degree of cooking on color, cooking weight loss and shear force of beef supraspinatus muscle was evaluated. The muscles were extracted from eighteen Nellore carcasses sides without trimming. Each muscle was weighed before and after trimming to estimate the yield. The ultimate pH and color were achieved in the fresh cuts. The cuts were individually vacuum packed into cook-in bags and placed in a water bath in order to obtain the rare, medium and welldone final temperatures (coldest point and pasteurized products. Each treatment was performed on groups of six muscles of similar

  10. Interferência dos diferentes glazeamentos na colagem de bráquetes ortodônticos em superfícies cerâmicas Effects of the different glazed ceramic surfaces on the bond of orthodontic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C Dalvi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas diferentes formas de glazeamento da superfície de porcelana quanto à resistência ao cisalhamento de bráquetes metálicos colados com diferentes cimentos. Quarenta e dois corpos de prova de metalocerâmica foram confeccionados (2 controles e divididos em quatro grupos de acordo com o tipo de glazeamento, com camada extra de glaze (G ou auto-glazeados (AG, e o cimento utilizado, resina fotopolimerizável (r ou ionômero de vidro resinosos (i, formando os seguintes grupos: Gr, Gi, AGr e AGi com 10 corpos de prova cada grupo. Todas as superfícies dos corpos de prova receberam tratamento com ácido fosfórico 35% por 30 s seguidos de uma camada de silano. Quarenta bráquetes metálicos foram colados. Os corpos de prova foram submetidos a termociclagem e ao teste de resistência ao cisalhamento com uma máquina universal de ensaios mecânicos. Uma amostra de cada grupo após descolagem, remoção da resina e polimento, foi avaliado em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. O índice de fratura coesiva da porcelana foi também avaliado. Os resultados mostram valores acima da média aceitável na literatura para todos os grupos, sendo que o grupo AGr apresentou valor menor (10,38 MPa e estatisticamente significativo em relação aos demais. A análise no microscópio eletrônico de varredura mostrou que as superfícies, após polimento, não readquirem as características de antes da colagem, apesar de se apresentarem aceitáveis clinicamente. Houve fratura da porcelana em todos os grupos. Conclui-se que é possível se conseguir colagem adequada de bráquetes metálicos em superfícies metalocerâmicas auto-glazeadas e com camada extra de glaze, preservando-o, não necessitando reconhecer previamente a forma de glazeamento.Different glazing techniques for porcelain surface were evaluated in terms of shear bond strength of metallic brackets bonded with different cements. Forty-two metal-ceramic samples were made (2 controls and then

  11. EM International. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  12. On Vertical Relations and Technology Adoption Timing

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Alipranti; Chrysovalantou Miliou; Emmanuel Petrakis

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how vertical relations influence the timing of new technology adoption. It shows that both the bargaining power distribution among the vertically related firms and the contract type through which vertical trading is conducted affect crucially the speed of adoption: the downstream firms can adopt later a new technology when the upstream bargaining power increases as well as when wholesale price contracts, instead of two-part tariffs, are employed. Importantly, it shows that...

  13. Surface tension profiles in vertical soap films

    OpenAIRE

    Adami, N.; Caps, H.

    2013-01-01

    Surface tension profiles in vertical soap films are experimentally investigated. Measurements are performed introducing deformable elastic objets in the films. The shape adopted by those objects set in the film can be related to the surface tension value at a given vertical position by numerical solving of adapted elasticity equations. We show that the observed dependency of the surface tension versus the vertical position in the soap film can be reproduced by simple modeling taking into acco...

  14. Turbulence in vertical axis wind turbine canopies

    OpenAIRE

    Kinzel, Matthias; Araya, Daniel B.; Dabiri, John O.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental results from three different full scale arrays of vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) under natural wind conditions are presented. The wind velocities throughout the turbine arrays are measured using a portable meteorological tower with seven, vertically staggered, three-component ultrasonic anemometers. The power output of each turbine is recorded simultaneously. The comparison between the horizontal and vertical energy transport for the different turbine array sizes shows the i...

  15. The green building envelope: vertical greening

    OpenAIRE

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve the environment in urban areas and is becoming a key design consideration in modern building developments. Vertical greening of structures offers large surfaces with vegetation and at the same time...

  16. Surface tension profiles in vertical soap films

    CERN Document Server

    Adami, N

    2013-01-01

    Surface tension profiles in vertical soap films are experimentally investigated. Measurements are performed introducing deformable elastic objets in the films. The shape adopted by those objects set in the film can be related to the surface tension value at a given vertical position by numerical solving of adapted elasticity equations. We show that the observed dependency of the surface tension versus the vertical position in the soap film can be reproduced by simple modeling taking into account film thickness measurements.

  17. On the Vertical Gradient in CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stine, A. R.; Fung, I. Y.

    2008-12-01

    Attempts to constrain surface fluxes of carbon from atmospheric measurements of carbon dioxide have primarily focused on surface boundary layer measurements, because information about surface fluxes is least diluted close to the locations where the fluxes occur. However, errors in model ventilation of air in the vertical can be misinterpreted as local surface fluxes. Satellites which measure column integrated CO2 are expected to represent a major advance in part because they observe the entire atmospheric column. Recent work has highlighted the fact that vertical gradients in carbon concentrations can give us information about where vertical mixing errors are likely to be misinterpreted as local surface fluxes, but passive tracer evidence suggests that models that capture vertical profiles on the ocean do poorly on the land (and vice versa), suggesting that the problem of correctly treating vertical mixing in inverse studies is more fundamental than picking the "best" model. We consider observations of the vertical gradient in CO2 from aircrafts and from a comparison of satellites that observe in the near infrared (which observe the column integrated CO2 field) and the thermal infrared (which observe the upper troposphere). We evaluate the feasibility of using these satellites for determining the vertical gradient in CO2. We examine how observations of the vertical gradient of CO2 allow us to differentiate the imprint of vertical mixing and the imprint in surface fluxes on the observed field of atmospheric CO2.

  18. The fundamental formulas for vertices of convex hull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kazi Salimullah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents four formulas for solution of convex hull problem. It aims to analyze how many points are vertices out of total input points, how many vertices lie on a horizontal or vertical lines, position of vertices and number of vertices on lower and higher lines(horizontal or vertical.

  19. New Trifluoromethyl Triazolopyrimidines as Anti-<em>Plasmodium> <em>falciparum> Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Boechat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization, half of the World’s population, approximately 3.3 billion people, is at risk for developing malaria. Nearly 700,000 deaths each year are associated with the disease. Control of the disease in humans still relies on chemotherapy. Drug resistance is a limiting factor, and the search for new drugs is important. We have designed and synthesized new 2-(trifluoromethyl[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-<em>a>]pyrimidine derivatives based on bioisosteric replacement of functional groups on the anti-malarial compounds mefloquine and amodiaquine. This approach enabled us to investigate the impact of: (i ring bioisosteric replacement; (ii a CF3 group substituted at the 2-position of the [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-<em>a>]pyrimidine scaffold and (iii a range of amines as substituents at the 7-position of the of heterocyclic ring; on <em>in vitroem> activity against <em>Plasmodium falciparumem>. According to docking simulations, the synthesized compounds are able to interact with <em>P. falciparumem> dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (<em>Pf>DHODH through strong hydrogen bonds. The presence of a trifluoromethyl group at the 2-position of the [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-<em>a>]pyrimidine ring led to increased drug activity. Thirteen compounds were found to be active, with IC50 values ranging from 0.023 to 20 µM in the anti-HRP2 and hypoxanthine assays. The selectivity index (SI of the most active derivatives 5, 8, 11 and 16 was found to vary from 1,003 to 18,478.

  20. A method for the morphometric identification of southern Italian populations of <em>Apodemus> (<em>Sylvaemus>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Panzironi

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study of morphological and morphometric characteristics of <em>Apodemus> (<em>Sylvaemus> <em>sylvaticus> and <em>A.> (<em>S.> <em>flavicollis> is examined in this paper. The examined specimens were living in sympatry and allopatry in two Mediterranean habitat-types (a long-trunked forest and a cultivated treed field in southern Italy. Through discriminant analysis, trends of skull measurements (which characterize the different situations of co-presence and/or absence of the two sibling species are examined. Isometric dental measurements best discriminate the examined populations. Possible causal factors which could affect discriminant measures are discussed. Riassunto Un metodo per la discriminazione morfometrica in popolazioni di <em>Apodemus> (<em>Sylvaemus> dell'Italia meridionale - In questo studio preliminare sono state prese in esame le caratteristiche morfologiche e morfometriche di <em>Apodemus> (<em>Sylvaemus> <em>sylvaticus> e <em>A.> (<em>S.> <em>flavicollis> in condizioni di simpatria e allopatria in due ambienti mediterranei (bosco maturo e campo prossimo ad un frutteto del sud Italia. Mediante analisi discriminante sono state studiate le tendenze delle misure craniche a caratterizzare i diversi gruppi in situazione di allopatria e/o simpatria delle due specie sorelle. Le misure isometriche dentarie mostrano una maggiore capacità di discriminare i gruppi considerati. Vengono discussi i possibili fattori causali che potrebbero influire sulle misure discriminanti.

  1. The Ames Vertical Gun Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcz, J. S.; Bowling, D.; Cornelison, C.; Parrish, A.; Perez, A.; Raiche, G.; Wiens, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    The Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) is a national facility for conducting laboratory- scale investigations of high-speed impact processes. It provides a set of light-gas, powder, and compressed gas guns capable of accelerating projectiles to speeds up to 7 km s(exp -1). The AVGR has a unique capability to vary the angle between the projectile-launch and gravity vectors between 0 and 90 deg. The target resides in a large chamber (diameter approximately 2.5 m) that can be held at vacuum or filled with an experiment-specific atmosphere. The chamber provides a number of viewing ports and feed-throughs for data, power, and fluids. Impacts are observed via high-speed digital cameras along with investigation-specific instrumentation, such as spectrometers. Use of the range is available via grant proposals through any Planetary Science Research Program element of the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) calls. Exploratory experiments (one to two days) are additionally possible in order to develop a new proposal.

  2. Horizontal versus vertical plate motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cuffaro

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We review both present and past motions at major plate boundaries, which have the horizontal component in average 10 to 100 times faster (10–100 mm/yr than the vertical component (0.01–1 mm/yr in all geodynamic settings. The steady faster horizontal velocity of the lithosphere with respect to the upward or downward velocities at plate boundaries supports dominating tangential forces acting on plates. This suggests a passive role of plate boundaries with respect to far field forces determining the velocity of plates. The forces acting on the lithosphere can be subdivided in coupled and uncoupled, as a function of the shear at the lithosphere base. Higher the asthenosphere viscosity, more significant should be the coupled forces, i.e., the mantle drag and the trench suction. Lower the asthenosphere viscosity, more the effects of uncoupled forces might result determinant, i.e., the ridge push, the slab pull and the tidal drag. Although a combination of all forces acting on the lithosphere is likely, the decoupling between lithosphere and mantle suggests that a torque acts on the lithosphere independently of the mantle drag. Slab pull and ridge push are candidates for generating this torque, but, unlike these boundary forces, the advantage of the tidal drag is to be a volume force, acting simultaneously on the whole plates, and being the decoupling at the lithosphere base controlled by lateral variations in viscosity of the low-velocity layer.

  3. Vertical gating of sketched nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Yun-Yi; Park, Dong-Wook; Huang, Mengchen; Annadi, Anil; Lee, Hyungwoo; Ma, Zhenqiang; Eom, Chang-Beom; Irvin, Patrick; Levy, Jeremy

    Conductive-atomic force microscope (c-AFM) lithography at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface has enabled the creation of various classes of nanostructures, such as nanoscale transistors, single-electron transistors and has proven to be a promising testbed for mesoscopic physics. To date, these devices have used lithographically-defined side gates, which are limited by leakage currents. To reduce leakage and improve the electric field effect, we have investigated nanostructures with in-situ grown gold top gate. We will discuss designs of logic devices such as inverters, NAND, and NOR gates. In the quantum regime, we compare the performance of in-situ vertical top gates and that of written coplanar side gates with Quantum Dot devices. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the following agencies and grants: AFOSR (FA9550-­10-­1­-0524(JL), FA9550-­12-­1-­0342(CBE)), NSF (DMR­1124131 (JL, CBE) and DMR­1234096 (CBE)), ONR (N00014-15-1-2847 (JL)).

  4. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaugher, Richard D.

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  5. Silicon Micromachined Vertical Structures for Nanoparticle Separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, C.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis we described a new approach to design, fabricate, package and test three silicon based porous vertical structures for nanoparticle separations. These vertical structures stand in between two microfluidic channels. In these walls nano channels that connect the two adjacent microchannel

  6. Triangle-intersecting families on eight vertices

    CERN Document Server

    Filmus, Yuval

    2011-01-01

    Simonovits and S\\'{o}s conjectured that the maximal size of a triangle-intersecting family of graphs on $n$ vertices is $2^{\\binom{n}{2}-3}$. Their conjecture has recently been proved using spectral methods. We provide an elementary proof of the special case of $8$ vertices using a partition argument.

  7. The green building envelope: vertical greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  8. Vertical Integration, Monopoly, and the First Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    This paper addresses the relationship between the First Amendment, monopoly of transmission media, and vertical integration of transmission and content provision. A survey of some of the incentives a profit-maximizing transmission monopolist may have with respect to content is followed by a discussion of how vertical integration affects those…

  9. Teaching Students the Verticality of Technical Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Peter J.

    1992-01-01

    Advocates making technical writing courses more vertical in structure by including an extensive study of at least one specific form of technical documentation. Examines how students can gain experience in the vertical process by designing, writing, testing, and producing user manuals for on-campus cooperative education clients. Lists the benefits…

  10. [Vertical dimension in the Begg technic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demange, C; Dion, J G

    1989-01-01

    This data of 25 treated cases in BEGG technic show, with RICKETTS analysis, a small augmentation of vertical dimensions during treatment. During retention, four of five factors improved. No correlation have been found between increase rate of vertical dimensions, treatment duration, and initial typology.

  11. Effects of target location and uncertainty on reaching movements in standing position Los efectos de la ubicación de la diana y la incertidumbre en los movimientos de alcance en la posición vertical Efeitos da localização do alvo e da incerteza em movimentos de alcance na postura ereta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz de França Bahia Loureiro Junior

    2012-09-01

    movimientos de alcance en la posición erecta.Os efeitos da localização do alvo e da incerteza quanto à posição do alvo em movimentos de alcance foram investigados. Dez adultos permaneceram emem frente a um monitor sensível ao toque. Eles foram instruídos a pressionar com o dedo indicador direito um interruptor e tocar o centro do alvo apresentado no monitor após ele acender, movendo o membro superior rapidamente. O alvo foi mostrado ipsi ou contralateralmente e os participantes tinham ou não certeza sobre a posição do alvo. O tempo de reação (TR e movimento (TM e o erro radial (ER foram avaliados. Os resultados revelaram menor TR (≈35 ms e ER (≈0,19 cm para a condição de certeza e maiores TR (≈8 ms e TM (≈18 ms para os moimentos ao alvo contralateral. Concluindo, esses achados mostraram que os efeitos da incerteza da localização e a posição final do alvo podem ser aplicados para movimentos de alcance na posição ereta.

  12. Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmsen, Carl W.; Temkin, Henryk; Coldren, Larry A.

    2002-01-01

    1. Introduction to VCSELs L. A. Coldren, C. W. Wilmsen and H. Temkin; 2. Fundamental issues in VCSEL design L. A. Coldren and Eric R. Hegblom; 3. Enhancement of spontaneous emission in microcavities E. F. Schubert and N. E. J. Hunt; 4. Epitaxy of vertical-cavity lasers R. P. Schneider Jr and Y. H. Young; 5. Fabrication and performance of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers Kent D. Choquette and Kent Geib; 6. Polarization related properties of vertical cavity lasers Dmitri Kuksenkov and Henryk Temkin; 7. Visible light emitting vertical cavity lasers Robert L. Thornton; 8. Long-wavelength vertical-cavity lasers Dubrakovo I. Babic, Joachim Piprek and John E. Bowers; 9. Overview of VCSEL applications Richard C. Williamson; 10. Optical interconnection applications and required characteristics Kenichi Kasahara; 11. VCSEL-based fiber-optic data communications Kenneth Hahn and Kirk Giboney; 12. VCSEL-based smart pixels for free space optoelectronic processing C. W. Wilmsen.

  13. International EMS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhelle, Audun; Lossius, Hans Morten; Silfvast, Tom;

    2004-01-01

    Emergency medicine service (EMS) systems in the five Nordic countries have more similarities than differences. One similarity is the involvement of anaesthesiologists as pre-hospital physicians and their strong participation for all critically ill and injured patients in-hospital. Discrepancies do....... Access to on-line medical advice of a physician is not available; (2) Finland: the autonomy of the individual municipalities and their responsibility to cover for primary and specialised health care, as well as the EMS, and the lack of supporting or demanding legislation regarding the EMS; (3) Iceland...... is the only country that has emergency medicine (EM) as a recognised speciality but there is a need for more fully trained specialists in EM; (4) Norway: the ordinary ground ambulance is pointed out as the weakest link in the EM chain and a health reform demands extensive co-operation between the new health...

  14. Nota Científica: Características físico-químicas e aceitação sensorial de hambúrguer de búfalo em comparação com hambúrguer bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Luiza Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste trabalho foi comparar parâmetros físico-químicos e sensoriais de hambúrgueres produzidos com carnes bovina ou bubalina, buscando alternativa para ampliar o consumo da carne de búfalos. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas de composição centesimal (teores de proteína, umidade, gordura e cinzas, valor de pH, cor objetiva (L*, a* e b*, força de cisalhamento, perdas por cocção e redução de diâmetro (encolhimento. A aceitação sensorial foi avaliada por testes de aceitação utilizando-se escala hedônica de nove pontos para os atributos aparência, textura, suculência, sabor e qualidade global. Em relação à composição centesimal, as duas formulações apresentaram teores de umidade próximos a 65%, 1% de cinzas, 17% de proteínas e 13% de lipídeos. Não foram encontradas diferenças (p > 0,05 para os valores de pH (5,49-5,50, força de cisalhamento (0,62-0,86kgf, perdas por cocção (23,04-29,40% e redução de diâmetro (16,40-20,29%. As análises de cor também não diferiram (p > 0,05 entre as amostras, com valores médios próximos a 8, 4 e 10 para os parâmetros L*, a* e b*, respectivamente. Com relação à análise sensorial observou-se diferença estatística (p 0,05 na aceitação pelos consumidores, que atribuíram notas na faixa de 7 (gostei moderadamente a 8 (gostei muito. Pode-se concluir que o hambúrguer de carne bubalina apresenta parâmetros tecnológicos e aceitação sensorial similares ao hambúrguer de carne bovina, podendo portanto representar uma boa alternativa para ampliação do consumo da carne de búfalo.

  15. Vertical grid of retrieved atmospheric profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccherini, Simone; Carli, Bruno; Raspollini, Piera

    2016-05-01

    The choice of the vertical grid of atmospheric profiles retrieved from remote sensing observations is discussed considering the two cases of profiles used to represent the results of individual measurements and of profiles used for subsequent data fusion applications. An ozone measurement of the MIPAS instrument is used to assess, for different vertical grids, the quality of the retrieved profiles in terms of profile values, retrieval errors, vertical resolutions and number of degrees of freedom. In the case of individual retrievals no evident advantage is obtained with the use of a grid finer than the one with a reduced number of grid points, which are optimized according to the information content of the observations. Nevertheless, this instrument dependent vertical grid, which seems to extract all the available information, provides very poor results when used for data fusion applications. A loss of about a quarter of the degrees of freedom is observed when the data fusion is made using the instrument dependent vertical grid relative to the data fusion made using a vertical grid optimized for the data fusion product. This result is explained by the analysis of the eigenvalues of the Fisher information matrix and leads to the conclusion that different vertical grids must be adopted when data fusion is the expected application.

  16. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  17. Junção por difusão em estado sólido de Al2O3/aço inoxidável AISI 304, com intercamadas de alívio de tensões residuais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travessa D. N.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Discos de alumina sinterizada e de aço inoxidável AISI 304 foram unidos pelo processo de difusão em estado sólido utilizando inicialmente intercamada de Ti e diferentes tempos e temperaturas de junção. Ensaios de cisalhamento indicaram 800 oC/60 min como os mais favoráveis parâmetros de processo. Uma segunda série de experimentos de junção executados nessas mesmas condições teve como finalidade comparar a eficiência de diferentes construções de intercamadas de alívio das tensões residuais de origem térmica, tendo sido verificado a primazia do par Ti/Cu. Idêntico resultado foi obtido por simulação, utilizando o método dos Elementos Finitos. Observação micrográfica da interface Al2O3/Ti mostrou difusão de Al para o metal e a formação de precipitados Ti3Al, enquanto na interface Ti/AISI 304 verificou-se intensa difusão de Fe no Ti e conseqüente estabilização de Ti-b.

  18. Surface tension profiles in vertical soap films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, N.; Caps, H.

    2015-01-01

    Surface tension profiles in vertical soap films are experimentally investigated. Measurements are performed by introducing deformable elastic objets in the films. The shape adopted by those objects once set in the film is related to the surface tension value at a given vertical position by numerically solving the adapted elasticity equations. We show that the observed dependency of the surface tension versus the vertical position is predicted by simple modeling that takes into account the mechanical equilibrium of the films coupled to previous thickness measurements.

  19. VERTICAL VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF AXISYMMETRIC SATURATED SOIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Yuan-qiang; XU Chang-jie; ZHENG Zao-feng; WU Da-zhi

    2006-01-01

    Based on Biot's dynamic consolidation equations, by means of Laplace-Hankel transform technology, the integral solutions of stress and displacement in saturated soil with subjacent rock-stratum under axisymmetric arbitrary excitations were derived. Influence of the reflected wave generated by the boundary was revealed. Numerical results indicate that the vibration frequency has some effect on the vertical displacement of saturated soil. The vertical displacement at the surface of saturated soil lags in phase with the load. Furthermore, the dynamic permeability coefficient of saturated soil has significant effect on the vertical displacement at the initial stage of load applied, but when the load becomes stable, the effect is inapparent.

  20. Salmonella sp. bacteriology monitoring in laying hens at different growing and laying periods from poultry farms in Metropolitan Region of Fortaleza Monitoramento bacteriológico para Salmonella sp. em poedeira comercial em diferentes fases de recria e produção de empresas avícolas da Região Metropolitana de Fortaleza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuella Evangelista da Silva

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available

    This work aimed to verify <em>Salmonella> occurrence in laying hen flocks from eight poultry farms in Metropolitan Region of Fortaleza city. Swab collections were performed in transport boxes of day-old-chicks, totaling 40 feces samples (5 samples/flock, which presented no <em>Salmonella> contamination. Bacterial analyses from a pool of feces were performed in the same flocks at 10, 20, 30 and 40 weeks of age. <em>Salmonella enterica em>rough strain and <em>Salmonella em>Newport were found in two flocks at 20 and 40 weeks of age, respectively. These results suggest that the birds were infected with <em>Salmonella em>after their arrival in the poultry farms. It was verified that 25% of the poultry farms presented positive feces samples for <em>Salmonella> contamination, indicating the need for a more efficacious preventive program in the poultry farms for egg production. This work suggests that day old birds were of <em>Salmonella> contamination which indicates no vertical <em>Salmonella> transmission, however the rearing phase present failures regarding bacterial control.

     

    KEY WORDS: Bacteriology, chickens, eggs, feces, Salmonella.

    O presente trabalho objetivou investigar a presença de <em>Salmonella em>em lotes de poedeiras comerciais de oito empresas da região metropolitana de Fortaleza,CE, Brasil. Realizaram-se suabes em cinco caixas de transporte por lote das oito empresas analisadas, totalizando quarenta amostras de mecônio, sendo todas negativas para <em>Salmonella. em>Os mesmos lotes (oito foram monitorados na décima, vigésima, trigésima e quadragésima semanas de idade com exame bacteriológico de <em>pool> de cem fezes frescas. Foram isoladas <em>Salmonella> <em>enterica em>subsepécie <em>enterica> cepa rugosa e<em> Salmonella em>Newport> em>das amostras de fezes nas empresas 2 e 6 na

  1. HL-LHC vertical cryostat during construction

    CERN Multimedia

    Lanaro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    7m high "Cluster D" vertical test cryostat during construction at contractor's premises, Alca Technology Srl, in Schio, Italy. The inner helium vessel with its heat exchanger are visible. To be installed in the D pit in SMA18.

  2. The solid angle through the vertical rectangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröer, H.

    We want to determine the solid angle through the vertical rectangle. We use the cosine law for sides and the spherical law of sines. The relation to luminous flux (radiant flux or radiant power) is shown.

  3. Relevance ranking for vertical search engines

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    In plain, uncomplicated language, and using detailed examples to explain the key concepts, models, and algorithms in vertical search ranking, Relevance Ranking for Vertical Search Engines teaches readers how to manipulate ranking algorithms to achieve better results in real-world applications. This reference book for professionals covers concepts and theories from the fundamental to the advanced, such as relevance, query intention, location-based relevance ranking, and cross-property ranking. It covers the most recent developments in vertical search ranking applications, such as freshness-based relevance theory for new search applications, location-based relevance theory for local search applications, and cross-property ranking theory for applications involving multiple verticals. It introduces ranking algorithms and teaches readers how to manipulate ranking algorithms for the best results. It covers concepts and theories from the fundamental to the advanced. It discusses the state of the art: development of ...

  4. Fast Vertical Mining Using Boolean Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosny M. Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The vertical association rules mining algorithm is an efficient mining method, which makes use of support sets of frequent itemsets to calculate the support of candidate itemsets. It overcomes the disadvantage of scanning database many times like Apriori algorithm. In vertical mining, frequent itemsets can be represented as a set of bit vectors in memory, which enables for fast computation. The sizes of bit vectors for itemsets are the main space expense of the algorithm that restricts its expansibility. Therefore, in this paper, a proposed algorithm that compresses the bit vectors of frequent itemsets will be presented. The new bit vector schema presented here depends on Boolean algebra rules to compute the intersection of two compressed bit vectors without making any costly decompression operation. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm, Vertical Boolean Mining (VBM algorithm is better than both Apriori algorithm and the classical vertical association rule mining algorithm in the mining time and the memory usage.

  5. GLOBEC NEP Vertical Plankton Tow (VPT) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GLOBEC (GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics) NEP (Northeast Pacific) California Current Program Vertical Plankton Tow (VPT) Data For more information, see...

  6. Capacity Planning for Vertical Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Badue, Claudine; Almeida, Jussara; Almeida, Virgilio; Baeza-Yates, Ricardo; Ribeiro-Neto, Berthier; Ziviani, Artur; Ziviani, Nivio

    2010-01-01

    Vertical search engines focus on specific slices of content, such as the Web of a single country or the document collection of a large corporation. Despite this, like general open web search engines, they are expensive to maintain, expensive to operate, and hard to design. Because of this, predicting the response time of a vertical search engine is usually done empirically through experimentation, requiring a costly setup. An alternative is to develop a model of the search engine for predicti...

  7. Radar hydrometeorology using a vertically pointing radar

    OpenAIRE

    Cluckie, I. D.; R. J. Griffith; Lane, A; Tilford, K. A.

    2002-01-01

    International audience A Vertically Pointing Radar (VPR) has been commissioned and deployed at a number of sites in southern England, to investigate numerically spatial and temporal variations in the vertical reflectivity profile (Zvp); particularly those associated with the intersection by the radar beam of a melting layer ? the bright band. Comparisons with data from other instrumentation, notably with the S-band research radar at Chilbolton, but also with disdrometer data and rainfall m...

  8. Radar hydrometeorology using a vertically pointing radar

    OpenAIRE

    Cluckie, I. D.; R. J. Griffith; Lane, A; Tilford, K. A.

    2000-01-01

    A Vertically Pointing Radar (VPR) has been commissioned and deployed at a number of sites in southern England, to investigate numerically spatial and temporal variations in the vertical reflectivity profile (Zvp); particularly those associated with the intersection by the radar beam of a melting layer – the bright band. Comparisons with data from other instrumentation, notably with the S-band research radar at Chilbolton, but also with disdrometer data and rainfall measurements from a number ...

  9. Reliability Analysis of Existing Vertical Wall Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1998-01-01

    Vertical wall breakwaters are used under quite different conditions where failure of the breakwater or a part of it will have very different consequences. Further a number of existing vertical wall breakwaters have been subjected to significant wave loads which have caused partial failures of the...... of the structures. The main objective of this paper is to describe how the reliability of existing breakwater structures within the expected remaining lifetime can be estimated taking into account the available information....

  10. Attaining High Performance Communications A Vertical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilovska, Ada

    2009-01-01

    Technological Advances and Problems of High Performance Communications. An ecosystem of solutions along a stack of technology layers. Cohesively collecting state-of-the-art contributions from leading researchers in industry, national laboratories, and academia, Attaining High Performance Communications: A Vertical Approach discusses various issues pertaining to high performance communications in a particular layer of a vertical stack. It explores efficient interconnection hardware, the architectural aspects of network adapters and their integration with processor cores, the design of scalable

  11. Electrically Pumped Vertical-Cavity Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, Tine

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the design of electrically pumped vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers (eVCAs) for use in a mode-locked external-cavity laser has been developed, investigated and analysed. Four different eVCAs, one top-emitting and three bottom emitting structures, have been designed...... and discussed. The thesis concludes with recommendations for further work towards the realisation of compact electrically pumped mode-locked vertical externalcavity surface emitting lasers....

  12. VERTICAL INTEGRATION IN AGRICULTURE AND CONTRACT FARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Rehber, Erkan

    1998-01-01

    It has been widely argued recently that agriculture is undergoing a process of vertical integration with allied industries. One of the worldwide ways of vertical integration in agriculture is contract farming. Contract farming is a continually evolving process. Worldwide applications of contract farming have shown that the terms of contracts are shaped by their own conditions and varied from product to product. Also, each country has its own experiences. Contract farming has many advantages f...

  13. Vertical Josephson Interferometer for Tunable Flux Qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a niobium-based Josephson device as prototype for quantum computation with flux qubits. The most interesting feature of this device is the use of a Josephson vertical interferometer to tune the flux qubit allowing the control of the off-diagonal Hamiltonian terms of the system. In the vertical interferometer, the Josephson current is precisely modulated from a maximum to zero with fine control by a small transversal magnetic field parallel to the rf superconducting loop plane

  14. Fast Vertical Mining Using Boolean Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Hosny M. Ibrahim; Marghny, M. H.; Noha M. A. Abdelaziz

    2015-01-01

    The vertical association rules mining algorithm is an efficient mining method, which makes use of support sets of frequent itemsets to calculate the support of candidate itemsets. It overcomes the disadvantage of scanning database many times like Apriori algorithm. In vertical mining, frequent itemsets can be represented as a set of bit vectors in memory, which enables for fast computation. The sizes of bit vectors for itemsets are the main space expense of the algorithm that restricts its ex...

  15. <em>An entem>-Kaurane-Type Diterpene in <em>Croton antisyphiliticusem> Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Pereira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available <em>Croton antisyphiliticus em>is a medicinal plant widely used in the treatment of microbial infections, especially those affecting the genital tract. Crude extract, fractions and pure compound isolated from roots of this species were investigated to validate their antimicrobial activity against <em>Escherichia coliem> and <em>Staphylococcus aureusem>. The compound <em>ent>-kaur-16-en-18-oic acid was isolated as a major component (0.7% of crude extract, and its MIC value determined against <em>S. aureusem> (ATCC 6538 was 250 μg/mL. This is the first phytochemical work on the species monitored with antimicrobial assay.

  16. Características hidráulicas da erosão em sulcos em um cambissolo do semiárido do Brasil Hydraulic characteristics of rill erosion in a semi-arid cambissolo in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Augusto Bezerra

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A erosão em sulcos é formada a partir da concentração do escoamento superficial nas depressões da superfície do terreno, evoluindo para a formação de canais ou ravinas, o que faz aumentar a degradação dos solos pela erosão hídrica. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar as condições hidráulicas do escoamento em sulcos pré-formados, caracterizando o regime de escoamento, e avaliar mudanças induzidas na geometria desses sulcos. Para isso, um experimento foi realizado num Cambissolo Háplico do sertão pernambucano, município de Serra Talhada, Brasil. Os tratamentos consistiram na aplicação de vazões de 17,5; 47,0; 60,0; 77,0; e 110,0 L min-1; com duração de 20 min, em sulcos pré-formados em um solo recém-preparado. O aprofundamento dos sulcos foi dominante no início dos testes. A partir do momento em que o sulco atingiu o solo não revolvido, o processo erosivo, ou seja, a ação da tensão cisalhante, caracterizou-se principalmente pelo alargamento do canal, desgastando com maior proporção a base das paredes laterais dos sulcos. A ação da concentração do escoamento superficial nos sulcos experimentais produziu regimes de escoamento na faixa de transição supercrítico, atestando a ocorrência da erosão em sulcos. O cisalhamento na base do sulco, provocado pelo escoamento, facilitou o desmoronamento nas paredes laterais.Rill erosion begins with the concentration of surface runoff on depressions of soil surface, evolving into the formation of channels or ravine, increasing soil degradation by water erosion. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the hydraulic conditions of the water flow in rills and characterize the water flow regime, and to measure the induced changes in the geometry of the preestablished rills. An experiment was conducted in which outflows of 17.5; 47.0; 60.0; 77.0 and 110.0 L min-1 were applied for 20 min to preformed rills in a Cambissolo Háplico, in Serra Talhada, Pernambuco. The

  17. Expression of Selected <em>Ginkgo em>>biloba em>Heat Shock Protein Genes After Cold Treatment Could Be Induced by Other Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (HSPs play various stress-protective roles in plants. In this study, three <em>HSP> genes were isolated from a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH cDNA library of <em>Ginkgo bilobaem> leaves treated with cold stress. Based on the molecular weight, the three genes were designated <em>GbHSP16.8em>, <em>GbHSP17em> and <em>GbHSP70em>. The full length of the three genes were predicted to encode three polypeptide chains containing 149 amino acids (Aa, 152 Aa, and 657 Aa, and their corresponding molecular weights were predicted as follows: 16.67 kDa, 17.39 kDa, and 71.81 kDa respectively. The three genes exhibited distinctive expression patterns in different organs or development stages. <em>GbHSP16.8em> and <em>GbHSP70em> showed high expression levels in leaves and a low level in gynoecia, <em>GbHSP17em> showed a higher transcription in stamens and lower level in fruit. This result indicates that <em>GbHSP16.8em> and <em>GbHSP70 em>may play important roles in <em>Ginkgo> leaf development and photosynthesis, and <em>GbHSP17em> may play a positive role in pollen maturation. All three <em>GbHSPs> were up-regulated under cold stress, whereas extreme heat stress only caused up-regulation of <em>GbHSP70em>, UV-B treatment resulted in up-regulation of <em>GbHSP16.8em> and <em>GbHSP17em>, wounding treatment resulted in up-regulation of <em>GbHSP16.8em> and <em>GbHSP70em>, and abscisic acid (ABA treatment caused up-regulation of <em>GbHSP70em> primarily.

  18. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geologia - Teses Defendidas 1998 - Doutorado - Instituto de Geociências - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    ógica, Física e Geotécnica de Perfis de Intemperismo Desenvolvidos de Gnaisses no Rio de Janeiro Orientadores: Eurípedes do Amaral Vargas Jr. e Adolph José Melfi 119 Anuário do Instituto de Geociências - UFRJ Volume 21 / 1998 Resumo: O trabalho apresenta a caracterização química, mineralógica e física de dois perfis de intemperismo desenvolvidos de gnaisses no Rio de Janeiro, procurando-se investigar correlações prováveis entre os índices analisados e as propriedades geotécnicas destes solos. Também foi realizado estudo da evolução intempérica destes perfis. Selecionou-se perfis intempéricos desenvolvidos de gnaisses, devido a sua predominância no Rio de Janeiro. Procurou-se estudar dois tipos de gnaisses, sendo um gnaisse migmatítico não possuindo xistosidade bem marcada e um biotita gnaisse com a xistosidade bem definida. Foram observadas a evolução das características mineralógicas, químicas, físicas e geotécnicas ao longo dos perfis intempéricos, abrangendo a rocha não alterada até os horizontes superficiais mais evoluídos, passando pelos sucessivos níveis de alterita. A metodologia laboratorial empregada neste trabalho consistiu em estudos mineralógicos por difração de raios-x, análise térmica diferencial e termogravimétrica, análise petrográfica das rochas, análise morfoscópica dos leves da fração areia, análises químicas dos elementos secundários, análise química total, determinação de índices físicos tais como o limite de Atterberg, análise granulométrica, densidade real dos grãos, massa específica aparente, porosidade, índice de vazios e para o ensaio geotécnico foi realizado o cisalhamento direto. Por fim, são apresentados e analisados os dados obtidos neste trabalho e é feita uma correlação entre esses resultados. Entre as conclusões obtidas ressalta-se a tendência do intemperismo em promover a homogeneização do solo e os ensaios de cisalhamento direto realizados nos solos residuais, em

  19. A influência da variação da curvatura da base do braquete em uma união ortodôntica submetida a diferentes cargas, através do método dos elementos finitos The influence of the variation of the bracket base curvature in a bonded orthodontic attachment submitted by different load cases using the finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Pereira Viana

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho procurou avaliar, através do Método dos Elementos Finitos, a resistência ao deslocamento de quatro diferentes bases de braquetes "straight-wire" (Morelli, Unitek, A-Company e Abzil-Lancer na aplicação de forças de torção e cisalhamento, correlacionando essa resistência à melhor adaptação das bases à superfície vestibular dentária. As curvaturas das bases de braquetes utilizados no presente estudo foram descritas em um estudo prévio, enquanto o contorno dentário foi obtido a partir do escaneamento e cálculo da curvatura média vestibular do canino inferior de uma amostra de 30 indivíduos brasileiros. Empregou-se a análise tridimensional por Elementos Finitos da interface esmalte vestibular/cimento/base do braquete para cada marca testada. Forças de 1N, promovendo deslocamento lateral e torção, foram aplicadas no centro da base do braquete e observou-se a distribuição desses esforços sobre os modelos assim como as tensões normais e de cisalhamento geradas. Os resultados mostraram que a base que melhor se adaptou à superfície vestibular construída foi a da marca Unitek, seguida pela marca A-Company, Abzil-Lancer e Morelli. As deformações sofridas pelos braquetes foram inversamente proporcionais à adaptação à superfície dentária. Os maiores picos de tensão localizaram-se nas proximidades do ponto de aplicação da força. A interface adesivo/esmalte foi mais sujeita à falha na adesão que a interface braquete/adesivo. A força de cisalhamento demonstrou ser mais provável de causar falha na adesão quando comparada à força de torção.The objective of this study was to evaluate the adaptability of the four straight-wire brackets bases (Morelli, Unitek, A-Company and Abzil-Lancer to facial surface of a lower canine. The lower canine facial curvature data to be used in the three-dimensional finite element model were established by 30 Brazilian adult individuals and the brackets bases curvature

  20. Osteoartrites em equinos

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Francisco José Martins

    2008-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária A Osteoartrite (OA) é a principal causa de claudicação no cavalo de desporto e lazer, sendo uma afecção que tem grandes repercussões económicas. Este trabalho descreve algumas das características importantes da estrutura articular, bem como da sua fisiologia. Define a OA e todas as estruturas envolvidas no seu processo. Os mecanismos fisiopatológicos põem em evidência os factores de risco em causa e que determinam tod...

  1. Homeopatia em Pediatria

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Ana Isabel Alves

    2013-01-01

    Numa sociedade em constante processo de formação e de informação, não conhecer determinada terapia não pode ser a resposta de um profissional de farmácia ao seu utente. A divulgação massiva de tratamentos naturalistas, alternativos e baseados em saberes ancestrais, frequentemente entram em conflito com as prescrições médicas e aconselhamentos farmacêuticos. Com as medicinas alternativas a ganhar terreno paulatinamente, como se observa com a utilização da acupunctura e de fitote...

  2. Thermal Impacts of Vertical Greenery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safikhani, Tabassom; Abdullah, Aminatuzuhariah Megat; Ossen, Dilshan Remaz; Baharvand, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    - Using vertical greenery systems to reduce heat transmission is becoming more common in modern architecture. Vertical greenery systems are divided into two main categories; green facades and living walls. This study aims to examine the thermal performance of vertical greenery systems in hot and humid climates. An experimental procedure was used to measure indoor temperature and humidity. These parameters were also measured for the gap between the vertical greenery systems and wall surfaces. Three boxes were used as small-scale rooms. Two boxes were provided with either a living wall or a green facade and one box did not have any greenery (benchmark). Blue Trumpet Vine was used in the vertical greenery systems. The data were recorded over the course of three sunny days in April 2013. An analyses of the results showed that the living wall and green facade reduced indoor temperature up to 4.0 °C and 3.0 °C, respectively. The living wall and green facade also reduced cavity temperatures by 8.0 °C and 6.5 °C, respectively.

  3. Thermal Impacts of Vertical Greenery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safikhani Tabassom

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available - Using vertical greenery systems to reduce heat transmission is becoming more common in modern architecture. Vertical greenery systems are divided into two main categories; green facades and living walls. This study aims to examine the thermal performance of vertical greenery systems in hot and humid climates. An experimental procedure was used to measure indoor temperature and humidity. These parameters were also measured for the gap between the vertical greenery systems and wall surfaces. Three boxes were used as small-scale rooms. Two boxes were provided with either a living wall or a green facade and one box did not have any greenery (benchmark. Blue Trumpet Vine was used in the vertical greenery systems. The data were recorded over the course of three sunny days in April 2013. An analyses of the results showed that the living wall and green facade reduced indoor temperature up to 4.0 °C and 3.0 °C, respectively. The living wall and green facade also reduced cavity temperatures by 8.0 °C and 6.5 °C, respectively.

  4. Vertical integration in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertical integration in the nuclear fuel cycle and its contribution to market power of integrated fuel suppliers were studied. The industry subdivision analyzed is the uranium raw materials sector. The hypotheses demonstrated are that (1) this sector of the industry is trending toward vertical integration between production of uranium raw materials and the manufacture of nuclear fuel elements, and (2) this vertical integration confers upon integrated firms a significant market advantage over non-integrated fuel manufacturers. Under microeconomic concepts the rationale for vertical integration is the pursuit of efficiency, and it is beneficial because it increases physical output and decreases price. The Market Advantage Model developed is an arithmetical statement of the relative market power (in terms of price) between non-integrated nuclear fuel manufacturers and integrated raw material/fuel suppliers, based on the concept of the ''squeeze.'' In operation, the model compares net profit and return on sales of nuclear fuel elements between the competitors, under different price and cost circumstances. The model shows that, if integrated and non-integrated competitors sell their final product at identical prices, the non-integrated manufacturer returns a net profit only 17% of the integrated firm. Also, the integrated supplier can price his product 35% below the non-integrated producer's price and still return the same net profit. Vertical integration confers a definite market advantage to the integrated supplier, and the basic source of that advantage is the cost-price differential of the raw material, uranium

  5. Climatology of tropospheric vertical velocity spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecklund, W. L.; Gage, K. S.; Balsley, B. B.; Carter, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Vertical velocity power spectra obtained from Poker Flat, Alaska; Platteville, Colorado; Rhone Delta, France; and Ponape, East Caroline Islands using 50-MHz clear-air radars with vertical beams are given. The spectra were obtained by analyzing the quietest periods from the one-minute-resolution time series for each site. The lengths of available vertical records ranged from as long as 6 months at Poker Flat to about 1 month at Platteville. The quiet-time vertical velocity spectra are shown. Spectral period ranging from 2 minutes to 4 hours is shown on the abscissa and power spectral density is given on the ordinate. The Brunt-Vaisala (B-V) periods (determined from nearby sounding balloons) are indicated. All spectra (except the one from Platteville) exhibit a peak at periods slightly longer than the B-V period, are flat at longer periods, and fall rapidly at periods less than the B-V period. This behavior is expected for a spectrum of internal waves and is very similar to what is observed in the ocean (Eriksen, 1978). The spectral amplitudes vary by only a factor of 2 or 3 about the mean, and show that under quiet conditions vertical velocity spectra from the troposphere are very similar at widely different locations.

  6. O transporte vertical de momento linear num caso de convecção profunda

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Susana Margarida das Neves

    2008-01-01

    O objectivo deste trabalho científico é o estudo do transporte vertical de momento linear horizontal (CMT) realizado pelas nuvens cumulus (Cu) em sistemas de nuvens convectivos sobre a região tropical dos oceanos. Para realizar este estudo, foram utilizadas as simulações tridimensionais do modelo explícito de nuvens (CRM) para os quatro meses de duração da campanha observacional TOGA COARE nas águas quentes do Pacífico ocidental. A aplicação de uma análise diária a vários ca...

  7. Development of dynamic 3-D surface profilometry using stroboscopic interferometric measurement and vertical scanning techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this technical advance is to provide a single optical interferometric framework and methodology to be capable of delivering both nano-scale static and dynamic surface profilometry. Microscopic interferometry is a powerful technique for static and dynamic characterization of micro (opto) electromechanical systems (M (O) EMS). In view of this need, a microscopic prototype based on white-light stroboscopic interferometry and the white light vertical scanning principle, was developed to achieve dynamic full-field profilometry and characterization of MEMS devices. The system primarily consists of an optical microscope, on which a Mirau interferometric objective embedded with a piezoelectric vertical translator, a high-power LED light module with dual operation modes and light synchronizing electronics unit are integrated. A micro cantilever beam used in AFM was measured to verify the system capability in accurate characterization of dynamic behaviours of the device. The full-field second-mode vibration at a vibratory frequency of 68.60 kHz can be fully characterized and 3-5 nm of vertical measurement resolution as well as tens of micrometers of vertical measurement range can be easily achieved

  8. Vertical Integration in the Taiwan Aquaculture Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzong-Ru Lee (Jiun-Shen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to improve the distribution channels in the Taiwanaquaculture industry through a better vertical integration. This studyis derived from a need to improve the distribution performance ofagricultural-based industries in response to increasing food demandsin Asia and elsewhere. Based on a four-by-eight matrix derived fromboth a value chain and a service profit chain, thirty different strategiesare developed. This development is based on key success factors andstrategies for vertical integration interviewed and cited in the literatures.The findings are identified by applying the Gray Relational Analysis(GRA. For this study, the key success factors for aquaculture wholesalemarkets include the communication, integration and cohesion ofopinion within the wholesale market; government support; andmutualtrust between members of the vertical integration scheme. The suitablevertical integration strategies are an improved safety and hygiene inspectionof aquaculture products, accuracy of aquaculture product categorization,and precision in product weighing.

  9. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified

  10. Vertical gradients of sunspot magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagyard, M.J.; Teuber, D.; West, E.A.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Henze, W. Jr.; Beckers, J.M.

    1983-04-01

    The results of a Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) guest investigation to determine the vertical gradients of sunspot magnetic fields for the first time from coordinated observations of photospheric and transition-region fields are described. Descriptions are given of both the photospheric vector field of a sunspot, derived from observations using the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograph, and of the line-of-sight component in the transition region, obtained from the SMM Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter instrument. On the basis of these data, vertical gradients of the line-of-sight magnetic field component are calculated using three methods. It is found that the vertical gradient of Bz is lower than values from previous studies and that the transition-region field occurs at a height of approximately 4000-6000 km above the photosphere.

  11. Plasmonic Properties of Vertically Aligned Nanowire Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanowires (NWs/Ag sheath composites were produced to investigate plasmonic coupling between vertically aligned NWs for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS applications. In this investigation, two types of vertical NW arrays were studied; those of ZnO NWs grown on nanosphere lithography patterned sapphire substrate via vapor-liquid-solid (VLS mechanism and Si NW arrays produced by wet chemical etching. Both types of vertical NW arrays were coated with a thin layer of silver by electroless silver plating for SERS enhancement studies. The experimental results show extremely strong SERS signals due to plasmonic coupling between the NWs, which was verified by COMSOL electric field simulations. We also compared the SERS enhancement intensity of aligned and random ZnO NWs, indicating that the aligned NWs show much stronger and repeatable SERS signal than those grown in nonaligned geometries.

  12. Capacity Planning for Vertical Search Engines

    CERN Document Server

    Badue, Claudine; Almeida, Virgilio; Baeza-Yates, Ricardo; Ribeiro-Neto, Berthier; Ziviani, Artur; Ziviani, Nivio

    2010-01-01

    Vertical search engines focus on specific slices of content, such as the Web of a single country or the document collection of a large corporation. Despite this, like general open web search engines, they are expensive to maintain, expensive to operate, and hard to design. Because of this, predicting the response time of a vertical search engine is usually done empirically through experimentation, requiring a costly setup. An alternative is to develop a model of the search engine for predicting performance. However, this alternative is of interest only if its predictions are accurate. In this paper we propose a methodology for analyzing the performance of vertical search engines. Applying the proposed methodology, we present a capacity planning model based on a queueing network for search engines with a scale typically suitable for the needs of large corporations. The model is simple and yet reasonably accurate and, in contrast to previous work, considers the imbalance in query service times among homogeneous...

  13. Purification process for vertically aligned carbon nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cattien V.; Delziet, Lance; Matthews, Kristopher; Chen, Bin; Meyyappan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Individual, free-standing, vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes or nanofibers are ideal for sensor and electrode applications. Our plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition techniques for producing free-standing and vertically aligned carbon nanofibers use catalyst particles at the tip of the fiber. Here we present a simple purification process for the removal of iron catalyst particles at the tip of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers derived by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The first step involves thermal oxidation in air, at temperatures of 200-400 degrees C, resulting in the physical swelling of the iron particles from the formation of iron oxide. Subsequently, the complete removal of the iron oxide particles is achieved with diluted acid (12% HCl). The purification process appears to be very efficient at removing all of the iron catalyst particles. Electron microscopy images and Raman spectroscopy data indicate that the purification process does not damage the graphitic structure of the nanotubes.

  14. Subsurface imaging by electrical and EM methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This report consists of 3 subjects. 1) Three dimensional inversion of resistivity data with topography : In this study, we developed a 3-D inversion method based on the finite element calculation of model responses, which can effectively accommodate the irregular topography. In solving the inverse problem, the iterative least-squares approach comprising the smoothness-constraints was taken along with the reciprocity approach in the calculation of Jacobian. Furthermore the Active Constraint Balancing, which has been recently developed by ourselves to enhance the resolving power of the inverse problem, was also employed. Since our new algorithm accounts for the topography in the inversion step, topography correction is not necessary as a preliminary processing and we can expect a more accurate image of the earth. 2) Electromagnetic responses due to a source in the borehole : The effects of borehole fluid and casing on the borehole EM responses should thoroughly be analyzed since they may affect the resultant image of the earth. In this study, we developed an accurate algorithm for calculating the EM responses containing the effects of borehole fluid and casing when a current-carrying ring is located on the borehole axis. An analytic expression for primary vertical magnetic field along the borehole axis was first formulated and the fast Fourier transform is to be applied to get the EM fields at any location in whole space. 3) High frequency electromagnetic impedance survey : At high frequencies the EM impedance becomes a function of the angle of incidence or the horizontal wavenumber, so the electrical properties cannot be readily extracted without first eliminating the effect of horizontal wavenumber on the impedance. For this purpose, this paper considers two independent methods for accurately determining the horizontal wavenumber, which in turn is used to correct the impedance data. The 'apparent' electrical properties derived from the corrected impedance

  15. Turbulence in vertical axis wind turbine canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, Matthias; Araya, Daniel B.; Dabiri, John O.

    2015-11-01

    Experimental results from three different full scale arrays of vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) under natural wind conditions are presented. The wind velocities throughout the turbine arrays are measured using a portable meteorological tower with seven, vertically staggered, three-component ultrasonic anemometers. The power output of each turbine is recorded simultaneously. The comparison between the horizontal and vertical energy transport for the different turbine array sizes shows the importance of vertical transport for large array configurations. Quadrant-hole analysis is employed to gain a better understanding of the vertical energy transport at the top of the VAWT arrays. The results show a striking similarity between the flows in the VAWT arrays and the adjustment region of canopies. Namely, an increase in ejections and sweeps and decrease in inward and outward interactions occur inside the turbine array. Ejections are the strongest contributor, which is in agreement with the literature on evolving and sparse canopy flows. The influence of the turbine array size on the power output of the downstream turbines is examined by comparing a streamwise row of four single turbines with square arrays of nine turbine pairs. The results suggest that a new boundary layer forms on top of the larger turbine arrays as the flow adjusts to the new roughness length. This increases the turbulent energy transport over the whole planform area of the turbine array. By contrast, for the four single turbines, the vertical energy transport due to turbulent fluctuations is only increased in the near wake of the turbines. These findings add to the knowledge of energy transport in turbine arrays and therefore the optimization of the turbine spacing in wind farms.

  16. CIRSS vertical data integration, San Bernardino study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, W.; Christenson, J.; Michel, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The creation and use of a vertically integrated data base, including LANDSAT data, for local planning purposes in a portion of San Bernardino County, California are described. The project illustrates that a vertically integrated approach can benefit local users, can be used to identify and rectify discrepancies in various data sources, and that the LANDSAT component can be effectively used to identify change, perform initial capability/suitability modeling, update existing data, and refine existing data in a geographic information system. Local analyses were developed which produced data of value to planners in the San Bernardino County Planning Department and the San Bernardino National Forest staff.

  17. Geophysical aspects of vertical streamer seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sognnes, Walter

    1998-12-31

    Vertical cable acquisition is performed by deploying a certain number of vertical hydrophone arrays in the water column, and subsequently shooting a source point on top of it. The advantage of this particular geometry is that gives a data set with all azimuths included. Therefore a more complete 3-D velocity model can be derived. In this paper there are presented some results from the Fuji survey in the Gulf of Mexico. Based on these results, improved geometries and review recommendations for future surveys are discussed. 7 figs.

  18. Thermal Stratification in Vertical Mantle Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren; Furbo, Simon

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that it is important to have a high degree of thermal stratification in the hot water storage tank to achieve a high thermal performance of SDHW systems. This study is concentrated on thermal stratification in vertical mantle tanks. Experiments based on typical operation conditions...... are carried out to investigate how the thermal stratification is affected by different placements of the mantle inlet. The heat transfer between the solar collector fluid in the mantle and the domestic water in the inner tank is analysed by CFD-simulations. Furthermore, the flow pattern in the vertical mantle...... tank is investigated....

  19. <em>In Vitro em>and <em>in em>Vivo> Antitumor Effect of Trachylobane-360, a Diterpene from<em> Xylopia langsdorffianaem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Lima Rodrigues Pita

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Trachylobane-360 (<em>ent>-7α-acetoxytrachyloban-18-oic acid was isolated from <em>Xylopia langsdorffianaem>. Studies have shown that it has weak cytotoxic activity against tumor and non-tumor cells. This study investigated the <em>in vitroem>> em>and <em>in vivoem> antitumor effects of trachylobane-360, as well as its cytotoxicity in mouse erythrocytes. In order to evaluate the <em>in vivoem> toxicological aspects related to trachylobane-360 administration, hematological, biochemical and histopathological analyses of the treated animals were performed. The compound exhibited a concentration-dependent effect in inducing hemolysis with HC50 of 273.6 µM, and a moderate <em>in vitroem>> em>concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of sarcoma 180 cells with IC50 values of 150.8 µM and 150.4 µM, evaluated by the trypan blue exclusion test and MTT reduction assay, respectively. The <em>in vivoem> inhibition rates of sarcoma 180 tumor development were 45.60, 71.99 and 80.06% at doses of 12.5 and 25 mg/kg of trachylobane-360 and 25 mg/kg of 5-FU, respectively. Biochemical parameters were not altered. Leukopenia was observed after 5-FU treatment, but this effect was not seen with trachylobane-360 treatment. The histopathological analysis of liver and kidney showed that both organs were mildly affected by trachylobane-360 treatment. Trachylobane-360 showed no immunosuppressive effect. In conclusion, these data reinforce the anticancer potential of this natural diterpene.

  20. On the measurement of vertical velocity by MST radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, K. S.

    1983-01-01

    An overview is presented of the measurement of atmospheric vertical motion utilizing the MST radar technique. Vertical motion in the atmosphere is briefly discussed as a function of scale. Vertical velocity measurement by MST radars is then considered from within the context of the expected magnitudes to be observed. Examples are drawn from published vertical velocity observations.

  1. Glycosylation of Vanillin and 8-Nordihydrocapsaicin by Cultured <em>Eucalyptus perrinianaem> Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoji Kubota

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation of vanilloids such as vanillin and 8-nordihydrocapsaicin by cultured plant cells of <em>Eucalyptus perrinianaem> was studied. Vanillin was converted into vanillin 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranoside, vanillyl alcohol, and 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranosylvanillyl alcohol by <em>E. perriniana em>cells. Incubation of cultured <em>E. perrinianaem> cells with 8-nor- dihydrocapsaicin gave 8-nordihydrocapsaicin 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranoside and 8-nordihydro- capsaicin 4-<em>O>-b-D-gentiobioside.

  2. Purification, Characterization and Antioxidant Activities <em>in Vitroem>> em>and <em>in Vivoem> of the Polysaccharides from <em>Boletus edulisem> Bull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Fan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A water-soluble polysaccharide (BEBP was extracted from <em>Boletus edulis em>Bull using hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. The polysaccharide BEBP was further purified by chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column, giving three major polysaccharide fractions termed BEBP-1, BEBP-2 and BEBP-3. In the next experiment, the average molecular weight (Mw, IR and monosaccharide compositional analysis of the three polysaccharide fractions were determined. The evaluation of antioxidant activities both <em>in vitroem> and <em>in vivo em>suggested that BEBP-3 had good potential antioxidant activity, and should be explored as a novel potential antioxidant.

  3. A specimen of <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>samniticus> in Barn Owl's pellets from Murge plateau (Apulia, Italy / Su di un <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>samniticus> (Insectivora, Soricidae rinvenuto in borre di <em>Tyto albaem> delle Murge (Puglia, Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ferrara

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a lot of Barn Owl's pellets from the Murge plateau a specimen of <em>Sorex> sp. was detected. Thank to some morphological and morphometrical features, the cranial bones can be tentatively attributed to <em>Sorex samniticusem> Altobello, 1926. The genus <em>Sorex> was not yet included in the Apulia's fauna southwards of the Gargano district; the origin and significance of the above record is briefly discussed, the actual presence of a natural population of <em>Sorex> in the Murge being not yet proved. Riassunto Viene segnalato il rinvenimento di un esemplare di <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>samniticus> da borre di <em>Tyto albaem> delle Murge. Poiché il genere non era stato ancora segnalato nella Puglia a sud del Gargano, viene discusso il significato faunistico del reperto.

  4. Study of the <em>in Vitroem> Antiplasmodial, Antileishmanial and Antitrypanosomal Activities of Medicinal Plants from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal M. Al-Musayeib

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the <em>in vitroem> antiprotozoal activity of sixteen selected medicinal plants. Plant materials were extracted with methanol and screened <em>in vitroem> against erythrocytic schizonts of <em>Plasmodium falciparumem>, intracellular amastigotes of <em>Leishmania infantum em>and <em>Trypanosoma cruzi em>and free trypomastigotes of<em> T. bruceiem>. Cytotoxic activity was determined against MRC-5 cells to assess selectivity<em>. em>The criterion for activity was an IC50 < 10 µg/mL (4. Antiplasmodial activity was found in the<em> em>extracts of<em> em>>Prosopis julifloraem> and <em>Punica granatumem>. Antileishmanial activity<em> em>against <em>L. infantumem> was demonstrated in <em>Caralluma sinaicaem> and <em>Periploca aphylla.em> Amastigotes of<em> T. cruzi em>were affected by the methanol extract of<em> em>>Albizia lebbeckem>> em>pericarp, <em>Caralluma sinaicaem>,> Periploca aphylla em>and <em>Prosopius julifloraem>. Activity against<em> T. brucei em>was obtained in<em> em>>Prosopis julifloraem>. Cytotoxicity (MRC-5 IC50 < 10 µg/mL and hence non-specific activities were observed for<em> em>>Conocarpus lancifoliusem>.>

  5. Vertical distribution of paracalanus crassirostris (copepoda, calanoidea: analysis by the general linear model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Milstein

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available The vertical distribution of each developmental stage of Paracalanus crassirostris was studied in a shallow water station at Ubatuba, SP, Brazil (23º30'S-45º07'W. Samples were collected monthly at the surface, 2m and near bottom levels . Salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, tide height, light penetration arid solar radiation were also recorded. Data were analysed by the general linear model. It showed that the amount of individuals at any developmental stage is affected diversely by hour, depth, hour-depth interaction and environmental factors throughout the year and that these effects are stronger in summer. All developmental stages were spread in the water column showing no regular vertical migrations. On the other hand, the number of organisms caught in a particular hour seemed to dependmore on the tide than on the animals behaviour. The results of the present paper showed, as observed by some other authors, the lack of vertical migration of a coastal copepod which is a grazer of fine particles throughout its life.A distribuição vertical dos diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento de P. crassirostris foi estudada durante um ano (junho 1976 - maio 1977, numa estação pouco profunda (5 m em Ubatuba. As amostras foram coletadas mensalmente, em tres profundidades, cada quatro horas, com garrafa van Dorn de 9 l registrando-se dados ambientais. Os dados foram processados com a técnica dos Mínimos Quadrados, na forma de uma Aralise de Regressão de um Modelo Linear que inclui covariáveis. O modelo foi construído a priori, considerando densidade de organismos por amostra, fatores ambientais, diferenças entre amostras procedentes de diferentes profundidades e horas, também como interações entre hora e profundidade. Para cada estádio de P. crassirostris, o modelo foi repetido 9 vezes, com os dados de dois meses cada vez, a fim de obter a variação das respostas no ano. Os resultados do modelo indicaram que a quantidade de indiv

  6. Determining the propagation angle for non-vertical surface-breaking cracks and its effect on crack sizing using an ACFM sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, J. L.; Zhou, L.; Rowshandel, H.; Nicholson, G. L.; Davis, C. L.

    2015-11-01

    Alternating current field measurement (ACFM) probes are used to detect and size cracks in a range of engineering components. Crack sizing for this, and other electromagnetic (EM) based NDT systems, relies on relating the signal obtained to the actual crack length. For cracks that do not propagate vertically, such as rolling contact fatigue cracks in rails, predicting the crack depth, which determines the rail depth to be removed by grinding, requires an assumed propagation angle into the material as no method to determine crack vertical angle from the EM signals has been reported. This paper discusses the relationship between ACFM signals and propagation angles for surface-breaking cracks using a COMSOL model. The Bx signal accurately predicts the crack pocket length when the vertical angle is 30-90° but underestimates pocket length for shallower angles, e.g. a 50% underestimate is seen for a 3.2 mm pocket length crack propagating at a vertical angle of 10°. A new measure, the Bz trough-peak ratio, is proposed to determine the crack vertical angle. These are verified by experimental measurements using a commercial ACFM pencil probe for cracks with a range of vertical angles between 10° and 90°.

  7. Qualidade da carne de frangos de corte submetidos a dietas suplementadas com crômio, criados em diferentes temperaturas ambientais = Meat quality of broiler chicks submeted the supplemented diets with chromium and reared in differents enviromental temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Oba

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos. O experimento um objetivou avaliar a composição da carne do peito de frangos alimentados com dietas suplementadas com crômio (0, 400, 800 e 1.200 μg Cr kg-1 complexado a levedura, criados sob diferentes condições de temperatura (quente, termoneutra e fria. O experimento dois objetivou avaliar a qualidade da carne do peito de frangos alimentados com dietas suplementadas com crômio (0 e 400 μg Cr kg-1, criados nas mesmas condições do experimento um e desossados em diferentes períodos (0, 5 e 24 horas. Os resultados mostram que as aves criadas em ambiente frio apresentaram a carne com menor porcentagem de matéria mineral e crômio e maior intensidade de vermelho, enquanto as aves criadas em temperatura termoneutra apresentaram carne com menor porcentagem de umidade, e as aves criadas em temperatura quente, carne com maior luminosidade. Já a suplementação de crômio não proporcionou qualquer efeito na composição e na qualidade de carne, enquanto que o aumento no período de desossa proporcionou um menor comprimento de sarcômero, força de cisalhamento e intensidade de amarelo, porém uma maior luminosidade.Two experiments were conducted being the objective of the first experiment to evaluate the the composition of breast meat of broiler chicks fed with diets supplemented with chromium yeast (0; 400; 800and 1,200 μg Cr kg-1 reared in different environmental temperatures (hot, thermoneutral and cold. The second experiment aimed to evaluate the quality of breast meat of broiler chicks fed with diets supplemented with chromium yeast (0 and 400 μg Cr kg-1, reared in different environmental temperatures (hot, thermoneutral and cold and deboned in different periods (0, 5 and 24 hours. The results showed that birds reared in cold environmental temperature showed meat with lower mineral matter percentage and chromium and higher values of redness, whereas the birds reared in thermoneutral environment

  8. Vertical Integration and Economic Growth: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    A. Knobel

    2009-01-01

    The paper is devoted to an empirical study of determinants of vertical integration and their influence on economic growth. We verified the following hypotheses: higher quality of institutions reduces probability of vertical integration; productivity levels of participants in vertical integration influence on its probability in different ways; higher import quota of an economy helps reducing the degree of vertical integration; the degree of vertical integration in an economy influence on econo...

  9. Optical anisotropy in vertically coupled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ping; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Leosson, Kristjan;

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the polarization of surface and edge-emitted photoluminescence (PL) from structures with vertically coupled In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum dots (QD's) grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The PL polarization is found to be strongly dependent on the number of stacked layers. While single...

  10. Vertical reflector for bifacial PV-panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff;

    2016-01-01

    Bifacial solar modules offer an interesting price/performance ratio, and much work has been focused on directing the ground albedo to the back of the solar cells. In this work we design and develop a reflector for a vertical bifacial panel, with the objective to optimize the energy harvest...

  11. Electrostatic comb drive for vertical actuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A. P., LLNL

    1997-07-10

    The electrostatic comb finger drive has become an integral design for microsensor and microactuator applications. This paper reports on utilizing the levitation effect of comb fingers to design vertical-to-the-substrate actuation for interferometric applications. For typical polysilicon comb drives with 2 {micro}m gaps between the stationary and moving fingers, as well as between the microstructures and the substrate, the equilibrium position is nominally 1-2 {micro}m above the stationary comb fingers. This distance is ideal for many phase shifting interferometric applications. Theoretical calculations of the vertical actuation characteristics are compared with the experimental results, and a general design guideline is derived from these results. The suspension flexure stiffnesses, gravity forces, squeeze film damping, and comb finger thicknesses are parameters investigated which affect the displacement curve of the vertical microactuator. By designing a parallel plate capacitor between the suspended mass and the substrate, in situ position sensing can be used to control the vertical movement, providing a total feedback-controlled system. Fundamentals of various capacitive position sensing techniques are discussed. Experimental verification is carried out by a Zygo distance measurement interferometer.

  12. Manufacturing: the new case for vertical integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumpe, Ted; Bolwijn, Piet T.

    1988-01-01

    The article argues that the solid corporation will continue to view vertical integration as a critical part of manufacturing reform. Manufacturing reform and backward integration are related in insidious ways to the three stages of production over which the big manufacturers preside. Without integra

  13. BREAKING WAVE FORCES ON VERTICAL CYLINDERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The breaking wave forces on vertical cylinders in shallow waters were studied by means of experimental methods. The results indicate that the breaking wave pressure is distributed exponentially with respect to water depth. An experimental formula was given using the test data. Compared with test data, the calculated breaking wave forces are in good agreement with the test data.

  14. Modeling vertical coral connectivity and mesophotic refugia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, Daniel M.; Paris, Claire B.; Vaz, Ana C.; Smith, Tyler B.

    2016-03-01

    Whether mesophotic reefs will behave as refugia for corals threatened by global climate change and coastal development depends on vertical exchange of larvae between diverse habitats. Here we use a biophysical model of larval dispersal to estimate vertical connectivity of a broadcasting ( Orbicella faveolata) and a brooding ( Porites astreoides) species of coral in the US Virgin Islands. Modeling predicts subsidy to shallow areas by mesophotic larvae of both species based on local hydrology, adult reproductive characteristics, larval traits, and a wide range of scenarios developed to test depth-sensitive factors, such as fertilization rates and post-settlement survivorship. In extreme model scenarios of reduced fertilization and post-settlement survivorship of mesophotic larvae, 1-10 % local mesophotic subsidy to shallow recruitment is predicted for both species, which are demographically significant. Although direct vertical connectivity is higher for the broadcaster, the brooder demonstrates higher local multigenerational vertical connectivity, which suggests that local P. astreoides populations are more resilient than those of O. faveolata, and corroborates field studies. As shallow habitat degrades, mesophotic-shallow subsidy is predicted to increase for both species. This study is the first of its kind to simulate larval dispersal and settlement between habitats of different depths, and these findings have local, regional, and global implications for predicting and managing coral reef persistence in a changing climate.

  15. Certified standards and vertical coordination in aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the interaction between food standards and vertical coordination in the Vietnamese pangasius sector. For farmers and processors alike, the adoption of standards is motivated by a desire to improve market access by ensuring high quality supply. Instead of encouraging the applic...

  16. Safety Aspects for Vertical Wall Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Burcharth, H. F.; Christiani, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this appendix some safety aspects in relation to vertical wall breakwaters are discussed. Breakwater structures such as vertical wall breakwaters are used under quite different conditions. The expected lifetime can be from 5 years (interim structure) to 100 years (permanent structure) and the ......In this appendix some safety aspects in relation to vertical wall breakwaters are discussed. Breakwater structures such as vertical wall breakwaters are used under quite different conditions. The expected lifetime can be from 5 years (interim structure) to 100 years (permanent structure......) and the accepted level of probability of failure in the expected lifetime can vary from a very small number, e.g. 10-4 if failure of the breakwater results in significant damage to large probabilities, e.g. 0.5 if the consequences are insignificant. This has to be taken into account when discussing safety aspects...... and possible level I and D code formats. In the following first the most important failure modes are briefly described, see section 2. It is assumed that the failure modes can be modelled by limit state functions. Wave load models are described in section 3. In section 5 uncertainties related to the parameters...

  17. Dynamic Voluntary Advertising and Vertical Product Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Tenryu, Yohei; Kamei, Keita

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the dynamic relationship between advertising and product quality under duopolistic competition. By using a simplified vertical product differentiation model with voluntary advertising, we show that the firm with larger market share has a larger advertising share and that there is a positive relationship between the difference in product quality and the number of customers in an industry.

  18. Vertically aligned biaxially textured molybdenum thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Rahul [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Riley, Michael [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Lee, Sabrina [US Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center, Benet Labs, Watervliet, New York 12189 (United States); Lu, Toh-Ming [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Vertically aligned, biaxially textured molybdenum nanorods were deposited using dc magnetron sputtering with glancing flux incidence (alpha = 85 degrees with respect to the substrate normal) and a two-step substrate-rotation mode. These nanorods were identified with a body-centered cubic crystal structure. The formation of a vertically aligned biaxial texture with a [110] out-of-plane orientation was combined with a [-110] in-plane orientation. The kinetics of the growth process was found to be highly sensitive to an optimum rest time of 35 seconds for the two-step substrate rotation mode. At all other rest times, the nanorods possessed two separate biaxial textures each tilted toward one flux direction. While the in-plane texture for the vertical nanorods maintains maximum flux capture area, inclined Mo nanorods deposited at alpha = 85 degrees without substrate rotation display a [-1-1-4] in-plane texture that does not comply with the maximum flux capture area argument. Finally, an in situ capping film was deposited with normal flux incidence over the biaxially textured vertical nanorods resulting in a thin film over the porous nanorods. This capping film possessed the same biaxial texture as the nanorods and could serve as an effective substrate for the epitaxial growth of other functional materials.

  19. On the vertical structure of wind gusts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suomi, I.; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Floors, Rogier Ralph;

    2015-01-01

    The increasing size of wind turbines, their height and the area swept by their blades have revised the need for understanding the vertical structure of wind gusts. Information is needed for the whole profile. In this study, we analyzed turbulence measurements from a 100m high meteorological mast...

  20. Oblique patterned etching of vertical silicon sidewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Burckel, D.; Finnegan, Patrick S.; David Henry, M.; Resnick, Paul J.; Jarecki, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    A method for patterning on vertical silicon surfaces in high aspect ratio silicon topography is presented. A Faraday cage is used to direct energetic reactive ions obliquely through a patterned suspended membrane positioned over the topography. The technique is capable of forming high-fidelity pattern (100 nm) features, adding an additional fabrication capability to standard top-down fabrication approaches.

  1. Vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano J. C.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Low-level alpha spectrometry techniques using semiconductor detectors (PIPS and liquid scintillation counters (LKB Quantulus 1220™ were used in order to determine the activity concentration of 238U, 232Th, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb in soil samples. The soils were collected from an old disused uranium mine located in southwest Spain. The soils were selected with different levels of influence from the installation, in such a way that they had different levels of radioactive contamination. The vertical profiles in the soils (down to 40 cm depth were studied in order to evaluate the vertical distribution of the natural radionuclides. The possible contamination of subsurface waters depends strongly on vertical migration, and the transfer to plants (herbs, shrubs, and trees also will depend on the distribution of the radionuclides in the root zone. The study of the activity ratios between radionuclides belonging to the same series allowed us to assess the differing behaviour of the radionuclides involved. The vertical profiles for these radionuclides were different at each sampling point, showing the local impact of the installation. However, the profiles per point were similar for the long-lived radionuclides of the 238TJ series (238U, 234U, 230Th, and 226Ra. Also, a major disequilibrium was observed between 210Pb and 226Ra in the surface layer, due to 222Rn emanation and subsequent surface deposition of 210Pb.

  2. Vertical Integration Spurs American Health Care Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Richard C.

    1986-01-01

    Under new "managed health care systems," the classical functional separation of risk taker, claims payor, and provider are vertically integrated into a common entity. This evolution should produce a competitive environment with medical care rendered to all Americans on a more cost-effective basis. (CJH)

  3. A note on partial vertical integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); H.J.M. Peters (Hans)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractA simple model is constructed to show how partial vertical integration may emerge as an equilibrium market structure in a world characterized by rationing, differences in the reservation prices of buyers, and in the risk attitudes of buyers and sellers. The buyers with the high reservati

  4. Vertical Integration: Teachers' Knowledge and Teachers' Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrie, L.

    1995-01-01

    Traces the theoretical basis for vertical integration in early school years. Contrasts transmission-based pedagogy with a higher level of teacher control, and acquirer-based pedagogy with a higher level of student control. Suggests that early childhood pedagogy will be maintained when teachers are able to articulate their pedagogical knowledge and…

  5. Vertical root fractures and their management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasnis, Sandhya Anand; Kidiyoor, Krishnamurthy Haridas; Patil, Anand Basavaraj; Kenganal, Smita Basavaraj

    2014-01-01

    Vertical root fractures associated with endodontically treated teeth and less commonly in vital teeth represent one of the most difficult clinical problems to diagnose and treat. In as much as there are no specific symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult. Clinical detection of this condition by endodontists is becoming more frequent, where as it is rather underestimated by the general practitioners. Since, vertical root fractures almost exclusively involve endodontically treated teeth; it often becomes difficult to differentiate a tooth with this condition from an endodontically failed one or one with concomitant periodontal involvement. Also, a tooth diagnosed for vertical root fracture is usually extracted, though attempts to reunite fractured root have been done in various studies with varying success rates. Early detection of a fractured root and extraction of the tooth maintain the integrity of alveolar bone for placement of an implant. Cone beam computed tomography has been shown to be very accurate in this regard. This article focuses on the diagnostic and treatment strategies, and discusses about predisposing factors which can be useful in the prevention of vertical root fractures. PMID:24778502

  6. Vertical eddy heat fluxes from model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Peter H.; Yao, Mao-Sung

    1991-01-01

    Vertical eddy fluxes of heat are calculated from simulations with a variety of climate models, ranging from three-dimensional GCMs to a one-dimensional radiative-convective model. The models' total eddy flux in the lower troposphere is found to agree well with Hantel's analysis from observations, but in the mid and upper troposphere the models' values are systematically 30 percent to 50 percent smaller than Hantel's. The models nevertheless give very good results for the global temperature profile, and the reason for the discrepancy is unclear. The model results show that the manner in which the vertical eddy flux is carried is very sensitive to the parameterization of moist convection. When a moist adiabatic adjustment scheme with a critical value for the relative humidity of 100 percent is used, the vertical transports by large-scale eddies and small-scale convection on a global basis are equal: but when a penetrative convection scheme is used, the large-scale flux on a global basis is only about one-fifth to one-fourth the small-scale flux. Comparison of the model results with observations indicates that the results with the latter scheme are more realistic. However, even in this case, in mid and high latitudes the large and small-scale vertical eddy fluxes of heat are comparable in magnitude above the planetary boundary layer.

  7. Vertical strategic alignment and public service performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrews, R.; Boyne, G.A.; Meier, K.J.; O'Toole, L.J.; Walker, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a study examining the effects of vertical strategic alignment (that is, the degree to which strategic stances are consistent across different organizational levels) on public service performance. Longitudinal multivariate analysis is undertaken on a panel of public organizat

  8. Vertical field and equilibrium calculation in ETE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The free-boundary MHD equilibrium code HEQ is used to study the plasma behaviour in the tokamak ETE, with optimized compensations coils and vertical field coils. The changes on the equilibrium parameters for different plasma current values are also investigated. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Vertical interconnection of SOI photonic integrated circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, R.; Pozo Torres, J.M.; Kazmierczak, A.; Westerveld, W.J.; Harmsma, P.J.; Berg, J.H. van den; Schmits, R.; Yousefi, M.; Cabezon, M.; Villafranca, A.; Izquierdo, D.; Garces, J.I.

    2011-01-01

    One of the important issues of System-on-a-package integration is the interconnection between independent Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs). In this work, this issue is addressed by the use of Vertical Grating Couplers (VGCs) as the element for the interconnection between two Silicon-on-Insulator

  10. Experiments and modelling on vertical flame spread

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Mangs, J. [VTT Building and Transport, Espoo (Finland)

    2004-07-01

    he principle and some preliminary results are shown of a new vertical flame spread modelling effort. Quick experimental screenings on relevant phenomena are made, some models are evaluated, and a new set of needed measuring instruments is proposed. Finally a single example of FRNC cable is shown as application of the methods. (orig.)

  11. Vertical integration of HRD policy within companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognum, A.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    This study concerns HRD policy making in companies. More specifically, it explores whether so-called vertical integration of HRD policy at different organizational levels occurs within companies. The study involved forty-four large companies in the industrial and the financial and commercial service

  12. Project Plan for Vertical Lift Machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellsworth, G F

    2002-08-05

    This document describes the Project Plan for the development and manufacture of a Vertical Lift Machine. It is assumed by this project plan that the Vertical Lift Machine will be developed, designed, manufactured, and tested by a qualified vendor. LLNL will retain review and approval authority for each step given in this project plan. The Vertical Lift Machine is a single linear axis positioning device capable of lifting objects vertically at controlled rates and positioning them repeatedly at predetermined heights, in relation to other objects suspended from above, for high neutron multiplication experiments. Operation of the machine during the experiments is done remotely. The lift mechanism shall accommodate various platforms (tables) that support the objects to be raised. A frame will support additional subassemblies from above such that the lower subassembly can be raised close to and/or interface with those above. The structure must be stiff and motion of the table linear such that radial alignment is maintained (e.g. concentricity). The safe position for the Vertical Lift Machine is the lift mechanism fully retracted with the subassemblies fully separated. The machine shall reside in this position when not in use. It must return to this safe condition from any position upon failure of power sources, open safety interlocks, or operator initiated SCRAM. The Vertical Lift Machine shall have the capability of return to the safe position with no externally applied power. The Vertical Lift Machine shall have dual operator interfaces, one near the machine and another located in a remote control room. Conventional single key, key-lock switching shall be implemented to lock out the control interface not in use. The interface at the machine will be used for testing and ''dry running'' experimental setup(s) with inert subassemblies (i.e. Setup Mode). The remote interface shall provide full control and data recording capability (i.e. Assembly Mode

  13. <em>In Vivoem> Histamine Optical Nanosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A. Clark

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this communication we discuss the development of ionophore based nanosensors for the detection and monitoring of histamine levels <em>in vivoem>. This approach is based on the use of an amine-reactive, broad spectrum ionophore which is capable of recognizing and binding to histamine. We pair this ionophore with our already established nanosensor platform, and demonstrate <em>in vitroem> and <em>in vivoem> monitoring of histamine levels. This approach enables capturing rapid kinetics of histamine after injection, which are more difficult to measure with standard approaches such as blood sampling, especially on small research models. The coupling together of <em>in vivoem> nanosensors with ionophores such as nonactin provide a way to generate nanosensors for novel targets without the difficult process of designing and synthesizing novel ionophores.

  14. Conhecimento dos obstetras sobre a transmissão vertical da hepatite B Knowledge of obstetricians about the vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseni Santos da Conceição

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A transmissão vertical é responsável por 35% a 40% dos novos casos de hepatite B no mundo e a infecção precoce pelo vírus da hepatite B aumenta o risco de evolução para a hepatite crônica, cirrose e carcinoma hepatocelular. OBJETIVO: Determinar o conhecimento dos obstetras sobre as práticas para o diagnóstico da infecção pelo vírus da hepatite B em gestantes e as condutas para a prevenção desta infecção em recém-nascidos de mães infectadas. MÉTODOS: Foram sorteados aleatoriamente profissionais de saúde cadastrados na Sociedade de Obstetrícia e Ginecologia da Bahia, que foram convidados a responder um questionário anônimo com informações sobre sua formação acadêmica, o local de trabalho, o contato com estudantes e as suas práticas profissionais em relação ao vírus da hepatite B. Adotou-se como critério de exclusão o não exercício atual da obstetrícia e a não residência na Bahia. A análise dos dados foi feita através do programa estatístico Epiinfo e para análise das correlações foi adotado intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Foram entrevistados 301 obstetras, dos quais 90,3% reconheciam a transmissibilidade vertical do vírus da hepatite B e 81,7% solicitavam algum exame para detecção de hepatite B durante o pré-natal de suas pacientes. Sessenta e seis por cento dos médicos entrevistados referiram o AgHBs como o marcador sorológico mais adequado para avaliar a presença de infecção pelo VHB. Apenas 13,0% destes profissionais indicavam de modo sistemático a vacina contra a hepatite B e a administração de imunoglobulina nas primeiras 12 horas de vida do recém-nascido de mães infectadas. O número de respostas corretas quanto à transmissibilidade vertical do VHB, ao marcador sorológico mais adequado e à conduta para o recém-nascido de mãe infectada foi maior entre os obstetras que possuíam o Título de Especialista em Ginecologia e Obstetrícia que entre os demais

  15. Rheotaxis of Biomphalaria glabrata on vertical substrates and its role in the recolonization of habitats treated with molluscicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jurberg

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors observed specimens of Biomphalaria glabrata climbing up the vertical wall of a ditch against the current. The snails that showed this behavior during application of a molluscicide in the breeding site survived and probably played a role in repopulation, which was observed three months later. These observations motivated field and laboratory investigations which led the authors to conclude that: a this species is able to climb vertical surfaces both in field and laboratory situations; b the current of water, as a physical stimulus, is sufficient to trigger this behavior (rheotaxis; c rheotaxis on vertical surfaces depends on the presence of a necessarily moderate current; d there are indications that B. glabrata may undergo habituation with respect to rheotaxis on vertical walls, e the relationship between rheotaxis and habituation should be considered as a factor causing snail grouping in water bodies which may contribute to their localization in the field; f rheotaxis on vertical surfaces may facilitate population dispersal, and its occurrence should be considered when campaigns for the control of schistosomiasis transmission are planned. The authors present some proposals to avoid the manifestation of this behavior in some filed situations.Os autores observaram exemplares de Biomphalaria glabrata subindo contra corrente em uma parede vertical de uma vala, constatando que os caramujos que apresentavam esse comportamento durante a aplicação de miluscicida neste criadouro sobreviveram e, provavelmente, tiveram papel de repovoamento, que foi observado três meses após. Essas observações suscitaram investigações de campo e de laboratório, através das quais concluiram que: a esta espécie é capaz de subir em superfícies verticais em situações de campo e de laboratório; b a corrente da água enquanto estímulo físico, é suficiente para desencadear esse comportamento (reotaxia; c a reotaxia em superfícies verticais depende

  16. Horizontalidade e verticalidade: os modelos de improvisação de Pixinguinha e K-Ximbinho no choro brasileiro Horizontal and vertical structures: Pixinguinha and K-Ximbinho's models of improvisation in the Brazilian Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Veneziano Valente

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Análise sobre os procedimentos de improvisação utilizados por Pixinguinha em 1 x 0 (1947 e por K-Ximbinho em Velhos Companheiros (1981. Uma comparação das diferenças e semelhanças entre suas abordagens mostra uma preferência pelos modelos estilísticos vertical ou horizontal.Analysis of the improvisation procedures of Brazilian instrumentalists Pixinguinha in 1 x 0 (One to zero; 1947 and K-Ximbinho in Velhos Companheiros (Old pals; 1981. A comparison of differences and similarities in their approaches reveals a preference for horizontal or vertical stylistic models.

  17. SIMBA - A global fit approach to vertical stroke Vub vertical stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The parton distribution function for a b quark in the B-meson (called the shape function) plays an important role in the analysis of the B→Xsγ and B→Xul anti ν data, and gives raise to one of the dominant uncertainties in the determination of vertical stroke Vub vertical stroke. We implement a new model independent framework to treat the shape function with reliable theoretical uncertainties based on an expansion in a suitable complete set of orthonormal basis functions. This is a significant improvement over fits to model functions. We present the current status of combined fits to BaBar and Belle data and extract vertical stroke Vub vertical stroke.

  18. Caracterização do processo de rigor mortis em músculos de cordeiros da raça Santa Inês e F1 Santa Inês x Dorper Characterization of rigor mortis process of muscles lamb of Santa Inês breed and F1 Santa Inês x Dorper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael dos Santos Costa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento do processo de rigor mortis nas carcaças dos animais de açougue influenciam diretamente a qualidade da carne. As características do processo de rigor mortis em carcaça de ovinos durante o processamento industrial para obtenção de carcaças resfriadas já foram estudadas em outros países e no Brasil em ovinos Santa Inês, mas ainda não estabelecidas em ovinos F1 Santa Inês x Dorper. Assim, objetivou-se neste trabalho caracterizar o processo de rigor mortis dos músculos Semitendinosus e Triceps brachii durante o resfriamento industrial e maciez da carne, em 10 carcaças ovinas. Foram escolhidos aleatoriamente 10 ovinos machos inteiros, sendo seis da raça Santa Inês e quatro F1 Santa Inês x Dorper, abatidos no Matadouro Frigorífico de Campos - Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro. Após a sangria, analisou-se temperatura, pH, comprimento de sarcômero em diferentes intervalos de tempo (4h; 6h; 8h; 10h; 12h; e 24h e força de cisalhamento ou maciez às 48h, do músculo Semitendinosus. Paralelamente, foi realizada a correlação entre a análise sensorial e a análise instrumental desse músculo. A temperatura da câmara fria variou de 12,2°C (4h a -0,5°C (24h e a temperatura média das carcaças foi de 26,80°C e -0,20°C, respectivamente. O pH médio inicial do músculo Semitendinosus foi de 6,62 e o final 5,64 enquanto no músculo T. brachii foi de 6,50 (4h e 5,68 (24h. A contração máxima do sarcômero do músculo Semitendinosus ocorreu na 12ªh(1,50mm após a sangria e no músculo Triceps brachii, no intervalo entre a 10ªh e 24ªh (1,53 a 1,57mm. No músculo Semitendinosus a força de cisalhamento ou maciez foi semelhante entre cordeiros da raça Santa Inês e F1 Santa Inês x Dorper, demonstrando que o grupo genético não influencia na maciez da carne. O painel sensorial confirmou os resultados obtidos na análise instrumental. Na correlação da análise instrumental (força de cisalhamento com a an

  19. Effect of gravity on vertical eye position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrot-Deseilligny, C

    2009-05-01

    There is growing evidence that gravity markedly influences vertical eye position and movements. A new model for the organization of brainstem upgaze pathways is presented in this review. The crossing ventral tegmental tract (CVTT) could be the efferent tract of an "antigravitational" pathway terminating at the elevator muscle motoneurons in the third nerve nuclei and comprising, upstream, the superior vestibular nucleus and y-group, the flocculus, and the otoliths. This pathway functions in parallel to the medial longitudinal fasciculus pathways, which control vertical eye movements made to compensate for all vertical head movements and may also comprise the "gravitational" vestibular pathways, involved in the central reflection of the gravity effect. The CVTT could provide the upgaze system with the supplement of tonic activity required to counteract the gravity effect expressed in the gravitational pathway, being permanently modulated according to the static positions of the head (i.e., the instantaneous gravity vector) between a maximal activity in the upright position and a minimal activity in horizontal positions. Different types of arguments support this new model. The permanent influence of gravity on vertical eye position is strongly suggested by the vertical slow phases and nystagmus observed after rapid changes in hypo- or hypergravity. The chin-beating nystagmus, existing in normal subjects with their head in the upside-down position, suggests that gravity is not compensated for in the downgaze system. Upbeat nystagmus due to brainstem lesions, most likely affecting the CVTT circuitry, is improved when the head is in the horizontal position, suggesting that this circuitry is involved in the counteraction of gravity between the upright and horizontal positions of the head. In downbeat nystagmus due to floccular damage, in which a permanent hyperexcitation of the CVTT could exist, a marked influence of static positions of the head is also observed. Finally

  20. Burnout em cuidados paliativos

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Sílvia Cristina Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada ao Instituto Politécnico de Castelo Branco para cumprimento dos requisitos necessário à obtenção de grau de Mestre em Cuidados Paliativos. O presente trabalho foi realizado no âmbito do 3º semestre do 1º Curso de Mestrado em Cuidados Paliativos, da Escola Superior de Saúde Dr. Lopes Dias. O trabalho encontra-se estruturado em quatro capítulos: o primeiro diz respeito ao relatório da prática clínica, o segundo aborda o enquadramento teórico sobre a Síndrome de Bur...

  1. EMS in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalanjaona, Georges; Brogan, Gerald X

    2009-02-01

    Mauritius lies in the southwest Indian Ocean about 1250 miles from the African coast and 500 miles from Madagascar. Mauritius (estimated population 1,230,602) became independent from the United Kingdom in 1968 and has one of the highest GDP per capita in Africa. Within Mauritius there is a well established EMS system with a single 999 national dispatch system. Ambulances are either publicly or privately owned. Public ambulances are run by the Government (SAMU). Megacare is a private subscriber only ambulance service. The Government has recently invested in new technology such as telemedicine to further enhance the role of EMS on the island. This article describes the current state of EMS in Mauritius and depicts its development in the context of Government effort to decentralise and modernise the healthcare system.

  2. The Subjective Visual Vertical and the Subjective Haptic Vertical Access Different Gravity Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, Lindsey E.; Bobbak Makooie; Harris, Laurence R.

    2015-01-01

    The subjective visual vertical (SVV) and the subjective haptic vertical (SHV) both claim to probe the underlying perception of gravity. However, when the body is roll tilted these two measures evoke different patterns of errors with SVV generally becoming biased towards the body (A-effect, named for its discoverer, Hermann Rudolph Aubert) and SHV remaining accurate or becoming biased away from the body (E-effect, short for Entgegengesetzt-effect, meaning "opposite", i.e., opposite to the A-ef...

  3. Minimum-distortion isometric shape correspondence using EM algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahillioğlu, Yusuf; Yemez, Yücel

    2012-11-01

    We present a purely isometric method that establishes 3D correspondence between two (nearly) isometric shapes. Our method evenly samples high-curvature vertices from the given mesh representations, and then seeks an injective mapping from one vertex set to the other that minimizes the isometric distortion. We formulate the problem of shape correspondence as combinatorial optimization over the domain of all possible mappings, which then reduces in a probabilistic setting to a log-likelihood maximization problem that we solve via the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm. The EM algorithm is initialized in the spectral domain by transforming the sampled vertices via classical Multidimensional Scaling (MDS). Minimization of the isometric distortion, and hence maximization of the log-likelihood function, is then achieved in the original 3D euclidean space, for each iteration of the EM algorithm, in two steps: by first using bipartite perfect matching, and then a greedy optimization algorithm. The optimal mapping obtained at convergence can be one-to-one or many-to-one upon choice. We demonstrate the performance of our method on various isometric (or nearly isometric) pairs of shapes for some of which the ground-truth correspondence is available.

  4. Evaluation of Pseudopteroxazole and Pseudopterosin Derivatives against <em>Mycobacterium> <em>tuberculosis> and Other Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    McCulloch, Malcolm W. B.; Brad Haltli; Marchbank, Douglas H.; Kerr, Russell G.

    2012-01-01

    Pseudopterosins and pseudopteroxazole are intriguing marine natural products that possess notable antimicrobial activity with a commensurate lack of cytotoxicity. New semi-synthetic pseudopteroxazoles, pseudopteroquinoxalines and pseudopterosin congeners along with simple synthetic mimics of the terpene skeleton were synthesized. In order to build structure-activity relationships, a set of 29 new and previously reported compounds was assessed for <em>in> <em>vitro...

  5. Ulisses em Kafka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Mosès

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ResumoEm sua introdução para Exegese de uma lenda, Stéphane Mosès afirma que a obra de Kafka não necessita de novas interpretações, mas sim de uma “análise rigorosa de sua lógica subjacente”. Assim, em “Ulisses em Kafka”, investigandoa dialética formal de “O silêncio das sereias”, Mosès procura expor a estrutura narrativa que comandaria esse breve texto em que o escritor tcheco acrescenta à astucia de Ulisses a ingenuidade como elemento de salvação.Palavras-chave: Kafka; dialética; salvação.AbstractIn his introduction to Exegèse d’une légende, Stéphane Mosès affirms that Kafka’s works are not in need of new interpretations, but rather, of a “rigorous analysis of their underlying logic”. Thus, in “Ulisses chez Kafka”, by investigating the formal dialectic of “Das Schweigen der Sirenen”, Mosès seeks to exhibit the narrative structure that would supposedly guide this short text in which the Czech author adds naïveté to Ulisses’s cunning intelligence as an element of salvation.Keywords: Kafka; dialectic; salvation.Stéphane Mosès foi professor emérito da Universidade Hebraica de Jerusalém, onde ensinou Literatura Alemã e Comparada, entre os seus principais interesses estavam o pensamento de Franz Rosenzweig e de Walter Benjamin e as literaturas de Franz Kafka e de Paul Célan. Autor de diversos livros, entre eles: L'ange de l'histoire. Rosenzweig, Benjamin, Scholem, Exégèse d'une légende, lectures de Kafka, e Rêves de Freud. Six lectures.Rodrigo Ielpo é doutor em literatura francesa pela UFRJ e em História e Semiologia do texto e da imagem pela Université Paris VII, com pós-doutorado em Teoria Literária pela UNICAMP. Professor Adjunto do Departamento de Letras Neolatinas da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, possui publicações e traduções nos seguintes temas: teoria e literatura francesa contemporâneas, escrita e processos de subjetivação.rodrigoielpo@gmail.com 

  6. Vertically Integrated Multiple Nanowire Field Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Kang, Min-Ho; Ahn, Dae-Chul; Park, Jun-Young; Bang, Tewook; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Hur, Jae; Lee, Dongil; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2015-12-01

    A vertically integrated multiple channel-based field-effect transistor (FET) with the highest number of nanowires reported ever is demonstrated on a bulk silicon substrate without use of wet etching. The driving current is increased by 5-fold due to the inherent vertically stacked five-level nanowires, thus showing good feasibility of three-dimensional integration-based high performance transistor. The developed fabrication process, which is simple and reproducible, is used to create multiple stiction-free and uniformly sized nanowires with the aid of the one-route all-dry etching process (ORADEP). Furthermore, the proposed FET is revamped to create nonvolatile memory with the adoption of a charge trapping layer for enhanced practicality. Thus, this research suggests an ultimate design for the end-of-the-roadmap devices to overcome the limits of scaling. PMID:26544156

  7. Wave Forces Acting on Vertical Walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ben-xia; YU Yu-xiu; YU Xi-ping

    2008-01-01

    Regular and irregular wave forces acting on vertical walls are studied by a previously developed numerical model. The computed wave forces are compared with the available experimental data to verify the numerical model, and satisfactory agreements are obtained. The variation of wave forces with incident angles and the shape of simultaneous pressure distribution are investigated, and the comparisons between numerical results and Goda's predictions are also carried out. It is concluded that the maximum wave forces acting on the unit length of vertical wall is often induced by the obliquely incident waves instead of normally incident waves, while Goda's formula may be inapplicable for oblique wave incidence. The shape of simultaneous pressure distribution is not significantly influenced by incident angles, and it can be favorably predicted by Goda's formula. When regular wave heights are taken as the same as irregular wave height H1%, the irregular wave forces Ph,1% are slightly larger than regular wave forces in most cases.

  8. Vertical external cavity surface emitting semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Holm, M

    2001-01-01

    Active stabilisation showed a relative locked linewidth of approx 3 kHz. Coarse tuning over 7 nm was achieved using a 3-plate birefingent filter plate while fine-tuning using cavity length change allowed tuning over 250 MHz. Vertical external cavity semiconductor lasers have emerged as an interesting technology based on current vertical cavity semiconductor laser knowledge. High power output into a single transverse mode has attracted companies requiring good fibre coupling for telecommunications systems. The structure comprises of a grown semiconductor Bragg reflector topped with a multiple quantum well gain region. This is then included in an external cavity. This device is then optically pumped to promote laser action. Theoretical modelling of AIGaAs based VECSEL structures was undertaken, showing the effect of device design on laser characteristics. A simple 3-mirror cavity was constructed to assess the static characteristics of the structure. Up to 153 mW of output power was achieved in a single transver...

  9. New Urban Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Mihai CISMILIANU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a different approach for enhancing the performance of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines for the use in the urban or rural environment and remote isolated residential areas. Recently the vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT have become more attractive due to the major advantages of this type of turbines in comparison to the horizontal axis wind turbines. We aim to enhance the overall performance of the VAWT by adding a second set of blades (3 x 2=6 blades following the rules of biplane airplanes. The model has been made to operate at a maximum power in the range of the TSR between 2 to 2.5. The performances of the VAWT were investigated numerically and experimentally and justify the new proposed design.

  10. Lunar vertical-shaft mining system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introne, Steven D. (Editor); Krause, Roy; Williams, Erik; Baskette, Keith; Martich, Frederick; Weaver, Brad; Meve, Jeff; Alexander, Kyle; Dailey, Ron; White, Matt

    1994-01-01

    This report proposes a method that will allow lunar vertical-shaft mining. Lunar mining allows the exploitation of mineral resources imbedded within the surface. The proposed lunar vertical-shaft mining system is comprised of five subsystems: structure, materials handling, drilling, mining, and planning. The structure provides support for the exploration and mining equipment in the lunar environment. The materials handling subsystem moves mined material outside the structure and mining and drilling equipment inside the structure. The drilling process bores into the surface for the purpose of collecting soil samples, inserting transducer probes, or locating ore deposits. Once the ore deposits are discovered and pinpointed, mining operations bring the ore to the surface. The final subsystem is planning, which involves the construction of the mining structure.

  11. Film cooling of vertical fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spray cooling of vertical rods has been studied at low heat fluxes appropriate to the removal of fission product heating following a reactor shut down. A series of tests have been made at atmospheric pressure using electrically heated rods, both singly and in a seven rod cluster, cooled by a falling film of water. Four modes of film breakdown were observed; progressive evaporation of the film; dry-patch formation due to surface tension effects at high inlet subcooling; stripping of the film by the flooding action of counterflow steam; and the disruption of the film on a hot rod caused by sputtering. Each of these phenomena is described in relation to the application of film cooling to long vertical fuel rod clusters. (author)

  12. Horizontal Transmission of the Entomopathogen Fungus <em>Metarhizium anisopliae em>in <em>Microcerotermes diversusem> Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saied Mossadegh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out in order to investigate fungal conidia transmission of <em>Metarhizium anisopliae em>(Metschnikoff> em>Sorokin from vector (donor to healthy <em>Microcerotermes diversusem> Silvestri (Iso.: Termitidae and determine the best donor/concentration ratio for transmission. After preliminary trials, concentrations of 3.1 × 104, 3.9 × 105, 3.2 × 106 and 3.5 × 108 conidia mL−1 were selected for testing. The experiment was performed at three donor : Recipient ratios of 10, 30 and 50%. The highest mortality of recipient workers was observed after 14 days at the concentration of 3.5 × 108 conidia mL−1 and donor ratio of 50%. The mortality of recipient workers was less than 20% at all concentrations at a donor ratio of 10%. Our observations indicate social behavior of <em>M. diversusem>, such as grooming, can be effective in promoting epizootic outbreaks in a colony. While the current results suggest good potential for efficacy, the use of <em>M. anisopliaeem> as a component of integrated pest management of <em>M. diversusem> still needs to be proven under field conditions.

  13. Vertical integration by oil exporting countries

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Horst; Rauscher, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Most oil-producing countries have now nationalised their oil reserves and are pursuing their own pricing and marketing policies; in recent years some of them have attempted to extend their influence over the oil market by undertaking processing activities downstream from oil production. What motives underlie this strategy of vertical integration? What is its economic justification? What effects will it have on oil-importing countries?

  14. Location in a Vertically Differentiated Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bacchiega, Emanuele; Minniti, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    We analyze a two-stage game in a vertically differentiated duopoly with two regions which can differ for the willingness to pay of their consumers or for the market size; firms sequentially choose to settle in one region and then simultaneously compete in prices, selling their products both on the local market and on the foreigner one by exporting them at a fixed cost. We study how strategic interaction influences firms’ location choices and we show that the decision whether...

  15. Vertical Differentiation with Variety-Seeking Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Zeithammer; Raphael Thomadsen

    2013-01-01

    We analyze price and quality competition in a vertically differentiated duopoly in which consumers have a preference for variety. The preference for variety is a consequence of diminishing marginal utility for repeated experiences with the same product. We find consumer variety seeking can either soften or intensify price competition, depending on the difference in firm qualities and the strength of consumer preference for variety. When the qualities are similar (or the consumer preference fo...

  16. Vertical teaching principles: pregnancy induced hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Sharma

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Vertical integration of medical disciplines helps medical students to understand a clinical problem in the light of basic sciences. The modules beginning with the pathophysiology of pregnancy induced hypertension and concluded with anesthetic considerations. An elaborate module helps to translate an understanding of pharmaco therapeutics of hypertension in pregnancy. A well-trained medical student can help to reduce maternal mortality due to preeclampsia. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 1739-1743

  17. Product innovation in a vertically differentiated model

    OpenAIRE

    L. Filippini; C. Vergari

    2012-01-01

    We study the licensing incentives of an independent input producer owning a patented product innovation which allows the downstream firms to improve the quality of their final goods. We consider a general two-part tariff contract for both outside and incumbent innovators. We find that technology diffusion critically depends on the nature of market competition (Cournot vs. Bertrand). Moreover, the vertical merger with either downstream firm is always privately profitable and it is welfare impr...

  18. Radially Magnetized Protoplanetary Disk: Vertical Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Matthew; Thompson, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    This paper studies the response of a thin accretion disk to an external radial magnetic field. Our focus is on protoplanetary disks (PPDs), which are exposed during their later evolution to an intense, magnetized wind from the central star. A radial magnetic field is mixed into a thin surface layer, wound up by the disk shear, and pushed downward by a combination of turbulent mixing and ambipolar and ohmic drift. The toroidal field reaches much greater strengths than the seed vertical field that is usually invoked in PPD models, even becoming superthermal. Linear stability analysis indicates that the disk experiences the magnetorotational instability (MRI) at a higher magnetization than a vertically magnetized disk when both the effects of ambipolar and Hall drift are taken into account. Steady vertical profiles of density and magnetic field are obtained at several radii between 0.06 and 1 AU in response to a wind magnetic field Br ˜ (10-4-10-2)(r/ AU)-2 G. Careful attention is given to the radial and vertical ionization structure resulting from irradiation by stellar X-rays. The disk is more strongly magnetized closer to the star, where it can support a higher rate of mass transfer. As a result, the inner ˜1 AU of a PPD is found to evolve toward lower surface density. Mass transfer rates around 10-8 M⊙ yr-1 are obtained under conservative assumptions about the MRI-generated stress. The evolution of the disk and the implications for planet migration are investigated in the accompanying paper.

  19. Vertical Carbon Nanotube Device in Nanoporous Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschmann, Matthew Ralph (Inventor); Fisher, Timothy Scott (Inventor); Sands, Timothy (Inventor); Bashir, Rashid (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A modified porous anodic alumina template (PAA) containing a thin CNT catalyst layer directly embedded into the pore walls. CNT synthesis using the template selectively catalyzes SWNTs and DWNTs from the embedded catalyst layer to the top PAA surface, creating a vertical CNT channel within the pores. Subsequent processing allows for easy contact metallization and adaptable functionalization of the CNTs and template for a myriad of applications.

  20. Understanding Vertical Jump Potentiation: A Deterministic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Lamont, Hugh S; Moir, Gavin L

    2016-06-01

    This review article discusses previous postactivation potentiation (PAP) literature and provides a deterministic model for vertical jump (i.e., squat jump, countermovement jump, and drop/depth jump) potentiation. There are a number of factors that must be considered when designing an effective strength-power potentiation complex (SPPC) focused on vertical jump potentiation. Sport scientists and practitioners must consider the characteristics of the subject being tested and the design of the SPPC itself. Subject characteristics that must be considered when designing an SPPC focused on vertical jump potentiation include the individual's relative strength, sex, muscle characteristics, neuromuscular characteristics, current fatigue state, and training background. Aspects of the SPPC that must be considered for vertical jump potentiation include the potentiating exercise, level and rate of muscle activation, volume load completed, the ballistic or non-ballistic nature of the potentiating exercise, and the rest interval(s) used following the potentiating exercise. Sport scientists and practitioners should design and seek SPPCs that are practical in nature regarding the equipment needed and the rest interval required for a potentiated performance. If practitioners would like to incorporate PAP as a training tool, they must take the athlete training time restrictions into account as a number of previous SPPCs have been shown to require long rest periods before potentiation can be realized. Thus, practitioners should seek SPPCs that may be effectively implemented in training and that do not require excessive rest intervals that may take away from valuable training time. Practitioners may decrease the necessary time needed to realize potentiation by improving their subject's relative strength.

  1. Vertical dynamics of disk galaxies in MOND

    OpenAIRE

    Nipoti, Carlo; Londrillo, Pasquale; Zhao, HongSheng; Ciotti, Luca

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of discriminating between Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) and Newtonian gravity with dark matter, by studying the vertical dynamics of disk galaxies. We consider models with the same circular velocity in the equatorial plane (purely baryonic disks in MOND and the same disks in Newtonian gravity embedded in spherical dark matter haloes), and we construct their intrinsic and projected kinematical fields by solving the Jeans equations under the assumption of a t...

  2. Rescuing the concept of vertical fiscal imbalance

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Chanchal Kumar

    2007-01-01

    This article restores the concept of vertical fiscal imbalance (VFI) to its original meaning. The literature shows that there is neither a universally accepted definition of VFI nor a commonly accepted approach to measuring it. Estimates of VFI are derived, much like accounting or deficit measurements, by comparing the revenues and expenditures of two levels of government. VFI is, however, too nuanced an issue to be described by this kind of national accounting procedure. We argue that ease ...

  3. Thermal radiation from vertical jet fires

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios, Adriana; Muñoz, Miguel; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Casal Fàbrega, Joaquim

    2012-01-01

    Geometric and thermal data, obtained from a series of large outdoor jet fire experiments, were used to estimate the thermal radiation intensity from the flames towards targets located at diverse distances. Vertical turbulent sonic and subsonic exit velocity propane jet fires, up to 10.3 m in length released in still air, were studied. The temperatures of the flame surface and the surface emissive power of the flame were also analysed by processing infrared images. Thermal radiation intensity ...

  4. Inverse scattering problem for quantum graph vertices

    CERN Document Server

    Cheon, Taksu; Turek, Ondrej

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate how the inverse scattering problem of a quantum star graph can be solved by means of diagonalization of Hermitian unitary matrix when the vertex coupling is of the scale invariant (or F\\"ul\\H{o}p-Tsutsui) form. This enables the construction of quantum graphs with desired properties in a tailor-made fashion. The procedure is illustrated on the example of quantum vertices with equal transmission probabilities.

  5. Numerical Simulation of Rotating Vertical Bridgman Growth

    OpenAIRE

    S. Nouri; P. Spiterri; Ghezal, A.

    2016-01-01

    The present work is proposed a numerical parametric study of heat and mass transfer in a rotating vertical cylinder during the solidification of a binary metallic alloy. The aim of this paper is to present an enthalpy formulation based on the fixed grid methodology for the numerical solution of convective-diffusion during the phase change in the case of the steady crucible rotation. The extended Darcy model including the time derivative and Coriolis terms was applied as momentum equation. It...

  6. Vertical relationships, competition, knowledge search and innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with modern topics in industrial organization and in economics of innovation in particular. It encompasses four empirical studies which are related to both the aims expressed in the Europe 2020 strategy as well as the means to reach them. Chapter 2 deals with issues of bargaining in vertical relationships. The first study of this chapter explores how bargaining affects the R&D profitability of suppliers. The results show that a supplier’s bargaining power is a crucial determ...

  7. Understanding Vertical Jump Potentiation: A Deterministic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Lamont, Hugh S; Moir, Gavin L

    2016-06-01

    This review article discusses previous postactivation potentiation (PAP) literature and provides a deterministic model for vertical jump (i.e., squat jump, countermovement jump, and drop/depth jump) potentiation. There are a number of factors that must be considered when designing an effective strength-power potentiation complex (SPPC) focused on vertical jump potentiation. Sport scientists and practitioners must consider the characteristics of the subject being tested and the design of the SPPC itself. Subject characteristics that must be considered when designing an SPPC focused on vertical jump potentiation include the individual's relative strength, sex, muscle characteristics, neuromuscular characteristics, current fatigue state, and training background. Aspects of the SPPC that must be considered for vertical jump potentiation include the potentiating exercise, level and rate of muscle activation, volume load completed, the ballistic or non-ballistic nature of the potentiating exercise, and the rest interval(s) used following the potentiating exercise. Sport scientists and practitioners should design and seek SPPCs that are practical in nature regarding the equipment needed and the rest interval required for a potentiated performance. If practitioners would like to incorporate PAP as a training tool, they must take the athlete training time restrictions into account as a number of previous SPPCs have been shown to require long rest periods before potentiation can be realized. Thus, practitioners should seek SPPCs that may be effectively implemented in training and that do not require excessive rest intervals that may take away from valuable training time. Practitioners may decrease the necessary time needed to realize potentiation by improving their subject's relative strength. PMID:26712510

  8. Autonomous vehicle development for vertical submarine observation

    OpenAIRE

    Gomáriz Castro, Spartacus; Prat Tasias, Jordi; Arbós, Alejandro; Viñolo Monzoncillo, Carlos; Pallares, Oriol

    2009-01-01

    This work proposes the development of an ocean observation vehicle. This vehicle, a hybrid between Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) and Autonomous Surface Vehicles (ASV) moves on the surface of the sea and makes vertical immersions to obtain the profiles of a water column according to a pre-established plan. Its design provides lower production cost and higher efficiency. GPS navigation allows the platform to move along the surface of the water while a radio-modem provid...

  9. Electrically floating, near vertical incidence, skywave antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Allen A.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Tremblay, Paul A.; Mays, Belva L.

    2014-07-08

    An Electrically Floating, Near Vertical Incidence, Skywave (NVIS) Antenna comprising an antenna element, a floating ground element, and a grounding element. At least part of said floating ground element is positioned between said antenna element and said grounding element. The antenna is separated from the floating ground element and the grounding element by one or more electrical insulators. The floating ground element is separated from said antenna and said grounding element by one or more electrical insulators.

  10. Centro-lateral subperiosteal vertical midface lift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hönig, Johannes Franz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of fiberendoscopic video-assisted technique in facial rejuvenation is one of the most advances in aesthetic plastic surgery of the face. It substitutes the coronal incision without the necessity of skin resection and allows a vertical reposition of the mobile soft tissue of the midface in indicated cases. It can easily be done through a small incision of the scalp just behind the coronal incision and in the temporal area.

  11. Orthogonal Thin Film Photovoltaics on Vertical Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnood, Arman; Zhou, H; Suzuki, Y; Sliz, R; Fabritius, T; Nathan, Arokia; Amaratunga, G A J

    2015-12-01

    Decoupling paths of carrier collection and illumination within photovoltaic devices is one promising approach for improving their efficiency by simultaneously increasing light absorption and carrier collection efficiency. Orthogonal photovoltaic devices are core-shell type structures consisting of thin film photovoltaic stack on vertical nanopillar scaffolds. These types of devices allow charge collection to take place in the radial direction, perpendicular to the path of light in the vertical direction. This approach addresses the inherently high recombination rate of disordered thin films, by allowing semiconductor films with minimal thicknesses to be used in photovoltaic devices, without performance degradation associated with incomplete light absorption. This work considers effects which influence the performance of orthogonal photovoltaic devices. Illumination non-uniformity as light travels across the depth of the pillars, electric field enhancement due to the nanoscale size and shape of the pillars, and series resistance due to the additional surface structure created through the use of pillars are considered. All of these effects influence the operation of orthogonal solar cells and should be considered in the design of vertically nanostructured orthogonal photovoltaics.

  12. Sunrise enhancement of equatorial vertical plasma drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Libo; Zhang, Ruilong; Le, Huijun

    2016-04-01

    Sunrise enhancement in vertical plasma drift over equatorial regions is not discernible in the statistical picture compared with the significant enhancement during dusk hours. In this report, it is the first time to investigate the occurrence of the dawn enhancement in the equatorial ionospheric vertical plasma drift from ROCSAT-1 observations during geomagnetic quiet times. The dawn enhancements occur most frequently in June solstice and least frequently in December solstice. The statistical survey shows that the occurrence depends on the magnetic declination. The enhancement has the strongest amplitude in regions near 320° longitude and peaks during June solstice. The dawn enhancement reaches its peak after the sunrise in conjugated E regions. Furthermore, it is found that the dawn enhancement is closely related to the difference between the sunrise times in the conjugated E regions (sunrise time lag). The dawn enhancement occurs easily in regions with a large sunrise time lag. Moreover, we will report the effects of the sunrise enhancement of vertical plasma drift on the equatorial ionosphere as indicated from the observations and model simulations. We thanks National Central University of Taiwan providing the ROCSAT-1 data. The Ap and F107 indices are obtained from the National Geophysical Data Center (http://spidr.ngdc.noaa.gov/spidr/). This research is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (41231065), the Chinese Academy of Sciences project (KZZD-EW-01-3), National Key Basic Research Program of China (2012CB825604) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (41321003).

  13. A Vertically Integrated Junctionless Nanowire Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Hur, Jae; Kang, Min-Ho; Bang, Tewook; Ahn, Dae-Chul; Lee, Dongil; Kim, Kwang-Hee; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-03-01

    A vertically integrated junctionless field-effect transistor (VJ-FET), which is composed of vertically stacked multiple silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with a gate-all-around (GAA) structure, is demonstrated on a bulk silicon wafer for the first time. The proposed VJ-FET mitigates the issues of variability and fabrication complexity that are encountered in the vertically integrated multi-NW FET (VM-FET) based on an identical structure in which the VM-FET, as recently reported, harnesses a source and drain (S/D) junction for its operation and is thus based on the inversion mode. Variability is alleviated by bulk conduction in a junctionless FET (JL-FET), where current flows through the core of the SiNW, whereas it is not mitigated by surface conduction in an inversion mode FET (IM-FET), where current flows via the surface of the SiNW. The fabrication complexity is reduced by the inherent JL structure of the JL-FET because S/D formation is not required. In contrast, it is very difficult to dope the S/D when it is positioned at each floor of a tall SiNW with greater uniformity and with less damage to the crystalline structure of the SiNW in a VM-FET. Moreover, when the proposed VJ-FET is used as nonvolatile flash memory, the endurance and retention characteristics are improved due to the above-mentioned bulk conduction. PMID:26885948

  14. Vertical variations of coral reef drag forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Shai; Niewerth, Stephan; Koll, Katinka; Shavit, Uri

    2016-05-01

    Modeling flow in a coral reef requires a closure model that links the local drag force to the local mean velocity. However, the spatial flow variations make it difficult to predict the distribution of the local drag. Here we report on vertical profiles of measured drag and velocity in a laboratory reef that was made of 81 Pocillopora Meandrina colony skeletons, densely arranged along a tilted flume. Two corals were CT-scanned, sliced horizontally, and printed using a 3-D printer. Drag was measured as a function of height above the bottom by connecting the slices to drag sensors. Profiles of velocity were measured in-between the coral branches and above the reef. Measured drag of whole colonies shows an excellent agreement with previous field and laboratory studies; however, these studies never showed how drag varies vertically. The vertical distribution of drag is reported as a function of flow rate and water level. When the water level is the same as the reef height, Reynolds stresses are negligible and the drag force per unit fluid mass is nearly constant. However, when the water depth is larger, Reynolds stress gradients become significant and drag increases with height. An excellent agreement was found between the drag calculated by a momentum budget and the measured drag of the individual printed slices. Finally, we propose a modified formulation of the drag coefficient that includes the normal dispersive stress term and results in reduced variations of the drag coefficient at the cost of introducing an additional coefficient.

  15. Dynamic stiffness of suction caissons - vertical vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, M.; Andersen, Lars

    2006-12-15

    The dynamic response of offshore wind turbines are affected by the properties of the foundation and the subsoil. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the dynamic soil-structure interaction of suction caissons for offshore wind turbines. The investigation is limited to a determination of the vertical dynamic stiffness of suction caissons. The soil surrounding the foundation is homogenous with linear viscoelastic properties. The dynamic stiffness of the suction caisson is expressed by dimensionless frequency-dependent dynamic stiffness coefficients corresponding to the vertical degree of freedom. The dynamic stiffness coefficients for the foundations are evaluated by means of a dynamic three-dimensional coupled Boundary Element/Finite Element model. Comparisons are made with known analytical and numerical solutions in order to evaluate the static and dynamic behaviour of the Boundary Element/Finite Element model. The vertical frequency dependent stiffness has been determined for different combinations of the skirt length, Poisson's ratio and the ratio between soil stiffness and skirt stiffness. Finally the dynamic behaviour at high frequencies is investigated. (au)

  16. Longitudinal variability of black carbon vertical profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, J. P.; Weinzierl, B.; Samset, B. H.; Perring, A. E.; Dollner, M.; Heimerl, K.; Markovic, M. Z.; Ziemba, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosol contributes substantially to both climate forcing and climate forcing uncertainty. An important source of this uncertainty derives from the difficulty in predicting BC's global abundance and vertical distribution. Here we present a multi-year record of black carbon (BC) vertical concentration profiles from both sides of the Atlantic, obtained from airborne Single Particle Soot Photometers (SP2s) flown on the NASA DC-8, and the DLR Falcon research aircraft from the CONCERT, ACCESS, DC3, SEAC4RS, and SALTRACE campaigns. The measurements constrain the relative rates of BC transport/removal from, and zonal mixing in, the upper troposphere, as well as the range of BC loadings in these regions. They also constrain the time-rates of change of BC loads in altitudes at which it is a highly efficient (although sparse) climate forcer, and a relatively long-lived aerosol tracer. We find that concentration of BC in the upper troposphere can vary by a factor 10. Over the Northern mid-latitudes concentrations are however consistent to a fraction of this range over wide longitudinal ranges, over month-long timescales. The data show that BC becomes zonally mixed here starting at 500 hPa and extending to near the tropopause. These results imply broader value than previously associated with measured vertical profiles in constraining global scale BC loadings aloft.

  17. Wind speed vertical distribution at Mt. Graham

    CERN Document Server

    Hagelin, S; Lascaux, F

    2010-01-01

    The characterization of the wind speed vertical distribution V(h) is fundamental for an astronomical site for many different reasons: (1) the wind speed shear contributes to trigger optical turbulence in the whole troposphere, (2) a few of the astroclimatic parameters such as the wavefront coherence time (tau_0) depends directly on V(h), (3) the equivalent velocity V_0, controlling the frequency at which the adaptive optics systems have to run to work properly, depends on the vertical distribution of the wind speed and optical turbulence. Also, a too strong wind speed near the ground can introduce vibrations in the telescope structures. The wind speed at a precise pressure (200 hPa) has frequently been used to retrieve indications concerning the tau_0 and the frequency limits imposed to all instrumentation based on adaptive optics systems, but more recently it has been proved that V_200 (wind speed at 200 hPa) alone is not sufficient to provide exhaustive elements concerning this topic and that the vertical d...

  18. Radially Magnetized Protoplanetary Disk: Vertical Profile

    CERN Document Server

    Russo, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the response of a thin accretion disk to an external radial magnetic field. Our focus is on protoplanetary disks (PPDs), which are exposed during their later evolution to an intense, magnetized wind from the central star. A radial magnetic field is mixed into a thin surface layer, is wound up by the disk shear, and is pushed downward by a combination of turbulent mixing and ambipolar and Ohmic drift. The toroidal field reaches much greater strengths than the seed vertical field that is usually invoked in PPD models, even becoming superthermal. Linear stability analysis indicates that the disk experiences the magnetorotational instability (MRI) at a higher magnetization than a vertically magnetized disk when both the effects of ambipolar and Hall drift are taken into account. Steady vertical profiles of density and magnetic field are obtained at several radii between 0.06 and 1 AU in response to a wind magnetic field $B_r \\sim (10^{-4}$-$10^{-2})(r/{\\rm AU})^{-2}$ G. Careful attention is giv...

  19. Clinical Relevance of <em>CDH1em> and <em>CDH13em> DNA-Methylation in Serum of Cervical Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther K. Bonn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the DNA-methylation status of <em>E>-cadherin (<em>CDH1em> and <em>H>-cadherin (<em>CDH13em> in serum samples of cervical cancer patients and control patients with no malignant diseases and to evaluate the clinical utility of these markers. DNA-methylation status of <em>CDH1em> and <em>CDH13em> was analyzed by means of MethyLight-technology in serum samples from 49 cervical cancer patients and 40 patients with diseases other than cancer. To compare this methylation analysis with another technique, we analyzed the samples with a denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC PCR-method. The specificity and sensitivity of <em>CDH1em> DNA-methylation measured by MethyLight was 75% and 55%, and for <em>CDH13em> DNA-methylation 95% and 10%. We identified a specificity of 92.5% and a sensitivity of only 27% for the <em>CDH1em> DHPLC-PCR analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that serum <em>CDH1em> methylation-positive patients had a 7.8-fold risk for death (95% CI: 2.2–27.7; <em>p> = 0.001 and a 92.8-fold risk for relapse (95% CI: 3.9–2207.1; <em>p> = 0.005. We concluded that the serological detection of <em>CDH1em> and <em>CDH13em> DNA-hypermethylation is not an ideal diagnostic tool due to low diagnostic specificity and sensitivity. However, it was validated that <em>CDH1em> methylation analysis in serum samples may be of potential use as a prognostic marker for cervical cancer patients.

  20. Fumigant Antifungal Activity of Myrtaceae Essential Oils and Constituents from <em>Leptospermum petersoniiem> against Three <em>Aspergillus> Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Kwon Park

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Commercial plant essential oils obtained from 11 Myrtaceae plant species were tested for their fumigant antifungal activity against <em>Aspergillus ochraceusem>, <em>A. flavusem>, and <em>A. nigerem>. Essential oils extracted from<em> em>Leptospermum> <em>petersonii> at air concentrations of 56 × 10−3 mg/mL and 28 × 10−3 mg/mL completely inhibited the growth of the three <em>Aspergillus> species. However, at an air concentration of 14 × 10−3 mg/mL, inhibition rates of <em>L. petersoniiem> essential oils were reduced to 20.2% and 18.8% in the case of <em>A. flavusem> and <em>A. nigerem>, respectively. The other Myrtaceae essential oils (56 × 10−3 mg/mL only weakly inhibited the fungi or had no detectable affect. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified 16 compounds in <em>L. petersoniiem>> em>essential> em>oil.> em>The antifungal activity of the identified compounds was tested individually by using standard or synthesized compounds. Of these, neral and geranial inhibited growth by 100%, at an air concentration of 56 × 10−3 mg/mL, whereas the activity of citronellol was somewhat lover (80%. The other compounds exhibited only moderate or weak antifungal activity. The antifungal activities of blends of constituents identified in <em>L. petersoniiem> oil indicated that neral and geranial were the major contributors to the fumigant and antifungal activities.

  1. Colagem ortodôntica em esmalte com presença ou ausência de contaminação salivar: é necessário o uso de adesivo auto-condicionante ou de adesivo hidrofílico? Orthodontic bonding in dry and saliva contaminated enamel: is a self-etching primer or a moisture-insensitive primer necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Becher Rosa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento da colagem ortodôntica de um adesivo hidrofílico (Transbond Moisture-Insensitive Primer, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Califórnia, de um adesivo auto-condicionante (Transbond Self-Etching Primer, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Califórnia, e sem uso de adesivo, em superfícies de esmalte secas ou contaminadas por saliva. METODOLOGIA: incisivos bovinos (60 foram divididos em 6 grupos: (1 controle sem contaminação salivar (sem adesivo, (2 controle com contaminação salivar (sem adesivo, (3 adesivo auto-condicionante sem contaminação salivar, (4 adesivo auto-condicionante com contaminação salivar antes do adesivo, (5 adesivo hidrofílico sem contaminação salivar e (6 adesivo hidrofílico com contaminação salivar antes do adesivo. Braquetes metálicos foram colados com compósito (Transbond XT, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Califórnia. Após a colagem, os corpos-de prova foram armazenados a 37±1ºC em ambiente úmido até a realização do teste de cisalhamento. Diferença estatística foi determinada com valor de probabilidade de 0,05 ou menos (p AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of orthodontic bonding with the use of a hydrophilic primer (Transbond Moisture-Insensitive Primer, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif., a self-etching primer (Transbond Plus Self-etching Primer, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif. and without primer application, in dry and saliva contaminated enamel surfaces. METHODS: Bovine incisors (60 were divided into 6 groups: (1 uncontaminated control (no primer, (2 control with saliva contamination (no primer, (3 uncontaminated self-etching primer, (4 saliva contamination before self-etching primer, (5 uncontaminated hydrophilic primer and (6 saliva contamination before hydrophilic primer. Stainless steel brackets were bonded with composite resin (Transbond XT, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif.. After bonding, all samples were stored at 37±1°C in a

  2. Efeitos de um programa de exercícios no desempenho de crianças nos testes de flexibilidade e impulsão vertical Effects of an exercise program on children's flexibility and vertical jump performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Henrique Constantino Coledam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo investigou o efeito de um programa de exercícios na flexibilidade e impulsão vertical de escolares. 61 crianças (30 meninos foram divididas em Grupo Controle Masculino (GCM, Grupo Intervenção Masculino (GIM, Grupo Controle Feminino (GCF e Grupo Intervenção Feminino (GIF. O GIM e GIF foram submetidos a um programa de exercícios durante as aulas de Educação Física Escolar com duração de 12 semanas. Foram realizados os testes de "sentar-e-alcançar" e impulsão vertical anteriormente às 12 semanas e após o término deste programa. Os resultados indicaram que o GIF e o GIM aumentaram significativamente o desempenho nos testes de impulsão vertical e "sentar-e-alcançar" após o programa de intervenção (P0,05. O programa de intervenção utilizado nesse estudo foi eficiente em aumentar a flexibilidade e impulsão vertical de crianças.This study investigated the effects of an exercise training program on flexibility and vertical jump performance in children at scholar age. 61 Children (30 boys were divided in male control group (MCG, male intervention group (MIG, female control group (FCG and female intervention group (FIG. MIG and FIG were submitted to an exercise training program during physical education classes for 12 weeks. The "sit-and-reach" and vertical jump tests were performed before and after 12 weeks of the exercise training program. The results demonstrated that MIG and FIG groups significantly increased the performance on vertical jump as well as the "sit-and-reach" tests after the exercise training program (P0,05. The exercise program used in this study was efficient to increase flexibility and vertical jump performance in children.

  3. Avaliação dos comportamentos mecânico e térmico de laminados de PPS/fibra de carbono processados em autoclave sob diferentes ciclos de consolidação Evaluation of thermal and mechanical behaviors of PPS/carbon fiber laminates processed in autoclave under different consolidation cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana S Marques

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Usualmente, um dos processos mais utilizados para fabricação de componentes em termoplásticos estruturais é a moldagem por compressão a quente, porém restringindo-se na obtenção de peças de pequeno e médio porte. Tal restrição deve-se à limitação do tamanho das prensas utilizadas, principalmente pelo custo envolvido. Procurando ampliar a aplicação de compósitos termoplásticos, possibilitando a fabricação de peças maiores e com maior potencial de integração, pelo uso de infra-estrutura já disponível em processadores de compósitos, este trabalho aborda o processamento de laminados de poli(sulfeto de fenileno (PPS reforçado com fibra de carbono em autoclave, pelo uso de quatro diferentes ciclos de consolidação. Os laminados obtidos foram caracterizados por inspeção por ultrassom, análises de DSC para a determinação da cristalinidade e avaliação das propriedades mecânicas em flexão, compressão e cisalhamento interlaminar. Os resultados mostram que laminados obtidos com taxas de resfriamento mais lentas apresentam menor resistência e módulo em compressão, uma vez que o maior grau de cristalinidade (~30% promove maior fragilização da matriz polimérica.One of the most used processes to obtain structural thermoplastic parts is the hot compression molding, which is limited to small and medium size parts because of the size of the press used, mainly related to its cost. This has hampered a wide use of thermoplastic composites in structural applications. In order to extend the application of thermoplastic composites, but still using available infrastructure in composite manufacturers, in this work we investigate the processing of carbon fiber reinforced polyphenylene sulfide (PPS in an autoclave, using four consolidation cycles. The processed laminates were characterized by ultrasound inspection, DSC analyses for the crystallinity determination and mechanical tests to evaluate the compression, flexure and

  4. Gating Technology for Vertically Parted Green Sand Moulds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Per

    Gating technology for vertically parted green sand moulds. Literature study of different ways of designing gating systems.......Gating technology for vertically parted green sand moulds. Literature study of different ways of designing gating systems....

  5. Thermodynamics of amalgam cells {M-amalgam vertical bar MCl2 (m) vertical bar AgCl vertical bar Ag} (M=Sr, Ba) and primary medium effects in {methanol+water} and {ethanol+water} solvent mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the amalgam cell {MxHg1-x vertical bar MCl2 (m) vertical bar AgCl vertical bar Ag} (with M=Sr, Ba) the potential difference E has been measured as a function of the mole fraction xM of the metal M in amalgams and of the molality m of MCl2 in {methanol+water} and {ethanol+water} solvent mixtures Z={A+W} with mass fractions of alcohol wA=+/- as functions of the MCl2 molality. The Em-bar dependence on the alcohol mole fraction in the solvent mixture within the ranges explored turns out to be linear for both of these two metals M in the amalgams studied. Of course, also the molal-scale standard Gibbs free energy change (ΔGW->Z-bar )m=2F(WEm-bar-ZEm-bar), which constitutes the 'primary medium effect' upon transferring MCl2 from pure water to the (alcohol+water) mixture, is linear in xA. In the same context, following Feakins and French's treatment, which implies volume fraction statistics, the relevant primary medium effects upon MCl2 on the mol.dm-3 scale have been analysed in terms of the expected linear relation of (ΔGW->Z-bar)c=2F(WEc-bar -ZEc-bar) against the logarithm of water volume fraction, leading to primary hydration numbers for SrCl2 and BaCl2, respectively, in acceptable agreement with Bockris' data based on different methods

  6. Synergistic Interactions of Methanolic Extract of <em>Acacia mearnsiiem>> em>De Wild. with Antibiotics against Bacteria of Clinical Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Afolayan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms, combining medicinal plants with synthetic or orthodox medicines against resistant bacteria becomes necessary. In this study, interactions between methanolic extract of <em>Acacia> <em>mearnsii em>and eight antibiotics were investigated by agar diffusion and checkerboard assays. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of all the antibiotics ranged between 0.020 and 500 µg/mL while that of the crude extract varied between 0.156 and 1.25 mg/mL. The agar diffusion assay showed that extract-kanamycin combination had zones of inhibition ≥20 ± 1.0 mm in all the bacteria tested (100%, followed by extract-chloramphenicol (90% > extract-ciprofloxacin = extract-tetracycline (70% > extract-amoxicillin (60% > extract-nalidixic acid (50% > extract-erythromycin (40% > extract-metronidazole (20%. The checkerboard showed synergistic interaction (61.25%, additivity/indifference (23.75% and antagonistic (15% effects. The synergistic interaction was most expressed by combining the extract with tetracycline, metronidazole, amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid against <em>E. coliem> (ATCC 25922, erythromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin, chloramphenicol and kanamycin<em> em>against <em>S. aureusem> (ATCC 6538, erythromycin, tetracycline, amoxicillin, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol against <em>B.> <em>subtilis> KZN, erythromycin, metronidazole and amoxicillin against <em>E>. <em>faecalis> KZN, erythromycin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol against <em>K.> <em>pneumoniae> (ATCC 10031, erythromycin, tetracycline, metronidazole and chloramphenicol against <em>P.> <em>vulgaris> (ATCC 6830, erythromycin, tetracycline, amoxicillin and chloramphenicol against <em>S.> <em>sonnei> (ATCC 29930, metronidazole, amoxicillin and chloramphenicol against <em>E. faecalisem> (ATCC 29212 and ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol<em

  7. Composição física da carcaça e características da carne de bovinos de corte terminados em confinamento com diferentes dietas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Roman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes dietas sobre as características da carcaça e da carne de bovinos de corte em confinamento: dieta composta por silagem de milho e formulação fixa durante o período de confinamento (SMF; dieta composta por silagem de milho e formulação variável durante o período de confinamento (SMV; dieta composta por silagem de cana-de-açúcar e formulação fixa (SCF; dieta composta por silagem de cana-de-açúcar e formulação variável (SCV; SCV na metade inicial do confinamento e SMV no período final (SCV/SMV. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e três repetições. Houve maior deposição de gordura renal-pélvica-inguinal (P=0,03, de gordura subcutânea (P=0,06 e de gordura na carcaça (P=0,06 nas dietas com silagem de milho (6,7kg; 6,2mm e 34,6% em relação àquelas com silagem de cana-de-açúcar (5,3kg; 4,8mm e 31,7%. Houve maior (P=0,05 rendimento de contrafilé e de miolo de alcatra nas dietas com silagem de milho (10% e 6,9% em relação às com silagem de cana-de-açúcar (9% e 6,6%. Não houve efeito das dietas sobre rendimento de cortes primários (P>0,1, perdas por cocção (P>0,3 e força de cisalhamento (P>0,1. O ajuste da formulação da dieta e a troca de silagem não influenciaram as características de carcaça e da carne. A utilização de silagem de cana-de-açúcar permitiu carcaças com acabamento satisfatório

  8. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Syringin from the Bark of <em>Ilex em>rotunda> Thumb Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a rapid extraction method based on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE of syringin from the bark of <em>Ilex rotunda em>Thumb using response surface methodology (RSM is described. The syringin was analyzed and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detection (HPLC-UV. The extraction solvent, extraction temperature and extraction time, the three main factors for UAE, were optimized with Box-Behnken design (BBD to obtain the highest extraction efficiency. The optimal conditions were the use of a sonication frequency of 40 kHz, 65% methanol as the solvent, an extraction time of 30 min and an extraction temperature of 40 °C. Using these optimal conditions, the experimental values agreed closely with the predicted values. The analysis of variance (ANOVA indicated a high goodness of model fit and the success of the RSM method for optimizing syringin extraction from the bark of <em>I>. em>rotunda>.

  9. Vertical Structure and Vertical Evolution of Halogen Activation Events Observed by Autonomous Buoys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, W. R.; Peterson, P.; Burd, J.

    2015-12-01

    Heterogeneous reactions on saline surfaces release reactive halogen species in the Arctic during late winter / spring (Feb--May). These reactive halogens drastically alter the photooxidative environment, removing ozone and oxidizing mercury and hydrocarbons. Both the snowpack and suspended particles / blowing snow possess surfaces that can sustain this chemistry, leading to variations in reactive halogen vertical profiles and temporal evolution of those profiles. This chemistry also occurs in a typically stable (inverted) atmospheric structure that hinders vertical mixing, limiting the vertical extent of snowpack influence. In this presentation, Multiple-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAXDOAS) of bromine monoxide (BrO) along with optimal estimation inversions are used to measure the vertical structure of BrO. The effective mixing height of the BrO layer varies with atmospheric stability, and an event is shown where a shallow but highly concentrated layer of surface BrO encounters sea-ice-lead-induced convection that vertically mixes the BrO higher, initially diluting the surface concentration. Over time, the surface concentration recovers and the now thicker layer grows to a higher column density of BrO. Understanding of the relationship between BrO event intensity and meteorological situations can help to understand BrO chemistry and remote sensing and assist in prediction of how reactive halogens may respond to a changing Arctic climate.

  10. Vertical emission profiles for Europe based on plume rise calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bieser, J.; Aulinger, A.; Matthias, V.; Quante, M.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.A.C.

    2011-01-01

    The vertical allocation of emissions has a major impact on results of Chemistry Transport Models. However, in Europe it is still common to use fixed vertical profiles based on rough estimates to determine the emission height of point sources. This publication introduces a set of new vertical profile

  11. Mechanical design of NASA Ames Research Center vertical motion simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbert, D. F.; Bakke, A. P.; Chargin, M. K.; Vallotton, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    NASA has designed and is constructing a new flight simulator with large vertical travel. Several aspects of the mechanical design of this Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) are discussed, including the multiple rack and pinion vertical drive, a pneumatic equilibration system, and the friction-damped rigid link catenaries used as cable supports.

  12. Classe social: conceitos e esquemas operacionais em pesquisa em saude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Barradas Barata

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Discute-se a utilização do conceito de classe em pesquisas em saúde, as diferentes abordagens sociológicas de estratificação social e de estrutura de classes, o potencial explicativo do conceito em estudos de determinação social e desigualdades em saúde, os modelos de operacionalização elaborados para uso em pesquisas sociológicas, demográficas ou de saúde e os limites e possibilidades desses modelos. Foram destacados quatro modelos de operacionalização: de Singer para estudo da distribuição de renda no Brasil, adaptado por Barros para uso em pesquisas epidemiológicas; de Bronfman & Tuirán para o censo demográfico mexicano, adaptado por Lombardi et al para pesquisas epidemiológicas; de Goldthorpe para estudos socioeconômicos ingleses, adaptado pela Sociedade Espanhola de Epidemiologia; e o modelo de Wright para pesquisa em sociologia e ciência política, também usado em inquéritos populacionais em saúde. Em conclusão, conceitualmente cada um dos modelos apresentados é coerente com a concepção teórica que os embasam, mas não há como optar por qualquer deles, descartando os demais.

  13. Vertical Flume Testing of WIPP Surrogate Waste Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, C. G.; Schuhen, M.; Kicker, D.

    2013-12-01

    considering inventory, changes in the underground environment, and theoretical and experimental results. The recipes represent the degraded waste in its weakest condition; simulating 50, 75, and 100% degradation by weight. The percent degradation indicates the anticipated amount of iron corrosion and decomposition of cellulosics, plastics, and rubbers. Samples were die compacted to two pressures, 2.3 and 5.0 MPa. Testing has established that the less degraded the surrogate material is and the higher the compaction stress it undergoes, the stronger the sample is. The 50% degraded surrogate waste material was accepted for use in obtaining input parameters for another WIPP PA model by a conceptual model peer review panel and the EPA. The use of a 50% degraded surrogate waste in vertical flume testing would provide an improved estimate of the waste shear strength and establish consistency between PA models in the approach used to obtain input parameters. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. This research is funded by WIPP programs administered by the Office of Environmental Management (EM) of the U.S Department of Energy.

  14. Vertical deformation at western part of Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febriyani, Caroline; Prijatna, Kosasih; Meilano, Irwan

    2015-04-01

    This research tries to make advancement in GPS signal processing to estimate the interseismic vertical deformation field at western part of Sumatra Island. The data derived by Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) from Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) between 2010 and 2012. GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) software are used to process the GPS signal to estimate the vertical velocities of the CGPS station. In order to minimize noise due to atmospheric delay, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) is used as atmospheric parameter model and include daily IONEX file provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as well. It improves GAMIT daily position accuracy up to 0.8 mm. In a second step of processing, the GLOBK is used in order to estimate site positions and velocities in the ITRF08 reference frame. The result shows that the uncertainties of estimated displacement velocity at all CGPS stations are smaller than 1.5 mm/yr. The subsided deformation patterns are seen at the northern and southern part of west Sumatra. The vertical deformation at northern part of west Sumatra indicates postseismic phase associated with the 2010 and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes and also the long-term postseismic associated with the 2004 and 2005 Northern Sumatra earthquakes. The uplifted deformation patterns are seen from Bukit Tinggi to Seblat which indicate a long-term interseismic phase after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and 2010 Mentawai earthquake. GANO station shows a subsidence at rate 12.25 mm/yr, indicating the overriding Indo-Australia Plate which is dragged down by the subducting Southeast Asian Plate.

  15. Vertical deformation at western part of Sumatra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research tries to make advancement in GPS signal processing to estimate the interseismic vertical deformation field at western part of Sumatra Island. The data derived by Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) from Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) between 2010 and 2012. GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) software are used to process the GPS signal to estimate the vertical velocities of the CGPS station. In order to minimize noise due to atmospheric delay, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) is used as atmospheric parameter model and include daily IONEX file provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as well. It improves GAMIT daily position accuracy up to 0.8 mm. In a second step of processing, the GLOBK is used in order to estimate site positions and velocities in the ITRF08 reference frame. The result shows that the uncertainties of estimated displacement velocity at all CGPS stations are smaller than 1.5 mm/yr. The subsided deformation patterns are seen at the northern and southern part of west Sumatra. The vertical deformation at northern part of west Sumatra indicates postseismic phase associated with the 2010 and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes and also the long-term postseismic associated with the 2004 and 2005 Northern Sumatra earthquakes. The uplifted deformation patterns are seen from Bukit Tinggi to Seblat which indicate a long-term interseismic phase after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and 2010 Mentawai earthquake. GANO station shows a subsidence at rate 12.25 mm/yr, indicating the overriding Indo-Australia Plate which is dragged down by the subducting Southeast Asian Plate

  16. Vertical deformation at western part of Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Febriyani, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.fanuel@students.itb.ac.id; Prijatna, Kosasih, E-mail: prijatna@gd.itb.ac.id; Meilano, Irwan, E-mail: irwan.meilano@gd.itb.ac.id

    2015-04-24

    This research tries to make advancement in GPS signal processing to estimate the interseismic vertical deformation field at western part of Sumatra Island. The data derived by Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) from Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) between 2010 and 2012. GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) software are used to process the GPS signal to estimate the vertical velocities of the CGPS station. In order to minimize noise due to atmospheric delay, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) is used as atmospheric parameter model and include daily IONEX file provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as well. It improves GAMIT daily position accuracy up to 0.8 mm. In a second step of processing, the GLOBK is used in order to estimate site positions and velocities in the ITRF08 reference frame. The result shows that the uncertainties of estimated displacement velocity at all CGPS stations are smaller than 1.5 mm/yr. The subsided deformation patterns are seen at the northern and southern part of west Sumatra. The vertical deformation at northern part of west Sumatra indicates postseismic phase associated with the 2010 and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes and also the long-term postseismic associated with the 2004 and 2005 Northern Sumatra earthquakes. The uplifted deformation patterns are seen from Bukit Tinggi to Seblat which indicate a long-term interseismic phase after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and 2010 Mentawai earthquake. GANO station shows a subsidence at rate 12.25 mm/yr, indicating the overriding Indo-Australia Plate which is dragged down by the subducting Southeast Asian Plate.

  17. Intelligent Vertical Handoffs between Heterogeneous Communication Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qi; WANG Yi-hong; VICTOR O.K.; WANG Ying; ZHANG Ping

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes an intelligent vertical handoff algorithm to maintain an ongoing call between a cellular mobile network and a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), based on the Received Signal Strength (RSS) threshold and an adaptive RSS hysteresis generated by fuzzy logic. In addition, the proposed algorithm accounts for the WLAN traffic loading and the direction of movement and speed of the Mobile Station (MS). Simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm offers better system performance in terms of number of handoffs and probability of call dropping.

  18. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  19. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for Hydrothermal Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2012-04-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have, however, also confirmed that the uncertainty in the locations of the source and of the hydrophones could lower the quality of subsurface image. It is, therefore, strongly necessary to develop a total survey system that assures a accurate positioning and a deployment techniques

  20. Vertical distributor in the Booster injection line

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    The beam from the 50 MeV linac filled the 4 rings of the PS Booster(originally 800 MeV, now 1.4 GeV) one after the other (in multiturn injection). A fast-switchable vertical steering magnet, the "distributor", directed the beam first to the top ring (nb.4), and after a preset number of turns to next lower ring, and so on. After filling the bottom ring, the tail of the linac beam was directed into a dump.

  1. Escrita Escolar Brasileira: a escrita vertical

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos André Xavier Villela

    2014-01-01

    O exame grafoscópico visa essencialmente a determinar se duas escritas partiram ou não de um mesmo punho. A fim de buscar dados empíricos capazes de melhor embasar uma valoração de raridade, diversos pesquisadores se dedicaram ao estudo dos sistemas de escrita. O presente trabalho analisa algumas bibliografias nacionais e estrangeiras que descrevem como se deu o alvorecer da escrita vertical e sua implantação no universo escolar brasileiro. Foi a partir das últimas décadas do século XIX que a...

  2. Optimisation of vertical axis wind turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Roynarin, Wirachai

    2004-01-01

    A practical Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWTs) based on a Darrieus rotor has been designed and tested and found to be capable of self-starting at wind speeds above 4m/s. The self-start feature has been achieved by replacing the usual symmetrical aerofoil blade in the VAWT rotor and by using a concentric Savonius rotor or semi-cylinder turbine. A computer program was produced to compute the power coefficient versus tip speed ratio characteristics of a selected aerofoil profile employed in a VA...

  3. Vertically Polarized Omnidirectional Printed Slot Loop Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren H.; Thaysen, Jesper;

    2015-01-01

    A novel vertically polarized omnidirectional printed slot loop antenna has been designed, simulated, fabricated and measured. The slot loop works as a magnetic loop. The loop is loaded with inductors to insure uniform and in-phase fields in the slot in order to obtain an omnidirectional radiation...... pattern. The antenna is designed for the 2.45 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical band. Applications of the antenna are many. One is for on-body applications since it is ideal for launching a creeping waves due to the polarization....

  4. Produção de frutos e estolhos do morangueiro em diferentes sistemas de cultivo em ambiente protegido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes-Júnior Flavio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo comparar a produção de frutos e de estolhos do morangueiro (Fragariaxananassa Duch. cv. Campinas IAC-2712, em função de três sistemas de condução em ambiente protegido (solo, hidropônico-NFT e hidroponia em casca de arroz carbonizada em colunas verticais. O experimento foi realizado no período de junho de 2000 a fevereiro de 2001, na Estação Experimental de Agronomia de Jundiaí (latitude: 23:06'S, longitude: 46:55'W, altitude média: 715 m, clima Cwa, do Instituto Agronômico, seguindo-se o delineamento de parcelas subdivididas com três repetições, em casa de vegetação modelo semi-arco com abertura zenital superior. Nos dois sistemas hidropônicos foram usadas duas composições de soluções nutritivas, respectivamente, para a fase de crescimento vegetativo e para a produção de frutos. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que no sistema vertical, embora as produções de frutos e de estolhos por planta tenham sido menores que nos demais sistemas estudados, há possibilidade de melhor aproveitamento interno do ambiente protegido, com reflexos positivos no aumento do rendimento por área e maior facilidade de manejo da cultura, incluindo as operações de transplante, limpeza das plantas e colheitas de frutos e remoção de estolhos. Essas vantagens também se aplicam ao sistema hidropônico-NFT mesmo não tendo apresentado diferenças de produção em relação ao cultivo convencional.

  5. Transtornos alimentares em escolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilela João E. M

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este trabalho investiga a freqüência de possíveis transtornos da alimentação e comportamentos alimentares inadequados em crianças e adolescentes de seis cidades do interior de Minas Gerais, uma vez que a maioria dos autores afirma uma prevalência maior em países desenvolvidos. MÉTODOS: Este é um estudo transversal onde foram aplicadas as auto-escalas BITE (Teste de Investigação Bulímica de Edinburgh, EAT (Teste de Atitudes Alimentares e Teste de Imagem Corporal em 1.807 estudantes de escolas públicas do Ensino Fundamental e Médio, com idade entre 7 e 19 anos. RESULTADOS: De acordo com a auto-escala EAT, 241 alunos (13,3% apresentaram possíveis transtornos de alimentação, com predominância significativa do sexo feminino. E, segundo a auto-escala BITE, 19 estudantes (1,1% apresentaram um escore compatível com bulimia nervosa. Encontramos 1.059 alunos (59% insatisfeitos com sua imagem corporal, 731 alunos (40% em uso de dieta para emagrecer e 1.014 alunos (56% que praticavam atividade física com a finalidade de perder peso. Os episódios bulímicos foram encontrados em 218 alunos (12%, e 175 alunos (10% utilizavam métodos purgativos para perder peso. CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo mostra uma alta prevalência de possíveis transtornos alimentares na população estudada, assim como comportamentos alimentares inadequados, principalmente em adolescentes do sexo feminino. Os resultados são semelhantes aos encontrados nos países considerados desenvolvidos. Concluímos que esses achados são relevantes para a clínica da criança e do adolescente e que podem proporcionar futuros trabalhos onde poderemos compreender melhor os possíveis fatores de risco para esses transtornos da alimentação.

  6. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two

  7. Analytical Study on Wave Diffraction from a Vertical Circular Cylinder in Front of Orthogonal Vertical Walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Dezhi; TENG Bin; SONG Xiangqun

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the principle of mirror image is used to transform the problem of wave diffraction from a circular cylinder in front of orthogonal vertical walls into the problem of diffraction of four symmetric incident waves from four symmetrically arranged circular cylinders, and then the eigenfunction expansion of velocity potential and Grafs addition theorem are used to give the analytical solution to the wave diffraction problem. The relation of the total wave force on cylinder to the distance between the cylinder and orthogonal vertical walls and the incidence angle of wave is also studied by numerical computation.

  8. Principle of Cross Coupling Between Vertical Heat Turbulent Transport and Vertical Velocity and Determination of Cross Coupling Coefficient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    It has been proved that there exists a cross coupling between vertical heat turbulent transport and vertical velocity by using linear thermodynamics. This result asserts that the vertical component of heat turbulent transport flux is composed of both the transport of the vertical potential temperature gralient and the coupling transport of the vertical velocity. In this paper, the coupling effect of vertical velocity on vertical heat turbulent transportation is validated by using observed data from the atmospheric boundary layer to determine cross coupling coefficients, and a series of significant properties of turbulent transportation are opened out. These properties indicate that the cross coupling coefficient is a logarithm function of the dimensionless vertical velocity and dimensionless height, and is not only related to the friction velocity u*,but also to the coupling roughness height zwo and the coupling temperature Two of the vertical velocity.In addition, the function relations suggest that only when the vertical velocity magnitude conforms to the limitation |W/u* | ≠ 1, and is above the level zwo, then the vertical velocity leads to the cross coupling effect on the vertical heat turbulent transport flux. The cross coupling theory and experimental results provide a challenge to the traditional turbulent K closure theory and the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory.

  9. <em>Bacillus anthracisem> Factors for Phagosomal Escape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Zornetta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of phagosome escape by intracellular pathogens is an important step in the infectious cycle. During the establishment of anthrax, <em>Bacillus anthracisem> undergoes a transient intracellular phase in which spores are engulfed by local phagocytes. Spores germinate inside phagosomes and grow to vegetative bacilli, which emerge from their resident intracellular compartments, replicate and eventually exit from the plasma membrane. During germination, <em>B. anthracisem> secretes multiple factors that can help its resistance to the phagocytes. Here the possible role of <em>B. anthracisem> toxins, phospholipases, antioxidant enzymes and capsules in the phagosomal escape and survival, is analyzed and compared with that of factors of other microbial pathogens involved in the same type of process.

  10. Role of the vertical pressure gradient in wave boundary layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Lindegård; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Vittori, Giovanna;

    2014-01-01

    By direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the flow in an oscillatory boundary layer, it is possible to obtain the pressure field. From the latter, the vertical pressure gradient is determined. Turbulent spots are detected by a criterion involving the vertical pressure gradient. The vertical pressure...... gradient is also treated as any other turbulence quantity like velocity fluctuations and statistical properties of the vertical pressure gradient are calculated from the DNS data. The presence of a vertical pressure gradient in the near bed region has significant implications for sediment transport....

  11. Trabalho em equipa

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, Andreia Sofia Duarte

    2016-01-01

    O presente relatório de estágio tem como tema principal o trabalho em equipa. Aborda com mais pormenor o subtema dos momentos de reflexão na equipa pedagógica. Ao longo do estudo são vários os conceitos abordados e a interligação entre os mesmos. Pretendo dar a conhecer a temática em questão e conceções que lhe estão naturalmente associadas. Sendo um estudo investigativo são abordados os métodos utilizados ao longo de toda a investigação. Com este relatório pretende-se alcançar qual ...

  12. Ancylostoma duodenale em estrangeiros radicados em Botucatu, SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence F.S. Kerr

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando-se a técnica de Harada & Mori foi efetuada verificação das espécies de Ancylostomidae prevalentes entre imigrantes europeus, asiáticos e brasileiros residentes no município de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Ancylostoma duodenale foi encontrado em 8,5% dos imigrantes asiáticos e Necator americanus em 3,5% dos europeus e em 18% dos brasileiros examinados.

  13. Experimental gas-solid vertical transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kuo Ming

    1987-05-01

    Gas-solid transport in dilute and dense phase conveying is studied. A new experimental system for vertical pneumatic conveying incorporates a screw feeder for dilute transport and an L-valve for dense flow. For measuring solid volume fractions a novel method using an x-ray densitometer was developed. The pressure in the system was measured using a strip chart recorder (SCR) and a manometer. The solids flux was estimated by collecting the particles from the system for a known time. The porosity and pressure drop data in the fully developed region were translated into drag coefficients and friction factors. The drag coefficients are in reasonable agreement with literature values. The friction factors with the wall were sometimes negative, reflecting downward flow, as observed in two-dimensional studies. Four available hydrodynamic models for vertical pneumatic conveying were used to predict the porosity and the pressure for the experimental conditions. Experimental data for porosity and pressure agree well with theoretical predictions. However, the predictions from the relative velocity model were in the best agreement for pressure drop values.

  14. Determinants of Arbovirus Vertical Transmission in Mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Lequime

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vertical transmission (VT and horizontal transmission (HT of pathogens refer to parental and non-parental chains of host-to-host transmission. Combining HT with VT enlarges considerably the range of ecological conditions in which a pathogen can persist, but the factors governing the relative frequency of each transmission mode are poorly understood for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission. Elucidating these factors is particularly important for understanding the epidemiology of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses of public health significance. Arboviruses are primarily maintained by HT between arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts in nature, but are occasionally transmitted vertically in the vector population from an infected female to her offspring, which is a proposed maintenance mechanism during adverse conditions for HT. Here, we review over a century of published primary literature on natural and experimental VT, which we previously assembled into large databases, to identify biological factors associated with the efficiency of arbovirus VT in mosquito vectors. Using a robust statistical framework, we highlight a suite of environmental, taxonomic, and physiological predictors of arbovirus VT. These novel insights contribute to refine our understanding of strategies employed by arboviruses to persist in the environment and cause substantial public health concern. They also provide hypotheses on the biological processes underlying the relative VT frequency for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission that can be tested empirically.

  15. Determinants of Arbovirus Vertical Transmission in Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequime, Sebastian; Paul, Richard E; Lambrechts, Louis

    2016-05-01

    Vertical transmission (VT) and horizontal transmission (HT) of pathogens refer to parental and non-parental chains of host-to-host transmission. Combining HT with VT enlarges considerably the range of ecological conditions in which a pathogen can persist, but the factors governing the relative frequency of each transmission mode are poorly understood for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission. Elucidating these factors is particularly important for understanding the epidemiology of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) of public health significance. Arboviruses are primarily maintained by HT between arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts in nature, but are occasionally transmitted vertically in the vector population from an infected female to her offspring, which is a proposed maintenance mechanism during adverse conditions for HT. Here, we review over a century of published primary literature on natural and experimental VT, which we previously assembled into large databases, to identify biological factors associated with the efficiency of arbovirus VT in mosquito vectors. Using a robust statistical framework, we highlight a suite of environmental, taxonomic, and physiological predictors of arbovirus VT. These novel insights contribute to refine our understanding of strategies employed by arboviruses to persist in the environment and cause substantial public health concern. They also provide hypotheses on the biological processes underlying the relative VT frequency for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission that can be tested empirically.

  16. The capillary interaction between two vertical cylinders

    KAUST Repository

    Cooray, Himantha

    2012-06-27

    Particles floating at the surface of a liquid generally deform the liquid surface. Minimizing the energetic cost of these deformations results in an inter-particle force which is usually attractive and causes floating particles to aggregate and form surface clusters. Here we present a numerical method for determining the three-dimensional meniscus around a pair of vertical circular cylinders. This involves the numerical solution of the fully nonlinear Laplace-Young equation using a mesh-free finite difference method. Inter-particle force-separation curves for pairs of vertical cylinders are then calculated for different radii and contact angles. These results are compared with previously published asymptotic and experimental results. For large inter-particle separations and conditions such that the meniscus slope remains small everywhere, good agreement is found between all three approaches (numerical, asymptotic and experimental). This is as expected since the asymptotic results were derived using the linearized Laplace-Young equation. For steeper menisci and smaller inter-particle separations, however, the numerical simulation resolves discrepancies between existing asymptotic and experimental results, demonstrating that this discrepancy was due to the nonlinearity of the Laplace-Young equation. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  17. Pseudocapacitive performance of vertical copper oxide nanoflakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertical copper oxide (CuO) nanoflakes have been formed by oxidation in NaOH solution. Their structural, surface morphology and oxidation states were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) respectively. Pseudocapacitive behavior of CuO nanoflakes was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and constant current charge–discharge test. CuO nanoflakes were vertically grown with high lateral aspect ratio and consist of monoclinic lattice as shown by the presence of two peaks close to 2θ = 35.6o and 38.7o in the XRD. Charge–discharge test gave a capacitance value of 190 F g−1 in 1.0 M KOH electrolyte at 2 mA cm−2 current density. The cycling test showed 67% stability after 2000 cycles and reduced specific capacitance from 190 F g−1 to 125 F g−1. Specific capacitance of CuO nanoflakes is higher than 26.44 F g−1 of globular CuO at 2 mA cm−2 as reported in literature due to enhanced specific surface area. - Highlights: ► CuO nanoflakes prepared by chemical oxidation in alkaline baths ► Porosity of nanoflakes enhanced electrochemical capacitance. ► Suitable for low cost binder-free supercapacitor electrode

  18. Experimental Analysis of a Vertical Drop Shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Del Giudice

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An experimental campaign is undertaken in order to investigate the hydraulic features of a vertical drop shaft, also considering the influence of a venting system consisting of a coaxial vertical pipe, projecting within the drop shaft with different plunging rates. Three different flow regimes are observed: a “weir flow” for very low head values, where the flow profile is subject to the atmospheric pressure; a “full flow” for high head values, where water flows in a pressurized regime along the whole shaft; and a “transitional flow” for intermediate water head values. Weir flow and full flow can be experimentally investigated under steady-state conditions, whereas transitional flow is a pulsating condition, alternately switching from full flow to weir flow. Considering some significant geometric parameters, a head-discharge relation is sought both for the non-vented and for the vented configurations, by means of an energy balance equation, with specific assumptions about intake losses.

  19. Vertical Crossing Angle in IR8

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer , B J; Alemany, R

    2013-01-01

    The operation of the LHCb spectrometer dipole has a considerably larger and more challenging impact on the geometry of the LHC beams than the magnets in the high luminosity regions [1]. The integrated dipole field of 4 Tm deflects the beams in the horizontal plane, and using a set of three dipole magnets, called "compensators" a closed horizontal orbit bump is created. This paper summarizes the basic layout of the beam geometry in IR8 under the influence of the LHCb dipole and its compensators and shows the theoretically expected beam orbits, envelopes and aperture needs in the originally designed version. LHCb operation with both field polarities leads to unequal net crossing angles between the two beams and affects the experiment acceptance. It had been proposed therefore to establish a LHC operation mode where the originally designed horizontal crossing angle is shifted at high energy into the vertical plane leading to a vertical crossing scheme at luminosity operation. The new scheme has been successfully...

  20. Control of the vertical instability in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of control of the vertical instability is formulated for a massless filamentary plasma. The massless approximation is justified by an examination of the role of inertia in the control problem. The system is solved using Laplace transform techniques. The linear system is studied to determine the stability boundaries. It is found that the system can be stabilized up to a critical decay index, which is predominantly a function of the geometry of the passive stabilizing shell. A second, smaller critical index, which is a function of the geometry of the control coils, determines the limit of stability in the absence of derivative gain in the control circuit. The system is also studied numerically in order to incorporate the non-linear effects of power supply dynamics. The power supply bandwidth requirement is determined by the open-loop growth rate of the instability. The system is studied for a number of control coil options which are available on the DIII-D tokamak. It is found that many of the coils will not provide adequate stabilization and that the use of inboard coils is advantageous in stabilizing the system up to the critical index. Experiments carried out on DIII-D confirm the appropriateness of the model. Using the results of the model study, we have stabilized DIII-D plasmas with decay indices up to 98% of the critical index. Measurement of the plasma vertical position is also discussed. (author) 27 figs., 6 refs

  1. Vertical and horizontal distribution of pollination systems in cerrado fragments of central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Quintas Martins

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In fragments of the cerrado, we determined the frequency of pollination systems and analyzed their spatial distribution. We placed 38 transects, sampling 2,280 individuals and 121 species. As expected in Neotropical regions, bee-pollination was the most frequent pollination system. We found a decrease in the frequency of plants pollinated by beetles towards the fragment interior. Similarly, we found significant variation in relation to height just for the bats; there was an increase in the frequency of plants pollinated by bats towards the higher heights. In general, we found no horizontal and vertical variation in the pollination systems, probably as consequence of the more open physiognomy of the cerrado vegetation.As principais pressões seletivas nas estratégias de polinização originam principalmente do ambiente em que plantas ocorrem, como subdossel, dossel, borda ou interior de um fragmento. Diferentes condições ambientais aumentam as diferenças entre os nichos ecológicos e podem implicar diferenças nas proporções dos sistemas de polinização. Em fragmentos de cerrado, determinamos a freqüência dos sistemas de polinização e analisamos sua distribuição espacial. Lançamos 38 transecções aleatoriamente, amostrando 2.280 indivíduos e 121 espécies. Como esperado para regiões neotropicais, a polinização por abelhas foi o sistema de polinização mais freqüente. Encontramos uma diminuição na freqüência de plantas polinizadas por besouros em direção ao interior do fragmento. De modo similar, encontramos uma variação significativa em relação à altura somente para os morcegos, havendo um aumento na freqüência de plantas em direção a alturas mais altas. Em geral, não encontramos variações horizontais e verticais nos sistemas de polinização, provavelmente, como conseqüência da fisionomia mais aberta de cerrado.

  2. On subspecific taxonomy of <em>Microtus saviiem> (Rodentia, Arvicolidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longino Contoli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto Sulla tassonomia sottospecifica di <em>Microtus saviiem> (Rodentia, Arvicolidae Viene riveduta e riassunta la situazione tassonomica sottospecifica di <em>Microtus (Terricola saviiem>, anche tramite la descrizione di due nuovi taxa: <em>Microtus (Terricola savii tolfetanusem>, dei Monti della Tolfa e <em>Microtus (Terricola savii niethammericusem>, del Gargano.

  3. CORANTES ARTIFICIAIS EM ALIMENTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Alexandre PRADO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    O emprego de aditivos químicos é, sem dúvida, um dos mais polêmicos avanços alcançados pela indústria de alimentos. Os corantes artificiais pertencem a uma dessas classes de aditivos alimentares e têm sido objeto de muitas críticas, já que seu uso em muitos alimentos justifica-se apenas por questões de hábitos alimentares. Ainda existem diferentes opiniões quanto à inocuidade dos diversos corantes artificiais. Visando, principalmente, o controle no uso dos corantes sintéticos, mas tendo em vista que produtos coloridos artificialmente são exportados e importados, a análise desses aditivos requer métodos eficientes e rápidos para a detecção, identificação e quantificação. A cromatografia em papel e em camada delgada, apesar de serem técnicas relativamente rápidas, apresentam dados com baixa exatidão e precisão. Já na cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE as maiores dificuldades encontram-se nas etapas de extração, mas principalmente no alto custo do equipamento. A eletroforese capilar apresenta os mesmos problemas da CLAE, aliados ao fato de se tratar de uma técnica relativamente recente para a análise desse tipo de substância e, portanto, existem poucos estudos a cerca da determinação e quantificação. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Corantes artificiais; análise; legislação; CLAE; EC

  4. How <em>Varroa> Parasitism Affects the Immunological and Nutritional Status of the Honey Bee, <em>Apis melliferaem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Aronstein

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of the parasitic mite <em>Varroa destructorem> on the immunological and nutritional condition of honey bees, <em>Apis melliferaem>, from the perspective of the individual bee and the colony. Pupae, newly-emerged adults and foraging adults were sampled from honey bee colonies at one site in S. Texas, USA. <em>Varroa>‑infested bees displayed elevated titer of Deformed Wing Virus (DWV, suggestive of depressed capacity to limit viral replication. Expression of genes coding three anti-microbial peptides (<em>defensin1, abaecin, hymenoptaecinem> was either not significantly different between <em>Varroa>-infested and uninfested bees or was significantly elevated in <em>Varroa>-infested bees, varying with sampling date and bee developmental age. The effect of <em>Varroa> on nutritional indices of the bees was complex, with protein, triglyceride, glycogen and sugar levels strongly influenced by life-stage of the bee and individual colony. Protein content was depressed and free amino acid content elevated in <em>Varroa>-infested pupae, suggesting that protein synthesis, and consequently growth, may be limited in these insects. No simple relationship between the values of nutritional and immune-related indices was observed, and colony-scale effects were indicated by the reduced weight of pupae in colonies with high <em>Varroa> abundance, irrespective of whether the individual pupa bore <em>Varroa>.

  5. Your highness: vertical positions as perceptual symbols of power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Thomas W

    2005-07-01

    Metaphorically, power equals up. Drawing on embodied theories of cognition, the author argues that thinking about power involves mental simulation of space and can be interfered with by perception of vertical differences. Study 1 assessed image schemas for power and found a shared vertical difference metaphor. Studies 2, 3, and 4 showed that the judgment of a group's power is influenced by the group's vertical position in space and motor responses implying vertical movement. Study 5 ruled out that the influence of vertical position on power judgments is driven by valence differences. Study 6 showed that vertical position also influences the power judgment result itself. The evidence suggests that the concept of power is partly represented in perceptual form as vertical difference.

  6. Direct Observation of Ultralow Vertical Emittance using a Vertical Undulator - presentation slides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, Kent

    2015-09-17

    Direct emittance measurement based on vertical undulator is discussed. Emittance was evaluated from peak ratios, the smallest measured being =0.9 ±0.3 pm rad. The angular distribution of undulator radiation departs from Gaussian approximations, a fact of which diffraction-limited light sources should be aware.

  7. Muscle activation history at different vertical jumps and its influence on vertical velocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopper, Bence; Csende, Zsolt; Safar, Sandor; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Tihanyi, Jozsef

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we investigated displacement, time, velocity and acceleration history of center of mass (COM) and electrical activity of knee extensors to estimate the dominance of the factors influencing the vertical velocity in squat jumps (SJs), countermovement jumps (CMJs) and drop jumps (D

  8. Qualidade da carne de frangos de corte submetidos a dietas suplementadas com crômio, criados em diferentes temperaturas ambientais - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i2.218 Meat quality of broiler chicks submeted the supplemented diets with chromium and reared in differents enviromental temperatures - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i2.218

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nívea Maria Brancaci Zeoula

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos. O experimento um objetivou avaliar a composição da carne do peito de frangos alimentados com dietas suplementadas com crômio (0, 400, 800 e 1.200 μg Cr kg-1 complexado a levedura, criados sob diferentes condições de temperatura (quente, termoneutra e fria. O experimento dois objetivou avaliar a qualidade da carne do peito de frangos alimentados com dietas suplementadas com crômio (0 e 400 μg Cr kg-1, criados nas mesmas condições do experimento um e desossados em diferentes períodos (0, 5 e 24 horas. Os resultados mostram que as aves criadas em ambiente frio apresentaram a carne com menor porcentagem de matéria mineral e crômio e maior intensidade de vermelho, enquanto as aves criadas em temperatura termoneutra apresentaram carne com menor porcentagem de umidade, e as aves criadas em temperatura quente, carne com maior luminosidade. Já a suplementação de crômio não proporcionou qualquer efeito na composição e na qualidade de carne, enquanto que o aumento no período de desossa proporcionou um menor comprimento de sarcômero, força de cisalhamento e intensidade de amarelo, porém uma maior luminosidade.Two experiments were conducted being the objective of the first experiment to evaluate the the composition of breast meat of broiler chicks fed with diets supplemented with chromium yeast (0; 400; 800 and 1,200 μg Cr kg-1 reared in different environmental temperatures (hot, thermoneutral and cold. The second experiment aimed to evaluate the quality of breast meat of broiler chicks fed with diets supplemented with chromium yeast (0 and 400 μg Cr kg-1, reared in different environmental temperatures (hot, thermoneutral and cold and deboned in different periods (0, 5 and 24 hours. The results showed that birds reared in cold environmental temperature showed meat with lower mineral matter percentage and chromium and higher values of redness, whereas the birds reared in thermoneutral environment

  9. Estudos laboratoriais do comportamento de um solo residual arenoso reforçado com fibras de polipropileno, visando à aplicação em estradas florestais Laboratory testing of a polypropylene fiber reinforced residual sandy soil for forest road application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Pinto da Trindade

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o comportamento mecânico da mistura de um solo residual jovem de textura predominantemente arenosa reforçado com fibras de polipropileno, com vistas à aplicação em estradas florestais. Como ponto de partida, determinou-se, mediante os resultados de ensaios de compressão não-confinada, realizados em corpos-de-prova compactados na energia do ensaio Proctor Normal, que o quantitativo de 0,75% de fibras com 20 mm de comprimento foi a combinação responsável pelo maior ganho de resistência. Com a mistura solo-fibra composta por essa combinação, foram realizados ensaios triaxiais do tipo CID/Sat em corpos-de-prova compactados na energia anteriormente referida. Através desta pesquisa, foi possível avaliar: (i a influência da variação da umidade nos parâmetros de resistência mecânica do solo e das misturas solo-fibra e (ii a influência das fibras nos parâmetros de resistência ao cisalhamento do solo em estudo. Analisando os resultados, pôde-se concluir que o uso de fibras de polipropileno promoveu um ganho da ordem de 110% na resistência à compressão não-confinada e de 560% na coesão de intercepto do solo estudado.The purpose of this study was to analyze the mechanical behavior of a polypropylene fiber-reinforced young residual sandy soil for forest road application. The first step was to determine the best combination of fiber content and length that would give the greatest increase in unconfined compressive strength of mixture specimens compacted at the Standard Proctor effort. The best combination resulting from the laboratory test program was 0.75% fiber content and fiber 20-mm length. The next step in the testing program was to run triaxial CID/Sat tests in mixture specimens prepared with the best combination and compacted at the Standard Proctor effort. From the laboratory testing program data it was possible to evaluate the influence of the water content in the mechanical

  10. EM Sounding Characterization of Soil Environment toward Estimation of Potential Pollutant Load from Non-point Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Y.; Ide, J.; Somura, H.; Morisawa, T.

    2010-12-01

    A multi-frequency electro-magnetic (EM) sounding method was applied to agriculture fields to investigate the characteristics of non-point pollution load. Soil environmental properties such as differences in land management were analyzed with electrical conductivity (EC) maps. In addition, vertical EC profiles obtained from EM soundings were compared with EC in drainage ditch or river water. As results, surface soil EC maps successfully extracted the differences in land management affected by fertilizer application. Moreover, surface EC at the vertical profiles strongly related with drainage ditch or river EC, showing most of the EC in the water was explained by surface EC maps at the EM sounding data. The proposed method has strength in obtaining EC data without sampling river water, the situation we sometimes experienced at the field survey.

  11. Características fisico-químicas e sensoriais da carne de bubalinos Murrah abatidos em diferentes períodos de confinamento Physical-chemical and sensory characteristics of meat from Murrah buffaloes slaughtered at different feedlot periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Andrighetto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar as características físicas, químicas e sensoriais da carne de búfalos abatidos em diferentes períodos de confinamento. Foram utilizados 20 bubalinos da raça Murrah, castrados, descornados, com idade média inicial de 15 meses, abatidos aos 75, 100, 125 ou 150 dias de confinamento. Após o abate, as carcaças foram identificadas e resfriadas por 24 horas. Durante a desossa, foram colhidas amostras do contrafilé entre a 10ª e 11ª costelas para análise das características sensoriais e das perdas por cocção; entre a 11ª e 12ª costelas para avaliação da composição centesimal, do valor calórico, do pH e do índice de fragmentação miofibrilar (IFM; e entre a 12ª e 13ª costelas para a avaliação do escore de marmorização e da força de cisalhamento. A composição centesimal, o pH, a força de cisalhamento, o valor calórico, as perdas por cocção e o IFM não diferiram estatisticamente entre os períodos de confinamento. O grau de marmorização diferiu entre as idades de abate, uma vez os animais abatidos aos 75 dias de confinamento apresentaram escore de 1,25; os abatidos aos 100 e 125 dias, escore 2; e aqueles abatidos aos 150 dias de confinamento, escore 2,2. Em todos os períodos de confinamento, a carne bubalina foi classificada como macia (média 3,94 kgf e apresentou com características que não diferiram pelo painel sensorial entre os 75 e 150 dias de confinamento. O abate de bubalinos aos 75 e 150 dias de confinamento não influencia as características sensoriais sabor, aroma e cor da carne bubalina.The objective was to evaluate the physical, chemical and sensory of buffaloes meat slaughtered in different periods of feedlot. Twenty castrated, hornless Murrah buffaloes with initial average age of 15 months old were slaughtered at 75, 100, 125 or 150 days of feedlot. After slaughter, the carcasses were identified and cooled for 24 hours. During the deboning, samples were taken from striploin

  12. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance.

  13. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance. PMID:25983572

  14. Vertical and Interfacial Transport in Wetlands (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variano, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this work is to understand the fluxes connecting the water column, substrate, and atmosphere in wetland environments. To do this, analytical, numerical, and laboratory models have been used to quantify the hydrodynamic contributions to vertical fluxes. A key question is whether the hydrodynamic transport can be modeled as a diffusivity, and, if so, what the vertical structure of this diffusivity is. This question will be addressed in a number of flow types and for a number of fluxes. The fluxes of interest are heat, sediment, dissolved gases (such as methane and oxygen) and other dissolved solutes (such as nutrients and pollutants). The flows of interest include: unidirectional current, reversing flow (under waves, seiches, and tides), wind-sheared surface flows, and thermal convection. Rain and bioturbation can be important, but are not considered in the modeling work discussed herein. Specifically, we will present results on gas transport at wind-sheared free surface, sediment transport in unidirectional flow, and heat transfer in an oscillating flow cause by a seiche. All three of these will be used to consider the question of appropriate analytical models for vertical transport. The analytic models considered here are all 1D models that assume homogeneity in the horizontal plane. The numerical models use finite element methods and resolve the flow around individual vegetation stems in an idealized geometry. Laboratory models discussed herein also use an idealized geometry. Vegetation is represented by an array of cylinders, whose geometry is modeled after Scirpus spp. wetlands in Northern California. The laboratory model is constructed in a way that allows optical access to the flow, even in dense vegetation and far from boundaries. This is accomplished by using fluoropolymer plastics to construct vegetation models. The optical access allows us to employ particle image velocimetry (PIV) and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) to measure

  15. Synthesis and Spectroscopic Analysis of Novel 1<em>H-Benzo[d>]imidazoles Phenyl Sulfonylpiperazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad M. Qandil

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A group of benzimidazole analogs of sildenafil, 3-benzimidazolyl-4-methoxy-phenylsulfonylpiperazines 2–4 and 3-benzimidazolyl-4-methoxy-<em>N,N>-dimethyl- benzenesulfonamide (5, were efficiently synthesized. Compounds 2–5 were characterized by NMR and MS and contrary to the reported mass spectra of sildenafil, the spectra of the piperazine-containing compounds 2–4 showed a novel fragmentation pattern leading to an <em>m/z> = 316. A mechanism for the formation of this fragment was proposed.

  16. Proximate Composition, Nutritional Attributes and Mineral Composition of <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> L. (Ketumpangan Air Grown in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maznah Ismail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the proximate and mineral composition of <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> L., an underexploited weed plant in Malaysia. Proximate analysis was performed using standard AOAC methods and mineral contents were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicated <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> to be rich in crude protein, carbohydrate and total ash contents. The high amount of total ash (31.22% suggests a high-value mineral composition comprising potassium, calcium and iron as the main elements. The present study inferred that <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> would serve as a good source of protein and energy as well as micronutrients in the form of a leafy vegetable for human consumption.

  17. Multiloop string vertices from the path integral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochicchio, M.; Lerda, A.

    1989-02-01

    We derive the multiloop vertices for the bosonic string using path integral methods and establish a precise equivalence between the functional approach to string perturbation theory and the operator formalism on Riemann surfaces recently developed by various authors. One of us (A.L.) would like to thank P. Di Vecchia and S. Sciuto for helpful discussions and INFN, Sezione di Torino, for the kind hospitality extended to him during the completion of this work. The work of M.B. was partially supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant NSF-PHY85-07627. The work of A.L. was partially supported by the US Department of Energy under grant DE-AC02-76ER03069.

  18. Adaptive vertical handoff algorithm in heterogeneous networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Sheng-dong; WU Meng

    2007-01-01

    The integration of cellular network (CN) and wireless local area network (WLAN) is the trend of the next generation mobile communication systems, and nodes will handoff between the two kinds of networks. The received signal strength (RSS) is the dominant factor consijered when handoff occurs. In order to improve the handoff efficiency, this study proposes an adaptive decision algorithm for vertical handoff on the basis of fast Fourier transform (FFT). The algorithm makes handoff decision after analyzing the signal strength fluctuation which is caused by slow fading through FFT. Simulations show that the algorithm reduces the number of handoff by 35%, shortens the areas influenced by slow fading, and enables the nodes to make full use of WLAN in communication compared with traditional algorithms.

  19. Gas-solid flow in vertical tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on a computational study of fully-developed flow of gas-particle suspensions in vertical pipes which was carried out, using the model proposed recently by Sinclair and Jackson, to understand the predicted scale-up characteristics. It was shown that the model can capture the existence of steady-state multiplicity wherein different pressure gradients can be obtained for the same gas and solids fluxes. A pronounced and nonmonotonic variation of the pressure gradient required to achieve desired fluxes of solid and gas with tube diameter was predicted by the model, and this is explained on a physical basis. The computed results were compared with the experimental data. The model manifests an unsatisfactory degree of sensitivity to the inelasticity of the particle-particle collisions and the damping of particle-phase fluctuating motion by the gas

  20. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008). Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction. Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  1. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  2. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock.

  3. Matrix model and dimensions at hypercube vertices

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, A; Popolitov, A

    2015-01-01

    In hypercube approach to correlation functions in Chern-Simons theory (knot polynomials) the central role is played by the numbers of cycles, in which the link diagram is decomposed under different resolutions. Certain functions of these numbers are further interpreted as dimensions of graded spaces, associated with hypercube vertices. Finding these functions is, however, a somewhat non-trivial problem. In arXiv:1506.07516 it was suggested to solve it with the help of the matrix model technique, in the spirit of AMM/EO topological recursion. In this paper we further elaborate on this idea and provide a vast collection of non-trivial examples, related both to ordinary and virtual links and knots. Remarkably, most powerful versions of the formalism freely convert ordinary knots/links to virtual and back -- moreover, go beyond the knot-related set of the (2,2)-valent graphs.

  4. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System (2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Ishikawa, K.

    2012-12-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have carried out two field surveys in 2011. One is a 3D survey with a boomer for a high-resolution surface source and the other one for an actual field survey in the Izena Cauldron an active hydrothermal area in the Okinawa Trough. Through these surveys, we have confirmed that the

  5. Regular tetrahedra whose vertices have integer coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Ionascu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce theoretical arguments for constructing a procedure that allows one to find the number of all regular tetrahedra that have coordinates in the set {0,1, . . . , n}. The terms of this sequence are twice the values of the sequence A103158 in the Online Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences.These results lead to the consideration of an infinite graph having a fractal nature which is tightly connected to the set of orthogonal 3-by-3 matrices with rational coefficients. The vertices of this graph are the primitive integer solutions of the Diophantine equation a2 + b2 + c2 = 3d2. Our aim here is to laid down the basis of finding good estimates, if not exact formulae, for the sequence A103158.

  6. Lift Augmentation for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald M Angle II

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of harnessing wind power has been around for centuries, and is first recorded by the Persians in 900 AD. These early uses of wind power were for the processing of food, particularly grinding grains, and consisted of stationary blades around a horizontal axis, the precursor to today’s horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT. Technology for these wind mills was essentially the same until the 1930’s when advances in aircraft propeller theories were applied to the blades of the turbine. During this development period, which has since remained basically unchanged, the design push was for increasingly larger propellers requiring heavy and costly transmissions, generators, and support towers to be installed. An alternative concept to the HAWT was developed by Georges Darrieus [5], which utilized a vertical shaft and is known as a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT. The scientific development of the concept did not gain strong attention until the 1970’s due to the perceived low efficiency of this style. This perception was due in part to the portion of the blade’s rotary path that is adverse to the generation of power. This efficiency loss can be minimized by the mechanical movement of the blade, relative to the airflow during the upwind portion of the blades’ rotational path. Since, circulation control can alter the forces generated by an airfoil, it could be used to increase the efficiency of a VAWT by increasing the torque produced on the downwind portion of the path, while removing the need for a physical change in angle of attack. With the recent upturn in petroleum costs and global warming concerns, interest in renewable energy technologies have been reinvigorated, in particular the desire for advanced wind energy technologies, including the application of lift augmentation techniques. One of these techniques is to utilize circulation control to enhance the lifting capacity of the blades based on the location of the blade in the

  7. Premixed flame propagation in vertical tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Kazakov, Kirill A

    2015-01-01

    Analytical treatment of premixed flame propagation in vertical tubes with smooth walls is given. Using the on-shell flame description, equations describing quasi-steady flame with a small but finite front thickness are obtained and solved numerically. It is found that near the limits of inflammability, solutions describing upward flame propagation come in pairs having close propagation speeds, and that the effect of gravity is to reverse the burnt gas velocity profile generated by the flame. On the basis of these results, a theory of partial flame propagation driven by the gravitational field is developed. A complete explanation is given of the intricate observed behavior of limit flames, including dependence of the inflammability range on the size of the combustion domain, the large distances of partial flame propagation, and the progression of flame extinction. The role of the finite front-thickness effects is discussed in detail. Also, various mechanisms governing flame acceleration in smooth tubes are ide...

  8. Carbon export by vertically migrating zooplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Agnethe Nøhr; Visser, André W.

    2016-01-01

    of the active transport of carbon by different size fractions of the migrating zooplankton population as function of time and space. The approach is motivated by the difficulty in incorporating behavioral aspects of carbon transport into large scale carbon budgets of the world's oceans. The results show......Through diel vertical migration (DVM), zooplankton add an active transport to the otherwise passive sinking of detrital material that constitutes the biological pump. This active transport has proven difficult to quantify. We present a model that estimates both the temporal and depth characteristic...... that despite their lower abundance, large zooplankton (length circa 1–2 mm) migrate deeper and transport approximately twice as much carbon as do the smaller zooplankton (length circa 0.2–0.3 mm). In mid- latitudes (∼30°N to ∼45°N), where pronounced spring blooms are observed, up to 20% more carbon...

  9. Hypotropic Dissociated Vertical Deviation; a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhale Rajavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the clinical features of a rare case of hypotropic dissociated vertical deviation (DVD. Case report: A 25-year-old female was referred with unilateral esotropia, hypotropia and slow variable downward drift in her left eye. She had history of esotropia since she had been 3-4 months of age. Best corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in her right eye and 20/40 in the left one when hyperopia was corrected. She underwent bimedial rectus muscle recession of 5.25mm for 45 prism diopters (PDs of esotropia. She was orthophoric 3 months after surgery and no further operation was planned for correction of the hypotropic DVD. Conclusion: This rare case of hypotropic DVD showed only mild amblyopia in her non-fixating eye. The etiology was most probably acquired considering hyperopia as a sign of early onset accommodative esotropia.

  10. Vertical Footbridge Vibrations: The Response Spectrum Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakis, Christos; Ingólfsson, Einar Thór

    2008-01-01

    of a reference response spectrum. The simulations use known statistical data for pedestrian and population walking characteristics to generate loads for a 50m long simply-supported bridge, with a fixed level of damping and a mean pedestrian flow rate of 1 pedestrian / sec. The response obtained from...... the reference spectrum is then modified to take into account actual span length, bridge damping, pedestrian pacing frequency, variation on mode shapes and predicted bridge-specific flow rates. Furthermore, the response is modified to account for a specific event return period. The concept of a cumulative event...... of a universally applicable reference response spectrum is introduced, from which the pedestrian-induced vertical response of any footbridge may be determined, based on a defined “event” and the probability of occurrence of that event. A series of Monte Carlo simulations are undertaken for the development...

  11. Analysis of Vertical Architecture Photogalvanic Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoudzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    A new configuration of the photogalvanic cells (PGCs) is proposed that relaxes some of the hard to achieve requirements for efficient conventional photogalvanic cells. Instead of illuminating the device perpendicular to the electrode as was done classically, the vertical alignment of PGCs is suggested so that the light comes in from the gap between the two electrodes. This way, the electron generation extends to the depth of the device and therefore slower kinetics are allowed for deep cells. The depth can also be adjusted according to the concentration of the dyes, which solves the high solubility problem of the electrode-illuminated cells. The configuration is mathematically modeled and the advantages over the conventional cell are shown. A computer model is built for more detailed analysis.

  12. A vertically resolved model for phytoplankton aggregation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Iris Kriest; Geoffrey T Evans

    2000-12-01

    This work presents models of the vertical distribution and flux of phytoplankton aggregates, including changes with time in the distribution of aggregate sizes and sinking speeds. The distribution of sizes is described by two parameters, the mass and number of aggregates, which greatly reduces the computational cost of the models. Simple experiments demonstrate the effects of aggregation on the timing and depth distribution of primary production and export. A more detailed ecological model is applied to sites in the Arabian Sea; it demonstrates that aggregation can be important for deep sedimentation even when its effect on surface concentrations is small, and it presents the difference in timing between settlement of aggregates and fecal pellets.

  13. Ultrahigh efficiencies in vertical epitaxial heterostructure architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafard, S.; York, M. C. A.; Proulx, F.; Valdivia, C. E.; Wilkins, M. M.; Arès, R.; Aimez, V.; Hinzer, K.; Masson, D. P.

    2016-02-01

    Optical to electrical power converting semiconductor devices were achieved with breakthrough performance by designing a Vertical Epitaxial Heterostructure Architecture. The devices are featuring modeled and measured conversion efficiencies greater than 65%. The ultrahigh conversion efficiencies were obtained by monolithically integrating several thin GaAs photovoltaic junctions tailored with submicron absorption thicknesses and grown in a single crystal by epitaxy. The heterostructures that were engineered with a number N of such ultrathin junctions yielded an optimal external quantum efficiencies approaching 100%/N. The heterostructures are capable of output voltages that are multiple times larger than the corresponding photovoltage of the input light. The individual nanoscale junctions are each generating up to ˜1.2 V of output voltage when illuminated in the infrared. We compare the optoelectronic properties of phototransducers prepared with designs having 5 to 12 junctions and that are exhibiting voltage outputs between >5 V and >14 V.

  14. Provas de carga em estacas pré-moldadas ensaiadas em areias porosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stélio Maia Menezes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Os solos porosos arenosos colapsíveis ocorrem na região central do Brasil, representando 5% da área do país. Esses coluviões porosos alcançam espessuras de até 15 metros. Nesse trabalho, foram construídas estacas pré-moldadas de concreto, instrumentadas, especialmente confeccionadas para essa pesquisa. Essas estacas foram cravadas em solo arenoso de alta porosidade, colapsível, situado na região oeste do Estado de São Paulo. Diversas provas de carga axiais, estáticas, foram efetuadas em seis estacas (por ensaios de compressão, tração e carregamento horizontal. Foram realizados, ainda, ensaios geotécnicos laboratoriais e de campo nesses solos, com o intuito de melhor caracterizar o campo experimental estudado.Collapsibles porous sands are found to a large extent of Brazil, representing 5% of the country. In the layers of those soils the thickness are of to 15 meters. Precast-concrete piles were build, with instrumentation, made to that research. The piles were drive in soil sandy porous collapsible, found in the state of São Paulo (Brazil. Vertical static load tests were made in six piles (compression, uplift forces and horizontal loading. There were performed field tests and laboratory in samples obtained from the subsoil, aiming geotechnical characterization of the place.

  15. Predicting Vertical Jump Height from Bar Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amador García-Ramos, Igor Štirn, Paulino Padial, Javier Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Blanca De la Fuente, Vojko Strojnik, Belén Feriche

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax and final propulsive phase (FPV bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s-2. Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384 was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504 was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r2 = 0.307, while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r2 = 0.071. These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine.

  16. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Syringin from the Bark of <em>Ilex em>rotunda> Thumb Using Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Wang; Li-Chun Zhao; Wei Li; Xin Deng; Xiang-Hua Xia; Jian Liang; Geng-Liang Yang; Ying He

    2012-01-01

    In this work, a rapid extraction method based on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of syringin from the bark of <em>Ilex rotunda em>Thumb using response surface methodology (RSM) is described. The syringin was analyzed and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detection (HPLC-UV). The extraction solvent, extraction temperature and extraction time, the three main factors for UAE, were optimized with Box-Behnken design (BBD) to obtain the highest ...

  17. Vertical profiles of BC direct radiative effect over Italy: high vertical resolution data and atmospheric feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Močnik, Griša; Ferrero, Luca; Castelli, Mariapina; Ferrini, Barbara S.; Moscatelli, Marco; Grazia Perrone, Maria; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Rovelli, Grazia; D'Angelo, Luca; Moroni, Beatrice; Scardazza, Francesco; Bolzacchini, Ezio; Petitta, Marcello; Cappelletti, David

    2016-04-01

    Black carbon (BC), and its vertical distribution, affects the climate. Global measurements of BC vertical profiles are lacking to support climate change research. To fill this gap, a campaign was conducted over three Italian basin valleys, Terni Valley (Appennines), Po Valley and Passiria Valley (Alps), to characterize the impact of BC on the radiative budget under similar orographic conditions. 120 vertical profiles were measured in winter 2010. The BC vertical profiles, together with aerosol size distribution, aerosol chemistry and meteorological parameters, have been determined using a tethered balloon-based platform equipped with: a micro-Aethalometer AE51 (Magee Scientific), a 1.107 Grimm OPC (0.25-32 μm, 31 size classes), a cascade impactor (Siuotas SKC), and a meteorological station (LSI-Lastem). The aerosol chemical composition was determined from collected PM2.5 samples. The aerosol absorption along the vertical profiles was measured and optical properties calculated using the Mie theory applied to the aerosol size distribution. The aerosol optical properties were validated with AERONET data and then used as inputs to the radiative transfer model libRadtran. Vertical profiles of the aerosol direct radiative effect, the related atmospheric absorption and the heating rate were calculated. Vertical profile measurements revealed some common behaviors over the studied basin valleys. From below the mixing height to above it, a marked concentration drop was found for both BC (from -48.4±5.3% up to -69.1±5.5%) and aerosol number concentration (from -23.9±4.3% up to -46.5±7.3%). These features reflected on the optical properties of the aerosol. Absorption and scattering coefficients decreased from below the MH to above it (babs from -47.6±2.5% up to -71.3±3.0% and bsca from -23.5±0.8% up to -61.2±3.1%, respectively). Consequently, the Single Scattering Albedo increased above the MH (from +4.9±2.2% to +7.4±1.0%). The highest aerosol absorption was

  18. Correlation between transverse and vertical measurements in Brazilian growing patients, evaluated by Ricketts-Faltin frontal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Helena Lourenço Belluzzo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Currently in orthodontic diagnosis, besides the lateral cephalometric analysis which evaluates the anteroposterior and vertical direction, the frontal analysis may be added, leading us to another important dimension in space: the transverse dimension. OBJECTIVE: Few longitudinal samples with the frontal radiograph were published, so this cephalometric study was designed to correlate the transversal and vertical measures by Ricketts-Faltin frontal analysis into two radiographic times. METHODS: The sample consisted of 45 Brazilian children, 25 girls and 20 boys, all presenting mixed dentition, with balanced facial aesthetics and no previous orthodontic/orthopedic treatment. The initial average age (T1 was 7.7 years and the final (T2 13.3 years. The measurements evaluated were: FTD, MxTD, NTD, LITD, MdTD (transversal, OVD and TVD (vertical. RESULTS: All transversal measures were positively correlated with a medium or high correlation with each other and the vertical measurements; only LITD presented a low correlation with these measurements. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the face has interdependent regions and that this feature remains with growth.INTRODUÇÃO: atualmente no diagnóstico ortodôntico, além da análise cefalométrica lateral - que avalia os sentidos anteroposterior e vertical -, deve-se acrescentar a análise no sentido frontal, a qual propicia outra dimensão importante no espaço, a transversal. OBJETIVO: poucas são as amostras longitudinais publicadas utilizando telerradiografias frontais; portanto, o presente estudo cefalométrico teve o intuito de correlacionar as medidas transversais e verticais por meio da análise frontal de Ricketts-Faltin, em dois tempos radiográficos. MÉTODOS: a amostra constou de 45 crianças brasileiras, sendo 25 meninas e 20 meninos, todos apresentando dentição mista, com perfil harmonioso e sem nunca terem sido tratadas ortodonticamente e/ou ortopedicamente. A idade m

  19. Avaliação dos fatores associados à transmissão vertical de HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Costa da Rosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Objetivo Comparar a prevalência e os fatores associados à transmissão vertical de HIV-1 entre grávidas tratadas de 1998-2004 e de 2005-2011 em um serviço de referência de cuidado de pacientes com HIV no sul do Brasil. Métodos Estudo descritivo e analítico que usou as bases de dados de laboratórios da Rede Nacional de Laboratórios de CD4 e Carga Viral de DST/Aids do Ministério da Saúde. As grávidas com HIV-1 foram selecionadas em uma pesquisa ativa de informações clínicas e dados obstétricos e neonatais em seus prontuários médicos entre 1998-2011. Resultados Foram analisadas 102 grávidas entre 1998 e 2004 e 251 entre 2005-2011, no total 353 crianças nascidas de grávidas com HIV-1. Observou-se que a transmissão vertical foi de 11,8% entre 1998 e 2004 e de 3,2% entre 2005-2011 (p < 0,001. O maior uso de medicamentos antirretrovirais (p = 0,02, a redução na carga viral (p < 0,001 e o tempo de ruptura de membranas menor do que quatro horas (p < 0,001 foram associados à redução nos fatores de transmissão vertical quando os dois períodos são comparados. Conclusão Observou-se uma redução na taxa de transmissão vertical nos últimos anos. De acordo com as variáveis estudadas, sugere-se que os fatores de risco de transmissão vertical de HIV-1 foram ausência de terapia antirretroviral, alta carga viral das grávidas e tempo de ruptura maior do que quatro horas.

  20. Antioxidant Profile of <em>Trifolium pratenseem> L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidy Schwartsova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the antioxidant properties of five different extracts of <em>Trifolium pratenseem> L. (Leguminosae leaves, various assays which measure free radical scavenging ability were carried out: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radical scavenger capacity tests and lipid peroxidation assay. In all of the tests, only the H2O and (to some extent the EtOAc extracts showed a potent antioxidant effect compared with BHT and BHA, well-known synthetic antioxidants. In addition, <em>in vivo em>experiments were conducted with antioxidant systems (activities of GSHPx, GSHR, Px, CAT, XOD, GSH content and intensity of LPx in liver homogenate and blood of mice after their treatment with extracts of <em>T. pratenseem> leaves, or in combination with CCl4. Besides, in the extracts examined the total phenolic and flavonoid amounts were also determined, together with presence of the selected flavonoids: quercetin, luteolin, apigenin, naringenin and kaempferol, which were studied using a HPLC-DAD technique. HPLC-DAD analysis showed a noticeable content of natural products according to which the examined <em>Trifolium pratenseem> species could well be regarded as a promising new source of bioactive natural compounds, which can be used both as a food supplement and a remedy.

  1. Casca de soja em dietas para coelhos em crescimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Kohlrausch Klinger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar efeitos da inclusão de casca de soja em substituição ao feno de alfafa sobre o desempenho, características da carcaça e trato gastrointestinal e parâmetros bioquímicos de coelhos em fase de crescimento. Foram utilizados 30 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branca, divididos igualmente em três tratamentos, compostos pela dieta experimental padrão (sem inclusão de casca de soja; e pelas dietas com 50% e 100% de substituição de alfafa por casca de soja nas respectivas rações experimentais. Concluiu-se que a casca de soja pode ser incluída em dietas para coelhos em crescimento, em substituição ao feno de alfafa em até 100% sem causar danos no desempenho nas características de carcaça e do trato gastrointestinal e parâmetros bioquímicos dos animais, durante a fase de crescimento. Porém, a utilização deste co-produto exige a necessidade de estudos mais aprofundados em virtude da escassez de dados.

  2. Effects of <em>Citrus aurantiumem> (Bitter Orange Fruit Extracts and <em>p>-Synephrine on Metabolic Fluxes in the Rat Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Marina Peralta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The fruit extracts of <em>Citrus aurantiumem> (bitter orange are traditionally used as weight-loss products and as appetite supressants. An important fruit component is <em>p>-synephrine, which is structurally similar to the adrenergic agents. Weight-loss and adrenergic actions are always related to metabolic changes and this work was designed to investigate a possible action of the <em>C. aurantiumem> extract on liver metabolism. The isolated perfused rat liver was used to measure catabolic and anabolic pathways, including oxygen uptake and perfusion pressure. The <em>C. aurantiumem> extract and <em>p>-synephrine increased glycogenolysis, glycolysis, oxygen uptake and perfusion pressure. These changes were partly sensitive to a- and b-adrenergic antagonists. <em>p>-Synephrine (200 mM produced an increase in glucose output that was only 15% smaller than the increment caused by the extract containing 196 mM <em>p>-synephrine. At low concentrations the <em>C. aurantiumem> extract tended to increase gluconeogenesis, but at high concentrations it was inhibitory, opposite to what happened with <em>p>-synephrine. The action of the <em>C. aurantiumem> extract on liver metabolism is similar to the well known actions of adrenergic agents and can be partly attributed to its content in <em>p>-synephrine. Many of these actions are catabolic and compatible with the weight-loss effects usually attributed to <em>C. aurantiumem>.

  3. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antitumor Activities of the Essential Oils and Crude Extracts of<em> Euphorbiaem>> macrorrhizaem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haji Akber Aisa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils extracted from <em>Euphorbia macrorrhizaem> collected from Northwest China. The major constituents of the essential oils of aerial parts and roots of <em>E. macrorrhizaem> are acorenone B (16.72% and 25.80%, (+-cycloisosativene (14.94% and 12.40%, 3a-hydroxy-5b-androstane (10.62% and 5.52%, copaene (7.37% and 6.29%, l-calamenene (4.13% and 4.65% and β-cedrene (8.40% and 7.98%, respectively. The minor components of them are thymene, γ-terpinene, thymecamphor, α-cedrene, zingiberene, trans-caryophyllene, β-chamigrene, curcumene, pentadecane, (−-α-muurolene, cuparene, γ-cadinene, (<em>Z>-3-heptadecene, 1,3,7,7-tetramethyl-2-oxabicyclo(4.4.0dec-5-en-4-one, hexahydrofarnesyl acetone, γ-elixene and palmitinic acid. The antimicrobial and antitumor activitiy of the <em>E. macrorrhizaem> essential oil against <em>Staphyloccocus aureusem>, <em>Escherichia coliem>, <em>Canidia Albicansem> and Caco-2 cells were evaluated. Among all the tested microorganisms and Caco-2 cells, the essential oils showed the strongest inhibitory effect on <em>Staphyloccocus aureus em>(MIC = 2.8 μg/mL and Caco-2 cell (IC50 = 11.86 μg/mL, whereas no effect on <em>Escherichia coliem> and <em>Candida em>albicans>. The data of this study suggested that the <em>E. macrorrhizaem> essential oils have great potential as a natural medicine for microbial infections and cancers.

  4. Fatores protetores e de risco envolvidos na transmissão vertical do HIV-1 Protective and risk factors related to vertical transmission of the HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela P. Gianvecchio

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avalia os fatores maternos e fetais envolvidos na transmissão vertical do HIV-1 em 47 pares de mãe e filho. As variáveis comportamentais, demográficas e obstétricas foram obtidas mediante entrevista; os dados referentes ao parto e ao recém-nascido, dos prontuários das maternidades. Durante o terceiro trimestre de gestação foi realizada a contagem da carga viral materna e dos linfócitos T CD4+. A média de idade foi de 25 anos e 23,4% das gestantes eram primigestas, e o fator comportamental mais prevalente foi não usar preservativos. Dentre as gestantes, 48,9% tinham células CD4+ superior a 500 células/mm³ e 93,6% se enquadravam na categoria clínica A; 95,7% submeteram-se à profilaxia com zidovudina durante a gestação ou no parto, a qual foi ministrada a todos os recém-nascidos; 50,0% delas foram submetidas à cesárea eletiva. Apesar de expostas a vários fatores de risco e protetores, nenhuma criança tornou-se infectada. A transmissão vertical resulta de um desequilíbrio entre os fatores, com predomínio dos de risco sobre os protetores.This study aimed to evaluate maternal and fetal factors related to vertical transmission of HIV-1. Participants included 47 mother-child pairs. Behavioral, demographic, and obstetric data were obtained through interviews. Data related to delivery and newborns were collected from registries in the maternity hospitals. During the third trimester of pregnancy, CD4+ T lymphocytes and maternal viral load were measured. Mean age of the mothers was 25 years and 23.4% of the pregnant women were primigravidae. The most prevalent behavioral factor was lack of condom use. 48.9% of the women presented a CD4+ count greater than 500 cells/ mm³, and 93.6% belonged to clinical category A. 95.7% of the women received zidovudine prophylaxis during pregnancy or childbirth, and the medication was also administered to all the neonates. 50.0% of patients were submitted to elective cesareans. Despite

  5. Desempenho em Pastagens e Características de Carcaça da 16a Progênie dos Rebanhos Nelore, Guzerá e Caracu de Sertãozinho (SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razook Alexander George

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Quarenta e um machos inteiros dos rebanhos selecionados para peso aos 378 dias (P378, nascidos em 1996, foram terminados em pastagens de Panicum Maximum (Jacq., Panicum Maximum (Jaq cv. Tanzania 1 e Brachiaria brizantha (Hoschst Stapf cv. Marandu na Estação Experimental de Zootecnia de Sertãozinho (SP. As amostras, representando a média de P378 em cada rebanho, foram: 11 animais Nelore Seleção (NeS e 10 para cada um dos grupos Nelore Controle (NeC, Guzerá Seleção (GuS e Caracu (Ca. O abate ocorreu aos 824 dias de idade e condição corporal 7,6, em uma escala de 1 a 9. As médias mínimas e máximas ajustadas, para as principais características, considerando-se todos os grupos, foram: ganho de peso médio diário, 406 (NeC e 501 g (NeS; peso de abate (PAB, 446,8 (NeC e 544,3 kg (NeS ; peso de carcaça (PCAR, 249,8 (NeC e 309,7 kg (NeS; rendimento de carcaça (REND, 54,0 (GuS e 56,3% (NeC e NeS. No corte entre a 9feminine e 11feminine costelas : músculo 59,6 (NeC e 65,2% (Ca; gordura, 15,6 (Ca e 21,4% (NeC; osso, 18,9 (NeC e 20,2% (GuS; espessura de gordura (ESPGOR, 2,0 (Ca e 4,2 mm (NeC; área de olho de lombo (AOL, 65,6 (NeC e 71,1 cmsuperscript two (NeS e Ca; força de cisalhamento (FC, 4,5 (Ca e 6,6 kg (GuS e perdas totais no cozimento (PERDAS, 22,5 (NeC e 24,9% (GuS. A seleção para peso provocou, em NeS, maiores PAB e PCAR, sem interferir no REND, na composição da costela, FC e PERDAS na carne. Houve, porém, menor ESPGOR em relação à NeC. Os animais GuS apresentaram PAB e PCAR intermediários, entre NeS e Ca, e menor REND e os Ca maior proporção de músculo na costela e carne com maior maciez em relação ao Zebu.

  6. Vertical semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube Schottky diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Sunghwan [Dankook University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    This paper presents a vertical semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (s-SWCNT)-based Schottky device. For the first time, the author successfully demonstrated a vertical s-SWCNT Schottky diode on an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) template. In the vertical pores of an AAO template s-SWCNTs were vertically grown and aligned. The vertical growth of s-SWCNTs inside the pores was achieved by successfully isolating the catalyst at the bottom of the pores by using redeposition enabled angled ion milling. The ends of the grown s-SWCNTs were coated with palladium and titanium to form Schottky and Ohmic contacts, respectively. The I-V characteristics of the vertical s-SWCNT paths engaging the Schottky and Ohmic contacts well demonstrated Schottky diode rectification.

  7. Decoration of vertical graphene with aerosol nanoparticles for gas sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shumao; Guo, Xiaoru; Ren, Ren; Zhou, Guihua; Chen, Junhong

    2015-08-01

    A facile method was demonstrated to decorate aerosol Ag nanoparticles onto vertical graphene surfaces using a mini-arc plasma reactor. The vertical graphene was directly grown on a sensor electrode using a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method. The aerosol Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple vapor condensation process using a mini-arc plasma source. Then, the nanoparticles were assembled on the surface of vertical graphene through the assistance of an electric field. Based on our observation, nonagglomerated Ag nanoparticles formed in the gas phase and were assembled onto vertical graphene sheets. Nanohybrids of Ag nanoparticle-decorated vertical graphene were characterized for ammonia gas detection at room temperature. The vertical graphene served as the conductance channel, and the conductance change upon exposure to ammonia was used as the sensing signal. The sensing results show that Ag nanoparticles significantly improve the sensitivity, response time, and recovery time of the sensor.

  8. Verticality perception during and after galvanic vestibular stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkening, Katharina; Bergmann, Jeannine; Keller, Ingo; Wuehr, Max; Müller, Friedemann; Jahn, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    The human brain constructs verticality perception by integrating vestibular, somatosensory, and visual information. Here we investigated whether galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) has an effect on verticality perception both during and after application, by assessing the subjective verticals (visual, haptic and postural) in healthy subjects at those times. During stimulation the subjective visual vertical and the subjective haptic vertical shifted towards the anode, whereas this shift was reversed towards the cathode in all modalities once stimulation was turned off. Overall, the effects were strongest for the haptic modality. Additional investigation of the time course of GVS-induced changes in the haptic vertical revealed that anodal shifts persisted for the entire 20-min stimulation interval in the majority of subjects. Aftereffects exhibited different types of decay, with a preponderance for an exponential decay. The existence of such reverse effects after stimulation could have implications for GVS-based therapy. PMID:25157799

  9. Infants' sensitivity to vertical disparity for depth perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruhara, Aki; Kaneko, Hirohiko; Kanazawa, So; Otsuka, Yumiko; Shirai, Nobu; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2013-05-01

    Both horizontal and vertical binocular disparities produce depth perception in adults. In developmental studies, infants aged around 4 to 6 months were shown to perceive depth from horizontal disparity. However, infants' sensitivity to vertical disparity has not been shown clearly. To examine the sensitivity in infants, this study measured preferential looking behavior of infants aged 20 to 27 weeks. Results showed a significant preference for the stimulus with vertical disparity, providing the first evidence of infants' sensitivity to vertical disparity. The infants in the same age group did not show preference for stimulus with horizontal disparity when the stimulus were comparable to the stimulus with vertical disparity, while their sensitivity to horizontal disparity was confirmed with the stimuli used in a previous study. Our results would suggest that properties in processing horizontal and vertical disparities are different in infancy, and that the sensitivity to horizontal disparity are still premature in 27 weeks after birth.

  10. CORANTES ARTIFICIAIS EM ALIMENTOS

    OpenAIRE

    Prado, Marcelo Alexandre; Helena Teixeira GODOY

    2009-01-01

    O emprego de aditivos químicos é, sem dúvida, um dos mais polêmicos avanços alcançados pela indústria de alimentos. Os corantes artificiais pertencem a uma dessas classes de aditivos alimentares e têm sido objeto de muitas críticas, já que seu uso em muitos alimentos justifica-se apenas por questões de hábitos alimentares. Ainda existem diferentes opiniões quanto à inocuidade dos diversos corantes artificiais. Visando, principalmente, o controle no uso dos corantes si...

  11. A guerra em Pessoa

    OpenAIRE

    Frias, Joana Matos

    2014-01-01

    Leitura e comentário crítico do poema "Os jogadores de xadrez", do heterónimo pessoano Ricardo Reis, com vista a uma proposta de sistematização da natureza da relação que o poeta manteve com os eventos em curso nos anos decisivos da sua formação e consolidação artísticas e literárias. Reading and critical review of the poem "The chess players", by Fernando Pessoaapos;s heteronym Ricardo Reis, aiming to propose a systematization of the kind of relationship the poet has maintained with the o...

  12. Envolvimento parental em creche

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Marta Isabel da Silva e

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Educação de Infância A família e a creche são os dois primeiros ambientes sociais que proporcionam à criança estímulos e condutas, sendo, consequentemente, instituições fundamentais no seu crescimento. É importante promover uma boa comunicação entre a creche e os pais, incentivando-os a participarem na educação dos seus filhos, demonstrando o quanto é importante para as crianças este seu envolvimento. Cabe, também, aos educadores/profissionais criar c...

  13. CRIPTOCOCOSE EM GATOS

    OpenAIRE

    Gilson Luiz Borges Corrêa

    1994-01-01

    RESUMO A criptococose é uma enfermidade micótica, causada pela levedura denominada Cryptococcus neoformans, que tem distribuição cosmopolita. O agente etiológico já foi isolado de diversos materiais, incluindo: frutas, amostras de solo, fezes de aves principalmente de pombos. Apesar de ser encontrado como saprófita na natureza, o Cryptococcus neoformans pode produzir doença no homem e várias espécies de animais domésticos ou silvestres. Em gatos, essa levedura pode ser encontrada provocando i...

  14. Burnout em Cuidadores Formais

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Juliana Marisa Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para a obtenção do grau de Mestre em Psicologia, ramo de Psicologia Clínica e da Saúde Este estudo é sobre a Síndrome de Burnout e teve como objetivo geral compreender se o Burnout está presente nos cuidadores formais da Santa Casa da Misericórdia de Castelo de Paiva e quais as variáveis socioprofissionais que poderão exercer influência no seu aparecimento. Pretendeu-se avaliar o Burnout dos cuidadores a tr...

  15. Frenectomia em foco

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Joana Isabel Monteiro de Paiva

    2012-01-01

    O freio é uma estrutura anatómica oral classificada em freio labial (médio maxilar ou mandibular, lateral maxilar ou mandibular) ou lingual que se pode tornar num problema quando a sua inserção cria impedimentos estruturais e dificuldades a vários níveis. Um freio labial anormal pode causar algumas anomalias ou problemas, tais como um diastema interincisal, problemas protéticos, doença periodontal relacionada com a retenção de alimentos, dificuldades na higiene oral e na mobilidade labial. Na...

  16. Perspectives on EM metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Caloz

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic (EM metamaterials have become a field of intense research activities. This paper presents a critical perspective of the field, with emphasis on fundamental concepts and practical applications. Metamaterials are explained in the general context of periodic structures. Resonant particle type and transmission line type metamaterials are compared, and their fundamental connection is established. Exotic phenomena recently reported and associated challenges are briefly reviewed. Practical applications are enumerated and illustrated by an example. The paper concludes with an optimistic outlook regarding the future of metamaterials.

  17. Estudo da microestrutura formada no processo de soldagem por atrito em aço C-Mn com pino consumível Microstructural evaluation of a C-Mn steel welded by the friction hidro-pillar process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Rodrigo de Lima Lessa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A soldagem por arco elétrico é a técnica mais empregada para reparar estruturas de grande porte, mas apresenta desvantagens associadas à solidificação do metal de solda. Então a utilização de processos de solda por atrito, especificamente o processo FHPP (Friction Hydro Pillar Processing que consiste na utilização de pinos para reparo por atrito, apresenta vantagens por ser um processo realizado no estado sólido. Menores temperaturas estão envolvidas e não existe influência do ambiente externo, minimizando os problemas nos reparos estruturais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo observar a variação dos parâmetros do processo e os efeitos desses na microestrutura e qualidade do reparo. O estudo comparou diferentes forças axiais nos reparos com aço C-Mn através de metalografias e perfis de microdureza. Uma força axial maior resultou em um menor tempo de processo, em uma microestrutura mais homogênea e evitou os defeitos "falta de adesão" na zona de ligação e "cisalhamento a quente" do pino.The arc welding it is the most used technique to repair large structures, however, has disadvantages that result from the solidification of the weld metal. So the use of friction welding, specifically the FHPP (friction hydro pillar processing process that consists on using plugs for friction repair, presents advantages because it is a process that is carried out on the solid state. Lower temperatures are involved and do not have the influence of the external environment, minimizing the problems on structure repairs. This work has the objective of observe the process parameters variation and their effects on microstructure and on the quality of the repair. The study compared different axial forces on repairs whit C-Mn steel through of metallographic and microhardness profiles. A higher axial force results in less time of process, in a more homogeneous microstructure, and avoided the defects "noncompliance" in the bounding zone and "hot

  18. Bargaining in vertical relationships and suppliers' R&D profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of bargaining in vertical relationships on the profitability of suppliers' R&D investments. Studies on the relationship between R&D and firm profitability mostly concentrate on the impact of horizontal market structure and neglect vertical interac-tions. Building on theoretical and empirical evidence about the effects of bargaining in vertical relationships, the crucial determinants of a supplier's bargaining power are identified as the market position and the d...

  19. Vertical Test Reuse for Embedded Systems: A Systematic Mapping Study

    OpenAIRE

    Flemström, Daniel; Sundmark, Daniel; Afzal, Wasif

    2015-01-01

    Abstract —Vertical test reuse refers to the the reuse of test cases or other test artifacts over different integration levels in the software or system engineering process. Vertical test reuse has previously been proposed for reducing test effort and improving test effectiveness, particularly for embedded system development. The goal of this study is to provide an overview of the state of the art in the field of vertical test reuse for e...

  20. Estudio del transporte vertical de un edificio de oficinas

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Gámez, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    El presente documento estudia un proyecto completo de ingeniería del transporte vertical de un edificio de oficinas. El transporte vertical de un edificio es una de las instalaciones fundamentales a la hora de diseñar el edificio. Un diseño incorrecto del núcleo de ascensores puede originar graves problemas a los usuarios y un sobredimensionamiento puede elevar los costes de mantenimiento innecesariamente. El estudio del transporte vertical de un edificio consta de dos parte...

  1. Analysis and design of a vertical axis wind turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Goyena Iriso, Joseba

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to design a new vertical axis wind turbine, specifically one Giromill wind turbine. The project development requires performing a previous study of the vertical axis wind turbines currently development. This study has to be performed before starting to design the wind turbine. Other very important aim is the development of a new vertical axis wind turbine. The after analyses that will result in the final design of the wind turbine will b...

  2. Structural reasons for vertical integration in the international oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Once upon a time, the international oil industry was vertically integrated. A small group of companies controlled a very substantial share of international oil flows, extending their operations from the oil well to the gas pump, and relying on intracorporate transfers for most in-between transactions. The historical reasons for vertical disintegration, the market role, and structural reasons for vertical reintegration are examined. (author)

  3. Vertical integration and pricing outcomes in retail gasoline markets

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Karl Austin

    2015-01-01

    The real world impact of vertical integration on prices for consumers remains a controversial topic. Economic theory suggests that there are multiple effects of vertical integration on prices which work in opposite directions. This paper employs high frequency panel data from a regional U.S. market to determine which effects are dominant at retail gasoline stations. Using two different techniques, I find that vertically-integrated company-operated gasoline stations charge prices five to eleve...

  4. Prospecting for groundwater in the Bawku West district of the Upper East region of Ghana using the electromagnetic and vertical electrical sounding methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integrated approach involving the Electromagnetic (EM) and Vertical electrical sounding (VES) survey methods, has been used to locate potential drilling sites to find groundwater for twenty (20) rural communities in the Bawku West District of the Upper East Region of Ghana. The EM method involved the use of the Geonics EM 34-3 equipment to obtain traversing data for the horizontal dipole (HD) and vertical dipole (VD) modes at station intervals of 10 m for a 20 m coil separation. The EM survey provided subsurface information relating to positions of high electrical conductivity anomalies which presumably pointed to locations for groundwater structures. As a follow up, the VES was carried out with respect to the anomalous positions, using the dipole-dipole configuration with the McOhm-EL resistivity meter. The VES enabled the estimation of the depth of the weathered layer to the bed rock. The results of the VES data were interpreted quantitatively by modeling using IX1D V.3 software. The study identified prospective sites for drilling of bore-holes to provide potable water for the communities. Results for the VES suggested that the aquifer zones in the area under study are mainly deeply weathered and fractured. The lithology for some of the recommended drilled points correlated well with the results obtained from the EM and VES investigations. The aquifer depth was found to be between 10 and 40 m with an average value of 21.5 m. The depth of the basement rock from the surface was 21.4 m. The estimated yield of the boreholes drilled within the area was between 10 and 500 litres/min with an average value of 136.8 lit/min. the success rate was found to be about 95%. The integrated use of EM and VES surveys has been found to be very successful in locating groundwater resources for the rural communities with the area studied. (au)

  5. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON WHOLE TREE VERTICAL TENSILE STRENGTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihua CHEN; Xinxiao YU; Dongsheng ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the vertical tensile strength of whole tree roots under the same soil and landform conditions.The experiments show that the shape of a root system's distribution affects the vertical tensile strength of roots.Rhododendron trees have horizontal root systems,so the whole roots were pulled out in the experiment process.Populous purdomii has vertical roots,so the experiment continued quite a long time.Abies fabric has both vertical and horizontal main roots,so the P-S curve shows a multi-peak shape.

  6. Reconstruction of the vertical electron density profile based on vertical TEC using the simulated annealing algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunhua; Yang, Guobin; Zhu, Peng; Nishioka, Michi; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Zhou, Chen; Song, Huan; Lan, Ting; Zhao, Zhengyu; Zhang, Yuannong

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a new method to reconstruct the vertical electron density profile based on vertical Total Electron Content (TEC) using the simulated annealing algorithm. The present technique used the Quasi-parabolic segments (QPS) to model the bottomside ionosphere. The initial parameters of the ionosphere model were determined from both International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) (Bilitza et al., 2014) and vertical TEC (vTEC). Then, the simulated annealing algorithm was used to search the best-fit parameters of the ionosphere model by comparing with the GPS-TEC. The performance and robust of this technique were verified by ionosonde data. The critical frequency (foF2) and peak height (hmF2) of the F2 layer obtained from ionograms recorded at different locations and on different days were compared with those calculated by the proposed method. The analysis of results shows that the present method is inspiring for obtaining foF2 from vTEC. However, the accuracy of hmF2 needs to be improved in the future work.

  7. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for SMS exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Eiichi; Murakami, Fumitoshi; Tsukahara, Hotoshi; Mizohata, Shigeharu

    2014-05-01

    The Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS) survey is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by sea-surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. Because the VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed it for the SMS survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We have been developing the VCS survey system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. We carried out several VCS surveys combining with surface towed source, deep towed source and ocean bottom source. The water depths of these surveys are from 100m up to 2100 m. Through these experiments, our VCS data acquisition system has been also completed. But the data processing techniques are still on the way. One of the most critical issues is the positioning in the water. The uncertainty in the positions of the source and of the hydrophones in water degraded the quality of subsurface image. GPS navigation system is available on sea surface, but in case of deep-towed source or ocean bottom source, the accuracy of shot position with SSBL/USBL is not sufficient for the very high-resolution imaging. We have developed a new approach to determine the positions in water using the travel time data from the source to VCS hydrophones. In 2013, we have carried out the second VCS survey using the surface-towed high-voltage sparker and ocean bottom source in the Izena Cauldron, which is one of the most promising SMS areas around Japan. The positions of ocean bottom source estimated by this method are consistent with the VCS field records. The VCS data with the sparker have been processed with 3D PSTM. It gives the very high resolution 3D volume deeper than two

  8. Antibioticos profilaticos em neurocirurgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo A. Brandt

    1979-03-01

    Full Text Available O índice de infecções pós-operatórias em pacientes neuro-cirúrgicos que receberam antibióticos profiláticos neste período foi comparado com o de pacientes que não receberam antibióticos. Infecções ocorreram em proporções significativamente maiores nos pacientes que receberam antibióticos, particularmente naqueles com afecções intracranianas graves; estas infecções foram graves e fatais na maioria dos casos. A administração de antibióticos profiláticos nestes pacientes não só foi incapaz de prevenir o aparecimento de infecções pós-operatórias, como aparentemente favoreceu o seu desenvolvimento. Tal se deveu, provavelmente, à destruição do equilíbrio microbiano no organismo, favorecendo o desenvolvimento de germes patogênicos e resistentes aos antibióticos usuais

  9. O insight em psiquiatria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida P. Cardoso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O sinal de que algo está a acontecer contribui para que o paciente reconheça que alguma coisa de estranho se está a passar consigo. Este reconhecimento faz com que o sujeito possa desempenhar uma função activa e seja um elemento colaborante do seu processo de recuperação. Cada doença apresenta, contudo, diferentes sintomas, uma vez que cada doença psiquiátrica consiste em diferentes perturbações com diversos efeitos sobre o funcionamento mental. Desta maneira, o fenómeno do insight que é registado em cada doença é diferente e expressa-se sob diferentes formas, não somente devido às manifestações clínicas da doença mas também devido às características individuais do sujeito.

  10. Electromagnetic scattering from two-layered rough interfaces with a PEC object: vertical polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electromagnetic (EM) scattering from a stack of two rough interfaces separating a homogeneous medium with a perfectly electric conducting (PEC) object has been calculated through the method of moments for vertical polarization. Theoretical formulations of EM scattering from multi-layered rough interfaces with a PEC object have been derived in detail and the total fields and their normal derivatives on the rough interfaces are solved. The two-layered model is a special case. In this work, a Gaussian rough surface was applied to simulate the rough interface. A cylinder was located above, between or below the two-layered rough interfaces. Through numerical simulations, the validity of this work is demonstrated by comparing it with existing scattering models, which are special cases that include a PEC object located above/below a single-layered rough interface and two-layered rough interfaces without an object. Subsequently, the influences of characteristic parameters, such as the relative permittivity of the medium, as well as the average height between the two rough surfaces, on the bistatic scattering coefficient are discussed. (general)

  11. Functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloise Van Hooijdonk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses and summarizes recent studies on the functionalization of carbon nanotubes oriented perpendicularly to their substrate, so-called vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs. The intrinsic properties of individual nanotubes make the VA-CNTs ideal candidates for integration in a wide range of devices, and many potential applications have been envisaged. These applications can benefit from the unidirectional alignment of the nanotubes, the large surface area, the high carbon purity, the outstanding electrical conductivity, and the uniformly long length. However, practical uses of VA-CNTs are limited by their surface characteristics, which must be often modified in order to meet the specificity of each particular application. The proposed approaches are based on the chemical modifications of the surface by functionalization (grafting of functional chemical groups, decoration with metal particles or wrapping of polymers to bring new properties or to improve the interactions between the VA-CNTs and their environment while maintaining the alignment of CNTs.

  12. A vertical approach to cardiac arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan Williams, E M

    1987-10-01

    Study of cardiac arrhythmia may be pursued vertically, as up the rungs of a ladder, from symptom to ECG, to EPS, to local lesion, to intracellular metabolism and to alterations of the latter and their effects on charge-transfer by ions across the cell membrane. Raised intracellular cAMP and calcium concentrations are responses to normal physiological controls, and highly abnormal ECGs occur in normal people under stress without progressing to life threatening arrhythmias, yet do so in susceptible individuals. Conversely, appropriate stimulation can precipitate ventricular fibrillation in normal myocardium. Selective stimulation of different types of adrenoceptor has differing electrophysiological effects. Beta 1-adrenoceptors increase contraction and calcium current, and shorten action potential duration (APD) by increasing potassium conductance. Beta 2-adrenoceptors do not increase calcium entry, but shorten APD by stimulating electrogenic Na/K pumping, alpha-adrenoceptors prolong contractions and lengthen APD. It is suggested that the tachycardia, extrasystoles and shortening of APD occurring in response to adrenergic stimuli and hypoxia, are accessory factors, not primary causes, in the development of arrhythmias, and constitute a danger when there is an appropriate anatomical substrate for re-entry. Serious arrhythmias are of multifactorial origin, of which "calcium overload" is but one, not proven to be a frequent one.

  13. Vertical transmission of Theileria lestoquardi in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakian, Amir; Nouri, Mohammad; Barati, Farid; Kahroba, Hooman; Jolodar, Abbas; Rashidi, Fardokht

    2014-07-14

    This is the first report of an outbreak of Theileria lestoquardi abortion and stillbirth in a mob of 450 ewes in July 2012, during which, approximately 35 late-term ewes lost their fetuses over a 5-day period. A dead ewe and her aborted fetus were transported to the Ahvaz Veterinary Hospital for the diagnostic evaluation. The microbial cultures from the ewe vaginal discharges and fetal abomasal contents and the liver were negative. The blood films of the ewe and her fetus contained Theileria piroplasms and the impression smears from ewe liver and fetal spleen were positive for Theileria Koch blue bodies. The DNA was extracted from the liver and spleen of ewe and her fetus, respectively, and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers derived from the nucleotide sequences of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene of T. lestoquardi. A single fragment of 428-bp fragment was amplified. The PCR product was directly sequenced and the alignment of the sequence with similar sequences in GenBank(®) showed 100% identities with 18S rDNA gene of T. lestoquardi. The present study is the first report of the T. lestoquardi vertical transmission that could be related to the abortion.

  14. Condensation of refrigerants on vertical fluted tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, S.K.; Mailen, G.S.; Murphy, R.W.

    1978-08-01

    Experiments were run to determine heat transfer performance of single vertical fluted tubes with selected fluids condensing on the outside. Working fluids included six fluorocarbons (Refrigerants 11, 21, 22, 113, 114, and 115) and a hydrocarbon (Refrigerant 600a or isobutane). The nine test tubes were of 2.54-cm (1-in.) nominal outside diameter and 1.2 m (4 ft) in length with from 0 (smooth) to 60 axial flutes. Condensing heat transfer coefficients ranged from 620 to 7900 W/m/sup 2/ . K (110 to 1400 Btu/hr . ft/sup 2/ . /sup 0/F) over the heat flux range of 2000 to 43,000 W/m/sup 2/ (920 to 13,600 Btu/hr . ft/sup 2/). All parameters are based on total condensing surface area. The data show that, for a given heat flux, a fluted tube can increase condensing coefficients up to 6.0 times smooth tube values. Further heat transfer enhancement was achieved by the use of drainage skirts on fluted tubes; these skirts effectively divided the 1.2-m (4-ft) tubes into two, four, and eight equal condensing lengths.

  15. Free convective condensation in a vertical enclosure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, R.J.; Peterson, P.F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Corradini, M.L.; Pernsteiner, A.P. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Free convective condensation in a vertical enclosure was studied numerically and the results were compared with experiments. In both the numerical and experimental investigations, mist formation was observed to occur near the cooling wall, with significant droplet concentrations in the bulk. Large recirculation cells near the end of the condensing section were generated as the heavy noncondensing gas collecting near the cooling wall was accelerated downward. Near the top of the enclosure the recirculation cells became weaker and smaller than those below, ultimately disappearing near the top of the condenser. In the experiment the mist density was seen to be highest near the wall and at the bottom of the condensing section, whereas the numerical model predicted a much more uniform distribution. The model used to describe the formation of mist was based on a Modified Critical Saturation Model (MCSM), which allows mist to be generated once the vapor pressure exceeds a critical value. Equilibrium, nonequilibrium, and MCSM calculations were preformed, showing the experimental results to lie somewhere in between the equilibrium and nonequilibrium predictions of the numerical model. A single adjustable constant (indicating the degree to which equilibrium is achieved) is used in the model in order to match the experimental results.

  16. Numerical Simulation of Rotating Vertical Bridgman Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nouri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is proposed a numerical parametric study of heat and mass transfer in a rotating vertical cylinder during the solidification of a binary metallic alloy. The aim of this paper is to present an enthalpy formulation based on the fixed grid methodology for the numerical solution of convective-diffusion during the phase change in the case of the steady crucible rotation. The extended Darcy model including the time derivative and Coriolis terms was applied as momentum equation. It was found that the buoyancy driven flow and solute distribution can be affected significantly by the rotating cylinder. The problem is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the conservation laws of energy and solute. The resulting system was discretized by the control volume method and solved by the SIMPLER algorithm proposed by Patankar. A computer code was developed and validated by comparison with previous studies. It can be observed that the forced convection introduced by rotation, dramatically changes the flow and solute distribution at the interface (liquid-mushy zone. The effect of Reynolds number on the Nusselt number, flow and solute distribution is presented and discussed.

  17. Vertical Distribution of Vibrationally Excited Hydroxyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygalashvyly, Mykhaylo; Becker, Erich; Sonnemann, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge about the vertical distribution of the vibrationally excited states of hydroxyl (OH*) is important for the interpretation of airglow measurements with respect to dynamical processes in the mesopause region. We derive an approximate analytical expression for the distribution of OH* that highlights the dependence on atomic oxygen and temperature. In addition, we use an advanced numerical model for the formation and relaxation of OH* and investigate the distributions of the different vibrationally exited states of OH*. For the production of OH*, the model includes the reaction of atomic hydrogen with ozone, as well as the reaction of atomic oxygen with hydroperoxy radicals. As loss processes we include 1) deactivation by atomic oxygen, molecular oxygen, and molecular nitrogen, 2) spontaneous emission, and 3) loss due to chemical reaction with atomic oxygen. All these processes take the dependence on the vibrational number into account. The quenching by molecular and atomic oxygen is parameterized by a multi-quantum relaxation scheme. This diagnostic model for OH* has been implemented as part of a chemistry-transport model that is driven by the dynamics simulated with the KMCM (Kühlungsborn Mechanistic general Circulation Model). Numerical results confirm that emission from excited states with higher vibrational number is weaker and emanates from higher altitudes. In addition we find that the OH*-peak altitudes depend significantly on season and latitude. This behavior is mainly controlled by the corresponding variations of atomic oxygen and temperature, as is also confirmed by the aforementioned approximate theory.

  18. Vertical structure of Advection dominated Accretion Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Zeraatgari, Fateme Zahra

    2015-01-01

    We solve the set of hydrodynamic (HD) equations for optically thin Advection Dominated Accretion Flows (ADAFs) by assuming radially self-similar in spherical coordinate system $ (r, \\theta, \\phi) $. The disk is considered to be steady state and axi-symmetric. We define the boundary conditions at the pole and the equator of the disk and to avoid singularity at the rotation axis, the disk is taken to be symmetric with respect to this axis. Moreover, only the $ \\tau_{r \\phi} $ component of viscous stress tensor is assumed and we have set $ v_{\\theta} = 0 $. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the variation of dynamical quantities of the flow in the vertical direction by finding an analytical solution. As a consequence, we found that the advection parameter, $ f^{adv} $, varies along the $ \\theta $ direction and reaches to its maximum near the rotation axis. Our results also show that, in terms of no-outflow solution, thermal equilibrium still exists and consequently advection cooling can balance vis...

  19. ATLAS LTCS Vertically Challenged System Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Deepak; Garrison, Matt; Ku, Jentung

    2014-01-01

    Re-planning of LTCS TVAC testing and supporting RTA (Receiver Telescope Assembly) Test Plan and Procedure document preparation. The Laser Thermal Control System (LTCS) is designed to maintain the lasers onboard Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) at their operational temperatures. In order to verify the functionality of the LTCS, a thermal balance test of the thermal hardware was performed. During the first cold start of the LTCS, the Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) was unable to control the laser mass simulators temperature. The control heaters were fully on and the loop temperature remained well below the desired setpoint. Thermal analysis of the loop did not show these results. This unpredicted behavior of the LTCS was brought up to a panel of LHP experts. Based on the testing and a review of all the data, there were multiple diagnostic performed in order to narrow down the cause. The prevailing theory is that gravity is causing oscillating flow within the loop, which artificially increased the control power needs. This resulted in a replan of the LTCS test flow and the addition of a GSE heater to allow vertical operation.

  20. Vertical landscraping, a big regionalism for Dubai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Dubai's ecologic and economic complications are exacerbated by six years of accelerated expansion, a fixed top-down approach to urbanism and the construction of iconic single-phase mega-projects. With recent construction delays, project cancellations and growing landscape issues, Dubai's tower typologies have been unresponsive to changing environmental, socio-cultural and economic patterns (BBC, 2009; Gillet, 2009; Lewis, 2009). In this essay, a theory of "Big Regionalism" guides an argument for an economically and ecologically linked tower typology called the Condenser. This phased "box-to-tower" typology is part of a greater Landscape Urbanist strategy called Vertical Landscraping. Within this strategy, the Condenser's role is to densify the city, facilitating the creation of ecologic voids that order the urban region. Delineating "Big Regional" principles, the Condenser provides a time-based, global-local urban growth approach that weaves Bigness into a series of urban-regional, economic and ecological relationships, builds upon the environmental performance of the city's regional architecture and planning, promotes a continuity of Dubai's urban history, and responds to its landscape issues while condensing development. These speculations permit consideration of the overlooked opportunities embedded within Dubai's mega-projects and their long-term impact on the urban morphology.

  1. Vertical shear of the galactic interstellar medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Benjamin

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La detecci on de absorci on en UV, 21 cm, H y otras l neas difusas de emisi on en el optico de gas de hasta 10 kpc sobre el plano de la V a L actea y de otras galaxias, permite estudiar la rotaci on de las \\atm osferas" ionizadas de las galaxias. Esta rotaci on tiene implicaciones al entendimiento del potencial gravitacional Gal actico, al transporte del momento angular del disco y al mantenimiento del di- namo Gal actico. Las evidencias indican que el gas rota de forma casi cil ndrica hasta varios kiloparsecs. Esto va en contra de la idea de que, suponiendo un mod- elo de masa razonable para la Galaxia, deb a de haber un gradiente de rotaci on pronunciado como funci on de la altura sobre el plano. Por ejemplo, en el corte vertical a un radio galactoc entrico de R = 5 kpc en NGC 891 hecho por Rand, la velocidad de rotaci on baja 30 km s de z = 1 a 5 kpc y deb a bajar unos 80 km s La tensi on magn etica puede resolver la discrepancia y se examinar an otras posibilidades en el futuro.

  2. Premixed flame propagation in vertical tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, Kirill A.

    2016-04-01

    Analytical treatment of the premixed flame propagation in vertical tubes with smooth walls is given. Using the on-shell flame description, equations for a quasi-steady flame with a small but finite front thickness are obtained and solved numerically. It is found that near the limits of inflammability, solutions describing upward flame propagation come in pairs having close propagation speeds and that the effect of gravity is to reverse the burnt gas velocity profile generated by the flame. On the basis of these results, a theory of partial flame propagation driven by a strong gravitational field is developed. A complete explanation is given of the intricate observed behavior of limit flames, including dependence of the inflammability range on the size of the combustion domain, the large distances of partial flame propagation, and the progression of flame extinction. The role of the finite front-thickness effects is discussed in detail. Also, various mechanisms governing flame acceleration in smooth tubes are identified. Acceleration of methane-air flames in open tubes is shown to be a combined effect of the hydrostatic pressure difference produced by the ambient cold air and the difference of dynamic gas pressure at the tube ends. On the other hand, a strong spontaneous acceleration of the fast methane-oxygen flames at the initial stage of their evolution in open-closed tubes is conditioned by metastability of the quasi-steady propagation regimes. An extensive comparison of the obtained results with the experimental data is made.

  3. Vertical barriers with increased sorption capacities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradl, H.B. [Bilfinger + Berger Bauaktiengesellschaft, Mannheim (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Vertical barriers are commonly used for the containment of contaminated areas. Due to the very small permeability of the barrier material which is usually in the order of magnitude of 10-10 m/s or less the advective contaminant transport can be more or less neglected. Nevertheless, there will always be a diffusive contaminant transport through the barrier which is caused by the concentration gradient. Investigations have been made to increase the sorption capacity of the barrier material by adding substances such as organoclays, zeolites, inorganic oxides and fly ashes. The contaminants taken into account where heavy metals (Pb) and for organic contaminants Toluole and Phenantrene. The paper presents results of model calculations and experiments. As a result, barrier materials can be designed {open_quotes}tailor-made{close_quotes} depending on the individual contaminant range of each site (e.g. landfills, gasworks etc.). The parameters relevant for construction such as rheological properties, compressive strength and permeability are not affected by the addition of the sorbents.

  4. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of <em>Lactobacillus> <em>plantarum> WCFS1 and Δ<em>ctsR> Mutant Strains Under Physiological and Heat Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Fiocco

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Among Gram-positive bacteria, CtsR (Class Three Stress gene Repressor mainly regulates the expression of genes encoding the Clp ATPases and the ClpP protease. To gain a better understanding of the biological significance of the CtsR regulon in response to heat-shock conditions, we performed a global proteomic analysis of <em>Lactobacillus> <em>plantarum> WCFS1 and ∆<em>ctsR> mutant strains under optimal or heat stress temperatures. Total protein extracts from bacterial cells were analyzed by two-dimensional gel fractionation. By comparing maps from different culture conditions and different <em>L.> <em>plantarum> strains, image analysis revealed 23 spots with altered levels of expression. The proteomic analysis of <em>L.> <em>plantarum> WCFS1 and <em>ctsR> mutant strains confirms at the translational level the CtsR-mediated regulation of some members of the Clp family, as well as the heat induction of typical stress response genes. Heat activation of the putative CtsR regulon genes at transcriptional and translational levels, in the <em>∆ctsR> mutant, suggests additional regulative mechanisms, as is the case of <em>hsp1em>. Furthermore, isoforms of ClpE with different molecular mass were found, which might contribute to CtsR quality control. Our results could add new outlooks in order to determine the complex biological role of CtsR-mediated stress response in lactic acid bacteria.

  5. Physical and chemical characterization of earthworms and humus obtained by vertical vermicomposting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélia Hoehne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms culture are usually made horizontally and it is necessary a lot of area. In order to minimize the size of earthworms culture and the possibility to be applied in residences, this paper proposed evaluate conditions for vertical vermicomposting. For this, were purchased vertical boxes and organic matter. The earthworms of species Eisenia andrei, california red earthworms, were used. There were evaluated the adaptation of earthworms and physical and chemical characterization of the humus. Results showed that there was a good adaptation of earthworms in this configuration, minimizing the space required, and it is one technique for environmentally friendly recycling of organic waste, creating a bio-product wich can used as fertilizers.Resumo Minhocários são normalmente feitoshorizontalmente sendo necessária uma área grande. A fim de minimizar o tamanho da cultura de minhocas e a possibilidade de ser aplicado em residências, este trabalho propõe avaliar as condições de vermicompostagem vertical. Para isso, foram adquiridas caixas verticais e matéria orgânica. Foram usadas minhocas da espécie Eisenia andrei, minhocas vermelhas da califórmia. Foi avaliada a adaptação das minhocas e caracterização físico-química do húmus gerado. Os resultados mostraram que houve uma boa adaptação das minhocas nesta configuração, minimizando o espaço utilizado, e é uma técnica de reciclagem ecológica de resíduos orgânicos, a criação de umbioproduto o qual pode ser usado como adubo.

  6. Ancylostoma duodenale em estrangeiros radicados em Botucatu, SP, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Florence F.S. Kerr; Corrêa, Fernando M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Utilizando-se a técnica de Harada & Mori foi efetuada verificação das espécies de Ancylostomidae prevalentes entre imigrantes europeus, asiáticos e brasileiros residentes no município de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Ancylostoma duodenale foi encontrado em 8,5% dos imigrantes asiáticos e Necator americanus em 3,5% dos europeus e em 18% dos brasileiros examinados.A survey of the species of Ancylostomidae causing infection among European inmigrants and Brazilian residents in Botucatu, ...

  7. Osteoporose em caprinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio B. Rosa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo de casos de osteoporose em caprinos provenientes de uma propriedade na área de abrangência do LPV-UFSM, determinando a epidemiologia, o quadro clínico-patológico e discutindo os prováveis mecanismos patogenéticos. Cinco cabras, fêmeas, SRD, de seis meses a seis anos de idade foram afetadas. As cabras eram mantidas em campo nativo, sem suplementação com ração e sob superlotação. Os principais sinais clínicos foram emagrecimento, dificuldade de locomoção e permanência em decúbito por longos períodos. As principais alterações macroscópicas nos ossos examinados foram vistas nas superfícies de corte e caracterizavam-se por depleção do osso esponjoso (porosidade e redução acentuada da espessura do osso cortical. Havia também marcada atrofia serosa da gordura da medula óssea. Microscopicamente, nas regiões avaliadas (úmero proximal, rádio distal, fêmur distal, tíbia proximal e corpos das vértebras lombares foi observada redução moderada a acentuada do número e da espessura das trabéculas ósseas nas epífises e metáfises dos ossos longos e nos corpos vertebrais. Os achados clínico-patológicos indicaram que a osteoporose observada provavelmente foi causada pela desnutrição. As alterações ósseas (diminuição no número e na espessura das trabéculas do osso esponjoso sugerem que ambos os mecanismos, má formação óssea e reabsorção óssea aumentada, contribuíram para a ocorrência de osteoporose nos caprinos deste estudo.

  8. Short and Long-Term Effects of <em>Baccharis articulataem> on Glucose Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio H. Reginatto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the<em> in vivoem> effect of the crude extract and <em>n>-butanol and aqueous residual fractions of <em>Baccharis articulataem> (Lam. Pers. on serum glucose levels, insulin secretion and liver and muscle glycogen content, as well as<em> in vitroem> action on serum intestinal disaccharidase activity and albumin glycation were investigated. Oral administration of the extract and fractions reduced glycemia in hyperglycemic rats. Additionally, the <em>n>-butanol fraction, which has high flavonoids content, stimulated insulin secretion, exhibiting an insulinogenic index similar to that of glipizide. Also, the <em>n>-butanol fraction treatment significantly increased glycogen content in both liver and muscle tissue. <em>In vitroem> incubation with the crude extract and <em>n>-butanol and aqueous residual fractions inhibited maltase activity and the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs. Thus, the results demonstrated that <em>B. articulataem> exhibits a significant antihyperglycemic and insulin-secretagogue role. These effects on the regulation of glucose homeostasis observed for <em>B. articulataem> indicate potential anti-diabetic properties.

  9. First plasma operation of the enhanced JET vertical stabilisation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rimini, F. G.; Crisanti, F.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, G.; Ariola, M.; Artaserse, G.; Bellizio, T.; Coccorese, V.; De Tommasi, G.; P. de Vries,; Lomas, P. J.; Maviglia, F.; Neto, A.; Nunes, I.; Pironti, A.; Ramogida, G.; Sartori, F.; Shaw, S. R.; Tsalas, M.; Vitelli, R.; Zabeo, L.

    2011-01-01

    A project dedicated to the enhancement of the JET vertical stabilization system was launched in 2006, including an upgrade of the Power Supply of the Radial Field Amplifier, of hardware and software of the vertical stabilization control system. The main aim was to double the JET capability in stabil

  10. Subjective visual vertical and postural performance in healthy children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystal Gaertner

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Verticality is essential in our life, especially for postural stability. Subjective vertical as well as postural stability depends on different sensorial information: visual, vestibular and somesthesic. They help to build the spatial referentials and create a central representation of verticality. Children are more visuo-dependant than adults; however, we did not find any study focusing on how children develop their sense of verticality. METHODS: WE STUDIED TWO GROUPS OF SUBJECTS: 10 children (from 6 to 8 years and 12 young adults. We recorded postural stability with a Techno Concept plateform and perception of subjective visual vertical in the following conditions: while adjusting the vertical in the dark or with visual perturbation, while fixating the vertical bar, and with eyes closed. RESULTS: Children are more instable than adults in terms of postural parameters, and also while performing a double task, especially when no visual references are present. They also present a higher variability and lower accuracy than adults in reporting their perception of true vertical reference. DISCUSSION: Children might have limited attentional resources, and focus their attention on the more demanding task, corresponding to the U-shaped non-linear model.

  11. Characteristics of Vertical Mantle Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Morrison, G.L.; Behnia, M.

    1999-01-01

    - The flow structure in vertical mantle heat exchangers was investigated using a full-scale tank designed to facilitate flow visualisation. The flow structure and velocities in the mantle were measured using a particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. A CFD simulation model of vertical mantle heat...

  12. Vertically Conductive MoS2 Spiral Pyramid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Thuc Hue; Zhao, Jiong; Kim, Hyun; Han, Gang Hee; Nam, Honggi; Lee, Young Hee

    2016-09-01

    MoS2 spirals grown by the chemical vapor deposition method, driven by a threading dislocation, has a peculiar rhombohedral-like structure. This threading dislocation can carry helical current in the vertical direction and greatly enhances the vertical conductance in the MoS2 multilayer samples.

  13. A Buried Vertical Filter for Micro and Nanoparticle Filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, S.J.; Shen, C.; Sarro, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a silicon micromachined filter for micro- and nanoparticles. The filter is vertical and completely buried beneath the surface. The buried aspect allows additional features to be integrated above the filter, while the vertical aspect allows the creation of highly uniform pores and

  14. The bending of rectangular weakened by a vertical crack

    OpenAIRE

    Babloyan A.H.; Baghdasaryan A.V.

    2008-01-01

    The solution of a problem of elasticity theory for rectangular weakened by a centrally located vertical crack is brought. On the horizontal sides of the rectangular and on the crack faces the stresses are given. On the vertical sides of the rectangular three types of boundary conditions are given.

  15. Mechanistic simulation of the vertical structure of mixed swards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte, R.P.O.; Lantinga, E.A.

    2002-01-01

    The vertical structure is an important feature of mixed swards, as it influences the inter-species competition for light, as well as the patterns of grazing. Although the experimental measurement of the vertical sward structure is relatively straightforward, the mechanistic and dynamic modelling of

  16. Vertically Integrated Thermo-Optic Waveguide Switch Using Optical Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ki-Hong Kim; Sang-Yung Shin; Doo-Sun Choi

    2003-01-01

    We propose and fabricate a vertically integrated thermo-optic waveguide switch. It controls the optical path between two vertically stacked waveguides using the thermo-optic effect of optical polymer. The measured crosstalk is less than-10 dB.

  17. Vertically Integrated Thermo-Optic Waveguide Switch Using Optical Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ki-Hong; Kim; Sang-Yung; Shin; Doo-Sun; Choi

    2003-01-01

    We propose and fabricate a vertically integrated thermo-optic waveguide switch. It controls the optical path between two vertically stacked waveguides using the thermo-optic effect of optical polymer. The measured crosstalk is less than -10 dB.

  18. The vertical birthing position of the Trobrianders, Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöschl, U

    1987-05-01

    During an ethnomedical field study the author succeeded in participating and photographing 4 traditional birthgivings among the Trobrianders/Papua New Guinea. Their various vertical postures are described with special reference to specific Trobriand practices and discussed by literature review. The results suggest that vertical birthing positions are advantageous to horizontal ones and should be reconsidered by modern Western obstetrics.

  19. Finding people, papers, and posts: Vertical search algorithms and evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Berendsen

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing diversity of information access applications. While general web search has been dominant in the past few decades, a wide variety of so-called vertical search tasks and applications have come to the fore. Vertical search is an often used term for search that targets specific conten

  20. CREATING EFFECTIVE MODELS OF VERTICAL INTEGRATED STRUCTURES IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Koliesnikov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of scientific research aimed at development of methodology-theoretical mechanisms of building the effective models of vertically-integrated structures are presented. A presence of vertically-integrated structures on natural-monopolistic markets at private and governmental sectors of economy and priority directions of integration are given.

  1. Vertical cross-spectral phases in neutral atmospheric flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chougule, Abhijit S.; Mann, Jakob; Kelly, Mark C.;

    2012-01-01

    increase with stream-wise wavenumber and vertical separation distance, but there is no significant change in the phase angle of vertical velocity, which remains close to zero. The phases are also calculated using a rapid distortion theory model and large-eddy simulation. The results from the models show...

  2. Sarcoplasmatic and myofibrillar protein changes caused by acute heat stress in broiler chicken Alterações nas proteínas sarcoplasmáticas e miofibrilares em frangos de corte causadas por estresse térmico agudo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de Castro Santos

    2008-01-01

    , imunodetecção de vinculina (IV e força de cisalhamento (FC. Seiscentos frangos (Gallus gallus foram abatidos em três dias diferentes (DA. Em cada DA os animais foram colocados em caixas de transporte (10 aves/caixa e submetidos a ET (35ºC, 75 - 85% URpor 2 horas. Simultaneamente, o outro grupo de animais (NET foi mantido em caixas em condição termoneutra (22ºC, 83 ± 6,6% UR pelo mesmo período de tempo. Após o abate o músculo do peito foi coletado e mantido refrigerado, até a retirada de todas as amostras (0, 1, 2, 6 e 24 horas pós-abate. O valor de luminosidade (L* 51, alto, foi o parâmetro utilizado na amostragem para SDS e IV. A cinética do MFI demonstrou que a taxa de fragmentação foi superior nos animais NET, indicando que o estresse térmico pode prejudicar o processo de proteólise. Entretanto, a extensão da fragmentação não variou, bem como os valores de FC. No SDS ocorreram padrões diferenciados de fragmentação entre aves ET e NET. Modificações na fração sarcoplasmática foram observadas em amostras com L*, independentemente da condição ambiental.

  3. Uma análise dos testes in vitro de força de adesão em Ortodontia An analysis of in vitro bond strength testing in Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Orrico de Aragão Pedra e Cal Neto

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar as metodologias empregadas em testes in vitro de força de adesão em Ortodontia. Foram selecionados nos periódicos American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics e The Angle Orthodontist (do ano de 1993 até 2002 todos os artigos onde foi avaliada a resistência de adesão de braquetes a diferentes superfícies, através de Máquinas de Ensaio Universal Instron ou similares. Foram analisados 127 artigos, e destes 86% foram conduzidos através de ensaios de cisalhamento, ao passo que 14% foram através de ensaios de tração. Dentre os estudos com dentes humanos (68%, os pré-molares foram os mais utilizados (57%, seguidos pelos molares (31%. Quanto ao número de espécimes por grupo, 28 estudos analisaram entre 6 e 10; 30 entre 11 e 15; 33 entre 16 e 20; e 36 analisaram mais de 20 espécimes. Como solução de armazenamento, as mais empregadas foram: água destilada (43%, seguido por Timol a 0,1% (28% e Cloreto de sódio a 0,9% (12%. No que diz respeito à velocidade de operação da máquina, em 25 estudos foi de 0,5 mm/min; em 43 foi de 1,0mm/min; em 8 foi de 2,0 mm/min; e em 38 foi de 5,0 mm/min. Os autores concluem que não existe um consenso na metodologia de tais estudos, sendo então evidenciada a necessidade de uma possível padronização da técnica.The aim of this study was to examine the recent methodology used in laboratory analysis of bond strength in orthodontics. The material used was all the articles published in the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics or The Angle Orthodontics in which the bonding between the bracket and several surfaces were evaluated by Instron Universal Testing Machine or similar devices. It was found 127 articles, in which 86% tested the specimens in shear mode, and 14% used the tensile technique. Among the studies with human teeth (68% premolars were the most frequent (57%, followed by molars (31%. According to the number of

  4. Application of the total etching technique or self-etching primers on primary teeth after air abrasion Aplicação da técnica de condicionamento total ou de "primers" autocondicionantes em dentes decíduos após abrasão a ar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Renato Manzolli Leite

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the use of air abrasion has grown in pediatric dentistry, the aim of this study was to evaluate, by means of shear bond strength testing, the need to use the total etching technique or self-etching primers on dentin of primary teeth after air abrasion. Twenty-five exfoliated primary molars had their occlusal dentin exposed by trimming and polishing. Specimens were treated by: Air abrasion + Scotchbond MultiPurpose adhesive (G1; 37% phosphoric acid + Scotchbond MP adhesive (G2; Clearfil SE (G3; Air abrasion + 37% phosphoric acid + Scotchbond MP adhesive (G4; Air abrasion + Clearfil SE (G5. On the treated surface, a cylinder of 2 mm by 6 mm was made using a composite resin (Z100. Duncan's test showed that: (G2 = G3 = G5 > (G1 = G4. The use of a self-etching primer on air abraded dentin is recommended to obtain higher bond strengths.Como o uso da abrasão a ar tem aumentado em odontopediatria, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento da resina composta Z100 sobre a superfície dentinária de dentes decíduos após abrasionamento a ar associado ou não a técnica de condicionamento total (ácido fosfórico + Scotchbond Multi Purpose ou "primer" autocondicionante (Clearfil SE Bond. A superfície oclusal de 25 molares decíduos foi removida para exposição completa da superfície dentinária. Após polimento com lixas abrasivas, foram divididos em 5 grupos (5 espécimes em cada tratados por abrasão + adesivo Scotchbond (G1; condicionamento ácido + adesivo Scotchbond (G2; adesivo Clearfil (G3; abrasão a ar + condicionamento ácido + adesivo Scotchbond (G4; abrasão a ar + adesivo Clearfil (G5. Uma matriz bipartida foi adaptada à superfície dentinária e preenchida com resina composta. Após polimerização, corpos-de-prova de 2 mm x 6 mm foram obtidos. O teste de Duncan mostrou a desigualdade (G1 = G4 < (G2 = G3 = G5. Desse modo, conclui-se que, após o abrasionamento dentinário, deve ser utilizado o sistema de

  5. Em favor da talassografia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Boudou

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A Talassografia (“descrição do mar” interessa-sepelos impactos físicos, biológicos, ecológicos... culturais da violenta antropização dos ambientes costeiros (oceânicos e continentais, caracterizados pelaexigüidade, vulnerabilidade, fragilidade e plasticidade. Como o Brasil é um “país marítimo”, os geó-grafos (os talassógrafos brasileiros são convidadosa intensificar suas pesquisas nas áreas costeiras e acriar novas estruturas para divulgá-las: Revista, Encontros, Associação, Pós-Graduação... tudo em prolda talassografia.

  6. Bullyng em jovens LGBT

    OpenAIRE

    Pimenta, Neuza Santos; Martins, Emíla orient.

    2013-01-01

    O bullying homofóbico é uma forma específica de assédio que ocorre quando a vitimização é motivada pelo preconceito homossexual. Os jovens alunos, lésbicas, gays, bissexuais e transsexuais (LGBT), vítimas desta forma de bullying estão mais vulneráveis à exclusão social, isolamento e aquisição de comportamentos de risco. O presente projeto de investigação pretende contribuir para a compreensão de questões relacionadas com os episódios de bullying em jovens LGBT, sempre na per...

  7. HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTICS OF VERTICAL VORTEX AT HYDRAULIC INTAKES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yun-liang; WU Chao; YE Mao; JU Xiao-ming

    2007-01-01

    The trace of vertical vortex flow at hydraulic intakes is of the shape of spiral lines, which was observed in the presented experiments with the tracer technique. It represents the fluid particles flow spirally from the water surface to the underwater and rotate around the vortex-axis multi-cycle. This process is similar to the movement of screw. To describe the multi-circle spiral characteristics under the axisymmetric condition, the vertical vortex would change not only in the radial direction but also in the axial direction. The improved formulae for three velocity components for the vertical vortex flow were deduced by using the method of separation of variables in this article. In the improved formulae, the velocity components are the functions of the radial and axial coordinates, so the multi-circle spiral flow of vertical vortex could be simulated. The calculated and measured results for the vertical vortex flow were compared and the causes of errors were analyzed.

  8. Doppler Lidar Vertical Velocity Statistics Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsom, R. K. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Sivaraman, C. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Shippert, T. R. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Riihimaki, L. D. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Accurate height-resolved measurements of higher-order statistical moments of vertical velocity fluctuations are crucial for improved understanding of turbulent mixing and diffusion, convective initiation, and cloud life cycles. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility operates coherent Doppler lidar systems at several sites around the globe. These instruments provide measurements of clear-air vertical velocity profiles in the lower troposphere with a nominal temporal resolution of 1 sec and height resolution of 30 m. The purpose of the Doppler lidar vertical velocity statistics (DLWSTATS) value-added product (VAP) is to produce height- and time-resolved estimates of vertical velocity variance, skewness, and kurtosis from these raw measurements. The VAP also produces estimates of cloud properties, including cloud-base height (CBH), cloud frequency, cloud-base vertical velocity, and cloud-base updraft fraction.

  9. Layer-by-layer assembly of vertically conducting graphene devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing-Jing; Meng, Jie; Zhou, Yang-Bo; Wu, Han-Chun; Bie, Ya-Qing; Liao, Zhi-Min; Yu, Da-Peng

    2013-01-01

    Graphene has various potential applications owing to its unique electronic, optical, mechanical and chemical properties, which are primarily based on its two-dimensional nature. Graphene-based vertical devices can extend the investigations and potential applications range to three dimensions, while interfacial properties are crucial for the function and performance of such graphene vertical devices. Here we report a general method to construct graphene vertical devices with controllable functions via choosing different interfaces between graphene and other materials. Two types of vertically conducting devices are demonstrated: graphene stacks sandwiched between two Au micro-strips, and between two Co layers. The Au|graphene|Au junctions exhibit large magnetoresistance with ratios up to 400% at room temperature, which have potential applications in magnetic field sensors. The Co|graphene|Co junctions display a robust spin valve effect at room temperature. The layer-by-layer assembly of graphene offers a new route for graphene vertical structures. PMID:23715280

  10. A vertical handoff decision algorithm based on ARMA prediction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ru; Shen, Jiao; Chen, Jun; Liu, Qiuhuan

    2012-01-01

    With the development of computer technology and the increasing demand for mobile communications, the next generation wireless networks will be composed of various wireless networks (e.g., WiMAX and WiFi). Vertical handoff is a key technology of next generation wireless networks. During the vertical handoff procedure, handoff decision is a crucial issue for an efficient mobility. Based on auto regression moving average (ARMA) prediction model, we propose a vertical handoff decision algorithm, which aims to improve the performance of vertical handoff and avoid unnecessary handoff. Based on the current received signal strength (RSS) and the previous RSS, the proposed approach adopt ARMA model to predict the next RSS. And then according to the predicted RSS to determine whether trigger the link layer triggering event and complete vertical handoff. The simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the RSS-based scheme with a threshold in the performance of handoff and the number of handoff.

  11. Steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM); Feddema, John T. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots that less complex and requires less power than two degree of freedom tilt mechanisms. The present invention comprises an end effector that, when mounted with a hopping actuator, translates along axis (typically vertical) actuation into combined vertical and horizontal motion. The end effector, or foot, mounts with an end of the actuator that moves toward the support surface (typically a floor or the earth). The foot is shaped so that the first contact with the support surface is off the axis of the actuator. Off-axis contact with the support surface generates an on-axis force (typically resulting in vertical motion) and a moment orthogonal to the axis. The moment initiates a horizontal tumbling motion, and tilts the actuator so that its axis is oriented with a horizontal component and continued actuation generates both vertical and horizontal force.

  12. In vitro force delivery of nickel-titanium superelastic archwires in vertical displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha de Souza Gomes Stumpf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the force delivered by different superlastic nickel-titanium wires during vertical displacement, in order to determine whether their stress release meets the criteria for constant and light forces that are usually accredited to these archwires. METHOD: Ten samples of 6 brands of 0.016-in archwires (Ormco, GAC, Morelli, TP, American Orthodontics e Rocky Mountain were tested in a complete metal model using Dynalock brackets (3M Unitek™. In the canine position, there was a sliding bracket connected to a pole. This set was related to a load cell of 0.5 kg attached to a universal testing machine (Autograph AG-199kNG, Shimadzu. The crosshead speed was 0.5 mm/min and the maximum displacement was 1.0 mm. The model was submerged in temperature-controlled water. The results were analyzed by ANOVA (p OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a força liberada por diferentes fios de níquel-titânio (NiTi superelástico em deslocamento vertical, a fim de determinar se a liberação de estresse por esses satisfaz o critério de forças suaves e constantes, geralmente atribuído a tais arcos. MÉTODOS: dez amostras de seis arcos de NiTi superelástico 0,016” de marcas comerciais diferentes (Ormco, GAC, Morelli, TP, American Orthodontics e Rocky Mountain foram testados em um modelo metálico usando braquetes Dynalock (3M Unitek. Na região do canino, havia um braquete móvel conectado a uma haste, a qual estava relacionada com uma célula de carga de 0,5kg de uma máquina universal de ensaios (Autograph AG-199kNG, Shimadzu. O deslocamento do conjunto na região do canino foi realizado a uma velocidade constante de 0,5mm/min e o deslocamento máximo foi de 1,0mm. O conjunto foi submerso em água com temperatura controlada a 37ºC. RESULTADOS: os resultados obtidos foram avaliados por ANOVA (p <0,05, usando o software SAS System 8.02, Cry, NC, EUA. O arco da TP apresentou a menor força durante todo o

  13. Spirit Near 'Stapledon' on Sol 1802 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera for the images assembled into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,802nd Martian day, or sol, (January 26, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars. North is at the top. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. Spirit had driven down off the low plateau called 'Home Plate' on Sol 1782 (January 6, 2009) after spending 12 months on a north-facing slope on the northern edge of Home Plate. The position on the slope (at about the 9-o'clock position in this view) tilted Spirit's solar panels toward the sun, enabling the rover to generate enough electricity to survive its third Martian winter. Tracks at about the 11-o'clock position of this panorama can be seen leading back to that 'Winter Haven 3' site from the Sol 1802 position about 10 meters (33 feet) away. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about one meter (40 inches). Where the receding tracks bend to the left, a circular pattern resulted from Spirit turning in place at a soil target informally named 'Stapledon' after William Olaf Stapledon, a British philosopher and science-fiction author who lived from 1886 to 1950. Scientists on the rover team suspected that the soil in that area might have a high concentration of silica, resembling a high-silica soil patch discovered east of Home Plate in 2007. Bright material visible in the track furthest to the right was examined with Spirit's alpha partical X-ray spectrometer and found, indeed, to be rich in silica. The team laid plans to drive Spirit from this Sol 1802 location back up onto Home Plate, then southward for the rover's summer field season.

  14. Graphene vertical hot-electron terahertz detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose and analyze the concept of the vertical hot-electron terahertz (THz) graphene-layer detectors (GLDs) based on the double-GL and multiple-GL structures with the barrier layers made of materials with a moderate conduction band off-set (such as tungsten disulfide and related materials). The operation of these detectors is enabled by the thermionic emissions from the GLs enhanced by the electrons heated by incoming THz radiation. Hence, these detectors are the hot-electron bolometric detectors. The electron heating is primarily associated with the intraband absorption (the Drude absorption). In the frame of the developed model, we calculate the responsivity and detectivity as functions of the photon energy, GL doping, and the applied voltage for the GLDs with different number of GLs. The detectors based on the cascade multiple-GL structures can exhibit a substantial photoelectric gain resulting in the elevated responsivity and detectivity. The advantages of the THz detectors under consideration are associated with their high sensitivity to the normal incident radiation and efficient operation at room temperature at the low end of the THz frequency range. Such GLDs with a metal grating, supporting the excitation of plasma oscillations in the GL-structures by the incident THz radiation, can exhibit a strong resonant response at the frequencies of several THz (in the range, where the operation of the conventional detectors based on A3B5 materials, in particular, THz quantum-well detectors, is hindered due to a strong optical phonon radiation absorption in such materials). We also evaluate the characteristics of GLDs in the mid- and far-infrared ranges where the electron heating is due to the interband absorption in GLs.

  15. Coastal influence on vertical pollutant partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, D.

    Coastal outflow describes the horizontal ventilation of pollutants from the continental boundary layer (CBL) by advection above the shallower marine boundary layer. Passive tracers incorporated in the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) are used to simulate coastal outflow over the eastern United States for the summer of 2004. The results are interpreted with a simple box-model containing a diurnally varying CBL height and uniform wind flow. Ventilation by coastal outflow from the US occurs at the same magnitude as vertical ventilation into the free troposphere for the eastern half of the US. The diurnal variability in coastal outflow is determined by the lifetime of the tracer and the cycle of CBL height. Over the diurnal cycle, pollutants with lifetimes less than 24 hours experience a maximum in the evening and a minimum in the mid-morning. Pollutants with lifetimes greater than 24 hours undergo continuous coastal outflow with little diurnal variability. The dominant parameters in this study are tracer lifetime α, wind-speed U and width of emissions (i.e. land) L. The box-model indicates the presence of a critical threshold, αU/L ≈ 10, above which increasing the cross-coastal wind speed decreases coastal out-flow by reducing the availability of tracer in the residual layer to undergo coastal outflow at night. Of tracer advected across the coast in the MetUM simulation, 65% and 67% of tracer with 3- and 24-hour lifetimes undergo coastal outflow respectively. For the 24-hour tracer, the box-model has the highest correlation with the MetUM simulation when the advection rate U/L≈ 2 x 10-5s-1. Given the observed wind speed the distance near the coast over which emissions significantly contribute to coastal outflow is ≈ 100-110km.

  16. Risks Facing the Retailers and Vertical Restraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzagurova Nataliya, B.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Vertical restraints such as exclusive territories may be considered as an alternative to the compensation paid to retailers for taking the risks associated with market shocks. For the first time this approach has been put forward in (Rey and Tirole, 1986. In (Hansen and Motta, 2015 this concept has been further developed, but these authors have come a diametrically opposite result to what Rey & Tirole had reported. The goal of both papers was to compare exclusive territories and retailers’ competition from the point of view of the supplier. In (Rey and Tirole, 1986 the competition was the preferred solution, in (Hansen and Motta, 2015 - the exclusive territories. The explanation of this discrepancy proposed in (Hansen and Motta, 2015 doesn't look convincing enough. The paper proposes a new explanation based on the analysis of the attractiveness of the considered lotteries for the retailers. In (Rey and Tirole, 1986 they were ready to pay for the lottery, but in (Hansen and Motta, 2015 - pretend to get a compensation. Accordingly, in the first case the supplier prefers to allow competition between dealers, in the second - to provide exclusive territories in order to reduce the compensation to be paid to the dealer for participating in the lottery. The paper discusses that the better solution is to consider not the risks associated with market shocks, but the retailers’ risks associated with the so called «cooperative specific investments» (manufacturer can prefer another partner on ex post stage. Trying to support the retailers’ incentives to make cooperative investments, supplier voluntarily redistributes control in favor of retailers.

  17. Distribuição do carbono orgânico em Latossolo sob manejoda adubação fosfatada em plantio direto no Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Jerke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição vertical e horizontal do carbono orgânico do solo (CO sob cinco manejos da adubação fosfatada, no sistema plantio direto. O experimento foi instalado sob Latossolo Vermelho, cultivado durante oito anos com soja ou milho, com milheto como planta de cobertura na entressafra. As parcelas foram submetidas aos tratamentos: aplicação de superfosfato triplo a lanço e no sulco, fosfato natural reativo a lanço e no sulco, e ausência de adição de fertilizante fosfatado (testemunha. A adição anual dos adubos fosfatados, na dose de 80 kg ha-1 de P2O5, foi realizada em solo inicialmente com baixo teor de fósforo disponível. Amostras foram coletadas perpendicularmente à linha de plantio, em sete pontos distanciados a 12,5 cm, e cinco camadas: 0-2,5, 2,5-5,0, 5,0-10, 10-20 e 20-30 cm. O conteúdo e a distribuição do CO são afetados pela adubação fosfatada, tanto vertical quanto horizontalmente, com os maiores conteúdos observados nos tratamentos com adubos fosfatados. Em comparação com a testemunha, o superfosfato triplo apresentou maior conteúdo de CO até a camada de 5,0-10 cm, e o fosfato natural reativo até 10-20 cm. A aplicação de fósforo em sulcos proporciona maior volume de solo com teores adequados de CO, em comparação à aplicação a lanço.

  18. The Subjective Visual Vertical and the Subjective Haptic Vertical Access Different Gravity Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Lindsey E; Makooie, Bobbak; Harris, Laurence R

    2015-01-01

    The subjective visual vertical (SVV) and the subjective haptic vertical (SHV) both claim to probe the underlying perception of gravity. However, when the body is roll tilted these two measures evoke different patterns of errors with SVV generally becoming biased towards the body (A-effect, named for its discoverer, Hermann Rudolph Aubert) and SHV remaining accurate or becoming biased away from the body (E-effect, short for Entgegengesetzt-effect, meaning "opposite", i.e., opposite to the A-effect). We compared the two methods in a series of five experiments and provide evidence that the two measures access two different but related estimates of gravitational vertical. Experiment 1 compared SVV and SHV across three levels of whole-body tilt and found that SVV showed an A-effect at larger tilts while SHV was accurate. Experiment 2 found that tilting either the head or the trunk independently produced an A-effect in SVV while SHV remained accurate when the head was tilted on an upright body but showed an A-effect when the body was tilted below an upright head. Experiment 3 repeated these head/body configurations in the presence of vestibular noise induced by using disruptive galvanic vestibular stimulation (dGVS). dGVS abolished both SVV and SHV A-effects while evoking a massive E-effect in the SHV head tilt condition. Experiments 4 and 5 show that SVV and SHV do not combine in an optimally statistical fashion, but when vibration is applied to the dorsal neck muscles, integration becomes optimal. Overall our results suggest that SVV and SHV access distinct underlying gravity percepts based primarily on head and body position information respectively, consistent with a model proposed by Clemens and colleagues. PMID:26716835

  19. The Subjective Visual Vertical and the Subjective Haptic Vertical Access Different Gravity Estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey E Fraser

    Full Text Available The subjective visual vertical (SVV and the subjective haptic vertical (SHV both claim to probe the underlying perception of gravity. However, when the body is roll tilted these two measures evoke different patterns of errors with SVV generally becoming biased towards the body (A-effect, named for its discoverer, Hermann Rudolph Aubert and SHV remaining accurate or becoming biased away from the body (E-effect, short for Entgegengesetzt-effect, meaning "opposite", i.e., opposite to the A-effect. We compared the two methods in a series of five experiments and provide evidence that the two measures access two different but related estimates of gravitational vertical. Experiment 1 compared SVV and SHV across three levels of whole-body tilt and found that SVV showed an A-effect at larger tilts while SHV was accurate. Experiment 2 found that tilting either the head or the trunk independently produced an A-effect in SVV while SHV remained accurate when the head was tilted on an upright body but showed an A-effect when the body was tilted below an upright head. Experiment 3 repeated these head/body configurations in the presence of vestibular noise induced by using disruptive galvanic vestibular stimulation (dGVS. dGVS abolished both SVV and SHV A-effects while evoking a massive E-effect in the SHV head tilt condition. Experiments 4 and 5 show that SVV and SHV do not combine in an optimally statistical fashion, but when vibration is applied to the dorsal neck muscles, integration becomes optimal. Overall our results suggest that SVV and SHV access distinct underlying gravity percepts based primarily on head and body position information respectively, consistent with a model proposed by Clemens and colleagues.

  20. Metrics of hurricane-ocean interaction: vertically-integrated or vertically-averaged ocean temperature?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Price

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The ocean thermal field is often represented in hurricane-ocean interaction by a metric termed the upper Ocean Heat Content (OHC, the vertical integral of ocean temperature in excess of 26°C. High values of OHC have proven useful for identifying ocean regions that are especially favorable for hurricane intensification. Nevertheless, it is argued here that a more direct and robust metric of the ocean thermal field may be afforded by a vertical average of temperature, in one version from the surface to 100 m, a typical depth of vertical mixing by a mature hurricane. OHC and the depth-averaged temperature, dubbed T100, are well correlated over the deep open ocean in the high range of OHC, OHC≥75 kJ cm−2. They are poorly correlated in the low range of OHC, ≤50 kJ cm−2, in part because OHC is degenerate when evaluated on cool ocean temperatures ≤26°C. OHC and T100 can be qualitatively different also over shallow continental shelves: OHC will generally indicate comparatively low values regardless of the ocean temperature, while T100 will take on high values over a shelf that is warm and upwelling neutral or negative, since there will be little cool water that could be mixed into the surface layer. Some limited evidence is that continental shelves may be regions of comparatively small sea surface cooling during a hurricane passage, but more research is clearly required on this important issue.

  1. Antioxidant Profile of <em>Trifolium pratenseem> L.

    OpenAIRE

    Heidy Schwartsova; Mirjana Vojinovic-Miloradov; Sanja Vlaisavljevic; Mira Popovic; Biljana Kaurinovic

    2012-01-01

    In order to examine the antioxidant properties of five different extracts of <em>Trifolium pratenseem> L. (Leguminosae) leaves, various assays which measure free radical scavenging ability were carried out: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radical scavenger capacity tests and lipid peroxidation assay. In all of the tests, only the H2O and (to some extent) the EtOAc extracts showed a potent antioxidant effect compar...

  2. Extraction of Dihydroquercetin<em> em>from <em>Larix gmeliniem>i> em>with Ultrasound-Assisted and Microwave-Assisted Alternant Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuangang Zu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An ultrasound and microwave assisted alternant extraction method (UMAE was applied for extracting dihydroquercetin (DHQ from <em>Larix gmeliniem>i> wood. This investigation was conducted using 60% ethanol as solvent, 1:12 solid to liquid ratio, and 3 h soaking time. The optimum treatment time was ultrasound 40 min, microwave 20 min, respectively, and the extraction was performed once. Under the optimized conditions, satisfactory extraction yield of the target analyte was obtained. Relative to ultrasound-assisted or microwave-assisted method, the proposed approach provides higher extraction yield. The effect of DHQ of different concentrations and synthetic antioxidants on oxidative stability in soy bean oil stored for 20 days at different temperatures (25 °C and 60 °C was compared. DHQ was more effective in restraining soy bean oil oxidation, and a dose-response relationship was observed. The antioxidant activity of DHQ was a little stronger than that of BHA and BHT. Soy bean oil supplemented with 0.08 mg/g DHQ exhibited favorable antioxidant effects and is preferable for effectively avoiding oxidation. The <em>L. gmeliniiem> wood samples before and after extraction were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the UMAE method is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation.

  3. Longitudinal Differences of Ionospheric Vertical Density Distribution and Equatorial Electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yizengaw, E.; Zesta, E.; Moldwin, M. B.; Damtie, B.; Mebrahtu, A.; Valledares, C.E.; Pfaff, R. F.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate estimation of global vertical distribution of ionospheric and plasmaspheric density as a function of local time, season, and magnetic activity is required to improve the operation of space-based navigation and communication systems. The vertical density distribution, especially at low and equatorial latitudes, is governed by the equatorial electrodynamics that produces a vertical driving force. The vertical structure of the equatorial density distribution can be observed by using tomographic reconstruction techniques on ground-based global positioning system (GPS) total electron content (TEC). Similarly, the vertical drift, which is one of the driving mechanisms that govern equatorial electrodynamics and strongly affect the structure and dynamics of the ionosphere in the low/midlatitude region, can be estimated using ground magnetometer observations. We present tomographically reconstructed density distribution and the corresponding vertical drifts at two different longitudes: the East African and west South American sectors. Chains of GPS stations in the east African and west South American longitudinal sectors, covering the equatorial anomaly region of meridian approx. 37 deg and 290 deg E, respectively, are used to reconstruct the vertical density distribution. Similarly, magnetometer sites of African Meridian B-field Education and Research (AMBER) and INTERMAGNET for the east African sector and South American Meridional B-field Array (SAMBA) and Low Latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (LISN) are used to estimate the vertical drift velocity at two distinct longitudes. The comparison between the reconstructed and Jicamarca Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) measured density profiles shows excellent agreement, demonstrating the usefulness of tomographic reconstruction technique in providing the vertical density distribution at different longitudes. Similarly, the comparison between magnetometer estimated vertical drift and other independent drift observation

  4. Regional Suppression of <em>Bactrocera> Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae in the Pacific through Biological Control and Prospects for Future Introductions into Other Areas of the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger I. Vargas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available <em>Bactrocera> fruit fly species are economically important throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world leader in promoting biological control of <em>Bactrocera> spp. that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawaii, establishment of <em>Bactrocera> <em>cucurbitae> (Coquillett in 1895 resulted in the introduction of the most successful parasitoid, <em>Psyttalia> <em>fletcheri> (Silvestri; similarly, establishment of <em>Bactrocera> <em>dorsalis> (Hendel in 1945 resulted in the introduction of 32 natural enemies of which <em>Fopius> <em>arisanus> (Sonan, <em>Diachasmimorpha> <em>longicaudata> (Ashmead and <em>Fopius> <em>vandenboschi> (Fullaway were most successful. Hawaii has also been a source of parasitoids for fruit fly control throughout the Pacific region including Australia, Pacific Island Nations, Central and South America, not only for <em>Bactrocera> spp. but also for <em>Ceratitis> and <em>Anastrepha> spp. Most recently, in 2002, <em>F.> <em>arisanus> was introduced into French Polynesia where <em>B.> <em>dorsalis> had invaded in 1996. Establishment of <em>D.> <em>longicaudata> into the new world has been important to augmentative biological control releases against <em>Anastrepha> spp. With the rapid expansion of airline travel and global trade there has been an alarming spread of <em>Bactrocera> spp. into new areas of the world (<em>i.e.>, South America and Africa. Results of studies in Hawaii and French Polynesia, support parasitoid introductions into South America and Africa, where <em>B.> <em>carambolae> and <em>B.> <em>invadens>, respectively, have become established. In addition, <em>P.> <em>fletcheri> is a candidate for biological control of <em>B.> <em>cucurbitae> in Africa. We review past and more

  5. Conhecimento e interesse em economia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Antonio de Paula

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available O artigo argumenta em favor da necessidade de preservar o pluralismo em economia. Discute: i a natureza do conhecimento e de sua produção; ii as especificidades da produção do conhecimento em economia e os condicionamentos histórico-culturais do conhecimento; iii as implicações da hegemonia de certa concepção de método em economia.The article argues the need to preserve the pluralism in economics. The article examines: i the nature of the knowledge and of its production; ii the specificity of the knowledge production in economics and the historical and cultural conditionings of the knowledge; iii the implications of the hegemony of a certain methodological conception in economics.

  6. Two New Compounds Isolated from<em> Liriope muscariem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Chao Lin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Two new compounds, (2<em>S>,3<em>R>-methyl 7-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl-3-(hydroxymethyl-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-5-carboxylate (1 and (4<em>R,>5<em>S>-5-(3-hydroxy-2,6-dimethylphenyl-4-isopropyldihydrofuran-2-one (2, tentatively named norcurlignan and limlactone, respectively, were isolated from <em>Liriope muscariem>, together with the known compound (−-pinoresinol (3. The structures of these compounds were elucidated and characterized on the basis of 1D NMR, 2D NMR, CD and MS data. The <em>in vitroem> antioxidant activities of compounds 13 were assessed by the DPPH and ABTS scavenging methods.

  7. Mt. Graham: Optical turbulence vertical distribution at standard and high vertical resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Masciadri, E; Hagelin, S; S.,; Lascaux, F; di Arcetri, INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico; 10.1117/12.856904

    2010-01-01

    A characterization of the optical turbulence vertical distribution and all the main integrated astroclimatic parameters derived from the CN2 and the wind speed profiles above Mt. Graham is presented. The statistic includes measurements related to 43 nights done with a Generalized Scidar (GS) used in standard configuration with a vertical resolution of ~1 km on the whole 20-22 km and with the new technique (HVR-GS) in the first kilometer. The latter achieves a resolution of ~ 20-30 m in this region of the atmosphere. Measurements done in different periods of the year permit us to provide a seasonal variation analysis of the CN2. A discretized distribution of the typical CN2 profiles useful for the Ground Layer Adaptive Optics (GLAO) simulations is provided and a specific analysis for the LBT Laser Guide Star system ARGOS case is done including the calculation of the 'gray zones' for J, H and K bands. Mt. Graham confirms to be an excellent site with median values of the seeing without dome contribution equal to...

  8. Vertical nystagmus: clinical facts and hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrot-Deseilligny, C; Milea, D

    2005-06-01

    The pathophysiology of spontaneous upbeat (UBN) and downbeat (DBN) nystagmus is reviewed in the light of several instructive clinical findings and experimental data. UBN due to pontine lesions could result from damage to the ventral tegmental tract (VTT), originating in the superior vestibular nucleus (SVN), coursing through the ventral pons and transmitting excitatory upward vestibular signals to the third nerve nucleus. A VTT lesion probably leads to relative hypoactivity of the drive to the motoneurons of the elevator muscles with, consequently, an imbalance between the downward and upward systems, resulting in a downward slow phase. The results observed in internuclear ophthalmoplegia suggest that the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) is involved in the transmission of both upward and downward vestibular signals. Since no clinical cases of DBN due to focal brainstem damage have been reported, it may be assumed that the transmission of downward vestibular signals depends only upon the MLF, whereas that of upward vestibular signals involves both the MLF and the VTT. The main focal lesions resulting in DBN affect the cerebellar flocculus and/or paraflocculus. Apparently, this structure tonically inhibits the SVN and its excitatory efferent tract (i.e. the VTT) but not the downward vestibular system. Therefore, a floccular lesion could result in a disinhibition of the SVN-VTT pathway with, consequently, relative hyperactivity of the drive to the motoneurons of the elevator muscles, resulting in an upward slow phase. UBN also results from lesions affecting the caudal medulla. An area in this region could form part of a feedback loop involved in upward gaze-holding, originating in a collateral branch of the VTT and comprising the caudal medulla, the flocculus and the SVN, successively. Therefore, it is suggested that the main types of spontaneous vertical nystagmus due to focal central lesions result from a primary dysfunction of the SVN-VTT pathway, which becomes

  9. A new Appenninic station of <em>Dryomys nitedulaem> Pallas, 1979 (Rodentia, Gliridae / Nuova stazione appenninica di <em>Dryomys nitedulaem> (Pallas, 1779 (Rodentia, Gliridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Filippucci

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new record of <em>Dryomys nitedulaem> from the massif of Pollino (Southern Italy is given and the value of the subspecific division (<em>D. nitedula intermediusem>, <em>D. nitedula aspromontisem> in Italy is discussed. Riassunto Viene segnalato il ritrovamento di un esemplare di <em>Dryomys nitedulaem> sul Massiccio del Pollino e ridiscusso il valore della ripartizione sottospecifica (<em>D. nitedula intermediusem>, <em>D. nitedula aspromontisem> in Italia.

  10. Sliding response of gravity dams including vertical seismic accelerations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Constantin Christopoulos; Pierre Léger; André Filiatrault

    2003-01-01

    Seismic safety assessment of gravity dams has become a major concern in many regions of the world while the effects of vertical seismic accelerations on the response of structures remain poorly understood. This paper first investigates the effect of including vertical accelerations in the sliding response analysis of gravity dams subjected to a range of historical ground motion records separated in two groups according to their source-to-site distance. Analyses showed that the incidence of vertical accelerations on the sliding response of gravity dams is significantly higher for near-source records than for farsource records. The pseudo-static 30% load combination rule, commonly used in practice to account for the non-simultaneous occurrence of the peak horizontal and vertical accelerations, yielded good approximations of the minimum safety factors against sliding computed from time-history analyses. A method for empirically estimating the vertical response spectra based on horizontal spectra, accounting for the difference in frequency content and amplitudes between the two components is investigated. Results from analyses using spectrum compatible horizontal and vertical synthetic records also approximated well the sliding response of a gravity dam subjected to series of simultaneous horizontal and vertical historical earthquake records.

  11. Antioxidative Properties of Crude Polysaccharides from <em>Inonotus obliquusem>

    OpenAIRE

    Jinyou Duan; Guoting Cui; Wuxia Zhang; Haibo Mu; Amin Zhang; Shunchun Wang

    2012-01-01

    The mushroom <em>Inonotus obliquusem>> em>has been widely used as a folk medicine in Russia, Poland and most of the Baltic countries. In this study, water-soluble and alkali-soluble crude polysaccharides (IOW and IOA) were isolated from <em>I. obliquusem>, and the carbohydrate-rich fractions IOW-1 and IOA-1 were obtained respectively after deproteination and depigmentation. Their contents, such as neutral carbohydrate, uronic acid and protein, were...

  12. Antioxidant Activity of Various Parts of <em>Cinnamomum> cassiaem> Extracted with Different Extraction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yeh Chuang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activities of various parts (barks, buds, and leaves of <em>Cinnamomum cassia em>extracted with ethanol and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE. For the antioxidant activity comparison, IC50 values of the SFE and ethanol extracts in the DPPH scavenging assay were 0.562–10.090 mg/mL and 0.072–0.208 mg/mL, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC values were 6.789–58.335 mmole Trolox/g and 133.039–335.779 mmole Trolox/g, respectively. In addition, the total flavonoid contents were 0.031–1.916 g/ 100 g dry weight of materials (DW and 2.030–3.348 g/ 100 g DW, and the total phenolic contents were 0.151–2.018 g/ 100 g DW and 6.313–9.534 g/ 100 g DW in the SFE and ethanol extracts, respectively. Based on the results, the ethanol extracts of <em>Cinnamon> barks have potential value as an antioxidant substitute and this study also provide a better technique to extract the natural antioxidant substances from <em>C. cassiaem>.

  13. <em>Neoromicia> Roberts, 1926 (Mammalia Vespertilionidae: correction of gender and etymology

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    Marco Riccucci

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto <em>Neoromicia> Roberts, 1926 (Mammalia, Verspetilionidae: Correzione del genere grammaticale ed etimologia <em>Neoromicia> Roberts, 1926, sinora considerato erroneamente di genere maschile, è in realtà femminile. La sua etimologia deriva quasi certamente dal Greco antico "ρóμιζα", corrispondente al latino "<em>Rumex>" (sorta di giavellotto, per la presenza di un cospicuo sperone calcaneale in <em>Romicia calcarataem>, specie tipo del genere.

  14. Activity-Guided Isolation of Antioxidant Compounds from <em>Rhizophora apiculataem>

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    Hongbin Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available <em>Rhizophora apiculataem> (<em>R. apiculataem> contains an abundance of biologically active compounds due its special salt-tolerant living surroundings. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of various extract and fractions of stem of <em>R. apiculataem> were investigated. Results indicated that butanol fraction possesses the highest total phenolic content (181.84 mg/g GAE/g dry extract with strongest antioxidant abilities. Following <em>in vitroem> antioxidant activity-guided phytochemical separation procedures, lyoniresinol-3α-<em>O>-β-arabinopyranoside (1, lyoniresinol-3α-<em>O>-β-rhamnoside (2, and afzelechin-3-<em>O>-L-rhamno-pyranoside (3 were separated from the butanol fraction. These compounds showed more noticeable antioxidant activity than a BHT standard in the DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. HPLC analysis results showed that among different plant parts, the highest content of 13 was located in the bark (0.068%, 0.066% and 0.011%, respectively. The results imply that the <em>R. apiculataem> might be a potential source of natural antioxidants and 13 are antioxidant ingredients in <em>R. apiculataem>.

  15. Simulation of EAST vertical displacement events by tokamak simulation code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Qinglai; Xiao, Bingjia; Guo, Yong; Liu, Lei; Xing, Zhe; Humphreys, D. A.

    2016-10-01

    Vertical instability is a potentially serious hazard for elongated plasma. In this paper, the tokamak simulation code (TSC) is used to simulate vertical displacement events (VDE) on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). Key parameters from simulations, including plasma current, plasma shape and position, flux contours and magnetic measurements match experimental data well. The growth rates simulated by TSC are in good agreement with TokSys results. In addition to modeling the free drift, an EAST fast vertical control model enables TSC to simulate the course of VDE recovery. The trajectories of the plasma current center and control currents on internal coils (IC) fit experimental data well.

  16. Vertical evolution of photochemical ozone over greater Ravenna (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of photochemical ozone were carried out by a plane during the 1996 summer season over a coastal area of Northern Italy (Ravenna) in order to describe the daily vertical evolution of this pollutant. Results confirmed the presence of well marked layers in which ozone concentration notably changed. The evolution of these atmospheric layers are strictly linked with the evolution of the land-sea breeze circulation. Ozone, which undergoes horizontal transport, due to the local anemological field, resulted also subject to vertical transport mechanisms. The vertical evolution of pollutant concentrations through the day led to the presence on the land's surface of episodes of fumigation potentially dangerous to human health

  17. A Compact Vertical Scanner for Atomic Force Microscopes

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    Jae Hong Park

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A compact vertical scanner for an atomic force microscope (AFM is developed. The vertical scanner is designed to have no interference with the optical microscope for viewing the cantilever. The theoretical stiffness and resonance of the scanner are derived and verified via finite element analysis. An optimal design process that maximizes the resonance frequency is performed. To evaluate the scanner’s performance, experiments are performed to evaluate the travel range, resonance frequency, and feedback noise level. In addition, an AFM image using the proposed vertical scanner is generated.

  18. QUALIDADE DA CARCAÇA E DA CARNE DE NOVILHOS ABATIDOS COM PESOS SIMILARES, TERMINADOS EM DIFERENTES SISTEMAS DE ALIMENTAÇÃO CARCASS AND MEAT QUALITY FROM STEERS SLAUGHTERED WITH SIMILAR WEIGHTS, FINISHED IN DIFFERENT FEEDING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Moletta

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as características qualitativas da carcaça e da carne de novilhos Aberdeen Angus terminados em confinamento, com canade-açúcar + concentrado, ou em pastagem cultivada de azevém (Lolium multiflorum + sal comum como suplemento mineral. Abateram-se os novilhos aos 24 meses de idade com pesos similares de 394 e 396 kg, respectivamente. Alimentaram-se os animais confinados com dieta contendo, na matéria seca, 72,3% de cana-de-açúcar e 27,7% de concentrado. Os novilhos apresentaram no início da terminação peso médio de 320 kg e idade média de vinte meses. Não houve diferença nas percentagens de músculo e de osso. A percentagem de gordura foi similar, sendo de 22,8% e 20,7%, respectivamente, para animais terminados em pastagem e confinamento. A suculência, o sabor, a força de cisalhamento e a quebra no descongelamento mostraram-se maiores nos animais terminados em pastagem cultivada, sendo, respectivamente, 6,93 pontos, 6,60 pontos, 9,23 kgf e 8,28%, contra 5,93 pontos, 5,77 pontos, 7,27 kgf e 5,27%, na mesma ordem, para novilhos alimentados em confinamento. Contudo, outras características qualitativas da carne como cor, textura, marmoreio, maciez e quebra na cocção foram similares entre os tratamentos. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Aberdeen Angus, cana-de-açúcar, confinamento, pastagem hibernal. The objective of this work was to study the carcass and meat characteristics of Aberdeen Angus steers finished in feedlot, with sugar cane + concentrate, or on cultivated pasture of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum + common salt as mineral supplement. The steers was slaughtered at 24 months of age with similar weights of 394 and 396 kg, respectively. Confined animals were fed with a diet containing 72.3% chopped sugar cane and 27.7% concentrate, dry matter basis. At the beginning of finishing the average weight of the steers was 320 kg and the age was 20 months. No difference was observed for carcass muscle and bone

  19. CATETERES EM TERAPIA INTENSIVA

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    Carolina de Deus Lisboa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisa com os objetivos de identificar falhas na administração de medicamentos por sondas e caracterizar a interrupção ou não da nutrição no caso de medicamentos que exigem jejum relativo. Estudo epidemiológico, transversal, observacional, numa terapia intensiva, com amostra de 350 doses administradas por 56 técnicos de enfermagem. Resultados mostraram que não houve pausa entre a administração do medicamento e a infusão de dieta enteral em 116 (33,14% doses de medicamentos que necessitavam de jejum relativo, entre os quais captopril, varfarina sódica, levotiroxina sódica, digoxina e fenitoína sódica. A irrigação das sondas não ocorreu na maioria dos casos (94,28%. Conclui-se que é possível que os medicamentos citados tenham tido sua biodisponibilidade sérica reduzida, comprometendo sua eficácia terapêutica e que a falta da prática de irrigar sondas com água estéril, antes de administrar medicamentos, configura-se como a ausência de um cuidado específico fundamental para evitar a obstrução das mesmas.

  20. Tide-driven fluid mud transport in the Ems estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Marius; Maushake, Christian; Winter, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The Ems estuary, located at the border between The Netherlands and Germany, experienced a significant change of the hydrodynamic regime during the past decades, as a result of extensive river engineering. With the net sediment transport now being flood-oriented, suspended sediment concentrations have increased dramatically, inducing siltation and formation of fluid mud layers, which, in turn, influence hydraulic flow properties, such as turbulence and the apparent bed roughness. Here, the process-based understanding of fluid mud is essential to model and predict mud accumulation, not only regarding the anthropogenic impact, but also in view of the expected changes of environmental boundary conditions, i.e., sea level rise. In the recent past, substantial progress has been made concerning the understanding of estuarine circulation and influence of tidal asymmetry on upstream sediment accumulation. While associated sediment transport formulations have been implemented in the framework of numerical modelling systems, in-situ data of fluid mud are scarce. This study presents results on tide-driven fluid mud dynamics, measured during four tidal cycles aside the navigation channel in the Ems estuary. Lutoclines, i.e., strong vertical density gradients, were detected by sediment echo sounder (SES). Acoustic Doppler current profiles (ADCP) of different acoustic frequencies were used to determine hydrodynamic parameters and the vertical distribution of suspended sediment concentrations in the upper part of the water column. These continuous profiling measurements were complemented by CTD, ADV, and OBS casts. SES and ADCP profiles show cycles of fluid mud entrainment during accelerating flow, and subsequent settling, and the reformation of a lutocline during decelerating flow and slack water. Significant differences are revealed between flood and ebb phase. Highest entrainment rates are measured at the beginning of the flood phase, associated with strong current shear and