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Sample records for cisalhamento vertical em

  1. Viscosidade extensional e em cisalhamento de suspensões acidificadas de amido de amaranto e caseinato de sódio

    OpenAIRE

    Gozzo,Angela Maria; Cunha,Rosiane Lopes; Menegalli,Florencia Cecília

    2009-01-01

    Foram avaliadas as viscosidades extensional e em cisalhamento de suspensões acidificadas de amido de amaranto-caseinato de sódio. Sistemas mistos de amido de amaranto-caseinato de sódio acidificados com glucona-delta-lactona (GDL) foram estudados por ensaios reológicos em compressão biaxial e cisalhamento. Os efeitos da velocidade de acidificação (lenta e rápida) e pH final (neutro e no ponto isoelétrico da caseína) foram avaliados considerando as interações entre os biopolímeros e sua conseq...

  2. ESTUDO NUMÉRICO DE CONECTORES DE CISALHAMENTO EM BARRAS DE AÇO PARA VIGAS MISTAS DE AÇO E CONCRETO

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    Barbosa, Wallison Carlos de Souza; Chater, Latif C; e Cavalcante, Otávio R de Oliveira; Bezerra, Luciano Mendes

    2017-01-01

    Resumo. As estruturas mistas apresentam grandes vantagens quanto a aspectos estruturais e construtivos, sendo os conectores de cisalhamento determinantes para a obtenção da interação entre os materiais (aço e concreto). Este trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento de um conector de cisalhamento com barras de aço CA50-A, proposto para uso em viga mista de aço e concreto. O conector proposto é de fácil execução e pode servir como alternativa viável ao uso dos conectores stud e ‘U’. Foi idealizada ...

  3. Avaliação do desempenho de um conector de cisalhamento em chapa dentada para estruturas mistas de aço e concreto

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    Veríssimo, G. S.; Oliveira, Alessandro F. N.; Fakury, R. H.; Rodrigues, F. C.; Paes, J. L. R.; Valente, Isabel; Cruz, Paulo J. S.

    2007-01-01

    Este trabalho apresenta uma avaliação do comportamento de um conector de cisalhamento em chapa dentada, denominado Crestbond, para sistemas de pisos mistos, a partir dos resultados de 40 ensaios push-out. Avalia-se a capacidade de carga da conexão, sua ductilidade e os modos de colapso observados, considerando-se o efeito de diversas variáveis. Os resultados demonstram que o conector proposto apresenta um comportamento adequado, com alta rigidez para cargas de serviço e boa duc...

  4. Desenvolvimento de um conector de cisalhamento em chapa dentada para estruturas mistas de aço e concreto e estudo do seu comportamento

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo de Souza Verissimo

    2007-01-01

    Este trabalho consiste do desenvolvimento de um conector de cisalhamento em chapa dentada para estruturas mistas de aço e concreto, incluindo o estudo do seu comportamento. O trabalho envolve uma ampla investigação para definição da geometria do conector, um programa experimental, o desenvolvimento de uma equação de resistência e o treinamento de redes neurais para a predição da resposta do conector. O programa experimental, envolvendo 41 ensaios tipo push-out, conforme a EN 1994-1-1:2004, fo...

  5. Estudo numérico e experimental de conectores de cisalhamento feitos de vergalhão CA-50 para uso em estrutura mista aço-concreto

    OpenAIRE

    Chater, Latif

    2015-01-01

    O emprego da tecnologia de estruturas mistas apresenta vantagens significativas para a indústria da construção civil, em relação ao comportamento estrutural, e também quanto a aspectos construtivos. Os conectores de cisalhamento desempenham papel fundamental na solidarização dos materiais, no caso deste desta pesquisa o aço e o concreto, e portanto na qualidade da ação conjunta dos mesmos. Neste trabalho é apresentado um conector de cisalhamento composto por barra de aço CA-50 dobrada em form...

  6. Avaliação híbrida numérica-experimental do cisalhamento em parafusos de conexão metálicas tipo T

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Wellington Andrade da

    2010-01-01

    Esta pesquisa apresenta uma análise numérica e experimental com o objetivo de investigar o comportamento estrutural de ligações parafusadas tipo T (ou T-stub). Objetiva-se, em particular, o estudo da ruptura de parafusos de ligações tipo T por cisalhamento combinado com esforços de tração. Enquanto a determinação dos esforços de tração nos parafusos é conhecida na literatura, as forças de cisalhamento em conectores T-stub ainda não foram estudadas e ainda não são objeto de artigos científicos...

  7. Modelagem de dispositivo Iosipescu para medição de propriedades de cisalhamento de materiais compósitos

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrício Nascimento Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Os projetos de novas aeronaves possuem suas estruturas primárias fabricados em materiais compósitos, o que resulta em diferentes tipos de cargas agindo em peças de compósitos. O comportamento de compósitos sujeitos a carga de cisalhamento é algo difícil de caracterizar especialmente porque os ensaios de cisalhamento possuem dificuldades em obter uma condição de cisalhamento puro e uniforme. O presente trabalho busca modelar o ensaio de cisalhamento Iosipescu com o método de elementos finitos,...

  8. Comportamento de conectores de cisalhamento em vigas mistas aço-concreto com análise da resposta numérica

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Alves Tristão

    2002-01-01

    As vigas mistas aço-concreto têm sido bastante utilizadas na engenharia civil, tanto no Brasil como no contexto mundial. O comportamento adequado deste elemento estrutural faz-se pela interação entre ambos os materiais, a qual é garantida por conectores de cisalhamento. O presente trabalho apresenta uma visão geral do comportamento das vigas mistas aço-concreto, e, principalmente o estudo do comportamento estrutural de conectores de cisalhamento. Para tanto, faz-se uma simulação numérica dos ...

  9. Análise experimental de um conector de cisalhamento em chapa de aço endentada para estruturas mistas de aço e concreto

    OpenAIRE

    Veríssimo, G. S.; Valente, Isabel; Paes, J. L. R.; Cruz, Paulo J. S.; Fakury, R. H.

    2006-01-01

    Este trabalho apresenta o projeto e os resultados de ensaios tipo push-out de um novo conector de cisalhamento constituído por uma chapa de aço endentada. O conector proposto possui saliências e reentrâncias trapezoidais que proporcionam resistência ao cisalhamento longitudinal e previnem a separação transversal entre o perfil metálico e a laje de concreto (uplift). Além disso, as aberturas no conector facilitam a disposição das barras de armadura. A capacidade da conexão pode ser varia...

  10. Efeito do tratamento térmico sobre a resistência ao cisalhamento da linha de cola em painéis OSB.

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    Airton Mauro de Lára Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 As pesquisas sobre o tratamento térmico em painéis OSB (oriented strandboard vêm buscando reduzir a higroscopicidade dos painéis, bem como aliviar as tensões geradas durante o processo de prensagem. Entretanto, o tratamento térmico acima de 160ºC pode causar inativação da superfície da madeira, tornando-a mais lisa, diminuindo a penetração do adesivo e por conseqüência, reduzindo a qualidade da adesão. O lixamento da superfície de painéis OSB pode tornar a superfície mais rugosa aumentando a qualidade da adesão e a resistência na linha de cola. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a resistência na linha de cola de painéis OSB tratados termicamente, assim como a influência do lixamento na qualidade da colagem dos painéis. Foram obtidos, aleatoriamente painéis comerciais de OSB que foram tratados termicamente em prensa laboratorial segundo dois níveis temperaturas (190 e 220ºC, três tempos de duração (12, 16 e 20 minutos. Foram cortados 84 corpos-de-prova (CP sendo que a metade foi lixada. O ensaio de resistência ao cisalhamento da linha de cola foi conduzido segundo ASTM D1037, sendo avaliado o adesivo resorcinol-formaldeído na gramatura de 360 g/m². Os resultados mostraram que o tratamento térmico teve influência na resistência, diminuindo-a levemente em comparação ao material não-tratado. Foi identificado efeito interativo entre a temperatura e o tempo de tratamento. Entretanto, com a operação de lixamento esse efeito foi removido e as diferenças com a testemunha foram diminuídas. Observou-se que os ganhos na resistência com o lixamento foram de até 15%.  Sendo assim, o tratamento térmico apresentou pouca influência na resistência da linha de cola e o efeito do lixamento apresentou-se como um processo benéfico, melhorando a qualidade da adesão dos painéis OSB.

  11. Erodibilidade e tensão crítica de cisalhamento em solos de estradas não pavimentadas Erodibility and critical shear stress on unpaved road soils

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    João F. de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A falta de um sistema adequado para drenagem de águas pluviais em estradas não pavimentadas é um dos principais fatores que causam a sua degradação e, para que referidos sistemas possam ser adequadamente planejados e dimensionados é necessário o conhecimento de parâmetros de resistência dos solos. Com este trabalho se teve, por objetivo, determinar a erodibilidade e a tensão crítica de cisalhamento para diferentes solos de estradas não pavimentadas. Utilizou-se um simulador de escoamento superficial instalado diretamente nos canais das estradas, sob condição natural e se determinou a perda de solo para diferentes lâminas de escoamento. A erodibilidade e a tensão crítica de cisalhamento foram determinadas por meio do ajuste de curvas relacionando-se a perda de solo em função da tensão cisalhante provocada pelo escoamento. Os resultados alcançados mostraram variações nos valores de erodibilidade e de tensão crítica de cisalhamento das estradas avaliadas. Os valores de erodibilidade encontrados mostraram, quando comparados com valores observados na literatura, elevada suscetibilidade à erosão para as condições de estradas, sendo mais elevados nos solos de textura mais arenosa e siltosa. Os valores de tensão crítica se mostraram bastante próximos aos observados em outros trabalhos.The absence of an adequate drainage system in unpaved roads is one of the main factors for their degradation. For adequate planning knowledge of the resistance parameters of soil is necessary. This study had as its objective the determinatiom of the erodibility and critical shear stress of unpaved road soils. For this work, a runoff simulator was directly installed on road channels, under natural conditions. Different flow depths were applied and the soil loss was measured for each depth. The erodibility and the critical shear stress were determined through adjusted curves relating soil disaggregation and flow shear stress. The results

  12. ENSAIOS BIOMECÂNICOS DE FLEXÃO E CISALHAMENTO EM DISJUNÇÕES DO ARCO ZIGOMÁTICO, UTILIZANDO OSTEOSSÍNTESE CLÁSSICA OU ADESIVO BUTIL-2-CIANOACRILATO, EM CÃES

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    Domingos Geraldo Sica

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available A busca de soluções alternativas para o tratamento de ferimentos ósseos da face, motivou o presente trabalho, cujo escopo foi estudar a osteossíntese da disjunção experimental da sutura temporozigomática, pelo clássico método com fio de aço inoxidável ou com o uso de adesivo cirúrgico sintético (butil-2-cianoacrilato, utilizando-se como parâmetros de comparação testes biomecânicos onde são aferidas a força de flexão e da tensão de cisalhamento do arco zigomático. Os resultados foram comparados também com estruturas ósseas similares em condições normais (sem disjunção experimental. Foram utilizados 36 cães, com peso variando de dez a doze quilogramas (kg. Os animais foram distribuídos em três grupos iguais de doze animais: grupos Normal, Fio e Cola. Os cães dos grupos Fio e Cola, após anestesia endovenosa, foram submetidos a diérese incisional na região zigomática e, após dissecção cirúrgica era exposto o arco zigomático. Na seqüência, praticava-se a disjunção de sutura temporozigomática, com instrumentos apropriados. O mesmo procedimento era repetido no lado contralateral de cada animal. As osteossínteses das disjunções dos arcos zigomáticos foram praticadas com fio de aço inoxidável ou com cola (butil-2-cianoacrilato, conforme o grupo a que pertencesse o animal. Os 24 animais foram observados por 40 dias, findos os quais foram reoperados para a remoção das peças ósseas, e a seguir submetidos à eutanásia. O grupo Normal era composto por 12 cães, aparentemente hígidos, que tinham removidos os arcos zigomáticos de ambos os lados, e posteriormente submetidos à eutanásia. As 72 peças ósseas (arco zigomático passaram a constituir os "corpos de prova", que foram testados em Máquina de Ensaios Universal, quanto à carga de força de flexão ou de tensão de cisalhamento, que são os dois tipos de esforços físicos mais comuns sobre os ossos da face, na vigência de traumatismos. Os

  13. Estudo in vitro da resistência ao cisalhamento da colagem direta de tubos ortodônticos em molares In vitro study of shear bond strength in direct bonding of orthodontic molar tubes

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    Célia Regina Maio Pinzan Vercelino

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: apesar da colagem direta despender menor tempo clínico, com maior preservação da integridade gengival, ainda hoje se observa uma alta incidência de bandagem dos molares. Portanto, torna-se interessante a idealização de recursos para o aumento da eficiência desse procedimento para dentes submetidos a maiores impactos mastigatórios, como, por exemplo, os molares. OBJETIVO: esse estudo teve o propósito de avaliar se a resistência à adesão com a aplicação de uma camada de resina adicional na região oclusal da interface tubo/dente aumenta a qualidade do procedimento de colagem direta de tubos em molares. MÉTODOS: selecionou-se uma amostra composta por 40 terceiros molares inferiores, que foram aleatoriamente divididos em 2 grupos: Grupo 1 - colagem direta convencional, seguida pela aplicação de uma camada de resina na oclusal da interface tubo/dente; e Grupo 2 - colagem direta convencional. O teste de resistência ao cisalhamento foi realizado 24 horas após a colagem, utilizando-se uma máquina de ensaio universal, operando a uma velocidade de 0,5mm/min. Os resultados foram analisados por meio do teste t independente. RESULTADOS: os valores médios obtidos nos testes de cisalhamento foram: 17,08MPa para o Grupo 1 e 12,60MPa para o Grupo 2. O Grupo 1 apresentou uma resistência ao cisalhamento estatisticamente significativa mais alta do que o Grupo 2. CONCLUSÃO: a aplicação de uma camada adicional de resina na oclusal da interface tubo/dente aumenta a qualidade da adesão do procedimento de colagem direta de tubos ortodônticos em molares.OBJECTIVE: Although direct bonding takes up less clinical time and ensures increased preservation of gingival health, the banding of molar teeth is still widespread nowadays. It would therefore be convenient to devise methods capable of increasing the efficiency of this procedure, notably for teeth subjected to substantial masticatory impact, such as molars. This study was

  14. Resistência inter e intra-agregados em ensaios de cisalhamento direto de um nitossolo vermelho distrófico Inter and intra-aggregate strength in direct shear tests of a typic hapludox

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    João Alfredo Braida

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Para solos agregados, a envoltória da resistência ao cisalhamento pode ser dividida em dois segmentos, com declividades e interceptos diferentes. Um primeiro segmento mais inclinado e com intercepto menor representaria a envoltória de ruptura definida pelo atrito e coesão interagregados, enquanto o segundo segmento, menos inclinado e com intercepto maior, seria a envoltória definida pelo atrito e coesão intra-agregados. O presente estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar se a envoltória de resistência ao cisalhamento de agregados do horizonte superficial de um Nitossolo Vermelho pode ser subdividida em segmentos distintos, com coeficientes angulares diferentes, e se isso está relacionado à existência de agregados nele. Inicialmente, amostras coletadas na superfície de um Nitossolo Vermelho distrófico latossólico de textura argilosa foram submetidas ao ensaio de cisalhamento direto com pressões normais de 24,4; 48,9; 98,2; 196,4; 294,6; 392,8 e 491,8 kPa. Posteriormente, o ensaio foi realizado com amostras de agregados de cinco classes de diâmetro: For aggregated soils the Mohr failure line can be separated into two straight lines, with different slopes and intercepts. In the range of low normal load, when the slope is very steep and the intercept is small, the failure line is defined by the friction and cohesion inter-aggregates, while for the higher load range the slope becomes smaller and intercept is larger, which defines the intra-aggregate friction and cohesion. Therefore, for aggregated soils the normal load range used in the direct shear test affects the final result. The present study was carried out with the objective of evaluating if the Mohr failure line of a Red Latosolic Nitisol can be subdivided in different segments, with different steepness and intercepts, and if this is related to the existence of soil aggregates. Initially, soil surface samples of a Typic Hapludox (Nitossolo Vermelho Distrófico latoss

  15. Viscosidade extensional e em cisalhamento de suspensões acidificadas de amido de amaranto e caseinato de sódio Extensional and shear viscosity of acidified amaranth starch-sodium caseinate suspensions

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    Angela Maria Gozzo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as viscosidades extensional e em cisalhamento de suspensões acidificadas de amido de amaranto-caseinato de sódio. Sistemas mistos de amido de amaranto-caseinato de sódio acidificados com glucona-delta-lactona (GDL foram estudados por ensaios reológicos em compressão biaxial e cisalhamento. Os efeitos da velocidade de acidificação (lenta e rápida e pH final (neutro e no ponto isoelétrico da caseína foram avaliados considerando as interações entre os biopolímeros e sua consequente influência nos parâmetros reológicos. Todas as amostras apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico, no entanto, a adição de caseinato de sódio nas suspensões de amido, em pH neutro, promoveu um efeito negativo sobre a viscosidade aparente. Amostras acidificadas apresentaram um aumento na complexidade do sistema devido à formação da rede de amido e caseína, observando que a força necessária para o escoamento foi sempre maior para as amostras contendo concentrações maiores de caseinato. Isso mostra que a agregação e gelificação da proteína promovidas pela acidificação, impediram a microsseparação de fases. Esta rede foi mais forte em sistemas gelificados lentamente, devido à formação de uma rede de proteína mais organizada. Apesar da técnica de compressão biaxial imperfeita ser limitada para avaliação de determinados sistemas, neste estudo, mostrou ser um modo prático e eficiente de se mensurar o comportamento reológico.Extensional and shear viscosity of acidified amaranth starch-sodium caseinate suspensions were evaluated. Mixed systems of amaranth starch-sodium caseinate acidified with glucone-delta-lactone (GDL were studied using rheological measurements under biaxial compression and shear. The effects of the acidification rate (slow and fast and final pH (neutral and isoelectric point of casein were evaluated considering the interactions between biopolymers and their influence on the rheological parameters

  16. AVALIAÇÃO DOS COEFICIENTES DE SEGURANÇA DOS CÓDIGOS NORMATIVOS PARA REFORÇOS AO CISALHAMENTO EM VIGAS DE CONCRETO ARMADO REFORÇADAS COM PRFC

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    Nara Villanova Menon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O problema da avaliação do cisalhamento em vigas de concreto armado reforçadas por polímeros reforçados com fibras (PRF é um assunto muito complexo. As atuais normas/códigos mais importantes e recomendações de pesquisadores quantificam o cisalhamento por meio de uma simples soma das contribuições do concreto (Vc, do aço (Vsw, e do PRF (Vf. Apresentar comparações entre as formulações analíticas dos mais importantes códigos e recomendações disponíveis na literatura e avaliar os coeficientes de segurança propostos utilizando dados obtidos de resultados provenientes de investigações experimentais é o objetivo deste trabalho. Desenvolveu-se uma série de comparações entre as normas e recomendações NBR 6118 (2014, EUROCODE 2 (1992, ACI 318M (2011, ACI 440.2R (2008, fib BULLETIN 14 - TG 9.3 (2001 e CNR-DT 200 (2004. A base de dados foi feita pelos resultados experimentais de 30 vigas de concreto armado reforçadas. Observou-se que algumas normas são mais restritivas em relação às outras, oferecendo uma menor contribuição ao reforço, sendo, portanto, mais seguras. As informações permitiram demonstrar através de gráficos que o comportamento esperado, possível devido ao uso dos coeficientes de segurança, mantiveram os valores de cálculo muito abaixo dos valores de ruptura. Este trabalho pretende contribuir para a melhor utilização da combinação das principais normas utilizadas. ABSTRACT: The problem of the evaluation of the shear strength in RC beams strengthened with fibre-reinforced polymers (FRP is a very complex subject. The actual most important codes/recommendations quantify the nominal shear strength by a simple sum of the contributions to concrete (Vc, steel (Vsw, and FRP (Vf. This paper presents a broad comparison between the experimental results sourced from a number of experimental investigations and the analytical formulation of the most important codes/recommendations available in

  17. Avaliação da resistência ao cisalhamento e à delaminação em madeira laminada colada

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    Calil Neto,Carlito; Christoforo,André Luis; Ribeiro Filho,Sérgio Luiz Moni; Lahr,Francisco Antonio Rocco; Calil Junior,Carlito

    2014-01-01

    A Madeira Laminada Colada (MLC) apresenta uma grande gama de aplicações. No Brasil, o seu emprego na forma de cruzetas para postes de rede aérea de distribuição de energia elétrica tem despertado a atenção de companhias do ramo, motivadas pelo potencial de emprego deste material. Dentre os fatores que influenciam o desempenho mecânico de soluções em MLC destacam-se a eficiência e a afinidade dos adesivos para com as espécies de madeiras utilizadas, o tipo de tratamento e o teor de umidade das...

  18. Estudo comparativo dos critérios de dimensionamento ao cisalhamento longitudinal em lajes mistas de aço e concreto

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    J. M. Calixto

    Full Text Available A ABNT NBR 8800 (2008 permite dois critérios para avaliação da força cortante longitudinal resistente última em lajes mistas de aço e concreto: método m-k e método da interação parcial. O método m-k é o método considerado internacionalmente como padrão para o cálculo dessa força cortante longitudinal resistente. Neste método, a resistência das lajes é obtida por regressão linear dos resultados de ensaios realizados com fôrma de uma mesma espessura. O método da interação parcial, por outro lado, surge como alternativa ao método m-k, para melhor explorar o comportamento dúctil dos perfis de fôrma de aço disponíveis no mercado, os projetos de mossas mais bem elaborados e a utilização de vãos maiores. Dentro deste cenário, o objetivo deste trabalho é fazer uma análise comparativa entre estes dois critérios. Para atingir este objetivo, lajes mistas, em escala natural e com diferentes dimensões de vãos e altura total, foram construídas e testadas, na condição de simplesmente apoiadas. A fôrma de aço incorporada utilizada foi o steel-deck MF 50 fabricado pela METFORM. A análise dos resultados revela valores similares da força cortante longitudinal resistente última entre os dois critérios para a fôrma de aço incorporada utilizada.

  19. Cisalhamento na Linha de Cola de Eucalyptus sp. Colado com Diferentes Adesivos e Diferentes Gramaturas

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    Juliana Jerásio Bianche

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento na linha de cola de juntas de Eucalyptus sp. coladas com diferentes adesivos e diferentes gramaturas. Para a colagem das juntas foi utilizada a madeira de Eucalyptus sp., dois adesivos de cura a quente (fenol-formaldeído e melamina-formaldeído, quatro adesivos de cura a frio [resorcinol-formaldeído, silicato de sódio, PVA (acetato de polivinila e poliuretano à base de mamona], empregando-se gramaturas de 150 g, 200 g e 250 g/m2 em face dupla. Foram determinados aresistência ao cisalhamento e à falha na madeira, e cisalhamento em condição úmida. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que os adesivos de mamona e resorcinol apresentaram maior resistência ao cisalhamento na linha de cola na condição seca. Os adesivos de mamona e fenol-formaldeído apresentaram maior percentual de falha na madeira na condição seca.

  20. Resistência ao cisalhamento e grau de intemperismo de cinco solos na região de Lavras (MG

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    W. W. Rocha

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente os parâmetros da resistência ao cisalhamento dos solos podem ser uma ferramenta muito útil na estabilização de taludes e recuperação de voçorocas, bem como na adoção de práticas mecânicas de conservação para os solos agrícolas. Com o objetivo de avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento de cinco solos da região de Lavras (MG e sua relação com o grau de intemperismo, realizou-se um experimento, utilizando uma prensa de cisalhamento direto, a qual permite ensaiar amostras indeformadas de solos. Essas amostras foram coletadas na profundidade de 0-0,03 m e submetidas ao ensaio de cisalhamento, para a definição das envoltórias de resistência e obtenção da coesão aparente (C e o ângulo de atrito interno (φ. Observou-se que C, de forma geral, foi maior para solos que apresentaram maior densidade, umidade a -0,01 MPa e maior teor de areia. Os valores de (φ foram maiores nos solos com maiores teores de argila. O Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico (LVAd e o Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico típico (PVAd, com densidades do solo, teores de areia e umidade a -0,01MPa maiores, apresentaram maiores resistências ao cisalhamento em relação ao Latossolo Vermelho distrófico (LVd, Cambissolo Háplico Tb distrófico (CXbd e Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico (LVdf, que apresentaram maiores teores de argila e matéria orgânica. Para a classe dos Latossolos, a resistência ao cisalhamento foi maior onde os índices Ki e Kr foram mais elevados, graças à estrutura em blocos apresentada pelo LVAd, que condicionou maior resistência ao cisalhamento. Do ponto de vista da resistência ao cisalhamento, os solos LVAd e PVAd mostraram-se mais resistentes a voçorocamento e ao preparo do solo.

  1. Modelagem e controle de cargas em movimento vertical

    OpenAIRE

    Terceiro, Georges Jean Bruel

    2004-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-graduação em Engenharia Elétrica Vários são os aspectos envolvidos no processo de controle de movimento de veículos para deslocamento vertical que tornam o seu estudo interessante, sobretudo quando se trata de elevadores para transporte de pessoas, em que pesa sobremaneira o fato da existência de "cargas" vivas e conscientes. O controle do movimento de equipamentos elevadores é realizado a ...

  2. Avaliação da influência da posição dos conectores de cisalhamento no comportamento de vigas mistas parcialmente revestidas

    OpenAIRE

    De Nardin,Silvana; El Debs,Ana Lucia H. de C.

    2008-01-01

    A utilização de conectores de cisalhamento, especialmente os conectores tipo pino com cabeça, é um artifício comum para promover o comportamento misto aço-concreto. O embutimento da viga de aço no pavimento permite reduzir a altura total do pavimento sem comprometer a resistência e a rigidez. Nesse trabalho, são estudadas, experimentalmente, posições alternativas para conectores de cisalhamento tipo pino com cabeça em vigas de aço parcialmente revestidas com concreto. Logo, a principal variáv...

  3. ESTUDO EXPERIMENTAL E NUMÉRICO DE CONECTORES DE CISSALHAMENTO DO TIPO STUD BOLD EM VIGAS MISTAS

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Welington Vital; Sobrinho, Brunno Emidio; Siqueira, João Paulo de Almeida; Macedo, Thiago Araujo; Bessa, Marco Aurelio Souza; Santos, Juliana Cardoso

    2017-01-01

      Resumo. As estruturas em aço-concreto são extremamente utilizadas na construção civil no Brasil devido às vantagens que são obtidas com o aproveitamento das propriedades desses materiais. Nessas estruturas o perfil de aço trabalha em conjunto com o concreto e a interação entre eles é garantida com o uso de conectores de cisalhamento. Os conectores são elementos metálicos cujas funções são transferir o fluxo de cisalhamento e restringir a separação vertical do conjunto misto. É de grande imp...

  4. MODELAGEM COMPUTACIONAL DO MÉTODO DE CISALHAMENTO DIRETO COM CONECTOR TIPO PINO COM CABEÇA

    OpenAIRE

    Reis Sales, Marcel Willian; Pereira Júnior, Wanderlei Malaquias; Borja Ferreira, Diego; Mikulaschek, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Diversos tipos de lajes podem ser usados em estruturas mistas de aço concreto. Entretanto, a laje alveolar é uma boa solução, pois ela reduz a necessidade de escoras permitindo que a estrutura de concreto seja executada com velocidade compatível à estrutura metálica. Este trabalho apresenta uma discussão da ligação de cisalhamento promovida em vigas mistas de aço concreto, por conectores tipo pino com cabeça. A ligação é feita pelo conector e preenchida com concreto, podendo existir ou não ar...

  5. Resistência ao cisalhamento de dentes submetidos a duas técnicas de clareamento, pós-restaurados ou não

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    SIQUEIRA Evandro Luiz

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores testaram a resistência ao cisalhamento de dentes submetidos a duas técnicas de clareamento. Foram utilizados 50 incisivos centrais superiores, divididos em 5 grupos, a saber: controle (só abertura coronária, clareamento sem calor, clareamento catalisado por calor controlado, clareamento catalisado por calor controlado e restauração com resina composta de última geração e dentes hígidos. Após o teste de cisalhamento, constatou-se que, nos dentes submetidos ao clareamento dental com perborato de sódio/Peridrol com ou sem aplicações de calor controlado, apesar de estes apresentarem leve diminuição da resistência ao cisalhamento, esta não é estatisticamente significante quando comparada com a dos dentes em que se executa o acesso endodôntico sem clareamento. A restauração do dente após o clareamento dental com adesivo dentinário de 4ª geração e resina fotopolimerizada aumenta a resistência do elemento dental clareado. Não existem diferenças estatísticas de resistência ao cisalhamento entre dentes clareados sem o uso de calor e aqueles em que o calor foi empregado de forma controlada, como preconizado neste estudo. Dentes hígidos apresentam resistência maior do que os dentes clareados com calor, sem calor e aqueles não clareados, com significância estatística no nível de 5%. Já com os dentes clareados e restaurados, os dentes hígidos não mostraram diferenças estatísticas significantes

  6. Vertical Mulching e manejo da água em semeadura direta Vertical Mulching and water management in no tillage system

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    Sandra Maria Garcia

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A intensa mobilização do solo no sistema cultivo convencional causou degradação da estrutura, compactação e adensamento do solo abaixo da camada arável, reduzindo a macroporosidade e a taxa de infiltração de água no solo, com conseqüente aumento de escoamento superficial, de erosão e de assoreamento de rios e de reservatórios. A semeadura direta, que protege a superfície do solo, praticamente controlou a perda por erosão hídrica, os terraços foram eliminados, pelos agricultores, e a conseqüência foi maior escoamento superficial do que no sistema cultivo convencional. Com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento hidrológico do vertical mulching em semeadura direta, em relação ao escoamento superficial, realizou-se esta pesquisa nos anos agrícolas 2002/2003 e 2003/2004, em Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico, na região fisiográfica do planalto médio do Rio Grande do Sul, isto é, um experimento em escala de campo, com parcelas sem vertical mulching, com vertical mulching a cada 10 m e com vertical mulching a cada 5 m, no delineamento de blocos ao acaso com três repetições. Sulcos em nível, perpendiculares ao declive, com dimensões de 0,08 m de largura por x 0,38 m de profundidade, foram abertos e preenchidos com palha compactada o suficiente para prevenir desmoronamento das paredes do sulco. No ciclo da cultura da soja e do trigo foram simuladas chuvas com duas intensidades, 70 e 106 mm h-1. Foram determinados o escoamento superficial, a taxa de infiltração básica de água no solo e a concentração de nutrientes e de CO no escoamento superficial. Os resultados indicam que o vertical mulching na semeadura direta reduz, significativamente, o volume do escoamento superficial aumenta a taxa de infiltração básica de água no solo e reduz também as perdas totais de nutrientes e de CO devido ao menor volume de água no escoamento superficial.Intensive soil mobilization in the conventional tillage system has caused

  7. Erodibilidade e tensão crítica de cisalhamento no canal de drenagem de estrada rural não pavimentada

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    Adriana G. Enriquez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A erosão em estradas não pavimentadas associada ao escoamento superficial gera grande impacto ambiental, sendo a principal causa de inundação, contaminação da água e alteração da fauna aquatica, entre outros, tornando-se necessário desenvolver estratégias de prevenção e controle. Para isto, a obtenção de valores confiáveis dos índices de resistência do solo ao processo erosivo é premente; sentido em que este trabalho teve, como objetivo, determinar os índices de erodibilidade e a tensão crítica de cisalhamento em canal de drenagem construído em uma estrada não pavimentada implantada em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo. O estudo foi realizado em uma estrada não pavimentada do município de Viçosa, MG, que apresentava problemas de erosao utilizando-se um simulador de escoamento para determinação direta no campo. Os dados de erodibilidade e tensão crítica de cisalhamento foram obtidos com base na técnica de identidade de modelos. O valor de erodibilidade determinado foi de 0,0044 g cm-2 min-1 Pa-1, ao qual foi associado um intervalo de confiança com 95% de probabilidade de 0,0035 a 0,0053 g cm-2 min-1 Pa-1. A tensão crítica de cisalhamento obtida foi de 7,61 Pa.

  8. AIDS em gestantes: possibilidade de reduzir a transmissão vertical

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    Fernanda Scherer Wiethäuper

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, buscamos investigar o conhecimento que gestantes possuem sobre a transmissão vertical, o comprometimento do feto e o significado do resultado soropositivo que a identifica como infectada pelo HIV. A pesquisa exploratória, de natureza qualitativa, foi desenvolvida em Unidades Sanitárias de São Leopoldo/RS. A análise permitiu captar a percepção de 63 gestantes entre 16 e 40 anos sobre os motivos e os significados para realização do teste, os conhecimentos e vivências do cotidiano e as perspectivas e cuidados com o bebê. Os resultados trazem um alerta aos profissionais que atuam no pré-natal, visto que necessitam atender uma complexidade de situações que emergem quando se vincula gestação e AIDS.

  9. Avaliação in vitro da resistência ao cisalhamento e liberação de flúor de dois cimentos de ionômero de vidro reforçado por resina = In vitro evaluation of shear bond strength and fluoride release from two resin-reinforced glass ionomer cements

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    Pithon, Matheus Melo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os cimentos de ionômero de vidro reforçados com resina Fuji Ortho LC e Fuji Ortho Band (GC América Corporation, Tokyo, Japan quanto a resistência ao cisalhamento e liberação de flúor. Para avaliação da resistência ao cisalhamento utilizou-se 60 incisivos inferiores permanentes bovinos divididos em três grupos (n = 15. No Grupo 1, 2 e 3, as colagens foram realizadas com Transbond XT, Fuji Ortho LC e Fuji Ortho Band respectivamente. Após a colagem realizou-se o ensaio de cisalhamento de toda amostra à velocidade de 0,5 mm por minuto. A liberação de flúor dos materiais foram medidas durante 28 dias (1h, 24 h, 3, 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias através de eletrodo íon seletivo conectado a um analisador de íons. Os resultados demonstraram que quanto a resistência ao cisalhamento (MPa houve diferenças estatísticas entre os grupos 1 e 3, 2 e 3 (p > 0,05. Quanto a liberação de flúor os resultados evidenciaram diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos 1 e 3 e 2 e 3 em todos os tempos (p = 0. 00 e entre os grupos 1 e 2 na avaliação de 3 dias de liberação de flúor (p = 0. 00. Baseado nos resultados obtidos conclui-se que os materiais Transbond XT e Fuji Ortho possuem melhor resistência ao cisalhamento porém menor liberação de flúor quando comparado ao Fuji Ortho Band

  10. INFLUÊNCIA DO ÂNGULO ENTRE O ESFORÇO APLICADO E A DIREÇÃO DAS FIBRAS DA MADEIRA SOBRE A RESISTÊNCIA AO CISALHAMENTO

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    Norman Barros Logsdon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A madeira é um material anisotrópico e suas características de resistência variam com o ângulo entre o esforço e a direção das fibras (a. A norma brasileira NBR 7190 – Projeto de Estruturas de Madeira prevê a correção da resistência às tensões normais, sempre que a > 6º, e recomenda aplicar a expressão de Hankinson aos valores de cálculo. Entretanto, a referida norma é omissa sobre esta correção às tensões tangenciais. Além disso, não há comprovação experimental sobre a validade de utilizar esta expressão em valores de cálculo, oriundos de valores característicos. Foram objetivos deste trabalho: pesquisar na bibliografia outras expressões utilizadas; verificar a validade destas expressões para representar a variação das resistências ao cisalhamento com o ângulo a e verificar a validade de aplicação destas expressões em valores característicos. Para isto, utilizou-se uma amostra formada por doze pranchas de madeira. De cada prancha foram retirados corpos de prova de cisalhamento, com diferentes inclinações das fibras, que foram ensaiados em acordo com a atual NBR 7190, fornecendo as resistências ao cisalhamento, para diferentes a. Quatro modelos (Hankinson, Senos, Karlsen e Keylwerth foram avaliados, utilizando-se os testes de pairing e dos desvios. O modelo que melhor representou o fenômeno, nos dois casos, foi o de Keylwerth.

  11. Avaliação da vertical visual subjetiva em indivíduos brasileiros normais Subjective visual vertical evaluation in normal Brazilian subjects

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    Aline M. Kozoroski Kanashiro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A função otolítica pode ser avaliada pela Vertical Visual Subjetiva (VVS que determina a capacidade de um indivíduo julgar se objetos estão na posição vertical na ausência de outras referências visuais. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a VVS em indivíduos brasileiros normais usando um aparelho portátil. As medidas da VVS foram realizadas em 160 indivíduos (16 a 85 anos. O valor médio da VVS foi obtido após dez ajustes. A VVS teve valores médios entre -2,0º e +2,4º (média=0,18º, e DP=0,77º. Não houve diferença entre as médias da VVS em relação à idade (teste de Kruskal-Wallis; p=0,40, mas as faixas etárias maiores tiveram variância maior (teste de Levene; p=0,016. Os valores da VVS encontrados neste estudo foram semelhantes aos registrados na literatura. Não houve diferença nas médias das inclinações da VVS de acordo com a idade, mas foi encontrada maior variância entre indivíduos mais idosos.Otolith function can be evaluated by subjective visual vertical (SVV that determine the capacity of a subject to judge if the objects are on vertical position with absence of any visual reference. The aim of this study was to evaluate the SVV in a sample of normal Brazilian subjects using a portable device. Measurements of SVV were performed in 160 normal subjects (aged from 16 to 85. SVV mean value was obtained after ten adjustments. SVV mean values ranged from -2.0º to +2.4º (mean=0.18º, and SD=0.77. Considering all age groups, there was no difference of SVV mean values (Kruskal-Wallis test; p=0.40, but older groups had a greater variance (Levene test; p=0.016. SVV values observed in this study are comparable to those described in previous studies. Although there was no difference in mean SVV-inclination according to age, there was a greater variance in older subjects.

  12. Efeito da degradação ambiental nas propriedades de cisalhamento de compósitos PPS/fibra de carbono Effect of environmental degradation on shear properties of PPS /carbon fiber composites

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    Anahi P. Costa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Os compósitos termoplásticos avançados são uma alternativa a compósitos termorrígidos em algumas aplicações aeronáuticas, devido a ganhos em propriedades. Dentre as matrizes termoplásticas, o PPS (poli sulfeto de fenileno destaca-se devido às suas características estruturais. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a influência do condicionamento ambiental sobre o comportamento de resistência ao cisalhamento de PPS / fibras de carbono. Por esta razão, amostras deste material foram condicionadas em solução salina, em banho higrotérmico e sob radiação UV. Após estes condicionamentos os corpos-de-prova foram avaliados quanto a sua resistência aos cisalhamentos interlaminar (ILSS e Iosipescu e os resultados obtidos foram comparados. Quando comparado ao valor de cisalhamento interlaminar obtido do compósito não-climatizado (58,4 ± 1,9 MPa, os valores de cisalhamento interlaminar ILSS decaíram em torno de 14 e 3%, respectivamente, após banho higrotérmico e banho salino. Sob condicionamento por radiação UV houve um decréscimo de 2% após exposição por 300 horas, 11% após 600 horas e 9% após 900 horas. Já o laminado ensaiado pelo método Iosipescu teve uma tensão de cisalhamento no plano de 109,2 ± 0,4 MPa. Com condicionamentos, teve um decréscimo de 6% após banho higrotérmico e 12% após banho salino. A exposição à radiação UV provocou na resistência de cisalhamento no plano um decaimento de 6% para o condicionamento de 300 horas, 10% para o condicionamento de 600 horas e 14% para o condicionamento por 900 horas.Advanced thermoplastic composites are an alternative to thermoset composites in many aeronautical applications owing to their superior properties. Among the thermoplastic matrix, PPS (poly phenylene sulfide stands out due to its structural characteristics. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of environmental conditioning on the shear behavior of PPS / carbon fiber composites

  13. Proposta de medição da posição vertical da laringe em repouso Proposal of measurement of vertical larynx position at rest

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    Osiris de Oliveira Camponês do Brasil

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo propor uma forma de medir a posição vertical da laringe (PVL no pescoço, em repouso, de adultos jovens sem queixas vocais. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Estudo de coorte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Participaram da pesquisa 68 sujeitos, faixa etária de 18 a 44 anos de idade, sendo 33 do sexo feminino e 35 do sexo masculino. Os pontos de referência utilizados para a pesquisa foram os ângulos da mandíbula direito e esquerdo (AMD e AME, o centro do arco da cartilagem cricóidea (CC e o centro da fúrcula esternal (FE. Para a obtenção das medidas, os sujeitos foram orientados a permanecerem sentados com a cabeça em hiperextensão máxima. Os materiais utilizados foram um compasso e uma régua de 20cm. RESULTADOS: A obtenção das medidas se mostrou ser de fácil realização e não apresentou qualquer tipo de desconforto aos participantes. Houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os sexos feminino e masculino quanto à posição vertical da laringe, sendo que as mulheres apresentaram a laringe em posição mais alta que os homens. A posição vertical da laringe foi de fácil obtenção e parece ser um parâmetro muito interessante no acompanhamento clínico intra-sujeitos.AIM: The purpose of this research is to propose a procedure to measure the vertical larynx position in the neck at rest in young adults without vocal complaint. STUDY DESIGN: Transversal cohort study. MATERIAL AND METHOD: There were 68 subjects, aged between 18 to 44 years, 33 female and 35 male. The anatomical landmarks used for this research study were the right and left jaw angle (RJA and LJA, the centre of the cricoid arch cartilage (CC and the centre of the sternal furculum (SF. In order to obtain the measures, the subjects were asked to be sitting still with their heads stretched up to the highest possible position. The devices used were a drawing compass and a 20-centimeter ruler. RESULTS: The measurement procedure

  14. CARACTERIZAÇÃO DE ARGAMASSAS PARA USO EM SISTEMAS DE VEDAÇÃO VERTICAL EXTERNO (SVVE

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    Vagner Arruda de Castro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas publicou em maio de 2010 uma nova norma de desempenho, a NBR 15.575, referente as edificações de até cinco pavimentos. Essa norma trará impactos importantes a fabricantes de materiais, projetistas, construtoras e prestadores de serviços, portanto os laboratórios de construção civil, como o LCC do IFRN, devem estar atentos a implicações destas normas, buscando gerar conhecimento a cerca dos aspectos nela envolvida, quanto para estarem aptos a avaliarem os materiais de construção e os sistemas construtivos empregados nas edificações abordadas na norma. Dentro deste contexto este artigo pretende caracterizar argamassas de revestimento para uso em sistema de vedação vertical externo (SVVE compostos de blocos cerâmicos, revestidos com argamassas em diferentes composições, visando propor inovações tecnológicas aplicados ao processo de produção de SVVE, objetivando a melhoria de desempenho, qualidade e custo dos SVVE. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: argamassa de revestimento, sistemas de vedação vertical externo, propriedades no estado fresco.

  15. Resistência ao cisalhamento de um selante associado a componentes de um sistema adesivo dental Shear bond strength of an enamel sealant using components of a dental adhesive system

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    Zilda Maria MUSSOLINO

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Cilindros de selante, padronizados, foram unidos ao esmalte das superfícies vestibulares de incisivos bovinos, após serem planificadas e condicionadas, com ácido fosfórico a 37%, durante 30 segundos. Foram utilizados 40 dentes, aleatoriamente divididos em 4 grupos, cujas coroas foram secionadas, de modo a obter-se duas porções, cervical e incisal. No Grupo I, após o condicionamento, aplicou-se o selante Fluroshield; no Grupo II, antes da aplicação do selante, uma camada do "primer" do Probond foi aplicada; no Grupo III, após o "primer", aplicou-se o adesivo do Probond; e no Grupo IV, somente o adesivo foi aplicado antes do selante. Os espécimes foram armazenados em água a 37°C, durante 36 horas, e então submetidos aos ensaios de cisalhamento. A análise estatística revelou significante diminuição na resistência ao cisalhamento, quando o "primer" foi aplicado previamente ao selante, enquanto a resistência ao cisalhamento do selante foi semelhante quando o adesivo do Probond foi aplicado, com ou sem o "primer". A resistência ao cisalhamento do selante ao esmalte é maior no terço incisal que no terço cervical da coroa.Standardized cylinders of sealants were bonded to the flattened labial enamel of bovine incisor teeth that had previously been subjected to 37% phosphoric acid gel for 30 seconds. A total of 40 teeth were tested, randomly divided in four groups of 10 teeth each. In Group I, the sealant Fluroshield was applied after etching; in Group II after etching, the "primer" of Probond was used before the sealant; in Group III after etching, the bond of Probond was used after the "primer"; and in Group IV only the bond was applied before the sealant. Specimens were stored in water at 37°C during 36 hours, before shear testing using a Universal Testing Machine. There was significant reduction in shear bond strength of the sealant when only the "primer" was used previously to the application of the sealant. There were no

  16. Influência da gramatura na resistência da linha de cola aos esforços de cisalhamento em painéis compensados de Copaifera duckei Dawyer e Eperua oleifera Ducke Effects of amount of adhesive spread on the glue line shear strength in the plywood of Copaifera duckei Dawyer and Eperua oleifera Ducke

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    Nerci Nina Lima

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A madeira por ser um material de origem orgânica responde de várias maneiras aos diversos produtos nela empregados, inclusive a aplicação de cola a qual depende do seu teor de umidade, tendendo a atingir um teor de umidade em equilíbrio dinâmico com a umidade relativa da atmosfera. Atualmente utilizam-se lâminas com teores de umidade entre 5 e 15% de acordo com o tipo de resina utilizada. O presente estudo avaliou o efeito de 04 gramaturas (270; 330; 364 e 390 g/m² na produção de painéis compensados utilizando as espécies: Copaifera duckei Dawyer e Eperua oleifera Ducke. As espécies utilizadas foram retiradas da área de manejo florestal sustentável da Gethal Indústria de Madeira Compensada Ltda localizada em Manicoré-Am. As lâminas foram produzidas com espessuras de 2,2 mm. As variáveis do ciclo de prensagem foram controladas seguindo as orientações técnicas estabelecidas pelo fabricante da resina. Foi avaliada a resistência da linha de cola, com amostras da capa e do miolo em condições seca e pós-fervura. Para análise estatística foi aplicado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com arranjo em esquema fatorial dos tratamentos. Confrontando os valores médios da tensão de ruptura e a percentagem de falha na madeira obtidos nesta pesquisa, ensaio seco e pós-fervura, com os da literatura, foi verificado que os painéis avaliados atendem aos critérios estabelecidos, podendo ser indicados para uso interior e exterior, pois de acordo com a Norma EN 314-2 (1993 o valor médio da tensão de ruptura em conjunto com a porcentagem de falha na madeira encontram-se em um padrão aceitável de comportamento.The wood as a source of organic material responds in different ways to different treatments her employees, including the application of glue which depends on its moisture content, tending to reach a moisture content in dynamic equilibrium with relative humidity of the atmosphere. Currently we use blades with moisture

  17. DIEL AND VERTICAL DYNAMIC OF LIMNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN FISH REARING NET-CAGES ENVIROMENT DINÂMICA NICTIMERAL E VERTICAL DAS CARACTERÍSTICAS LIMNOLÓGICAS EM AMBIENTE DE CRIAÇÃO DE PEIXES EM TANQUES-REDE

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    Odair Diemer

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    This study aimed to verify the diel and vertical dynamic characteristics in limnological environment for rearing native fish in net-cage at the reservoir of Itaipu Binacional. The parameters evaluated were water temperature, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, pH, phosphorus, nitrite and ammonia. It was found that there was diel variation for all parameters, except for ammonia and phosphorus. But the variables are in the recommended limits for aquaculture, with the exception of dissolved oxygen that showed critical rates at night. For the vertical distribution concentrations of physical and chemical parameters of water did not exceed the limit established by CONAMA Resolution 357/05 for fish rearing, however, there was vertical variation for nitrite and phosphorus.

    KEY WORDS: Aquaculture, intensive culture, limnology, water quality.

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a dinâmica nictimeral e vertical das características limnológicas em ambiente de criação de peixes nativos em tanques-rede no reservatório da Itaipu Binacional. Os parâmetros avaliados foram temperatura da água, oxigênio dissolvido, condutividade elétrica, pH, fósforo total, nitrito e amônia. Verificou-se que ocorreu variação nictimeral para todos os parâmetros, exceto para amônia e fósforo total. Entretanto, as variáveis estão dentro dos limites recomendados para a aquicultura, com exceção do oxigênio dissolvido, que apresentou valores críticos à noite. Para a distribuição vertical, as concentrações dos parâmetros físicos e químicos da água não ultrapassaram o limite estabelecido pela resolução do CONAMA 357/05 para criação de peixes. No entanto, houve variação vertical para nitrito e fósforo.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Aquicultura, cultivo intensivo, limnologia, qualidade de água.

  18. Estudo da variação da resistência ao cisalhamento do resíduo solido urbano devido a presença de plástico mole

    OpenAIRE

    Gawlik, Francismara Martins

    2014-01-01

    A influencia do plástico mole na resistência ao cisalhamento do resíduo solido urbano (RSU) vem sendo alvo constante de estudo em virtude da sua enorme relevância nesta questão. No entanto trata-se de um tema complexo, visto que, são muitas as variáveis relacionadas ao problema, tais como, a quantidade de plástico, influencia do chorume em contanto com o plástico, inclinação do plástico em relação aos esforços normais e cisalhantes, resistência à tração do plástico, questões relacionadas à mo...

  19. Resistência ao cisalhamento de um latossolo sob diferentes uso e manejo Shear strength of a latosol under different use and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Silva

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available A resistência do solo ao cisalhamento é uma importante propriedade dinâmica do solo, a qual vem sendo desconsiderada na maioria das pesquisas que investigam a influência do uso e manejo, assim como os estados de consistência , sobre o comportamento da estrutura dos solos agrícolas. Isto tem contribuído para a adoção de estratégias quase sempre equivocadas, tendo, como conseqüência, o depauperamento das propriedades físicas e mecânicas do solo. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a resistência ao cisalhamento de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico submetido ao preparo convencional e semeadura direta, tendo, como tratamento-testemunha, o cerradão, considerando diferentes conteúdos de água: 0,05; 0,16; 0,18 e 0,38 kg kg-1. Com base nos resultados encontrados, verificou-se que a resistência ao cisalhamento do solo, avaliada na profundidade de 0-0,05 m do Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, foi influenciada pelo aumento da umidade, tipo de uso e manejo. De maneira geral, as equações ajustadas conforme o modelo de Coulomb constataram maior resistência do solo ao cisalhamento no cerradão, seguido do preparo convencional e semeadura direta. A menor resistência ao cisalhamento do solo estudado, corroborada pelo menor atrito interno (tg f e maior coesão aparente (c, especificamente nos teores de água 0,16 e 0,27 kg kg-1 (contemplando, portanto, a faixa friável do solo, confere à semeadura direta a condição de maior possibilidade de preservação da sustentabilidade da estrutura do Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. A predição da tensão de cisalhamento apresentou-se sensível aos efeitos da variação do teor de água no solo, ao tipo de uso, podendo contribuir, particularmente, em estudos da sustentabilidade da estrutura dos solos agrícolas, a qual normalmente é comprometida em áreas cujo tráfego e preparo do solo são realizados inadequadamente.Shear soil strength is an important dynamic property of the soil, as well as

  20. Unidade piloto em regime de batelada com sistema de reatores anaeróbios + microalgas + wetlands construídos em fluxo vertical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Wink

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Três configurações para operar em batelada sistemas integrados que evoluíram para Reatores Anaeróbios + Microalgas + Wetlands Construídos de Fluxo Vertical (RA + MA + WCFV foram investigadas neste trabalho, tendo as configurações as seguintes características: combinação de tanque de MA com 90L de volume útil, dotado de recirculação interna em cone de acrílico e externa com tanque de 20L, também em acrílico, sendo integrado com WCFV com tempo de detenção hidráulico (TDH de 3 dias com a macrófita Hymenachne grumosa. A configuração do sistema RAs +MA + WCFV vem em operação nos últimos 8 meses, mostrando reduções totais de N-NH4+ (com concentração inicial de 68 mg L-1 , associando 50% de redução de DQO e 70% de fósforo total. Melhorias para o controle de remoção de algas residuais devem ser feitas para aplicação do WCFV, especialmente quanto a carga volumétrica, que deverá ser com até 20 cm dia-1. Para continuidade da evolução foram considerados que devem ser pesquisados os seguintes aspectos: impossibilidade de operação do sistema em fluxo contínuo; drenagem do sistema de lodo não permite sua remoção completa nos Reatores Anaeróbios (RAs e impossibilidade de recarga simultânea dos sistemas.

  1. Distribuição vertical e horizontal de temperaturas do ar em ambientes protegidos Vertical and horizontal distribution of air temperature in a plastic greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel A. Furlan

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado na área experimental do Departamento de Engenharia Rural da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", Piracicaba, SP, Brasil, em dois ambientes protegidos construídos no sentido leste-oeste, com área total de 112 m² e coberto com plástico (150 micra, tratado contra raios ultravioleta. Para caracterizar a distribuição espacial da temperatura do ar no ambiente protegido, instalaram-se termopares (cobre-constantã formando malhas, com espaçamento horizontal entre eles de 3,0 m e nas alturas de 0,5, 1,0, 2,0, 3,0 e 4,0 m em relação ao solo. Os dados foram armazenados a cada 15 min por sistemas automáticos de aquisição de dados nos ambientes protegidos. O sistema de nebulização constituiu-se de duas linhas com 70 bocais totais, instalados a uma altura de 3,0 m, utilizando-se uma pressão de trabalho de 200 kPa. A nebulização não afetou o gradiente vertical de temperatura, que manteve a tendência de aumento de temperatura com a altura, em relação ao nível do solo, enquanto o efeito na redução de temperatura pelo sistema de nebulização somente foi eficaz durante a realização da mesma. Para a representação da distribuição espacial de temperatura do ar no ambiente protegido nos diferentes níveis de altura, construiu-se superfícies isotérmicas a partir dos resultados. Verifica-se que a nebulização apresentou maior efeito na homogeneização da distribuição de temperatura no ambiente protegido no nível referente a 2,0 m de altura, em relação ao solo.This work was conducted in the experimental area of the Department of Rural Engineering of "Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz", University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. Two greenhouses were installed in the east-west direction, with 6.4 m of width, 17.5 m of length and 3.0 m high, with total area of 112 m²; covered by plastic of 150 micra thickness, treated against ultra violet rays. To characterize the

  2. Resistência ao Cisalhamento Interlaminar de Compósitos com Resina Epóxi com Diferentes Arranjos das Fibras na Presença de Vazios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Michelle L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A presença de vazios em compósitos estruturais pode ter efeitos significativos. Em geral, os vazios diminuem a resistência estática e a vida em fadiga de laminados. Essa influência é bastante pronunciada na resistência ao cisalhamento interlaminar, compressão, entre outras, onde as propriedades mecânicas da matriz exercem maior influência sobre o comportamento do compósito. O presente artigo descreve o estudo do efeito da porosidade na resistência ao cisalhamento interlaminar de sistemas de compósitos de tecido e tape (fitas unidirecionais de carbono aglutinados com matriz epóxi. Os laminados foram produzidos de maneira semelhante, bem como o processo de introdução de vazios (na faixa de 0a 12% de porosidade.Os compósitos foram avaliados por análises microscópicas e inspeção ultra-sônica e os valores de atenuação medidos foram convertidos em coeficientes de absorção para permitir uma normalização dos dados. O critério de fratura de Mar-Lin apresentou bom ajuste, mostrando-se adequado para o estudo de porosidade em compósitos. Por meio desse critério foi determinado que somente os laminados com porosidade acima de 0,9% para tecido de carbono/epóxi e acima de 0,75% para laminados de tape de carbono/epóxi é que apresentam redução de suas propriedades mecânicas

  3. Resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes metálicos utilizando sistema adesivo autocondicionante Shear bond strength evaluation of metallic brackets using self-etching system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Aquino Melgaço

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes metálicos colados com sistema autocondicionante utilizado imediatamente e após 2, 5 e 9 dias depois da ativação e armazenagem. MÉTODOS: utilizaram-se 64 dentes bovinos divididos igualmente em quatro grupos e devidamente preparados para receber a colagem dos braquetes. Em T1, realizou-se a ativação de 7 blisters de adesivos autocondicionantes (de acordo com as normas do fabricante e procedeu-se à colagem imediata apenas dos braquetes do grupo I. Os adesivos ativados foram, então, armazenados à temperatura de 4ºC e reutilizados em períodos de 2 dias (T2, 5 dias (T3 e 9 dias (T4 para a colagem dos braquetes dos grupos II, III e IV, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: não se observou diferença estatística quando comparados os valores médios de tensão para resistência ao cisalhamento entre os grupos I, II e III. Entretanto, diferença estatística foi encontrada quando esses valores foram comparados aos do grupo IV. CONCLUSÃO: o armazenamento do adesivo autocondicionante depois de ativado, à temperatura média de 4ºC, por até 5 dias, parece não afetar os resultados quanto às tensões de resistência ao cisalhamento; novos estudos são necessários para avaliação das demais características do material quando de sua utilização por período de tempo prolongado após sua ativação.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the shear bond strength of metallic brackets using the self-etching system after its activation and storage for 2, 5 and 9 day periods. METHODS: A total of 64 bovine teeth were divided in four groups and prepared to receive the brackets. Initially, seven self-etching primer blisters were activated and used to bond the brackets of group I. The blisters were store at a constant temperature of 4ºC for 2, 5 and 9 days and used to bond the brackets of groups II, III and IV, respectively. RESULTS: No statistic difference was found in shear bond strength comparing groups I, II

  4. Application of EM holographic methods to borehole vertical electric source data to map a fuel oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartel, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    The multifrequency, multisource holographic method used in the analysis of seismic data is to extended electromagnetic (EM) data within the audio frequency range. The method is applied to the secondary magnetic fields produced by a borehole, vertical electric source (VES). The holographic method is a numerical reconstruction procedure based on the double focusing principle for both the source array and the receiver array. The approach used here is to Fourier transform the constructed image from frequency space to time space and set time equal to zero. The image is formed when the in-phase part (real part) is a maximum or the out-of-phase (imaginary part) is a minimum; i.e., the EM wave is phase coherent at its origination. In the application here the secondary magnetic fields are treated as scattered fields. In the numerical reconstruction, the seismic analog of the wave vector is used; i.e., the imaginary part of the actual wave vector is ignored. The multifrequency, multisource holographic method is applied to calculated model data and to actual field data acquired to map a diesel fuel oil spill

  5. Applications of EM holographic methods to borehole vertical electric source data to map a fuel oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartel, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    The multifrequency, multisource holographic method used in the analysis of seismic data is to extended electromagnetic (EM) data within the audio frequency range. The method is applied to the secondary magnetic fields produced by a borehole, vertical electric source (VES). The holographic method is a numerical reconstruction procedure based on the double focusing principle for both the source array and the receiver array. The approach used here is to Fourier transform the constructed image from frequency space to time space and set time equal to zero. The image is formed when the in-phase part (real part) is a maximum or the out-of-phase (imaginary part) is a minimum; i.e., the EM wave is phase coherent at its origination. In the application here the secondary magnetic fields are treated as scattered fields. In the numerical reconstruction, the seismic analog of the wave vector is used; i.e., the imaginary part of the actual wave vector is ignore. The multifrequency, multisource holographic method is applied to calculated model data and to actual field data acquired to map a diesel fuel oil spill

  6. Shear bond strength after dentin bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide agents Resistência ao cisalhamento da dentina após clareamento com peróxido de carbamida a 10%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Tarkany Basting

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study evaluated the shear bond strength (SBS of dentin treated with two 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching agents 15 days after bleaching and storage in artificial saliva. Dentin fragments were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 20 for the treatment with the two different bleaching agents (Rembrandt 10% or Opalescence 10% or with a placebo agent, applied to the tooth surface for 8 hours a day. During the remaining time, the specimens were stored in artificial saliva. After 42 days, the fragments were stored in artificial saliva for 14 days. Another group (n = 20 was exposed to distilled and deionized water for 56 days. An adhesive system and microhybrid composite resin were used to prepare specimens for the SBS test. SBS tests were performed and the fractured surfaces were visually examined using a stereoscope at 30 X magnification. The analysis of variance (ANOVA and SIDAK tests showed higher SBS values for dentin treated with Opalescence 10% than for dentin treated with Rembrandt 10% or placebo. Groups treated with Rembrandt 10%, Opalescence 10% or placebo did not differ from the group treated with distilled and deionized water. Ten percent carbamide peroxide agents or a placebo agent caused no differences in SBS of dentin after 15 days of storage in artificial saliva.Este estudo in vitro avaliou a resistência ao cisalhamento da dentina submetida ao tratamento com dois agentes clareadores contendo peróxido de carbamida a 10% depois de 15 dias de clareamento e armazenagem em saliva artificial. Fragmentos de dentina foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em 3 grupos (n = 20 para receber o tratamento com dois diferentes agentes clareadores (Rembrandt a 10% ou Opalescence a 10% ou com um agente placebo, aplicados na superfície dental por 8 horas diárias. No restante do tempo, os espécimens permaneceram imersos em saliva artificial. Após o tratamento por 42 dias, os fragmentos foram armazenados em saliva artificial por 14 dias. Outro

  7. Maternidade e projetos vitais em jovens infectadas com HIV por transmissão vertical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Eid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo relata una investigación cualitativa con el objetivode analizar a través de entrevistas narrativas, autobiográficas, cómo los jóvenes VIH positivos,infectadas con trasmisión vertical, construyen sus proyectos de vida y sobretodo de maternidad. Elanálisis de las entrevistas se basó teóricamente en Análisis Crítico del Discurso (ACD. Emergierondos ejes de discusión: Proyecto Vital y Maternidad. Las narrativas apuntan hacia una construcciónde proyecto vital basadas en cuatro elementos complementarios: estudio, trabajo, conyugalidad yfuturo. El eje discursivo Maternidad, se comprehende a través de seis elementos clave: la maternidad,embarazo planeado y no planeado, parto y puerperio, la lactancia, El VIH versus hijo(a sano(a yculpa y responsabilidad. Factores particulares, como prejuicio, aspiraciones y miedos, atraviesan lacotidianidad de quien vive con VIH/Sida. Las participantes perciben que la sociedad no las consideraaptas para crear una familia y luchar por sus proyectos de vida.

  8. Maternidade e projetos vitais em jovens infectadas com HIV por transmissão vertical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Eid, Brasil

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available (analítico Este artículo relata una investigación cualitativa con el objetivo de analizar a través de entrevistas narrativas, autobiográficas, cómo los jóvenes VIH positivos, infectadas con trasmisión vertical, construyen sus proyectos de vida y sobretodo de maternidad. El análisis de las entrevistas se basó teóricamente en Análisis Crítico del Discurso (ACD. Emergieron dos ejes de discusión: Proyecto Vital y Maternidad. Las narrativas apuntan hacia una construcción de proyecto vital basadas en cuatro elementos complementarios: estudio, trabajo, conyugalidad y futuro. El eje discursivo Maternidad, se comprehende a través de seis elementos clave: la maternidad, embarazo planeado y no planeado, parto y puerperio, la lactancia, El VIH versus hijo(a sano(a y culpa y responsabilidad. Factores particulares, como prejuicio, aspiraciones y miedos, atraviesan la cotidianidad de quien vive con VIH/Sida. Las participantes perciben que la sociedad no las considera aptas para crear una familia y luchar por sus proyectos de vida.

  9. Prevalência de HIV em gestantes e transmissão vertical segundo perfil socioeconômico, Vitória, ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Caroline Barbosa Cerqueira Vieira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência de infecção por HIV em gestantes e a taxa de transmissão vertical, segundo o perfil socioeconômico dos bairros de residência das mães. MÉTODOS: Estudo ecológico exploratório utilizando a base de dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação de gestantes HIV-positivas e aids em crianças notificadas entre 2000 e 2006 em Vitória, ES. Para análise das informações socioeconômicas foi utilizado o Índice de Qualidade Urbana. A prevalência de HIV em gestantes e a taxa de transmissão vertical foram calculadas. A distribuição espacial dos casos foi realizada no programa Terraview 3.2.0. Para verificar a associação entre a qualidade urbana e a prevalência de HIV em gestantes utilizou-se o modelo de regressão de Poisson. RESULTADOS: Um total de 137 gestantes e 14 crianças infectadas por transmissão vertical foi notificado no período. Sete crianças correspondiam a mães HIV-positivas sem notificação de caso no período analisado. A prevalência de infecção em gestantes no período foi de 0,44% e a taxa de transmissão vertical foi de 9,7%. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de infecção por HIV em gestantes e a transmissão vertical associam-se à qualidade urbana do bairro de residência, indicando que os bairros com menor qualidade urbana devem ser priorizados quanto às ações para redução da transmissão vertical.

  10. Resistência ao cisalhamento da colagem com compósitos utilizando potencializador de adesão Shear bond strength of composites using an adhesion booster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edivaldo de Morais

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento dos compósitos Transbond XT e Concise Ortodôntico utilizando o potencializador de adesão Ortho Primer. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 90 incisivos bovinos divididos em seis grupos (n=15. Todos os dentes receberam profilaxia com pedra-pomes e condicionamento do esmalte com ácido fosfórico. No Grupo I, utilizou-se Transbond XT de maneira convencional. O Grupo II foi semelhante ao I, porém, aplicou-se o Ortho Primer ao invés do XT Primer. No Grupo III, após condicionamento, o esmalte foi contaminado com saliva, aplicou-se o Ortho Primer e colagem com Transbond XT. No Grupo IV, utilizou-se o Concise Ortodôntico de maneira convencional. O Grupo V foi semelhante ao IV, porém, utilizou-se o Ortho Primer ao invés da resina fluida. No Grupo VI, após condicionamento, o esmalte foi contaminado com saliva, aplicou-se o Ortho Primer e colagem com Concise. Os corpos de prova foram armazenados em água destilada em estufa a 37ºC por 24h e submetidos ao ensaio de resistência ao cisalhamento. Os dados foram submetidos à ANOVA e ao teste de Tukey (5%. RESULTADOS: a resistência da colagem no Grupo IV foi estatisticamente superior à dos Grupos II, III e VI (p0,05. O Transbond XT e o Concise utilizados convencionalmente obtiveram os maiores valores adesivos. O Ortho Primer em esmalte seco atuou efetivamente como agente de união dos compósitos avaliados. Em esmalte contaminado, a colagem com Concise obteve baixa resistência adesiva.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of the Transbond XT and Concise Orthodontics composites using the Ortho Primer adhesion booster. METHODS: The sample consisted of 90 bovine incisors divided in 6 groups (n=15. All teeth were submitted to prophylaxes with pumice stone and etching with phosphoric acid. In Group I the Transbond XT was used conventionally. Group II was similar to Group I, however, Ortho Primer was used instead of XT

  11. Avaliação da resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes colados com resinas ortodônticas fluoretadas Evaluation of shear bond strength of brackets bonded with orthodontic fluoride-releasing composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Cristina Rastelli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes metálicos colados com resinas que contêm flúor, comparando-as a uma resina convencional; e analisar a quantidade de adesivo remanescente na superfície do esmalte. MÉTODOS: sessenta pré-molares foram divididos aleatoriamente em 3 grupos: Grupo I - Concise (3M, Grupo II - Ultrabond (Aditek do Brasil e Grupo III - Rely-a-Bond (Reliance. Após a colagem dos braquetes, as amostras foram termocicladas (500 ciclos nas temperaturas de 5°C e 55°C. Após 48 horas, foram submetidas aos ensaios mecânicos de cisalhamento na direção oclusocervical, com velocidade de carga de 0,5mm/min, em uma máquina MTS 810. RESULTADOS: foram observadas resistências médias ao cisalhamento de 24,54±6,98MPa para o Grupo I, de 11,53±6,20MPa para o Grupo II e de 16,46±5,72MPa para o Grupo III. A Análise de Variância determinou diferença estatística entre as médias de resistência ao cisalhamento entre os grupos (p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the shear bond strength of stainless steel brackets bonded with fluoride releasing composite resins, comparing them with a conventional resin and to analyze the amount of resin left on the enamel surface. METHODS: Sixty premolars were randomly divided into three groups: Group I - Concise (3M, Group II - Ultrabond (Aditek do Brasil and Group III - Rely-a-Bond (Reliance. After bonding, the samples were thermocycled (500 cycles at 5ºC and 55ºC temperatures. After 48 hours they were subjected to shear bond strength testing, in the occluso-gingival direction, using an MTS 810 Universal Testing Machine with load speed of 0.5 mm/min. RESULTS: The results demonstrated a mean shear bond strength of 24.54 ± 6.98 MPa for Group I, 11.53 ± 6.20 MPa for Group II, and 16.46 ± 5.72 MPa for Group III. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA determined a statistical difference in the mean shear bond strengths between groups (p < 0.001. The Tukey test evidenced that the averages of the

  12. Transmissão vertical do HIV em população atendida no serviço de referência Vertical transmission of HIV in the population treated at a reference center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Teresinha Cruz Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar a taxa de transmissão vertical do HIV e avaliar os fatores envolvidos em partes materna e fetal. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado no Serviço de Atendimento Especializado. Foram investigados 102 prontuários de mulheres com HIV que deram à luz a recém-nascidos vivos. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de 6,6% de transmissão vertical. Entre as crianças infectadas: 40,0% de mães sem pré-natal e 75% sem a profilaxia com anti-retrovirais durante o pré-natal, 50,0% sem profilaxia com AZT com oral e amamentado. Entre as crianças não infectadas: 91,5% iniciaram a profilaxia com AZT oral ao nascimento e 84,1% das mães receberam ARV. CONCLUSÃO: A ocorrência de transmissão vertical do HIV no serviço de referência correspondeu a 6,6%, o que indica uma alta prevalência.OBJECTIVE: To identify the rate of vertical transmission of HIV and assess the factors involved in maternal and fetal share. METHODS: Cross-sectional study conducted in the Specialized Care Service. We investigated 102 clinical records of HIV positive women who had given birth to live newborns. The primary variable was the occurrence of vertical transmission of HIV and the secondary variables were the factors associated with vertical transmission of HIV. RESULTS: Prevalence of 6.6% of vertical transmission. Among the infected children: 40.0% of mothers with out prenatal care and 75% without prophylaxis with antiretroviral drugs during the prenatal, 50.0% without AZT prophylaxis with oral and breast-fed. Among the uninfected children: 91.5% were started on prophylaxis with oral AZT at birth and 84.1% of mothers received ARV delivery. CONCLUSION: The occurrence of vertical transmission of HIV in the reference service corresponded to 6.6%, indicating a high prevalence.

  13. Caracterização Mecânica de Compósitos de Poliamida/Fibra de Carbono Via Ensaios de Cisalhamento Interlaminar e de Mecânica da Fratura Mechanical Characterization of Polyamide/Carbon Fiber Composites by Using Interlaminar Shear Strength and Fracture Mechanical Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson C. Botelho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Compósitos termoplásticos a partir de poliamidas 6 e 6,6 e tecido de fibras de carbono com 40, 50 e 60 % em volume de reforço foram processados via moldagem por compressão a quente e caracterizados por ensaios mecânicos destrutivos (cisalhamento interlaminar em três pontos (short-beam, cisalhamento interlaminar por compressão (CST e ensaios de mecânica da fratura e por inspeção não-destrutiva (ultra-som e microscopias óptica e eletrônica de varredura. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que os compósitos termoplásticos processados apresentaram uma distribuição homogênea do polímero no reforço. Entretanto, nos compósitos com maior quantidade de poliamida (40 % de reforço foram observadas regiões ricas em matriz entre as camadas de tecido. Os ensaios de mecânica da fratura (DCB e ENF e de cisalhamento interlaminar em três pontos não apresentaram falha interlaminar, não sendo observada a propagação de trincas de forma homogênea e retilínea no interior do material. Em função destes resultados foi utilizado o ensaio de cisalhamento por compressão, desenvolvido no Institute of Polymer Research Dresden da Alemanha, que permitiu uma caracterização mais precisa dos compósitos termoplásticos estudados. Foi observado também, a partir dos ensaios de CST, que os compósitos obtidos da poliamida 6,6 apresentaram um aumento no valor do cisalhamento interlaminar de até 20 % com o aumento do volume de fibras.Thermoplastics composites of polyamide 6 and 6.6 reinforced with carbon fiber fabric were obtained by compression molding and characterized by destructive (short-beam, compression shear (CST and fracture mechanics testing as well as by non-destructive inspection (ultrasound analysis, optical and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that, in general, the matrix was homogeneously distributed about the reinforcing fabric. However, for the composites with higher polyamide content (>50% matrix-rich regions were

  14. Parto vertical em hospital universitário: série histórica, 1996 a 2005 Vertical-position births at a University Hospital: a time-series study, 1996 to 2005

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    Odaléa Maria Brüggemann

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: descrever a evolução do número de partos horizontais e verticais na maternidade do Hospital da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Brasil, e avaliar a associação dos mesmos com a taxa de cesárea, de internações dos recém-nascidos em unidade de tratamento intensivo e semi-intensivo e as transfusões sanguíneas maternas. MÉTODOS: estudo descritivo -série histórica. Foram incluídos todos os partos, as internações dos recémnascidos na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva e as transfusões sanguíneas maternas ocorridas de 1996 até 2005. Para testar as tendências, utilizou-se o método de Prais-Winsten para regressão linear generalizada. RESULTADOS: em 1996 a porcentagem de partos verticais era 5,4% e em 2005 foi 52,3%. A variação média anual dos partos verticais foi de +20,8% (p=0,007 e dos partos horizontais de -15,2% (pOBJECTIVES: to describe the evolution of the number of horizontal and vertical births in the maternity ward of the University Hospital of the Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil and to evaluate their correlation with the rates for caesarian, for transfer of newborns to intensive and semi-intensive care units, and maternal blood transfusions. METHODS: a time-series study. All births resulting in newborns being transferred to the Intensive Care Unit, and the maternal blood transfusions obstetrics ward between 1996 and 2005 were included in this study. In order to test the tendencies, the Prais-Winsten generalized linear regression method was used. RESULTS: in 1996 the percentage for vertical births was 5.4% and in 2005 52.3%. The average annual variance for vertical births was +20.8% (p=0.007, and for horizontal births -15.2% (p<0.001. Caesarian births showed a tendency to stabilize (p=0.243. There was a decrease of in the number of newborns transferred to the neonatal intensive care unit, 6.1% per year (p=0.001 and in the need of maternal blood transfusions (5.2% -p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: the

  15. Conector de cisalhamento tipo pino com cabeça para viga mista aço-concreto com laje alveolar

    OpenAIRE

    Sales, Marcel Willian Reis

    2014-01-01

    As vigas mistas de aço e concreto são estudadas há bastante tempo. O mecanismo de transferência de tensões de cisalhamento longitudinais pela interface entre a viga e a laje normalmente se dá por meio de conectores de cisalhamento. Nesse caso, o comportamento conjunto dos dois materiais depende da resistência e da rigidez do conector na interface, sendo bem conhecido para os conectores do tipo pino com cabeça associados com laje maciça de concreto. Entretanto, há pouca informaç...

  16. Sintering study in vertical fixed bed reactor for synthetic aggregate production; Estudo da sinterizacao em reator vertical de leito fixo para producao de agregado sintetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaresma, D.S.; Neves, A.S.S.; Melo, A.O.; Pereira, L.F.S.; Bezerra, P.T.S.; Macedo, E.N.; Souza, J.A.S., E-mail: danysq@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica

    2017-04-15

    The synthetic aggregates are being employed in civil construction for the reduction of mineral extraction activities. Within this context, the recycling of industrial waste is the basis of the majority of processes to reduce the exploitation of mineral resources. In this work the sintering in a vertical fixed bed reactor for synthetic aggregate production using 20% pellets and 80% charcoal was studied. The pellets were prepared from a mixture containing clay, charcoal and fly ash. Two experiments varying the speed of air sucking were carried out. The material produced was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, measures of their ceramic properties, and particle size analysis. The results showed that the solid-state reactions, during the sintering process, were efficient and the produced material was classified as coarse lightweight aggregate. The process is interesting for the sintering of aggregates, and can be controlled by composition, particle size, temperature gradient and gaseous flow. (author)

  17. Avaliação da capacidade preditiva da bioimpedância tetrapolar segmentada vertical na detecção do excesso de peso em adolescentes

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    Felipe Silva Neves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Objetivo Analisar a capacidade preditiva da bioimpedância tetrapolar segmentada vertical na detecção do excesso de peso em adolescentes com o uso da bioimpedância tetrapolar horizontal como referência. Métodos Estudo transversal feito com 411 alunos de 10 a 14 anos, de ambos os sexos, matriculados em escolas públicas e privadas, selecionados por processo amostral aleatório simples e estratificados de acordo com sexo, idade e proporção em cada instituição. Foi feita avaliação antropométrica e analisada a composição corporal por meio das bioimpedâncias bipolar vertical, tetrapolar horizontal e tetrapolar segmentada vertical. Foram construídas as curvas ROC com base nos cálculos de sensibilidade/especificidade para cada ponto das diferentes medições possíveis de gordura corporal do equipamento em questão. Posteriormente, foram executados os seguintes testes estatíticos: t de Student, correlação de Pearson e qui-quadrado de McNemar. Para a interpretação das variáveis, usou-se o software SPSS 17.0. Resultados A amostra foi composta por 53,7% meninas e 46,3% meninos. Do total, 20% e 12,5% exibiram, respectivamente, sobrepeso e obesidade. Os gráficos das medidas dos segmentos corporais refletiram-se em altos valores de sensibilidade e especificidade, além de elevadas áreas sob a curva ROC, que variaram de 0,83 a 0,95 para meninas e de 0,92 a 0,98 para meninos, o que sugere um desempenho levemente superior para o sexo masculino. O percentual de gordura total foi apontado como o critério mais eficiente do equipamento para a detecção do excesso de peso, enquanto a gordura segmentar do tronco apresentou-se como um indicador de precisão inferior. Conclusão A aparelho comportou-se satisfatoriamente na predição do excesso de peso.

  18. REFORÇO DE LAJES MACIÇAS COM UTILIZAÇÃO DE CONECTORES DE CISALHAMENTO (doi:10.5216/reec.V10i3.37145

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    HELINEUDES PAIVA SILVA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Em situações onde o reforço à flexão de lajes maciças de concreto armado exige incremento de resistência à tração, a técnica mais empregada é a fixação de chapas de aço ou tiras de materiais compósitos de fibra de carbono na superfície do concreto. Entretanto, esta técnica exige mão-de-obra especializada e têm custos elevados. Alternativamente, pode-se simplesmente reduzir o vão da laje com a introdução de vigas de concreto armado, com o auxílio de conetores de cisalhamento na interface laje-viga. Este trabalho apresenta resultados experimentais para três vigas de concreto armado de seção transversal “T” não monolíticas ensaiadas à flexão. Primeiramente foram confeccionadas as mesas com dimensões de (400 x 50 x 1800 mm3 visando simular trechos de lajes e que, posteriormente, foram ligadas a nervuras com dimensões de (120 x 200 mm2 utilizando conectores de cisalhamento, sendo que as principais variáveis do trabalho foram os diâmetros desses conectores objetivando garantir o comportamento satisfatório dessas ligações em situações reais de reforço estrutural. Os resultados mostraram que os conectores funcionaram adequadamente e que as melhores estimativas para a resistência ao cisalhamento são obtidas quando as mesas são consideradas. A técnica foi empregada com sucesso em um caso prático na cidade de Tucuruí/PA. ABSTRACT: In situations where the flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete solid slabs requires the tensile strength increase, the most used technique is fixing steel plates or carbon fiber composite strips on the concrete’s surface. However, this technique requires specialized labor and presents high costs. Alternatively, a simple solution is to reduce the span of the slab introducing reinforced concrete beams with the aid of shear connectors in the slab-beam interface. This paper presents experimental results for three reinforced concrete beams with non monolithic

  19. Knoop hardness of enamel and shear bond strength of brackets bonded with composite resin with and without fluoride Dureza Knoop do esmalte e resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes colados com resina composta com e sem flúor

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    Silvia Amélia Scudeler Vedovello

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the Knoop hardness of enamel, shear bond strength and failure pattern (adhesive, bracket/resin interface or mixed after bonding and debonding brackets, using resin composite with fluoride (Ortho Lite Cure, Ortho Source® and without fluoride (Orthobond, Morelli®. METHODS: Fragments (6 mm x 6 mm of 40 bovine incisor crowns were embedded in acrylic self-polymerizing resin. The Knoop hardness measurements were performed before and after bonding metal brackets. The specimens were divided into two groups, according to composite resin: with fluoride (Ortho Lite Cure, Ortho Source® and without fluoride (Orthobond, Morelli®. After bonding, the specimens were submitted to demineralization and remineralization cycling for 14 days. Shear bond strength testing was performed in a universal test machine (EMIC, at 5 mm/min crosshead speed. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in shear bond strength between Groups I and II. After demineralization and remineralization procedures (DE/RE, the specimens bonded with Ortho Lite Cure showed higher Knoop hardness than Orthobond. For both groups there was predominance of failure at bracket/resin interface. CONCLUSION: specimens bonded with fluoride resin composite showed higher microhardness after DE/RE cycling than those bonded with resin composite without fluoride, although no difference in shear bond strength was found.OBJETIVO: o propósito deste estudo foi avaliar a dureza Knoop do esmalte, resistência ao cisalhamento e padrão de falha (adesiva; interface braquete/resina; e mista após a colagem e descolagem de braquetes, utilizando uma resina composta com flúor (Ortho Lite Cure, Ortho Source® e uma sem flúor (Orthobond, Morelli®. MÉTODOS: fragmentos (6mm x 6mm de 40 coroas de incisivos bovinos foram embutidos em resina acrílica autopolimerizável. A dureza Knoop foi avaliada antes e após a colagem dos braquetes metálicos. Os corpos de prova

  20. Distribuição vertical e sazonal de Anopheles (Kerteszia em Ilha Comprida, SP Vertical and seasonal distribution of Anopheles (Kerteszia in Ilha Comprida, Southeastern Brazil

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    Helene Mariko Ueno

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Anopheles bellator e An. cruzii são vetores da malária-bromélia, característicos de áreas preservadas. O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a distribuição sazonal e vertical desses anofelinos, visando contribuir para a avaliação do risco de transmissão desse agravo. MÉTODOS: No município de Ilha Comprida, SP, foram instaladas armadilhas luminosas tipo CDC iscadas com gelo seco, das 17 às 20h, a um, seis e 12m do solo, quinzenalmente, de setembro de 2001 a setembro de 2002. A relação da densidade desses anofelinos com o clima foi avaliada pelo coeficiente de Spearman e suas densidades entre os estratos foram comparadas pelo teste não paramétrico de Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: Do total de 55.226 mosquitos, 1.341 eram An. bellator (2,4% do total de Culicidae, sendo capturados 278 indivíduos próximo ao solo, 261 a seis metros e 802 na copa (12 m. Na mesma ordem, foram capturados 452, 1.032 e 4.420 adultos de An. cruzii, totalizando 5.904 mosquitos desta espécie (10,7%. Houve correlação positiva entre a densidade das duas espécies com a temperatura máxima, e entre An. bellator e amplitude térmica diária. As densidades das duas espécies foram maiores na copa. Nos três estratos, An. cruzii predominou sobre An. bellator. CONCLUSÕES: Confirmou-se o comportamento acrodendrófilo dessas espécies, principalmente An. cruzii. Após medidas drásticas de controle, esses anofelinos permaneceram na região mas, atualmente, não são alvo de vigilância entomológica. A persistência da transmissão de malária autóctone e o incremento de atividades de ecoturismo na região apontam a necessidade de monitoramento dessas espécies.OBJECTIVE: Anopheles bellator e An. cruzii are vectors of the so-called bromeliad-malaria, typical of conserved areas. The objective was to evaluate the seasonal and vertical distribution of these anophelines, aiming at assessing the risk of malaria transmission. METHODS: In the municipality of Ilha

  1. Acesso transeptal vertical ampliado em reoperações valvares mitrais com átrio esquerdo pequeno Extended vertical transseptal approach in mitral valve reoperation with a small left atrium

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    Walter Vosgrau Fagundes

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a abordagem transeptal vertical ampliada em reoperações da valva mitral com átrio esquerdo pequeno. MÉTODO: De janeiro de 2001 a dezembro de 2002, 15 pacientes portadores de doença valvar mitral com indicação de reintervenção cirúrgica, átrio esquerdo pequeno (menor ou igual a 4,0 cm e fibrilação atrial crônica, foram submetidos à abordagem transeptal vertical ampliada da valva mitral. Nove pacientes (pt eram do sexo feminino. A idade variou de 22 a 48 anos. As indicações cirúrgicas foram: disfunção de prótese mitral (seis pt; insuficiência mitral (cinco pt e dupla lesão mitral (quatro pt. Três pacientes apresentavam insuficiência aórtica associada e um pt, insuficiência tricúspide. Nove (60% pacientes encontravam-se em ICC CF III da NYHA e seis (40%, em CF IV. RESULTADOS: A exposição do aparelho valvar mitral foi excelente. O tempo de circulação extracorpórea variou de 65 a 150 min (média = 95min. Foram implantadas próteses em todos os pacientes (15 mitrais, três aórticas e um tricúspide. A mortalidade hospitalar foi de 6,7%, com um óbito devido a baixo débito cardíaco e falência de múltiplos órgãos. Um (6,7% paciente apresentou broncopneumonia na fase hospitalar. Dez pacientes permaneceram com fibrilação atrial, três pt reverteram para ritmo sinusal e um evoluiu com ritmo juncional. A permanência hospitalar média foi de 8,2 dias. Doze (85,7% pacientes encontram-se em CF I e dois (14,3% em CF II. A curva atuarial de sobrevida é de 92,5 % em 22 meses de seguimento. CONCLUSÃO: A técnica cirúrgica empregada proporciona excelente visibilização do aparelho valvar mitral, com baixo índice de complicações.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the extended vertical transseptal approach in mitral valve reoperation with a small left atrium. METHOD: From January 2001 to December 2002, 15 patients with previous mitral operations, small left atrium and atrial fibrillation

  2. Diafragmas horizontais de piso em madeira, confeccionados com chapas de OSB e vigas I, submetido ao carregamento vertical = Wood light-frame floor diaphragms, made with OSB panels and Ijoists, subjected to vertical loads

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    Altevir Castro dos Santos

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho aborda construções em madeira sob a ótica de sistemas com estruturas leves; apresenta análise computacional por meio de modelagem pelo método de elementos finitos de diafragmas de piso e vigas I, submetidas a ensaio de flexão a quatro pontos. O objetivo geral é avaliar a resistência e a rigidez de diafragmas horizontais,construídos em Sistemas Leves de Madeira, quando submetidos a ações verticais. As análises foram realizadas por meio do programa computacional SAP2000 e foram avaliadas as influências dos seguintes parâmetros: espaçamento entre vigas que constituem os elementosde ossatura do diafragma horizontal e o espaçamento entre pregos de fixação do contrapiso, composto por chapas de OSB – Oriented Strand Board. Ao final do trabalho, comparam-se os resultados obtidos a partir das análises numérica e teórica, e são apresentadas algumasconclusões.Wood light-frame floor diaphragms, made with OSB panels and I-joists, subjected to vertical loads. This work is focused on lightweight woodframe constructions, and presents a finite element modeling of floor diaphragms and wood I-joists subjected to four-point bending. It presents the results of experimental tests on wood I-joists subjected to vertical loads. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the resistance and rigidity of wood light-frame floor diaphragms, when subjected to monotonic vertical forces acting in the plane of the floor. The analyses were performed using the SAP2000 computer program and tested with diferent constructive arrangements, and the influence of the following variables were examined: distance between wood I-joists, and distance between nails around the perimeter of the OSB boards. Finally, a comparison between analytical and numerical results is performed.

  3. Espessura da lâmina de cisalhamento na avaliação instrumental da textura da carne Shear blade thickness in the instrumental evaluation of meat texture

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    Marcos Franke Pinto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A padronização da textura é um dos principais problemas relacionados à qualidade da carne bovina. Por isso, a avaliação objetiva da maciez, por métodos mecânicos, vem sendo estudada há muitos anos. Para que a avaliação instrumental da textura seja uma ferramenta efetiva nos estudos envolvendo a maciez da carne, é necessário minimizar as causas de variação envolvidas na análise. Atualmente, a força de cisalhamento Warner-Bratzler é o método mais amplamente empregado para essa finalidade. O protocolo padrão dessa técnica analítica preconiza a utilização de uma lâmina de cisalhamento de 1,016mm de espessura. Neste trabalho, foram comparados dados de textura de carne bovina obtidos com a lâmina de cisalhamento padrão Warner-Bratzler, de 1,016mm de espessura, e uma lâmina mais grossa, de 3,05mm de espessura. Após o abate, amostras de músculo Longissimus dorsi, semelhantes em relação aos teores de umidade, lipídeos e proteínas, foram submetidas a duas diferentes temperaturas de resfriamento, atingindo diferentes velocidades de queda de temperatura e, consequentemente, diferentes graus de contração do tecido muscular, o que foi confirmado pela determinação do comprimento dos sarcômeros. Os resultados demonstraram uma maior sensibilidade da lâmina padrão Warner-Bratzler na detecção de variações da textura da carne, em função da velocidade de resfriamento.Standardization of texture is one of the main problems related to beef quality. Because of that, objective evaluation of tenderness performed by mechanic methodologies has been studied for years. In order to count on instrumental texture evaluation as a valuable tool in meat tenderness studies, it is necessary to minimize the causes of variation that might be involved in the trial. Nowadays, Warner-Bratzler shear force is widely used for meat tenderness determination. The standard protocol of this methodology establishes the utilization of shear blade 1

  4. "Vertical mulching" como prática conservacionista para manejo de enxurrada em sistema plantio direto Vertical mulching as a soil conservation practice to manage runoff in no tillage systems

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    José Eloir Denardin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Nas regiões brasileiras de clima temperado e subtropical úmido, situadas ao sul do paralelo 24° de latitude sul, as características fundamentais da chuva apresentam potencial para superar a taxa de infiltração de água no solo e gerar enxurrada, em qualquer época do ano, independentemente do uso e do manejo de solo. O sistema plantio direto não tem sido implementado com a plenitude das práticas conservacionistas requeridas pelas condições de solo dessas regiões do País para conter o potencial erosivo de chuvas intensas. A enxurrada resulta na produção de sedimento enriquecido por agroquímicos, que, além de promover prejuízos econômicos ao sistema agrícola produtivo, pode afetar a ambiência. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a eficiência da prática conservacionista vertical mulching no manejo de enxurrada em lavouras sob sistema plantio direto, por meio da quantificação do índice de enriquecimento do sedimento. O estudo contemplou amostragens pareadas de solo em lavouras sem e com a prática conservacionista vertical mulching. As amostras pareadas foram constituídas por solo representativo de cada lavoura e pelo respectivo sedimento gerado por erosão hídrica. As amostras foram submetidas à determinação de pH em água, índice SMP, P disponível, K, Ca, Mg e Al trocáveis e matéria orgânica, e calculadas a soma de bases, a saturação por bases e a capacidade de troca de cátions efetiva. Os resultados indicam que a prática conservacionista vertical mulching reduz o grau de enriquecimento do sedimento produzido e previne o carreamento deste para fora da lavoura, minimizando perdas econômicas e riscos à ambiência. Em adição, infere-se que o sistema plantio direto, sem práticas complementares para manejo de enxurrada, não representa manejo conservacionista de solo capaz de prevenir degradação ambiental.In regions of temperate and subtropical humid climate in Brazil, below the parallel of 24

  5. Análise do comportamento dos pilares mistos considerando a utilização de conectores de cisalhamento

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, Flavia Regina

    2002-01-01

    As estruturas mistas de aço e concreto são sistemas que envolvem o comportamento interativo de componentes de aço estrutural com elementos de concreto para resistir às ações externas. Essa interação entre o aço e o concreto deve ser garantida para que haja o suporte de cargas. Para tanto, as tensões de aderência entre o concreto e o aço não devem ser excedidas. Caso isso aconteça, é então necessária a utilização dos conectores de cisalhamento. A influência da utilização dos conectores de cisa...

  6. Numerical analysis of hydrodynamic forces acting on vertical lift gates; Analise dos esforcos hidrodinamicas em comportas hidraulicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Jell Lima de [Mecanica Pesada S.A., Taubate, SP (Brazil); Amorim, Jose Carlos Cesar [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: jcamorim@ime.eb.br

    1997-07-01

    A numerical analysis has been developed for calculating viscous flows controlled by a vertical lift gate and hydrodynamic forces acting on it. The numerical solution is obtained from the incompressible Navier-Stoles equations. The numerical techniques is based on a finite element method. A Poisson equation is derived from the pressure-weighted substitution of the full momentum equations into the continuity equation. Turbulence effects are simulated by a K-{epsilon} turbulence model. The procedure developed here is applied for a vertical lift gate operating in a CESP installation, and the results are compared with available experimental data at various opening positions. Good agreement is obtained for the velocity and pressure distributions. (author)

  7. Efeito do Uso do Estabilizador Active Ankle System® na Altura do Salto Vertical em Jogadores de Voleibol Effect of the Use of the Active Ankle System Stabilizer in The Vertical Jump Height in Volleyball Players

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    Marco Túlio Saldanha dos Anjos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVO: Na prática do voleibol, as entorses de tornozelo representam 25 a 50% das lesões agudas. Medidas preventivas, como estabilizadores dinâmicos de tornozelo (EDT, são frequentemente utilizadas, porém, há controvérsias se esse dispositivo pode ou não interferir no desempenho esportivo. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o efeito do EDT Active Ankle System® (AAS na altura do salto vertical em jogadoras de voleibol. MÉTODOS: Selecionou-se uma amostra de conveniência de 14 atletas entre 14 e 18 anos de idade, do gênero feminino. Estas foram instruídas a saltar simulando o gesto esportivo do ataque e do bloqueio com e sem o EDT, sobre placas de contato conectadas a um computador portátil que, através de um programa, calculava a altura do salto vertical. Previamente, foi feito um estudo-piloto para determinação do coeficiente de correlação intraclasse para as quatro condições de teste (n = 4, no qual os valores encontrados foram: ataque com EDT, 0,95; ataque sem EDT, 0,76; bloqueio com EDT, 0,92; bloqueio sem EDT, 0,89. Os dados de altura de cada tipo de salto vertical nas condições com e sem EDT foram comparadas através de testes t de Student para amostras pareadas. RESULTADOS: Para um nível de significância de α = 0,05, não foi encontrada diferença significativa entre os saltos do ataque com o EDT (0,41 + 0,073m e sem o EDT (0,41 + 0,086m, p = 0,517. Também não foi encontrada diferença significativa para os saltos do bloqueio com o EDT (0,31 ± 0,048m e sem o EDT (0,32 ± 0,050m, p = 0,06. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados do presente estudo apontam para não interferência do uso do EDT AAS no desempenho do salto vertical em atletas de voleibol.INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: In volleyball practice, ankle sprains represent 25 to 50% of the acute injuries. Preventive measures such as dynamic ankle bracing (DAB are very often used; however, there is controversy on whether this would affect athletic

  8. Vertical distribution of phytoplankton functional groups in a tropical shallow lake: driving forces on a diel scale Distribuição vertical de grupos funcionais fitoplanctônicos em um lago tropical raso: forças direcionadoras em escala nictemeral

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    Luciana Gomes Barbosa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study analyzed the vertical distribution of phytoplankton functional groups in two diel cycles in a warm monomictic shallow tropical lake; METHODS: Sampling of the abiotic variables, phytoplankton and zooplankton communities was performed at intervals of 3 hours over 24 hours in vertical profiles, in the stratification (February and circulation (July periods; RESULTS: The high thermal stability and the partial atelomixis favored the coexistence of functional groups that are sensitive to destratification, N A and F, composed by desmids and Chlorophyceae coccoids, and groups S2 and Lo, which persisted during the circulation, and were composed by filamentous cyanobacteria which do not fix N2 and dinoflagellates, respectively. The discontinuity in the vertical distribution of the functional groups, with dominance of N A and F in the epilimnion and R and Lo in the metalimnion and hypolimnion, was characteristic of the stratification, and differences between the daytime and nighttime periods were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction of 80% of the biomass of the NA group during the mixing period indicates the influence of thermal stability and partial atelomixis as determinant factors in the compartmentalization of functional groups, restricting daytime vertical migration (DVM and loss by sedimentation during the stratification period.OBJETIVO: Analisar a distribuição vertical dos grupos funcionais fitoplanctônicos em dois ciclos nictemerais em um lago tropical monomítico raso; MÉTODOS: As amostragens das variáveis abióticas, comunidades fitoplanctônica e zooplanctônica foram realizadas a intervalos de 3 horas ao longo de 24 horas em perfis verticais, nos períodos de estratificação (fevereiro e de circulação (julho; RESULTADOS: A elevada estabilidade térmica e a atelomixia parcial favoreceram a coexistência de grupos funcionais sensíveis a desestratificação N A e F, compostos por desmidias e clorofícias cocoides e

  9. Soil shear strength under non-irrigated and irrigated short duration grazing systems Resistência ao cisalhamento de um solo sob pastejo rotacionado com e sem irrigação

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    Rita de Cássia Ribeiro Carvalho

    2010-06-01

    alteração física nesse solo; e propor, usando propriedades da física do solo, um índice de correção para cálculo da Taxa de lotação para pastagens. As atividades de campo ocorreram no período de março de 2006 a março de 2007 na Fazenda Experimental da Fundação de Ensino Superior de Passos, unidade associada à Universidade do Estado de Minas Gerais. Foram utilizados 6 hectares, sendo: 2 ha de mata, 2 ha de pastagem irrigada e 2 ha de pastagem não irrigada. A forrageira usada foi a Brachiaria brizanta cv MG-5 Vitória. A área da pastagem foi dividida em piquetes. Dois lotes distintos de animais foram usados: um para a área irrigada e outro para a área não irrigada. Nas áreas, foram coletadas amostras indeformadas de solo, as quais foram submetidas ao ensaio de cisalhamento direto. As envoltórias de resistência ao cisalhamento em uma tensão de 6 kPa para pastagem irrigada apresentaram tensão cisalhante superior à da pastagem não irrigada. A pastagem irrigada e mata natural apresentaram tensão cisalhante superior à da pastagem não irrigada na tensão de 6 kPa. Na tensão de 33 kPa não foram encontradas diferenças na resistência ao cisalhamento entre os manejos e uso. A coesão aparente foi responsável pelas possíveis alterações da estrutura do solo. Os valores para fator de correção foram muito próximos a 1, o que pode indicar uma possível compactação em períodos de manejo prolongados.

  10. AVALIAÇÃO DA RESISTÊNCIA AO CISALHAMENTO E À DELAMINAÇÃO EM MADEIRA LAMINADA COLADA

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    Carlito Calil Neto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Glued Laminated Wood has a large range of applications. In Brazil, its employment as cross-piece poles for overhead electrical power has attracted the attention of companies in the industry, motivated by the potential use of this material. Among the factors that influence the mechanical performance of Glulam solutions stand out efficiency and affinity of the adhesives to the species of wood used, the type of treatment and moisture content of wood veneer, motivating the development of new research on this topic. This research aimed to investigate, by Design of Experiments (DOE, the influence of wood (pinus, teca, eucalipto, adhesive (Purbond; Cascophen and treatment (CCA, CCB, CCBS in the variable responses shear strength and delamination, consisting in the same combination factors evaluated in ANEEL/EESCPD220- 07 project: Head Crosshead Glulam Series. The results of the statistical analysis showed that the species factor expressed significant effect for both response variables evaluated, did not occur with adhesive and treatment factors. Moisture content was significant in the wood evaluated when analyzed the shear strength, and the teca wood showed the highest shear strength and also relating to the delamination.

  11. Efeito da temperatura e taxa de cisalhamento nas propriedades de escoamento da polpa de Cupuaçu (T. grandiflorum Schum integral Effect of temperature and shear rate in the properties of whole flow Cupuassu pulp (Theobroma grandiflorum

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    Gilvanete Maria Ferreira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento reológico da polpa de cupuaçu integral foi determinado na faixa de temperatura de 10 a 60ºC. Os efeitos da temperatura e da taxa de deformação foram avaliados por meio de testes em cisalhamento estacionário. As análises reológicas foram conduzidas num reômetro Thermo Haake RheoStress 1. Os reogramas foram descritos pelos modelos reológicos de Ostwald-de-Waelle e o de Herschel-Bulkley. As curvas de escoamento mais bem ajustadas pelo modelo de Ostwald-de-Waelle. O produto apresentou comportamento pseudoplástico, e o índice de comportamento de fluxo (n decresceu com o aumento da temperatura. O efeito da temperatura sobre a viscosidade aparente foi descrita por uma equação tipo Arrhenius e discutida em termos de energia de ativação. Essa energia aumentou com o aumento da taxa de deformação, sendo obtidos valores na faixa de 1 a 2 kcal/gmol.The rheological behavior of the entire cupuassu pulp was determined in the temperature range 10 - 60ºC. The effects of temperature and deformation rate were evaluated by means of shear flow tests. Rheometry analyses were conducted with a Thermo Haake RheoStress 1 system. Rheograms were described by models by Ostwald-of-Waelle and Herschel-Bulkley. The Ostwald-of-Waelle model successfully represented pulp flow behavior. The product presented shear-thinning behavior and the flow behavior index (n decreased with the increase of temperature. The effect of temperature on the apparent viscosity in cupuassu pulp was described by an Arrhenius equation and discussed in terms of activation energy. The increase in shear rate caused an energy increase, and values were obtained in the range of a line from 1 to 2 kcal/gmol.

  12. Prevenção da transmissão vertical do HIV: atitude dos obstetras em Salvador, Brasil Prevention of HIV vertical transmission: obstetricians'atitude in Salvador, Brasil

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    João Paulo Queiroz Farias

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar as atitudes e conhecimento dos obstetras das maternidades públicas da cidade de Salvador (MPS sobre as recomendações do Ministério da Saúde para a profilaxia da transmissão vertical do vírus humano da imunodeficiência (HIV e terapia antiretroviral em gestantes. Avaliou-se também a influência das condições de trabalho, disponibilidade da testagem rápida e da terapia antiretroviral em relação à aplicação destas recomendações. MÉTODOS: realizou-se um estudo de corte transversal entre agosto e novembro de 2005, envolvendo 129/152 (85% dos obstetras de todas as MPS. Utilizou-se como instrumento um questionário anônimo, estruturado e auto-explicativo, com questões sobre as características da população, condições de trabalho e disponibilidade de insumos, conhecimento e atitudes relacionadas ao aconselhamento e testagem para o HIV e condutas com as pacientes (uso da zidovudina (AZT, reconhecimento de fatores de risco, escolha e manejo da via de parto e cuidados no puerpério. RESULTADOS: dos obstetras, 69% referiram conhecer integralmente as recomendações do Ministério da Saúde; 90,7% concordaram com a solicitação compulsória da testagem rápida para o HIV; 63,6% escolheram a cesariana para via de parto; 38% contra-indicaram o parto por via vaginal; 37,5% recomendaram isolamento das pacientes soropositivas e 58,1% indicaram laqueadura tubária. A maioria (90% dos sujeitos referiram a existência de fatores prejudiciais à aplicabilidade das recomendações, sendo que os mais apontados foram a realização inadequada e a indisponibilidade das informações do pré-natal na admissão. Embora a testagem rápida estivesse disponível, apenas um terço dos entrevistados afirmou que o resultado estava sempre disponível em tempo hábil. CONCLUSÕES: algumas atitudes relacionadas à assistência à gestante com HIV foram discordantes das recomendações do Ministério da Saúde. Na opinião dos

  13. Transmissão vertical do HIV: situação encontrada em uma maternidade de Teresina Transmisión vertical del HIV: situación encontrada en una maternidade de Teresina Vertical transmission of HIV: situation found in a maternity of Teresina

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    Liliam Mendes de Araújo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Oaumento dos casos de AIDS em mulheres evidencia um progressivo aumento da transmissão vertical do HIV, no Brasil e no Piauí. Considerando a relevância do tema o presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar as condições da implementação das normas e medidas recomendadas pelo Ministério da Saúde para prevenir a transmissão vertical do HIV em uma maternidade de Teresina - PI. O caminho teórico-metodológico compreendeu o estudo da dinâmica organizacional e dos seus atores, por meio de abordagem qualitativa. Para obtenção dos dados foram realizadas 17 entrevistas semi-estruturadas. Os resultados mostraram que as recomendações do Ministério da Saúde não foram atendidas na sua totalidade evidenciando a precariedade da assistência prestada para o binômio mãe/filho.El aumento de los casos de AIDS en mujeres, evidencia un progresivo aumento de la transmisión vertical de lo HIV en el Brasil, e en el Piauí. Considerando la relevancia del tema, el presente estudio tuve como objetivo analizar las condiciones de la implementación de las reglas y medidas recomendadas por el Ministerio de la Salud para prevenir la transmisión vertical del HIV en una maternidad de Teresina-PI. El camino teórico-metodológico comprendió el estudio de la dinámica organizacional y de sus actores, a través del abordaje cualitativa.. Para la obtención de los datos fueran realizados 17 entrevistas medio-estructuradas. Los resultados mostraran que las recomendaciones del Ministerio de la Salud non fueran atendidas en la suya totalidad, evidenciando la precariedad de la asistencia prestada, para el binomio madre / hijo.The increase of the number of cases of AIDS among women reveals a progressive increase of the vertical transmission of HIV in Brazil, as well as in Piauí. Considering the relevance of the subject, this study had as objective to analyze the conditions of the implementation of the rules and measures recommended by the Ministry of Health to

  14. Climatologia da estrutura vertical da atmosfera em novembro para Belém-PA Climatology of the atmospheric vertical structure over the Belém-PA city during november

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    Daniela dos Santos Ananias

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Usando um conjunto de dados para um período de 26 anos (1982 a 2007, este trabalho apresentou um estudo diagnóstico sobre a estrutura vertical da temperatura do ar, temperatura do ponto de orvalho e umidade relativa sobre a região de Belém-PA, durante o mês de novembro. As análises foram conduzidas para duas composições contrastantes no que se refere ao regime de precipitação: a composição dos anos chuvosos e a composição dos anos secos, as quais foram estabelecidas objetivamente pelo método dos percentis. Os resultados apresentados permitiram concluir que a principal diferença observada nos perfis de temperatura e umidade atmosférica, comparando-se os perfis dos anos chuvosos e secos, ocorre na camada atmosférica entre os médios e altos níveis da troposfera (entre os níveis padrões de 700 hPa e 400 hPa. Nesta camada, a diferença entre as temperaturas do ar e do ponto de orvalho é significativamente maior e o contraste de umidade associado à convecção também apresenta os maiores valores. Em geral, as composições demonstraram que os perfis de temperatura anomalamente mais quente (frio e os de umidade anomalamente mais úmido (seco associam-se aos anos com registro de chuva acima (abaixo do normal na região de Belém.The present work reports a diagnostic study on the vertical structure of air temperature, dew point temperature and relative humidity over the region of Belém-PA (eastern Amazon, based on monthly dataset for a period of 26 years (1982 to 2007. The focus is on the transition period from dry to wet season in the eastern Amazon, i.e., the month of November. Two contrasting composites in relation to the rainfall regime were considered: the wet and the dry year's composites, which were established objectively by the percentiles method. The results showed that the main difference observed in the temperature and humidity profiles, comparing dry and wet years, occurs in the atmospheric layer between the middle

  15. Respostas neuromusculares dos membros inferiores durante protocolo intermitente de saltos verticais em voleibolistas Neuromuscular responses of the lower limb muscles during vertical jumping in volleyball athletes

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    Caroline Tosini Felicissimo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o desempenho e as respostas eletromiográficas dos músculos Reto Femoral, Bíceps Femoral e Gastrocnêmio Medial durante protocolo de saltos verticais. Participaram 13 voleibolistas do sexo feminino (15,6 ± 0,9 anos. Inicialmente foi realizado um protocolo de potência máxima (três saltos máximos, seguido do protocolo de resistência de saltos (ciclos de três saltos máximos em aproximadamente 10 segundos (s - um salto a cada três s, com recuperação de 15 s. O tempo de duração do protocolo de resistência foi de 20 minutos. Foi usada a técnica do salto com contramovimento sem ajuda dos braços, sobre tapete de contato. Para tratamento dos dados os saltos foram divididos em quatro períodos com 12 ciclos cada um. Os resultados mostraram queda na altura dos saltos de aproximadamente 1,3cm entre os períodos de 1 a 4, sendo que, essa queda foi mais significativa nos 3º e 4º períodos em comparação ao 1º e 2º. Entretanto, com relação às variáveis RMS e FM, não ocorreu alteração nas respostas eletromiográficas entre músculos e períodos. Concluiu-se, assim, que a fadiga pode depender de variáveis psicofisiológicas, ao nível do SNC, que também influem no desempenho.The purpose of this study was to analyze the performance and the electromyographic responses of the muscles Rectus Femoris, Biceps Femoris and Gastrocnemius Medialis during vertical jumping protocol. Participated 13 female volleyball players (15,6 ± 0,9 years. Initially was performed a protocol of maximum power (three maximum jumps, followed by resistance jumps protocol (cycles of three maximum jumps in about 10 seconds (s - one jump every three s, with recovery of 15s. The duration of resistance protocol was 20 minutes. Technique used was countermovement jump without the aid of arms on a mat of contact. The data collected during the jumps were divided into four periods containing 12 cycles each. The results showed a

  16. Evaluation of shear bond strength of different treatments of ceramic bracket surfaces Avaliação da resistência ao cisalhamento de diferentes tratamentos na superfície de braquetes cerâmicos

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    Patrícia Helou Ramos Andrade

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the bonding strength of the ceramic bracket and composite resin restoration interface, using four types of treatment on the base of the bracket. METHODOLOGY: 48 photoactivated composite resin discs were used (FiltekTM Z250 contained in specimens and divided into 4 groups of 12 specimens for each group according to the type of treatment performed on the base of the brackets. Once the brackets were bonded, the specimens were subjected to shear stress carried out in a universal testing machine (MTS: 810 Material Test System calibrated with a fixed speed of 0.5 mm / minute. The values obtained were recorded and compared by means of appropriate statistical tests - analysis of variance and then Tukey's test. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The surfaces of ceramic brackets conditioned with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 1 minute, followed by aluminum oxide blasting, 50µ, after silane application and primer application, was considered the best method to prepare surfaces of ceramic brackets prior to orthodontic esthetic bonding.OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência à união da interface entre braquete cerâmico e restauração de resina composta, empregando quatro tipos de tratamento na base do braquete. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 48 discos de resina fotoativada (Filtek® Z250 incluídos em corpos de prova, divididos em quatro grupos, com 12 espécimes em cada grupo, de acordo com o tipo de tratamento realizado na base do braquete. Uma vez colados os braquetes, os corpos de prova foram submetidos à tensão de cisalhamento, realizado numa máquina universal de ensaios (MTS: 810 Material Test System calibrada com velocidade fixa de 0,5mm/min. Os valores obtidos foram registrados e comparados por meio de médias, utilizando-se testes estatísticos adequados (análise de Variância e, posteriormente, teste de Tukey. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: o condicionamento das superfícies dos braquetes cerâmicos com ácido hidrofluorídrico a 10% por 1 minuto

  17. Bloqueio do plexo braquial, por via infraclavicular vertical, em paciente com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica: relato de caso Bloqueo del plexo braquial, por vía infraclavicular vertical, en paciente con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica: relato de caso Infraclavicular vertical brachial plexus blockade in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: case report

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    Diogo Brüggemann da Conceição

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Os pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC têm risco aumentado de complicações pós-operatórias, sobretudo quando submetidos à anestesia geral. O bloqueio do plexo braquial representa uma alternativa para estes pacientes em intervenções cirúrgicas de membros superiores. O objetivo deste relato foi apresentar um caso de bloqueio do plexo braquial, por via infraclavicular vertical em paciente com DPOC com fratura de cotovelo. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo feminino, 67 anos, 52 kg, estado físico ASA III, com indicação de osteossíntese de cotovelo, portadora de bronquiectasias desde nove anos de idade após uma pneumonia. Apresentava tosse produtiva habitualmente, e fora submetida à avaliação de seu pneumologista que a liberou para o procedimento. Após instalação de monitorização com pressão arterial não-invasiva, ECG e oxímetro de pulso, foi realizado bloqueio do plexo braquial por via infraclavicular vertical com 30 mL de ropivacaína a 0,5%. A intervenção cirúrgica foi realizada sem intercorrências. A paciente recebeu alta hospitalar no dia seguinte ao procedimento cirúrgico. CONCLUSÕES: O bloqueio do plexo braquial por via infraclavicular vertical é uma técnica alternativa para portadores de DPOC e fratura de cotovelo, por sua menor morbidade quando comparado com a anestesia geral e com a via supraclavicular.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Los pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (DPOC presentan riesgo mayor de complicaciones postoperatorias especialmente cuando se les someten a la anestesia general. El bloqueo del plexo braquial representa una alternativa para esos pacientes en intervenciones quirúrgicas de miembros superiores. El objetivo de este relato fue el de presentar un caso de bloqueo del plexo braquial, por vía infraclavicular vertical en paciente con DPOC con fractura de codo. RELATO DEL CASO: Paciente del sexo femenino, 67 años, 52 kg

  18. Prevalência de HIV em gestantes e transmissão vertical segundo perfil socioeconômico, Vitória, ES Factores asociados a recidiva en hanseníasis en Mato Grosso, Centro-oeste de Brasil HIV prevalence in pregnant women and vertical transmission in according to socioeconomic status, Southeastern Brazil

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    Anne Caroline Barbosa Cerqueira Vieira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência de infecção por HIV em gestantes e a taxa de transmissão vertical, segundo o perfil socioeconômico dos bairros de residência das mães. MÉTODOS: Estudo ecológico exploratório utilizando a base de dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação de gestantes HIV-positivas e aids em crianças notificadas entre 2000 e 2006 em Vitória, ES. Para análise das informações socioeconômicas foi utilizado o Índice de Qualidade Urbana. A prevalência de HIV em gestantes e a taxa de transmissão vertical foram calculadas. A distribuição espacial dos casos foi realizada no programa Terraview 3.2.0. Para verificar a associação entre a qualidade urbana e a prevalência de HIV em gestantes utilizou-se o modelo de regressão de Poisson. RESULTADOS: Um total de 137 gestantes e 14 crianças infectadas por transmissão vertical foi notificado no período. Sete crianças correspondiam a mães HIV-positivas sem notificação de caso no período analisado. A prevalência de infecção em gestantes no período foi de 0,44% e a taxa de transmissão vertical foi de 9,7%. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de infecção por HIV em gestantes e a transmissão vertical associam-se à qualidade urbana do bairro de residência, indicando que os bairros com menor qualidade urbana devem ser priorizados quanto às ações para redução da transmissão vertical.OBJETIVO: Analizar factores asociados a la ocurrencia de recidiva en hanseníasis. MÉTODOS: Estudio retrospectivo caso-control con 159 pacientes mayores de 15 años diagnosticados con hanseníasis en cinco municipios del Estado de Mato Grosso, Centro-oeste de Brasil, cuyas unidades de salud eran consideradas de referencia para el atendimiento. El grupo de casos incluyó 53 individuos con recidiva de 2005 a 2007 y fue comparado con el grupo control (106 con alta por cura en 2005, pareados por sexo y clasificación operacional. Se usaron datos del Sistema de Informaci

  19. Modelo para simulação da dinâmica de nitrato em colunas verticais de solo não saturado A simulation model of nitrate displacement in vertical columns in a non-saturated soil

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    Jarbas H. de Miranda

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A agricultura intensiva está sempre em busca de incrementos de produtividade mas, em contrapartida, pouca atenção é dedicada a possíveis impactos ambientais. Portanto, o entendimento sobre processos de transporte de solutos no solo auxilia na redução da sua lixiviação para as camadas subsuperficiais. Neste sentido, objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, desenvolver e avaliar um modelo computacional aplicado para simulação da dinâmica de solutos no solo por meio de soluções numéricas de equações diferenciais que descrevam esse transporte. Pelos resultados obtidos, o modelo apresentou bom ajuste das concentrações de nitrato e dos perfis de umidade, simulados com relação aos medidos em condições de laboratório em coluna vertical de solo não saturado.Intensive agriculture always aims at increased productivity, with limited or no attention dedicated to possible impacts on the environment. Therefore, the understanding of processes of solute transport in the soil contributes to reduction of leaching to the deep layers. In this connection, the present study had the objective of developing and evaluating a computational model for solute displacement simulation in the soil based on numerical solutions of differential equations describing this displacement. From the results obtained, the model presented a good agreement of nitrate concentrations as well as soil moisture profile when compared with the results obtained on a vertical column of non-saturated soil under laboratory conditions.

  20. Moisture profile measurements of concrete samples in vertical flow by gamma ray attenuation method. Medidas do perfil de umidade de amostras de concreto em infiltracao vertical, atraves da atenuacao de raios gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appoloni, C R; Nardocci, A C; Obuti, M M [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    1988-04-01

    This work deals with the study of the water diffusion in concrete by the gamma ray attenuation method. The moisture profiles, [theta] (z,t), of the vertical water flow were determined in concrete samples of different trace and porosity. The data were taken with a vertical and horizontal measurement table, a [sup 60] Co gamma ray source, a NaI (T) scintillation detector and the standard gamma ray spectrometry electronic. The [theta] (z,t) data analysis is presented using a phenomenological model of the moisture profile temporal evolution in heterogeneous materials. Two other models, Cell and Sandwich, were also applied to determine the attenuation coefficient of a non-homogeneous media from the attenuation coefficients of the components, taking into account particles-size effects. (author).

  1. Perfil clínico-laboratorial de crianças vivendo com HIV/AIDS por transmissão vertical em uma cidade do Nordeste brasileiro Clinical and laboratory profile of children living with vertically transmitted HIV/AIDS in a city in northeastern Brazily

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    Margareth Jamil Maluf e Silva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a transmissão vertical constitui a principal via de infecção infantil pelo vírus HIV-1 (vírus da imunodeficiência humana. A presente pesquisa tem como objetivo estudar a evolução clínica e laboratorial de crianças vivendo com HIV/AIDS decorrente da transmissão vertical. MÉTODOS: trata-se de um estudo descritivo, retrospectivo, realizado a partir da coleta de dados em prontuário médico de todas as crianças atendidas em um Serviço de Assistência Especializada, no período de janeiro de 1998 a junho de 2006. RESULTADOS: foram avaliadas 80 crianças que preencheram critérios de inclusão. Observou-se que em 56 (70% crianças, o diagnóstico da infecção pelo HIV na mãe deu-se após o parto e que em 44 (55% o parto foi via vaginal. Amamentação ao seio materno foi documentada em 56 (70% crianças e esta variou de um mês até mais de 12 meses. A não utilização ou uso incompleto do Protocolo ACTG 076 foi documentado em 63 (78,5% casos. CONCLUSÕES: os dados observados em nosso estudo são bastante preocupantes e revelam falha na assistência materno-infantil, especialmente voltada para prevenção da transmissão.INTRODUCTION: Vertical transmission constitutes the main route for child infection by the HIV-1 virus (human immune deficiency virus. This study aimed to investigate the clinical and laboratory evolution of children with vertically transmitted HIV/AIDS. METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive study based on data gathered from the medical records of all the children who were seen at a specialized care unit between January 1998 and June 2006. RESULTS: Eighty children who met the inclusion criteria were evaluated. In the cases 56 (70% of the children, their mothers were diagnosed as HIV-positive after childbirth. The delivery was vaginal for 44 (55% of the children. Fifty-six children (70% were breastfed by their mothers for periods ranging from one to more than 12 months. Failure to use or incomplete

  2. Evaluation of the shear bond strength of the union between two CoCr-alloys and a dental ceramic Avaliação da resistência ao cisalhamento da união entre duas ligas a base de CoCr e uma cerâmica

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    Mariana Pretti

    2004-12-01

    ao ensaio de resistência ao cisalhamento em máquina de ensaios universal (EMIC, com auxílio de dispositivo desenvolvido para tal propósito, sob velocidade constante de 0,5mm/min. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: As médias de resistência obtidas foram 48,387 MPa para a liga Wirobond C, com desvio padrão de 17,718, e 55,956 MPa para a Remanium 2000, com desvio padrão de 17,198. Após análise de variância foi possível observar que não há diferença estatisticamente significante entre os valores de resistência ao cisalhamento das duas ligas metalocerâmicas.

  3. Vertical integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antill, N.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the trend in international energy companies towards vertical integration in the gas chain from wellhead to power generation, horizontal integration in refining and marketing businesses, and the search for larger projects with lower upstream costs. The shape of the petroleum industry in the next millennium, the creation of super-major oil companies, and the relationship between size and risk are discussed. The dynamics of vertical integration, present events and future developments are considered. (UK)

  4. Análise do método de medição de viscosidade de líquidos por ultra-som usando a reflexão de ondas de cisalhamento.

    OpenAIRE

    Édiguer Enrique Franco Guzmán

    2006-01-01

    Neste trabalho é analisada a medição de viscosidade de líquidos por ultrasom pelo método da reflexão de ondas de cisalhamento. O método baseiase na medição da magnitude e fase do coeficiente de reflexão quando as ondas de cisalhamento incidem na interface entre um sólido e o líquido testado. Foram analisados os conceitos teóricos do método da medição de viscosidade e desenvolvida a metodologia experimental a fim de evitar a influência indesejada de fatores externos, como a temperatura e a ins...

  5. Determining the amount of anhydrous alcohol evaporated in vertical cylindrical tanks; Determinacao da quantidade de alcool etilico anidro evaporado em tanques cilindricos verticais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Elcio Cruz de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In order to assess the anhydrous alcohol evaporated amount in vertical cylindrical tanks was developed a calculation methodology based on the rate of mass transfer of the product, the Reynolds number and the mass transfer coefficient. An Excel spreadsheet was prepared with data entry of the tank and physical and chemical properties of the product (temperature and density). For a temperature of 50 deg C, the volume evaporated reaches values of 0.8% by day. (author)

  6. Mapeamento do ambiente térmico de aviários de postura abertos em sistema vertical de criação

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    Diogo J. de R. Coelho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOObjetivou-se, com este trabalho monitorar, em tempo real, o ambiente térmico de um aviário de postura e realizar o mapeamento completo da distribuição das variáveis temperatura do ar, umidade relativa do ar e índice de temperatura e umidade no alojamento. O trabalho foi conduzido no mês de janeiro de 2013 em uma granja comercial de aves de postura, sistemas verticais, com seis andares de gaiolas. O aviário é totalmente automatizado possuindo 100.000 aves alojadas na densidade de 300 cm2 ave-1. A partir dos dados coletados foram determinadas as médias de temperatura e umidade relativa do ar para período diurno e noturno de diferentes posições na instalação. Os mapas térmicos resultantes demostram que ocorreu uma variabilidade térmica em diferentes posições espaciais no interior do aviário, com a região central apresentando temperaturas superiores às das extremidades porém dentro da faixa de conforto térmico das aves considerando a situação de temperaturas médias, durante calor extremo a temperatura interna na instalação alcançou 33 oC. A umidade relativa do ar apresentou pequenas variações durante o dia e maiores no período da noite. Em relação ao índice de temperatura e umidade a maior parte da instalação permaneceu dentro da faixa de conforto.

  7. Fauna de flebotomíneos (Diptera: Psychodidae em fragmentos de floresta ao redor de conjuntos habitacionais na cidade de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil. I. Estratificação Vertical Sand flies fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae in forest fragments around housing complexes in the Manaus municipality, state of Amazonas, Brazil. I. Vertical Stratification

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    Marlisson Augusto Costa Feitosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available No período de janeiro a agosto de 1999 foram realizadas coletas de flebotomíneos (Diptera: Psychodidae em duas áreas de floresta residual (Estrada do Turismo e Cidade de Deus, na periferia da cidade de Manaus (AM, tendo o objetivo de verificar as espécies e a estratificação vertical. Foram utilizadas armadilhas luminosas tipo CDC, colocadas nos fragmentos de florestas a um e dez metros de altura. Foram capturados 7.516 flebotomíneos distribuídos em 45 espécies; 4.836 espécimes, de 36 espécies, na estrada de Turismo e 2.680 exemplares, de 40 espécies, na Cidade de Deus. Predominaram na Estrada do Turismo Lutzomyia umbratilis e L. ubiquitalis e na Cidade de Deus, L. umbratilis e L. anduzei. A presença de algumas espécies, apenas em certas áreas, indica a adaptabilidade destes flebotomíneos em áreas sobre ação antrópica.Between January and August of 1999, a study was carried out on the phlebotomine (Diptera: Psychodidae sand flies occurrence in two areas of residual forest (Estrada do Turismo and Cidade de Deus, in the periphery of Manaus, AM. The objective of this study was to verify the Phlebotominae sand fly fauna and vertical stratification. CDC light traps were placed in the forests, one to ten meters in height. A total of 7.516 sand flies, distributed in 45 species, were captured: 4.836 specimens of 36 species in the Estrada do Turismo and 2.680 individuals of 40 species in the Cidade de Deus.Predominant in the Estrada do Turismo were the species Lutzomyia umbratilis and L. ubiquitalis were as L. umbratilis and L. anduzei prevailed in the Cidade de Deus. Different Phlebotominae sand fly species in certain areas, showed an adaptation of these sand flies to areas of human activity.

  8. Espectro e distribuição vertical das estratégias de dispersão de diásporos do componente arbóreo em uma floresta estacional no sul do Brasil Spectrum and vertical distribution of diaspore dispersal modes in a seasonal forest in Southern Brazil

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    Eduardo Luís Hettwer Giehl

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A dispersão de diásporos é um evento de elevada importância para as espécies vegetais, que dispõem de diversas estratégias para este fim. O presente estudo teve por objetivos conhecer e caracterizar o espectro das diferentes estratégias de dispersão do componente arbóreo em uma floresta estacional de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil (próximo às coordenadas 53º54'W e 29º38'S e, a partir desses dados, investigar sua relação com os estratos verticais da floresta. Foram amostrados todos os indivíduos com perímetro à altura do peito > 15 cm, em 100 unidades amostrais de 10×10 m. A caracterização das estratégias de dispersão foi realizada por meio de observações a campo de frutos e potenciais dispersores, e consulta à bibliografia especializada. Foram amostradas 58 espécies pertencentes a 26 famílias botânicas. Dessas espécies, 74% apresentaram estratégia de dispersão zoocórica; 24%, estratégia de dispersão anemocórica e apenas Gymnanthes concolor Spreng. apresentou a estratégia autocórica. Analisando-se a proporção das estratégias de dispersão por meio da densidade relativa, verificou-se que 80% dos indivíduos são zoocóricos, 12% anemocóricos e 8% autocóricos. Para a floresta analisada foram encontradas diferenças significativas nos padrões de distribuição vertical das espécies agrupadas de acordo com a estratégia de dispersão. A zoocoria ocorreu em espécies de todos os estratos, enquanto a autocoria ficou limitada ao sub-bosque. Já a anemocoria foi mais importante entre as espécies com indivíduos emergentes.Diaspore dispersal is presumed to have great fitness for plants, which could be enhanced by different dispersal modes. Our aim was to generate a dispersal spectrum and to seek for analyze relative ecological importance of tree-species dispersal modes in a seasonal forest in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (approximately 53º54'W and 29º38'S and, with these data, to

  9. Composition, community structure and vertical distribution of epiphytic ferns on Alsophila setosa Kaulf., in a Semideciduous Seasonal Forest, Morro Reuter, RS, Brazil Composição, estrutura comunitária e distribuição vertical de samambaias epifíticas sobre Alsophila setosa Kaulf. (Cyatheaceae, em Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, Morro Reuter, RS, Brasil

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    Paulo Henrique Schneider

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In tropical forests, tree ferns constitute an important phorophyte for the establishment and occurrence of epiphytic species. Composition, structure and vertical distribution of epiphytic ferns were studied on Alsophila setosa Kaulf., in a semideciduous seasonal forest fragment, in the city of Morro Reuter (29º32'07"S and 51º05'26"W, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The sample consisted of 60 caudices of at least 4 m high, which were divided in 1 m intervals from the ground. The specific importance value was estimated trough the coverage value and caudex frequency at the intervals. A total of 14 species was recorded, belonging to 10 genera and five families. The highest specific richness occurred in Polypodiaceae. The rarefaction curve for the total sample did not reach an asymptote with an estimated 14.98 to 16.95 species, showing that a few species could still be recorded. The species with the highest importance value and vertical amplitude was Blechnum binervatum (Poir. C.V. Morton & Lellinger, with a decreasing frequency from bottom to top of the caudex. Considering the predominance of habitual holoepiphytes, the removal of Alsophila setosa caudices compromises microhabitat availability for epiphytes in the forest understory.Nas florestas tropicais as samambaias arborescentes constituem forófitos importantes para o estabelecimento e ocorrência de espécies epifíticas. A composição, a estrutura e a distribuição vertical de samambaias epifíticas foram estudadas sobre Alsophila setosa Kaulf., em fragmento de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, localizado no município de Morro Reuter (29º32'07"S e 51º05'26"W, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Foram amostrados 60 cáudices de no mínimo 4 m de altura e eles foram divididos em intervalos de 1 m, a partir do solo. O valor de importância específico foi estimado a partir da freqüência nos cáudices , nos intervalos e do valor de cobertura. Foram registradas 14 espécies epif

  10. Efeitos do tratamento da Classe II divisão 1 em pacientes dolicofaciais tratados segundo a Terapia Bioprogressiva (AEB cervical e arco base inferior, com ênfase no controle vertical Treatment effects on Class II division 1 high angle patients treated according to the Bioprogressive therapy (cervical headgear and lower utility arch, with emphasis on vertical control

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    Viviane Santini Tamburús

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o presente estudo investigou o controle vertical e os efeitos do tratamento ortodôntico em pacientes dolicofaciais, empregando o AEB cervical e o arco base inferior. MÉTODOS: foi realizada a avaliação cefalométrica de 26 pacientes dolicofaciais com Classe II, divisão 1, idade média de 114 meses. O tratamento ortodôntico envolveu a utilização do AEB cervical na arcada superior e arco base na arcada inferior, até a obtenção da chave de oclusão normal dos molares, e finalizado segundo a Terapia Bioprogressiva, com duração média de 56 meses. Foram avaliados os valores de FMA, SN.GoGn, ANB, Fg-S, S-FPm, comprimento maxilar, comprimento mandibular, AFP (altura facial posterior, AFA (altura facial anterior, IAF (índice de altura facial, ângulo do plano oclusal, ângulo do plano palatino, QT (queixo total, LS (lábio superior e ângulo Z. RESULTADOS: o tratamento promoveu estabilidade dos planos mandibular, oclusal e palatino. Ocorreu a correção anteroposterior das bases apicais, verificada pela redução significativa da grandeza ANB. A maxila apresentou um suave deslocamento anterior,com um suave aumento da dimensão anteroposterior.A mandíbula apresentou melhora de seu posicionamento em relação à base do crânio e sua dimensão anteroposterior aumentou significativamente. As alturas faciais posterior e anterior permaneceram em equilíbrio, não alterando significativamente o IAF. O perfil tegumentar apresentou melhora significativa. CONCLUSÃO: o tratamento realizado promoveu a correção das bases apicais, com controle dos planos horizontais e das alturas faciais, sendo efetivo no controle vertical.OBJECTIVE: This study investigated vertical control and the effects of orthodontic treatment on dolichofacial patients, using cervical headgear (CHG and lower utility arch. METHODS: Cephalometric assessment of 26 dolichofacial patients with Class II, division 1, and mean age of 114 months. Orthodontic treatment involved

  11. Downward surface flux computations in a vertically inhomogeneous grey planetary atmosphere Cálculo do fluxo radiativo superficial em uma atmosfera planetária cinza e verticalmente não-homogênea

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    Marcos Pimenta de Abreu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe an efficient computational scheme for downward surface flux computations in a vertically inhomogeneous grey planetary atmosphere for different values of solar zenith angle. We start with the basic equations of a recently developed discrete ordinates spectral nodal method, and we derive suitable bidirectional functions whose diffuse components do not depend on the solar zenith angle. We then make use of these bidirectional functions to construct an efficient scheme for computing the downward surface fluxes in a given model atmosphere for a number of solar zenith angles. We illustrate the merit of the computational scheme described here with downward surface flux computations in a three-layer grey model atmosphere for four values of solar zenith angle, and we conclude this article with general remarks and directions for future work.Este artigo descreve um esquema computacional baseado em desenvolvimentos recentes do método espectro-nodal de ordenadas discretas para o cálculo eficiente do fluxo radiativo superficial em uma atmosfera planetária cinza e verticalmente não-homogênea para valores distintos do ângulo zenital solar. A partir das equações básicas do método espectro-nodal de ordenadas discretas, são obtidas funções bidirecionais discretas cujas componentes difusas não dependem do ângulo zenital solar. Com essas funções bidirecionais discretas, é construído um esquema computacional para calcular eficientemente fluxos radiativos superficiais em uma dada atmosfera-modelo para vários ângulos zenitais solares. O mérito computacional do esquema resultante é ilustrado com resultados numéricos para os fluxos radiativos superficiais em uma atmosfera-modelo cinza com três camadas para quatro valores distintos do ângulo zenital solar. Este artigo é finalizado com observações gerais e indicações de trabalhos futuros.

  12. Uncertainty determination in a custody transfer operation from vertical cylinder storage tanks; Determinacao da incerteza do volume transferido em tanques cilindricos verticais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Elcio C.; Ferreira, Ana Luisa A.S. [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Orlando, Alcir F.; Val, Luiz G. do [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The INMETRO/ANP 1 regulation (2000), presents rules to be followed for measuring and calibrating cylindrical vertical oil storage tanks in Brazil, according to ISO 7507-1 (1993) standard. A methodology for estimating the uncertainty (95,45 % confidence level) of the volume in a custody transfer process was developed, based on ISO GUM (1998) standard. The strapping method was selected for this study, because it has been used as a standard procedure by INMETRO. In this study, the same uncertainty values, as suggested by the standard, were used to estimate the uncertainty of the liquid volume in the tank. This study showed that the uncertainty of the transferred liquid volume from the tank varies from 0,2% to 0,4%, being smaller for larger volumes, which is thus the recommended application. The uncertainty of the ring height measurement is the largest contribution to the volume measurement uncertainty, and, thus, must be accurately measured. The tank internal diameter uncertainty is a small contribution to it. This paper calculates the uncertainty of liquid volume transferred from the tank by three methods, namely, this paper's, ISO 7507- 1's and INMETRO's, and shows that the most important contribution to the measurement uncertainty is the density measurement uncertainty, which must be accurately measured, at least, to within {+-} 0,0005, if the volume uncertainty is to remain in the 0,5 % to 1 % range. (author)

  13. CARACTERIZAÇÃO MECÂNICA E CONTRAÇÃO DA MADEIRA DE Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel CULTIVADO EM UM PLANTIO HOMOGÊNEO SOB DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE ADUBAÇÃO

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    José Teodoro de Melo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar a madeira de Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel, de 18 anos de idade, oriunda de plantio homogêneo sob diferentes níveis de adubação localizado na Embrapa-Cerrados, DF, quanto à contração e às características mecânicas (flexão estática, compressão paralela às fibras e cisalhamento. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre as médias das variáveis estudadas que apresentaram os seguintes valores: resistência máxima à flexão estática (b = 650kg/cm2, módulo de elasticidade (E = 59.877kg/cm2, resistência máxima à compressão axial (c = 296kg/cm2 e resistência máxima ao cisalhamento ( = 131kg/cm2. Para cisalhamento e compressão axial, a testemunha apresentou o maior valor absoluto para MOR. A madeira de Sclerolobium paniculatum apresentou um elevado número de galhos, implicando uma elevada quantidade de nós. Os tratos culturais em plantios homogêneos de Sclerolobium paniculatum devem prever a retirada de galhos para produzir madeira de qualidade superior.

  14. Experimental analysis of minimum shear stress to drag particles in a horizontal bed; Analise experimental da tensao de cisalhamento minima para arraste de particulas em um leito horizontal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornelas, Breno Almeida; Soares, Edson Jose [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo. Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (Brazil)], e-mails: bad@ucl.br, edson@ct.ufes.br; Quirino Filho, Joao Pedro; Loureiro, Bruno Venturini [Faculdade do Centro Leste (UCL). Laboratorio de Fluidos e Fenomenos de Transporte (Brazil)], e-mails: joaoquirino@ucl.br, brunovl@ucl.br

    2009-12-15

    Efficient hole cleaning is still a challenge in well bore drilling to produce oil and gas. The critical point is the horizontal drilling that inherently tends to form a bed of sediment particles at the well bottom during drilling. The cuttings bed erosion depends mainly on the shear stress promoted by the drilling fluid flow. The shear stress required to cause drag in the cuttings bed is investigated according to the fluid and particles properties, using an experimental assembly, composed of: a system for fluid circulation, a particle box, a pump system and measuring equipment. The observation area is a box below the flow line in an acrylic duct used to calibrate sand particles. The test starts with the pumps in a low frequency which is increased in steps. At each frequency level, images are captured of carried particles and the established flow rate is recorded. The images are analyzed when the dragged particle is no longer random and sporadic, but becomes permanent. The shear stress is identified by the PKN correlation (by Prandtl, von Karman, and Nikuradse) for the minimum flow rate necessary to cause drag. Results were obtained for just water and water-glycerin solution flows. (author)

  15. Determination of threshold shear stress to drag particles in cuttings bed; Determinacao da tensao de cisalhamento minima para arraste de particulas em um leito fluidizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Bruno Venturini; Siqueira, Renato do Nascimento [Faculdade do Centro Leste (UCL), Serra, ES (Brazil). Lab. de Fenomenos de Transporte], e-mail: brunovl@ucl.br, e-mail: renatons@ucl.br

    2006-07-01

    Drilling of horizontal wells for oil and gas production needs an efficient cleaning process due to settling of particles removed during the drilling process, which settles on the inferior part of the annular space between the drilling column and the walls of the well. The erosion of the bed is an important physical phenomenon to petroleum and gas industry since it can improve the opening of the wells. This work aims to estimate the threshold shear stress necessary to start the erosion process in a sediment bed. An experimental apparatus was built from simplifications of the problem in order to measure the flow rate and identify the beginning of the process. The experiment consists of a rectangular duct with aspect ratio ({lambda} = h/b) of 1/3 and non dimensional length (L{sup *} = L/h) of 75. The sediment bed to be eroded was placed at 60< x{sup *}<66. Using the flow rate and the boundary conditions, a discretization of the problem was carried out to permit a computational solution using the finite volume method and hence, determine the shear stress. This work used particles with up to 3.0 mm and modeled the flow considering a bed with equivalent roughness. (author)

  16. EFEITO DO TRATAMENTO TÉRMICO SOBRE A RESISTÊNCIA AO CISALHAMENTO DA LINHA DE COLA EM PAINÉIS OSB

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    Airton Mauro de Lára Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research to improve dimensional stability of oriented strand boards (OSB through thermal treatment has been done. It aims to reduce the higroscopicity of the wood particles as well as to relieve the compression stresses generated during pressing process. In spite of the advantages, the thermal treatment above 160ºC can inactive the surface of the wood, reducing the penetration of the adhesive and, this way, reducing the quality of the adhesion. The sanding of the surface of OSB panels can remove this effect, increasing the quality of the adhesion and the glue line strength. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the thermal treatment on the glue-line shear strength of OSB panels and the effect of the sanding process on this strength, as well. Commercial OSB were thermally treated according to two temperature levels (190 and 220ºC, three times (12, 16 and 20 minutes. Eighty-four samples were cut, both of them were sanded before the gluing (resorcinol-formaldehyde, 360 g/m². The glue-line shear strength testing was conducted according to ASTM D 1037 standard. The results reveled that the proposed thermal treatment reduced slightly the shear strength The interaction factor between temperature and time on these results wasidentified. However, sanding process removed this effect and improved significantly shear strength. Therefore, the thermical treatment imparted little effect on the glue-line shear strength, while the sanding process improved the quality of the adhesion in OSB panels.

  17. Distribuição horizontal e vertical de fósforo em sistemas de cultivos exclusivos de soja e de integração lavoura-pecuária-floresta

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    Debora Diel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição horizontal e vertical do fósforo no solo e a produtividade de soja em sistemas de cultivos exclusivos e de integração lavoura-pecuária-floresta (ILPF. Foram avaliados os tratamentos: floresta plantada de eucalipto; lavoura de soja e milho safrinha consorciado com Urochloa brizantha 'Marandu'; pastagem de U. brizantha; sistema de ILPF; e duas áreas controle, com floresta nativa e pousio. O solo foi coletado nas camadas de 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 e 20-30 cm, para determinação das características químicas. As avaliações foram realizadas no segundo ano agrícola após a implantação do experimento. No sistema de ILPF, solo e produtividade foram avaliados em quatro transectos equidistantes, no centro do renque e a 3, 6, 10 e 15 m do renque, nas faces norte e sul. Os teores de P disponível (Mehlich-1 foram maiores nas camadas superficiais do solo, nos sistemas com soja/milho safrinha e com ILPF. No ILPF, os teores de P disponível não diferiram entre as distâncias do renque das árvores, e a produtividade de soja não diferiu da observada no sistema com soja/milho safrinha. Portanto, com dois anos de implantação, o sistema ILPF ainda não é capaz de interferir marcadamente nas características químicas do solo e na produtividade da soja.

  18. Produção hidropônica de morangueiro em sistema de colunas verticais, sob cultivo protegido Hydroponic strawberry production in vertical columns system under protected cultivation

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    Eunice Oliveira Calvete

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo do morangueiro fora do solo possibilita a eliminação do uso de produtos para desinfecção, reduzindo o consumo de frutos contaminados e a agressão ao meio ambiente, além de proporcionar melhor aproveitamento da área e maior facilidade de manejo da cultura. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, em ambiente protegido e colunas verticais, dois sistemas de irrigação: gotejamento por estacas (externo e autocompensante (interno; dois tipos de substratos: Horta 2 e Tabaco 1; com e sem drenagem. A cultivar utilizada foi a Oso Grande. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos dispostos em parcela subsubdividida, com três repetições. Com base nos rendimentos obtidos nos terços superior, médio e inferior das colunas, o sistema de irrigação mais indicado é o gotejamento por estacas (externo, com drenagem na extremidade inferior da coluna. Os substratos não diferem quanto à produção, mas Horta 2 incrementa o teor de antocianina nos frutos.Since strawberry cultivation in soil less system does not needs disinfection products, it decreases fruits and environmental contamination. Besides it provides a better utilization of the area and makes easy the management of the culture. The objective of this work was to evaluate two irrigation systems: dripping for props (outside and self compensate (inside; and two types of substrates: Horta 2 and Tabaco 1; with or without draining, on the cultivar Oso Grande of strawberry. The experiment was carried out under protected cultivation and in vertical columns conditions. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with three replications, and the treatments were arranged in a split-plot. The strawberry yield found in the upper, medium, and lower positions of the columns indicates that the dripping for props (outside is the most efficient irrigation system, since drainage is used in the lower extremity of the column. Although there were no differences substrates, Horta

  19. RESISTÊNCIA AO CISALHAMENTO DAS JUNTAS ADESIVAS PRODUZIDAS COM TRÊS DIFERENTES ESPÉCIES DE MADEIRAS E ADESIVOS VINÍLICOS PARA APLICAÇÕES NÃO ESTRUTURAIS

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    Maurício Pinheiro Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Os adesivos utilizados na colagem de madeiras para aplicações não estruturais normalmente contêm uma emulsão de poli(acetato de vinila (PVAc estabilizada com poli(álcool vinílico e alguns aditivos. A ligação adesiva formada com essa classe de adesivo é pobre quando exposta à umidade e à temperatura. Nesse contexto, a classificação prévia dos adesivos utilizados para aplicações não estruturais, com resistência à umidade e à temperatura, é muito importante para a qualidade e durabilidade das juntas adesivas. Neste trabalho, foi estudada a influência de três espécies de madeiras (Fagus sylvatica L., Mimosa scabrella Bentham e Micropholis cf. venulosa Mart. & Eichler na resistência ao cisalhamento das juntas adesivas preparadas com três adesivos vinílicos, sintetizados com diferentes concentrações do N-butoximetilacrilamida (NBMA. Os ensaios de resistência ao cisalhamento, na linha de colagem, foram realizados sob diferentes ciclos de acondicionamento das juntas adesivas. Os resultados indicaram que há diferenças significativas na resistência de colagem das juntas adesivas e na porcentagem de falha na madeira provocada, tanto pela espécie de madeira quanto pelo tipo de adesivo utilizado. Os adesivos produzidos foram classificados de acordo com a classe de durabilidade, após várias etapas de acondicionamento. Os valores mais altos de resistência ao cisalhamento foram observados nas juntas coladas com as madeiras de Micropholis cf. venulosa Mart. & Eichler e Fagus sylvatica L., com o adesivo AD-3. O menor valor de resistência ao cisalhamento foi observado nas juntas adesivas preparadas com a madeira da espécie Mimosa scabrella Bentham. A madeira Micropholis cf. venulosa Mart. & Eichler mostrou-se mais adequada para a substituição da madeira Fagus sylvatica L.

  20. Tratamento da escoliose em crianças com paralisia cerebral utilizando a prótese vertical expansível de titânio para costela (VEPTR Tratamiento de la escoliosis en niños con parálisis cerebral mediante la prótesis vertical expansible de titanio para las costillas (VEPTR Treatment of scoliosis in children with cerebral palsy using the vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR

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    Kiyomori de Quental Tyba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o uso da prótese vertical expansível de titânio (VEPTR como opção de tratamento inicial da escoliose em crianças de baixa idade portadoras de paralisia cerebral. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 10 pacientes portadores de paralisia cerebral (PC tratados com VEPTR pelo grupo de escoliose da AACD de São Paulo. Caracterizavam-se por imaturidade esquelética e escoliose progressiva; sem deformidade grave no plano sagital. Realizamos avaliação da curva pelo método de Cobb no pré e pós-operatório e após dois anos de seguimento. RESULTADOS: A correção obtida com o uso do VEPTR no pós-operatório imediato foi em média de 41,4% nas radiografias iniciais sem tração (p = 0,005 e 9,1% (p = 0,055 nas radiografias com tração. Após quatro meses de pós-operatório mantiveram-se ganhos de 27,2% com relação ao início. Houve correção da obliquidade pélvica de 10,2º no pré-operatório para 5,4º em média (p = 0,007. As complicações ocorreram em seis pacientes (60% e em apenas um paciente foi necessária a retirada do VEPTR. CONCLUSÃO: O VEPTR é um método que obteve correção significativa no tratamento provisório das escolioses na PC, apesar de frequentes complicações de baixa morbidade.OBJETIVO: Evaluar el uso de la prótesis vertical expansible de titanio (VEPTR como opción de tratamiento inicial para la escoliosis en niños pequeños con parálisis cerebral. MÉTODOS: 10 pacientes con parálisis cerebral (PC fueron evaluados y tratados con VEPTR por el grupo de escoliosis de la AACD en Sao Paulo. Caracterizados por escoliosis progresiva inmadurez esquelética, sin deformidad grave en el plano sagital. Se evaluó la curva por el método de Cobb en el preoperatorio, posoperatorio, y después de dos años de seguimiento. RESULTADOS: LA CORRECCIón, obtenida con el uso de VEPTR en el posoperatorio inmediato, fue en promedio 41,4% en relación a las radiografías iniciales sin tracción (p = 0,005 y 9,1% (p = 0

  1. Avaliação da resistência de força explosiva em voleibolistas através de testes de saltos verticais Assessment of explosive strength-endurance in volleyball players through vertical jumping test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Eduardo Hespanhol

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste estudo foi verificar a existência de diferenças entre o teste de salto vertical com natureza contínua de 60 segundos (TSVC e o teste de salto vertical com natureza intermitente de quatro séries de 15 segundos (TSVI. Os dados foram obtidos através de amostra composta por 10 voleibolistas do sexo masculino (19,01 ± 1,36 anos; 191,5 ± 5,36cm; e 81,74 ± 7,45kg, todos com participação voluntária. As variáveis estudadas foram: as estimativas do pico de potência (PP, potência média (PM e o índice de fadiga (IF. O desempenho estimado através dos testes TSVC, com duração de 60 segundos, e o TSVI foi determinado em quatro séries de 15 segundos, com 10 segundos de recuperação entre cada série. Os dados foram determinados através da estatística descritiva e do teste de Wilcoxon; o nível de significância utilizado foi de p The aim of this study was to verify the differences between the continuous jump test of 60 seconds (CJ60 sec and the intermittent jump test of 4 sets of 15 seconds (IJ4x15 sec. The sample was composed of 10 male volleyball players with 19.01 ± 1.36 years, 191.5 ± 5.36 cm height and 81.74 ± 7.45 of body mass, who participated in this research as volunteers. The variables studied were estimated as the peak power (PP, mean power (MP and fatigue index (FI. These performances were measured through tests of vertical jump with duration the 60 seconds and with the performance of 4 sets of 15 seconds with 10 seconds of recovery between the sets. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and the Wilcoxon test. The significance level was of p < 0.05. It was possible to analyze that the continuous and the intermittent jump test presented significant differences in MP (p < 0.05, FI (p < 0.01, and in the number of the vertical jump in 60 seconds (p < 0.01, and the height in 60 seconds exercise (p < 0.05. The MP found in IJ4x15sec was significantly higher than in the CJ60 sec in volleyball

  2. Análise da ocorrência dos fluxos e Jatos de Nível Baixo no perfil vertical do vento na baixa atmosfera em Manaus (AM Analysis of the occurrence of streams and Low Level Jets in the vertical wind profile at the lower-atmosphere of Manaus city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Souza Corrêa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo apresenta uma análise sobre as estruturas verticais nos baixos níveis da atmosfera tropical, região norte do Brasil, utilizando dados de radiossondagem realizadas na cidade de Manaus. Foi descrito um modelo dinâmico que envolve fluxos/Jatos de Nível Baixo (JNB entre os níveis de 950 hPa e 926 hPa, entre 860 hPa e 880 hPa (correspondendo aproximadamente ao nível intermediário de 850 hPa e ao terceira camada mais alta entre 800 hPa e 700 hPa (níveis médios. Esses fluxos e Jatos caracterizam um processo dinâmico de intenso transporte de energia e massa, criando uma estrutura estratificada turbulenta muito eficiente na geração de convecção na região tropical, demonstrando a influência da Camada Limite Planetária Tropical (CLPT na geração de convecção em meso escala.This study presents an analysis of the vertical structure of the low level tropical atmosphere, north region of Brazil, using radiosonde data at Manaus. A dynamical model involving flow/Low Level Jet (LLJ between the 950hPa and 926 hPa levels, between 860 hPa and 880 hPa levels (correspounding to 850 hPa intermediary level and in the third higher layer between 800 hPa and 700 hPa levels (middle levels is described. These streams and jets characterise a dynamical process of intense energy and mass transport, creating a turbulent stratified structure which is very efficient in producing convection at tropical region, demonstrating the influence of the Tropical Planetary Boundary Layer (TPLB, in the mesoscale convection generation.

  3. EFEITO DA VAPORIZAÇÃO EM MADEIRA DE Eucalyptus dunnii SOBRE ALGUMAS PROPRIEDADES MECÂNICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Taylor Durgante Severo

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da vaporização em toras e madeira serrada de Eucalyptus dunnii sobre as propriedades de compressão paralela e perpendicular às fibras e cisalhamento no sentiod radial e tangencial aos anéis de crescimento. As razões do estudo deve-se à possibilidade de aliviar as tensões de crescimento existentes na espécie pelo emprego da vaporização. Os ensaios foram realizados na condição climatizada (12% de umidade. Para isso, dois terços das toras, com diâmetro entre 20 a 30 cm, proveniente de seis árvores por procedência dessa espécie foram vaporizadas a 100ºC e 100% de umidade relativa durante 20 horas, enquanto que as demais toras foram utizadas com controle. De cada tora foi retirada uma prancha central, orientada radialmente, de 8 cm de espessura, das quais se retirou vigotas de 8 cm x 8 cm. Metade das vigotas provenientes de toras vaporizadas foram novamente submetidas à vaporização, durante 3 horas, nas mesmas condições anteriormente descritas, obtendo-se, dessa forma, três níveis de comparação (controle, vaporizado em toras e madeira pré-vaporizada. Os resultados mostraram que o módulo de elasticidade em compressão paralela às fibras e o esforço no limite proporcional em compressão perpendicular as fibras não sofreram qualquer alteração com a vaporização. Entretanto a resistência máxima em compressão paralela as fibras e o cisalhamento (sentido radial e tangencial mostraram reduzir significativamente com a vaporização.

  4. Uso da prótese vertical expansível de titânio para costela no tratamento da cifose congênita em portadores de mielomeningocele torácica Uso de la prótesis vertical expansible de titanio para costilla en el tratamiento de la cifosis congénita en portadores de mielomeningocele torácico Use of vertical expandable prosthetic of titanium for the rib for treating congenital kyphosis in thoracic meningomyelocele patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Rebechi Zuiani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os resultados clínicos e radiográficos pós-operatórios da correção de cifose congênita em pacientes com mielomeningocele de nível torácico, utilizando a prótese vertical expansível de titânio para costela (VEPTR. MÉTODOS: estudo retrospectivo de 19 pacientes com mielomeningocele torácica e cifose congênita submetidos a tratamento com VEPTR, entre Outubro de 2005 e Outubro de 2008, com avaliação radiográfica e clínica pré e pós-operatória imediata. Foram avaliadas também a duração do procedimento cirúrgico, a necessidade de transfusão sanguínea e as complicações pós-operatórias. RESULTADOS: a média de idade dos pacientes foi de 70 meses ou cinco anos e dez meses (32 a 130 meses. A média de seguimento dos pacientes foi de 13,5 meses (2 a 26 meses. A duração média do procedimento foi de 117 minutos (variação de 70 a 195 minutos. Todas as crianças adquiriram equilíbrio de tronco, sendo que 13 delas não apresentavam isto no pré-operatório. A média da cifose pré-operatória foi de 115° (80° a 150° e pós-operatória de 77° (50° a 104°, com porcentagem média de correção de 31,2% (1,1 a 61,5%. O desequilíbrio do tronco pré-operatório foi de 7,9 cm, em média (1,0 a 15,5 cm e pós-operatório de 3,4 cm (0 a 8 cm. A correção média desse desequilíbrio foi de 50,4% (0 a 100%. Com relação ao peso, no pré-operatório a média foi de 15,4 kg (8 a 30 kg, e no pós-operatório de 20,6 kg (8,5 a 35 kg. O ganho médio de peso foi de 36,6% (9,8 a 100%. Dos 19 pacientes, cinco (26,3% apresentaram complicações pós-operatórias. Nenhum paciente necessitou de transfusão sanguínea. CONCLUSÃO: a utilização do VEPTR nos pacientes portadores de mielomeningocele torácica com cifose congênita tem se mostrado uma alternativa eficaz e promissora de controle da deformidade em pacientes esqueleticamente imaturos.OBJETIVO: evaluar los resultados clínicos y radiográficos postoperatorios

  5. Global Vertical Reference Frame

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 33, - (2004), s. 404-407 ISSN 1436-3445 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : geopotential WO * vertical systems * global vertical frame Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  6. Vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  7. UTILIZAÇÃO DE ADESIVO PVA EM COMPENSADOS DE Pinus sp. E Eucalyptus sp. / UTILIZATION OF PVA ADHESIVES IN Pinus sp. and Eucalyptus sp. PLYWOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. De Campos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre novos adesivos ou resinas para colagem de madeira e derivados estão sendo realizados com a intenção de diminuir o impacto ambiental sem alterar suas propriedades. Por este motivo, novas formulações de adesivos PVA (Acetato de Polivinila vêm sendo desenvolvidas. Este trabalho testou a utilização deste adesivo na produção de compensado de Eucalyptus sp. e Pinus sp., com tempo e temperatura de prensagem, respectivamente, de 10 minutos e90°C. Foram realizados os ensaios físicos de densidade, teor de umidade e absorção, e os ensaios mecânicos de flexão estática e de resistência ao cisalhamento na linha de cola, todos de acordo com as normas ABNT. Obtiveram-se bons resultados com relação à resistência ao cisalhamento na linha de cola, a qual foi superior para os adesivos PVA, se comparados com compensados produzidos com ureia-formaldeído e o fenol-formaldeído, enquanto que os resultados de MOE e MOR apresentaram-se inferiores em ambos os casos. 

  8. Neosporose bovina: avaliação da transmissão vertical e fração atribuível de aborto em uma população de bovinos no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héber E. Hein

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O protozoário Nespora caninum é um parasito que causa grandes perdas reprodutivas e econômicas em bovinos no mundo inteiro. Os objetivos deste estudo foram verificar tanto a associação entre o histórico de aborto e a presença de anticorpos contra N. caninum, quanto a transmissão vertical como forma de manutenção da infecção nos rebanhos bovinos em regiões do Rio Grande do Sul, através da sorologia pareada de mães e filhas. Foi realizada amostragem de 60 propriedades distribuídas em duas regiões do Rio Grande do Sul, das quais foi coletado sangue de 40% dos animais presentes para a detecção de anticorpos anti-N. caninum por imunofluorescência indireta (IFI. Para verificar a relação aborto e soropositividade foi utilizado o teste de regressão logística univariada, e para sorologia de mães e filhas o teste de qui-quadrado de McNemar para dados pareados. Foram confrontados os dados de sorologia e aborto, sendo encontrada a frequência de 58,5% (24/41 de soropositivos quando havia histórico de aborto, e 16,4% (199/1215 dentre os sem histórico de aborto. Os animais soropositivos apresentaram um risco 7,21 (IC 95%, 3,65-14,32 vezes maior de possuir histórico de abortamento (estatística de Wald χ2=44,93, P<0,001. A fração atribuível à neosporose como causa de aborto na população em risco nas duas regiões foi estimada em 9,73% (λpop. O resultado sorológico de cada mãe foi pareado com o de sua filha e, pelo teste de qui-quadrado de McNemar (χ2=59,84, P<0,001, houve associação significativa entre as sorologias de mães e filhas, sugerindo transmissão vertical. Ressalta-se ainda a importância do acompanhamento sorológico para N. caninum, evitando assim manutenção de animais portadores que sirvam como reservatório do protozoário nas propriedades.

  9. Atributos de qualidade da carne de paca (Agouti paca: perfil sensorial e força de cisalhamento Quality attributes of paca meat (Agouti paca: sensory profile and shear force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gomes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as características sensoriais e determinou-se a força de cisalhamento de cortes de carne de paca (Agouti paca. As análises foram realizadas nos cortes desossados de paleta, lombo e pernil de nove pacas, preparados por cocção até a temperatura interna de 70ºC. A avaliação de aspecto, cor, sabor, odor e maciez foi realizada pela aplicação de teste afetivo a 146 provadores, utilizando-se escala hedônica, e a força de cisalhamento foi determinada pela técnica Warner Bratzler. Na avaliação sensorial, os cortes de paleta, lombo e pernil de paca mostraram diferença significativa (p0,05 entre os cortes, que se mostraram igualmente macios. A carne de paca apresentou-se sensorialmente semelhante à carne suína e com boa aceitação pelos consumidores. O estudo evidenciou o potencial da paca como uma espécie silvestre para a produção comercial de carne para o mercado de carnes vermelhas ou exóticas.Sensory characteristics and shear force of paca meat (Agouti paca were assessed in this study. Analyses were performed in the bonelessshoulder,loin andhamobtained from nine paca carcassesprepared by cookinguntil reaching the internal temperatureof 70°C. The evaluation of flavor, aroma, color, appearance and tenderness was carried out by the application of an affective test using the hedonic scaleand a 146 consumer panel. Shear force was determined by the Warner-Bratzler technique. Shoulder, loin and ham had significant differences (p 0.05 among the cuts, which were similarly tender. Paca meat was found to resemble pork meat in sensory evaluation and had good acceptance by consumers. This study showed the potential of paca (Agouti paca asa wild species for meat production in the red or exotic meat market.

  10. Escrita Escolar Brasileira: a escrita vertical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos André Xavier Villela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O exame grafoscópico visa essencialmente a determinar se duas escritas partiram ou não de um mesmo punho. A fim de buscar dados empíricos capazes de melhor embasar uma valoração de raridade, diversos pesquisadores se dedicaram ao estudo dos sistemas de escrita. O presente trabalho analisa algumas bibliografias nacionais e estrangeiras que descrevem como se deu o alvorecer da escrita vertical e sua implantação no universo escolar brasileiro. Foi a partir das últimas décadas do século XIX que alógrafos cursivos verticais começaram a ser utilizados para o ensino da escrita. Os novos sistemas, sob a denominação escrita vertical, tiveram presença marcante em todo o mundo ocidental, sendo até hoje os sistemas predominantes em diversos países.

  11. Vertical pump assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohnal, M.; Rosel, J.; Skarka, V.

    1988-01-01

    The mounting is described of the drive assembly of a vertical pump for nuclear power plants in areas with seismic risk. The assembly is attached to the building floor using flexible and damping elements. The design allows producing seismically resistant pumps without major design changes in the existing types of vertical pumps. (E.S.). 1 fig

  12. Erosão em sulcos em diferentes preparos e estados de consolidação do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Schäfer

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O preparo e a consolidação do solo alteram a sua capacidade em resistir à erosão em sulcos. Com o objetivo de estudar a erosão em sulcos em diferentes preparos e consolidação do solo, conhecer o diâmetro mediano dos sedimentos transportados e determinar a erodibilidade em sulcos (Kr e a tensão crítica de cisalhamento (τc do solo, foi realizado um experimento no campo, em 1997/98, em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico arênico. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de: preparo convencional recente (CR, preparo convencional consolidado (consolidação de dois meses (CC, plantio direto sem palha (PDS e plantio direto com palha (PDC, 94% de cobertura. Usou-se chuva simulada de intensidade constante (65 mm h-1 até escoamento aproximadamente constante de água no solo. Em seguida, na extremidade superior do sulco, foram adicionadas descargas líquidas (Q crescentes de 0,0002 m³ s-1 até 0,0010 m³ s-1, para os tratamentos CR e CC, e de 0,0004 m³ s-1 até 0,0020 m³ s-1, para os tratamentos PDS e PDC, sendo as amostras coletadas na parte inferior de cada sulco. As parcelas foram delimitadas por chapas metálicas cravadas no solo no sentido do declive (0,20 m de largura por 6,00 m de comprimento. O valor de Kr determinado foi de 0,012 kg N-1 s-1 e o τc foi de 2,61 N m-2. A desagregação, as perdas de solo e o diâmetro mediano dos sedimentos apresentaram a seguinte seqüência em magnitude: CR, CC, PDS e PDC, particularmente nas maiores Q. O regime de escoamento foi turbulento supercrítico, com exceção da primeira Q aplicada, onde o regime foi laminar subcrítico, para o PDC, graças à presença de resíduos culturais, e laminar supercrítico, para os demais tratamentos. A consolidação e a cobertura do solo alteram o regime do escoamento e reduzem a erosão em sulcos e seus efeitos são complementares.

  13. Simulação do deslocamento de potássio em colunas verticais de solo não-saturado Potassium displacement simulation in vertical columns of unsaturated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarbas H. Miranda

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo do transporte de água e potássio em solo não-saturado é importante, tanto do ponto de vista do ambiente quanto do econômico. Assim sendo, o uso da modelagem computacional é importante, pois permite de maneira precisa e rápida o monitoramento do deslocamento de solutos, importante na prevenção de impactos ao ambiente. No presente trabalho, teve-se o objetivo de avaliar a simulação do deslocamento do íon potássio em colunas de solo não-saturado, utilizando o modelo MIDI, bem como apresentar a determinação dos parâmetros de transporte do íon potássio em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, fase arenosa. Concluiu-se que o modelo foi capaz de simular de maneira satisfatória o perfil de umidade e o deslocamento do íon potássio.Water and solute transport studies in unsaturated soil are important for both economical and environmental points of view and, in this sense, it should be emphasized the increase of agricultural use of urban and industrial residues, to the water resources and fertilizers saving. Thus, the computational modeling use is important, because it allows the monitoring of solute displacement, necessary to the environmental impacts prevention in a precise and fast way. The main objective of the present work is to simulate the displacement of potassium ion in unsaturated soil columns, using the MIDI model, as well as to present transport parameters determination of the potassium ion in a Red Yellowish Latossol, sandy phase. The obtained results allowed concluding that the model was capable to adequately simulate the potassium ion displacement.

  14. Comunicação visual, panfletagem política e marca de governo: índices para compreender o cisalhamento do povo brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Aparecida dos Santos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available No artigo, um argumento foi construído a partir dos significados da palavra povo, elencados por Agamben, e do significado da palavra democracia, segundo Jacques Rancière. Considera-se que o povo contém em si uma cisão inicial. Trabalha-se com a hipótese de que, nos acontecimentos compreendidos entre as manifestações pré-Copa das Confederações, entre 2013 e setembro de 2016, ocorreram processos graduais de convocação, agrupamento e cisão do povo brasileiro. A cisão inicial foi potencializada até culminar na divisão física da Esplanada dos Ministérios, durante a sessão de admissibilidade do impeachment de Dilma Rousseff, pela Câmera dos Deputados Federais. Faz-se a análise semiótica de peças gráficas, diagramas políticos veiculados na televisão, memes na internet, panfletagem dos postes no Eixo Rodoviário Sul em Brasília e, por fim, da marca do governo interino de Michel Temer. Ao final, acredita-se que foi possível demonstrar que as comunicações visuais indiciam um processo de cisão do povo.

  15. Comportamento diário ao longo do período de alimentação do primeiro estágio do sistema francês de wetland vertical, em termos de remoção de matéria orgânica e amônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Maria Trein

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento do potencial de nitrificação e remoção de matéria orgânica no primeiro estágio de um wetland construído vertical - sistema francês (WCV-SF, operando com dois leitos em paralelo, cada um com 7 dias de alimentação e 7 dias de repouso, sob condições climáticas brasileiras. A estação de tratamento avaliada está localizada no Centro de Pesquisa e Treinamento em Saneamento (CePTS da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais e Companhia de Saneamento de Minas Gerais, UFMG/COPASA, na cidade de Belo Horizonte, Brasil. Complementando o monitoramento rotineiro praticado há anos neste sistema, efetuou-se um monitoramento intensivo da qualidade do afluente e do efluente do WCV-SF durante uma semana, por meio de análises físico-químicas, através de coletas simples diárias nos tempos de 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 e 50 minutos depois do início de uma batelada. Durante o período de monitoramento foi possível observar a eficiência dessa etapa associada à decomposição da matéria orgânica, permanecendo satisfatória mesmo em períodos de sobrecarga. Com concentrações positivas de oxigênio no efluente, o desempenho do sistema ao longo dos 7 dias de alimentação apresentou eficiência média de remoção e 69% para DQO. Em termos de nitrogênio, a eficiência de remoção de N-NH4+ foi de 58% e a produção de N-NO3- diminuiu com o avanço dos dias de alimentação, reportando 20 mg L-1 no 2º dia e 11 mg L-1 no último. De uma forma geral, apesar de ter apenas duas unidades em paralelo, o sistema mostrou boa capacidade de receber esgoto bruto por um período de tempo maior de alimentação, reforçando os resultados obtidos no monitoramento rotineiro.

  16. Coordination in vertical jumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, Maarten F.; van Ingen Schenau, Gerrit Jan

    1988-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate for vertical jumping the relationships between muscle actions, movement pattern and jumping achievement. Ten skilled jumpers performed jumps with preparatory countermovement. Ground reaction forces and cinematographic data were recorded. In addition,

  17. Diafragmas horizontais de piso em madeira, confeccionados com chapas de OSB e vigas I, submetido ao carregamento vertical - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v29i2.579

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altevir Castro dos Santos

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho aborda construções em madeira sob a ótica de sistemas com estruturas leves; apresenta an疝ise computacional por meio de modelagem pelo metodo de elementos finitos de diafragmas de piso e vigas I, submetidas a ensaio de flexão a quatro pontos. O objetivo geral é avaliar a resistência e a rigidez de diafragmas horizontais, construçõos em Sistemas Leves de Madeira, quando submetidos a ações verticais. As análises foram realizadas por meio do programa computacional SAP2000 e foram avaliadas as influencias dos seguintes parametros: espaçamento entre vigas que constituem os elementos de ossatura do diafragma horizontal e o espaçamento entre pregos de fixação do contrapiso, composto por chapas de OSB – Oriented Strand Board. Ao final do trabalho, comparam-se os resultados obtidos a partir das análises numérica e teórica, e são apresentadas algumas conclusões.

  18. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  19. Within plant distribution of Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae feeding and oviposition damages in cotton cultivars Distribuição vertical de botões florais com danos de alimentação e de oviposição de Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae em cultivares de algodoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Jurca Grigolli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The feeding and oviposition behavior of boll weevil in new cotton cultivars is essential for an adequate management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vertical distribution of squares punctured for feeding and oviposition of the pest in the cultivars NuOPAL, DeltaOPAL, FMT-701, FMX-910 and FMX-993, and record the most and least preferred times of feeding and oviposition. The number of squares used for boll weevil feeding and oviposition were evaluated weekly in three parts of plant canopy. It was observed that, regardless the cultivar, A. grandis preferred to lay eggs in squares located in the upper part and feed on squares in the middle and upper parts. The boll weevil preferred to feed on cultivar FMT-701 in the beginning of the period of cotton flowering and fruiting, and the cultivars NuOPAL, DeltaOPAL, FMX-910 and FMX-993 throughout the whole period of flowering and fruiting. A. grandis preferred to lay eggs on cultivars NuOPAL, FMT-701 and FMX-993 at the beginning and end of flowering and fruiting of plants, while the cultivars DeltaOPAL and FMX-910 are used for oviposition throughout the period of flowering and fruiting.O conhecimento do comportamento de alimentação e de oviposição de Anthonomus grandis em cultivares recentes de algodoeiro é essencial para seu manejo. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a distribuição vertical de botões florais com orifícios de alimentação e de oviposição da praga nas cultivares NuOPAL, DeltaOPAL, FMT-701, FMX-910 e FMX-993, bem como registrar as épocas de maior e menor preferência alimentar e de oviposição. O experimento foi conduzido em Jaboticabal, SP, Brasil, safra 2010/2011. Foram realizadas avaliações semanais, baseadas no número de botões florais, utilizados para alimentação e para oviposição pelo bicudo-do-algodoeiro, em três regiões do dossel das plantas. Observou-se que A. grandis preferiu ovipositar em botões florais localizados no terço superior das

  20. Vertical and horizontal subsidiarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Daniluk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article makes an attempt to analyze the principle of subsidiarity in its two main manifestations, namely vertical and horizontal, to outline the principles of relations between the state and regions within the vertical subsidiarity, and features a collaboration of the government and civil society within the horizontal subsidiarity. Scientists identify two types, or two levels of the subsidiarity principle: vertical subsidiarity and horizontal subsidiarity. First, vertical subsidiarity (or territorial concerning relations between the state and other levels of subnational government, such as regions and local authorities; second, horizontal subsidiarity (or functional concerns the relationship between state and citizen (and civil society. Vertical subsidiarity expressed in the context of the distribution of administrative responsibilities to the appropriate higher level lower levels relative to the state structure, ie giving more powers to local government. However, state intervention has subsidiary-lower action against local authorities in cases of insolvency last cope on their own, ie higher organisms intervene only if the duties are less authority is insufficient to achieve the goals. Horizontal subsidiarity is within the relationship between power and freedom, and is based on the assumption that the concern for the common good and the needs of common interest community, able to solve community members (as individuals and citizens’ associations and role of government, in accordance horizontal subsidiarity comes to attracting features subsidiarity assistance, programming, coordination and possibly control.

  1. Qualidade da carne de frangos caipiras abatidos em diferentes idades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.R. Souza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foram avaliadas as características físico-químicas e de composição centesimal da carne de frangos machos de três linhagens utilizadas para criação semi-intensiva: Redbro Cou Nu - Vermelho de Pescoço Pelado (Pescoço Pelado; Redbro Plumé - Vermelho de Pescoço Emplumado (Pesadão e Gris Barre Plumé (Carijó. Foram analisadas diferenças em relação à linhagem e à idade de abate (70, 85 e 110 dias. Na carne do peito, não foi verificado efeito de linhagem sobre os parâmetros de cor (L*, a* e b* e pH final. Houve comportamento diferenciado para as aves em relação a qualidade da carne do peito, com menores valores de maciez para linhagem Pesadão e de Perda de Peso por Cozimento para linhagem Carijó. A linhagem Carijó apresentou, para a carne de peito aos 110 dias, os menores valores de umidade e as maiores médias de proteína. Os valores de proteina reduziram para linhagem Pescoço Pelado a partir de 85 dias. Na coxa, a partir de 110 dias, foi verificada redução dos valores de L* (luminosidade e aumento das médias de a* (vermelho. Os valores de força de cisalhamento e extrato etéreo aumentaram para peito e coxa a partir dos 110 dias. As linhagens Pesadão e Pescoço Pelado apresentaram de forma geral, melhores aspectos físico-quimicos, que são os atributos de maior preferência pelo consumidor em função deste tipo de produto.

  2. Experimental analysis of ultrasonic signals in air-water vertical upward for void fraction measurement using neural networks; Analise experimental dos sinais ultra-sonicos em escoamentos verticais bifasicos para medicao da fracao de vazios atraves de redes neurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, Milton Y.; Massignan, Joao P.D.; Daciuk, Rafael J.; Neves Junior, Flavio; Arruda, Lucia V.R. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Rheology of emulsion mixtures and void fraction measurements of multiphase flows requires proper instrumentation. Sometimes it is not possible to install this instrumentation inside the pipe or view the flow. Ultrasound technology has characteristics compatible with the requirements of the oil industry. It can assist the production of heavy oil. This study provides important information for an analysis of the feasibility of developing non-intrusive equipment. These probes can be used for measurement of multiphase void fraction and detect the flow pattern using ultrasound. Experiments using simulated upward air-water vertical two-phase flow show that there is a correlation between the acoustic attenuation and the concentration of the gas phase. Experimental data were obtained through the prototype developed for ultrasonic data acquisition. This information was processed and used as input parameters for a neural network classifier. Void fractions ({proportional_to}) were analyzed between 0% - 16%, in increments of 1%. The maximum error of the neural network for the classification of the flow pattern was 6%. (author)

  3. [Duane vertical surgical treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, M L; Gómez de Liaño, P; Merino, P; Franco, G

    2014-04-01

    We report 3 cases with a vertical incomitance in upgaze, narrowing of palpebral fissure, and pseudo-overaction of both inferior oblique muscles. Surgery consisted of an elevation of both lateral rectus muscles with an asymmetrical weakening. A satisfactory result was achieved in 2 cases, whereas a Lambda syndrome appeared in the other case. The surgical technique of upper-insertion with a recession of both lateral rectus muscles improved vertical incomitance in 2 of the 3 patients; however, a residual deviation remains in the majority of cases. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Vertical market participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrader, Alexander; Martin, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    Firms that operate at both levels of vertically related Cournot oligopolies will purchase some input supplies from independent rivals, even though they can produce the good at a lower cost, driving up input price for nonintegrated firms at the final good level. Foreclosure, which avoids this stra......Firms that operate at both levels of vertically related Cournot oligopolies will purchase some input supplies from independent rivals, even though they can produce the good at a lower cost, driving up input price for nonintegrated firms at the final good level. Foreclosure, which avoids...

  5. Vertical Protocol Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groß, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The security of key exchange and secure channel protocols, such as TLS, has been studied intensively. However, only few works have considered what happens when the established keys are actually used—to run some protocol securely over the established “channel”. We call this a vertical protocol.......e., that the combination cannot introduce attacks that the individual protocols in isolation do not have. In this work, we prove a composability result in the symbolic model that allows for arbitrary vertical composition (including self-composition). It holds for protocols from any suite of channel and application...

  6. Efeito da vaporização em madeira de Eucalyptus dunnii sobre algumas propriedades mecânicas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Taylor Durgante Severo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da vaporização em toras e madeira serrada de Eucalyptus dunnii sobre as propriedades de compressão paralela e perpendicular às fibras e cisalhamento no sentiod radial e tangencial aos anéis de crescimento. As razões do estudo deve-se à possibilidade de aliviar as tensões de crescimento existentes na espécie pelo emprego da vaporização. Os ensaios foram realizados na condição climatizada (12% de umidade. Para isso,  dois terços das toras, com diâmetro entre 20 a 30 cm, proveniente de seis árvores por procedência dessa espécie foram vaporizadas a 100ºC e 100% de umidade relativa durante 20 horas, enquanto que as demais toras foram utizadas com controle. De cada tora foi retirada uma prancha central, orientada radialmente, de 8 cm de espessura, das quais se retirou vigotas de 8 cm x 8 cm. Metade das vigotas provenientes de toras vaporizadas foram novamente submetidas à vaporização, durante 3 horas, nas mesmas condições anteriormente descritas, obtendo-se, dessa forma, três níveis de comparação (controle, vaporizado em toras e madeira pré-vaporizada. Os resultados mostraram que o módulo de elasticidade em compressão paralela às fibras e o esforço no limite proporcional em compressão perpendicular as fibras não sofreram qualquer alteração com a vaporização. Entretanto a resistência máxima em compressão paralela as fibras e o cisalhamento (sentido radial e tangencial mostraram reduzir significativamente com a vaporização.

  7. Isoline curves obtained from vertical aerophotos

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Zacarias Xavier de; Campos, Sérgio; Cardoso, Lincoln Gehring; Pollo, Ronaldo Alberto

    2000-01-01

    Objetiva-se, com este trabalho, obter curvas de nível a partir de fotografias aéreas verticais, utilizando-se de gráfico linear de correção, em áreas com diferentes classes de declividade. A análise estatística dos dados foi efetuada por meio de regressões múltiplas das variáveis, erro horizontal e erro vertical, em função das variáveis independentes: altitude; altitude e declividade. Os erros médios horizontais e verticais pouco dependem da altitude, bem como da altitude e declividade, induz...

  8. Avaliação cefalométrica das alterações verticais e ântero-posteriores em pacientes Classe II esquelética, tratados com aparelho extrabucal de tração cervical ou combinada Cephalometric evaluation of anteroposterior and vertical changes in skeletal Class II patients treated with cervical or combined traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márlio Vinícius de Oliveira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar cefalometricamente as alterações ântero-posteriores e verticais em pacientes Classe II esquelética (ANB > 5°, tratados com aparelho extrabucal cervical (grupo 1 associado a aparelho fixo do tipo Edgewise ou tratados com aparelho extrabucal de tração combinada (grupo 2 associado ao mesmo. METODOLOGIA: a amostra consistiu-se de 60 radiografias cefalométricas laterais obtidas nas fases pré-tratamento e pós-tratamento de 30 indivíduos leucodermas, sendo 13 do gênero masculino e 17 do feminino. A idade média dos 15 pacientes do grupo 1, no pré-tratamento, era de 10 anos e 7 meses, e no pós-tratamento era de 13 anos e 9 meses. Os 15 pacientes do grupo 2 apresentavam idade média, no pré-tratamento, de 11 anos e 5 meses e no pós-tratamento a idade média era de 14 anos e 9 meses. As medidas cefalométricas iniciais e finais foram analisadas e comparadas pelo teste t de Student. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: não houve alteração significante no padrão de crescimento facial durante o tratamento em nenhum dos grupos avaliados. Nos pacientes do grupo 2, que possuíam tendência de crescimento vertical (GoGn-SN> 36°, o aparelho extrabucal de tração combinada, mesmo não provocando efeito extrusivo sobre os molares superiores, não foi capaz de diminuir o ângulo do plano mandibular. A maxila apresentou uma restrição no seu deslocamento anterior e verticalmente manteve-se estável. A mandíbula expressou seu crescimento e deslocou-se anteriormente, porém manteve sua inclinação inalterada. A relação maxilomandibular apresentou uma melhora significante com redução sensível do ANB.AIM: To evaluate the antero-posterior and vertical changes in patients with skeletal Class II malocclusions (ANB > 5º by means of the cephalometry. The patients had been treated with either cervical traction device (Group 1 or combined traction device (Group 2 both in association with a Edgewise-type device. METHODS: The sample consisted

  9. Vertical Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, Kevin; Mc Glinchey, Jude

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines the growth in popularity of vertical search engines, their origins, the differences between them and well-known broad based search engines such as Google and Yahoo. We also discuss their use in business-to-business, their marketing and advertising costs, what the revenue streams are and who uses them.

  10. Vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides a vertical cavity laser comprising a grating layer comprising an in-plane grating, the grating layer having a first side and having a second side opposite the first side and comprising a contiguous core grating region having a grating structure, wherein an index...

  11. Global Vertical Reference Frame

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    -, č. 5 (2009), s. 53-63 ISSN 1801-8483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0328 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : sea surface topography * satellite altimetry * vertical frames Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  12. Efeitos de um programa de treinamento neuromuscular sobre o consumo máximo de oxigênio e salto vertical em atletas iniciantes de voleibol Los efectos de un programa de entrenamiento neuromuscular nel consumo máximo de oxígeno y salto vertical en atletas principiantes de voleyball Effects of a neuromuscular training program on the maximal Oxygen consumption and vertical jump in beginning volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Altini Neto

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available As alterações ocorridas na performance motora de jovens envolvidos em treinamentos especializados ainda não são muito claras. Este é um conhecimento de suma importância para a correta prescrição desses treinos. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência do treinamento nas variáveis neuromotoras e orgânicas de jovens atletas na modalidade voleibol em diferentes momentos do programa. Foram selecionadas nove atletas, do sexo feminino, da equipe infantil, do Clube de Campo de Piracicaba/SP, na faixa etária de 14 e 15 anos, para a realização dos testes: alcance de ataque e bloqueio e o teste de 1.000 metros, com o objetivo de avaliar, em três momentos distintos, o programa de treino sugerido. Foram realizadas quatro coletas de dados, a primeira na apresentação das atletas, a segunda no final da etapa geral, a terceira no final da etapa especial e a última no final do período competitivo. No período preparatório foram utilizados exercícios com o objetivo de melhorar o desempenho das atletas na realização das ações motoras do jogo. No competitivo foram realizados exercícios com o objetivo de manter os índices de rendimento alcançados anteriormente, priorizando os exercícios coletivos envolvendo a técnica e a tática da modalidade. Com base na análise estatística dos dados, obtida através do cálculo da média, desvio-padrão, nível de significância (p Todavía no están claras las alteraciones de la actuaciones deportivas de juventud involucrada en entrenamientos especializados. Éste es un conocimiento de suma importancia para la prescripción correcta de los entrenamientos. El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar la influencia del entrenamiento en las variables neuromotoras y orgánicas de atletas jóvenes en la modalidad de voleyball en momentos diferentes de un programa. Se seleccionaron 9 atletas, mujeres, del equipo infantil, del Club de Campo de Piracicaba/SP, con edades de 14 y 15 años, para el

  13. Shear bond strength of two bonding systems on dentin surfaces prepared with Er:YAG laser; Resistencia de uniao ao cisalhamento de dois sistemas adesivos em superficies dentinarias preparadas com laser de Er:YAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Magro, Eduardo

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the shear bond strength of two bonding dentin systems, one 'one step' (Single Bond - 3M) and one 'self-etching' (Prompt-L-ESPE), when applied on dentin surfaces prepared with Er:YAG laser (2,94{mu}m) that underwent ar not, acid etched. Forty one human molars just extracted were selected and after the cut with diamond disc and included in acrylic resin, resulting in 81 specimens (hemi crowns). After, the specimens were divided in one group treated with sand paper and another two groups treated with Er:YAG laser with 200 mJ and 250 mJ of energy and 2 Hz of frequency. Next, the prepared surfaces received three treatments with following application: 1) acid + Single Bond + Z 250 resin, 2) prompt-L-Pop + Z 250 resin, and 3) acid without, Single Bond + Z 250 resin. The Z 250 resin was applied and photopolymerized in increments on a Teflon matrix that belonged to an apparatus called 'Assembly Apparatus' machine producing cylinders of 3,5 mm of diameter and 5 mm of height. After these specimens were submitted to thermo cycling during 1 minute the 55 deg C and during 1 minute with 5 deg C with a total of 500 cycles for specimen, and the measures of shear bond strength were abstained using EMIC model DL 2000 rehearsed machine, with speed of 0,5 mm/min, measuring the final rupture tension (Mpa). The results showed an statistic superiority of 5% of probability level in dentin flattened with sandpaper and with laser using 200 mJ of energy with aspect to the ones flattened with laser using 250 mJ of energy. It was observed that using 'Single Bond' bonding dentin system the marks were statistically superior at 5% of probability with reference to the use of the Prompt-L-Pop adhesive system. So, it was concluded that Er:YAG Laser with 200 mJ of energy produced similar dentin cavity prepare than sandpaper and Single Bond seemed the best bonding agent system between restorative material and dentin. (author)

  14. Vertical steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuda, F.; Kondr, M.; Kresta, M.; Kusak, V.; Manek, O.; Turon, S.

    1982-01-01

    A vertical steam generator for nuclear power plants and dual purpose power plants consists of a cylindrical vessel in which are placed heating tubes in the form upside-down U. The heating tubes lead to the jacket of the cylindrical collector placed in the lower part of the steam generator perpendicularly to its vertical axis. The cylindrical collector is divided by a longitudinal partition into the inlet and outlet primary water sections of the heating tubes. One ends of the heating tube leads to the jacket of the collector for primary water feeding and the second ends of the heating tubes into the jacket of the collector which feeds and offtakes primary water from the heating tubes. (B.S.)

  15. Vertical organic transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüssem, Björn; Günther, Alrun; Fischer, Axel; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-11-11

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100 nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-μm structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted.

  16. Relato de caso: transmissão vertical de dengue Case report: vertical dengue infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara L. C. Maroun

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Relatar um caso de transmissão vertical de dengue ocorrido durante epidemia de 2008 pelo vírus tipo II no Rio de Janeiro e revisar a literatura sobre transmissão vertical de dengue. DESCRIÇÃO: Relatamos um caso de transmissão vertical de dengue. Recém-nascido a termo do sexo feminino, peso de nascimento de 3.940 g, foi admitida na unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal com rash cutâneo, hipoatividade e febre no quinto dia de vida. O hemograma evidenciava plaquetopenia importante (38.000 plaquetas. A mãe apresentou quadro clínico compatível com dengue 3 dias antes do parto. Foram colhidos então IgM para dengue da mãe e do recém-nascido, realizados pelo método de ELISA, sendo positivos em ambos. Dengue tipo 2 foi detectado no recém-nascido através de reação em cadeia da polimerase. COMENTÁRIOS: Este relato enfatiza a importância do pediatra estar alerta para a possibilidade de transmissão vertical de dengue iniciando precocemente o tratamento.OBJECTIVES: To report a case of vertical dengue infection in a newborn from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and to review the literature concerning this problem. DESCRIPTION: We report a case of vertical dengue infection. Female neonate, birth weight 3,940 g, term, was admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit on the fifth day of life with fever and erythematous rash. Her mother had had dengue fever 3 days before delivery. Her platelet count was 38,000, dropping to 15,000. She did not have any hemorrhagic episodes, including cerebral hemorrhages. Anti-dengue antibodies (IgM were positive in the mother and infant. Dengue type 2 was detected in the infant using polymerase chain reaction. COMMENTS: This report emphasizes that pediatricians should be aware of the possibility of vertical dengue infection so that early management can be instituted.

  17. Vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obretenov, V.; Tsalov, T.; Chakarov, T.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in wind turbines with vertical axis noticeably increased. They have some important advantages: low cost, relatively simple structure, reliable packaging system of wind aggregate long period during which require no maintenance, low noise, independence of wind direction, etc.. The relatively low efficiency, however, makes them applicable mainly for small facilities. The work presents a methodology and software for approximately aerodynamic design of wind turbines of this type, and also analyzed the possibility of improving the efficiency of their workflow

  18. Otimização do processo de dispersão de nanotubos de carbono em poliuretano termorrígido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnovaldo Carvalho Lopes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Neste trabalho foi desenvolvido um processo empregando misturador de alto cisalhamento e moinho de rolos para dispersar MWCNTs (multiwalled carbon nanotubes puros e modificados em poliol visando a preparação de concentrados de 3% em massa. Condições otimizadas no trabalho permitiram a obtenção de suspensões com menor número e tamanho de agregados de MWCNTs. Compósitos contendo 0,5% em massa de MWCNTs foram preparados por diluição dos concentrados em poliol usando mistura mecânica seguida de cura. Resultados de microscopia indicaram que as melhores dispersões foram obtidas com os MWCNTs modificados, os quais permitiram um aumento na tensão na ruptura, no alongamento e uma melhor preservação da estabilidade térmica. Além disso, valores de condutividade elétrica sugerem que o compósito possa ser empregado para dissipação eletrostática. Dessa forma, os resultados obtidos demonstram que a modificação covalente da superfície dos MWCNTs e a utilização de estratégias eficientes de dispersão são essenciais para melhorar as propriedades finais dos nanocompósitos.

  19. Características de carcaça e qualidade de carne em linhagens da raça Nelore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Nadai Bonin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar diferenças entre linhagens da raça Nelore para características de carcaça e qualidade de carne. Foram avaliadas treze linhagens da raça Nelore para as características de peso de carcaça quente, área de olho de lombo, espessura de gordura subcutânea, marmoreio e força de cisalhamento aos 7,14 e 21 dias de maturação. Para isso, foram utilizadas informações fenotípicas de 516 animais da raça Nelore e estimadas as diferenças esperadas na progênie para comparação entre as linhagens. Dentre os genearcas estudados, Golias obteve os melhores valores das diferenças esperadas na progênie para peso de carcaça quente (+1,20kg, área de olho de lombo (+0,88cm, marmoreio (+3,47un e força de cisalhamento média (-0,09kg e Akasamu para espessura de gordura subcutânea (+0,05mm. As diferenças entre linhagens da raça Nelore encontradas neste estudo podem ser utilizadas na escolha de touros para melhoria genética de características de carcaça e carne em rebanhos de gado de corte brasileiros.

  20. Vertical vector face lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoano, Brian; Chan, Joanna; Morganroth, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Facial rejuvenation using local anesthesia has evolved in the past decade as a safer option for patients seeking fewer complications and minimal downtime. Mini- and short-scar face lifts using more conservative incision lengths and extent of undermining can be effective in the younger patient with lower face laxity and minimal loose, elastotic neck skin. By incorporating both an anterior and posterior approach and using an incision length between the mini and more traditional face lift, the Vertical Vector Face Lift can achieve longer-lasting and natural results with lesser cost and risk. Submentoplasty and liposuction of the neck and jawline, fundamental components of the vertical vector face lift, act synergistically with superficial musculoaponeurotic system plication to reestablish a more youthful, sculpted cervicomental angle, even in patients with prominent jowls. Dramatic results can be achieved in the right patient by combining with other procedures such as injectable fillers, chin implants, laser resurfacing, or upper and lower blepharoplasties. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Vertical organic transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lüssem, Björn; Günther, Alrun; Fischer, Axel; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100 nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-μm structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted. (topical review)

  2. Desempenho de um “wetland” vertical aplicado ao tratamento do efluente de um filtro anaeróbio em uma estação de tratamento de águas cinzas claras visando o reúso não potável em edificações residenciais

    OpenAIRE

    Sarnaglia, Solange Aparecida Alho

    2014-01-01

    No tratamento de água cinza com vistas ao reúso predial os “wetlands” têm se mostrado como uma opção viável devido à boa remoção de poluentes, ao baixo custo de implantação e operação, além do baixo impacto ambiental quando comparados a outros sistemas. O presente estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar físico-química e microbiologicamente a água cinza clara gerada em um edifício universitário avaliar a influência das cargas hidráulica e orgânica na remoção de matéria orgânica, turbidez e de c...

  3. The online distribution strategy of luxury products and their vertical extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Marliot, Sylvain Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Uma importante tendência do mercado de luxo é a extensão de marca em um novo segmento de mercado por meio da chamada extensão vertical, que pode ser para cima ou para baixo. Em outras palavras, significa que a organização passa a atuar em um novo segmento dentro de uma mesma categoria de produtos, mas com diferente público-alvo que sua marca original. Nesse processo, a empresa inicia atividade em um novo segmento com diferente nível de luxo. A distribuição é um aspecto fundamental do compo...

  4. Vertical guidance of shearers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pocock, J.

    1985-01-01

    Mining Engineers have always been aware of the basic need to avoid contamination of the mined product, by controlling the cutting horizon at the coal face. The ability to maintain the optimum cutting horizon results in more effective roof control and ensures a safer and more efficient working environment, for men and machinery. The cost of treatment in the surface coal preparation plant is reduced. Transportation through the total mine system of material finally destined for the spoil heap is minimised. A reduction in product contamination is achieved and makes more effective use of the mine capacity. These benefits make possible significant improvements in productivity and financial returns. Exploitation of micro computer based systems has enabled the successful development of equipment which employs sensors to detect the very low natural gamma radiation from roof strata; to determine and allow control of the position of the cut relative to the roof and floor. This paper reviews the experience gained by the National Coal Board, particularly in South Yorkshire Area, with the vertical steering of ranging drum shearers. It outlines the benefits and considers the future for this technology and its contribution to total coal face automation

  5. TRATAMIENTO DE AGUAS RESIDUALES MEDIANTE REACTORES ANAERÓBICOS DE PLACAS VERTICALES PARALELAS EN ACRÍLICO TRATAMENTO DE ÁGUAS RESIDUÁRIAS POR REATORES ANAERÓBIOS DE PLACAS VERTICAIS PARALELAS EM ACRÍLICO WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY ANAEROBIC REACTORS OF VERTICAL PARALLEL PLATES IN ACRYLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Chaux F

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Algunos filtros anaeróbicos con lecho de piedra construidos en el departamento del Cauca (Colombia, están presentando problemas de colmatación. Si se reemplaza la piedra por placas verticales paralelas, se elimina el problema de obstrucción. Este documento presenta el desarrollo y resultados de una investigación que evaluó a escala de laboratorio el potencial de los reactores anaeróbicos de placas verticales paralelas en acrílico para remover contaminantes (materia orgánica y sólidos suspendidos. El reactor anaeróbico de placas paralelas en acrílico se desempeñó como tratamiento secundario; se alimentó con agua residual efluente de un Tanque Imhoff con concentraciones medias de 156 ± 14 mg/L de DB05, 438 ± 32 mg/L de DQO y 98 ±22 mg/L de sólidos suspendidos totales. Las remociones de DQO y DB05 en el reactor sobrepasan el 50% y la remoción de sólidos suspendidos sobrepasó el 60% para tiempos de detención de 24 horas. La facilidad en la operación del reactor lo hace viable como tratamiento biológico anaeróbico de aguas residuales previamente decantadasAlguns filtros anaeróbios com recheio de pedras construída no departamento de Cauca (Colombia estão apresentando problemas de obstrução. Se a pedra é substituída por placas verticais paralelas, evita o problema da obstrução. Este artigo apresenta o desenvolvimento e os resultados e no estudo realizado em escala de laboratório que avaliaram o potencial de reatores anaeróbios de placas verticais paralelas em acrílico para remover os contaminantes (sólidos suspensos e matéria orgânica. 0 reator anaeróbio de placas paralelas de acrílico serviu como tratamento secundário; foi alimentado com água residuária do efluente de um tanque Imhoff com concentrações médias de 156 ± 14 mg/L DB05, 438 ± 32 mg/L de DQO e 98 ±22 mg/L de sólidos suspensos totais. A remoção de DQO e DB05 no reator são mais de 50% ea remoção de sólidos em suspensão superior a 60

  6. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders

    We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor intensity as observed in data. Final......-good producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all...... increasing when intermediate-input or final-goods trade is liberalised and when the fixed cost of vertical integration is reduced. At the same time, one observes firms that shift away from either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting. Further, we provide guidance for testing the open...

  7. Influência do procedimento de mistura em laboratório nas propriedades de argamassas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylinda Santos de França

    Full Text Available A mistura dos materiais sólidos com a água é uma das etapas mais importantes no preparo das argamassas. A condução do procedimento que é adotado interferirá nas propriedades no estado fresco, assim como no endurecido. A Norma ABNT NBR 13276:2005 indica que os materiais sólidos sejam introduzidos no líquido já disposto no recipiente. Essa ordem de introdução dos materiais é o inverso do que ocorre na prática e pode resultar na falta de homogeneidade da mistura. Estudos anteriores observaram que adicionar o líquido aos materiais sólidos de forma fracionada melhora as propriedades reológicas dos sistemas. Assim, utilizando uma argamassadeira de laboratório e uma mesma formulação, foram estudados distintos procedimentos de mistura em que a água é adicionada no material sólido em etapas. Esses procedimentos foram confrontados com o indicado pela ABNT NBR 13276:2005, e o comportamento reológico (squeeze-flow e ciclos de cisalhamento e as propriedades no estado endurecido (resistência à tração por compressão diametral e módulo de elasticidade dinâmico foram avaliados. Verificou-se que a adição do líquido ao material sólido em etapas distintas conduz a sistemas mais fluidos e com melhor desempenho no estado endurecido.

  8. Inservice testing of vertical pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornman, R.E. Jr.; Schumann, K.E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper focuses on the problems that may occur with vertical pumps while inservice tests are conducted in accordance with existing American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code, Section XI, standards. The vertical pump types discussed include single stage, multistage, free surface, and canned mixed flow pumps. Primary emphasis is placed on the hydraulic performance of the pump and the internal and external factors to the pump that impact hydraulic performance. In addition, the paper considers the mechanical design features that can affect the mechanical performance of vertical pumps. The conclusion shows how two recommended changes in the Code standards may increase the quality of the pump's operational readiness assessment during its service life

  9. Fractografia de compósito estrutural aeronáutico submetido ao ensaio de tenacidade à fratura interlaminar em Modo II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Maurício Cândido

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A fractografia consiste no estudo detalhado da morfologia da superfície de fratura de materiais. Para isto, a técnica de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV é usualmente utilizada para determinar a causa de falha e a relação do modo de falha com a microestrutura do material em análise. Essas informações permitem estabelecer analogia entre estrutura, propriedade e processamento do material com a iniciação e a propagação da falha. Neste estudo, a análise fractográfica é utilizada para investigar os aspectos que caracterizaram a falha por delaminação em Modo II de laminados poliméricos de uso estrutural. Para isto, espécimes com um inserto de Teflon® introduzido no plano médio de uma das extremidades do laminado (End-Notched foram submetidos ao ensaio de carregamento em flexão em quatro pontos. Os espécimes foram preparados a partir de um laminado fabricado em autoclave, com camadas (0º, 90º de material pré-impregnado de tecido bidirecional em estilo plain weave de fibras de carbono IM7/resina epóxi M21. Os resultados da análise mostram que a superfície de fratura é muito irregular, com a visualização de fibras e impressões de fibras na matriz. Aspectos fractográficos de cúspides e formatos de concha, originados durante o cisalhamento da matriz polimérica, são também observados.

  10. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  11. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between four different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor (headquarter) intensity. Final......-good producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all...... increasing when intermediate-input trade or final-goods trade is liberalised. Finally, we provide guidance for testing the open-economy property rights theory of the firm using firm-level data and surprisingly show that the relationship between factor (headquarter) intensity and the likelihood of vertical...

  12. The TEXT upgrade vertical interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallock, G.A.; Gartman, M.L.; Li, W.; Chiang, K.; Shin, S.; Castles, R.L.; Chatterjee, R.; Rahman, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    A far-infrared interferometer has been installed on TEXT upgrade to obtain electron density profiles. The primary system views the plasma vertically through a set of large (60-cm radialx7.62-cm toroidal) diagnostic ports. A 1-cm channel spacing (59 channels total) and fast electronic time response is used, to provide high resolution for radial profiles and perturbation experiments. Initial operation of the vertical system was obtained late in 1991, with six operating channels

  13. Evaluation of <em>HER2em> Gene Amplification in Breast Cancer Using Nuclei Microarray <em>in em>S>itu em>Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence<em> em>>in situ em>hybridization (FISH assay is considered the “gold standard” in evaluating <em>HER2/neu (HER2em> gene status. However, FISH detection is costly and time consuming. Thus, we established nuclei microarray with extracted intact nuclei from paraffin embedded breast cancer tissues for FISH detection. The nuclei microarray FISH (NMFISH technology serves as a useful platform for analyzing <em>HER2em> gene/chromosome 17 centromere ratio. We examined <em>HER2em> gene status in 152 cases of invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast that were resected surgically with FISH and NMFISH. <em>HER2em> gene amplification status was classified according to the guidelines of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP. Comparison of the cut-off values for <em>HER2em>/chromosome 17 centromere copy number ratio obtained by NMFISH and FISH showed that there was almost perfect agreement between the two methods (κ coefficient 0.920. The results of the two methods were almost consistent for the evaluation of <em>HER2em> gene counts. The present study proved that NMFISH is comparable with FISH for evaluating <em>HER2em> gene status. The use of nuclei microarray technology is highly efficient, time and reagent conserving and inexpensive.

  14. A New Natural Lactone from <em>Dimocarpus> <em>longan> Lour. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongjun Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A new natural product named longanlactone was isolated from <em>Dimocarpus> <em>longan> Lour. seeds. Its structure was determined as 3-(2-acetyl-1<em>H>-pyrrol-1-yl-5-(prop-2-yn-1-yldihydrofuran-2(3H-one by spectroscopic methods and HRESIMS.

  15. Propriedades físicas, químicas e mecânicas da madeira de cedro australiano cultivado em Corupá, SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilani Trianoski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O cedro australiano (Toona ciliata M. Roem é uma espécie de elevado valor comercial, com características similares ao mogno e cedros nativos, que vem se destacando em plantios florestais no Brasil, cuja madeira produzida deve ser alvo de pesquisas tecnológicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as propriedades físicas, químicas e mecânicas desta espécie em plantio com 18 anos. Foi observada massa específica baixa (0,330 g cm3, estabilidade dimensional média baixa (anisotropia: 2,22, teor de extrativos elevado (10,33% e propriedades mecânicas moderadas: MOR e MOE à flexão: 498 kgf cm-2 e 66.163 kgf cm-2; MOR e MOE à compressão paralela: 258 kgf cm-2 e 100,813 kgf cm-2; cisalhamento: 82 kgf cm-2, e dureza média: 208 kgf.

  16. Reference Gene Selection in the Desert Plant <em>Eremosparton songoricuem>m>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao-Yuan Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available <em>Eremosparton songoricum em>(Litv. Vass. (<em>E. songoricumem> is a rare and extremely drought-tolerant desert plant that holds promise as a model organism for the identification of genes associated with water deficit stress. Here, we cloned and evaluated the expression of eight candidate reference genes using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. The expression of these candidate reference genes was analyzed in a diverse set of 20 samples including various <em>E. songoricumem> plant tissues exposed to multiple environmental stresses. GeNorm analysis indicated that expression stability varied between the reference genes in the different experimental conditions, but the two most stable reference genes were sufficient for normalization in most conditions.<em> EsEFem> and <em>Esα-TUB> were sufficient for various stress conditions, <em>EsEF> and <em>EsACT> were suitable for samples of differing germination stages, and <em>EsGAPDH>and <em>Es>UBQ em>were most stable across multiple adult tissue samples. The <em>Es18Sem> gene was unsuitable as a reference gene in our analysis. In addition, the expression level of the drought-stress related transcription factor <em>EsDREB2em>> em>verified the utility of<em> E. songoricumem> reference genes and indicated that no single gene was adequate for normalization on its own. This is the first systematic report on the selection of reference genes in <em>E. songoricumem>, and these data will facilitate future work on gene expression in this species.

  17. Vertical distribution of pelagic photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsgaard, Maren Moltke

    chlorophyll maxima (DCM) to be a general feature in the ocean. Today, it is generally accepted that DCMs occur in most of our oceans still, despite this empirical knowledge, subsurface primary production is still largely ignored in marine science. The work included in this PhD examines the vertical...... each of the three regions combined with 15 years of survey data for the Baltic Sea transition zone. Overall, the results of this PhD work show that the vertical distribution of phytoplankton and their activity is important for the understanding, dynamics and functioning of pelagic ecosystems. It, thus......, emphasizes that future research and modelling exercises aimed at improving understanding of pelagic ecosystems and their role in the global ocean should include a consideration of the vertical heterogeneity in phytoplankton distributions and activity....

  18. Neglected locked vertical patellar dislocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Gupta, Vinay; Sangwan, Sukhbir Singh; Kamboj, Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    Patellar dislocations occurring about the vertical and horizontal axis are rare and irreducible. The neglected patellar dislocation is still rarer. We describe the clinical presentation and management of a case of neglected vertical patellar dislocation in a 6 year-old boy who sustained an external rotational strain with a laterally directed force to his knee. Initially the diagnosis was missed and 2 months later open reduction was done. The increased tension generated by the rotation of the lateral extensor retinaculum kept the patella locked in the lateral gutter even with the knee in full extension. Traumatic patellar dislocation with rotation around a vertical axis has been described earlier, but no such neglected case has been reported to the best of our knowledge. PMID:23162154

  19. Neglected locked vertical patellar dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patellar dislocations occurring about the vertical and horizontal axis are rare and irreducible. The neglected patellar dislocation is still rarer. We describe the clinical presentation and management of a case of neglected vertical patellar dislocation in a 6 year-old boy who sustained an external rotational strain with a laterally directed force to his knee. Initially the diagnosis was missed and 2 months later open reduction was done. The increased tension generated by the rotation of the lateral extensor retinaculum kept the patella locked in the lateral gutter even with the knee in full extension. Traumatic patellar dislocation with rotation around a vertical axis has been described earlier, but no such neglected case has been reported to the best of our knowledge.

  20. Building a progressive vertical integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charette, D.

    2008-01-01

    AAER Inc. is a Quebec-based company that manufactures turbines using proven European designs. This presentation discussed the company's business model. The company places an emphasis on identifying strategic and key components currently available for its turbines. Market analyses are performed in order to determine ideal suppliers and define business strategies and needs. The company invests in long-term relationships with its suppliers. Business partners for AAER are of a similar size and have a mutual understanding and respect for the company's business practices. Long-term agreements with suppliers are signed in order to ensure reliability and control over costs. Progressive vertical integration has been achieved by progressively manufacturing key components and integrating a North American supply chain. The company's secure supply chain and progressive vertical integration has significantly reduced financial costs and provided better quality control. It was concluded that vertical integration has also allowed AAER to provide better customer service and reduce transportation costs. tabs., figs

  1. Hybrid Vertical-Cavity Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a light source (2) for light circuits on a silicon platform (3). A vertical laser cavity is formed by a gain region (101) arranged between a top mirror (4) and a bottom grating-mirror (12) in a grating region (11) in a silicon layer (10) on a substrate. A waveguide...... (18, 19) for receiving light from the grating region (11) is formed within or to be connected to the grating region, and functions as an 5 output coupler for the VCL. Thereby, vertical lasing modes (16) are coupled to lateral in-plane modes (17, 20) of the in-plane waveguide formed in the silicon...

  2. Circulação estacionária e estratificação de sal em canais estuarinos: simulação com modelos analíticos Stationary circulation and salt stratification in estuarine channels: simulation with analitic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Eduardo Cordeiro Bernardes

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A circulação estacionária e a estratificação de sal na região sul do Sistema Estuarino-lagunar de Cananéia-Iguape e no Canal de Bertioga são descritas. Os modelos de Fisher el al. (1972, Prandle (1985 e Miranda (1998 foram escolhidos para a simulação dos perfis verticais do componente longitudinal da velocidade e da salinidade. Os dados experimentais utilizados na calibração desses modelos foram amostrados em 41 estações fixas de um ou dois ciclos de maré semidiurna. Os modelos reproduziram com boa fidelidade condições experimentais bem misturadas e parcialmente misturadas. O gradiente longitudinal de densidade e a descarga de água doce foram as principais forçantes da circulação estacionária e estratificação de sal, em detrimento da influência secundária da tensão de cisalhamento do vento. De acordo com o diagrama Estratificação-circulaçâo de Hansen & Rattray (1966, a região sul do sistema estuarino de Cananéia apresentou condições bem misturadas (Tipo 1a e parcialmente misturadas (Tipo 2b antes e depois do rompimento da barragem do Valo Grande, respectivamente. No Canal de Bertioga foram observadas condições parcialmente misturadas (Tipo 2b nas imediações do Rio Itapanhaú e bem misturadas (Tipo lb no restante do canal. Os coeficientes teóricos de viscosidade turbulenta foram similares aos calculados experimentalmente por Mesquita et al. (1992.The stationary circulation and salinity stratification in the southern region of Cananéia-Iguape Estuarine-lagoon System and Bertioga Channel are described. The models of Fisher el al. (1972, Prandle (1985 and Miranda (1998 were selected for the simulation of vertical profiles of the longitudinal component of velocity and salinity. The experimental data set used for the calibration of these models were sampled in 41 anchored stations, for one or two semidiurnal tidal cycles. For well mixed and partially mixed conditions, theoretical results and experimental data

  3. SECADOR VERTICAL SOLAR PARA AMÊNDOAS DE CACAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Costa Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta a simulação de um secador vertical solar e sua eficiência em relação ao método tradicional. Usando um programa computacional é obtida a geometria, efeitos térmicos e mecânicos. Depois é feita uma simulação para a transferência de calor via condução, convecção e radiação. Para teste de confiabilidade fazemos uma comparação dos nossos resultados com os dados simulados nas barcaças.

  4. Vertical reactor coolant pump instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    The investigation conducted at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant to determine and correct increasing vibrations in the vertical reactor coolant pumps is described. Diagnostic procedures to determine the vibration causes and evaluate the corractive measures taken are also described

  5. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Luminescent Property of Cd (II Complex with <em>N-Benzenesulphonyl-L>-leucine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xishi Tai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A new trinuclear Cd (II complex [Cd3(L6(2,2-bipyridine3] [L =<em> Nem>-phenylsulfonyl-L>-leucinato] has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. The results show that the complex belongs to the orthorhombic, space group<em> Pem>212121 with<em> aem> = 16.877(3 Å, <em>b> em>= 22.875(5 Å, <em>c em>= 29.495(6 Å, <em>α> em>= <emem>= <emem>= 90°, <em>V> em>= 11387(4 Å3, <em>Z> em>= 4, <em>Dc>= 1.416 μg·m−3, <emem>= 0.737 mm−1, <em>F> em>(000 = 4992, and final <em>R>1 = 0.0390, <em>ωR>2 = 0.0989. The complex comprises two seven-coordinated Cd (II atoms, with a N2O5 distorted pengonal bipyramidal coordination environment and a six-coordinated Cd (II atom, with a N2O4 distorted octahedral coordination environment. The molecules form one dimensional chain structure by the interaction of bridged carboxylato groups, hydrogen bonds and p-p interaction of 2,2-bipyridine. The luminescent properties of the Cd (II complex and <em>N-Benzenesulphonyl-L>-leucine in solid and in CH3OH solution also have been investigated.

  6. Coexistence of Strategic Vertical Separation and Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jos

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives conditions under which vertical separation is chosen by some upstream firms, while vertical integration is chosen by others in the equilibrium of a symmetric model. A vertically separating firm trades off fixed contracting costs against the strategic benefit of writing a (two......-part tariff, exclusive dealing) contract with its retailer. Coexistence emerges when more than two vertical Cournot oligopolists supply close substitutes. When vertical integration and separation coexist, welfare could be improved by reducing the number of vertically separating firms. The scope...

  7. Vertical and lateral heterogeneous integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Jon; Okuno, Yae L.; Bowers, John E.; Jayaraman, Vijay

    2001-09-01

    A technique for achieving large-scale monolithic integration of lattice-mismatched materials in the vertical direction and the lateral integration of dissimilar lattice-matched structures has been developed. The technique uses a single nonplanar direct-wafer-bond step to transform vertically integrated epitaxial structures into lateral epitaxial variation across the surface of a wafer. Nonplanar wafer bonding is demonstrated by integrating four different unstrained multi-quantum-well active regions lattice matched to InP on a GaAs wafer surface. Microscopy is used to verify the quality of the bonded interface, and photoluminescence is used to verify that the bonding process does not degrade the optical quality of the laterally integrated wells. The authors propose this technique as a means to achieve greater levels of wafer-scale integration in optical, electrical, and micromechanical devices.

  8. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattione, Paul [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  9. Interference Lithography for Vertical Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balls, Amy; Pei, Lei; Kvavle, Joshua; Sieler, Andrew; Schultz, Stephen; Linford, Matthew; Vanfleet, Richard; Davis, Robert

    2009-10-01

    We are exploring low cost approaches for fabricating three dimensional nanoscale structures. These vertical structures could significantly improve the efficiency of devices made from low cost photovoltaic materials. The nanoscale vertical structure provides a way to increase optical absorption in thin photovoltaic films without increasing the electronic carrier separation distance. The target structure is a high temperature transparent template with a dense array of holes on a 400 - 600 nm pitch fabricated by a combination of interference lithography and nanoembossing. First a master was fabricated using ultraviolet light interference lithography and the pattern was transferred into a silicon wafer master by silicon reactive ion etching. Embossing studies were performed with the master on several high temperature polymers.

  10. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The exploration of the vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. The consortium has submitted over 25 different designs for the Fermilab organized MPW run organized for the first time.

  11. Vertical Launch System Loadout Planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    United States Navy USS United States’ Ship VBA Visual Basic for Applications VLP VLS Loadout Planner VLS Vertical Launch System...with 32 gigabytes of random access memory and eight processors, General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) CPLEX version 24 (GAMS, 2015) solves this...problem in ten minutes to an integer tolerance of 10%. The GAMS interpreter and CPLEX solver require 75 Megabytes of random access memory for this

  12. NASA-Ames vertical gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    A national facility, the NASA-Ames vertical gun range (AVGR) has an excellent reputation for revealing fundamental aspects of impact cratering that provide important constraints for planetary processes. The current logistics in accessing the AVGR, some of the past and ongoing experimental programs and their relevance, and the future role of this facility in planetary studies are reviewed. Publications resulting from experiments with the gun (1979 to 1984) are listed as well as the researchers and subjects studied.

  13. Strategic Inventories in Vertical Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan Anand; Ravi Anupindi; Yehuda Bassok

    2008-01-01

    Classical reasons for carrying inventory include fixed (nonlinear) production or procurement costs, lead times, nonstationary or uncertain supply/demand, and capacity constraints. The last decade has seen active research in supply chain coordination focusing on the role of incentive contracts to achieve first-best levels of inventory. An extensive literature in industrial organization that studies incentives for vertical controls largely ignores the effect of inventories. Does the ability to ...

  14. [Vertical fractures: apropos of 2 clinical cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix Mañes Ferrer, J; Micò Muñoz, P; Sánchez Cortés, J L; Paricio Martín, J J; Miñana Laliga, R

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the study is to present a clinical review of the vertical root fractures. Two clinical cases are presented to demonstrates the criteria for obtaining a correct diagnosis of vertical root fractures.

  15. Vertical melting of a stack of membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, M. E. S.; Kleinert, H.; Schakel, A. M. J.

    2001-02-01

    A stack of tensionless membranes with nonlinear curvature energy and vertical harmonic interaction is studied. At low temperatures, the system forms a lamellar phase. At a critical temperature, the stack disorders vertically in a melting-like transition.

  16. VERTICAL ACTIVITY ESTIMATION USING 2D RADAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hennie

    estimates on aircraft vertical behaviour from a single 2D radar track. ... Fortunately, the problem of detecting relative vertical motion using a single 2D ..... awareness tools in scenarios where aerial activity sensing is typically limited to 2D.

  17. Vertical structures in vibrated wormlike micellar solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Tamir; Deegan, Robert

    2008-11-01

    Vertically vibrated shear thickening particulate suspensions can support a free-standing interfaces oriented parallel to gravity. We find that shear thickening worm-like micellar solutions also support such vertical interfaces. Above a threshold in acceleration, the solution spontaneously accumulates into a labyrinthine pattern characterized by a well-defined vertical edge. The formation of vertical structures is of interest because they are unique to shear-thickening fluids, and they indicate the existence of an unknown stress bearing mechanism.

  18. Vertical sounding balloons for stratospheric photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommereau, J. P.

    The use of vertical sounding balloons for stratospheric photochemistry studies is illustrated by the use of a vertical piloted gas balloon for the search of NO2 diurnal variations. It is shown that the use of montgolfieres (hot air balloons) can enhance the vertical sounding technique. Particular attention is given to a sun-heated montgolfiere and to the more sophisticated infrared montgolfiere that is able to perform three to four vertical excursions per day and to remain aloft for weeks or months.

  19. Determinations of vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke and vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke from baryonic Λ{sub b} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Y.K. [Shanxi Normal University, School of Physics and Information Engineering, Linfen (China); National Tsing Hua University, Department of Physics, Hsinchu (China); Geng, C.Q. [Shanxi Normal University, School of Physics and Information Engineering, Linfen (China); National Tsing Hua University, Department of Physics, Hsinchu (China); Hunan Normal University, Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications (SICQEA), Changsha (China)

    2017-10-15

    We present the first attempt to extract vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke from the Λ{sub b} → Λ{sub c}{sup +}l anti ν{sub l} decay without relying on vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke inputs from the B meson decays. Meanwhile, the hadronic Λ{sub b} → Λ{sub c}M{sub (c)} decays with M = (π{sup -},K{sup -}) and M{sub c} =(D{sup -},D{sup -}{sub s}) measured with high precisions are involved in the extraction. Explicitly, we find that vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke =(44.6 ± 3.2) x 10{sup -3}, agreeing with the value of (42.11 ± 0.74) x 10{sup -3} from the inclusive B → X{sub c}l anti ν{sub l} decays. Furthermore, based on the most recent ratio of vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke / vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke from the exclusive modes, we obtain vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke = (4.3 ± 0.4) x 10{sup -3}, which is close to the value of (4.49 ± 0.24) x 10{sup -3} from the inclusive B → X{sub u}l anti ν{sub l} decays. We conclude that our determinations of vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke and vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke favor the corresponding inclusive extractions in the B decays. (orig.)

  20. Metal Oxide Vertical Graphene Hybrid Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A metal oxide vertical graphene hybrid supercapacitor is provided. The supercapacitor includes a pair of collectors facing each other, and vertical graphene electrode material grown directly on each of the pair of collectors without catalyst or binders. A separator may separate the vertical graphene electrode materials.

  1. Influência da alteração da dimensão vertical de oclusão na postura da cabeça e da coluna cervical, em voluntários edêntulos portadores de disfunção temporomandibular, tratados com aparelhos oclusais planos

    OpenAIRE

    João Paulo dos Santos Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: O objetivo neste trabalho foi analisar a influência da dimensão vertical de oclusão na postura da coluna cervical e da cabeça por meio de aferições de medidas angulares craniocervicais. Foram selecionados 17 voluntários desdentados totais, com sinais clínicos de diminuição de dimensão vertical de oclusão, portadores de sinais e sintomas de disfunção temporomandibular e usuários de próteses totais, inscritos no cadastro de pacientes do CETASE (Centro de Estudos e Tratamento das Alteraç...

  2. Crystalline beams: The vertical zigzag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffmans, A.F.; Maletic, D.; Ruggiero, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    This note is the continuation of our comprehensive investigation of Crystalline Beams. After having determined the equations of motion and the conditions for the formation of the simplest configuration, i.e. the string, we study the possibility of storing an intense beam of charged particles in a storage ring where they form a vertical zigzag. We define the equilibrium configuration, and examine the confinement conditions. Subsequently, we derive the transfer matrix for motion through various elements of the storage ring. Finally we investigate the stability conditions for such a beam

  3. Vertices in the abelized picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embacher, F.

    1990-01-01

    Covariant vertices of open bosonic string theory are transformed to the abelized picture. The way the pure transverse (light-cone gauge) vertex is contained therein is exhibited explicitly. The formalism shows in a quite transparent way that all further content of a covariant vertex is of gauge type. By applying the transverse projection operator in the abelized picture, an algebraic condition whether a set of Neumann coefficients define a vertex for string theory is obtained. A speculation concerning field redefinitions in string field theory is added. (Author) 33 refs

  4. Estimating vertical and lateral pressures in periodically structured montmorillonite clay particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A. Narsilio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Given a montmorillonitic clay soil at high porosity and saturated by monovalent counterions, we investigate the particle level responses of the clay to different external loadings. As analytical solutions are not possible for complex arrangements of particles, we employ computational micromechanical models (based on the solution of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations using the finite element method, to estimate counterion and electrical potential distributions for particles at various angles and distances from one another. We then calculate the disjoining pressures using the Van't Hoff relation and Maxwell stress tensor. As the distance between the clay particles decreases and double-layers overlap, the concentration of counterions in the micropores among clay particles increases. This increase lowers the chemical potential of the pore fluid and creates a chemical potential gradient in the solvent that generates the socalled 'disjoining' or 'osmotic' pressure. Because of this disjoining pressure, particles do not need to contact one another in order to carry an 'effective stress'. This work may lead towards theoretical predictions of the macroscopic load deformation response of montmorillonitic soils based on micromechanical modelling of particles.Dada uma argila montmorilonítica de alta porosidade e saturada por counteríons monovalentes, investigamos as respostas da argila ao nível de partículas para diferentes cargas externas. Como soluções analíticas não são possíveis para arranjos complexos de partículas, empregamos modelos computacionais micro-mecânicos (baseados na solução das equações de Poisson-Nernst-Planck, utilizando o método de elementos finitos, para estimar counteríons e distribuições de potencial elétrico para partículas em diversos ângulos e distâncias uma da outra. Nós então calculamos as pressões de separação usando a relação de Van't Hoff e a tensão de cisalhamento de Maxwell. À medida que a

  5. Determination of the quark coupling strength vertical bar V-ub vertical bar using baryonic decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Older, A. A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Cartelle, P. Alvarez; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Tolk, S.

    In the Standard Model of particle physics, the strength of the couplings of the b quark to the u and c quarks, vertical bar V-ub vertical bar and vertical bar V-ub vertical bar, are governed by the coupling of the quarks to the Higgs boson. Using data from the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron

  6. Neonatal Phosphate Nutrition Alters <em>in em>Vivo> and <em>in em>Vitro> Satellite Cell Activity in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad H. Stahl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite cell activity is necessary for postnatal skeletal muscle growth. Severe phosphate (PO4 deficiency can alter satellite cell activity, however the role of neonatal PO4 nutrition on satellite cell biology remains obscure. Twenty-one piglets (1 day of age, 1.8 ± 0.2 kg BW were pair-fed liquid diets that were either PO4 adequate (0.9% total P, supra-adequate (1.2% total P in PO4 requirement or deficient (0.7% total P in PO4 content for 12 days. Body weight was recorded daily and blood samples collected every 6 days. At day 12, pigs were orally dosed with BrdU and 12 h later, satellite cells were isolated. Satellite cells were also cultured <em>in vitroem> for 7 days to determine if PO4 nutrition alters their ability to proceed through their myogenic lineage. Dietary PO4 deficiency resulted in reduced (<em>P> < 0.05 sera PO4 and parathyroid hormone (PTH concentrations, while supra-adequate dietary PO4 improved (<em>P> < 0.05 feed conversion efficiency as compared to the PO4 adequate group. <em>In vivoem> satellite cell proliferation was reduced (<em>P> < 0.05 among the PO4 deficient pigs, and these cells had altered <em>in vitroem> expression of markers of myogenic progression. Further work to better understand early nutritional programming of satellite cells and the potential benefits of emphasizing early PO4 nutrition for future lean growth potential is warranted.

  7. Vertically stacked nanocellulose tactile sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minhyun; Kim, Kyungkwan; Kim, Bumjin; Lee, Kwang-Jae; Kang, Jae-Wook; Jeon, Sanghun

    2017-11-16

    Paper-based electronic devices are attracting considerable attention, because the paper platform has unique attributes such as flexibility and eco-friendliness. Here we report on what is claimed to be the firstly fully integrated vertically-stacked nanocellulose-based tactile sensor, which is capable of simultaneously sensing temperature and pressure. The pressure and temperature sensors are operated using different principles and are stacked vertically, thereby minimizing the interference effect. For the pressure sensor, which utilizes the piezoresistance principle under pressure, the conducting electrode was inkjet printed on the TEMPO-oxidized-nanocellulose patterned with micro-sized pyramids, and the counter electrode was placed on the nanocellulose film. The pressure sensor has a high sensitivity over a wide range (500 Pa-3 kPa) and a high durability of 10 4 loading/unloading cycles. The temperature sensor combines various materials such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to form a thermocouple on the upper nanocellulose layer. The thermoelectric-based temperature sensors generate a thermoelectric voltage output of 1.7 mV for a temperature difference of 125 K. Our 5 × 5 tactile sensor arrays show a fast response, negligible interference, and durable sensing performance.

  8. Averiguação do potencial de vento em ambiente edificado para aproveitamentos

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães, Nuno Filipe da Costa

    2011-01-01

    O objectivo deste projecto consiste em analisar o potencial eólico em ambiente edificado urbano, considerando a utilização de turbinas eólicas de eixo vertical para produção de energia nesse contexto. Pretende-se com este documento demonstrar que, embora os estudos sobre as turbinas de eixo vertical sejam ainda reduzidos quando comparados aos das de eixo horizontal, tal não implica que as mesmas não tenham características que, em determinados cenários, sejam superiores às turbinas de eixo hor...

  9. Brazilian consumers' perception of tenderness of beef steaks classified by shear force and taste Percepção pelos consumidores brasileiros da maciez da carne classificada pela força de cisalhamento e sabor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Francisquine Delgado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of consumer perception of meat tenderness and taste is essential to forecast a Brazilian quality value-based beef market. This study aimed to verify perception of tender (WBSF 4.8 kg strip loin steak or uncharacteristic (calcium-treated/Ca-IM and normal (non-calcium/NO-Ca meat taste by consumers according to gender, age, education and income levels. Steaks were previously classified by shear force measurements as tender or tough. Each consumer was served a paired sample of one tender and of one tough steak, which were either Ca-IM or NO-Ca treated before tenderness classification. Three hundred and eight consumers answered a nine-point intensity (tenderness and hedonic (taste scales evaluation questionnaire. Among consumers, 82.2% indicated beef as first choice meat products, 75.3% had beef at least four times a week; 39.3% considered taste as the most important meat attribute and 30.2% considered tenderness; 75.8% were males; 73.6% were 21 to 55 years old; 56.7% had college education; 76.6% had monthly income higher than US $ 435,00. Tender steaks were scored highest (P O conhecimento da percepção de maciez e sabor da carne bovina pelo consumidor é essencial para vislumbrar um mercado brasileiro que pague por qualidade. Este estudo avaliou a percepção diferenciada de contra-filé macio (WBSF 4.8 kg, ou ainda com sabor não característico (imersão em Ca/ Ca-IM ou normal (sem cálcio/ NO-Ca de acordo com sexo, faixa etária, e nível de escolaridade formal e renda dos consumidores. Os bifes foram pareados em amostras macia/dura e Ca-IM/NO-Ca, e servidos a 308 consumidores que responderam a um questionário apresentando escalas de intensidade (maciez e hedônica (sabor de nove pontos. O perfil dos consumidores mostrava que: 82,2% indicaram carne bovina como sua primeira escolha entre as carnes; 75,3% consumiam carne bovina pelo menos quatro vezes por semana; 39,3% consideravam sabor como o atributo mais importante durante o

  10. Constituents from <em>Vigna em>vexillata> and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Feng Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of <em>Vigna em>genus are important food resources and there have already been many reports regarding their bioactivities. In our preliminary bioassay, the chloroform layer of methanol extracts of<em> V. vexillata em>demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory bioactivity. Therefore, the present research is aimed to purify and identify the anti-inflammatory principles of <em>V. vexillataem>. One new sterol (1 and two new isoflavones (2,3 were reported from the natural sources for the first time and their chemical structures were determined by the spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. In addition, 37 known compounds were identified by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Among the isolates, daidzein (23, abscisic acid (25, and quercetin (40 displayed the most significant inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release.

  11. Comparação entre o efeito do aumento da dimensão vertical de oclusão e do avanço mandibular na qualidade do sono em pacientes idosos portadores de próteses totais bimaxilares

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago Carôso Fróes

    2011-01-01

    A população idosa possui alta prevalência de edentulismo e, conseqüentemente, é afetada pelos problemas a ele associados. A perda da dimensão vertical de oclusão (DVO) é um destes problemas que compromete, entre outros fatores, o desempenho do sistema estomatognático. Logo, doenças relacionadas ao colapso da musculatura da via aérea superior (VAS), como a síndrome da apnéia obstrutiva do sono (SAOS), tornam-se enfermidades relevantes para pacientes nesta faixa etária. Sendo assim, medidas ter...

  12. Capillary holdup between vertical spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zeinali Heris

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The maximum volume of liquid bridge left between two vertically mounted spherical particles has been theoretically determined and experimentally measured. As the gravitational effect has not been neglected in the theoretical model, the liquid interface profile is nonsymmetrical around the X-axis. Symmetry in the interface profile only occurs when either the particle size ratio or the gravitational force becomes zero. In this paper, some equations are derived as a function of the spheres' sizes, gap width, liquid density, surface tension and body force (gravity/centrifugal to estimate the maximum amount of liquid that can be held between the two solid spheres. Then a comparison is made between the result based on these equations and several experimental results.

  13. Momentos em freios e em embraiagens

    OpenAIRE

    Mimoso, Rui Miguel Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Mestrado Integrado em Engenharia Mecânica Nesta dissertação reúnem-se os modelos de cálculo utilizados na determinação dos momentos em freios e em embraiagens. Neste trabalho consideram-se os casos de freios e embraiagens de atrito seco e atrito viscoso. Nos freios de atrito viscoso são considerados casos em que as características dos fluidos não são induzidas, e outros em que são induzidas modificações a essas mesmas características. São a...

  14. Dermatoses em renais cronicos em terapia dialitica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Batista Peres

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: As desordens cutâneas e das mucosas são comuns em pacientes em hemodiálise a longo prazo. A diálise prolonga a expectativa de vida, dando tempo para a manifestação destas anormalidades. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a prevalência de problemas dermatológicos em pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC em hemodiálise. Métodos: Cento e quarenta e cinco pacientes com doença renal crônica em hemodiálise foram estudados. Todos os pacientes foram completamente analisados para as alterações cutâneas, de cabelos, mucosas e unhas por um único examinador e foram coletados dados de exames laboratoriais. Os dados foram armazenados em um banco de dados do Microsolft Excel e analisados por estatística descritiva. As variáveis contínuas foram comparadas pelo teste t de Student e as variáveis categóricas utilizando o teste do qui-quadrado ou o teste Exato de Fischer, conforme adequado. Resultados: O estudo incluiu 145 pacientes, com idade média de 53,6 ± 14,7 anos, predominantemente do sexo masculino (64,1% e caucasianos (90,0%. O tempo médio de diálise foi de 43,3 ± 42,3 meses. As principais doenças subjacentes foram: hipertensão arterial em 33,8%, diabetes mellitus em 29,6% e glomerulonefrite crônica em 13,1%. As principais manifestações dermatológicas observadas foram: xerose em 109 (75,2%, equimose em 87 (60,0%, prurido em 78 (53,8% e lentigo em 33 (22,8% pacientes. Conclusão: O nosso estudo mostrou a presença de mais do que uma dermatose por paciente. As alterações cutâneas são frequentes em pacientes em diálise. Mais estudos são necessários para melhor caracterização e manejo destas dermatoses.

  15. Vertical grid of retrieved atmospheric profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccherini, Simone; Carli, Bruno; Raspollini, Piera

    2016-01-01

    The choice of the vertical grid of atmospheric profiles retrieved from remote sensing observations is discussed considering the two cases of profiles used to represent the results of individual measurements and of profiles used for subsequent data fusion applications. An ozone measurement of the MIPAS instrument is used to assess, for different vertical grids, the quality of the retrieved profiles in terms of profile values, retrieval errors, vertical resolutions and number of degrees of freedom. In the case of individual retrievals no evident advantage is obtained with the use of a grid finer than the one with a reduced number of grid points, which are optimized according to the information content of the observations. Nevertheless, this instrument dependent vertical grid, which seems to extract all the available information, provides very poor results when used for data fusion applications. A loss of about a quarter of the degrees of freedom is observed when the data fusion is made using the instrument dependent vertical grid relative to the data fusion made using a vertical grid optimized for the data fusion product. This result is explained by the analysis of the eigenvalues of the Fisher information matrix and leads to the conclusion that different vertical grids must be adopted when data fusion is the expected application. - Highlights: • Data fusion application is taken into account for the choice of the vertical grid. • The study is performed using ozone profiles retrieved from MIPAS measurements. • A very fine vertical grid is not needed for the analysis of a single instrument. • The instrument dependent vertical grid is not the best choice for data fusion. • A data fusion dependent vertical grid must be used for profiles that will be fused.

  16. Vertical and horizontal access configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spampinato, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    A number of configuration features and maintenance operations are influenced by the choice of whether a design is based on vertical or horizontal access for replacing reactor components. The features which are impacted most include the first wall/blanket segmentation, the poloidal field coil locations, the toroidal field coil number and size, access port size for in-vessel components, and facilities. Since either configuration can be made to work, the choice between the two is not clear cut because both have certain advantages. It is apparent that there are large cost benefits in the poloidal field coil system for ideal coil locations for high elongation plasmas and marginal savings for the INTOR case. If we assume that a new tokamak design will require a higher plasma elongation, the recommendation is to arrange the poloidal field coils in a cost-effective manner while providing reasonable midplane access for heating interfaces and test modules. If a new design study is not based on a high elongation plasma, it still appears prudent to consider this approach so that in-vessel maintenance can be accomplished without moving very massive structures such as the bulk shield. 10 refs., 29 figs., 3 tabs

  17. The Ames Vertical Gun Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcz, J. S.; Bowling, D.; Cornelison, C.; Parrish, A.; Perez, A.; Raiche, G.; Wiens, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    The Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) is a national facility for conducting laboratory- scale investigations of high-speed impact processes. It provides a set of light-gas, powder, and compressed gas guns capable of accelerating projectiles to speeds up to 7 km s(exp -1). The AVGR has a unique capability to vary the angle between the projectile-launch and gravity vectors between 0 and 90 deg. The target resides in a large chamber (diameter approximately 2.5 m) that can be held at vacuum or filled with an experiment-specific atmosphere. The chamber provides a number of viewing ports and feed-throughs for data, power, and fluids. Impacts are observed via high-speed digital cameras along with investigation-specific instrumentation, such as spectrometers. Use of the range is available via grant proposals through any Planetary Science Research Program element of the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) calls. Exploratory experiments (one to two days) are additionally possible in order to develop a new proposal.

  18. Flooding Mechanism in Vertical Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronny-Dwi Agussulistyo; Indarto

    2000-01-01

    This research was carried out to investigate the mechanism of flooding ina vertical liquid-gas counter current flow, along two meter length of thetube. The tube use both circular and square tube, a cross section of squaretube was made the same as a cross section of circular tube with one inchdiameter tube. The liquid enters the tube, passes through a porous wall inletand a groove inlet in a distributor and it flows downwards through a liquidoutlet in a collector. The gas is being introduced at the bottom of the tube,it flows upwards through nozzle in the collector. The results of researchshowed that the flooding occurs earlier in the circular tube than in thesquare tube, either uses a porous wall inlet or a groove inlet. In the squaretube , onset of the flooding occurs at the top of the tube, in front ofliquid injection, it is related to the formation of a film wave, just belowthe liquid feed. Whereas in the circular tube, onset of the flooding occursfrom the bottom of the tube, at the liquid outlet, it is related to theexpand of the film wave. However, in the circular tube with the groove inlet,for the higher liquid flow rate, onset of the flooding from the top, like inthe square tube. (author)

  19. Wind tower with vertical rotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, A

    1978-08-03

    The invention concerns a wind tower with vertical rotors. A characteristic is that the useful output of the rotors is increased by the wind pressure, which is guided to the rotors at the central opening and over the whole height of the structure by duct slots in the inner cells. These duct slots start behind the front nose of the inner cell and lead via the transverse axis of the pillar at an angle into the space between the inner cells and the cell body. This measure appreciably increases the useful output of the rotors, as the rotors do not have to provide any displacement work from their output, but receive additional thrust. The wind pressure pressing from inside the rotor and accelerating from the outside produces a better outflow of the wind from the power plant pillar with only small tendency to turbulence, which appreciably improves the effect of the adjustable turbulence smoothers, which are situated below the rotors over the whole height.

  20. Vertical mixing by Langmuir circulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliams, James C.; Sullivan, Peter P.

    2001-01-01

    Wind and surface wave frequently induce Langmuir circulations (LC) in the upper ocean, and the LC contribute to mixing materials down from the surface. In this paper we analyze large-eddy simulation (LES) cases based on surface-wave-averaged, dynamical equations and show that the effect of the LC is a great increase in the vertical mixing efficiency for both material properties and momentum. We provide new confirmation that the previously proposed K-profile parameterization (KPP) model accurately characterizes the turbulent transport in a weakly convective, wind-driven boundary layer with stable interior stratification. We also propose a modest generalization of KPP for the regime of weakly convective Langmuir turbulence. This makes the KPP turbulent flux profiles match those in the LES case with LC present fairly well, especially so for material properties being transported downwards from the ocean surface. However, some open issues remain about how well the present LES and KPP formulations represent Langmuir turbulence, in part because wave-breaking effects are not yet included. (Author)

  1. Influência do anel de contenção na evolução pós-operatória dos pacientes submetidos à gastroplastia vertical em "Y de roux para tratamento da obesidade mórbida

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Zenobio Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Introdução: A obesidade mórbida (OM) e as doenças a ela associadas tornaram-se grave problema de saúde pública. O tratamento cirúrgico da OM é considerado o método mais eficaz de perda sustentada do excesso de peso. A derivação gástrica em Y de Roux (GVYR) ou bypass gástrico é um dos procedimentos mais realizados no Brasil e no mundo. A utilização do anel de contenção associada a este procedimento tem o objetivo de retardar o esvaziamento gástrico, mantendo a sensação de saciedade mais pr...

  2. The green building envelope : Vertical greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  3. Safety Aspects for Vertical Wall Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Burcharth, H. F.; Christiani, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this appendix some safety aspects in relation to vertical wall breakwaters are discussed. Breakwater structures such as vertical wall breakwaters are used under quite different conditions. The expected lifetime can be from 5 years (interim structure) to 100 years (permanent structure) and the ...

  4. Updated Vertical Extent of Collision Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagg, R.; Bartzis, P.; Papanikolaou, P.

    2002-01-01

    The probabilistic distribution of the vertical extent of collision damage is an important and somewhat controversial component of the proposed IMO harmonized damage stability regulations for cargo and passenger ships. The only pre-existing vertical distribution, currently used in the international...

  5. Plasmon Modes of Vertically Aligned Superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filonenko, Konstantin; Duggen, Lars; Willatzen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    By using the Finite Element Method we visualize the modes of vertically aligned superlattice composed of gold and dielectric nanocylinders and investigate the emitter-plasmon interaction in approximation of weak coupling. We find that truncated vertically aligned superlattice can function...

  6. The strategic value of partial vertical integration

    OpenAIRE

    Fiocco, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the strategic incentives for partial vertical integration, namely, partial ownership agreements between manufacturers and retailers, when retailers privately know their costs and engage in differentiated good price competition. The partial misalignment between the profit objectives within a partially integrated manufacturer-retailer hierarchy entails a higher retail price than under full integration. This `information vertical effect' translates into an opposite ...

  7. Vertical integration increases opportunities for patient flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoccia, R A; Benvenuto, J A; Blancett, L

    1991-08-01

    New sources of patients will become more and more important in the next decade as hospitals continue to feel the squeeze of a competitive marketplace. Vertical integration, a distribution tool used in other industries, will be a significant tool for health care administrators. In the following article, the authors explain the vertical integration model that shows promise for other institutions.

  8. Vertical integration from the large Hilbert space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Theodore; Konopka, Sebastian

    2017-12-01

    We develop an alternative description of the procedure of vertical integration based on the observation that amplitudes can be written in BRST exact form in the large Hilbert space. We relate this approach to the description of vertical integration given by Sen and Witten.

  9. Vertical Integration, Monopoly, and the First Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    This paper addresses the relationship between the First Amendment, monopoly of transmission media, and vertical integration of transmission and content provision. A survey of some of the incentives a profit-maximizing transmission monopolist may have with respect to content is followed by a discussion of how vertical integration affects those…

  10. Moving vertices to make drawings plane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goaoc, X.; Kratochvil, J.; Okamoto, Y.; Shin, C.S.; Wolff, A.; Hong, S.K.; Nishizeki, T.; Quan, W.

    2008-01-01

    In John Tantalo’s on-line game Planarity the player is given a non-plane straight-line drawing of a planar graph. The aim is to make the drawing plane as quickly as possible by moving vertices. In this paper we investigate the related problem MinMovedVertices which asks for the minimum number of

  11. Avaliação das estruturas de cobertura em madeira de um galpão de estoque de produtos químicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Ribas Andrade Junior

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem com objetivo avaliar a integridade das estruturas que fazem parte da cobertura de um galpão de 70 anos, destinado ao estoque de produtos químicos, localizada no Estado de São Paulo (Brasil, e apontar possíveis soluções para os problemas identificados. Buscou-se estimar a influência dos resíduos dos produtos químicos depositados nas superfícies dos elementos estruturais e identificar a espécie de madeira utilizada no projeto, por meio de ensaios físicos (densidade aparente e mecânicos (compressão e cisalhamento paralelo às fibras. Os problemas identificados foram: (a umidade devido a telhas quebradas; (b deterioração superficial da madeira em função de reação química entre os produtos armazenados e a estrutura; (c cavilhas de madeira com instalação incompleta; (d falta de mãos-francesas em algumas terças; (e travamento inadequado das treliças; e (f deterioração de pregos de fixação por oxidação. Pelas observações realizadas, as soluções indicadas são de fácil execução, pois as estruturas não foram severamente prejudicadas. Com relação à espécie de madeira, os resultados das propriedades mecânicas obtidas associadas à densidade aparente apontaram para a espécie Peroba-Rosa (Aspidosperma polyneuron. A análise estatística de resultados apontou para a não influência do produto químico no desempenho da estrutura do telhado.

  12. EM International. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  13. Effects of target location and uncertainty on reaching movements in standing position Los efectos de la ubicación de la diana y la incertidumbre en los movimientos de alcance en la posición vertical Efeitos da localização do alvo e da incerteza em movimentos de alcance na postura ereta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz de França Bahia Loureiro Junior

    2012-09-01

    movimientos de alcance en la posición erecta.Os efeitos da localização do alvo e da incerteza quanto à posição do alvo em movimentos de alcance foram investigados. Dez adultos permaneceram emem frente a um monitor sensível ao toque. Eles foram instruídos a pressionar com o dedo indicador direito um interruptor e tocar o centro do alvo apresentado no monitor após ele acender, movendo o membro superior rapidamente. O alvo foi mostrado ipsi ou contralateralmente e os participantes tinham ou não certeza sobre a posição do alvo. O tempo de reação (TR e movimento (TM e o erro radial (ER foram avaliados. Os resultados revelaram menor TR (≈35 ms e ER (≈0,19 cm para a condição de certeza e maiores TR (≈8 ms e TM (≈18 ms para os moimentos ao alvo contralateral. Concluindo, esses achados mostraram que os efeitos da incerteza da localização e a posição final do alvo podem ser aplicados para movimentos de alcance na posição ereta.

  14. COMPUTING VERTICES OF INTEGER PARTITION POLYTOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Vroublevski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a method of generating vertices of the polytopes of integer partitions that was used by the authors to calculate all vertices and support vertices of the partition polytopes for all n ≤ 105 and all knapsack partitions of n ≤ 165. The method avoids generating all partitions of n. The vertices are determined with the help of sufficient and necessary conditions; in the hard cases, the well-known program Polymake is used. Some computational aspects are exposed in more detail. These are the algorithm for checking the criterion that characterizes partitions that are convex combinations of two other partitions; the way of using two combinatorial operations that transform the known vertices to the new ones; and employing the Polymake to recognize a limited number (for small n of partitions that need three or more other partitions for being convexly expressed. We discuss the computational results on the numbers of vertices and support vertices of the partition polytopes and some appealing problems these results give rise to.

  15. Microsatellite Loci in the Gypsophyte <em>Lepidium subulatum em>(Brassicaceae, and Transferability to Other <em>Lepidieae>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gabriel Segarra-Moragues

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the Ibero-North African, strict gypsophyte <em>Lepidium subulatumem> to unravel the effects of habitat fragmentation in levels of genetic diversity, genetic structure and gene flow among its populations. Using 454 pyrosequencing 12 microsatellite loci including di- and tri-nucleotide repeats were characterized in <em>L. subulatumem>. They amplified a total of 80 alleles (2–12 alleles per locus in a sample of 35 individuals of <em>L. subulatumem>, showing relatively high levels of genetic diversity, <em>H>O = 0.645, <em>H>E = 0.627. Cross-species transferability of all 12 loci was successful for the Iberian endemics <em>Lepidium cardaminesem>, <em>Lepidium stylatumem>, and the widespread, <em>Lepidium graminifoliumem> and one species each of two related genera, <em>Cardaria drabaem> and <em>Coronopus didymusem>. These microsatellite primers will be useful to investigate genetic diversity, population structure and to address conservation genetics in species of <em>Lepidium>.

  16. Vertical Motions of Oceanic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Moore, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    lasting a few hundred thousand years as the island migrates over a broad flexural arch related to isostatic compensation of a nearby active volcano. The arch is located about 190±30 km away from the center of volcanic activity and is also related to the rejuvenated volcanic stage on the islands. Reefs on Oahu that are uplifted several tens of m above sea level are the primary evidence for uplift as the islands over-ride the flexural arch. At the other end of the movement spectrum, both in terms of magnitude and length of response, are the rapid uplift and subsidence that occurs as magma is accumulated within or erupted from active submarine volcanoes. These changes are measured in days to years and are of cm to m variation; they are measured using leveling surveys, tiltmeters, EDM and GPS above sea level and pressure gauges and tiltmeters below sea level. Other acoustic techniques to measure such vertical movement are under development. Elsewhere, evidence for subsidence of volcanoes is also widespread, ranging from shallow water carbonates on drowned Cretaceous guyots, to mapped shoreline features, to the presence of subaerially-erupted (degassed) lavas on now submerged volcanoes. Evidence for uplift is more limited, but includes makatea islands with uplifted coral reefs surrounding low volcanic islands. These are formed due to flexural uplift associated with isostatic loading of nearby islands or seamounts. In sum, oceanic volcanoes display a long history of subsidence, rapid at first and then slow, sometimes punctuated by brief periods of uplift due to lithospheric loading by subsequently formed nearby volcanoes.

  17. Measuring of vertical stroke Vub vertical stroke in the forthcoming decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.S.

    1997-01-01

    I first introduce the importance of measuring V ub precisely. Then, from a theoretician's point of view, I review (a) past history, (b) present trials, and (c) possible future alternatives on measuring vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke and/or vertical stroke V ub /V cb vertical stroke. As of my main topic, I introduce a model-independent method, which predicts Γ(B→X u lν)/Γ(B→X c lν)≡(γ u /γ c ) x vertical stroke V ub /V cb vertical stroke 2 ≅(1.83±0.28) x vertical stroke V ub /V cb vertical stroke 2 and vertical stroke V ub /V cb vertical stroke ≡(γ c /γ u ) 1/2 x [B(B→X u lν)/B(B→ X c lν]) 1/2 ≅(0.74±0.06) x [B(B→X u lν/)B(B→X c lν)] 1/2 , based on the heavy quark effective theory I also explore the possible experimental options to separate B→X u lν from the dominant B→X c lν: the measurement of inclusive hadronic invariant mass distributions, and the 'D-π' (and 'K-π') separation conditions I also clarify the relevant experimental backgrounds. (orig.)

  18. determination of verticality of reservoir engineering structure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    applications is 3D survey and management of oil and gas facilities and other engineering structures. This recent .... also affect ground water contamination. 2. VERTICALITY ...... The soil, water and concrete in a Reservoir at the foundation bed ...

  19. Vertical activity estimation using 2D radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hakl, H

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding airspace activity is essential for airspace control. Being able to detect vertical activity in aircraft allows prediction of aircraft intent, thereby allowing more accurate situation awareness and correspondingly more appropriate...

  20. HL-LHC vertical cryostat during construction

    CERN Multimedia

    Lanaro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    7m high "Cluster D" vertical test cryostat during construction at contractor's premises, Alca Technology Srl, in Schio, Italy. The inner helium vessel with its heat exchanger are visible. To be installed in the D pit in SMA18.

  1. Prefabricated vertical drains, vol. I : engineering guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    This volume presents procedures and guidelines applicable to the design and instal : tion of prefabricated vertical drains to accelerate consolidation of soils. The : contents represent the Consultant's interpretation of the state-of-the-art as of : ...

  2. Electrically Pumped Vertical-Cavity Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, Tine

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the design of electrically pumped vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers (eVCAs) for use in a mode-locked external-cavity laser has been developed, investigated and analysed. Four different eVCAs, one top-emitting and three bottom emitting structures, have been designed...... and discussed. The thesis concludes with recommendations for further work towards the realisation of compact electrically pumped mode-locked vertical externalcavity surface emitting lasers....

  3. Vertical Josephson Interferometer for Tunable Flux Qubit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granata, C [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Vettoliere, A [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Lisitskiy, M [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Rombetto, S [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Russo, M [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Ruggiero, B [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Corato, V [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-8 1031, Aversa (Italy) and Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Russo, R [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-8 1031, Aversa (Italy) and Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Silvestrini, P [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-8 1031, Aversa (Italy) and Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy)

    2006-06-01

    We present a niobium-based Josephson device as prototype for quantum computation with flux qubits. The most interesting feature of this device is the use of a Josephson vertical interferometer to tune the flux qubit allowing the control of the off-diagonal Hamiltonian terms of the system. In the vertical interferometer, the Josephson current is precisely modulated from a maximum to zero with fine control by a small transversal magnetic field parallel to the rf superconducting loop plane.

  4. Vertical Scan-Conversion for Filling Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Hersch, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional scan-conversion algorithms were developed independently of filling algorithms. They cause many problems, when used for filling purposes. However, today's raster printers and plotters require extended use of filling, especially for the generation of typographic characters and graphic line art. A new scan-conversion algorithm, called vertical scan-conversion has been specifically designed to meet the requirements of parity scan line fill algorithms. Vertical scan-conversion ensures...

  5. Efeitos do grau de cozimento na qualidade de cortes de Supraspinatus acondicionado a vácuo em embalagem cook-in Effects of cooking degree on quality of vacuum-packed Supraspinatus cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Gonçalves

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o efeito do grau de cozimento na cor, perda de peso e força de cisalhamento em cortes no músculo Supraspinatus. Os músculos foram excisados de 18 meias-carcaças de Nelore e pesados antes e após retirada do excesso de tecido conjuntivo externo para cálculo de rendimento (porção comestível. Em cada corte foram medidos o pH final e a cor, fazendo-se, individualmente, o acondicionamento em embalagens tipo cook-in. O cozimento foi feito em tacho com água observando-se as temperaturas internas finais (ponto frio correspondentes ao cozimento "mal-passado", "ao ponto" e "bem-passado" e tempos de cozimento estimados, previamente, para promover a pasteurização (respectivamente, 60-62 ºC/300min, 70-72 ºC/120min. e 75-77 ºC/90min. Para cada tratamento foram destinados 6 músculos de pesos similares. Os dados obtidos indicam que a cor produto "mal-passado" foi ligeiramente mais vermelha que a do produto "ao ponto", mas o produto "bem-passado" foi fortemente afetado pelo tratamento. Como era esperado, o produto "bem-passado" apresentou maior perda de peso na cocção em relação aos produtos "ao ponto" e "mal-passado" (34,07, 24,83, e 21,66%, respectivamente. Os valores da força de cisalhamento aumentaram do produto "malpassado" para o "bem-passado" (4,71, 5,57, e 6,03kgf, respectivamente, sendo o "mal-passado" classificado como macio.The effects of the degree of cooking on color, cooking weight loss and shear force of beef supraspinatus muscle was evaluated. The muscles were extracted from eighteen Nellore carcasses sides without trimming. Each muscle was weighed before and after trimming to estimate the yield. The ultimate pH and color were achieved in the fresh cuts. The cuts were individually vacuum packed into cook-in bags and placed in a water bath in order to obtain the rare, medium and welldone final temperatures (coldest point and pasteurized products. Each treatment was performed on groups of six muscles of similar

  6. Marketing em moda

    OpenAIRE

    Leães, Sabrina Durgante

    2008-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Design e Marketing O actual estado do Marketing em Moda é uma das questões ainda complexa com que se debate a sociedade global. As questões do Marketing em Moda percorrem alguns aspectos fundamentais tais como as constantes mutações do meio envolvente, a forma de como é percebida e comunicada a identidade das marcas de moda, em busca da melhor forma de segmentar o mercado e definir o seu posicionamento, bem como a reacção ao produto de moda do consumidor final. ...

  7. Analysis of the direction of plasma vertical movement during major disruptions in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukash, Victor; Sugihara, Masayoshi; Gribov, Yuri; Fujieda, Hirobumi

    2005-01-01

    The plasma movement in the upward direction (away from the X-point) after the thermal quench (TQ) of major disruptions in ITER is favourable for the machine design, since the downward movement causes larger electromagnetic (EM) load due to the induced eddy and halo currents. Vertical directions of plasma movement after the TQ in ITER are investigated using the predictive mode of the DINA code. Three dominant parameters in determining the direction of plasma movement are identified: (i) the rate of plasma current quench (plasma temperature after the TQ) (ii) the width of plasma current mixing area just after the TQ (change of the internal plasma inductance l i ) and (iii) the initial vertical position of plasma column before the TQ. It is shown that the reference ITER plasma moves upwards after the TQ, if the electron temperature after the TQ is less than 10 eV and the drop of l i does not exceed 0.2 for the present reference initial vertical position (55.5 cm above the centre of the machine). It is also shown that the operational domain leading to the upward movement is considerably large for disruptions with fast current quench, which could generate quite severe EM load due to the induced eddy current combined with the induced halo current if the movement is downwards

  8. Metamorfismo da fácies granulito em 570-580 Ma no Complexo Granulítico Porangatu, centro do Brasil: implicações para a evolução do Lineamento Transbrasiliano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sergio de Sousa Gorayeb

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O Complexo Granulítico Porangatu está exposto na porção central da Província Tocantins, do Neoproterozoico, no centro do Brasil, ao longo da fronteira entre o Cinturão Brasília, a leste, e o Cinturão Araguaia, a oeste. Esta região faz parte do sistema de cisalhamento transcontinental Transbrasiliano-Kandi. O complexo inclui enderbitos e charnockitos ricos em granada, gnaisses de alto grau metamórfico, bem como lentes de granada granulitos máficos ou granada anfibolitos, e charnockitos anatéticos in situ, o qual forma corpos alongados na direção NNE-SSW, ao longo da Zona de Cisalhamento Talismã (ZCT. Esse conjunto de rochas representam suítes de rochas ortoderivadas de afinidade cálcio-alcalina e pequenas contribuições de basaltos tholeíticos e paragnaisses aluminosos. O quadro estrutural registra componentes de cavalgamento relacionados provavelmente com os estágios iniciais de uma colisão oblíqua durante a evolução dos orógenos Brasilianos do Neoproterozoico e pode ser compreendido como envolvendo um sistema colisional de dois blocos crustais, inicialmente com componentes de cavalgamento que evoluiu em sua fase final para um sistema transcorrente com cinemática dextral. Isso levou à intensa imbricação, geração de foliação milonítica, lineação de estiramento, bandamento tectônico e rotação de estruturas e minerais. A deformação dúctil heterogênea e progressiva foi acompanhada por reequilíbrio metamórfico no Neoproterozoico tardio, que atingiu condições metamórficas máximas na fácies granulito a temperatura e pressão acima de 850ºC e 10 kbar, respectivamente, em ambiente quase anidro, atingindo a anatexia. As análises U-Pb SHRIMP em zircão realizadas em duas amostras de rochas selecionadas indicaram idade combinada de 580 ± 7 Ma para um charnockito e 548 ± 48 Ma para um granulito máfico do qual o charnockito foi derivado. O granulito máfico contém cristais de zircão datados de 2

  9. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  10. Vertical integration in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mommsen, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    Vertical integration in the nuclear fuel cycle and its contribution to market power of integrated fuel suppliers were studied. The industry subdivision analyzed is the uranium raw materials sector. The hypotheses demonstrated are that (1) this sector of the industry is trending toward vertical integration between production of uranium raw materials and the manufacture of nuclear fuel elements, and (2) this vertical integration confers upon integrated firms a significant market advantage over non-integrated fuel manufacturers. Under microeconomic concepts the rationale for vertical integration is the pursuit of efficiency, and it is beneficial because it increases physical output and decreases price. The Market Advantage Model developed is an arithmetical statement of the relative market power (in terms of price) between non-integrated nuclear fuel manufacturers and integrated raw material/fuel suppliers, based on the concept of the ''squeeze.'' In operation, the model compares net profit and return on sales of nuclear fuel elements between the competitors, under different price and cost circumstances. The model shows that, if integrated and non-integrated competitors sell their final product at identical prices, the non-integrated manufacturer returns a net profit only 17% of the integrated firm. Also, the integrated supplier can price his product 35% below the non-integrated producer's price and still return the same net profit. Vertical integration confers a definite market advantage to the integrated supplier, and the basic source of that advantage is the cost-price differential of the raw material, uranium

  11. Climatology of tropospheric vertical velocity spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecklund, W. L.; Gage, K. S.; Balsley, B. B.; Carter, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Vertical velocity power spectra obtained from Poker Flat, Alaska; Platteville, Colorado; Rhone Delta, France; and Ponape, East Caroline Islands using 50-MHz clear-air radars with vertical beams are given. The spectra were obtained by analyzing the quietest periods from the one-minute-resolution time series for each site. The lengths of available vertical records ranged from as long as 6 months at Poker Flat to about 1 month at Platteville. The quiet-time vertical velocity spectra are shown. Spectral period ranging from 2 minutes to 4 hours is shown on the abscissa and power spectral density is given on the ordinate. The Brunt-Vaisala (B-V) periods (determined from nearby sounding balloons) are indicated. All spectra (except the one from Platteville) exhibit a peak at periods slightly longer than the B-V period, are flat at longer periods, and fall rapidly at periods less than the B-V period. This behavior is expected for a spectrum of internal waves and is very similar to what is observed in the ocean (Eriksen, 1978). The spectral amplitudes vary by only a factor of 2 or 3 about the mean, and show that under quiet conditions vertical velocity spectra from the troposphere are very similar at widely different locations.

  12. A Physician's Perspective On Vertical Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Robert A

    2017-09-01

    Vertical integration has been a central feature of health care delivery system change for more than two decades. Recent studies have demonstrated that vertically integrated health care systems raise prices and costs without observable improvements in quality, despite many theoretical reasons why cost control and improved quality might occur. Less well studied is how physicians view their newfound partnerships with hospitals. In this article I review literature findings and other observations on five aspects of vertical integration that affect physicians in their professional and personal lives: patients' access to physicians, physician compensation, autonomy versus system support, medical professionalism and culture, and lifestyle. I conclude that the movement toward physicians' alignment with and employment in vertically integrated systems seems inexorable but that policy should not promote such integration either intentionally or inadvertently. Instead, policy should address the flaws in current payment approaches that reward high prices and excessive service use-outcomes that vertical integration currently produces. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  13. <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem> in red foxes (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> and badgers (<em>Meles melesem> from Central and Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Magi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During 2004-2005 and 2007-2008, 189 foxes (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> and 6 badgers (<em>Meles melesem> were collected in different areas of Central Northern Italy (Piedmont, Liguria and Tuscany and examined for <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem> infection. The prevalence of the infection was significantly different in the areas considered, with the highest values in the district of Imperia (80%, Liguria and in Montezemolo (70%, southern Piedmont; the prevalence in Tuscany was 7%. One badger collected in the area of Imperia turned out to be infected, representing the first report of the parasite in this species in Italy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role played by fox populations as reservoirs of infection and the probability of its spreading to domestic dogs.
    Riassunto <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem> nella volpe (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> e nel tasso (<em>Meles melesem> in Italia centro-settentrionale. Nel 2004-2005 e 2007-2008, 189 volpi (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> e 6 tassi (<em>Meles melesem> provenienti da differenti aree dell'Italia settentrionale e centrale (Piemonte, Liguria Toscana, sono stati esaminati per la ricerca di <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem>. La prevalenza del nematode è risultata significativamente diversa nelle varie zone, con valori elevati nelle zone di Imperia (80% e di Montezemolo (70%, provincia di Cuneo; la prevalenza in Toscana è risultata del 7%. Un tasso proveniente dall'area di Imperia è risultato positivo per A. vasorum; questa è la prima segnalazione del parassita in tale specie in Italia. Ulteriori studi sono necessari per valutare il potenziale della volpe come serbatoio e la possibilità di diffusione della parassitosi ai cani domestici.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4442

  14. Measurement of vertical stroke Vcb vertical stroke at the Z energy from B mesons exclusive decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinelli, N.

    1998-01-01

    Recent ALEPH, DELPHI and OPAL measurements of the form factors in the exclusive decay modes anti B 0 → D *+ l - anti ν l and anti B 0 →D + l - anti ν l are reviewed here. The values obtained allow an almost model-independent determination of vertical stroke V cb vertical stroke in the HQET framework. (orig.)

  15. Measurement of vertical stroke Vub vertical stroke using b hadron semileptonic decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbiendi, G.; Aakesson, P.F.

    2001-01-01

    The magnitude of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke is determined by measuring the inclusive charmless semileptonic branching fraction of beauty hadrons at OPAL based on b → X u lν event topology and kinematics. This analysis uses OPAL data collected between 1991 and 1995, which correspond to about four million hadronic Z decays. We measure Br(b → X u lν) to be (1.63 ±0.53 +0.55 -0.62 ) x 10 -3 . The first uncertainty is the statistical error and the second is the systematic error. From this analysis, vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke is determined to be: vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke =(4.00±0.65(stat) +0.67 -0.76 (sys)±0.19(HQE)) x 10 -3 . The last error represents the theoretical uncertainties related to the extraction of vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke from Br(b→X u l ν) using the Heavy Quark Expansion. (orig.)

  16. A global vertical reference frame based on four regional vertical datums

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2004), s. 493-502 ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : geopotentinal * local vertical datums * global vertical reference frame Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.447, year: 2004

  17. On the vertical structure of wind gusts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suomi, I.; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Floors, Rogier Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The increasing size of wind turbines, their height and the area swept by their blades have revised the need for understanding the vertical structure of wind gusts. Information is needed for the whole profile. In this study, we analyzed turbulence measurements from a 100m high meteorological mast...... and the turbulence intensity, of which the turbulence intensity was found to dominate over the peak factor in determining the effects of stability and height above the surface on the gust factor. The peak factor only explained 15% or less of the vertical decrease of the gust factor, but determined the effect of gust...... duration on the gust factor. The statistical method to estimate the peak factor did not reproduce the observed vertical decrease in near-neutral and stable conditions and near-constant situation in unstable conditions. Despite this inconsistency, the theoretical method provides estimates for the peak...

  18. Vertical Footbridge Vibrations: The Response Spectrum Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakis, Christos; Ingólfsson, Einar Thór

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a novel, accurate and readily codifiable methodology for the prediction of vertical footbridge response is presented. The methodology is based on the well-established response spectrum approach used in the majority of the world’s current seismic design codes of practice. The concept...... of a universally applicable reference response spectrum is introduced, from which the pedestrian-induced vertical response of any footbridge may be determined, based on a defined “event” and the probability of occurrence of that event. A series of Monte Carlo simulations are undertaken for the development...... period is introduced and its implication on the calculation of footbridge response is discussed. Finally, a brief comparison is made between the theoretically predicted pedestrian-induced vertical response of an 80m long RC footbridge (as an example) and actual field measurements. The comparison shows...

  19. Certified standards and vertical coordination in aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the interaction between food standards and vertical coordination in the Vietnamese pangasius sector. For farmers and processors alike, the adoption of standards is motivated by a desire to improve market access by ensuring high quality supply. Instead of encouraging the applic......This paper explores the interaction between food standards and vertical coordination in the Vietnamese pangasius sector. For farmers and processors alike, the adoption of standards is motivated by a desire to improve market access by ensuring high quality supply. Instead of encouraging...... the application of standards and contract farming, processing companies prefer to vertically integrate primary production largely due to concerns over the stable supply of pangasius with satisfactory quality and safety attributes. These tendencies increase the market dominance of industrial farming and worsen...

  20. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Seiji; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki; Okawa, Takeya

    2013-01-01

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified

  1. Plasmonic Properties of Vertically Aligned Nanowire Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanowires (NWs/Ag sheath composites were produced to investigate plasmonic coupling between vertically aligned NWs for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS applications. In this investigation, two types of vertical NW arrays were studied; those of ZnO NWs grown on nanosphere lithography patterned sapphire substrate via vapor-liquid-solid (VLS mechanism and Si NW arrays produced by wet chemical etching. Both types of vertical NW arrays were coated with a thin layer of silver by electroless silver plating for SERS enhancement studies. The experimental results show extremely strong SERS signals due to plasmonic coupling between the NWs, which was verified by COMSOL electric field simulations. We also compared the SERS enhancement intensity of aligned and random ZnO NWs, indicating that the aligned NWs show much stronger and repeatable SERS signal than those grown in nonaligned geometries.

  2. Vertical gradients of sunspot magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagyard, M. J.; Teuber, D.; West, E. A.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Henze, W., Jr.; Beckers, J. M.; Bruner, M.; Hyder, C. L.; Woodgate, B. E.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) guest investigation to determine the vertical gradients of sunspot magnetic fields for the first time from coordinated observations of photospheric and transition-region fields are described. Descriptions are given of both the photospheric vector field of a sunspot, derived from observations using the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograph, and of the line-of-sight component in the transition region, obtained from the SMM Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter instrument. On the basis of these data, vertical gradients of the line-of-sight magnetic field component are calculated using three methods. It is found that the vertical gradient of Bz is lower than values from previous studies and that the transition-region field occurs at a height of approximately 4000-6000 km above the photosphere.

  3. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Seiji; Okawa, Takeya; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki

    2013-07-01

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified.

  4. Study on characteristics of vertical strong motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akao, Y.; Katukura, H.; Fukushima, S.; Mizutani, M.

    1993-01-01

    Statistic properties of vertical strong ground motions from near-field earthquakes are discussed in comparison with that of horizontal motions. It is a feature of this analysis that time history of each observed record is divided into direct P- and S-wave segments from a seismological viewpoint. Following results are obtained. Vertical motion energy excited by direct S-waves is about 0.6 times of horizontal ones at deep underground, and it approaches to 1.0 at shallow place. Horizontal motion energy excited by direct P-waves becomes 0.2 times (at deep) or more (at shallow) of vertical one. These results can be available in modeling of input motions for aseismic design. (author)

  5. Vertical stability, high elongation, and the consequences of loss of vertical control on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellman, A.G.; Ferron, J.R.; Jensen, T.H.; Lao, L.L.; Luxon, J.L.; Skinner, D.G.; Strait, E.J.; Reis, E.; Taylor, T.S.; Turnbull, A.D.; Lazarus, E.A.; Lister, J.B.

    1990-09-01

    Recent modifications to the vertical control system for DIII-D has enabled operation of discharges with vertical elongation κ, up to 2.5. When vertical stability is lost, a disruption follows and a large vertical force on the vacuum vessel is observed. The loss of plasma energy begins when the edge safety factor q is 2 but the current decay does not begin until q ∼1.3. Current flow on the open field lines in the plasma scrapeoff layer has been measured and the magnitude and distribution of these currents can explain the observed force on the vessel. Equilibrium calculations and simulation of this vertical displacement episode are presented. 7 refs., 4 figs

  6. The Revolutionary Vertical Lift Technology (RVLT) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Gloria K.

    2018-01-01

    The Revolutionary Vertical Lift Technology (RVLT) Project is one of six projects in the Advanced Air Vehicles Program (AAVP) of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. The overarching goal of the RVLT Project is to develop and validate tools, technologies, and concepts to overcome key barriers for vertical lift vehicles. The project vision is to enable the next generation of vertical lift vehicles with aggressive goals for efficiency, noise, and emissions, to expand current capabilities and develop new commercial markets. The RVLT Project invests in technologies that support conventional, non-conventional, and emerging vertical-lift aircraft in the very light to heavy vehicle classes. Research areas include acoustic, aeromechanics, drive systems, engines, icing, hybrid-electric systems, impact dynamics, experimental techniques, computational methods, and conceptual design. The project research is executed at NASA Ames, Glenn, and Langley Research Centers; the research extensively leverages partnerships with the US Army, the Federal Aviation Administration, industry, and academia. The primary facilities used by the project for testing of vertical-lift technologies include the 14- by 22-Ft Wind Tunnel, Icing Research Tunnel, National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, 7- by 10-Ft Wind Tunnel, Rotor Test Cell, Landing and Impact Research facility, Compressor Test Facility, Drive System Test Facilities, Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility, Vertical Motion Simulator, Mobile Acoustic Facility, Exterior Effects Synthesis and Simulation Lab, and the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Complex. To learn more about the RVLT Project, please stop by booth #1004 or visit their website at https://www.nasa.gov/aeroresearch/programs/aavp/rvlt.

  7. Vertically Integrated Multinationals and Productivity Spillovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clementi, Federico; Bergmann, Friedrich

    are not automatic. In this paper, we study how these externalities are affected by the strategy of vertical integration of foreign multinationals. Our analysis, based on firm-level data of European manufacturing companies, shows that local firms perceive weaker backward spillovers if client foreign affiliates...... are vertically integrated in their industry. The spillovers that arise from the activity of companies that do not invest in the domestic firms’ industry are 2.6 to 5 times stronger than the ones than come from affiliates of multinationals that invest in the industry of local firms....

  8. Thermal Stratification in Vertical Mantle Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren; Furbo, Simon

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that it is important to have a high degree of thermal stratification in the hot water storage tank to achieve a high thermal performance of SDHW systems. This study is concentrated on thermal stratification in vertical mantle tanks. Experiments based on typical operation conditions...... are carried out to investigate how the thermal stratification is affected by different placements of the mantle inlet. The heat transfer between the solar collector fluid in the mantle and the domestic water in the inner tank is analysed by CFD-simulations. Furthermore, the flow pattern in the vertical mantle...

  9. Breakwaters with Vertical and Inclined Concrete Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans Falk

    Following the PIANC PTC II working group on Analyses of Rubble Mound Breakwaters it was, in 1991, decided to form Working Group (WG) n° 28 on "Breakwaters with vertical and inclined concrete walls" The scope of the work was to achieve a better understanding of the overall safety aspects in the de......Following the PIANC PTC II working group on Analyses of Rubble Mound Breakwaters it was, in 1991, decided to form Working Group (WG) n° 28 on "Breakwaters with vertical and inclined concrete walls" The scope of the work was to achieve a better understanding of the overall safety aspects...

  10. Preserving the Modernist Vertical Urban Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Rappaport

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay is adapted in part, from the section, “Modern Factory Architecture” case studies from Nina Rappaport’s book Vertical Urban Factory, published by Actar this spring. Vertical Urban Factory began as an architecture studio, and then an exhibition, which opened in New York in 2011 and traveled to Detroit and Toronto in 2012. Last year the show was displayed at Archizoom at EPFL in Lausanne; Industry City, Brooklyn; and the Charles Moore School of Architecture at Kean University, in New Jersey. The project continues as a think tank evaluating factory futures and urban industrial potential.

  11. Geophysical aspects of vertical streamer seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sognnes, Walter

    1999-12-31

    Vertical cable acquisition is performed by deploying a certain number of vertical hydrophone arrays in the water column, and subsequently shooting a source point on top of it. The advantage of this particular geometry is that gives a data set with all azimuths included. Therefore a more complete 3-D velocity model can be derived. In this paper there are presented some results from the Fuji survey in the Gulf of Mexico. Based on these results, improved geometries and review recommendations for future surveys are discussed. 7 figs.

  12. Geophysical aspects of vertical streamer seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sognnes, Walter

    1998-12-31

    Vertical cable acquisition is performed by deploying a certain number of vertical hydrophone arrays in the water column, and subsequently shooting a source point on top of it. The advantage of this particular geometry is that gives a data set with all azimuths included. Therefore a more complete 3-D velocity model can be derived. In this paper there are presented some results from the Fuji survey in the Gulf of Mexico. Based on these results, improved geometries and review recommendations for future surveys are discussed. 7 figs.

  13. Measurement of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke Vts vertical stroke 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unverdorben, Christopher Gerhard

    2015-03-01

    This is the first direct measurement of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke, using data collected by the ATLAS detector in 2012 at √(s)= 8 TeV pp-collisions with a total integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb -1 . The analysis is based on 112 171 reconstructed t anti t candidate events in the lepton+jets channel, having a purity of 90.0 %. 183 t anti t→W + W - b anti s decays are expected (charge conjugation implied), which are available for the extraction of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke 2 . To identify these rare decays, several observables are examined, such as the properties of jets, tracks and of b-quark identification algorithms. Furthermore, the s-quark hadrons K 0 s are considered, reconstructed by a kinematic fit. The best observables are combined in a multivariate analysis, called ''boosted decision trees''. The responses from Monte Carlo simulations are used as templates for a fit to data events yielding a significance value of 0.7σ for t→s+W decays. An upper limit of vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke 2 <1.74 % at 95 % confidence level is set, including all systematic and statistical uncertainties. So this analysis, using a direct measurement of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke 2 , provides the best direct limit on vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke 2 up to now.

  14. Development of dynamic 3-D surface profilometry using stroboscopic interferometric measurement and vertical scanning techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, K-C [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Sec. 4 Roosevelt Rd, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, L-C [Graduate Institute of Automation Technology, National Taipei University of Technology, 1 Sec. 3 Chung-Hsiao East Rd, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Lin, C-D [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Sec. 4 Roosevelt Rd, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Calvin C [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Centre for Measurement Standards, 321 Sec. 2, Kuang Fu Rd, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 300 (China); Kuo, C-F [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Centre for Measurement Standards, 321 Sec. 2, Kuang Fu Rd, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 300 (China); Chou, J-T [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Centre for Measurement Standards, 321 Sec. 2, Kuang Fu Rd, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 300 (China)

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this technical advance is to provide a single optical interferometric framework and methodology to be capable of delivering both nano-scale static and dynamic surface profilometry. Microscopic interferometry is a powerful technique for static and dynamic characterization of micro (opto) electromechanical systems (M (O) EMS). In view of this need, a microscopic prototype based on white-light stroboscopic interferometry and the white light vertical scanning principle, was developed to achieve dynamic full-field profilometry and characterization of MEMS devices. The system primarily consists of an optical microscope, on which a Mirau interferometric objective embedded with a piezoelectric vertical translator, a high-power LED light module with dual operation modes and light synchronizing electronics unit are integrated. A micro cantilever beam used in AFM was measured to verify the system capability in accurate characterization of dynamic behaviours of the device. The full-field second-mode vibration at a vibratory frequency of 68.60 kHz can be fully characterized and 3-5 nm of vertical measurement resolution as well as tens of micrometers of vertical measurement range can be easily achieved.

  15. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of the...

  16. Nota Científica: Características físico-químicas e aceitação sensorial de hambúrguer de búfalo em comparação com hambúrguer bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Luiza Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste trabalho foi comparar parâmetros físico-químicos e sensoriais de hambúrgueres produzidos com carnes bovina ou bubalina, buscando alternativa para ampliar o consumo da carne de búfalos. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas de composição centesimal (teores de proteína, umidade, gordura e cinzas, valor de pH, cor objetiva (L*, a* e b*, força de cisalhamento, perdas por cocção e redução de diâmetro (encolhimento. A aceitação sensorial foi avaliada por testes de aceitação utilizando-se escala hedônica de nove pontos para os atributos aparência, textura, suculência, sabor e qualidade global. Em relação à composição centesimal, as duas formulações apresentaram teores de umidade próximos a 65%, 1% de cinzas, 17% de proteínas e 13% de lipídeos. Não foram encontradas diferenças (p > 0,05 para os valores de pH (5,49-5,50, força de cisalhamento (0,62-0,86kgf, perdas por cocção (23,04-29,40% e redução de diâmetro (16,40-20,29%. As análises de cor também não diferiram (p > 0,05 entre as amostras, com valores médios próximos a 8, 4 e 10 para os parâmetros L*, a* e b*, respectivamente. Com relação à análise sensorial observou-se diferença estatística (p 0,05 na aceitação pelos consumidores, que atribuíram notas na faixa de 7 (gostei moderadamente a 8 (gostei muito. Pode-se concluir que o hambúrguer de carne bubalina apresenta parâmetros tecnológicos e aceitação sensorial similares ao hambúrguer de carne bovina, podendo portanto representar uma boa alternativa para ampliação do consumo da carne de búfalo.

  17. Salmonella sp. bacteriology monitoring in laying hens at different growing and laying periods from poultry farms in Metropolitan Region of Fortaleza Monitoramento bacteriológico para Salmonella sp. em poedeira comercial em diferentes fases de recria e produção de empresas avícolas da Região Metropolitana de Fortaleza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuella Evangelista da Silva

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available

    This work aimed to verify <em>Salmonella> occurrence in laying hen flocks from eight poultry farms in Metropolitan Region of Fortaleza city. Swab collections were performed in transport boxes of day-old-chicks, totaling 40 feces samples (5 samples/flock, which presented no <em>Salmonella> contamination. Bacterial analyses from a pool of feces were performed in the same flocks at 10, 20, 30 and 40 weeks of age. <em>Salmonella enterica em>rough strain and <em>Salmonella em>Newport were found in two flocks at 20 and 40 weeks of age, respectively. These results suggest that the birds were infected with <em>Salmonella em>after their arrival in the poultry farms. It was verified that 25% of the poultry farms presented positive feces samples for <em>Salmonella> contamination, indicating the need for a more efficacious preventive program in the poultry farms for egg production. This work suggests that day old birds were of <em>Salmonella> contamination which indicates no vertical <em>Salmonella> transmission, however the rearing phase present failures regarding bacterial control.

     

    KEY WORDS: Bacteriology, chickens, eggs, feces, Salmonella.

    O presente trabalho objetivou investigar a presença de <em>Salmonella em>em lotes de poedeiras comerciais de oito empresas da região metropolitana de Fortaleza,CE, Brasil. Realizaram-se suabes em cinco caixas de transporte por lote das oito empresas analisadas, totalizando quarenta amostras de mecônio, sendo todas negativas para <em>Salmonella. em>Os mesmos lotes (oito foram monitorados na décima, vigésima, trigésima e quadragésima semanas de idade com exame bacteriológico de <em>pool> de cem fezes frescas. Foram isoladas <em>Salmonella> <em>enterica em>subsepécie <em>enterica> cepa rugosa e<em> Salmonella em>Newport> em>das amostras de fezes nas empresas 2 e 6 na

  18. Vortex capturing vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zannetti, L; Gallizio, F; Ottino, G

    2007-01-01

    An analytical-numerical study is presented for an innovative lift vertical axis turbine whose blades are designed with vortex trapping cavities that act as passive flow control devices. The unsteady flow field past one-bladed and two-bladed turbines is described by a combined analytical and numerical method based on conformal mapping and on a blob vortex method

  19. Digital Microfluidic System with Vertical Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian F. Bender

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital (droplet microfluidics (DµF is a powerful platform for automated lab-on-a-chip procedures, ranging from quantitative bioassays such as RT-qPCR to complete mammalian cell culturing. The simple MEMS processing protocols typically employed to fabricate DµF devices limit their functionality to two dimensions, and hence constrain the applications for which these devices can be used. This paper describes the integration of vertical functionality into a DµF platform by stacking two planar digital microfluidic devices, altering the electrode fabrication process, and incorporating channels for reversibly translating droplets between layers. Vertical droplet movement was modeled to advance the device design, and three applications that were previously unachievable using a conventional format are demonstrated: (1 solutions of calcium dichloride and sodium alginate were vertically mixed to produce a hydrogel with a radially symmetric gradient in crosslink density; (2 a calcium alginate hydrogel was formed within the through-well to create a particle sieve for filtering suspensions passed from one layer to the next; and (3 a cell spheroid formed using an on-chip hanging-drop was retrieved for use in downstream processing. The general capability of vertically delivering droplets between multiple stacked levels represents a processing innovation that increases DµF functionality and has many potential applications.

  20. Vertical retorts for distilling, carbonizing, roasting, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, H R.L.; Bates, W R

    1917-11-17

    In a continuously operated vertical retort for destructive distillation or roasting the combination of an annular internally and externally heated construction with an annular plunger adapted to compress and assist the travel of the charge and to aid in discharging material substantially is described.

  1. The Design Philosophy for a Vertical Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijling, J. K.; Burcharth, H. F.; Voortman, H. G.

    2000-01-01

    A consistent risk-based design philosophy for vertical breakwaters is proposed. The design philosophy consists of a two-step approach. The first step is the definition of the main function of the breakwater, which leads to a definition of failure. The second step is the choice of the acceptable...

  2. Determinants Of Vertical And Horizontal Export Diversification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also reveals domestic investment plays an important role to enhance vertical as well as horizontal export diversification for East Asia, while it only ... resource-based industries and gradually shift production and exports from customary products to more dynamic ones by developing competitive advantage in the ...

  3. A Comparison of Methods of Vertical Equating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, Brenda H.; Hoover, H. D.

    Rasch model vertical equating procedures were applied to three mathematics computation tests for grades six, seven, and eight. Each level of the test was composed of 45 items in three sets of 15 items, arranged in such a way that tests for adjacent grades had two sets (30 items) in common, and the sixth and eighth grades had 15 items in common. In…

  4. Vertical reflector for bifacial PV-panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff

    2016-01-01

    Bifacial solar modules offer an interesting price/performance ratio, and much work has been focused on directing the ground albedo to the back of the solar cells. In this work we design and develop a reflector for a vertical bifacial panel, with the objective to optimize the energy harvest...

  5. On production costs in vertical differentiation models

    OpenAIRE

    Dorothée Brécard

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the effects of the introduction of a unit production cost beside a fixed cost of quality improvement in a duopoly model of vertical product differentiation. Thanks to an original methodology, we show that a low unit cost tends to reduce product differentiation and thus prices, whereas a high unit cost leads to widen product differentiation and to increase prices

  6. MHD stability of vertically asymmetric tokamak equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalhed, H.E.; Grimm, R.C.; Johnson, J.L.

    1981-03-01

    The ideal MHD stability properties of a special class of vertically asymmetric tokamak equilibria are examined. The calculations confirm that no major new physical effects are introduced and the modifications can be understood by conventional arguments. The results indicate that significant departures from up-down symmetry can be tolerated before the reduction in β becomes important for reactor operation

  7. Optical anisotropy in vertically coupled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ping; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Leosson, Kristjan

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the polarization of surface and edge-emitted photoluminescence (PL) from structures with vertically coupled In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum dots (QD's) grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The PL polarization is found to be strongly dependent on the number of stacked layers. While single...... number due to increasing dot size....

  8. Transient well flow in vertically heterogeneous aquifers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemker, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    A solution for the general problem of computing well flow in vertically heterogeneous aquifers is found by an integration of both analytical and numerical techniques. The radial component of flow is treated analytically; the drawdown is a continuous function of the distance to the well. The

  9. Proverbs : Probabilistic design tools for vertical breakwaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oumeraci, H.; Allsop, N.W.H.; De Groot, M.B.; Crouch, R.S.; Vrijling, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    Final report and appendices of the European project Proverbs on tools for the design of vertical breakwaters (caisson type breakwaters) and similar hydraulic structures in the coastal zone. It includes the loads (waves) as well as the strength of the structure (geotechnial aspects, structural

  10. The capillary interaction between two vertical cylinders

    KAUST Repository

    Cooray, Himantha; Cicuta, Pietro; Vella, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    surface clusters. Here we present a numerical method for determining the three-dimensional meniscus around a pair of vertical circular cylinders. This involves the numerical solution of the fully nonlinear Laplace-Young equation using a mesh-free finite

  11. Manufacturing: the new case for vertical integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumpe, Ted; Bolwijn, Piet

    1988-01-01

    The article argues that the solid corporation will continue to view vertical integration as a critical part of manufacturing reform. Manufacturing reform and backward integration are related in insidious ways to the three stages of production over which the big manufacturers preside. Without

  12. Vertical integration as organizational strategy formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romme, A.G.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper contributes to research into the strategy—environment relationship, especially looking at the issue of vertical integration. It aims at a synthesis of process and content approaches to strategic change on the level of the organization’s dominant group. The key factor is uncertainty, which

  13. Vertical Integration: Teachers' Knowledge and Teachers' Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrie, L.

    1995-01-01

    Traces the theoretical basis for vertical integration in early school years. Contrasts transmission-based pedagogy with a higher level of teacher control, and acquirer-based pedagogy with a higher level of student control. Suggests that early childhood pedagogy will be maintained when teachers are able to articulate their pedagogical knowledge and…

  14. Vertical integration of HRD policy within companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognum, Ida

    2001-01-01

    This study concerns HRD policy making in companies. More specifically, it explores whether so-called vertical integration of HRD policy at different organizational levels occurs within companies. The study involved forty-four large companies in the industrial and the financial and commercial

  15. A note on partial vertical integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); H.J.M. Peters (Hans)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractA simple model is constructed to show how partial vertical integration may emerge as an equilibrium market structure in a world characterized by rationing, differences in the reservation prices of buyers, and in the risk attitudes of buyers and sellers. The buyers with the high

  16. Vertical Integration Spurs American Health Care Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Richard C.

    1986-01-01

    Under new "managed health care systems," the classical functional separation of risk taker, claims payor, and provider are vertically integrated into a common entity. This evolution should produce a competitive environment with medical care rendered to all Americans on a more cost-effective basis. (CJH)

  17. Oblique patterned etching of vertical silicon sidewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Burckel, D.; Finnegan, Patrick S.; David Henry, M.; Resnick, Paul J.; Jarecki, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    A method for patterning on vertical silicon surfaces in high aspect ratio silicon topography is presented. A Faraday cage is used to direct energetic reactive ions obliquely through a patterned suspended membrane positioned over the topography. The technique is capable of forming high-fidelity pattern (100 nm) features, adding an additional fabrication capability to standard top-down fabrication approaches.

  18. Vertical Dynamic Stiffness of Offshore Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latini, Chiara; Cisternino, Michele; Zania, Varvara

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, pile and suction caisson foundations are widely used to support offshore structures which are subjected to vertical dynamic loads. The dynamic soil-structure interaction of floating foundations (foundations embedded in a soil layer whose height is greater than the foundation length) is ...

  19. Vertical pump with free floating check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, M.

    1980-01-01

    A vertical pump is described which has a bottom discharge with a free floating check valve disposed in the outlet plenum thereof. The free floating check valve comprises a spherical member with a hemispherical cage-like member attached thereto which is capable of allowing forward or reverse flow under appropriate conditions while preventing reverse flow under inappropriate conditions

  20. Vertical field and equilibrium calculation in ETE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, Antonio; Shibata, Carlos Shinya.

    1996-01-01

    The free-boundary MHD equilibrium code HEQ is used to study the plasma behaviour in the tokamak ETE, with optimized compensations coils and vertical field coils. The changes on the equilibrium parameters for different plasma current values are also investigated. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  1. International EMS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhelle, Audun; Lossius, Hans Morten; Silfvast, Tom

    2004-01-01

    exist, however, especially within the ground and air ambulance service, and the EMS systems face several challenges. Main problems and challenges emphasized by the authors are: (1) Denmark: the dispatch centres are presently not under medical control and are without a national criteria based system......Emergency medicine service (EMS) systems in the five Nordic countries have more similarities than differences. One similarity is the involvement of anaesthesiologists as pre-hospital physicians and their strong participation for all critically ill and injured patients in-hospital. Discrepancies do....... Access to on-line medical advice of a physician is not available; (2) Finland: the autonomy of the individual municipalities and their responsibility to cover for primary and specialised health care, as well as the EMS, and the lack of supporting or demanding legislation regarding the EMS; (3) Iceland...

  2. Modelagem numérica de vigas mistas aço-concreto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Marconcin

    Full Text Available A utilização de estruturas mistas está cada vez mais presente nas obras de Engenharia Civil. As vigas mistas, em particular, são estruturas compostas por dois materiais, um perfil metálico, situado em região predominantemente tracionada, e uma seção de concreto, situada em região predominantemente comprimida, ligados entre si através de dispositivos metálicos denominados de conectores de cisalhamento. As funções prin- cipais dos conectores são: permitir o trabalho solidário da laje-viga, restringir o escorregamento longitudinal e o deslocamento vertical na interface dos elementos e, absorver forças de cisalhamento. Nesse contexto, apresentam-se neste trabalho, modelos numéricos tridimensionais de vigas mistas aço-concreto, com a finalidade de simular o seu comportamento estrutural, enfatizando a interface laje-viga. As simulações foram feitas através do software ANSYS versão 10.0, que tem como base o Método de Elementos Finitos. Os resultados obtidos foram comparados com os previstos por norma e com referências encontradas na revisão bibliográfica, verificando-se que a modelagem numérica é uma ferramenta válida para a análise de vigas mistas aço-concreto.

  3. Subsurface imaging by electrical and EM methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This report consists of 3 subjects. 1) Three dimensional inversion of resistivity data with topography : In this study, we developed a 3-D inversion method based on the finite element calculation of model responses, which can effectively accommodate the irregular topography. In solving the inverse problem, the iterative least-squares approach comprising the smoothness-constraints was taken along with the reciprocity approach in the calculation of Jacobian. Furthermore the Active Constraint Balancing, which has been recently developed by ourselves to enhance the resolving power of the inverse problem, was also employed. Since our new algorithm accounts for the topography in the inversion step, topography correction is not necessary as a preliminary processing and we can expect a more accurate image of the earth. 2) Electromagnetic responses due to a source in the borehole : The effects of borehole fluid and casing on the borehole EM responses should thoroughly be analyzed since they may affect the resultant image of the earth. In this study, we developed an accurate algorithm for calculating the EM responses containing the effects of borehole fluid and casing when a current-carrying ring is located on the borehole axis. An analytic expression for primary vertical magnetic field along the borehole axis was first formulated and the fast Fourier transform is to be applied to get the EM fields at any location in whole space. 3) High frequency electromagnetic impedance survey : At high frequencies the EM impedance becomes a function of the angle of incidence or the horizontal wavenumber, so the electrical properties cannot be readily extracted without first eliminating the effect of horizontal wavenumber on the impedance. For this purpose, this paper considers two independent methods for accurately determining the horizontal wavenumber, which in turn is used to correct the impedance data. The 'apparent' electrical properties derived from the corrected impedance

  4. A poliomielite em Sergipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A. Oliveira

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam estudo retrospectivo da poliomielite em Sergipe. Dividem o estudo em três períodos levando em consideração a taxa de notificação de casos positivos e enfatizam o período que vai de 1979 a 1989, pelo estudo de 159 casos consecutivos. As seguintes informações foram levantadas para cada caso: sexo, idade, procedência, estado vacinai anterior e evolução clínica. São também avaliadas a incidência anual, relação incidência/cobertura vacinai e distribuição geográfica. Tecem comentários sobre os surtos epidêmicos ocorridos em 1984 e 1986, sobre as alterações na circulação do poliovírus selvagem (P1 para P3 e sobre problemas relacionados à não aquisição de imunidade em crianças com esquema vacinal completo. Consideram a poliomielite controlada no Estado, mas enfatizam a necessidade de manutenção de Vigilância epidemiológica efetiva para todos os casos de paralisia aguda e flácida em menores de 14 anos de idade.

  5. EM type radioactive standards. Radioaktivni etalony EM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The standard contains technical specifications and conditions of production, testing, packing, transport and storage of EM type planar calibration standards containing radionuclides /sup 14/C, /sup 60/Co, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 147/Pm, /sup 204/Tl, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Am and natural U. The terminology is explained, the related Czechoslovak standards and legal prescriptions given and amendments to these prescriptions presented.

  6. Modeling tides and vertical tidal mixing: A reality check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Recently, there has been a great interest in the tidal contribution to vertical mixing in the ocean. In models, vertical mixing is estimated using parameterization of the sub-grid scale processes. Estimates of the vertical mixing varied widely depending on which vertical mixing parameterization was used. This study investigated the performance of ten different vertical mixing parameterizations in a terrain-following ocean model when simulating internal tides. The vertical mixing parameterization was found to have minor effects on the velocity fields at the tidal frequencies, but large effects on the estimates of vertical diffusivity of temperature. Although there was no definitive best performer for the vertical mixing parameterization, several parameterizations were eliminated based on comparison of the vertical diffusivity estimates with observations. The best performers were the new generic coefficients for the generic length scale schemes and Mellor-Yamada's 2.5 level closure scheme.

  7. Vertical Structure of Radiation-pressure-dominated Thin Disks: Link between Vertical Advection and Convective Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Hong-Yu; Gu, Wei-Min

    2017-01-01

    In the classic picture of standard thin accretion disks, viscous heating is balanced by radiative cooling through the diffusion process, and the radiation-pressure-dominated inner disk suffers convective instability. However, recent simulations have shown that, owing to the magnetic buoyancy, the vertical advection process can significantly contribute to energy transport. In addition, in comparing the simulation results with the local convective stability criterion, no convective instability has been found. In this work, following on from simulations, we revisit the vertical structure of radiation-pressure-dominated thin disks and include the vertical advection process. Our study indicates a link between the additional energy transport and the convectively stable property. Thus, the vertical advection not only significantly contributes to the energy transport, but it also plays an important role in making the disk convectively stable. Our analyses may help to explain the discrepancy between classic theory and simulations on standard thin disks.

  8. vertical bar Vub vertical bar from exclusive semileptonic B→π decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, Jonathan M.; Nieves, Juan

    2007-01-01

    We use Omnes representations of the form factors f + and f 0 for exclusive semileptonic B→π decays, paying special attention to the treatment of the B* pole and its effect on f + . We apply them to combine experimental partial branching fraction information with theoretical calculations of both form factors to extract vertical bar V ub vertical bar. The precision we achieve is competitive with the inclusive determination and we do not find a significant discrepancy between our result, vertical bar V ub vertical bar=(3.90+/-0.32+/-0.18)x10 -3 , and the inclusive world average value (4.45+/-0.20+/-0.26)x10 -3 [Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG), hep-ex/0603003

  9. Vertical distribution of paracalanus crassirostris (copepoda, calanoidea: analysis by the general linear model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Milstein

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available The vertical distribution of each developmental stage of Paracalanus crassirostris was studied in a shallow water station at Ubatuba, SP, Brazil (23º30'S-45º07'W. Samples were collected monthly at the surface, 2m and near bottom levels . Salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, tide height, light penetration arid solar radiation were also recorded. Data were analysed by the general linear model. It showed that the amount of individuals at any developmental stage is affected diversely by hour, depth, hour-depth interaction and environmental factors throughout the year and that these effects are stronger in summer. All developmental stages were spread in the water column showing no regular vertical migrations. On the other hand, the number of organisms caught in a particular hour seemed to dependmore on the tide than on the animals behaviour. The results of the present paper showed, as observed by some other authors, the lack of vertical migration of a coastal copepod which is a grazer of fine particles throughout its life.A distribuição vertical dos diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento de P. crassirostris foi estudada durante um ano (junho 1976 - maio 1977, numa estação pouco profunda (5 m em Ubatuba. As amostras foram coletadas mensalmente, em tres profundidades, cada quatro horas, com garrafa van Dorn de 9 l registrando-se dados ambientais. Os dados foram processados com a técnica dos Mínimos Quadrados, na forma de uma Aralise de Regressão de um Modelo Linear que inclui covariáveis. O modelo foi construído a priori, considerando densidade de organismos por amostra, fatores ambientais, diferenças entre amostras procedentes de diferentes profundidades e horas, também como interações entre hora e profundidade. Para cada estádio de P. crassirostris, o modelo foi repetido 9 vezes, com os dados de dois meses cada vez, a fim de obter a variação das respostas no ano. Os resultados do modelo indicaram que a quantidade de indiv

  10. The Vertical Farm: A Review of Developments and Implications for the Vertical City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheir Al-Kodmany

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the emerging need for vertical farms by examining issues related to food security, urban population growth, farmland shortages, “food miles”, and associated greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Urban planners and agricultural leaders have argued that cities will need to produce food internally to respond to demand by increasing population and to avoid paralyzing congestion, harmful pollution, and unaffordable food prices. The paper examines urban agriculture as a solution to these problems by merging food production and consumption in one place, with the vertical farm being suitable for urban areas where available land is limited and expensive. Luckily, recent advances in greenhouse technologies such as hydroponics, aeroponics, and aquaponics have provided a promising future to the vertical farm concept. These high-tech systems represent a paradigm shift in farming and food production and offer suitable and efficient methods for city farming by minimizing maintenance and maximizing yield. Upon reviewing these technologies and examining project prototypes, we find that these efforts may plant the seeds for the realization of the vertical farm. The paper, however, closes by speculating about the consequences, advantages, and disadvantages of the vertical farm’s implementation. Economic feasibility, codes, regulations, and a lack of expertise remain major obstacles in the path to implementing the vertical farm.

  11. Adaptation of the vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex in cats during low-frequency vertical rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushiki, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Motoyoshi; Shojaku, Hideo

    2018-04-01

    We examined plastic changes in the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during low-frequency vertical head rotation, a condition under which otolith inputs from the vestibular system are essential for VOR generation. For adaptive conditioning of the vertical VOR, 0.02Hz sinusoidal pitch rotation for one hour about the earth's horizontal axis was synchronized with out-of-phase vertical visual stimulation from a random dot pattern. A vertical VOR was well evoked when the upright animal rotated around the earth-horizontal axis (EHA) at low frequency due to the changing gravity stimulus and dynamic stimulation of the otoliths. After adaptive conditioning, the amplitude of the vertical VOR increased by an average of 32.1%. Our observations showing plasticity in the otolithic contribution to the VOR may provide a new strategy for visual-vestibular mismatch training in patients with otolithic disorders. This low-frequency vertical head rotation protocol also provides a model for investigating the mechanisms underlying the adaptation of VORs mediated by otolith activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of vertical coordinate and vertical mixing algorithms in the HYbrid-Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, George R.

    Vertical coordinate and vertical mixing algorithms included in the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) are evaluated in low-resolution climatological simulations of the Atlantic Ocean. The hybrid vertical coordinates are isopycnic in the deep ocean interior, but smoothly transition to level (pressure) coordinates near the ocean surface, to sigma coordinates in shallow water regions, and back again to level coordinates in very shallow water. By comparing simulations to climatology, the best model performance is realized using hybrid coordinates in conjunction with one of the three available differential vertical mixing models: the nonlocal K-Profile Parameterization, the NASA GISS level 2 turbulence closure, and the Mellor-Yamada level 2.5 turbulence closure. Good performance is also achieved using the quasi-slab Price-Weller-Pinkel dynamical instability model. Differences among these simulations are too small relative to other errors and biases to identify the "best" vertical mixing model for low-resolution climate simulations. Model performance deteriorates slightly when the Kraus-Turner slab mixed layer model is used with hybrid coordinates. This deterioration is smallest when solar radiation penetrates beneath the mixed layer and when shear instability mixing is included. A simulation performed using isopycnic coordinates to emulate the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM), which uses Kraus-Turner mixing without penetrating shortwave radiation and shear instability mixing, demonstrates that the advantages of switching from isopycnic to hybrid coordinates and including more sophisticated turbulence closures outweigh the negative numerical effects of maintaining hybrid vertical coordinates.

  13. Microstructure, vertical strain control and tunable functionalities in self-assembled, vertically aligned nanocomposite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Aiping; Bi, Zhenxing; Jia, Quanxi; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L.; Wang, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    Vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) oxide thin films have recently stimulated a significant amount of research interest owing to their novel architecture, vertical interfacial strain control and tunable material functionalities. In this work, the growth mechanisms of VAN thin films have been investigated by varying the composite material system, the ratio of the two constituent phases, and the thin film growth conditions including deposition temperature and oxygen pressure as well as growth rate. It has been shown that thermodynamic parameters, elastic and interfacial energies and the multiple phase ratio play dominant roles in the resulting microstructure. In addition, vertical interfacial strain has been observed in BiFeO 3 (BFO)- and La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 (LSMO)-based VAN thin film systems; the vertical strain could be tuned by the growth parameters and selection of a suitable secondary phase. The tunability of physical properties such as dielectric loss in BFO:Sm 2 O 3 VAN and low-field magnetoresistance in LSMO-based VAN systems has been demonstrated. The enhancement and tunability of those physical properties have been attributed to the unique VAN architecture and vertical strain control. These results suggest that VAN architecture with novel microstructure and unique vertical strain tuning could provide a general route for tailoring and manipulating the functionalities of oxide thin films

  14. Conhecimento dos obstetras sobre a transmissão vertical da hepatite B Knowledge of obstetricians about the vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseni Santos da Conceição

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A transmissão vertical é responsável por 35% a 40% dos novos casos de hepatite B no mundo e a infecção precoce pelo vírus da hepatite B aumenta o risco de evolução para a hepatite crônica, cirrose e carcinoma hepatocelular. OBJETIVO: Determinar o conhecimento dos obstetras sobre as práticas para o diagnóstico da infecção pelo vírus da hepatite B em gestantes e as condutas para a prevenção desta infecção em recém-nascidos de mães infectadas. MÉTODOS: Foram sorteados aleatoriamente profissionais de saúde cadastrados na Sociedade de Obstetrícia e Ginecologia da Bahia, que foram convidados a responder um questionário anônimo com informações sobre sua formação acadêmica, o local de trabalho, o contato com estudantes e as suas práticas profissionais em relação ao vírus da hepatite B. Adotou-se como critério de exclusão o não exercício atual da obstetrícia e a não residência na Bahia. A análise dos dados foi feita através do programa estatístico Epiinfo e para análise das correlações foi adotado intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Foram entrevistados 301 obstetras, dos quais 90,3% reconheciam a transmissibilidade vertical do vírus da hepatite B e 81,7% solicitavam algum exame para detecção de hepatite B durante o pré-natal de suas pacientes. Sessenta e seis por cento dos médicos entrevistados referiram o AgHBs como o marcador sorológico mais adequado para avaliar a presença de infecção pelo VHB. Apenas 13,0% destes profissionais indicavam de modo sistemático a vacina contra a hepatite B e a administração de imunoglobulina nas primeiras 12 horas de vida do recém-nascido de mães infectadas. O número de respostas corretas quanto à transmissibilidade vertical do VHB, ao marcador sorológico mais adequado e à conduta para o recém-nascido de mãe infectada foi maior entre os obstetras que possuíam o Título de Especialista em Ginecologia e Obstetrícia que entre os demais

  15. Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale. PMID:25635386

  16. New Urban Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Mihai CISMILIANU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a different approach for enhancing the performance of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines for the use in the urban or rural environment and remote isolated residential areas. Recently the vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT have become more attractive due to the major advantages of this type of turbines in comparison to the horizontal axis wind turbines. We aim to enhance the overall performance of the VAWT by adding a second set of blades (3 x 2=6 blades following the rules of biplane airplanes. The model has been made to operate at a maximum power in the range of the TSR between 2 to 2.5. The performances of the VAWT were investigated numerically and experimentally and justify the new proposed design.

  17. Alignment analysis of a vertical sodium pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, V.K.; Fair, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    With the objective of identifying important alignment features of pumps such as FFTF, HALLAM, EBR II, PNC, PHENIX, and CRBR, alignment of the vertical sodium pump for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) is investigated. The CRBRP pump includes a flexibly coupled pump shaft and motor shaft, two oil-film tilting-pad hydrodynamic radial bearings in the motor plus a vertical thrust bearing, and two sodium hydrostatic bearings straddling the double-suction centrifugal impeller in the pump. The assembled CRBRP prototype pump shows smooth predictable vibration behavior experienced during water test. An ealier swing check of the pump shaft about the motor shaft hub demonstrated that the pump is relatively insensitive to manufacturing and assembly tolerances, a consequence of close dimensional control and unique alignment features. (orig./GL)

  18. Asymmetric SOL Current in Vertically Displaced Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, J. D.; Navratil, G. A.; Hanson, J. M.

    2017-10-01

    Experiments at the DIII-D tokamak demonstrate a non-monotonic relationship between measured scrape-off layer (SOL) currents and vertical displacement event (VDE) rates with SOL currents becoming largely n=1 dominant as plasma is displaced by the plasma control system (PCS) at faster rates. The DIII-D PCS is used to displace the magnetic axis 10x slower than the intrinsic growth time of similar instabilities in lower single-null plasmas. Low order (n VDE instabilities observed when vertical control is disabled. Previous inquiry shows VDE asymmetry characterized by SOL current fraction and geometric parameters of tokamak plasmas. We note that, of plasmas displaced by the PCS, short displacement time scales near the limit of the PCS temporal control appear to result in larger n=1/n=2 asymmetries. Work supported under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-FG02-04ER54761.

  19. Round beams generated by vertical dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, P.

    1990-01-01

    Simulations suggest that in e + e - storage rings collisions of round beams (equal emittances and equal β*) can produce very large tune shifts and luminosities. We understand how to make equal β*s, but generating equal emittances is more difficult. We describe an equal emittance scheme that uses several skew quads to couple horizontal dispersion into vertical dispersion. These skew quads also produce a coupling bump. At the interaction point and at other points outside the coupling bump, the motion is not coupled, so that the 'A' normal mode corresponds to horizontal motion and the 'B' normal mode corresponds to vertical motion. We present a round beam lattice for CESR that incorporates this scheme

  20. Equilibrium vertical field in the TBR Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueta, A.Y.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental study on the influence of the vertical magnetic field of the TBR tokamak on the stability and equilibrium of plasma column, was done. Magnetic pick-up coils were built to measure plasma current and position, together with active networks, necessary fo the electronic processing of signals. Some measurements were on the space configuration of the vertical field, and on the influence due to the toroidal vessel. From the data obtained it was possible to discuss the influence of the currents induced on the vessel surface, on plasma equilibrium. Theoretical and experimental results of the vertica field, as a function of plasma current were compared, and allowed an evaluation of the plasma kinetic pressure and temperature. (Author) [pt

  1. High-Performance Vertical Organic Electrochemical Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Mary J; Williamson, Adam; Strakosas, Xenofon; Friedlein, Jacob T; McLeod, Robert R; Gleskova, Helena; Malliaras, George G

    2018-02-01

    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are promising transducers for biointerfacing due to their high transconductance, biocompatibility, and availability in a variety of form factors. Most OECTs reported to date, however, utilize rather large channels, limiting the transistor performance and resulting in a low transistor density. This is typically a consequence of limitations associated with traditional fabrication methods and with 2D substrates. Here, the fabrication and characterization of OECTs with vertically stacked contacts, which overcome these limitations, is reported. The resulting vertical transistors exhibit a reduced footprint, increased intrinsic transconductance of up to 57 mS, and a geometry-normalized transconductance of 814 S m -1 . The fabrication process is straightforward and compatible with sensitive organic materials, and allows exceptional control over the transistor channel length. This novel 3D fabrication method is particularly suited for applications where high density is needed, such as in implantable devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Soft soils reinforced by rigid vertical inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia-Victoria NEAGOE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement of soft soils by rigid vertical inclusions is an increasingly used technique over the last few years. The system consists of rigid or semi-rigid vertical inclusions and a granular platform for the loads transfer from the structure to the inclusions. This technique aims to reduce the differential settlements both at ground level as below the structure. Reinforcement by rigid inclusions is mainly used for foundation works for large commercial and industrial platforms, storage tanks, wastewater treatment plants, wind farms, bridges, roads, railway embankments. The subject is one of interest as it proves the recently concerns at international level in research and design; however, most studies deal more with the static behavior and less with the dynamic one.

  3. Interaction vertices in reduced string field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embacher, F.

    1989-01-01

    In contrast to previous expectations, covariant overlap vertices are not always suitable for gauge-covariant formulations of bosonic string field theory with a reduced supplementary field content. This is demonstrated for the version of the theory suggested by Neveu, Schwarz and West. The method to construct the interaction, as formulated by Neveu and West, fails at one level higher than these authors have considered. The condition for a general vertex to describe formally a local gauge-invariant interaction is derived. The solution for the action functional and the gauge transformation law is exhibited for all fields at once, to the first order in the coupling constant. However, all these vertices seem to be unphysical. 21 refs. (Author)

  4. Purification, Characterization and Antioxidant Activities <em>in Vitroem>> em>and <em>in Vivoem> of the Polysaccharides from <em>Boletus edulisem> Bull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Fan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A water-soluble polysaccharide (BEBP was extracted from <em>Boletus edulis em>Bull using hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. The polysaccharide BEBP was further purified by chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column, giving three major polysaccharide fractions termed BEBP-1, BEBP-2 and BEBP-3. In the next experiment, the average molecular weight (Mw, IR and monosaccharide compositional analysis of the three polysaccharide fractions were determined. The evaluation of antioxidant activities both <em>in vitroem> and <em>in vivo em>suggested that BEBP-3 had good potential antioxidant activity, and should be explored as a novel potential antioxidant.

  5. Sulla presenza di <em>Sorex antinoriiem>, <em>Neomys anomalusem> (Insectivora, Soricidae e <em>Talpa caecaem> (Insectivora, Talpidae in Umbria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Paci

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Lo scopo del contributo è di fornire un aggiornamento sulla presenza del Toporagno del Vallese <em>Sorex antinoriiem>, del Toporagno acquatico di Miller <em>Neomys anomalusem> e della Talpa cieca <em>Talpa caecaem> in Umbria, dove le specie risultano accertate ormai da qualche anno. A tal fine sono stati rivisitati i reperti collezionati e la bibliografia conosciuta. Toporagno del Vallese: elevato di recente a livello di specie da Brünner et al. (2002, altrimenti considerato sottospecie del Toporagno comune (<em>S. araneus antinoriiem>. È conservato uno di tre crani incompleti (mancano mandibole ed incisivi superiori al momento prudenzialmente riferiti a <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>antinorii>, provenienti dall?Appennino umbro-marchigiano settentrionale (dintorni di Scalocchio - PG, 590 m. s.l.m. e determinati sulla base della pigmentazione rossa degli ipoconi del M1 e M2; Toporagno acquatico di Miller: tre crani (Breda in Paci e Romano op. cit. e un esemplare intero (Paci, ined. sono stati trovati a pochi chilometri di distanza gli uni dall?altro tra i comuni di Assisi e Valfabbrica, in ambienti mediocollinari limitrofi al Parco Regionale del M.te Subasio (Perugia. In provincia di Terni la specie viene segnalata da Isotti (op. cit. per i dintorni di Orvieto. Talpa cieca: sono noti una femmina e un maschio raccolti nel comune di Pietralunga (PG, rispettivamente in una conifereta a <em>Pinus nigraem> (m. 630 s.l.m. e nelle vicinanze di un bosco misto collinare a prevalenza di <em>Quercus cerrisem> (m. 640 s.l.m.. Recentemente un terzo individuo è stato rinvenuto nel comune di Sigillo (PG, all?interno del Parco Regionale di M.te Cucco, sul margine di una faggeta a 1100 m s.l.m. In entrambi i casi l?areale della specie è risultato parapatrico con quello di <em>Talpa europaeaem>.

  6. Electrically floating, near vertical incidence, skywave antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Allen A.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Tremblay, Paul A.; Mays, Belva L.

    2014-07-08

    An Electrically Floating, Near Vertical Incidence, Skywave (NVIS) Antenna comprising an antenna element, a floating ground element, and a grounding element. At least part of said floating ground element is positioned between said antenna element and said grounding element. The antenna is separated from the floating ground element and the grounding element by one or more electrical insulators. The floating ground element is separated from said antenna and said grounding element by one or more electrical insulators.

  7. RADIALLY MAGNETIZED PROTOPLANETARY DISK: VERTICAL PROFILE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, Matthew; Thompson, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the response of a thin accretion disk to an external radial magnetic field. Our focus is on protoplanetary disks (PPDs), which are exposed during their later evolution to an intense, magnetized wind from the central star. A radial magnetic field is mixed into a thin surface layer, wound up by the disk shear, and pushed downward by a combination of turbulent mixing and ambipolar and ohmic drift. The toroidal field reaches much greater strengths than the seed vertical field that is usually invoked in PPD models, even becoming superthermal. Linear stability analysis indicates that the disk experiences the magnetorotational instability (MRI) at a higher magnetization than a vertically magnetized disk when both the effects of ambipolar and Hall drift are taken into account. Steady vertical profiles of density and magnetic field are obtained at several radii between 0.06 and 1 AU in response to a wind magnetic field B r ∼ (10 −4 –10 −2 )(r/ AU) −2 G. Careful attention is given to the radial and vertical ionization structure resulting from irradiation by stellar X-rays. The disk is more strongly magnetized closer to the star, where it can support a higher rate of mass transfer. As a result, the inner ∼1 AU of a PPD is found to evolve toward lower surface density. Mass transfer rates around 10 −8 M ⊙ yr −1 are obtained under conservative assumptions about the MRI-generated stress. The evolution of the disk and the implications for planet migration are investigated in the accompanying paper

  8. RADIALLY MAGNETIZED PROTOPLANETARY DISK: VERTICAL PROFILE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Matthew [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 1A7 (Canada); Thompson, Christopher [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2015-11-10

    This paper studies the response of a thin accretion disk to an external radial magnetic field. Our focus is on protoplanetary disks (PPDs), which are exposed during their later evolution to an intense, magnetized wind from the central star. A radial magnetic field is mixed into a thin surface layer, wound up by the disk shear, and pushed downward by a combination of turbulent mixing and ambipolar and ohmic drift. The toroidal field reaches much greater strengths than the seed vertical field that is usually invoked in PPD models, even becoming superthermal. Linear stability analysis indicates that the disk experiences the magnetorotational instability (MRI) at a higher magnetization than a vertically magnetized disk when both the effects of ambipolar and Hall drift are taken into account. Steady vertical profiles of density and magnetic field are obtained at several radii between 0.06 and 1 AU in response to a wind magnetic field B{sub r} ∼ (10{sup −4}–10{sup −2})(r/ AU){sup −2} G. Careful attention is given to the radial and vertical ionization structure resulting from irradiation by stellar X-rays. The disk is more strongly magnetized closer to the star, where it can support a higher rate of mass transfer. As a result, the inner ∼1 AU of a PPD is found to evolve toward lower surface density. Mass transfer rates around 10{sup −8} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} are obtained under conservative assumptions about the MRI-generated stress. The evolution of the disk and the implications for planet migration are investigated in the accompanying paper.

  9. Assessing verticalization effects on urban safety perception

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço, Ricardo Barros

    2017-01-01

    We describe an experiment with the modeling of urban verticalization effects on perceived safety scores as obtained with computer vision on Google Streetview data for New York City. Preliminary results suggests that for smaller buildings (between one and seven floors), perceived safety increases with building height, but that for high-rise buildings, perceived safety decreases with increased height. We also determined that while height contributing for this relation, other zonal aspects also ...

  10. Vertical Integration Versus Outsourcing in Industry Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Wang

    2006-01-01

    We study the determinants of the extent of in-house vertical integration and of outsourcing in foreign countries. Potential suppliers must make a relationship-specific investment in order to serve each prospective customer. Such investments are governed by imperfect contracts. A final-good producer can manufacture components for it, but the per-unit cost is higher than for specialized suppliers. We consider how the size of the cost differential, the trade costs of components, the relative cos...

  11. Vertical Integration in the Taiwan Aquaculture Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Tzong-Ru Lee (Jiun-Shen); Yi-Hsu; Cheng-Jen Lin; Kongkiti Phusavat; Nirote Sinnarong

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to improve the distribution channels in the Taiwan aquaculture industry through a better vertical integration. This study is derived from a need to improve the distribution performance of agricultural-based industries in response to increasing food demands in Asia and elsewhere. Based on a four-by-eight matrix derived from both a value chain and a service profit chain, thirty different strategies are developed. This development is based on key success factors and strategies for...

  12. Vertical integration technologies for vertex detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratti, L.

    2011-01-01

    This work is focused on the use of vertical integration (3D) technologies in the design of hybrid or monolithic pixel detectors in view of applications to silicon vertex trackers (SVTs) at the future high luminosity colliders. After a short introduction on the specifications of next-generation SVTs, the paper will discuss the general features of 3D microelectronic processes and the benefits they can provide to the design of pixel detectors for high energy physics experiments.

  13. Vertical hydraulic transport of particulate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restini, C.V.; Massarani, G.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of particulate solid vertical transport is formulated using the conservation equations of Continuum Mechanics. It is shown that the constitutive equation for solid-fluid interaction term in the equations of motion may be determined by rather simple experiments of homogeneous fluidization. The predicted fluid pressure drop and solid concentration are in satisfacting agreement with past experiments and with data obtained in this work. (Author) [pt

  14. Data driven modelling of vertical atmospheric radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoch, Jaromir; Hlubinka, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) there exists a unique set of meteorological measurements consisting of the values of vertical atmospheric levels of beta and gamma radiation. In this paper a stochastic data-driven model based on nonlinear regression and on nonhomogeneous Poisson process is suggested. In the first part of the paper, growth curves were used to establish an appropriate nonlinear regression model. For comparison we considered a nonhomogeneous Poisson process with its intensity based on growth curves. In the second part both approaches were applied to the real data and compared. Computational aspects are briefly discussed as well. The primary goal of this paper is to present an improved understanding of the distribution of environmental radiation as obtained from the measurements of the vertical radioactivity profiles by the radioactivity sonde system. - Highlights: → We model vertical atmospheric levels of beta and gamma radiation. → We suggest appropriate nonlinear regression model based on growth curves. → We compare nonlinear regression modelling with Poisson process based modeling. → We apply both models to the real data.

  15. Rotation of vertically oriented objects during earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Klaus-G.

    2012-10-01

    Vertically oriented objects, such as tombstones, monuments, columns, and stone lanterns, are often observed to shift and rotate during earthquake ground motion. Such observations are usually limited to the mesoseismal zone. Whether near-field rotational ground motion components are necessary in addition to pure translational movements to explain the observed rotations is an open question. We summarize rotation data from seven earthquakes between 1925 and 2009 and perform analog and numeric rotation testing with vertically oriented objects. The free-rocking motion of a marble block on a sliding table is disturbed by a pulse in the direction orthogonal to the rocking motion. When the impulse is sufficiently strong and occurs at the `right' moment, it induces significant rotation of the block. Numeric experiments of a free-rocking block show that the initiation of vertical block rotation by a cycloidal acceleration pulse applied orthogonal to the rocking axis depends on the amplitude of the pulse and its phase relation to the rocking cycle. Rotation occurs when the pulse acceleration exceeds the threshold necessary to provoke rocking of a resting block, and the rocking block approaches its equilibrium position. Experiments with blocks subjected to full 3D strong motion signals measured during the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake confirm the observations from the tests with analytic ground motions. Significant differences in the rotational behavior of a monolithic block and two stacked blocks exist.

  16. Human sensitivity to vertical self-motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesti, Alessandro; Barnett-Cowan, Michael; Macneilage, Paul R; Bülthoff, Heinrich H

    2014-01-01

    Perceiving vertical self-motion is crucial for maintaining balance as well as for controlling an aircraft. Whereas heave absolute thresholds have been exhaustively studied, little work has been done in investigating how vertical sensitivity depends on motion intensity (i.e., differential thresholds). Here we measure human sensitivity for 1-Hz sinusoidal accelerations for 10 participants in darkness. Absolute and differential thresholds are measured for upward and downward translations independently at 5 different peak amplitudes ranging from 0 to 2 m/s(2). Overall vertical differential thresholds are higher than horizontal differential thresholds found in the literature. Psychometric functions are fit in linear and logarithmic space, with goodness of fit being similar in both cases. Differential thresholds are higher for upward as compared to downward motion and increase with stimulus intensity following a trend best described by two power laws. The power laws' exponents of 0.60 and 0.42 for upward and downward motion, respectively, deviate from Weber's Law in that thresholds increase less than expected at high stimulus intensity. We speculate that increased sensitivity at high accelerations and greater sensitivity to downward than upward self-motion may reflect adaptations to avoid falling.

  17. Measurement of vertical stability metrics in KSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Sang-Hee; Humphreys, D. A.; Mueller, D.; Bak, J. G.; Eidietis, N. W.; Kim, H.-S.; Ko, J. S.; Walker, M. L.; Kstar Team

    2017-10-01

    The paper summarizes results of multi-year ITPA experiments regarding measurement of the vertical stabilization capability of KSTAR discharges, including most recent measurements at the highest achievable elongation (κ 2.0 - 2.1). The measurements of the open-loop growth rate of VDE (γz) and the maximum controllable vertical displacement (ΔZmax) are done by the release-and-catch method. The dynamics of the vertical movement of the plasma is verified by both relevant magnetic reconstructions and non-magnetic diagnostics. The measurements of γz and ΔZmax were done for different plasma currents, βp, internal inductances, elongations and different configurations of the vessel conductors that surround the plasma as the first wall. Effects of control design choice and diagnostics noise are discussed, and comparison with the axisymmetric plasma response model is given for partial accounting for the measured control capability. This work supported by Ministry of Science, ICT, and Future Planning under KSTAR project.

  18. Feedback control of vertical instability in TNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantz, E.R.

    1978-05-01

    Due to the unfavorable curvature of the vertical vacuum magnetic field, elongated plasmas are vertically unstable when the elongation, epsilon, becomes too large. The TNS (The Next Step) tokamak, as evolved in the Westinghouse-ORNL studies has an inside-D configuration (epsilon = 1.6, A = 5/1.25 = 4) characterized by an average decay index n approximately equal -0.75 at the plasma flux surface near the magnetic axis and is vertically unstable with a growth rate γ 0 approximately 10 5 sec -1 . Eddy currents produced in the vacuum vessel wall will slow this instability to growth rates γ 0 approximately 10 2 sec -1 provided there are no transverse insulating gaps in the vessel wall. A matrix equation has been developed for calculating the eddy currents induced in the EF coils and their stabilizing effect. Control theory for feedback systems with and without delay time is presented and possible plasma position detectors are discussed. For a plasma current of 6.1 MA, the controller peak power requirements using separate controller circuits are approximately 1 MW depending upon EF coil configurations and time delay. This feedback system is designed to stabilize a maximum plasma excursion of 10 cm from the midplane with delay times up to 2 sec

  19. TFTR vertically viewing electron cyclotron emission diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.

    1990-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Michelson interferometer has a spectral coverage of 75--540 GHz, allowing measurement of the first four electron cyclotron harmonics. Until recently the instrument has been configured to view the TFTR plasma on the horizontal midplane, primarily in order to measure the electron temperature profile. Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) extraordinary mode spectra from TFTR Supershot plasmas exhibit a pronounced, spectrally narrow feature below the second harmonic. A similar feature is seen with the ECE radiometer diagnostic below the electron cyclotron fundamental frequency in the ordinary mode. Analysis of the ECE spectra indicates the possibility of a non-Maxwellian 40--80 keV tail on the electron distribution in or near the core. During 1990 three vertical views with silicon carbide viewing targets will be installed to provide a direct measurement of the electron energy distribution at major radii of 2.54, 2.78, and 3.09 m with an energy resolution of approximately 20% at 100 keV. To provide the maximum flexibility, the optical components for the vertical views will be remotely controlled to allow the Michelson interferometer to be reconfigured to either the midplane horizontal view or one of the three vertical views between plasma shots

  20. Vertical and horizontal seismometric observations of tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambotte, S.; Rivera, L.; Hinderer, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tidal signals have been largely studied with gravimeters, strainmeters and tiltmeters, but can also be retrieved from digital records of the output of long-period seismometers, such as STS-1, particularly if they are properly isolated. Horizontal components are often noisier than the vertical ones, due to sensitivity to tilt at long periods. Hence, horizontal components are often disturbed by local effects such as topography, geology and cavity effects, which imply a strain-tilt coupling. We use series of data (duration larger than 1 month) from several permanent broadband seismological stations to examine these disturbances. We search a minimal set of observable signals (tilts, horizontal and vertical displacements, strains, gravity) necessary to reconstruct the seismological record. Such analysis gives a set of coefficients (per component for each studied station), which are stable over years and then can be used systematically to correct data from these disturbances without needing heavy numerical computation. A special attention is devoted to ocean loading for stations close to oceans (e.g. Matsushiro station in Japon (MAJO)), and to pressure correction when barometric data are available. Interesting observations are made for vertical seismometric components; in particular, we found a pressure admittance between pressure and data 10 times larger than for gravimeters for periods larger than 1 day, while this admittance reaches the usual value of -3.5 nm/s 2/mbar for periods below 3 h. This observation may be due to instrumental noise, but the exact mechanism is not yet understood.

  1. Algebraic motion of vertically displacing plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferlé, D.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2018-02-01

    The vertical motion of a tokamak plasma is analytically modelled during its non-linear phase by a free-moving current-carrying rod inductively coupled to a set of fixed conducting wires or a cylindrical conducting shell. The solutions capture the leading term in a Taylor expansion of the Green's function for the interaction between the plasma column and the surrounding vacuum vessel. The plasma shape and profiles are assumed not to vary during the vertical drifting phase such that the plasma column behaves as a rigid body. In the limit of perfectly conducting structures, the plasma is prevented to come in contact with the wall due to steep effective potential barriers created by the induced Eddy currents. Resistivity in the wall allows the equilibrium point to drift towards the vessel on the slow timescale of flux penetration. The initial exponential motion of the plasma, understood as a resistive vertical instability, is succeeded by a non-linear "sinking" behaviour shown to be algebraic and decelerating. The acceleration of the plasma column often observed in experiments is thus concluded to originate from an early sharing of toroidal current between the core, the halo plasma, and the wall or from the thermal quench dynamics precipitating loss of plasma current.

  2. Dynamic stiffness of suction caissons - vertical vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, M.; Andersen, Lars

    2006-12-15

    The dynamic response of offshore wind turbines are affected by the properties of the foundation and the subsoil. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the dynamic soil-structure interaction of suction caissons for offshore wind turbines. The investigation is limited to a determination of the vertical dynamic stiffness of suction caissons. The soil surrounding the foundation is homogenous with linear viscoelastic properties. The dynamic stiffness of the suction caisson is expressed by dimensionless frequency-dependent dynamic stiffness coefficients corresponding to the vertical degree of freedom. The dynamic stiffness coefficients for the foundations are evaluated by means of a dynamic three-dimensional coupled Boundary Element/Finite Element model. Comparisons are made with known analytical and numerical solutions in order to evaluate the static and dynamic behaviour of the Boundary Element/Finite Element model. The vertical frequency dependent stiffness has been determined for different combinations of the skirt length, Poisson's ratio and the ratio between soil stiffness and skirt stiffness. Finally the dynamic behaviour at high frequencies is investigated. (au)

  3. Methyl 2-Benzamido-2-(1<em>H>-benzimidazol-1-ylmethoxyacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alami Anouar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The heterocyclic carboxylic α-aminoester methyl 2-benzamido-2-(1<em>H>-benzimidazol-1-ylmethoxyacetate is obtained by <em>O>-alkylation of methyl α-azido glycinate <em>N>-benzoylated with 1<em>H>-benzimidazol-1-ylmethanol.

  4. A specimen of <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>samniticus> in Barn Owl's pellets from Murge plateau (Apulia, Italy / Su di un <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>samniticus> (Insectivora, Soricidae rinvenuto in borre di <em>Tyto albaem> delle Murge (Puglia, Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ferrara

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a lot of Barn Owl's pellets from the Murge plateau a specimen of <em>Sorex> sp. was detected. Thank to some morphological and morphometrical features, the cranial bones can be tentatively attributed to <em>Sorex samniticusem> Altobello, 1926. The genus <em>Sorex> was not yet included in the Apulia's fauna southwards of the Gargano district; the origin and significance of the above record is briefly discussed, the actual presence of a natural population of <em>Sorex> in the Murge being not yet proved. Riassunto Viene segnalato il rinvenimento di un esemplare di <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>samniticus> da borre di <em>Tyto albaem> delle Murge. Poiché il genere non era stato ancora segnalato nella Puglia a sud del Gargano, viene discusso il significato faunistico del reperto.

  5. A influência da variação da curvatura da base do braquete em uma união ortodôntica submetida a diferentes cargas, através do método dos elementos finitos The influence of the variation of the bracket base curvature in a bonded orthodontic attachment submitted by different load cases using the finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Pereira Viana

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho procurou avaliar, através do Método dos Elementos Finitos, a resistência ao deslocamento de quatro diferentes bases de braquetes "straight-wire" (Morelli, Unitek, A-Company e Abzil-Lancer na aplicação de forças de torção e cisalhamento, correlacionando essa resistência à melhor adaptação das bases à superfície vestibular dentária. As curvaturas das bases de braquetes utilizados no presente estudo foram descritas em um estudo prévio, enquanto o contorno dentário foi obtido a partir do escaneamento e cálculo da curvatura média vestibular do canino inferior de uma amostra de 30 indivíduos brasileiros. Empregou-se a análise tridimensional por Elementos Finitos da interface esmalte vestibular/cimento/base do braquete para cada marca testada. Forças de 1N, promovendo deslocamento lateral e torção, foram aplicadas no centro da base do braquete e observou-se a distribuição desses esforços sobre os modelos assim como as tensões normais e de cisalhamento geradas. Os resultados mostraram que a base que melhor se adaptou à superfície vestibular construída foi a da marca Unitek, seguida pela marca A-Company, Abzil-Lancer e Morelli. As deformações sofridas pelos braquetes foram inversamente proporcionais à adaptação à superfície dentária. Os maiores picos de tensão localizaram-se nas proximidades do ponto de aplicação da força. A interface adesivo/esmalte foi mais sujeita à falha na adesão que a interface braquete/adesivo. A força de cisalhamento demonstrou ser mais provável de causar falha na adesão quando comparada à força de torção.The objective of this study was to evaluate the adaptability of the four straight-wire brackets bases (Morelli, Unitek, A-Company and Abzil-Lancer to facial surface of a lower canine. The lower canine facial curvature data to be used in the three-dimensional finite element model were established by 30 Brazilian adult individuals and the brackets bases curvature

  6. Glycosylation of Vanillin and 8-Nordihydrocapsaicin by Cultured <em>Eucalyptus perrinianaem> Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoji Kubota

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation of vanilloids such as vanillin and 8-nordihydrocapsaicin by cultured plant cells of <em>Eucalyptus perrinianaem> was studied. Vanillin was converted into vanillin 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranoside, vanillyl alcohol, and 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranosylvanillyl alcohol by <em>E. perriniana em>cells. Incubation of cultured <em>E. perrinianaem> cells with 8-nor- dihydrocapsaicin gave 8-nordihydrocapsaicin 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranoside and 8-nordihydro- capsaicin 4-<em>O>-b-D-gentiobioside.

  7. Retratos em movimento.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Oliveira Junior

    Full Text Available resumo O artigo aborda aspectos da relação do cinema com a arte do retrato. Buscamos, em primeiro lugar, uma definição estética do que seria um retrato cinematográfico, sempre em tensão com os critérios formais e padrões estilísticos que historicamente constituíram o retrato pictórico. Em seguida, relacionamos essa questão com a importância que se deu à representação do close-up de rosto nas primeiras décadas do cinema, quando foi atribuído aos filmes um papel inédito no estudo da fisionomia e da expressão facial. Por fim, apresentamos exemplos de autorretratos na pintura e no cinema para expor a forma como a autorrepresentação põe em crise as noções de subjetividade e identidade em que a definição clássica do retrato se apoiava.

  8. Retrieving Vertical Air Motion and Raindrop Size Distributions from Vertically Pointing Doppler Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. R.; Chandra, C. V.

    2017-12-01

    The vertical evolution of falling raindrops is a result of evaporation, breakup, and coalescence acting upon those raindrops. Computing these processes using vertically pointing radar observations is a two-step process. First, the raindrop size distribution (DSD) and vertical air motion need to be estimated throughout the rain shaft. Then, the changes in DSD properties need to be quantified as a function of height. The change in liquid water content is a measure of evaporation, and the change in raindrop number concentration and size are indicators of net breakup or coalescence in the vertical column. The DSD and air motion can be retrieved using observations from two vertically pointing radars operating side-by-side and at two different wavelengths. While both radars are observing the same raindrop distribution, they measure different reflectivity and radial velocities due to Rayleigh and Mie scattering properties. As long as raindrops with diameters greater than approximately 2 mm are in the radar pulse volumes, the Rayleigh and Mie scattering signatures are unique enough to estimate DSD parameters using radars operating at 3- and 35-GHz (Williams et al. 2016). Vertical decomposition diagrams (Williams 2016) are used to explore the processes acting on the raindrops. Specifically, changes in liquid water content with height quantify evaporation or accretion. When the raindrops are not evaporating, net raindrop breakup and coalescence are identified by changes in the total number of raindrops and changes in the DSD effective shape as the raindrops. This presentation will focus on describing the DSD and air motion retrieval method using vertical profiling radar observations from the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) central facility in Northern Oklahoma.

  9. ostglacial rebound from VLBI Geodesy: On Establishing Vertical Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, Donald .

    1996-01-01

    I propose that a useful reference frame for vertical motions is that found by minimizing differences between vertical motions observed with VLBI [Ma and Ryan, 1995] and predictions from postglacial rebound predictions [Peltier, 1995].

  10. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jingqi; Zhao, Chao; Wang, Qingxiao; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Zhihong; Zhang, Xixiang; Abutaha, Anas I.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2012-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) have been developed using pure semiconducting carbon nanotubes. The source and drain were vertically stacked, separated by a dielectric, and the carbon nanotubes were placed

  11. Going Up? The Pros and Cons of Vertical Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myler, Patricia A.; Boggs, Richard C.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the advantages and disadvantages of the vertical expansion of school buildings. Considers such factors as fire protection, compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act, and cost. Discusses alternatives to vertical expansion. (PKP)

  12. Horizontalidade e verticalidade: os modelos de improvisação de Pixinguinha e K-Ximbinho no choro brasileiro Horizontal and vertical structures: Pixinguinha and K-Ximbinho's models of improvisation in the Brazilian Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Veneziano Valente

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Análise sobre os procedimentos de improvisação utilizados por Pixinguinha em 1 x 0 (1947 e por K-Ximbinho em Velhos Companheiros (1981. Uma comparação das diferenças e semelhanças entre suas abordagens mostra uma preferência pelos modelos estilísticos vertical ou horizontal.Analysis of the improvisation procedures of Brazilian instrumentalists Pixinguinha in 1 x 0 (One to zero; 1947 and K-Ximbinho in Velhos Companheiros (Old pals; 1981. A comparison of differences and similarities in their approaches reveals a preference for horizontal or vertical stylistic models.

  13. <em>In Vivoem> Histamine Optical Nanosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A. Clark

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this communication we discuss the development of ionophore based nanosensors for the detection and monitoring of histamine levels <em>in vivoem>. This approach is based on the use of an amine-reactive, broad spectrum ionophore which is capable of recognizing and binding to histamine. We pair this ionophore with our already established nanosensor platform, and demonstrate <em>in vitroem> and <em>in vivoem> monitoring of histamine levels. This approach enables capturing rapid kinetics of histamine after injection, which are more difficult to measure with standard approaches such as blood sampling, especially on small research models. The coupling together of <em>in vivoem> nanosensors with ionophores such as nonactin provide a way to generate nanosensors for novel targets without the difficult process of designing and synthesizing novel ionophores.

  14. Tolerances for the vertical emittance in damping rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raubenheimer, T.O.

    1991-11-01

    Future damping rings for linear colliders will need to have very small vertical emittances. In the limit of low beam current, the vertical emittance is primarily determined by the vertical dispersion and the betatron coupling. In this paper, the contributions to these effects from random misalignments are calculated and tolerances are derived to limit the vertical emittance with a 95% confidence level. 10 refs., 5 figs

  15. The correction of occlusal vertical dimension on tooth wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostiny Rostiny

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The loss of occlusal vertical dimension which is caused by tooth wear is necessarily treated to regain vertical dimension. Correctional therapy should be done as early possible. In this case, simple and relatively low cost therapy was performed. In unserve loss of occlusal vertical dimension, partial removable denture could be used and the improvement of lengthening anterior teeth using composite resin to improve to regain vertical dimensional occlusion.

  16. Vertical specialization and industrial upgrading: a preliminary note

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Jiang; William Milberg

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Vertical specialization is a measure of the import content of exports. Given the widely recognized importance of trade in tasks and global production networks, vertical specialization has recently gained the attention of international trade researchers and policy makers. In this note, we use measured changes in the within-country pattern of vertical specialization to gauge the relevance of task trade for industrial upgrading and economic development. We first calculate vertical speci...

  17. Study of the <em>in Vitroem> Antiplasmodial, Antileishmanial and Antitrypanosomal Activities of Medicinal Plants from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal M. Al-Musayeib

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the <em>in vitroem> antiprotozoal activity of sixteen selected medicinal plants. Plant materials were extracted with methanol and screened <em>in vitroem> against erythrocytic schizonts of <em>Plasmodium falciparumem>, intracellular amastigotes of <em>Leishmania infantum em>and <em>Trypanosoma cruzi em>and free trypomastigotes of<em> T. bruceiem>. Cytotoxic activity was determined against MRC-5 cells to assess selectivity<em>. em>The criterion for activity was an IC50 < 10 µg/mL (4. Antiplasmodial activity was found in the<em> em>extracts of<em> em>>Prosopis julifloraem> and <em>Punica granatumem>. Antileishmanial activity<em> em>against <em>L. infantumem> was demonstrated in <em>Caralluma sinaicaem> and <em>Periploca aphylla.em> Amastigotes of<em> T. cruzi em>were affected by the methanol extract of<em> em>>Albizia lebbeckem>> em>pericarp, <em>Caralluma sinaicaem>,> Periploca aphylla em>and <em>Prosopius julifloraem>. Activity against<em> T. brucei em>was obtained in<em> em>>Prosopis julifloraem>. Cytotoxicity (MRC-5 IC50 < 10 µg/mL and hence non-specific activities were observed for<em> em>>Conocarpus lancifoliusem>.>

  18. Analysis of vertical stability limits and vertical displacement event behavior on NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Mark; Battaglia, Devon; Gerhardt, Stefan; Menard, Jonathan; Mueller, Dennis; Myers, Clayton; Sabbagh, Steven; Smith, David

    2017-10-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) completed its first run campaign in 2016, including commissioning a larger center-stack and three new tangentially aimed neutral beam sources. NSTX-U operates at increased aspect ratio due to the larger center-stack, making vertical stabilization more challenging. Since ST performance is improved at high elongation, improvements to the vertical control system were made, including use of multiple up-down-symmetric flux loop pairs for real-time estimation, and filtering to remove noise. Similar operating limits to those on NSTX (in terms of elongation and internal inductance) were achieved, now at higher aspect ratio. To better understand the observed limits and project to future operating points, a database of vertical displacement events and vertical oscillations observed during the plasma current ramp-up on NSTX/NSTX-U has been generated. Shots were clustered based on the characteristics of the VDEs/oscillations, and the plasma parameter regimes associated with the classes of behavior were studied. Results provide guidance for scenario development during ramp-up to avoid large oscillations at the time of diverting, and provide the means to assess stability of target scenarios for the next campaign. Results will also guide plans for improvements to the vertical control system. Work supported by U.S. D.O.E. Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  19. 2D Vertical Heterostructures for Novel Tunneling Device Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    2D Vertical Heterostructures for Novel Tunneling Device Applications Philip M. Campbell, Christopher J. Perini, W. Jud Ready, and Eric M. Vogel...School of Materials Science and Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA, USA 30332 Abstract: Vertical heterostructures...digital logic, signal processing, analog-to-digital conversion, and high-frequency communications, vertical heterostructure tunneling devices have

  20. Vertical vs. Horizontal Integration: Pre-emptive Merging.

    OpenAIRE

    Colangelo, Giuseppe

    1995-01-01

    Preemption plays a crucial role in arms merger decisions. The author studies whether and under which circumstances preemptive merging occurs in vertically related industries. He finds that vertical mergers often preempt horizontal mergers and are dominant outcomes. Preempting the threat of a detrimental horizontal integration may be the main reason for vertically integrating. Copyright 1995 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Mechanical design of NASA Ames Research Center vertical motion simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbert, D. F.; Bakke, A. P.; Chargin, M. K.; Vallotton, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    NASA has designed and is constructing a new flight simulator with large vertical travel. Several aspects of the mechanical design of this Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) are discussed, including the multiple rack and pinion vertical drive, a pneumatic equilibration system, and the friction-damped rigid link catenaries used as cable supports.

  2. Vertical selection in the information domain of children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte Torres, Sergio; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Huibers, Theo W.C.

    In this paper we explore the vertical selection methods in aggregated search in the specific domain of topics for children between 7 and 12 years old. A test collection consisting of 25 verticals, 3.8K queries and relevant assessments for a large sample of these queries mapping relevant verticals to

  3. Effect of vertical integration on the utilization of hardwood resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of vertical integration in promoting the efficient utilization of the hardwood resource in the eastern United States was assessed during a series of interviews with vertically integrated hardwood manufacturers in the Appalachian region. Data from 19 companies that responded to the 1996 phone survey indicate that: 1) vertically integrated hardwood...

  4. Simple suggestions for including vertical physics in oil spill models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Asaro, Eric; University of Washington, Seatle, WA

    2001-01-01

    Current models of oil spills include no vertical physics. They neglect the effect of vertical water motions on the transport and concentration of floating oil. Some simple ways to introduce vertical physics are suggested here. The major suggestion is to routinely measure the density stratification of the upper ocean during oil spills in order to develop a database on the effect of stratification. (Author)

  5. ELECTRICAL MUSCLE STIMULATION (EMS IMPLEMENTATION IN EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Đokić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS, is also known as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES may be used for therapeutic purposes and training. EMS is causing muscle contractions via electrical impulses. The survey was conducted as a case study. The study was conducted on subject of 3 male of different ages. The study lasted 4 weeks, and the respondents have not used any type of training or activity, which would affect the development of explosive strength of the lower extremities. Electrical stimulation was performed in the evening, every other day, with COMPEX mi sport apparatus (Medical SA - All rights reserved - 07/06 - Art. 885,616 - V.2 model. In 4 week period, a total of 13 treatments were performed on selected muscle groups - quadriceps femoris and gastrocnemius. Program of plyometric training (Plyometric (28 min per treatment, for each muscle group were applied. The main objective of this study was to quantify and compare explosive leg strength, using different vertical jump protocols, before and after the EMS program. The initial and final testing was conducted in the laboratory of the Faculty of Sport and Tourism in Novi Sad, on the contact plate AXON JUMP (Bioingeniería Deportiva, VACUMED, 4538 Westinghouse Street Ventura, CA 93 003 under identical conditions. In all three of the respondents indicated an increase in vertical jump in all applied protocols.

  6. Cyberbullying em adolescentes brasileiros

    OpenAIRE

    Wendt, Guilherme Welter

    2012-01-01

    O cyberbullying é entendido como uma forma de comportamento agressivo que ocorre através dos meios eletrônicos de interação (computadores, celulares, sites de relacionamento virtual), sendo realizado de maneira intencional por uma pessoa ou grupo contra alguém em situação desigual de poder e, ainda, com dificuldade em se defender. Os estudos disponíveis até o presente momento destacam que o cyberbullying é um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de sintomas de ansiedade, depressão, ideação s...

  7. Nietzsche em voga

    OpenAIRE

    Borromeu, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Resumo:Texto publicado em 1941, na revista de orientação católica A Ordem, no Rio de Janeiro. Seu autor considera que Nietzsche teria negado a moral tradicional, concebendo em seu lugar outra, porém imoral e brutal. Acusa o filósofo, por fim, de ser responsável pela Guerra ora e curso na Europa. Abstract:Text published in 1941 in the Catholic orientation magazine, A Ordem, in Rio de Janeiro. The author believes that Nietzsche would have denied traditional morality, conceiving another in it...

  8. Transient well flow in vertically heterogeneous aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemker, C. J.

    1999-11-01

    A solution for the general problem of computing well flow in vertically heterogeneous aquifers is found by an integration of both analytical and numerical techniques. The radial component of flow is treated analytically; the drawdown is a continuous function of the distance to the well. The finite-difference technique is used for the vertical flow component only. The aquifer is discretized in the vertical dimension and the heterogeneous aquifer is considered to be a layered (stratified) formation with a finite number of homogeneous sublayers, where each sublayer may have different properties. The transient part of the differential equation is solved with Stehfest's algorithm, a numerical inversion technique of the Laplace transform. The well is of constant discharge and penetrates one or more of the sublayers. The effect of wellbore storage on early drawdown data is taken into account. In this way drawdowns are found for a finite number of sublayers as a continuous function of radial distance to the well and of time since the pumping started. The model is verified by comparing results with published analytical and numerical solutions for well flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous, confined and unconfined aquifers. Instantaneous and delayed drainage of water from above the water table are considered, combined with the effects of partially penetrating and finite-diameter wells. The model is applied to demonstrate that the transient effects of wellbore storage in unconfined aquifers are less pronounced than previous numerical experiments suggest. Other applications of the presented solution technique are given for partially penetrating wells in heterogeneous formations, including a demonstration of the effect of decreasing specific storage values with depth in an otherwise homogeneous aquifer. The presented solution can be a powerful tool for the analysis of drawdown from pumping tests, because hydraulic properties of layered heterogeneous aquifer systems with

  9. Vertical Transport by Coastal Mesoscale Convective Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, K.; Kading, T.

    2016-12-01

    This work is part of an ongoing investigation of coastal mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), including changes in vertical transport of boundary layer air by storms moving from inland to offshore. The density of a storm's cold pool versus that of the offshore marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL), in part, determines the ability of the storm to successfully cross the coast, the mechanism driving storm propagation, and the ability of the storm to lift air from the boundary layer aloft. The ability of an MCS to overturn boundary layer air can be especially important over the eastern US seaboard, where warm season coastal MCSs are relatively common and where large coastal population centers generate concentrated regions of pollution. Recent work numerically simulating idealized MCSs in a coastal environment has provided some insight into the physical mechanisms governing MCS coastal crossing success and the impact on vertical transport of boundary layer air. Storms are simulated using a cloud resolving model initialized with atmospheric conditions representative of a Mid-Atlantic environment. Simulations are run in 2-D at 250 m horizontal resolution with a vertical resolution stretched from 100 m in the boundary layer to 250 m aloft. The left half of the 800 km domain is configured to represent land, while the right half is assigned as water. Sensitivity experiments are conducted to quantify the influence of varying MABL structure on MCS coastal crossing success and air transport, with MABL values representative of those observed over the western Mid-Atlantic during warm season. Preliminary results indicate that when the density of the cold pool is much greater than the MABL, the storm successfully crosses the coastline, with lifting of surface parcels, which ascend through the troposphere. When the density of the cold pool is similar to that of the MABL, parcels within the MABL remain at low levels, though parcels above the MABL ascend through the troposphere.

  10. Vertical deformation at western part of Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Febriyani, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.fanuel@students.itb.ac.id; Prijatna, Kosasih, E-mail: prijatna@gd.itb.ac.id; Meilano, Irwan, E-mail: irwan.meilano@gd.itb.ac.id

    2015-04-24

    This research tries to make advancement in GPS signal processing to estimate the interseismic vertical deformation field at western part of Sumatra Island. The data derived by Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) from Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) between 2010 and 2012. GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) software are used to process the GPS signal to estimate the vertical velocities of the CGPS station. In order to minimize noise due to atmospheric delay, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) is used as atmospheric parameter model and include daily IONEX file provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as well. It improves GAMIT daily position accuracy up to 0.8 mm. In a second step of processing, the GLOBK is used in order to estimate site positions and velocities in the ITRF08 reference frame. The result shows that the uncertainties of estimated displacement velocity at all CGPS stations are smaller than 1.5 mm/yr. The subsided deformation patterns are seen at the northern and southern part of west Sumatra. The vertical deformation at northern part of west Sumatra indicates postseismic phase associated with the 2010 and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes and also the long-term postseismic associated with the 2004 and 2005 Northern Sumatra earthquakes. The uplifted deformation patterns are seen from Bukit Tinggi to Seblat which indicate a long-term interseismic phase after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and 2010 Mentawai earthquake. GANO station shows a subsidence at rate 12.25 mm/yr, indicating the overriding Indo-Australia Plate which is dragged down by the subducting Southeast Asian Plate.

  11. Natural Products from Antarctic Colonial Ascidians of the Genera <em>Aplidium> and <em>Synoicum>: Variability and Defensive Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conxita Avila

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ascidians have developed multiple defensive strategies mostly related to physical, nutritional or chemical properties of the tunic. One of such is chemical defense based on secondary metabolites. We analyzed a series of colonial Antarctic ascidians from deep-water collections belonging to the genera <em>Aplidium> and <em>Synoicum> to evaluate the incidence of organic deterrents and their variability. The ether fractions from 15 samples including specimens of the species <em>A.> <em>falklandicum>, <em>A.> <em>fuegiense>, <em>A.> <em>meridianum>, <em>A.> <em>millari> and <em>S.> <em>adareanum> were subjected to feeding assays towards two relevant sympatric predators: the starfish <em>Odontaster> <em>validus>, and the amphipod <em>Cheirimedon> <em>femoratus>. All samples revealed repellency. Nonetheless, some colonies concentrated defensive chemicals in internal body-regions rather than in the tunic. Four ascidian-derived meroterpenoids, rossinones B and the three derivatives 2,3-epoxy-rossinone B, 3-epi-rossinone B, 5,6-epoxy-rossinone B, and the indole alkaloids meridianins A–G, along with other minoritary meridianin compounds were isolated from several samples. Some purified metabolites were tested in feeding assays exhibiting potent unpalatabilities, thus revealing their role in predation avoidance. Ascidian extracts and purified compound-fractions were further assessed in antibacterial tests against a marine Antarctic bacterium. Only the meridianins showed inhibition activity, demonstrating a multifunctional defensive role. According to their occurrence in nature and within our colonial specimens, the possible origin of both types of metabolites is discussed.

  12. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  13. On triangle meshes with valence dominant vertices

    KAUST Repository

    Morvan, Jean-Marie

    2018-01-01

    We study triangulations $\\cal T$ defined on a closed disc $X$ satisfying the following condition: In the interior of $X$, the valence of all vertices of $\\cal T$ except one of them (the irregular vertex) is $6$. By using a flat singular Riemannian metric adapted to $\\cal T$, we prove a uniqueness theorem when the valence of the irregular vertex is not a multiple of $6$. Moreover, for a given integer $k >1$, we exhibit non isomorphic triangulations on $X$ with the same boundary, and with a unique irregular vertex whose valence is $6k$.

  14. Surface vertical deposition for gold nanoparticle film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao, J J; Qiu, F S; Chen, G D; Reeves, M E

    2003-01-01

    In this rapid communication, we present the surface vertical deposition (SVD) method to synthesize the gold nanoparticle films. Under conditions where the surface of the gold nanoparticle suspension descends slowly by evaporation, the gold nanoparticles in the solid-liquid-gas junction of the suspension aggregate together on the substrate by the force of solid and liquid interface. When the surface properties of the substrate and colloidal nanoparticle suspension define for the SVD, the density of gold nanoparticles in the thin film made by SVD only depends on the descending velocity of the suspension surface and on the concentration of the gold nanoparticle suspension. (rapid communication)

  15. Biomineralization of superhydrophilic vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsi, Teresa Cristina O; Santos, Tiago G; Pacheco-Soares, Cristina; Corat, Evaldo J; Marciano, Fernanda R; Lobo, Anderson O

    2012-03-06

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT) promise a great role for the study of tissue regeneration. In this paper, we introduce a new biomimetic mineralization routine employing superhydrophilic VACNT films as highly stable template materials. The biomineralization was obtained after VACNT soaking in simulated body fluid solution. Detailed structural analysis reveals that the polycrystalline biological apatites formed due to the -COOH terminations attached to VACNT tips after oxygen plasma etching. Our approach not only provides a novel route for nanostructured materials, but also suggests that COOH termination sites can play a significant role in biomimetic mineralization. These new nanocomposites are very promising as nanobiomaterials due to the excellent human osteoblast adhesion.

  16. On triangle meshes with valence dominant vertices

    KAUST Repository

    Morvan, Jean-Marie

    2018-02-16

    We study triangulations $\\\\cal T$ defined on a closed disc $X$ satisfying the following condition: In the interior of $X$, the valence of all vertices of $\\\\cal T$ except one of them (the irregular vertex) is $6$. By using a flat singular Riemannian metric adapted to $\\\\cal T$, we prove a uniqueness theorem when the valence of the irregular vertex is not a multiple of $6$. Moreover, for a given integer $k >1$, we exhibit non isomorphic triangulations on $X$ with the same boundary, and with a unique irregular vertex whose valence is $6k$.

  17. Vertically Polarized Omnidirectional Printed Slot Loop Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren H.; Thaysen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    A novel vertically polarized omnidirectional printed slot loop antenna has been designed, simulated, fabricated and measured. The slot loop works as a magnetic loop. The loop is loaded with inductors to insure uniform and in-phase fields in the slot in order to obtain an omnidirectional radiation...... pattern. The antenna is designed for the 2.45 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical band. Applications of the antenna are many. One is for on-body applications since it is ideal for launching a creeping waves due to the polarization....

  18. Vertical-Screw-Auger Conveyer Feeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Otis (Inventor); Vollmer, Hubert J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A conical feeder is attached to a vertically conveying screw auger. The feeder is equipped with scoops and rotated from the surface to force-feed regolith the auger. Additional scoops are possible by adding a cylindrical section above the conical funnel section. Such then allows the unit to collect material from swaths larger in diameter than the enclosing casing pipe of the screw auger. A third element includes a flexible screw auger. All three can be used in combination in microgravity and zero atmosphere environments to drill and recover a wide area of subsurface regolith and entrained volatiles through a single access point on the surface.

  19. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for Hydrothermal Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2012-04-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have, however, also confirmed that the uncertainty in the locations of the source and of the hydrophones could lower the quality of subsurface image. It is, therefore, strongly necessary to develop a total survey system that assures a accurate positioning and a deployment techniques

  20. Propulsion systems for vertical flight aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, A.

    1990-01-01

    The present evaluation of VTOL airframe/powerplant integration configurations combining high forward flight speed with safe and efficient vertical flight identifies six configurations that can be matched with one of three powerplant types: turboshafts, convertible-driveshaft lift fans, and gas-drive lift fans. The airframes configurations are (1) tilt-rotor, (2) folded tilt-rotor, (3) tilt-wing, (4) rotor wing/disk wing, (5) lift fan, and (6) variable-diameter rotor. Attention is given to the lift-fan VTOL configuration. The evaluation of these configurations has been conducted by both a joint NASA/DARPA program and the NASA High Speed Rotorcraft program. 7 refs.

  1. Dissociation of Vertical Semiconductor Diatomic Artificial Molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pi, M.; Emperador, A.; Barranco, M.; Garcias, F.; Muraki, K.; Tarucha, S.; Austing, D. G.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the dissociation of few-electron circular vertical semiconductor double quantum dot artificial molecules at 0T as a function of interdot distance. A slight mismatch introduced in the fabrication of the artificial molecules from nominally identical constituent quantum wells induces localization by offsetting the energy levels in the quantum dots by up to 2meV, and this plays a crucial role in the appearance of the addition energy spectra as a function of coupling strength particularly in the weak coupling limit

  2. Carbon export by vertically migrating zooplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Agnethe Nøhr; Visser, André W.

    2016-01-01

    Through diel vertical migration (DVM), zooplankton add an active transport to the otherwise passive sinking of detrital material that constitutes the biological pump. This active transport has proven difficult to quantify. We present a model that estimates both the temporal and depth characterist...... is transported than at either equatorial or boreal latitudes. We estimate that the amount of carbon transported below the mixed layer by migrating zooplankton in the North Atlantic Ocean constitutes 27% (16–30%) of the total export flux associated with the biological pump in that region...

  3. Diel vertical migration and distribution of zooplankton in a tropical Brazilian reservoirlian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. A. da Silva

    2009-08-01

    amostradas em quatro profundidades (Sub-superfície, 50% Io, 1% Io e Fundo em uma estação de amostragem com cinco metros de profundidade, em intervalos de quatro horas, ao longo de 24 horas. Duas espécies de Cladocera (Moina minuta e Diaphanosoma spinulosum e uma espécie de Copepoda (Notodiaptomus cearensis apresentaram padrões relativamente semelhantes de migração noturna, permanecendo no fundo durante o dia e se deslocando próximo à superfície no fim da tarde e ao longo da noite. Brachionus falcatus e Hexarthra mira (Rotifera não apresentaram padrões migratórios e as suas distribuições verticais foram relativamente homogêneas. As variáveis ambientais e as distribuições das espécies correlacionaram-se fracamente, sugerindo que outros mecanismos podem ser responsáveis por induzir a migração vertical.

  4. Vertical designs and agriculture joined for food production in the modules for urban vertical gardens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Hammerling Navas Navarro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Modules for Vertical Urban Gardens (MHUG are a hybrid of vertical gardens and urban agriculture. Vertical gardens have been recognized for the past 2500 years, mainly in the form of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, while urban agriculture is being practiced today by more than 700 million people worldwide. The benefits that MHUV offers are multiple, but perhaps the most significant is the consumption of foods free of chemicals, free of GMO’s, irrigated with potable water, and that are 100% organic. It is presented a “culinary and medicinal module” that can be implemented in the kitchen area, on roofs, terraces, balconies or patios, where species such as thyme, mint, peppermint, parsley, lemon balm and rosemary can be at hand when preparing dishes. The module consists of three plastic baskets that are recyclable and resistant to decay. Each basket has four rows with space for fourteen seedlings. The baskets are first lined on the interior with a black geotextile, and then are covered with a mesh (polisombra which helps support the substrate and seedlings. Each basket rests on a structure made of recycled wood (from pallets or crates that both holds the basket vertically and serves as a rain cover. The cages measure 0.33m by 0.55m by 0.14m. Each module comes with hosing and connectors for a drip irrigation system, and an instructional manual. The modules demonstrate the benefits of urban agriculture combined with the beauty and modality of vertical gardens, leading to useful applications for food production and decoration in the spaces where vertical urban gardens are possible.

  5. Qualidade da carne de frangos de corte submetidos a dietas suplementadas com crômio, criados em diferentes temperaturas ambientais = Meat quality of broiler chicks submeted the supplemented diets with chromium and reared in differents enviromental temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Oba

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos. O experimento um objetivou avaliar a composição da carne do peito de frangos alimentados com dietas suplementadas com crômio (0, 400, 800 e 1.200 μg Cr kg-1 complexado a levedura, criados sob diferentes condições de temperatura (quente, termoneutra e fria. O experimento dois objetivou avaliar a qualidade da carne do peito de frangos alimentados com dietas suplementadas com crômio (0 e 400 μg Cr kg-1, criados nas mesmas condições do experimento um e desossados em diferentes períodos (0, 5 e 24 horas. Os resultados mostram que as aves criadas em ambiente frio apresentaram a carne com menor porcentagem de matéria mineral e crômio e maior intensidade de vermelho, enquanto as aves criadas em temperatura termoneutra apresentaram carne com menor porcentagem de umidade, e as aves criadas em temperatura quente, carne com maior luminosidade. Já a suplementação de crômio não proporcionou qualquer efeito na composição e na qualidade de carne, enquanto que o aumento no período de desossa proporcionou um menor comprimento de sarcômero, força de cisalhamento e intensidade de amarelo, porém uma maior luminosidade.Two experiments were conducted being the objective of the first experiment to evaluate the the composition of breast meat of broiler chicks fed with diets supplemented with chromium yeast (0; 400; 800and 1,200 μg Cr kg-1 reared in different environmental temperatures (hot, thermoneutral and cold. The second experiment aimed to evaluate the quality of breast meat of broiler chicks fed with diets supplemented with chromium yeast (0 and 400 μg Cr kg-1, reared in different environmental temperatures (hot, thermoneutral and cold and deboned in different periods (0, 5 and 24 hours. The results showed that birds reared in cold environmental temperature showed meat with lower mineral matter percentage and chromium and higher values of redness, whereas the birds reared in thermoneutral environment

  6. Role of the vertical pressure gradient in wave boundary layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Lindegård; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Vittori, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    By direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the flow in an oscillatory boundary layer, it is possible to obtain the pressure field. From the latter, the vertical pressure gradient is determined. Turbulent spots are detected by a criterion involving the vertical pressure gradient. The vertical pressure...... gradient is also treated as any other turbulence quantity like velocity fluctuations and statistical properties of the vertical pressure gradient are calculated from the DNS data. The presence of a vertical pressure gradient in the near bed region has significant implications for sediment transport....

  7. Expected sliding distance of vertical slit caisson breakwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyawn

    2017-06-01

    Evaluating the expected sliding distance of a vertical slit caisson breakwater is proposed. Time history for the wave load to a vertical slit caisson is made. It consists of two impulsive wave pressures followed by a smooth sinusoidal pressure. In the numerical analysis, the sliding distance for an attack of single wave was shown and the expected sliding distance during 50 years was also presented. Those results were compared with a vertical front caisson breakwater without slit. It was concluded that the sliding distance of a vertical slit caisson may be over-estimated if the wave pressure on the caisson is evaluated without considering vertical slit.

  8. Processing vertical size disparities in distinct depth planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Philip A; Howard, Ian P

    2012-08-17

    A textured surface appears slanted about a vertical axis when the image in one eye is horizontally enlarged relative to the image in the other eye. The surface appears slanted in the opposite direction when the same image is vertically enlarged. Two superimposed textured surfaces with different horizontal size disparities appear as two surfaces that differ in slant. Superimposed textured surfaces with equal and opposite vertical size disparities appear as a single frontal surface. The vertical disparities are averaged. We investigated whether vertical size disparities are averaged across two superimposed textured surfaces in different depth planes or whether they induce distinct slants in the two depth planes. In Experiment 1, two superimposed textured surfaces with different vertical size disparities were presented in two depth planes defined by horizontal disparity. The surfaces induced distinct slants when the horizontal disparity was more than ±5 arcmin. Thus, vertical size disparities are not averaged over surfaces with different horizontal disparities. In Experiment 2 we confirmed that vertical size disparities are processed in surfaces away from the horopter, so the results of Experiment 1 cannot be explained by the processing of vertical size disparities in a fixated surface only. Together, these results show that vertical size disparities are processed separately in distinct depth planes. The results also suggest that vertical size disparities are not used to register slant globally by their effect on the registration of binocular direction of gaze.

  9. Vertical Slot Convection: A linear study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAllister, A.; Steinolfson, R.; Tajima, T.

    1992-11-01

    The linear stability properties of fluid convection in a vertical slot were studied. We use a Fourier-Chebychev decomposition was used to set up the linear eigenvalue problems for the Vertical Slot Convection and Benard problems. The eigenvalues, neutral stability curves, and critical point values of the Grashof number, G, and the wavenumber were determined. Plots of the real and imaginary parts of the eigenvalues as functions of G and α are given for a wide range of the Prandtl number, Pr, and special note is made of the complex mode that becomes linearly unstable above Pr ∼ 12.5. A discussion comparing different special cases facilitates the physical understanding of the VSC equations, especially the interaction of the shear-flow and buoyancy induced physics. Making use of the real and imaginary eigenvalues and the phase properties of the eigenmodes, the eigenmodes were characterized. One finds that the mode structure becomes progressively simpler with increasing Pr, with the greatest complexity in the mid ranges where the terms in the heat equation are of roughly the same size

  10. Effective solidity in vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Colin M.; Leftwich, Megan C.

    2016-11-01

    The flow surrounding vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) is investigated using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). This is done in a low-speed wind tunnel with a scale model that closely matches geometric and dynamic properties tip-speed ratio and Reynolds number of a full size turbine. Previous results have shown a strong dependance on the tip-speed ratio on the wake structure of the spinning turbine. However, it is not clear whether this is a speed or solidity effect. To determine this, we have measured the wakes of three turbines with different chord-to-diameter ratios, and a solid cylinder. The flow is visualized at the horizontal mid-plane as well as the vertical mid-plane behind the turbine. The results are both ensemble averaged and phase averaged by syncing the PIV system with the rotation of the turbine. By keeping the Reynolds number constant with both chord and diameter, we can determine how each effects the wake structure. As these parameters are varied there are distinct changes in the mean flow of the wake. Additionally, by looking at the vorticity in the phase averaged profiles we can see structural changes to the overall wake pattern.

  11. The capillary interaction between two vertical cylinders

    KAUST Repository

    Cooray, Himantha

    2012-06-27

    Particles floating at the surface of a liquid generally deform the liquid surface. Minimizing the energetic cost of these deformations results in an inter-particle force which is usually attractive and causes floating particles to aggregate and form surface clusters. Here we present a numerical method for determining the three-dimensional meniscus around a pair of vertical circular cylinders. This involves the numerical solution of the fully nonlinear Laplace-Young equation using a mesh-free finite difference method. Inter-particle force-separation curves for pairs of vertical cylinders are then calculated for different radii and contact angles. These results are compared with previously published asymptotic and experimental results. For large inter-particle separations and conditions such that the meniscus slope remains small everywhere, good agreement is found between all three approaches (numerical, asymptotic and experimental). This is as expected since the asymptotic results were derived using the linearized Laplace-Young equation. For steeper menisci and smaller inter-particle separations, however, the numerical simulation resolves discrepancies between existing asymptotic and experimental results, demonstrating that this discrepancy was due to the nonlinearity of the Laplace-Young equation. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  12. Control of the vertical instability in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, E.A.; Lister, J.B.; Neilson, G.H.

    1989-05-01

    The problem of control of the vertical instability is formulated for a massless filamentary plasma. The massless approximation is justified by an examination of the role of inertia in the control problem. The system is solved using Laplace transform techniques. The linear system is studied to determine the stability boundaries. It is found that the system can be stabilized up to a critical decay index, which is predominantly a function of the geometry of the passive stabilizing shell. A second, smaller critical index, which is a function of the geometry of the control coils, determines the limit of stability in the absence of derivative gain in the control circuit. The system is also studied numerically in order to incorporate the non-linear effects of power supply dynamics. The power supply bandwidth requirement is determined by the open-loop growth rate of the instability. The system is studied for a number of control coil options which are available on the DIII-D tokamak. It is found that many of the coils will not provide adequate stabilization and that the use of inboard coils is advantageous in stabilizing the system up to the critical index. Experiments carried out on DIII-D confirm the appropriateness of the model. Using the results of the model study, we have stabilized DIII-D plasmas with decay indices up to 98% of the critical index. Measurement of the plasma vertical position is also discussed. (author) 27 figs., 6 refs

  13. Algebraic motion of vertically displacing plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Pfefferle, David; Hirvijoki, Eero

    2017-10-01

    The vertical displacement of tokamak plasmas is modelled during the non-linear phase by a free-moving current-carrying rod coupled to a set of fixed conducting wires and a cylindrical conducting shell. The models capture the leading term in a Taylor expansion of the Green's function for the interaction between the plasma column and the vacuum vessel. The plasma is assumed not to vary during the VDE such that it behaves as a rigid body. In the limit of perfectly conducting structures, the plasma is prevented from coming in contact with the wall due to steep effective potential barriers by the eddy currents, and will hence oscillate at Alfvénic frequencies about a given force-free position. In addition to damping oscillations, resistivity allows for the column to drift towards the vessel on slow flux penetration timescales. The initial exponential motion of the plasma, i.e. the resistive vertical instability, is succeeded by a non-linear sinking behaviour, that is shown analytically to be algebraic and decelerative. The acceleration of the plasma column often observed in experiments is thus conjectured to originate from an early sharing of toroidal current between the core, the halo plasma and the wall or from the thermal quench dynamics precipitating loss of plasma current

  14. Elastic kirchhoff migration for vertical seismic profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keho, T.H.; Wu, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Elastic Kirchhoff migration is implemented for the VSP recording geometry. The resulting migration formula requires measurement of the stress as well as the displacement. Since stress is not measured in a VSP, and in many cases the horizontal component of displacement is not measured, approximate migration formulas are given for these cases. The elastic migration formula for the case where only the vertical components are available, is the same as the acoustic migration formula, where the pressure data are replaced by the magnitudes of the elastic data as reconstructed from the vertical components, and the acoustic Green's functions are replaced with either the P or S wave elastic Green's functions. Two expressions for migration of two component displacement data are presented. In the first, the terms involving traction data are simply ignored. In the second, an improved backpropagation operator for the displacement field is obtained by replacing the traction data in the Kirchhoff integral by displacement data using Hooke's law. The migration expressions for the cases where two component data are available produce images which are less contaminated by artifacts than the migration images of one component data

  15. Vertical profile of 137Cs in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstić, D; Nikezić, D; Stevanović, N; Jelić, M

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, a vertical distribution of 137Cs in undisturbed soil was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Soil samples were taken from the surroundings of the city of Kragujevac in central Serbia during spring-summer of 2001. The sampling locations were chosen in such a way that the influence of soil characteristics on depth distribution of 137Cs in soil could be investigated. Activity of 137Cs in soil samples was measured using a HpGe detector and multi-channel analyzer. Based on vertical distribution of 137Cs in soil which was measured for each of 10 locations, the diffusion coefficient of 137Cs in soil was determined. In the next half-century, 137Cs will remain as the source of the exposure. Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident, and more than 30 years after nuclear probes, the largest activity of 137Cs is still within 10 cm of the upper layer of the soil. This result confirms that the penetration of 137Cs in soil is a very slow process. Experimental results were compared with two different Green functions and no major differences were found between them. While both functions fit experimental data well in the upper layer of soil, the fitting is not so good in deeper layers. Although the curves obtained by these two functions are very close to each other, there are some differences in the values of parameters acquired by them.

  16. High-performance vertical organic transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemann, Hans; Günther, Alrun A; Leo, Karl; Lüssem, Björn

    2013-11-11

    Vertical organic thin-film transistors (VOTFTs) are promising devices to overcome the transconductance and cut-off frequency restrictions of horizontal organic thin-film transistors. The basic physical mechanisms of VOTFT operation, however, are not well understood and VOTFTs often require complex patterning techniques using self-assembly processes which impedes a future large-area production. In this contribution, high-performance vertical organic transistors comprising pentacene for p-type operation and C60 for n-type operation are presented. The static current-voltage behavior as well as the fundamental scaling laws of such transistors are studied, disclosing a remarkable transistor operation with a behavior limited by injection of charge carriers. The transistors are manufactured by photolithography, in contrast to other VOTFT concepts using self-assembled source electrodes. Fluorinated photoresist and solvent compounds allow for photolithographical patterning directly and strongly onto the organic materials, simplifying the fabrication protocol and making VOTFTs a prospective candidate for future high-performance applications of organic transistors. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Vertical transmission of macular telangiectasia type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaere, Lien; Spielberg, Leigh; Leys, Anita M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report vertical transmission of macular telangiectasia type 2 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in 3 families. In this retrospective interventional case series, the charts of patients with inherited macular telangiectasia type 2 were reviewed. A large spectrum of presentations of macular telangiectasia type 2 was observed and has been studied with different techniques including best-corrected visual acuity, microperimetry, confocal blue reflectance fundus autofluorescence, fluorescein angiography, and time domain and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Vertical transmission of macular telangiectasia type 2 and associated type 2 diabetes mellitus is described in 3 families. Symptomatic as well as asymptomatic eyes with macular telangiectasia type 2 were identified. In 2 families, a mother and son experienced visual loss and were diagnosed with macular telangiectasia type 2. All 4 patients had type 2 diabetes. Diabetic retinopathy was observed in one mother and her son. In the third family, the index patient was diagnosed macular telangiectasia type 2 after complaints of metamorphopsia. She and her family members had type 2 diabetes mellitus, and further screening of her family revealed familial macular telangiectasia type 2. None of the patients were treated for macular telangiectasia type 2. Macular telangiectasia type 2 may be more common than previously assumed, as vision can remain preserved and patients may go undiagnosed. Screening of family members is indicated, and detection of mild anomalies is possible using fundus autofluorescence and spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

  18. Fusion reactor horizontal versus vertical maintenance approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charruyer, Ph.; Djerassi, H.; Leger, D.; Maupou, M.; Rouillard, J.; Salpietro, E.; Holloway, C.; Suppan, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper concerns the comparison of horizontal versus vertical maintenance options of internal components (blanket and segment) of fusion reactors NET (Next European Torus) and INTOR Design. The described mechanical options are taken to ensure the handling of internals with the required precision, taking into account the problems raised by the safety and confinement requirements. Handling is obviously performed remotely. The option comparisons are performed according to the criteria of feasibility, building size, duration of maintenance operations, safety, flexibility, availability and cost. The first conclusions point on that the vertical handling option offers advantages, as regards the ease of handling and confinement possibilities. From the building size point of view, the two solutions are almost equivalent, while other criteria do not provide a basis for choice. It is emphasized that the confinement option C.T.U. (Containment Transfer Unit) or T.I.C. (Tight Intermediate Confinement) should be the major factor in determining the best options. In additions, a cost comparative analysis emphasizes the best cost/benefit ratio for the different options studied

  19. Determinants of Arbovirus Vertical Transmission in Mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Lequime

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vertical transmission (VT and horizontal transmission (HT of pathogens refer to parental and non-parental chains of host-to-host transmission. Combining HT with VT enlarges considerably the range of ecological conditions in which a pathogen can persist, but the factors governing the relative frequency of each transmission mode are poorly understood for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission. Elucidating these factors is particularly important for understanding the epidemiology of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses of public health significance. Arboviruses are primarily maintained by HT between arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts in nature, but are occasionally transmitted vertically in the vector population from an infected female to her offspring, which is a proposed maintenance mechanism during adverse conditions for HT. Here, we review over a century of published primary literature on natural and experimental VT, which we previously assembled into large databases, to identify biological factors associated with the efficiency of arbovirus VT in mosquito vectors. Using a robust statistical framework, we highlight a suite of environmental, taxonomic, and physiological predictors of arbovirus VT. These novel insights contribute to refine our understanding of strategies employed by arboviruses to persist in the environment and cause substantial public health concern. They also provide hypotheses on the biological processes underlying the relative VT frequency for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission that can be tested empirically.

  20. Clinical Relevance of <em>CDH1em> and <em>CDH13em> DNA-Methylation in Serum of Cervical Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther K. Bonn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the DNA-methylation status of <em>E>-cadherin (<em>CDH1em> and <em>H>-cadherin (<em>CDH13em> in serum samples of cervical cancer patients and control patients with no malignant diseases and to evaluate the clinical utility of these markers. DNA-methylation status of <em>CDH1em> and <em>CDH13em> was analyzed by means of MethyLight-technology in serum samples from 49 cervical cancer patients and 40 patients with diseases other than cancer. To compare this methylation analysis with another technique, we analyzed the samples with a denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC PCR-method. The specificity and sensitivity of <em>CDH1em> DNA-methylation measured by MethyLight was 75% and 55%, and for <em>CDH13em> DNA-methylation 95% and 10%. We identified a specificity of 92.5% and a sensitivity of only 27% for the <em>CDH1em> DHPLC-PCR analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that serum <em>CDH1em> methylation-positive patients had a 7.8-fold risk for death (95% CI: 2.2–27.7; <em>p> = 0.001 and a 92.8-fold risk for relapse (95% CI: 3.9–2207.1; <em>p> = 0.005. We concluded that the serological detection of <em>CDH1em> and <em>CDH13em> DNA-hypermethylation is not an ideal diagnostic tool due to low diagnostic specificity and sensitivity. However, it was validated that <em>CDH1em> methylation analysis in serum samples may be of potential use as a prognostic marker for cervical cancer patients.

  1. Fumigant Antifungal Activity of Myrtaceae Essential Oils and Constituents from <em>Leptospermum petersoniiem> against Three <em>Aspergillus> Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Kwon Park

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Commercial plant essential oils obtained from 11 Myrtaceae plant species were tested for their fumigant antifungal activity against <em>Aspergillus ochraceusem>, <em>A. flavusem>, and <em>A. nigerem>. Essential oils extracted from<em> em>Leptospermum> <em>petersonii> at air concentrations of 56 × 10−3 mg/mL and 28 × 10−3 mg/mL completely inhibited the growth of the three <em>Aspergillus> species. However, at an air concentration of 14 × 10−3 mg/mL, inhibition rates of <em>L. petersoniiem> essential oils were reduced to 20.2% and 18.8% in the case of <em>A. flavusem> and <em>A. nigerem>, respectively. The other Myrtaceae essential oils (56 × 10−3 mg/mL only weakly inhibited the fungi or had no detectable affect. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified 16 compounds in <em>L. petersoniiem>> em>essential> em>oil.> em>The antifungal activity of the identified compounds was tested individually by using standard or synthesized compounds. Of these, neral and geranial inhibited growth by 100%, at an air concentration of 56 × 10−3 mg/mL, whereas the activity of citronellol was somewhat lover (80%. The other compounds exhibited only moderate or weak antifungal activity. The antifungal activities of blends of constituents identified in <em>L. petersoniiem> oil indicated that neral and geranial were the major contributors to the fumigant and antifungal activities.

  2. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance.

  3. Assessment of Genetic Fidelity in <em>Rauvolfia em>s>erpentina em>Plantlets Grown from Synthetic (Encapsulated Seeds Following <em>in Vitroem> Storage at 4 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Anis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method was developed for plant regeneration and establishment from alginate encapsulated synthetic seeds of <em>Rauvolfia serpentinaem>. Synthetic seeds were produced using <em>in vitroem> proliferated microshoots upon complexation of 3% sodium alginate prepared in Llyod and McCown woody plant medium (WPM and 100 mM calcium chloride. Re-growth ability of encapsulated nodal segments was evaluated after storage at 4 °C for 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks and compared with non-encapsulated buds. Effects of different media <em>viz>; Murashige and Skoog medium; Lloyd and McCown woody Plant medium, Gamborg’s B5 medium and Schenk and Hildebrandt medium was also investigated for conversion into plantlets. The maximum frequency of conversion into plantlets from encapsulated nodal segments stored at 4 °C for 4 weeks was achieved on woody plant medium supplement with 5.0 μM BA and 1.0 μM NAA. Rooting in plantlets was achieved in half-strength Murashige and Skoog liquid medium containing 0.5 μM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA on filter paper bridges. Plantlets obtained from stored synseeds were hardened, established successfully <em>ex vitroem> and were morphologically similar to each other as well as their mother plant. The genetic fidelity of <em>Rauvolfia em>clones raised from synthetic seeds following four weeks of storage at 4 °C were assessed by using random amplified polymorphic<em> em>DNA (RAPD and inter-simple sequence repeat<em> em>(ISSR markers. All the RAPD and ISSR profiles from generated plantlets were monomorphic and comparable<em> em>to the mother plant, which confirms the genetic<em> em>stability among the clones. This synseed protocol could be useful for establishing a particular system for conservation, short-term storage and production of genetically identical and stable plants before it is released for commercial purposes.

  4. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two

  5. Ruas e a ocupação vertical recente: labirintos murados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Beatriz Carreri Mauá

    Full Text Available Resumo No Brasil, o processo de verticalização nas cidades é cada vez mais intenso e, por conseguinte, verifica-se um grande número de lançamentos imobiliários em torres altas. A partir do exame das implantações de edifícios residenciais recentes, pontua-se a relação insuficiente entre esses espaços privados com as ruas nas quais estão inseridos. Essas construções ocupam grandes lotes, possuem fechamentos extensos e não evidenciam nenhum cuidado quanto à sua colocação no espaço urbano. Este estudo pretende abordar a qualidade da rua em uma conjuntura de ocupação vertical contemporânea. O estudo de caso abrange uma rua no bairro Gleba Palhano, em Londrina, PR, que apresenta uma concentração de edifícios verticais e em processo de consolidação. A fundamentação teórica possibilitou a extração de atributos analíticos dos espaços públicos e o exame do estudo de caso. O resultado obtido aponta prejuízos desse contexto no cotidiano dos cidadãos, uma vez que o espaço público não é utilizado como lugar de interação e troca social. O artigo conclui afirmando ser indispensável a retificação dessa forma de produção, objetivando a concepção de ambientes de maior qualidade.

  6. Classe social: conceitos e esquemas operacionais em pesquisa em saude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Barradas Barata

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Discute-se a utilização do conceito de classe em pesquisas em saúde, as diferentes abordagens sociológicas de estratificação social e de estrutura de classes, o potencial explicativo do conceito em estudos de determinação social e desigualdades em saúde, os modelos de operacionalização elaborados para uso em pesquisas sociológicas, demográficas ou de saúde e os limites e possibilidades desses modelos. Foram destacados quatro modelos de operacionalização: de Singer para estudo da distribuição de renda no Brasil, adaptado por Barros para uso em pesquisas epidemiológicas; de Bronfman & Tuirán para o censo demográfico mexicano, adaptado por Lombardi et al para pesquisas epidemiológicas; de Goldthorpe para estudos socioeconômicos ingleses, adaptado pela Sociedade Espanhola de Epidemiologia; e o modelo de Wright para pesquisa em sociologia e ciência política, também usado em inquéritos populacionais em saúde. Em conclusão, conceitualmente cada um dos modelos apresentados é coerente com a concepção teórica que os embasam, mas não há como optar por qualquer deles, descartando os demais.

  7. Caracterização do processo de rigor mortis em músculos de cordeiros da raça Santa Inês e F1 Santa Inês x Dorper Characterization of rigor mortis process of muscles lamb of Santa Inês breed and F1 Santa Inês x Dorper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael dos Santos Costa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento do processo de rigor mortis nas carcaças dos animais de açougue influenciam diretamente a qualidade da carne. As características do processo de rigor mortis em carcaça de ovinos durante o processamento industrial para obtenção de carcaças resfriadas já foram estudadas em outros países e no Brasil em ovinos Santa Inês, mas ainda não estabelecidas em ovinos F1 Santa Inês x Dorper. Assim, objetivou-se neste trabalho caracterizar o processo de rigor mortis dos músculos Semitendinosus e Triceps brachii durante o resfriamento industrial e maciez da carne, em 10 carcaças ovinas. Foram escolhidos aleatoriamente 10 ovinos machos inteiros, sendo seis da raça Santa Inês e quatro F1 Santa Inês x Dorper, abatidos no Matadouro Frigorífico de Campos - Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro. Após a sangria, analisou-se temperatura, pH, comprimento de sarcômero em diferentes intervalos de tempo (4h; 6h; 8h; 10h; 12h; e 24h e força de cisalhamento ou maciez às 48h, do músculo Semitendinosus. Paralelamente, foi realizada a correlação entre a análise sensorial e a análise instrumental desse músculo. A temperatura da câmara fria variou de 12,2°C (4h a -0,5°C (24h e a temperatura média das carcaças foi de 26,80°C e -0,20°C, respectivamente. O pH médio inicial do músculo Semitendinosus foi de 6,62 e o final 5,64 enquanto no músculo T. brachii foi de 6,50 (4h e 5,68 (24h. A contração máxima do sarcômero do músculo Semitendinosus ocorreu na 12ªh(1,50mm após a sangria e no músculo Triceps brachii, no intervalo entre a 10ªh e 24ªh (1,53 a 1,57mm. No músculo Semitendinosus a força de cisalhamento ou maciez foi semelhante entre cordeiros da raça Santa Inês e F1 Santa Inês x Dorper, demonstrando que o grupo genético não influencia na maciez da carne. O painel sensorial confirmou os resultados obtidos na análise instrumental. Na correlação da análise instrumental (força de cisalhamento com a an

  8. Efecto de extractos vegetales de <em>Polygonum hydropiperoidesem>, <em>Solanum nigrumem> y <em>Calliandra pittieriem> sobre el gusano cogollero (<em>Spodoptera frugiperdaem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizarazo H. Karol

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El gusano cogollero <em>Spodoptera frugiperdaem> es una de las plagas que más afectan los cultivos en la región de Sumapaz (Cundinamarca, Colombia. En la actualidad se controla principalmente aplicando productos de síntesis química, sin embargo la aplicación de extractos vegetales surge como una alternativa de menor impacto sobre el ambiente. Este control se emplea debido a que las plantas contienen metabolitos secundarios que pueden inhibir el desarrollo de los insectos. Por tal motivo, la presente investigación evaluó el efecto insecticida y antialimentario de extractos vegetales de barbasco <em>Polygonum hydropiperoidesem> (Polygonaceae, carbonero <em>Calliandra pittieriem> (Mimosaceae y hierba mora <em>Solanum nigrumem> (Solanaceae sobre larvas de <em>S. frugiperdaem> biotipo maíz. Se estableció una cría masiva del insecto en el laboratorio utilizando una dieta natural con hojas de maíz. Posteriormente se obtuvieron extractos vegetales utilizando solventes de alta polaridad (agua y etanol y media polaridad (diclorometano los cuales se aplicaron sobre las larvas de segundo instar. Los resultados más destacados se presentaron con extractos de <em>P. hydropiperoidesem>, obtenidos con diclorometano en sus diferentes dosis, con los cuales se alcanzó una mortalidad de 100% 12 días después de la aplicación y un efecto antialimentario representado por un consumo de follaje de maíz inferior al 4%, efectos similares a los del testigo comercial (Clorpiriphos.

  9. Estimating tropical vertical motion profile shapes from satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, L. E.; Handlos, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The vertical structure of tropical deep convection strongly influences interactions with larger scale circulations and climate. This research focuses on investigating this vertical structure and its relationship with mesoscale tropical weather states. We test the hypothesis that vertical motion shape varies in association with weather state type. We estimate mean state vertical motion profile shapes for six tropical weather states defined using cloud top pressure and optical depth properties from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project. The relationship between vertical motion and the dry static energy budget are utilized to set up a regression analysis that empirically determines two modes of variability in vertical motion from reanalysis data. We use these empirically determined modes, this relationship and surface convergence to estimate vertical motion profile shape from observations of satellite retrievals of rainfall and surface convergence. We find that vertical motion profile shapes vary systematically between different tropical weather states. The "isolated systems" regime exhibits a more ''bottom-heavy'' profile shape compared to the convective/thick cirrus and vigorous deep convective regimes, with maximum upward vertical motion occurring in the lower troposphere rather than the middle to upper troposphere. The variability we observe with our method does not coincide with that expected based on conventional ideas about how stratiform rain fraction and vertical motion are related.

  10. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  11. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008). Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction. Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  12. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock.

  13. Lepton flavor violation with displaced vertices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Heeck

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available If light new physics with lepton-flavor-violating couplings exists, the prime discovery channel might not be ℓ→ℓ′γ but rather ℓ→ℓ′X, where the new boson X could be an axion, majoron, familon or Z′ gauge boson. The most conservative bound then comes from ℓ→ℓ′+inv, but if the on-shell X can decay back into leptons or photons, displaced-vertex searches could give much better limits. We show that only a narrow region in parameter space allows for displaced vertices in muon decays, μ→eX,X→γγ,ee, whereas tauon decays can have much more interesting signatures.

  14. Aerodynamic drag reduction by vertical splitter plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliéron, Patrick; Kourta, Azeddine

    2010-01-01

    The capacity of vertical splitter plates placed at the front or the rear of a simplified car geometry to reduce drag, with and without skew angle, is investigated for Reynolds numbers between 1.0 × 106 and 1.6 × 106. The geometry used is a simplified geometry to represent estate-type vehicles, for the rear section, and MPV-type vehicle. Drag reductions of nearly 28% were obtained for a zero skew angle with splitter plates placed at the front of models of MPV or utility vehicles. The results demonstrate the advantage of adapting the position and orientation of the splitter plates in the presence of a lateral wind. All these results confirm the advantage of this type of solution, and suggest that this expertise should be used in the automotive field to reduce consumption and improve dynamic stability of road vehicles.

  15. Aerodynamic drag reduction by vertical splitter plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillieron, Patrick [Renault Group, Research Division, Fluid Mechanics and Aerodynamics, Guyancourt (France); Kourta, Azeddine [Polytech' Orleans, Institut PRISME, ESA, Orleans (France)

    2010-01-15

    The capacity of vertical splitter plates placed at the front or the rear of a simplified car geometry to reduce drag, with and without skew angle, is investigated for Reynolds numbers between 1.0 x 10{sup 6} and 1.6 x 10{sup 6}. The geometry used is a simplified geometry to represent estate-type vehicles, for the rear section, and MPV-type vehicle. Drag reductions of nearly 28% were obtained for a zero skew angle with splitter plates placed at the front of models of MPV or utility vehicles. The results demonstrate the advantage of adapting the position and orientation of the splitter plates in the presence of a lateral wind. All these results confirm the advantage of this type of solution, and suggest that this expertise should be used in the automotive field to reduce consumption and improve dynamic stability of road vehicles. (orig.)

  16. Vertically aligned BCN nanotubes with high capacitance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyyamperumal, Eswaramoorthi; Wang, Shuangyin; Dai, Liming

    2012-06-26

    Using a chemical vapor deposition method, we have synthesized vertically aligned BCN nanotubes (VA-BCNs) on a Ni-Fe-coated SiO(2)/Si substrate from a melamine diborate precursor. The effects of pyrolysis conditions on the morphology and thermal property of grown nanotubes, as well as the nanostructure and composition of an individual BCN nanotube, were systematically studied. It was found that nitrogen atoms are bonded to carbons in both graphitic and pyridinic forms and that the resultant VA-BCNs grown at 1000 °C show the highest specific capacitance (321.0 F/g) with an excellent rate capability and high durability with respect to nonaligned BCN (167.3 F/g) and undoped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (117.3 F/g) due to synergetic effects arising from the combined co-doping of B and N in CNTs and the well-aligned nanotube structure.

  17. Functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hooijdonk, Eloise; Bittencourt, Carla; Snyders, Rony; Colomer, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses and summarizes recent studies on the functionalization of carbon nanotubes oriented perpendicularly to their substrate, so-called vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs). The intrinsic properties of individual nanotubes make the VA-CNTs ideal candidates for integration in a wide range of devices, and many potential applications have been envisaged. These applications can benefit from the unidirectional alignment of the nanotubes, the large surface area, the high carbon purity, the outstanding electrical conductivity, and the uniformly long length. However, practical uses of VA-CNTs are limited by their surface characteristics, which must be often modified in order to meet the specificity of each particular application. The proposed approaches are based on the chemical modifications of the surface by functionalization (grafting of functional chemical groups, decoration with metal particles or wrapping of polymers) to bring new properties or to improve the interactions between the VA-CNTs and their environment while maintaining the alignment of CNTs.

  18. The ergonomics of vertical turret lathe operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, F M; Corlett, E N

    1970-12-01

    A study of the work load of 14 vertical turret lathe operators engaged on different work tasks in two factories is reported. For eight of these workers continuous heart rate recordings were made throughout the day. It was shown that in four cases improved technology was unlikely to lead to higher output and certain aspects of posture and equipment manipulation were major contributors to the limitations on increased output. The role of the work-rest schedule in increasing work loads was also demonstrated. Improvements in technology and methods to reduce the extent of certain work loads to enable heavy work to be done in shorter periods followed by light work or rest periods are given as means to modify and improve the output of these machines. Finally, the direction for the development of a predictive model for man-machine matching is introduced.

  19. The Vertical Profile of Ocean Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, R. M.; Nikurashin, M.; McDougall, T. J.; Mashayek, A.

    2014-12-01

    The upwelling of bottom waters through density surfaces in the deep ocean is not possible unless the sloping nature of the sea floor is taken into account. The bottom--intensified mixing arising from interaction of internal tides and geostrophic motions with bottom topography implies that mixing is a decreasing function of height in the deep ocean. This would further imply that the diapycnal motion in the deep ocean is downward, not upwards as is required by continuity. This conundrum regarding ocean mixing and upwelling in the deep ocean will be resolved by appealing to the fact that the ocean does not have vertical side walls. Implications of the conundrum for the representation of ocean mixing in climate models will be discussed.

  20. Solar heat gain through vertical cylindrical glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, M.A.; Kaseb, S.; El-Refaie, M.F. [Cairo Univ., Mechanical Power Engineering Dept., Cairo (Egypt)

    1999-10-01

    Spaces with nonplanar glazed envelopes are frequently encountered in contemporary buildings. Such spaces represent a problem when calculating the solar heat gain in the course of estimating the cooling or heating load; and hence, sizing of cooling or heating systems. The calculation, using the information currently available in the literature, is tedious and/or approximate. In the present work, the computational procedure for evaluating the solar heat gain to a space having a vertical cylindrical glass envelope is established, and, a computer program is coded to carry out the necessary computations and yield the results in a detailed usable form. The program is versatile and allows for the arbitrary variation of all pertinent parameters. (Author)

  1. Solar heat gain through vertical cylindrical glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, M.A.; Kaseb, S.; El-Refaie, M.F.

    1999-01-01

    Spaces with nonplanar glazed envelopes are frequently encountered in contemporary buildings. Such spaces represent a problem when calculating the solar heat gain in the course of estimating the cooling or heating load; and hence, sizing of cooling or heating systems. The calculation, using the information currently available in the literature, is tedious and/or approximate. In the present work, the computational procedure for evaluating the solar heat gain to a space having a vertical cylindrical glass envelope is established, and, a computer program is coded to carry out the necessary computations and yield the results in a detailed usable form. The program is versatile and allows for the arbitrary variation of all pertinent parameters. (Author)

  2. Solar heat gain through vertical cylindrical glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, M.A.; Kaseb, S.; El-Refaie, M.F. [Cairo Univ., Mechanical Power Engineering Dept., Cairo (Egypt)

    1999-07-01

    Spaces with nonplanar glazed envelopes are frequently encountered in contemporary buildings. Such spaces represent a problem when calculating the solar heat gain in the course of estimating the cooling or heating load; and hence, sizing of cooling or heating systems. The calculation, using the information currently available in the literature, is tedious and/or approximate. In the present work, the computational procedure for evaluating the solar heat gain to a space having a vertical cylindrical glass envelope is established, and, a computer program is coded to carry out the necessary computations and yield the results in a detailed usable form. The program is versatile and allows for the arbitrary variation of all pertinent parameters. (Author)

  3. Vertical pellet injection in FTU discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannozzi, E.; Annibaldi, S.V.; Buratti, P.

    2005-01-01

    Central fuelling and pellet enhanced performance modes have been obtained with pellets injected vertically from the high field side on the FTU tokamak. Four phases have been recognized: ablation of the pellets, drifting plasmoids, MHD modes which take the density to the centre of the discharge and finally an anomalous drift which further increases the density peaking. Pellet ablation data have been compared with values from a pellet ablation and deposition code. Comparison between 0.8 and 1.1 MA discharges at a high magnetic field (B T = 7 T) has been carried out: a higher performance has been obtained with the latter due to the higher target density and the larger inversion radius which would increase the effects of m = 1 modes to take the density to the plasma centre

  4. Vertical integration and optimal reimbursement policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afendulis, Christopher C; Kessler, Daniel P

    2011-09-01

    Health care providers may vertically integrate not only to facilitate coordination of care, but also for strategic reasons that may not be in patients' best interests. Optimal Medicare reimbursement policy depends upon the extent to which each of these explanations is correct. To investigate, we compare the consequences of the 1997 adoption of prospective payment for skilled nursing facilities (SNF PPS) in geographic areas with high versus low levels of hospital/SNF integration. We find that SNF PPS decreased spending more in high integration areas, with no measurable consequences for patient health outcomes. Our findings suggest that integrated providers should face higher-powered reimbursement incentives, i.e., less cost-sharing. More generally, we conclude that purchasers of health services (and other services subject to agency problems) should consider the organizational form of their suppliers when choosing a reimbursement mechanism.

  5. Vertical distribution of radionuclides in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Slivka, J.; Krmar, M.; Chonkic, Lj.; Veskovic, M.; Hadzhic, V.

    1990-01-01

    Pedological profiles were opened at selected representative locations on different geomorphic types and in certain soil layers down to 3 m depth. The mechanical composition, hydro physical and chemical features were studied. The vertical distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides and 137 Cs was analyzed during 1988 and 1989. The parameter alpha of the exponential dependence of activity concentration vs. depth were calculated for the three soil types, as well as the activity concentration of 137 Cs at depths of 1 and 3 m. The extent of 137 Cs migration was evaluated at these depths and it is shown that the coefficient α is proportional to the reciprocal of the time elapsed from the surface contamination. (author)

  6. GAUGING THE VERTICAL SPECIALIZATION IN EU TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIA MONICA OEHLER-SINCAI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, we review the mechanisms and determinants of vertical specialization (VS, as this has gradually become the dominant characteristic of international trade. Second, we underline that there is a rich literature regarding VS in EU trade, at aggregate and individual levels and research is advancing together with the instruments used to measure trade in value added. Third, our investigation brings to the forefront a classification of EU countries according to their GVC participation index, taking into consideration both upstream and downstream links. As a conclusion, the VS analyses help us better understand the interconnectedness among countries and industries by means of foreign direct investment, trade, labour migration and technology transfer.

  7. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System (2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Ishikawa, K.

    2012-12-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have carried out two field surveys in 2011. One is a 3D survey with a boomer for a high-resolution surface source and the other one for an actual field survey in the Izena Cauldron an active hydrothermal area in the Okinawa Trough. Through these surveys, we have confirmed that the

  8. Vertical profiles of BC direct radiative effect over Italy: high vertical resolution data and atmospheric feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Močnik, Griša; Ferrero, Luca; Castelli, Mariapina; Ferrini, Barbara S.; Moscatelli, Marco; Grazia Perrone, Maria; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Rovelli, Grazia; D'Angelo, Luca; Moroni, Beatrice; Scardazza, Francesco; Bolzacchini, Ezio; Petitta, Marcello; Cappelletti, David

    2016-04-01

    Black carbon (BC), and its vertical distribution, affects the climate. Global measurements of BC vertical profiles are lacking to support climate change research. To fill this gap, a campaign was conducted over three Italian basin valleys, Terni Valley (Appennines), Po Valley and Passiria Valley (Alps), to characterize the impact of BC on the radiative budget under similar orographic conditions. 120 vertical profiles were measured in winter 2010. The BC vertical profiles, together with aerosol size distribution, aerosol chemistry and meteorological parameters, have been determined using a tethered balloon-based platform equipped with: a micro-Aethalometer AE51 (Magee Scientific), a 1.107 Grimm OPC (0.25-32 μm, 31 size classes), a cascade impactor (Siuotas SKC), and a meteorological station (LSI-Lastem). The aerosol chemical composition was determined from collected PM2.5 samples. The aerosol absorption along the vertical profiles was measured and optical properties calculated using the Mie theory applied to the aerosol size distribution. The aerosol optical properties were validated with AERONET data and then used as inputs to the radiative transfer model libRadtran. Vertical profiles of the aerosol direct radiative effect, the related atmospheric absorption and the heating rate were calculated. Vertical profile measurements revealed some common behaviors over the studied basin valleys. From below the mixing height to above it, a marked concentration drop was found for both BC (from -48.4±5.3% up to -69.1±5.5%) and aerosol number concentration (from -23.9±4.3% up to -46.5±7.3%). These features reflected on the optical properties of the aerosol. Absorption and scattering coefficients decreased from below the MH to above it (babs from -47.6±2.5% up to -71.3±3.0% and bsca from -23.5±0.8% up to -61.2±3.1%, respectively). Consequently, the Single Scattering Albedo increased above the MH (from +4.9±2.2% to +7.4±1.0%). The highest aerosol absorption was

  9. Poesia em Revista: Oroboro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Alves Gouveia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-784x.2008v8n12p38 A serpente que engole a si mesma é uma figura curiosa do simbolismo de um processo de contínua transformação, de um movimento circular incessante, rumo à infinitude, sem traços de fim ou começo. Oroboro é um nome de origem grega que remete a esta serpente que se morde e penetra em si mesma ao engolir o próprio rabo. Mas também é o nome da revista de cultura editada em Curitiba pelos artistas-editores Ricardo Corona e Eliana Borges.

  10. Hipervitaminose D em animais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo V. Peixoto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Por meio de revisão da literatura, são apresentados dados referentes ao metabolismo da vitamina D, bem como aos principais aspectos toxicológicos, clínicos, bioquímicos, macroscópicos, microscópicos, ultraestruturais, imuno-histoquímicos e radiográficos de animais intoxicados natural e experimentalmente por essa vitamina, em diferentes espécies. Este estudo objetiva demonstrar a existência de muitas lacunas no conhecimento sobre mineralização fisiológica e patológica, em especial na mediação hormonal do fenômeno, bem como alertar para os riscos de ocorrência dessa intoxicação.

  11. A democracia em Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Zaldívar, Julio César Guanche

    2011-01-01

    O triunfo revolucionário de 1959 consagrou em Cuba um novo conceito de democracia, com o intuito de garantir o acesso à vida política ativa de grandes setores da população, antes excluídos. Para isso, foi desenvolvida uma política de inclusão social com caráter universal. A prática política popular deixou as riquezas do país em mãos da população carente e gerou uma grande mobilidade social, fato que foi central para o aumento da participação popular. O contexto de agressão imperialista e o pr...

  12. Tuberculose Infantil em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Carapau, João

    2014-01-01

    Dos números recentemente publicados pela Direcção Geral da Saúde / Núcleo de Tuberculose e Doenças Respiratórias relativos aos anos de 1992 e 1993 e pelo Instituto Nacional de Estatística relativos a 1994, conclui-se que os casos de Tuberculose (TB) notificados pouco têm decrescido nos últimos 15 anos: descida média anual de 6,3% para os casos em geral e 14% para os menores de 15 anos; a taxa global de incidência apurada em 1994 voltou a subir — 51,1 (52,4 no Continente). Para o autor a me...

  13. Universidade em ruinas?

    OpenAIRE

    Katuta, Ângela Massumi; UEL/CCE/Departamento de Geociências

    2010-01-01

    A Universidade, desde as suas origens no século XII, sempre esteve atrelada a instituições e setores hegemônicos da sociedade. Segundo Trindade (2000), a sua “invenção” ocorreu em plena Idade Média na Europa, sob a proteção da Igreja romana, sendo que as Universidades de Bolonha (1108) e Paris (1211) foram as primeiras a serem criadas 

  14. Produção de frutos e estolhos do morangueiro em diferentes sistemas de cultivo em ambiente protegido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes-Júnior Flavio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo comparar a produção de frutos e de estolhos do morangueiro (Fragariaxananassa Duch. cv. Campinas IAC-2712, em função de três sistemas de condução em ambiente protegido (solo, hidropônico-NFT e hidroponia em casca de arroz carbonizada em colunas verticais. O experimento foi realizado no período de junho de 2000 a fevereiro de 2001, na Estação Experimental de Agronomia de Jundiaí (latitude: 23:06'S, longitude: 46:55'W, altitude média: 715 m, clima Cwa, do Instituto Agronômico, seguindo-se o delineamento de parcelas subdivididas com três repetições, em casa de vegetação modelo semi-arco com abertura zenital superior. Nos dois sistemas hidropônicos foram usadas duas composições de soluções nutritivas, respectivamente, para a fase de crescimento vegetativo e para a produção de frutos. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que no sistema vertical, embora as produções de frutos e de estolhos por planta tenham sido menores que nos demais sistemas estudados, há possibilidade de melhor aproveitamento interno do ambiente protegido, com reflexos positivos no aumento do rendimento por área e maior facilidade de manejo da cultura, incluindo as operações de transplante, limpeza das plantas e colheitas de frutos e remoção de estolhos. Essas vantagens também se aplicam ao sistema hidropônico-NFT mesmo não tendo apresentado diferenças de produção em relação ao cultivo convencional.

  15. Vertical and horizontal distribution of pollination systems in cerrado fragments of central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Quintas Martins

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In fragments of the cerrado, we determined the frequency of pollination systems and analyzed their spatial distribution. We placed 38 transects, sampling 2,280 individuals and 121 species. As expected in Neotropical regions, bee-pollination was the most frequent pollination system. We found a decrease in the frequency of plants pollinated by beetles towards the fragment interior. Similarly, we found significant variation in relation to height just for the bats; there was an increase in the frequency of plants pollinated by bats towards the higher heights. In general, we found no horizontal and vertical variation in the pollination systems, probably as consequence of the more open physiognomy of the cerrado vegetation.As principais pressões seletivas nas estratégias de polinização originam principalmente do ambiente em que plantas ocorrem, como subdossel, dossel, borda ou interior de um fragmento. Diferentes condições ambientais aumentam as diferenças entre os nichos ecológicos e podem implicar diferenças nas proporções dos sistemas de polinização. Em fragmentos de cerrado, determinamos a freqüência dos sistemas de polinização e analisamos sua distribuição espacial. Lançamos 38 transecções aleatoriamente, amostrando 2.280 indivíduos e 121 espécies. Como esperado para regiões neotropicais, a polinização por abelhas foi o sistema de polinização mais freqüente. Encontramos uma diminuição na freqüência de plantas polinizadas por besouros em direção ao interior do fragmento. De modo similar, encontramos uma variação significativa em relação à altura somente para os morcegos, havendo um aumento na freqüência de plantas em direção a alturas mais altas. Em geral, não encontramos variações horizontais e verticais nos sistemas de polinização, provavelmente, como conseqüência da fisionomia mais aberta de cerrado.

  16. Decoration of vertical graphene with aerosol nanoparticles for gas sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Shumao; Guo, Xiaoru; Ren, Ren; Zhou, Guihua; Chen, Junhong

    2015-01-01

    A facile method was demonstrated to decorate aerosol Ag nanoparticles onto vertical graphene surfaces using a mini-arc plasma reactor. The vertical graphene was directly grown on a sensor electrode using a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method. The aerosol Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple vapor condensation process using a mini-arc plasma source. Then, the nanoparticles were assembled on the surface of vertical graphene through the assistance of an electric field. Based on our observation, nonagglomerated Ag nanoparticles formed in the gas phase and were assembled onto vertical graphene sheets. Nanohybrids of Ag nanoparticle-decorated vertical graphene were characterized for ammonia gas detection at room temperature. The vertical graphene served as the conductance channel, and the conductance change upon exposure to ammonia was used as the sensing signal. The sensing results show that Ag nanoparticles significantly improve the sensitivity, response time, and recovery time of the sensor. (paper)

  17. Colagem ortodôntica em esmalte com presença ou ausência de contaminação salivar: é necessário o uso de adesivo auto-condicionante ou de adesivo hidrofílico? Orthodontic bonding in dry and saliva contaminated enamel: is a self-etching primer or a moisture-insensitive primer necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Becher Rosa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento da colagem ortodôntica de um adesivo hidrofílico (Transbond Moisture-Insensitive Primer, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Califórnia, de um adesivo auto-condicionante (Transbond Self-Etching Primer, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Califórnia, e sem uso de adesivo, em superfícies de esmalte secas ou contaminadas por saliva. METODOLOGIA: incisivos bovinos (60 foram divididos em 6 grupos: (1 controle sem contaminação salivar (sem adesivo, (2 controle com contaminação salivar (sem adesivo, (3 adesivo auto-condicionante sem contaminação salivar, (4 adesivo auto-condicionante com contaminação salivar antes do adesivo, (5 adesivo hidrofílico sem contaminação salivar e (6 adesivo hidrofílico com contaminação salivar antes do adesivo. Braquetes metálicos foram colados com compósito (Transbond XT, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Califórnia. Após a colagem, os corpos-de prova foram armazenados a 37±1ºC em ambiente úmido até a realização do teste de cisalhamento. Diferença estatística foi determinada com valor de probabilidade de 0,05 ou menos (p AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of orthodontic bonding with the use of a hydrophilic primer (Transbond Moisture-Insensitive Primer, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif., a self-etching primer (Transbond Plus Self-etching Primer, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif. and without primer application, in dry and saliva contaminated enamel surfaces. METHODS: Bovine incisors (60 were divided into 6 groups: (1 uncontaminated control (no primer, (2 control with saliva contamination (no primer, (3 uncontaminated self-etching primer, (4 saliva contamination before self-etching primer, (5 uncontaminated hydrophilic primer and (6 saliva contamination before hydrophilic primer. Stainless steel brackets were bonded with composite resin (Transbond XT, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif.. After bonding, all samples were stored at 37±1°C in a

  18. Rapid Development of Microsatellite Markers with 454 Pyrosequencing in a Vulnerable Fish<em>,> the Mottled Skate<em>, Raja em>pulchra>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Ha Kang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The mottled skate, <em>Raja pulchraem>, is an economically valuable fish. However, due to a severe population decline, it is listed as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. To analyze its genetic structure and diversity, microsatellite markers were developed using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 17,033 reads containing dinucleotide microsatellite repeat units (mean, 487 base pairs were identified from 453,549 reads. Among 32 loci containing more than nine repeat units, 20 primer sets (62% produced strong PCR products, of which 14 were polymorphic. In an analysis of 60 individuals from two <em>R. pulchra em>populations, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 1–10, and the mean allelic richness was 4.7. No linkage disequilibrium was found between any pair of loci, indicating that the markers were independent. The Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium test showed significant deviation in two of the 28 single-loci after sequential Bonferroni’s correction. Using 11 primer sets, cross-species amplification was demonstrated in nine related species from four families within two classes. Among the 11 loci amplified from three other <em>Rajidae> family species; three loci were polymorphic. A monomorphic locus was amplified in all three <em>Rajidae> family species and the <em>Dasyatidae> family. Two <em>Rajidae> polymorphic loci amplified monomorphic target DNAs in four species belonging to the Carcharhiniformes class, and another was polymorphic in two Carcharhiniformes species.

  19. Acarofauna em plantas ornamentais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jania Claudia Camilo dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE O cultivo e o comercio de plantas ornamentais vem cada vez mais ganhando espaço no Brasil, pela grande variedade das espécies existentes e exuberância de suas flores, que oferecem uma maior riqueza ao local. Dessa forma, o objetivo desse trabalho foi realizar o levantamento da população de ácaros associados às plantas ornamentais no município de Arapiraca-AL, em função dos diversos problemas acarretados por essa espécie. O levantamento foi realizado entre os meses de abril a março, através de amostragens mensais de folhas coletadas da parte basal, intermediária e apical de plantas existentes em praças e jardins. Foram coletados 55 ácaros pertencentes à ordem Prostigmata em 20 famílias de plantas. As plantas com as maiores riquezas de ácaros foram as Coleus blumei L. e Bxuxus sempervirens L., que apresentaram 65% dos valores amostrais. Analisando-se as coletas realizadas, pode-se observar que houve uma maior incidência populacional de ácaros na coleta do mês de maio, cuja percentagem foi de 36% de ácaros levantados, sendo que no levantamento dos dados amostrais de março a percentagem encontrada foi de 14%, nas amostragens dos meses de abril e junho, a percentagem amostrada dos dados foi de 22 e 28%, respectivamente. O estudo do levantamento de ácaros em plantas ornamentais permitiu observar a relação entre ácaros e a relação com a planta hospedeira, facilitando posteriormente um estudo mais aprofundado sobre plantas hospedeiras, e pode-se observar que em períodos chuvosos ocorre uma menor incidência populacional.

  20. Analysis and design of a vertical axis wind turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Goyena Iriso, Joseba

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to design a new vertical axis wind turbine, specifically one Giromill wind turbine. The project development requires performing a previous study of the vertical axis wind turbines currently development. This study has to be performed before starting to design the wind turbine. Other very important aim is the development of a new vertical axis wind turbine. The after analyses that will result in the final design of the wind turbine will b...

  1. Self-starting aerodynamics analysis of vertical axis wind turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Jianyang Zhu; Hailin Huang; Hao Shen

    2015-01-01

    Vertical axis wind turbine is a special type of wind-force electric generator which is capable of working in the complicated wind environment. The self-starting aerodynamics is one of the most important considerations for this kind of turbine. This article aims at providing a systematic synthesis on the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of vertical axis wind turbine based on the numerical analysis approach. First, the physical model of vertical axis wind turbine and its parameter defi...

  2. Comparison of VP broadband tiltmeter and VS vertical pendulum tiltmeter

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Wugang; Wu, Yanxia; Zhao, Huiqin

    2015-01-01

    Vertical pendulum (VP) tiltmeter is a kind of earthquake precursor observation equipment, which is used to record the interaction force associated with astronomical tidal tilts caused. Currently, VP broadband tiltmeter and vertical sensor (VS) vertical pendulum tiltmeter are primarily used. In this paper, we compare the two different instruments by using four aspects—mechanical structure, circuitry, zeroing, and bandwidth—based on their working principles and applications. We conclude that VP...

  3. Outsourcing versus Vertical Integration: A Dynamic Model of Industry Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Fossati

    2012-01-01

    Why do supply relations vary across industries and across firms within industries? Recent evidence by Hortaçsu and Syverson (2009) shows that vertically integrated producers are more productive, their size distribution dominates (in first order stochastic dominance sense) the size distribution of not vertically integrated manufacturers and there is assortative matching of upstream and downstream plants by productivity and size. Besides vertical integration (VI) and procurement of inputs from ...

  4. Robotic platform for traveling on vertical piping network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Thomas A; Vrettos, Nick J; Krementz, Daniel; Marzolf, Athneal D

    2015-02-03

    This invention relates generally to robotic systems and is specifically designed for a robotic system that can navigate vertical pipes within a waste tank or similar environment. The robotic system allows a process for sampling, cleaning, inspecting and removing waste around vertical pipes by supplying a robotic platform that uses the vertical pipes to support and navigate the platform above waste material contained in the tank.

  5. Structural reasons for vertical integration in the international oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciani, G.

    1991-01-01

    Once upon a time, the international oil industry was vertically integrated. A small group of companies controlled a very substantial share of international oil flows, extending their operations from the oil well to the gas pump, and relying on intracorporate transfers for most in-between transactions. The historical reasons for vertical disintegration, the market role, and structural reasons for vertical reintegration are examined. (author)

  6. Avaliação dos comportamentos mecânico e térmico de laminados de PPS/fibra de carbono processados em autoclave sob diferentes ciclos de consolidação Evaluation of thermal and mechanical behaviors of PPS/carbon fiber laminates processed in autoclave under different consolidation cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana S Marques

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Usualmente, um dos processos mais utilizados para fabricação de componentes em termoplásticos estruturais é a moldagem por compressão a quente, porém restringindo-se na obtenção de peças de pequeno e médio porte. Tal restrição deve-se à limitação do tamanho das prensas utilizadas, principalmente pelo custo envolvido. Procurando ampliar a aplicação de compósitos termoplásticos, possibilitando a fabricação de peças maiores e com maior potencial de integração, pelo uso de infra-estrutura já disponível em processadores de compósitos, este trabalho aborda o processamento de laminados de poli(sulfeto de fenileno (PPS reforçado com fibra de carbono em autoclave, pelo uso de quatro diferentes ciclos de consolidação. Os laminados obtidos foram caracterizados por inspeção por ultrassom, análises de DSC para a determinação da cristalinidade e avaliação das propriedades mecânicas em flexão, compressão e cisalhamento interlaminar. Os resultados mostram que laminados obtidos com taxas de resfriamento mais lentas apresentam menor resistência e módulo em compressão, uma vez que o maior grau de cristalinidade (~30% promove maior fragilização da matriz polimérica.One of the most used processes to obtain structural thermoplastic parts is the hot compression molding, which is limited to small and medium size parts because of the size of the press used, mainly related to its cost. This has hampered a wide use of thermoplastic composites in structural applications. In order to extend the application of thermoplastic composites, but still using available infrastructure in composite manufacturers, in this work we investigate the processing of carbon fiber reinforced polyphenylene sulfide (PPS in an autoclave, using four consolidation cycles. The processed laminates were characterized by ultrasound inspection, DSC analyses for the crystallinity determination and mechanical tests to evaluate the compression, flexure and

  7. Trajectory optimization for lunar rover performing vertical takeoff vertical landing maneuvers in the presence of terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Wang, Kexin; Xu, Zuhua; Shao, Zhijiang; Song, Zhengyu; Biegler, Lorenz T.

    2018-05-01

    This study presents a trajectory optimization framework for lunar rover performing vertical takeoff vertical landing (VTVL) maneuvers in the presence of terrain using variable-thrust propulsion. First, a VTVL trajectory optimization problem with three-dimensional kinematics and dynamics model, boundary conditions, and path constraints is formulated. Then, a finite-element approach transcribes the formulated trajectory optimization problem into a nonlinear programming (NLP) problem solved by a highly efficient NLP solver. A homotopy-based backtracking strategy is applied to enhance the convergence in solving the formulated VTVL trajectory optimization problem. The optimal thrust solution typically has a "bang-bang" profile considering that bounds are imposed on the magnitude of engine thrust. An adaptive mesh refinement strategy based on a constant Hamiltonian profile is designed to address the difficulty in locating the breakpoints in the thrust profile. Four scenarios are simulated. Simulation results indicate that the proposed trajectory optimization framework has sufficient adaptability to handle VTVL missions efficiently.

  8. VDE/disruption EM analysis for ITER in-vessel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, N.; Ioki, K.; Ilio, F.; Kodama, T.; Chiocchio, S.; Williamson, D.; Roccella, M.; Barabaschi, P.; Sayer, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of EM analyses for ITER in-vessel components, such as blanket modules, backplate and divertor modules. In the ITER design the following two disruption scenarios are taken into account: centered or radial disruption, and vertical displacement event (VDE). Eddy currents and forces due to plasma disruption were calculated using the 3D shell element code EDDYCUFF and the 3D solid element code EMAS. The plasma motion and current decay used in the EM analysis was supplied by 2-D axisymmetric plasma equilibrium codes, TSC and MAXFEA. (authors)

  9. Comparison of VP broadband tiltmeter and VS vertical pendulum tiltmeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wugang Ma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Vertical pendulum (VP tiltmeter is a kind of earthquake precursor observation equipment, which is used to record the interaction force associated with astronomical tidal tilts caused. Currently, VP broadband tiltmeter and vertical sensor (VS vertical pendulum tiltmeter are primarily used. In this paper, we compare the two different instruments by using four aspects—mechanical structure, circuitry, zeroing, and bandwidth—based on their working principles and applications. We conclude that VP broadband tiltmeter is more superior compared with VS vertical pendulum tiltmeter because of its higher bandwidth and degree of automation.

  10. Fatores protetores e de risco envolvidos na transmissão vertical do HIV-1 Protective and risk factors related to vertical transmission of the HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela P. Gianvecchio

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avalia os fatores maternos e fetais envolvidos na transmissão vertical do HIV-1 em 47 pares de mãe e filho. As variáveis comportamentais, demográficas e obstétricas foram obtidas mediante entrevista; os dados referentes ao parto e ao recém-nascido, dos prontuários das maternidades. Durante o terceiro trimestre de gestação foi realizada a contagem da carga viral materna e dos linfócitos T CD4+. A média de idade foi de 25 anos e 23,4% das gestantes eram primigestas, e o fator comportamental mais prevalente foi não usar preservativos. Dentre as gestantes, 48,9% tinham células CD4+ superior a 500 células/mm³ e 93,6% se enquadravam na categoria clínica A; 95,7% submeteram-se à profilaxia com zidovudina durante a gestação ou no parto, a qual foi ministrada a todos os recém-nascidos; 50,0% delas foram submetidas à cesárea eletiva. Apesar de expostas a vários fatores de risco e protetores, nenhuma criança tornou-se infectada. A transmissão vertical resulta de um desequilíbrio entre os fatores, com predomínio dos de risco sobre os protetores.This study aimed to evaluate maternal and fetal factors related to vertical transmission of HIV-1. Participants included 47 mother-child pairs. Behavioral, demographic, and obstetric data were obtained through interviews. Data related to delivery and newborns were collected from registries in the maternity hospitals. During the third trimester of pregnancy, CD4+ T lymphocytes and maternal viral load were measured. Mean age of the mothers was 25 years and 23.4% of the pregnant women were primigravidae. The most prevalent behavioral factor was lack of condom use. 48.9% of the women presented a CD4+ count greater than 500 cells/ mm³, and 93.6% belonged to clinical category A. 95.7% of the women received zidovudine prophylaxis during pregnancy or childbirth, and the medication was also administered to all the neonates. 50.0% of patients were submitted to elective cesareans. Despite

  11. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System (3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Mizohata, S.; Ishikawa, K.

    2013-12-01

    The VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic) is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. We carried out several VCS surveys combining with surface towed source, deep towed source and ocean bottom source. The water depths of the survey are from 100m up to 2100m. The target of the survey includes not only hydrothermal deposit but oil and gas exploration. Through these experiments, our VCS data acquisition system has been completed. But the data processing techniques are still on the way. One of the most critical issues is the positioning in the water. The uncertainty in the positions of the source and of the hydrophones in water degraded the quality of subsurface image. GPS navigation system are available on sea surface, but in case of deep-towed source or ocean bottom source, the accuracy of shot position with SSBL/USBL is not sufficient for the very high-resolution imaging. We have developed another approach to determine the positions in water using the travel time data from the source to VCS hydrophones. In the data acquisition stage, we estimate the position of VCS location with slant ranging method from the sea surface. The deep-towed source or ocean bottom source is estimated by SSBL/USBL. The water velocity profile is measured by XCTD. After the data acquisition, we pick the first break times of the VCS recorded data. The estimated positions of

  12. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2011-12-01

    In 2009, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT) started the survey system development for Hydrothermal deposit. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS), the reflection seismic survey with vertical cable above seabottom. VCS has the following advantages for hydrothermal deposit survey. (1) VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey in limited area. (2) It achieves high-resolution image because the sensors are closely located to the target. (3) It avoids the coupling problems between sensor and seabottom that cause serious damage of seismic data quality. (4) Because of autonomous recording system on sea floor, various types of marine source are applicable with VCS such as sea-surface source (GI gun etc.) , deep-towed or ocean bottom source. Our first experiment of 2D/3D VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN, in November 2009. The 2D VCS data processing follows the walk-away VSP, including wave field separation and depth migration. Seismic Interferometry technique is also applied. The results give much clearer image than the conventional surface seismic. Prestack depth migration is applied to 3D data to obtain good quality 3D depth volume. Seismic Interferometry technique is applied to obtain the high resolution image in the very shallow zone. Based on the feasibility study, we have developed the autonomous recording VCS system and carried out the trial experiment in actual ocean at the water depth of about 400m to establish the procedures of deployment/recovery and to examine the VC position or fluctuation at seabottom. The result shows that the VC position is estimated with sufficient accuracy and very little fluctuation is observed. Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo took the research cruise NT11-02 on JAMSTEC R/V Natsushima in February, 2011. In the cruise NT11-02, JGI carried out the second VCS survey using the autonomous VCS recording system with the deep towed source provided by

  13. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for SMS exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Eiichi; Murakami, Fumitoshi; Tsukahara, Hotoshi; Mizohata, Shigeharu

    2014-05-01

    The Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS) survey is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by sea-surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. Because the VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed it for the SMS survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We have been developing the VCS survey system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. We carried out several VCS surveys combining with surface towed source, deep towed source and ocean bottom source. The water depths of these surveys are from 100m up to 2100 m. Through these experiments, our VCS data acquisition system has been also completed. But the data processing techniques are still on the way. One of the most critical issues is the positioning in the water. The uncertainty in the positions of the source and of the hydrophones in water degraded the quality of subsurface image. GPS navigation system is available on sea surface, but in case of deep-towed source or ocean bottom source, the accuracy of shot position with SSBL/USBL is not sufficient for the very high-resolution imaging. We have developed a new approach to determine the positions in water using the travel time data from the source to VCS hydrophones. In 2013, we have carried out the second VCS survey using the surface-towed high-voltage sparker and ocean bottom source in the Izena Cauldron, which is one of the most promising SMS areas around Japan. The positions of ocean bottom source estimated by this method are consistent with the VCS field records. The VCS data with the sparker have been processed with 3D PSTM. It gives the very high resolution 3D volume deeper than two

  14. How <em>Varroa> Parasitism Affects the Immunological and Nutritional Status of the Honey Bee, <em>Apis melliferaem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Aronstein

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of the parasitic mite <em>Varroa destructorem> on the immunological and nutritional condition of honey bees, <em>Apis melliferaem>, from the perspective of the individual bee and the colony. Pupae, newly-emerged adults and foraging adults were sampled from honey bee colonies at one site in S. Texas, USA. <em>Varroa>‑infested bees displayed elevated titer of Deformed Wing Virus (DWV, suggestive of depressed capacity to limit viral replication. Expression of genes coding three anti-microbial peptides (<em>defensin1, abaecin, hymenoptaecinem> was either not significantly different between <em>Varroa>-infested and uninfested bees or was significantly elevated in <em>Varroa>-infested bees, varying with sampling date and bee developmental age. The effect of <em>Varroa> on nutritional indices of the bees was complex, with protein, triglyceride, glycogen and sugar levels strongly influenced by life-stage of the bee and individual colony. Protein content was depressed and free amino acid content elevated in <em>Varroa>-infested pupae, suggesting that protein synthesis, and consequently growth, may be limited in these insects. No simple relationship between the values of nutritional and immune-related indices was observed, and colony-scale effects were indicated by the reduced weight of pupae in colonies with high <em>Varroa> abundance, irrespective of whether the individual pupa bore <em>Varroa>.

  15. Synthesis and Spectroscopic Analysis of Novel 1<em>H-Benzo[d>]imidazoles Phenyl Sulfonylpiperazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad M. Qandil

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A group of benzimidazole analogs of sildenafil, 3-benzimidazolyl-4-methoxy-phenylsulfonylpiperazines 2–4 and 3-benzimidazolyl-4-methoxy-<em>N,N>-dimethyl- benzenesulfonamide (5, were efficiently synthesized. Compounds 2–5 were characterized by NMR and MS and contrary to the reported mass spectra of sildenafil, the spectra of the piperazine-containing compounds 2–4 showed a novel fragmentation pattern leading to an <em>m/z> = 316. A mechanism for the formation of this fragment was proposed.

  16. Measurement of vertical bar Vub vertical bar in semi-inclusive charmless B → πX decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.S.; Lee, Jake; Oha, Sechul

    2002-01-01

    We study semi-inclusive charmless decays B → πX, where X does not contain a charm (anti)quark. The mode B-bar 0 → π - X turns out to be be particularly useful for determination of the CKM matrix element vertical bar V ub vertical bar. We present the branching ratio (BR) of B-bar 0 → π - X as a function of vertical bar V ub vertical bar, with an estimation of possible uncertainty. The BR is expected to be an order of 10 -4

  17. Free convective condensation in a vertical enclosure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, R.J.; Peterson, P.F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Corradini, M.L.; Pernsteiner, A.P. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Free convective condensation in a vertical enclosure was studied numerically and the results were compared with experiments. In both the numerical and experimental investigations, mist formation was observed to occur near the cooling wall, with significant droplet concentrations in the bulk. Large recirculation cells near the end of the condensing section were generated as the heavy noncondensing gas collecting near the cooling wall was accelerated downward. Near the top of the enclosure the recirculation cells became weaker and smaller than those below, ultimately disappearing near the top of the condenser. In the experiment the mist density was seen to be highest near the wall and at the bottom of the condensing section, whereas the numerical model predicted a much more uniform distribution. The model used to describe the formation of mist was based on a Modified Critical Saturation Model (MCSM), which allows mist to be generated once the vapor pressure exceeds a critical value. Equilibrium, nonequilibrium, and MCSM calculations were preformed, showing the experimental results to lie somewhere in between the equilibrium and nonequilibrium predictions of the numerical model. A single adjustable constant (indicating the degree to which equilibrium is achieved) is used in the model in order to match the experimental results.

  18. Vertical landscraping, a big regionalism for Dubai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Dubai's ecologic and economic complications are exacerbated by six years of accelerated expansion, a fixed top-down approach to urbanism and the construction of iconic single-phase mega-projects. With recent construction delays, project cancellations and growing landscape issues, Dubai's tower typologies have been unresponsive to changing environmental, socio-cultural and economic patterns (BBC, 2009; Gillet, 2009; Lewis, 2009). In this essay, a theory of "Big Regionalism" guides an argument for an economically and ecologically linked tower typology called the Condenser. This phased "box-to-tower" typology is part of a greater Landscape Urbanist strategy called Vertical Landscraping. Within this strategy, the Condenser's role is to densify the city, facilitating the creation of ecologic voids that order the urban region. Delineating "Big Regional" principles, the Condenser provides a time-based, global-local urban growth approach that weaves Bigness into a series of urban-regional, economic and ecological relationships, builds upon the environmental performance of the city's regional architecture and planning, promotes a continuity of Dubai's urban history, and responds to its landscape issues while condensing development. These speculations permit consideration of the overlooked opportunities embedded within Dubai's mega-projects and their long-term impact on the urban morphology.

  19. The vertical oscillations of coupled magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kewei; Lin Jiahuang; Kang Zi Yang; Liang, Samuel Yee Wei; Juan, Jeremias Wong Say

    2011-01-01

    The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for high school students. This paper is adapted from the winning solution to Problem 14, Magnetic Spring, as presented in the final round of the 23rd IYPT in Vienna, Austria. Two magnets were arranged on top of each other on a common axis. One was fixed, while the other could move vertically. Various parameters of interest were investigated, including the effective gravitational acceleration, the strength, size, mass and geometry of the magnets, and damping of the oscillations. Despite its simplicity, this setup yielded a number of interesting and unexpected relations. The first stage of the investigation was concerned only with the undamped oscillations of small amplitudes, and the period of small amplitude oscillations was found to be dependent only on the eighth root of important magnet properties such as its strength and mass. The second stage sought to investigate more general oscillations. A numerical model which took into account magnet size, magnet geometry and damping effects was developed to model the general oscillations. Air resistance and friction were found to be significant sources of damping, while eddy currents were negligible.

  20. Vertical barriers with increased sorption capacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradl, H.B.

    1997-01-01

    Vertical barriers are commonly used for the containment of contaminated areas. Due to the very small permeability of the barrier material which is usually in the order of magnitude of 10-10 m/s or less the advective contaminant transport can be more or less neglected. Nevertheless, there will always be a diffusive contaminant transport through the barrier which is caused by the concentration gradient. Investigations have been made to increase the sorption capacity of the barrier material by adding substances such as organoclays, zeolites, inorganic oxides and fly ashes. The contaminants taken into account where heavy metals (Pb) and for organic contaminants Toluole and Phenantrene. The paper presents results of model calculations and experiments. As a result, barrier materials can be designed 'tailor-made' depending on the individual contaminant range of each site (e.g. landfills, gasworks etc.). The parameters relevant for construction such as rheological properties, compressive strength and permeability are not affected by the addition of the sorbents

  1. Functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloise Van Hooijdonk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses and summarizes recent studies on the functionalization of carbon nanotubes oriented perpendicularly to their substrate, so-called vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs. The intrinsic properties of individual nanotubes make the VA-CNTs ideal candidates for integration in a wide range of devices, and many potential applications have been envisaged. These applications can benefit from the unidirectional alignment of the nanotubes, the large surface area, the high carbon purity, the outstanding electrical conductivity, and the uniformly long length. However, practical uses of VA-CNTs are limited by their surface characteristics, which must be often modified in order to meet the specificity of each particular application. The proposed approaches are based on the chemical modifications of the surface by functionalization (grafting of functional chemical groups, decoration with metal particles or wrapping of polymers to bring new properties or to improve the interactions between the VA-CNTs and their environment while maintaining the alignment of CNTs.

  2. Separation surgery for total vertical craniopagus twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Keith Y C

    2004-08-01

    A pair of conjoined twins aged 11 months underwent investigations, followed by surgical separation in Singapore General Hospital in April 2001. They were joined at the skull vertex and facing in opposite directions. Radiological investigations including cerebral angiography, magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomographic scans were performed, leading to the diagnosis of total vertical craniopagus. There were two separate brains, with separate arterial circulations, but with a common superior sagittal sinus. Tissue expanders were inserted in the subgaleal space for 6 months of scalp expansion prior to surgery. Pre-operative planning involved the use of virtual reality equipment and life-sized polymer models of the conjoined skulls and brains. Surgical separation of the twins was achieved after approximately 100 h of operating time, using intraoperative image guidance, microsurgical techniques and intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring. Reconstruction of the dura, calvarium and scalp was performed with artificial dura, absorbable plates and split skin grafts. Postoperative complications included focal cortical infarction, meningitis, and hydrocephalus. Despite these complications, the twins recovered satisfactorily and were discharged to their home country within 6 months. The 3-month outcome was minor disability in one twin and severe developmental delays in the other. Separation surgery is possible for complex cranially-conjoined twins but requires detailed planning and extensive surgical management.

  3. A demographic analysis of vertical root fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Stephen; Berman, Louis H; Blanco, Lucia; Bakland, Leif; Kim, Jay S

    2006-12-01

    Teeth with vertical root fractures (VRFs) have complete or incomplete fractures that extends through the enamel, dentin and pulp, down the long axis of the tooth. Several different variables were investigated and statistically evaluated as to their correlation with the presence of VRFs. Specifically analyzed were gender, tooth location, age, radiographic and clinical findings, bruxism, and pulpal status. The data were collected from three different endodontists, from three different geographic locations, comprising a total of 227 teeth. Although VRFs may occur in conjunction with any of the parameters investigated, only certain factors were found to occur in a significant number of cases. The results indicate that VRFs are statistically more prevalent in mandibular molars and maxillary premolars. They are associated with periradicular bone loss, pain to percussion, extensive restorations, and seem to occur more often in females and older patients. However, VRFs are not necessarily related to periapical bone loss, a widening of the periodontal ligament space, associated periodontal pockets, a sinus tract, particular pulpal status, or bruxism.

  4. Engineering design of vertical test stand cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhane, S.K.; Sharma, N.K.; Raghavendra, S.; Joshi, S.C.; Das, S.; Kush, P.K.; Sahni, V.C.; Gupta, P.D.; Sylvester, C.; Rabehl, R.; Ozelis, J.

    2011-01-01

    Under Indian Institutions and Fermilab collaboration, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are jointly developing 2K Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostats for testing SCRF cavities at 2K. The VTS cryostat has been designed for a large testing aperture of 86.36 cm for testing of 325 MHz Spoke resonators, 650 MHz and 1.3 GHz multi-cell SCRF cavities for Fermilab's Project-X. Units will be installed at Fermilab and RRCAT and used to test cavities for Project-X. A VTS cryostat comprises of liquid helium (LHe) vessel with internal magnetic shield, top insert plate equipped with cavity support stand and radiation shield, liquid nitrogen (LN 2 ) shield and vacuum vessel with external magnetic shield. The engineering design and analysis of VTS cryostat has been carried out using ASME B and PV Code and Finite Element Analysis. Design of internal and external magnetic shields was performed to limit the magnetic field inside LHe vessel at the cavity surface 2 shield has been performed to check the effectiveness of LN 2 cooling and for compliance with ASME piping code allowable stresses.

  5. Learning styles in vertically integrated teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumpton, Kay; Kitchener, Scott; Sweet, Linda

    2013-10-01

    With vertical integration, registrars and medical students attend the same educational workshops. It is not known whether these learners have similar or different learning styles related to their level of education within the medical training schema. This study aims to collect information about learning styles with a view to changing teaching strategies. If a significant difference is demonstrated this will impact on required approaches to teaching. The VARK learning inventory questionnaire was administered to 36 general practice registrars and 20 medical students. The learning styles were compared as individuals and then related to their level of education within the medical training schema. Students had a greater preference for multimodal learning compared with registrars (62.5 per cent versus 33.3 per cent, respectively). More than half of the registrars preferred uni or bimodal learning modalities, compared with one-third of the medical students. The present workshop format based on visual and aural material will not match the learning needs of most learners. This small study has shown that the majority of medical students and registrars could have their learning preferences better met by the addition of written material to the workshop series. Surprisingly, a significantly larger number of medical students than registrars appeared to be broadly multimodal in their learning style, and this warrants further research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. ATLAS LTCS Vertically Challenged System Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Deepak; Garrison, Matt; Ku, Jentung

    2014-01-01

    Re-planning of LTCS TVAC testing and supporting RTA (Receiver Telescope Assembly) Test Plan and Procedure document preparation. The Laser Thermal Control System (LTCS) is designed to maintain the lasers onboard Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) at their operational temperatures. In order to verify the functionality of the LTCS, a thermal balance test of the thermal hardware was performed. During the first cold start of the LTCS, the Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) was unable to control the laser mass simulators temperature. The control heaters were fully on and the loop temperature remained well below the desired setpoint. Thermal analysis of the loop did not show these results. This unpredicted behavior of the LTCS was brought up to a panel of LHP experts. Based on the testing and a review of all the data, there were multiple diagnostic performed in order to narrow down the cause. The prevailing theory is that gravity is causing oscillating flow within the loop, which artificially increased the control power needs. This resulted in a replan of the LTCS test flow and the addition of a GSE heater to allow vertical operation.

  7. Radon 222 and tropospheric vertical transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S.C.; McAfee, J.R.; Cicerone, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Radon 222 is an inert gas whose loss is due only to radioactive decay with a half life of 3.83 days (5.51-day ''exponential'' lifetime). It is a very useful tracer of continental air because only ground level continental sources are significant. Thus it is similar in several ways to many air pollutants (e.g., NO/sub x/) (NO+NO 2 ), SO 2 , and certain hydrocarbons. Previously published measured 222 Rn profiles are analyzed here by averaging for the summer, winter, and spring-fall seasons. The analysis shows that in summer, about 55% of the 222 Rn is transported above the planetary boundary layer, considerably more than during the other seasons. Similarly, in summer, about 20% rises to over 5.5 km (500 mbar). The average profiles have been used to derive vertical eddy diffusion coefficients with maximum values of 5-7 x 10 5 cm 2 s -1 in the midtroposphere and 8 x 10 3 to 5 x 10 4 cm 2 s -1 near the surface

  8. Vertically Integrated Edgeless Photon Imaging Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahim, Farah [Fermilab; Deptuch, Grzegorz [Fermilab; Shenai, Alpana [Fermilab; Maj, Piotr [AGH-UST, Cracow; Kmon, Piotr [AGH-UST, Cracow; Grybos, Pawel [AGH-UST, Cracow; Szczygiel, Robert [AGH-UST, Cracow; Siddons, D. Peter [Brookhaven; Rumaiz, Abdul [Brookhaven; Kuczewski, Anthony [Brookhaven; Mead, Joseph [Brookhaven; Bradford, Rebecca [Argonne; Weizeorick, John [Argonne

    2017-01-01

    The Vertically Integrated Photon Imaging Chip - Large, (VIPIC-L), is a large area, small pixel (65μm), 3D integrated, photon counting ASIC with zero-suppressed or full frame dead-time-less data readout. It features data throughput of 14.4 Gbps per chip with a full frame readout speed of 56kframes/s in the imaging mode. VIPIC-L contain 192 x 192 pixel array and the total size of the chip is 1.248cm x 1.248cm with only a 5μm periphery. It contains about 120M transistors. A 1.3M pixel camera module will be developed by arranging a 6 x 6 array of 3D VIPIC-L’s bonded to a large area silicon sensor on the analog side and to a readout board on the digital side. The readout board hosts a bank of FPGA’s, one per VIPIC-L to allow processing of up to 0.7 Tbps of raw data produced by the camera.

  9. Vertical Distribution of Water at Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    Phoenix results, combined with coordinated observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter of the Phoenix lander site, indicate that the water vapor is nonuniform (i.e., not well mixed) up to a calculated cloud condensation level. It is important to understand the mixing profile of water vapor because (a) the assumption of a well-mixed atmosphere up to a cloud condensation level is common in retrievals of column water abundances which are in turn used to understand the seasonal and interannual behavior of water, (b) there is a long history of observations and modeling that conclude both that water vapor is and is not well-mixed, and some studies indicate that the water vapor vertical mixing profile may, in fact, change with season and location, (c) the water vapor in the lowest part of the atmosphere is the reservoir that can exchange with the regolith and higher amounts may have an impact on the surface chemistry, and (d) greater water vapor abundances close to the surface may enhance surface exchange thereby reducing regional transport, which in turn has implications to the net transport of water vapor over seasonal and annual timescales.

  10. Mudflow rheology in a vertically rotating flume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.; Westphal, Jerome A.; Jobson, Harvey E.; ,

    1990-01-01

    Joint research by the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Missouri-Rolla currently (1990) is being conducted on a 3.05 meters in diameter vertically rotating flume used to simulate mudflows under steady-state conditions. Observed mudflow simulations indicate flow patterns in the flume are similar to those occurring in natural mudflows. Variables such as mean and surface velocity, depth, and average boundary shear stress can be measured in this flume more easily than in the field or in a traditional tilting flume. Sensitive variables such as sediment concentration, grain-size distribution, and Atterberg limits also can be precisely and easily controlled. A known Newtonian fluid, SAE 30 motor oil, was tested in the flume and the computed value for viscosity was within 12.5 percent of the stated viscosity. This provided support that the data from the flume can be used to determine the rheological properties of fluids such as mud. Measurements on mud slurries indicate that flows with sediment concentrations ranging from 81 to 87 percent sediment by weight can be approximated as Bingham plastic for strain rates greater than 1 per second. In this approximation, the yield stress and Bingham viscosity were extremely sensitive to sediment concentration. Generally, the magnitude of the yield stress was large relative to the change in shear stress with increasing mudflow velocity.

  11. Plug cementing: Horizontal to vertical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvert, D.G.; Heathman, J.F.; Griffith, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an in-depth study of cement plug placement that was conducted with large-scale models for the improvement of plug cementing practices and plug integrity. Common hole and workstring geometries were examined with various rheology and density ratios between the drilling fluid and cement. The critical conditions dictating the difference between success and failure for various wellbore angles and conditions were explored, and the mechanisms controlling slurry movement before and after placement are now better understood. An understanding of these mechanisms allows the engineer to better tailor a design to specific hole conditions. Controversial concepts regarding plug-setting practices have been examined and resolved. The cumulative effects of density, rheology, and hole angle are major factors affecting plug success. While the Boycott effect and an extrusion effect were observed to be predominant in inclined wellbores, a spiraling or {open_quotes}roping{close_quotes} effect controls slurry movement in vertical wellbores. Ultimate success of a cement plug can be obtained if allowances are made for these effects in the job design, provided all other previously published recommended placement practices are followed. Results of this work can be applied to many sidetracking and plug-to-abandon operations. Additionally, the understanding of the fluid movement (creep) mechanisms holds potential for use in primary and remedial cementing work, and in controlling the placement of noncementitious fluids in the wellbore.

  12. Hydrodynamics of vertical jumping in Archer fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techet, Alexandra H.; Mendelson, Leah

    2017-11-01

    Vertical jumping for aerial prey from an aquatic environment requires both propulsive power and precise aim to succeed. Rapid acceleration to a ballistic velocity sufficient for reaching the prey height occurs before the fish leaves the water completely and experiences a thousandfold drop in force-producing ability. In addition to speed, accuracy and stability are crucial for successful feeding by jumping. This talk examines the physics of jumping using the archer fish as a model. Better known for their spitting abilities, archer fish will jump multiple body lengths out of the water for prey capture, from a stationary position just below the free surface. Modulation of oscillatory body kinematics and use of multiple fins for force production are identified as methods through which the fish can meet requirements for both acceleration and stabilization in limited space. Quantitative 3D PIV wake measurements reveal how variations in tail kinematics relate to thrust production throughout the course of a jumping maneuver and over a range of jump heights. By performing measurements in 3D, the timing, interactions, and relative contributions to thrust and lateral forces from each fin can be evaluated, elucidating the complex hydrodynamics that enable archer fish water exit.

  13. Anestesia Diploica em Endodontia

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo, Ricardo Ribeiro Veiga de

    2013-01-01

    Trabalho final do 5º ano com vista à atribuição do grau de mestre no âmbito do ciclo de estudos de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Dentária apresentado à Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra. Objetivos Comparar a eficácia das técnicas de anestesia convencionais, a anestesia infiltrativa periapical, com a anestesia diploica. Metodologia Foram selecionados 32 voluntários, saudáveis, aos quais foram administradas ambas as técnicas anestésicas no dente 1.4. Numa primeira fase os...

  14. Burnout em Cuidadores Formais

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Juliana Marisa Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para a obtenção do grau de Mestre em Psicologia, ramo de Psicologia Clínica e da Saúde Este estudo é sobre a Síndrome de Burnout e teve como objetivo geral compreender se o Burnout está presente nos cuidadores formais da Santa Casa da Misericórdia de Castelo de Paiva e quais as variáveis socioprofissionais que poderão exercer influência no seu aparecimento. Pretendeu-se avaliar o Burnout dos cuidadores a tr...

  15. Antioxidant Profile of <em>Trifolium pratenseem> L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidy Schwartsova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the antioxidant properties of five different extracts of <em>Trifolium pratenseem> L. (Leguminosae leaves, various assays which measure free radical scavenging ability were carried out: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radical scavenger capacity tests and lipid peroxidation assay. In all of the tests, only the H2O and (to some extent the EtOAc extracts showed a potent antioxidant effect compared with BHT and BHA, well-known synthetic antioxidants. In addition, <em>in vivo em>experiments were conducted with antioxidant systems (activities of GSHPx, GSHR, Px, CAT, XOD, GSH content and intensity of LPx in liver homogenate and blood of mice after their treatment with extracts of <em>T. pratenseem> leaves, or in combination with CCl4. Besides, in the extracts examined the total phenolic and flavonoid amounts were also determined, together with presence of the selected flavonoids: quercetin, luteolin, apigenin, naringenin and kaempferol, which were studied using a HPLC-DAD technique. HPLC-DAD analysis showed a noticeable content of natural products according to which the examined <em>Trifolium pratenseem> species could well be regarded as a promising new source of bioactive natural compounds, which can be used both as a food supplement and a remedy.

  16. The Naval Ocean Vertical Aerosol Model : Progress Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, G. de; Gathman, S.G.; Davidson, K.L.; Jensen, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Naval Oceanic Vertical Aerosol Model (NOVAM) has been formulated to estimate the vertical structure of the optical and infrared extinction coefficients in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL). NOVAM was designed to predict the non-uniform and non-logarithmic extinction profiles which are

  17. Verification of the Naval Oceanic Vertical Aerosol Model During Fire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, K.L.; Leeuw, G. de; Gathman, S.G.; Jensen, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Naval Oceanic Vertical Aerosol Model (NOVAM) has been formulated to estimate the vertical structure of the optical and infrared extinction coefficients in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL), for waverengths between 0,2 and 40 um. NOVAM was designed to predict, utilizing a set of

  18. Private incentives to vertical disintegration among firms with heterogeneous objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Rossini, Gianpaolo

    2003-01-01

    A vertically integrated monopoly is compared to a decentralized market arrangement where production is segmented. A Labor Managed firm produces an input used by a profit maximizer manufacturer of a final good. Unlike what usually occurs between homogeneous firms we find circumstances in which the decentralised vertical arrangement is privately superior to the integrated one.

  19. CREATING EFFECTIVE MODELS OF VERTICAL INTEGRATED STRUCTURES IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Koliesnikov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of scientific research aimed at development of methodology-theoretical mechanisms of building the effective models of vertically-integrated structures are presented. A presence of vertically-integrated structures on natural-monopolistic markets at private and governmental sectors of economy and priority directions of integration are given.

  20. Buried injector logic, a vertical IIL using deep ion implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A vertically integrated alternative for integrated injection logic has been realized, named buried injector logic (BIL). 1 MeV ion implantations are used to create buried layers. The vertical pnp and npn transistors have thin base regions and exhibit a limited charge accumulation if a gate is

  1. Finding people, papers, and posts: Vertical search algorithms and evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, R.W.

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing diversity of information access applications. While general web search has been dominant in the past few decades, a wide variety of so-called vertical search tasks and applications have come to the fore. Vertical search is an often used term for search that targets specific

  2. Does Contract Complexity Limit Opportunities? Vertical Organization and Flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P.G. Pennings (Enrico)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe vertical organization of production entails a range of make-or-buy decisions of intermediate goods that are influenced by the difficulty of writing contracts with a potential supplier. When contracting causes high transaction costs, a firm can decide to vertically integrate the

  3. Vertical dispersion produced by random closed orbit distortions and sextupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshio.

    1977-01-01

    Vertical dispersion appears even in a machine designed with plane symmetry because of vertical closed orbit distortions, linear coupling and coupling due to sextupoles. This gives rise to several undesirable effects in an electron-positron storage ring such as PEP. Vertical dispersion at the interaction point will increase beam height and reduce luminosity. Vertical dispersion around the ring will modify vertical emittance and partition numbers for synchrotron radiation damping. It will also induce betatron-synchrotron resonance and affect chromaticity correction. Vertical dispersion due to random closed orbit distortions and sextupoles has been studied by Piwinski, and he has indicated that correction of chromaticity and chromatic change of β-function is important. However, he has assumed one error element and evaluated the dispersion at the position of the element. We generalize his argument to a more realistic case and derive more precise criteria for the correction of vertical dispersion. Horizontal dispersion due to perturbations is also studied. Vertical dispersion due to linear coupling is neglected in this note, since it has been studied by other authors. 7 refs

  4. Diel vertical migration of zooplankton in the Tanzanian waters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diel vertical migration of zooplankton was studied in the Southern part of Lake Victoria in January and July 2002. A van dorn water sampler was used to collect zooplankton. In January 2002, zooplankton showed a pronounced diel vertical migration whereby zooplankton were moving upward at around sunset and ...

  5. Prevention of vertical transmission of HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M.B.; Rasmussen, J.B.; Nielsen, V.R.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a RNA virus that can be transmitted parenterally, sexually or vertically. An effective prevention strategy has been implemented in industrialised countries, thereby reducing vertical transmission from 15-25% to < 1%. The aim of this study was to...

  6. Second vertical derivative of potential fields using an adaptation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The second vertical derivative of magnetic fields is commonly used for resolution of anomalies in gravity and magnetic fields. It is also commonly used as an aid to geologic mapping i.e. for the delineation of geological discontinuities in the subsurface. Frequency domain methods for calculating second vertical derivatives ...

  7. Horizontal and vertical seismic isolation of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonomou, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a study for the horizontal and vertical seismic isolation of a nuclear power plant with a base isolation system, developed by the author, called the Alexisismon. This system -- which comprises different schemes for horizontal or vertical or both horizontal and vertical isolation -- is a linear system based on the principle of separation of functions. That is, horizontal and vertical isolation are realized through different components and act independently from each other. As far as horizontal isolation is concerned, the role of transmitting vertical loads is uncoupled from the role of inducing horizontal restoring forces so that both functions can be performed without instability. It is possible either to provide both horizontal and vertical isolation to the whole nuclear plant or to isolate the whole plant horizontally and to provide vertical isolation to sensitive and costly equipment only. When the fundamental period of the plant or equipment is 2 seconds and when the vertical displacements are of the order of + or - 20 inches, the structure or equipment are protected against earthquakes up to 1.10 and 1.30 g for actual and 0.60 and 1.50 g for artificial accelerograms. In both cases all the isolation elements behave elastically up to these acceleration limits as well as the superstructure and equipment

  8. Vertical integration and diversification of acute care hospitals: conceptual definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J P

    1988-01-01

    The terms vertical integration and diversification, although used quite frequently, are ill-defined for use in the health care field. In this article, the concepts are defined--specifically for nonuniversity acute care hospitals. The resulting definitions are more useful than previous ones for predicting the effects of vertical integration and diversification.

  9. SOMPROF: A vertically explicit soil organic matter model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakhekke, M.C.; Beer, M.; Hoosbeek, M.R.; Kruijt, B.; Kabat, P.

    2011-01-01

    Most current soil organic matter (SOM) models represent the soil as a bulk without specification of the vertical distribution of SOM in the soil profile. However, the vertical SOM profile may be of great importance for soil carbon cycling, both on short (hours to years) time scale, due to

  10. Imaging of the vertical particle tracks without any depth scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroko, L.M.

    2001-01-01

    The principle of a new optical microscope which enables us to get the image of a vertical particle track without any depth scanning is described. This new optical microscope contains a spatial transformer which consists of mirror lamellar elements and which produces a secondary in focus image of the vertical particle track. Properties of such a system are presented. A longitudinal resolution is estimated

  11. Proximate Composition, Nutritional Attributes and Mineral Composition of <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> L. (Ketumpangan Air Grown in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maznah Ismail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the proximate and mineral composition of <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> L., an underexploited weed plant in Malaysia. Proximate analysis was performed using standard AOAC methods and mineral contents were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicated <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> to be rich in crude protein, carbohydrate and total ash contents. The high amount of total ash (31.22% suggests a high-value mineral composition comprising potassium, calcium and iron as the main elements. The present study inferred that <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> would serve as a good source of protein and energy as well as micronutrients in the form of a leafy vegetable for human consumption.

  12. Doppler Lidar Vertical Velocity Statistics Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsom, R. K. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Sivaraman, C. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Shippert, T. R. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Riihimaki, L. D. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Accurate height-resolved measurements of higher-order statistical moments of vertical velocity fluctuations are crucial for improved understanding of turbulent mixing and diffusion, convective initiation, and cloud life cycles. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility operates coherent Doppler lidar systems at several sites around the globe. These instruments provide measurements of clear-air vertical velocity profiles in the lower troposphere with a nominal temporal resolution of 1 sec and height resolution of 30 m. The purpose of the Doppler lidar vertical velocity statistics (DLWSTATS) value-added product (VAP) is to produce height- and time-resolved estimates of vertical velocity variance, skewness, and kurtosis from these raw measurements. The VAP also produces estimates of cloud properties, including cloud-base height (CBH), cloud frequency, cloud-base vertical velocity, and cloud-base updraft fraction.

  13. Progress and Prospects in Developing Marine Vertical Datum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Xinghua

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Marine vertical datum system construction is the basic work of marine surveying. In the 2009-2012, China has preliminarily constructed the transformation and unification of different height/depth datum model in the China Sea of 80 nautical mile. In recent years, this model has been extended to the South China Sea, the western Pacific and the eastern Indian Ocean, and then a seamless vertical datum model in the south and north pole area to the whole world gradually will be constructed in the near future, this is the foundation of supporting the digital ocean construction in China. This paper mainly discusses the research status of marine vertical datum construction which had been carried out in major coastal countries or regions, analyzes the main work and approaches and key technologies in the process of the marine vertical datum system building, and then expounds the achievements and existing problems in the practice of our country marine vertical datum building.

  14. Toroidal inhomogeneity of the vertical field in a tokamak apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sometani, Taro; Takashima, Hidekazu

    1977-01-01

    An experiment with a model device has been made on the toroidal inhomogeneity of the vertical field in a Tokamak with an iron core. The D.C. vertical field is increased near the yokes of the iron core, while the gross plasma image field (consisting of the components due to the plasma current, the primary current, and its image) is reduced there. These two vertical fields, when superposed, exert force on the plasma as a less inhomogeneous external vertical field. The vertical field can be homogenized satisfactorily by using a compensation winding wound at a proper position on the iron core even if the shielding plates, which are mounted on some Tokamaks, are dispensed with. (auth.)

  15. Theoretic base of Edge Local Mode triggering by vertical displacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z. T. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); College of Physics Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); He, Z. X.; Wang, Z. H. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wu, N.; Tang, C. J. [College of Physics Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Vertical instability is studied with R-dependent displacement. For Solovev's configuration, the stability boundary of the vertical instability is calculated. The pressure gradient is a destabilizing factor which is contrary to Rebhan's result. Equilibrium parallel current density, j{sub //}, at plasma boundary is a drive of the vertical instability similar to Peeling-ballooning modes; however, the vertical instability cannot be stabilized by the magnetic shear which tends towards infinity near the separatrix. The induced current observed in the Edge Local Mode (ELM) triggering experiment by vertical modulation is derived. The theory provides some theoretic explanation for the mitigation of type-I ELMS on ASDEX Upgrade. The principle could be also used for ITER.

  16. O insight em psiquiatria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida P. Cardoso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O sinal de que algo está a acontecer contribui para que o paciente reconheça que alguma coisa de estranho se está a passar consigo. Este reconhecimento faz com que o sujeito possa desempenhar uma função activa e seja um elemento colaborante do seu processo de recuperação. Cada doença apresenta, contudo, diferentes sintomas, uma vez que cada doença psiquiátrica consiste em diferentes perturbações com diversos efeitos sobre o funcionamento mental. Desta maneira, o fenómeno do insight que é registado em cada doença é diferente e expressa-se sob diferentes formas, não somente devido às manifestações clínicas da doença mas também devido às características individuais do sujeito.

  17. Antibioticos profilaticos em neurocirurgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo A. Brandt

    1979-03-01

    Full Text Available O índice de infecções pós-operatórias em pacientes neuro-cirúrgicos que receberam antibióticos profiláticos neste período foi comparado com o de pacientes que não receberam antibióticos. Infecções ocorreram em proporções significativamente maiores nos pacientes que receberam antibióticos, particularmente naqueles com afecções intracranianas graves; estas infecções foram graves e fatais na maioria dos casos. A administração de antibióticos profiláticos nestes pacientes não só foi incapaz de prevenir o aparecimento de infecções pós-operatórias, como aparentemente favoreceu o seu desenvolvimento. Tal se deveu, provavelmente, à destruição do equilíbrio microbiano no organismo, favorecendo o desenvolvimento de germes patogênicos e resistentes aos antibióticos usuais

  18. Spirit Near 'Stapledon' on Sol 1802 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera for the images assembled into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,802nd Martian day, or sol, (January 26, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars. North is at the top. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. Spirit had driven down off the low plateau called 'Home Plate' on Sol 1782 (January 6, 2009) after spending 12 months on a north-facing slope on the northern edge of Home Plate. The position on the slope (at about the 9-o'clock position in this view) tilted Spirit's solar panels toward the sun, enabling the rover to generate enough electricity to survive its third Martian winter. Tracks at about the 11-o'clock position of this panorama can be seen leading back to that 'Winter Haven 3' site from the Sol 1802 position about 10 meters (33 feet) away. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about one meter (40 inches). Where the receding tracks bend to the left, a circular pattern resulted from Spirit turning in place at a soil target informally named 'Stapledon' after William Olaf Stapledon, a British philosopher and science-fiction author who lived from 1886 to 1950. Scientists on the rover team suspected that the soil in that area might have a high concentration of silica, resembling a high-silica soil patch discovered east of Home Plate in 2007. Bright material visible in the track furthest to the right was examined with Spirit's alpha partical X-ray spectrometer and found, indeed, to be rich in silica. The team laid plans to drive Spirit from this Sol 1802 location back up onto Home Plate, then southward for the rover's summer field season.

  19. A democracia em Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Guanche Zaldívar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O triunfo revolucionário de 1959 consagrou em Cuba um novo conceito de democracia, com o intuito de garantir o acesso à vida política ativa de grandes setores da população, antes excluídos. Para isso, foi desenvolvida uma política de inclusão social com caráter universal. A prática política popular deixou as riquezas do país em mãos da população carente e gerou uma grande mobilidade social, fato que foi central para o aumento da participação popular. O contexto de agressão imperialista e o próprio desenvolvimento do processo produziram a consolidação de noções que limitaram a participação popular: o apogeu da burocracia, a compreensão da unidade como unanimidade e o seguimento, em certa medida, de correntes do marxismo soviético. Os desafios atuais para aprofundar a democracia em Cuba se apresentam em três planos: socializar o poder, promover a sociodiversidade e desenvolver a ideologia revolucionária.El triunfo revolucionario de 1959 consagró en Cuba un nuevo concepto de democracia, basado en garantizar acceso a la vida política activa a grandes sectores poblacionales, antes excluidos de ella. Para ello desarrolló una política de inclusión social con carácter universal. La práctica política popular puso las riquezas del país en manos de los desposeídos y generó gran movilidad social, hecho que resultó clave para el aumento de la participación popular. El contexto de agresión imperialista y el propio desarrollo del proceso produjo el afianzamiento de nociones que limitaron la participación popular: el auge de la burocracia, la comprensión de la unidad como unanimidad y el seguimiento, en parte, de corrientes del marxismo soviético. Los desafíos actuales se presentan en tres planos para profundizar la democracia en Cuba: socializar el poder, promover la sociodiversidad y desarrollar la ideología revolucionaria.The revolutionary triumph of 1959 established in Cuba a new concept of democracy, one that

  20. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  1. Characterization of vertical mixing in oscillatory vegetated flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolahpour, M.; Ghisalberti, M.; Lavery, P.; McMahon, K.

    2016-02-01

    Seagrass meadows are primary producers that provide important ecosystem services, such as improved water quality, sediment stabilisation and trapping and recycling of nutrients. Most of these ecological services are strongly influenced by the vertical exchange of water across the canopy-water interface. That is, vertical mixing is the main hydrodynamic process governing the large-scale ecological and environmental impact of seagrass meadows. The majority of studies into mixing in vegetated flows have focused on steady flow environments whereas many coastal canopies are subjected to oscillatory flows driven by surface waves. It is known that the rate of mass transfer will vary greatly between unidirectional and oscillatory flows, necessitating a specific investigation of mixing in oscillatory canopy flows. In this study, we conducted an extensive laboratory investigation to characterise the rate of vertical mixing through a vertical turbulent diffusivity (Dt,z). This has been done through gauging the evolution of vertical profiles of concentration (C) of a dye sheet injected into a wave-canopy flow. Instantaneous measurement of the variance of the vertical concentration distribution ( allowed the estimation of a vertical turbulent diffusivity (). Two types of model canopies, rigid and flexible, with identical heights and frontal areas, were subjected to a wide and realistic range of wave height and period. The results showed two important mechanisms that dominate vertical mixing under different conditions: a shear layer that forms at the top of the canopy and wake turbulence generated by the stems. By allowing a coupled contribution of wake and shear layer mixing, we present a relationship that can be used to predict the rate of vertical mixing in coastal canopies. The results further showed that the rate of vertical mixing within flexible vegetation was always lower than the corresponding rigid canopy, confirming the impact of plant flexibility on canopy

  2. Qualidade da carne de frangos de corte submetidos a dietas suplementadas com crômio, criados em diferentes temperaturas ambientais - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i2.218 Meat quality of broiler chicks submeted the supplemented diets with chromium and reared in differents enviromental temperatures - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i2.218

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nívea Maria Brancaci Zeoula

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos. O experimento um objetivou avaliar a composição da carne do peito de frangos alimentados com dietas suplementadas com crômio (0, 400, 800 e 1.200 μg Cr kg-1 complexado a levedura, criados sob diferentes condições de temperatura (quente, termoneutra e fria. O experimento dois objetivou avaliar a qualidade da carne do peito de frangos alimentados com dietas suplementadas com crômio (0 e 400 μg Cr kg-1, criados nas mesmas condições do experimento um e desossados em diferentes períodos (0, 5 e 24 horas. Os resultados mostram que as aves criadas em ambiente frio apresentaram a carne com menor porcentagem de matéria mineral e crômio e maior intensidade de vermelho, enquanto as aves criadas em temperatura termoneutra apresentaram carne com menor porcentagem de umidade, e as aves criadas em temperatura quente, carne com maior luminosidade. Já a suplementação de crômio não proporcionou qualquer efeito na composição e na qualidade de carne, enquanto que o aumento no período de desossa proporcionou um menor comprimento de sarcômero, força de cisalhamento e intensidade de amarelo, porém uma maior luminosidade.Two experiments were conducted being the objective of the first experiment to evaluate the the composition of breast meat of broiler chicks fed with diets supplemented with chromium yeast (0; 400; 800 and 1,200 μg Cr kg-1 reared in different environmental temperatures (hot, thermoneutral and cold. The second experiment aimed to evaluate the quality of breast meat of broiler chicks fed with diets supplemented with chromium yeast (0 and 400 μg Cr kg-1, reared in different environmental temperatures (hot, thermoneutral and cold and deboned in different periods (0, 5 and 24 hours. The results showed that birds reared in cold environmental temperature showed meat with lower mineral matter percentage and chromium and higher values of redness, whereas the birds reared in thermoneutral environment

  3. Osteoporose em caprinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio B. Rosa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo de casos de osteoporose em caprinos provenientes de uma propriedade na área de abrangência do LPV-UFSM, determinando a epidemiologia, o quadro clínico-patológico e discutindo os prováveis mecanismos patogenéticos. Cinco cabras, fêmeas, SRD, de seis meses a seis anos de idade foram afetadas. As cabras eram mantidas em campo nativo, sem suplementação com ração e sob superlotação. Os principais sinais clínicos foram emagrecimento, dificuldade de locomoção e permanência em decúbito por longos períodos. As principais alterações macroscópicas nos ossos examinados foram vistas nas superfícies de corte e caracterizavam-se por depleção do osso esponjoso (porosidade e redução acentuada da espessura do osso cortical. Havia também marcada atrofia serosa da gordura da medula óssea. Microscopicamente, nas regiões avaliadas (úmero proximal, rádio distal, fêmur distal, tíbia proximal e corpos das vértebras lombares foi observada redução moderada a acentuada do número e da espessura das trabéculas ósseas nas epífises e metáfises dos ossos longos e nos corpos vertebrais. Os achados clínico-patológicos indicaram que a osteoporose observada provavelmente foi causada pela desnutrição. As alterações ósseas (diminuição no número e na espessura das trabéculas do osso esponjoso sugerem que ambos os mecanismos, má formação óssea e reabsorção óssea aumentada, contribuíram para a ocorrência de osteoporose nos caprinos deste estudo.

  4. Effect of hang cleans or squats paired with countermovement vertical jumps on vertical displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Tedi R; Mackey, Theresa; Inkrott, Thomas A; Murray, Steven R; Clark, Ida E; Pettitt, Robert W

    2011-09-01

    Complex training is characterized by pairing resistance exercise with plyometric exercise to exploit the postactivation potentiation (PAP) phenomenon, thereby promising a better training effect. Studies on PAP as measured by human power performances are equivocal. One issue may be the lack of analyses across multiple sets of paired exercises, a common practice used by athletes. We evaluated countermovement vertical jump (CMJ) performance in 19 women, collegiate athletes in 3 of the following trials: (a) CMJs-only, where 1 set of CMJs served as a conditioning exercise, (b) heavy-load, back squats paired with CMJs, and (c) hang cleans paired with CMJs. The CMJ vertical displacement (3-attempt average), as measured with digital video, served as the dependent variable of CMJ performance. Across 3 sets of paired-exercise regimens, CMJ-only depreciated 1.6 cm and CMJ paired with back squats depreciated 2.0 cm (main effect, p squats or CMJs in and of themselves. Future research on exercise modes of complex training that best help athletes preserve and train with the highest power possible, in a given training session, is warranted.

  5. Four Novel Cellulose Synthase (CESA Genes from <em>Birch> (<em>Betula platyphylla em>Suk. Involved in Primary and Secondary Cell Wall Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Liu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose synthase (CESA, which is an essential catalyst for the generation of plant cell wall biomass, is mainly encoded by the <em>CesA> gene family that contains ten or more members. In this study; four full-length cDNAs encoding CESA were isolated from<em> Betula platyphyllaem> Suk., which is an important timber species, using RT-PCR combined with the RACE method and were named as <em>BplCesA3em>, <em>−4em>,> −7 em>and> −8em>. These deduced CESAs contained the same typical domains and regions as their <em>Arabidopsis> homologs. The cDNA lengths differed among these four genes, as did the locations of the various protein domains inferred from the deduced amino acid sequences, which shared amino acid sequence identities ranging from only 63.8% to 70.5%. Real-time RT-PCR showed that all four <em>BplCesAs> were expressed at different levels in diverse tissues. Results indicated that BplCESA8 might be involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis and floral development. BplCESA3 appeared in a unique expression pattern and was possibly involved in primary cell wall biosynthesis and seed development; it might also be related to the homogalacturonan synthesis. BplCESA7 and BplCESA4 may be related to the formation of a cellulose synthase complex and participate mainly in secondary cell wall biosynthesis. The extremely low expression abundance of the four BplCESAs in mature pollen suggested very little involvement of them in mature pollen formation in <em>Betula>. The distinct expression pattern of the four <em>BplCesAs> suggested they might participate in developments of various tissues and that they are possibly controlled by distinct mechanisms in <em>Betula.>

  6. Subjective visual vertical after treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Mian Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Otolith function can be studied by testing the subjective visual vertical, because the tilt of the vertical line beyond the normal range is a sign of vestibular dysfunction. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is a disorder of one or more labyrinthine semicircular canals caused by fractions of otoliths derived from the utricular macula. Objective: To compare the subjective visual vertical with the bucket test before and immediately after the particle repositioning maneuver in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Methods: We evaluated 20 patients. The estimated position where a fluorescent line within a bucket reached the vertical position was measured before and immediately after the particle repositioning maneuver. Data were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Results: Before repositioning maneuver, 9 patients (45.0% had absolute values of the subjective visual vertical above the reference standard and 2 (10.0% after the maneuver; the mean of the absolute values of the vertical deviation was significantly lower after the intervention (p < 0.001. Conclusion: There is a reduction of the deviations of the subjective visual vertical, evaluated by the bucket test, immediately after the particle repositioning maneuver in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

  7. Response of ramus following vertical lengthening with distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzuner-Oncul, Aysegul Mine; Kisnisci, Reha S

    2011-09-01

    Vertical lengthening of the mandibular ramus is considered to be one of the least stable surgical procedures in the management of musculoskeletal maxillofacial deformities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of the mandibular ramus following vertical lengthening by means of distraction osteogenesis. This study included eight non-syndromic adult patients with temporomandibular joint ankylosis. The vertical height deficiency of the mandibular ramus and the ramus/condyle unit on the affected side were simultaneously reconstructed by transportation of a bone segment using distraction osteogenesis following gap arthroplasty. Lateral and posteroanterior (PA) cephalograms taken postoperatively before active distraction, at the completion of distraction and 6, 12, 24 months after distraction, were compared to evaluate the changes of the ramus height. In all cases the vertical ramus and ramus/condyle unit height loss were successfully reconstructed by distraction osteogenesis. There was no relapse in the amount of height gained by distraction osteogenesis at the 24 months follow-up review (p>0.05). Acute one stage vertical lengthening of the mandibular ramus is considered to be one of the least stable musculoskeletal procedures with relapse being a significant adverse outcome. In this clinical study gradual vertical lengthening of the ramus through ramus/condyle unit distraction osteogenesis has maintained the initial vertical ramus height gained for 24 months. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro force delivery of nickel-titanium superelastic archwires in vertical displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha de Souza Gomes Stumpf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the force delivered by different superlastic nickel-titanium wires during vertical displacement, in order to determine whether their stress release meets the criteria for constant and light forces that are usually accredited to these archwires. METHOD: Ten samples of 6 brands of 0.016-in archwires (Ormco, GAC, Morelli, TP, American Orthodontics e Rocky Mountain were tested in a complete metal model using Dynalock brackets (3M Unitek™. In the canine position, there was a sliding bracket connected to a pole. This set was related to a load cell of 0.5 kg attached to a universal testing machine (Autograph AG-199kNG, Shimadzu. The crosshead speed was 0.5 mm/min and the maximum displacement was 1.0 mm. The model was submerged in temperature-controlled water. The results were analyzed by ANOVA (p OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a força liberada por diferentes fios de níquel-titânio (NiTi superelástico em deslocamento vertical, a fim de determinar se a liberação de estresse por esses satisfaz o critério de forças suaves e constantes, geralmente atribuído a tais arcos. MÉTODOS: dez amostras de seis arcos de NiTi superelástico 0,016” de marcas comerciais diferentes (Ormco, GAC, Morelli, TP, American Orthodontics e Rocky Mountain foram testados em um modelo metálico usando braquetes Dynalock (3M Unitek. Na região do canino, havia um braquete móvel conectado a uma haste, a qual estava relacionada com uma célula de carga de 0,5kg de uma máquina universal de ensaios (Autograph AG-199kNG, Shimadzu. O deslocamento do conjunto na região do canino foi realizado a uma velocidade constante de 0,5mm/min e o deslocamento máximo foi de 1,0mm. O conjunto foi submerso em água com temperatura controlada a 37ºC. RESULTADOS: os resultados obtidos foram avaliados por ANOVA (p <0,05, usando o software SAS System 8.02, Cry, NC, EUA. O arco da TP apresentou a menor força durante todo o

  9. <em>N>-Substituted 5-Chloro-6-phenylpyridazin-3(2<em>H>-ones: Synthesis, Insecticidal Activity Against <em>Plutella xylostella em>(L. and SAR Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of <em>N>-substituted 5-chloro-6-phenylpyridazin-3(2<em>H>-one derivatives were synthesized based on our previous work; all compounds were characterized by spectral data and tested for <em>in vitroem> insecticidal activity against <em>Plutella xylostellaem>. The results showed that the synthesized pyridazin-3(2<em>H>-one compounds possessed good insecticidal activities, especially the compounds 4b, 4d, and 4h which showed > 90% activity at 100 mg/L. The structure-activity relationships (SAR for these compounds were also discussed.

  10. Vibrações e choques mecânicos em pintos de um dia transportados em diferentes estradas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aérica C. Nazareno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As vibrações e os choques mecânicos que ocorrem durante o transporte de pintos, podem atuar como agente estressor, afetando a vida das aves. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o transporte de pintos de um dia em diferentes estradas por meio dos níveis de vibração e choques ocorrentes nos caminhões. A pesquisa foi conduzida na empresa integradora avícola no estado de São Paulo, com o acompanhamento de 11 carregamentos de pintos. Um caminhão climatizado do tipo contêiner foi utilizado, com capacidade para 630 caixas de pintos totalizando em média 63.000 pintos. As avaliações dos níveis de vibração (m s-2 e choques nas estradas de terra e asfalto foram registradas por meio de três acelerômetros triaxiais. Para o nível de vibração e o número de choques o delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente aleatorizado em esquema fatorial 11 x 2. Por meio dos resultados pode-se concluir que os piores níveis de vibração (vertical, horizontal e aceleração geral ocorreram na estrada de terra, com valores médios de 2,2, 3,3 e 25,8 m s-2, respectivamente. As maiores quantidades de choques ocorreram para todos os deslocamentos de cargas (vertical, lateral direita à esquerda e horizontal foram verificadas na estrada de asfalto, valores médios de 453, 52 e 554 choques, respectivamente.

  11. INDICADORES EM SANEAMENTO

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Samuel Alves Barbi; Côrtes, Larissa Silveira; Coelho Netto, Taiana; Freitas Junior, Moacyr Moreira de

    2016-01-01

    Este artigo se propõe a analisar a evolução dos prestadores de serviços de saneamento do estado de MinasGerais entre os anos de 2005 e 2010 com base nos indicadores do Sistema Nacional de Informações em Saneamento(SNIS). Foram definidos parâmetros técnicos para a análise dos indicadores, classificados os resultados como satisfatórios(verdes) ou insatisfatórios (vermelhos). Esta categorização atende a concepção da Regulação Sunshine, trazendo à tona omonitoramento do progresso das ações no set...

  12. Em favor da talassografia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Boudou

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A Talassografia (“descrição do mar” interessa-sepelos impactos físicos, biológicos, ecológicos... culturais da violenta antropização dos ambientes costeiros (oceânicos e continentais, caracterizados pelaexigüidade, vulnerabilidade, fragilidade e plasticidade. Como o Brasil é um “país marítimo”, os geó-grafos (os talassógrafos brasileiros são convidadosa intensificar suas pesquisas nas áreas costeiras e acriar novas estruturas para divulgá-las: Revista, Encontros, Associação, Pós-Graduação... tudo em prolda talassografia.

  13. Vertical-horizontal wells for depletion and sweep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraikhi, A. J.; Pham, T. R.; Liu, J. S.; Khatib, M. R.; Muhaish, A. S. [Saudi Aramco (Saudi Arabia)

    1998-12-31

    A well completion scheme currently in use in a thick, large, elongated carbonate anticline Middle-East oil reservoir is described. This method of well completion calls for a combination of an open hole horizontal section penetrating the top 10 feet of the reservoir and a cased or undisturbed vertical segment through the thick formation. The horizontal section is used for producing and the vertical segment is used for monitoring purposes. Field experience and supported reservoir simulation exercises have shown that the horizontal application is superior to conventional vertical completion both from the economic and from the sweep point of view. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  14. Analytical Model of Steam Chamber Evolution from Vertical Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, D. V.; Usmanov, S. A.; Shangaraeva, A. I.; Murtaizin, T. A.

    2018-05-01

    This paper is aimed to check the possibility of applying the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage in vertical wells. This challenge seems to be vital because most of the natural bitumen reservoirs are found to occur above the oil fields being developed so that a well system is already available at the stage of field management. The existing vertical wells are hard to be used for horizontal sidetracking in most of cases as the bitumen reservoir occurs at a shallow depth. The matter is to use the existing wells as vertical ones. At the same time, it is possible to drill an additional sidetrack as a producer or an injector.

  15. A proposed orbit and vertical dispersion correction system for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, E.; Cornacchia, M.; King, A.S.; Lee, M.J.

    1978-07-01

    The proposed arrangement of position monitors and dipole magnets for the closed orbit correction system in PEP is described. The computer code ALIGN, which simulates and corrects closed orbit displacements, has been used to study the most effective layout of monitors and correctors. The vertical dispersion function has been computed before and after closed orbit correction. The results indicate that the residual vertical dispersion after the orbit is corrected could exceed the tolerable values. A correction procedure for the vertical dispersion has been studied with the compute code CO-OP and this scheme of correction has been verified experimentally in SPEAR. 9 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Beyond vertical integration--Community based medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Emma Margaret

    2006-11-01

    The term 'vertical integration' is used broadly in medical education, sometimes when discussing community based medical education (CBME). This article examines the relevance of the term 'vertical integration' and provides an alternative perspective on the complexities of facilitating the CBME process. The principles of learner centredness, patient centredness and flexibility are fundamental to learning in the diverse contexts of 'community'. Vertical integration as a structural concept is helpful for academic organisations but has less application to education in the community setting; a different approach illuminates the strengths and challenges of CBME that need consideration by these organisations.

  17. ONLINE MINIMIZATION OF VERTICAL BEAM SIZES AT APS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yipeng

    2017-06-25

    In this paper, online minimization of vertical beam sizes along the APS (Advanced Photon Source) storage ring is presented. A genetic algorithm (GA) was developed and employed for the online optimization in the APS storage ring. A total of 59 families of skew quadrupole magnets were employed as knobs to adjust the coupling and the vertical dispersion in the APS storage ring. Starting from initially zero current skew quadrupoles, small vertical beam sizes along the APS storage ring were achieved in a short optimization time of one hour. The optimization results from this method are briefly compared with the one from LOCO (Linear Optics from Closed Orbits) response matrix correction.

  18. Coupling and Vertical Dispersion Correction in the SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Aiba, M; Franchi, A; Tomas, R; Vanbavinckhove, G

    2010-01-01

    Consolidation of the coupling correction scheme in the LHC is challenged by a missing skew quadrupole family in Sector 3-4 at the start-up in 2009-2010. Simultaneous coupling and vertical dispersion correction using vertical orbit bumps at the sextupoles, was studied by analyzing turn-byturn data. This scheme was tested in the CERN SPS where the optical structure of arc cells is quite similar to the LHC. In the SPS, horizontal and vertical beam positions are measured separately with single plane BPMs, thus a technique to construct ”pseudo double plane BPM” is also discussed.

  19. A study of reconstruction artifacts in cone beam tomography using filtered backprojection and iterative EM algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, G.L.; Gullberg, G.T.

    1990-01-01

    Reconstruction artifacts in cone beam tomography are studied for filtered backprojection (Feldkamp) and iterative EM algorithms. The filtered backprojection algorithm uses a voxel-driven, interpolated backprojection to reconstruct the cone beam data; whereas, the iterative EM algorithm performs ray-driven projection and backprojection operations for each iteration. Two weight in schemes for the projection and backprojection operations in the EM algorithm are studied. One weights each voxel by the length of the ray through the voxel and the other equates the value of a voxel to the functional value of the midpoint of the line intersecting the voxel, which is obtained by interpolating between eight neighboring voxels. Cone beam reconstruction artifacts such as rings, bright vertical extremities, and slice-to slice cross talk are not found with parallel beam and fan beam geometries

  20. Desempenho em Pastagens e Características de Carcaça da 16a Progênie dos Rebanhos Nelore, Guzerá e Caracu de Sertãozinho (SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razook Alexander George

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Quarenta e um machos inteiros dos rebanhos selecionados para peso aos 378 dias (P378, nascidos em 1996, foram terminados em pastagens de Panicum Maximum (Jacq., Panicum Maximum (Jaq cv. Tanzania 1 e Brachiaria brizantha (Hoschst Stapf cv. Marandu na Estação Experimental de Zootecnia de Sertãozinho (SP. As amostras, representando a média de P378 em cada rebanho, foram: 11 animais Nelore Seleção (NeS e 10 para cada um dos grupos Nelore Controle (NeC, Guzerá Seleção (GuS e Caracu (Ca. O abate ocorreu aos 824 dias de idade e condição corporal 7,6, em uma escala de 1 a 9. As médias mínimas e máximas ajustadas, para as principais características, considerando-se todos os grupos, foram: ganho de peso médio diário, 406 (NeC e 501 g (NeS; peso de abate (PAB, 446,8 (NeC e 544,3 kg (NeS ; peso de carcaça (PCAR, 249,8 (NeC e 309,7 kg (NeS; rendimento de carcaça (REND, 54,0 (GuS e 56,3% (NeC e NeS. No corte entre a 9feminine e 11feminine costelas : músculo 59,6 (NeC e 65,2% (Ca; gordura, 15,6 (Ca e 21,4% (NeC; osso, 18,9 (NeC e 20,2% (GuS; espessura de gordura (ESPGOR, 2,0 (Ca e 4,2 mm (NeC; área de olho de lombo (AOL, 65,6 (NeC e 71,1 cmsuperscript two (NeS e Ca; força de cisalhamento (FC, 4,5 (Ca e 6,6 kg (GuS e perdas totais no cozimento (PERDAS, 22,5 (NeC e 24,9% (GuS. A seleção para peso provocou, em NeS, maiores PAB e PCAR, sem interferir no REND, na composição da costela, FC e PERDAS na carne. Houve, porém, menor ESPGOR em relação à NeC. Os animais GuS apresentaram PAB e PCAR intermediários, entre NeS e Ca, e menor REND e os Ca maior proporção de músculo na costela e carne com maior maciez em relação ao Zebu.