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Sample records for cis-urocanic acid suppresses

  1. Pyridoxine supplementation protects mice from suppression of contact hypersensitivity induced by 2-acetyl-4-tetrahydroxybutylimidazole (THI), ultraviolet B radiation (280-320 nm), or cis-urocanic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, V E; Bosnic, M; Boehm-Wilcox, C; Cope, R B

    1995-03-01

    Evidence exists implicating the epidermal ultraviolet B (UVB) photoproduct cis-urocanic acid as an immunogenic mediator of the systemic suppression of T cell-mediated immunity by UVB exposure. Cis-urocanic acid appears to act via histamine receptor pathways, and histamine receptor antagonists and other imidazole ring compounds may modify its immune suppressing action. A component of the food coloring substance ammonia caramel, 2-acetyl-4-tetrahydroxybutylimidazole (THI), which is known to cause lymphopenia in rats, appears to suppress immunity by a similar pathway when the contact hypersensitivity reaction has been the immune function assay in mice. The induction of lymphopenia in rats by THI is inhibited by the vitamin pyridoxine. This study demonstrates that the suppression of contact hypersensitivity in mice by UVB radiation, cis-urocanic acid, or THI is strongly inhibited by supplemental pyridoxine, fed at 30 mg/kg diet, in comparison with the normal diet, which supplies 7 mg pyridoxine/kg diet. These results suggest that pyridoxine competes with cis-urocanic acid and THI for the same binding site or receptor, which we postulate to be a histamine-like T lymphocyte receptor, and that a role may exist for the control of photoimmunosuppression by this vitamin. PMID:7872221

  2. Cis-urocanic acid synergizes with histamine for increased PGE2 production by human keratinocytes: link to indomethacin-inhibitable UVB-induced immunosuppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is considerable evidence that suppression of the immune system by UVB (280-320 nm UV) irradiation is initiated by UVB-dependent isomerization of a specific skin photoreceptor, urocanic acid (UCA), from the trans to the cis form. Previous studies have confirmed that cis-UCA administration to mice 3-5 days prior to hapten sensitization at a distant site, suppresses the contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response upon challenge. This study demonstrates in mice that cis-UCA, like UVB, suppresses CHS to trinitrochlorobenzene by a mechanism partly dependent on prostanoid production. In vitro experimentation showed that human keratinocytes, isolated from neonatal foreskin, increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in response to histamine but not UCA alone. However, cis-UCA synergized with histamine for increased PGE2 production by keratinocytes. Cis-urocanic acid also increased the sensitivity of keratinocytes for PGE2 production in response to histamine. Prostaglandin E2 from keratinocytes exposed to cis-UCA and histamine may contribute directly, or indirectly, to the regulation of CHS responses by UVB irradiation. (Author)

  3. A garlic extract protects from ultraviolet B (280-320 nm) radiation-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyophilized aged garlic extract has been incorporated at concentrations of 0.1%, 1% and 4% by weight into semi purified powdered diets and fed to hairless mice. Under moderate UVB exposure conditions resulting in 58% suppression of the systemic contact hypersensitivity response in control-fed mice, a dose-responsive protection was observed in the garlic-fed mice; contact hypersensitivity in the UVB-exposed mice fed 4% garlic extract was suppressed by only 19%. If the UVB exposure was replaced by topical application of one of a series of lotions containing increasing concentrations of cis-urocanic acid, a dose-responsive suppression of contact hypersensitivity was demonstrated in control-fed mice (urocanic acid at 25, 50, 100 and 200 micrograms per mouse resulting in 22-46% suppression). Mice fed a diet containing 1% aged garlic extract were partially protected from cis-urocanic acid-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity, with greater protection from the lower concentrations of urocanic acid. Mice fed a diet containing 4% aged garlic extract were protected from all concentrations of urocanic acid. The results indicate that aged garlic extract contains ingredient(s) that protect from UVB-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity and suggest that the mechanism of protection is by antagonism of the cis-urocanic acid mediation of this form of immunosuppression

  4. Suppression of contact hypersensitivity by short-term ultraviolet irradiation: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cis-urocanic acid (cis-UCA), produced from trans-UCA (a normal component of epidermis) by UV irradiation, suppressed cell-mediated immunological reactions in vivo and in vitro. It suppressed the development of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) when injected into mice, and it suppressed leucocyte adherence inhibition (LAI) reactions of previously sensitized lymphocytes exposed to antigen. Serum from mice injected with cis-UCA was also immunosuppressive in vitro. Normal murine spleen cells cultured with cis-UCA produced a non-dialysable factor which suppressed LAI reactivity. Trans-UCA was ineffectual in all of these systems. Both the ability of cis-UCA to induce an immunosuppressive serum factor and its ability to suppress CHS were abrogated by prior administration of cyclophosphamide, indicating that cis-UCA (normally from irradiated epidermis) stimulates T suppressor cells to produce the previously described suppressor factor in serum and the immunosuppression associated with short-term irradiation. (author)

  5. Fluorescent light activates the immunomodulator cis-urocanic acid in vitro: implications for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, H.; Bell, J. M.; Haycock, J W

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--Erythemagenic (295-305 nm) ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation is toxic to patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Cool white fluorescent lamp emissions produce a similar toxicity even though the UVB radiation emitted is primarily at the relatively non-erythemagenic wavelength of 313 nm. The purpose of this study was to determine if fluorescent light, presumably acting predominantly along the 313 nm wavelength, exhibits photochemical activity sufficient to account for toxicity....

  6. Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure Suppresses T-independent Antibody Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to  3.75mg/kg of perfluoroocatnoic acid (PFOA) for 15d suppresses T-dependent antibody responses (TDAR), suggesting that T helper cells and/or B cells/plasma cells may be impacted. This study evaluated effects of PFOA exposure on the T cell-independent antibody response...

  7. The influence of Helicobacter pylori on oesophageal acid exposure in GERD during acid suppressive therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, FTM; Kuipers, EJ; Ganesh, S; Sluiter, WJ; Klinkenberg-Knol, EC; Lamers, CBHW; Kleibeuker, JH

    1999-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori exaggerates the effect of acid suppressive drugs on intragastric pH. It is unknown whether this is relevant for the treatment of GERD. Aim: To compare oesophageal acid exposure and symptoms in H. pylori-negative and H. pylori-positive GERD patients during low and prof

  8. Retinoic acid suppresses intestinal mucus production and exacerbates experimental enterocolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan H. Oehlers

    2012-07-01

    Exposure to retinoids for the treatment of acne has been linked to the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. The intestinal mucus layer is an important structural barrier that is disrupted in IBD. Retinoid-induced alteration of mucus physiology has been postulated as a mechanism linking retinoid treatment to IBD; however, there is little direct evidence for this interaction. The zebrafish larva is an emerging model system for investigating the pathogenesis of IBD. Importantly, this system allows components of the innate immune system, including mucus physiology, to be studied in isolation from the adaptive immune system. This study reports the characterization of a novel zebrafish larval model of IBD-like enterocolitis induced by exposure to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS. The DSS-induced enterocolitis model was found to recapitulate several aspects of the zebrafish trinitrobenzene-sulfonic-acid (TNBS-induced enterocolitis model, including neutrophilic inflammation that was microbiota-dependent and responsive to pharmacological intervention. Furthermore, the DSS-induced enterocolitis model was found to be a tractable model of stress-induced mucus production and was subsequently used to identify a role for retinoic acid (RA in suppressing both physiological and pathological intestinal mucin production. Suppression of mucin production by RA increased the susceptibility of zebrafish larvae to enterocolitis when challenged with enterocolitic agents. This study illustrates a direct effect of retinoid administration on intestinal mucus physiology and, subsequently, on the progression of intestinal inflammation.

  9. Suppression of the HPA Axis During Cholestasis Can Be Attributed to Hypothalamic Bile Acid Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Matthew; Frampton, Gabriel; Quinn, Matthew; Divan, Ali; Grant, Stephanie; Patel, Nisha; Newell-Rogers, Karen; DeMorrow, Sharon

    2015-12-01

    Suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been shown to occur during cholestatic liver injury. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that in a model of cholestasis, serum bile acids gain entry into the brain via a leaky blood brain barrier and that hypothalamic bile acid content is increased. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to determine the effects of bile acid signaling on the HPA axis. The data presented show that HPA axis suppression during cholestatic liver injury, specifically circulating corticosterone levels and hypothalamic corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) expression, can be attenuated by administration of the bile acid sequestrant cholestyramine. Secondly, treatment of hypothalamic neurons with various bile acids suppressed CRH expression and secretion in vitro. However, in vivo HPA axis suppression was only evident after the central injection of the bile acids taurocholic acid or glycochenodeoxycholic acid but not the other bile acids studied. Furthermore, we demonstrate that taurocholic acid and glycochenodeoxycholic acid are exerting their effects on hypothalamic CRH expression after their uptake through the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter and subsequent activation of the glucocorticoid receptor. Taken together with previous studies, our data support the hypothesis that during cholestatic liver injury, bile acids gain entry into the brain, are transported into neurons through the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter and can activate the glucocorticoid receptor to suppress the HPA axis. These data also lend themselves to the broader hypothesis that bile acids may act as central modulators of hypothalamic peptides that may be altered during liver disease. PMID:26431088

  10. Use of acid-suppressive therapy before anti-reflux surgery in 2922 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lødrup, A; Pottegård, A; Hallas, J;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend that patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease are adequately treated with acid-suppressive therapy before undergoing anti-reflux surgery. Little is known of the use of acid-suppressive drugs before anti-reflux surgery. AIM: To determine the use of proton pump...... Danish National Prescription Register, and the Danish Person Register. RESULTS: The study population thus included 2922 patients (median age: 48 years, 55.7% male). The annual proportion of patients redeeming ≥180 DDD of acid-suppressive therapy increased from 17.0% 5 years before anti-reflux surgery to...... redeemed prescriptions on NSAID or anti-platelet drugs. CONCLUSION: Compliance with medical therapy should be evaluated thoroughly before planning anti-reflux surgery, as a high proportion of patients receive inadequate dosing of acid-suppressive therapy prior to the operation....

  11. Improving Appropriateness of Acid-Suppressive Medication Use Via Computerized Clinical Decision Support

    OpenAIRE

    Herzig, Shoshana J.; Guess, Jamey R.; Feinbloom, David B.; Adra, May; Afonso, Kevin A.; Howell, Michael D.; Edward R. Marcantonio

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Choosing Wisely Campaign, the Society of Hospital Medicine identified reducing inappropriate use of acid-suppressive medication for stress ulcer prophylaxis as one of 5 key opportunities to improve the value of care for hospitalized patients. We designed a computerized clinical decision support intervention to reduce use of acid-suppressive medication for stress ulcer prophylaxis in hospitalized patients outside of the intensive care unit at an academic medical center. Using qu...

  12. Ultraviolet-irradiated urocanic acid suppresses delayed-type hypersensitivity to herpes simplex virus in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet radiation is known to induce a transient defect in epidermal antigen presentation which leads to the generation of antigen-specific suppression of the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. The putative receptor in skin for the primary event in UV-suppression is urocanic acid (UCA) which may then interact locally, or systemically, with antigen presenting cells or initiate a cascade of events resulting in suppression. We present the first direct evidence that UCA, when irradiated with a dose (96 mJ/cm2) of UVB radiation known to suppress the DTH response to herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV-1) in mice, can induce suppression following epidermal application or s.c. injection of the irradiated substance. This suppression is transferable with nylon wool-passed spleen cells

  13. Acid suppression therapy does not predispose to Clostridium difficile infection: the case of the potential bias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Novack

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: An adverse effect of acid-suppression medications on the occurrence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI has been a common finding of many, but not all studies. We hypothesized that association between acid-suppression medications and CDI is due to the residual confounding in comparison between patients with infection to those without, predominantly from non-tested and less sick subjects. We aimed to evaluate the effect of acid suppression therapy on incidence of CDI by comparing patients with CDI to two control groups: not tested patients and patients suspected of having CDI, but with a negative test. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of adult patients hospitalized in internal medicine department of tertiary teaching hospital between 2005-2010 for at least three days. Controls from each of two groups (negative for CDI and non-tested were individually matched (1:1 to cases by primary diagnosis, Charlson comorbidity index, year of hospitalization and gender. Primary outcomes were diagnoses of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9-coded CDI occurring 72 hours or more after admission. RESULTS: Patients with CDI were similar to controls with a negative test, while controls without CDI testing had lower clinical severity. In multivariable analysis, treatment by acid suppression medications was associated with CDI compared to those who were not tested (OR = 1.88, p-value = 0.032. Conversely, use of acid suppression medications in those who tested negative for the infection was not associated with CDI risk as compared to the cases (OR = 0.66; p = 0.059. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the reported epidemiologic associations between use of acid suppression medications and CDI risk may be spurious. The control group choice has an important impact on the results. Clinical differences between the patients with CDI and those not tested and not suspected of having the infection may explain the different conclusions

  14. Suppression of adipose lipolysis by long-chain fatty acid analogs

    OpenAIRE

    Kalderon, Bella; Azazmeh, Narmen; Azulay, Nili; Vissler, Noam; Valitsky, Michael; Bar-Tana, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Agonist-induced lipolysis of adipose fat is robustly inhibited by insulin or by feedback inhibition by the long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) produced during lipolysis. However, the mode of action of LCFA in suppressing adipose lipolysis is not clear. β,β’-Tetramethyl hexadecanedioic acid (Mββ/ EDICA16) is a synthetic LCFA that is neither esterified into lipids nor β-oxidized, and therefore, it was exploited for suppressing agonist-induced lipolysis in analogy to natural LCFA. Mββ is shown here to...

  15. Suppression of rice methane emission by sulfate deposition in simulated acid rain

    OpenAIRE

    Gauci, Vincent; Dise, Nancy B; Howell, Graham; Jenkins, Meaghan E.

    2008-01-01

    Sulfate in acid rain is known to suppress methane (CH4) emissions from natural freshwater wetlands. Here we examine the possibility that CH4 emissions from rice agriculture may be similarly affected by acid rain, a major and increasing pollution problem in Asia. Our findings suggest that acid rain rates of SO2-4 deposition may help to reduce CH4 emissions from rice agriculture. Emissions from rice plants treated with simulated acid rain at levels of SO2-4 consistent with the range of depositi...

  16. DETERMINATION OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS BY ION-EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH NON-SUPPRESSED CONDUCTIVITY AND OPTICAL DETECTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determination of carboxylic acids using non-suppressed conductivity and UV detections is described. The background conductance of 1-octanesulfonic acid, hexane sulfonic acid and sulfuric acid at varying concentrations was determined. Using 0.2 mM 1-octanesulfonic acid as a mobile...

  17. Linoleic acid suppresses cholesterol efflux and ATP-binding cassette transporters in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), possibly associated with elevated plasma free fatty acid concentrations. Paradoxically, evidence suggests that unsaturated, compared to saturated fatty acids, suppress macrophage chole...

  18. Acid suppression increases rates of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal injury in the presence of duodenal reflux.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: The contribution of gastric acid to the toxicity of alkaline duodenal refluxate on the esophageal mucosa is unclear. This study compared the effect of duodenal refluxate when acid was present, decreased by proton pump inhibitors (PPI), or absent. METHODS: We randomized 136 Sprague-Dawley rats into 4 groups: group 1 (n = 33) were controls; group 2 (n = 34) underwent esophagoduodenostomy promoting "combined reflux"; group 3 (n = 34) underwent esophagoduodenostomy and PPI treatment to decrease acid reflux; and group 4, the \\'gastrectomy\\' group (n = 35) underwent esophagoduodenostomy and total gastrectomy to eliminate acid in the refluxate. Esophaguses were examined for inflammatory, Barrett\\'s, and other histologic changes, and expression of proliferative markers Ki-67, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). RESULTS: In all reflux groups, the incidence of Barrett\\'s mucosa was greater when acid was suppressed (group C, 62%; group D, 71%) than when not suppressed (group B, 27%; P = 0.004 and P < .001). Erosions were more frequent in the PPI and gastrectomy groups than in the combined reflux group. Edema (wet weight) and ulceration was more frequent in the gastrectomy than in the combined reflux group. Acute inflammatory changes were infrequent in the PPI group (8%) compared with the combined reflux (94%) or gastrectomy (100%) groups, but chronic inflammation persisted in 100% of the PPI group. EGFR levels were greater in the PPI compared with the combined reflux group (P = .04). Ki-67, PCNA, and combined marker scores were greater in the gastrectomy compared with the combined reflux group (P = .006, P = .14, and P < .001). CONCLUSION: Gastric acid suppression in the presence of duodenal refluxate caused increased rates of inflammatory changes, intestinal metaplasia, and molecular proliferative activity. PPIs suppressed acute inflammatory changes only, whereas chronic inflammatory changes persisted.

  19. Malonic acid suppresses mucin-type O-glycan degradation during hydrazine treatment of glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goso, Yukinobu

    2016-03-01

    Hydrazine treatment is frequently used for releasing mucin-type O-glycans (O-glycans) from glycoproteins because the method provides O-glycans that retain a reducible GalNAc at their reducing end, which is available for fluorescent labeling. However, many O-glycans are degraded by "peeling" during this treatment. In the current study, it was found that malonic acid suppressed O-glycan degradation during hydrazine treatment of bovine fetuin or porcine gastric mucin in both the gas and liquid phases. This is paradoxical because the release of O-glycans from glycoproteins occurs under alkaline conditions. However, malonic acid seems to prevent the degradation through its acidic property given that other weak acids also prevented the degradation. Accordingly, disodium malonate did not suppress O-glycan degradation. Application of this method to rat gastric mucin demonstrated that the majority of the major O-glycans obtained in the presence of malonic acid were intact, whereas those obtained in the absence of malonic acid were degraded. These results suggest that hydrazine treatment in the presence of malonic acid would allow glycomic analysis of native mucin glycoproteins. PMID:26723492

  20. Plant responses against invasive nucleic acids: RNA silencing and its suppression by plant viral pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado, Veria; Herman B Scholthof

    2009-01-01

    RNA silencing is a common strategy shared by eukaryotic organisms to regulate gene expression, and also operates as a defense mechanism against invasive nucleic acids such as viral transcripts. The silencing pathway is quite sophisticated in higher eukaryotes but the distinct steps and nature of effector complexes vary between and even within species. To counteract this defense mechanism viruses have evolved the ability to encode proteins that suppress silencing to protect their genomes from ...

  1. Ginkgolic acid suppresses the development of pancreatic cancer by inhibiting pathways driving lipogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Jiguang; Duan, Wanxing; Han, Suxia; Lei, Jianjun; Xu, Qinhong; Chen, Xin; Jiang, Zhengdong; Nan, Ligang; Li, Jiahui; Chen, Ke; Han, Liang; Wang, Zheng; Li, Xuqi; Wu, Erxi; HUO, XIONGWEI

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgolic acid (GA) is a botanical drug extracted from the seed coat of Ginkgo biloba L. with a wide range of bioactive properties, including anti-tumor effect. However, whether GA has antitumor effect on pancreatic cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms have yet to be investigated. In this study, we show that GA suppressed the viability of cancer cells but has little toxicity on normal cells, e.g, HUVEC cells. Furthermore, treatment of GA resulted in impaired colony formation, migration,...

  2. Suppressive actions of eicosapentaenoic acid on lipid droplet formation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Andrew J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipid droplet (LD formation and size regulation reflects both lipid influx and efflux, and is central in the regulation of adipocyte metabolism, including adipokine secretion. The length and degree of dietary fatty acid (FA unsaturation is implicated in LD formation and regulation in adipocytes. The aims of this study were to establish the impact of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3 in comparison to SFA (STA; stearic acid, C18:0 and MUFA (OLA; oleic acid, C18:1n-9 on 3T3-L1 adipocyte LD formation, regulation of genes central to LD function and adipokine responsiveness. Cells were supplemented with 100 μM FA during 7-day differentiation. Results EPA markedly reduced LD size and total lipid accumulation, suppressing PPARγ, Cidea and D9D/SCD1 genes, distinct from other treatments. These changes were independent of alterations of lipolytic genes, as both EPA and STA similarly elevated LPL and HSL gene expressions. In response to acute lipopolysaccharide exposure, EPA-differentiated adipocytes had distinct improvement in inflammatory response shown by reduction in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-6 and elevation in adiponectin and leptin gene expressions. Conclusions This study demonstrates that EPA differentially modulates adipogenesis and lipid accumulation to suppress LD formation and size. This may be due to suppressed gene expression of key proteins closely associated with LD function. Further analysis is required to determine if EPA exerts a similar influence on LD formation and regulation in-vivo.

  3. Suppression by ellagic acid of 60Co-irradiation-induced lipid peroxidation in placenta and fetus of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ellagic acid, a component of Eucalyptus maculata, on lipid peroxidation was examined in placenta and fetus of pregnant rats irradiated with 60Co. The increase in lipid peroxide levels by the irradiation of the placenta and fetus brain as well as those of the serum and organs of mother was suppressed by treatment of the mother rats with ellagic acid. This suppressing effect found in placenta and fetus was significantly correlated with that found in mother rats. Moreover, ellagic acid suppressed the morphological changes such as degeneration in the endothelial cells of placenta and liver cells of fetus caused by the irradiation and improved the survival rate after the irradiation. These suppressing effects of ellagic acid were approximately the same as those of α-tocopherol. (author)

  4. Prevalence and outcome of gastrointestinal bleeding and use of acid suppressants in acutely ill adult intensive care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Mette; Perner, Anders; Wetterslev, Jørn;

    2015-01-01

    replacement therapy (6.9, 2.7-17.5), co-existing coagulopathy (5.2, 2.3-11.8), acute coagulopathy (4.2, 1.7-10.2), use of acid suppressants (3.6, 1.3-10.2) and higher organ failure score (1.4, 1.2-1.5). In ICU, 73 % (71-76 %) of patients received acid suppressants; most received proton pump inhibitors. In...

  5. Suppression of fat deposition in broiler chickens by (-)-hydroxycitric acid supplementation: A proteomics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. PMID:27586962

  6. Suppression of fat deposition in broiler chickens by (-)-hydroxycitric acid supplementation: A proteomics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. PMID:27586962

  7. Phytic acid suppresses ischemia-induced hydroxyl radical generation in rat myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Toshio; Nakashima, Michiko

    2016-03-01

    The present study examined whether ischemia-reperfusion-induced hydroxyl radical (·OH) generation was attenuated by myo-inositol hexaphosphoric acid (phytic acid). A flexibly mounted microdialysis technique was used to detect the generation of ·OH in in vivo rat hearts. To measure the level of ·OH, sodium salicylate in Ringer's solution (0.5mM or 0.5 nmol/μl/min) was infused directly through a microdialysis probe to detect the generation of ·OH as reflected by the nonenzymatic formation of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA). To confirm the generation of ·OH by Fenton-type reaction, iron(II) was infused through a microdialysis probe. A positive linear correlation between iron(II) and the formation of 2,3-DHBA (R(2)=0.983) was observed. However, the level of 2,3-DHBA in norepinephrine (100 μM) plus phytic acid (100 μM) treated group were significantly lower than those observed in norepinephrine-only-treated group (n=6, *pphytic acid on ischemia-reperfusion-induced ·OH generation, the heart was subjected to myocardial ischemia for 15 min by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). When the heart was reperfused, the normal elevation of 2,3-DHBA in the heart dialysate was not observed in animals pretreated with phytic acid. These results suggest that phytic acid is associated with antioxidant effect due to the suppression of iron-induced ·OH generation. PMID:26724394

  8. Silverleaf whitefly induces salicylic acid defenses and suppresses effectual jasmonic acid defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Sonia I; Kempema, Louisa A; Walling, Linda L

    2007-02-01

    The basal defenses important in curtailing the development of the phloem-feeding silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci type B; SLWF) on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were investigated. Sentinel defense gene RNAs were monitored in SLWF-infested and control plants. Salicylic acid (SA)-responsive gene transcripts accumulated locally (PR1, BGL2, PR5, SID2, EDS5, PAD4) and systemically (PR1, BGL2, PR5) during SLWF nymph feeding. In contrast, jasmonic acid (JA)- and ethylene-dependent RNAs (PDF1.2, VSP1, HEL, THI2.1, FAD3, ERS1, ERF1) were repressed or not modulated in SLWF-infested leaves. To test for a role of SA and JA pathways in basal defense, SLWF development on mutant and transgenic lines that constitutively activate or impair defense pathways was determined. By monitoring the percentage of SLWF nymphs in each instar, we show that mutants that activate SA defenses (cim10) or impair JA defenses (coi1) accelerated SLWF nymphal development. Reciprocally, mutants that activate JA defenses (cev1) or impair SA defenses (npr1, NahG) slowed SLWF nymphal development. Furthermore, when npr1 plants, which do not activate downstream SA defenses, were treated with methyl jasmonate, a dramatic delay in nymph development was observed. Collectively, these results showed that SLWF-repressed, JA-regulated defenses were associated with basal defense to the SLWF. PMID:17189328

  9. Silverleaf Whitefly Induces Salicylic Acid Defenses and Suppresses Effectual Jasmonic Acid Defenses1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Sonia I.; Kempema, Louisa A.; Walling, Linda L.

    2007-01-01

    The basal defenses important in curtailing the development of the phloem-feeding silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci type B; SLWF) on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were investigated. Sentinel defense gene RNAs were monitored in SLWF-infested and control plants. Salicylic acid (SA)-responsive gene transcripts accumulated locally (PR1, BGL2, PR5, SID2, EDS5, PAD4) and systemically (PR1, BGL2, PR5) during SLWF nymph feeding. In contrast, jasmonic acid (JA)- and ethylene-dependent RNAs (PDF1.2, VSP1, HEL, THI2.1, FAD3, ERS1, ERF1) were repressed or not modulated in SLWF-infested leaves. To test for a role of SA and JA pathways in basal defense, SLWF development on mutant and transgenic lines that constitutively activate or impair defense pathways was determined. By monitoring the percentage of SLWF nymphs in each instar, we show that mutants that activate SA defenses (cim10) or impair JA defenses (coi1) accelerated SLWF nymphal development. Reciprocally, mutants that activate JA defenses (cev1) or impair SA defenses (npr1, NahG) slowed SLWF nymphal development. Furthermore, when npr1 plants, which do not activate downstream SA defenses, were treated with methyl jasmonate, a dramatic delay in nymph development was observed. Collectively, these results showed that SLWF-repressed, JA-regulated defenses were associated with basal defense to the SLWF. PMID:17189328

  10. Fatty Acid Competition as a Mechanism by Which Enterobacter cloacae Suppresses Pythium ultimum Sporangium Germination and Damping-Off

    OpenAIRE

    van Dijk, Karin; Nelson, Eric B.

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between plant-associated microorganisms play important roles in suppressing plant diseases and enhancing plant growth and development. While competition between plant-associated bacteria and plant pathogens has long been thought to be an important means of suppressing plant diseases microbiologically, unequivocal evidence supporting such a mechanism has been lacking. We present evidence here that competition for plant-derived unsaturated long-chain fatty acids between the biologi...

  11. Inhibition of Large Neutral Amino Acid Transporters Suppresses Kynurenic Acid Production Via Inhibition of Kynurenine Uptake in Rodent Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Airi; Kuroki, Yusuke; Urata, Tomomi; Mori, Noriyuki; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2016-09-01

    The tryptophan metabolite, kynurenic acid (KYNA), is a preferential antagonist of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor at endogenous brain concentrations. Recent studies have suggested that increases of brain KYNA levels are involved in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression, and regulation of KYNA production has become a new target for treatment of these diseases. Kynurenine (KYN), the immediate precursor of KYNA, is transported into astrocytes via large neutral amino acid transporters (LATs). In the present study, the effect of LATs regulation on KYN uptake and KYNA production was investigated in vitro and in vivo using an LATs inhibitor, 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH). In the in vitro study, cortical slices of rat brain were incubated with a physiological concentration of KYN and 3 µmol/L-3 mmol/L BCH. BCH inhibited KYNA production and KYN uptake in a dose-dependent manner, and their IC50 values were 90.7 and 97.4 µmol/L, respectively. In the in vivo study, mice were administered KYN (50 mg/kg BW) orally and BCH (200 mg/kg BW) intravenously. Administration of KYN increased brain KYN and KYNA levels compared with the mice treated with vehicle, whereas additional administration of BCH suppressed KYN-induced elevations in KYN and KYNA levels to 50 and 70 % in the brain. These results suggest that inhibition of LATs prevented the increase of KYNA production via blockade of KYN uptake in the brain in vitro and in vivo. LATs can be a target to modulate brain function by regulation of KYNA production in the brain. PMID:27161376

  12. Potential immunological consequences of pharmacological suppression of gastric acid production in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Sangita

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Corticosteroids are standard treatment for patients with multiple sclerosis experiencing acute relapse. Because dyspeptic pain is a common side effect of this intervention, patients can be given a histamine receptor-2 antagonist, proton pump inhibitor or antacid to prevent or ameliorate this disturbance. Additionally, patients with multiple sclerosis may be taking these medications independent of corticosteroid treatment. Interventions for gastric disturbances can influence the activation state of the immune system, a principal mediator of pathology in multiple sclerosis. Although histamine release promotes inflammation, activation of the histamine receptor-2 can suppress a proinflammatory immune response, and blocking histamine receptor-2 with an antagonist could shift the balance more towards immune stimulation. Studies utilizing an animal model of multiple sclerosis indicate that histamine receptor-2 antagonists potentially augment disease activity in patients with multiple sclerosis. In contrast, proton pump inhibitors appear to favor immune suppression, but have not been studied in models of multiple sclerosis. Antacids, histamine receptor-2 antagonists and proton pump inhibitors also could alter the intestinal microflora, which may indirectly lead to immune stimulation. Additionally, elevated gastric pH can promote the vitamin B12 deficiency that patients with multiple sclerosis are at risk of developing. Here, we review possible roles of gastric acid inhibitors on immunopathogenic mechanisms associated with multiple sclerosis.

  13. Interactions between cranberries and fungi: the proposed function of organic acids in virulence suppression of fruit rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadych, Mariusz; Vorsa, Nicholi; Wang, Yifei; Bergen, Marshall S; Johnson-Cicalese, Jennifer; Polashock, James J; White, James F

    2015-01-01

    Cranberry fruit are a rich source of bioactive compounds that may function as constitutive or inducible barriers against rot-inducing fungi. The content and composition of these compounds change as the season progresses. Several necrotrophic fungi cause cranberry fruit rot disease complex. These fungi remain mostly asymptomatic until the fruit begins to mature in late August. Temporal fluctuations and quantitative differences in selected organic acid profiles between fruit of six cranberry genotypes during the growing season were observed. The concentration of benzoic acid in fruit increased while quinic acid decreased throughout fruit development. In general, more rot-resistant genotypes (RR) showed higher levels of benzoic acid early in fruit development and more gradual decline in quinic acid levels than that observed in the more rot-susceptible genotypes. We evaluated antifungal activities of selected cranberry constituents and found that most bioactive compounds either had no effects or stimulated growth or reactive oxygen species (ROS) secretion of four tested cranberry fruit rot fungi, while benzoic acid and quinic acid reduced growth and suppressed secretion of ROS by these fungi. We propose that variation in the levels of ROS suppressive compounds, such as benzoic and quinic acids, may influence virulence by the fruit rot fungi. Selection for crops that maintain high levels of virulence suppressive compounds could yield new disease resistant varieties. This could represent a new strategy for control of disease caused by necrotrophic pathogens that exhibit a latent or endophytic phase. PMID:26322038

  14. Interactions between cranberries and fungi: the proposed function of organic acids in virulence suppression of fruit rot fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz eTadych

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cranberry fruit are a rich source of bioactive compounds that may function as constitutive or inducible barriers against rot-inducing fungi. The content and composition of these compounds change as the season progresses. Several necrotrophic fungi cause cranberry fruit rot disease complex. These fungi remain mostly asymptomatic until the fruit begins to mature in late August. Temporal fluctuations and quantitative differences in selected organic acid profiles between fruit of six cranberry genotypes during the growing season were observed. The concentration of benzoic acid in fruit increased while quinic acid decreased throughout fruit development. In general, more rot-resistant genotypes showed higher levels of benzoic acid early in fruit development and more gradual decline in quinic acid levels than that observed in the more rot-susceptible genotypes. We evaluated antifungal activities of selected cranberry constituents and found that most bioactive compounds either had no effects or stimulated growth or reactive oxygen species (ROS secretion of four tested cranberry fruit rot fungi, while benzoic acid and quinic acid reduced growth and suppressed secretion of ROS by these fungi. We propose that variation in the levels of ROS suppressive compounds, such as benzoic and quinic acids, may influence virulence by the fruit rot fungi. Selection for crops that maintain high levels of virulence suppressive compounds could yield new disease resistant varieties. This could represent a new strategy for control of disease caused by necrotrophic pathogens that exhibit a latent or endophytic phase.

  15. Might the use of acid-suppressive medications predispose to the development of eosinophilic esophagitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwat, Shehzad Nawaz; Spechler, Stuart Jon

    2009-08-01

    The prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis, a manifestation of food allergy, has increased in recent years for reasons that are not clear. The gastrointestinal mucosa is regularly exposed to food antigens with the potential to evoke immunological reactions. Studies have shown that some food allergens that ordinarily would be degraded by peptic digestion are not degraded when the pH of gastric fluid is raised to levels commonly found in the stomachs of patients treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Other studies have shown that PPIs increase gastrointestinal mucosal permeability, which might facilitate the uptake of undegraded peptide allergens. Mice treated with antisecretory medications while being fed a diet of caviar have been found to develop caviar-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies, T-cell reactivity, and gastric eosinophilia. Adult patients treated with antisecretory medications for 3 months have been found to develop a rise in their IgE antibody levels and new, food-specific IgE antibodies. These data establish a plausible mechanism whereby acid-suppressive medications, by interfering with the peptic digestion of food allergens and increasing mucosal permeability, might lead to the development of food allergy. The time course of the introduction and subsequent widespread usage of PPIs with the emergence of eosinophilic esophagitis fits well with the hypothesis that PPIs may play an etiological role. Although the mere demonstration of a plausible association does not establish cause and effect, further studies on the role of acid suppression in the development of eosinophilic esophagitis clearly are warranted. PMID:19661930

  16. Compost-induced suppression of Pythium damping-off is mediated by fatty-acid-metabolizing seed-colonizing microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellar, Mary E; Nelson, Eric B

    2003-01-01

    Leaf composts were studied for their suppressive effects on Pythium ultimum sporangium germination, cottonseed colonization, and the severity of Pythium damping-off of cotton. A focus of the work was to assess the role of fatty-acid-metabolizing microbial communities in disease suppression. Suppressiveness was expressed within the first few hours of seed germination as revealed by reduced P. ultimum sporangium germination, reduced seed colonization, and reduced damping-off in transplant experiments. These reductions were not observed when cottonseeds were sown in a conducive leaf compost. Microbial consortia recovered from the surface of cottonseeds during the first few hours of germination in suppressive compost (suppressive consortia) induced significant levels of damping-off suppression, whereas no suppression was induced by microbial consortia recovered from cottonseeds germinated in conducive compost (conducive consortia). Suppressive consortia rapidly metabolized linoleic acid, whereas conducive consortia did not. Furthermore, populations of fatty-acid-metabolizing bacteria and actinobacteria were higher in suppressive consortia than in conducive consortia. Individual bacterial isolates varied in their ability to metabolize linoleic acid and protect seedlings from damping-off. Results indicate that communities of compost-inhabiting microorganisms colonizing cottonseeds within the first few hours after sowing in a Pythium-suppressive compost play a major role in the suppression of P. ultimum sporangium germination, seed colonization, and damping-off. Results further indicate that fatty acid metabolism by these seed-colonizing bacterial consortia can explain the Pythium suppression observed. PMID:12514027

  17. Fatty acid competition as a mechanism by which Enterobacter cloacae suppresses Pythium ultimum sporangium germination and damping-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, K; Nelson, E B

    2000-12-01

    Interactions between plant-associated microorganisms play important roles in suppressing plant diseases and enhancing plant growth and development. While competition between plant-associated bacteria and plant pathogens has long been thought to be an important means of suppressing plant diseases microbiologically, unequivocal evidence supporting such a mechanism has been lacking. We present evidence here that competition for plant-derived unsaturated long-chain fatty acids between the biological control bacterium Enterobacter cloacae and the seed-rotting oomycete, Pythium ultimum, results in disease suppression. Since fatty acids from seeds and roots are required to elicit germination responses of P. ultimum, we generated mutants of E. cloacae to evaluate the role of E. cloacae fatty acid metabolism on the suppression of Pythium sporangium germination and subsequent plant infection. Two mutants of E. cloacae EcCT-501R3, Ec31 (fadB) and EcL1 (fadL), were reduced in beta-oxidation and fatty acid uptake, respectively. Both strains failed to metabolize linoleic acid, to inactivate the germination-stimulating activity of cottonseed exudate and linoleic acid, and to suppress Pythium seed rot in cotton seedling bioassays. Subclones containing fadBA or fadL complemented each of these phenotypes in Ec31 and EcL1, respectively. These data provide strong evidence for a competitive exclusion mechanism for the biological control of P. ultimum-incited seed infections by E. cloacae where E. cloacae prevents the germination of P. ultimum sporangia by the efficient metabolism of fatty acid components of seed exudate and thus prevents seed infections. PMID:11097912

  18. Predator evasion in zooplankton is suppressed by polyunsaturated fatty acid limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzeziński, Tomasz; von Elert, Eric

    2015-11-01

    Herbivorous zooplankton avoid size-selective predation by vertical migration to a deep, cold water refuge. Adaptation to low temperatures in planktonic poikilotherms depends on essential dietary lipids; the availability of these lipids often limits growth and reproduction of zooplankton. We hypothesized that limitation by essential lipids may affect habitat preferences and predator avoidance behavior in planktonic poikilotherms. We used a liposome supplementation technique to enrich the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the cyanobacterium Synecchococcus elongatus with the essential lipids, cholesterol and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and an indoor system with a stratified water-column (plankton organ) to test whether the absence of these selected dietary lipids constrains predator avoidance (habitat preferences) in four species of the key-stone pelagic freshwater grazer Daphnia. We found that the capability of avoiding fish predation through habitat shift to the deeper and colder environment was suppressed in Daphnia unless the diet was supplemented with EPA; however, the availability of cholesterol did not affect habitat preferences of the tested taxa. Thus, their ability to access a predator-free refuge and the outcome of predator-prey interactions depends upon food quality (i.e. the availability of an essential fatty acid). Our results suggest that biochemical food quality limitation, a bottom-up factor, may affect the top-down control of herbivorous zooplankton. PMID:26232092

  19. Ginkgolic acid suppresses the development of pancreatic cancer by inhibiting pathways driving lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiguang; Duan, Wanxing; Han, Suxia; Lei, Jianjun; Xu, Qinhong; Chen, Xin; Jiang, Zhengdong; Nan, Ligang; Li, Jiahui; Chen, Ke; Han, Liang; Wang, Zheng; Li, Xuqi; Wu, Erxi; Huo, Xiongwei

    2015-08-28

    Ginkgolic acid (GA) is a botanical drug extracted from the seed coat of Ginkgo biloba L. with a wide range of bioactive properties, including anti-tumor effect. However, whether GA has antitumor effect on pancreatic cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms have yet to be investigated. In this study, we show that GA suppressed the viability of cancer cells but has little toxicity on normal cells, e.g, HUVEC cells. Furthermore, treatment of GA resulted in impaired colony formation, migration, and invasion ability and increased apoptosis of cancer cells. In addition, GA inhibited the de novo lipogenesis of cancer cells through inducing activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and downregulated the expression of key enzymes (e.g. acetyl-CoA carboxylase [ACC], fatty acid synthase [FASN]) involved in lipogenesis. Moreover, the in vivo experiment showed that GA reduced the expression of the key enzymes involved in lipogenesis and restrained the tumor growth. Taken together, our results suggest that GA may serve as a new candidate against tumor growth of pancreatic cancer partially through targeting pathway driving lipogenesis. PMID:25895130

  20. The Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato type III effector HopM1 suppresses Arabidopsis defenses independent of suppressing salicylic acid signaling and of targeting AtMIN7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Gangadharan

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato strain DC3000 (Pto delivers several effector proteins promoting virulence, including HopM1, into plant cells via type III secretion. HopM1 contributes to full virulence of Pto by inducing degradation of Arabidopsis proteins, including AtMIN7, an ADP ribosylation factor-guanine nucleotide exchange factor. Pseudomonas syringae pv phaseolicola strain NPS3121 (Pph lacks a functional HopM1 and elicits robust defenses in Arabidopsis thaliana, including accumulation of pathogenesis related 1 (PR-1 protein and deposition of callose-containing cell wall fortifications. We have examined the effects of heterologously expressed HopM1Pto on Pph-induced defenses. HopM1 suppresses Pph-induced PR-1 expression, a widely used marker for salicylic acid (SA signaling and systemic acquired resistance. Surprisingly, HopM1 reduces PR-1 expression without affecting SA accumulation and also suppresses the low levels of PR-1 expression apparent in SA-signaling deficient plants. Further, HopM1 enhances the growth of Pto in SA-signaling deficient plants. AtMIN7 contributes to Pph-induced PR-1 expression. However, HopM1 fails to degrade AtMIN7 during Pph infection and suppresses Pph-induced PR-1 expression and callose deposition in wild-type and atmin7 plants. We also show that the HopM1-mediated suppression of PR-1 expression is not observed in plants lacking the TGA transcription factor, TGA3. Our data indicate that HopM1 promotes bacterial virulence independent of suppressing SA-signaling and links TGA3, AtMIN7, and other HopM1 targets to pathways distinct from the canonical SA-signaling pathway contributing to PR-1 expression and callose deposition. Thus, efforts to understand this key effector must consider multiple targets and unexpected outputs of its action.

  1. Withaferin A protects against palmitic acid-induced endothelial insulin resistance and dysfunction through suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Kalaivani Batumalaie; Muhammad Arif Amin; Dharmani Devi Murugan; Munavvar Zubaid Abdul Sattar; Nor Azizan Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Activation of inflammatory pathways via reactive oxygen species (ROS) by free fatty acids (FFA) in obesity gives rise to insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. Withaferin A (WA), possesses both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and therefore would be a good strategy to suppress palmitic acid (PA)-induced oxidative stress and inflammation and hence, insulin resistance and dysfunction in the endothelium. Effect of WA on PA-induced insulin resistance in human umbilical vein e...

  2. Zoledronic acid suppresses transforming growth factor-β-induced fibrogenesis by human gingival fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOMATSU, YUKO; IBI, MIHO; CHOSA, NAOYUKI; KYAKUMOTO, SEIKO; KAMO, MASAHARU; SHIBATA, TOSHIYUKI; SUGIYAMA, YOSHIKI; ISHISAKI, AKIRA

    2016-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are analogues of pyro-phosphate that are known to prevent bone resorption by inhibiting osteoclast activity. Nitrogen-containing BPs, such as zoledronic acid (ZA), are widely used in the treatment of osteoporosis and bone metastasis. However, despite having benefits, ZA has been reported to induce BP-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) in cancer patients. The molecular pathological mechanisms responsible for the development of BRONJ, including necrotic bone exposure after tooth extraction, remain to be elucidated. In this study, we examined the effects of ZA on the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-induced myofibroblast (MF) differentiation of human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs) and the migratory activity of hGFs, which are important for wound closure by fibrous tissue formation. The ZA maximum concentration in serum (Cmax) was found to be approximately 1.47 µM, which clinically, is found after the intravenous administration of 4 mg ZA, and ZA at this dose is considered appropriate for the treatment of cancer bone metastasis or bone diseases, such as Erdheim-Chester disease. At Cmax, ZA significantly suppressed i) the TGF-β-induced promotion of cell viability, ii) the TGF-β-induced expression of MF markers such as α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and type I collagen, iii) the TGF-β-induced migratory activity of hGFs and iv) the expression level of TGF-β type I receptor on the surfaces of hGFs, as well as the TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of Smad2/3. Thus, ZA suppresses TGF-β-induced fibrous tissue formation by hGFs, possibly through the inhibition of Smad-dependent signal transduction. Our findings partly elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying BRONJ and may prove to be beneficial to the identification of drug targets for the treatment of this symptom at the molecular level. PMID:27176567

  3. Use of Acid-Suppressive Drugs and Risk of Fracture: A Meta-analysis of Observational Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Eom, Chun-Sick; Park, Sang Min; Myung, Seung-Kwon; Yun, Jae Moon; Ahn, Jeong-Soo

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE Previous studies have reported inconsistent findings regarding the association between the use of acid-suppressive drugs such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine 2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) and fracture risk. We investigated this association using meta-analysis.

  4. One-week acid suppression trial in uninvestigated dyspepsia patients with epigastric pain or burning to predict response to 8 weeks' treatment with esomeprazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zanten, S V; Flook, N; Talley, N J;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While empiric acid-suppressive therapy for uninvestigated dyspepsia patients with symptoms of epigastric pain or burning is standard practice, it is unknown whether an early response to therapy predicts outcome. AIM: To evaluate whether a 1-w acid suppression trial is effective for pr...

  5. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intervention Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation and Weight Loss in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hua Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced sepsis is a critical medical condition, characterized by a severe systemic inflammation and rapid loss of muscle mass. Preventive and therapeutic strategies for this complex disease are still lacking. Here, we evaluated the effect of omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA intervention on LPS-challenged mice with respect to inflammation, body weight and the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 pathway components. LPS administration induced a dramatic loss of body weight within two days. Treatment with n-3 PUFA not only stopped loss of body weight but also gradually reversed it back to baseline levels within one week. Accordingly, the animals treated with n-3 PUFA exhibited markedly lower levels of inflammatory cytokines or markers in plasma and tissues, as well as down-regulation of TLR4 pathway components compared to animals without n-3 PUFA treatment or those treated with omega-6 PUFA. Our data demonstrate that n-3 PUFA intervention can suppress LPS-induced inflammation and weight loss via, at least in part, down-regulation of pro-inflammatory targets of the TLR4 signaling pathway, and highlight the therapeutic potential of n-3 PUFA in the management of sepsis.

  6. Omega-3 free fatty acids suppress macrophage inflammasome activation by inhibiting NF-κB activation and enhancing autophagy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Williams-Bey

    Full Text Available The omega-3 (ω3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA can suppress inflammation, specifically IL-1β production through poorly understood molecular mechanisms. Here, we show that DHA reduces macrophage IL-1β production by limiting inflammasome activation. Exposure to DHA reduced IL-1β production by ligands that stimulate the NLRP3, AIM2, and NAIP5/NLRC4 inflammasomes. The inhibition required Free Fatty Acid Receptor (FFAR 4 (also known as GPR120, a G-protein coupled receptor (GPR known to bind DHA. The exposure of cells to DHA recruited the adapter protein β-arrestin1/2 to FFAR4, but not to a related lipid receptor. DHA treatment reduced the initial inflammasome priming step by suppressing the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. DHA also reduced IL-1β levels by enhancing autophagy in the cells. As a consequence macrophages derived from mice lacking the essential autophagy protein ATG7 were partially resistant to suppressive effects of DHA. Thus, DHA suppresses inflammasome activation by two distinct mechanisms, inhibiting the initial priming step and by augmenting autophagy, which limits inflammasome activity.

  7. Structured triacylglycerol containing behenic and oleic acids suppresses triacylglycerol absorption and prevents obesity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamatsu Kiyoharu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary 1(3-behenoyl-2,3(1-dioleoyl-rac-glycerol (BOO has been reported to inhibit pancreatic lipase activity in vitro and suppress postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia in humans. In the present study, the anti-obesity activities of BOO and its inhibitory effects on lymphatic triacylglycerol (TAG absorption were investigated in rats. Methods In Experiment 1, rats were fed either BOO or soybean oil (SO diet for 6 weeks. In the BOO diet, 20% of SO was replaced with an experimental oil rich in BOO. In Experiments 2 and 3, rats cannulated in the thoracic duct were administered an emulsions containing trioleoylglycerol (OOO or an oil mixture (OOO:BOO, 9:1. Tri[1-14C]oleoylglycerol (14C-OOO was added to the emulsions administered in Experiment 3. Results No observable differences were detected in food intake or body weight gain between the BOO and SO groups in Experiment 1. Plasma and liver TAG concentrations and visceral fat weights were significantly lower in the BOO group than in the SO group. The apparent absorption rate of fat was significantly lower in the BOO group than in the SO group. In Experiment 2, the lymphatic recovery of oleic and behenic acids was significantly lower at 5 and 6 h after BOO administration than after OOO administration. In Experiment 3, the lymphatic recovery of 14C-OOO was significantly lower at 5 and 6 h after BOO administration than after OOO administration. Conclusions These results suggest that BOO prevents deposition of visceral fat and hepatic TAG by lowering and delaying intestinal absorption of TAG.

  8. NFX1-LIKE2 (NFXL2 suppresses abscisic acid accumulation and stomatal closure in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Lisso

    Full Text Available The NFX1-LIKE1 (NFXL1 and NFXL2 genes were identified as regulators of salt stress responses. The NFXL1 protein is a nuclear factor that positively affects adaptation to salt stress. The nfxl1-1 loss-of-function mutant displayed reduced survival rates under salt and high light stress. In contrast, the nfxl2-1 mutant, defective in the NFXL2 gene, and NFXL2-antisense plants exhibited enhanced survival under these conditions. We show here that the loss of NFXL2 function results in abscisic acid (ABA overaccumulation, reduced stomatal conductance, and enhanced survival under drought stress. The nfxl2-1 mutant displayed reduced stomatal aperture under all conditions tested. Fusicoccin treatment, exposition to increasing light intensities, and supply of decreasing CO(2 concentrations demonstrated full opening capacity of nfxl2-1 stomata. Reduced stomatal opening presumably is a consequence of elevated ABA levels. Furthermore, seedling growth, root growth, and stomatal closure were hypersensitive to exogenous ABA. The enhanced ABA responses may contribute to the improved drought stress resistance of the mutant. Three NFXL2 splice variants were cloned and named NFXL2-78, NFXL2-97, and NFXL2-100 according to the molecular weight of the putative proteins. Translational fusions to the green fluorescent protein suggest nuclear localisation of the NFXL2 proteins. Stable expression of the NFXL2-78 splice variant in nfxl2-1 plants largely complemented the mutant phenotype. Our data show that NFXL2 controls ABA levels and suppresses ABA responses. NFXL2 may prevent unnecessary and costly stress adaptation under favourable conditions.

  9. Hydroxysafflor yellow A suppress oleic acid-induced acute lung injury via protein kinase A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chaoyun [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Huang, Qingxian [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai, Shandong 264000 (China); Wang, Chunhua; Zhu, Xiaoxi; Duan, Yunfeng; Yuan, Shuai [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Bai, Xianyong, E-mail: xybai2012@163.com [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Inflammation response and oxidative stress play important roles in acute lung injury (ALI). Activation of the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway may attenuate ALI by suppressing immune responses and inhibiting the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is a natural flavonoid compound that reduces oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine-mediated damage. In this study, we examined whether HSYA could protect the lungs from oleic acid (OA)-induced injury, which was used to mimic ALI, and determined the role of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway in this process. Arterial oxygen tension (PaO{sub 2}), carbon dioxide tension, pH, and the PaO{sub 2}/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio in the blood were detected using a blood gas analyzer. We measured wet/dry lung weight ratio and evaluated tissue morphology. The protein and inflammatory cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were determined using enzyme-linked immunoassay. The activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, PKA, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, and the concentrations of cAMP and malondialdehyde in the lung tissue were detected using assay kits. Bcl-2, Bax, caspase 3, and p22{sup phox} levels in the lung tissue were analyzed using Western blotting. OA increased the inflammatory cytokine and ROS levels and caused lung dysfunction by decreasing cAMP synthesis, inhibiting PKA activity, stimulating caspase 3, and reducing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. H-89 increased these effects. HSYA significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, inhibited the inflammatory response via cAMP/PKA pathway activation, and attenuated OA-induced lung injury. Our results show that the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway is required for the protective effect of HSYA against ALI. - Highlights: • Oleic acid (OA) cause acute lung injury (ALI) via inhibiting cAMP/PKA signal pathway. • Blocking protein kinase A (PKA) activation may

  10. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Selectively Suppress Sterol Regulatory Element-binding Protein-1 through Proteolytic Processing and Autoloop Regulatory Circuit*

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Yahagi, Naoya; Izumida, Yoshihiko; Nishi, Makiko; Kubota, Midori; Teraoka, Yuji; Yamamoto, Takashi; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Sekiya, Motohiro; Iizuka, Yoko; Ohashi, Ken; Osuga, Jun-ichi; Gotoda, Takanari; Ishibashi, Shun

    2010-01-01

    Sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1 is a key transcription factor for the regulation of lipogenic enzyme genes in the liver. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) selectively suppress hepatic SREBP-1, but molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. To gain insight into this regulation, we established in vivo reporter assays to assess the activities of Srebf1c transcription and proteolytic processing. Using these in vivo reporter assays, we showed that the primary mechanism for P...

  11. Suppression of NMDA receptor function in mice prenatally exposed to valproic acid improves social deficits and repetitive behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeseung eKang; Eunjoon eKim

    2015-01-01

    Animals prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA), an antiepileptic agent, have been used as a model for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Previous studies have identified enhanced NMDA receptor (NMDAR) function in the brain of VPA rats, and demonstrated that pharmacological suppression of NMDAR function normalizes social deficits in these animals. However, whether repetitive behavior, another key feature of ASDs, can be rescued by NMDAR inhibition remains unknown. We report here that memanti...

  12. Histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid promotes the induction of pluripotency in mouse fibroblasts by suppressing reprogramming-induced senescence stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) has been used to increase the reprogramming efficiency of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) from somatic cells, yet the specific molecular mechanisms underlying this effect is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that reprogramming with lentiviruses carrying the iPSC-inducing factors (Oct4-Sox2-Klf4-cMyc, OSKM) caused senescence in mouse fibroblasts, establishing a stress barrier for cell reprogramming. Administration of VPA protected cells from reprogramming-induced senescent stress. Using an in vitro pre-mature senescence model, we found that VPA treatment increased cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis through the suppression of the p16/p21 pathway. In addition, VPA also inhibited the G2/M phase blockage derived from the senescence stress. These findings highlight the role of VPA in breaking the cell senescence barrier required for the induction of pluripotency. - Highlights: • Histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid enhances iPSC induction. • Valproic acid suppresses reprogramming-induced senescence stress. • Valproic acid downregulates the p16/p21 pathway in reprogramming. • This study demonstrates a new mechanistic role of valproic acid in enhancing reprogramming

  13. Histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid promotes the induction of pluripotency in mouse fibroblasts by suppressing reprogramming-induced senescence stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Yingying; Chen, Xi; Yu, Dehai [Stem Cell and Cancer Center, First Affiliated Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130061 (China); Stanford University Medical School, Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Li, Tao [Stanford University Medical School, Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Cui, Jiuwei; Wang, Guanjun [Stem Cell and Cancer Center, First Affiliated Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130061 (China); Hu, Ji-Fan, E-mail: jifan@stanford.edu [Stem Cell and Cancer Center, First Affiliated Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130061 (China); Stanford University Medical School, Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Li, Wei, E-mail: jdyylw@163.com [Stem Cell and Cancer Center, First Affiliated Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130061 (China)

    2015-09-10

    Histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) has been used to increase the reprogramming efficiency of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) from somatic cells, yet the specific molecular mechanisms underlying this effect is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that reprogramming with lentiviruses carrying the iPSC-inducing factors (Oct4-Sox2-Klf4-cMyc, OSKM) caused senescence in mouse fibroblasts, establishing a stress barrier for cell reprogramming. Administration of VPA protected cells from reprogramming-induced senescent stress. Using an in vitro pre-mature senescence model, we found that VPA treatment increased cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis through the suppression of the p16/p21 pathway. In addition, VPA also inhibited the G2/M phase blockage derived from the senescence stress. These findings highlight the role of VPA in breaking the cell senescence barrier required for the induction of pluripotency. - Highlights: • Histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid enhances iPSC induction. • Valproic acid suppresses reprogramming-induced senescence stress. • Valproic acid downregulates the p16/p21 pathway in reprogramming. • This study demonstrates a new mechanistic role of valproic acid in enhancing reprogramming.

  14. Inhibition of Hyaluronic Acid Synthesis Suppresses Angiogenesis in Developing Endometriotic Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Carla N.; Alaniz, Laura D.; Menger, Michael D.; Barañao, Rosa I.; Laschke, Matthias W.; Meresman, Gabriela F.

    2016-01-01

    Background The development and long-term survival of endometriotic lesions is crucially dependent on an adequate vascularization. Hyaluronic acid (HA) through its receptor CD44 has been described to be involved in the process of angiogenesis. Objective To study the effect of HA synthesis inhibition using non-toxic doses of 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) on endometriosis-related angiogenesis. Materials and Methods The cytotoxicity of different in vitro doses of 4-MU on endothelial cells was firstly tested by means of a lactate dehydrogenase assay. The anti-angiogenic action of non-cytotoxic doses of 4-MU was then assessed by a rat aortic ring assay. In addition, endometriotic lesions were induced in dorsal skinfold chambers of female BALB/c mice, which were daily treated with an intraperitoneal injection of 0.9% NaCl (vehicle group; n = 6), 20mg/kg 4-MU (n = 8) or 80mg/kg 4-MU (n = 7) throughout an observation period of 14 days. The effect of 4-MU on their vascularization, survival and growth were studied by intravital fluorescence microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry. Main Results Non-cytotoxic doses of 4-MU effectively inhibited vascular sprout formation in the rat aortic ring assay. Endometriotic lesions in dorsal skinfold chambers of 4-MU-treated mice dose-dependently exhibited a significantly smaller vascularized area and lower functional microvessel density when compared to vehicle-treated controls. Histological analyses revealed a downregulation of HA expression in 4-MU-treated lesions. This was associated with a reduced density of CD31-positive microvessels within the lesions. In contrast, numbers of PCNA-positive proliferating and cleaved caspase-3-positive apoptotic cells did not differ between 4-MU-treated and control lesions. Conclusions The present study demonstrates for the first time that targeting the synthesis of HA suppresses angiogenesis in developing endometriotic lesions. Further studies have to clarify now whether in the future this

  15. Inhibition of Hyaluronic Acid Synthesis Suppresses Angiogenesis in Developing Endometriotic Lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla N Olivares

    Full Text Available The development and long-term survival of endometriotic lesions is crucially dependent on an adequate vascularization. Hyaluronic acid (HA through its receptor CD44 has been described to be involved in the process of angiogenesis.To study the effect of HA synthesis inhibition using non-toxic doses of 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU on endometriosis-related angiogenesis.The cytotoxicity of different in vitro doses of 4-MU on endothelial cells was firstly tested by means of a lactate dehydrogenase assay. The anti-angiogenic action of non-cytotoxic doses of 4-MU was then assessed by a rat aortic ring assay. In addition, endometriotic lesions were induced in dorsal skinfold chambers of female BALB/c mice, which were daily treated with an intraperitoneal injection of 0.9% NaCl (vehicle group; n = 6, 20 mg/kg 4-MU (n = 8 or 80 mg/kg 4-MU (n = 7 throughout an observation period of 14 days. The effect of 4-MU on their vascularization, survival and growth were studied by intravital fluorescence microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry.Non-cytotoxic doses of 4-MU effectively inhibited vascular sprout formation in the rat aortic ring assay. Endometriotic lesions in dorsal skinfold chambers of 4-MU-treated mice dose-dependently exhibited a significantly smaller vascularized area and lower functional microvessel density when compared to vehicle-treated controls. Histological analyses revealed a downregulation of HA expression in 4-MU-treated lesions. This was associated with a reduced density of CD31-positive microvessels within the lesions. In contrast, numbers of PCNA-positive proliferating and cleaved caspase-3-positive apoptotic cells did not differ between 4-MU-treated and control lesions.The present study demonstrates for the first time that targeting the synthesis of HA suppresses angiogenesis in developing endometriotic lesions. Further studies have to clarify now whether in the future this anti-angiogenic effect can be used beneficially for the

  16. Use of acid suppressive therapy in hospitalized non-critically ill patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marwan; Sheikh-Taha; Sarah; Alaeddine; Julie; Nassif

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess the appropriateness of prescribing acid suppressive therapy (AST) in a general medicine service in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, we reviewed the inpatient records of all patients admitted to the general medical service in a tertiary care hospital in Beirut, Lebanon, from April 1 to May 31, 2011. Treatment with AST was considered appropriate if the patient had a specific indication or appropriate treatment purpose [e.g. , gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcer disease, dyspepsia, acute or suspected gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding]. Appropriate administration of stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) was derived from an internal guideline that is based on the American Society of Health System Pharmacists guidelines. Prophylaxis was considered appropriate if a patient had 1 absolute indication (coagulopathy or requiring mechanical ventilation), or 2 or more relative indications (sepsis, occult bleeding, use of high dose corticosteroids, recent use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for more than 3 mo, renal or liver failure, enteral feeding and anticoagulant use). RESULTS: Of the 153 patient admissions during the study period, 130 patients (85%) were started on AST, out of which 11 (8.5%) had a diagnosis that sup-ports the use of this therapy (GI bleed, gastritis and GERD), 16 (12.3%) had an absolute indication for SUP, 59 (45.4%) had 2 or more relative indications for SUP, and 44 (33.8%) received AST without an appropriate indication. In addition, one patient with an absolute indication for SUP and four with two or more relative indications did not receive AST. Rabeprazole was the most frequently used AST (59.2%), followed by omeprazole (24.6%), esomeprazole (11.6%) and ranitidine (4.6%). The dose of AST was appropriate in 126 patients (96.9%) and the route of administration was appropriate in 123 patients (94.6%). Fifteen of the admitted patients (10%) were discharged on AST, 7 of which (47

  17. Compost-Induced Suppression of Pythium Damping-Off Is Mediated by Fatty-Acid-Metabolizing Seed-Colonizing Microbial Communities

    OpenAIRE

    McKellar, Mary E.; Nelson, Eric B.

    2003-01-01

    Leaf composts were studied for their suppressive effects on Pythium ultimum sporangium germination, cottonseed colonization, and the severity of Pythium damping-off of cotton. A focus of the work was to assess the role of fatty-acid-metabolizing microbial communities in disease suppression. Suppressiveness was expressed within the first few hours of seed germination as revealed by reduced P. ultimum sporangium germination, reduced seed colonization, and reduced damping-off in transplant exper...

  18. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) suppresses postprandial lipidemia through fatty acid oxidation in enterocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → PPARα activation increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. → PPARα activation also increased oxygen consumption rate and CO2 production and decreased secretion of triglyceride and ApoB from Caco-2 cells. → Orally administration of bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and CO2 production in small intestinal epithelial cells. → Treatment with bezafibrate decreased postprandial serum concentration of triglyceride after oral injection of olive oil in mice. → It suggested that intestinal lipid metabolism regulated by PPARα activation suppresses postprandial lipidemia. -- Abstract: Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α which regulates lipid metabolism in peripheral tissues such as the liver and skeletal muscle, decreases circulating lipid levels, thus improving hyperlipidemia under fasting conditions. Recently, postprandial serum lipid levels have been found to correlate more closely to cardiovascular diseases than fasting levels, although fasting hyperlipidemia is considered an important risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of PPARα activation on postprandial lipidemia has not been clarified. In this study, we examined the effects of PPARα activation in enterocytes on lipid secretion and postprandial lipidemia. In Caco-2 enterocytes, bezafibrate, a potent PPAR agonist, increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase, and acyl-CoA synthase, and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and suppressed secretion levels of both triglycerides and apolipoprotein B into the basolateral side. In vivo experiments revealed that feeding high-fat-diet containing bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and production of CO2 and acid soluble metabolites in enterocytes. Moreover

  19. Suppression of NMDA receptor function in mice prenatally exposed to valproic acid improves social deficits and repetitive behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeseung eKang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Animals prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA, an antiepileptic agent, have been used as a model for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Previous studies have identified enhanced NMDA receptor (NMDAR function in the brain of VPA rats, and demonstrated that pharmacological suppression of NMDAR function normalizes social deficits in these animals. However, whether repetitive behavior, another key feature of ASDs, can be rescued by NMDAR inhibition remains unknown. We report here that memantine, an NMDAR antagonist, administered to VPA mice rescues both social deficits and repetitive behaviors such as self-grooming and jumping. These results suggest that suppression of elevated NMDAR function in VPA animals normalizes repetitive behaviors in addition to social deficits.

  20. Hyaluronic Acid Suppresses the Expression of Metalloproteinases in Osteoarthritic Cartilage Stimulated Simultaneously by Interleukin 1β and Mechanical Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlig, Florian; Guell, Florian; Lenze, Ulrich; Lenze, Florian W.; Mühlhofer, Heinrich M. L.; Schauwecker, Johannes; Toepfer, Andreas; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Rüdiger; Burgkart, Rainer; Salzmann, Gian M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In patients with osteoarthritis (OA), intraarticular injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) frequently results in reduced pain and improved function for prolonged periods of time, i.e. more than 6 months. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood. Our underlying hypothesis is that HA modifies the enzymatic breakdown of joint tissues. Methods To test this hypothesis, we examined osteochondral cylinders from 12 OA patients. In a bioreactor, these samples were stimulated by interleukin 1β (Il1ß) (2 ng/ml) plus mechanical load (2.0 Mpa at 0.5 Hz horizontal and 0.1 Hz vertical rotation), thus the experimental setup recapitulated both catabolic and anabolic clues of the OA joint. Results Upon addition of HA at either 1 or 3 mg/ml, we observed a significant suppression of expression of metalloproteinase (MMP)-13. A more detailed analysis based on the Kellgren and Lawrence (K&L) OA grade, showed a much greater degree of suppression of MMP-13 expression in grade IV as compared to grade II OA. In contrast to the observed MMP-13 suppression, treatment with HA resulted in a suppression of MMP-1 expression only at 1 mg/ml HA, while MMP-2 expression was not significantly affected by either HA concentration. Conclusion Together, these data suggest that under concurrent catabolic and anabolic stimulation, HA exhibits a pronounced suppressive effect on MMP-13. In the long-run these findings may benefit the development of treatment strategies aimed at blocking tissue degradation in OA patients. PMID:26934732

  1. Deoxyribonucleic acid initiation mutation dnaB252 is suppressed by elevated dnaC+ gene dosage.

    OpenAIRE

    Sclafani, R A; Wechsler, J A

    1981-01-01

    The Escherichia coli dnaB252 allele is the only dnaB mutation which confers a deoxyribonucleic acid initiation-defective phenotype on the cell. The presence of a multicopy hybrid plasmid containing the dnaC+ gene in a dnaB252 strain completely suppressed the temperature-sensitive phenotype. It is suggested that at high temperature the dnaB252 protein has a lowered affinity for dnaC protein, and that the formation of a dnaB-dnaC complex is mandatory for initiation.

  2. Palmitic acid suppresses apolipoprotein M gene expression via the pathway of PPARβ/δ in HepG2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Palmitic acid significantly inhibited APOM gene expression in HepG2 cells. • Palmitic acid could obviously increase PPARB/D mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. • PPARβ/δ antagonist, GSK3787, had no effect on APOM expression. • GSK3787 could reverse the palmitic acid-induced down-regulation of APOM expression. • Palmitic acid induced suppression of APOM expression is mediated via the PPARβ/δ pathway. - Abstract: It has been demonstrated that apolipoprotein M (APOM) is a vasculoprotective constituent of high density lipoprotein (HDL), which could be related to the anti-atherosclerotic property of HDL. Investigation of regulation of APOM expression is of important for further exploring its pathophysiological function in vivo. Our previous studies indicated that expression of APOM could be regulated by platelet activating factor (PAF), transforming growth factors (TGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), leptin, hyperglycemia and etc., in vivo and/or in vitro. In the present study, we demonstrated that palmitic acid could significantly inhibit APOM gene expression in HepG2 cells. Further study indicated neither PI-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 nor protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GFX could abolish palmitic acid induced down-regulation of APOM expression. In contrast, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARβ/δ) antagonist GSK3787 could totally reverse the palmitic acid-induced down-regulation of APOM expression, which clearly demonstrates that down-regulation of APOM expression induced by palmitic acid is mediated via the PPARβ/δ pathway

  3. Suppressive actions of eicosapentaenoic acid on lipid droplet formation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Sinclair Andrew J; Manickam Elizabeth; Cameron-Smith David

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Lipid droplet (LD) formation and size regulation reflects both lipid influx and efflux, and is central in the regulation of adipocyte metabolism, including adipokine secretion. The length and degree of dietary fatty acid (FA) unsaturation is implicated in LD formation and regulation in adipocytes. The aims of this study were to establish the impact of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3) in comparison to SFA (STA; stearic acid, C18:0) and MUFA (OLA; oleic acid, C18:1n-9) ...

  4. Controls on suppression of methane flux from a peat bog subjected to simulated acid rain sulfate deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauci, Vincent; Dise, Nancy; Fowler, David

    2002-01-01

    The effect of acid rain SO42- deposition on peatland CH4 emissions was examined by manipulating SO42- inputs to a pristine raised peat bog in northern Scotland. Weekly pulses of dissolved Na2SO4 were applied to the bog over two years in doses of 25, 50, and 100 kg S ha-1 yr-1, reflecting the range of pollutant S deposition loads experienced in acid rain-impacted regions of the world. CH4 fluxes were measured at regular intervals using a static chamber/gas chromatographic flame ionization detector method. Total emissions of CH4 were reduced by between 21 and 42% relative to controls, although no significant differences were observed between treatments. Estimated total annual fluxes during the second year of the experiment were 16.6 g m-2 from the controls and (in order of increasing SO42- dose size) 10.7, 13.2, and 9.8 g m-2 from the three SO42- treatments, respectively. The relative extent of CH4 flux suppression varied with changes in both peat temperature and peat water table with the largest suppression during cool periods and episodes of falling water table. Our findings suggest that low doses of SO42- at deposition rates commonly experienced in areas impacted by acid rain, may significantly affect CH4 emissions from wetlands in affected areas. We propose that SO42- from acid rain can stimulate sulfate-reducing bacteria into a population capable of outcompeting methanogens for substrates. We further propose that this microbially mediated interaction may have a significant current and future effect on the contribution of northern peatlands to the global methane budget.

  5. Withaferin A protects against palmitic acid-induced endothelial insulin resistance and dysfunction through suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batumalaie, Kalaivani; Amin, Muhammad Arif; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Sattar, Munavvar Zubaid Abdul; Abdullah, Nor Azizan

    2016-01-01

    Activation of inflammatory pathways via reactive oxygen species (ROS) by free fatty acids (FFA) in obesity gives rise to insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. Withaferin A (WA), possesses both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and therefore would be a good strategy to suppress palmitic acid (PA)-induced oxidative stress and inflammation and hence, insulin resistance and dysfunction in the endothelium. Effect of WA on PA-induced insulin resistance in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was determined by evaluating insulin signaling mechanisms whilst effect of this drug on PA-induced endothelial dysfunction was determined in acetylcholine-mediated relaxation in isolated rat aortic preparations. WA significantly inhibited ROS production and inflammation induced by PA. Furthermore, WA significantly decreased TNF-α and IL-6 production in endothelial cells by specifically suppressing IKKβ/NF-κβ phosphorylation. WA inhibited inflammation-stimulated IRS-1 serine phosphorylation and improved the impaired insulin PI3-K signaling, and restored the decreased nitric oxide (NO) production triggered by PA. WA also decreased endothelin-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 levels, and restored the impaired endothelium-mediated vasodilation in isolated aortic preparations. These findings suggest that WA inhibited both ROS production and inflammation to restore impaired insulin resistance in cultured endothelial cells and improve endothelial dysfunction in rat aortic rings. PMID:27250532

  6. CYP2J2-Derived Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids Suppress Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xingxu; Ni, Li; Yang, Lei; Duan, Quanlu; Chen, Chen; Edin, Matthew L.; Zeldin, Darryl C.; WANG, DAO WEN

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress causes apoptosis and is associated with heart failure. Whether CYP2J2 and its arachidonic acid metabolites [epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs)] have a protective influence on ER stress and heart failure has not been studied. Assays of myocardial samples from patients with end-stage heart failure showed evidence of ER stress. Chronic infusion of isoproterenol (ISO) or angiotensin II (AngII) by osmotic mini-pump induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart fai...

  7. Suppress or not to suppress gastric acid?Intra-gastric pH monitoring Vs. Litmus paper in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Mojtahedzadeh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress ulceration and gastrointestinal bleeding complicates many clinical illnesses in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU.  We hypothesized that suppression of gastric acid and monitoring of gastric pH using intra-gastric pH monitoring can be beneficial to critically ill patients. To test this idea we have performed a pilot study to compare the accuracy of litmus paper to determine gastric pH to a nasogastric platin-antimony pH probe in a teaching hospital in Tehran. Twenty critically ill patients in intensive care unit who required stress ulcer prophylaxis, by using a crossover design the patients randomized to initially received ranitidine by continuous infusion or intravenous bolus and subsequently were crossed over to the other arm of the study. Gastric pH was determined using pH sensitive litmus paper at the initiation of each arm of the study and at 1, 2, 4 and 8 hours after the initiation of ranitidine. In addition, gastric pH was continuously determined over the same time utilizing a platin-antimony pH probe made in Iran. Pilot Results of gastric pH measurement determined with litmus paper and intra-gastric pH probes demonstrated by regression analysis comparing these two methods showed a good correlation between the two methods (r=0.7. The pH probe technique for intra-gastric pH measurement appears to be technically simple and clinically applicable for use on patients at risk for stress ulcer bleeding.  It may be more accurate than litmus paper in patient receiving H2 antagonists. Further investigations are needed to validate this idea.

  8. Absence of gastrointestinal infections in a cohort of patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and other acid hypersecretors receiving long-term acid suppression with lansoprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worthington Julie

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between proton pump inhibitor therapy and other acid suppressing medications and the risk of gastrointestinal infections remains controversial. Methods Patients enrolled in a long-term trial of lansoprazole for Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and other acid hypersecretory states had interval histories taken every six months regarding hospitalizations or other intercurrent medical conditions. All medications taken were also reviewed at each visit. In addition, available patients were specifically queried during the study period 2006–2007 regarding the development of any gastrointestinal infections, hospitalizations, and prescriptions for antibiotics. Results Ninety patients were enrolled in our long-term study and 81 were available for review. The median basal gastric pH for the cohort after stabilization on therapy was 2.9 and ranged from 1.1 – 8.4 with a median pentagastrin stimulated gastric pH of 1.60 (range 1.0 – 8.2. No patient developed a clinically significant gastrointestinal infection during the study. The median patient years of follow-up were 6.25 years. Conclusion In a cohort of patients with gastric acid hypersecretion in whom acid secretion status was monitored on lansoprazole, all were free of significant gastrointestinal infections on long-term follow-up. Trial registration NCT00204373

  9. Six Tissue Transcriptomics Reveals Specific Immune Suppression in Spleen by Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielsson, Britt G.; Peris, Eduard; Nookaew, Intawat; Grahnemo, Louise; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Wernstedt Asterholm, Ingrid; Jansson, John-Olov; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are suggested to modulate immune function, but the effects of dietary fatty acids composition on gene expression patterns in immune organs have not been fully characterized. In the current study we investigated how dietary fatty acids composition affects the total transcriptome profile, and especially, immune related genes in two immune organs, spleen (SPL) and bone marrow cells (BMC). Four tissues with metabolic function, skeletal muscle (SKM), white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), and liver (LIV), were investigated as a comparison. Following 8 weeks on low fat diet (LFD), high fat diet (HFD) rich in saturated fatty acids (HFD-S), or HFD rich in PUFA (HFD-P), tissue transcriptomics were analyzed by microarray and metabolic health assessed by fasting blood glucose level, HOMA-IR index, oral glucose tolerance test as well as quantification of crown-like structures in WAT. HFD-P corrected the metabolic phenotype induced by HFD-S. Interestingly, SKM and BMC were relatively inert to the diets, whereas the two adipose tissues (WAT and BAT) were mainly affected by HFD per se (both HFD-S and HFD-P). In particular, WAT gene expression was driven closer to that of the immune organs SPL and BMC by HFDs. The LIV exhibited different responses to both of the HFDs. Surprisingly, the spleen showed a major response to HFD-P (82 genes differed from LFD, mostly immune genes), while it was not affected at all by HFD-S (0 genes differed from LFD). In conclusion, the quantity and composition of dietary fatty acids affected the transcriptome in distinct manners in different organs. Remarkably, dietary PUFA, but not saturated fat, prompted a specific regulation of immune related genes in the spleen, opening the possibility that PUFA can regulate immune function by influencing gene expression in this organ. PMID:27166587

  10. Six Tissue Transcriptomics Reveals Specific Immune Suppression in Spleen by Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L Svahn

    Full Text Available Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are suggested to modulate immune function, but the effects of dietary fatty acids composition on gene expression patterns in immune organs have not been fully characterized. In the current study we investigated how dietary fatty acids composition affects the total transcriptome profile, and especially, immune related genes in two immune organs, spleen (SPL and bone marrow cells (BMC. Four tissues with metabolic function, skeletal muscle (SKM, white adipose tissue (WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT, and liver (LIV, were investigated as a comparison. Following 8 weeks on low fat diet (LFD, high fat diet (HFD rich in saturated fatty acids (HFD-S, or HFD rich in PUFA (HFD-P, tissue transcriptomics were analyzed by microarray and metabolic health assessed by fasting blood glucose level, HOMA-IR index, oral glucose tolerance test as well as quantification of crown-like structures in WAT. HFD-P corrected the metabolic phenotype induced by HFD-S. Interestingly, SKM and BMC were relatively inert to the diets, whereas the two adipose tissues (WAT and BAT were mainly affected by HFD per se (both HFD-S and HFD-P. In particular, WAT gene expression was driven closer to that of the immune organs SPL and BMC by HFDs. The LIV exhibited different responses to both of the HFDs. Surprisingly, the spleen showed a major response to HFD-P (82 genes differed from LFD, mostly immune genes, while it was not affected at all by HFD-S (0 genes differed from LFD. In conclusion, the quantity and composition of dietary fatty acids affected the transcriptome in distinct manners in different organs. Remarkably, dietary PUFA, but not saturated fat, prompted a specific regulation of immune related genes in the spleen, opening the possibility that PUFA can regulate immune function by influencing gene expression in this organ.

  11. Six Tissue Transcriptomics Reveals Specific Immune Suppression in Spleen by Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svahn, Sara L; Väremo, Leif; Gabrielsson, Britt G; Peris, Eduard; Nookaew, Intawat; Grahnemo, Louise; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Wernstedt Asterholm, Ingrid; Jansson, John-Olov; Nielsen, Jens; Johansson, Maria E

    2016-01-01

    Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are suggested to modulate immune function, but the effects of dietary fatty acids composition on gene expression patterns in immune organs have not been fully characterized. In the current study we investigated how dietary fatty acids composition affects the total transcriptome profile, and especially, immune related genes in two immune organs, spleen (SPL) and bone marrow cells (BMC). Four tissues with metabolic function, skeletal muscle (SKM), white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), and liver (LIV), were investigated as a comparison. Following 8 weeks on low fat diet (LFD), high fat diet (HFD) rich in saturated fatty acids (HFD-S), or HFD rich in PUFA (HFD-P), tissue transcriptomics were analyzed by microarray and metabolic health assessed by fasting blood glucose level, HOMA-IR index, oral glucose tolerance test as well as quantification of crown-like structures in WAT. HFD-P corrected the metabolic phenotype induced by HFD-S. Interestingly, SKM and BMC were relatively inert to the diets, whereas the two adipose tissues (WAT and BAT) were mainly affected by HFD per se (both HFD-S and HFD-P). In particular, WAT gene expression was driven closer to that of the immune organs SPL and BMC by HFDs. The LIV exhibited different responses to both of the HFDs. Surprisingly, the spleen showed a major response to HFD-P (82 genes differed from LFD, mostly immune genes), while it was not affected at all by HFD-S (0 genes differed from LFD). In conclusion, the quantity and composition of dietary fatty acids affected the transcriptome in distinct manners in different organs. Remarkably, dietary PUFA, but not saturated fat, prompted a specific regulation of immune related genes in the spleen, opening the possibility that PUFA can regulate immune function by influencing gene expression in this organ. PMID:27166587

  12. Oleanolic acid inhibits colorectal cancer angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro via suppression of STAT3 and Hedgehog pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lin, Jiumao; Sun, Guodong; Wei, Lihui; Shen, Aling; Zhang, Mingyue; Peng, Jun

    2016-06-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential process of cancer progression and is regulated by multiple intracellular signaling pathways, including signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and sonic hedgehog (SHH). Thus, these pathways have become a promising target for anti‑cancer therapeutic strategies. Oleanolic acid (OA) is an active compound present in various herbal medicines, which have been used historically for the clinical treatment of various types of human malignancies, including colorectal cancer (CRC). The present study used a CRC mouse xenograft model and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to evaluate the effect of OA on tumor angiogenesis and on the activation of the STAT3 and SHH signaling pathways. It was determined that OA treatment significantly inhibited tumor growth and reduced intratumoral microvessel density (MVD) in CRC mice. In addition, OA treatment inhibited the proliferation, migration and tube formation in HUVECs, in a dose and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, OA markedly suppressed the activation of the STAT3 and SHH signaling pathways and inhibited the expression of the pro‑angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor A and basic fibroblast growth factor, two important target genes of the aforementioned signaling pathways. Therefore it is suggested that inhibition of tumor angiogenesis via the suppression of multiple signaling pathways may be one of the underlying mechanisms by which OA exerts its anti-cancer effect. PMID:27108756

  13. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid suppresses endoplasmic reticulum stress in the chondrocytes of patients with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Cao, Yongping; Yang, Xin; Shan, Pengcheng; Liu, Heng

    2015-10-01

    The main pathogenic events in osteoarthritis (OA) include loss and abnormal remodeling of cartilage extracellular matrix. The present study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of tauroursodeoxycholic acid on chondrocyte apoptosis induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Articular cartilage tissues were collected from 18 patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty and were analyzed histologically. Subsequently, chondrocyte apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were employed to evaluate gene and protein expression, respectively, of ER stress markers, including glucose‑regulated protein 78 (GRP78), growth arrest and DNA‑damage‑inducible gene 153 (GADD153) and caspase‑12 along with type II collagen. Chondrocytes obtained from osteoarthritis patients at different stages were cultured in three conditions including: No treatment (CON group), tunicamycin treatment to induce ER stress (ERS group) and tauroursodeoxycholic acid treatment after 4 h of tunicamycin (TDA group); and cell proliferation, apoptosis, function and ER stress level were assessed. Degradation of cartilage resulted in histological damage with more apoptotic cartilage cells observed. Of note, GRP78, GADD153 and caspase‑12 mRNA and protein expression increased gradually from grade I to III cartilage tissue, while type II collagen expression decreased. Tunicamycin induced ER stress, as shown by a high expression of ER stress markers, reduced cell proliferation, increased apoptosis and decreased synthesis of type II collagen. Notably, tauroursodeoxycholic acid treatment resulted in the improvement of tunicamycin‑induced ER stress. These results indicated that ER stress is highly involved in the tunicamycin‑induced apoptosis in chondrocytes, which can be prevented by tauroursodeoxycholic acid. PMID:26238983

  14. Nitrated fatty acids suppress angiotensin II-mediated fibrotic remodelling and atrial fibrillation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudolph, T.K.; Ravekes, T.; Klinke, A.; Friedrichs, K.; Mollenhauer, M.; Pekarová, Michaela; Ambrožová, Gabriela; Martíšková, Hana; Kaur, J.J.; Matthes, B.; Schwoerer, A.; Woodcock, S.R.; Kubala, Lukáš; Freeman, B.A.; Baldus, S.; Rudolph, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 1 (2016), s. 174-184. ISSN 0008-6363 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP13-40824P; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0030 Grant ostatní: GAAV(CZ) M200041208 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Atrial fibrillation * Fibrosis * Nitro-fatty acids Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.940, year: 2014

  15. Fatty acid binding protein deletion suppresses inflammatory pain through endocannabinoid/N-acylethanolamine-dependent mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Kaczocha, Martin; Glaser, Sherrye T.; Maher, Thomas; Clavin, Brendan; Hamilton, John; O’Rourke, Joseph; Rebecchi, Mario; Puopolo, Michelino; Owada, Yuji; Thanos, Panayotis K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) serve as intracellular carriers that deliver endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines to their catabolic enzymes. Inhibition of FABPs reduces endocannabinoid transport and catabolism in cells and FABP inhibitors produce antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in mice. Potential analgesic effects in mice lacking FABPs, however, have not been tested. Findings Mice lacking FABP5 and FABP7, which exhibit highest affinities for endocannabinoids,...

  16. Substitued (E-b-(benzoylacrylic acids suppressed survival of neoplastic human HeLa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. JURANIC

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The bacteriostatic activity of some of alkyl substituted (E-b-(benzoylacrylic acids was shown earlier. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiproliferative action of 19 alkyl-, or halogeno-, or methoxy-, or acetamido- substituted (E-b-(benzoylacrylic acids, against human cervix carcinoma, HeLa, cells. Target HeLa cells were continuously treated with increasing concentrations of substituted (E-b-(benzoylacrylic acids during two days. The MTT test was used for assessment of the antiproliferative action of this group of compounds. Treatment of HeLa cells with 4-methyl-, 4-fluoro-, 4-chloro-, 4-bromo- and 4-methoxy- derivatives of (E-b-(benzoyl acrylic acid leads to the expression of cytostatic activity against HeLa cells (IC50 were in the range from 31-40 µM. Their antiproliferative action was less than that of the basic compound (E-b-(benzoylacrylic acid whose IC50 was 28.5 µM. The 3,4-dimethyl-, 2,4-dimethyl- and 2,5-dimethyl- derivatives as well as the 4-ethyl- and 3,4-dichloro- and 2,4-dichloro-derivatives, have stronger cytostatic activity than the correspoding monosubstituted and parent compound. Their IC50 were 18.5 µM; 17.5 µM; 17.0 mM; 17.5 µM; 22.0 µM and 18 µM, respectively. The 4-iso-propyl- and 4-n-butyl-derivatives exerted higher cytostatic activity than the compounds with a lower number of methylene -CH2- groups in the substitutent. Their IC50 were 14.5 µM and 6.5 µM respectively. The 2,5-di-iso-propyl- and 4-tert-butyl-derivatives expressed the most strong antiproliferative action against the investigated HeLa cells, IC50 being 4.5 µM and 5.5 µM, respectively. The investigated compounds affected the survival of HeLa cells, expressing a strong structure-activity relationship of the Hansch type.

  17. Suppression of Salicylic Acid-Mediated Plant Defense Responses During Initial Infection of Dyer's Woad by Puccinia thlaspeos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Puccinia thlaspeos is a microcyclic rust pathogen that is being investigated as a potential biocontrol agent of the noxious weed, dyer’s woad (Isatis tinctoria. Although, the initial events in the colonization of dyer’s woad by the rust pathogen has been elucidated using scanning electron microscopy and PCR, little is known regarding the susceptibility response of this plant to its rust pathogen. Approach: The induction kinetics and amplitude of the Salicylic Acid (SA-responsive Pathogenesis-Related (PR genes, PR-1, â-1, 3-glucanase and ChiA in the compatible interaction between the rust pathogen Puccinia thlaspeos and dyer’s woad were examined during the first 72 h of the infection process. Furthermore SA, an inducer of plant defense response was applied to infected plants in order to reprogram the host defense response at periods that coincided with key events of the infection process. Results: PR genes were upregulated following host penetration by the pathogen. A subsequent pathogen-mediated suppression of PR genes was seen that corresponded with haustorium formation. This was followed by a second up-regulation of these genes that was, in turn, followed by a second long-term pathogen-induced suppression of the defense response that appears to allow successful infections in dyer’s woad. Exogenous application of SA to uninoculated plants led to activation of defense responses by 8 h after treatment. In treatments where inoculated plants were treated with SA, responses differed depending on the timing of SA application. Application of SA at times corresponding to the pre-haustorial and posthaustorial phases of infection triggered an up-regulation of defense genes and increased protection against the pathogen. However, the application of SA during haustorium formation could not override the pathogen-mediated suppression of defense responses and consequently, did not offer the host increased protection. Conclusion

  18. The antagonistic regulation of abscisic acid-inhibited root growth by brassinosteroids is partially mediated via direct suppression of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 expression by BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaorui; Bai, Yang; Shang, Jianxiu; Xin, Ruijiao; Tang, Wenqiang

    2016-09-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and abscisic acid (ABA) are plant hormones that antagonistically regulate many aspects of plant growth and development; however, the mechanisms that regulate the crosstalk of these two hormones are still not well understood. BRs regulate plant growth and development by activating BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT 1 (BZR1) family transcription factors. Here we show that the crosstalk between BRs and ABA signalling is partially mediated by BZR1 regulated gene expression. bzr1-1D is a dominant mutant with enhanced BR signalling; our results showed that bzr1-1D mutant is less sensitive to ABA-inhibited primary root growth. By RNA sequencing, a subset of BZR1 regulated ABA-responsive root genes were identified. Of these genes, the expression of a major ABA signalling component ABA INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) was found to be suppressed by BR and by BZR1. Additional evidences showed that BZR1 could bind strongly with several G-box cis-elements in the promoter of ABI5, suppress the expression of ABI5 and make plants less sensitive to ABA. Our study demonstrated that ABI5 is a direct target gene of BZR1, and modulating the expression of ABI5 by BZR1 plays important roles in regulating the crosstalk between the BR and ABA signalling pathways. PMID:27149247

  19. Suppressed Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Folic Acid-Induced Acute Kidney Injury and Early Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Stallons, L. Jay; Whitaker, Ryan M; Schnellmann, Rick G.

    2013-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a disease with mitochondrial dysfunction and a newly established risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and fibrosis. We examined mitochondrial homeostasis in the folic acid (FA)-induced AKI model that develops early fibrosis over a rapid time course. Mice given a single dose of FA had elevated serum creatinine (3-fold) and urine glucose (2.2-fold) 1 and 2 d after injection that resolved by 4 d. In contrast, peroxisome proliferator gamma c...

  20. Chlorogenic acid suppresses interleukin-1β-induced inflammatory mediators in human chondrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei-Ping; Wu, Li-Dong

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of chlorogenic acid (CGA) in interleukin-1β-induced chondrocytes. The nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were detected by Griess and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot were performed to measure the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. Our results indicate that CGA inhibited the production of NO and PGE2 as well as the expression of iNOS...

  1. Treatment with the Hyaluronic Acid Synthesis Inhibitor 4-Methylumbelliferone Suppresses SEB-Induced Lung Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga N. Uchakina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to bacterial superantigens, such as staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB, can lead to the induction of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS. To date, there are no known effective treatments for SEB-induced inflammation. In the current study we investigated the potential use of the hyaluronic acid synthase inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU on staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB induced acute lung inflammation. Culturing SEB-activated immune cells with 4-MU led to reduced proliferation, reduced cytokine production as well as an increase in apoptosis when compared to untreated cells. Treatment of mice with 4-MU led to protection from SEB-induced lung injury. Specifically, 4-MU treatment led to a reduction in SEB-induced HA levels, reduction in lung permeability, and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Taken together, these results suggest that use of 4-MU to target hyaluronic acid production may be an effective treatment for the inflammatory response following exposure to SEB.

  2. Suppression of jasmonic acid-dependent defense in cotton plant by the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengjun Zhang

    Full Text Available The solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis, has been recently recognized as an aggressively invasive pest in China, and is now becoming a serious threat to the cotton industry in the country. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the molecular mechanisms employed by cotton for defending against P. solenopsis before the pest populations reach epidemic levels. Here, we examined the effects of exogenous jasmonic acid (JA, salicylic acid (SA, and herbivory treatments on feeding behavior and on development of female P. solenopsis. Further, we compared the volatile emissions of cotton plants upon JA, SA, and herbivory treatments, as well as the time-related changes in gossypol production and defense-related genes. Female adult P. solenopsis were repelled by leaves from JA-treated plant, but were not repelled by leaves from SA-treated plants. In contrast, females were attracted by leaves from plants pre-infested by P. solenopsis. The diverse feeding responses by P. solenopsis were due to the difference in volatile emission of plants from different treatments. Furthermore, we show that JA-treated plants slowed P. solenopsis development, but plants pre-infested by P. solenopsis accelerated its development. We also show that P. solenopsis feeding inhibited the JA-regulated gossypol production, and prevented the induction of JA-related genes. We conclude that P. solenopsis is able to prevent the activation of JA-dependent defenses associated with basal resistance to mealybugs.

  3. Suppression of glycosaminoglycan synthesis by articular cartilage, but not of hyaluronic acid synthesis by synovium, after exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We recently found that injection of 2 mCi of yttrium 90 (90Y; approximately 23,000 rads) into normal canine knees stimulated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis by femoral condylar cartilage. The present investigation was conducted to determine whether radiation affects cartilage metabolism directly. Rates of GAG synthesis and degradation in normal canine articular cartilage were studied following irradiation. Cultured synovium from the same knees was treated similarly, to determine the effects of irradiation on hyaluronic acid synthesis. Twenty-four hours after exposure to 1,000 rads, 10,000 rads, or 50,000 rads, 35S-GAG synthesis by the cartilage was 93%, 69%, and 37%, respectively, of that in control, nonirradiated cartilage. The effect was not rapidly reversible: 120 hours after exposure to 50,000 rads, GAG synthesis remained at only 28% of the control level. Autoradiography showed marked suppression of 35S uptake by chondrocytes after irradiation. Cartilage GAG degradation was also increased following irradiation: 4 hours and 8 hours after exposure to 50,000 rads, the cartilage GAG concentration was only 66% and 54%, respectively, of that at time 0, while corresponding values for control, nonirradiated cartilage were 90% and 87%. In contrast to its effects on cartilage GAG metabolism, radiation at these levels had no effect on synovial hyaluronic acid synthesis

  4. Suppression of glycosaminoglycan synthesis by articular cartilage, but not of hyaluronic acid synthesis by synovium, after exposure to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugenberg, S.T.; Myers, S.L.; Brandt, K.D.

    1989-04-01

    We recently found that injection of 2 mCi of yttrium 90 (90Y; approximately 23,000 rads) into normal canine knees stimulated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis by femoral condylar cartilage. The present investigation was conducted to determine whether radiation affects cartilage metabolism directly. Rates of GAG synthesis and degradation in normal canine articular cartilage were studied following irradiation. Cultured synovium from the same knees was treated similarly, to determine the effects of irradiation on hyaluronic acid synthesis. Twenty-four hours after exposure to 1,000 rads, 10,000 rads, or 50,000 rads, 35S-GAG synthesis by the cartilage was 93%, 69%, and 37%, respectively, of that in control, nonirradiated cartilage. The effect was not rapidly reversible: 120 hours after exposure to 50,000 rads, GAG synthesis remained at only 28% of the control level. Autoradiography showed marked suppression of 35S uptake by chondrocytes after irradiation. Cartilage GAG degradation was also increased following irradiation: 4 hours and 8 hours after exposure to 50,000 rads, the cartilage GAG concentration was only 66% and 54%, respectively, of that at time 0, while corresponding values for control, nonirradiated cartilage were 90% and 87%. In contrast to its effects on cartilage GAG metabolism, radiation at these levels had no effect on synovial hyaluronic acid synthesis.

  5. Antisense-mediated suppression of C-hordein biosynthesis in the barley grain results in correlated changes in the transcriptome, protein profile, and amino acid composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Lange, Marianne; Friis, Carsten;

    2007-01-01

    Antisense- or RNAi-mediated suppression of the biosynthesis of nutritionally inferior storage proteins is a promising strategy for improving the amino acid profile of seeds. However, the potential pleiotropic effects of this on interconnected pathways and the agronomic quality traits need to be...

  6. Epigenetic suppression of the antitumor cytotoxicity of NK cells by histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiumin; Li, Min; Cui, Meizi; Niu, Chao; Xu, Jianting; Zhou, Lei; Li, Wei; Gao, Yushun; Kong, Weisheng; Cui, Jiuwei; Hu, Jifan; Jin, Haofan

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play an essential role in the fight against tumor development. The therapeutic use of autologous NK cells has been exploited to treat human malignancies, yet only limited antitumor activity is observed in cancer patients. In this study, we sought to augment the antitumor activity of NK cells using epigenetic approaches. Four small molecules that have been known to promote epigenetic reprogramming were tested for their ability to enhance the activity of NK cells. Using a tumor cell lysis assay, we found that the DNA demethylating agent 5-azacytidine and vitamin C did not significantly affect the tumor killing ability of NK cells. The thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) slightly increased the activity of NK cells. The histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA), however, inhibited NK cell lytic activity against leukemic cells in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment using VPA reduced IFNγ secretion, impaired CD107a degranulation, and induced apoptosis by activating the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway. VPA downregulated the expression of the activating receptor NKG2D (natural-killer group 2, member D) by inducing histone K9 hypermethylation and DNA methylation in the gene promoter. Histone deacetylase inhibitors have been developed as anticancer agents for use as monotherapies or in combination with other anticancer therapies. Our data suggest that the activity of histone deacetylase inhibitors on NK cell activity should be considered in drug development.

  7. Salvianolic acid B ameliorates CNS autoimmunity by suppressing Th1 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhihui; Ma, Dihui; Gong, Ye; Yu, Tingmin; Yao, Gang

    2016-04-21

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), is a Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated CNS autoimmune disease. Therefore, immune regulation is a key target for therapy. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) is a major water-soluble bioactive component of the famous traditional Chinese medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza, which is notable for its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Thus Sal B, by impairing Th1 or Th17 responses in EAE/MS, might ameliorate the crippling symptoms. Here we show that the intraperitoneal administration of 30mg/kg Sal B daily for 14 days after the onset of MOG-induced EAE in mice effectively reduced its severity. Additionally, Sal B treatment downgraded the infiltration of inflammatory cells, limited astrogliosis and blocked Th1 responses other than that of Th17. These results indicated that Sal B may serve as an effective therapeutic agent for MS/EAE by inhibiting Th1 cell responses. PMID:26777627

  8. Suppression of Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli on Bean by Aluminum in Acid Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, H; Takahashi, T; Matsumoto, T

    1999-01-01

    ABSTRACT The severity of bean root rot caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli in vitro was studied with regard to exchangeable soil aluminum for 25 soil samples collected from northeastern Honshyu island, Japan. Of these, 24 were Andosols, typically acidic and of volcanic ash origin. Disease severity was assessed based on the number of lesions produced by the pathogen on a 6-cm section of bean stem buried and incubated for 8 days at 25 degrees C in artificially infested soil samples. The number of lesions differed considerably among soil samples. In all soils in which disease incidence was very low, macroconidial germination was strongly inhibited. The inhibition was observed in all soil samples with exchangeable aluminum contents of at least 0.4 meq/100 g of soil, although it is unclear if this concentration is the lowest limit for inhibition. When soil pH was 5.6 or lower, higher amounts of exchangeable aluminum were detected from soils in which the major clay mineralogy was chloritized 2:1 minerals, while no or limited amounts of aluminum were detected from soils in which the major clay mineralogy was allophane/imogolite. Macroconidial germination and disease incidence are thus closely related to clay mineralogy, which regulates the behavior of exchangeable aluminum. PMID:18944802

  9. Potential Effects of Caffeic Acid in Suppression of Matrix Metalloproteinases Activities in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Great Number of researches on the potential role of antioxidant nutrients and phenolic compounds in the prevention of chronic diseases has been accumulated over the past several decades. Despite this effort, there is much that remains uncertain. Bio markers research in this field has the potential to help fill the gaps in current knowledge. The present study was designed to evaluate, in one aspect, the probable direction expression of proteolytic enzymes as indices for gamma-irradiation-induced oxidative stress and their relationship, in other aspect with one antioxidant micro nutrient phenolic compound: caffeic acid (CA). Sprague Dawley male albino rats were administrated CA intraperitoneally (i.p.) 10 μmol/ kg body wt/ day for 8 consecutive days pre irradiation exposure (fractionated doses, instalment as 1 Gy every day up to total dose of 8 Gy). The treatment was continued for 15 successive days following irradiation processing. Quantitative assay of gelatinolytic zymo graphic analysis of serum and hepatic tissues showed that exposure to gamma-rays yields a marked significant increase in the activities of both latent and active MMP-9 (92 and 86 kDa), respectively, and both latent and active MMP-2 (72 and 66 kDa), respectively. Administration of CA significantly decreased the activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in gamma-irradiated rats. Conclusion: the present findings demonstrated that irradiation-exposure leads to enhancement of enzymatic activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in their inactive and active forms in the serum and liver. Meanwhile, administration of CA exhibits protective effects in gamma-irradiated rats through down-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities

  10. Conjugated docosahexaenoic acid suppresses KPL-1 human breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo: potential mechanisms of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to examine the effect of conjugated docosahexaenoic acid (CDHA) on cell growth, cell cycle progression, mode of cell death, and expression of cell cycle regulatory and/or apoptosis-related proteins in KPL-1 human breast cancer cell line. This effect of CDHA was compared with that of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). KPL-1 cell growth was assessed by colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay; cell cycle progression and mode of cell death were examined by flow cytometry; and levels of expression of p53, p21Cip1/Waf1, cyclin D1, Bax, and Bcl-2 proteins were examined by Western blotting analysis. In vivo tumor growth was examined by injecting KPL-1 cells subcutaneously into the area of the right thoracic mammary fat pad of female athymic mice fed a CDHA diet. CDHA inhibited KPL-1 cells more effectively than did DHA (50% inhibitory concentration for 72 hours: 97 μmol/l and 270 μmol/l, respectively). With both CDHA and DHA growth inhibition was due to apoptosis, as indicated by the appearance of a sub-G1 fraction. The apoptosis cascade involved downregulation of Bcl-2 protein; Bax expression was unchanged. Cell cycle progression was due to G0/G1 arrest, which involved increased expression of p53 and p21Cip1/Waf1, and decreased expression of cyclin D1. CDHA modulated cell cycle regulatory proteins and apoptosis-related proteins in a manner similar to that of parent DHA. In the athymic mouse system 1.0% dietary CDHA, but not 0.2%, significantly suppressed growth of KPL-1 tumor cells; CDHA tended to decrease regional lymph node metastasis in a dose dependent manner. CDHA inhibited growth of KPL-1 human breast cancer cells in vitro more effectively than did DHA. The mechanisms of action involved modulation of apoptosis cascade and cell cycle progression. Dietary CDHA at 1.0% suppressed KPL-1 cell growth in the athymic mouse system

  11. Ursolic acid simultaneously targets multiple signaling pathways to suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in colon cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshu Wang

    Full Text Available Ursolic acid (UA, a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid distributed in medical herbs, exerts antitumor effects and is emerging as a promising compound for cancer prevention and therapy, but its excise mechanisms of action in colon cancer cells remains largely unknown. Here, we identified the molecular mechanisms by which UA inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in human colon cancer SW480 and LoVo cells. Treatment with UA led to significant inhibitions in cell viability and clone formation and changes in cell morphology and spreading. UA also suppressed colon cancer cell migration by inhibiting MMP9 and upregulating CDH1 expression. Further studies showed that UA inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK proteins. Pretreatment with an Akt or ERK-specific inhibitor considerably abrogated the proliferation inhibition by UA. UA also significantly inhibited colon cancer cell COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. Pretreatment with a COX-2 inhibitor (celecoxib abrogated the UA-induced cell proliferation. Moreover, we found that UA effectively promoted NF-κB and p300 translocation from cell nuclei to cytoplasm, and attenuated the p300-mediated acetylation of NF-κB and CREB2. Pretreatment with a p300 inhibitor (roscovitine abrogated the UA-induced cell proliferation, which is reversed by p300 overexpression. Furthermore, UA treatment induced colon cancer cell apoptosis, increased the cleavage of PARP, caspase-3 and 9, and trigged the release of cytochrome c from mitochondrial inter-membrane space into cytosol. These results indicate that UA inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells through simultaneous modulation of the multiple signaling pathways such as MMP9/CDH1, Akt/ERK, COX-2/PGE2, p300/NF-κB/CREB2, and cytochrome c/caspase pathways.

  12. Glycyrrhizic acid pretreatment prevents sepsis-induced acute kidney injury via suppressing inflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyu; Liu, Zhenning; Shen, Haitao; Jin, Shuai; Zhang, Shun

    2016-06-15

    Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), an active ingredient in licorice, has multiple pharmacological activities. The aim of our study was to investigate the molecular mechanism involved in the protective effects of GA in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated rat mesangial cells (HBZY-1) and septic rats. Sepsis model was established by injection of 5mg/kg LPS in rats or incubation with 1μg/ml LPS for 24h in HBZY-1 cells. A variety of molecular biological experiments were carried out to assess the effects of GA on inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress. First we found that GA alleviated sepsis-induced kidney injury in vivo. Furthermore, GA suppressed inflammatory response in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, GA inhibited cell apoptosis and the changes in expressions of apoptosis related proteins induced by LPS. Moreover, GA markedly inhibited oxidative stress induced by LPS via activation of ERK signaling pathway. Finally GA could inhibit the activation of NF-κ B induced by LPS. Our present study indicates that GA has a protective effect against sepsis-induced inflammatory response, apoptosis, and oxidative stress damage, which provides a molecular basis for a new medical treatment of septic acute kidney injury. PMID:27063444

  13. Suppression of Jasmonic Acid-Mediated Defense by Viral-Inducible MicroRNA319 Facilitates Virus Infection in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Ding, Zuomei; Wu, Kangcheng; Yang, Liang; Li, Yang; Yang, Zhen; Shi, Shan; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Shanshan; Yang, Zhirui; Wang, Yu; Zheng, Luping; Wei, Juan; Du, Zhenguo; Zhang, Aihong; Miao, Hongqin; Li, Yi; Wu, Zujian; Wu, Jianguo

    2016-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are pivotal modulators of plant development and host-virus interactions. However, the roles and action modes of specific miRNAs involved in viral infection and host susceptibility remain largely unclear. In this study, we show that Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) infection caused increased accumulation of miR319 but decreased expression of miR319-regulated TCP (TEOSINTE BRANCHED/CYCLOIDEA/PCF) genes, especially TCP21, in rice plants. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing miR319 or downregulating TCP21 exhibited disease-like phenotypes and showed significantly higher susceptibility to RRSV in comparison with the wild-type plants. In contrast, only mild disease symptoms were observed in RRSV-infected lines overexpressing TCP21 and especially in the transgenic plants overexpressing miR319-resistant TCP21. Both RRSV infection and overexpression of miR319 caused the decreased endogenous jasmonic acid (JA) levels along with downregulated expression of JA biosynthesis and signaling-related genes in rice. However, treatment of rice plants with methyl jasmonate alleviated disease symptoms caused by RRSV and reduced virus accumulation. Taken together, our results suggest that the induction of miR319 by RRSV infection in rice suppresses JA-mediated defense to facilitate virus infection and symptom development. PMID:27381440

  14. Attenuation of myocardial apoptosis by alpha-lipoic acid through suppression of mitochondrial oxidative stress to reduce diabetic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun-jun; ZHANG Qiu-mei; LI Ming-zhen; ZHANG Jing-yun; YU Pei; YU De-min

    2009-01-01

    Background Cardiac failure is a leading cause of the mortality of diabetic patients.In part this is due to a specific cardiomyopathy,referred to as diabetic cardiomyopathy.Oxidative stress is widely considered to be one of the major factors underlying the pathogenesis of the disease.This study aimed to test whether the antioxidant α-lipoic acid(α-LA)could attenuate mitochondrion-dependent myocardial apoptosis through suppression of mitochondrial oxidative stress to reduce diabetic cardiomyopathy.Methods A rat model of diabetes was induced by a single tail intravenous injection of streptozotocin(STZ)45 mg/kg.Experimental animals were randomly assigned to 3 groups:normal control(NC),diabetes(DM)and DM treated with α-LA (α-LA).The latter group was administered with α-LA(100 mg/kg ip per day),the remainder received the same volume vehicle.At weeks 4,8,and 12 after the onset of diabetes,cardiac apoptosis was examined by TUNEL assay.Cardiomyopathy was evaluated by assessment of cardiac structure and function.Oxidative damage was evaluated by the content of malondialdehyde(MDA),reduced glutathione(GSH)and the activity of manganese superoxide diamutase (Mn-SOD)in the myocardial mitochondria.Expression of caspase-9 and caspase-3 proteins was determined by immunohistochemistry and mitochondrial cytochrome c release was detected by Western blottingResults At 4,8,and 12 weeks after the onset of diabetes,significant reductions in TUNEL-positive cells,caspase-9,-3 expression,and mitochondrial cytochrome c release were observed in the α-LA group compared to the DM group.In the DM group,the content of MDA in the myocardial mitochondria was significantly increased,and there was a decrease in both the mitochondrial GSH content and the activities of Mn-SOD.They were significantly improved by α-LA treatment.HE staining displayed structural abnormalities in diabetic hearts,while α-LA reversed this structural derangement.The index of cardiac function(±dp/dtmax)in the diabetes

  15. Enhanced suppression of tumor growth by concomitant treatment of human lung cancer cells with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid and arsenic trioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Chia-Wen [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 11490, Taiwan (China); Yao, Ju-Hsien [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China); Chang, Shih-Yu [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Lee, Pei-Chih [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China); Lee, Te-Chang, E-mail: bmtcl@ibms.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China)

    2011-11-15

    The efficacy of arsenic trioxide (ATO) against acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and relapsed APL has been well documented. ATO may cause DNA damage by generating reactive oxygen intermediates. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, modulates gene and protein expression via histone-dependent or -independent pathways that may result in chromatin decondensation, cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis. We investigated whether ATO and SAHA act synergistically to enhance the death of cancer cells. Our current findings showed that combined treatment with ATO and SAHA resulted in enhanced suppression of non-small-cell lung carcinoma in vitro in H1299 cells and in vivo in a xenograft mouse model. Flow cytometric analysis of annexin V+ cells showed that apoptotic cell death was significantly enhanced after combined treatment with ATO and SAHA. At the doses used, ATO did not interfere with cell cycle progression, but SAHA induced p21 expression and led to G1 arrest. A Comet assay demonstrated that ATO, but not SAHA, induced DNA strand breaks in H1299 cells; however, co-treatment with SAHA significantly increased ATO-induced DNA damage. Moreover, SAHA enhanced acetylation of histone H3 and sensitized genomic DNA to DNase I digestion. Our results suggest that SAHA may cause chromatin relaxation and increase cellular susceptibility to ATO-induced DNA damage. Combined administration of SAHA and ATO may be an effective approach to the treatment of lung cancer. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATO and SAHA are therapeutic agents with different action modes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of ATO and SAHA synergistically inhibits tumor cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SAHA loosens chromatin structure resulting in increased sensitivity to DNase I. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATO-induced DNA damage and apoptosis are enhanced by co-treatment with SAHA.

  16. Glucose-stimulated insulin response in pregnant sheep following acute suppression of plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriskandarajah Nadarajah

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations in non-pregnant animals have been reported to decrease pancreatic responsiveness. As ovine gestation advances, maternal insulin concentrations fall and NEFA concentrations increase. Experiments were designed to examine if the pregnancy-associated rise in NEFA concentration is associated with a reduced pancreatic sensitivity to glucose in vivo. We investigated the possible relationship of NEFA concentrations in regulating maternal insulin concentrations during ovine pregnancy at three physiological states, non-pregnant, non-lactating (NPNL, 105 and 135 days gestational age (dGA, term 147+/- 3 days. Methods The plasma concentrations of insulin, growth hormone (GH and ovine placental lactogen (oPL were determined by double antibody radioimmunoassay. Insulin responsiveness to glucose was measured using bolus injection and hyperglycaemic clamp techniques in 15 non-pregnant, non-lactating ewes and in nine pregnant ewes at 105 dGA and near term at 135 dGA. Plasma samples were also collected for hormone determination. In addition to bolus injection glucose and insulin Area Under Curve calculations, the Mean Plasma Glucose Increment, Glucose Infusion Rate and Mean Plasma Insulin Increment and Area Under Curve were determined for the hyperglycaemic clamp procedures. Statistical analysis of data was conducted with Students t-tests, repeated measures ANOVA and 2-way ANOVA. Results Maternal growth hormone, placental lactogen and NEFA concentrations increased, while basal glucose and insulin concentrations declined with advancing gestation. At 135 dGA following bolus glucose injections, peak insulin concentrations and insulin area under curve (AUC profiles were significantly reduced in pregnant ewes compared with NPNL control ewes (p Conclusions Results suggest that despite an acute suppression of circulating NEFA concentrations during pregnancy, the associated steroids and hormones

  17. Enhanced suppression of tumor growth by concomitant treatment of human lung cancer cells with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid and arsenic trioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of arsenic trioxide (ATO) against acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and relapsed APL has been well documented. ATO may cause DNA damage by generating reactive oxygen intermediates. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, modulates gene and protein expression via histone-dependent or -independent pathways that may result in chromatin decondensation, cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis. We investigated whether ATO and SAHA act synergistically to enhance the death of cancer cells. Our current findings showed that combined treatment with ATO and SAHA resulted in enhanced suppression of non-small-cell lung carcinoma in vitro in H1299 cells and in vivo in a xenograft mouse model. Flow cytometric analysis of annexin V+ cells showed that apoptotic cell death was significantly enhanced after combined treatment with ATO and SAHA. At the doses used, ATO did not interfere with cell cycle progression, but SAHA induced p21 expression and led to G1 arrest. A Comet assay demonstrated that ATO, but not SAHA, induced DNA strand breaks in H1299 cells; however, co-treatment with SAHA significantly increased ATO-induced DNA damage. Moreover, SAHA enhanced acetylation of histone H3 and sensitized genomic DNA to DNase I digestion. Our results suggest that SAHA may cause chromatin relaxation and increase cellular susceptibility to ATO-induced DNA damage. Combined administration of SAHA and ATO may be an effective approach to the treatment of lung cancer. -- Highlights: ► ATO and SAHA are therapeutic agents with different action modes. ► Combination of ATO and SAHA synergistically inhibits tumor cell growth. ► SAHA loosens chromatin structure resulting in increased sensitivity to DNase I. ► ATO-induced DNA damage and apoptosis are enhanced by co-treatment with SAHA.

  18. Identification of differentially expressed genes in SHSY5Y cells exposed to okadaic acid by suppression subtractive hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiglesias Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Okadaic acid (OA, a toxin produced by several dinoflagellate species is responsible for frequent food poisonings associated to shellfish consumption. Although several studies have documented the OA effects on different processes such as cell transformation, apoptosis, DNA repair or embryogenesis, the molecular mechanistic basis for these and other effects is not completely understood and the number of controversial data on OA is increasing in the literature. Results In this study, we used suppression subtractive hybridization in SHSY5Y cells to identify genes that are differentially expressed after OA exposure for different times (3, 24 and 48 h. A total of 247 subtracted clones which shared high homology with known genes were isolated. Among these, 5 specific genes associated with cytoskeleton and neurotransmission processes (NEFM, TUBB, SEPT7, SYT4 and NPY were selected to confirm their expression levels by real-time PCR. Significant down-regulation of these genes was obtained at the short term (3 and 24 h OA exposure, excepting for NEFM, but their expression was similar to the controls at 48 h. Conclusions From all the obtained genes, 114 genes were up-regulated and 133 were down-regulated. Based on the NCBI GenBank and Gene Ontology databases, most of these genes are involved in relevant cell functions such as metabolism, transport, translation, signal transduction and cell cycle. After quantitative PCR analysis, the observed underexpression of the selected genes could underlie the previously reported OA-induced cytoskeleton disruption, neurotransmission alterations and in vivo neurotoxic effects. The basal expression levels obtained at 48 h suggested that surviving cells were able to recover from OA-caused gene expression alterations.

  19. MDI 301 suppresses myeloid leukemia cell growth in vitro and in vivo without the toxicity associated with all-trans retinoic acid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad N; McClintock, Shannon; Khan, Shazli P; Perone, Patricia; Allen, Ronald; Ouillette, Peter D; Dame, Michael K; Cheng, Jason X; Kunkel, Steven L; Varani, James

    2015-08-01

    MDI 301 is a novel 9-cis retinoic acid derivative in which the terminal carboxylic acid group has been replaced by a picolinate ester. MDI 301, a retinoic acid receptor-α - agonist, suppressed the growth of several human myeloid leukemia cell lines (HL60, NB4, OCI-M2, and K562) in vitro and induced cell-substrate adhesion in conjunction with upregulation of CD11b. Tumor growth in HL60-injected athymic nude mice was reduced. In vitro, MDI 301 was comparable to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) whereas in vivo, MDI 301 was slightly more efficacious than ATRA. Most importantly, unlike what was found with ATRA treatment, MDI 301 did not induce a cytokine response in the treated animals and the severe inflammatory changes and systemic toxicity seen with ATRA did not occur. A retinoid with these characteristics might be valuable in the treatment of promyelocytic leukemia, or, perhaps, other forms of myeloid leukemia. PMID:26010252

  20. Direct determination of trace-level haloacetic acids in drinking water by two-dimensional ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Verrey, Dominique; Louyer, Mari-Vorgan; Thomas, Olivier; Baurès, Estelle

    2013-01-01

    During the treatment process of drinking water, disinfectants (chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxide) react on water containing organic matter and bromide to produce disinfection by-products at trace levels. Among them, five of the nine existing halo-acetic acids (HAAs) are commonly found in drinking water (monochloroacetic acid (MCAA), dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), monobromoacetic acid (MBAA), dibromoacetic acid (DBAA), and Trichloroacetic acid (TCAA)), including four classified in the 2B IARC gro...

  1. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A prevents fatty acid-induced adipocyte dysfunction through suppression of c-Jun N-terminal kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuefei; Li, Kuai; Hui, Xiaoyan; Kong, Xiangping; Sweeney, Gary; Wang, Yu; Xu, Aimin; Teng, Maikun; Liu, Pentao; Wu, Donghai

    2011-05-01

    The adipocyte is the principal cell type for fat storage. CPT1 (carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1) is the rate-limiting enzyme for fatty acid β-oxidation, but the physiological role of CPT1 in adipocytes remains unclear. In the present study, we focused on the specific role of CPT1A in the normal functioning of adipocytes. Three 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell lines stably expressing hCPT1A (human CPT1A) cDNA, mouse CPT1A shRNA (short-hairpin RNA) or GFP (green fluorescent protein) were generated and the biological functions of these cell lines were characterized. Alteration in CPT1 activity, either by ectopic overexpression or pharmacological inhibition using etomoxir, did not affect adipocyte differentiation. However, overexpression of hCPT1A significantly reduced the content of intracellular NEFAs (non-esterified fatty acids) compared with the control cells when adipocytes were challenged with fatty acids. The changes were accompanied by an increase in fatty acid uptake and a decrease in fatty acid release. Interestingly, CPT1A protected against fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and expression of pro-inflammatory adipokines such as TNF-α (tumour necrosis factor-α) and IL-6 (interleukin-6) in adipocytes. Further studies demonstrated that JNK (c-Jun N terminal kinase) activity was substantially suppressed upon CPT1A overexpression, whereas knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of CPT1 caused a significant enhancement of JNK activity. The specific inhibitor of JNK SP600125 largely abolished the changes caused by the shRNA- and etomoxir-mediated decrease in CPT1 activity. Moreover, C2C12 myocytes co-cultured with adipocytes pre-treated with fatty acids displayed altered insulin sensitivity. Taken together, our findings have identified a favourable role for CPT1A in adipocytes to attenuate fatty acid-evoked insulin resistance and inflammation via suppression of JNK. PMID:21348853

  2. Hepatitis C Virus Frameshift/Alternate Reading Frame Protein Suppresses Interferon Responses Mediated by Pattern Recognition Receptor Retinoic-Acid-Inducible Gene-I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung Bum; Seronello, Scott; Mayer, Wasima; Ojcius, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) actively evades host interferon (IFN) responses but the mechanisms of how it does so are not completely understood. In this study, we present evidence for an HCV factor that contributes to the suppression of retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-mediated IFN induction. Expression of frameshift/alternate reading frame protein (F/ARFP) from HCV -2/+1 frame in Huh7 hepatoma cells suppressed type I IFN responses stimulated by HCV RNA pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) and poly(IC). The suppression occurred independently of other HCV factors; and activation of interferon stimulated genes, TNFα, IFN-λ1, and IFN-λ2/3 was likewise suppressed by HCV F/ARFP. Point mutations in the full-length HCV sequence (JFH1 genotype 2a strain) were made to introduce premature termination codons in the -2/+1 reading frame coding for F/ARFP while preserving the original reading frame, which enhanced IFNα and IFNβ induction by HCV. The potentiation of IFN response by the F/ARFP mutations was diminished in Huh7.5 cells, which already have a defective RIG-I, and by decreasing RIG-I expression in Huh7 cells. Furthermore, adding F/ARFP back via trans-complementation suppressed IFN induction in the F/ARFP mutant. The F/ARFP mutants, on the other hand, were not resistant to exogenous IFNα. Finally, HCV-infected human liver samples showed significant F/ARFP antibody reactivity, compared to HCV-uninfected control livers. Therefore, HCV F/ARFP likely cooperates with other viral factors to suppress type I and III IFN induction occurring through the RIG-I signaling pathway. This study identifies a novel mechanism of pattern recognition receptor modulation by HCV and suggests a biological function of the HCV alternate reading frame in the modulation of host innate immunity. PMID:27404108

  3. Ursolic acid inhibits the growth of human pancreatic cancer and enhances the antitumor potential of gemcitabine in an orthotopic mouse model through suppression of the inflammatory microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Yadav, Vivek R; Sung, Bokyung; Gupta, Subash C; Tyagi, Amit K; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2016-03-15

    The development of chemoresistance in human pancreatic cancer is one reason for the poor survival rate for patients with this cancer. Because multiple gene products are linked with chemoresistance, we investigated the ability of ursolic acid (UA) to sensitize pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine, a standard drug used for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. These investigations were done in AsPC-1, MIA PaCa-2, and Panc-28 cells and in nude mice orthotopically implanted with Panc-28 cells. In vitro, UA inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, suppressed NF-κB activation and its regulated proliferative, metastatic, and angiogenic proteins. UA (20 μM) also enhanced gemcitabine (200 nM)-induced apoptosis and suppressed the expression of NF-κB-regulated proteins. In the nude mouse model, oral administration of UA (250 mg/kg) suppressed tumor growth and enhanced the effect of gemcitabine (25 mg/kg). Furthermore, the combination of UA and gemcitabine suppressed the metastasis of cancer cells to distant organs such as liver and spleen. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that biomarkers of proliferation (Ki-67) and microvessel density (CD31) were suppressed by the combination of UA and gemcitabine. UA inhibited the activation of NF-κB and STAT3 and the expression of tumorigenic proteins regulated by these inflammatory transcription factors in tumor tissue. Furthermore, the combination of two agents decreased the expression of miR-29a, closely linked with tumorigenesis, in the tumor tissue. UA was found to be bioavailable in animal serum and tumor tissue. These results suggest that UA can inhibit the growth of human pancreatic tumors and sensitize them to gemcitabine by suppressing inflammatory biomarkers linked to proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. PMID:26909608

  4. Ursolic acid inhibits the growth of human pancreatic cancer and enhances the antitumor potential of gemcitabine in an orthotopic mouse model through suppression of the inflammatory microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Yadav, Vivek R.; Sung, Bokyung; Gupta, Subash C.; Tyagi, Amit K.; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2016-01-01

    The development of chemoresistance in human pancreatic cancer is one reason for the poor survival rate for patients with this cancer. Because multiple gene products are linked with chemoresistance, we investigated the ability of ursolic acid (UA) to sensitize pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine, a standard drug used for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. These investigations were done in AsPC-1, MIA PaCa-2, and Panc-28 cells and in nude mice orthotopically implanted with Panc-28 cells. In vitro, UA inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, suppressed NF-κB activation and its regulated proliferative, metastatic, and angiogenic proteins. UA (20 μM) also enhanced gemcitabine (200 nM)-induced apoptosis and suppressed the expression of NF-κB-regulated proteins. In the nude mouse model, oral administration of UA (250 mg/kg) suppressed tumor growth and enhanced the effect of gemcitabine (25 mg/kg). Furthermore, the combination of UA and gemcitabine suppressed the metastasis of cancer cells to distant organs such as liver and spleen. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that biomarkers of proliferation (Ki-67) and microvessel density (CD31) were suppressed by the combination of UA and gemcitabine. UA inhibited the activation of NF-κB and STAT3 and the expression of tumorigenic proteins regulated by these inflammatory transcription factors in tumor tissue. Furthermore, the combination of two agents decreased the expression of miR-29a, closely linked with tumorigenesis, in the tumor tissue. UA was found to be bioavailable in animal serum and tumor tissue. These results suggest that UA can inhibit the growth of human pancreatic tumors and sensitize them to gemcitabine by suppressing inflammatory biomarkers linked to proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. PMID:26909608

  5. Two phenotypically distinct T cells are involved in ultraviolet-irradiated urocanic acid-induced suppression of the efferent delayed-type hypersensitivity response to herpes simplex virus, type 1 in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When UVB-irradiated urocanic acid, the putative photoreceptor/mediator for UVB suppression, is administered to mice it induces a dose-dependent suppression of the delayed-type hypersensitivity response to herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV-1), of similar magnitude to that induced by UV irradiation of mice. In this study, the efferent suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity by UV-irradiated urocanic acid is demonstrated to be due to 2 phenotypically distinct T cells, (Thy1+, L3T4-, Ly2+) and (Thy1+, L3T4+, Ly2-). The suppression is specific for HSV-1. This situation parallels the generation of 2 distinct T-suppressor cells for HSV-1 by UV irradiation of mice and provides further evidence for the involvement of urocanic acid in the generation of UVB suppression

  6. Effect of suppressor current intensity on the determination of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid by suppressed conductivity ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakopoulos, Ioannis K; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Megoulas, Nikolaos C; Koupparis, Michael A

    2010-05-28

    This paper presents the application of ion chromatography with electrolytic eluent generation and mobile phase suppression for the direct conductimetric detection of glyphosate and its degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). The compounds were separated on a Dionex AS18 anion exchange column with a 12-40 mM KOH step gradient from 9 to 9.5 min. The effect of the suppressor current intensity on the electrostatic interaction of these amphoteric compounds with the suppressor cation exchange membranes was evaluated. A suppressor current gradient technique was proposed for the limitation of peak broadening and baseline noise, in order to improve method sensitivity and detectability. It was observed that residual sample carbonates co-eluted with AMPA when a large injection loop was installed for the low level determination of both compounds in natural waters. For this reason, glyphosate was isocratically eluted using 33 mM KOH in order to decrease analysis time within 10 min and a column clean up step using 100 mM KOH was used to ensure retention time reproducibility. The developed method was applied to the analysis of drinking and natural water and it was further successfully applied to orange samples with slight modifications. Instrumental LOD for glyphosate was 0.24 microg/L, while method LOD was 0.54 microg/L for spring waters and 0.01 mg/kg for oranges using a 1000 microL direct loop injection of the sample. Intra-day and inter-day precision (as %RSD) for water samples was 4.6% and 12% at a spiking level of 2 microg/L, and the recovery ranged from 64% to 88% depending on sample conductivity. For orange samples, the inter-day precision was 1.4% at a spiking level of 4.4 mg/kg, while overall recovery was 103%. The developed method is direct, fast, sensitive and relatively inexpensive, and could be used as an ideal fast screening tool for the monitoring of glyphosate residues in water and fruit samples. PMID:20399436

  7. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) suppresses postprandial lipidemia through fatty acid oxidation in enterocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Rino [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Takahashi, Nobuyuki, E-mail: nobu@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Murota, Kaeko [Department of Life Science, School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Osaka 770-8503 (Japan); Yamada, Yuko [Laboratory of Physiological Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Niiya, Saori; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Murakami, Yoko [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Moriyama, Tatsuya [Department of Applied Cell Biology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara 631-8505 (Japan); Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kawada, Teruo [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased oxygen consumption rate and CO{sub 2} production and decreased secretion of triglyceride and ApoB from Caco-2 cells. {yields} Orally administration of bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and CO{sub 2} production in small intestinal epithelial cells. {yields} Treatment with bezafibrate decreased postprandial serum concentration of triglyceride after oral injection of olive oil in mice. {yields} It suggested that intestinal lipid metabolism regulated by PPAR{alpha} activation suppresses postprandial lipidemia. -- Abstract: Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{alpha} which regulates lipid metabolism in peripheral tissues such as the liver and skeletal muscle, decreases circulating lipid levels, thus improving hyperlipidemia under fasting conditions. Recently, postprandial serum lipid levels have been found to correlate more closely to cardiovascular diseases than fasting levels, although fasting hyperlipidemia is considered an important risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of PPAR{alpha} activation on postprandial lipidemia has not been clarified. In this study, we examined the effects of PPAR{alpha} activation in enterocytes on lipid secretion and postprandial lipidemia. In Caco-2 enterocytes, bezafibrate, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase, and acyl-CoA synthase, and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and suppressed secretion levels of both triglycerides and apolipoprotein B into the basolateral side. In vivo experiments revealed that feeding high-fat-diet containing bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and

  8. Induction of suppression of delayed type hypersensitivity to herpes simplex virus by epidermal cells exposed to UV-irradiated urocanic acid in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urocanic acid (UCA), the putative photoreceptor for ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induced suppression, undergoes a UV-dependent trans to cis isomerisation. Epidermal cells from mice painted with UCA, containing a known proportion of the cis-isomer, generate suppression of the delayed type hypersensitivity response to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) when transferred to naive syngeneic recipients at the same time and site as infection with HSV-1. One T suppressor cell subset, of phenotype (Thy1+, L3T4+, Ly2-), is induced by the cis-UCA modified epidermal cell transfer. Flow cytometric analysis of the epidermal cells from skin treated with UV or cis-UCA indicates an overall reduction from normal in the number of cells expressing MHC Class II antigens, but no alteration in the number expressing I-J antigens

  9. The Influence of Co-Suppressing Tomato 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Oxidase Ⅰ on the Expression of Fruit Ripening-Related and Pathogenesis-Related Protein Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zong-li; CHEN Xu-qing; CHEN Guo-ping; L(U) Li-juan; Grierson Donald

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of co-suppressing tomato ACC oxidase I on the expression of fruit ripening-related and pathogenesis-related protein genes, and on the biosynthesis of endogenous ethylene and storage ability of fruits. Specific fragments of several fruit ripening-related and pathogenesis-related protein genes from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were cloned, such as the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase 1 gene (LeACO1), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase 3 gene (LeAC03), EIN3-binding F-box 1 gene (LeEBF1), pathogenesisrelated protein 1 gene (LePR1), pathogenesis-related protein 5 gene (LePR5), and pathogenesis-related protein osmotin precursor gene (LeNP24) by PCR or RT-PCR. Then these specific DNA fragments were used as probes to hybridize with the total RNAs extracted from the wild type tomato Ailsa Craig (AC++) and the LeACO1 co-suppression tomatoes (V1187 and T4B), respectively. At the same time, ethylene production measurement and storage experiment of tomato fruits were carried out. The hybridization results indicated that the expression of fruit ripening-related genes such as LeACO3 and LeEBF1, and pathogenesis-related protein genes such as LePR1, LePR5, and LeNP24, were reduced sharply, and the ethylene production in the fruits, wounded leaves decreased and the storage time of ripening fruits was prolonged, when the expression of LeACO1 gene in the transgenic tomato was suppressed. In the co-suppression tomatoes, the expression of fruit ripening-related and pathogenesis-related protein genes were restrained at different degrees, the biosynthesis of endogenous ethylene decreased and the storage ability of tomato fruits increased.

  10. Dietary Karaya Saponin and Rhodobacter capsulatus Exert Hypocholesterolemic Effects by Suppression of Hepatic Cholesterol Synthesis and Promotion of Bile Acid Synthesis in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Afrose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to elucidate the mechanism underlying the hypolipidemic action of karaya saponin or Rhodobacter (R. capsulatus. A total of 40 laying hens (20-week-old were assigned into four dietary treatment groups and fed a basal diet (as a control or basal diets supplemented with either karaya saponin, R. capsulatus, or both for 60 days. The level of serum low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the serum, liver, and egg yolk were reduced by all the supplementations (<.05. Liver bile acid concentration and fecal concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and bile acid were simultaneously increased by the supplementation of karaya saponin, R. capsulatus, and the combination of karaya saponin and R. capsulatus (<.05. The supplementation of karaya saponin, R. capsulatus, and the combination of karaya saponin and R. capsulatus suppressed the incorporation of 14C from 1-14C-palmitic acid into the fractions of total lipids, phospholipids, triacylglycerol, and cholesterol in the liver in vitro (<.05. These findings suggest that the hypocholesterolemic effects of karaya saponin and R. capsulatus are caused by the suppression of the cholesterol synthesis and the promotion of cholesterol catabolism in the liver.

  11. The impact of acid-suppressing drugs to the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A nationwide, population-based, cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Wu Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms has observed among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients, and proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs are the main medication in clinical practices. The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of PPIs to the risk of pneumonia in the cases with COPD. Materials and Methods: This was a nationwide, population-based, cohort study using National Health Insurance Program in Taiwan. The enrolled cases were newly-diagnosed COPD, older than 30 years, between 2001 and 2005. Patients′ prescriptions with PPIs and histamine receptor 2 antagonists (HR2As, >2 months, were identified. The appearance of pneumonia and mortality of these enrolled patients was recorded. Multivariate Cox′s regression was used to examine the influence of acid-suppressing drugs to pneumonia on individuals with COPD. Results: A total of 17,498 patients were included, of whom 109 (0.6% and 526 (3% cases had used PPIs and HR2As respectively. The risk of pneumonia existed when patients had used concurrent PPIs (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.33-2.34 or HR2As (adjusted HR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.07-1.47. The positive association was lost in the cases over 70 years. The ratio of mortality also increased in those with PPIs or HR2As. Conclusion: Acid-suppressing drugs, especially PPIs, are attributed to more pneumonia happening in COPD patients compare with nonusers. The association was lost in elderly cases. Use acid-suppressing drugs should be careful about a higher possibility of pneumonia in younger individuals with COPD.

  12. Suppression of asymmetric acid efflux and gravitropism in maize roots treated with auxin transport inhibitors of sodium orthovanadate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkey, T. J.; Evans, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    In gravitropically stimulated roots of maize (Zea mays L., hybrid WF9 x 38MS), there is more acid efflux on the rapidly growing upper side than on the slowly growing lower side. In light of the Cholodny/Went hypothesis of gravitropism which states that gravitropic curvature results from lateral redistribution of auxin, the effects of auxin transport inhibitors on the development of acid efflux asymmetry and curvature in gravistimulated roots were examined. All the transport inhibitors tested prevented both gravitropism and the development of asymmetric acid efflux in gravistimulated roots. The results indicate that auxin redistribution may cause the asymmetry of acid efflux, a finding consistent with the Cholodny/Went hypothesis of gravitropism. As further evidence that auxin-induced acid efflux asymmetry may mediate gravitropic curvature, sodium orthovanadate, an inhibitor of auxin-induced H+ efflux was found to prevent both gravitropism and the development of asymmetric acid efflux in gravistimulated roots.

  13. Palmitic acid suppresses apolipoprotein M gene expression via the pathway of PPAR{sub β/δ} in HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Guanghua; Shi, Yuanping; Zhang, Jun; Mu, Qinfeng; Qin, Li; Zheng, Lu; Feng, Yuehua [Comprehensive Laboratory, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Changzhou 213003 (China); Berggren-Söderlund, Maria; Nilsson-Ehle, Peter [Division of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, S-221 85 Lund (Sweden); Zhang, Xiaoying, E-mail: zhangxy6689996@163.com [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Changzhou 213003 (China); Xu, Ning, E-mail: ning.xu@med.lu.se [Division of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, S-221 85 Lund (Sweden)

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • Palmitic acid significantly inhibited APOM gene expression in HepG2 cells. • Palmitic acid could obviously increase PPARB/D mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. • PPAR{sub β/δ} antagonist, GSK3787, had no effect on APOM expression. • GSK3787 could reverse the palmitic acid-induced down-regulation of APOM expression. • Palmitic acid induced suppression of APOM expression is mediated via the PPAR{sub β/δ} pathway. - Abstract: It has been demonstrated that apolipoprotein M (APOM) is a vasculoprotective constituent of high density lipoprotein (HDL), which could be related to the anti-atherosclerotic property of HDL. Investigation of regulation of APOM expression is of important for further exploring its pathophysiological function in vivo. Our previous studies indicated that expression of APOM could be regulated by platelet activating factor (PAF), transforming growth factors (TGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), leptin, hyperglycemia and etc., in vivo and/or in vitro. In the present study, we demonstrated that palmitic acid could significantly inhibit APOM gene expression in HepG2 cells. Further study indicated neither PI-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 nor protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GFX could abolish palmitic acid induced down-regulation of APOM expression. In contrast, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPAR{sub β/δ}) antagonist GSK3787 could totally reverse the palmitic acid-induced down-regulation of APOM expression, which clearly demonstrates that down-regulation of APOM expression induced by palmitic acid is mediated via the PPAR{sub β/δ} pathway.

  14. Carnosic acid nanoparticles suppress liver ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibition of ROS, Caspases and NF-κB signaling pathway in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Sun, Jian-Jun; Chen, Guo-Yong; Wang, Wei-Wei; Xie, Zhan-Tao; Tang, Gao-Feng; Wei, Si-Dong

    2016-08-01

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) requires ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), which can lead to early graft injury. However, the detailed molecular mechanism of I/R injury remains unclear. Carnosic acid, as a phenolic diterpene with function of anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic, as well as neuroprotective properties, is produced by many species from Lamiaceae family. Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems have been known to better the bioavailability of drugs on intranasal administration compared with only drug solutions. Administration of carnosic acid nanoparticles was thought to be sufficient to lead to considerable inhibition of liver injury progression induced by ischemia/reperfusion. In our study, liver ischemia/reperfusion injury was established successfully with C57BL/6 animal model. 10 and 20mg/kg carnosic acid nanoparticles were injected to mice for five days prior to ischemia. After liver ischemia/reperfusion, the levels of serum AST, ALT and APL were increased, which was attenuated by pre-treatment with carnosic acid nanoparticles. In addition, carnosic acid nanoparticles inhibited ROS production via its related signals regulation. And carnosic acid nanoparticles also suppressed the ischemia/reperfusion-induced up-regulation in the pro-apoptotic protein and mRNA levels of Bax, Cyto-c, Apaf-1 and Caspase-9/3 while increased ischemia/reperfusion-induced decrease of anti-apoptotic factor of Bcl-2. Further, ischemia/reperfusion-induced inflammation was also inhibited for carnosic acid nanoparticles administration via inactivating NF-κB signaling pathway, leading to down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines releasing. In conclusion, our study suggested that carnosic acid nanoparticles protected against liver ischemia/reperfusion injury via its role of anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory bioactivity. PMID:27470360

  15. Conjugated linoleic acids suppress inflammatory response and ICAM-1 expression through inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK signaling in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Chung; Tu, Rong-Syuan; Chen, Ya-Ling; Tsai, Yun-Yun; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Liou, Chian-Jiun

    2016-04-20

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) comprise a group of natural unsaturated fatty acids. CLA was reported to have anti-asthma, anti-adiposity, and anti-tumor effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the suppressive effects of cis-9, trans-11-CLA (c9,t11-CLA) on the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in TNF-α-stimulated human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. After treating with various doses of c9,t11-CLA (12.5-100 μg ml(-1)), BEAS-2B cells were induced into an inflamed state by adding TNF-α or TNF-α/IL-4. The presence of c9,t11-CLA significantly suppressed the secretion of cytokines IL-6, IL-8, CCL5, and MCP-1. We also found that c9,t11-CLA inhibited ICAM-1 expression, and decreased monocyte adhesion to inflamed bronchial epithelial cells. Interestingly, c9,t11-CLA attenuated the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and down-regulated the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). These results suggested that the anti-inflammatory effects of c9,t11-CLA were mediated by inhibiting proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and ICAM-1 expression by blocking NF-κB transcription regulation and by attenuating MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:27007063

  16. Orally Administrated Ascorbic Acid Suppresses Neuronal Damage and Modifies Expression of SVCT2 and GLUT1 in the Brain of Diabetic Rats with Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohiro Iwata

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is known to exacerbate cerebral ischemic injury. In the present study, we investigated antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of oral supplementation of ascorbic acid (AA on cerebral injury caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/Re in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. We also evaluated the effects of AA on expression of sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2 and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1 after MCAO/Re in the brain. The diabetic state markedly aggravated MCAO/Re-induced cerebral damage, as assessed by infarct volume and edema. Pretreatment with AA (100 mg/kg, p.o. for two weeks significantly suppressed the exacerbation of damage in the brain of diabetic rats. AA also suppressed the production of superoxide radical, activation of caspase-3, and expression of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in the ischemic penumbra. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that expression of SVCT2 was upregulated primarily in neurons and capillary endothelial cells after MCAO/Re in the nondiabetic cortex, accompanied by an increase in total AA (AA + dehydroascorbic acid in the tissue, and that these responses were suppressed in the diabetic rats. AA supplementation to the diabetic rats restored these responses to the levels of the nondiabetic rats. Furthermore, AA markedly upregulated the basal expression of GLUT1 in endothelial cells of nondiabetic and diabetic cortex, which did not affect total AA levels in the cortex. These results suggest that daily intake of AA attenuates the exacerbation of cerebral ischemic injury in a diabetic state, which may be attributed to anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects via the improvement of augmented oxidative stress in the brain. AA supplementation may protect endothelial function against the exacerbated ischemic oxidative injury in the diabetic state and improve AA transport through SVCT2 in the cortex.

  17. Bile acid-activated nuclear receptor FXR suppresses apolipoprotein A-I transcription via a negative FXR response element

    OpenAIRE

    Claudel, Thierry; Sturm, Ekkehard; Duez, Hélène; Torra, Inés Pineda; Sirvent, Audrey; Kosykh, Vladimir; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Dallongeville, Jean; Hum, Dean W; Kuipers, Folkert; Staels, Bart

    2002-01-01

    Serum levels of HDL are inversely correlated with the risk of coronary heart disease. The anti-atherogenic effect of HDL is partially mediated by its major protein constituent apoA-I. In this study, we identify bile acids that are activators of the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) as negative regulators of human apoA-I expression. Intrahepatocellular accumulation of bile acids, as seen in patients with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis and biliary atresia, was associate...

  18. Ursolic Acid Simultaneously Targets Multiple Signaling Pathways to Suppress Proliferation and Induce Apoptosis in Colon Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jingshu Wang; Liqun Liu; Huijuan Qiu; Xiaohong Zhang; Wei Guo; Wangbing Chen; Yun Tian; Lingyi Fu; Dingbo Shi; Jianding Cheng; Wenlin Huang; Wuguo Deng

    2013-01-01

    Ursolic acid (UA), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid distributed in medical herbs, exerts antitumor effects and is emerging as a promising compound for cancer prevention and therapy, but its excise mechanisms of action in colon cancer cells remains largely unknown. Here, we identified the molecular mechanisms by which UA inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in human colon cancer SW480 and LoVo cells. Treatment with UA led to significant inhibitions in cell viabi...

  19. Availability of Amino Acids Extends Chronological Lifespan by Suppressing Hyper-Acidification of the Environment in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo Maruyama

    Full Text Available The chronological lifespan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents the duration of cell survival in the postdiauxic and stationary phases. Using a prototrophic strain derived from the standard auxotrophic laboratory strain BY4742, we showed that supplementation of non-essential amino acids to a synthetic defined (SD medium increases maximal cell growth and extends the chronological lifespan. The positive effects of amino acids can be reproduced by modulating the medium pH, indicating that amino acids contribute to chronological longevity in a cell-extrinsic manner by alleviating medium acidification. In addition, we showed that the amino acid-mediated effects on extension of chronological longevity are independent of those achieved through a reduction in the TORC1 pathway, which is mediated in a cell-intrinsic manner. Since previous studies showed that extracellular acidification causes mitochondrial dysfunction and leads to cell death, our results provide a path to premature chronological aging caused by differences in available nitrogen sources. Moreover, acidification of culture medium is generally associated with culture duration and cell density; thus, further studies are required on cell physiology of auxotrophic yeast strains during the stationary phase because an insufficient supply of essential amino acids may cause alterations in environmental conditions.

  20. Whey Protein Delays Gastric Emptying and Suppresses Plasma Fatty Acids and Their Metabolites Compared to Casein, Gluten, and Fish Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanstrup, Jan; Schou, Simon S; Holmer-Jensen, Jens;

    2014-01-01

    studies, the WI meal caused a decreased rate of gastric emptying compared to the other test meals. The WI meal also caused elevated levels of a number of amino acids, possibly stimulating insulin release leading to reduced plasma glucose. The WI meal also caused decreased levels of a number of fatty acids......Whey protein has been demonstrated to improve fasting lipid and insulin response in overweight and obese individuals. To establish new hypotheses for this effect and to investigate the impact of stomach emptying, we compared plasma profiles after intake of whey isolate (WI), casein, gluten (GLU...

  1. Vaccenic acid suppresses intestinal inflammation by increasing anandamide and related N-acylethanolamines in the JCR:LA-cp rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacome-Sosa, Miriam; Vacca, Claudia; Mangat, Rabban; Diane, Abdoulaye; Nelson, Randy C; Reaney, Martin J; Shen, Jianheng; Curtis, Jonathan M; Vine, Donna F; Field, Catherine J; Igarashi, Miki; Piomelli, Daniele; Banni, Sebastiano; Proctor, Spencer D

    2016-04-01

    Vaccenic acid (VA), the predominant ruminant-derivedtransfat in the food chain, ameliorates hyperlipidemia, yet mechanisms remain elusive. We investigated whether VA could influence tissue endocannabinoids (ECs) by altering the availability of their biosynthetic precursor, arachidonic acid (AA), in membrane phospholipids (PLs). JCR:LA-cprats were assigned to a control diet with or without VA (1% w/w),cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (1% w/w) or VA+CLA (1% + 0.5% w/w) for 8 weeks. VA reduced the EC, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), in the liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) relative to control diet (PCLA on 2-AG relative to VA alone (P> 0.05). Interestingly, VA increased jejunal concentrations of anandamide and those of the noncannabinoid signaling molecules, oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide, relative to control diet (P< 0.05). This was consistent with a lower jejunal protein abundance (but not activity) of their degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase, as well as the mRNA expression of TNFα and interleukin 1β (P< 0.05). The ability of VA to reduce 2-AG in the liver and VAT provides a potential mechanistic explanation to alleviate ectopic lipid accumulation. The opposing regulation of ECs and other noncannabinoid lipid signaling molecules by VA suggests an activation of benefit via the EC system in the intestine. PMID:26891736

  2. A Potent Systemically Active N-Acylethanolamine Acid Amidase Inhibitor that Suppresses Inflammation and Human Macrophage Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Alison; Pontis, Silvia; Mengatto, Luisa; Armirotti, Andrea; Chiurchiù, Valerio; Capurro, Valeria; Fiasella, Annalisa; Nuzzi, Andrea; Romeo, Elisa; Moreno-Sanz, Guillermo; Maccarrone, Mauro; Reggiani, Angelo; Tarzia, Giorgio; Mor, Marco; Bertozzi, Fabio; Bandiera, Tiziano; Piomelli, Daniele

    2015-08-21

    Fatty acid ethanolamides such as palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) are lipid-derived mediators that potently inhibit pain and inflammation by ligating type-α peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR-α). These bioactive substances are preferentially degraded by the cysteine hydrolase, N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA), which is highly expressed in macrophages. Here, we describe a new class of β-lactam derivatives that are potent, selective, and systemically active inhibitors of intracellular NAAA activity. The prototype of this class deactivates NAAA by covalently binding the enzyme's catalytic cysteine and exerts profound anti-inflammatory effects in both mouse models and human macrophages. This agent may be used to probe the functions of NAAA in health and disease and as a starting point to discover better anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:25874594

  3. Retigeric acid B exhibits antitumor activity through suppression of nuclear factor-κB signaling in prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Qing Liu

    Full Text Available Previously, we reported that retigeric acid B (RB, a natural pentacyclic triterpenic acid isolated from lichen, inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in androgen-independent prostate cancer (PCa cells. However, the mechanism of action of RB remains unclear. In this study, we found that using PC3 and DU145 cells as models, RB inhibited phosphorylation levels of IκBα and p65 subunit of NF-κB in a time- and dosage-dependent manner. Detailed study revealed that RB blocked the nuclear translocation of p65 and its DNA binding activity, which correlated with suppression of NF-κB-regulated proteins including Bcl-2, Bcl-x(L, cyclin D1 and survivin. NF-κB reporter assay suggested that RB was able to inhibit both constitutive activated-NF-κB and LPS (lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NF-κB. Overexpression of RelA/p65 rescued RB-induced cell death, while knockdown of RelA/p65 significantly promoted RB-mediated inhibitory effect on cell proliferation, suggesting the crucial involvement of NF-κB pathway in this event. We further analyzed antitumor activity of RB in in vivo study. In C57BL/6 mice carrying RM-1 homografts, RB inhibited tumor growth and triggered apoptosis mainly through suppressing NF-κB activity in tumor tissues. Additionally, DNA microarray data revealed global changes in the gene expression associated with cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis in response to RB treatment. Therefore, our findings suggested that RB exerted its anti-tumor effect by targeting the NF-κB pathway in PCa cells, and this could be a general mechanism for the anti-tumor effect of RB in other types of cancers as well.

  4. Interactions between cranberries and fungi: the proposed function of organic acids in virulence suppression of fruit rot fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Tadych, Mariusz; Vorsa, Nicholi; Wang, Yifei; Bergen, Marshall S.; Johnson-Cicalese, Jennifer; Polashock, James J.; White, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Cranberry fruit are a rich source of bioactive compounds that may function as constitutive or inducible barriers against rot-inducing fungi. The content and composition of these compounds change as the season progresses. Several necrotrophic fungi cause cranberry fruit rot disease complex. These fungi remain mostly asymptomatic until the fruit begins to mature in late August. Temporal fluctuations and quantitative differences in selected organic acid profiles between fruit of six cranberry ge...

  5. Frequencies of amino acid strings in globular protein sequences indicate suppression of blocks of consecutive hydrophobic residues

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Russell; Istrail, Sorin; King, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    Patterns of hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues play a major role in protein folding and function. Long, predominantly hydrophobic strings of 20–22 amino acids each are associated with transmembrane helices and have been used to identify such sequences. Much less attention has been paid to hydrophobic sequences within globular proteins. In prior work on computer simulations of the competition between on-pathway folding and off-pathway aggregate formation, we found that long sequences of cons...

  6. Anti-IL-17 Antibody Improves Hepatic Steatosis by Suppressing Interleukin-17-Related Fatty Acid Synthesis and Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Weidong Shi; Qiang Zhu; Jian Gu; Xiaoshan Liu; Ling Lu; Xiaofeng Qian; Jian Shen; Feng Zhang; Guoqiang Li

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between interleukin-17 and proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism with respect to alcoholic liver disease, male ICR mice were randomized into five groups: control, alcoholic liver disease (ALD) at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks, and anti-IL-17 antibody treated ALD. A proteomic approach was adopted to investigate changes in liver proteins between control and ALD groups. The proteomic analysis was performed by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. S...

  7. Group X Secreted Phospholipase A2 Releases ω3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Suppresses Colitis, and Promotes Sperm Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Remi; Sato, Hiroyasu; Yamamoto, Kei; Ushida, Ayako; Nishito, Yasumasa; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Yamamoto, Toshinori; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Murakami, Makoto

    2016-03-25

    Within the secreted phospholipase A2(sPLA2) family, group X sPLA2(sPLA2-X) has the highest capacity to hydrolyze cellular membranes and has long been thought to promote inflammation by releasing arachidonic acid, a precursor of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids. Unexpectedly, we found that transgenic mice globally overexpressing human sPLA2-X (PLA2G10-Tg) displayed striking immunosuppressive and lean phenotypes with lymphopenia and increased M2-like macrophages, accompanied by marked elevation of free ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and their metabolites. Studies usingPla2g10-deficient mice revealed that endogenous sPLA2-X, which is highly expressed in the colon epithelium and spermatozoa, mobilized ω3 PUFAs or their metabolites to protect against dextran sulfate-induced colitis and to promote fertilization, respectively. In colitis, sPLA2-X deficiency increased colorectal expression of Th17 cytokines, and ω3 PUFAs attenuated their production by lamina propria cells partly through the fatty acid receptor GPR120. In comparison, cytosolic phospholipase A2(cPLA2α) protects from colitis by mobilizing ω6 arachidonic acid metabolites, including prostaglandin E2 Thus, our results underscore a previously unrecognized role of sPLA2-X as an ω3 PUFA mobilizerin vivo, segregated mobilization of ω3 and ω6 PUFA metabolites by sPLA2-X and cPLA2α, respectively, in protection against colitis, and the novel role of a particular sPLA2-X-driven PUFA in fertilization. PMID:26828067

  8. Methane Suppression: The Impacts of Fe(III) and Humic Acids on Net Methane Flux from Arctic Tundra Wetlands in Alaska and Finland (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, D.; Miller, K.; Lai, C.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic soils contain large reservoirs of carbon (C) that are vulnerable to loss from climatic warming. However the potential global impacts of this C depend on whether it is lost primarily in the form of methane (CH4) or carbon dioxide (CO2), two gases with very different greenhouse warming potentials. In anaerobic environments, the relative production of CH4 vs. CO2 may be controlled by the presence of alternative terminal electron acceptors, which allow more thermodynamically favorable anaerobic respiratory pathways to dominate over methanogenesis. This work investigated how the addition of terminal electron acceptors, ferric iron (Fe(III)) and humic acids, affected net CH4 fluxes from high-latitude wetland ecosystems. We conducted two manipulative field experiments in Barrow, Alaska (71° N) and Finnish Lapland (69° N). The ecosystem in Barrow was known from previous studies to be rich in Fe(III) and to harbor a microbial community that is dominated by Fe(III)- and humic acid-reducing microorganisms. The role of these alternative electron acceptors had not previously been studied at the Finnish site. CH4 and CO2 fluxes were measured using a portable trace gas analyzer from experimental plots, before and after amendments with Fe(III) (in the chelated form, ferric nitrilotriacetic acid), humic acids, or water as a control. Both in the ecosystem with permafrost and naturally high levels of soil Fe (Barrow, AK) and in the ecosystem with no permafrost and naturally low levels of soil Fe (Petsikko, Finland), the addition of the alternative electron acceptors Fe(III) and humic acids significantly reduced net CH4 flux. CO2 fluxes were not significantly altered by the treatments. The reduction in CH4 flux persisted for at least several weeks post-treatment. There was no significant difference between the reduction caused by humic acids versus that from Fe(III). These results show that the suppression of CH4 flux by Fe(III) and humic acids is a widespread phenomenon that

  9. Cichoric Acid Reverses Insulin Resistance and Suppresses Inflammatory Responses in the Glucosamine-Induced HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Di; Wang, Yutang; Du, Qingwei; Liu, Zhigang; Liu, Xuebo

    2015-12-30

    Cichoric acid, a caffeic acid derivative found in Echinacea purpurea, basil, and chicory, has been reported to have bioactive effects, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and preventing insulin resistance. In this study, to explore the effects of CA on regulating insulin resistance and chronic inflammatory responses, the insulin resistance model was constructed by glucosamine in HepG2 cells. CA stimulated glucosamine-mediated glucose uptake by stimulating translocation of the glucose transporter 2. Moreover, the production of reactive oxygen, the expression of COX-2 and iNOS, and the mRNA levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were attenuated. Furthermore, CA was verified to promote glucosamine-mediated glucose uptake and inhibited inflammation through PI3K/Akt, NF-κB, and MAPK signaling pathways in HepG2 cells. These results implied that CA could increase glucose uptake, improve insulin resistance, and attenuate glucosamine-induced inflammation, suggesting that CA is a potential natural nutraceutical with antidiabetic properties and anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:26592089

  10. Rupestonic acid derivative YZH-106 suppresses influenza virus replication by activation of heme oxygenase-1-mediated interferon response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin-Lin; Wang, Hui-Qiang; Wu, Ping; Hu, Jin; Yin, Jin-Qiu; Wu, Shuo; Ge, Miao; Sun, Wen-Fang; Zhao, Jiang-Yu; Aisa, Haji Akber; Li, Yu-Huan; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2016-07-01

    Given the limitation of available antiviral drugs and vaccines, there remains to be a pressing need for novel anti-influenza drugs. Rupestonic acid derivatives were reported to have an anti-influenza virus activity, but their mechanism remains to be elucidated. Herein, we aim to evaluate the antiviral activity of YZH-106, a rupestonic acid derivative, against a broad-spectrum of influenza viruses and to dissect its antiviral mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that YZH-106 exhibited a broad-spectrum antiviral activity against influenza viruses, including drug-resistant strains in vitro. Furthermore, YZH-106 provided partial protection of the mice to Influenza A virus (IAV) infection, as judged by decreased viral load in lungs, improved lung pathology, reduced body weight loss and partial survival benefits. Mechanistically, YZH-106 induced p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, which led to the activation of erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) that up-regulated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in addition to other genes. HO-1 inhibited IAV replication by activation of type I IFN expression and subsequent induction of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), possibly in a HO-1 enzymatic activity-independent manner. These results suggest that YZH-106 inhibits IAV by up-regulating HO-1-mediated IFN response. HO-1 is thus a promising host target for antiviral therapeutics against influenza and other viral infectious diseases. PMID:27107768

  11. A conjugated linoleic acid-enriched beef diet attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in mice in part through PPARgamma-mediated suppression of toll-like receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Clare M; Draper, Eve; Keogh, Brian; Rahman, Arman; Moloney, Aidan P; Mills, Kingston H G; Loscher, Christine E; Roche, Helen M

    2009-12-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a PUFA found in beef and dairy products that has immunoregulatory properties. The level of CLA in beef can be enhanced by feeding cattle fresh grass rather than concentrates. This study determined the effect of feeding a high-CLA beef diet on inflammation in an in vivo model of septic shock. Mice were fed a high-CLA beef (4.3% total fatty acid composition) or low-CLA beef diet (0.84% total fatty acid composition) for 6 wk. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 3 microg) or sterile PBS was injected i.v. and serum was harvested 6 h after injection. Serum interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-12p70, IL-12p40, and interferon-gamma concentrations were significantly reduced in response to the LPS challenge in the high-CLA beef diet group. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) from the high-CLA beef diet group had significantly less IL-12 and more IL-10 in response to ex vivo LPS stimulation. Furthermore, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14 protein and mRNA expression on BMDC was significantly attenuated in the high-CLA compared with the low-CLA beef diet group. Complimentary in vitro experiments to determine the specificity of the effect showed that synthetic cis9, trans11-CLA suppressed surface expression of CD14 and TLR4 on BMDC. Treatment with the PPARgamma inhibitor GW9662 partially reversed TLR4 expression in immature BMDC. The results of this study demonstrate that feeding a diet enriched in high-beef CLA exerts profound antiinflammatory effects in vivo within the context of LPS-induced sepsis. In addition, downregulation of BMDC TLR4 is mediated through induction of PPARgamma. PMID:19846417

  12. Hyaluronic acid reagent functional chitosan-PEI conjugate with AQP2-siRNA suppressed endometriotic lesion formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao MD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Meng-Dan Zhao,1 Jin-Lin Cheng,2 Jing-Jing Yan,1 Feng-Ying Chen,1 Jian-Zhong Sheng,3 Dong-Li Sun,1 Jian Chen,4 Jing Miao,4 Run-Ju Zhang,1 Cai-Hong Zheng,1 He-Feng Huang1,5 1Women’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 2State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, 3Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, 4The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 5International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: To identify a new drug candidate for treating endometriosis which has fewer side effects, a new polymeric nanoparticle gene delivery system consisting of polyethylenimine-grafted chitosan oligosaccharide (CSO-PEI with hyaluronic acid (HA and small interfering RNA (siRNA was designed. There was no obvious difference in sizes observed between (CSO-PEI/siRNAHA and CSO-PEI/siRNA, but the fluorescence accumulation in the endometriotic lesion was more significant for (CSO-PEI/siRNAHA compared with CSO-PEI/siRNA due to the specific binding of HA to CD44. In addition, the (CSO-PEI/siRNAHA nanoparticle gene therapy significantly decreased the endometriotic lesion sizes with atrophy and degeneration of the ectopic endometrium. The epithelial cells of ectopic endometrium from rat models of endometriosis showed a significantly lower CD44 expression than control after treatment with (CSO-PEI/siRNAHA. Furthermore, observation under an electron microscope showed no obvious toxic effect on the reproductive organs. Therefore, (CSO-PEI/siRNAHA gene delivery system can be used as an effective method for the treatment of endometriosis. Keywords: chitosan-PEI, hyaluronic acid, AQP2-siRNA, endometriosis, targeted therapy 

  13. Suppression of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus by 2-Phenylethanol Is Associated with Stimulated Growth and Decreased Degradation of Branched-Chain Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Perng-Kuang; Hua, Sui Sheng T; Sarreal, Siov Bouy L; Li, Robert W

    2015-10-01

    branched-chain amino acid degradation. Since secondary metabolism occurs after active growth has ceased, this growth stimulation resulted in suppression of expression of aflatoxin biosynthesis genes. On the other hand, increased activities in degradation pathways for branched-chain amino acids probably are required for the activation of the aflatoxin pathway by providing building blocks and energy regeneration. Metabolic flux in primary metabolism apparently has an important role in the expression of genes of secondary metabolism. PMID:26404375

  14. Regulatory CD8{sup +} T cells induced by exposure to all-trans retinoic acid and TGF-{beta} suppress autoimmune diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, Minoru [Department of Internal and Geriatric Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Yasuda, Hisafumi, E-mail: yasuda@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal and Geriatric Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Abe, Yasuhisa; Sasaki, Hirotomo; Shimizu, Mami; Arai, Takashi; Okumachi, Yasuyo; Moriyama, Hiroaki; Hara, Kenta; Yokono, Koichi; Nagata, Masao [Department of Internal and Geriatric Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan)

    2010-03-26

    Antigen-specific regulatory CD4{sup +} T cells have been described but there are few reports on regulatory CD8{sup +} T cells. We generated islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP)-specific regulatory CD8{sup +} T cells from 8.3-NOD transgenic mice. CD8{sup +} T cells from 8.3-NOD splenocytes were cultured with IGRP, splenic dendritic cells (SpDCs), TGF-{beta}, and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for 5 days. CD8{sup +} T cells cultured with either IGRP alone or IGRP and SpDCs in the absence of TGF-{beta} and ATRA had low Foxp3{sup +} expression (1.7 {+-} 0.9% and 3.2 {+-} 4.5%, respectively). In contrast, CD8{sup +} T cells induced by exposure to IGRP, SpDCs, TGF-{beta}, and ATRA showed the highest expression of Foxp3{sup +} in IGRP-reactive CD8{sup +} T cells (36.1 {+-} 10.6%), which was approximately 40-fold increase compared with that before induction culture. CD25 expression on CD8{sup +} T cells cultured with IGRP, SpDCs, TGF-{beta}, and ATRA was only 7.42%, whereas CD103 expression was greater than 90%. These CD8{sup +} T cells suppressed the proliferation of diabetogenic CD8{sup +} T cells from 8.3-NOD splenocytes in vitro and completely prevented diabetes onset in NOD-scid mice in cotransfer experiments with diabetogenic splenocytes from NOD mice in vivo. Here we show that exposure to ATRA and TGF-{beta} induces CD8{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} T cells ex vivo, which suppress diabetogenic T cells in vitro and in vivo.

  15. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, suppresses vasculogenic mimicry and proliferation of highly aggressive pancreatic cancer PaTu8988 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive human malignancies with a extremely low 5-year survival rate. Hence, the search for more effective anti-pancreatic cancer agents is urgent. PaTu8988 pancreatic cancer cells were treated with different concentrations of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), cell survival, proliferation, migration and vasculogenic mimicry (VM) were analyzed. Associated signaling changes were also analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blots. Here, we reported that SAHA, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), exerted significant inhibitory efficiency against pancreatic cancer cell survival, proliferation, migration and VM. SAHA dose-dependently inhibited PaTu8988 pancreatic cancer cell growth with the IC-50 of 3.4 ± 0. 7 μM. Meanwhile, SAHA suppressed PaTu8988 cell cycle progression through inducing G2/M arrest, which was associated with cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK-1)/cyclin-B1 degradation and p21/p27 upregulation. Further, SAHA induced both apoptotic and non-apoptotic death of PaTu8988 cells. Significantly, SAHA suppressed PaTu8988 cell in vitro migration and cell-dominant tube formation or VM, which was accompanied by semaphorin-4D (Sema-4D) and integrin-β5 down-regulation. Our evidences showed that Akt activation might be important for Sema-4D expression in PaTu8988 cells, and SAHA-induced Sema-4D down-regulation might be associated with Akt inhibition. This study is among the first to report the VM formation in cultured human pancreatic cancer cells. And we provided strong evidence to suggest that SAHA executes significant anti-VM efficiency in the progressive pancreatic cancer cells. Thus, SAHA could be further investigated as a promising anti-pancreatic cancer agent

  16. Glycyrrhizic acid suppresses the development of precancerous lesions via regulating the hyperproliferation, inflammation, angiogenesis and apoptosis in the colon of Wistar rats.

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    Rehan Khan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colon carcinogenesis is a multistep process and it emanates from a series of molecular and histopathological alterations. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA is a natural and major pentacyclic triterpenoid glycoside of licorice roots extracts. It has several pharmacological and biological properties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and anti-cancer. In the present study, we investigated the chemopreventive potential of GA against 1,2-dimethyhydrazine (DMH-induced precancerous lesions i.e., aberrant crypt foci (ACF and mucin depleted foci (MDF, and its role in regulating the hyperproliferation, inflammation, angiogenesis and apoptosis in the colon of Wistar rats. METHODS: Animals were divided into 5 groups. In group III, IV and V, GA was administered at the dose of 15 mg/kg b. wt. orally while in group II, III and IV, DMH was administered subcutaneously in the groin at the dose of 20 mg/kg b.wt once a week for first 5 weeks and animals were euthanized after 9 weeks. RESULTS: GA supplementation suppressed the development of precancerous lesions and it also reduced the infiltration of mast cells, suppressed the immunostaining of Ki-67, NF-kB-p65, COX-2, iNOS and VEGF while enhanced the immunostaining of p53, connexin-43, caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3. GA treatment significantly attenuated the level of TNF-α and it also reduced the depletion of the mucous layer as well as attenuated the shifting of sialomucin to sulphomucin. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that GA has strong chemopreventive potential against DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis but further studies are warranted to elucidate the precise mechanism of action of GA.

  17. Regulatory CD8+ T cells induced by exposure to all-trans retinoic acid and TGF-β suppress autoimmune diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antigen-specific regulatory CD4+ T cells have been described but there are few reports on regulatory CD8+ T cells. We generated islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP)-specific regulatory CD8+ T cells from 8.3-NOD transgenic mice. CD8+ T cells from 8.3-NOD splenocytes were cultured with IGRP, splenic dendritic cells (SpDCs), TGF-β, and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for 5 days. CD8+ T cells cultured with either IGRP alone or IGRP and SpDCs in the absence of TGF-β and ATRA had low Foxp3+ expression (1.7 ± 0.9% and 3.2 ± 4.5%, respectively). In contrast, CD8+ T cells induced by exposure to IGRP, SpDCs, TGF-β, and ATRA showed the highest expression of Foxp3+ in IGRP-reactive CD8+ T cells (36.1 ± 10.6%), which was approximately 40-fold increase compared with that before induction culture. CD25 expression on CD8+ T cells cultured with IGRP, SpDCs, TGF-β, and ATRA was only 7.42%, whereas CD103 expression was greater than 90%. These CD8+ T cells suppressed the proliferation of diabetogenic CD8+ T cells from 8.3-NOD splenocytes in vitro and completely prevented diabetes onset in NOD-scid mice in cotransfer experiments with diabetogenic splenocytes from NOD mice in vivo. Here we show that exposure to ATRA and TGF-β induces CD8+Foxp3+ T cells ex vivo, which suppress diabetogenic T cells in vitro and in vivo.

  18. Hyaluronic acid reagent functional chitosan-PEI conjugate with AQP2-siRNA suppressed endometriotic lesion formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng-Dan; Cheng, Jin-Lin; Yan, Jing-Jing; Chen, Feng-Ying; Sheng, Jian-Zhong; Sun, Dong-Li; Chen, Jian; Miao, Jing; Zhang, Run-Ju; Zheng, Cai-Hong; Huang, He-Feng

    2016-01-01

    To identify a new drug candidate for treating endometriosis which has fewer side effects, a new polymeric nanoparticle gene delivery system consisting of polyethylenimine-grafted chitosan oligosaccharide (CSO-PEI) with hyaluronic acid (HA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) was designed. There was no obvious difference in sizes observed between (CSO-PEI/siRNA)HA and CSO-PEI/siRNA, but the fluorescence accumulation in the endometriotic lesion was more significant for (CSO-PEI/siRNA)HA compared with CSO-PEI/siRNA due to the specific binding of HA to CD44. In addition, the (CSO-PEI/siRNA)HA nanoparticle gene therapy significantly decreased the endometriotic lesion sizes with atrophy and degeneration of the ectopic endometrium. The epithelial cells of ectopic endometrium from rat models of endometriosis showed a significantly lower CD44 expression than control after treatment with (CSO-PEI/siRNA)HA. Furthermore, observation under an electron microscope showed no obvious toxic effect on the reproductive organs. Therefore, (CSO-PEI/siRNA)HA gene delivery system can be used as an effective method for the treatment of endometriosis. PMID:27099493

  19. The parasitic plant Cuscuta australis is highly insensitive to abscisic acid-induced suppression of hypocotyl elongation and seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Hettenhausen, Christian; Sun, Guiling; Zhuang, Huifu; Li, Jian-Hong; Wu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    Around 1% of angiosperms are parasitic plants. Their growth and development solely or partly depend on host plants from which they extract water, nutrients, and other molecules using a parasitic plant-specific organ, the haustorium. Strong depletion of nutrients can result in serious growth retardation and in some cases, death of the hosts. The genus Cuscuta (dodder) comprises about 200 holoparasitic species occurring on all continents. Their seedlings have no roots and cotyledons but are only string-like hypocotyls. When they contact suitable host plants, haustoria are formed and thereafter seedlings rapidly develop into vigorously growing branches without roots and leaves. This highly specialized lifestyle suggests that Cuscuta plants likely have unique physiology in development and stress responses. Using germination and seedling growth assays, we show that C. australis seeds and seedlings are highly insensitive to abscisic acid (ABA). Transcriptome analysis and protein sequence alignment with Arabidopsis, tomato, and rice homologs revealed that C. australis most likely consists of only four functional ABA receptors. Given that Cuscuta plants are no longer severely challenged by drought stress, we hypothesize that the ABA-mediated drought resistance pathway in Cuscuta spp. might have had degenerated over time during evolution. PMID:26258814

  20. Ursodeoxycholic acid suppresses mitochondria-dependent programmed cell death induced by sodium nitroprusside in SH-SY5Y cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its highly water-soluble formula (Yoo's solution; YS) have been shown to prevent neuronal damage, the effects of UDCA or YS against Parkinson's disease (PD)-related dopaminergic cell death has not been studied. This study investigated the protective effects of UDCA and YS on sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced cytotoxicity in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells. Both UDCA (50–200 μM) and YS (100–200 μM) dose-dependently prevented SNP (1 mM)-induced cell death. Results showed that both UDCA and YS effectively attenuated the production of total reactive oxygen species (ROS), peroxynitrite (ONOO−) and nitric oxide (NO), and markedly inhibited the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss and intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion. SNP-induced programmed cell death events, such as nuclear fragmentation, caspase-3/7 and -9 activation, Bcl-2/Bax ratio decrease, and cytochrome c release, were significantly attenuated by both UDCA and YS. Furthermore, selective inhibitor of phosphatidylinositiol-3-kinase (PI3K), LY294002, and Akt/PKB inhibitor, triciribine, reversed the preventive effects of UDCA on the SNP-induced cytotoxicity and Bax translocation. These results suggest that UDCA can protect SH-SY5Y cells under programmed cell death process by regulating PI3K-Akt/PKB pathways.

  1. A PU.1 suppressive target gene, metallothionein 1G, inhibits retinoic acid-induced NB4 cell differentiation.

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    Naomi Hirako

    Full Text Available We recently revealed that myeloid master regulator SPI1/PU.1 directly represses metallothionein (MT 1G through its epigenetic activity of PU.1, but the functions of MT1G in myeloid differentiation remain unknown. To clarify this, we established MT1G-overexpressing acute promyelocytic leukemia NB4 (NB4MTOE cells, and investigated whether MT1G functionally contributes to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA-induced NB4 cell differentiation. Real-time PCR analyses demonstrated that the inductions of CD11b and CD11c and reductions in myeloperoxidase and c-myc by ATRA were significantly attenuated in NB4MTOE cells. Morphological examination revealed that the percentages of differentiated cells induced by ATRA were reduced in NB4MTOE cells. Since G1 arrest is a hallmark of ATRA-induced NB4 cell differentiation, we observed a decrease in G1 accumulation, as well as decreases in p21WAF1/CIP1 and cyclin D1 inductions, by ATRA in NB4MTOE cells. Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT reduction assays revealed that the proportions of NBT-positive cells were decreased in NB4MTOE cells in the presence of ATRA. Microarray analyses showed that the changes in expression of several myeloid differentiation-related genes (GATA2, azurocidin 1, pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1, matrix metallopeptidase -8, S100 calcium-binding protein A12, neutrophil cytosolic factor 2 and oncostatin M induced by ATRA were disturbed in NB4MTOE cells. Collectively, overexpression of MT1G inhibits the proper differentiation of myeloid cells.

  2. Ascorbic acid suppresses endotoxemia and NF-κB signaling cascade in alcoholic liver fibrosis in guinea pigs: A mechanistic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhilash, P.A.; Harikrishnan, R.; Indira, M., E-mail: indiramadambath@gmail.com

    2014-01-15

    Alcohol consumption increases the small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and intestinal permeability of endotoxin. The endotoxin mediated inflammatory signaling plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. We evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid (AA), silymarin and alcohol abstention on the alcohol induced endotoxemia and NF-κB activation cascade pathway in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Guinea pigs were administered ethanol at a daily dose of 4 g/kg b.wt for 90 days. After 90 days, ethanol administration was stopped. The ethanol treated animals were divided into abstention, silymarin (250 mg/kg b.wt) and AA (250 mg/kg b.wt) supplemented groups and maintained for 30 days. The SIBO, intestinal permeability and endotoxin were significantly increased in the ethanol group. The mRNA expressions of intestinal proteins claudin, occludin and zona occludens-1 were significantly decreased in ethanol group. The mRNA levels of inflammatory receptors, activity of IKKβ and the protein expressions of phospho-IκBα, NF-κB, TNF-α, TGF-β{sub 1} and IL-6 were also altered in ethanol group. The expressions of fibrosis markers α-SMA, α{sub 1} (I) collagen and sirius red staining in the liver revealed the induction of fibrosis. But the supplementation of AA could induce greater reduction of ethanol induced SIBO, intestinal barrier defects, NF-κB activation and liver fibrosis than silymarin. The possible mechanism may be the inhibitory effect of AA on SIBO, intestinal barrier defect and IKKβ, which decreased the activation of NF-κB and synthesis of cytokines. This might have led to suppression of HSCs activation and liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • Alcohol increases intestinal bacterial overgrowth and permeability of endotoxin. • Endotoxin mediated inflammation plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. • Ascorbic acid reduces endotoxemia, NF-κB activation and proinflammatory cytokines. • AA's action is by inhibition of SIBO, IKKβ and alteration of

  3. 5, 8, 11, 14-eicosatetraynoic acid suppresses CCL2/MCP-1 expression in IFN-γ-stimulated astrocytes by increasing MAPK phosphatase-1 mRNA stability

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    Lee Jee

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-α activator, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA, is an arachidonic acid analog. It is reported to inhibit up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes; however, its underlying mechanism of action is largely unknown. In the present study, we focused on the inhibitory action of ETYA on the expression of the chemokine, CCL2/MCP-1, which plays a key role in the initiation and progression of inflammation. Methods To determine the effect of ETYA, primary cultured rat astrocytes and microglia were stimulated with IFN-γ in the presence of ETYA and then, expression of CCL2/MCP-1 and MAPK phosphatase (MKP-1 were determined using RT-PCR and ELISA. MKP-1 mRNA stability was evaluated by treating actinomycin D. The effect of MKP-1 and human antigen R (HuR was analyzed by using specific siRNA transfection system. The localization of HuR was analyzed by immunocytochemistry and subcellular fractionation experiment. Results We found that ETYA suppressed CCL2/MCP-1 transcription and secretion of CCL2/MCP-1 protein through up-regulation of MKP-1mRNA levels, resulting in suppression of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK phosphorylation and activator protein 1 (AP1 activity in IFN-γ-stimulated brain glial cells. Moreover, these effects of ETYA were independent of PPAR-α. Experiments using actinomycin D revealed that the ETYA-induced increase in MKP-1 mRNA levels reflected an increase in transcript stability. Knockdown experiments using small interfering RNA demonstrated that this increase in MKP-1 mRNA stability depended on HuR, an RNA-binding protein known to promote enhanced mRNA stability. Furthermore, ETYA-induced, HuR-mediated mRNA stabilization resulted from HuR-MKP-1 nucleocytoplasmic translocation, which served to protect MKP-1 mRNA from the mRNA degradation machinery. Conclusion ETYA induces MKP-1 through HuR at the post-transcriptional level in a receptor-independent manner. The mechanism

  4. Ascorbic acid suppresses endotoxemia and NF-κB signaling cascade in alcoholic liver fibrosis in guinea pigs: A mechanistic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcohol consumption increases the small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and intestinal permeability of endotoxin. The endotoxin mediated inflammatory signaling plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. We evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid (AA), silymarin and alcohol abstention on the alcohol induced endotoxemia and NF-κB activation cascade pathway in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Guinea pigs were administered ethanol at a daily dose of 4 g/kg b.wt for 90 days. After 90 days, ethanol administration was stopped. The ethanol treated animals were divided into abstention, silymarin (250 mg/kg b.wt) and AA (250 mg/kg b.wt) supplemented groups and maintained for 30 days. The SIBO, intestinal permeability and endotoxin were significantly increased in the ethanol group. The mRNA expressions of intestinal proteins claudin, occludin and zona occludens-1 were significantly decreased in ethanol group. The mRNA levels of inflammatory receptors, activity of IKKβ and the protein expressions of phospho-IκBα, NF-κB, TNF-α, TGF-β1 and IL-6 were also altered in ethanol group. The expressions of fibrosis markers α-SMA, α1 (I) collagen and sirius red staining in the liver revealed the induction of fibrosis. But the supplementation of AA could induce greater reduction of ethanol induced SIBO, intestinal barrier defects, NF-κB activation and liver fibrosis than silymarin. The possible mechanism may be the inhibitory effect of AA on SIBO, intestinal barrier defect and IKKβ, which decreased the activation of NF-κB and synthesis of cytokines. This might have led to suppression of HSCs activation and liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • Alcohol increases intestinal bacterial overgrowth and permeability of endotoxin. • Endotoxin mediated inflammation plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. • Ascorbic acid reduces endotoxemia, NF-κB activation and proinflammatory cytokines. • AA's action is by inhibition of SIBO, IKKβ and alteration of intestinal

  5. Retinoic acid and sodium butyrate suppress the cardiac expression of hypertrophic markers and proinflammatory mediators in Npr1 gene-disrupted haplotype mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Umadevi; Kumar, Prerna; Mani, Indra; Chen, David; Kessler, Isaac; Periyasamy, Ramu; Raghavaraju, Giri; Pandey, Kailash N

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the genetically determined differences in the natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPRA) gene (Npr1) copies affecting the expression of cardiac hypertrophic markers, proinflammatory mediators, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in a gene-dose-dependent manner. We determined whether stimulation of Npr1 by all-trans retinoic acid (RA) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor sodium butyric acid (SB) suppress the expression of cardiac disease markers. In the present study, we utilized Npr1 gene-disrupted heterozygous (Npr1(+/-), 1-copy), wild-type (Npr1(+/+), 2-copy), gene-duplicated (Npr1(++/+), 3-copy) mice, which were treated intraperitoneally with RA, SB, and a combination of RA/SB, a hybrid drug (HB) for 2 wk. Untreated 1-copy mice showed significantly increased heart weight-body weight (HW/BW) ratio, blood pressure, hypertrophic markers, including beta-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC) and proto-oncogenes (c-fos and c-jun), proinflammatory mediator nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and MMPs (MMP-2, MMP-9) compared with 2-copy and 3-copy mice. The heterozygous (haplotype) 1-copy mice treated with RA, SB, or HB, exhibited significant reduction in the expression of β-MHC, c-fos, c-jun, NF-κB, MMP-2, and MMP-9. In drug-treated animals, the activity and expression levels of HDAC were significantly reduced and histone acetyltransferase activity and expression levels were increased. The drug treatments significantly increased the fractional shortening and reduced the systolic and diastolic parameters of the Npr1(+/-) mice hearts. Together, the present results demonstrate that a decreased Npr1 copy number enhanced the expression of hypertrophic markers, proinflammatory mediators, and MMPs, whereas an increased Npr1 repressed the cardiac disease markers in a gene-dose-dependent manner. PMID:27199456

  6. γ-Aninobutyric acid (GABA suppresses antigen-specific immune responses in ovalbumin γ(OVA-immunized BALB/c mice

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    Tohru Sakai

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available γ-Aminobutruic acid (GABA is known to be a ubiquitous inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that GABA modulates cardiovascular and respiratory functions. In this study, we examined the effect of GABA on antigen (Ag-specific immune responses and elucidated the mechanisms underlying those effects in ovalbumin (OVA-immunized BALB/c mice. OVA-specific proliferative responses were decreased in mice that had been administered 20 mg/kg GABA compared to those in control mice without reduction in responses to anti-CD3 monoclonal (mAb. The levels of OVA-specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a were also decreased in mice that had been administered GABA. However, GABA administration did not influence the TNP-specific IgM and IgG levels. Ag-presenting activity of CD11c+ dendritic cells from GABA-treated mice was less than that of cells from control mice. These results suggest that the suppressive effect of GABA on Ag-specific immune responses contributes to the reduction of antigen-presenting function on CD11c+ dendritic cells.

  7. Sialic Acid-Binding Immunoglobulin-like Lectin G Promotes Atherosclerosis and Liver Inflammation by Suppressing the Protective Functions of B-1 Cells

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    Sabrina Gruber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is initiated and sustained by hypercholesterolemia, which results in the generation of oxidized LDL (OxLDL and other metabolic byproducts that trigger inflammation. Specific immune responses have been shown to modulate the inflammatory response during atherogenesis. The sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin G (Siglec-G is a negative regulator of the functions of several immune cells, including myeloid cells and B-1 cells. Here, we show that deficiency of Siglec-G in atherosclerosis-prone mice inhibits plaque formation and diet-induced hepatic inflammation. We further demonstrate that selective deficiency of Siglec-G in B cells alone is sufficient to mediate these effects. Levels of B-1 cell-derived natural IgM with specificity for OxLDL were significantly increased in the plasma and peritoneal cavity of Siglec-G-deficient mice. Consistent with the neutralizing functions of OxLDL-specific IgM, Siglec-G-deficient mice were protected from OxLDL-induced sterile inflammation. Thus, Siglec-G promotes atherosclerosis and hepatic inflammation by suppressing protective anti-inflammatory effector functions of B cells.

  8. Human β-Defensin 3 [corrected] Exacerbates MDA5 but Suppresses TLR3 Responses to the Viral Molecular Pattern Mimic Polyinosinic:Polycytidylic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Fiona; MacPherson, Heather; Webb, Sheila; Kilanowski, Fiona; Lettice, Laura; McGlasson, Sarah L; Wheeler, Ann P; Chen, Valerie; Millhauser, Glenn L; Melrose, Lauren; Davidson, Donald J; Dorin, Julia R

    2015-12-01

    Human β-defensin 3 (hBD3) is a cationic host defence peptide and is part of the innate immune response. HBD3 is present on a highly copy number variable block of six β-defensin genes, and increased copy number is associated with the autoimmune disease psoriasis. It is not known how this increase influences disease development, but psoriasis is a T cell-mediated disease and activation of the innate immune system is required for the initial trigger that leads to the amplification stage. We investigated the effect of hBD3 on the response of primary macrophages to various TLR agonists. HBD3 exacerbated the production of type I Interferon-β in response to the viral ligand mimic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (polyI:C) in both human and mouse primary cells, although production of the chemokine CXCL10 was suppressed. Compared to polyI:C alone, mice injected with both hBD3 peptide and polyI:C also showed an enhanced increase in Interferon-β. Mice expressing a transgene encoding hBD3 had elevated basal levels of Interferon-β, and challenge with polyI:C further increased this response. HBD3 peptide increased uptake of polyI:C by macrophages, however the cellular response and localisation of polyI:C in cells treated contemporaneously with hBD3 or cationic liposome differed. Immunohistochemistry showed that hBD3 and polyI:C do not co-localise, but in the presence of hBD3 less polyI:C localises to the early endosome. Using bone marrow derived macrophages from knockout mice we demonstrate that hBD3 suppresses the polyI:C-induced TLR3 response mediated by TICAM1 (TRIF), while exacerbating the cytoplasmic response through MDA5 (IFIH1) and MAVS (IPS1/CARDIF). Thus, hBD3, a highly copy number variable gene in human, influences cellular responses to the viral mimic polyI:C implying that copy number may have a significant phenotypic effect on the response to viral infection and development of autoimmunity in humans. PMID:26646717

  9. Tetra-O-Methyl Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid Broadly Suppresses Cancer Metabolism and Synergistically Induces Strong Anticancer Activity in Combination with Etoposide, Rapamycin and UCN-01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Kotohiko; Huang, Ru Chih C

    2016-01-01

    The ability of Tetra-O-methyl nordihydroguaiaretic acid (M4N) to induce rapid cell death in combination with Etoposide, Rapamycin, or UCN-01 was examined in LNCaP cells, both in cell culture and animal experiments. Mice treated with M4N drug combinations with either Etoposide or Rapamycin showed no evidence of tumor and had a 100% survival rate 100 days after tumor implantation. By comparison all other vehicles or single drug treated mice failed to survive longer than 30 days after implantation. This synergistic improvement of anticancer effect was also confirmed in more than 20 cancer cell lines. In LNCaP cells, M4N was found to reduce cellular ATP content, and suppress NDUFS1 expression while inducing hyperpolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. M4N-treated cells lacked autophagy with reduced expression of BNIP3 and ATG5. To understand the mechanisms of this anticancer activity of M4N, the effect of this drug on three cancer cell lines (LNCaP, AsPC-1, and L428 cells) was further examined via transcriptome and metabolomics analyses. Metabolomic results showed that there were reductions of 26 metabolites essential for energy generation and/or production of cellular components in common with these three cell lines following 8 hours of M4N treatment. Deep RNA sequencing analysis demonstrated that there were sixteen genes whose expressions were found to be modulated following 6 hours of M4N treatment similarly in these three cell lines. Six out of these 16 genes were functionally related to the 26 metabolites described above. One of these up-regulated genes encodes for CHAC1, a key enzyme affecting the stress pathways through its degradation of glutathione. In fact M4N was found to suppress glutathione content and induce reactive oxygen species production. The data overall indicate that M4N has profound specific negative impacts on a wide range of cancer metabolisms supporting the use of M4N combination for cancer treatments. PMID:26886430

  10. Tetra-O-Methyl Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid Broadly Suppresses Cancer Metabolism and Synergistically Induces Strong Anticancer Activity in Combination with Etoposide, Rapamycin and UCN-01.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotohiko Kimura

    Full Text Available The ability of Tetra-O-methyl nordihydroguaiaretic acid (M4N to induce rapid cell death in combination with Etoposide, Rapamycin, or UCN-01 was examined in LNCaP cells, both in cell culture and animal experiments. Mice treated with M4N drug combinations with either Etoposide or Rapamycin showed no evidence of tumor and had a 100% survival rate 100 days after tumor implantation. By comparison all other vehicles or single drug treated mice failed to survive longer than 30 days after implantation. This synergistic improvement of anticancer effect was also confirmed in more than 20 cancer cell lines. In LNCaP cells, M4N was found to reduce cellular ATP content, and suppress NDUFS1 expression while inducing hyperpolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. M4N-treated cells lacked autophagy with reduced expression of BNIP3 and ATG5. To understand the mechanisms of this anticancer activity of M4N, the effect of this drug on three cancer cell lines (LNCaP, AsPC-1, and L428 cells was further examined via transcriptome and metabolomics analyses. Metabolomic results showed that there were reductions of 26 metabolites essential for energy generation and/or production of cellular components in common with these three cell lines following 8 hours of M4N treatment. Deep RNA sequencing analysis demonstrated that there were sixteen genes whose expressions were found to be modulated following 6 hours of M4N treatment similarly in these three cell lines. Six out of these 16 genes were functionally related to the 26 metabolites described above. One of these up-regulated genes encodes for CHAC1, a key enzyme affecting the stress pathways through its degradation of glutathione. In fact M4N was found to suppress glutathione content and induce reactive oxygen species production. The data overall indicate that M4N has profound specific negative impacts on a wide range of cancer metabolisms supporting the use of M4N combination for cancer treatments.

  11. In vitro and in vivo downregulation of C3 by lipoteichoic acid isolated from Lactobacillus plantarum K8 suppressed cytokine-mediated complement system activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Boram; Kim, Hye Rim; Kim, Hangeun; Chung, Dae Kyun

    2016-07-01

    Complement component 3 (C3) is one of the proteins associated with complement cascades. C3 plays an essential role in three different pathways-the alternative, classical and lectin pathways. It is well known that cytokines activate complement system and increase complement component C3 production. In the current study, we found that lipoteichoic acid isolated from Lactobacillus plantarum K8 (pLTA) inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) or interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-mediated C3 mRNA and protein expression in HaCaT cells. pLTA inhibited C3 expression through the inhibition of the phosphorylation of p65 and p38 in the TNF-α-treated cells, while the inhibition of STAT1/2 and JAK2 phosphorylation by pLTA contributed to the reduction of C3 in IFN-γ-treated cells. When mice were pre-injected with pLTA followed by re-injection of TNF-α, serum C3 level was decreased as compared to TNF-α-injected only. Further studies revealed that membrane attack complex (MAC) increased by TNF-α injection was lessened in pLTA-pre-injected mice. A bactericidal assay using mouse sera showed that MAC activity in pLTA-pre-injected mice was lower than in TNF-α only-injected mice. These results suggest that pLTA can suppress inflammatory cytokine-mediated complement activation through the inhibition of C3 synthesis. pLTA application has the potential to alleviate complement-mediated diseases caused by excessive inflammation. PMID:27231239

  12. Ascorbic acid suppresses endotoxemia and NF-κB signaling cascade in alcoholic liver fibrosis in guinea pigs: a mechanistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhilash, P A; Harikrishnan, R; Indira, M

    2014-01-15

    Alcohol consumption increases the small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and intestinal permeability of endotoxin. The endotoxin mediated inflammatory signaling plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. We evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid (AA), silymarin and alcohol abstention on the alcohol induced endotoxemia and NF-κB activation cascade pathway in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Guinea pigs were administered ethanol at a daily dose of 4g/kg b.wt for 90days. After 90days, ethanol administration was stopped. The ethanol treated animals were divided into abstention, silymarin (250mg/kg b.wt) and AA (250mg/kg b.wt) supplemented groups and maintained for 30days. The SIBO, intestinal permeability and endotoxin were significantly increased in the ethanol group. The mRNA expressions of intestinal proteins claudin, occludin and zona occludens-1 were significantly decreased in ethanol group. The mRNA levels of inflammatory receptors, activity of IKKβ and the protein expressions of phospho-IκBα, NF-κB, TNF-α, TGF-β1 and IL-6 were also altered in ethanol group. The expressions of fibrosis markers α-SMA, α1 (I) collagen and sirius red staining in the liver revealed the induction of fibrosis. But the supplementation of AA could induce greater reduction of ethanol induced SIBO, intestinal barrier defects, NF-κB activation and liver fibrosis than silymarin. The possible mechanism may be the inhibitory effect of AA on SIBO, intestinal barrier defect and IKKβ, which decreased the activation of NF-κB and synthesis of cytokines. This might have led to suppression of HSCs activation and liver fibrosis. PMID:24239723

  13. Benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide suppresses retinoic acid receptor-β2 expression by recruiting DNA (cytosine-5--methyltransferase 3A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xiao-Chun

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tobacco smoke is an important risk factor for various human cancers, including esophageal cancer. How benzo [a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE, a carcinogen present in tobacco smoke as well as in environmental pollution, induces esophageal carcinogenesis has yet to be defined. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism responsible for BPDE-suppressed expression of retinoic acid receptor-beta2 (RAR-β2 in esophageal cancer cells. We treated esophageal cancer cells with BPDE before performing methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP to find that BPDE induced methylation of the RAR-β2 gene promoter. We then performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays to find that BPDE recruited genes of the methylation machinery into the RAR-β2 gene promoter. We found that BPDE recruited DNA (cytosine-5--methyltransferase 3 alpha (DNMT3A, but not beta (DNMT3B, in a time-dependent manner to methylate the RAR-β2 gene promoter, which we confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis of the reduced RAR-β2 expression in these BPDE-treated esophageal cancer cell lines. However, BPDE did not significantly change DNMT3A expression, but it slightly reduced DNMT3B expression. DNA methylase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza and DNMT3A small hairpin RNA (shRNA vector antagonized the effects of BPDE on RAR-β2 expressions. Transient transfection of the DNMT3A shRNA vector also antagonized BPDE's effects on expression of RAR-β2, c-Jun, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, suggesting a possible therapeutic effect. The results of this study form the link between the esophageal cancer risk factor BPDE and the reduced RAR-β2 expression.

  14. Prolonged Exposure of Primary Human Muscle Cells to Plasma Fatty Acids Associated with Obese Phenotype Induces Persistent Suppression of Muscle Mitochondrial ATP Synthase β Subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Lee; Hanavan, Paul D; Campbell, Latoya E; De Filippis, Elena; Lake, Douglas F; Coletta, Dawn K; Roust, Lori R; Mandarino, Lawrence J; Carroll, Chad C; Katsanos, Christos S

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies show reduced abundance of the β-subunit of mitochondrial H+-ATP synthase (β-F1-ATPase) in skeletal muscle of obese individuals. The β-F1-ATPase forms the catalytic core of the ATP synthase, and it is critical for ATP production in muscle. The mechanism(s) impairing β-F1-ATPase metabolism in obesity, however, are not completely understood. First, we studied total muscle protein synthesis and the translation efficiency of β-F1-ATPase in obese (BMI, 36±1 kg/m2) and lean (BMI, 22±1 kg/m2) subjects. Both total protein synthesis (0.044±0.006 vs 0.066±0.006%·h-1) and translation efficiency of β-F1-ATPase (0.0031±0.0007 vs 0.0073±0.0004) were lower in muscle from the obese subjects when compared to the lean controls (Pculture model, and tested the specific hypothesis that circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in obesity play a role in the responses observed in humans. The findings on total protein synthesis and translation efficiency of β-F1-ATPase in primary myotubes cultured from a lean subject, and after exposure to NEFA extracted from serum of an obese subject, were similar to those obtained in humans. Among candidate microRNAs (i.e., non-coding RNAs regulating gene expression), we identified miR-127-5p in preventing the production of β-F1-ATPase. Muscle expression of miR-127-5p negatively correlated with β-F1-ATPase protein translation efficiency in humans (r = - 0.6744; Pobese subject. On the other hand, locked nucleic acid inhibitor synthesized to target miR-127-5p significantly increased β-F1-ATPase translation efficiency in myotubes (0.6±0.1 vs 1.3±0.3, in control vs exposure to 50 nM inhibitor; Pobesity in suppressing muscle protein metabolism, and establish impaired β-F1-ATPase translation as an important consequence of obesity. PMID:27532680

  15. Quarkonium suppression

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Petreczky

    2003-04-01

    I discuss quarkonium suppression in equilibrated strongly interacting matter. After a brief review of basic features of quarkonium production I discuss the application of recent lattice data on the heavy quark potential to the problem of quarkonium dissociation as well as the problem of direct lattice determination of quarkonium properties in finite temperature lattice QCD.

  16. PENAMBAHAN BAKTERI ASAM LAKTAT TERENKAPSULASI UNTUK MENEKAN PERTUMBUHAN BAKTERI PATOGEN PADA PROSES PRODUKSI TAPIOKA [Addition of Encapsulated Lactic Acid Bacteria to Suppress the Growth of Pathogenic Bacteria during Tapioca Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glisina Dwinoor Rembulan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB produce organic acids and active compounds which can inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria potentially can be introduced to inhibit pathogenic bacteria in the tapioca production at the extraction stage, especially during the settling process since there is possibility of starch slurry to be contaminated by pathogenic bacteria from water. The objectives of this research were to design a solid starter of LAB through encapsulation by using modified starch includes sour cassava starch, lintnerized cassava starch and nanocrystalline starch, utilize the starter for suppressing the growth of pathogenic bacteria in the production process of tapioca and characterize the functional properties of tapioca. The encapsulation of lactic acid bacteria was conducted by freeze drying at a temperature of -50°C for 48 hours. The viability of LAB after freeze drying with sour cassava starch matrix was 92% of the liquid starter, with lintnerized cassava starch matrix was 93%, while that with nanocrystalline matrix was 96%. After application of the LAB culture during settling process for tapioca extraction and the tapioca was stored at room temperature for 6 months, it was shown that E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella were  detected in the native tapioca starch (without treatment while the starch added with lactic acid bacteria starter was not absent for the pathogenic bacteria. The addition of lactic acid bacteria in extraction process can suppress the growth of pathogenic bacteria in tapioca. The results showed that lintnerized cassava starch matrix is the best matrix because after 6 months it still contained lactic acid bacteria as compared to liquid starter and that encapsulated with other matrixes.

  17. Downregulation of NO and PGE2 in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells by trans-isoferulic acid via suppression of PI3K/Akt-dependent NF-κB and activation of Nrf2-mediated HO-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilshara, Matharage Gayani; Lee, Kyoung-Tae; Jayasooriya, Rajapaksha Gedara Prasad Tharanga; Kang, Chang-Hee; Park, Sang Rul; Choi, Yung Hyun; Choi, Il-Whan; Hyun, Jin-Won; Chang, Weon-Young; Kim, Yeon-Su; Lee, Hak-Ju; Kim, Gi-Young

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about whether trans-isoferulic acid (TIA) regulates the production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced proinflammatory mediators. Therefore, we examined the effect of TIA isolated from Clematis mandshurica on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in BV2 microglial cells. We found that TIA inhibited the production of LPS-induced NO and PGE2 without accompanying cytotoxicity in BV2 microglial cells. TIA also downregulated the expression levels of specific regulatory genes such as inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by suppressing LPS-induced NF-κB activity via dephosphorylation of PI3K/Akt. In addition, we demonstrated that a specific NF-κB inhibitor PDTC and a selective PI3K/Akt inhibitor, LY294002 effectively attenuated the expression of LPS-stimulated iNOS and COX-2 mRNA, while LY294002 suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activity, suggesting that TIA attenuates the expression of these proinflammatory genes by suppressing PI3K/Akt-mediated NF-κB activity. Our results showed that TIA suppressed NO and PGE2 production through the induction of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-dependent heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Taken together, our data indicate that TIA suppresses the production of proinflammatory mediators such as NO and PGE2, as well as their regulatory genes, in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells, by inhibiting PI3K/Akt-dependent NF-κB activity and enhancing Nrf2-mediated HO-1 expression. PMID:24291391

  18. N-[3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl]-anthranilic acid (tranilast) suppresses microglial inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and activity induced by interferon-γ (IFN-γ)

    OpenAIRE

    Platten, Michael; Wick, Wolfgang; Wischhusen, Jörg; WELLER, MICHAEL

    2001-01-01

    Microglial cells up-regulate inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in response to various pro-inflammatory stimuli including interferon-γ (IFN-γ), allowing for the release of nitric oxide (NO). Tranilast (N-[3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl]-anthranilic acid) is an antiallergic compound with suppressive effects on the activation of monocytes.Here, we show that N9 murine microglial cells express iNOS mRNA and protein and release nitric oxide into the culture medium in response to IFN-γ (200 ...

  19. 3,4,5-Trihydroxycinnamic Acid Inhibits LPS-Induced iNOS Expression by Suppressing NF-κB Activation in BV2 Microglial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae-Won; Bae, Chang Jun; Choi, Yong-Jun; Kim, Song-In; Kim, Nam-Ho; Lee, Hee Jae; Kim, Sung-Soo; Kwon, Yong-Soo; Chun, Wanjoo

    2012-01-01

    Although various derivatives of caffeic acid have been reported to possess a wide variety of biological activities such as neuronal protection against excitotoxicity and anti-inflammatory property, the biological activity of 3,4,5-trihydroxycinnamic acid (THC), a derivative of hydroxycinnamic acids, has not been clearly examined. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of THC on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. THC significantly...

  20. Tumor necrosis factor alpha is associated with insulin-mediated suppression of free fatty acids and net lipid oxidation in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Pedersen, SB; Dela, Flemming; Fenger, Mogens; Richelsen, Bjørn; Madsbad, Sten; Iversen, Johan; Pedersen, Erik Steen

    2006-01-01

    lipodystrophy (LIPO) and those without (controls). LIPOX was estimated by indirect calorimetry during fasting and steady state of a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp in 36 (18 LIPO and 18 controls) normoglycemic HIV-infected men on highly active antiretroviral therapy. In LIPO, TNF-alpha correlated with clamp...... clamp values combined) correlated strongly and positively in both LIPO (R2 = 0.43, P < .001) and controls (R2 = 0.60, P < .0001). Fasting FFA and LIPOX did not differ between study groups; however, the insulin-mediated suppression of FFA and LIPOX was attenuated in LIPO (P's < .05). Our data indicate...... that higher TNF-alpha, independently of insulin sensitivity, is associated with attenuated insulin-mediated suppression of FFA and LIPOX in HIV-LIPO, suggesting in turn that TNF-alpha stimulates lipolysis in this syndrome. Furthermore, FFA may be a major determinant of LIPOX in HIV-infected patients on...

  1. Poly-l-aspartic Acid Enhances and Prolongs Gentamicin-mediated Suppression of the CFTR-G542X Mutation in a Cystic Fibrosis Mouse Model*

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Ming; Keeling, Kim M.; Fan, Liming; Liu, Xiaoli; Bedwell, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Aminoglycosides such as gentamicin have the ability to suppress translation termination at premature stop mutations, leading to a partial restoration of protein expression and function. This observation led to studies showing that this approach may provide a viable treatment for patients with genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis that are caused by premature stop mutations. Although aminoglycoside treatment is sometimes associated with harmful side effects, several ...

  2. Nuclear suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article draws attention to a number of cases where it seems that scientists and technologists have been penalized in various ways for having views opposed to those of the nuclear industry. Attempts to encourage the general public to understand nuclear issues have also been discouraged, nuclear knowledge being kept as the preserve of the experts and policy makers, especially in the military applications of nuclear power. It may be that publications are suppressed or careers are destroyed. One example highlighted in the article is of Dhirendra Shama, a critic of India's nuclear policy, who was suddenly transferred from the Centre of Studies in Science Policy at his University to the School of Languages. Other examples are given from other countries - Australia, Britain, Canada, Federal Republic of Germany, India, Japan, New Zealand, Soviet Union, Sweden and the United States of America. The main 'crime' of those victimised is not in having critical views, but in alerting the general public to those critical view and ideas. (UK)

  3. Retinoid suppression of transglutaminase activity and envelope competence in cultured human epidermal carcinoma cells: Hydrocortisone is a potent antagonist of retinyl acetate but not retinoic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Rh; Thacher, SM; Coe, EL

    1985-01-01

    Growth of SCC-13 squamous carcinoma cultures in the presence of retinoids considerably reduced the expression of two differentiation markers, the cellular capability to form cross-linked envelopes, and the enzyme transglutaminase required for cross-linking. A limited survey of retinoids showed that all-trans retinoic acid, 13-cis retinoic acid, and arotinoid Ro 13-6298 were highly effective in the absence of hydrocortisone and were only slightly antagonized by its presence in the medium. In c...

  4. Retigeric Acid B Exhibits Antitumor Activity through Suppression of Nuclear Factor-κB Signaling in Prostate Cancer Cells in Vitro and in Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yong-Qing; Xiao-Yan HU; Lu, Tao; Cheng, Yan-Na; Young, Charles Y. F.; Yuan, Hui-Qing; Lou, Hong-xiang

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we reported that retigeric acid B (RB), a natural pentacyclic triterpenic acid isolated from lichen, inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in androgen-independent prostate cancer (PCa) cells. However, the mechanism of action of RB remains unclear. In this study, we found that using PC3 and DU145 cells as models, RB inhibited phosphorylation levels of IκBα and p65 subunit of NF-κB in a time- and dosage-dependent manner. Detailed study revealed that RB blocked the nuclear tran...

  5. Lignification and structural biomass production in tobacco with suppressed caffeic/5-hydroxy ferulic acid-O-menthyl transferase activity under ambien and elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaschke, L. [Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet, Inst. fuer Forstbotanik und Baumphysiologie, Freiburg (Germany); Legrand, M. [Univ. Louis Pasteur, Inst. de Biologie Moleculaire des Plantes du Centre National, Strasbourg Cedex (France); Mai, C.; Polle A. [Georg-August Univ., Forstbotanisches Inst., Goettingen (Germany)

    2004-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between growth, biomass partitioning and lignification we used tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) in which O-methyl transferase (OMT) activity, an enzyme involved in the pathway of sinapyl alcohol formation for lignin synthesis, was suppressed by antisense transformation. To modulate growth, controls and transformed tobacco plants were grown under ambient (approximately 380 p.p.m) or elevated CO{sub 2} (700 p.p.m), respectively. Lignin concentrations and composition were determined with spectrophotometric methods (thioglycolate and acetyl bromide) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, respectively. A comparison of the thioglycolate and acetylbromide method suggested that the thioglycolate method was sensitive to changes in the syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G)-ratio in lignin and therefore not suitable for quantification in tissues with altered lignin composition. Growth under elevated CO{sub 2} increased leaf and stem biomass of both genotypes by 40 and 20%, respectively, compared with ambient CO{sub 2} and had no effect on root biomass. OMT suppression did not affect lignin concentrations in the leaves but caused a shift in biomass partitioning from the structural to the non-structural fraction. Elevated CO{sub 2} caused a shift towards production of structural compounds resulting in decreased foliar lignin concentrations and indicating that the lignin/structural mass ratio is flexible in leaves. By contrast, the lignin concentrations of stems were unaffected by elevated CO{sub 2} or OMT suppression and increased about three-fold from the apex to the base. Antisense-OMT plants produced more stem biomass than controls but showed no changes of the relative partitioning of biomass to the different pools. This indicates that the metabolic control of carbon fluxes to the production of structural versus non-structural fractions is tighter in stems than in leaves. FTIR spectroscopy indicated a relative increase in guaiacyl- as compared with

  6. Simultaneous Determination of Umami Substances of Organic Acids in Marine Products by Suppressed Ion Chromatography%抑制型离子色谱法测定海产品中的有机酸类鲜味物质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵宏宏; 周秀锦; 周向阳; 傅谧妮; 沈飚

    2014-01-01

    A method for determination of umami substances of organic acids in marine products is de-veloped by suppressed ion chromatography,and umami substances of organic acids extracted from ma-rine products are analyzed.The separation of organic acids is achieved on hydrophilic anion exchange column with potassium hydroxide for gradient eluting.The calibration graphs of peak area for all ana-lytes are linear in the ranges about two orders of magnitude.The recoveries of addition standard are within 81.5%~93.2% with RSD<6.7%.This method has been successfully applied for the determi-nation of lactic acid and succinic acid in different kinds of marine products in the region of East Sea in China.The results show that there's wide variation of content existed in different marine products.%以不同品种的海产品为研究对象,建立了抑制型离子色谱法测定海产品中有机酸的方法,并对海产品中主要有机酸类鲜味物质进行了提取和测定。该法采用亲水性阴离子交换分离柱,KOH 为淋洗液作梯度淋洗,对所测有机酸的线性范围均在2个数量级以上,回收率介于81.5%~93.2%之间,RSD<6.7%。利用该法对我国东海地区典型海产品中的乳酸及琥珀酸进行了测定,结果表明不同品种的海产品中有机酸的含量分布有较大差异。

  7. Analysis of nine food additives in red wine by ion-suppression reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using trifluoroacetic acid and ammonium acetate as ion-suppressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-Gang; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Yao, Shan-Shan; Pan, Sheng-Dong; Li, Xiao-Ping; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2012-01-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of nine food additives, i.e., acesulfame, saccharin, caffeine, aspartame, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, stevioside, dehydroacetic acid and neotame in red wine. The effects of ion-suppressors, i.e., trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and ammonium acetate (AmAc) on retention behavior of nine food additives in RP-HPLC separation were discussed in detail. The relationships between retention factors of solutes and volume percent of ion-suppressors in the mobile-phase systems of acetonitrile-TFA aqueous solution and acetonitrile-TFA-AmAc aqueous solution were quantitatively established, respectively. The results showed that the ion suppressors had not only an ion suppression effect, but also an organic modification effect on the acidic analytes. The baseline separation of nine food additives was completed by a gradient elution with acetonitrile-TFA(0.01%, v/v)-AmAc(2.5 mmol L(-1)) aqueous solution as the mobile phase. The recoveries were between 80.2 - 99.5% for all analytes with RSDs in the range of 1.5 - 8.9%. The linearities were in the range of 0.2 - 100.0 mg L(-1) with determination coefficients (r(2)) higher than 0.9991 for all analytes. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were between 0.53 - 0.99 mg L(-1). The applicability of the proposed method to detect and quantify food additives has been demonstrated in the analysis of 30 real samples. PMID:23059992

  8. Protein phosphatase 2A associates with Rb2/p130 and mediates retinoic acid-induced growth suppression of ovarian carcinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuocolo, Scott; Purev, Enkhtsetseg; Zhang, Dongmei;

    2003-01-01

    Levels of Rb2/p130 protein are increased 5-10-fold following all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment of the retinoid-sensitive ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line CAOV3, but not the retinoid-resistant adenocarcinoma cell line SKOV3. We found that this increase in Rb2/p130 protein levels in ATRA...

  9. Suppression of Aspergillus by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Guillaume; Jelsbak, Lars; Søndergaard, Ib;

    suppressed growth of A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. flavus, A. oryzae, A. terreus and E. nidulans. HPLC and LC-DAD-MS results showed an increase in phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and phenazine-1-carboxamide production by P. aeruginosa in the contact area of Aspergillus. Different quinolones were also identified......, here among 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (PQS). An unidentified green pseudomonas compound was also observed. Interestingly the P. aeruginosa mutant rpoN was unable to suppress A. fumigatus, but suppressed A. flavus, A. oryzae and A. niger. However several other P. aeruginosa mutants suppressed A...

  10. Rosmarinic Acid Methyl Ester Inhibits LPS-Induced NO Production via Suppression of MyD88- Dependent and -Independent Pathways and Induction of HO-1 in RAW 264.7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Yangkang; Lee, Seung Young; Han, Ah-Reum; Kim, Jin-Baek; Jeong, Hye Gwang; Jin, Chang Hyun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of rosmarinic acid methyl ester (RAME) isolated from a mutant cultivar of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton. We found that RAME inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, with an IC50 of 14.25 µM, in RAW 264.7 cells. RAME inhibited the LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon-β, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Moreover, RAME suppressed the activation of nuclear factor kappa B. These results suggest that the downregulation of iNOS expression by RAME was due to myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88)-dependent and -independent pathways. Furthermore, RAME induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) through activation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2. Treatment with tin protoporphyrin, an inhibitor of HO-1, reversed the RAME-induced suppression of NO production. Taken together, RAME isolated from P. frutescens inhibited NO production in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells through simultaneous induction of HO-1 and inhibition of MyD88-dependent and -independent pathways. PMID:27548124

  11. Suppression of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Transaminases Induces Prominent GABA Accumulation, Dwarfism and Infertility in the Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Koike, Satoshi; Matsukura, Chiaki; Takayama, Mariko; Asamizu, Erika; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Tomatoes accumulate γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at high levels in the immature fruits. GABA is rapidly converted to succinate during fruit ripening through the activities of GABA transaminase (GABA-T) and succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH). Although three genes encoding GABA-T and both pyruvate- and α-ketoglutarate-dependent GABA-T activities have been detected in tomato fruits, the mechanism underlying the GABA-T-mediated conversion of GABA has not been fully understood. In this wor...

  12. Inhibitors of monoacylglycerol lipase, fatty-acid amide hydrolase and endocannabinoid transport differentially suppress capsaicin-induced behavioral sensitization through peripheral endocannabinoid mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Spradley, Jessica M.; Guindon, Josée; Hohmann, Andrea G.

    2010-01-01

    Monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) degrade the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA), respectively. Pharmacological inhibition of these enzymes in the periphery may elucidate the role of endocannabinoids in controlling nociceptive transmission. We compared effects of the MGL inhibitor JZL184, the FAAH inhibitor URB597, and the endocannabinoid uptake inhibitor VDM11, administered locally in the paw, on behavioral hypersensitivities...

  13. Gambogic acid covalently modifies IκB-kinase-β subunit to mediate suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NF-κB in macrophages*

    OpenAIRE

    Palempalli, Umamaheshwari D.; Gandhi, Ujjawal; Kalantari, Parisa; Vunta, Hema; Arner, Ryan J.; Narayan, Vivek; Ravindran, Anand; Prabhu, K. Sandeep

    2009-01-01

    Gambogic acid (GA) is a polyprenylated xanthone abundant in the resin of Garcinia morella and G. hanburyi with a long history of use as a complementary and alternative medicine. The anti-tumor activity of GA has been well demonstrated and is thought to arise partly from the associated anti-inflammatory activity. Recent studies have indicated that the anti-tumor activity of GA is mediated by its ligation of the transferrin receptor TfR1. Since the cellular expression of TfR1 is down-regulated ...

  14. Short chain fatty acids induce both effector and regulatory T cells by suppression of histone deacetylases and regulation of the mTOR-S6K pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jeongho; Kim, Myunghoo; Kang, Seung G; Jannasch, Amber Hopf; Cooper, Bruce; Patterson, John; Chang H Kim

    2014-01-01

    Microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are highly produced in the intestine and potentially regulate the immune system. We studied the function of SCFAs in regulation of T cell differentiation into effector and regulatory T cells. We report that SCFAs can directly promote T cell differentiation into T cells producing IL-17, IFN-γ, and/or IL-10 depending on cytokine milieu. This effect of SCFAs on T cells is independent of GPR41- or GPR43 but dependent on direct histone ...

  15. Atorvastatin induces bile acid-synthetic enzyme Cyp7a1 by suppressing FXR signaling in both liver and intestine in mice[S

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Zidong Donna; Cui, Julia Yue; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2014-01-01

    Statins are effective cholesterol-lowering drugs to treat CVDs. Bile acids (BAs), the end products of cholesterol metabolism in the liver, are important nutrient and energy regulators. The present study aims to investigate how statins affect BA homeostasis in the enterohepatic circulation. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with atorvastatin (100 mg/kg/day po) for 1 week, followed by BA profiling by ultra-performance LC-MS/MS. Atorvastatin decreased BA pool size, mainly due to less BA in the inte...

  16. The gadd and MyD genes define a novel set of mammalian genes encoding acidic proteins that synergistically suppress cell growth.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan, Q.; Lord, K A; Alamo, I; Hollander, M C; Carrier, F.; Ron, D; KOHN, K. W.; Hoffman, B; Liebermann, D A; Fornace, A J

    1994-01-01

    A remarkable overlap was observed between the gadd genes, a group of often coordinately expressed genes that are induced by genotoxic stress and certain other growth arrest signals, and the MyD genes, a set of myeloid differentiation primary response genes. The MyD116 gene was found to be the murine homolog of the hamster gadd34 gene, whereas MyD118 and gadd45 were found to represent two separate but closely related genes. Furthermore, gadd34/MyD116, gadd45, MyD118, and gadd153 encode acidic ...

  17. Nanosecond pulsed electric field suppresses development of eyes and germ cells through blocking synthesis of retinoic acid in Medaka (Oryzias latipes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Shiraishi

    Full Text Available Application of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs has attracted rising attention in various scientific fields including medical, pharmacological, and biological sciences, although its effects and molecular mechanisms leading to the effects remain poorly understood. Here, we show that a single, high-intensity (10-30 kV/cm, 60-ns PEF exposure affects gene expression and impairs development of eyes and germ cells in medaka (Oryzias latipes. Exposure of early blastula stage embryos to nsPEF down-regulated the expression of several transcription factors which are essential for eye development, causing abnormal eye formation. Moreover, the majority of the exposed genetic female embryos showed a fewer number of germ cells similar to that of the control (unexposed genetic male at 9 days post-fertilization (dpf. However, all-trans retinoic acid (atRA treatment following the exposure rescued proliferation of germ cells and resumption of normal eye development, suggesting that the phenotypes induced by nsPEF are caused by a decrease of retinoic acid levels. These results confirm that nsPEFs induce novel effects during embryogenesis in medaka.

  18. UVB-induced systemic immunosuppression: role of mast cells and histamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: UVB radiation (290-320 nm) is immunosuppressive by multiple mechanisms allowing the outgrowth of UV-induced tumours in both mouse and man. Furthermore, patients with non-melanoma skin cancers have a higher risk of death from other cancers which could be explained by UV-induced immunomodulation. The mechanism(s) of suppression by UVB depend on whether the sensitising antigen is applied to the irradiated site ('local') or to non-irradiated sites ('systemic'). In the former, the activity of UV-induced TNFα is important as it affects the migration of Langerhans cells to draining lymph nodes. In contrast, histamine from dermal mast cells is critical to the early events by which UVB can suppress systemic immune responses. The prevalence of dermal mast cells in 7 strains and substrains of mice correlates directly with their susceptibility to UVB-induced systemic immunosuppression. Furthermore, mast cell depleted mice (Wf/Wf) are resistant to UVB-induced systemic immunomodulation. However, they become susceptible after reconstitution of the site to be irradiated with bone marrow derived mast cell precursors. The mice also gain susceptibility to cis-urocanic acid-induced systemic immunomodulation. There is considerable evidence that histamine is the mast cell product critical to downstream immunosuppressive events. Firstly, physiological concentrations of histamine suppress contact hypersensitivity responses. Secondly, histamine receptor antagonists halve UVB-induced systemic immunosuppression. Thirdly, mice with different UVB-susceptibilities are equally susceptible to histamine-induced immunosuppression, and finally, histamine can suppress contact hypersensitivity responses in Wf/Wf mice. We suggest that histamine may be immunomodulatory by multiple pathways. Histamine can induce the production of immunosuppressive prostanoids from keratinocytes. A lymphocyte-derived, histamine-induced suppressor factor was reported in the 1970's. More recently histamine has

  19. Soluble CD163 is not increased in visceral fat and steatotic liver and is even suppressed by free fatty acids in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sabrina; Weiss, Thomas S; Wiest, Reiner; Schacherer, Doris; Hellerbrand, Claus; Farkas, Stefan; Scherer, Marcus N; Ritter, Mirko; Schmitz, Gerd; Schäffler, Andreas; Buechler, Christa

    2011-12-01

    Visceral fat differs from subcutaneous fat by higher local inflammation and increased release of IL-6 and free fatty acids (FFA) which contribute to hepatic steatosis. IL-6 has been shown to upregulate the monocyte/macrophage specific receptor CD163 whose soluble form, sCD163, is increased in inflammatory diseases. Here, it was analyzed whether CD163 and sCD163 are differentially expressed in the human fat depots and fatty liver. CD163 mRNA and protein were similarly expressed in paired samples of human visceral and subcutaneous fat, and comparable levels in portal venous and systemic venous blood of liver-healthy controls indicate that release of sCD163 from visceral adipose tissue was not increased. CD163 was also similarly expressed in steatotic liver when compared to non-steatotic tissues and sCD163 was almost equal in the respective sera. Concentrations of sCD163 were not affected when passing the liver excluding substantial hepatic removal/release of this protein. A high concentration of IL-6 upregulated CD163 protein while physiological doses had no effect. However, sCD163 was not increased by any of the IL-6 doses tested. FFA even modestly decreased CD163 and sCD163. The anti-inflammatory mediators fenofibrate, pioglitazone, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) did not influence sCD163 levels while CD163 was reduced by EPA. These data suggest that in humans neither visceral fat nor fatty liver are major sources of sCD163. PMID:21839737

  20. High temperature suppression of dioxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Ming-Xiu; Chen, Tong; Fu, Jian-Ying; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Lu, Sheng-Yong; Li, Xiao-Dong; Yan, Jian-Hua; Buekens, Alfons

    2016-03-01

    Combined Sulphur-Nitrogen inhibitors, such as sewage sludge decomposition gases (SDG), thiourea and amidosulphonic acid have been observed to suppress the de novo synthesis of dioxins effectively. In this study, the inhibition of PCDD/Fs formation from model fly ash was investigated at unusually high temperatures (650 °C and 850 °C), well above the usual range of de novo tests (250-400 °C). At 650 °C it was found that SDG evolving from dried sewage sludge could suppress the formation of 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs with high efficiency (90%), both in weight units and in I-TEQ units. Additionally, at 850 °C, three kinds of sulphur-amine or sulphur-ammonium compounds were tested to inhibit dioxins formation during laboratory-scale tests, simulating municipal solid waste incineration. The suppression efficiencies of PCDD/Fs formed through homogeneous gas phase reactions were all above 85% when 3 wt. % of thiourea (98.7%), aminosulphonic acid (96.0%) or ammonium thiosulphate (87.3%) was added. Differences in the ratio of PCDFs/PCDDs, in weight average chlorination level and in the congener distribution of the 17 toxic PCDD/Fs indicated that the three inhibitors tested followed distinct suppression pathways, possibly in relation to their different functional groups of nitrogen. Furthermore, thiourea reduced the (weight) average chlorinated level. In addition, the thermal decomposition of TUA was studied by means of thermogravimetry-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR) and the presence of SO2, SO3, NH3 and nitriles (N≡C bonds) was shown in the decomposition gases; these gaseous inhibitors might be the primary dioxins suppressants. PMID:26716881

  1. Alleviation of Lead Toxicity by 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Is Related to Elevated Growth, Photosynthesis, and Suppressed Ultrastructural Damages in Oilseed Rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb is a widely spread pollutant and leads to diverse morphological and structural changes in the plants. In this study, alleviating role of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. was investigated with or without foliar application of ALA (25 mg L−1 in hydroponic environment under different Pb levels (0, 100, and 400 µM. Outcomes stated that plant morphology and photosynthetic attributes were reduced under the application of Pb alone. However, ALA application significantly increased the plant growth and photosynthetic parameters under Pb toxicity. Moreover, ALA also lowered the Pb concentration in shoots and roots under Pb toxicity. The microscopic studies depicted that exogenously applied ALA ameliorated the Pb stress and significantly improved the cell ultrastructures. After application of ALA under Pb stress, mesophyll cell had well-developed nucleus and chloroplast having a number of starch granules. Moreover, micrographs illustrated that root tip cell contained well-developed nucleus, a number of mitochondria, and golgi bodies. These results proposed that under 15-day Pb-induced stress, ALA improved the plant growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic parameters, and ultrastructural modifications in leaf mesophyll and root tip cells of the B. napus plants.

  2. Alleviation of Lead Toxicity by 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Is Related to Elevated Growth, Photosynthesis, and Suppressed Ultrastructural Damages in Oilseed Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Qin, Yebo; Gill, Rafaqat A.; Ali, Shafaqat

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a widely spread pollutant and leads to diverse morphological and structural changes in the plants. In this study, alleviating role of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was investigated with or without foliar application of ALA (25 mg L−1) in hydroponic environment under different Pb levels (0, 100, and 400 µM). Outcomes stated that plant morphology and photosynthetic attributes were reduced under the application of Pb alone. However, ALA application significantly increased the plant growth and photosynthetic parameters under Pb toxicity. Moreover, ALA also lowered the Pb concentration in shoots and roots under Pb toxicity. The microscopic studies depicted that exogenously applied ALA ameliorated the Pb stress and significantly improved the cell ultrastructures. After application of ALA under Pb stress, mesophyll cell had well-developed nucleus and chloroplast having a number of starch granules. Moreover, micrographs illustrated that root tip cell contained well-developed nucleus, a number of mitochondria, and golgi bodies. These results proposed that under 15-day Pb-induced stress, ALA improved the plant growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic parameters, and ultrastructural modifications in leaf mesophyll and root tip cells of the B. napus plants. PMID:24683549

  3. Glyphosate’s Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Samsel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup®, is the most popular herbicide used worldwide. The industry asserts it is minimally toxic to humans, but here we argue otherwise. Residues are found in the main foods of the Western diet, comprised primarily of sugar, corn, soy and wheat. Glyphosate's inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP enzymes is an overlooked component of its toxicity to mammals. CYP enzymes play crucial roles in biology, one of which is to detoxify xenobiotics. Thus, glyphosate enhances the damaging effects of other food borne chemical residues and environmental toxins. Negative impact on the body is insidious and manifests slowly over time as inflammation damages cellular systems throughout the body. Here, we show how interference with CYP enzymes acts synergistically with disruption of the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids by gut bacteria, as well as impairment in serum sulfate transport. Consequences are most of the diseases and conditions associated with a Western diet, which include gastrointestinal disorders, obesity, diabetes, heart disease, depression, autism, infertility, cancer and Alzheimer’s disease. We explain the documented effects of glyphosate and its ability to induce disease, and we show that glyphosate is the “textbook example” of exogenous semiotic entropy: the disruption of homeostasis by environmental toxins.

  4. Dexamethasone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medication. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

  5. Gambogic acid covalently modifies IκB-kinase-β subunit to mediate suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NF-κB in macrophages*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palempalli, Umamaheshwari D.; Gandhi, Ujjawal; Kalantari, Parisa; Vunta, Hema; Arner, Ryan J.; Narayan, Vivek; Ravindran, Anand; Prabhu, K. Sandeep

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Gambogic acid (GA) is a polyprenylated xanthone abundant in the resin of Garcinia morella and G. hanburyi with a long history of use as a complementary and alternative medicine. The anti-tumor activity of GA has been well demonstrated and is thought to arise partly from the associated anti-inflammatory activity. Recent studies have indicated that the anti-tumor activity of GA is mediated by its ligation of the transferrin receptor TfR1. Since the cellular expression of TfR1 is down-regulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we hypothesized that an alternative pathway exists in immune cells, such as macrophages, where GA could mitigate the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Here we demonstrate that GA inhibits the LPS-dependent expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) target pro-inflammatory genes in macrophages. Western immunoblot, NF-κB luciferase reporter, and gel shift analyses revealed that GA strongly blocked the activation of NF-κB induced by LPS; while 9,10-dihydroGA that lacks the reactive α,β-unsaturated carbonyl group was ineffective. Moreover, GA was able to decrease nuclear p65 levels in RAW264.7 macrophages, where the expression of TfR1 was down-regulated by RNA interference. In-vitro kinase assays coupled with interaction studies using biotinylated GA as well as proteomic analysis demonstrated that IKKβ, a key kinase of the NF-κB signaling axis, was covalently modified by GA at Cys179 causing significant inhibition of its kinase activity. Taken together, these data demonstrate the potent anti-inflammatory activity of GA. PMID:19140805

  6. Gambogic acid covalently modifies IkappaB kinase-beta subunit to mediate suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NF-kappaB in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palempalli, Umamaheshwari D; Gandhi, Ujjawal; Kalantari, Parisa; Vunta, Hema; Arner, Ryan J; Narayan, Vivek; Ravindran, Anand; Prabhu, K Sandeep

    2009-04-15

    GA (gambogic acid) is a polyprenylated xanthone abundant in the resin of Garcinia morella and Garcinia hanburyi with a long history of use as a complementary and alternative medicine. The antitumour activity of GA has been well demonstrated and is thought to arise partly from the associated anti-inflammatory activity. Recent studies have indicated that the antitumour activity of GA is mediated by its ligation of TfR1 (transferrin receptor-1). Since the cellular expression of TfR1 is down-regulated by LPS (lipopolysaccharide), we hypothesized that an alternative pathway exists in immune cells, such as macrophages, where GA could mitigate the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Here we demonstrate that GA inhibits the LPS-dependent expression of NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) target pro-inflammatory genes in macrophages. Western immunoblot, NF-kappaB-luciferase reporter and gel-shift analyses revealed that GA strongly blocked the activation of NF-kappaB induced by LPS, whereas 9,10-dihydro-GA, which lacks the reactive alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl group, was ineffective. Moreover, GA was able to decrease nuclear p65 levels in RAW264.7 macrophages, where the expression of TfR1 was down-regulated by RNA interference. in vitro kinase assays coupled with interaction studies using biotinylated GA as well as proteomic analysis demonstrated that IKKbeta [IkappaB (inhibitory kappaB) kinase-beta], a key kinase of the NF-kappaB signalling axis, was covalently modified by GA at Cys-179, causing significant inhibition of its kinase activity. Taken together, these results demonstrate the potent anti-inflammatory activity of GA. PMID:19140805

  7. Branched-chain amino acids ameliorate fibrosis and suppress tumor growth in a rat model of hepatocellular carcinoma with liver cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hoon Cha

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Recent studies have revealed that branched-chain amino acids (BCAA reduce the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in patients with obesity and hepatitis C virus infection by improving insulin resistance (IR. The aim of this study was to examine the anti-cancer and anti-fibrotic effects of BCAA on the development of diethylnitrosamine (DEN-induced HCC and liver cirrhosis in a rat model. METHODS: Male SD rats received weekly intraperitoneal injections of DEN (50 mg/kg of body weight for 16 weeks to induce HCC. They were fed a diet containing 3% casein, 3% or 6% BCAA for 13 weeks beginning 6 weeks after DEN administration. DEN was used to induce HCC through stepwise development from cirrhosis to HCC. The effect of BCAA was evaluated in tumor tissues by histopathologic analyses, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting. RESULTS: The mean area and number of dysplastic nodules (DNs and tumors in the casein group tended to be larger than those in the BCAA group 16 weeks after DEN administration. The mean fibrotic area in the BCAA group was smaller than that in the casein group. The BCAA group showed decreased mRNA levels for markers of fibrosis, angiogenesis, and apoptosis inhibition. Compared with the casein group, the BCAA group had lower levels of α-smooth muscle actin, vascular endothelial growth factor, p-β-catenin, p-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and caspase-3 protein expression, as well as a higher level of cleaved caspase-3 protein expression. CONCLUSIONS: BCAA supplementation of the diet ameliorated liver fibrosis and HCC development in a DEN-induced rat model of HCC with liver cirrhosis, but not in the IR model. These results provide a rationale for anti-fibrosis and chemoprevention using BCAA treatment for HCC with liver cirrhosis, as well as decreasing the ammonia level.

  8. Suppression of alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid in VEGF-induced angiogenesis and the possible mechanisms in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid (α-TEA) has been reported to exhibit both anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities in cell culture and animal studies. However, it is unclear whether α-TEA possesses anti-angiogenic effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of α-TEA on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression both in vitro and ex vivo. We found that the α-TEA inhibited tube formation, invasion, and migration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and that such actions were accompanied by reduced expression of MMP-2. α-TEA also inhibited ex vivo angiogenesis, as indicated by chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane assay. We further showed that α-TEA attenuated protein expression of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2)-mediated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), phosphorylated p38, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Moreover, α-TEA (30 μM) significantly up-regulated protein expression of tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP)-2 (by 138%) and the metastasis suppressor gene nm23-H1 (by 54%). These results demonstrate that the anti-angiogenic effect of α-TEA both in vitro and ex vivo and its possible mechanistic action appears to involve the inhibition of MMP-2 level through VEGFR-2-mediated FAK and p38 signaling pathways and through up-regulation of TIMP-2 and nm23-H1 expression. - Graphical abstract: Possible mechanisms of α-TEA on inhibited angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Brief summary In the present study, we have demonstrated that VEGF-mediated angiogenesis is significantly inhibited by α-TEA, and that this effect involves inhibition of MMP-2 level through VEGFR-2-mediated FAK and p38 signaling pathways related to invasion and migration. - Highlights: • The anti-angiogenic effect and the mechanistic action of α-TEA were investigated. • α-TEA significantly inhibited VEGF-mediated angiogenesis both in vitro and ex vivo. • α-TEA down

  9. Suppression of alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid in VEGF-induced angiogenesis and the possible mechanisms in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Cheng-Hung, E-mail: chchuang@hk.edu.tw [Department of Nutrition, Master Program of Biomedical Nutrition, Hungkuang University, 1018 Sec. 6 Taiwan Boulevard, Taichung 43302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Chia-Hua [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung-Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lu, Ta-Jung [Department of Chemistry, Institute of Technology and Innovation Management, National Chung-Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hu, Miao-Lin, E-mail: mlhuhu@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung-Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-12-15

    Alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid (α-TEA) has been reported to exhibit both anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities in cell culture and animal studies. However, it is unclear whether α-TEA possesses anti-angiogenic effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of α-TEA on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression both in vitro and ex vivo. We found that the α-TEA inhibited tube formation, invasion, and migration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and that such actions were accompanied by reduced expression of MMP-2. α-TEA also inhibited ex vivo angiogenesis, as indicated by chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane assay. We further showed that α-TEA attenuated protein expression of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2)-mediated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), phosphorylated p38, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Moreover, α-TEA (30 μM) significantly up-regulated protein expression of tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP)-2 (by 138%) and the metastasis suppressor gene nm23-H1 (by 54%). These results demonstrate that the anti-angiogenic effect of α-TEA both in vitro and ex vivo and its possible mechanistic action appears to involve the inhibition of MMP-2 level through VEGFR-2-mediated FAK and p38 signaling pathways and through up-regulation of TIMP-2 and nm23-H1 expression. - Graphical abstract: Possible mechanisms of α-TEA on inhibited angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Brief summary In the present study, we have demonstrated that VEGF-mediated angiogenesis is significantly inhibited by α-TEA, and that this effect involves inhibition of MMP-2 level through VEGFR-2-mediated FAK and p38 signaling pathways related to invasion and migration. - Highlights: • The anti-angiogenic effect and the mechanistic action of α-TEA were investigated. • α-TEA significantly inhibited VEGF-mediated angiogenesis both in vitro and ex vivo. • α-TEA down

  10. (R-(+-α-Lipoic acid protected NG108-15 cells against H2O2-induced cell death through PI3K-Akt/GSK-3β pathway and suppression of NF-κβ-cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamarudin MNA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Muhamad Noor Alfarizal Kamarudin, Nur Afiqah Mohd Raflee, Sharifah Salwa Syed Hussein, Jia Ye Lo, Hadi Supriady, Habsah Abdul KadirInstitute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaAbstract: Alpha-lipoic acid, a potent antioxidant with multifarious pharmacological benefits has been reported to be neuroprotective in several neuronal models and used to treat neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. Nonetheless, conclusive mechanisms of alpha-lipoic acid for its protective effects particularly in NG108-15 cells have never been investigated. In this study, the intricate neuroprotective molecular mechanisms by (R-(+-alpha-lipoic acid (R-LA against H2O2-induced cell death in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration were elucidated. Pretreatment with R-LA (2 hours significantly increased NG108-15 cell viability as compared to H2O2-treated cells and mitigated the induction of apoptosis as evidenced by Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide staining. R-LA (12.5–50 µM aggrandized the reduced glutathione over glutathione disulfide ratio followed by a reduction in the intracellular reactive oxygen species level and an increase in mitochondrial membrane potential following H2O2 exposure. Moreover, pretreatment with R-LA stimulated the activation of PI3K-Akt through mTORC1 and mTORC2 components (mTOR, rictor and raptor and production of antiinflammatory cytokine, IL-10 which led to the inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β and reduction of both Bax/Bcl2 and Bax/Bcl-xL ratios, accompanied by inhibition of the cleaved caspase-3. Additionally, this observation was preceded by the suppression of NF-κβ p65 translocation and production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α. The current findings accentuate new mechanistic insight of R-LA against apoptogenic and brain inflammatory factors in a neuronal model. These results further advocate the therapeutic potential of R-LA for

  11. Plant, cell, and molecular mechanisms of abscisic-acid regulation of stomatal apertures. In vivo phosphorylation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in guard cells of Vicia faba L. is enhanced by fusicoccin and suppressed by abscisic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Z.; Aghoram, K.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    Plants regulate water loss and CO{sub 2} gain by modulating the aperture sizes of stomata that penetrate the epidermis. Aperture size itself is increased by osmolyte accumulation and consequent turgor increase in the pair of guard cells that flank each stoma. Guard-cell phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, which catalyzes the regulated step leading to malate synthesis, is crucial for charge and pH maintenance during osmolyte accumulation. Regulation of this cytosolic enzyme by effectors is well documented, but additional regulation by posttranslational modification is predicted by the alteration of PEPC kinetics during stomatal opening. In this study, the authors have investigated whether this alteration is associated with the phosphorylation status of this enzyme. Using sonicated epidermal peels (isolated guard cells) pre-loaded with {sub 32}PO{sub 4}, the authors induced stomatal opening and guard-cell malate accumulation by incubation with 5 {micro}M fusicoccin (FC). In corroboratory experiments, guard cells were incubated with 5 {micro}M fusicoccin (FC). In corroboratory experiments, guard cells were incubated with the FC antagonist, 10 {micro}M abscisic acid (ABA). The phosphorylation status of PEPC was assessed by immunoprecipitation, electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and autoradiography. PEPC was phosphorylated when stomata were stimulated to open, and phosphorylation was lessened by incubation with ABA.

  12. Burst suppression electroencephalogram with mushroom poisoning, Amanita pantherina

    OpenAIRE

    Yuka Ogawa; Hiromasa Sato; Motoyoshi Yamamoto; Hiroyuki Tada; Takao Hashimoto

    2015-01-01

    We report on a patient with Amanita pantherina poisoning who showed a burst suppression pattern on electroencephalography during a comatose state. The patient recovered without sequelae a week after ingestion. Burst suppression pattern is defined as alternating bursts and periods of electrical silence, and it is associated with comatose states of various causes. The major toxins contained in A. pantherina are ibotenic acid, an excitatory amino acid at the glutamate receptors, and muscimol, an...

  13. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  14. Hidden Complications of Thought Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Najmi, Sadia; Wegner, Daniel M.

    2009-01-01

    Although the suppression of thoughts may seem to be an effective solution, this strategy can lead to an exacerbation of the very thought that one is attempting to suppress. This ironic effect is the most obvious unwanted outcome of suppression and has now been investigated empirically for more than two decades. However, the fact that suppression is an effortful process implies that, even when suppression does not lead to an ironic rebound of the unwanted thought, it puts an insidious cognitiv...

  15. 法国海岸松树皮提取物碧萝芷对长链游离脂肪酸诱导的巨噬细胞perilipin2基因表达的影响%Pycnogenol, an Extract from French Martime Pine, Suppresses Oleic Acid-induced perilipin2 Expression in Macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范斌; 杜强; 谷剑秋; 张锦

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the effect of Pycnogenol on oleic acid-induced perilipin2 expression in macrophages. Methods Realtime PCR and Western blot were performed to detect perilipin2 expression. Transient transfection and luciferase assay were employed to measure perilipin2 promoter activity. Results Oleic acid significantly induced perilipiti2 expression in a dose-and time-dependent manner in macrophages; oleic acid markedly enhanced perilipin2 promoter activity; Pycnogenol significantly suppressed oleic acid-induced perihpin2 expression and promoter activity. Conclusion For the first time,we demonstrated that Pycnogenol significantly suppressed oleic acid-induced perilipin2 expression and promoter activity.%目的 研究碧萝芷(PYC)对油酸诱导的巨噬细胞perilipin2表达的影响及其相关分子机制.方法 应用Real-time PCR 和Western blot测定油酸及PYC对perilipin2 mRNA和蛋白水平表达影响.应用荧光素酶活性分析方法检测油酸及PYC时perilipin2启动子活性的影响.结果油酸以剂量和浓度依赖方式上调perilipin2 mRNA和蛋白水平表达,并促进perilipin2启动子活性.PYC以剂量依赖方式抑制了油酸诱导的perilipin2表达及启动子活性.结论PYC抑制了巨噬细胞中油酸诱导的perilipin2的表达.PYC通过抑制perilipin2启动子活性,从而直接抑制perilipin2的表达.

  16. PENAMBAHAN BAKTERI ASAM LAKTAT TERENKAPSULASI UNTUK MENEKAN PERTUMBUHAN BAKTERI PATOGEN PADA PROSES PRODUKSI TAPIOKA [Addition of Encapsulated Lactic Acid Bacteria to Suppress the Growth of Pathogenic Bacteria during Tapioca Production

    OpenAIRE

    Glisina Dwinoor Rembulan; Titi Candra Sunarti; Anja Meryandini

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce organic acids and active compounds which can inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria potentially can be introduced to inhibit pathogenic bacteria in the tapioca production at the extraction stage, especially during the settling process since there is possibility of starch slurry to be contaminated by pathogenic bacteria from water. The objectives of this research were to design a solid starter of LAB through encapsulation by using mod...

  17. Interactions between surround suppression and interocular suppression in human vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Chun Cai

    Full Text Available Several types of suppression phenomena have been observed in the visual system. For example, the ability to detect a target stimulus is often impaired when the target is embedded in a high-contrast surround. This contextual modulation, known as surround suppression, was formerly thought to occur only in the periphery. Another type of suppression phenomena is interocular suppression, in which the sensitivity to a monocular target is reduced by a superimposed mask in the opposite eye. Here, we explored how the two types of suppression operating across different spatial regions interact with one another when they simultaneously exert suppressive influences on a common target presented at the fovea. In our experiments, a circular target grating presented to the fovea of one eye was suppressed interocularly by a noise pattern of the same size in the other eye. The foveal stimuli were either shown alone or surrounded by a monocular annular grating. The orientation and eye-of-origin of the surround grating were varied. We found that the detection of the foveal target subjected to interocular suppression was severely impaired by the addition of the surround grating, indicating strong surround suppression in the fovea. In contrast, when the interocular suppression was released by superimposing a binocular fusion ring onto both the target and the dichoptic mask, the surround suppression effect was found to be dramatically decreased. In addition, the surround suppression was found to depend on the contrast of the dichoptic noise with the greatest surround suppression effect being obtained only when the noise contrast was at an intermediate level. These findings indicate that surround suppression and interocular suppression are not independent of each other, but there are strong interactions between them. Moreover, our results suggest that strong surround suppression may also occur at the fovea and not just the periphery.

  18. Suppression or expression

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Lewis

    2005-01-01

    Based on an interview study of neonatal nurses, this article sets out to explore the management of emotions within a work context where their suppression is a professional requirement. Drawing on Bolton’s (2000a, 2000b) identification of different types of organizational emotionality, in particular prescriptive and philanthropic emotion management, the article seeks to demonstrate the complexities involved in the performance of emotional labour. It does this by first exploring the times whe...

  19. Tremor suppression in ECG

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    Mihov Georgy S

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrocardiogram recordings are very often contaminated by high-frequency noise usually power-line interference and EMG disturbances (tremor. Specific method for interference cancellation without affecting the proper ECG components, called subtraction procedure, was developed some two decades ago. Filtering out the tremor remains a priori partially successful since it has a relatively wide spectrum, which overlaps the useful ECG frequency band. Method The proposed method for tremor suppression implements the following three procedures. Contaminated ECG signals are subjected to moving averaging (comb filter with linear phase characteristic with first zero set at 50 Hz to suppress tremor and PL interference simultaneously. The reduced peaks of QRS complexes and other relatively high and steep ECG waves are then restored by an introduced by us procedure called linearly-angular, so that the useful high frequency components are preserved in the range specified by the embedded in the ECG instrument filter, usually up to 125 Hz. Finally, a Savitzky-Golay smoothing filter is applied for supplementary tremor suppression outside the QRS complexes. Results The results obtained show a low level of the residual EMG disturbances together with negligible distortion of the wave shapes regardless of rhythm and morphology changes.

  20. Menstrual suppression: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillard PA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Paula Adams Hillard Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA Abstract: Menstrual suppression to provide relief of menstrual-related symptoms or to manage medical conditions associated with menstrual morbidity or menstrual exacerbation has been used clinically since the development of steroid hormonal therapies. Options range from the extended or continuous use of combined hormonal oral contraceptives, to the use of combined hormonal patches and rings, progestins given in a variety of formulations from intramuscular injection to oral therapies to intrauterine devices, and other agents such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH antagonists. The agents used for menstrual suppression have variable rates of success in inducing amenorrhea, but typically have increasing rates of amenorrhea over time. Therapy may be limited by side effects, most commonly irregular, unscheduled bleeding. These therapies can benefit women's quality of life, and by stabilizing the hormonal milieu, potentially improve the course of underlying medical conditions such as diabetes or a seizure disorder. This review addresses situations in which menstrual suppression may be of benefit, and lists options which have been successful in inducing medical amenorrhea. Keywords: menstrual molimena, amenorrhea, inducing amenorrhea, quality of life

  1. Vibrotactile suppression of tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, Martin L.

    2002-05-01

    At the Society's 142nd meeting, the efficacy of high frequency bone conducted stimulation in suppressing tinnitus was presented. The hypothesized mechanism was the reprogramming of frequency tuning of auditory neurons in the central nervous system, secondarily to peripheral hearing loss. This mechanism is unlikely in cases of tinnitus in the presence of normal audiometric sensitivity. There is the possibility that hearing loss above 10 kHz can play a role in tinnitus, an association not thoroughly explored. Somatomotor stimulation influencing the quality of tinnitus has been reported, as have interconnections of the auditory and somatosensory systems. There would appear to be an evolutionary advantage of linking the sensorimotor organization of the external ear and the auditory function of the brainstem in sound localization. Thus, stimulation of the pinna and post auricular area may be a means of suppressing tinnitus. To that end a thin aluminum ceramic bimorph was constructed to fit on the inner surface of the pinna. When driven by low (10 kHz) frequencies multiplied by MHz carriers, demodulation in the skin resulted in vibrotactile stimulation. Tactile stimulation was an adjunct to the high frequencies resulting in a multimodal suppressive effect in a small pilot study.

  2. Next generation fire suppressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jerry A.

    1995-01-01

    Spectrex, Inc., located in Cedar Grove, NJ is a manufacturer of fire detection and suppression equipment. Spectrex is one of the original pioneers in high speed fire detection and suppression systems for combat vehicles. Spectrex has installed fire suppressions systems in thousands of combat vehicles and ships throughout the world. Additionally, they manufacture flame explosion detectors, ship damage control systems, and optical gas and vapor detectors. The culmination of several years of research and development has recently produced an innovative electro-optical continuous monitoring systems called SharpEye 20/20I IR(sup 3) and SAFEYE that provide fast and reliable gas, vapor, aerosol, flame, and explosion detection. SharpEye 20/20I IR(sup 3) is a self-contained triple spectrum flame detector which scans for oscillating IR radiation (1 to 10 Hz) in the spectral bands ranging from 4.0 to 5.0 microns and uses programmed algorithms to check the ratio and correlation of data received by the three sensors to make the system highly immune to false alarms. It is extremely sensitive as it can detect a 1 x 1 square foot gasoline pan fire at 200 feet in less than 3 seconds. The sensitivity is user programmable, offering 4 ranges of detection. SAFEYE is comprised of a selected number of multispectral ban microprocessors controlled detectors which are in communication with one or more radiation sources that is projected along a 600 feet optical path. The signals from the selected narrow bands are processed and analyzed by highly sophisticated algorithms. It is ideal for high risk, remote, large areas such as petroleum and chemical manufacturing sites, waste dumps, aircraft cargo bays, and ship compartments. The SAFEYE will perform direct readings of the presence or rate of rise of concentrations of gases, vapors, or aerosols at the range of parts per million and provide alarms at various set points at different levels of concentrations.

  3. Possible involvement of ATP-dependent K-channel related mechanisms in the antihypertensive and cough suppressant effects of the novel ACE inhibitor (2S, 3aS, 7aS)-1-(N2-nicotinoyl-L-lysyl-gamma-D-glutamyl)octahydro-1H- indole-2-carboxylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, S; Takeyama, K; Hosoki, K; Karasawa, T

    1997-06-01

    The antihypertensive and cough suppressant mechanisms of DU-1777 ((2S,3aS,7aS)-1-(N2-nicotinoyl-L-lsyl-gamma-D-glutamyl )octahydro-1H-indole-2 -carboxylic acid, CAS 116662-73-8), a new long-acting angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, were investigated in vivo and in vitro. The antihypertensive effects of DU-1777 at 10 mg/kg p.o. and cromakalim at 0.3 mg/kg p.o. were partially (about 60%) or fully antagonized by glibenclamide at 10 mg/kg i.v. in 2-kidney, 1-clip renal hypertensive rats (2K-1C RHR). The antihypertensive effects of a Ca blocker (nifedipine) and other ACE inhibitors (captopril, alacepril, enalapril, lisinopril, imidapril and quanapril) were not antagonized by glibenclamide. In deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertensive rats (DOCA-HR), the antihypertensive effects of DU-1777 at 3-30 mg/kg p.o. were fully antagonized by glibenclamide. However, in vitro, DU-1777 (10(-6)-10(-3) mol/l) did not affect aortic ring contractions induced by high K (30 mmol/l). In guinea pig, citric acid induced cough was increased by ACE inhibitors, captopril, alacepril, enalapril and lisinopril (10 and 30 mg/kg p.o.). DU-1777 had a tendency to decrease citric acid induced cough and the effect was antagonized by glibenclamide. These results suggest that while DU-1777 itself does not open ATP-dependent K channel, it indirectly produces these effects through unknown mechanisms in vivo. Moreover, these effects contributed to the antihypertensive effect in DOCA-HR and cough suppressant effect in guinea pigs. PMID:9239450

  4. The pressure suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear plants with boiling water reactors have a safety containment with a pressure suppression system (PSS). Proceeding on significant self-developments, today the three PSS-lines of General Electric Co. (GE), Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) and ASEA-ATOM are predominant, which are currently represented by the MARK III type, the KWU type 72 and the BWR 75 containment. In addition, there are special developments for the nuclear ship propulsion and for the pressurized water reactors in the Soviet Union. Key design values of the PSS allow a first valuation of its loads during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident. (orig.)

  5. Planck-suppressed operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the recent Planck limits on primordial non-Gaussianity impose strong constraints on light hidden sector fields coupled to the inflaton via operators suppressed by a high mass scale Λ. We study a simple effective field theory in which a hidden sector field is coupled to a shift-symmetric inflaton via arbitrary operators up to dimension five. Self-interactions in the hidden sector lead to non-Gaussianity in the curvature perturbations. To be consistent with the Planck limit on local non-Gaussianity, the coupling to any hidden sector with light fields and natural cubic couplings must be suppressed by a very high scale Λ > 105H. Even if the hidden sector has Gaussian correlations, nonlinearities in the mixing with the inflaton still lead to non-Gaussian curvature perturbations. In this case, the non-Gaussianity is of the equilateral or orthogonal type, and the Planck data requires Λ > 102H

  6. Profiles of Everyday Thought Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Ie, Amanda Yen Lin

    2014-01-01

    The present research assessed whether levels of depression, anxiety and worry, obsessive-compulsive distress, and psychopathy were differentially related to distinct thought suppression profiles. As a means to achieving this goal, the Profiles of Everyday Thought Suppression (PETS) scale was constructed to measure the frequencies with which various target thoughts are suppressed. The PETS scale demonstrated good internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and scores were positively co...

  7. (R)-(+)-α-Lipoic acid protected NG108-15 cells against H2O2-induced cell death through PI3K-Akt/GSK-3β pathway and suppression of NF-κβ-cytokines

    OpenAIRE

    Kadir, Habsah

    2014-01-01

    Muhamad Noor Alfarizal Kamarudin, Nur Afiqah Mohd Raflee, Sharifah Salwa Syed Hussein, Jia Ye Lo, Hadi Supriady, Habsah Abdul KadirInstitute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaAbstract: Alpha-lipoic acid, a potent antioxidant with multifarious pharmacological benefits has been reported to be neuroprotective in several neuronal models and used to treat neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. Nonetheless, conclu...

  8. (R)-(+)-α-Lipoic acid protected NG108-15 cells against H2O2-induced cell death through PI3K-Akt/GSK-3β pathway and suppression of NF-κβ-cytokines

    OpenAIRE

    Kamarudin MNA; Mohd Raflee NA; Syed Hussein SS; Lo JY; Supriady H; Abdul Kadir H

    2014-01-01

    Muhamad Noor Alfarizal Kamarudin, Nur Afiqah Mohd Raflee, Sharifah Salwa Syed Hussein, Jia Ye Lo, Hadi Supriady, Habsah Abdul KadirInstitute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaAbstract: Alpha-lipoic acid, a potent antioxidant with multifarious pharmacological benefits has been reported to be neuroprotective in several neuronal models and used to treat neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. Nonetheless, conclusive mec...

  9. Inhibition of fatty acid synthase suppresses U-2 OS cell invasion and migration via downregulating the activity of HER2/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tao Fang; Wang, Heng [Department of Orthopedics, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Jiangxi (China); Peng, Ai Fen [Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jiangxi (China); Luo, Qing Feng [Department of Pathology, Cancer Hospital of Jiangxi Province, Jiangxi (China); Liu, Zhi Li, E-mail: zgm7977@163.com [Department of Orthopedics, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Jiangxi (China); Zhou, Rong Ping [Department of Orthopedics, Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Jiangxi (China); Gao, Song; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Wen Zhao [Department of Orthopedics, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Jiangxi (China)

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •We investigate the relationship between FASN and HER2 or p-HER2 by IHC in OS tissues. •We construct FASN-specific RNAi plasmid. •Inhibiting FASN down-regulates HER2/PI3K/AKT cell signaling in U-2 OS. •Inhibiting FASN blocks U-2 OS cell invasion and migration. -- Abstract: FASN plays an important role in the malignant phenotype of various tumors. Our previous studies show that inhibition FASN could induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation in human osteosarcoma (OS) cell in vivo and vitro. The aim in this study was to investigate the effect of inhibition FASN on the activity of HER2/PI3K/AKT axis and invasion and migration of OS cell. The expression of FASN, HER2 and p-HER2(Y1248) proteins was detected by immunohistochemistry in OS tissues from 24 patients with pulmonary metastatic disease, and the relationship between FASN and p-HER2 as well as HER2 was investigated. The results showed that there was a positive correlation between FASN and HER2 as well as p-HER2 protein expression. The U-2 OS cells were transfected with either the FASN specific RNAi plasmid or the negative control RNAi plasmid. FASN mRNA was measured by RT-PCR. Western blot assays was performed to examine the protein expression of FASN, HER2, p-HER2(Y1248), PI3K, Akt and p-Akt (Ser473). Migration and invasion of cells were investigated by wound healing and transwell invasion assays. The results showed that the activity of HER2/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was suppressed by inhibiting FASN. Meanwhile, the U-2OS cells migration and invasion were also impaired by inhibiting the activity of FASN/HER2/PI3K/AKT. Our results indicated that inhibition of FASN suppresses OS cell invasion and migration via down-regulation of the “HER2/PI3K/AKT” axis in vitro. FASN blocker may be a new therapeutic strategy in OS management.

  10. Inhibition of fatty acid synthase suppresses U-2 OS cell invasion and migration via downregulating the activity of HER2/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •We investigate the relationship between FASN and HER2 or p-HER2 by IHC in OS tissues. •We construct FASN-specific RNAi plasmid. •Inhibiting FASN down-regulates HER2/PI3K/AKT cell signaling in U-2 OS. •Inhibiting FASN blocks U-2 OS cell invasion and migration. -- Abstract: FASN plays an important role in the malignant phenotype of various tumors. Our previous studies show that inhibition FASN could induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation in human osteosarcoma (OS) cell in vivo and vitro. The aim in this study was to investigate the effect of inhibition FASN on the activity of HER2/PI3K/AKT axis and invasion and migration of OS cell. The expression of FASN, HER2 and p-HER2(Y1248) proteins was detected by immunohistochemistry in OS tissues from 24 patients with pulmonary metastatic disease, and the relationship between FASN and p-HER2 as well as HER2 was investigated. The results showed that there was a positive correlation between FASN and HER2 as well as p-HER2 protein expression. The U-2 OS cells were transfected with either the FASN specific RNAi plasmid or the negative control RNAi plasmid. FASN mRNA was measured by RT-PCR. Western blot assays was performed to examine the protein expression of FASN, HER2, p-HER2(Y1248), PI3K, Akt and p-Akt (Ser473). Migration and invasion of cells were investigated by wound healing and transwell invasion assays. The results showed that the activity of HER2/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was suppressed by inhibiting FASN. Meanwhile, the U-2OS cells migration and invasion were also impaired by inhibiting the activity of FASN/HER2/PI3K/AKT. Our results indicated that inhibition of FASN suppresses OS cell invasion and migration via down-regulation of the “HER2/PI3K/AKT” axis in vitro. FASN blocker may be a new therapeutic strategy in OS management

  11. Retinoic acid and cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mei-Chih; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Lin, Ho; Yang, Tsung-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Retinoic acid which belongs to the retinoid class of chemical compounds is an important metabolite of vitamin A in diets. It is currently understood that retinoic acid plays important roles in cell development and differentiation as well as cancer treatment. Lung, prostate, breast, ovarian, bladder, oral, and skin cancers have been demonstrated to be suppressed by retinoic acid. Our results also show that low doses and high doses of retinoic acid may respectively cause cell cycle arrest and a...

  12. An Alternative to Thought Suppression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

  13. Inducing amnesia through systemic suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, Justin C; Henson, Richard N; Anderson, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal damage profoundly disrupts the ability to store new memories of life events. Amnesic windows might also occur in healthy people due to disturbed hippocampal function arising during mental processes that systemically reduce hippocampal activity. Intentionally suppressing memory retrieval (retrieval stopping) reduces hippocampal activity via control mechanisms mediated by the lateral prefrontal cortex. Here we show that when people suppress retrieval given a reminder of an unwanted memory, they are considerably more likely to forget unrelated experiences from periods surrounding suppression. This amnesic shadow follows a dose-response function, becomes more pronounced after practice suppressing retrieval, exhibits characteristics indicating disturbed hippocampal function, and is predicted by reduced hippocampal activity. These findings indicate that stopping retrieval engages a suppression mechanism that broadly compromises hippocampal processes and that hippocampal stabilization processes can be interrupted strategically. Cognitively triggered amnesia constitutes an unrecognized forgetting process that may account for otherwise unexplained memory lapses following trauma. PMID:26977589

  14. Oxidation of Pu(III) by nitric acid in tri-n-butyl phosphate solutions. Part II. Chemical methods for the suppression of oxidation to improve plutonium separation in contactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic method has been used to screen a number of potential stabilizers (holding reductants) for Pu(III) in tri-n-butyl phosphate/diluent solutions used in irradiated fuel reprocessing systems. The conditions assumed were similar to those used in solvent extraction contactor operations. Of the reagents tested, oximes as a group appeared to be very effective. Acetaldoxime, in particular, was selected for extensive tests and was used as a Pu(III) stabilizer, in both the aqueous and organic phases, in contactor runs for plutonium partition from thorium and uranium. In the best results, the plutonium loss to the thorium/uranium stream was 2.8 X 10-5 g/l or 0.0046%; without using acetaldoxime, the loss was 12%. Rates of plutonium reduction in 1.5 M nitric acid have been compared for a number of reducing agents under identical conditions. Some derivatives of hydroxylamine were found to be much more effective than hydroxylamine itself

  15. Rosmarinus officinalis extract suppresses Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu; Tsai, Po-Jung

    2013-04-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in P. acnes-stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes-induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes-induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-κB activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1β production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes-induced inflammation. PMID:23514231

  16. Compton suppression gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past decade there have been many studies to use Compton suppression methods in routine neutron activation analysis as well as in the traditional role of low level gamma ray counting of environmental samples. On a separate path there have been many new PC based software packages that have been developed to enhance photopeak fitting. Although the newer PC based algorithms have had significant improvements, they still suffer from being effectively used in weak gamma ray lines in natural samples or in neutron activated samples that have very high Compton backgrounds. We have completed a series of experiments to show the usefulness of Compton suppression. As well we have shown the pitfalls when using Compton suppression methods for high counting deadtimes as in the case of neutron activated samples. We have also investigated if counting statistics are the same both suppressed and normal modes. Results are presented in four separate experiments. (author)

  17. Cryogenic Acoustic Suppression Testing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project will explore and test the feasibility and effectiveness of using a cryogenic fluid (liquid nitrogen) to facilitate acoustic suppression in a...

  18. Thyroid suppression test with dextrothyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classic thyroid suppression test with triiodothyronine (l-T3) has been shown to be efficient as an auxiliary method in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases, but should not be performed on elderly patients or on those with heart disease or a tendency to tachycardia. Since these subjects seem able to support a short period of dextro-thyronine (d-T4) feeding, we compared the effect of d-T4 and l-T3 on the 24 hours thyroid uptake in euthyroid and hyperthyroid subjects. After basal radio-iodine uptake determination, 99 patients without hyperthyroidism and 27 with Graves' disease were randomly divided in 2 groups; one received 100μg of l-T3 per day and the other 4 mg of d-T4 per day, both groups being treated for a period of 10 days. At the end of this suppression period the 24 hours radio-iodine uptake was measured again and the percentual suppression index (S.I.) calculated. Since the comparison of the two groups showed no difference between the suppressive effect of l-T3 and d-T4 in euthyroid subjects, while dextro-thyronine, as levo-triiodothyronine, did not suppress the 24 hours uptake of hyperthyroid patients, l-T3 or d-T4 can be used interchangeably to test thyroid suppressibility. In the euthyroid subjects the normal range for the post-suppression uptake was 0-17.1% and for the suppression index 54,7.100%

  19. Suppressed Charmed B Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoek, Hella Leonie; /Vrije U., Amsterdam

    2011-11-28

    This thesis describes the measurement of the branching fractions of the suppressed charmed B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup (*)-} a{sub 0}{sup +} decays and the non-resonant B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup (*)-} {eta}{pi}{sup +} decays in approximately 230 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} events. The data have been collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California. Theoretical predictions of the branching fraction of the B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup (*)-} a{sub 0}{sup +} decays show large QCD model dependent uncertainties. Non-factorizing terms, in the naive factorization model, that can be calculated by QCD factorizing models have a large impact on the branching fraction of these decay modes. The predictions of the branching fractions are of the order of 10{sup -6}. The measurement of the branching fraction gives more insight into the theoretical models. In general a better understanding of QCD models will be necessary to conduct weak interaction physics at the next level. The presence of CP violation in electroweak interactions allows the differentiation between matter and antimatter in the laws of physics. In the Standard Model, CP violation is incorporated in the CKM matrix that describes the weak interaction between quarks. Relations amongst the CKM matrix elements are used to present the two relevant parameters as the apex of a triangle (Unitarity Triangle) in a complex plane. The over-constraining of the CKM triangle by experimental measurements is an important test of the Standard Model. At this moment no stringent direct measurements of the CKM angle {gamma}, one of the interior angles of the Unitarity Triangle, are available. The measurement of the angle {gamma} can be performed using the decays of neutral B mesons. The B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup (*)-} a{sub 0}{sup +} decay is sensitive to the angle {gamma} and, in comparison to the current decays that are being employed, could significantly enhance the

  20. Small molecule tolfenamic acid and dietary spice curcumin treatment enhances antiproliferative effect in pancreatic cancer cells via suppressing Sp1, disrupting NF-kB translocation to nucleus and cell cycle phase distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Riyaz; Connelly, Sarah F; Sankpal, Umesh T; Nagaraju, Ganji Purnachandra; Patel, Hassaan; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K; Shelake, Sagar; Tabor-Simecka, Leslie; Shoji, Mamoru; Simecka, Jerry W; El-Rayes, Bassel

    2016-05-01

    Combination of dietary/herbal spice curcumin (Cur) and COX inhibitors has been tested for improving therapeutic efficacy in pancreatic cancer (PC). The objective of this study was to identify agent with low toxicity and COX-independent mechanism to induce PC cell growth inhibition when used along with Cur. Anticancer NSAID, tolfenamic acid (TA) and Cur combination were evaluated using PC cell lines. L3.6pl and MIA PaCa-2 cells were treated with Cur (5-25μM) or TA (25-100μM) or combination of Cur (7.5μM) and TA (50μM). Cell viability was measured at 24-72h posttreatment using CellTiter-Glo kit. While both agents showed a steady/consistent effect, Cur+TA caused higher growth inhibition. Antiproliferative effect was compared with COX inhibitors, Ibuprofen and Celebrex. Cardiotoxicity was assessed using cordiomyocytes (H9C2). The expression of Sp proteins, survivin and apoptotic markers (western blot), caspase 3/7 (caspase-Glo kit), Annexin-V staining (flow cytometry), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell cycle phase distribution (flow cytometry) was measured. Cells were treated with TNF-α, and NF-kB translocation from cytoplasm to nucleus was evaluated (immunofluorescence). When compared to individual agents, combination of Cur+TA caused significant increase in apoptotic markers, ROS levels and inhibited NF-kB translocation to nucleus. TA caused cell cycle arrest in G0/G1, and the combination treatment showed mostly DNA synthesis phase arrest. These results suggest that combination of Cur+TA is less toxic and effectively enhance the therapeutic efficacy in PC cells via COX-independent mechanisms. PMID:27133426

  1. Plant growth hormones suppress the development of Harpophora maydis, the cause of late wilt in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Ofir; Drori, Ran; Goldblat, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    Late wilt, a severe vascular disease of maize caused by the fungus Harpophora maydis, is characterized by rapid wilting of maize plants before tasseling and until shortly before maturity. The pathogen is currently controlled by resistant maize cultivars, but the disease is constantly spreading to new areas. The plant's late phenological stage at which the disease appears suggests that plant hormones may be involved in the pathogenesis. This work revealed that plant growth hormones, auxin (Indole-3-acetic acid) and cytokinin (kinetin), suppress H. maydis in culture media and in a detached root assay. Kinetin, and even more auxin, caused significant suppression of fungus spore germination. Gibberellic acid did not alter colony growth rate but had a signal suppressive effect on the pathogens' spore germination. In comparison, ethylene and jasmonic acid, plant senescing and defense response regulators, had minor effects on colony growth and spore germination rate. Their associate hormone, salicylic acid, had a moderate suppressive effect on spore germination and colony growth rate, and a strong influence when combined with auxin. Despite the anti-fungal auxin success in vitro, field experiments with dimethylamine salt of  2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (that mimics the influence of auxin) failed to suppress the late wilt. The lines of evidence presented here reveal the suppressive influence of the three growth hormones studied on fungal development and are important to encourage further and more in-depth examinations of this intriguing hormonal complex regulatory and its role in the maize-H. maydis interactions. PMID:25649030

  2. Soft substrates suppress droplet splashing

    CERN Document Server

    Howland, Christopher J; Style, Robert W; Castrejón-Pita, A A

    2015-01-01

    Droplets splash when they impact dry, flat substrates above a critical velocity that depends on parameters such as droplet size, viscosity and air pressure. We show that substrate stiffness also impacts the splashing threshold by imaging ethanol drops impacting silicone gels of different stiffnesses. Splashing is significantly suppressed: droplets on the softest substrates need over 70% more kinetic energy to splash than they do on rigid substrates. We show that splash suppression is likely to be due to energy losses caused by deformations of soft substrates during the first few microseconds of impact. We find that solids with Youngs modulus $\\lesssim O(10^5)$Pa suppress splashing, in agreement with simple scaling arguments. Thus materials like soft gels and elastomers can be used as simple coatings for effective splash prevention.

  3. Aging and repeated thought suppression success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann E Lambert

    Full Text Available Intrusive thoughts and attempts to suppress them are common, but while suppression may be effective in the short-term, it can increase thought recurrence in the long-term. Because intentional suppression involves controlled processing, and many aspects of controlled processing decline with age, age differences in thought suppression outcomes may emerge, especially over repeated thought suppression attempts as cognitive resources are expended. Using multilevel modeling, we examined age differences in reactions to thought suppression attempts across four thought suppression sequences in 40 older and 42 younger adults. As expected, age differences were more prevalent during suppression than during free monitoring periods, with younger adults indicating longer, more frequent thought recurrences and greater suppression difficulty. Further, younger adults' thought suppression outcomes changed over time, while trajectories for older adults' were relatively stable. Results are discussed in terms of older adults' reduced thought recurrence, which was potentially afforded by age-related changes in reactive control and distractibility.

  4. Aging and repeated thought suppression success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Ann E; Smyth, Frederick L; Beadel, Jessica R; Teachman, Bethany A

    2013-01-01

    Intrusive thoughts and attempts to suppress them are common, but while suppression may be effective in the short-term, it can increase thought recurrence in the long-term. Because intentional suppression involves controlled processing, and many aspects of controlled processing decline with age, age differences in thought suppression outcomes may emerge, especially over repeated thought suppression attempts as cognitive resources are expended. Using multilevel modeling, we examined age differences in reactions to thought suppression attempts across four thought suppression sequences in 40 older and 42 younger adults. As expected, age differences were more prevalent during suppression than during free monitoring periods, with younger adults indicating longer, more frequent thought recurrences and greater suppression difficulty. Further, younger adults' thought suppression outcomes changed over time, while trajectories for older adults' were relatively stable. Results are discussed in terms of older adults' reduced thought recurrence, which was potentially afforded by age-related changes in reactive control and distractibility. PMID:23776442

  5. Teaching to suppress Polglish processes

    OpenAIRE

    Dziubalska-Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Balas, Anna; Schwartz, Geoffrey; Rojczyk, Arkadiusz; Wrembel, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Advanced second language (henceforth L2) learners in a formal setting can suppress many first language (henceforth L1) processes in L2 pronunciation when provided with sufficient exposure to L2 and meta competence (see Sect. 4 for a definition of this term). This paper shows how imitation in L2 teaching can be enhanced on the basis of current phonetic research and how complex allophonic processes such as nasal vocalization and glottal stop insertion can be suppressed using “repair”—a method o...

  6. Aging and Repeated Thought Suppression Success

    OpenAIRE

    Ann E Lambert; Smyth, Frederick L.; Jessica R Beadel; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2013-01-01

    Intrusive thoughts and attempts to suppress them are common, but while suppression may be effective in the short-term, it can increase thought recurrence in the long-term. Because intentional suppression involves controlled processing, and many aspects of controlled processing decline with age, age differences in thought suppression outcomes may emerge, especially over repeated thought suppression attempts as cognitive resources are expended. Using multilevel modeling, we examined age differe...

  7. Suppression of stratified explosive interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, M.K.; Shamoun, B.I.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics

    1998-01-01

    Stratified Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments with Refrigerant-134a and water were performed in a large-scale system. Air was uniformly injected into the coolant pool to establish a pre-existing void which could suppress the explosion. Two competing effects due to the variation of the air flow rate seem to influence the intensity of the explosion in this geometrical configuration. At low flow rates, although the injected air increases the void fraction, the concurrent agitation and mixing increases the intensity of the interaction. At higher flow rates, the increase in void fraction tends to attenuate the propagated pressure wave generated by the explosion. Experimental results show a complete suppression of the vapor explosion at high rates of air injection, corresponding to an average void fraction of larger than 30%. (author)

  8. Chk1 suppressed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meuth Mark

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The role of Chk1 in the cellular response to DNA replication stress is well established. However recent work indicates a novel role for Chk1 in the suppression of apoptosis following the disruption of DNA replication or DNA damage. This review will consider these findings in the context of known pathways of Chk1 signalling and potential applications of therapies that target Chk1.

  9. Visual Surround Suppression in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Tibber, Marc S.; Elaine J Anderson; Bobin, Tracy; Antonova, Elena; Seabright, Alice; Wright, Bernice; Carlin, Patricia; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; Dakin, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia (SZ) show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgments of contrast – a manifestation of weaker surround suppression (SS). To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with SZ to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation, and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the targ...

  10. Visual surround suppression in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Samuel Tibber; Elaine J Anderson; Tracy eBobin; Elena eAntonova; Alice eSeabright; Bernice eWright; Patricia eCarlin; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; Dakin, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgements of contrast - a manifestation of weaker surround suppression. To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with schizophrenia to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the tar...

  11. Jet Suppression Measured in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Citron, Zvi Hirsh; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In relativistic heavy ion collisions, a hot medium with a high density of unscreened color charges is produced, and jets propagating through this medium are known to suffer energy loss. This results in a lower yield of jets emerging from the medium than expected in the absence of medium effects, and thus modifications of the jet yield are directly sensitive to the energy loss mechanism. Furthermore, jets with different flavor content are expected to be affected by the medium in different ways. Parton showers initiated by quarks tend to have fewer fragments carrying a larger fraction of the total jet energy than those resulting from gluons. In this talk, the latest ATLAS results on single jet suppression will be presented. Measurements of the nuclear modification factor, RAA, for fully reconstructed jets are shown. The rapidity dependence of jet suppression is discussed, which is sensitive to the relative energy loss between quark and gluon jets. New measurements of single hadron suppression out to pT~150 GeV ...

  12. FLUTTER SUPPRESSION USING DISTRIBUTEDPIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A piezoelectric actuator has the benefits of flexibility of its position, without time lag and wide bandpass characteristics. The early results of the wind tunnel flutter suppression test using the piezoeletric actuator were presented in Ref.[1]. A rigid rectangular wing model is constrained by a plunge spring and a pitch spring, and a pair of piezoelectric actuators is bonded on both sides of the plunge spring so as to carry out the active control. Refs.[2,3] reported two flutter suppression wind tunnel tests where the distributed piezoelectric actuators were used. In Ref.[2] low speed wind tunnel tests were conducted with aluminum and composite plate-like rectangular models fully covered by piezoelectric actuators. Flutter speed is increased by 11%. In Ref.[3] a composite plate-like swept back model with piezoceramic actuators bonded on the inboard surface was tested in a transonic wind tunnel and a 12% increment of flutter dynamic pressure was achieved.  In the present investigation, an aluminum plate-like rectangular model with inboard bonded piezoceramic actuators is adopted. Active flutter suppression control law has been designed. A series of analyses and ground tests and, finally, low-speed wind tunnel tests with the active control system opened and closed are conducted. Reasonable results have been obtained.

  13. Adaptive Filtering for Aeroservoelastic Response Suppression Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CSA Engineering proposes the design of an adaptive aeroelastic mode suppression for advanced fly-by-wire aircraft, which will partition the modal suppression...

  14. Continuous flash suppression reduces negative afterimages

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Koch, Christof

    2005-01-01

    Illusions that produce perceptual suppression despite constant retinal input are used to manipulate visual consciousness. Here we report on a powerful variant of existing techniques, continuous flash suppression. Distinct images flashed successively at approx10 Hz into one eye reliably suppress an image presented to the other eye. The duration of perceptual suppression is at least ten times greater than that produced by binocular rivalry. Using this tool we show that the strength of the negat...

  15. Burst Suppression: A Review and New Insights

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Dillon Kenny; M. Brandon Westover; ShiNung Ching; Brown, Emery N.; Ken Solt

    2014-01-01

    Burst suppression is a pattern of brain electrical activity characterized by alternating periods of high-amplitude bursts and electrical silence. Burst suppression can arise from several different pathological conditions, as well as from general anesthesia. Here we review current algorithms that are used to quantify burst suppression, its various etiologies, and possible underlying mechanisms. We then review clinical applications of anesthetic-induced burst suppression. Finally, we report the...

  16. Anthocyan does not suppress transformation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor induced by dioxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Rie; Fukuda, Itsuko; Nishiumi, Shin; Hosokawa, Keizo; Kanazawa, Kazuki; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2004-01-01

    Dioxins cause a variety of toxic effects through transformation of a cytosolic aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We have previously demonstrated that certain natural flavones and flavonols at the dietary levels suppress AhR transformation. In this study, we investigated whether 5 anthocyanidins, 15 anthocyanins, and protocatechuic acid suppress AhR transformation in mouse hepatoma Hepa-1c1c7 cells. All the compounds tested here at 5 microM unexpectedly failed to suppress the transformation induced by 0.1 nM TCDD, indicating that anthocyan does not have a potential to prevent dioxin toxicity. PMID:15630228

  17. Suppression of superoxide anion generation catalyzed by xanthine oxidase with alkyl caffeates and the scavenging activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuoka, Noriyoshi; Kubo, Isao

    2016-05-01

    Alkyl caffeates are strong antioxidants and inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. However, it is unclear about the effect of caffeic acid and alkyl caffeates on superoxide anion (O2(-)) generation catalyzed by xanthine oxidase. Effects of caffeic acid and alkyl caffeates on the uric acid formation and O2(-) generation catalyzed by xanthine oxidase were analyzed. The scavenging activities of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and O2(-) generated with phenazine methosulfate (PMS) and NADH were examined. Caffeic acid derivatives equally suppressed O2(-) generation, and the suppression is stronger than inhibition of xanthine oxidase. Scavenging activity of O2(-) is low compared to the suppression of O2(-) generation. Suppression of O2(-) generation catalyzed by xanthine oxidase with caffeic acid derivatives was not due to enzyme inhibition or O2(-) scavenging but due to the reduction of xanthine oxidase molecules. Alkyl caffeates are effective inhibitors of uric acid and O2(-) catalyzed by xanthine oxidase as well as antioxidants for edible oil. PMID:26940252

  18. Distracted by cues for suppressed memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Paula T; Hayes, Jeffrey A

    2015-06-01

    We examined the potential cost of practicing suppression of negative thoughts on subsequent performance in an unrelated task. Cues for previously suppressed and unsuppressed (baseline) responses in a think/no-think procedure were displayed as irrelevant flankers for neutral words to be judged for emotional valence. These critical flankers were homographs with one negative meaning denoted by their paired response during learning. Responses to the targets were delayed when suppression cues (compared with baseline cues and new negative homographs) were used as flankers, but only following direct-suppression instructions and not when benign substitutes had been provided to aid suppression. On a final recall test, suppression-induced forgetting following direct suppression and the flanker task was positively correlated with the flanker effect. Experiment 2 replicated these findings. Finally, valence ratings of neutral targets were influenced by the valence of the flankers but not by the prior role of the negative flankers. PMID:25904596

  19. Suppression effects on musical and verbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Zachary A; Palmer, Caroline

    2007-06-01

    Three experiments contrasted the effects of articulatory suppression on recognition memory for musical and verbal sequences. In Experiment 1, a standard/comparison task was employed, with digit or note sequences presented visually or auditorily while participants remained silent or produced intermittent verbal suppression (saying "the") or musical suppression (singing "la"). Both suppression types decreased performance by equivalent amounts, as compared with no suppression. Recognition accuracy was lower during suppression for visually presented digits than during that for auditorily presented digits (consistent with phonological loop predictions), whereas accuracy was equivalent for visually presented notes and auditory tones. When visual interference filled the retention interval in Experiment 2, performance with visually presented notes but not digits was impaired. Experiment 3 forced participants to translate visually presented music sequences by presenting comparison sequences auditorily. Suppression effects for visually presented music resembled those for digits only when the recognition task required sensory translation of cues. PMID:17848022

  20. New insights into the role of PML in tumour suppression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P Salomoni; BJ Ferguson; AH Wyllie; T Rich

    2008-01-01

    The PML gene is involved in the t(15;17) transiocation of acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL),which generates the oncogenic fusion protein PML (promyelocytic ieukaemia protein)-retinoic acid receptor alpha.The PML protein Iocalises to a subnuclear structure called the PML nuclear domain (PML-ND),of which PML is the essential structural component.In APL,PML-NDs are disrupted,thus implicating these structures in the pathogenesis of this leukaemia.Unexpectedly,recent studies indicate that PML and the PML-ND play a tumour suppressive role in several different types of human neoplasms in addition to APL.Because of PML's extreme versatility and involvement in multiple cellular pathways,understanding the mechanisms underlying its function,and therefore role in tumour suppression,has been a challenging task.In this review,we attempt to critically appraise the more recent advances in this field and propose new avenues of investigation.

  1. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids ...

  2. Chaos suppression through asymmetric coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragard, J.; Vidal, G.; Mancini, H.; Mendoza, C.; Boccaletti, S.

    2007-12-01

    We study pairs of identical coupled chaotic oscillators. In particular, we have used Roessler (in the funnel and no funnel regimes), Lorenz, and four-dimensional chaotic Lotka-Volterra models. In all four of these cases, a pair of identical oscillators is asymmetrically coupled. The main result of the numerical simulations is that in all cases, specific values of coupling strength and asymmetry exist that render the two oscillators periodic and synchronized. The values of the coupling strength for which this phenomenon occurs is well below the previously known value for complete synchronization. We have found that this behavior exists for all the chaotic oscillators that we have used in the analysis. We postulate that this behavior is presumably generic to all chaotic oscillators. In order to complete the study, we have tested the robustness of this phenomenon of chaos suppression versus the addition of some Gaussian noise. We found that chaos suppression is robust for the addition of finite noise level. Finally, we propose some extension to this research.

  3. Weed-Suppressing Effect and Mechanism of Allelopathic Rice Accessions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUFei; KONGChui-hua; XUXiao-hua; ZHANGChao-xian; CHENXiong-hui

    2004-01-01

    Two allelopathic rice accessions, PI312777 and Allelopathy i, significantly suppressed the growth of associated weeds in the field. Moreover, their weed-suppressing effects were correlated with the cultivation patterns. The weed-suppressing effects of throwing and transplanting were more effective than that of direct seeding. Furthermore, the amounts of allelochemicals (resorcinols, flavones and hydroxamic acids) produced and released from two allelopathic rice accessions were much higher than that from a nonallelopathic rice variety Hua-Jing-Xian i, and reached the maximum concentration at the 6th leaf stage. Differences in the weed-suppressing effects of rice accessions appear to result from the accessions producing and releasing different amounts of allelochemicals in the field. Further research confirmed that in PI312777 plants, allelochemicals were synthesized by the above-ground parts, and then secreted through the root tissues. Root tissues of PI312777 plants never produced the allelochemicals. Root exudates from PI312777 could significantly inhibit the growth of E. crus-galli surrounding rice plants in water culture. However, when activated carbon was added to the culture solution, which could absorb allelochemicals from root exudates, the growth of E. crus-galli was no longer significantly inhibited. Weed-suppressing effects of rice accessions depended on allelopathy, cultivation patterns and other factors in rice fields, while allelopathy was one of important factors. Interestingly, the amounts of allelochemicals produced and released from allelopathic rice plants may be induced by the presence of E. crus-galli.This suggests that there is a possible chemical recognition between rice and E. crus-galli.

  4. Continuous flash suppression reduces negative afterimages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Koch, Christof

    2005-08-01

    Illusions that produce perceptual suppression despite constant retinal input are used to manipulate visual consciousness. Here we report on a powerful variant of existing techniques, continuous flash suppression. Distinct images flashed successively at approximately 10 Hz into one eye reliably suppress an image presented to the other eye. The duration of perceptual suppression is at least ten times greater than that produced by binocular rivalry. Using this tool we show that the strength of the negative afterimage of an adaptor was reduced by half when it was perceptually suppressed by input from the other eye. The more completely the adaptor was suppressed, the more strongly the afterimage intensity was reduced. Paradoxically, trial-to-trial visibility of the adaptor did not correlate with the degree of reduction. Our results imply that formation of afterimages involves neuronal structures that access input from both eyes but that do not correspond directly to the neuronal correlates of perceptual awareness. PMID:15995700

  5. Engineered decoherence: Characterization and suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Swathi S.; Mahesh, T. S.

    2014-06-01

    Due to omnipresent environmental interferences, quantum coherences inevitably undergo irreversible transformations over certain time scales, thus leading to the loss of encoded information. This process, known as decoherence, has been a major obstacle in realizing efficient quantum information processors. Understanding the mechanism of decoherence is crucial in developing tools to inhibit it. Here we utilize a method proposed by Teklemariam et al. [Phys. Rev. A 67, 062316 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevA.67.062316] to engineer artificial decoherence in the system qubits by randomly perturbing their surrounding ancilla qubits. Using a two-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance quantum register, we characterize the artificial decoherence by noise spectroscopy and quantum process tomography. Further, we study the efficacy of dynamical decoupling sequences in suppressing the artificial decoherence. Here we describe the experimental results and their comparisons with theoretical simulations.

  6. MEK5 suppresses osteoblastic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and is activated by its upstream kinase, MAPK kinase 5 (MEK5), which is a member of the MEK family. Although the role of MEK5 has been investigated in several fields, little is known about its role in osteoblastic differentiation. In this study, we have demonstrated the role of MEK5 in osteoblastic differentiation in mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and bone marrow stromal ST2 cells. We found that treatment with BIX02189, an inhibitor of MEK5, increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the gene expression of ALP, osteocalcin (OCN) and osterix, as well as it enhanced the calcification of the extracellular matrix. Moreover, osteoblastic cell proliferation decreased at a concentration of greater than 0.5 μM. In addition, knockdown of MEK5 using siRNA induced an increase in ALP activity and in the gene expression of ALP, OCN, and osterix. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type MEK5 decreased ALP activity and attenuated osteoblastic differentiation markers including ALP, OCN and osterix, but promoted cell proliferation. In summary, our results indicated that MEK5 suppressed the osteoblastic differentiation, but promoted osteoblastic cell proliferation. These results implied that MEK5 may play a pivotal role in cell signaling to modulate the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts. Thus, inhibition of MEK5 signaling in osteoblasts may be of potential use in the treatment of osteoporosis. - Highlights: • MEK5 inhibitor BIX02189 suppresses proliferation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 knockdown and MEK5 inhibitor promote differentiation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 overexpression inhibits differentiation of osteoblasts

  7. MEK5 suppresses osteoblastic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneshiro, Shoichi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Japan Community Health Care Organization Osaka Hospital, 4-2-78 Fukushima, Fukushima Ward, Osaka City, Osaka 553-0003 (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Otsuki, Dai; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Higuchi, Chikahisa, E-mail: c-higuchi@umin.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-07-31

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and is activated by its upstream kinase, MAPK kinase 5 (MEK5), which is a member of the MEK family. Although the role of MEK5 has been investigated in several fields, little is known about its role in osteoblastic differentiation. In this study, we have demonstrated the role of MEK5 in osteoblastic differentiation in mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and bone marrow stromal ST2 cells. We found that treatment with BIX02189, an inhibitor of MEK5, increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the gene expression of ALP, osteocalcin (OCN) and osterix, as well as it enhanced the calcification of the extracellular matrix. Moreover, osteoblastic cell proliferation decreased at a concentration of greater than 0.5 μM. In addition, knockdown of MEK5 using siRNA induced an increase in ALP activity and in the gene expression of ALP, OCN, and osterix. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type MEK5 decreased ALP activity and attenuated osteoblastic differentiation markers including ALP, OCN and osterix, but promoted cell proliferation. In summary, our results indicated that MEK5 suppressed the osteoblastic differentiation, but promoted osteoblastic cell proliferation. These results implied that MEK5 may play a pivotal role in cell signaling to modulate the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts. Thus, inhibition of MEK5 signaling in osteoblasts may be of potential use in the treatment of osteoporosis. - Highlights: • MEK5 inhibitor BIX02189 suppresses proliferation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 knockdown and MEK5 inhibitor promote differentiation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 overexpression inhibits differentiation of osteoblasts.

  8. Two Effects of Firepower: Attrition and Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Wayne P.

    1995-01-01

    A new basis for the quantitative study of ground combat is introduced that argues the inadequacy of attrition models and the need to incorporate the effects of suppression of the enemy with firepower. A quantitative approach to suppression of enemy fire is offered. Then an analysis shows that the effect of own fire in suppressing enemy fire will, in suitable, frequent circumstances, reverse the conclusions derived from the Lanchester square law, so that the sq...

  9. Psychopathology and Thought Suppression: A Quantitative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Magee, Joshua C; Harden, K. Paige; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analo...

  10. Studies on pressure suppression pool dynamic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several newly identified pressure suppression pool hydrodynamic loads associated with a loss-of-coolant accident, or actuation of the safety/relief valves, are attracting attention because of their potential influence on integrity of the BWR pressure suppression containment. This report provides a survey of the research works and experiences on performance of the pressure suppression system during abnormal and normal reactor operating conditions. Specific areas for future studies are also indicated. (author)

  11. The effect of titrated fentanyl on suppressed cough reflex in healthy adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, H E; Shaw, G M; Brett, C N; Greenwood, F M; Huckabee, M L

    2016-05-01

    Cough suppression is part of the pharmacodynamic profile of opioids. We investigated the impact of clinical doses of fentanyl on suppressing the cough reflex. Thirteen volunteers received 2 μg.kg(-1) of fentanyl in a divided administration protocol. Three minutes after each administration and at 10 min intervals during washout, suppressed cough reflex testing with nebulised citric acid was performed and compared with fentanyl effect-site concentration. Mean (SD) citric acid concentration provoking cough increased from 0.5 (0.28) mol.l(-1) at baseline to 1.2 (0.50) mol.l(-1) after 2 μg.kg(-1) of fentanyl (p = 0.01). Mean (SD) fentanyl effect-site concentration after the final dose of fentanyl was 1.89 (0.05) ng.ml(-1) . A strong positive correlation was found between suppressed cough reflex thresholds and fentanyl effect-site concentrations during both fentanyl administration and washout phases of the study (r(2) = 0.79, p = 0.01). The mean (SD) length of time for return of suppressed cough response was 44.6 (18.8) min. Clinically relevant doses of fentanyl produced cough reflex suppression in healthy volunteers. PMID:26919658

  12. NOVEL BIPHASE CODE -INTEGRATED SIDELOBE SUPPRESSION CODE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Feixue; Ou Gang; Zhuang Zhaowen

    2004-01-01

    A kind of novel binary phase code named sidelobe suppression code is proposed in this paper. It is defined to be the code whose corresponding optimal sidelobe suppression filter outputs the minimum sidelobes. It is shown that there do exist sidelobe suppression codes better than the conventional optimal codes-Barker codes. For example, the sidelobe suppression code of length 11 with filter of length 39 has better sidelobe level up to 17dB than that of Barker code with the same code length and filter length.

  13. Deconstructing Interocular Suppression: Attention and Divisive Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hsin-Hung; Carrasco, Marisa; Heeger, David J

    2015-10-01

    In interocular suppression, a suprathreshold monocular target can be rendered invisible by a salient competitor stimulus presented in the other eye. Despite decades of research on interocular suppression and related phenomena (e.g., binocular rivalry, flash suppression, continuous flash suppression), the neural processing underlying interocular suppression is still unknown. We developed and tested a computational model of interocular suppression. The model included two processes that contributed to the strength of interocular suppression: divisive normalization and attentional modulation. According to the model, the salient competitor induced a stimulus-driven attentional modulation selective for the location and orientation of the competitor, thereby increasing the gain of neural responses to the competitor and reducing the gain of neural responses to the target. Additional suppression was induced by divisive normalization in the model, similar to other forms of visual masking. To test the model, we conducted psychophysics experiments in which both the size and the eye-of-origin of the competitor were manipulated. For small and medium competitors, behavioral performance was consonant with a change in the response gain of neurons that responded to the target. But large competitors induced a contrast-gain change, even when the competitor was split between the two eyes. The model correctly predicted these results and outperformed an alternative model in which the attentional modulation was eye specific. We conclude that both stimulus-driven attention (selective for location and feature) and divisive normalization contribute to interocular suppression. PMID:26517321

  14. Analysis of btuB receptor function by use of nonsense suppression.

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, M.G.; Glass, R E

    1982-01-01

    Informational suppression of btuB nonsense mutants allows the study of the effect of known, single amino acid substitutions on receptor function. We found that ligand uptake is largely unaffected by such amino acid changes. The few instances in which certain substitutions destroyed sensitivity to the two lethal agents (phage BF23, colicin E3) without affecting vitamin B12 uptake suggest a common region on the btuB receptor involved in the binding of these proteinaceous agents.

  15. Emotional and non-emotional memories are suppressible under direct suppression instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. van Schie (Kevin); E.G. Geraerts (Elke); M.C. Anderson (Michael)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractResearch on retrieval suppression has produced varying results concerning whether negatively valenced memories are more or less suppressible than neutral memories. This variability may arise if, across studies, participants adopt different approaches to memory control. Cognitive and neur

  16. Silymarin Suppresses Cellular Inflammation By Inducing Reparative Stress Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovelace, Erica S.; Wagoner, Jessica; MacDonald, James; Bammler, Theo; Bruckner, Jacob; Brownell, Jessica; Beyer, Richard; Zink, Erika M.; Kim, Young-Mo; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Waters, Katrina M.; Metz, Thomas O.; Farin, Federico; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Polyak, Steve

    2015-08-28

    Silymarin (SM), a natural product, is touted as a liver protectant and preventer of both chronic inflammation and diseases. To define how SM elicits these effects at a systems level, we performed transcriptional profiling, metabolomics, and signaling studies in human liver and T cell lines. Multiple pathways associated with cellular stress and metabolism were modulated by SM treatment within 0.5 to four hours: activation of Activating Transcription Factor 4 (ATF-4) and adenosine monophosphate protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, the latter being associated with induction of DNA-damage-inducible transcript 4 (DDIT4). Metabolomics analyses revealed suppression of glycolytic, TCA cycle, and amino acid metabolism by SM treatment. Antiinflammatory effects arose with prolonged (i.e. 24 hours) SM exposure, with suppression of multiple proinflammatory mRNAs and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and forkhead box O (FOXO) signaling. Studies with murine knock out cells revealed that SM inhibition of both mTOR and NF-κB was partially AMPK dependent, while SM inhibition of the mTOR pathway in part required DDIT4. Thus, SM activates stress and repair responses that culminate in an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Other natural products induced similar stress responses, which correlated with their ability to suppress inflammation. Therefore, natural products like SM may be useful as tools to define how metabolic, stress, and repair pathways regulate cellular inflammation.

  17. Isoprene suppression of new particle formation in mixed deciduous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Kanawade

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Production of new particles over forests is an important source of cloud condensation nuclei that can affect climate. While such particle formation events have been widely observed, their formation mechanisms over forests are poorly understood. Our observations made in a mixed deciduous Michigan forest with large isoprene emissions during the summer show surprisingly rare occurrence of new particle formation (NPF. No NPF events were observed during the 5 weeks of measurements, except two evening ultrafine particle events as opposed to the typically observed noontime NPF elsewhere. Sulfuric acid concentrations were in the 106 cm−3 ranges with very low preexisting aerosol particles, a favorable condition for NPF to occur even during the summer. The ratio of emitted isoprene carbon to monoterpene carbon at this site was similar to that in Amazon rainforests (ratio >10, where NPF is also very rare, compared with a ratio <0.5 in Finland boreal forests, where NPF events are frequent. Our results showed that large isoprene emissions can suppress NPF formation in forests although the underlying mechanism for the suppression is unclear and future studies are needed to reveal the likely mechanism. The two evening ultrafine particle events were associated with the transported anthropogenic sulfur plumes and the ultrafine particles likely formed via ion induced nucleation. Changes in landcover and environmental conditions could modify the isoprene suppression of NPF in some forest regions resulting in a radiative forcing that could influence climate.

  18. Emotional and non-emotional memories are suppressible under direct suppression instructions

    OpenAIRE

    van Schie, Kevin; Geraerts, Elke; Anderson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    textabstractResearch on retrieval suppression has produced varying results concerning whether negatively valenced memories are more or less suppressible than neutral memories. This variability may arise if, across studies, participants adopt different approaches to memory control. Cognitive and neurobiological research points to two mechanisms that achieve retrieval suppression: thought-substitution and direct suppression (Benoit & Anderson, 2012; Bergström, de Fockert, & Richardson-Klavehn, ...

  19. Suppression on Your Own Terms: Internally Generated Displays of Craving Suppression Predict Rebound Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Sayers, W. Michael; Sayette, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Research on emotion suppression has shown a rebound effect, in which expression of the targeted emotion increases following a suppression attempt. In prior investigations, participants have been explicitly instructed to suppress their responses, which has drawn the act of suppression into metaconsciousness. Yet emerging research emphasizes the importance of nonconscious approaches to emotion regulation. This study is the first in which a craving rebound effect was evaluated without simultaneo...

  20. Consequences of stereotype suppression and internal suppression motivation : A self-regulation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, EH; Hindriks, [No Value; Koomen, W; Dijksterhuis, A; Van Knippenberg, A; Hindriks, I; van Knipppenberg, A.

    2004-01-01

    The present research studied the effects of suppression of stereotypes on subsequent stereotyping. Moreover, the moderating influence of motivation to suppress stereotypes was examined. The first three experiments showed that suppression of stereotypes leads to the experience of engaging in self-con

  1. Heavy flavour suppression and flow

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Santosh K

    2011-01-01

    The drag and diffusion coefficients of charm and bottom quarks propagating through quark gluon plasma have been evaluated for conditions relevant to nuclear collisions at Large Hadron Collider and Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Both the radiative and collisional processes of energy loss are included in evaluating the {\\it effective} drag and diffusion coefficients. The Landau-Pomeronchuk-Migdal (LPM) and the dead cone effects on the radiative energy loss of heavy quarks have been included. With the effective transport coefficients the Fokker Plank (FP) equation has been solved for the evolution of heavy quarks in QGP. The solution of the FP equation has been used to evaluate the nuclear suppression factor, $R_{\\mathrm AA}$ and the elliptic flow, $v_2^{HF}$ for the non-photonic single electron spectra resulting from the semi-leptonic decays of hadrons containing charm and bottom quarks. It is observed that the experimental data from RHIC on $R_{\\mathrm AA}$ and $v_2^{HF} $ can be reproduced simultaneously wi...

  2. Impacts of suppressing guide on information spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jinghong; Ma, Baojun; Wu, Ye

    2015-01-01

    It is quite common that guides are introduced to suppress the information spreading in modern society for different purposes. In this paper, an agent-based model is established to quantitatively analyze the impacts of suppressing guides on information spreading. We find that the spreading threshold depends on the attractiveness of the information and the topology of the social network with no suppressing guides at all. Usually, one would expect that the existence of suppressing guides in the spreading procedure may result in less diffusion of information within the overall network. However, we find that sometimes the opposite is true: the manipulating nodes of suppressing guides may lead to more extensive information spreading when there are audiences with the reversal mind. These results can provide valuable theoretical references to public opinion guidance on various information, e.g., rumor or news spreading.

  3. Triacylglycerol kinetics in endotoxic rats with suppressed lipoprotein lipase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagby, G.J.; Corll, C.B.; Martinez, R.R.

    1987-07-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia observed in animals after bacterial endotoxin administration and some forms of sepsis can result from increased hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) output or decreased TG clearance by extrahepatic tissues. To differentiate between these two possibilities, TG and free fatty acid (FFA) kinetics were determined in control and endotoxin-injected rats 18 h after treatment. Plasma TG and FFA kinetics were assessed by a constant intravenous infusion with (9,10-/sup 3/H)palmitate-labeled very low-density lipoprotein and (1-/sup 14/C)palmitate bound to albumin, respectively. In addition, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was determined in heart, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue as well as in postheparin plasma of functionally hepatectomized, adrenalectomized, and gonadectomized rats. Plasma FFA acid concentrations were slightly increased in endotoxin-treated rats but their turnover did not differ from control. Endotoxin-treated rats had a threefold increase in plasma TG concentrations and decreased heart, skeletal muscle, and post-heparin plasma LPL activity. Plasma TG turnover was decreased, indicating that hypertriglyceridemia was not due to an increased TG output by the liver. Instead, the endotoxin-induced increase in plasma TG concentration was consequence of the 80% reduction in TG metabolic clearance rate. Thus, suppression of LPL activity in endotoxic animals impairs TG clearance resulting in hypertriglyceridemia. Furthermore, endotoxin administration reduced the delivery of TG-FFA to extrahepatic tissues because hepatic synthesis and secretion of TG from plasma FFA was decreased and LPL activity was suppressed.

  4. Hydrogen suppresses UO 2 corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbol, Paul; Fors, Patrik; Gouder, Thomas; Spahiu, Kastriot

    2009-08-01

    Release of long-lived radionuclides such as plutonium and caesium from spent nuclear fuel in deep geological repositories will depend mainly on the dissolution rate of the UO 2 fuel matrix. This dissolution rate will, in turn, depend on the redox conditions at the fuel surface. Under oxidative conditions UO 2 will be oxidised to the 1000 times more soluble UO 2.67. This may occur in a repository as the reducing deep groundwater becomes locally oxidative at the fuel surface under the effect of α-radiolysis, the process by which α-particles emitted from the fuel split water molecules. On the other hand, the groundwater corrodes canister iron generating large amounts of hydrogen. The role of molecular hydrogen as reductant in a deep bedrock repository is questioned. Here we show evidence of a surface-catalysed reaction, taking place in the H 2-UO 2-H 2O system where molecular hydrogen is able to reduce oxidants originating from α-radiolysis. In our experiment the UO 2 surface remained stoichiometric proving that the expected oxidation of UO 2.00 to UO 2.67 due to radiolytic oxidants was absent. As a consequence, the dissolution of UO 2 stopped when equilibrium was reached between the solid phase and U 4+ species in the aqueous phase. The steady-state concentration of uranium in solution was determined to be 9 × 10 -12 M, about 30 times lower than previously reported for reducing conditions. Our findings show that fuel dissolution is suppressed by H 2. Consequently, radiotoxic nuclides in spent nuclear fuel will remain immobilised in the UO 2 matrix. A mechanism for the surface-catalysed reaction between molecular hydrogen and radiolytic oxidants is proposed.

  5. Dietary Supplementation with Docosahexaenoic Acid, but Not Eicosapentanoic Acid, Dramatically Alters Cardiac Mitochondrial Phospholipid Fatty Acid Composition and Prevents Permeability Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Khairallah, Ramzi J.; Sparagna, Genevieve C.; Khanna, Nishanth; O’Shea, Karen M.; Hecker, Peter A; Kristian, Tibor; Fiskum, Gary; Rosiers, Christine Des; Polster, Brian M.; Stanley, William C.

    2010-01-01

    Treatment with the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) docosahexanoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) exerts cardioprotective effects, and suppresses Ca2+-induced opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). These effects are associated with increased DHA and EPA, and lower arachidonic acid (ARA) in cardiac phospholipids. While clinical studies suggest the triglyceride lowering effects of DHA and EPA are equivalent, little is known about the independent effe...

  6. Psychopathology and thought suppression: a quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Joshua C; Harden, K Paige; Teachman, Bethany A

    2012-04-01

    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression. PMID:22388007

  7. Acid Rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  8. Simultaneous Determination of Chelating Agents by Ion-Suppression and Ion-Pair Chromatography in Wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes two methods for analysing chelating agents found in nuclear waste. First, ion-suppression chromatography using an anion exchange stationary phase and mobile phase consisting of a nitric acid solution and pure water gradient. UV detection was performed at 330 nm after the reaction with a post-column reagent composed of iron nitrate in perchloric acid. Secondly, ion-pair chromatography with a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of nitric acid, tetra-butyl-ammonium hydrogeno-sulphate, tetra-butyl-ammonium hydroxide and iron chloride. A reversed-phase material was used as a stationary phase and detection was performed by direct measurement of the UV absorption at 260 nm. The quantification limits were lower for ion-pair chromatography than for ion-suppression chromatography. Both methods were easy to implement and allow a multi-element separation in less than 30 min with low detection limits. (authors)

  9. Simultaneous Determination of Chelating Agents by Ion-Suppression and Ion-Pair Chromatography in Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodi, Alain; Bouscarel, Maelle [Commissariat a l' energie atomique - C.E.A, Centre d' Etude de Cadarache, Laboratoire d' Analyses Radiochimiques et Chimiques, St Paul lez Durance (France)

    2008-07-01

    This article describes two methods for analysing chelating agents found in nuclear waste. First, ion-suppression chromatography using an anion exchange stationary phase and mobile phase consisting of a nitric acid solution and pure water gradient. UV detection was performed at 330 nm after the reaction with a post-column reagent composed of iron nitrate in perchloric acid. Secondly, ion-pair chromatography with a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of nitric acid, tetra-butyl-ammonium hydrogeno-sulphate, tetra-butyl-ammonium hydroxide and iron chloride. A reversed-phase material was used as a stationary phase and detection was performed by direct measurement of the UV absorption at 260 nm. The quantification limits were lower for ion-pair chromatography than for ion-suppression chromatography. Both methods were easy to implement and allow a multi-element separation in less than 30 min with low detection limits. (authors)

  10. Strangeness suppression in the unquenched quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Bijker, Roelof; Santopinto, Elena

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution, we discuss the strangeness suppression in the proton in the framework of the unquenched quark model. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the values extracted from CERN and JLab experiments.

  11. Strangeness suppression in the unquenched quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijker, Roelof; García-Tecocoatzi, Hugo; Santopinto, Elena

    2016-07-01

    In this contribution, we discuss the strangeness suppression in the proton in the framework of the unquenched quark model. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the values extracted from CERN and JLab experiments.

  12. The social consequences of expressive suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Emily A.; Egloff, Boris; Wilhelm, Frank H.; Smith, Nancy C.; Erickson, Elizabeth A.; Gross, James J.

    2003-01-01

    At times, people keep their emotions from showing during social interactions. The authors' analysis suggests that such expressive suppression should disrupt communication and increase stress levels. To test this hypothesis, the authors conducted 2 studies in which unacquainted pairs of women discussed an upsetting topic. In Study 1, one member of each pair was randomly assigned to (a) suppress her emotional behavior, (b) respond naturally, or (c) cognitively reappraise in a way that reduced e...

  13. Noise suppression in surface microseismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forghani-Arani, Farnoush; Batzle, Mike; Behura, Jyoti; Willis, Mark; Haines, Seth S.; Davidson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a passive noise suppression technique, based on the τ − p transform. In the τ − p domain, one can separate microseismic events from surface noise based on distinct characteristics that are not visible in the time-offset domain. By applying the inverse τ − p transform to the separated microseismic event, we suppress the surface noise in the data. Our technique significantly improves the signal-to-noise ratios of the microseismic events and is superior to existing techniques for passive noise suppression in the sense that it preserves the waveform. We introduce a passive noise suppression technique, based on the τ − p transform. In the τ − p domain, one can separate microseismic events from surface noise based on distinct characteristics that are not visible in the time-offset domain. By applying the inverse τ − p transform to the separated microseismic event, we suppress the surface noise in the data. Our technique significantly improves the signal-to-noise ratios of the microseismic events and is superior to existing techniques for passive noise suppression in the sense that it preserves the waveform.

  14. Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found naturally in some foods, including leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, beans (legumes), and whole grains. Folic acid ... mcg of folic acid every day for good health. But older adults need to be sure they ...

  15. The Strongest Acid: Protonation of Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Steven; Hratchian, Hrant P; Reed, Christopher A

    2016-01-22

    The strongest carborane acid, H(CHB11F11), protonates CO2 while traditional mixed Lewis/Brønsted superacids do not. The product is deduced from IR spectroscopy and calculation to be the proton disolvate, H(CO2)2(+). The carborane acid H(CHB11F11) is therefore the strongest known acid. The failure of traditional mixed superacids to protonate weak bases such as CO2 can be traced to a competition between the proton and the Lewis acid for the added base. The high protic acidity promised by large absolute values of the Hammett acidity function (H0) is not realized in practice because the basicity of an added base is suppressed by Lewis acid/base adduct formation. PMID:26663640

  16. Rapid nuclear import of short nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Mai; Okamoto, Akimitsu

    2016-10-01

    Exogenous short-chain nucleic acids undergo rapid import into the nucleus. Fluorescence-labeled dT1-13 DNA microinjected into the cytoplasm domain of a HeLa cell was rapidly imported into the nucleus domain within 1min. This is much more rapid than what has been observed for intracellular diffusion of small molecules. In contrast, import of longer nucleic acids with a length of over 30nt into the nucleus was suppressed. PMID:27597250

  17. Orientation-tuned surround suppression in mouse visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Self, Matthew W; Lorteije, Jeannette A M; Vangeneugden, Joris; van Beest, Enny H; Grigore, Mihaela E; Levelt, Christiaan N; Heimel, J.A.; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2014-01-01

    The firing rates of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are suppressed by large stimuli, an effect known as surround suppression. In cats and monkeys, the strength of suppression is sensitive to orientation; responses to regions containing uniform orientations are more suppressed than those contai

  18. Star formation suppression in compact group galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatalo, K.; Appleton, P. N.; Lisenfeld, U.;

    2015-01-01

    We present CO(1-0) maps of 12 warm H-2-selected Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs), covering 14 individually imaged warm H2 bright galaxies, with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy. We found a variety of molecular gas distributions within the HCGs, including regularly rotating disks......, bars, rings, tidal tails, and possibly nuclear outflows, though the molecular gas morphologies are more consistent with spirals and earlytype galaxies than mergers and interacting systems. Our CO-imaged HCG galaxies, when plotted on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, shows star formation (SF) suppression......-to-dust ratios of these galaxies to determine if an incorrect LCO-M(H2) conversion caused the apparent suppression and find that HCGs have normal gas-to-dust ratios. It is likely that the cause of the apparent suppression in these objects is associated with shocks injecting turbulence into the molecular gas...

  19. Suppression of fertility in adult cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra Kathrin; Wehrend, A.; Georgiev, P.

    2014-01-01

    Contents: Cats are animals with highly efficient reproduction, clearly pointing to a need for suppression of fertility. Although surgical contraception is highly effective, it is not always the method of choice. This is predominantly because it is cost-intensive, time-consuming and irreversible......, with the latter being of major importance for cat breeders. This article reviews the use of progestins, scleroting agents, immunocontraception, melatonin, GnRH antagonists and finally, GnRH agonists, in adult male and female cats in detail, according to the present state of the art. By now, various...... scientific and clinical options are available for the suppression of fertility in adult cats and the decision as to which should be chosen - independent of the legal registration of any state - depends on different facts: (i) feral or privately owned animal? (ii) temporary or permanent suppression of...

  20. Large-scale identification and analysis of suppressive drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokol, Murat; Weinstein, Zohar B; Yilancioglu, Kaan; Tasan, Murat; Doak, Allison; Cansever, Dilay; Mutlu, Beste; Li, Siyang; Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Akhmedov, Murodzhon; Guvenek, Aysegul; Cokol, Melike; Cetiner, Selim; Giaever, Guri; Iossifov, Ivan; Nislow, Corey; Shoichet, Brian; Roth, Frederick P

    2014-04-24

    One drug may suppress the effects of another. Although knowledge of drug suppression is vital to avoid efficacy-reducing drug interactions or discover countermeasures for chemical toxins, drug-drug suppression relationships have not been systematically mapped. Here, we analyze the growth response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to anti-fungal compound ("drug") pairs. Among 440 ordered drug pairs, we identified 94 suppressive drug interactions. Using only pairs not selected on the basis of their suppression behavior, we provide an estimate of the prevalence of suppressive interactions between anti-fungal compounds as 17%. Analysis of the drug suppression network suggested that Bromopyruvate is a frequently suppressive drug and Staurosporine is a frequently suppressed drug. We investigated potential explanations for suppressive drug interactions, including chemogenomic analysis, coaggregation, and pH effects, allowing us to explain the interaction tendencies of Bromopyruvate. PMID:24704506

  1. Polyphosphorous acid catalyzed cyclization in the synthesis of cryptolepine derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    11-Oxo-10,11-dihydroxy-5H-indolo[3,2,b]quinoline7-carboxylic acid was obtained specifically by polyphosphorous acid catalyzed cyclization with optimal reaction conditions. Biological assays showed that it potentially inhibits the proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity in vitro and suppresses breast cancer cell growth.

  2. FLUTTER SUPPRESSION USING DISTRIBUTED PIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The Flutter suppression using distributed piezoelectric actuators has been analyzed and tested. In constructing the finite element equation, effects of piezoelectric matrices are investigated. LQG method is used in designing the control law. In reducing the order of the control law, both balance realization and LK methods are used. For the rational approximation of the unsteady aerodynamic forces LS method is improved. In determining the piezoelectric constants d31 a new dynamic response method is developed. Laser vibrameter is used to pick up the model response and in ground resonance test the model is excited by piezoelectric actuators. Reasonable agreement of the wind tunnel flutter suppression test with calculated results is obtained.

  3. Suppression pool swell analysis using CFD code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-dimensional axi-symmetric model of suppression pool of Containment Studies Facility (CSF) along with single vent pipe was modeled to estimate the jet and hydrodynamic loads due to flow of steam air mixture during simulated loss of coolant accident (LOCA). The analysis was carried out using CFD ACE+ software with Volume of Fluid (VOF) approach. The flow velocity variation through vent pipe was estimated using in-house containment thermal hydraulic code CONTRAN, was given as input at inlet boundary condition. The transient calculations were performed for 20 seconds and suppression pool level variation, pressure loads over the floor, walls and vent pipes etc were evaluated. (author)

  4. Suppressed epidemics in multi-relational networks

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Elvis H. W.; Wang, Wei; Xu, C.; Tang, Ming; Do, Younghae; Hui, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    A two-state epidemic model in networks with links mimicking two kinds of relationships between connected nodes is introduced. Links of weights w1 and w0 occur with probabilities p and 1-p, respectively. The fraction of infected nodes rho(p) shows a non-monotonic behavior, with rho drops with p for small p and increases for large p. For small to moderate w1/w0 ratios, rho(p) exhibits a minimum that signifies an optimal suppression. For large w1/w0 ratios, the suppression leads to an absorbing ...

  5. Task motivation influences alpha suppression following errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Rebecca J; Bissey, Bryn; Worby-Selim, Sharoda

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the present research is to examine the influence of motivation on a novel error-related neural marker, error-related alpha suppression (ERAS). Participants completed an attentionally demanding flanker task under conditions that emphasized either speed or accuracy or under conditions that manipulated the monetary value of errors. Conditions in which errors had greater motivational value produced greater ERAS, that is, greater alpha suppression following errors compared to correct trials. A second study found that a manipulation of task difficulty did not affect ERAS. Together, the results confirm that ERAS is both a robust phenomenon and one that is sensitive to motivational factors. PMID:24673621

  6. Anthocyans fail to suppress transformation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor induced by dioxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Rie; Fukuda, Itsuko; Hosokawa, Keizo; Nishiumi, Shin; Kaneko, Atsushi; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2005-05-01

    Dioxins induce adverse effects through transformation of the cytosolic aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Our previous study found that flavones and flavonols at dietary levels suppress AhR transformation. In the present study, we investigated whether 20 anthocyans dissolved in trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)-MeOH suppressed AhR transformation in a cell-free system and in Hepa-1c1c7 cells. Although four compounds at 50 muM suppressed 0.1 nM 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced AhR transformation and their effects were dose-dependent in the cell-free system, they were ineffective at 0.5 muM, which is close to physiological concentration. Moreover, no anthocyan at 50 muM tested here suppressed 0.1 nM TCDD-induced AhR transformation in Hepa-1c1c7 cells. We also confirmed that protocatechuic acid and related compounds, which are possible metabolites of anthocyans, did not affect the transformation in the cell-free system. It is concluded that anthocyans are not suitable candidates for protection from dioxin toxicity. PMID:15914907

  7. Cationic chlorophyl derivatives with SOD mimicking activity suppress the proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Y; Maniki, M; Nakamura, K

    1996-06-01

    Derivatives of chlorophyl, e.g. Fe-chlorin e6-Na, alpha, beta, gamma, delta-Tetraphenylporphine-tetrasulfonic acid disulfonic acid salt tetrahydrate (Fe-TPPTS) and alpha, beta, gamma, delta-Tetrakis (4-N-trimethylaminophenyl) porphine, tetra (p-toluensulfonate (Fe-TTMAPP), express SOD mimicking activity. Examination was made of suppressive effects of human cancer cell lines by derivatives of chlorophyl. Fe-TPPTS and Fe-TTMAPP suppressed proliferation of the human ovarian cancer cell lines but Fe-chlorin e6-Na failed to suppress the proliferation. Lipid peroxide was increased by application of Fe-TPPTS and Fe-TTMAPP, but decreased by application of Fe-chlorin e6-Na. SOD activity of the cancer cells did not change by application of these drugs. TPPTS and TTMAPP have a cationic charge but Fe-chlorin e6-Na has an anionic charge. It is suggested that charge of these drugs relates to the suppressive effects of the cancer cell proliferation. PMID:10851538

  8. Propofol and sevoflurane induce distinct burst suppression patterns in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Jonathan D.; Westover, M. Brandon; Ching, ShiNung; Brown, Emery N.; Solt, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Burst suppression is an EEG pattern characterized by alternating periods of high-amplitude activity (bursts) and relatively low amplitude activity (suppressions). Burst suppression can arise from several different pathological conditions, as well as from general anesthesia. Here we review current algorithms that are used to quantify burst suppression, its various etiologies, and possible underlying mechanisms. We then review clinical applications of anesthetic-induced burst suppression. Final...

  9. Suppressive effects of 3-bromopyruvate on the proliferation and the motility of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Minoru; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Ishige, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    The compound 3-bromopyruvate (3BP) is an analogue of pyruvate, which is the final product of glycolysis that enters the citric acid cycle. The present study aimed to investigate the suppressive effects of 3BP on the proliferation and motility of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. HLF and PLC/PRF/5 cells were cultured with 3BP and subjected to an MTS assay. Apoptosis was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Cell motility was analyzed using a scratch assay. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to determine the expression levels of cyclin D1 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)9. Proliferation of both cell lines was significantly suppressed by 3BP at 100 µM (P<0.05). The expression level of cyclin D1 was decreased after 3BP treatment at 100 µM in both cell lines (P<0.05). Pyknotic nuclei were observed in the cells cultured with 3BP at 100 µM. These results revealed that 3BP suppressed cell proliferation, decreased the expression of cyclin D1, and induced apoptosis in HCC cells. 3BP significantly suppressed motility in both cell lines (P<0.05). The expression level of MMP9 was significantly decreased (P<0.05). 3BP suppressed the proliferation and motility of HCC cells by decreasing the expression of cyclin D1 and MMP9. PMID:26530887

  10. Study of compounds suppressing free radical generation from UV-exposed ketoprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Ayako; Tahara, Maiko; Yoshimura, Yoshihiro; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

    2007-10-01

    Ketoprofen [(RS)-2-(3-benzoylphenyl)propanoic acid] is widely used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and musculoskeletal injury. However, there is concern regarding its potential for photosensitization as a side effect. Free radicals and active oxygen species generated from ketoprofen on exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light have been implicated in phototoxicity and photosensitization. In this study, we examined the suppressing ability of some compounds for the free radicals and active oxygen species generated by the photodynamic reaction of ketoprofen, to determine a new resist of photosensitization by ketoprofen. Eight compounds, including six known free radical scavengers were individually mixed with ketoprofen, and the mixtures were exposed to UV. Then, the free radicals and the active oxygen species were determined by the electron spin resonance spectrometry to estimate suppressing and scavenging ability of compounds. The compounds that show promise in suppressing superoxide anion generation from UV-exposed ketoprofen were further evaluated using the on-line photo-irradiated superoxide anion detection system. It was confirmed that quercetin, a flavonoid, strongly suppresses the generation of free radicals and active oxygen species from UV-exposed ketoprofen. The experiments using the experimental formulation of an adhesive skin patch of ketoprofen containing quercetine and the Chemiluminescence analyzer (CLA) indicated that quercetin has high potential for use as an excipient in ketoprofen ointments to suppress phototoxicity and photosensitization by ketoprofen. PMID:17917284

  11. Fatty acid synthesis by spinach chloroplasts, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modes of actions of photosynthetic inhibitors on photosynthesis and fatty acid synthesis were examined. DCMU, an electron transport inhibitor, inhibited fatty acid synthesis and photophosphorylation to the same extent, suggesting dependence of fatty acid synthesis on photosynthesis. The same was also the case with FCCP, a photophosphorylation uncoupler. In contrast, NH4Cl and phlorizin at concentrations completely suppressing ATP formation, only partially inhibited the fatty acid synthesis. These facts suggest that a certain level of high-energy intermediate (state) is responsible for the light enhancement of fatty acid synthesis. This idea is further supported by the fact that the partial inhibition of fatty acid synthesis by NH4Cl was relieved by addition of DCCD at low concentrations suppressing the ATP formation but not completely destroying the high energy intermediate. The lag period in the initial period of fatty acid synthesis was shortened by preillumination of chloroplasts, even in the absence of ADP. This indicates that the light dependent fatty acid synthesis is closely associated with the high-energy intermediate (state), but not directly with ATP formation by photophosphorylation. (author)

  12. Dynamic metabolic changes in seeds and seedlings of Brassica napus (oilseed rape) suppressing UGT84A9 reveal plasticity and molecular regulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettwer, Karina; Böttcher, Christoph; Frolov, Andrej; Mittasch, Juliane; Albert, Andreas; von Roepenack-Lahaye, Edda; Strack, Dieter; Milkowski, Carsten

    2016-04-01

    In Brassica napus, suppression of the key biosynthetic enzyme UDP-glucose:sinapic acid glucosyltransferase (UGT84A9) inhibits the biosynthesis of sinapine (sinapoylcholine), the major phenolic component of seeds. Based on the accumulation kinetics of a total of 158 compounds (110 secondary and 48 primary metabolites), we investigated how suppression of the major sink pathway of sinapic acid impacts the metabolome of developing seeds and seedlings. In UGT84A9-suppressing (UGT84A9i) lines massive alterations became evident in late stages of seed development affecting the accumulation levels of 58 secondary and 7 primary metabolites. UGT84A9i seeds were characterized by decreased amounts of various hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) esters, and increased formation of sinapic and syringic acid glycosides. This indicates glycosylation and β-oxidation as metabolic detoxification strategies to bypass intracellular accumulation of sinapic acid. In addition, a net loss of sinapic acid upon UGT84A9 suppression may point to a feedback regulation of HCA biosynthesis. Surprisingly, suppression of UGT84A9 under control of the seed-specific NAPINC promoter was maintained in cotyledons during the first two weeks of seedling development and associated with a reduced and delayed transformation of sinapine into sinapoylmalate. The lack of sinapoylmalate did not interfere with plant fitness under UV-B stress. Increased UV-B radiation triggered the accumulation of quercetin conjugates whereas the sinapoylmalate level was not affected. PMID:26833384

  13. Complete Sperm Suppression in Rats With Dienogest Plus Testosterone Undecanoate Is Facilitated Through Apoptosis in Testicular Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Meena, Rekha; Misro, Man Mohan; Ghosh, Debidas

    2013-01-01

    Complete suppression of the production of sperm in rats with dienogest (DNG, 40 mg/kg body weight [bw]) plus testosterone undecanoate (TU, 25 mg/kg bw), every 45 days, was found to be associated with a significant increase in germ cell apoptosis. Caspase 3 activity and expression in testis were simultaneously upregulated. Rise in the activities of caspase 8 and 9 was associated with overexpression of upstream marker proteins from extrinsic (Fas [Fatty acid synthase], FasL [Fatty acid synthase...

  14. Quantum origin of suppression for vacuum fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balitsky, Ja. V.; Kiselev, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    By example of a model with a spatially global scalar field, we show that the energy density of zero-point modes is exponentially suppressed by an average number of field quanta in a finite volume with respect to the energy density in the stationary state of minimal energy. We describe cosmological implications of mechanism.

  15. Quantum origin of vacuum energy suppression

    CERN Document Server

    Balitsky, Ja V

    2014-01-01

    By example of a model with a spatially global scalar field, we show that the energy density of zero-point modes is exponentially suppressed by an average number of field quanta in a finite volume with respect to the energy density in the stationary state of minimal energy. We describe cosmological implications of mechanism.

  16. Radio Science Measurements with Suppressed Carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Sami; Divsalar, Dariush; Oudrhiri, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Radio Science started when it became apparent with early Solar missions that occultations by planetary atmospheres would affect the quality of radio communications. Since then the atmospheric properties and other aspects of planetary science, solar science, and fundamental physics were studied by scientists. Radio Science data was always extracted from a received pure residual carrier (without data modulation). For some missions, it is very desirable to obtain Radio Science data from a suppressed carrier modulation. In this paper we propose a method to extract Radio Science data when a coded suppressed carrier modulation is used in deep space communications. Type of modulation can be BPSK, QPSK, OQPSK, MPSK or even GMSK. However we concentrate mostly on BPSK modulation. The proposed method for suppressed carrier simply tries to wipe out data that acts as an interference for Radio Science measurements. In order to measure the estimation errors in amplitude and phase of the Radio Science data we use Cramer-Rao bound (CRB). The CRB for the suppressed carrier modulation with non-ideal data wiping is then compared with residual carrier modulation under the same noise condition. The method of derivation of CRB for non-ideal data wiping is an innovative method that presented here. Some numerical results are provided for coded system.

  17. Government Doublethink: Protection or Suppression in Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Miriam A.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses regulations and actions related to government withholding, suppressing, and altering information since September 11, 2001. Topics include conflicting goals of an informed citizenry versus national security, science and technology progress versus protection of sensitive information, and public health versus ideology; political pressure;…

  18. Emotions shape memory suppression in trait anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa eMarzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The question that motivated this study was to investigate the relation between trait anxiety, emotions and memory control. To this aim, memory suppression was explored in high and low trait anxiety individuals with the Think/No-think paradigm. After learning associations between neutral words and emotional scenes (negative, positive and neutral, participants were shown a word and were requested either to think about the associated scene or to block it out from mind. Finally, in a test phase, participants were again shown each word and asked to recall the paired scene. The results show that memory control is influenced by high trait anxiety and emotions. Low trait anxiety individuals showed a memory suppression effect, whereas there was a lack of memory suppression in high trait anxious individuals, especially for emotionally negative scenes. Thus, we suggest that individuals with anxiety may have difficulty exerting cognitive control over memories with a negative valence. These findings provide evidence that memory suppression can be impaired by anxiety thus highlighting the crucial relation between cognitive control, emotions and individual differences in regulating emotions.

  19. Thought Suppression in Patients With Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklowitz, David J.; Alatiq, Yousra; Geddes, John R.; Goodwin, Guy M.; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    Suppression of negative thoughts has been observed under experimental conditions among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) but has never been examined among patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Patients with BD (n = 36), patients with MDD (n = 20), and healthy controls (n = 20) completed a task that required unscrambling 6-word strings into 5-word sentences, leaving out 1 word. The extra word allowed the sentences to be completed in a negative, neutral, or “hyperpositive” (manic/goal-oriented) way. Participants completed the sentences under conditions of cognitive load (rehearsing a 6-digit number), reward (a bell tone), load and reward, or neither load nor reward. We hypothesized that patients with BD would engage in more active suppression of negative and hyperpositive thoughts than would controls, as revealed by their unscrambling more word strings into negative or hyperpositive sentences. Under conditions of load or reward and in the absence of either load or reward, patients with BD unscrambled more negative sentences than did controls. Under conditions of reward, patients with BD unscrambled more negative sentences than did patients with MDD. Patients with BD also reported more use of negative thought suppression than did controls. These group differences in negative biases were no longer significant when current mood states were controlled. Finally, the groups did not differ in the proportion of hyperpositive sentence completions in any condition. Thought suppression may provide a critical locus for psychological interventions in BD. PMID:20455608

  20. Noise suppression by time exposure oscilloscope photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchital, G. S.; Young, M.

    1972-01-01

    We describe a simple and inexpensive means of enhancing repetitive signals obscured by noise with roughly equal amplitude. The signal and noise are displayed on an oscilloscope, and we perform a time average over many traces by time exposure photography. If the oscilloscope triggering is synchronous with the signal, the result is a significant suppression of the offending noise.

  1. Normal dexamethasone-suppression adrenal scintiscan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To establish the parameters of adrenal imaging under dexamethasone suppression (DS), 18 normotensive, normal male volunteers underwent dexamethasone-suppression adrenal scintiscanning. Five control groups were established and given dexamethasone, either 8 mg for 2 days or 4 mg for 7 days before 6β-[1311]iodomethyl-norcholesterol (NP-59) administration. NP-59 was given in doses of 2, 1, or 0.5 mCi. Early visualization (3-5 days) of the adrenals was noted in the groups on the 8 mg DS regimen with either 1 or 2 mCi of NP-59. Late visualization (5-7 days) was noted in the groups that received 4 mg DS and either 2, 1, or 0.5 mCi of MP-59, respectively. The normal adrenal will demonstrate uptake of NP-59 under DS, and the duration of DS before imaging is the critical factor as to when discernible adrenal visualization will occur. The documentation of the normal suppression interval on these DS regimens provides a basis for the correct diagnostic interpretation of adrenal hyperfunction as seen on the dexamethasone-suppression NP-59 adrenal scan

  2. An in vivo invertebrate evaluation system for identifying substances that suppress sucrose-induced postprandial hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Ishii, Masaki; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose is a major sweetener added to various foods and beverages. Excessive intake of sucrose leads to increases in blood glucose levels, which can result in the development and exacerbation of lifestyle-related diseases such as obesity and diabetes. In this study, we established an in vivo evaluation system using silkworms to explore substances that suppress the increase in blood glucose levels caused by dietary intake of sucrose. Silkworm hemolymph glucose levels rapidly increased after intake of a sucrose-containing diet. Addition of acarbose or voglibose, α-glycosidase inhibitors clinically used for diabetic patients, suppressed the dietary sucrose-induced increase in the silkworm hemolymph glucose levels. Screening performed using the sucrose-induced postprandial hyperglycemic silkworm model allowed us to identify some lactic acid bacteria that inhibit the increase in silkworm hemolymph glucose levels caused by dietary intake of sucrose. The inhibitory effects of the Lactococcus lactis #Ll-1 bacterial strain were significantly greater than those of different strains of lactic acid bacteria. No effect of the Lactococcus lactis #Ll-1 strain was observed in silkworms fed a glucose diet. These results suggest that the sucrose diet-induced postprandial hyperglycemic silkworm is a useful model for evaluating chemicals and lactic acid bacteria that suppress increases in blood glucose levels. PMID:27194587

  3. Acid evaporation property in chemically amplified resists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shuichi; Itani, Toshiro; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Yamana, Mitsuharu; Samoto, Norihiko; Kasama, Kunihiko

    1997-07-01

    The lithographic performance of a chemically amplified resist system very much depends on the photo-generated acid structure. In a previous paper, we reported the molecular structure dependence of two typical photo-generated acids (aromatic sulfonic acid and alkyl sulfonic acid) from the viewpoints of lithographic performance and acid characteristics such as acid generation efficiency, acid diffusion behavior and acid evaporation property. In this paper, we evaluate the effect of the remaining solvent in a resist film on the acid evaporation property. Four types of two-component chemically amplified positive KrF resists were prepared consisting of tert-butoxycarbonyl (t-BOC) protected polyhydroxystyrene and sulfonic acid derivative photo-acid generator (PAG). Here, a different combination of two types of PAGs [2,4-dimethylbenzenesulfonic acid (aromatic sulfonic acid) derivative PAG and cyclohexanesulfonic acid (alkyl sulfonic acid) derivative PAG] and two types of solvents (propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate; PGMEA and ethyl lactate; EL) were evaluated. The aromatic sulfonic acid was able to evaporate easily during post exposure bake (PEB) treatment, but the alkyl sulfonic acid was not. The higher evaporation property of aromatic sulfonic acid might be due to the higher vapor pressure and the longer acid diffusion length. Furthermore, the amount of aromatic sulfonic acid in the PGMEA resist was reduced by more than that in the EL resist. The amount of acid loss also became smaller at a higher prebake temperature. The concentration of the remaining solvent in the resist film decreased with the increasing prebake temperature. We think that the acid evaporation property was affected by the remaining solvent in the resist, film; the large amount of remaining solvent promoted the acid diffusion and eventually accelerated the acid evaporation from the resist film surface in the PGMEA resist. In summary, the acid evaporation property depends on both the acid

  4. Do nucleic acids moonlight as molecular chaperones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docter, Brianne E.; Horowitz, Scott; Gray, Michael J.; Jakob, Ursula; Bardwell, James C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Organisms use molecular chaperones to combat the unfolding and aggregation of proteins. While protein chaperones have been widely studied, here we demonstrate that DNA and RNA exhibit potent chaperone activity in vitro. Nucleic acids suppress the aggregation of classic chaperone substrates up to 300-fold more effectively than the protein chaperone GroEL. Additionally, RNA cooperates with the DnaK chaperone system to refold purified luciferase. Our findings reveal a possible new role for nucleic acids within the cell: that nucleic acids directly participate in maintaining proteostasis by preventing protein aggregation. PMID:27105849

  5. The tendency to suppress, inhibiting thoughts, and dream rebound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Fiona; Bryant, Richard A

    2007-01-01

    Ironic control theory proposes that suppressing thoughts leads to increased occurrence of the suppressed thought because monitoring for the unwanted thought leads to intrusions. This study investigated the influence of suppressing unwanted thoughts on dream content. One hundred participants who had high or low levels of tendency to suppress unwanted thoughts nominated an intrusive thought, and half of the participants were instructed to suppress that thought for 5 min prior to sleeping. Participants completed a dream diary upon waking, which was subsequently rated by independent raters for dream content. In terms of the 79 participants who reported dreaming, more high suppressors who were instructed to suppress dreamt about the intrusive thought than high suppressors in the control condition. There was no difference between low suppressors in the suppression and control conditions. These results suggest that dream content can be influenced by attempted suppression prior to sleep, and this is particularly apparent in people with a tendency to suppress unwanted thoughts. PMID:16516140

  6. Ibotenic acid and thioibotenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Nielsen, Birgitte;

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we have determined and compared the pharmacological profiles of ibotenic acid and its isothiazole analogue thioibotenic acid at native rat ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors and at recombinant rat metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines....... Thioibotenic acid has a distinct pharmacological profile at group III mGlu receptors compared with the closely structurally related ibotenic acid; the former is a potent (low microm) agonist, whereas the latter is inactive. By comparing the conformational energy profiles of ibotenic and thioibotenic acid with...... the conformations preferred by the ligands upon docking to mGlu1 and models of the other mGlu subtypes, we propose that unlike other subtypes, group III mGlu receptor binding sites require a ligand conformation at an energy level which is prohibitively expensive for ibotenic acid, but not for...

  7. Carbonic Acid Retreatment of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylor university

    2003-06-01

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. (1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. (2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. (3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. (4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. (5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for

  8. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

    2003-05-31

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic

  9. Determination of mono ethanolamine by non-suppressed ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mono ethanol amine (MEA) is world wide used as all volatile treatment agent to maintain alkaline pH in the entire steam water circuit of nuclear power station. Spectrophotometric method of MEA analysis suffers from interference in presence of hydrazine which is used as oxygen scavenger. A simple, rapid, accurate and quantitative determination of monoethanolamine (MEA) in coolant water was accomplished by cation exchange chromatography with conductometric detection in non-suppressed mode. A Metrosep cation 1-2 analytical column connecting with a Metrosep cartridge was used for cation separation. A solution containing a mixture of 4 mM tartaric acid, 1 mM dipicolinic acid, 20% acetone and 0.05 mM HNO3 was used as eluent. The limit of detection for MEA was 0.1 μg ml-1 and relative standard deviation was 2% for the overall method. The method was applied for the determination of MEA in steam generator water sample without any interference of hydrazine. The recovery was in the range of 95-102%. (author)

  10. [Gastric Acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz Chávez, R

    1996-01-01

    Gastric acid, a product of parietal cells secretion, full fills multiple biological roles which are absolutely necessary to keep corporal homeostasis. The production of the acid depends upon an effector cellular process represented in the first step by histamine, acetilcholine and gastrin, first messengers of the process. These interact with specific receptors than in sequence activate second messengers -cAMP and the calcium-calmodulin system- which afterwards activate a kinase. An specific protein is then phosphorilated by this enzyme, being the crucial factor that starts the production of acid. Finally, a proton bomb, extrudes the acid towards the gastric lumen. The secretion process mentioned above, is progressive lyactivated in three steps, two of which are stimulators -cephalic and gastric phases- and the other one inhibitor or intestinal phase. These stages are started by mental and neurological phenomena -thought, sight, smell or memory-; by food, drugs or other ingested substances; and by products of digestion. Changes in regulation of acid secretion, in the structure of gastro-duodenal mucosal barrier by a wide spectrum of factors and agents including food, drugs and H. pylori, are the basis of acid-peptic disease, entity in which gastric acid plays a fundamental role. From the therapeutic point of view, so at the theoretical as at the practical levels, t is possible to interfere with the secretion of acid by neutralization of some of the steps of the effector cellular process. An adequate knowledge of the basics related to gastric acid, allows to create strategies for the clinical handling of associated pathology, specifically in relation to peptic acid disease in all of the known clinical forms. PMID:12165790

  11. Benchmark enclosure fire suppression experiments - phase 1 test report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, Victor G.; Nichols, Robert Thomas; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-06-01

    A series of fire benchmark water suppression tests were performed that may provide guidance for dispersal systems for the protection of high value assets. The test results provide boundary and temporal data necessary for water spray suppression model development and validation. A review of fire suppression in presented for both gaseous suppression and water mist fire suppression. The experimental setup and procedure for gathering water suppression performance data are shown. Characteristics of the nozzles used in the testing are presented. Results of the experiments are discussed.

  12. Burst suppression probability algorithms: state-space methods for tracking EEG burst suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Chemali, Jessica; Ching, ShiNung; Purdon, Patrick L; Solt, Ken; Brown, Emery N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Burst suppression is an electroencephalogram pattern in which bursts of electrical activity alternate with an isoelectric state. This pattern is commonly seen in states of severely reduced brain activity such as profound general anesthesia, anoxic brain injuries, hypothermia and certain developmental disorders. Devising accurate, reliable ways to quantify burst suppression is an important clinical and research problem. Although thresholding and segmentation algorithms readily ident...

  13. Breaking Continuous Flash Suppression: A New Measure of Unconscious Processing during Interocular Suppression?

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Timo; Hebart, Martin N; Sterzer, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, it has been thought that under interocular suppression high-level visual processing is strongly inhibited if not abolished. With the development of continuous flash suppression (CFS), a variant of binocular rivalry, this notion has now been challenged by a number of reports showing that even high-level aspects of visual stimuli, such as familiarity, affect the time stimuli need to overcome CFS and emerge into awareness. In this “breaking continuous flash suppression” (b-CFS) p...

  14. Breaking continuous flash suppression: A new measure of unconscious processing during interocular suppression?

    OpenAIRE

    Timo eStein; Hebart, Martin N; Philipp eSterzer

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, it has been thought that under interocular suppression high-level visual processing is strongly inhibited if not abolished. With the development of continuous flash suppression (CFS), a variant of binocular rivalry, this notion has now been challenged by a number of reports showing that even high-level aspects of visual stimuli, such as familiarity, affect the time stimuli need to overcome CFS and emerge into awareness. In this breaking CFS (b-CFS) paradigm, differential uncon...

  15. Overcoming fixation with repeated memory suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angello, Genna; Storm, Benjamin C; Smith, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Fixation (blocks to memories or ideas) can be alleviated not only by encouraging productive work towards a solution, but, as the present experiments show, by reducing counterproductive work. Two experiments examined relief from fixation in a word-fragment completion task. Blockers, orthographically similar negative primes (e.g., ANALOGY), blocked solutions to word fragments (e.g., A_L_ _GY) in both experiments. After priming, but before the fragment completion test, participants repeatedly suppressed half of the blockers using the Think/No-Think paradigm, which results in memory inhibition. Inhibiting blockers did not alleviate fixation in Experiment 1 when conscious recollection of negative primes was not encouraged on the fragment completion test. In Experiment 2, however, when participants were encouraged to remember negative primes at fragment completion, relief from fixation was observed. Repeated suppression may nullify fixation effects, and promote creative thinking, particularly when fixation is caused by conscious recollection of counterproductive information. PMID:24575886

  16. Speckle Suppression Method for SAR Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiming Guo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new speckle reduction method was proposed in terms of by Bidimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition (BEMD. In this method, the SAR image containing speckle noise was decomposed into a number of elementary components by using BEMD and then the extremal points are done the boundary equivalent extension after screening and the residual continue to be done the boundary equivalent extension until screening is completed, finally, the image was reconstructed, which reduced the speckle noise. Experimental results show that this method has good effect on suppressing speckle noise, compared to the average filter, median filter and gaussian filter and has advantages of sufficiently retaining edge and detail information while suppressing speckle noise.

  17. Suppression pool swell analysis. Special report. [BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambre, P.L.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamic response of a Mark I pressure suppression system during the early air discharge phase of a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) is studied mathematically. The mathematical analysis of the surface swell caused by the initial discharge, located a finite depth below the free surface, is described in detail with the surface elevation shape as a function of time being one of the results. The initial approach considers the case of an infinite pool with the approach progressing to vertical boundary walls and finally to the semicircular pool cross section of the Mark I pressure suppression system. This analysis is valid for the time interval before the free surface impacts any structure.

  18. Suppression pool swell analysis. Special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic response of a Mark I pressure suppression system during the early air discharge phase of a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) is studied mathematically. The mathematical analysis of the surface swell caused by the initial discharge, located a finite depth below the free surface, is described in detail with the surface elevation shape as a function of time being one of the results. The initial approach considers the case of an infinite pool with the approach progressing to vertical boundary walls and finally to the semicircular pool cross section of the Mark I pressure suppression system. This analysis is valid for the time interval before the free surface impacts any structure

  19. Glare suppression by coherence gated negation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Edward Haojiang; Brake, Joshua; Ruan, Haowen; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-01-01

    Imaging of a weak target hidden behind a scattering medium can be significantly confounded by glare. We report a method, termed coherence gated negation (CGN), that uses destructive optical interference to suppress glare and allow improved imaging of a weak target. As a demonstration, we show that by permuting through a set range of amplitude and phase values for a reference beam interfering with the optical field from the glare and target reflection, we can suppress glare by an order of magnitude, even when the optical wavefront is highly disordered. This strategy significantly departs from conventional coherence gating methods in that CGN actively 'gates out' the unwanted optical contributions while conventional methods 'gate in' the target optical signal. We further show that the CGN method can outperform conventional coherence gating image quality in certain scenarios by more effectively rejecting unwanted optical contributions.

  20. Immersion diuresis without expected suppression of vasopressin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L. C.; Silver, J. E.; Wong, N.; Spaul, W. A.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Kravik, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    There is a shift of blood from the lower parts of the body to the thoracic circulation during bed rest, water immersion, and presumably during weightlessness. On earth, this central fluid shift is associated with a profound diuresis. However, the mechanism involved is not yet well understood. The present investigation is concerned with measurements regarding the plasma vasopressin, fluid, electrolyte, and plasma renin activity (PRA) responses in subjects with normal preimmersion plasma vasopressin (PVP) concentration. In the conducted experiments, PRA was suppressed significantly at 30 min of immersion and had declined by 74 percent by the end of the experiment. On the basis of previously obtained results, it appears that sodium excretion during immersion may be independent of aldosterone action. Experimental results indicate that PVP is not suppressed by water immersion in normally hydrated subjects and that other factors may be responsible for the diuresis.

  1. Quarkonium suppression: Gluonic dissociation vs. colour screening

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Binoy Krishna Patra; Dinesh Kumar Srivastava

    2003-05-01

    We evaluate the suppression of / production in an equilibrating quark gluon plasma for two competing mechanisms: Debye screening of colour interaction and dissociation due to energetic gluons. Results are obtained for S + S and Au + Au collisions at RHIC and LHC energies. At RHIC energies the gluonic dissociation of the charmonium is found to be equally important for both the systems while the screening of the interaction plays a significant role only for the larger systems. At LHC energies the Debye mechanism is found to dominate both the systems. While considering the suppression of directly produced $\\Upsilon$ at LHC energies, we find that only the gluonic dissociation mechanism comes into play for the initial conditions taken from the self screened parton cascade model in these studies.

  2. Managing for soil health can suppress pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Hodson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A “healthy” soil can be thought of as one that functions well, both agronomically and ecologically, and one in which soil biodiversity and crop management work in synergy to suppress pests and diseases. UC researchers have pioneered many ways of managing soil biology for pest management, including strategies such as soil solarization, steam treatment and anaerobic soil disinfestation, as well as improvements on traditional methods, such as reducing tillage, amending soil with organic materials, and cover cropping. As managing for soil health becomes more of an explicit focus due to restrictions on the use of soil fumigants, integrated soil health tests will be needed that are validated for use in California. Other research needs include breeding crops for disease resistance and pest suppressive microbial communities as well as knowledge of how beneficial organisms influence plant health.

  3. Correcting intermittent central suppression improves binocular marksmanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Eric S

    2007-04-01

    Intermittent central suppression (ICS) is a defect in normal binocular (two-eyed) vision that causes confusion in visual detail. ICS is a repetitive intermittent loss of visual sensation in the central area of vision. As the central vision of either eye "turns on and off", aiming errors in sight can occur that must be corrected when both eyes are seeing again. Any aiming errors in sight might be expected to interfere with marksmanship during two-eyed seeing. We compared monocular (one-eyed, patched) and binocular (two-eyed) marksmanship with pistol shooting with an Army ROTC cadet before and after successful therapy for diagnosed ICS. Pretreatment, monocular marksmanship was significantly better than binocular marksmanship, suggesting defective binocularity reduced accuracy. After treatment for ICS, binocular and monocular marksmanship were essentially the same. Results confirmed predictions that with increased visual stability from correcting the suppression, binocular and monocular marksmanship accuracies should merge. PMID:17484315

  4. Compton suppression through rise-time analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, S; Celiktas, C

    2007-11-01

    We studied Compton suppression for 60Co and 137Cs radioisotopes using a signal selection criterion based on contrasting the fall time of the signals composing the photo peak with those composing the Compton continuum. The fall time criterion is employed by using the pulse shape analysis observing the change in the fall times of the gamma-ray pulses. This change is determined by measuring the changes in the rise times related to the fall time of the scintillator and the timing signals related to the fall time of the input signals. We showed that Compton continuum suppression is achieved best via the precise timing adjustment of an analog rise-time analyzer connected to a NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer. PMID:17703943

  5. Mechanisms underlying UV-induced immune suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skin cancer is the most prevalent form of human neoplasia. Estimates suggest that in excess of one million new cases of skin cancer will be diagnosed this year alone in the United States (www.cancer.org/statistics). Fortunately, because of their highly visible location, skin cancers are more rapidly diagnosed and more easily treated than other types of cancer. Be that as it may, approximately 10,000 Americans a year die from skin cancer. The cost of treating non-melanoma skin cancer is estimated to be in excess of US$ 650 million a year [J.G. Chen, A.B. Fleischer, E.D. Smith, C. Kancler, N.D. Goldman, P.M. Williford, S.R. Feldman, Cost of non-melanoma skin cancer treatment in the United States, Dermatol. Surg. 27 (2001) 1035-1038], and when melanoma is included, the estimated cost of treating skin cancer in the United States is estimated to rise to US$ 2.9 billion annually (www.cancer.org/statistics). Because the morbidity and mortality associated with skin cancer is a major public health problem, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying skin cancer development. The primary cause of skin cancer is the ultraviolet (UV) radiation found in sunlight. In addition to its carcinogenic potential, UV radiation is also immune suppressive. In fact, data from studies with both experimental animals and biopsy proven skin cancer patients suggest that there is an association between the immune suppressive effects of UV radiation and its carcinogenic potential. The focus of this manuscript will be to review the mechanisms underlying the induction of immune suppression following UV exposure. Particular attention will be directed to the role of soluble mediators in activating immune suppression

  6. Myc suppression of Nfkb2 accelerates lymphomagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deregulated c-Myc expression is a hallmark of several human cancers where it promotes proliferation and an aggressive tumour phenotype. Myc overexpression is associated with reduced activity of Rel/NF-κB, transcription factors that control the immune response, cell survival, and transformation, and that are frequently altered in cancer. The Rel/NF-κB family member NFKB2 is altered by chromosomal translocations or deletions in lymphoid malignancies and deletion of the C-terminal ankyrin domain of NF-κB2 augments lymphocyte proliferation. Precancerous Eμ-Myc-transgenic B cells, Eμ-Myc lymphomas and human Burkitt lymphoma samples were assessed for Nfkb2 expression. The contribution of Nfkb2 to Myc-driven apoptosis, proliferation, and lymphomagenesis was tested genetically in vivo. Here we report that the Myc oncoprotein suppresses Nfkb2 expression in vitro in primary mouse fibroblasts and B cells, and in vivo in the Eμ-Myc transgenic mouse model of human Burkitt lymphoma (BL). NFKB2 suppression by Myc was also confirmed in primary human BL. Promoter-reporter assays indicate that Myc-mediated suppression of Nfkb2 occurs at the level of transcription. The contribution of Nfkb2 to Myc-driven lymphomagenesis was tested in vivo, where Nfkb2 loss was shown to accelerate lymphoma development in Eμ-Myc transgenic mice, by impairing Myc's apoptotic response. Nfkb2 is suppressed by c-Myc and harnesses Myc-driven lymphomagenesis. These data thus link Myc-driven lymphomagenesis to the non-canonical NF-κB pathway

  7. PUMA Suppresses Intestinal Tumorigenesis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Wei; Carson-Walter, Eleanor B.; Kuan, Shih Fan; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Jian

    2009-01-01

    Defective apoptosis contributes to tumorigenesis, although the critical molecular targets remain to be fully characterized. PUMA, a BH3-only protein essential for p53-dependent apoptosis, has been shown to suppress lymphomagenesis. In this study, we investigated the role of PUMA in intestinal tumorigenesis using two animal models. In the azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium salt model, PUMA deficiency increased the multiplicity and size of colon tumors but reduced the frequency of β-cate...

  8. Mechanisms underlying UV-induced immune suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, Stephen E. [Department of Immunology, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, South Campus Research Building 1, 7455 Fannin St., P.O. Box 301402, Houston, TX 77030-1903 (United States)]. E-mail: sullrich@mdanderson.org

    2005-04-01

    Skin cancer is the most prevalent form of human neoplasia. Estimates suggest that in excess of one million new cases of skin cancer will be diagnosed this year alone in the United States (www.cancer.org/statistics). Fortunately, because of their highly visible location, skin cancers are more rapidly diagnosed and more easily treated than other types of cancer. Be that as it may, approximately 10,000 Americans a year die from skin cancer. The cost of treating non-melanoma skin cancer is estimated to be in excess of US$ 650 million a year [J.G. Chen, A.B. Fleischer, E.D. Smith, C. Kancler, N.D. Goldman, P.M. Williford, S.R. Feldman, Cost of non-melanoma skin cancer treatment in the United States, Dermatol. Surg. 27 (2001) 1035-1038], and when melanoma is included, the estimated cost of treating skin cancer in the United States is estimated to rise to US$ 2.9 billion annually (www.cancer.org/statistics). Because the morbidity and mortality associated with skin cancer is a major public health problem, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying skin cancer development. The primary cause of skin cancer is the ultraviolet (UV) radiation found in sunlight. In addition to its carcinogenic potential, UV radiation is also immune suppressive. In fact, data from studies with both experimental animals and biopsy proven skin cancer patients suggest that there is an association between the immune suppressive effects of UV radiation and its carcinogenic potential. The focus of this manuscript will be to review the mechanisms underlying the induction of immune suppression following UV exposure. Particular attention will be directed to the role of soluble mediators in activating immune suppression.

  9. Parental alarm calls suppress nestling vocalization.

    OpenAIRE

    Platzen, Dirk; Magrath, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    Evolutionary models suggest that the cost of a signal can ensure its honesty. Empirical studies of nestling begging imply that predator attraction can impose such a cost. However, parents might reduce or abolish this cost by warning young of the presence of danger. We tested, in a controlled field playback experiment, whether alarm calls cause 5-, 8- and 11-day-old nestlings of the white-browed scrubwren, Sericornis frontalis, to suppress vocalization. In this species, nestlings vocalize when...

  10. Subspace modelling for structured noise suppression

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zhiqiang; Plastino, A

    2009-01-01

    The problem of structured noise suppression is addressed by i)modelling the subspaces hosting the components of the signal conveying the information and ii)applying a non-extensive nonlinear technique for effecting the right separation. Although the approach is applicable to all situations satisfying the hypothesis of the proposed framework, this work is motivated by a particular scenario, namely, the cancellation of low frequency noise in broadband seismic signals.

  11. Culture shapes electrocortical responses during emotion suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Asuka; Moser, Jason S.; Kitayama, Shinobu

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has shown that emotional control is highly valued in Asian culture. However, little is known about how this cultural value might influence emotional processing. Here, we hypothesized that Asians are ‘culturally trained’ to down-regulate emotional processing when required to suppress emotional expressions. Such down-regulation, however, is unlikely for European Americans because their culture values emotional expression (vs control) more. To test these predictions, we adopted the...

  12. Emotions shape memory suppression in trait anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Marzi, Tessa; Regina, Antonio; Righi, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The question that motivated this study was to investigate the relation between trait anxiety, emotions and memory control. To this aim, memory suppression was explored in high and low trait anxiety individuals with the Think/No-think paradigm. After learning associations between neutral words and emotional scenes (negative, positive, and neutral), participants were shown a word and were requested either to think about the associated scene or to block it out from mind. Finally, in a test phase...

  13. Emotions shape memory suppression in trait anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Tessa eMarzi; Antonio eRegina; Stefania eRighi

    2014-01-01

    The question that motivated this study was to investigate the relation between trait anxiety, emotions and memory control. To this aim, memory suppression was explored in high and low trait anxiety individuals with the Think/No-think paradigm. After learning associations between neutral words and emotional scenes (negative, positive and neutral), participants were shown a word and were requested either to think about the associated scene or to block it out from mind. Finally, in a test phase,...

  14. An Equivalent Noise Investigation of Saccadic Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara L Watson; Krekelberg, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Visual stimuli presented just before or during an eye movement are more difficult to detect than those same visual stimuli presented during fixation. This laboratory phenomenon – behavioral saccadic suppression – is thought to underlie the everyday experience of not perceiving the motion created by our own eye movements – saccadic omission. At the neural level, many cortical and subcortical areas respond differently to perisaccadic visual stimuli than to stimuli presented during fixation. Tho...

  15. Thought Suppression in Patients With Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Miklowitz, David J.; Alatiq, Yousra; Geddes, John R.; Goodwin, Guy M.; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    Suppression of negative thoughts has been observed under experimental conditions among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) but has never been examined among patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Patients with BD (n = 36), patients with MDD (n = 20), and healthy controls (n = 20) completed a task that required unscrambling 6-word strings into 5-word sentences, leaving out 1 word. The extra word allowed the sentences to be completed in a negative, neutral, or “hyperpositive” (manic/goa...

  16. A Convnet for Non-maximum Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Hosang, J.; Benenson, R.; Schiele, B.

    2015-01-01

    Non-maximum suppression (NMS) is used in virtually all state-of-the-art object detection pipelines. While essential object detection ingredients such as features, classifiers, and proposal methods have been extensively researched surprisingly little work has aimed to systematically address NMS. The de-facto standard for NMS is based on greedy clustering with a fixed distance threshold, which forces to trade-off recall versus precision. We propose a convnet designed to perform NMS of a given s...

  17. Temporary Suppression of Tinnitus by Modulated Sounds

    OpenAIRE

    Reavis, Kelly M.; Rothholtz, Vanessa S.; Tang, Qing; Carroll, Jeff A.; Djalilian, Hamid; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2012-01-01

    Despite high prevalence of tinnitus and its impact on quality life, there is no cure for tinnitus at present. Here, we report an effective means to temporarily suppress tinnitus by amplitude- and frequency-modulated tones. We systematically explored the interaction between subjective tinnitus and 17 external sounds in 20 chronic tinnitus sufferers. The external sounds included traditionally used unmodulated stimuli such as pure tones and white noise and dynamically modulated stimuli known to ...

  18. Dexmedetomidine induced catecholamine suppression in pheochromocytoma

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sanjeev; Singh, Arti

    2014-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a neuroendocrine tumour of chromaffin cells, though rare but a known cause of paroxysmal hypertension with a triad of headache, diaphoresis and palpitation. The biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma is based on estimation of plasma nor-adrenaline, adrenaline and their metabolites in plasma or urine. Clonidine suppression test is performed to differentiate the raised catecholamine level due to pheochromocytoma or other than heochromocytoma especially in cases where plas...

  19. Temporal Analysis of Image-Rivalry Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Rishi Bhardwaj; Robert P. O'shea

    2012-01-01

    During binocular rivalry, perception alternates between two different images presented one to each eye. At any moment, one image is visible, dominant, while the other is invisible, suppressed. Alternations in perception during rivalry could involve competition between eyes, eye-rivalry, or between images, image-rivalry, or both. We measured response criteria, sensitivities, and thresholds to brief contrast increments to one of the rival stimuli in conventional rivalry displays and in a displa...

  20. Currently available cough suppressants for chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kian Fan

    2008-01-01

    Chronic cough is a common symptom but only a fraction of patients seek medical attention. Addressing the causes of chronic cough may lead to control of cough; however, this approach is not always successful since there is a certain degree of failure even when the cause(s) of cough are adequately treated; in idiopathic cough, there is no cause to treat. Persistent cough may be associated with deterioration of quality of life, and treatment with cough suppressants is indicated. Currently available cough suppressants include the centrally acting opioids such as morphine, codeine, and dextromethorphan. Peripherally acting antitussives include moguisteine and levodropropizine. Early studies report success in reducing cough in patients with chronic bronchitis or COPD; however, a carefully conducted study showed no effect of codeine on cough of COPD. Success with these cough suppressants can be achieved at high doses that are associated with side effects. Slow-release morphine has been reported to be useful in controlling intractable cough with good tolerance to constipation and drowsiness. There have been case reports of the success of centrally acting drugs such as amitryptiline, paroxetine, gabapentin, and carbamezepine in chronic cough. New opioids such as nociceptin or antagonists of TRPV1 may turn out to be more effective. Efficacy of cough suppressants must be tested in double-blind randomised trials using validated measures of cough in patients with chronic cough not responding to specific treatments. Patients with chronic cough are in desperate need of effective antitussives that can be used either on demand or on a long-term basis. PMID:17909897

  1. MR image noise suppression using wavelet filtering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartušek, Karel; Gescheidtová, E.; Smékal, Z.

    Budapest : Asszisztencia Szervező Kft, 2008, TSP081216309954: 1-3. ISBN 978-963-06-5487-6. [Telecommunications and Signal Processing /31./ - TSP 2008. Parádfürdö (HU), 03.09.2008-04.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/0389 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : MRI * spin density suppression * temporomandibular joint * wavelet tansform Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  2. Coating Thermoelectric Devices To Suppress Sublimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Caillat, Thierry; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Snyder, G. Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    A technique for suppressing sublimation of key elements from skutterudite compounds in advanced thermoelectric devices has been demonstrated. The essence of the technique is to cover what would otherwise be the exposed skutterudite surface of such a device with a thin, continuous film of a chemically and physically compatible metal. Although similar to other sublimation-suppression techniques, this technique has been specifically tailored for application to skutterudite antimonides. The primary cause of deterioration of most thermoelectric materials is thermal decomposition or sublimation - one or more elements sublime from the hot side of a thermoelectric couple, changing the stoichiometry of the device. Examples of elements that sublime from their respective thermoelectric materials are Ge from SiGe, Te from Pb/Te, and now Sb from skutterudite antimonides. The skutterudite antimonides of primary interest are CoSb3 [electron-donor (n) type] and CeFe(3-x)Co(x)Sb12 [electron-acceptor (p) type]. When these compounds are subjected to typical operating conditions [temperature of 700 C and pressure niobium, which was selected for its chemical stability. In the experiment, the wrapped specimen was heated to a temperature of 700 C in a vacuum of residual pressure niobium foil prevented sublimation of antimony at 700 C. This was a considerable improvement, considering that uncoated CoSb3 had been found to decompose to form the lowest antimonide at the surface at only 600 C. Evidently, because the mean free path of Sb at the given temperature and pressure was of the order of tens of centimeters, any barrier closer than tens of centimeters (as was the niobium foil) would have suppressed transport of Sb vapor, thereby suppressing sublimation of Sb

  3. Comoving suppression mechanism and cosmological constant problem

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Jian Qi

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we assume that the observer is fixed in a comoving frame of reference with $g_{00}=\\frac{\\lambda}{\\Lambda}$, where $\\lambda$ and $\\Lambda$ denote the comoving parameter and the cosmological constant, respectively. By using the {\\it comoving suppression mechanism} and {\\it Mach's principle} (the latter of which is used to determine the comoving parameter $\\lambda$), we calculate the vacuum energy density of quantum fluctuation field in the above-mentioned comoving frame of refer...

  4. Suppression of infanticide in mother rats

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, L. C.; Kristal, M. B.

    1983-01-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that infanticidal tendencies are suppressed when rats become mothers, very young newborn pups, either naturally born or cesarean-delivered, were presented to virgin females and to newly delivered mothers. Provided that the pups were lively, uncleaned of fetal fluids or membranes, and presented without placentas, nearly all virgins killed and nearly all mothers did not. Newborns were also presented to Day 22 pregnant rats and to rats whose pregnancies had recent...

  5. Regulation of immune suppression induced by UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Exposure of the skin of mice and men to increasing doses of UV radiation causes erythema, blistering, accelerated photoageing, DNA lesions and photocarcinogenesis. Moderate exposure also suppresses T cell-mediated immune function, a defect which is a prerequisite for the promotion or outgrowth phase of the UV-initiated tumour, and which is accompanied by dysregulated cutaneous cytokine patterns. A major cutaneous photoreceptor for the immunosuppression is epidermal urocanic acid (UCA). Naturally occurring trans-UCA photoisomerises in the stratum corneum and epidermis to cis-UCA, in a direct reaction. Cis-UCA has been found to have local and systemic immunosuppressive properties. The action spectrum for the photoimmuno-suppression is maximal in the UVB (280 320nm) waveband. However longer wavelength UVA (320-400nm), which interacts with skin predominantly via oxidative reactions, is not immunosuppressive at environmental exposure doses, and unexpectedly can provide protection from UVB-immunosuppression. We find that UVA protective exposure prevents the major UVB-alterations to the cytokine array. In addition, UVA (but not UVB) exposure induces cutaneous haem oxygenase (HO) activity, an endogenous antioxidant enzyme. HO is known to be redox-regulated, and to be the major stress protein induced in cultured fibroblasts by UVA. We find that UVA-immune protection is dependent on the induced HO; that enhanced HO activity following UVA is cytokine-dependent; and that the induced HO acts by inhibiting the immunosuppressive potential of cis-UCA. Thus oxidant states resulting predominantly from UVA irradiation, while apparently immunologically innocuous, seem to actively upregulate this defensive HO response. These studies have therefore revealed interactions between different UV wavebands important for immune regulation both in the skin and systemically, which may have a critical bearing on the carcinogenic outcome in chronically exposed skin, and offer the

  6. PCDD/Fs' suppression by sulfur-amine/ammonium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jian-Ying; Li, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Tong; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Buekens, Alfons; Lu, Sheng-Yong; Yan, Jian-Hua; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2015-03-01

    Three distinct -S and -NH2 or NH4(+) containing compounds, including ammonium thiosulfate, aminosulfonic acid and thiourea, were studied as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) inhibitors. All these three -S and -N containing compounds tested show strong suppression of PCDD/Fs formation, especially for thiourea which has not been studied before. With a (S+N)/Cl molar ratio of only 0.47, thiourea could inhibit 97.3% of PCDD/Fs and even 99.8% of I-TEQ. At an unusually high de novo test temperature (650 °C), the PCDD/Fs' formation was still very low but also the inhibition capacity of thiourea was weak, with an efficiency of 59% for PCDD/Fs when with a (S+N)/Cl molar ratio of 1.40. The results also revealed that the inhibition capability of the combined -S/-NH2 or -S/NH4(+) suppressant was strongly influenced by both the nature of the functional group of nitrogen and the value of the molar ratio (S+N)/Cl. The amine functional group -NH2 tends to be more efficient than ammonium NH4(+) and within a certain range a higher (S+N)/Cl value leads to a higher inhibition efficiency. Moreover, the emission of gases was continuously monitored: the Gasmet results revealed that SO2, HCN and NH3 were the most important decomposition products of thiourea. Thiourea is non-toxic, environment-friendly and can be sprayed into the post-combustion zone in form of powder or aqueous solution. The cost of thiourea at least can be partially compensated by its high inhibition efficiency. Therefore, the application of thiourea in a full-scale incinerator system is promising and encouraging. PMID:25481352

  7. Suppression of Ostwald Ripening by Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, David; Hyman, Anthony A.; Jülicher, Frank

    2015-03-01

    Emulsions consisting of droplets immersed in a fluid are typically unstable and coarsen over time. One important coarsening process is Ostwald ripening, which is driven by the surface tension of the droplets. Ostwald ripening must thus be suppressed to stabilize emulsions, e.g. to control the properties of pharmaceuticals, food, or cosmetics. Suppression of Ostwald ripening is also important in biological cells, which contain stable liquid-like compartments, e.g. germ granules, Cajal-bodies, and centrosomes. Such systems are often driven away from equilibrium by chemical reactions and can thus be called active emulsions. Here, we show that non-equilibrium chemical reactions can suppress Ostwald Ripening, leading to stable, monodisperse emulsions. We derive analytical approximations of the typical droplet size, droplet count, and time scale of the dynamics from a coarse-grained description of the droplet dynamics. We also compare these results to numerical simulations of the continuous concentration fields. Generally, we thus show how chemical reactions can be used to stabilize emulsions and to control their properties in technology and nature.

  8. Atomic Clocks with Suppressed Blackbody Radiation Shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We develop a concept of atomic clocks where the blackbody radiation shift and its fluctuations can be suppressed by 1-3 orders of magnitude independent of the environmental temperature. The suppression is based on the fact that in a system with two accessible clock transitions (with frequencies ν1 and ν2) which are exposed to the same thermal environment, there exists a 'synthetic' frequency νsyn ∝ (ν1-ε12ν2) largely immune to the blackbody radiation shift. For example, in the case of 171Yb+ it is possible to create a synthetic-frequency-based clock in which the fractional blackbody radiation shift can be suppressed to the level of 10-18 in a broad interval near room temperature (300±15 K). We also propose a realization of our method with the use of an optical frequency comb generator stabilized to both frequencies ν1 and ν2, where the frequency νsyn is generated as one of the components of the comb spectrum.

  9. Neural Networks for Mindfulness and Emotion Suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Murakami

    Full Text Available Mindfulness, an attentive non-judgmental focus on "here and now" experiences, has been incorporated into various cognitive behavioral therapy approaches and beneficial effects have been demonstrated. Recently, mindfulness has also been identified as a potentially effective emotion regulation strategy. On the other hand, emotion suppression, which refers to trying to avoid or escape from experiencing and being aware of one's own emotions, has been identified as a potentially maladaptive strategy. Previous studies suggest that both strategies can decrease affective responses to emotional stimuli. They would, however, be expected to provide regulation through different top-down modulation systems. The present study was aimed at elucidating the different neural systems underlying emotion regulation via mindfulness and emotion suppression approaches. Twenty-one healthy participants used the two types of strategy in response to emotional visual stimuli while functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted. Both strategies attenuated amygdala responses to emotional triggers, but the pathways to regulation differed across the two. A mindful approach appears to regulate amygdala functioning via functional connectivity from the medial prefrontal cortex, while suppression uses connectivity with other regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Thus, the two types of emotion regulation recruit different top-down modulation processes localized at prefrontal areas. These different pathways are discussed.

  10. Jet suppression at LHC: theory vs. experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suppression of light and heavy flavor observables is one of the most important probes in studying the properties of QCD matter created at RHIC and LHC experiments. We will here summarize the most up-to-date light and heavy flavor suppression predictions for 2.76 TeV central Pb+Pb collisions at LHC. The predictions are based on our recent improvements in the energy loss calculations that take into account: i) theoretical formalism which includes finite size dynamical QCD medium with finite magnetic mass effects and running coupling, and ii) numerical procedure which includes path-length and multi-gluon fluctuations. Our theoretical predictions, obtained with no free parameters used in model testing, show a very good agreement with the experimental results for all available particle species. Our results show that the developed theoretical formalism is able to robustly explain suppression data at LHC, which strongly suggests that pQCD in Quark-Gluon Plasma can provide a reasonable description of the underlying jet physics in ultra relativistic heavy ion collisions

  11. Oxidative Damage and Suppression: an Experimental Approach to Teaching Biochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa G. J. de Avellar

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental Biochemistry is a challenging and worthy didactical  task:  a vast field with many different techniques.   Radical mediated biooxidative processes, implied in aging and accompanying various pathologies,  have an enormous  appeal  to public in general and particularly to students in the science field.   The  Fenton  reaction,   first  reported by  the 22-year  old Cambridge  chemistry  undergraduate Henry J. H. Fenton  (Chemical  news vol. 33 page 190, 1876, is a useful in vitro system for generating hydroxyl radicals generally implied in biooxidation.  When coupled with the 2-deoxyribose (DR- thiobarbituric acid (TBA  method,  provides  a most  resourceful  tool for studying  oxidative  processes that may  provide  insights  to  in  vivo  processes.    In  this  communication  a  classical  experiment of quantification of thiobarbituric reactive  substances  (TBARS resulting  from breakage  of DR (5 mM in aqueous buffered media (5mM, pH 7.2 by 0,100 mM H2O2 and ferrous ion (up to 0,150 mM is the base for the demonstration of oxidative damage suppressive ability of known hydroxyl radical quenchers as ethanol,  dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO  and  thiourea (1mM  each.   The  results  of the  experiments, developed  to  be worked  in experimental classes for senior  undergraduate biochemistry students of biomedical  sciences, show a very mild but  consistent  suppressive  capacity  for ethanol  (reduction in2 percent  of TBARS  measured  at  0,150 mM ferrous ion concentration.  Thiourea  and  DMSO show very similar  suppressive  abilities:  reduction  in 19 and  18 percent  in measured  TBARS,  respectively (at  0,150 mM ferrous ion.

  12. Folic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include leafy vegetables (such as spinach, broccoli, and lettuce), okra, asparagus, fruits (such as bananas, melons, and ... Pyrimethamine (Daraprim)Pyrimethamine (Daraprim) is used to treat parasite infections. Folic acid might decrease the effectiveness of ...

  13. Folic Acid

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... March of Dimes Premature Birth Report Card Grades Cities, Counties; Focuses on Racial and Ethnic Disparities March ... your baby. Learn how you can get the right amout of folic acid before and during pregnancy ...

  14. ACID RAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acid precipitation has become one of the major environmental problems of this decade. It is a challenge to scientists throughout the world. Researchers from such diverse disciplines as plant pathology, soil science, bacteriology, meteorology and engineering are investigating diff...

  15. Folic Acid

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Folic acid ... Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness ...

  16. Folic Acid

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Folic acid Description | Related videos | Most played video E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  17. Large-Scale Identification and Analysis of Suppressive Drug Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Cokol, Murat; Weinstein, Zohar B.; Yilancioglu, Kaan; Tasan, Murat; Doak, Allison; Cansever, Dilay; Mutlu, Beste; Li, Siyang; Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Akhmedov, Murodzhon; Guvenek, Aysegul; Cokol, Melike; Cetiner, Selim; Giaever, Guri; Iossifov, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    One drug may suppress the effects of another. Although knowledge of drug suppression is vital to avoid efficacy-reducing drug interactions or discover countermeasures for chemical toxins, drug-drug suppression relationships have not been systematically mapped. Here, we analyze the growth response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to anti-fungal compound (“drug”) pairs. Among 440 ordered drug pairs, we identified 94 suppressive drug interactions. Using only pairs not selected on the basis of their s...

  18. Large-scale identification and analysis of suppressive drug interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Çokol, Murat; Cokol, Murat; Weinstein, Zohar Bat-El; Yılancıoğlu, Kaan; Yilancioglu, Kaan; Tasan, Murat; Doak, Allison; Cansever, Dilay; Mutlu, Beste; Li, Siyang; Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Akhmedov, Murodzhon; Güvenek, Ayşegül; Guvenek, Aysegul; Çokol, Melike

    2014-01-01

    One drug may suppress the effects of another. Although knowledge of drug suppression is vital to avoid efficacy-reducing drug interactions or discover countermeasures for chemical toxins, drug-drug suppression relationships have not been systematically mapped. Here, we analyze the growth response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to anti-fungal compound ("drug") pairs. Among 440 ordered drub pairs, we identified 94 suppressive drug interactions. Using only pairs not selected on the basis of their s...

  19. Incubation and suppression processes in creative problem solving

    OpenAIRE

    Gilhooly, KJ; Georgiou, GJ; Sirota, M; Paphiti-Galeano, A

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of thought suppression in incubation, using a delayed incubation paradigm. A total of 301 participants were tested over five conditions, viz., continuous work control, incubation with a mental rotations interpolated task, focussed suppression, unfocussed suppression and a conscious expression condition. Checks were made for intermittent work during the incubation condition. The target task was alternative uses for a brick. In the incubation and suppress...

  20. Orientation-tuned surround suppression in mouse visual cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Self, Matthew W.; Lorteije, Jeannette A. M.; Vangeneugden, Joris; van Beest, Enny H; Grigore, Mihaela E; Levelt, Christiaan N.; Heimel, J.A.; Roelfsema, Pieter R.

    2014-01-01

    The firing rates of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are suppressed by large stimuli, an effect known as surround suppression. In cats and monkeys, the strength of suppression is sensitive to orientation; responses to regions containing uniform orientations are more suppressed than those containing orientation contrast. This effect is thought to be important for scene segmentation, but the underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. We asked whether it is possible to study these ...

  1. The role of suppression in figurative language comprehension✩

    OpenAIRE

    Gemsbacher, Morton Ann; Robertson, Rachel R.W.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the crucial role that suppression plays in many aspects of language comprehension. We define suppression as a general, cognitive mechanism, the purpose of which is to attenuate the interference caused by the activation of extraneous, unnecessary, or inappropriate information. We illustrate the crucial role that suppression plays in general comprehension by reviewing numerous experiments. These experiments demonstrate that suppression attenuates interference during l...

  2. System and method for suppressing sublimation using opacified aerogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Jeff S. (Inventor); Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor); Calliat, Thierry (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor); Jones, Steven M. (Inventor); Palk, Jong-Ah (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to a castable, aerogel-based, ultra-low thermal conductivity opacified insulation to suppress sublimation. More specifically, the present invention relates to an aerogel opacified with various opacifying or reflecting constituents to suppress sublimation and provide thermal insulation in thermoelectric modules. The opacifying constituent can be graded within the aerogel for increased sublimation suppression, and the density of the aerogel can similarly be graded to achieve optimal thermal insulation and sublimation suppression.

  3. Noise Suppression of a single Frequency Fiber Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Kui; CUI Shu-Zhen; ZHANG Hai-Long; ZHANG Jun-Xiang; GAO Jiang-Rui

    2011-01-01

    We present an experimental demonstration of fiber laser noise suppression by the mode cleaner.The intensity noise of a single frequency fiber laser is suppressed near the shot noise limit after a sideband frequency of 3 MHz.Two series mode cleaners are used to improve the noise suppression.The noise reduction is over 27 dB at 3 MHz.

  4. Effects of suppression and appraisals on thought frequency and distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Kathleen M; Woody, Sheila R

    2009-12-01

    Cognitive theories of obsessions highlight appraisals of personal significance and thought suppression in the development and maintenance of intrusive thoughts. The current study examined the role of personal significance within the context of a thought suppression paradigm. The primary aim was to examine whether suppression would have differential effects for target thoughts appraised as personally meaningful versus relatively unimportant. A blasphemous thought served as the target thought, and highly religious and nonreligious participants were recruited. Participants completed a two-interval thought suppression task; during interval 1 they were randomly assigned to suppress or not suppress the target thought and during interval 2, all participants were given "do not suppress" instructions. Suppression resulted in sustained frequency of thoughts in contrast to the decline in thought frequency observed for non-suppression. Differential effects of suppression were found across the two groups. Moreover, suppression was associated with increased negative mood and anxiety. Results suggest that suppression of personally meaningful thoughts is a counterproductive strategy. PMID:19765684

  5. Short Hairpin RNA Suppression of Thymidylate Synthase Produces DNA Mismatches and Results in Excellent Radiosensitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, Sheryl A., E-mail: sflan@umich.edu [Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Cooper, Kristin S. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Mannava, Sudha; Nikiforov, Mikhail A. [Department of Cell Stress Biology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York (United States); Shewach, Donna S. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of short hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA)-mediated suppression of thymidylate synthase (TS) on cytotoxicity and radiosensitization and the mechanism by which these events occur. Methods and Materials: shRNA suppression of TS was compared with 5-fluoro-2 Prime -deoxyuridine (FdUrd) inactivation of TS with or without ionizing radiation in HCT116 and HT29 colon cancer cells. Cytotoxicity and radiosensitization were measured by clonogenic assay. Cell cycle effects were measured by flow cytometry. The effects of FdUrd or shRNA suppression of TS on dNTP deoxynucleotide triphosphate imbalances and consequent nucleotide misincorporations into deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography and as pSP189 plasmid mutations, respectively. Results: TS shRNA produced profound ({>=}90%) and prolonged ({>=}8 days) suppression of TS in HCT116 and HT29 cells, whereas FdUrd increased TS expression. TS shRNA also produced more specific and prolonged effects on dNTPs deoxynucleotide triphosphates compared with FdUrd. TS shRNA suppression allowed accumulation of cells in S-phase, although its effects were not as long-lasting as those of FdUrd. Both treatments resulted in phosphorylation of Chk1. TS shRNA alone was less cytotoxic than FdUrd but was equally effective as FdUrd in eliciting radiosensitization (radiation enhancement ratio: TS shRNA, 1.5-1.7; FdUrd, 1.4-1.6). TS shRNA and FdUrd produced a similar increase in the number and type of pSP189 mutations. Conclusions: TS shRNA produced less cytotoxicity than FdUrd but was equally effective at radiosensitizing tumor cells. Thus, the inhibitory effect of FdUrd on TS alone is sufficient to elicit radiosensitization with FdUrd, but it only partially explains FdUrd-mediated cytotoxicity and cell cycle inhibition. The increase in DNA mismatches after TS shRNA or FdUrd supports a causal and sufficient role for the depletion of dTTP thymidine triphosphate and consequent DNA

  6. 40 CFR 180.1178 - Formic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticide formic acid is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on honey and honeycomb when used to control tracheal mites and suppress varroa mites in bee colonies, and applied in accordance...

  7. Mumps Virus Induces Protein-Kinase-R-Dependent Stress Granules, Partly Suppressing Type III Interferon Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shin; Yamamoto, Soh; Ogasawara, Noriko; Sato, Toyotaka; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Katoh, Hiroshi; Kubota, Toru; Shiraishi, Tsukasa; Kojima, Takashi; Himi, Tetsuo; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Yokota, Shin-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic granular aggregations that are induced by cellular stress, including viral infection. SGs have opposing antiviral and proviral roles, which depend on virus species. The exact function of SGs during viral infection is not fully understood. Here, we showed that mumps virus (MuV) induced SGs depending on activation of protein kinase R (PKR). MuV infection strongly induced interferon (IFN)-λ1, 2 and 3, and IFN-β through activation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) via retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and the mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) pathway. MuV-induced IFNs were strongly upregulated in PKR-knockdown cells. MuV-induced SG formation was suppressed by knockdown of PKR and SG marker proteins, Ras-GTPase-activating protein SH3-domain-binding protein 1 and T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1, and significantly increased the levels of MuV-induced IFN-λ1. However, viral titer was not altered by suppression of SG formation. PKR was required for induction of SGs by MuV infection and regulated type III IFN (IFN-λ1) mRNA stability. MuV-induced SGs partly suppressed type III IFN production by MuV; however, the limited suppression was not sufficient to inhibit MuV replication in cell culture. Our results provide insight into the relationship between SGs and IFN production induced by MuV infection. PMID:27560627

  8. Co-delivery of autoantigen and b7 pathway modulators suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, Laura; Sestak, Joshua O; Sullivan, Bradley P; Thati, Sharadvi; Hartwell, Brittany L; Siahaan, Teruna J; Vines, Charlotte M; Berkland, Cory

    2014-11-01

    Autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) are characterized by the breakdown of immune tolerance to autoantigens. Targeting surface receptors on immune cells offers a unique strategy for reprogramming immune responses in autoimmune diseases. The B7 signaling pathway was targeted using adaptations of soluble antigen array (SAgA) technology achieved by covalently linking B7-binding peptides and disease causing autoantigen (proteolipid peptide (PLP)) to hyaluronic acid (HA). We hypothesized that co-delivery of a B7-binding peptide and autoantigen would suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of MS. Three independent B7-targeted SAgAs were created containing peptides to either inhibit or potentially stimulate the B7 signaling pathway. Surprisingly, all SAgAs were found to suppress EAE disease symptoms. Altered cytokine expression was observed in primary splenocytes isolated from SAgA-treated mice, indicating that SAgAs with different B7-binding peptides may suppress EAE through different immunological mechanisms. This antigen-specific immunotherapy using SAgAs can successfully suppress EAE through co-delivery of autoantigen and peptides targeting with the B7 signaling pathway. PMID:25297853

  9. Salmon cartilage proteoglycan suppresses mouse experimental colitis through induction of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Salmon proteoglycan suppresses IL-10-/- cell transfer-induced colitis progression. → Salmon proteoglycan suppresses Th1- and Th17-related factors in colitis mice. → Salmon proteoglycan enhances Foxp3 expression. -- Abstract: Proteoglycans (PGs) are complex glycohydrates which are widely distributed in extracellular matrix (ECM). PGs are involved in the construction of ECM, cell proliferation and differentiation. ECM components are involved in transduction of proinflammatory responses, but it is still unknown whether PGs are involved in inflammatory response. In this study, we investigated the effect of PG extracted from salmon cartilage on the progression of experimental colitis-induced in severe combined immunodeficiency mice by cell transfer from interleukin-10 (IL-10)-/- mice. IL-10-/- cell-transferred mice showed weight loss, colon shortening and histological appearance of mild colitis. Daily oral administration of PG attenuated the clinical progression of colitis in a dose-dependent manner. Colitis-induced mice showed the elevated expression of IFN-γ, IL-12, TNF-α, IL-21, IL-23p19, IL-6, IL-17A and retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt) in lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) and oral administration of PG suppressed the expression of these factors. Conversely, expression of Foxp3 that induces CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in LPMCs was enhanced by PG administration. These findings suggested that salmon PG attenuated the progression of colitis due to suppression of inflammatory response by enhancement of regulatory T cell induction.

  10. Effects of carnosine on cyclophosphamide-induced hematopoietic suppression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng; He, Rong-Rong; Zhai, Yu-Jia; Abe, Keiichi; Kurihara, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide is one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents in treating cancers. Chemotherapy drug-induced oxidative stress produces side effects. The severity of myelosuppression increases with a high dose of cyclophosphamide. Chicken soup or chicken essence, a traditional Chinese aliment, is a popular health supplement for patients with cancers or other diseases in Asia. As a major functional component of chicken meat extract, carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine), a dipeptide of the amino acids beta-alanine and histidine, has been shown to have strong antioxidant activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of carnosine on hematopoietic suppression in mice treated with cyclophosphamide. As expected, we found that cyclophosphamide administration (with a single dose of 150 mg/kg) induced a rapid (within 24 hours) and severe hematopoietic suppression in mice. We further showed that carnosine administration (100 mg/kg/day or 200 mg/kg/day for continuous seven days) could substantially improve suppressed hematopoietic functions and accelerate the recovery of leukocyte counts, bone marrow spontaneous proliferation, colony stimulating activity (CSA) in serum, and production of endogenous cytokines such as interleukin-3 (IL-3) and stem cell factor (SCF). These results indicate that carnosine has the potential to promote the recovery from hematopoietic suppression induced by cyclophosphamide. Our data suggest that carnosine holds a potential in clinical application to minimize the side effects induced by chemotherapeutic agents such as cyclophosphamide and thus will substantially improve the overall anti-tumor effects of the standard chemotherapies. PMID:24467540

  11. Wnt Protein Signaling Reduces Nuclear Acetyl-CoA Levels to Suppress Gene Expression during Osteoblast Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karner, Courtney M; Esen, Emel; Chen, Jiakun; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Turk, John; Long, Fanxin

    2016-06-17

    Developmental signals in metazoans play critical roles in inducing cell differentiation from multipotent progenitors. The existing paradigm posits that the signals operate directly through their downstream transcription factors to activate expression of cell type-specific genes, which are the hallmark of cell identity. We have investigated the mechanism through which Wnt signaling induces osteoblast differentiation in an osteoblast-adipocyte bipotent progenitor cell line. Unexpectedly, Wnt3a acutely suppresses the expression of a large number of genes while inducing osteoblast differentiation. The suppressed genes include Pparg and Cebpa, which encode adipocyte-specifying transcription factors and suppression of which is sufficient to induce osteoblast differentiation. The large scale gene suppression induced by Wnt3a corresponds to a global decrease in histone acetylation, an epigenetic modification that is associated with gene activation. Mechanistically, Wnt3a does not alter histone acetyltransferase or deacetylase activities but, rather, decreases the level of acetyl-CoA in the nucleus. The Wnt-induced decrease in histone acetylation is independent of β-catenin signaling but, rather, correlates with suppression of glucose metabolism in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Functionally, preventing histone deacetylation by increasing nucleocytoplasmic acetyl-CoA levels impairs Wnt3a-induced osteoblast differentiation. Thus, Wnt signaling induces osteoblast differentiation in part through histone deacetylation and epigenetic suppression of an alternative cell fate. PMID:27129247

  12. Effect of CD44 Suppression by Antisense Oligonucleotide on Attachment of Human Trabecular Meshwork Cells to HA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李中国; 张虹

    2004-01-01

    The effects of suppression of CD44 by CD44-specific antisense oligonucleotide on attachment of human trabecular meshwork cells to hyaluronic acid (HA) were observed and the possible relationship between CD44 and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) investigated. CD44-specific antisense oligonucleotide was delivered with cationic lipid to cultured human trabecular meshwork cells. The expression of CD44 suppressed by CD44-specific antisense oligonucleotide was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The effect of CD44 suppression by specific antisense oligonucleotide on attachment of trabecular meshwork cells to HA was measured by MTT assay. Results showed that expression of CD44 was suppressed by CD4, specific antisense oligonucleotide. Antisense oligonucleotide also suppressed the adhesion of human trabecular meshwork cells to HA in a concentration dependent manner. It was concluded that attachment of human trabecular meshwork cells to HA was decreased when CD44 was suppressed by specific antisense oligonucleotide. CD44might play a role in pathogenesis of POAG by affecting the adhesion of trabecular meshwork cells to HA.

  13. Why expressive suppression does not pay? Cognitive costs of negative emotion suppression: The mediating role of subjective tense-arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczygieł Dorota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to contribute to a broader understanding of the cognitive consequences of expressive suppression. Specifically, we examined whether the deteriorating effect of expressive suppression on cognitive functioning is caused by tense arousal enhanced by suppression. Two experiments were performed in order to test this prediction. In both studies we tested the effect of expressive suppression on working memory, as measured with a backwards digit-span task (Study 1, N = 43 and anagram problem-solving task (Study 2, N = 60. In addition, in Study 2 we tested whether expressive suppression degrades memory of the events that emerged during the period of expressive suppression. Both studies were conducted in a similar design: Participants watched a film clip which evoked negative emotions (i.e. disgust in Study 1 and a combination of sadness and anxiety in Study 2 under the instruction to suppress those negative emotions or (in the control condition to simply watch the film. The results of these experiments lead to three conclusions. First, the results reveal that expressive suppression degrades memory of the events that emerged during the period of expressive suppression and leads to poorer performance on working memory tasks, as measured with a backwards digit-span task and anagram problem-solving task. Second, the results indicate that expressive suppression leads to a significant increase in subjective tense arousal. Third, the results support our prediction that expressive suppression decreases cognitive performance through its effects on subjective tense arousal. The results of the Study 1 show that tense arousal activated during expressive suppression of disgust fully mediates the negative effect of suppression on working memory as measured with a backwards digit-span task. The results of Study 2 reveal that subjective tense arousal elicited while suppressing sadness and anxiety mediates both the effect of suppression on

  14. Why expressive suppression does not pay? Cognitive costs of negative emotion suppression: The mediating role of subjective tense-arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Szczygieł Dorota; Maruszewski Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to contribute to a broader understanding of the cognitive consequences of expressive suppression. Specifically, we examined whether the deteriorating effect of expressive suppression on cognitive functioning is caused by tense arousal enhanced by suppression. Two experiments were performed in order to test this prediction. In both studies we tested the effect of expressive suppression on working memory, as measured with a backwards digit-span task (Study 1, N = 43) a...

  15. Effect of exogenous fatty acids on biotin deprived death of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of exogeneous fatty acids on cell growth and death of the biotin-requiring yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae BA-1 was examined with respect to the mechanism of synthetic pathway of fatty acid under biotin starvation. At a growth temperature of 300C, exogeneous unsaturated fatty acids, such as palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids which promote the cell growth and suppress death effectively, were incorporated intactly into the cellular fatty acids, whereas the saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid, which supports growth but some what inhibits death, was once incorporated, and about 60% of incorporated palmitic acid was found to be desaturated. However, at an elevated temperature of 360C, even palmitic acid showed similar effects to unsaturated fatty acids in cell growth and death; following by an increased desaturation of palmitic acid. Thus the data indicate that palmitic aicd, as well as unsaturated fatty acids directly compensate for the deficiency of endogenously synthesized fatty acids caused by biotin starvation. (auth.)

  16. Metasurfaces for suppressing reflection over broadband

    CERN Document Server

    Patra, Anuradha; Nagarajan, Arvind; Achanta, Venu Gopal

    2015-01-01

    Surfaces patterned with arrays of quasi-periodic air holes having conical depth profile have been studied for their effectiveness in suppressing air-substrate reflection in the wavelength range of 450-1350 nm (limited by our measurement). The role of quasi-periodic air-hole pattern, depth of holes and launch angle on the observed antireflection behavior are investigated. The average optical transmittance of the patterned quartz substrate at near normal incidence is more than 97% and reflectance is less than 2%. Patterned quartz surfaces with 450 nm thin graded rarefaction region maintain the antireflective property up to 30{\\deg} (limited by our measurements) angle of incidence.

  17. Overvoltage Suppression for UHV Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yongli; LIU Taihua; LI Zhongqing; JING Lei; LONG Ying; FAN Jianzhong

    2008-01-01

    The overvoltage phenomena of ultra high voltage (UHV) transmission lines are analyzed and verified by EMTDC/PSCAD simulation. Referring to the theoretical analyses and operating experiences of extra high voltage (EHV) transmission lines in China and UHV transmission lines in Russia and Japan, the methods to suppress the internal overvoltage in UHV transmission lines by protection and control strategies are discussed. Through the cooperation among the recloser, shunt reactor, tripping and closing resistance, and metal oxide varistor (MOV), the overvoltage can be restrained within an acceptable level.

  18. Curvature suppresses the Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    CERN Document Server

    Trinh, Philippe H; Hammoud, Naima; Howell, Peter D; Chapman, S Jonathan; Stone, Howard A

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of a thin liquid film on the underside of a curved cylindrical substrate is studied. The evolution of the liquid layer is investigated as the film thickness and the radius of curvature of the substrate are varied. A dimensionless parameter (a modified Bond number) that incorporates both geometric parameters, gravity, and surface tension is identified, and allows the observations to be classified according to three different flow regimes: stable films, films with transient growth of perturbations followed by decay, and unstable films. Experiments and theory confirm that, below a critical value of the Bond number, curvature of the substrate suppresses the Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

  19. Improved attractants for enhancing tsetse fly suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the initiation of this co-ordinated research project (CRP), the available visually attractant devices and odours for entomological monitoring and for suppression of tsetse fly populations were not equally effective against all economically important tsetse fly species. For species like G. austeni, G. brevipalpis, G. swynnertoni and some species of the PALPALIS-group of tsetse flies no sufficiently effective combinations of visual or odour attractants were available for efficient suppression and standardized monitoring as part of an operational integrated intervention campaign against the tsetse and trypanosomosis (T and T) problem. The Co-ordinated Research Project on Improved Attractants for Enhancing the Efficiency of Tsetse Fly Suppression Operations and Barrier Systems used in Tsetse Control/Eradication Campaigns involved (a) the identification, synthesis and provision of candidate kairomones, their analogues and of dispensers; (b) laboratory screening of synthesised candidate kairomones through electrophysiological studies and wind tunnel experiments; (c) field tests of candidate kairomones alone or as part of odour blends, in combination with available and or new trap designs; and (d) analysis of hydrocarbons that influence tsetse sexual behaviour. The CRP accomplished several main objectives, namely: - The screening of new structurally related compounds, including specific stereoisomers, of known tsetse attractants resulted in the identification of several new candidate odour attractants with promising potential. - An efficient two-step synthetic method was developed for the pilot plant scale production of 3-n-propyphenol, synergistic tsetse kairomone component. - Electrophysiological experiments complemented with wind tunnel studies provided an efficient basis for the laboratory screening of candidate attractants prior to the initiation of laborious field tests. - New traps were identified and modifications of existing traps were tested for some species

  20. Strangeness Suppression in Proton-Proton Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Drescher, Hans-Joachim; Aichelin, Joerg; Werner, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    We analyse strangeness production in proton-proton (pp) collisions at SPS and RHIC energies, using the recently advanced NeXus approach. After having verified that the model reproduces well the existing data, we interpret the results: strangeness is suppressed in proton-proton collisions at SPS energy as compared to electron-positron (e+e-) annihilation due to the limited masses of the strings produced in the reaction, whereas high energy pp and e+e- collisions agree quantitatively . Thus str...

  1. Suppression of Dephasing of Optically Trapped Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, M F; Grünzweig, T; Davidson, N

    2003-01-01

    Ultra-cold atoms trapped in an optical dipole trap and prepared in a coherent superposition of their hyperfine ground states, decohere as they interact with their environment. We demonstrate than the loss in coherence in an "echo" experiment, which is caused by mechanisms such as Rayleigh scattering, can be suppressed by the use of a new pulse sequence. We also show that the coherence time is then limited by mixing to other vibrational levels in the trap and by the finite lifetime of the internal quantum states of the atoms.

  2. The Relation of Weight Suppression and BMI to Bulimic Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butryn, Meghan L.; Juarascio, Adrienne; Lowe, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective High levels of weight suppression have been associated with greater binge eating and weight gain as well as poorer treatment outcome in bulimia nervosa. This study examined the relationship between weight suppression and bulimia nervosa symptoms and explored how weight suppression might interact with body mass index (BMI) in accounting for level of symptomatology at presentation for treatment. Method Participants were 64 women with threshold or sub-threshold bulimia nervosa. A clinical interview assessed binge eating and purging. Results Weight suppression and the interaction between BMI and weight suppression predicted frequency of binge eating such that participants with low BMI and high weight suppression engaged in the most binge eating. High levels of weight suppression also predicted more frequent purging. Discussion Additional research is warranted to examine mediators of these relationships. PMID:21997424

  3. Okadaic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Severinsen, Mai C K

    2014-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) is a polyether fatty acid produced by marine dinoflagellates and the causative agent of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. The effect of OA on apical endocytosis in the small intestine was studied in organ cultured porcine mucosal explants. Within 0.5-1 h of culture, the toxin caused...... endosomes (TWEEs) occurred unimpeded in the presence of OA, FM condensed in larger subapical structures by 1 h, implying a perturbed endosomal trafficking/maturation. The fluorescent lysosomotropic agent Lysotracker revealed induction of large lysosomal structures by OA. Endocytosis from the brush border...

  4. CREBH-FGF21 axis improves hepatic steatosis by suppressing adipose tissue lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Gil; Xu, Xu; Cho, Sungyun; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Lee, Myung-Shik; Kersten, Sander; Lee, Ann-Hwee

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue lipolysis produces glycerol and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) that serve as energy sources during nutrient scarcity. Adipose tissue lipolysis is tightly regulated and excessive lipolysis causes hepatic steatosis, as NEFA released from adipose tissue constitutes a major source of TG in the liver of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases. Here we show that the liver-enriched transcription factor CREBH is activated by TG accumulation and induces FGF21, which suppresses adipose tissue lipolysis, ameliorating hepatic steatosis. CREBH-deficient mice developed severe hepatic steatosis due to increased adipose tissue lipolysis, when fasted or fed a high-fat low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet. FGF21 production was impaired in CREBH-deficient mice, and adenoviral overexpression of FGF21 suppressed adipose tissue lipolysis and improved hepatic steatosis in these mice. Thus, our results uncover a negative feedback loop in which CREBH regulates NEFA flux from adipose tissue to the liver via FGF21. PMID:27301791

  5. Effect of fatty acids on leukocyte function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pompéia C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids have various effects on immune and inflammatory responses, acting as intracellular and intercellular mediators. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs of the omega-3 family have overall suppressive effects, inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation, antibody and cytokine production, adhesion molecule expression, natural killer cell activity and triggering cell death. The omega-6 PUFAs have both inhibitory and stimulatory effects. The most studied of these is arachidonic acid that can be oxidized to eicosanoids, such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes, all of which are potent mediators of inflammation. Nevertheless, it has been found that many of the effects of PUFA on immune and inflammatory responses are not dependent on eicosanoid generation. Fatty acids have also been found to modulate phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species production, cytokine production and leukocyte migration, also interfering with antigen presentation by macrophages. The importance of fatty acids in immune function has been corroborated by many clinical trials in which patients show improvement when submitted to fatty acid supplementation. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain fatty acid modulation of immune response, such as changes in membrane fluidity and signal transduction pathways, regulation of gene transcription, protein acylation, and calcium release. In this review, evidence is presented to support the proposition that changes in cell metabolism also play an important role in the effect of fatty acids on leukocyte functioning, as fatty acids regulate glucose and glutamine metabolism and mitochondrial depolarization.

  6. The effect of various substances on the suppression of the bitterness of quinine-human gustatory sensation, binding, and taste sensor studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tomoko; Tanigake, Atsu; Miyanaga, Yohko; Ogawa, Tazuko; Akiyoshi, Takeshi; Matsuyama, Kenji; Uchida, Takahiro

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the degree of suppression of the perceived bitterness of quinine by various substances and to examine the mechanism of bitterness suppression. The following compounds were tested for their ability to suppress bitterness: sucrose, a natural sweetener; aspartame, a noncaloric sweetener; sodium chloride (NaCl) as the electrolyte; phosphatidic acid, a commercial bitterness suppression agent; and tannic acid, a component of green tea. These substances were examined in a gustatory sensation test in human volunteers, a binding study, and using an artificial taste sensor. Sucrose, aspartame, and NaCl were effective in suppressing bitterness, although at comparatively high concentrations. An almost 80% inhibition of bitterness (calculated as concentration %) of a 0.1 mM quinine hydrochloride solution required 800 mM of sucrose, 8 mM of aspartame, and 300 mM NaCl. Similar levels of bitterness inhibition by phosphatidic acid and tannic acid (81.7, 61.0%, respectively) were obtained at much lower concentrations (1.0 (w/v)% for phosphatidic acid and 0.05 (w/v)% for tannic acid). The mechanism of the bitterness-depressing effect of phosphatidic acid and tannic acid was investigated in terms of adsorption and masking at the receptor site. With phosphatidic acid, 36.1% of the bitterness-depressing effect was found to be due to adsorption, while 45.6% was due to suppression at the receptor site. In the case of 0.05 (w/v)% tannic acid, the total bitterness-masking effect was 61.0%. The contribution of the adsorption effect was about 27.5% while the residual masking effect at the receptor site was almost 33%. Further addition of tannic acid (0.15 (w/v)%), however, increased the bitterness score of quinine, which probably represents an effect of the astringency of tannic acid itself. Finally, an artificial taste sensor was used to evaluate or predict the bitterness-depressing effect. The sensor output profile was shown to reflect the

  7. Inhibition of pentose phosphate pathway suppresses acute myelogenous leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Xu, Qian; Ji, Dexiang; Wei, Yanlin; Chen, Huamei; Li, Tingting; Wan, Bolin; Yuan, Liya; Huang, Ruibin; Chen, Guoan

    2016-05-01

    Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is a metabolic pathway that generates NADPH and pentose. PPP genes have been reported to be primarily or secondarily upregulated in many cancers. We aimed to study the general alteration of PPP in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). We performed data mining and analysis of the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) AML dataset for genetic alteration of the PPP gene set. In vitro studies including proliferation, migration, and invasion assays, together with metabolite consumption and oxidation assays, were performed. PPP genes were upregulated in 61 % of patients with AML. The majority of altered cases were expression changes measured by RNA sequencing. Expressions of critical PPP genes such as G6PD, PFKL, PFKP, and PGLS were consistently upregulated in all altered cases. Altered PPP is not associated with survival or disease relapse. PPP inhibition using 6-aminonicotinamide (6AN) increases glucose oxidative metabolism in AML. 6AN decreased the glucose oxidation and increased fatty acid oxidation. Here, we showed that PPP inhibition increased glucose oxidative metabolism in AML. PPP inhibition suppressed growth, migration, and invasion of AML, but not colony formation. PPP plays an important role in AML. Our results could contribute to the development of novel targeted treatment. PMID:26596840

  8. Suppression of Ostwald ripening in active emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, David; Hyman, Anthony A.; Jülicher, Frank

    2015-07-01

    Emulsions consisting of droplets immersed in a fluid are typically unstable since they coarsen over time. One important coarsening process is Ostwald ripening, which is driven by the surface tension of the droplets. Stability of emulsions is relevant not only in complex fluids but also in biological cells, which contain liquidlike compartments, e.g., germ granules, Cajal bodies, and centrosomes. Such cellular systems are driven away from equilibrium, e.g., by chemical reactions, and thus can be called active emulsions. In this paper, we study such active emulsions by developing a coarse-grained description of the droplet dynamics, which we analyze for two different chemical reaction schemes. We first consider the simple case of first-order reactions, which leads to stable, monodisperse emulsions in which Ostwald ripening is suppressed within a range of chemical reaction rates. We then consider autocatalytic droplets, which catalyze the production of their own droplet material. Spontaneous nucleation of autocatalytic droplets is strongly suppressed and their emulsions are typically unstable. We show that autocatalytic droplets can be nucleated reliably and their emulsions stabilized by the help of chemically active cores, which catalyze the production of droplet material. In summary, different reaction schemes and catalytic cores can be used to stabilize emulsions and to control their properties.

  9. Suppression of Coronavirus Replication by Cyclophilin Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Sasaki

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Coronaviruses infect a variety of mammalian and avian species and cause serious diseases in humans, cats, mice, and birds in the form of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, feline infectious peritonitis (FIP, mouse hepatitis, and avian infectious bronchitis, respectively. No effective vaccine or treatment has been developed for SARS-coronavirus or FIP virus, both of which cause lethal diseases. It has been reported that a cyclophilin inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA, could inhibit the replication of coronaviruses. CsA is a well-known immunosuppressive drug that binds to cellular cyclophilins to inhibit calcineurin, a calcium-calmodulin-activated serine/threonine-specific phosphatase. The inhibition of calcineurin blocks the translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells from the cytosol into the nucleus, thus preventing the transcription of genes encoding cytokines such as interleukin-2. Cyclophilins are peptidyl-prolyl isomerases with physiological functions that have been described for many years to include chaperone and foldase activities. Also, many viruses require cyclophilins for replication; these include human immunodeficiency virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and hepatitis C virus. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to the suppression of viral replication differ for different viruses. This review describes the suppressive effects of CsA on coronavirus replication.

  10. On the quantum loop suppressed electroweak processes

    CERN Document Server

    Palle, Davor

    2012-01-01

    The quantum loop suppressed electroweak processes appear to be very sensitive probes for the symmetry-breaking mechanisms. Since the Standard Model does not involve massive neutrinos, baryon or lepton number violations and the cold dark matter particle, there are great expectations in search for physics beyond the Standard Model. The LHC experiments reported no new physics, except for the probable appearance of the 125 GeV heavy resonance. If this resonance turns out to be a Higgs boson, we shall be faced with the paradox that the Standard Model, as a theoretically and experimentally incomplete and defective theory, is confirmed. If, on the other hand, this resonance is a pseudoscalar meson - a mixture of a pseudoscalar glueball and toponium, as suggested by P. Cea, one has to study alternative symmetry-breaking mechanisms. This paper is devoted to the evaluations of the gauge invariant electroweak functions that are relevant for the suppressed electroweak processes within the SM or the UV finite theory in wh...

  11. Suppression of fertility in adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenhoudt, C; Santos, N R; Fontbonne, A

    2014-06-01

    Unfortunately, the overpopulation of dogs is still a problem in the majority of countries and even though surgical methods of sterilization, the most traditional and commonly used technique, have been intensively performed, the impact on the dog population is negligible. The neutering of companion animals as ovariohysterectomy (spaying) or orchidectomy (castration) has its limitations because of the cost, the need of a surgical environment and the risk of surgical and/or anaesthetical complications (ACCD 2009). In fact, surgical castration has been banished in some northern European countries and has limited acceptance in other countries. In a survey performed in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 56.5% of the owners of adopted shelter dogs were against the surgical procedure for different reasons (Soto et al. 2005). Currently, the options for contraception, defined as suppression of fertility are based on hormonal treatment. The treatments can be divided into analogues of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), progestins and androgens. Other possibilities of contraception are via the immunological system with vaccinations against GnRH, the luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor and the zona pellucida proteins. Finally, there is also the intra-epididymal or intratesticular injection of sclerosing substances in dogs. Mechanical devices to disrupt fertility are not used anymore due to the side effects. Suppression of fertility in adult dogs will be reviewed in order of use and possible impact on the dog population. PMID:24947862

  12. An analysis of pressure suppression pool swell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of the pressure suppression pool swell phenomenon has been carried out for a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) of Indian design. In the event of a Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA), the upper chamber of the containment, i.e., Drywell, would experience higher pressure because of mass and energy release from the reactor coolant system into the drywell. To alleviate the problem of drywell overpressurization, there is a large volume of water or suppression pool at the bottom of the containment where steam from the drywell could flow and condense. The present analysis models the transient air-steam mixture flow from drywell through the vent shafts, distribution headers and downcomers into the pool. After the initial vent-clearing stage, bubble growth at the exit of individual downcomers is modeled. Finally, the coalesced bubble growth and rise are modeled for groups of downcomers. For all these stages, the pool-swell and wetwell air-space pressure are also calculated. A four-equation model consisting of conservation of mixture mass, momentum, energy and noncondensible (air) mass has been used

  13. Electroproduction of Baryon Resonances and Strangeness Suppression

    CERN Document Server

    Santopinto, E; Tecocoatzi, H Garcia

    2016-01-01

    We describe the electroproduction ratios of baryon-meson states from nucleon using an extension of the quark model that takes into account the sea. As a result we provide, with no adjustable parameters, the predictions of ratios of exclusive meson-baryon final states: Lambda K , Sigma K, p pion, and n pion. These predictions are in agreement with the new Jlab experimental data showing that sea quarks play an important role in the electroproduction. We also predicted further ratios of exclusive reactions that can be measured and tested in future experiments. In particular, we suggested new experiments on deuterium and tritium. Such measurements can provide crucial test of different predictions concerning the structure of nucleon and its sea quarks helping to solve an outstanding problem. Finally, we computed the so called strangeness suppression factor, lambda s, that is the suppression of strange quark-antiquarks compared to nonstrange pairs, and we found that our finding with this simple extension of the qua...

  14. Inhibition of SIRT2 suppresses hepatic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Maribel; Shang, Na; Ding, Xianzhong; Yong, Sherri; Cotler, Scott J; Denning, Mitchell F; Shimamura, Takashi; Breslin, Peter; Lüscher, Bernhard; Qiu, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Liver fibrosis can progress to cirrhosis and result in serious complications of liver disease. The pathogenesis of liver fibrosis involves the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the underlying mechanisms of which are not fully known. Emerging evidence suggests that the classic histone deacetylases play a role in liver fibrosis, but the role of another subfamily of histone deacetylases, the sirtuins, in the development of hepatic fibrosis remains unknown. In this study, we found that blocking the activity of sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) by using inhibitors or shRNAs significantly suppressed fibrogenic gene expression in HSCs. We further demonstrated that inhibition of SIRT2 results in the degradation of c-MYC, which is important for HSC activation. In addition, we discovered that inhibition of SIRT2 suppresses the phosphorylation of ERK, which is critical for the stabilization of c-MYC. Moreover, we found that Sirt2 deficiency attenuates the hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and thioacetamide (TAA). Furthermore, we showed that SIRT2, p-ERK, and c-MYC proteins are all overexpressed in human hepatic fibrotic tissues. These data suggest a critical role for the SIRT2/ERK/c-MYC axis in promoting hepatic fibrogenesis. Inhibition of the SIRT2/ERK/c-MYC axis represents a novel strategy to prevent and to potentially treat liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. PMID:27125275

  15. Suppressing drift chamber diffusion without magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martoff, C.J. E-mail: cmartoff@nimbus.temple.edu; Snowden-Ifft, D.P.; Ohnuki, T.; Spooner, N.; Lehner, M

    2000-02-01

    The spatial resolution in drift chamber detectors for ionizing radiation is limited by diffusion of the primary electrons. A strong magnetic field along the drift direction is often applied (Fancher et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 161 (1979) 383) because it suppresses the transverse diffusion, improving the resolution but at considerable increase in cost and complexity. Here we show that transverse track diffusion can be strongly suppressed without any magnetic field. This is achieved by using a gas additive which reversibly captures primary ionization electrons, forming negative ions. The ions drift with thermal energies even at very high drift fields and low pressures (E/P=28.5 V/cm torr), and the diffusion decreases with increasing drift field. Upon arrival at the avalanche region of the chamber the negative ions are efficiently stripped and ordinary avalanche gain is obtained. Using this technique, r.m.s. transverse diffusion less than 200 {mu}m has been achieved over a 15 cm drift path at 40 torr with zero magnetic field. The method can provide high spatial resolution in detectors with long drift distances and zero magnetic field. Negative ion drift chambers would be particularly useful at low pressures and in situations such as space-based or underground experiments where detector size scaleability is important and cost, space, or power constraints preclude the use of a magnetic field.

  16. Suppression of glioma progression by Egln3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki A Sciorra

    Full Text Available Grade IV astrocytoma or glioblastoma has a poor clinical outcome that can be linked to hypoxia, invasiveness and active vascular remodeling. It has recently been suggested that hypoxia-inducible factors, Hifs, increase glioma growth and aggressiveness [1], [2], [3]. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Egl 9 homolog 3 (Egln3, a prolyl-hydroxylase that promotes Hif degradation, suppresses tumor progression of human and rodent glioma models. Through intracranial tumorigenesis and in vitro assays, we demonstrate for the first time that Egln3 was sufficient to decrease the kinetics of tumor progression and increase survival. We also find that Klf5, a transcription factor important to vascular remodeling, was regulated by hypoxia in glioma. An analysis of the tumor vasculature revealed that elevated Egln3 normalized glioma capillary architecture, consistent with a role for Egln3 in eliciting decreases in the production of Hif-regulated, angiogenic factors. We also find that the hydroxylase-deficient mutant, Egln3(H196A partially maintained tumor suppressive activity. These results highlight a bifurcation of Egln3 signaling and suggest that Egln3 has a non-hydroxylase-dependent function in glioma. We conclude that Egln3 is a critical determinant of glioma formation and tumor vascular functionality.

  17. Perfluorooctanoic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. de Voogt

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 335-67-1) is used in fluoropolymer production and firefighting foams and persists in the environment. Human exposure to PFOA is mostly through the diet. PFOA primarily affects the liver and can cause developmental and reproductive toxic effects in test animals.

  18. Ascorbic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevi-Bid® ... If you become pregnant while taking ascorbic acid, call your doctor. ... In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call ...

  19. Stearic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  20. Mefenamic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefenamic acid comes as a capsule to take by mouth. It is usually taken with food every 6 hours as needed for up to 1 week. Follow ... pain vomit that is bloody or looks like coffee grounds black, tarry, or bloody stools slowed breathing ...

  1. Wireless Inductive Power Device Suppresses Blade Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Carlos R.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Bakhle, Milind A.; Min, James B.; Stefko, George L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Fougers, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    Vibration in turbomachinery can cause blade failures and leads to the use of heavier, thicker blades that result in lower aerodynamic efficiency and increased noise. Metal and/or composite fatigue in the blades of jet engines has resulted in blade destruction and loss of lives. Techniques for suppressing low-frequency blade vibration, such as gtuned circuit resistive dissipation of vibratory energy, h or simply "passive damping," can require electronics incorporating coils of unwieldy dimensions and adding unwanted weight to the rotor. Other approaches, using vibration-dampening devices or damping material, could add undesirable weight to the blades or hub, making them less efficient. A wireless inductive power device (WIPD) was designed, fabricated, and developed for use in the NASA Glenn's "Dynamic Spin Rig" (DSR) facility. The DSR is used to simulate the functionality of turbomachinery. The relatively small and lightweight device [10 lb (approx.=4.5 kg)] replaces the existing venerable and bulky slip-ring. The goal is the eventual integration of this technology into actual turbomachinery such as jet engines or electric power generators, wherein the device will facilitate the suppression of potentially destructive vibrations in fan blades. This technology obviates slip rings, which require cooling and can prove unreliable or be problematic over time. The WIPD consists of two parts: a remote element, which is positioned on the rotor and provides up to 100 W of electrical power to thin, lightweight piezoelectric patches strategically placed on/in fan blades; and a stationary base unit that wirelessly communicates with the remote unit. The base unit supplies inductive power, and also acts as an input and output corridor for wireless measurement, and active control command to the remote unit. Efficient engine operation necessitates minimal disturbance to the gas flow across the turbine blades in any effort to moderate blade vibration. This innovation makes it

  2. Suppression of Hydroxycinnamate Network Formation in Cell Walls of Rice Shoots Grown under Microgravity Conditions in Space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyuki Wakabayashi

    Full Text Available Network structures created by hydroxycinnamate cross-links within the cell wall architecture of gramineous plants make the cell wall resistant to the gravitational force of the earth. In this study, the effects of microgravity on the formation of cell wall-bound hydroxycinnamates were examined using etiolated rice shoots simultaneously grown under artificial 1 g and microgravity conditions in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility on the International Space Station. Measurement of the mechanical properties of cell walls showed that shoot cell walls became stiff during the growth period and that microgravity suppressed this stiffening. Amounts of cell wall polysaccharides, cell wall-bound phenolic acids, and lignin in rice shoots increased as the shoot grew. Microgravity did not influence changes in the amounts of cell wall polysaccharides or phenolic acid monomers such as ferulic acid (FA and p-coumaric acid, but it suppressed increases in diferulic acid (DFA isomers and lignin. Activities of the enzymes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and cell wall-bound peroxidase (CW-PRX in shoots also increased as the shoot grew. PAL activity in microgravity-grown shoots was almost comparable to that in artificial 1 g-grown shoots, while CW-PRX activity increased less in microgravity-grown shoots than in artificial 1 g-grown shoots. Furthermore, the increases in expression levels of some class III peroxidase genes were reduced under microgravity conditions. These results suggest that a microgravity environment modifies the expression levels of certain class III peroxidase genes in rice shoots, that the resultant reduction of CW-PRX activity may be involved in suppressing DFA formation and lignin polymerization, and that this suppression may cause a decrease in cross-linkages within the cell wall architecture. The reduction in intra-network structures may contribute to keeping the cell wall loose under microgravity conditions.

  3. CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION USING FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    ANKIT KUMAR; OM PRAKASH VERMA

    2007-01-01

    Citric acid, C3H4OH(COOH)3, (Scheele and Wehmer 1897) can be generally manufactured by chemical synthesis which is not much preferred now-a-days because of high costs involved in it and also by fermentation of sugar containing sources in the presence of fungus Aspergillus niger. Citric acid is used in confections and soft drinks ( as a flavouring agent), in metal-cleaning compositions, and in improving the stability of foods and other organic substances by suppressing the deleterious action o...

  4. Detection and description of soils with specific nematode suppressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Andreas

    2005-03-01

    Soils with specific suppressiveness to plant-parasitic nematodes are of interest to define the mechanisms that regulate population density. Suppressive soils prevent nematodes from establishing and from causing disease, and they diminish disease severity after initial nematode damage in continuous culturing of a host. A range of non-specific and specific soil treatments, followed by infestation with a target nematode, have been employed to identify nematode-suppressive soils. Biocidal treatments, soil transfer tests, and baiting approaches together with observations of the plant-parasitic nematode in the root zone of susceptible host plants have improved the understanding of nematode-suppressive soils. Techniques to demonstrate specific soil suppressiveness against plant-parasitic nematodes are compared in this review. The overlap of studies on soil suppressiveness with recent advances in soil health and quality is briefly discussed. The emphasis is on methods (or criteria) used to detect and identify soils that maintain specific soil suppressiveness to plant-parasitic nematodes. While biocidal treatments can detect general and specific soil suppressiveness, soil transfer studies, by definition, apply only to specific soil suppressiveness. Finally, potential strategies to exploit suppressive soils are presented. PMID:19262851

  5. Modulation of cell cycle regulatory protein expression and suppression of tumor growth by mimosine in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H C; Weng, C F; Yen, M H; Chuang, L Y; Hung, W C

    2000-10-01

    Our previous results demonstrated that the plant amino acid mimosine blocked cell cycle progression and suppressed proliferation of human lung cancer cells in vitro by multiple mechanisms. Inhibition of cyclin D1 expression or induction of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1 expression was found in mimosine-treated lung cancer cells. However, whether mimosine may modulate the expression of these cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppress tumor growth in vivo is unknown. In this study, we examined the anti-cancer effect of mimosine on human H226 lung cancer cells grown in nude mice. Our results demonstrated that mimosine inhibits cyclin D1 and induces p21WAF1 expression in vivo. Furthermore, results of TUNEL analysis indicated that mimosine may induce apoptosis to suppress tumor growth in nude mice. Collectively, these results suggest that mimosine exerts anti-cancer effect in vivo and might be useful in the therapy of lung cancer. PMID:10995875

  6. Suppression of allene oxide synthase 3 in potato increases degree of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcillo, Rafael Jorge León; Navarrete, María Isabel Tamayo; Bote, Juan Antonio Ocampo; Monguio, Salomé Prat; García-Garrido, José Manuel

    2016-01-15

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) is a mutually beneficial interaction among higher plants and soil fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota. Numerous studies have pointed that jasmonic acid plays an important role in the development of the intraradical fungus. This compound belongs to a group of biologically active compounds known as oxylipins which are derived from the oxidative metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Studies of the regulatory role played by oxylipins in AM colonization have generally focused on jasmonates, while few studies exist on the 9-LOX pathway of oxylipins during AM formation. Here, the cDNA of Allene oxide synthase 3 (AOS3), a key enzyme in the 9-LOX pathway, was used in the RNA interference (RNAi) system to transform potato plants in order to suppress its expression. Results show increases in AOS3 gene expression and 9-LOX products in roots of wild type potato mycorrhizal plants. The suppression of AOS3 gene expression increases the percentage of root with mycorrhizal colonization at early stages of AM formation. AOS3 RNA interference lead to an induction of LOXA and 13-LOX genes, a reduction in AOS3 derived 9-LOX oxylipin compounds and an increase in jasmonic acid content, suggesting compensation between 9 and 13-LOX pathways. The results in a whole support the hypothesis of a regulatory role for the 9-LOX oxylipin pathway during mycorrhization. PMID:26629611

  7. Deer Bone Oil Extract Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in RAW264.7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeon-Son; Im, Suji; Park, Yooheon; Hong, Ki-Bae; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of deer bone oil extract (DBOE) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells. DBOE was fractionated by liquid-liquid extraction to obtain two fractions: methanol fraction (DBO-M) and hexane fraction (DBO-H). TLC showed that DBO-M had relatively more hydrophilic lipid complexes, including unsaturated fatty acids, than DBOE and DBO-H. The relative compositions of tetradecenoyl carnitine, α-linoleic acid, and palmitoleic acid increased in the DBO-M fraction by 61, 38, and 32%, respectively, compared with DBOE. The concentration of sugar moieties was 3-fold higher in the DBO-M fraction than DBOE and DBO-H. DBO-M significantly decreased LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This DBO-M-mediated decrease in NO production was due to downregulation of mRNA and protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In addition, mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as cyclooxygenase (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-12β, was suppressed by DBO-M. Our data showed that DBO-M, which has relatively higher sugar content than DBOE and DBO-H, could play an important role in suppressing inflammatory responses by controlling pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators. PMID:27040632

  8. Path of carbon flow during NO3--induced photosynthetic suppression in N-limited Selenastrum minutum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrate addition to nitrate-limited cultures of Selenastrum minutum Naeg. Collins (Chlorophyta) resulted in a 70% suppression of photosynthetic carbon fixation. In 14CO2 pulse/chase experiments nitrate resupply increased radiolabel incorporation into amino and organic acids and decreased radiolabel incorporation into insoluble material. Nitrate resupply increased the concentration of phosphoenolpyruvate and increased the radiolabeling of phosphoenolpyruvate, pyruvate and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, notably citrate, fumarate, and malate. Furthermore, nitrate also increased the pool sizes and radiolabeling of most amino acids, with alanine, aspartate, glutamate, and glutamine showing the largest changes. Nitrate resupply increased the proportion of radiolabel in the C-4 position of malate and increased the ratios of radiolabel in aspartate to phosphoenolpyruvate and in pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate, indicative of increased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activities. Analysis of these data showed that the rate of carbon flow through glutamate (10.6 μmoles glutamate per milligram chlorophyll per hour) and the rate of net glutamate production (7.9 μmoles glutamate per milligram chlorophyll per hour) were both greater than the maximum rate of carbon export from the Calvin cycle which could be maintained during steady state photosynthesis. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that nitrogen resupply to nitrogen-limited microalgae results in a transient suppression of photosynthetic carbon fixation due, in part, to the severity of competition for carbon skeletons between the Calvin cycle and nitrogen assimilation

  9. Thought suppression failures in combat PTSD: a cognitive load hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikins, Deane E; Johnson, Douglas C; Borelli, Jessica L; Klemanski, David H; Morrissey, Paul M; Benham, Todd L; Southwick, Steven M; Tolin, David F

    2009-09-01

    The present study investigated the relation between thought suppression of emotionally neutral content [i.e., Wegner's (1994) "white bear"], incidental traumatic thought intrusion, and skin conductance responses in combat-related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Participants included service members who either: a) had PTSD following an Operation Iraqi Freedom deployment; b) were free of psychiatric diagnosis following deployment (Combat Equivalent), or c) were pre-deployed and without psychiatric diagnosis (Pre-Deployed). PTSD Service Members reported the greatest intrusion of combat thoughts during the suppression task and demonstrated a post-suppression rebound effect with a neutral thought. Non-specific skin conductance responses indicated that the suppression task was related to similar levels of increased sympathetic activity for both the PTSD and Pre-Deployed groups, whereas the Combat Equivalent group showed no increased activation during thought suppression. Intrusive traumatic thoughts combined with failures in neutral thought suppression may be a consequence of increased cognitive load in PTSD. PMID:19586619

  10. Maintenance of microflora suppression in irradiated monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After at least two weeks of decontamination, rhesus monkeys were submitted to a total body irradiation of 8.5 Gy, followed by a bone marrow graft. In the following weeks, a number of colonizations were found. Twenty-seven colonizations were known to be present on the day of irradiation. Sixteen colonizations were due to microorganisms suppressed before irradiation. Thirty-two colonizations were considered as exogenous. Only a few colonizations in the irradiated animals could not be controlled. Irradiation caused severe diarrhoea in decontaminated animals, leading to a life-threatening loss of water and electrolytes. When this loss was corrected, the monkeys survived for prolonged periods following irradiation. The amount of food consumed, which contained antibiotics, had no effect on the faecal concentration. The addition of solid food particles, however, resulted in a much lower faecal concentration. No significant antibiotic serum levels were found. (orig.)

  11. Infinite volume suppression versus quantum fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Kartavtsev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    It is routinely argued that tunneling of the Higgs field along the minimum of the Mexican hat potential is suppressed by the infinite space volume. In the path integral formalism this conclusion is drawn from the analysis of paths on which the field is homogeneous in the whole infinite space. Here we demonstrate that this approach fails to reproduce vacuum properties of even the simplest systems like free real scalar field. On the other hand, adding also the contributions of inhomogeneous field configurations we obtain for the free field the established results. This casts some doubt on the conclusions drawn for the Higgs field using the `homogeneous paths' approach and might call for a careful reanalysis of the mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking in quantum field theory.

  12. Suppression of decoherence by bath ordering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Jun; Ma Hong-Ru

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of two coupled spins-1/2 coupled to a spin-bath is studied as an extended model of the TessieriWilkie Hamiltonian. The pair of spins served as an open subsystem is prepared in one of the Bell states and the bath consisting of some spins-1/2 is in a thermal equilibrium state from the very beginning. It is found that with increasing coupling strength of the bath spins, the bath forms a resonant antiferromagnetic order. The polarization correlation between the two spins of the subsystem and the concurrence of it are recovered to some extent in the isolated subsystem. This suppression of the subsystem decoherence may be used to control the quantum devices in practical applications.

  13. Are Patents used to Suppress Useful Technology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2006-01-01

    of innovation, other than in the trivial sense of excluding third parties from the right to develop the technology covered by the patent? There are many references to this possibility in the management, economic and legal literatures, but two highly-cited papers stand out for grounding their claims of corporate...... suppression of innovation in the historical record (Dunford 1987; Merges and Nelson 1990). This paper shows that there are many errors of interpretation, both in the historical papers and in Dunford and Merges and Nelson's writing. Most important are confusions about the nature of technological competition...... of the historical narrative evidence and of the relatively recent Tetrapak case brought before the European courts than the rhetoric of competition policy and economic monopoly that continues to dominate analysis of such patent cases....

  14. Ion suppression from blood collection devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselstrøm, Jørgen Bo; Sejr Gothelf, Aase

    The aim of the study was to examine the variation in ion suppression in ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS) methods when using different blood collection devices. Three different methods measuring 18 antidepressants and antipsychotics in total were...... studied. The blood collection devices were all designed to activate clot formation. They were made of glass with or without silicone coating or plastic containing silicate particles, thrombin or polystyrene particles coated with kaolin. The blood collection devises Venoject and Venosafe were supplied from...... Terumo, S-monovette from Sarstedt, Vacuette from Greiner Bio-One and three BD Vacutainer serum tubes from BD. These seven different blood collection devices were used to withdraw blood from five healthy drug free donors (n=35) in random order. The samples were centrifuged and serum from each sample...

  15. Suppression of Instability in Rotatory Hydromagnetic Convection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joginder S Dhiman

    2000-08-01

    Recently discovered hydrodynamic instability [1], in a simple Bénard configuration in the parameter regime 02 > 1 under the action of a nonadverse temperature gradient, is shown to be suppressed by the simultaneous action of a uniform rotation and a uniform magnetic field both acting parallel to gravity for oscillatory perturbations whenever $(\\mathscr{Q}_1/^2+\\mathscr{J}/^4) > 1$ and the effective Rayleigh number $\\mathcal{R}$(1-02) is dominated by either 274(1 + 1/1)/4 or 274/2 according as 1 ≥ 1 or 1 ≤ 1 respectively. Here 0 is the temperature of the lower boundary while 2 is the coefficient of specific heat at constant volume due to temperature variation and 1, $\\mathcal{R}, \\mathscr{Q}$ and $\\mathscr{T}$ respectively denote the magnetic Prandtl number, the Rayleigh number, the Chandrasekhar number and the Taylor number.

  16. Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Feng

    2011-12-01

    Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Noise analysis and column FPN suppression technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Fen Jia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise is an important indicator that affects the image quality. Among the different processing strategies implemented in image sensors, the effect on the noise is complicated. The two types of noise that influences the imaging quality of the digital camera are analyzed firstly. The optical signal and reset signal of the typical correlated double sampling (CDS are read out through two column amplifiers (CA, respectively. The performance of the two column amplifiers are not exactly the same, resulting in itself will bring the column FPN. To suppress the column FPN effectively, a single amplifier CDS scheme is proposed, which have only one CA, the power consumption and area of the proposed CDS circuit is reduced by half.

  18. Suppressing photochemical reactions with quantized light fields

    CERN Document Server

    Galego, Javier; Feist, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Photoisomerization, i.e., a change of molecular structure after absorption of a photon, is one of the most fundamental photochemical processes. It can perform desirable functionality, e.g., as the primary photochemical event in human vision, where it stores electronic energy in the molecular structure, or for possible applications in solar energy storage and as memories, switches, and actuators; but it can also have detrimental effects, for example as an important damage pathway under solar irradiation of DNA, or as a limiting factor for the efficiency of organic solar cells. While photoisomerization can be avoided by shielding the system from light, this is of course not a viable pathway for approaches that rely on the interaction with external light (such as solar cells or solar energy storage). Here, we show that strong coupling of organic molecules to a confined light mode can be used to strongly suppress photoisomerization, and thus convert molecules that normally show fast photodegradation into photosta...

  19. Gel fire suppressants for controlling underground heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Sheng-gen; XUE Sheng

    2011-01-01

    One of the major safety issues in coal mining is heatings and the resultant spontaneous combustion in underground coal mines.CSIRO researchers have developed a number of polymer gels suitable for controlling heatings in coal mines.These gels were developed to meet strict selection criteria including easy preparation,no or low toxicity,controllable gelation time,adaptable to mine water chemistry,adjustable viscosity,relatively long gel life,thermally and chemically stable and low cost.The HPAM-Aluminum Citrate gel system was identified to be the most favourable gel system for fire suppression in underground coal mines.These gels can be applied to the areas undergoing coal heating or gas leakage at a controllable gelation time and impermeable gel barriers can be formed in the areas to block ingress of air.

  20. In-Beam Background Suppression Shield

    CERN Document Server

    Santoro, V; DiJulio, D D; Ansell, S; Bentley, P M

    2015-01-01

    The long (3ms) proton pulse of the European Spallation Source (ESS) gives rise to unique and potentially high backgrounds for the instrument suite. In such a source an instrument capabilities will be limited by it's Signal to Noise (S/N) ratio. The instruments with a direct view of the moderator, which do not use a bender to help mitigate the fast neutron background, are the most challenging. For these beam lines we propose the innovative shielding of placing blocks of material directly into the guide system, which allow a minimum attenuation of the cold and thermal fluxes relative to the background suppression. This shielding configuration has been worked into a beam line model using Geant4. We study particularly the advantages of single crystal sapphire and silicon blocks .

  1. Latest results on $J/$ anomalous suppression

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sérgio Ramos; NA50 Collaboration; B Allessandro; C Alexa; R Arnaldi; M Atayan; C Baglin; A Baldit; M Bedjidian; S Beolè; V Boldea; P Bordalo; S R Borenstein; G Borges; A Bussière; L Capelli; C Castanier; J Castor; B Chaurand; B Cheynis; E Chiavassa; C Cicalo; T Claudino; M P Comets; S Constantinescu; P Cortese; J Cruz; A DeFalco; N DeMarco; G Dellacasa; A Devaux; S Dita; O Drapier; B Espagnon; J Fargeix; P Force; M Gallio; Y K Gavrilov; C Gerschel; P Giubellino; M B Golubeva; M Gonin; A A Grigorian; S Grigorian; J Y Grossiord; F F Guber; A Guichard; H Gulkanyan; R Hakobyan; R Haroutunian; M Idzik; D Jouan; T L Karavitcheva; L Kluberg; A B Kurepin; Y Le Bornée; C Lourenço; P Macciotta; M Mac Cormick; A Marzari-Chiesa; M Masera; A Masoni; M Monteno; A Musso; P Petiau; A Piccotti; J R Pizzi; W L Prado da Silva; F Prino; G Puddu; C Quintans; L Ramello; S Ramos; P Rato Mendes; L Riccati; A Romana; H Santos; P Saturnini; E Scalas; E Scomparin; S Serci; R Shahoyan; F Sigaudo; M Sitta; P Sonderegger; X Tarrago; N S Topilskaya; G L Usai; E Vercellin; L Villatte; N Willis; T Wu

    2004-03-01

    The NA50 experiment deals with Pb–Pb collisions at 158 GeV/nucleon at the CERN SPS accelerator. The $J/$ production is studied through the muon decay channel, using the Drell–Yan dimuons as a reference. New results based on recent analyses, from data taken with improved experimental conditions and using different centrality estimators, are presented and compared to an update of those already obtained from previous data samples. The stepwise pattern of the anomalous $J/$ suppression as a function of centrality, already present in these previous results, is confirmed. This observation could be a fingerprint of the theoretically predicted melting of charmonia resonances in a deconfined quark–gluon plasma.

  2. Passive runaway electron suppression in tokamak disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runaway electrons created in disruptions pose a serious problem for tokamaks with large current. It would be desirable to have a runaway electron suppression method which is passive, i.e., a method that does not rely on an uncertain disruption prediction system. One option is to let the large electric field inherent in the disruption drive helical currents in the wall. This would create ergodic regions in the plasma and increase the runaway losses. Whether these regions appear at a suitable time and place to affect the formation of the runaway beam depends on disruption parameters, such as electron temperature and density. We find that it is difficult to ergodize the central plasma before a beam of runaway current has formed. However, the ergodic outer region will make the Ohmic current profile contract, which can lead to instabilities that yield large runaway electron losses

  3. Suppression of indigo bush with pod pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagić-Serdar Renata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The recorded seed predators of Amorpha fruticosa L., indigo bush weevils and pteromalid wasps, were the subject of laboratory and field research studies in the period from 2006 to 2011. Sample analyses were carried out on more than 30 localities in Serbia with the aim of measuring the summarized pre-dispersal and post dispersal predation preferences. The percentages of the total pre-dispersal (max≈33% and post-dispersal re-infested material (over 95%, make these insects serious candidates for host-plant suppression. Their bionomics were monitored through continuous collection, dessection and observation of infested seeds, in correlation with environmental parameters, especially water-level fluctuations in endangered forests. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP-31070: The development of technological methods in forestry in order to attain optimal forest cover

  4. SUPPRESSION OF STAR FORMATION IN NGC 1266

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NGC 1266 is a nearby lenticular galaxy that harbors a massive outflow of molecular gas powered by the mechanical energy of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). It has been speculated that such outflows hinder star formation (SF) in their host galaxies, providing a form of feedback to the process of galaxy formation. Previous studies, however, indicated that only jets from extremely rare, high-power quasars or radio galaxies could impart significant feedback on their hosts. Here we present detailed observations of the gas and dust continuum of NGC 1266 at millimeter wavelengths. Our observations show that molecular gas is being driven out of the nuclear region at M-dot out≈110 M⊙ yr–1, of which the vast majority cannot escape the nucleus. Only 2 M ☉ yr–1 is actually capable of escaping the galaxy. Most of the molecular gas that remains is very inefficient at forming stars. The far-infrared emission is dominated by an ultra-compact (≲ 50 pc) source that could either be powered by an AGN or by an ultra-compact starburst. The ratio of the SF surface density (ΣSFR) to the gas surface density (ΣH2) indicates that SF is suppressed by a factor of ≈50 compared to normal star-forming galaxies if all gas is forming stars, and ≈150 for the outskirt (98%) dense molecular gas if the central region is powered by an ultra-compact starburst. The AGN-driven bulk outflow could account for this extreme suppression by hindering the fragmentation and gravitational collapse necessary to form stars through a process of turbulent injection. This result suggests that even relatively common, low-power AGNs are able to alter the evolution of their host galaxies as their black holes grow onto the M-σ relation

  5. SUPPRESSION OF STAR FORMATION IN NGC 1266

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alatalo, Katherine; Lanz, Lauranne; Bitsakis, Theodoros; Appleton, Philip N.; Ogle, Patrick M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Lacy, Mark; Lonsdale, Carol J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Nyland, Kristina; Meier, David S. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Cales, Sabrina L. [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Chang, Philip [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Davis, Timothy A.; De Zeeuw, P. T. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Martín, Sergio, E-mail: kalatalo@ipac.caltech.edu [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, 300 Rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire, F-38406 Saint Martin d' Hères (France)

    2015-01-01

    NGC 1266 is a nearby lenticular galaxy that harbors a massive outflow of molecular gas powered by the mechanical energy of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). It has been speculated that such outflows hinder star formation (SF) in their host galaxies, providing a form of feedback to the process of galaxy formation. Previous studies, however, indicated that only jets from extremely rare, high-power quasars or radio galaxies could impart significant feedback on their hosts. Here we present detailed observations of the gas and dust continuum of NGC 1266 at millimeter wavelengths. Our observations show that molecular gas is being driven out of the nuclear region at M-dot {sub out}≈110 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup –1}, of which the vast majority cannot escape the nucleus. Only 2 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} is actually capable of escaping the galaxy. Most of the molecular gas that remains is very inefficient at forming stars. The far-infrared emission is dominated by an ultra-compact (≲ 50 pc) source that could either be powered by an AGN or by an ultra-compact starburst. The ratio of the SF surface density (Σ{sub SFR}) to the gas surface density (Σ{sub H{sub 2}}) indicates that SF is suppressed by a factor of ≈50 compared to normal star-forming galaxies if all gas is forming stars, and ≈150 for the outskirt (98%) dense molecular gas if the central region is powered by an ultra-compact starburst. The AGN-driven bulk outflow could account for this extreme suppression by hindering the fragmentation and gravitational collapse necessary to form stars through a process of turbulent injection. This result suggests that even relatively common, low-power AGNs are able to alter the evolution of their host galaxies as their black holes grow onto the M-σ relation.

  6. Are Claims of Global Warming Being Suppressed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Thomas J.

    2006-02-01

    Over the last few years, I have heard many rumors that climate science relevant to the global warming discussion is being suppressed by the Bush Administration. One cannot do much about third-hand information. However, on 29 January, the New York Times published a front page article on NASA efforts to suppress statements about global warming by James Hansen, director of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies. A claim by one government scientist, though, no matter how distinguished, still requires examples from other scientists before a general conclusion can be drawn about the overall scope of the problem. But if the charges are more widespread, then some government scientists might be reluctant to make such claims, because they might feel that their positions were jeopardized. Therefore, an alternate way may be needed to determine the scope of the issue, while still safeguarding government workers from possible retaliation. -On 30 January, Rep. Sherwood Boehlert (R-N.Y.), chairman of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science, wrote a letter to NASA Administrator Michael Griffin addressing many of the concerns Crowley has raised. Boehlert wrote,``It ought to go without saying that government scientists must be free to describe their scientific conclusions and the implications of those conclusions to their fellow scientists, policymakers and the general public.'' He continued,``Good science cannot long persist in an atmosphere of intimidation. Political figures ought to be reviewing their public statements to make sure they are consistent with the best available science; scientists should not be reviewing their statements to make sure they are consistent with the current political orthodoxy.'' I commend Rep. Boehlert for his quick and clear statement of the importance of unfettered communication of science. -FRED SPILHAUS, Editor

  7. Suppression of the critical current of a balanced SQUID

    OpenAIRE

    Kemppinen, Antti; Manninen, Antti J.; Möttönen, Mikko; Vartiainen, Juha J.; Peltonen, Joonas T.; Pekola, Jukka P.

    2007-01-01

    We present an experimental study of the magnetic flux dependence of the critical current of a balanced SQUID with three Josephson junctions in parallel. Unlike for ordinary dc SQUIDs, the suppression of the critical current does not depend on the exact parameters of the Josephson junctions. The suppression is essentially limited only by the inductances of the SQUID loops. We demonstrate a critical current suppression ratio of higher than 300 in a balanced SQUID with a maximum critical current...

  8. Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen Amendments to Soil as Nematode Suppressants

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Kábana, R.

    1986-01-01

    Inorganic fertilizers containing ammoniacal nitrogen or formulations releasing this form of N in the soil are most effective for suppressing nematode populations. Anhydrous ammonia has been shown to reduce soil populations of Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, Helicotylenchus dihystera, and Heterodera glycines. The rates required to obtain significant suppression of nematode populations are generally in excess of 150 kg N/ha. Urea also suppresses several nematode species, including Meloidogyne spp., ...

  9. Sediment suppresses herbivory across a coral reef depth gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Goatley, Christopher H. R.; Bellwood, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Sediments are a ubiquitous feature of all coral reefs, yet our understanding of how they affect complex ecological processes on coral reefs is limited. Sediment in algal turfs has been shown to suppress herbivory by coral reef fishes on high-sediment, low-herbivory reef flats. Here, we investigate the role of sediment in suppressing herbivory across a depth gradient (reef base, crest and flat) by observing fish feeding following benthic sediment reductions. We found that sediment suppresses h...

  10. Suppression of Insulin Production and Secretion by a Decretin Hormone

    OpenAIRE

    Alfa, Ronald W.; Park, Sangbin; Skelly, Kathleen-Rose; Poffenberger, Gregory; Jain, Nimit; Gu, Xueying; Kockel, Lutz; Jing WANG; Liu, Yinghua; Powers, Alvin C.; Kim, Seung K.

    2015-01-01

    Decretins, hormones induced by fasting that suppress insulin production and secretion, have been postulated from classical human metabolic studies. From genetic screens, we identified Drosophila Limostatin (Lst), a peptide hormone that suppresses insulin secretion. Lst is induced by nutrient restriction in gut-associated endocrine cells. limostatin deficiency led to hyperinsulinemia, hypoglycemia and excess adiposity. A conserved 15-residue polypeptide encoded by limostatin suppressed secreti...

  11. Cardiovascular Costs of Emotion Suppression Cross Ethnic Lines1

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole A Roberts; Levenson, Robert W.; Gross, James J.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has shown that inhibiting emotion-expressive behavior (emotion suppression) leads to increased sympathetic activation of the cardiovascular system (Gross & Levenson, 1993). Ethnic differences have been reported in how frequently suppression is used as an emotion regulation strategy (Gross & John, 2003); however, it remains unknown whether there are ethnic differences in the physiological consequences of suppression. To test this, 168 participants from four ethnic groups (Afr...

  12. Multiplex allele-specific target amplification based on PCR suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Broude, Natalia E.; Zhang, Lingang; Woodward, Karen; Englert, David; Cantor, Charles R.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a strategy for multiplex PCR based on PCR suppression. PCR suppression allows DNA target amplification with only one sequence-specific primer per target and a second primer that is common for all targets. Therefore, an n-plex PCR would require only n + 1 primers. We have demonstrated uniform, efficient amplification of targeted sequences in 14-plex PCR. The high specificity of suppression PCR also provides multiplexed amplification with allele specifi...

  13. Inhibitory Stabilization of the Cortical Network Underlies Visual Surround Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Ozeki, Hirofumi; Finn, Ian M.; Schaffer, Evan S.; Miller, Kenneth D.; Ferster, David

    2009-01-01

    In what regime does the cortical circuit operate? Our intracellular studies of surround suppression in cat primary visual cortex (V1) provide strong evidence on this question. Although suppression has been thought to arise from an increase in lateral inhibition, we find that the inhibition that cells receive is reduced, not increased, by a surround stimulus. Instead, suppression is mediated by a withdrawal of excitation. Thalamic recordings and previous work show that these effects cannot be ...

  14. Genetic identification of a neural circuit that suppresses appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Matthew E.; Soden, Marta E.; Zweifel, Larry S.; Palmiter, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    Appetite suppression occurs following a meal and also during conditions when it is unfavorable to eat, such as during illness or exposure to toxins. A brain region hypothesized to play a role in appetite suppression is the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) 1-3 , a heterogeneous population of neurons surrounding the superior cerebellar peduncle in the brainstem. The PBN is thought to mediate the suppression of appetite induced by the anorectic hormones amylin and cholecystokinin, as well as lithium c...

  15. RFI Suppression in Ultrawideband SAR Using an Adaptive Line Enhancer

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Viet Thuy; Sjögren, Thomas; Pettersson, Mats; Håkansson, Lars; Gustavsson, Anders; Ulander, Lars

    2010-01-01

    In this letter, we propose an approach to suppress radio-frequency interference (RFI) in ultrawideband (UWB) low-frequency synthetic aperture radar (SAR). According to the proposal, RFI is suppressed by using an adaptive line enhancer controlled by the normalized least mean square algorithm. The approach is tested successfully on real UWB low-frequency SAR data. In order to keep the computational burden down, possible ways to integrate the RFI suppression approach into SAR imaging algorithms ...

  16. Identifying indicators of soil suppressiveness to fungal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Siegel, Katarzyna; Aime, Sébastien; Chapelle, Emilie; Edel Hermann, Veronique; Raaijmakers, Jos M; Lemanceau, Philippe; Steinberg, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Soils suppressive to soil-borne diseases are defined by a low disease incidence in spite of the presence of a virulent pathogen and a susceptible plant. In many cases, the inhibition of the disease development relies on the activity of the resident soil microbiome. To identify taxonomic microbial indicators linked to the suppressiveness phenotype of soils, culture independent-based methods have been employed to analyse and compare microbial dynamics in two different soils suppressive to eithe...

  17. Detection and Description of Soils with Specific Nematode Suppressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Westphal, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Soils with specific suppressiveness to plant-parasitic nematodes are of interest to define the mechanisms that regulate population density. Suppressive soils prevent nematodes from establishing and from causing disease, and they diminish disease severity after initial nematode damage in continuous culturing of a host. A range of non-specific and specific soil treatments, followed by infestation with a target nematode, have been employed to identify nematode-suppressive soils. Biocidal treatme...

  18. Use of coextraction and suppression of extraction in extraction-chromatographic separation of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TBP, solutions of hydrobromic acid, indium and polytetrafluoroethylene powder, carrier for TBP, were used to study the effects of coextraction and extraction suppression on extraction-chromatographic behaviour of microamounts of elements in the presence of macroamounts of other elements. Possibility of using these effects under extraction-chromatographic element separation were considered. A new method for extraction-chromatographic separation of scandium microamounts from the mixture of large amount of elements (Y, Cd, Ce, Eu, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Np and other) was suggested. 15 refs.; 3 figs

  19. Suppression of PtrDUF579-3 expression causes structural changes of the glucuronoxylan in Populus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongliang eSong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available DUF579 (domain unknown function 579 genes have been reported to play diverse roles in cell wall biosynthesis, such as in glucuronoxylan (GX synthesis. As GX is a major type of hemicelluloses in hard wood species, how DUF579 genes function in wood formation remains to be demonstrated in planta. This study reports a Populus DUF579 gene, PtrDUF579-3, which is characterized for its function in wood cell wall formation. PtrDUF579-3 is localized in Golgi apparatus and catalyzes methylation of the glucuronic acid (GlcA in GX biosynthesis. Suppression of PtrDUF579-3 expression in Populus caused a reduction in both the GlcA side chain number and GlcA side chain methylation on the GX backbone. The modified GX polymer through PtrDUF579-3 suppression was more susceptible to acid treatment and the PtrDUF579-3 suppressed plants displayed enhanced cellulose digestibility. These results suggest that PtrDUF579-3 is involved in GX biosynthesis and GX structure can be modified through PtrDUF579-3 suppression in Populus.

  20. Suppression of PtrDUF579-3 Expression Causes Structural Changes of the Glucuronoxylan in Populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dongliang; Gui, Jinshan; Liu, Chenchen; Sun, Jiayan; Li, Laigeng

    2016-01-01

    DUF579 (domain unknown function 579) genes have been reported to play diverse roles in cell wall biosynthesis, such as in glucuronoxylan (GX) synthesis. As GX is a major type of hemicelluloses in hard wood species, how DUF579 genes function in wood formation remains to be demonstrated in planta. This study reports a Populus DUF579 gene, PtrDUF579-3, which is characterized for its function in wood cell wall formation. PtrDUF579-3 is localized in Golgi apparatus and catalyzes methylation of the glucuronic acid (GlcA) in GX biosynthesis. Suppression of PtrDUF579-3 expression in Populus caused a reduction in both the GlcA side chain number and GlcA side chain methylation on the GX backbone. The modified GX polymer through PtrDUF579-3 suppression was more susceptible to acid treatment and the PtrDUF579-3 suppressed plants displayed enhanced cellulose digestibility. These results suggest that PtrDUF579-3 is involved in GX biosynthesis and GX structure can be modified through PtrDUF579-3 suppression in Populus. PMID:27148318

  1. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  2. A spray-suppression model for turbulent combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DESJARDIN,PAUL E.; TIESZEN,SHELDON R.; GRITZO,LOUIS A.

    2000-02-14

    A spray-suppression model that captures the effects of liquid suppressant on a turbulent combusting flow is developed and applied to a turbulent diffusion flame with water spray suppression. The spray submodel is based on a stochastic separated flow approach that accounts for the transport and evaporation of liquid droplets. Flame extinguishment is accounted for by using a perfectly stirred reactor (PSR) submodel of turbulent combustion. PSR pre-calculations of flame extinction times are determined using CHEMKIN and are compared to local turbulent time scales of the flow to determine if local flame extinguishment has occurred. The PSR flame extinguishment and spray submodels are incorporated into Sandia's flow fire simulation code, VULCAN, and cases are run for the water spray suppression studies of McCaffrey for turbulent hydrogen-air jet diffusion flames. Predictions of flame temperature decrease and suppression efficiency are compared to experimental data as a function of water mass loading using three assumed values of drop sizes. The results show that the suppression efficiency is highly dependent on the initial droplet size for a given mass loading. A predicted optimal suppression efficiency was observed for the smallest class of droplets while the larger drops show increasing suppression efficiency with increasing mass loading for the range of mass loadings considered. Qualitative agreement to the experiment of suppression efficiency is encouraging, however quantitative agreement is limited due to the uncertainties in the boundary conditions of the experimental data for the water spray.

  3. Antagonism between abscisic acid and gibberellins is partially mediated by ascorbic acid during seed germination in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Nenghui; Zhang, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    The antagonism between abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) plays a key role in controlling seed germination,1,2 but the mechanism of antagonism during this process is not known. In the associated study,3 we investigated the relationship among ABA, reactive oxygen species (ROS), ascorbic acid (ASC) and GA during rice seed germination. ROS production is reduced by ABA, which hence results in decreasing ASC accumulation during imbibition. GA accumulation was also suppressed by a reduced ROS...

  4. An Examination of a Potential Moderator of the Relationship Between Thought Suppression and Preoccupation with Previously Suppressed Thoughts

    OpenAIRE

    Fikretoglu, Deniz

    2003-01-01

    Findings from numerous laboratory studies on thought suppression suggest that engaging in deliberate thought suppression may lead to the ironic effects of becoming preoccupied by the very same thoughts one wishes to avoid. Based on the results of these laboratory studies, a sophisticated model of thought suppression (i.e., Ironic Process Theory) has been developed. It has been argued that Ironic Process Theory can inform our understanding of the processes involved in the development and maint...

  5. Suppression of uninvolved immunoglobulins defined by heavy/light chain pair suppression is a risk factor for progression of MGUS

    OpenAIRE

    Katzmann, JA; Clark, R.; Kyle, RA; Larson, DR; Therneau, TM; Melton, LJ; Benson, JT; Colby, CL; Dispenzieri, A; Landgren, O; Kumar, S; Bradwell, AR; Cerhan, JR; Rajkumar, SV

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that the suppression of uninvolved immunoglobulin in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) as detected by suppression of the isotype-specific heavy and light chain (HLC-pair suppression) increases the risk of progression to malignancy. This approach required quantitation of individual heavy/light chains (for example, IgGλ in IgGκ MGUS patients). Of 1384 MGUS patients from Southeastern Minnesota seen at the Mayo Clinic from 1960 to 1994, baseline serum sampl...

  6. Breaking continuous flash suppression: A new measure of unconscious processing during interocular suppression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo eStein

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, it has been thought that under interocular suppression high-level visual processing is strongly inhibited if not abolished. With the development of continuous flash suppression (CFS, a variant of binocular rivalry, this notion has now been challenged by a number of reports showing that even high-level aspects of visual stimuli, such as familiarity, affect the time stimuli need to overcome CFS and emerge into awareness. In this breaking CFS (b-CFS paradigm, differential unconscious processing during suppression is inferred when (a speeded detection responses to initially invisible stimuli differ, and (b no comparable differences are found in non-rivalrous control conditions supposed to measure general threshold differences between stimuli. To critically evaluate these assumptions was the aim of the present study. In six experiments we compared the time upright and inverted faces needed to be detected. We found that not only under CFS, but also in control conditions upright faces were detected faster and more accurately than inverted faces, although the effect was larger during CFS. However, reaction time (RT distributions indicated critical differences between the CFS and the control condition. When RT distributions were matched, similar effect sizes were obtained in both conditions. Moreover, subjective ratings revealed that CFS and control conditions are not perceptually comparable. These findings cast doubt on the usefulness of non-rivalrous control conditions to rule out mere detection threshold differences as a cause of shorter detection latencies during CFS. In conclusion, we acknowledge that the b-CFS paradigm can be fruitfully applied as a highly sensitive device to probe differences between stimuli in their potency to gain access to awareness. However, our current findings suggest that such differences can not unequivocally be attributed to differential unconscious processing under interocular suppression.

  7. Effect of Field Treatments against Root-Knot Nematodes on Soil Suppressiveness against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. linii

    OpenAIRE

    Cuijpers, Willemijn; Burgt, Geert-Jan H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Organic greenhouses may cope with high loads of soil-borne pathogens: not only root knot nematodes, but also various kinds of plant-pathogenic fungi. In a field situation in an organic greenhouse, 3 treatments were tested for their effectiveness to suppress root-knot nematodes compared to control plots. The treatments consisted of (1) Sarepta mustard, (2) Sarepta mustard covered with a plastic sheet for 8 days, (3) Ricasa: a mixture of Ricinus communis, Capsicum annuum and formic acid. After ...

  8. To suppress, or not to suppress? That is repression: controlling intrusive thoughts in addictive behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Antony C; Erskine, James A K; Albery, Ian P; Allen, James Richard; Georgiou, George J

    2015-05-01

    Research to understand how individuals cope with intrusive negative or threatening thoughts suggests a variety of different cognitive strategies aimed at thought control. In this review, two of these strategies--thought suppression and repressive coping--are discussed in the context of addictive behaviour. Thought suppression involves conscious, volitional attempts to expel a thought from awareness, whereas repressive coping, which involves the avoidance of thoughts without the corresponding conscious intention, appears to be a far more automated process. Whilst there has been an emerging body of research exploring the role of thought suppression in addictive behaviour, there remains a dearth of research which has considered the role of repressive coping in the development of, and recovery from, addiction. Based on a review of the literature, and a discussion of the supposed mechanisms which underpin these strategies for exercising mental control, a conceptual model is proposed which posits a potential common mechanism. This model makes a number of predictions which require exploration in future research to fully understand the cognitive strategies utilised by individuals to control intrusive thoughts related to their addictive behaviour. PMID:25648574

  9. Neurochemical modulation of repetition suppression and novelty signals in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzeck, Nico; Thiel, Christiane

    2016-07-01

    The repeated processing of a sensory stimulus, such as a picture or sound, leads to a decrement in response in neurons that fired to the initial presentation. These effects are well known from single cell recordings in the inferior temporal cortex in monkeys, and functional neuroimaging in humans on large-scale neural activity could show similar effects in extrastriate, frontal and medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions. The role of specific neurotransmitters in repeated processing of information is, however, less clear. In the first part of this article, we will introduce the two concepts of repetition suppression and novelty signals, which is followed by a brief overview of pharmacological neuroimaging in humans. We will then summarize human studies suggesting that gamma-aminobutyric-acid (GABA) and acetylcholine (ACh) play an important role in modulating behavioral priming and associated repetition suppression in extrastriate and frontal brain regions. Finally, we review studies on neural novelty signals in the dopaminergic mesolimbic system, and conclude that dopamine (DA) regulates the temporal aspects of novelty processing and closely relates to long-term memory encoding rather than behavioral priming. As such, this review describes differential roles of GABA, ACh and DA in repeated stimulus processing, and further suggests that repetition suppression and neural novelty signals may not be two sides of the same coin but rather independent processes. PMID:26625882

  10. Induction of IL-25 secretion from tumour-associated fibroblasts suppresses mammary tumour metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shu-Yi; Jian, Feng-Yin; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Chien, Shih-Chang; Hsieh, Mao-Chih; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Lee, Wen-Hwa; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Tumour-associated fibroblasts (TAFs), as a functionally supportive microenvironment, play an essential role in tumour progression. Here we investigate the role of IL-25, an endogenous anticancer factor secreted from TAFs, in suppression of mouse 4T1 mammary tumour metastasis. We show that a synthetic dihydrobenzofuran lignan (Q2-3), the dimerization product of plant caffeic acid methyl ester, suppresses 4T1 metastasis by increasing fibroblastic IL-25 activity. The secretion of IL-25 from treated human or mouse fibroblasts is enhanced in vitro, and this activity confers a strong suppressive effect on growth activity of test carcinoma cells. Subsequent in vivo experiments showed that the anti-metastatic effects of Q2-3 on 4T1 and human MDA-MD-231 tumour cells are additive when employed in combination with the clinically used drug, docetaxel. Altogether, our findings reveal that the release of IL-25 from TAFs may serve as a check point for control of mammary tumour metastasis and that phytochemical Q2-3 can efficiently promote such anticancer activities. PMID:27089063

  11. The flavonoid apigenin suppresses vitamin D receptor expression and vitamin D responsiveness in normal human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segaert, S; Courtois, S; Garmyn, M; Degreef, H; Bouillon, R

    2000-02-01

    Apigenin, a flavonoid with chemopreventive properties, induces cellular growth arrest, with concomitant inhibition of intracellular signaling cascades and decreased proto-oncogene expression. We report that apigenin potently inhibited vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA and protein expression in human keratinocytes without changes in VDR mRNA half-life. Concurrently, downregulation of retinoid X receptor alpha, a dramatic loss of c-myc mRNA, and upregulation of p21(WAF1) took place. Furthermore, a nearly complete suppression of vitamin D responsiveness was observed as estimated by induction of 24-hydroxylase mRNA. The apigenin effect on VDR expression was shared by some other (quercetine and fisetine) but not all tested flavonoids. Interestingly, the apigenin-mediated VDR suppression was counteracted by the NFkappaB inhibitors sodium salicylate and caffeic acid phenethyl ester. The presented results propose suppression of nuclear receptor levels as a novel mechanism whereby flavonoids exert their pleiotropic effects. This study may also contribute to the understanding of the regulation of VDR expression in epidermal keratinocytes. PMID:10652242

  12. Suppression and enhancement of non-native molecules within biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E. A.; Lockyer, N. P.; Vickerman, J. C.

    2006-07-01

    With the aim of evaluating the potential of SIMS to provide molecular information from small molecules within biological systems, here we investigate the effect of different biological compounds as they act as matrices. The results highlight the fact that the chemical environment of a molecule can have a significant effect on its limit of detection. This has implications for the imaging of drugs and xenobiotics in tissue sections and other biological matrices. A 1:1 mixture of the organic acid 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone and the dipeptide valine-valine demonstrates that almost complete suppression of the [M + H] + ion of one compound can be caused by the presence of a compound of higher proton affinity. The significance of this is highlighted when two similar drug molecules, atropine (a neutral molecule) and ipratropium bromide (a quaternary nitrogen containing salt) are mixed with brain homogenate. The atropine [M + H] + ion shows significant suppression whilst the [M - Br] + of ipratopium bromide is detected at an intensity that can be rationalised by its decreased surface concentration. By investigating the effect of two abundant tissue lipids, cholesterol and dipalmitoylphosphatidyl choline (DPPC), on the atropine [M + H] + signal detected in mixtures with these lipids we see that the DPPC has a strong suppressing effect, which may be attributed to gas phase proton transfer.

  13. Suppression and enhancement of non-native molecules within biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of evaluating the potential of SIMS to provide molecular information from small molecules within biological systems, here we investigate the effect of different biological compounds as they act as matrices. The results highlight the fact that the chemical environment of a molecule can have a significant effect on its limit of detection. This has implications for the imaging of drugs and xenobiotics in tissue sections and other biological matrices. A 1:1 mixture of the organic acid 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone and the dipeptide valine-valine demonstrates that almost complete suppression of the [M + H]+ ion of one compound can be caused by the presence of a compound of higher proton affinity. The significance of this is highlighted when two similar drug molecules, atropine (a neutral molecule) and ipratropium bromide (a quaternary nitrogen containing salt) are mixed with brain homogenate. The atropine [M + H]+ ion shows significant suppression whilst the [M - Br]+ of ipratopium bromide is detected at an intensity that can be rationalised by its decreased surface concentration. By investigating the effect of two abundant tissue lipids, cholesterol and dipalmitoylphosphatidyl choline (DPPC), on the atropine [M + H]+ signal detected in mixtures with these lipids we see that the DPPC has a strong suppressing effect, which may be attributed to gas phase proton transfer

  14. Isoprene suppression of new particle formation in a mixed deciduous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Kanawade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Production of new particles over forests is an important source of cloud condensation nuclei that can affect climate. While such particle formation events have been widely observed, their formation mechanisms over forests are poorly understood. Our observations made in a mixed deciduous forest with large isoprene emissions during the summer displayed a surprisingly rare occurrence of new particle formation (NPF. Typically, NPF events occur around noon but no NPF events were observed during the 5 weeks of measurements. The exceptions were two evening ultrafine particle events. During the day, sulfuric acid concentrations were in the 106 cm−3 range with very low preexisting aerosol particles, a favorable condition for NPF to occur even during the summer. The ratio of emitted isoprene carbon to monoterpene carbon at this site was similar to that in Amazon rainforests (ratio >10, where NPF events are also very rare, compared with a ratio <0.5 in Finland boreal forests, where NPF events are frequent. Our results suggest that large isoprene emissions can suppress NPF formation in forests although the underlying mechanism for the suppression is unclear. The two evening ultrafine particle events were associated with the transported anthropogenic sulfur plumes and ultrafine particles were likely formed via ion-induced nucleation. Changes in landcover and environmental conditions could modify the isoprene suppression of NPF in some forest regions resulting in a radiative forcing that could have influence on the climate.

  15. Polyunsaturated Branched-Chain Fatty Acid Geranylgeranoic Acid Induces Unfolded Protein Response in Human Hepatoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieko Iwao

    Full Text Available The acyclic diterpenoid acid geranylgeranoic acid (GGA has been reported to induce autophagic cell death in several human hepatoma-derived cell lines; however, the molecular mechanism for this remains unknown. In the present study, several diterpenoids were examined for ability to induce XBP1 splicing and/or lipotoxicity for human hepatoma cell lines. Here we show that three groups of diterpenoids emerged: 1 GGA, 2,3-dihydro GGA and 9-cis retinoic acid induce cell death and XBP1 splicing; 2 all-trans retinoic acid induces XBP1 splicing but little cell death; and 3 phytanic acid, phytenic acid and geranylgeraniol induce neither cell death nor XBP1 splicing. GGA-induced ER stress/ unfolded protein response (UPR and its lipotoxicity were both blocked by co-treatment with oleic acid. The blocking activity of oleic acid for GGA-induced XBP1 splicing was not attenuated by methylation of oleic acid. These findings strongly suggest that GGA at micromolar concentrations induces the so-called lipid-induced ER stress response/UPR, which is oleate-suppressive, and shows its lipotoxicity in human hepatoma cells.

  16. Can essential fatty acids reduce the burden of disease(s?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Undurti N

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancer, depression schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and collagen vascular diseases are low-grade systemic inflammatory conditions that are a severe burden on health care resources. Essential fatty acids (EFAs and their metabolites: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, and arachidonic acid (AA and their products: prostaglandin E1, prostacyclin, lipoxins, resolvins, and protectins suppress inflammation, augment healing, and are of benefit in the prevention and management of these conditions. Hence, supplementation of EFAs could reduce burden of these disease(s.

  17. Suppression of acyl migration in enzymatic production of structured lipids through temperature programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Tiankui; Fruekilde, Maj-Britt; Xu, Xuebing

    2005-01-01

    considerably inhibited in the temperature-programmed acidolysis of PPP with CLA or CA, with only slight reduction of acyl incorporation, the reaction leading to the required products. Acyl migration was reduced by 29% (35 h) and 45% (48 h), respectively, in the acidolysis of PPP with CLA under solvent and......Acyl migration in the glycerol backbone often leads to the increase of by-products in the enzymatic production of specific structured lipids. Acyl migration is a thermodynamic process and is very difficult to stop fully in actual reactions. The objective of this study was to investigate the...... feasibility of suppressing acyl migration by a programmed change of reaction temperature without loss of reaction yield. The model reactions were the acidolysis of tripalmitin with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) or with caprylic acid (CA) targeted for human milk fat substitutes. Acyl migration was...

  18. A method for estimation of enzymatic browning and its suppression in apple slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Varoquaux

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available A described method is based on diffuse light reflectance in the spectral region 400-720 nm for the examination of enzymatic browning of apple slices. In this method apples are sliced as directly dipped for 4 s in the inhibitors. Based on the obtained results data for the limits of visual acceptance of the slice colour are proposed. An enzymatic browning parameter of the slices is determined from the time-course measurements of the difference in absorbance at 440 nm between the brown slice and the same slice where the original colour was restored by slicing a further 1.5 mm layer. Three varieties of apples Granny Smith, Golden Delicious and Red Delicious were sliced under water or in ascorbic acid, oxalic acid and sodium bisulphite solutions. Different concentrations of the suppressant were objectively compared, and their efficiencies were expressed by the allowable period of cold storage.

  19. Inhibitors of secreted phospholipase A2 suppress the release of PGE2 in renal mesangial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilakaki, Sofia; Barbayianni, Efrosini; Magrioti, Victoria; Pastukhov, Oleksandr; Constantinou-Kokotou, Violetta; Huwiler, Andrea; Kokotos, George

    2016-07-01

    The upregulation of PGE2 by mesangial cells has been observed under chronic inflammation condition. In the present work, renal mesangial cells were stimulated to trigger a huge increase of PGE2 synthesis and were treated in the absence or presence of known PLA2 inhibitors. A variety of synthetic inhibitors, mainly developed in our labs, which are known to selectively inhibit each of GIVA cPLA2, GVIA iPLA2, and GIIA/GV sPLA2, were used as tools in this study. Synthetic sPLA2 inhibitors, such as GK115 (an amide derivative based on the non-natural amino acid (R)-γ-norleucine) as well as GK126 and GK241 (2-oxoamides based on the natural (S)-α-amino acid leucine and valine, respectively) presented an interesting effect on the suppression of PGE2 formation. PMID:27234891

  20. Suppression of the later stages of radiation-induced carcinogenesis by antioxidant dietary formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann R; Ware, Jeffrey H; Carlton, William; Davis, James G

    2011-07-01

    We have previously reported data from a long-term carcinogenesis study indicating that dietary antioxidant supplements can suppress radiation-induced malignant lymphoma and harderian gland tumors induced by space radiations (specifically, 1 GeV/n iron ions or protons) in CBA/J mice. Two different antioxidant dietary supplements were used in these studies: a supplement containing a mixture of antioxidant agents [l-selenomethionine (SeM), N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid, co-enzyme Q10, α-lipoic acid and vitamin E succinate], termed the AOX supplement, and another supplement known as Bowman-Birk Inhibitor Concentrate (BBIC). In the present report, the results from the earlier analysis of the harderian gland data from the published long-term animal study have been combined with new data derived from the same long-term animal study. In the earlier analysis, harderian glands were removed from animals exhibiting abnormalities (e.g. visibly swollen areas) around the eyes at the time of euthanasia or death in the long-term animal study. Abnormalities around the eyes were usually due to the development of tumors in the harderian glands of these mice. The new data presented here focused on the histopathological results obtained from analyses of the harderian glands of mice that did not have visible abnormalities around the eyes at the time of necropsy in the long-term animal study. In this paper, the original published data and the new data have been combined to provide a more complete evaluation of the harderian glands from animals in the long-term carcinogenesis study, with all available harderian glands from the animals processed and prepared for histopathological evaluation. The results indicate that, although dietary antioxidant supplements suppressed harderian gland tumors in a statistically significant fashion when all glands were analyzed, the antioxidant diets were less effective at suppressing the incidence of all harderian gland tumors than they were at

  1. Differential and Synergistic Functionality of Acylsugars in Suppressing Oviposition by Insect Herbivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M Leckie

    Full Text Available Acylsugars are secondary metabolites exuded from type IV glandular trichomes that provide broad-spectrum insect suppression for Solanum pennellii Correll, a wild relative of cultivated tomato. Acylsugars produced by different S. pennellii accessions vary by sugar moieties (glucose or sucrose and fatty acid side chains (lengths and branching patterns. Our objective was to determine which acylsugar compositions more effectively suppressed oviposition of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Middle East--Asia Minor 1 Group, tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds, and western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande. We extracted and characterized acylsugars from four S. pennellii accessions with different compositions, as well as from an acylsugar-producing tomato breeding line. We also fractionated the acylsugars of one S. pennellii accession to examine the effects of its components. Effects of acylsugars on oviposition were evaluated by administering a range of doses to oviposition sites of adult whiteflies and thrips in non-choice and choice bioassays, respectively. The acylsugars from S. pennellii accessions and the tomato breeding line demonstrated differential functionality in their ability to alter the distribution of whitefly oviposition and suppress oviposition on acylsugar treated substrates. Tobacco thrips were sensitive to all compositions while western flower thrips and whiteflies were more sensitive to acylsugars from a subset of S. pennellii accessions. It follows that acylsugars could thus mediate plant-enemy interactions in such a way as to affect evolution of host specialization, resistance specificity, and potentially host differentiation or local adaptation. The acylsugars from S. pennellii LA1376 were separated by polarity into two fractions that differed sharply for their sugar moieties and fatty acid side chains. These fractions had different efficacies, with neither having activity approaching that of the

  2. Differential and Synergistic Functionality of Acylsugars in Suppressing Oviposition by Insect Herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckie, Brian M; D'Ambrosio, Damon A; Chappell, Thomas M; Halitschke, Rayko; De Jong, Darlene M; Kessler, André; Kennedy, George G; Mutschler, Martha A

    2016-01-01

    Acylsugars are secondary metabolites exuded from type IV glandular trichomes that provide broad-spectrum insect suppression for Solanum pennellii Correll, a wild relative of cultivated tomato. Acylsugars produced by different S. pennellii accessions vary by sugar moieties (glucose or sucrose) and fatty acid side chains (lengths and branching patterns). Our objective was to determine which acylsugar compositions more effectively suppressed oviposition of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Middle East-Asia Minor 1 Group), tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), and western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande). We extracted and characterized acylsugars from four S. pennellii accessions with different compositions, as well as from an acylsugar-producing tomato breeding line. We also fractionated the acylsugars of one S. pennellii accession to examine the effects of its components. Effects of acylsugars on oviposition were evaluated by administering a range of doses to oviposition sites of adult whiteflies and thrips in non-choice and choice bioassays, respectively. The acylsugars from S. pennellii accessions and the tomato breeding line demonstrated differential functionality in their ability to alter the distribution of whitefly oviposition and suppress oviposition on acylsugar treated substrates. Tobacco thrips were sensitive to all compositions while western flower thrips and whiteflies were more sensitive to acylsugars from a subset of S. pennellii accessions. It follows that acylsugars could thus mediate plant-enemy interactions in such a way as to affect evolution of host specialization, resistance specificity, and potentially host differentiation or local adaptation. The acylsugars from S. pennellii LA1376 were separated by polarity into two fractions that differed sharply for their sugar moieties and fatty acid side chains. These fractions had different efficacies, with neither having activity approaching that of the original exudate

  3. Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium supX genes specify deoxyribonucleic acid topoisomerase I.

    OpenAIRE

    Trucksis, M; Golub, E. I.; Zabel, D J; Depew, R E

    1981-01-01

    Mutations of the Escherichia coli or Salmonella typhimurium supX genes eliminated deoxyribonucleic acid topoisomerase I. Suppression of a supX amber mutation partially restored the topoisomerase. Multicopy plasmids carrying supX+ caused overproduction of topoisomerase. Thus, these supX genes were identified as topA genes which specify deoxyribonucleic acid topoisomerase I.

  4. Bile acids modulate glucocorticoid metabolism and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in obstructive jaundice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McNeilly, Alison D; Macfarlane, David P; O'Flaherty, Emmett;

    2010-01-01

    Suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis occurs in cirrhosis and cholestasis and is associated with increased concentrations of bile acids. We investigated whether this was mediated through bile acids acting to impair steroid clearance by inhibiting glucocorticoid metabolism by 5bet...

  5. TRANSFORM DOMAIN SMART ANTENNAS ALGORITHM FOR MAI SUPPRESSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ke; Shi Xinhua; Zhang Eryang

    2004-01-01

    Multiple Access Interference(MAI) is the major factor that degrades the performance of a CDMA system. In this paper, a novel transform domain algorithm combined with parameter estimation for MAI suppression is proposed. Compared with the method that combines an adaptive array antenna with parameter estimation for interference suppression, it converges faster with the same Bit Error Rate(BER) performance.

  6. Thought Suppression and Meaning in Life: A Longitudinal Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see if older adults who experience problems with thought suppression tend to encounter greater difficulty deriving a sense of meaning in life. Data from a longitudinal nationwide survey of older people (N = 988) indicate that greater difficulty with thought suppression is associated with a decline in meaning over…

  7. One-tone suppression in the frog auditory nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1996-01-01

    frequencies ranged from 700 to 1200 Hz. Spontaneous activities for the fibers showing one-tone suppression ranged from 3 to 75 spikes/s. Spontaneous activities above 40 spikes/s and the phenomenon of one-tone suppression itself has not been reported previously for frogs. The population of fibers showing one...

  8. PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS OF WEED GROWTH-SUPPRESSIVE RHIZOBACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleterious rhizobacteria (DRB) may contribute to weed suppression in soils under specific management or as applied biocontrol agents. To understand the mechanisms for growth suppression of weeds, we examined rhizobacteria from several important weeds in seven agroecosystems for a wide array of phys...

  9. Suppressing buzz-saw noise in jet engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestrello, L.

    1980-01-01

    Buzz-saw noise, most annoying noise component generated by turbofan engines, can be suppresses by installing porous surface on duct wall directly above engine fan-blade tip. Porous surface and its housing would reduce shock-wave reflection from wall and thus suppress noise.

  10. Social hierarchy and depression: the role of emotion suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Carrie A; Epel, Elissa S; Matthews, Karen A; Moskowitz, Judith T; Adler, Nancy E

    2012-01-01

    Position in the social hierarchy is a major determinant of health outcomes. We examined the associations between aspects of social hierarchy and depressive symptoms with a specific focus on one potential psychological mechanism: emotion suppression. Suppressing negative emotion has mental health costs, but individuals with low social power and low social status may use these strategies to avoid conflict. Study 1 assessed perceived social power, tendency to suppress negative emotion, and depressive symptoms in a community sample of women. Low social power was related to greater depressive symptoms, and this relationship was partially mediated by emotion suppression. Study 2 examined education as a proxy for social hierarchy position, anger suppression, and depressive symptoms in a national, longitudinal cohort study (The coronary artery risk development in young adults [CARDIA] study; Cutter et al., 1991). Much as in study 1, low education levels were correlated with greater depressive symptoms, and this relationship was partially mediated by anger suppression. Further, suppression mediated the relationship between low education and subsequent depression up to 15 years later. These findings support the theory that social hierarchy affects mental health in part through a process of emotion suppression. PMID:22808688

  11. Eye Contact Facilitates Awareness of Faces during Interocular Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Timo; Senju, Atsushi; Peelen, Marius V.; Sterzer, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Eye contact captures attention and receives prioritized visual processing. Here we asked whether eye contact might be processed outside conscious awareness. Faces with direct and averted gaze were rendered invisible using interocular suppression. In two experiments we found that faces with direct gaze overcame such suppression more rapidly than…

  12. Serum Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopeman, Margaret M; Riley, Joan K; Frolova, Antonina I; Jiang, Hui; Jungheim, Emily S

    2015-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids containing 2 or more double bonds, and they are classified by the location of the last double bond. Omega 3 (n-3) and omega 6 (n-6) PUFAs are obtained through food sources including fatty fish and seed/vegetable oils, respectively, and they are important to a number of physiologic processes including inflammation. Previous work demonstrates suppressive effects of n-3 PUFAs on endometriotic lesions in animal models and decreased risk of endometriosis among women with high n-3 PUFA intake. Thus, we sought to determine the relationship between circulating levels of PUFAs and endometriosis in women. To do this, we performed a cross-sectional study of serum PUFAs and clinical data from 205 women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Serum PUFAs were measured using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectroscopy and included n-3 PUFAs such as α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid and n-6 PUFAs such as linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine relationships between specific and total serum PUFAs and patient history of endometriosis. Women with high serum EPA levels were 82% less likely to have endometriosis compared to women with low EPA levels (odds ratio = 0.18, 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.78). PMID:25539770

  13. Identification of Genes Associated with Morphology in Aspergillus Niger by Using Suppression Subtractive Hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Ziyu; Mao, Xingxue; Magnuson, Jon K.; Lasure, Linda L.

    2004-04-01

    The morphology of citric acid production strains of Aspergillus niger is sensitive to a variety of factors including the concentration of manganese (Mn2+). Upon increasing the Mn2+ concentration in A. niger (ATCC 11414) cultures to 14 ppb or higher, the morphology switches from pelleted to filamentous, accompanied by a rapid decline in citric acid production. Molecular mechanisms through which Mn2+ exerts effects on morphology and citric acid production in A. niger have not been well defined, but our use of suppression subtractive hybridization has identified 22 genes responsive to Mn2+. Fifteen genes were differentially expressed when A. niger was grown in media containing 1000 ppb Mn2+ (filamentous form) and seven genes in 10 ppb Mn2+ (pelleted form). Of the fifteen filamentous-associated genes, seven are novel and eight share 47-100% identity to genes from other organisms. Five of the pellet-associated genes are novel, and the other two genes encode a pepsin-type protease and polyubiquitin. All ten genes with deduced functions are either involved in amino acid metabolism/protein catabolism or cell regulatory processes. Northern-blot analysis showed that the transcripts of all 22 genes were rapidly enhanced or suppressed by Mn2+. Steady-state mRNA levels of six selected filamentous associated genes remained high during five days of culture in a filamentous state and low under pelleted growth conditions. The opposite behavior was observed for four selected pellet-associated genes. The full-length cDNA of the filamentous-associated clone, Brsa-25 was isolated. Antisense expression of Brsa-25 permitted pelleted growth and increased citrate production at higher concentrations of Mn2+ than could be tolerated by the parent strain. The results suggest the involvement of the newly isolated genes in regulation of A. niger morphology.

  14. Enhanced precision pointing jitter suppression system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Jerold P.; Luniewicz, Michael F.; Sargent, Darryl

    2002-06-01

    Space based defense systems, such as a Space Based Laser (SBL), and space based surveillance systems share a common objective: extremely high resolution Line of Sight (LOS) target imaging. In order to achieve the mission objectives, their beam control subsystem must provide precise LOS pointing and tracking capabilities with suppression of LOS jitter. Draper Laboratory has developed concepts and instrumentation that address these needs based upon a stabilized inertial platform mechanization that holds a collimated light source, called the Inertial Pseudo Star Reference Unit (IPSRU). This paper describes the original IPSRU design and a design concept for a new High Performance version of the IPSRU system (HP-IPSRU) that meet the jitter stabilization needs of the SBL. The IPSRU provides an inertially stabilized optical probe beam that provides a precise pointing and tracking reference with nanoradian jitter performance. The IPSRU serves as a master reference for stabilizing imaging and weapon system pointing and tracking. This paper describes the IPSRU system, its measured error allocation and integrated performance. It presents the error budget required to achieving the 5 nrad rms jitter stabilization performance projected to be necessary for an operational Space Based Laser system. A conceptual design for the HP-IPSRU is presented.

  15. Can predictive coding explain repetition suppression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotheer, Mareike; Kovács, Gyula

    2016-07-01

    While in earlier work various local or bottom-up neural mechanisms were proposed to give rise to repetition suppression (RS), current theories suggest that top-down processes play a role in determining the repetition related reduction of the neural responses. In the current review we summarise those results, which support the role of these top-down processes, concentrating on the Bayesian models of predictive coding (PC). Such models assume that RS is related to the statistical probabilities of prior stimulus occurrences and to the future predictability of these stimuli. Here we review the current results that support or argue against this explanation. We point out that the heterogeneity of experimental manipulations that are thought to reflect predictive processes are likely to measure different processing steps, making their direct comparison difficult. In addition we emphasize the importance of identifying these sub-processes and clarifying their role in explaining RS. Finally, we propose a two-stage model for explaining the relationships of repetition and expectation phenomena in the human cortex. PMID:26861559

  16. 't Hooft suppression and holographic entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, William R.; Kuns, Kevin; Marolf, Donald

    2015-10-01

    Recent works have related the bulk first law of black hole mechanics to the first law of entanglement in a dual CFT. These are first order relations, and receive corrections for finite changes. In particular, the latter is naively expected to be accurate only for small changes in the quantum state. But when Newton's constant is small relative to the AdS scale, the former holds to good approximation even for classical perturbations that contain many quanta. This suggests that — for appropriate states — corrections to the first law of entanglement are suppressed by powers of N in CFTs whose correlators satisfy 't Hooft large- N power counting. We take first steps toward verifying that this is so by studying the large- N structure of the entropy of spatial regions for a class of CFT states motivate dby those created from the vacuum by acting with real-time single-trace sources. We show that 1 /N counting matches bulk predictions, though we require the effect of the source on the modular hamiltonian to be non-singular. The magnitude of our sources is ɛ N with ɛ fixed-but-small as N → ∞. Our results also provide a perturbative derivation — without relying on the replica trick — of the subleading Faulkner-Lewkowycz-Maldacena correction to the Ryu-Takayagi and Hubeny-Rangamani-Takayanagi conjectures at all orders in 1 /N.

  17. 't Hooft suppression and holographic entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, William R; Marolf, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Recent works have related the bulk first law of black hole mechanics to the first law of entanglement in a dual CFT. These are first order relations, and receive corrections for finite changes. In particular, the latter is naively expected to be accurate only for small changes in the quantum state. But when Newton's constant is small relative to the AdS scale, the former holds to good approximation even for classical perturbations that contain many quanta. This suggests that -- for appropriate states -- corrections to the first law of entanglement are suppressed by powers of $N$ in CFTs whose correlators satisfy 't Hooft large-$N$ power counting. We take first steps toward verifying that this is so by studying the large-$N$ structure of the entropy of spatial regions for a class of CFT states motivated by those created from the vacuum by acting with real-time single-trace sources. We show that $1/N$ counting matches bulk predictions, though we require the effect of the source on the modular hamiltonian to be ...

  18. Heavy quarkonium suppression in a fireball

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobedo, Miguel Ángel [Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching, Germany Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-01-22

    The dissociation of heavy quarkonium seen in heavy-ion collisions is a phenomena that allows to extract information of the produced thermal medium. This was believed to be due to the screening of the static potential but recently perturbative computations and some lattice studies have pointed out the possibility of having an imaginary part of the potential that would also contribute to dissociation. In recent years a program to study heavy quarkonium with the use of non-relativistic effective field theories (EFTs) has been started, this allows to make the computations in a more systematic way by defining a more suitable power counting and making it more difficult to miss necessary resummations. However until now these studies have been done assuming thermal equilibrium. In this work we will discuss what happens in the EFT formalism when heavy quarkonium is in a medium that is not in thermal equilibrium and what is the expected suppression when a medium with a time dependent effective temperature that follows Bjorken evolution is considered. This will be done adapting previous results from different temperature regimes.

  19. Myeloma cells suppress osteoblasts through sclerostin secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wingless-type (Wnt) signaling through the secretion of Wnt inhibitors Dickkopf1, soluble frizzled-related protein-2 and -3 has a key role in the decreased osteoblast (OB) activity associated with multiple myeloma (MM) bone disease. We provide evidence that another Wnt antagonist, sclerostin, an osteocyte-expressed negative regulator of bone formation, is expressed by myeloma cells, that is, human myeloma cell lines (HMCLs) and plasma cells (CD138+ cells) obtained from the bone marrow (BM) of a large number of MM patients with bone disease. We demonstrated that BM stromal cells (BMSCs), differentiated into OBs and co-cultured with HMCLs showed, compared with BMSCs alone, reduced expression of major osteoblastic-specific proteins, decreased mineralized nodule formation and attenuated the expression of members of the activator protein 1 transcription factor family (Fra-1, Fra-2 and Jun-D). Moreover, in the same co-culture system, the addition of neutralizing anti-sclerostin antibodies restored OB functions by inducing nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. We further demonstrated that the upregulation of receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand and the downregulation of osteoprotegerin in OBs were also sclerostin mediated. Our data indicated that sclerostin secretion by myeloma cells contribute to the suppression of bone formation in the osteolytic bone disease associated to MM

  20. Rotator cuff injury: fat suppression MR image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed the study prospectively to evaluate the advantage of fat suppression MR in the diagnosis of rotator cuff injury. Ten symptomatic patients were studied with both conventional T2WI and FST2WI using chemical shift technique. Each image was analyzed for the assessment of injuries, conspicuity of the lesion, the presence of effusion in subacromical bursae and joint space, and presence of humeral head injury. Arthroscopy was done in 4 patients following MRI. We could made presumptive diagnoses on FSMR as identical as on conventional MR in six cases(1 normal, 2 tendinitis, 2 partial thickness tear, 1 full thickness tear), two of them were confirmed by arthroscopic procedures. Two cases of partial thickness tear proved by arthroscopy were detected on FST2WI, whereas they were considered tendinitis on conventional T2WI. There were another 2 cases who showed tendinitis on FSMR, but normal on conventional T2WI. They, however, were not confirmed by either arthroscopy or surgical procedure. We found the FSMR were superior to conventional T2WI in the conspicuity of lesions and detection of joint effusion and abnormalities on the humeral head. We think FSMR of the shoulder could have significant diagnostic advantages over the conventional spin-echo MR imaging

  1. Rotator cuff injury: fat suppression MR image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Jong Yoon; Suh, Jin Suck; Park, Chang Yun; Lee, Yeon Hee [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Soo [Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-15

    We performed the study prospectively to evaluate the advantage of fat suppression MR in the diagnosis of rotator cuff injury. Ten symptomatic patients were studied with both conventional T2WI and FST2WI using chemical shift technique. Each image was analyzed for the assessment of injuries, conspicuity of the lesion, the presence of effusion in subacromical bursae and joint space, and presence of humeral head injury. Arthroscopy was done in 4 patients following MRI. We could made presumptive diagnoses on FSMR as identical as on conventional MR in six cases(1 normal, 2 tendinitis, 2 partial thickness tear, 1 full thickness tear), two of them were confirmed by arthroscopic procedures. Two cases of partial thickness tear proved by arthroscopy were detected on FST2WI, whereas they were considered tendinitis on conventional T2WI. There were another 2 cases who showed tendinitis on FSMR, but normal on conventional T2WI. They, however, were not confirmed by either arthroscopy or surgical procedure. We found the FSMR were superior to conventional T2WI in the conspicuity of lesions and detection of joint effusion and abnormalities on the humeral head. We think FSMR of the shoulder could have significant diagnostic advantages over the conventional spin-echo MR imaging.

  2. Considering alternative calculations of weight suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumberg, Katherine; Anderson, Lisa M; Reilly, Erin E; Gorrell, Sasha; Anderson, Drew A; Earleywine, Mitch

    2016-01-01

    Weight suppression (WS)--the difference between an individual's highest adult weight and current weight-relates to eating pathology and weight gain; however, there are several methodological issues associated with its calculation. The current study presents four alternative methods of calculating WS and tests whether these methods differentially relate to maladaptive outcomes. Alternative methods of calculation included: (1) change in BMI units; (2) BMI category change; (3) percent change in weight; and (4) two different uses of regression residuals. A sample of undergraduate students (N=631) completed self-report measures of eating pathology, current and past weight, and teasing. Measures included the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire and the Perceptions of Teasing Scale. Results indicated that components of WS, current weight and highest weight, were strongly related in the present sample. The traditional method of calculating WS was related to eating pathology, binge eating and teasing for both males and females. However, WS indices orthogonal to the highest weight did not correlate with eating pathology and teasing in both males and females; for females, WS indices orthogonal to current weight were also unrelated to eating pathology. Findings suggest that the link between WS and eating pathology is mitigated after accounting for an individual's highest weight. Future research should continue to assess the reliability and clinical utility of this construct and consider using alternative WS calculations. PMID:26643591

  3. Heavy quarkonium suppression in a fireball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The dissociation of heavy quarkonium seen in heavy-ion collisions is a phenomena that allows to extract information of the produced thermal medium. This was believed to be due to the screening of the static potential but recently perturbative computations and some lattice studies have pointed out the possibility of having an imaginary part of the potential that would also contribute to dissociation. In recent years a program to study heavy quarkonium with the use of non-relativistic effective field theories (EFTs) has been started, this allows to make the computations in a more systematic way by defining a more suitable power counting and making it more difficult to miss necessary resummations. However until now these studies have been done assuming thermal equilibrium. In this work we will discuss what happens in the EFT formalism when heavy quarkonium is in a medium that is not in thermal equilibrium and what is the expected suppression when a medium with a time dependent effective temperature that follows Bjorken evolution is considered. This will be done adapting previous results from different temperature regimes.

  4. A dual purpose Compton suppression spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Parus, J; Raab, W; Donohue, D

    2003-01-01

    A gamma-ray spectrometer with a passive and an active shield is described. It consists of a HPGe coaxial detector of 42% efficiency and 4 NaI(Tl) detectors. The energy output pulses of the Ge detector are delivered into the 3 spectrometry chains giving the normal, anti- and coincidence spectra. From the spectra of a number of sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 6 sup 0 Co sources a Compton suppression factor, SF and a Compton reduction factor, RF, as the parameters characterizing the system performance, were calculated as a function of energy and source activity and compared with those given in literature. The natural background is reduced about 8 times in the anticoincidence mode of operation, compared to the normal spectrum which results in decreasing the detection limits for non-coincident gamma-rays up to a factor of 3. In the presence of other gamma-ray activities, in the range from 5 to 11 kBq, non- and coincident, the detection limits can be decreased for some nuclides by a factor of 3 to 5.7.

  5. Relationships between thought suppression and symptoms of borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Shannon E; Baer, Ruth A

    2009-02-01

    The current study examined relationships among childhood emotional vulnerability, an invalidating childhood environment, thought suppression, and symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Emotional vulnerability and an invalidating childhood environment are described by Linehan (1993) as important biosocial precursors to the development of BPD. Using a student sample selected to have a wide range of BPD symptoms, we examined whether thought suppression mediates the relationship between these biosocial precursors and symptoms of BPD. Results supported the hypothesis that thought suppression fully mediates the relationship between invalidating environment and BPD symptoms. Mixed support was found for the hypothesis that thought suppression mediates the relationship between emotional vulnerability and BPD symptoms. We also examined whether fear of emotions mediates the relationship between the biosocial precursors and thought suppression. Results supported this hypothesis, and also suggested that fear of emotion contributes independently to mediating the relationship between biosocial precursors and BPD symptoms. PMID:19267661

  6. Effects of paradoxical suppression on contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with contrast medium is increasingly being used in examination of the abdomen, pelvis, and lower limbs. However, angiography at opposed phase causes paradoxical suppression (PS) due to the higher fat content of these areas. We evaluated the effect of PS on the ability to visualize blood vessels. The items evaluated included the effect of contrast medium concentration and TE (echo time) on PS as well as a comparison of fat suppression with the subtraction technique by referring to a mock blood vessel and pictures obtained by subjecting volunteers to MRA with contrast medium. Shorter TE and higher concentrations of contrast medium both reduced PS. The ability to visualize blood vessels was reduced by the subtraction technique, as compared with fat suppression. In clinical studies, fat suppression is essential. Hence, when MRA with contrast medium is performed with an apparatus or at a site where fat suppression is not feasible, PS must be taken into account to establish parameters. (author)

  7. Repetition suppression and its contextual determinants in predictive coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auksztulewicz, Ryszard; Friston, Karl

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a review of theoretical and empirical work on repetition suppression in the context of predictive coding. Predictive coding is a neurobiologically plausible scheme explaining how biological systems might perform perceptual inference and learning. From this perspective, repetition suppression is a manifestation of minimising prediction error through adaptive changes in predictions about the content and precision of sensory inputs. Simulations of artificial neural hierarchies provide a principled way of understanding how repetition suppression - at different time scales - can be explained in terms of inference and learning implemented under predictive coding. This formulation of repetition suppression is supported by results of numerous empirical studies of repetition suppression and its contextual determinants. PMID:26861557

  8. Temporal suppression and augmentation of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhulst, Sarah; Harte, James; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates and models temporal suppression of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs). This suppression-effect is created when a suppressor-click is presented close in time to a test-click. The analysis was carried out for short time-frames of short- and long-latency CEOAEs. The...... latter is defined as a CEOAE with duration greater than 20 ms, typically observed for test subjects with spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs). Previous studies have tended to exclude these test subjects but they are incorporated here. The results from six exemplary subjects demonstrate that temporal...... temporal suppression and augmentation of CEOAEs. Recently, a feedback automatic gain control (AGC) system has been used to model CEOAE suppression. However, this system cannot account for augmentation and therefore another, dynamic nonlinear model was developed. Suppression and augmentation were modeled...

  9. Deciphering the rhizosphere microbiome for disease-suppressive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Rodrigo; Kruijt, Marco; de Bruijn, Irene; Dekkers, Ester; van der Voort, Menno; Schneider, Johannes H M; Piceno, Yvette M; DeSantis, Todd Z; Andersen, Gary L; Bakker, Peter A H M; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2011-05-27

    Disease-suppressive soils are exceptional ecosystems in which crop plants suffer less from specific soil-borne pathogens than expected owing to the activities of other soil microorganisms. For most disease-suppressive soils, the microbes and mechanisms involved in pathogen control are unknown. By coupling PhyloChip-based metagenomics of the rhizosphere microbiome with culture-dependent functional analyses, we identified key bacterial taxa and genes involved in suppression of a fungal root pathogen. More than 33,000 bacterial and archaeal species were detected, with Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria consistently associated with disease suppression. Members of the γ-Proteobacteria were shown to have disease-suppressive activity governed by nonribosomal peptide synthetases. Our data indicate that upon attack by a fungal root pathogen, plants can exploit microbial consortia from soil for protection against infections. PMID:21551032

  10. Delta modulation. [overshoot suppression algorithm for video data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    The overshoot suppression algorithm has been more extensively studied. Computer generated test-pictures show a radical improvement due to the overshoot suppression algorithm. Considering the delta modulator link as a nonlinear digital filter, a formula that relates the minimum rise time that can be handled for given filter parameters and voltage swings has been developed. The settling time has been calculated for the case of overshoot suppression as well as when no suppression is employed. The results indicate a significant decrease in settling time when overshoot suppression is used. An algorithm for correcting channel errors has been developed. It is shown that pulse stuffing PCM words in the DM bit stream results in a significant reduction in error length.

  11. Large Scale Power Suppression in a Multifield Landscape

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J; Frazer, Jonathan; Sousa, Kepa

    2015-01-01

    Power suppression of the cosmic microwave background on the largest observable scales could provide valuable clues about the particle physics underlying inflation. Here we consider the prospect of power suppression in the context of the multifield landscape. Based on the assumption that our observable universe emerges from a tunnelling event and that the relevant features originate purely from inflationary dynamics, we find that the power spectrum not only contains information on single-field dynamics, but also places strong con- straints on all scalar fields present in the theory. We find that the simplest single-field models giving rise to power suppression do not generalise to multifield models in a straightforward way, as the resulting superhorizon evolution of the curvature perturbation tends to erase any power suppression present at horizon crossing. On the other hand, multifield effects do present a means of generating power suppression which to our knowledge has so far not been considered. We propose ...

  12. Understanding Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  13. Salmon cartilage proteoglycan suppresses mouse experimental colitis through induction of Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsui, Toshihito [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Zaifu-cho 5, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8562 (Japan); Department of Digestive Surgery, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8562 (Japan); Sashinami, Hiroshi [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Zaifu-cho 5, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8562 (Japan); Sato, Fuyuki; Kijima, Hiroshi [Department of Pathology and Bioscience, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8562 (Japan); Ishiguro, Yoh; Fukuda, Shinsaku [Department of Digestive Internal Medicine, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8562 (Japan); Yoshihara, Shuichi [Department of Glycomedicine, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8562 (Japan); Hakamada, Ken-Ichi [Department of Digestive Surgery, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8562 (Japan); Nakane, Akio, E-mail: a27k03n0@cc.hirosaki-u.ac.jp [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Zaifu-cho 5, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8562 (Japan)

    2010-11-12

    Research highlights: {yields} Salmon proteoglycan suppresses IL-10{sup -/-} cell transfer-induced colitis progression. {yields} Salmon proteoglycan suppresses Th1- and Th17-related factors in colitis mice. {yields} Salmon proteoglycan enhances Foxp3 expression. -- Abstract: Proteoglycans (PGs) are complex glycohydrates which are widely distributed in extracellular matrix (ECM). PGs are involved in the construction of ECM, cell proliferation and differentiation. ECM components are involved in transduction of proinflammatory responses, but it is still unknown whether PGs are involved in inflammatory response. In this study, we investigated the effect of PG extracted from salmon cartilage on the progression of experimental colitis-induced in severe combined immunodeficiency mice by cell transfer from interleukin-10 (IL-10){sup -/-} mice. IL-10{sup -/-} cell-transferred mice showed weight loss, colon shortening and histological appearance of mild colitis. Daily oral administration of PG attenuated the clinical progression of colitis in a dose-dependent manner. Colitis-induced mice showed the elevated expression of IFN-{gamma}, IL-12, TNF-{alpha}, IL-21, IL-23p19, IL-6, IL-17A and retinoic acid-related orphan receptor {gamma}t (ROR{gamma}t) in lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) and oral administration of PG suppressed the expression of these factors. Conversely, expression of Foxp3 that induces CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} regulatory T cells in LPMCs was enhanced by PG administration. These findings suggested that salmon PG attenuated the progression of colitis due to suppression of inflammatory response by enhancement of regulatory T cell induction.

  14. Carrier-microencapsulation using Si-catechol complex for suppressing pyrite floatability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, R.K.T.; Satur, J.; Hiroyoshi, N.; Ito, M.; Tsunekawa, M. [Hokkaido University, Hokkaido (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

    2008-11-15

    Pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) is a common sulfide mineral associated with valuable metal minerals and coal, and it is rejected as a gangue mineral using physical separation techniques such as froth flotation and discharged into tailing pond. In the flotation, pyrite is frequently entrapped in the froth due to its hydrophobic nature. Formation of acid mine drainage due to the air-oxidation of pyrite in the tailing pond is also a serious problem. The authors have proposed carrier-microencapsulation (CME) as a method for suppressing both the floatability and oxidation of pyrite. In this method, pyrite is coated with a thin layer of metal oxide or hydroxide using catechol solution as a carrier combined with metal ions. The layer converts the pyrite surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic and acts as a protective coating against oxidation. The present study demonstrates the effect of CME using Si-catechol complex to suppress the pyrite floatability: The bubble pick-up experiments showed that attachment of pyrite particles to air bubble is suppressed by the CME treatment at pH 4-10, Si-catechol complex concentration over 0.5 mol m{sup -3} and treatment time within 2 min. The Hallimond tube flotation experiments showed that the pyrite floatability is suppressed by the CME treatment even in the presence of typical flotation collectors such as kerosene and xanthate. SEM-EDX analysis confirmed that Si present on the pyrite surface treated by Si-catechol complex, implying that SiO{sub 2} or SiOH{sub 4} layer formed by the CME treatment convert the pyrite surface hydrophobic to hydrophilic.

  15. Signalling mechanism for somatostatin receptor 5-mediated suppression of AMPA responses in rat retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qin-Qin; Sheng, Wen-Long; Zhang, Gong; Weng, Shi-Jun; Yang, Xiong-Li; Zhong, Yong-Mei

    2016-08-01

    Somatostatin (SRIF) is involved in a variety of physiological functions via the activation of five subtypes of specific receptors (sst1-5). Here, we investigated the effects of SRIF on AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated currents (AMPA currents) in isolated rat retinal ganglion cells (GCs) using patch-clamp techniques. Immunofluorescence double labelling demonstrated the expression of sst5 in rat GCs. Consistent to this, whole cell AMPA currents of GCs were dose-dependently suppressed by SRIF, and the effect was reversed by the sst5 antagonist BIM-23056. Intracellular dialysis of GDP-β-S or pre-incubation with the Gi/o inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX) abolished the SRIF effect. The SRIF effect was mimicked by the administration of either 8-Br-cAMP or forskolin, but was eliminated by the protein kinase A (PKA) antagonists H-89/KT5720/Rp-cAMP. Moreover, SRIF increased intracellular Ca(2+) levels and did not suppress the AMPA currents when GCs were infused with an intracellular Ca(2+)-free solution or in the presence of ryanodine receptor modulators caffeine/ryanodine. Furthermore, the SRIF effect was eliminated when the activity of calmodulin (CaM), calcineurin and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) was blocked with W-7, FK-506 and okadaic acid, respectively. SRIF persisted to suppress the AMPA currents when cGMP-protein kinase G (PKG) and phosphatidylinositol (PI)-/phosphatidylcholine (PC)-phospholipase C (PLC) signalling pathways were blocked. In rat flat-mount retinas, SRIF suppressed AMPAR-mediated light-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (L-EPSCs) in GCs. We conclude that a distinct Gi/o/cAMP-PKA/ryanodine/Ca(2+)/CaM/calcineurin/PP1 signalling pathway comes into play due to the activation of sst5 to mediate the SRIF effect on GCs. PMID:26969240

  16. Oak ellagitannins suppress the phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor in human colon carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridrich, Diana; Glabasnia, Arne; Fritz, Jessica; Esselen, Melanie; Pahlke, Gudrun; Hofmann, Thomas; Marko, Doris

    2008-05-14

    The ellagitannins castalagin and vescalagin, and the C-glycosides grandinin and roburin E as well as ellagic acid were found to potently inhibit the growth of human colon carcinoma cells (HT29) in vitro. In a cell-free system these compounds were identified as potent inhibitors of the protein tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with IC 50 values in the low nanomolar range. To address the question of whether the interference with the activity of the isolated EGFR also plays a role within intact cells, effects on the phosphorylation status of the EGFR, as a measure for its activity, were determined in HT29 cells. As exemplified for castalagin and grandinin, both the nonglycosylated and the glycosylated ellagitannins effectively suppressed EGFR phosphorylation, but only at concentrations > or =10 microM, thus, in a concentration range where growth inhibition was observed. These results indicate that the suppression of EGFR-mediated signaling might contribute to the growth inhibitory effects of these compounds present in oak-matured wines and spirits such as whiskey. In contrast, despite substantial growth inhibitory properties, ellagic acid did not significantly affect EGFR phosphorylation in HT29 cells up to 100 microM. PMID:18419129

  17. The cooperative interaction between vitamin E and vitamin C in suppression of peroxidation of membrane phospholipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, H.W.; Vang, M.J.; Mavis, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    The time course of peroxidation of rat liver microsomes by FeSO/sub 4/ in the presence of ascorbate showed a delay in the onset of peroxidation compared to the time course when NADPH replaced ascorbate as the electron donor. The delay was consistent with an antioxidant function of ascorbate, possibly mediated through endogenous vitamin E. In order to further investigate the cooperation between ascorbate and vitamin E in suppressing lipid peroxidation, a liposomal system containing polyunsaturated phospholipids was used. Peroxidation was initated by ferrous iron at pH 5, where spontaneous oxidation of Fe/sup 2 +/ did not occur and the antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid could be characterized independently of its pro-oxidant properties as a reducer of Fe/sup 3 +/. Ascorbic acid alone at concentrations of 30-100 ..mu..M delayed peroxidation by 20 min and at higher concentrations prevented peroxidation for 60 min. Physiological levels of vitamin E decreased peroxidation at early time points but the vitamin was apparently consumed during the course of the incubation. The presence of both vitamin C and vitamin E produced suppression of peroxidation at early time points (0-20 min) which was approximately the sum of the individual inhibitions. At longer time points, however, the mixture of antioxidants was much more effective than the sum of both vitamins alone. This suggests that interaction between these antioxidants yields an enhanced delivery of antioxidant protection.

  18. Dehydroabietic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ping Rao

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: (1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid], C20H28O2, has been isolated from disproportionated rosin which is obtained by isomerizing gum rosin with a Pd-C catalyst.. Two crystallographically independent molecules exist in the asymmetric unit. In each molecule, there are three six-membered rings, which adopt planar, half-chair and chair conformations. The two cyclohexane rings form a trans ring junction with the two methyl groups in axial positions. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  19. Salivary proteins of spider mites suppress defenses in Nicotiana benthamiana and promote mite reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, Carlos A; Jonckheere, Wim; Alba, Juan M; Glas, Joris J; Dermauw, Wannes; Haring, Michel A; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Schuurink, Robert C; Kant, Merijn R

    2016-04-01

    Spider mites (Tetranychidae sp.) are widely occurring arthropod pests on cultivated plants. Feeding by the two-spotted spider mite T. urticae, a generalist herbivore, induces a defense response in plants that mainly depends on the phytohormones jasmonic acid and salicylic acid (SA). On tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), however, certain genotypes of T. urticae and the specialist species T. evansi were found to suppress these defenses. This phenomenon occurs downstream of phytohormone accumulation via an unknown mechanism. We investigated if spider mites possess effector-like proteins in their saliva that can account for this defense suppression. First we performed an in silico prediction of the T. urticae and the T. evansi secretomes, and subsequently generated a short list of candidate effectors based on additional selection criteria such as life stage-specific expression and salivary gland expression via whole mount in situ hybridization. We picked the top five most promising protein families and then expressed representatives in Nicotiana benthamiana using Agrobacterium tumefaciens transient expression assays to assess their effect on plant defenses. Four proteins from two families suppressed defenses downstream of the phytohormone SA. Furthermore, T. urticae performance on N. benthamiana improved in response to transient expression of three of these proteins and this improvement was similar to that of mites feeding on the tomato SA accumulation mutant nahG. Our results suggest that both generalist and specialist plant-eating mite species are sensitive to SA defenses but secrete proteins via their saliva to reduce the negative effects of these defenses. PMID:26946468

  20. A Compton-suppression spectrometer for γ-γ coincidence measurements: Large solid angle and excellent suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, H.J.M.; Poel, C.J. van der; Scherpenzeel, D.E.C.; Arciszewski, H.F.R.; Engelbertink, G.A.P.

    1980-01-01

    For γ-γ coincidence measurements a Compton-suppression spectrometer with a large solid angle of 120 msr and excellent suppression has been designed. The dimensions of the NaI anticoincidence shield have been optimized by means of Monte Carlo calculations. The NaI shield has a length of 35 cm and a d