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Sample records for cis-12 conjugated linoleic

  1. Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid decreases de novo lipid synthesis in human adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obsen, Thomas; Faergeman, Nils J; Chung, Soonkyu;

    2012-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces adiposity in vivo. However, mechanisms mediating these changes are unclear. Therefore, we treated cultures of human adipocytes with trans-10, cis-12 (10,12) CLA, cis-9, trans-11 (9,11) CLA or other trans fatty acids (FA), and measured indices of lipid...

  2. De novo synthesis of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid in oleaginous yeast Yarrowia Lipolytica

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    Zhang Baixi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA has many well-documented beneficial physiological effects. Due to the insufficient natural supply of CLA and low specificity of chemically produced CLA, an effective and isomer-specific production process is required for medicinal and nutritional purposes. Results The linoleic acid isomerase gene from Propionibacterium acnes was expressed in Yarrowia lipolytica Polh. Codon usage optimization of the PAI and multi-copy integration significantly improved the expression level of PAI in Y. lipolytica. The percentage of trans-10, cis-12 CLA was six times higher in yeast carrying the codon-optimized gene than in yeast carrying the native gene. In combination with multi-copy integration, the production yield was raised to approximately 30-fold. The amount of trans-10, cis-12 CLA reached 5.9% of total fatty acid yield in transformed Y. lipolytica. Conclusions This is the first report of production of trans-10, cis-12 CLA by the oleaginous yeast Y. lipolytica, using glucose as the sole carbon source through expression of linoleic acid isomerase from Propionibacterium acnes.

  3. A conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplement containing trans-10, cis-12 CLA reduces milk fat synthesis in lactating goats

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    D. Bauman

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of a lipid-encapsulated trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid supplement (LE-CLA on milk production and milk fatty acid (FA profile was investigated. Thirty multiparous Alpine lactating goats (50 ± 7.4 kg in late lactation were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Does were fed a diet of bermudagrass hay, dehydrated alfalfa pellets, and concentrate. Does were randomly allocated to three treatments; A unsupplemented (Control, B supplemented with 30 g/d LE-CLA (low-dose; LLE, and C supplemented with 60 g/d LE-CLA (high-dose; HLE. Milk yield, DMI, and milk protein content and yield were unaffected by treatment (P > 0.05. Compared with Control, milk fat yield was reduced 8.1% by the LLE treatment and 21.2% by the HLE treatment (P < 0.001, with milk fat content reduced 4.8 and 17.6% by the LLE and HLE treatments, respectively (P < 0.001. Milk fat content of trans-10, cis-12 CLA was 0.03, 0.09 and 0.19 g/100 g of fatty acids for the Control, LLE and HLE treatments, respectively. The transfer efficiency of trans-10, cis-12 CLA from the two levels of CLA supplement into milk fat was not different between treatments and averaged 1.85%. In conclusion, trans-10, cis- 12 CLA reduced milk fat synthesis in lactating goats in a manner similar to that observed for lactating dairy cows and sheep. However, dose-response comparisons suggest that the degree of reduction in milk fat synthesis is less in goats compared with sheep and dairy cows.

  4. Effects of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers on immune function in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, R.; Wielen, R.P.J. van der; Brink, E.J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Dorovska-Taran, V.N.; Mohede, I.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effects of two different mixtures of the main conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA on human immune function. Design: Double-blind, randomized, parallel, reference-controlled intervention study. Subjects and intervention: Seventy

  5. Trans-10, Cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Antagonizes Ligand-Dependent PPARγ Activity in Primary Cultures of Human Adipocytes1,2

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Arion; Chung, Soonkyu; LaPoint, Kathleen; Fabiyi, Oluwatoyin; McIntosh, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that trans-10, cis-12 (10,12) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) causes human adipocyte delipidation, insulin resistance, and inflammation in part by attenuating PPARγ target gene expression. We hypothesized that CLA antagonizes the activity of PPARγ in an isomer-specific manner. 10,12 CLA, but not cis-9, trans-11 (9,11) CLA, suppressed ligand-stimulated activation of a peroxisome proliferator response element-luciferase reporter. This decreased activation of PPARγ by 1...

  6. Hepatic Metabolic, Inflammatory, and Stress-Related Gene Expression in Growing Mice Consuming a Low Dose of Trans-10, cis-12-Conjugated Linoleic Acid

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    Jing Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid (trans-10, cis-12-CLA fed to obese and nonobese rodents reduces body fat but leads to greater liver mass due to steatosis. The molecular mechanisms accompanying such responses remain largely unknown. Our study investigated the effects of chronic low trans-10, cis-12-CLA supplementation on hepatic expression of 39 genes related to metabolism, inflammation, and stress in growing mice. Feeding a diet supplemented with 0.3% trans-10, cis-12-CLA (wt/wt basis for 6 weeks increased liver mass and concentration of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs in liver, while adipose tissue mass decreased markedly. These changes were accompanied by greater expression of genes involved in LCFA uptake (Cd36, lipogenesis, and triacylglycerol synthesis (Acaca, Gpam, Scd, Pck1, Plin2. Expression of these genes was in line with upregulation of the lipogenic transcription factor Srebf1. Unlike previous studies where higher >0.50% of the diet doses of trans-10, cis-12-CLA were fed, we found greater expression of genes associated with VLDL assembly/secretion (Mttp, Cideb, ketogenesis (Hmgcs2, Bdh1, and LCFA oxidation (Acox1, Pdk4 in response to trans-10, cis-12-CLA. Dietary CLA, however, did not affect inflammation- and stress-related genes. Results suggested that a chronic low dose of dietary CLA increases liver mass and lipid accumulation due to activation of lipogenesis and insufficient induction of LCFA oxidation and VLDL assembly/secretion.

  7. An oil mixture with trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid increases markers of inflammation and in vivo lipid peroxidation compared with cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, Tine; Raff, Marianne; Straarup, Ellen Marie;

    2008-01-01

    A mixture of trans-10, cis-12 (t10,c12) and cis-9, trans-11 (c9, t11) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA mixture) reduced atherosclerosis in animals, thus the effect of these isomers on endothelial dysfunctions leading to inflammation and atherosclerosis is of interest. We gave 75 healthy postmenopausal....... The plasma cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-a were not affected by the treatments, nor were any of the other variables measured. In conclusion, oil containing trans-10,cis-12 CLA has several adverse effects on classical and novel markers of coronary vascular disease, whereas the c9, t11 CLA...

  8. Contents of conjugated linoleic acid isomers cis9,trans11 and trans10,cis12 in ruminant and non-ruminant meats available in the Italian market

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca M. Cicognini; Filippo Rossi; Samantha Sigolo; Antonio Gallo; Aldo Prandini

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers are considered healthy factors due to their anticarcinogenic, anti-atherosclerotic and lipolytic effect. A recommended daily intake from 0.8 to 3 g CLA/day/person has been proposed to obtain biological effects in humans. The aim of this work was to provide data on cis9,trans11 (c9,t11 CLA) and trans10,cis12 (t10,c12 CLA) contents in meats collected from Italian largescale retail trade and completing a food CLA database. In a first trial, beef loin meats ...

  9. ATF3 Mediates Anti-Cancer Activity of Trans-10, cis-12-Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Human Colon Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kui-Jin; Lee, Jihye; Park, Yeonhwa; Lee, Seong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are a family of isomers of linoleic acid. CLA increases growth arrest and apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells through an isomer-specific manner. ATF3 belongs to the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors and is associated with apoptosis in colorectal cancer. The present study was performed to investigate the molecular mechanism by which t10, c12-CLA stimulates ATF3 expression and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. t10, c12-CLA increased an apo...

  10. Does trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid affect the intermediary glucose and energy expenditure of dairy cows due to repartitioning of milk component synthesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninghoff, Jens; Metzger-Petersen, Katrin; Tröscher, Arnulf H A; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

    2015-11-01

    The overall goal of this study was to evaluate if intermediary energy metabolism of cows fed with trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was modified such that milk-energy compounds were produced with less intermediary energy expenditure as compared to control cows. Published data on supplemented CLA were assembled. The extent was calculated to which the trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer has an impact on glucose and energy conversion in the mammary gland by modifying glucose equivalent supply and energy required for fatty acid (FA) and fat synthesis, and if this will eventually lead to an improved glucose and energy status of CLA-supplemented high-yielding dairy cows. A possible relationship between CLA supplementation level and milk energy yield response was also studied. Calculations were conducted separately for orally and abomasally administered CLA and based on energy required for supply of glucose equivalents, i.e. lactose, glycerol and NADPH2. Further, modifications of milk FA profile due to CLA supplementation were considered when energy expenditures for FA and fat synthesis were quantified. Differences in yields between control and CLA groups were transformed into glucose energy equivalents. Only abomasal infusion (r(2) = 0.31) but not oral CLA administration (r(2) = 0.11) supplementation to dairy cow diets resulted in less glucose equivalent energy. Modifications of milk FA profiles also saved energy but the relationship with CLA supplementation was weaker for abomasal infusion (r(2) = 0.06) than oral administration (r(2) = 0.38). On average, 10 g/d of abomasally infused trans-10, cis-12 CLA saved 1.1 to 2.3 MJ net energy expressed as glucose equivalents, whereas both positive and negative values were observed when the trans-10, cis-12 CLA was fed to the cows. This study revealed a weak to moderate dose-dependent relationship between the amount of trans-10, cis-12 CLA administered and the amount of energy in glucose equivalents and energy for the

  11. Inflammation and insulin resistance induced by trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid depend on intracellular calcium levels in primary cultures of human adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennedy, Arion; Martinez, Kristina; Chung, Soonkyu;

    2010-01-01

    10,12 CLA-mediated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of ERK1/2 and cJun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and induction of inflammatory genes. 10,12 CLA-mediated binding of NFkappaB to the promoters of interleukin (IL)-8 and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and induction of calcium......-calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) beta were attenuated by TMB-8. KN-62, a CaMKII inhibitor, also suppressed 10,12 CLA-mediated ROS production and ERK1/2 and JNK activation. Additionally, KN-62 attenuated 10,12 CLA induction of inflammatory and integrated stress response genes, increase in prostaglandin F2alpha......We previously demonstrated that trans-10, cis-12 (10,12) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) induced inflammation and insulin resistance in primary human adipocytes by activating nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) signaling. In this study, we demonstrated...

  12. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA. Cis 9, trans 11 and trans 10, cis 12 isomer detection in crude and refined corn oils by capillary GC

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    Özlem Tokuşoğlu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs exhibit protective effects against various types of cancer and heart diseases. With the newly developed capillary gas chromatographic method (GC, cis9, trans11 and trans10, cis12 octadecadienoic acid isomers of CLA (C18:2 were determined in crude and refined corn oils as qualitative and quantitative measurements. Cis 9, trans11 C18:2 (c9, t11 CLA was the major CLA isomer in both oils. It was found that c9, t11 CLA was 0.62% of the total lipid in crude oil and 1.24% of the total lipid in refined oil. Using the refining process, the total CLA was 1.38% whereas that of crude corn oil was 0.62%. An approximate 2.2 fold increase in the total CLA was found in refined oil (n = 9 (p y = 2.782x + 0.046 (R2 = 0.9999] were performed (p El ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA parece exhibir efecto protector frente a enfermedades cardiovasculares y varios tipos de cáncer. En este trabajo, se establece un mátodo analítico mediante cromatografía de gases con columna capilar para la determinación cualitativa y cuantitativa de los isómeros cis 9,trans 11 y trans 10, cis 12 en aceites de maiz crudo y refinado. El isómero cis 9, trans11 C18:2 fue el mayoritario encontrándose en concentraciones de 0.62% en el aceite cru,do y de 1.24 % en el aceite refinado. La cantidad total de CLA encontrada en el aceite refinado (n = 9 (p 2 = 0.9999 y de recuperación [y = 2.782x+0.046 (R2 = 0.9999]. El método cromatográfico propuesto podría ser usado para el control de calidad de los aceites vegetales.

  13. Contents of conjugated linoleic acid isomers cis9,trans11 and trans10,cis12 in ruminant and non-ruminant meats available in the Italian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca M. Cicognini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA isomers are considered healthy factors due to their anticarcinogenic, anti-atherosclerotic and lipolytic effect. A recommended daily intake from 0.8 to 3 g CLA/day/person has been proposed to obtain biological effects in humans. The aim of this work was to provide data on cis9,trans11 (c9,t11 CLA and trans10,cis12 (t10,c12 CLA contents in meats collected from Italian largescale retail trade and completing a food CLA database. In a first trial, beef loin meats were characterised for label information available for consumers: origin (i.e., Ireland, France- Italy, Piedmont and sex of animals. No differences were observed for c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA contents (mg/g fat of loin meat from male or female. Piedmontese meat showed lower (P<0.05 c9,t11 CLA level (mg/g fat than Irish and French-Italian meats, whereas similar t10,c12 CLA contents were measured in Piedmontese, Irish and French-Italian meats. Successively, meat samples from different animal species (male and female beef, veal, suckling lamb, belly beef, canned beef meat, pork and horse were characterised for their contents in c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA. Lamb meat had the highest (P<0.05 c9,t11 CLA content (mg/g fat. The c9,t11 CLA was lower than 2 mg/g fat in veal, pork and horse meats. Low t10,c12 CLA amounts were found in all analysed meat samples. These data provided information to estimate the average daily intake of CLA from meats in an Italian cohort, which can be used in epidemiological studies.

  14. Trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) interferes with lipid droplet accumulation during 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeganeh, Azadeh; Taylor, Carla G; Tworek, Leslee; Poole, Jenna; Zahradka, Peter

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we hypothesize that the biologically active isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), cis-9,trans-11 (c9,t11) and trans-10,cis-12 (t10,c12) CLA, have different effects on early and late stages 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. Both c9-t11 and t10-c12CLA stimulated early stage pre-adipocyte differentiation (day 2), while t10-c12CLA inhibited late differentiation (day 8) as determined by lipid droplet numbers and both perilipin-1 levels and phosphorylation state. At day 8, the adipokines adiponectin, chemerin and adipsin were all reduced in t10-c12CLA treated cells versus control cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed perilipin-1 was present solely on lipid droplets on day 8 in t10-c12 treated 3T3-L1 cells, whereas preilipin-1 was also located in the perinuclear region in control and c9-t11 treated cells. The t10-c12CLA isomer also decreased levels of hormone-sensitive lipase and inhibited lipolysis. These findings indicate that the decrease in lipid droplets caused by t10-c12CLA is the result of an inhibition of lipid droplet production during adipogenesis rather than a stimulation of lipolysis. Additionally, treatment with Gö6976 blocked the effect of t10-c12CLA on perilipin-1 phosphorylation, implicating PKCα in perilipin-1 phosphorylation, and thus a regulator of triglyceride catabolism. These data are supported by evidence that t10-c12CLA activated PKCα. These are the first data to show that CLA isomers can affect lipid droplet dynamics in adipocytes through PKCα. PMID:27131602

  15. Trans-10, cis 12-Conjugated Linoleic Acid-Induced Milk Fat Depression Is Associated with Inhibition of PPARγ Signaling and Inflammation in Murine Mammary Tissue

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    Anil K. G. Kadegowda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous trans-10, cis-12-CLA (CLA reduces lipid synthesis in murine adipose and mammary (MG tissues. However, genomewide alterations in MG and liver (LIV associated with dietary CLA during lactation remain unknown. We fed mice (n=5/diet control or control + trans-10, cis-12-CLA (37 mg/day between d 6 and d 10 postpartum. The 35,302 annotated murine exonic evidence-based oligo (MEEBO microarray and quantitative RT-PCR were used for transcript profiling. Milk fat concentration was 44% lower on d 10 versus d 6 due to CLA. The CLA diet resulted in differential expression of 1,496 genes. Bioinformatics analyses underscored that a major effect of CLA on MG encompassed alterations in cellular signaling pathways and phospholipid species biosynthesis. Dietary CLA induced genes related to ER stress (Xbp1, apoptosis (Bcl2, and inflammation (Orm1, Saa2, and Cp. It also induced marked inhibition of PPARγ signaling, including downregulation of Pparg and Srebf1 and several lipogenic target genes (Scd, Fasn, and Gpam. In LIV, CLA induced hepatic steatosis probably through perturbations in the mitochondrial functions and induction of ER stress. Overall, results from this study underscored the role of PPARγ signaling on mammary lipogenic target regulation. The proinflammatory effect due to CLA could be related to inhibition of PPARγ signaling.

  16. Conjugated Linoleic Acid: Chemical Structure, Sources and Biological Properties

    OpenAIRE

    AYDIN, Rahim

    2005-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a group of geometrical and positional isomers of linoleic acid (C18:2, cis-9, cis-12). In contrast to linoleic acid, double bonds in CLA are usually located at positions 9 and 11 or 10 and 12 and each double bond can be either in the cis or trans configuration. Meat and dairy products from ruminant animals (such as milk, butter, yogurt and cheese) are the principal natural sources of CLA in the human diet. Egg and meat products from poultry contain less CLA t...

  17. Protein and energy metabolism of young male Wistar rats fed conjugated linoleic acid as structured triacylglycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, H.; Hansen, C. H.; Mu, Huiling;

    2010-01-01

    Twelve 4-week-old male Wistar rats weighing 100 g were fed diets semi-ad libitum for 22 d containing either 1.5% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-diet) or high oleic sunflower oil (Control-diet). The CLA was structured triacylglycerol with predominantly cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 fatty acid...

  18. Conjugated Linoleic Triacylglycerols Exhibit Superior Lymphatic Absorption Than Free Conjugate Linoleic Acids and Have Antiobesity Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hyunjoon; Chung, Min-Yu; Kim, Juyeon; Kong, Daecheol; Min, Jinyoung; Choi, Hee-Don; Choi, In-Wook; Kim, In-Hwan; Noh, Sang K; Kim, Byung Hee

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to compare lymphatic absorption of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) in the triacylglycerol (TAG) or free fatty acid (FFA) form and to examine the antiobesity effects of different doses of CLAs in the TAG form in animals. Conjugated linoleic TAGs (containing 70.3 wt% CLAs; CLA-TAG) were prepared through lipase-catalyzed esterification of glycerol with commercial CLA mixtures (CLA-FFA). Lymphatic absorption of CLA-TAG and CLA-FFA was compared in a rat model of lymphatic cannulation. Greater amounts of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 CLAs were detected in the collected lymph from a lipid emulsion containing CLA-TAG. This result suggests that CLA-TAG has greater capacity for lymphatic absorption than does CLA-FFA. The antiobesity efficacy of CLA-TAG at different doses was examined in mice with diet-induced obesity. A high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks caused a significant increase in body weight and epididymal and retroperitoneal fat weights, which were significantly decreased by 2% dietary supplementation (w/w) with CLA-TAG. CLA-TAG at 2% significantly attenuated the HFD-induced upregulation of serum TAG, but led to hepatomegaly and exacerbated HFD-induced hypercholesterolemia. CLA-TAG at 1% significantly attenuated upregulation of retroperitoneal fat weight and significantly increased liver weight, which was decreased by the HFD. Nonetheless, the liver weight in group "HFD +1% CLA-TAG" was not significantly different from that of normal diet controls. CLA-TAG at 1% significantly reduced serum TAG levels and did not exacerbate HFD-induced hypercholesterolemia. Thus, 1% dietary supplementation with CLA-TAG reduces retroperitoneal fat weight without apparent hepatomegaly, a known side-effect of CLAs in mouse models of obesity. PMID:27081749

  19. Supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid in dairy cows reduces endogenous glucose production during early lactation.

    OpenAIRE

    Hötger, Kristin; Hammon, Harald M.; Weber, Claudia; Görs, Solvig; Tröscher, Arnulf; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Metges, Cornelia C.

    2013-01-01

    Trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation causes milk fat depression in dairy cows, but CLA effects on glucose metabolism are not clear. The objective of the study was to investigate glucose metabolism, especially endogenous glucose production (eGP) and glucose oxidation (GOx), as well as hepatic genes involved in endogenous glucose production in Holstein cows supplemented either with 50 g of rumen-protected CLA (9% trans-10,cis-12 and 10% cis-9,trans-11; CLA; n=10) or 50...

  20. Conjugated Linoleic Acid: good or bad nutrient

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    Gonçalves Daniela C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is a class of 28 positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid octadecadienoic.Currently, it has been described many benefits related to the supplementation of CLA in animals and humans, as in the treatment of cancer, oxidative stress, in atherosclerosis, in bone formation and composition in obesity, in diabetes and the immune system. However, our results show that, CLA appears to be not a good supplement in patients with cachexia.

  1. Conjugated linoleic acid induces human adipocyte delipidation: autocrine/paracrine regulation of MEK/ERK signaling by adipocytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, J Mark; Boysen, Maria Sandberg; Chung, Soonkyu;

    2004-01-01

    Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces body fat in animals and some humans. Here we show that trans-10, cis-12 CLA, but not cis-9, trans-11 CLA, when added to cultures of stromal vascular cells containing newly differentiated human adipocytes, caused a time-dependent decrease...... in triglyceride content, insulin-stimulated glucose and fatty acid uptake, incorporation into lipid, and oxidation compared with controls. In parallel, gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and many of its downstream targets were diminished by trans-10, cis-12 CLA, whereas leptin...... gene expression was increased. Prior to changes in gene expression and metabolism, trans-10, cis-12 CLA caused a robust and sustained activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-related kinase (MEK/ERK) signaling. Furthermore, the trans-10, cis-12 CLA-mediated activation...

  2. Design of Ru-zeolites for hydrogen-free production of conjugated linoleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippaerts, An; Goossens, Steven; Vermandel, Walter; Tromp, Moniek; Turner, Stuart; Geboers, Jan; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Jacobs, Pierre A; Sels, Bert F

    2011-06-20

    While conjugated vegetable oils are currently used as additives in the drying agents of oils and paints, they are also attractive molecules for making bio-plastics. Moreover, conjugated oils will soon be accepted as nutritional additives for "functional food" products. While current manufacture of conjugated vegetable oils or conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) uses a homogeneous base as isomerisation catalyst, a heterogeneous alternative is not available today. This contribution presents the direct production of CLAs over Ru supported on different zeolites, varying in topology (ZSM-5, BETA, Y), Si/Al ratio and countercation (H(+), Na(+), Cs(+)). Ru/Cs-USY, with a Si/Al ratio of 40, was identified as the most active and selective catalyst for isomerisation of methyl linoleate (cis-9,cis-12 (C18:2)) to CLA at 165 °C. Interestingly, no hydrogen pre-treatment of the catalyst or addition of hydrogen donors is required to achieve industrially relevant isomerisation productivities, namely, 0.7 g of CLA per litre of solvent per minute. Moreover, the biologically most active CLA isomers, namely, cis-9,trans-11, trans-10,cis-12 and trans-9,trans-11, were the main products, especially at low catalyst concentrations. Ex situ physicochemical characterisation with CO chemisorption, extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurements, transmission electron microscopy analysis, and temperature-programmed oxidation reveals the presence of highly dispersed RuO(2) species in Ru/Cs-USY(40). PMID:21506286

  3. Nutrient Regulation: Conjugated Linoleic Acid's Inflammatory and Browning Properties in Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wan; McIntosh, Michael K

    2016-07-17

    Obesity is the most widespread nutritional disease in the United States. Developing effective and safe strategies to manage excess body weight is therefore of paramount importance. One potential strategy to reduce obesity is to consume conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements containing isomers cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12, or trans-10, cis-12 alone. Proposed antiobesity mechanisms of CLA include regulation of (a) adipogenesis, (b) lipid metabolism, (c) inflammation, (d) adipocyte apoptosis, (e) browning or beiging of adipose tissue, and (f) energy metabolism. However, causality of CLA-mediated responses to body fat loss, particularly the linkage between inflammation, thermogenesis, and energy metabolism, is unclear. This review examines whether CLA's antiobesity properties are due to inflammatory signaling and considers CLA's linkage with lipogenesis, lipolysis, thermogenesis, and browning of white and brown adipose tissue. We propose a series of questions and studies to interrogate the role of the sympathetic nervous system in mediating CLA's antiobesity properties. PMID:27431366

  4. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA): effect modulation of body composition and lipid profile El ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA): los efectos en la modulación de la composición corporal y en el perfil lipídico

    OpenAIRE

    A. Baddini Feitoza; A. Fernandes Pereira; N. Ferreira da Costa; B. Gonçalves Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids, being represented by a group of isomers of linoleic acid called conjugated for having a double bound after a simple bound. Among its isomers, trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9, cis-12 CLA stand out. These isomers can lead to different effects on the body: anticarcinogenic, antidiabetogenic, antiatherogenesis and positive body composition alteration. The objective of this review is to describe their mechanisms of action,...

  5. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Induces Human Adipocyte Delipidation: AUTOCRINE/PARACRINE REGULATION OF MEK/ERK SIGNALING BY ADIPOCYTOKINES*

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, J. Mark; Boysen, Maria Sandberg; Chung, Soonkyu; Fabiyi, Olowatoyin; Ron F Morrison; Mandrup, Susanne; McIntosh1, Michael K.

    2004-01-01

    Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces body fat in animals and some humans. Here we show that trans-10, cis-12 CLA, but not cis-9, trans-11 CLA, when added to cultures of stromal vascular cells containing newly differentiated human adipocytes, caused a time-dependent decrease in triglyceride content, insulin-stimulated glucose and fatty acid uptake, incorporation into lipid, and oxidation compared with controls. In parallel, gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated recepto...

  6. c9,t11-Conjugated linoleic acid ameliorates steatosis by modulating mitochondrial uncoupling and Nrf2 pathway[S

    OpenAIRE

    Mollica, Maria Pina; Trinchese, Giovanna; Cavaliere, Gina; De Filippo, Chiara; Cocca, Ennio; Gaita, Marcello; Della-Gatta, Antonio; Marano, Angela; Mazzarella, Giuseppe; Bergamo, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress, hepatic steatosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction are key pathophysiological features of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. A conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) mixture of cis9,trans11 (9,11-CLA) and trans10,cis12 (10,12-CLA) isomers enhanced the antioxidant/detoxifying mechanism via the activation of nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and improved mitochondrial function, but less is known about the actions of specific isomers. The differential ability of individual CLA iso...

  7. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase 1 in hearts of mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Jize; Li Defa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Results from different trails have provided evidence of protective effects of cis-9,trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on cardiovascular diseases. But the inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase 1 (PHD1) associated with induction of hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) by CLA in these protective effects has never been reported before. The objective of this study was to evaluate if the two predominant cis-9,trans-11 (c9, t11), trans-10,cis-12 (t10, c12) CLA isomers and mixture of...

  8. STEAROYL-COA DESATURASE GENE TRANSCRIPTION, mRNA, AND ACTIVITY IN RESPONSE TO TRANS-VACCENIC ACID AND CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID ISOMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Xiaobo

    2000-01-01

    Studies were conducted to investigate: 1) desaturation of dietary trans-vaccenic acid (TVA, trans11-18:1) to the cis9,trans11-18:2 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (9/11CLA), 2) effects of two conjugated linoleic acid isomers [9/11CLA or trans10,cis12-18:2 (10/12CLA)] and TVA on enzyme activities and mRNA abundance for lipogenic enzymes, and 3) regulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene transcription. In the first study, lactating mice were fed 3% linoleic acid (LA...

  9. Comparison of linoleic and conjugated linoleic acids in enzymatic acidolysis of tristearin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Tiankui; Xu, Xuebing; Li, L.T.

    2001-01-01

    The acyl incorporation and migration of linoleic and conjugated linoleic acids in enzymatic acidolysis were compared in a solvent-free system. Two systems were used in the Lipozyme RM IM-catalyzed acidolysis at 60C temperature and 5% by weight enzyme load (based on substrates). One included...... with gas chromatography, pancreatic lipase hydrolysis, and high performance liquid chromatography. Both acyl incorporation and migration of linoleic acid were faster than those of conjugated linoleic acid. At 5 h reaction, there were 13.0% LLL, 46.5% LSL, 27.7% LSS, and 5.6% SSS in the product for a system...

  10. Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA-An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D J Crumb

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is a group of octadecadienoic acids that are naturally present in the highest concentrations in foods originating in ruminant animals, and dairy products such as milk. Especially large numbers of CLA polymers have been detected in beef, lamb and milk fat. Results from many in vitro and animal studies, though conflicting, have suggested that CLA supplementation may have beneficial effect on obesity, weight management, cancer, diabetes and atherosclerosis. This article provides a brief overview on the functionality, safety and toxicity of CLA as described in literature. .   Industrial Relevance: CLA is a functional food and dietary supplement ingredient with potential benefits against a number of metabolic chronic diseases. However, the mechanism of action and its toxicological effects are not very well understood. These factors may play an important role in the effectiveness as CLA as a viable functional dietary bioactive compound.

  11. Conjugated linoleic acid as a potential protective factor in prevention of breast cancer 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Białek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancers are the second leading cause of deaths in Poland, among both women and men. Breast cancer is the malignancy most frequently diagnosed in women. In 2008 mammary cancer was diagnosed in up to 14 500 patients. It is also the second most common cause of cancer deaths among women in our country. Although the etiology of most cases of this disease is not known, risk factors include a variety of nutritional factors. The amount of fat consumed in the diet and the quantity and quality of fatty acids are especially crucial. Among fatty acids to which great importance in modification of cancer risk is attributed are conjugated linoleic acid. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid, with a conjugated double bond system in the carbon chain. The main natural source of them is milk and dairy products and meat of different species of ruminants, in which cis-9, trans-11 octadecadienoic acid (rumenic acid occurs in the largest quantities, constituting over 90�0of the total pool of CLA. Another important isomer is trans-10, cis-12 octadecadienoic acid, which occurs with rumenic acid in dietary supplements, usually in the ratio 1:1. Surveys conducted show their possible health promoting effects in obesity, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, diabetes, insulin resistance, inflammation, and various types of cancer, especially breast cancer. 

  12. The Recently Identified Isoleucine Conjugate of cis-12-Oxo-Phytodienoic Acid Is Partially Active in cis-12-Oxo-Phytodienoic Acid-Specific Gene Expression of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Monika D; Gruber, Cornelia; Floková, Kristýna; Miersch, Otto; Strnad, Miroslav; Novák, Ondřej; Wasternack, Claus; Hause, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Oxylipins of the jasmonate family are active as signals in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as in development. Jasmonic acid (JA), its precursor cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) and the isoleucine conjugate of JA (JA-Ile) are the most prominent members. OPDA and JA-Ile have individual signalling properties in several processes and differ in their pattern of gene expression. JA-Ile, but not OPDA, is perceived by the SCFCOI1-JAZ co-receptor complex. There are, however, numerous processes and genes specifically induced by OPDA. The recently identified OPDA-Ile suggests that OPDA specific responses might be mediated upon formation of OPDA-Ile. Here, we tested OPDA-Ile-induced gene expression in wild type and JA-deficient, JA-insensitive and JA-Ile-deficient mutant background. Tests on putative conversion of OPDA-Ile during treatments revealed only negligible conversion. Expression of two OPDA-inducible genes, GRX480 and ZAT10, by OPDA-Ile could be detected in a JA-independent manner in Arabidopsis seedlings but less in flowering plants. The data suggest a bioactivity in planta of OPDA-Ile. PMID:27611078

  13. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Hepatic Steatosis: Species-Specific Effects on Liver and Adipose Lipid Metabolism and Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diwakar Vyas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To summarize the recent studies on effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA on hepatic steatosis and hepatic and adipose lipid metabolism highlighting the potential regulatory mechanisms. Methods. Sixty-four published experiments were summarized in which trans-10, cis-12 CLA was fed either alone or in combination with other CLA isomers to mice, rats, hamsters, and humans were compared. Summary and Conclusions. Dietary trans-10, cis-12 CLA induces a severe hepatic steatosis in mice with a more muted response in other species. Regardless of species, when hepatic steatosis was present, a concurrent decrease in body adiposity was observed, suggesting that hepatic lipid accumulation is a result of uptake of mobilized fatty acids (FA from adipose tissue and the liver's inability to sufficiently increase FA oxidation and export of synthesized triglycerides. The potential role of liver FA composition, insulin secretion and sensitivity, adipokine, and inflammatory responses are discussed as potential mechanisms behind CLA-induced hepatic steatosis.

  14. Conjugated Linoleic Acids Mediate Insulin Release through Islet G Protein-coupled Receptor FFA1/GPR40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes; Liebscher, Kathrin; Merten, Nicole;

    2011-01-01

    Among dietary components, conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) have attracted considerable attention as weight loss supplements in the Western world because they reduce fat stores and increase muscle mass. However, a number of adverse effects are also ascribed to the intake of CLAs such as aggravation...... diabetes. Using different recombinant cellular systems engineered to stably express FFA1 and a set of diverse functional assays including the novel, label-free non-invasive dynamic mass redistribution technology (Corning® Epic® biosensor), both CLA isomers cis-9, trans-11-CLA and trans-10, cis-12-CLA were...

  15. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Production by Bifidobacteria: Screening, Kinetic, and Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Raimondi, Stefano; Amaretti, Alberto; Leonardi, Alan; Quartieri, Andrea; Gozzoli, Caterina; Rossi, Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid involved in a number of health aspects. In humans, CLA production is performed by gut microbiota, including some species of potential probiotic bifidobacteria. 128 strains of 31 Bifidobacterium species were screened with a spectrophotometric assay to identify novel CLA producers. Most species were nonproducers, while producers belonged to B. breve and B. pseudocatenulatum. GC-MS revealed that CLA producer st...

  16. Conjugated Linoleic Acids Reduce Body Fat in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, M.; Tholstrup, T.; Toubro, S.;

    2009-01-01

    Isomers of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) reduce fat mass FM) and increase insulin sensitivity in some, but not all, murine studies. In humans, this effect is still debatable. In this study, we compared the effect of 2 CLA supplements on total and regional FM assessed by dual energy X-ray absorp......Isomers of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) reduce fat mass FM) and increase insulin sensitivity in some, but not all, murine studies. In humans, this effect is still debatable. In this study, we compared the effect of 2 CLA supplements on total and regional FM assessed by dual energy X...

  17. Preparation of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Identification of Its Isomers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭诤; 张根旺; 孙彦

    2003-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid(CLA)is a kind of fatty acid with physiological activities and potential appli-cation prospect ,A synthesis method of conjugated linoleic acid and a purification technology were studied .CLA was prepared and purified by urea-complexation and conjugation using safflower oil as raw material,The purity of CLA and total recovery of the product was more than 95% and 48%,respectively,The main isomers produced in alkali-catalyzed conjugation were identified by gas chromatography (GC)linked to mass spectrometry(MS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR),The total amount of the two main isomers (9cis,11trans-and 10trans,12cis-CLA) determined by GC was more than 90% of the product.

  18. Antiobesity mechanisms of action of conjugated linoleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennedy, Arion; Martinez, Kristina; Schmidt, Soren;

    2010-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a family of fatty acids found in beef, dairy foods and dietary supplements, reduces adiposity in several animal models of obesity and some human studies. However, the isomer-specific antiobesity mechanisms of action of CLA are unclear, and its use in humans is...

  19. Production of conjugated linoleic acids by Lactobacillusplantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented Chinese pickles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei LIU; Sheng-rong SHEN; Hui RUAN; Qian ZHOU; Liu-liu MA; Guo-qing HE

    2011-01-01

    Naturally fermented pickles harbour many lactic acid bacteria (LAB).Forty-three LAB strains with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-producing ability were isolated from three naturally fermented pickle brines.Of these isolates,Ip15 identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by API 50 CHL system and full-length 16S rDNA sequence analysis exhibited the highest CLA-producing ability (26.1% conversion) at 48 h in de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) broth in the presence of 100 μg/ml of linoleic acid (LA).Compared to other strains,L.plantarum strain Ip15 showed the highest tolerance upon increased levels of LA in the medium,I.e.,up to 600 pg/ml.This strain converted about 25% of LA into CLA isomers [predominantly cis-9,trans-11 CLA (9-CLA) and trans-10,cis-12 CLA (10-CLA)],of which 75% was 9-CLA.Interestingly,though the conversion rate of LA into CLA by Ip15 remained stable between 100 to 600 μg/ml LA levels in the medium,it dropped sharply at 1000 μg/ml.Taken together,the Ip15 strain displayed relatively high LA tolerance with higher conversion rate,which implies that this strain is a valuable candidate for enhancing the CLA content in food-sources like pickles.

  20. Effect of Linoleic Acid Concentration on Conjugated Linoleic Acid Production by Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens A38

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Jun; Liu, Rui Hai; Bond, Daniel R.; Russell, James B.

    2000-01-01

    Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens A38 inocula were inhibited by as little as 15 μM linoleic acid (LA), but growing cultures tolerated 10-fold more LA before growth was inhibited. Growing cultures did not produce significant amounts of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) until the LA concentration was high enough to inhibit biohydrogenation, growth was inhibited, and lysis was enhanced. Washed-cell suspensions that were incubated anaerobically with 350 μM LA converted most of the LA to hydr...

  1. Lipid oxidation stability of omega-3- and conjugated linoleic acid-enriched sous vide chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciso-Gaytán, C; Shin, D; Sams, A R; Keeton, J T; Miller, R K; Smith, S B; Sánchez-Plata, M X

    2011-02-01

    Lipid oxidation is known to occur rather rapidly in cooked chicken meat containing relatively high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. To assess the lipid oxidation stability of sous vide chicken meat enriched with n-3 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) fatty acids, 624 Cobb × Ross broilers were raised during a 6-wk feeding period. The birds were fed diets containing CLA (50% cis-9, trans-11 and 50% trans-10, cis-12 isomers), flaxseed oil (FSO), or menhaden fish oil (MFO), each supplemented with 42 or 200 mg/kg of vitamin E (dl-α-tocopheryl acetate). Breast or thigh meat was vacuum-packed, cooked (74°C), cooled in ice water, and stored at 4.4°C for 0, 5, 10, 15, and 30 d. The lipid oxidation development of the meat was estimated by quantification of malonaldehyde (MDA) values, using the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances analysis. Fatty acid, nonheme iron, moisture, and fat analyses were performed as well. Results showed that dietary CLA induced deposition of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers, increased the proportion of saturated fatty acids, and decreased the proportions of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Flaxseed oil induced higher deposition of C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, and C20:4 fatty acids, whereas MFO induced higher deposition of n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6; P 0.05) lipid oxidation development. In conclusion, dietary CLA, FSO, and MFO influenced the fatty acid composition of chicken muscle and the lipid oxidation stability of meat over the storage time. Supranutritional supplementation of vitamin E enhanced the lipid oxidation stability of sous vide chicken meat.

  2. Lipid oxidation stability of omega-3- and conjugated linoleic acid-enriched sous vide chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciso-Gaytán, C; Shin, D; Sams, A R; Keeton, J T; Miller, R K; Smith, S B; Sánchez-Plata, M X

    2011-02-01

    Lipid oxidation is known to occur rather rapidly in cooked chicken meat containing relatively high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. To assess the lipid oxidation stability of sous vide chicken meat enriched with n-3 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) fatty acids, 624 Cobb × Ross broilers were raised during a 6-wk feeding period. The birds were fed diets containing CLA (50% cis-9, trans-11 and 50% trans-10, cis-12 isomers), flaxseed oil (FSO), or menhaden fish oil (MFO), each supplemented with 42 or 200 mg/kg of vitamin E (dl-α-tocopheryl acetate). Breast or thigh meat was vacuum-packed, cooked (74°C), cooled in ice water, and stored at 4.4°C for 0, 5, 10, 15, and 30 d. The lipid oxidation development of the meat was estimated by quantification of malonaldehyde (MDA) values, using the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances analysis. Fatty acid, nonheme iron, moisture, and fat analyses were performed as well. Results showed that dietary CLA induced deposition of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers, increased the proportion of saturated fatty acids, and decreased the proportions of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Flaxseed oil induced higher deposition of C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, and C20:4 fatty acids, whereas MFO induced higher deposition of n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6; P 0.05) lipid oxidation development. In conclusion, dietary CLA, FSO, and MFO influenced the fatty acid composition of chicken muscle and the lipid oxidation stability of meat over the storage time. Supranutritional supplementation of vitamin E enhanced the lipid oxidation stability of sous vide chicken meat. PMID:21248346

  3. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Accumulation via 10-Hydroxy-12-Octadecaenoic Acid during Microaerobic Transformation of Linoleic Acid by Lactobacillus acidophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Jun; Matsumura, Kenji; Kishino, Shigenobu; Omura, Yoriko; Shimizu, Sakayu

    2001-01-01

    Specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid with potentially beneficial physiological and anticarcinogenic effects, were efficiently produced from linoleic acid by washed cells of Lactobacillus acidophilus AKU 1137 under microaerobic conditions, and the metabolic pathway of CLA production from linoleic acid is explained for the first time. The CLA isomers produced were identified as cis-9, trans-11- or trans-9, cis-11-octadecadienoic acid and trans-9, trans-11-octadecadie...

  4. Oral conjugated linoleic acid supplementation enhanced glycogen resynthesis in exercised human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Jung-Piao; Liao, Su-Fen; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Hou, Chien-Wen; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Wang, Hsueh-Fang; Cheng, I-Shiung

    2015-01-01

    Present study examined the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on glycogen resynthesis in exercised human skeletal muscle. Twelve male participants completed a cross-over trial with CLA (3.8 g/day for 8 week) or placebo supplements by separation of 8 weeks. CLA is a mixture of trans-10 cis-12 and cis-9 trans-11 isomers (50:50). On experiment day, all participants performed 60-min cycling exercise at 75% VO2 max, then consumed a carbohydrate meal immediately after exercise and recovered for 3 h. Biopsied muscle samples from vastus lateralis were obtained immediately (0 h) and 3 h following exercise. Simultaneously, blood and gaseous samples were collected for every 30 min during 3-h recovery. Results showed significantly increased muscle glycogen content with CLA after a single bout of exercise (P Gaseous exchange data showed no beneficial effect of CLA on fat oxidation, instead lower non-esterified fatty acid and glycerol levels were found at 0 h. Our findings conclude that CLA supplementation can enhance the glycogen resynthesis rate in exercised human skeletal muscle. PMID:25385360

  5. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Production by Bifidobacteria: Screening, Kinetic, and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaretti, Alberto; Leonardi, Alan; Quartieri, Andrea; Gozzoli, Caterina; Rossi, Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid involved in a number of health aspects. In humans, CLA production is performed by gut microbiota, including some species of potential probiotic bifidobacteria. 128 strains of 31 Bifidobacterium species were screened with a spectrophotometric assay to identify novel CLA producers. Most species were nonproducers, while producers belonged to B. breve and B. pseudocatenulatum. GC-MS revealed that CLA producer strains yielded 9cis,11trans-CLA and 9trans,11trans-CLA, without any production of other isomers. Hydroxylated forms of LA were absent in producer strains, suggesting that the myosin-cross-reactive antigen (MCRA) protein that exerts hydratase activity is not involved in LA isomerization. Moreover, both CLA producer and nonproducer species bear a MCRA homologue. The strain B. breve WC 0421 was the best CLA producer, converting LA into 68.8% 9cis,11trans-CLA and 25.1% 9trans,11trans-CLA. Production occurred mostly during the lag and the exponential phase. For the first time, production and incorporation of CLA in biomass were assessed. B. breve WC 0421 stored CLA in the form of free fatty acids, without changing the composition of the esterified fatty acids, which mainly occurred in the plasmatic membrane. PMID:27429985

  6. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for twelve weeks increases lean body mass in obese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Susan E; Chalecki, Allison M; Miller, Paul; Conway, Jason; Austin, Gregory L; Hardin, James W; Albright, Craig D; Thuillier, Philippe

    2007-05-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) alters body composition in animal models, but few studies have examined the effects of CLA supplementation on body composition and clinical safety measures in obese humans. In the present study, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to examine the changes in body composition and clinical laboratory values following CLA (50:50 ratio of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 isomers) supplementation for 12 wk in otherwise healthy obese humans. Forty-eight participants (13 males and 35 females) were randomized to receive placebo (8 g safflower oil/d), 3.2 g/d CLA, or 6.4 g/d CLA for 12 wk. Changes in body fat mass and lean body mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Resting energy expenditure was assessed by indirect calorimetry. Clinical laboratory values and adverse-event reporting were used to monitor safety. Lean body mass increased by 0.64 kg in the 6.4 g/d CLA group (P < 0.05) after 12 wk of intervention. Significant decreases in serum HDL-cholesterol and sodium, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and significant increases in serum alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein, and IL-6, and white blood cells occurred in the 6.4 g/d CLA group, although all values remained within normal limits. The intervention was well tolerated and no severe adverse events were reported, although mild gastrointestinal adverse events were reported in all treatment groups. In conclusion, whereas CLA may increase lean body mass in obese humans, it may also increase markers of inflammation in the short term.

  7. Conjugated linoleic acids influence fatty acid metabolism in ovine ruminal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masur, F; Benesch, F; Pfannkuche, H; Fuhrmann, H; Gäbel, G

    2016-04-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), particularly cis-9,trans-11 (c9t11) and trans-10,cis-12 (t10c12), are used as feed additives to adapt to constantly increasing demands on the performance of lactating cows. Under these feeding conditions, the rumen wall, and the rumen epithelial cells (REC) in particular, are directly exposed to high amounts of CLA. This study determined the effect of CLA on the fatty acid (FA) metabolism of REC and expression of genes known to be modulated by FA. Cultured REC were incubated with c9t11, t10c12, and the structurally similar FA linoleic acid (LA), oleic acid (OA), and trans-vaccenic acid (TVA) for 48 h at a concentration of 100µM. Cellular FA levels were determined by gas chromatography. Messenger RNA expression levels of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) and monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 1 and 4 were quantified by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Fatty acid evaluation revealed significant effects of CLA, LA, OA, and TVA on the amount of FA metabolites of β-oxidation and elongation and of metabolites related to desaturation by SCD. The observed changes in FA content point (among others) to the ability of REC to synthesize c9t11 from TVA endogenously. The mRNA expression levels of SCD identified a decrease after CLA, LA, OA, or TVA treatment. In line with the changes in mRNA expression, we found reduced amounts of C16:1n-7 cis-9 and C18:1n-9 cis-9, the main products of SCD. The expression of MCT1 mRNA increased after c9t11 and t10c12 treatment, and CLA c9t11 induced an upregulation of MCT4. Application of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α antagonist suggested that activation of PPARα is involved in the changes of MCT1, MCT4, and SCD mRNA expression induced by c9t11. Participation of PPARγ in the changes of MCT1 and SCD mRNA expression was shown by the application of the respective antagonist. The study demonstrates that exposure to CLA affects both FA metabolism and regulatory pathways within REC. PMID

  8. Starter cultures and cattle feed manipulation enhance conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, M S; Anand, S; Kalscheur, K F; Hassan, A N; Hippen, A R

    2013-04-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a fatty acid (FA) that provides several health benefits to humans. The feeding of fish oil-supplemented diets to dairy cows has been extensively studied as a means to improve the CLA content in milk. Several studies have also been conducted on the ability of many microorganisms to produce CLA by utilizing substrates containing linoleic acid. In the present study, the dietary manipulated milk was used in combination with the CLA-producing culture to manufacture Cheddar cheese. The two diets fed to cattle were control and treatment diets to obtain control and treatment milk, respectively. The treatment diet containing fish oil (0.75% of dry matter) was fed to 32 dairy cows grouped in a pen for 18 d to increase the total CLA content in milk. Treatment milk had a CLA content of 1.60 g/100g of FA compared with 0.58 g/100g of FA in control milk obtained by feeding the control diet. A 2 × 2 factorial design with 3 replicates was used to test the combined effect of the CLA-producing starter culture of Lactococcus lactis (CI4b) versus a commercial CLA nonproducing cheese starter as the control culture, and type of milk (control vs. treatment milk) on CLA content in Cheddar cheese. Chemical composition (moisture, salt, fat, and protein) was not affected by the type of culture used. However, the age of the cheese affected the sensory properties and microbiological counts in the different treatments. Ripening with the CI4b culture was found to be effective in further enhancing the CLA content. The CI4b cheeses made from control milk and treatment milk contained 1.09 and 2.41 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA after 1 mo of ripening, which increased to 1.44 and 2.61 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA after 6 mo of ripening, respectively. The use of treatment milk resulted in an increase in the CLA isomers (trans-7,cis-9+cis-9,trans-11, trans-9,cis-11+cis-10,trans-12, trans-10,cis-12, cis-9,cis-11, trans-11,cis-13, cis-11,cis-13, trans-11,trans

  9. Conjugated linoleic acid content in milk of Chilean Black Friesian cows under pasture conditions and supplemented with canola seed (Brassica napus concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Avilez Ruiz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, there is limited and contradictory information about the effects of the use of canola (Brassica napus seed as supplement on the contents of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in milk of grazing cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement with canola seed on the production and composition of milk, and CLA concentration in Chilean Black Friesian cows under pasture conditions. Three experiments were done. Experiment 1: control group was fed 5 kg d-1 of commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC1 and treatment group that was fed 3.75 kg of commercial concentrate plus 1.16 kg of whole canola seed (1.16-TC1. Experiment 2: Control group was fed 8 kg d-1 commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC2 and treatment group that was fed 6.2 kg of commercial concentrate plus 1.2 kg of ground canola seed (1.2-TC2. Experiment 3: control group was fed 6 kg d-1 commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC3 and treatment group was fed 6 kg of commercial concentrate with 20% of whole canola seed (1.2 kg d-1, 1.2-TC3. The duration of each experiment was 60 days. No differences in milk production and quality were observed among the experimental groups in every assay. The CLA isomers trans-10, cis-12 and cis-10, cis-12 were higher than those normally found in the scientific literature. There was no effect of the inclusion of canola seed on total CLA content or the content of cis-9, trans-11, trans-10, cis-12 and cis-10, cis-12 isomers.

  10. Conjugated linoleic acid and calcium co-supplementation improves bone health in ovariectomised mice

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yooheon; Kim, Jonggun; Scrimgeour, Angus G.; Condlin, Michelle L.; Kim, Daeyoung; Park, Yeonhwa

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a significant health concern for the elderly; conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to improve overall bone mass when calcium is included as a co-supplement. However, potential effects of CLA and calcium on bone mass during a period of bone loss have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine how dietary calcium modulates the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in preventing bone loss, using an ovariectomised mouse model. CLA supplementation si...

  11. Investigation of Plasma Conjugated Linoleic Acid Levels in Obese and Healthy Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Hümeyra Yerlikaya; İdris Mehmetoğlu

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Obesity is very widespread health problem especially in developed countries. It occurs due to more body fat accumulation than normal levels, it implicates with many factors in the etiology and it needs to treatment. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a class of positional and geometric conjugated isomers of the omega-6 essential fatty acid, linoleic acid. An array of purposed beneficial effects of CLA, such as capability of reducing or eliminating cancer, preventing heart disease a...

  12. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Cis 9, trans 11 and trans 10, cis 12 isomer detection in crude and refined corn oils by capillary GC

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem Tokuşoğlu

    2008-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) exhibit protective effects against various types of cancer and heart diseases. With the newly developed capillary gas chromatographic method (GC), cis9, trans11 and trans10, cis12 octadecadienoic acid isomers of CLA (C18:2) were determined in crude and refined corn oils as qualitative and quantitative measurements. Cis 9, trans11 C18:2 (c9, t11 CLA) was the major CLA isomer in both oils. It was found that c9, t11 CLA was 0.62% of the total lipid in crude oil a...

  13. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplements on oxidative and antioxidative status of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanschke, N; Kankofer, M; Ruda, L; Höltershinken, M; Meyer, U; Frank, J; Dänicke, S; Rehage, J

    2016-10-01

    Dairy cows develop frequently negative energy balance around parturition and in early lactation, resulting in excessive mobilization of body fat and subsequently in increased risk of ketosis and other diseases. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements are used in dairy cows mainly for their depressing effect on milk fat content, but are also proposed to have antioxidative properties. As negative energy balance is associated with oxidative stress, which is also assumed to contribute to disease development, the present study was conducted to examine effects of CLA on oxidative and antioxidative status of lactating dairy cows. German Holstein cows (primiparous n=13, multiparous n=32) were divided into 3 dietary treatment groups receiving 100g/d of control fat supplement, containing 87% stearic acid (CON; n=14), 50g/d of control fat supplement and 50g/d of CLA supplement (CLA 50; n=15), or 100g/d of CLA supplement (CLA 100; n=16). The CLA supplement was lipid-encapsulated and contained 12% of trans-10,cis-12 CLA and cis-9,trans-11 CLA each. Supplementation took place between d1 and 182 postpartum; d 182 until 252 postpartum served as a depletion period. Blood was sampled at d -21, 1, 21, 70, 105, 140, 182, 224, and 252 relative to calving. The antioxidative status was determined using the ferric-reducing ability of plasma, α-tocopherol, α-tocopherol-to-cholesterol mass ratio, and retinol. For determination of oxidative status concentrations of hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), N'-formylkynurenine, and bityrosine were measured. Mixed models of fixed and random effects with repeated measures were used to evaluate period 1 (d -21 to 140) and 2 (d182-252) separately. Cows showed increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation during the periparturient period in terms of increased serum concentrations of hydroperoxides and TBARS, which decreased throughout lactation. During period 1, the supplemented cows had lower TBARS

  14. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplements on oxidative and antioxidative status of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanschke, N; Kankofer, M; Ruda, L; Höltershinken, M; Meyer, U; Frank, J; Dänicke, S; Rehage, J

    2016-10-01

    Dairy cows develop frequently negative energy balance around parturition and in early lactation, resulting in excessive mobilization of body fat and subsequently in increased risk of ketosis and other diseases. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements are used in dairy cows mainly for their depressing effect on milk fat content, but are also proposed to have antioxidative properties. As negative energy balance is associated with oxidative stress, which is also assumed to contribute to disease development, the present study was conducted to examine effects of CLA on oxidative and antioxidative status of lactating dairy cows. German Holstein cows (primiparous n=13, multiparous n=32) were divided into 3 dietary treatment groups receiving 100g/d of control fat supplement, containing 87% stearic acid (CON; n=14), 50g/d of control fat supplement and 50g/d of CLA supplement (CLA 50; n=15), or 100g/d of CLA supplement (CLA 100; n=16). The CLA supplement was lipid-encapsulated and contained 12% of trans-10,cis-12 CLA and cis-9,trans-11 CLA each. Supplementation took place between d1 and 182 postpartum; d 182 until 252 postpartum served as a depletion period. Blood was sampled at d -21, 1, 21, 70, 105, 140, 182, 224, and 252 relative to calving. The antioxidative status was determined using the ferric-reducing ability of plasma, α-tocopherol, α-tocopherol-to-cholesterol mass ratio, and retinol. For determination of oxidative status concentrations of hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), N'-formylkynurenine, and bityrosine were measured. Mixed models of fixed and random effects with repeated measures were used to evaluate period 1 (d -21 to 140) and 2 (d182-252) separately. Cows showed increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation during the periparturient period in terms of increased serum concentrations of hydroperoxides and TBARS, which decreased throughout lactation. During period 1, the supplemented cows had lower TBARS

  15. Detection of biologically active isomers of conjugated linoleic acid in kaymak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ökten, Sevtap

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous physiological effects are attributed to conjugated linoleic acids (CLA. Biologically active isomers of CLA ( cis -9, trans -11 (C18:2 and trans- 10, cis- 12 (C18:2 have been reported to have anticarcinogenic, antioxidative and antiatherosclerotic properties. Relatively rich sources of CLA include milk fat-containing foods such as kaymak. Kaymak is a kind of concentrated cream which is traditionally manufactured from buffalo or cow's milk mainly in Turkey . The objective of this study was to determine CLA concentrations during kaymak production. Kaymak was manufactured from cow's milk which was enriched with unfermented cream. Biologically active isomers of CLA in raw milk, cream and kaymak were analyzed using gas chromatography. The method was quick, repeatable and sensitive for the CLA determination of samples. Significant differences were found among the concentrations of both isomer and total CLA during the production process (pNumerosos efectos fisiológicos se atribuyen a los ácidos linoleico conjugados (CLA. Así los isómeros biológicamente activos ( cis -9, trans -11 (C18:2 y trans- 10, cis del ácido linoleico han sido descritos con propiedades anticarcinogénicas, antioxidantes y antiarterioscleróticas. Fuentes relativamente ricas de CLA incluyen alimentos con grasas lácteas tales como el kaymak. El kaymak es una crema concentrada elaborada de leche de búfalo o vaca principalmente en Turquía. El objetivo de este estudio fue la determinación de la concentración de CLA durante la producción de kaymak. El kaymak objeto de estudio fue elaborado a partir de leche de vaca que fue enriquecida con crema no fermentada. Los isómeros biológicamente activos del CLA fueron analizados por cromatografía gaseosa en leche cruda, crema y kaymak. El método empleado fue rápido, reproducible y sensible. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en las concentraciones de ambos isómeros y de CLA total durante el proceso de producci

  16. Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Humans: Regulation of Adiposity and Insulin Sensitivity1,2

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, J. Mark; McIntosh, Michael K.

    2003-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers, a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid [18:2(n-6)], have been studied extensively due to their ability to modulate cancer, atherosclerosis, obesity, immune function and diabetes in a variety of experimental models. The purpose of this review was to examine CLA’s isomer-specific regulation of adiposity and insulin sensitivity in humans and in cultures of human adipocytes. It has been clearly demonstrated that specific CLA isomers or...

  17. Conjugated linoleic acids as functional food: an insight into their health benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Sailas; Spener Friedrich

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This review evaluates the health benefits of the functional food, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) - a heterogeneous group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid predominantly found in milk, milk products, meat and meat products of ruminants. During the past couple of decades, hundreds of reports - principally based on in vitro, microbial, animal, and of late clinical trials on humans - have been accumulating with varying biological activities of CLA isomers. These studi...

  18. Incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and α-linolenic acid (LNA in pacu fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deoclécio José Barilli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in fillets of pacu fish raised in net cages and fed diets enriched with these acids. The fish were fed for 49 days, and at the end of this period the fatty acid content in the fillets was determined by gas chromatography. Concentrations of α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and the total omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid in the fillets increased, improving the n-6/n-3 ratio. In addition, the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid in the fish fillets proved well established. This study showed that the use of diets enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid results in the incorporation of these acids in the of pacu fish fillets, improving their nutritional quality.

  19. Microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid associated with hypocaloric diet reduces body fat in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho RF

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Roberta F Carvalho,1 Sofia K Uehara,2 Glorimar Rosa1,21Medicine Department, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Nutrition and Dietetic Department, Josué de Castro Institute of Nutrition, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, BrazilBackground: Animal studies have suggested beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in reducing body fat mass and improvement in the serum lipid profile and glycemia. However, these effects are controversial in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of microencapsulated CLA supplementation on body composition, body mass index, waist circumference, and blood pressure in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome.Methods: This study was a placebo-controlled and randomized clinical trial. Fourteen women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome received light strawberry jam enriched or not with microencapsulated CLA (3 g/day as a mixture of 38.57% cis-9, trans-11, and 39.76% trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers associated with a hypocaloric diet for 90 days. The subjects were monitored to assess variables associated with the metabolic syndrome, in addition to assessing adherence with the intervention.Results: There were no significant effects of microencapsulated CLA on the lipid profile or blood pressure. Mean plasma insulin concentrations were significantly lower in women supplemented with microencapsulated CLA (Δ T90 – T0 = −12.87 ± 4.26 µU/mL, P = 0.02. Microencapsulated CLA supplementation did not alter the waist circumference, but there was a reduction in body fat mass detected after 30 days (Δ = −2.68% ± 0.82%, P = 0.02, which was maintained until the 90-day intervention period (Δ = −3.32% ± 1.41%, P = 0.02 in the microencapsulated CLA group. The placebo group showed this effect only after 90 days (Δ = −1.97% ± 0.60%, P = 0.02, but had a reduced waist circumference (Δ T90 – T0 = −4.25 ± 1.31 cm, P = 0.03.Conclusion: Supplementation with mixed

  20. Concentrations of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Isomers in Human Plasma Reflect Intake of Dairy Products with Enhanced cis-9, trans-11 or tran-10, cis-12 Isomer Content

    OpenAIRE

    Shafer, Brian David

    2006-01-01

    Dairy products are a primary source of c9, t11-CLA, an anti-carcinogenic agent, in the diet of humans. The t10, c12-CLA isomer, typically in trace amounts in bovine milk fat, also may benefit human health. Four cows received abomasal infusions of c9, t11-CLA or t10, c12-CLA to obtain milk fat used to prepare butter and yogurt with enhanced c9, t11-CLA or t10, c12-CLA content. Human subjects (3 males, 3 females, ages 22 to 29) received CLA-enhanced butter and yogurt (14% of total kcal) in a...

  1. Conjugated linoleic acid inhibiting DNA repair damaged by x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-homologous end-joining is the most effective repair of DNA double strand break. Epidermal growth factor receptor activates DSB repairs. Integration of EGFR inhibitors with radiation or chemotherapy were used in lung cancer treatment. Radiosensitivity effect of conjugated linoleic acid on tumor cells and reduced metastasis are reported

  2. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid modify gene expression in liver, muscles, and fat tissues of finishing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tous, Nuria; Theil, Peter Kappel; Lauridsen, Charlotte;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate underlying mechanisms of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid metabolism in various tissues of pigs. Sixteen gilts (73 ± 3 kg) were fed a control (containing sunflower oil) or an experimental diet in which 4% of sunflower oil was replaced by CLA...

  3. Effects of extruded linseed supplementation on n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in milk and cheese from ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Cortés, P; Bach, A; Luna, P; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of dietary supplementation of extruded linseed on animal performance and fatty acid (FA) profile of ewe milk for the production of n-3 FA- and conjugated linoleic acid-enriched cheeses. A Manchega ewe flock (300 animals) receiving a 60:40 forage:concentrate diet was divided into 3 groups supplemented with 0, 6, and 12 g of extruded linseed/100 g of dry matter for the control, low, and high extruded linseed diets, respectively. Bulk and individual milk samples from 5 dairy ewes per group were monitored at 7, 14, 28, 45, and 60 d following supplementation. Manchego cheeses were made with bulk milk from the 3 treatment groups. Milk yield increased in dairy ewes receiving extruded linseed. Milk protein, fat, and total solids contents were not affected by linseed supplementation. Milk contents of alpha-linolenic acid increased from 0.36 with the control diet to 1.91% total FA with the high extruded linseed diet. Similarly, cis-9 trans-11 C18:2 rose from 0.73 to 2.33% and its precursor in the mammary gland, trans-11 C18:1, increased from 1.55 to 5.76% of total FA. This pattern occurred with no significant modification of the levels of trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10 cis-12 C18:2 FA. Furthermore, the high extruded linseed diet reduced C12:0 (-30%), C14:0 (-15%) and C16:0 (-28%), thus significantly diminishing the atherogenicity index of milk. The response to linseed supplementation was persistently maintained during the entire study. Acceptability attributes of n-3-enriched versus control cheeses ripened for 3 mo were not affected. Therefore, extruded linseed supplementation seems a plausible strategy to improve animal performance and nutritional quality of dairy lipids in milk and cheese from ewes. PMID:19700673

  4. c9,t11-Conjugated linoleic acid ameliorates steatosis by modulating mitochondrial uncoupling and Nrf2 pathway[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollica, Maria Pina; Trinchese, Giovanna; Cavaliere, Gina; De Filippo, Chiara; Cocca, Ennio; Gaita, Marcello; Della-Gatta, Antonio; Marano, Angela; Mazzarella, Giuseppe; Bergamo, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress, hepatic steatosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction are key pathophysiological features of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. A conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) mixture of cis9,trans11 (9,11-CLA) and trans10,cis12 (10,12-CLA) isomers enhanced the antioxidant/detoxifying mechanism via the activation of nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and improved mitochondrial function, but less is known about the actions of specific isomers. The differential ability of individual CLA isomers to modulate these pathways was explored in Wistar rats fed for 4 weeks with a lard-based high-fat diet (L) or with control diet (CD), and, within each dietary treatment, two subgroups were daily administered with 9,11-CLA or 10,12-CLA (30 mg/day). The 9,11-CLA, but not 10,12-CLA, supplementation to CD rats improves the GSH/GSSG ratio in the liver, mitochondrial functions, and Nrf2 activity. Histological examination reveals a reduction of steatosis in L-fed rats supplemented with both CLA isomers, but 9,11-CLA downregulated plasma concentrations of proinflammatory markers, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress markers in liver more efficiently than in 10,12-CLA treatment. The present study demonstrates the higher protective effect of 9,11-CLA against diet-induced pro-oxidant and proinflammatory signs and suggests that these effects are determined, at least in part, by its ability to activate the Nrf2 pathway and to improve the mitochondrial functioning and biogenesis. PMID:24634500

  5. Production of conjugated linoleic acids by Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented Chinese pickles*

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Pei; Shen, Sheng-rong; Ruan, Hui; ZHOU, Qian; Ma, Liu-liu; He, Guo-qing

    2011-01-01

    Naturally fermented pickles harbour many lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Forty-three LAB strains with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-producing ability were isolated from three naturally fermented pickle brines. Of these isolates, lp15 identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by API 50 CHL system and full-length 16S rDNA sequence analysis exhibited the highest CLA-producing ability (26.1% conversion) at 48 h in de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) broth in the presence of 100 µg/ml of linoleic acid (LA). Compa...

  6. The In vitro Effects of Nano-encapsulated Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Stability of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Fermentation Profiles in the Rumen

    OpenAIRE

    Heo, Wan; Kim, Eun Tae; Cho, Sung Do; Kim, Jun Ho; Kwon, Seong Min; Jeong, Ha Yeon; Ki, Kwang Seok; Yoon, Ho Baek; Ahn, Young Dae; Lee, Sung Sill; Kim, Young Jun

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the stability of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) by nano-encapsulation against in vitro ruminal biohydrogenation by microbial enzymatic conversion. CLAs (free fatty acid form of CLA [CLA-FFA], nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA, triglyceride form of CLA [CLA-TG], and nano-encapsulated CLA-TG) were used in the in vitro fermentation experiments. When Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens (B. fibrisolvens) was incubated with CLA-FFAs, the concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and va...

  7. Bioavailability of nanoemulsified conjugated linoleic acid for an antiobesity effect

    OpenAIRE

    Kim D; Park JH; Kweon DJ; Han GD

    2013-01-01

    Dongyeop Kim,1,3* Jin-Hong Park,2* Dae-Jun Kweon,2 Gi Dong Han11Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Natural Resources, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Republic of Korea; 2BioHealth Convergence Center, Daegu Technopark, Daegu, Republic of Korea; 3Division of Applied Bioscience, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The aim of this study was to enhance the bioavailability of conjugated lin...

  8. 酶法生产共轭亚油酸的研究进展%Development of linoleate isomerase catalyzes forproduction of conjugated linoleic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳禾; 王春来; 刘思国; 张兰威

    2011-01-01

    共轭亚油酸(Conjugated linoleic acid,CLA)具有抗癌、抗动脉粥样硬化、减肥和免疫调节等生理活性.共轭亚油酸可以通过酶法异构化获得,将底物亚油酸异构形成具有生物活性物质-共轭亚油酸的异构酶称为亚油酸异构酶.因此,通过介绍亚油酸异构酶的来源、作用机制、酶学性质和基因工程菌生产等方面的研究进展,结合不断发展的基因工程技术,旨在提高亚油酸异构酶的活性、产量和异构化效率,以扩大反应底物范围,降低生产成本,从而推进共轭亚油酸的规模化、可持续性的工业生产.%CLA (Conjugated linoleic acid, CLA) possesses a wide range of biological activities including anti-cancer activity, anti-atherosclerosis activity, capability of helping reduce weight fat and regulate immune system. The fatty acid isomerase from bacteria, which catalyzes the isomerization of linoleic acid (LA) to CLA production, is a promising candidate for other approachs. This paper introduces the source of linoleate isomerase, the mechanism of its function as well as reviewing recent advances regarding the key property of this important enzyme. The preparation of linoleate isomerase and how to use it to produce high yield of isomers of conjugated linoleic acid with high purity are also demonstrated,which will help to realize sustainability and industrial scale production of conjugated linoleic acid.

  9. Optimization of conjugated linoleic acid triglycerides via enzymatic esterification in no-solvent system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Dan; SUN Xiuqin; LI Guangyou; LIU Fayi; LIN Xuezheng; SHEN Jihong

    2009-01-01

    We compared four esterifiable enzymes. The lipase Novozym 435 possessed the highest activity for the conjugated linoleic acid esterification during the synthesis of triglycerides. The triglycerides were synthesized by esterification of glycerol and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in a no-solvent system using lipase catalysis. We investigated the effects of temperature, enzyme concentration, water content, and time on esterification. Enzyme and water concentrations of up to 1% of the total reaction volume and a system temperature of 60°C proved optimal for esterification. Similarly, when the esterification was carried out for 24 h, the reaction ratio improved to 94.11%. The esterification rate of the rotating screen basket remained high (87.28%) when the enzyme was re-used for the 5th time. We evaluated the substrate selectivity of lipase (NOVO 435) and determined that this lipase prefers the 10,12-octadacadienoic acid to the 9,11-octadecadienoic acid.

  10. THE IMPACT OF CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID ADDITION ON PH VALUE OF LONGISSIMUS DORSI MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław WASILEWSKI

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject of research was 60 crossbred gilts, divided into 6 groups, fed the fodder with addition of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA or sunflower oil (SFO in amount: 0.5; 1.0; and 2.0 %, respectively. Animals were slaughtered with the body weight ca. 95 kg. The aim of research was to determine pH value of loin meat tissue (Longissimus dorsi of right half-carcass in 45 minutes, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 hours and 24 hours after slaughter. Results were statistically elaborated using one-way variance analysis. Longissimus dorsi muscle pH values measured 45 minutes after slaughter in case of all groups of pigs were in range from 6.34 up to 6.47, what shows good meat quality. The lowest pH1 (measured 45 minutes after slaughter had meat of fatteners where addition of 2 % sunflower oil was given into fodder and the highest value of this trait was in group of individuals where also was given sunflower oil in 1 % amount. Statistical significant differences in pH value measured in different time after slaughter i.e. after 45 minutes, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 24 hours between tested groups of pigs were not stated. The exception is the result of pH measurement 5 hours after slaughter. Statistical significant differences were between group of pigs getting 0.5 % addition of conjugated linoleic acid characterized by the highest pH value of meat and group of animals fed the fodder with 1 % addition of conjugated linoleic acid (P≤0.01. On the basis of the results obtained in presented paper may be stated that feeding pigs with addition of conjugated linoleic acid in amounts 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 % did not impact negatively on meat quality defined by pH value.

  11. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation caused reduction of perilipin1 and aberrant lipolysis in epididymal adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation suppresses perilipin1 in epididymal fat. ► Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits promoter activity of perilipin1 in 3T3-L1 cells. ► Conjugated linoleic acids elevate basal but blunt hormone-stimulated lipolysis. -- Abstract: Perilipin1, a coat protein of lipid droplet, plays a key role in adipocyte lipolysis and fat formation of adipose tissues. However, it is not clear how the expression of perilipin1 is affected in the decreased white adipose tissues (WAT) of mice treated with dietary supplement of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Here we obtained lipodystrophic mice by dietary administration of CLA which exhibited reduced epididymal (EPI) WAT, aberrant adipocytes and decreased expression of leptin in this tissue. We found both transcription and translation of perilipin1 was suppressed significantly in EPI WAT of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice. The gene expression of negative regulator tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and the positive regulator Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ (PPARγ) of perilipin1 was up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively. In cultured 3T3-L1 cells the promoter activity of perilipin1 was dramatically inhibited in the presence of CLA. Using ex vivo experiment we found that the basal lipolysis was elevated but the hormone-stimulated lipolysis blunted in adipose explants of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice, suggesting that the reduction of perilipin1 in white adipose tissues may at least in part contribute to CLA-mediated alternation of lipolysis of WAT.

  12. Goat Milk Fat Naturally Enriched with Conjugated Linoleic Acid Increased Lipoproteins and Reduced Triacylglycerol in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Raphaela Rodrigues; Juliana Soares; Hugo Garcia; Claudenice Nascimento; Maria Medeiros; Marco Bomfim; Maria Carmo Medeiros; Rita Queiroga

    2014-01-01

    Goat milk is source of different lipids, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). CLA reduces body fat and protect against cardiovascular diseases. In the present study fat from goat milk naturally enriched with CLA was used. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups that received during a 10 week diet with different lipid sources: soybean oil (CON), coconut oil (CO) and goat milk fat naturally enriched with CLA (GM-CLA). We evaluated the effects of a GM-CLA on biochemistry parameters ...

  13. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid enrichment on the quality characteristics of Turkish dry fermented sausage

    OpenAIRE

    Özer, Cem Okan; Kiliç, Birol

    2014-01-01

    The effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) enrichment on lipid oxidation, the fatty acid profile, physico-chemical, sensory and microbiological features of sucuk were investigated. The control sucuk did not contain CLA, however, other groups contained 0.5 %, 1 %, 1.5 %, 2 %, 2.5 %, and 3 % CLA, respectively. The results indicated that CLA concentration was increased in sucuk with CLA addition (p 

  14. Isomer specificity of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA): 9E,11E-CLA

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yunkyoung

    2008-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) were identified in 1980's, since then it has been intensively studied due to its various beneficial health effects such as anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-carcinogenic and anti-diabetic/obesity effects. Isomer specificity of a number of CLA isomers, especially predominant isomer 9Z,11E- and 10E,12Z-CLA, is now recognized. However, the less prevalent CLA isomers have not been well characterized. Recently, studies have reported the distinctively differe...

  15. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation caused reduction of perilipin1 and aberrant lipolysis in epididymal adipose tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Demin [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Li, Hongji [Key Laboratory of Animal Biochemistry and Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Zhou, Bo [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Han, Liqiang [Key Laboratory of Animal Biochemistry and Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Zhang, Xiaomei [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Yang, Guoyu, E-mail: haubiochem@163.com [Key Laboratory of Animal Biochemistry and Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Yang, Guoqing, E-mail: gqyang@yeah.net [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation suppresses perilipin1 in epididymal fat. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits promoter activity of perilipin1 in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acids elevate basal but blunt hormone-stimulated lipolysis. -- Abstract: Perilipin1, a coat protein of lipid droplet, plays a key role in adipocyte lipolysis and fat formation of adipose tissues. However, it is not clear how the expression of perilipin1 is affected in the decreased white adipose tissues (WAT) of mice treated with dietary supplement of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Here we obtained lipodystrophic mice by dietary administration of CLA which exhibited reduced epididymal (EPI) WAT, aberrant adipocytes and decreased expression of leptin in this tissue. We found both transcription and translation of perilipin1 was suppressed significantly in EPI WAT of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice. The gene expression of negative regulator tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha}) and the positive regulator Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) of perilipin1 was up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively. In cultured 3T3-L1 cells the promoter activity of perilipin1 was dramatically inhibited in the presence of CLA. Using ex vivo experiment we found that the basal lipolysis was elevated but the hormone-stimulated lipolysis blunted in adipose explants of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice, suggesting that the reduction of perilipin1 in white adipose tissues may at least in part contribute to CLA-mediated alternation of lipolysis of WAT.

  16. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on lipoprotein lipase activity in 3T3-L1 adipocyte culture Efeito da suplementação com ácido linoléico conjugado sobre a atividade da lípase lipoprotéica em cultura de adipócitos 3T3-L1

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Prais Botelho; Lilia Ferreira Santos-Zago; Admar Costa de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid may reduce fat body mass and increase lean body mass in various species. Some studies have demonstrated that conjugated linoleic acid reduces body fat, in part, by inhibiting the activity of lipoprotein lipase in adipocytes. The objective of this work was to study the effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on lipoprotein lipase activity in 3T3-L1 adipocyte culture. 3T3-L1 adipocytes received linoleic acid (group C) or conjugated linole...

  17. Effect of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation on Early Inflammatory Responses during Cutaneous Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na-Young Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory response is considered the most important period that regulates the entire healing process. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, a class of linoleic acid positional and geometric isomers, is well known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that dietary CLA supplementation accelerates cutaneous wound healing by regulating antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. To investigate wound closure rates and inflammatory responses, we used a full-thickness excisional wound model after 2-week treatments with control, 0.5%, or 1% CLA-supplemented diet. Mice fed dietary CLA supplementation had reduced levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. Moreover, the wound closure rate was improved significantly in mice fed a 1% CLA-supplemented diet during early stage of wound healing (inflammatory stage. We conclude that dietary CLA supplementation enhances the early stage of cutaneous wound healing as a result of modulating oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

  18. Effects of dietary supplementation of rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid to grazing cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, S R; Oliveira, D E; Aroeira, L J M; McGuire, M A; Bauman, D E; Lanna, D P D

    2010-03-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are potent anticarcinogens in animal and in vitro models as well as inhibitors of fatty acid synthesis in mammary gland, liver, and adipose tissue. Our objective was to evaluate long-term CLA supplementation of lactating dairy cows in tropical pasture on milk production and composition and residual effects posttreatment. Thirty crossbred cows grazing stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst var. nlemfüensis) were blocked by parity and received 150 g/d of a dietary fat supplement of either Ca-salts of palm oil fatty acids (control) or a mixture of Ca-salts of CLA (CLA treatment). Supplements of fatty acids were mixed with 4 kg/d of concentrate. Grazing plus supplements were estimated to provide 115% of the estimated metabolizable protein requirements from 28 to 84 d in milk (treatment period). The CLA supplement provided 15 g/d of cis-9,trans-11 and 22g of cis-10,trans-12. Residual effects were evaluated from 85 to 112 d in milk (residual period) when cows were fed an 18% crude protein concentrate without added fat. The CLA treatment increased milk production but reduced milk fat concentration from 2.90 to 2.14% and fat production from 437 to 348 g/d. Milk protein concentration increased by 11.5% (2.79 to 3.11%) and production by 19% (422 to 504 g/d) in the cows fed CLA. The CLA treatment decreased milk energy concentration and increased milk volume, resulting in unchanged energy output. Milk production and protein concentration and production were also greater during the residual period for the CLA-treated cows. The CLA treatment reduced production of fatty acids (FA) of all chain lengths, but the larger effect was on short-chain FA, causing a shift toward a greater content of longer chain FA. The CLA treatment increased total milk CLA content by 30% and content of the trans-10,cis-12 CLA isomer by 88%. The CLA treatment tended to decrease the number of days open, suggesting a possible effect on reproduction. Under tropical grazing

  19. The Transfer of conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid from milk to meat in goats

    OpenAIRE

    G. Pulina; S. Fancellu; G. Battacone; A. Nudda

    2005-01-01

    Biomedical studies with animal models have demonstrated that conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have many positive health benefits. The major sources of CLA in human diets are meat and milk products from ruminants. The content of CLA in ruminant fat depends on the rumen’s production of CLA and trans-11 C18:1 (vaccenic acid,VA) as bio-hydrogenation intermediates and on VA by D9-desaturase. Kid’s meat is a valuable and expensive product. The kids are fed exclusively with the milk of th...

  20. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Induces Mast Cell Recruitment during Mouse Mammary Gland Stromal Remodeling12

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Joshua S.; McGee, Sibel Oflazoglu; Ip, Margot M.; Kuhlmann, Dietrich; Masso-Welch, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a dietary chemopreventive agent that induces apoptosis in the mammary adipose vascular endothelium and decreases mammary brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT). To determine onset and extent of stromal remodeling, we fed CD2F1/Cr mice diets supplemented with 1 or 2 g/100 g mixed CLA isomers for 1–7 wk. BAT loss, collagen deposition, and leukocyte recruitment occurred in the mouse mammary fat pad, coincident with an increase in parenchymal-a...

  1. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) increases milk yield without losing body weight in lactating sows

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Joo, Young-Kuk; Lee, Jin-Woo; Ha, Young-Joo; Yeo, Joon-Mo; Kim, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the performance of lactating sows and piglets as well as the immunity of piglets suckling from sows fed CLA. Eighteen multiparous Duroc sows with an average body weight (BW) of 232.0 ± 6.38 kg were randomly selected and assigned to two dietary treatments (n = 9 for each treatment), control (no CLA addition) and 1% CLA supplementation. For the control diet, CLA was replaced with soybean oil. Experimen...

  2. Production of phosphatidylcholine containing conjugated linoleic acid mediated by phospholipase A2

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Yukihiro; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    Esterification of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was carried out using porcine pancreatic phospholipase A2 (PLA2). PLA2 only slightly synthesized phosphatidylcholine containing CLA (CLA-PC) at 2.6% by the addition of water. Addition of formamide in place of water markedly increased the yield of CLA-PC. In addition, synthesis of CLA-PC by PLA2 was affected by the amount of substrate CLA and PLA2 in the reaction system. Under optimal reaction conditions using ...

  3. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body weight gain in ovariectomized female C57BL/6J mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kanaya, Noriko; Chen, Shiuan

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen is an important protective factor against obesity in females. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher rate of obesity than premenopausal women, which is associated with age-related loss of ovary function. It has been reported that a diet containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduced body weight and body fat mass in the animal model as well as in human trials. We hypothesized that ingestion of CLA would reduce body weight gain in ovariectomized (OVX) female C57BL/6J mice whi...

  4. Nitrite Treatment Rescues Cardiac Dysfunction in Aged Mice Treated with Conjugated Linoleic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Piell, Kellianne M.; Kelm, Natia Qipshidze; Caroway, Megan P.; Aman, Masarath; Cole, Marsha P.

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (cLA) is a commercially available weight loss supplement that is not currently regulated by the FDA. Numerous studies suggest that cLA mediates protection in diseases including cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis, immune function, and obesity. Based upon these reports, it was hypothesized that supplementation of cLA would improve heart function in aged wild-type (WT) mice. At 10 months of age, mice were treated with cLA, nitrite, or the combination of the two. Echocardi...

  5. Influence of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and L-Lysine on heavy pigs performances and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Corino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA refers to a group of positional and geometric fatty acid isomers derived from linoleic acid. Dietary CLA supplementation has been shown to increase feed efficiency and may reduce body fat content in swine as recently reviewed by Corino et al., (2005. There was only one research conducted in heavy pig in which the authors did not observed any significant effect of dietary CLA on growth performances and lean tissue (Corino et al., 2003.

  6. Appraisal of conjugated linoleic acid production by probiotic potential of Pediococcus spp. GS4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Vinay; Ghosh, Asit Ranjan; Mandal, Badal Kumar

    2012-11-01

    Probiotics with ability to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is considered as an additive health benefit property for its known role in colon cancer mitigation. The conversion involves the biohydrogenation of the unsaturated fatty acid into conjugated form. Probiotic strain Pediococcus spp. GS4 was efficiently able to biohydrogenate linoleic acid (LA) into its conjugated form within 48 h of incubation. Quantum of CLA produced with a concentration of 121 μg/ml and sustained cell viability of 8.94 log cfu/ml maximally. Moreover, antibacterial effect of LA on the strain ability for biohydrogenation was examined at different concentrations and concluded to have a direct relationship between LA and amount of CLA produced. The efficiency of the strain for CLA production at different pH was also estimated and found maximum at pH 6.0 with 149 μg/ml while this ability was reduced at pH 9.0 to 63 μg/ml. Sesame oil, which is rich in the triacylglycerol form of LA, was also found to act as a substrate for CLA production by Pediococcus spp. GS4 with the aid of lipase-catalyzed triacylglycerol hydrolysis and amount of CLA produced was 31 μg/ml at 0.2 % while 150 μg/ml at 1.0 % of lipolysed oil in skim milk medium. Conjugated form was analyzed using UV scanning, RP-HPLC, and GC-MS. This study also focused on the alternative use of lipolysed sesame oil instead of costly LA for biohydrogenation and could be a potential source for the industrial production of CLA. PMID:22971829

  7. Probiotic Conjugated Linoleic Acid Mediated Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells by Downregulation of NFκB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadirareddy, Rashmi Holur; Vemuri, Sujana Ghanta; Palempalli, Uma Maheswari Devi

    2016-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid, a functional lipid, produced from Lactobacillus plantarum (LPCLA), has been demonstrated to possess apoptotic activity. The antiproliferative and apoptotic potential of LPCLA was here evaluated in vitro using the MDAMB231 human breast cancer cell line as a model system. Proliferation of MDA MB231 cells was inhibited with increasing concentrations of LPCLA with altered morphological features like cell detachment, rounding of cells and oligonucleosomal fragmentation of DNA. Flow cytometry confirmed the apoptotic potential of LPCLA by ANNEXIN V/PI double staining. Furthermore, outcome results indicated that the apoptosis was mediated by downregulation of the NF?B pathway which in turn acted through proteasome degradation of I?Bα, inhibition of p65 nuclear translocation, release of cytochromeC from mitochondria and finally overexpression of Bax protein. Thus, conjugated linoleic acid, a natural product derived from probiotics, could therefore be a possible potential chemotherapeutic agent due to its apoptotic activity against estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells. PMID:27509982

  8. Influence of organic diet on the amount of conjugated linoleic acids in breast milk of lactating women in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rist, L.; Mueller, A.; Barthel, C.; Snijders, B.; Jansen, M.; Simões-Wüst, A.P.; Huber, M.; Kummeling, I.; Mandach, U. von; Steinhart, H.; Thijs, C.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out whether the incorporation of organic dairy and meat products in the maternal diet affects the contents of the conjugated linoleic acid isomers (CLA) and trans-vaccenic acid (TVA) in human breast milk. To this purpose, milk samples from 312 breastfeeding m

  9. A high intake of conjugated linoleic acid does not affect liver and kidney function tests in healthy human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, A.J.; Leder, L.; Banga, J.R.; Katan, M.B.; Brouwer, I.A.

    2010-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CIA) is consumed widely as a supplement. It Causes hepatomegaly in animals, but toxicological data in humans are limited We therefore studied the effect of a high daily intake of CIA on liver and kidney function in healthy subjects. Twenty Subjects received 14 6 g cis-9,tra

  10. Advance in conjugated linoleic acid glycerides%共轭亚油酸甘油酯的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田玉霞; 苗榕宸; 杨丹白; 贺艾; 武言生

    2015-01-01

    共轭亚油酸甘油酯的合成方法主要有化学合成法与酶催化合成法,分离与纯化方法主要有超临界CO2萃取法与分子蒸馏法。对共轭亚油酸甘油酯的合成方法、分离与纯化、储存稳定性方面的研究进展进行了综述。指出开发一种绿色环保、成本低的共轭亚油酸甘油酯合成新方法很有必要。%The main synthesis methods of conjugated linoleic acid glycerides are chemical method and enzymat-ic method and the separation and purification methods of conjugated linoleic acid glycerides include supercriti-cal CO2 extraction and molecular distillation. The synthesis, separation and purification and storage stability of conjugated linoleic acid glycerides were summerized. It was proposed that it was necessary to develop an envi-ronmental protecting and low cost method for synthesizing conjugated linoleic acid glycerides.

  11. Fatty acid profiles in tissues of mice fed conjugated linoleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøttsche, Jesper; Straarup, Ellen Marie

    2006-01-01

    The incorporation of vaccenic acid (VA, 0.5 and 1.2%), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, mixture of primarily c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA, 1.2%), linoleic acid (LA, 1.2%) and oleic acid (OA, 1.2%) into different tissues of mice was examined. The effects on the fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols...... (TAG) and phospholipids (PL) in kidney, spleen, liver and adipose tissue were investigated. VA and CLA (c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA) were primarily found in TAG, especially in kidney and adipose tissue, respectively. Conversion of VA to c9,t11-CLA was indicated by our results, as both fatty acids were...... incorporated into all the analyzed tissues when a diet containing VA but not c9,t11-CLA was fed. Most of the observed effects on the fatty acid profiles were seen in the CLA group, whereas only minor effects were observed in the VA groups compared with the CA group. Thus, CLA increased n-3 polyunsaturated...

  12. Preliminary observations on the effects of milk fortification with conjugated linoleic acid in yogurt preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, R. V.; Albert, I.; András, C. D.; Csapó, J.; Ibănescu, C.

    2015-04-01

    The fortification and enrichment of food with health benefic natural or natural identical substances creating new functional foods became an important issue for food researchers and processors. However, often occurs that the obtained products (despite of their health benefic activity) cannot be marketed due to strange or accustomed taste and/or texture. The aim of the research was to elucidate the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) enrichment of raw milk on the rheological properties of the obtained yogurt. The results show that the values of the complex viscosity at 50 rad.s-1 (correlated with the thickness and sliminess of the food gel structures) of the CLA-enriched yogurt was the lowest among the studied samples, meaning the enriched yogurt is more creamy than the commercial products. These observations gave us the hope that, in this case, the texture of enriched product will not present any drawback related to consumer quality judgment.

  13. 共轭亚油酸:防癌食品%Conjugated Linoleic Acid: New Anticancer Ingredient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王光文

    2001-01-01

    迄今的研究结果表明,共轭亚油酸(Conjugated linoleic acid CLA)对人体健康有利,天然的优质CLA主要来源于反刍家畜乳和肉的脂肪.改进各种CLA的分析方法,可进一步解明CLA异构体的生理作用.因为乳和肉中发现的CLA对人的健康有利,所以消费者对牛乳、牛肉产生很大的兴趣.有必要对其进行长期的研究.

  14. Weight gain and psychiatric treatment: is there as role for green tea and conjugated linoleic acid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Madalyn

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dietary supplement use is widespread in developed nations. In particular, patients who utilize mental health services also report frequent consumption of dietary supplements, often in relation to management of adverse events and specifically weight gain. Weight gain induced by psychotropic medications can further compound psychological distress and negatively influence compliance. Here we report on four cases of social anxiety disorder treated with the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine. Self-administration of conjugated linoleic acid and green tea extract may have influenced objective anthropomorphic measurements; each patient had an unexpected decrease in total body fat mass, a decrease in body fat percentage and an increase in lean body mass. Since weight gain is a common and undesirable side-effect with psychiatric medications, our observation strongly suggests the need for controlled clinical trials using these agents.

  15. Research advance of conjugated linoleic acids%共轭亚油酸研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷利伟; 赵金兰

    2001-01-01

    Conjugated linoletic acids were naturally occured isomers of linoleic acid, which were new functional lipids possessing many physiological benefits including anticarcinogenesis, antioxidant, inhibition of body fat accumulation, growth and immune stimulation. Their physiological effects, resource and preparation were reviewed.%共轭亚油酸是天然存在于食品中的亚油酸异构体,具有抗癌、抗氧化、降低血清胆固醇、抑制脂肪积累、促进生长、刺激免疫等作用,是一种新的保键功能脂质。本文对其生理功能、来源等研究情况进行论述。

  16. Incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid into lipids from rat tissues and plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Pia; Sejrsen, Kristen; Straarup, Ellen Marie

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) into triacylglycerols (TAG) and phospholipids (PL) of tissues and plasma, and to interpret the role of dietary-derived vaccenic acid (VA) in increasing the tissue content of CLA (c9,t11) and the...... influence on the fatty acid profile. We fed five groups of rats semi-purified diets with varying levels of CLA and VA: control butter with low CLA (c9,t11) and VA; control butter added 5% CLA (c9,t11); control butter added 5% Tonalin [equal amount of CLA (c9,t11) and CLA (t10,c12)]; control butter added 5...

  17. Conjugated linoleic acid mitigates testosterone-related changes in body composition in male guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Susan Q; DeGuire, Jason R; Lavery, Paula; Mak, Ivy L; Weiler, Hope A; Santosa, Sylvia

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesize that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may be effective in preventing the changes in total and regional body composition and increases in interleukin (IL) 6 that occur as a result of hypogonadism. Male guinea pigs (n = 40, 70- to 72-week retired breeders) were block randomized by weight into 4 groups: (1) sham surgery (SHAM)/control (CTRL) diet, (2) SHAM/conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) diet (1%), (3) orchidectomy (ORX)/CTRL diet, and (4) ORX/CLA diet. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans were performed at baseline and week 16 to assess body composition. Serum IL-6 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay. Fatty acids (FAs) from visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were analyzed using gas chromatography. In ORX/CTRL guinea pigs, percent total body fat increased by 6.1%, and percent lean mass decreased by 6.7% over the 16-week treatment period, whereas no changes were observed for either parameter in ORX/CLA guinea pigs. Guinea pigs fed the CLA diet gained less percent total, upper, and lower body fat than those fed the CTRL diet regardless of surgical treatment. Regional adipose tissue FA composition was reflective of dietary FAs. Serum IL-6 concentrations were not different among groups. In this study, we observed that, in male guinea pigs, hypogonadism resulted in increased fat mass and decreased lean mass. In addition, CLA was effective in reducing gains in body fat and maintaining lean mass in both hypogonadal and intact guinea pigs. PMID:27101759

  18. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on fungal delta6-desaturase activity in a transformed yeast system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, L T; Thurmond, J M; Liu, J W; Kirchner, S J; Mukerji, P; Bray, T M; Huang, Y S

    2001-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 18:2), a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6), has been shown to modulate immune function through its effect on eicosanoid synthesis. This effect has been attributed to a reduced production of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), the precursor of eicosanoids. Since delta6-desaturase is the rate-limiting enzyme of the n-6 PUFA production, it is our hypothesis that CLA, which has similar chemical structure to LA, interacts directly with delta6-desaturase. A unique and simple model, i.e., baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) transformed with fungal delta6-desaturase gene, previously established, was used to investigate the direct effect of CLA on delta6-desaturase. This model allows LA to be converted to y-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:3n-6) but not GLA to its metabolite(s). No metabolites of CLA were found in the lipids of the yeast transformed with delta6-desaturase. The inability to convert CLA to conjugated GLA was not due to the failure of yeast cells to take up the CLA isomers. CLA mixture and individual isomers significantly inhibited the activity of delta6-desaturase of the transformed yeast in vivo. Even though its uptake by the yeast was low, CLA c9,t11 isomer was found to be the most potent inhibitor of the four isomers tested, owing to its high inhibitory effect on delta6-desaturase. Since CLA did not cause significant changes in the level of delta6-desaturase mRNA, the inhibition of GLA production could not be attributed to suppression of delta6-desaturase gene expression at the transcriptional level.

  19. The In vitro Effects of Nano-encapsulated Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Stability of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Fermentation Profiles in the Rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Wan; Kim, Eun Tae; Cho, Sung Do; Kim, Jun Ho; Kwon, Seong Min; Jeong, Ha Yeon; Ki, Kwang Seok; Yoon, Ho Baek; Ahn, Young Dae; Lee, Sung Sill; Kim, Young Jun

    2016-03-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the stability of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) by nano-encapsulation against in vitro ruminal biohydrogenation by microbial enzymatic conversion. CLAs (free fatty acid form of CLA [CLA-FFA], nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA, triglyceride form of CLA [CLA-TG], and nano-encapsulated CLA-TG) were used in the in vitro fermentation experiments. When Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens (B. fibrisolvens) was incubated with CLA-FFAs, the concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and vaccenic acid (VA) slightly was decreased and increased by nano-encapsulation, respectively. When B. fibrisolvens was incubated with CLA-TG, the concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and VA decreased, but these were increased when B. fibrisolvens was incubated with nano-encapsulated CLA-TG. The nano-encapsulation was more effective against the in vitro biohydrogenation activity of B.fibrisolvens incubated with CLA-FFA than with CLA-TG. In the in vitro ruminal incubation test, the total gas production and concentration of total volatile fatty acids incubated with nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA and CLA-TG were increased significantly after 24 h incubation (pNano-encapsulated CLA-FFA might, thus, improve the ruminal fermentation characteristics without adverse effects on the incubation process. In addition, nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA increased the population of Fibrobacter succinogenes and decreased the population of B. fibrisolvens population. These results indicate that nano-encapsulation could be applied to enhance CLA levels in ruminants by increasing the stability of CLA without causing adverse effects on ruminal fermentation.

  20. ELECTRIC CONDUCTIVITY OF LONGISSIMUS DORSI MUSCLE OF PIGS FED THE FODDER WITH ADDITION OF CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław WASILEWSKI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research was to investigate the impact of feeding pigs the fodder with addition of different level of conjugated linoleic acid on results of electric conductivity of Longissimus dorsi muscle. Electric conductivity (LF, Ger. Leitfähigkeitmessung is the method of meat quality estimation. This technique uses high relationships between electric conductivity and the other parameters of meat quality. In breeding and production of pigs the aim is to obtain fatteners of low fat and high meat content simultaneously keeping good meat tissue quality. One of the ways of their quality improvement is using fodder supplements as i.e. conjugated linoleic acid (CLA. Results of many research proved that conjugated linoleic acid impacts also in a favourable way on humans health because reduces cholesterol level, prevents from heart attacks and some cancers, stimulates immune system and has antiinfl ammatory properties. Statistical analysis covered the results of 60 crossbred gilts, divided into 6 groups, fed the fodder with addition of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA or sunfl ower oil (SFO in amounts: 0.5; 1.0; and 2.0 %, respectively. Fattening period of animals lasted for 8 weeks with ad-libitum feeding. In 1, 3, 6 hour, 24 hours, 3 and 7 days after slaughter electric conductivity of muscle tissue was measured – muscle Longissimus dorsi. Electric conductivity measured in different time after slaughter was not statistically diversed between tested groups of animals. The results concerned electric conductivity of muscle Longissimus dorsi of pigs fed the fodder with addition of conjugated linoleic acid should be stated as satisfactory and proved normal meat. Therefore, feeding pigs the fodder with CLA addition in amount of 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 % did not impacts negatively on meat quality.

  1. Effects of conjugated linoleic acids and dietary concentrate proportion on performance, milk composition, milk yield and metabolic parameters of periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Maria; Meyer, Ulrich; Kersten, Susanne; Spilke, Joachim; Kramer, Ronny; Jahreis, Gerhard; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-06-01

    The study aimed to examine effects of supplemented conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) to periparturient cows receiving different concentrate proportions ante partum (a.p.) to investigate CLA effects on lipid mobilisation and metabolism. Compared to adapted feeding, a high-concentrate diet a.p. should induce a ketogenic metabolic situation post partum (p.p.) to better understand how CLA works. Sixty-four pregnant German Holstein cows had ad libitum access to partial mixed rations 3 weeks prior to calving until day 60 p.p. Ante partum, cows received control fat (CON) or a CLA supplement at 100 g/d, either in a low-concentrate (CON-20, CLA-20) or high-concentrate diet (CON-60, CLA-60). Post partum, concentrate proportion was adjusted, while fat supplementation continued. After day 32 p.p., half of the animals of CLA-groups changed to CON supplementation (CLA-20-CON, CLA-60-CON). A ketogenic metabolic situation p.p. was not achieved and therefore impacts of CLA could not be examined. Live weight, milk yield and composition, blood parameters remained unaffected by the treatments. Only a slightly reduced milk fat yield (not significant) was recorded for Group CLA-20. The proportion of trans-10,cis-12 (t10,c12) CLA in milk fat was significantly increased in CLA-groups compared to CON-groups. With the exception of a reversible CLA effect on milk fat in Group CLA-20, no post-treatment effects occurred. Dry matter intake (DMI) of Group CLA-60 was highest before calving, resulting in a significantly improved estimated energy balance after calving. Ante partum, net energy intakes were significantly increased in high-concentrate groups. Overall, supplemented CLA preparation did not relieve metabolism and lipid mobilisation of early lactating cows. But feeding CLA in a high-concentrate diet a.p. seems to increase DMI and thereby improve the energy balance of cows immediately after calving.

  2. Influence of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on growth, fatty acid composition and hepatic lipogenesis in large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea R.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan-yu ZHAO; Tian-xing WU; Hong-gang TANG; Ji-ze ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on growth, fatty acid composition and enzyme activity of fatty acid oxidation in the liver of large yellow croaker. We divided 1600 fish (average initial weight 150 g) into 4 groups and reared them in 8 cages. Four dietary treatments were formulated to contain 0%, 1%, 2% and 4% (w/w) CLA, respectively. The fish were fed for 10 weeks ad libitum twice daily. We found that the dietary CLA had no effect on growth, biometric parameters and whole body proximate (P>0.05), but showed some significant effects on the fatty acid composition in both muscle and the liver.The activities oflipogenic enzymes were slightly depressed in fish fed with increasing levels of CLA when compared with control (P>0.05). Dietary CLA supplementation had no effects on liver lipid content, but significantly increased the contents of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (P<0.05) and decreased monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content in both muscle and the liver. Dietary CLA inclusion resulted in significant increases of the biologically active cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 isomers in both tissues (P<0.05). The total accumulation of CLA was higher in the liver (3.83%, w/w) than in muscle (3.77%, w/w) when fed with 4% (w/w) CLA. This study demonstrates that large yellow croakers are capable of absorbing and depositing CLA and long-chain n-3 PUFA in the liver and muscle, showing that this species fed with CLA could be an important human food source for these healthful fatty acids.

  3. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 8 weeks does not affect body composition, lipid profile, or safety biomarkers in overweight, hyperlipidemic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Shama V; Jacques, Hélène; Plourde, Mélanie; Mitchell, Patricia L; McLeod, Roger S; Jones, Peter J H

    2011-07-01

    The usefulness of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as a nutraceutical remains ambiguous. Our objective was, therefore, to investigate the effect of CLA on body composition, blood lipids, and safety biomarkers in overweight, hyperlipidemic men. A double-blinded, 3-phase crossover trial was conducted in overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)), borderline hypercholesterolemic [LDL-cholesterol (C) ≥ 2.5 mmol/L] men aged 18-60 y. During three 8-wk phases, each separated by a 4-wk washout period, 27 participants consumed under supervision in random order 3.5 g/d of safflower oil (control), a 50:50 mixture of trans 10, cis 12 and cis 9, trans 11 (c9, t11) CLA:Clarinol G-80, and c9, t11 isomer:c9, t11 CLA. At baseline and endpoint of each phase, body weight, body fat mass, and lean body mass were measured by DXA. Blood lipid profiles and safety biomarkers, including insulin sensitivity, blood concentrations of adiponectin, and inflammatory (high sensitive-C-reactive protein, TNFα, and IL-6) and oxidative (oxidized-LDL) molecules, were measured. The effect of CLA consumption on fatty acid oxidation was also assessed. Compared with the control treatment, the CLA treatments did not affect changes in body weight, body composition, or blood lipids. In addition, CLA did not affect the β-oxidation rate of fatty acids or induce significant alterations in the safety markers tested. In conclusion, although no detrimental effects were caused by supplementation, these results do not confirm a role for CLA in either body weight or blood lipid regulation in humans.

  4. Inflammatory markers in patients with metabolic syndrome after the intake of fatty acids n-3 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Mondragón, M.G; Oliart Ros, R. M. ; Angulo Guerrero, J. O.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction: The metabolic syndrome (MS increa -ses the odds of dying for cardiovascular disease, theworld’s leading cause of death. It has been shown thatpolyunsaturated fatty acids have a protective role in cardiovascular disease and its comorbidities.Objective: To assess the effect of three kinds ofpolyunsaturated fatty acids on the chronic inflammation in MS.Methods: The study group was 45 adults with MSdiagnose according to IDF criteria. Each group of treatment was assigned cuasi-randomly to 15 subjects during six weeks: a 1.8 g/d n-3 (1.08 g eicosapentoaenoicacid EPA + 0.72 g docosahexaenoic acid DHA, b 2.0g/d conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, 50:50, cis9:trans11,trans10:cis12, c 40 g/d walnut Juglans regia. The results at the beginning and the end of the essay werecompared in each group, using the t-Student test and p <0.01 as statistical signification value.Results:In the patients supplemented with n-3 fattyacids, significantly decreased the level of IL-6 (from9.81 ±1.28 to 8.47 ±0.81 pg/ml, p=0.002, leptin(from 25.94 ±5.06 ng/ml to 20.53 ±3.96 ng/ml,p=0.003 and homocysteine (from 18.80 ±1.95 to16.72 ±1.99 µmol/l, p=0.007, in erythrocytes decreased the percentage α-linolenic content (from 1.90±0.77 to 1.26 ±0.17 %, p=0.004 and the n6/n3 rate(from 4.48 ±1.06 to 3.11 a ±0.60, p=0.000, while increased the percentage of EPA (from 1.13 ±0.45 to1.58 ±0.42 %, p=0.009 and DHA (from 2.61 ±0.36 to4.64 ±0.91 %, p=0.000. In the group that consumedwalnut declined the levels of TNF-α (from 8.75 ±2.06pg/ml to 6.68 ±0.97 pg/ml, p=0.002 and IL-6 (from10.61 ±1.45 to 8.72 ±0.79 pg/ml, p=0.000, in erythrocytes increased the α-linolenic content (from 1.86±0.65 to 2.62 ±0.72 %, p=0.005. In the group thatconsumed CLA decreased the level of homocysteine(from 18.01 ±2.65 to 15.34 ±2.26 µmol/l, p=0.006.Conclusions: The groups that consumed n-3 fattyacids in supplements (EPA/DHA and in walnut, becameevident the modification in

  5. Ácido linoléico conjugado - CLA en alimentos / Conjugated linoleic acid - CLA in foods

    OpenAIRE

    Paz Cabrera, Rafael Alberto

    2009-01-01

    El acido linoléico conjugado CLA, es un compuesto químico de gran importancia en la naturaleza, por la actividad biológica en el organismo. Químicamente es un isómero de ácido linoléico obtenido, obtenido básicamente por tres mecanismos; el primero por bioconversión del ácido linoleico, presente en el rumen de los animales, segundo por producción de metabolitos intermedios en la producción de ácido esteárico y finalmente por la fermentación de la leche mediante algunas cepas de microorganismo...

  6. Effect of conjugated linoleic acids from beef or industrial hydrogenation on growth and adipose tissue characteristics of rats

    OpenAIRE

    He Mao L; Mir Priya S; Okine Erasmus K; Napadajlo Helen

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of beef can be increased by supplementing appropriate beef cattle diets with vegetable oil or oil seed. Yet the effect of consumption of such beef on adipose tissue characteristics is unclear, thus the study was conducted to compare adipose tissue responses of rats to diets containing beef from steers either not provided or provided the oil supplements to alter CLA composition of the fat in muscle. Methods Effects of feeding synth...

  7. The effect of conjugated linoleic acids and omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on lipid profile in atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hassan Eftekhari; Fereshte Aliasghari; Mohammad Ali Babaei Beigi; Jafar Hasanzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most serious cause of mortality in developed and developing countries. Epidemiological studies indicated that dyslipidemia is the major risk factor of CVD. Dyslipidemia can be modified either by proper lifestyle or medical intervention or by the combination of both. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and ω3 fatty acids have beneficial effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CLA and omega-3 fa...

  8. Effect of goat production systems on meat quality and Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) content in suckling kids

    OpenAIRE

    Vonghia, G; G. Cappiello; F. Giannico; M.A. Colonna; A. Caputi Jambrenghi

    2010-01-01

    The effect of goat production systems was evaluated on the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in meat obtained from suckling kids. Twenty male Ionica suckling kids fed only on maternal milk were subdivided into two groups of 10 subjects each according to their dams’ feeding treatment: kids in Group I were raised under dams reared by an intensive production system, while those of Group E were raised under dams grazing on pasture. Kids were slaughtered when 45 days old. The g...

  9. Beef conjugated linoleic acid isomers reduce human cancer cell growth even when associated with other beef fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    De La Torre, Anne; Debiton, Eric; Juaneda, Pierre; Durand, Denis; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Barthomeuf, Chantal; Bauchart, Dominique; Gruffat, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    Although many data are available concerning anticarcinogenic effects of industrial conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), few studies have reported the antitumour properties of CLA mixtures originating from ruminant products. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro antiproliferative effects of beef CLA mixtures on breast, lung, colon, melanoma and ovarian human cancer cell lines. For this purpose, four fatty acid (FA) extracts prepared from beef lipid and varying in their CLA co...

  10. Influence of a dry fractionation of butterfat on the content of fatty acids including conjugated linoleic acids

    OpenAIRE

    Rehberger, Brita; Bütikofer, Ueli; Bisig, Walter; Collomb, Marius

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing demand among consumers for food products with natural nutritional-physiological advantages over comparable conventional products. As part of an EU project, a process using dry fractionation is evaluated that enables the targeted lowinput enrichment of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) in milk fat. Furthermore, the distribution of CLA isomers in the fat fractions was analysed. In the olein fraction for highland butter a CLA enrichment of 15.3% was obtained. The yield of the...

  11. Conjugated linoleic acid prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice by modulating both osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Fernandes, Gabriel; Williams, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. Beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on bone mineral density (BMD) have been reported in mice, rats and humans, but the effect of long term CLA supplementation against ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice and the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been studied yet. Eight weeks old ovariectomized (Ovx) and sham operated C57BL/6 mice were fed either a diet containin...

  12. Effects of Lactation Stage and Individual Performance on Milk cis-9, trans-11 Conjugated Linoleic Acids Content in Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, T; Oh, J J; Lim, J. N.; Hong, J E; Kim, J. H.; Kang, H.S.; Choi, Y. J.; Lee, H.G.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of lactation stage and individual performance on milk cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content in dairy cows. In experiment 1, the milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA content from dairy cows in early (0.33±0.014%), middle (0.37±0.010%), and late stages (0.44±0.020%) showed significant differences (p

  13. Insulin secretion after dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in normal and insulin-resistant mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Sörhede Winzell, Maria; Pacini, Giovanni; Ahrén, Bo

    2006-01-01

    Insulin secretion after dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in normal and insulin-resistance mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 290: E347-E354, 2006. First published September 27, 2005; doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00163.2005.-Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) improve insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant rodents. However, the effects of these fatty acids on insulin secretion are not known but are of ...

  14. Enrichment of milk with conjugated linoleic acid by supplementing diets with fish and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo El-Nor, S A H; Khattab, Mostafa S A

    2012-07-15

    There is an increase interesting in enrichment of milk with Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) due to its anti-oxidative and anti-carcinogenic properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil and its blend. Eight lactating Nubian goats were fed a base diet (T1), diet supplemented with 2% sunflower oil (on dry matter (DM) basis) (T2), diet supplemented with 2% fish oil (T3) and diet supplemented with 2% sunflower and fish oil (T4) for 84 day. Milk composition milk fat, protein (%) decreased in T2, T3 and T4 compared with control (T1) while there was no significant differences between treatments in milk lactose content. CLA content in milk fat was higher in response to fish oil or sunflower and fish oil blend compared with control (T1). The results indicated that supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil increased CLA contents in the milk 2-4 times than control.

  15. Preparation and characterization of aqueous dispersions of high amylose starch and conjugated linoleic acid complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Tae-Rang; Kim, Hee-Young; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2016-11-15

    Crystalline starch-CLA complexes were prepared by blending an alcoholic solution of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in an aqueous high-amylose maize starch dispersion. Recovery yield of CLA in the precipitates obtained by centrifuging the dispersion was dependent on reaction conditions such as temperature, time and pH. The CLA recovery reached a maximum when the reaction was performed at 90°C for 6h at neutral pH, with 67.7% of the initial CLA being co-precipitated with starch. The precipitates contained amylose-CLA complex exhibiting a V6I-type crystalline structure under X-ray diffraction analysis and a type II polymorph under DSC analysis. Ultrasonic treatment for the re-dispersed starch-CLA complex in water resulted in the reduction of hydrodynamic diameter of the complex particles to 201.5nm. The dispersion exhibited a zeta potential of -27.0mV and remained stable in an ambient storage without forming precipitates for more than 4weeks. PMID:27283663

  16. Mathematical Modelling to Predict Oxidative Behaviour of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in the Food Processing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitziber Ojanguren

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Industrial processes that apply high temperatures in the presence of oxygen may compromise the stability of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA bioactive isomers. Statistical techniques are used in this study to model and predict, on a laboratory scale, the oxidative behaviour of oil with high CLA content, controlling the limiting factors of food processing. This modelling aims to estimate the impact of an industrial frying process (140 °C, 7 L/h air on the oxidation of CLA oil for use as frying oil instead of sunflower oil. A factorial design was constructed within a temperature (80–200 °C and air flow (7–20 L/h range. Oil stability index (Rancimat method was used as a measure of oxidation. Three-level full factorial design was used to obtain a quadratic model for CLA oil, enabling the oxidative behaviour to be predicted under predetermined process conditions (temperature and air flow. It is deduced that temperatures applied in food processes affect the oxidation of CLA to a greater extent than air flow. As a result, it is estimated that the oxidative stability of CLA oil is less resistant to industrial frying than sunflower oil. In conclusion, thanks to the mathematical model, a good choice of the appropriate industrial food process can be selected to avoid the oxidation of the bioactive isomers of CLA, ensuring its functionality in novel applications.

  17. The effects of conjugated linoleic acids on breast cancer: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Arab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently prevention strategies for breast cancer are focused on lifestyle modification such as diet. Some dietary factors such as Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA can lower the risk of breast cancer, metastasis and some factors concerning this malignancy. Many studies have been established in this field, but their results are inconsistent. Therefore, we evaluated this association based on systematic review among published scientific literature. We performed an electronic search using PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, Google Scholar and Persian database (Iran Medex, magiran to identify relevant studies. We summarized the findings of 8 papers in this review. Although, three cohort studies were not overall identified a protective effect of CLA dietary intake or CLA content in breast tissue on breast cancer incidence, metastasis and death, one of them showed an inverse association after adjusting for age. Also, among case-control studies a weak inverse association between breast cancer risk and CLA dietary intake and serum levels among post-menopausal women was reported. Besides, a clinical trial showed that some indicator of breast tumor decreased after CLA administration among women with breast adenocarcinoma. Lacking published evidence suggested inconsistent results. So, further well-designed studies are required, particularly in considering the main breast cancer risk factors.

  18. Effects of whole linseed and rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid enriched diets on beef quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, M; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C; Albertí, P; Panea, B; Pérez-Juan, M; Realini, C E; Campo, M M

    2016-04-01

    Instrumental assessments and sensory tests were performed to evaluate the effects of diet and postmortem ageing time (1, 7 and 21 days) on beef quality. A total of 48 Friesian calves were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments: control, whole linseed (10% linseed), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (2% protected CLA), and whole linseed+CLA (10% linseed and 2% protected CLA). Animals were slaughtered at 458±16.6 kg live weight and 11 months of age. Ageing was more significant than diet on most instrumental parameters. Meat from linseed enriched diets had greater drip loss (P⩽0.001) and intramuscular fat (P⩽0.01) than meat from animals fed CLA. Beef aged for 7 and 21 days had lower cooking losses (P⩽0.01) and shear force (P⩽0.001) than beef aged for 1 day. Lightness was affected only by display time. The addition of CLA in the diet increased hue and yellowness, whereas the inclusion of linseed decreased these values, as well as increased redness. Linseed in the diet decreased fat odour (P⩽0.05), but increased beef (P⩽0.01) and liver (P⩽0.05) flavours. Meat aged for 21 days was significantly more rancid (P⩽0.001), even under vacuum storage. Several organoleptic properties were improved with the inclusion of linseed in the diet, whereas they remained unaffected by the inclusion of CLA. PMID:26592312

  19. role of conjugated linoleic acid in the prevention of radiation hazard in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the objective of the present study was to examine the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as a natural product in minimizing the radiation hazards. male rats were assigned to six groups each of 7 animals throughout six weeks, fed 1% CLA (wt/wt)added to commercial diet in the form of milk powder 182 g/kg diet. rats exposed to 6 Gy whole body gamma irradiation showed significant increase in total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C).triglycerides (TG), atherosclerosis index, total lipid (TL), phospholipids (ph-lipids), malondialdehyde (MDA), urea,creatinine, uric acid, calcium (Ca) and phosphorous levels associated with decrease in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), activity of reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), total antioxidant status, body weight, testes weight and testosterone both irradiated and non-irradiated milk powder administrated to irradiated rat groups minimized the radiation damage in the assayed parameters indicating its beneficial role as a promising antioxidant in scavenging free radicals and reactive oxygen species

  20. The effects of conjugated linoleic acids on breast cancer: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Arman; Akbarian, Shahab Aldin; Ghiyasvand, Reza; Miraghajani, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Recently prevention strategies for breast cancer are focused on lifestyle modification such as diet. Some dietary factors such as Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) can lower the risk of breast cancer, metastasis and some factors concerning this malignancy. Many studies have been established in this field, but their results are inconsistent. Therefore, we evaluated this association based on systematic review among published scientific literature. We performed an electronic search using PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, Google Scholar and Persian database (Iran Medex, magiran) to identify relevant studies. We summarized the findings of 8 papers in this review. Although, three cohort studies were not overall identified a protective effect of CLA dietary intake or CLA content in breast tissue on breast cancer incidence, metastasis and death, one of them showed an inverse association after adjusting for age. Also, among case-control studies a weak inverse association between breast cancer risk and CLA dietary intake and serum levels among post-menopausal women was reported. Besides, a clinical trial showed that some indicator of breast tumor decreased after CLA administration among women with breast adenocarcinoma. Lacking published evidence suggested inconsistent results. So, further well-designed studies are required, particularly in considering the main breast cancer risk factors.

  1. Lecithin-Based Nano-emulsification Improves the Bioavailability of Conjugated Linoleic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Wan; Kim, Jun Ho; Pan, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Young Jun

    2016-02-17

    In this study, we investigated the effects of lecithin-based nano-emulsification on the heat stability and bioavailability of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in different free fatty acid (FFA) and triglyceride (TG) forms. CLA nano-emulsion in TG form exhibited a small droplet size (70-120 nm) compared to CLA nano-emulsion in FFA form (230-260 nm). Nano-emulsification protected CLA isomers in TG form, but not in free form, against thermal decomposition during the heat treatment. The in vitro bioavailability test using monolayers of Caco-2 human intestinal cells showed that nano-emulsification increased the cellular uptake of CLA in both FFA and TG forms. More importantly, a rat feeding study showed that CLA content in small intestinal tissues or plasma was higher when CLA was emulsified, indicating an enhanced oral bioavailability of CLA by nano-emulsification. These results provide important information for development of nano-emulsion-based delivery systems that improve thermal stability and bioavailability of CLA.

  2. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA: effect modulation of body composition and lipid profile El ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA: los efectos en la modulación de la composición corporal y en el perfil lipídico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baddini Feitoza

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA refers to a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids, being represented by a group of isomers of linoleic acid called conjugated for having a double bound after a simple bound. Among its isomers, trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9, cis-12 CLA stand out. These isomers can lead to different effects on the body: anticarcinogenic, antidiabetogenic, antiatherogenesis and positive body composition alteration. The objective of this review is to describe their mechanisms of action, effects on body composition, on plasmatic lipoproteins and supplementation. Studies about CLA supplementation show its capacity of reducing fat percentage, body mass and of promoting an improvement in lipid metabolism. One of the adverse effects attributed to one of the isomers is insulin resistance by body fat redistribution. Limitations in the scientific models used in CLA researches make impossible to draw conclusions about the action of this fatty acid on human metabolism.El ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA es un ácido graso que pertenece al grupo de los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados, representado por el conjunto de isómeros del ácido linoleico, que son denominados conjugados porque poseen una doble conexión tras una conexión simple. De entre sus isómeros se distinguen el trans-10,cis-12 y cis-9, cis-12 CLA. Estos isómeros son capaces de promover efectos distintos en el organismo: anticarcinogénesis, antidiabetogénesis, antiaterogénesis y cambios de composición corporal. El objetivo de esta revisión es describir sus mecanismos de acción, los efectos en las lipoproteínas plasmáticas, en la composición corporal y la suplementación. Los estudios acerca de la suplementación del CLA demuestran su capacidad de reducir el porcentaje de grasa, el peso corporal, y de mejorar el metabolismo lipídico. Sin embargo, unos de los efectos contrarios relacionados a uno de sus isómeros es la resistencia a la insulina a través de la redistribución de

  3. Colostrum and milk production of sows is affected by dietary conjugated linoleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Uffe; Flummer, Christine; Jensen, Søren Krogh;

    2012-01-01

    (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12) from day 108 of gestation until weaning (4 wk after parturition) to evaluate whether dietary CLA affects the yield and composition of colostrum, time for initiation of milk production, and sow milk yield. Sows fed CLA tended to produce more colostral fat (6.3 vs.......03). Weight at birth (1.40 kg for both groups; P = 0.98) and at weaning [8.2 kg (CLA) and 8.0 kg (CON); P = 0.52] was not statistically different. In conclusion, colostrum yield was inhibited but milk yield was stimulated by dietary inclusion of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA and indicates that sow...

  4. Biohydrogenation of Linoleic Acid by Lactic Acid Bacteria for the Production of Functional Cultured Dairy Products: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Christina Kuhl; Juliano De Dea Lindner

    2016-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have attracted significant attention due to their important physiological properties, which have been observed in humans. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) demonstrate the ability to produce CLA isomers (C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 and C18:2 trans-10, cis-12) from the linoleic acid (LA) present in milk or in synthetic media. CLA isomers can be synthesized in vitro by LAB using vegetable oils rich in LA. The aim of this review is to present an update on the studi...

  5. Chemical, physical, and sensory properties of dairy products enriched with conjugated linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E L; Shingfield, K J; Kohen, C; Jones, A K; Lupoli, B; Grandison, A S; Beever, D E; Williams, C M; Calder, P C; Yaqoob, P

    2005-08-01

    Recent studies have illustrated the effects of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on human health. Ruminant-derived meat, milk and dairy products are the predominant sources of cis-9,trans-11 CLA in the human diet. This study evaluated the processing properties, texture, storage characteristics, and organoleptic properties of UHT milk, Caerphilly cheese, and butter produced from a milk enriched to a level of cis-9,trans-11 CLA that has been shown to have biological effects in humans. Forty-nine early-lactation Holstein-British Friesian cows were fed total mixed rations containing 0 (control) or 45 g/kg (on dry matter basis) of a mixture (1:2 wt/wt) of fish oil and sunflower oil during two consecutive 7-d periods to produce a control and CLA-enhanced milk, respectively. Milk produced from cows fed the control and fish and sunflower oil diets contained 0.54 and 4.68 g of total CLA/100 g of fatty acids, respectively. Enrichment of CLA in raw milk from the fish and sunflower oil diet was also accompanied by substantial increases in trans C18:1 levels, lowered C18:0, cis-C18:1, and total saturated fatty acid concentrations, and small increases in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content. The CLA-enriched milk was used for the manufacture of UHT milk, butter, and cheese. Both the CLA-enhanced butter and cheese were less firm than control products. Although the sensory profiles of the CLA-enriched milk, butter, and cheese differed from those of the control products with respect to some attributes, the overall impression and flavor did not differ. In conclusion, it is feasible to produce CLA-enriched dairy products with acceptable storage and sensory characteristics.

  6. Enzymatic Synthesis of Extremely Pure Triacylglycerols Enriched in Conjugated Linoleic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This work was objectively targeted to synthesize extremely pure triacylglycerols (TAG enriched in conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs for medical and dietetic purposes. Extremely pure CLA-enriched TAG was successfully synthesized by using the multi-step process: TAG was primarily synthesized by lipase-catalyzed esterification of CLA and glycerol and then the lower glycerides [monoacylglycerol (MAG and diacylglycerol (DAG] in the esterification mixtures was hydrolyzed to free fatty acids (FFAs by a mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase (lipase SMG1, finally, the FFAs were further separated from TAG by low temperature (150 °C molecular distillation. The operation parameters for the lipase SMG1-catalyzed hydrolysis were optimized using response surface methodology based on the central composite rotatable design (CCRD. The operation parameters included water content, pH and reaction temperature and all of these three parameters showed significant effects on the hydrolysis of lower glycerides. The optimal conditions were obtained with a water content of 66.4% (w/w, with respect to oil mass, pH at 5.7 and 1 h of reaction time at 19.6 °C. Under these conditions, the content of lower glycerides in the reaction mixture decreased from 45.2% to 0.3% and the purity of CLA-enriched TAG reached 99.7%. Further purification of TAG was accomplished by molecular distillation and the final CLA-enriched TAG product yielded 99.8% of TAG. These extremely pure CLA-enriched TAG would be used for in vivo studies in animals and humans in order to get specific information concerning CLA metabolism.

  7. Enzymatic synthesis of extremely pure triacylglycerols enriched in conjugated linoleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu; Wang, Weifei; Xu, Yang; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2013-01-01

    This work was objectively targeted to synthesize extremely pure triacylglycerols (TAG) enriched in conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) for medical and dietetic purposes. Extremely pure CLA-enriched TAG was successfully synthesized by using the multi-step process: TAG was primarily synthesized by lipase-catalyzed esterification of CLA and glycerol and then the lower glycerides [monoacylglycerol (MAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG)] in the esterification mixtures was hydrolyzed to free fatty acids (FFAs) by a mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase (lipase SMG1), finally, the FFAs were further separated from TAG by low temperature (150 °C) molecular distillation. The operation parameters for the lipase SMG1-catalyzed hydrolysis were optimized using response surface methodology based on the central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The operation parameters included water content, pH and reaction temperature and all of these three parameters showed significant effects on the hydrolysis of lower glycerides. The optimal conditions were obtained with a water content of 66.4% (w/w, with respect to oil mass), pH at 5.7 and 1 h of reaction time at 19.6 °C. Under these conditions, the content of lower glycerides in the reaction mixture decreased from 45.2% to 0.3% and the purity of CLA-enriched TAG reached 99.7%. Further purification of TAG was accomplished by molecular distillation and the final CLA-enriched TAG product yielded 99.8% of TAG. These extremely pure CLA-enriched TAG would be used for in vivo studies in animals and humans in order to get specific information concerning CLA metabolism. PMID:23945644

  8. Conjugated linoleic acid and nitrite attenuate mitochondrial dysfunction during myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoose, Patrick M; Kelm, Natia Qipshidze; Piell, Kellianne M; Cole, Marsha P

    2016-08-01

    Cardiovascular health is influenced by dietary composition and the western diet is composed of varying types/amounts of fat. Conjugated linoleic acid (cLA) is an abundant dietary unsaturated fatty acid associated with health benefits but its biological signaling is not well understood. Nitrite is enriched in vegetables within the diet and can impact signaling of unsaturated fatty acids; however, its role on cLA signaling is not well understood. Elucidating how nitrite may impact the biological signaling of cLA is important due to the dietary consumption of both cLA and nitrite in the western diet. Since co-administration of cLA and nitrite results in cardioprotection during myocardial infarction (MI), it was hypothesized that cLA and nitrite may affect cardiac mitochondrial respiratory function and complex activity in MI. C57BL/6J mice were treated with cLA and nitrite for either 10 or 13days, where MI was induced on day 3. Following treatment, respiration and complex activity were measured. Among the major findings of this study, cLA treatment (10days) decreases state 3 respiration in vivo. Following MI, nitrite alone and in combination with cLA attenuates increased state 3 respiration and decreases hydrogen peroxide levels. Further, nitrite and cLA co-treatment attenuates increased complex III activity after MI. These results suggest that cLA, nitrite and the combination significantly alter cardiac mitochondrial respiratory and electron transport chain activity in vivo and following MI. Overall, the daily consumption of cLA and nitrite in the diet can have diverse cardiovascular implications, some of which occur at the mitochondrial level. PMID:27156147

  9. Conjugated linoleic acid of dairy foods is affected by cows’ feeding system and processing of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Avilez Ruiz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The distribution of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in dairy products commercially available in Chile is poorly understood. This study aimed to assess the content of CLA in dairy cow products from Chile and the effect of processing fresh milk into dairy products. Samples of raw milk were categorized into two groups based on the animal feeding system utilized by the dairy farm: 1 grazing based systems (Los Lagos region; and 2 housing systems using total mixed ration (TMR diets (Los Angeles region. Simultaneously, commercial samples of condensed milk, powdered milk, butter and Gouda cheese were analyzed. Furthermore, samples of raw milk and processed products (powdered and sweetened condensed milk were also analyzed. Dairy farms based on grazing systems had higher levels of CLA in raw milk than TMR farms. In addition, average values of CLA were 1.72 g 100 g−1 of total fatty acids, in spring milk in the Los Lagos region, and 0.42 g 100 g−1 in summer milk, in the Los Angeles region. Similarly, the CLA content of dairy products was higher than that of raw milk. Milk processing affected the transferring of CLA from fresh milk into the final products. Sweetened condensed milk presented lower CLA values than raw and powdered milk. In conclusion, this study indicates the importance of the production systems to the CLA content as well as the effects of milk processing into dairy products. To sum up, more research is needed to elucidate the exact effect of the processing conditions of dairy products on the CLA content.

  10. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on body composition, body fat mobilization, protein accretion, and energy utilization in early lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Soosten, D; Meyer, U; Piechotta, M; Flachowsky, G; Dänicke, S

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on body composition, mobilization or accretion of body fat and protein mass, as well as the energy metabolism of dairy cows during the first 105 d in milk (DIM). For this purpose, a comparative slaughter experiment was conducted with 25 primiparous German Holstein cows. The experiment started at 1 DIM with the slaughter of 5 animals of an initial group receiving no CLA supplement. The remaining animals were fed a CLA supplement (n=10) or a stearic acid-based control fat supplement (CON; n=10) from 1 DIM up to slaughter. After 42 DIM, 5 more cows from each treatment (42-CLA and 42-CON) were slaughtered. The remaining 5 cows in each treatment were slaughtered after 105 DIM (105-CLA and 105-CON). The animals of the CLA groups consumed 6.0 g/d of trans-10,cis-12 CLA and 5.7 g/d of cis-9,trans-11 CLA. During the slaughter process, the empty body mass was recorded and partitioned into 9 fractions (meat, bone, offal, hide, mammary gland, retroperitoneal fat, omental fat, mesenteric fat, and s.c. fat). The fractions were analyzed for dry matter, ether extract, crude protein, and ash to calculate the body composition of the empty body mass at the different slaughter times. The principle of the comparative slaughter technique was applied to estimate body fat or protein mobilization and accretion in the viewed periods from 1 DIM until 42 and 105 DIM. The heat production (HP) was calculated by subtracting the energy in milk and energy changes in body mass from the metabolizable energy intake. The body composition was not affected by CLA supplementation. However, the mobilization of body fat mass from 1 until 42 DIM was 24.1 kg in the 42-CON group and 14.3 kg in the 42-CLA group. This resulted in a trend to lower body mass (fat and protein) mobilization of 10.5 kg in the 42-CLA group. Energy mobilization from body mass was 21.2 MJ/d in

  11. Short communication: Milk fat depression induced by conjugated linoleic acid and a high-oil and low-fiber diet occurs equally across the day in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, L; Cook, K L; Bauman, D E; Harvatine, K J

    2015-03-01

    Recently, a circadian rhythm of milk and milk component synthesis has been characterized that is partially dependent on the timing of feed intake. Our objective was to determine if inhibition of milk fat synthesis during diet-induced milk fat depression occurred to a higher degree during certain phases of the day. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 2 experiments that induced milk fat depression while milking cows 3 times per day at equal intervals. The response at each milking was analyzed using mixed model ANOVA with repeated measures. In experiment 1, nine multiparous Holstein cows were arranged in a 3×3 Latin square design, and treatments were control, 3-d intravenous infusion of 10 g/d of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), and a low-forage and high-fat diet for 10 d. In experiment 2, ten multiparous ruminally cannulated cows were arranged in a replicated design and milk samples were collected during a control period or after 5 d of abomasal infusion of 10 g/d of CLA. The daily pattern of milk fat concentration and yield did not differ between treatments in either experiment. In experiment 1, an effect was found of treatment and milking time on milk fat concentration and yield. Similarly, in experiment 2, main effects were found of treatment and milking time on milk fat concentration and an effect of treatment, but no effect of milking time on milk fat yield. Milk fat percent was increased from 3.41 to 4.06% and 3.25 to 3.48% from the morning to the afternoon milking in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Additionally, milk fatty acid profile, including trans intermediates, was changed over the day in experiment 1, but the magnitude of the changes were small and the pattern did not differ among treatments. A daily rhythm of milk fat concentration and yield was observed in cows milked 3 times a day, but milk fat depression decreases milk fat yield equally over the day.

  12. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation Leads to Downregulation of PPAR Transcription in Broiler Chickens and Reduction of Adipocyte Cellularity

    OpenAIRE

    Suriya Kumari Ramiah; Goh Yong Meng; Tan Sheau Wei; Yeap Swee Keong; Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) act as an important ligand for nuclear receptors in adipogenesis and fat deposition in mammals and avian species. This study aimed to determine whether similar effects are plausible on avian abdominal fat adipocyte size, as well as abdominal adipogenic transcriptional level. CLA was supplemented at different levels, namely, (i) basal diet without CLA (5% palm oil) (CON), (ii) basal diet with 2.5% CLA and 2.5% palm oil (LCLA), and (iii) basal diet with 5% CLA (H...

  13. Gene expression profiles in rat mesenteric lymph nodes upon supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid during gestation and suckling

    OpenAIRE

    Selga, Elisabet; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J.; Franch, Àngels; Ramírez-Santana, Carolina; Rivero, Montserrat; Ciudad, Carlos J.; Castellote, Cristina; Noé, Véronique

    2011-01-01

    Background Diet plays a role on the development of the immune system, and polyunsaturated fatty acids can modulate the expression of a variety of genes. Human milk contains conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid that seems to contribute to immune development. Indeed, recent studies carried out in our group in suckling animals have shown that the immune function is enhanced after feeding them with an 80:20 isomer mix composed of c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA. However, little work has been done ...

  14. Anti-obesity activity of diglyceride containing conjugated linoleic acid in C57BL/6J ob/ob mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hue, Jin-Joo; Lee, Ki Nam; Jeong, Jae-Hwang; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Lee, Young Ho; Jeong, Seong-woon; Nam, Sang Yoon; Yun, Young Won; Lee, Beom Jun

    2009-01-01

    This study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of diglyceride (DG)-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) containing 22% CLA as fatty acids in C57BL/6J ob/ob male mice. There were four experimental groups including vehicle control, DG, CLA, and DG-CLA. The test solutions of 750 mg/kg dose were orally administered to the mice everyday for 5 weeks. CLA treatments significantly decreased mean body weight in the obese mice throughout the experimental period compared to the control (p < 0.01). All...

  15. Co-treatment with conjugated linoleic acid and nitrite protects against myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natia Qipshidze-Kelm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the CDC, the most common type of heart disease is coronary artery disease, which commonly leads to myocardial infarction (MI. Therapeutic approaches to lessen the resulting cardiovascular injury associated with MI are limited. Recently, MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been shown to act as negative regulators of gene expression by inhibiting mRNA translation and/or stimulating mRNA degradation. A single miRNA can modulate physiological or disease phenotypes by regulating whole functional systems. Importantly, miRNAs can regulate cardiac function, thereby modulating heart muscle contraction, heart growth and morphogenesis. MicroRNA-499 (miRNA-499 is a cardiac-specific miRNA that when elevated causes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, in turn preventing cardiac dysfunction during MI. Previous studies revealed that combination treatment with conjugated linoleic acid (cLA and nitrite preserved cardiovascular function in mice. Therefore, it was hypothesized that cLA and nitrite may regulate miRNA-499, thus providing cardiac protection during MI. To test this hypothesis, 12-week old mice were treated with cLA (10 mg/kg/d-via osmotic mini-pump or cLA and nitrite (50 ppm-drinking water 3 days prior to MI (ligation of the left anterior descending artery. Echocardiography and pressure–volume (PV-loop analysis revealed that cLA and nitrite-treated MI mice had improved heart function (10 days following MI compared to untreated MI mice. Treatment with cLA and nitrite significantly induced levels of miRNA-499 compared to untreated MI mice. In addition, treatment with cLA and nitrite abolished MI-induced protein expression of p53 and dynamin-related protein-1 (DRP-1. Moreover, the antioxidant enzyme expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 was elevated in MI mice treated with cLA and nitrite compared to untreated MI mice. Confocal imaging on heart tissue confirmed expression the levels of HO-1 and p53. Taken together, these results suggest that therapeutic

  16. Conjugated linoleic acid induces apoptosis through estrogen receptor alpha in human breast tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a naturally occurring fatty acid found in ruminant products such as milk and beef, has been shown to possess anti-cancer activities in in vivo animal models and in vitro cell culture systems. In human breast cancer, the overall duration of estrogen exposure is the most important risk factor for developing estrogen-responsive breast cancer. Accordingly, it has been suggested that estrogen exposure reduces apoptosis through the up-regulation of the anti-apoptosis protein, Bcl-2. Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein, regulates apoptosis and plays a crucial role in the development and growth regulation of normal and cancerous cells. Our research interest is to examine the effects of CLA on the induction of apoptosis in human breast tissues. The localization of Bcl-2 in both normal and cancerous human breast tissues was determined by immunohistochemical staining and the Bcl-2 protein expression was tested by western blot analysis. Co-culture of epithelial cells and stromal cells was carried out in the presence or absence of CLA to evaluate apoptosis in the context of a cell-cell interaction. The results showed that both normal and cancerous breast tissues were positive for Bcl-2 staining, which was higher overall in mammary ducts but very low in the surrounding stromal compartment. Interestingly, by quantifying the western blot data, basal Bcl-2 protein levels were higher in normal breast epithelial cells than in cancerous epithelial cells. Furthermore, treatment with 17β-estradiol (E2) stimulated growth and up-regulated Bcl-2 expression in estrogen responsive breast epithelial cells; however, these carcinogenic effects were diminished by either CLA or 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (Tam) and were suppressed further by the combination of CLA and Tam. In both one cell type cultured and co-culture systems, CLA induced cell apoptosis in ERα transfected MDA-MB-231 cells but not in the wild type MDA-MB-231 cells. These data, therefore, demonstrate that ER

  17. An investigation of the biochemical mechanisms underlying the growth-inhibitory effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in cancer cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Áine

    2002-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid produced by ruminant animals. Despite animal studies showing that CLA is an effective agent in preventing mammary and colon tumour development there is a need to determine isomeric-specific effects of CLA and identify molecular targets in tumour tissues. Mammary (MCF-7) and colon (SW480) tumour cell lines were used in this study as in vitro models to investigate effects of CLA on growth and membra...

  18. Influence of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA on intramuscular fatty acid composition in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Corino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of feeding CLA has been thoroughly investigated in pigs, and Thiel- Cooper et al. (2001, Ostrowska et al. (2003, Lo Fiego et al. (2004, found that CLA modifies lipid fatty acid profile, negatively affecting some nutritional lipid indexes. So far,much less attention has been paid to rabbits. Recently, Corino et al. (2003 have shown that supplementing rabbit diets with CLA has limited effect on the chemical composition of meat and at a high slaughter weight reduces intramuscular fat content. The present research has been carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary CLA supplementation on cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12- C18:2 isomers content, and on fatty acid composition of rabbit intramuscular lipids.

  19. Production of Conjugated Linoleic and Conjugated α-Linolenic Acid in a Reconstituted Skim Milk-Based Medium by Bifidobacterial Strains Isolated from Human Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonia Villar-Tajadura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight bifidobacterial strains isolated from human breast milk have been tested for their abilities to convert linoleic acid (LA and α-linolenic acid (LNA to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and conjugated α-linolenic acid (CLNA, respectively. These bioactive lipids display important properties that may contribute to the maintenance and improvement human health. Three selected Bifidobacterium breve strains produced CLA from LA and CLNA from LNA in MRS (160–170 and 210–230 μg mL−1, resp. and, also, in reconstituted skim milk (75–95 and 210–244 μg mL−1, resp.. These bifidobacterial strains were also able to simultaneously produce both CLA (90–105 μg mL−1 and CLNA (290–320 μg mL−1 in reconstituted skim milk. Globally, our findings suggest that these bifidobacterial strains are potential candidates for the design of new fermented dairy products naturally containing very high concentrations of these bioactive lipids. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing CLNA production and coproduction of CLA and CLNA by Bifidobacterium breve strains isolated from human milk in reconstituted skim milk.

  20. Effect of apoptosis on gastric adenocarcinoma cell line SGC—7901 induced by cis—9,trans—11—conjugated linoleic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-RenLiu; Bing-QingChen; Yan-MeiYang; Xuan-LingWang; Ying-BenXue

    2002-01-01

    AIM:To determine the effect of apoptosis on gastric cancer cells(SGC-7901)induced by cis-9,trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid(c9,t11-CLA)and its possible mechanism in the inhibition of cancer cells growth.

  1. Effects of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Ruminants%日粮添加共轭亚油酸对反刍动物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁翠林; 于子洋; 林英庭; 王利华

    2015-01-01

    共轭亚油酸具有抑制脂肪累积、降低胆固醇、促进生长、抗癌、增强机体免疫能力等诸多生理功能,可作为新型功能性饲料添加剂应用于反刍动物饲料中,具有很好的研究价值和应用前景。本文介绍了共轭亚油酸的合成途径,综述了日粮中添加共轭亚油酸对反刍动物乳品质、肉用性能及免疫机能的影响,并对共轭亚油酸的应用方向进行了展望。%Conjugated linoleic acid can inhibit fat accumulation, lower cholesterol, promote growth, anti-cancer, enhance immune ability and so on. It can be used as a new functional feed additives in the ruminant feed, and has a good research value and application prospect. This paper introduced conjugated linoleic acid synthesis approach, the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on ruminants dairy quality, meat quality and immune function were reviewed, and the application direction of conjugated linoleic acid were prospected.

  2. Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA on the Reproductive Axis Pituitary, Thyroid, Testes of Ram in Non-reproductive Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Mahdavi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated Linoleic Acid is a group of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids with more than one double bond and a mixture of 28 isomers of Linoleic acid (C 18:2 and it is counted as one of the essential acids. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of CLA on some reproductive hormones in rams. In this study, six rams 3 to 4 years old with an average weight of 90 kg were selected. Rams were randomly divided into 3 groups and were treated by CLA treatment for 30 days. The first group (as a control group didn’t receive CLA, The second group received 0.5 g and the third group received 1 g of CLA. The blood testing was done on rams every 15 days using a 20 mL syringe. Data analysis was performed by SAS software. Also mean comparison was done using Duncan's test method (p<0.05. Obtained results showed that the serum concentration of testosterone hormone was decreased numerically as well as the concentration of FSH hormone however the concentration of LH was increased. Also the CLA had a significant effect on Leptin concentration. CLA in oral form can reduce the concentration of testosterone in rams.

  3. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Reduces Cholera Toxin Production In Vitro and In Vivo by Inhibiting Vibrio cholerae ToxT Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withey, Jeffrey H; Nag, Drubhajyoti; Plecha, Sarah C; Sinha, Ritam; Koley, Hemanta

    2015-12-01

    The severe diarrheal disease cholera is endemic in over 50 countries. Current therapies for cholera patients involve oral and/or intravenous rehydration, often combined with the use of antibiotics to shorten the duration and intensity of the disease. However, as antibiotic resistance increases, treatment options will become limited. Linoleic acid has been shown to be a potent negative effector of V. cholerae virulence that acts on the major virulence transcription regulator protein, ToxT, to inhibit virulence gene expression. ToxT activates transcription of the two major virulence factors required for disease, cholera toxin (CT) and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). A conjugated form of linoleic acid (CLA) is currently sold over the counter as a dietary supplement and is generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This study examined whether CLA could be used as a new therapy to reduce CT production, which, in turn, would decrease disease duration and intensity in cholera patients. CLA could be used in place of traditional antibiotics and would be very unlikely to generate resistance, as it affects only virulence factor production and not bacterial growth or survival.

  4. Lactobacillus plantarum as source of conjugated linoleic acid: Effect of pH, incubation Temperature and inulin incorporation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Soto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pH and temperature, and inulin use, on the growth andthe fatty acid profile of Lactobacillus plantarum strain wereevaluated. The best results were obtained at 6.5 pH broth, producing3.2 g/L of biomass and about 20% of conjugated linoleic acid(CLA in the cell lipids. Similar growth was observed with 37 and45ºC, but a low CLA content (10.6% was achieved at 45°C. In thecase of inulin incorporation, a low biomass concentration (1 g/Land low production of CLA (12.4% were observed. These resultssuggest a pH and temperature dependence on CLA production bythe microorganism.

  5. Physical and chemical stability of gum arabic-stabilized conjugated linoleic acid oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiaolin; Xu, Qiong; Tian, Dazhi; Wang, Nana; Fang, Yapeng; Deng, Zhongyang; Phillips, Glyn O; Lu, Jiang

    2013-05-15

    Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions have been used as a delivery system to protect conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid, from oxidation. Conventional gum arabic (GA) and two matured gum arabic samples (EM2 and EM10) were used as emulsifiers to prepare CLA-in-water emulsions. The emulsions have optimal physical and chemical stability at gum concentrations of 5% for all three gums. Emulsions with higher gum concentrations are more susceptible to lipid oxidation. This is attributed to reduced physical stability at higher gum concentrations because of the coalescence and depletion-induced flocculation of the emulsion droplets. The prooxidants iron and copper intrinsically contained in the gums could also contribute to this instability. Among the three gums, EM10 provides the most effective protection for CLA both physically and chemically, because of its superior interfacial properties over GA and EM2. PMID:23614832

  6. 一株产共轭亚油酸瘤胃细菌Streptococcus infantarius RB111的筛选与鉴定%Screening and identification of a Streptococcus infantarius RB111 that produces conjugated linoleic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄翠丽; 王敏; 成晓杰; 程敏; 仇天雷; 宫春波; 陈强; 高俊莲

    2011-01-01

    A bacterial strain producing conjugated linoleic acid was isolated from the goat rumen in Erdos, Inner Mongolia, the strain was designated as RB 111 . CLA production by the strain reached 269.2 mg/L,in which the percentage content of cis9, transll-CLA accounted for 52.64% and that of transl0,cis12-CLA accounted for 47.36%. The strain RB111 was identified using its morphological characteristics, fatty acid composition and physiological and biochemical properties, as well as its 16S rRNA gene sequence. The strain RB111 shares 99% sequence identity with the type strain NCDO 599T of Streptococcus infantarius. The result of fatty acid composition analysis revealed that the major fatty acids present in the strain RB111 were C16∶0, C18∶1 w9c and C18∶0, the total account of the three kinds of fatty acids was 60.64%. The morphological characteristics and the results of physiological and biochemical properties of the strain were in well agreement with that of the type strain NCDO 599T of Streptococcus infantarius. On the basis of these data, the strain RB 111 was definited to Streptococcus infantarius.%从内蒙古鄂尔多斯山羊瘤胃中分离筛选到1 株产共轭亚油酸的瘤胃细菌RB111,该菌株的cis9,trans11-CLA和trans10,cis12-CLA总产量为269.2 mg/L,其中cis9,trans11-CLA占52.64%,trans10,cis12-CLA 占47.36%.对菌株RB111 进行了形态学观察、生理生化鉴定、脂肪酸组成分析以及16S rRNA 基因序列分析.16S rRNA 基因序列分析结果表明该菌株与婴儿链球菌(Streptococcus infantarius)的模式菌株NCDO 599 的序列相似性为99%,该菌株的形态特征及生理生化特性与文献报道的Streptococcus infantarius 一致.脂肪酸组成分析结果显示,菌株RB111 的细胞脂肪酸主要成分是C16:0、C18:1 ω9c 和C18:0,3 种脂肪酸占脂肪酸总量的60.64%.综合以上结果,菌株RB111 被鉴定为婴儿链球菌Streptococcus infantarius.

  7. The use of 2-dimensional gas chromatography to investigate the effect of rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid, breed, and lactation stage on the fatty acid profile of sheep milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellattiero, E; Cecchinato, A; Tagliapietra, F; Schiavon, S; Bittante, G

    2015-04-01

    In this study, 2-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) was used to obtain a detailed fatty acid (FA) profile of sheep milk and to evaluate the effects of a rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid (rpCLA) supply, breed, days in milk (DIM), sampling period, and number of lambs suckling on the FA profile. Twenty-four ewes, from 3 autochthonous breeds of the Veneto Alps (Brogna, Foza, and Lamon), were housed in 6 pens (2 pens/breed), according to DIM (38 ± 23 d) and body weight (61 ± 13 kg). The ewes and their offspring of 3 pens (1 pen/breed) were fed ad libitum a total mixed ration (control), and the other animals received the same diet supplemented with 12 g/d per ewe, plus 4 g/d for each lamb older than 30 d, of an rpCLA mixture. The study lasted 63 d. Two composite milk samples for each ewe were prepared during the first and second months of the trial. The pooled milk samples were analyzed in duplicate for FA profile by 2-dimensional gas chromatography, which allowed us to obtain a detailed FA profile of sheep milk, with 170 different FA detected, including many that were present in small concentrations. The milk relative proportions of individual FA, groups of FA, or FA indices were analyzed by PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC), considering diet, breed, DIM, and sampling period as sources of variation. The random effect of animal was used to test diet, breed, and DIM, whereas the effects of period were tested on the residual. Breed had a small influence on milk FA profile, mainly on branched- and odd-chain FA. Within breed, animal repeatability for the relative proportions of milk FA was notable for almost all monounsaturated FA and for saturated FA with 14 to 19 carbon atoms, except C16:0, and less so for polyunsaturated FA. The inclusion of rpCLA (CLA cis-9,trans-11 and CLA trans-10,cis-12) increased the presence of the same CLA isomers in the milk as well as that of CLA trans-9,trans-11, and decreased the proportions of de novo

  8. Body measurements and serum lipid profile of overweight adult dogs fed diet with containing conjugated linoleic acid Medidas corporais e perfil lipídico plasmático de cães adultos com sobrepeso alimentados com dieta contendo ácido linoléico conjugado

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy Lorena Montaño Rivera; Ananda Portela Félix; Fabiano Montiani Ferreira; Ana Vitória Fisher da Silva; Alex Maiorka

    2011-01-01

    Studies with human beings and animals have shown that dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) promotes changes in body structure, markedly, body fat reduction. This research aimed to assess the effect of CLA (60% of conjugated linoleic acid methyl ester, at the proportion of 1:1 of the 9, 11: 10, 12 isomers) on changes in body weight, subcutaneous tissue thickness, body fat mass and concentration of serum lipids (triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL) in overweight dogs. Dogs of dif...

  9. Upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and liver fatty acid binding protein in hepatic cells of broiler chicken supplemented with conjugated linoleic acids

    OpenAIRE

    Suriya Kumari Ramiah; Goh Y. Meng; Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2015-01-01

    Since conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has structural and physiological characteristics similar to peroxisome proliferators, it is hypothesized that CLA would upregulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP) in the liver of broiler chicken. The aim of the present study was to determine fatty acid composition of liver in CLA-fed broiler chickens and the genes associated with hepatic lipid metabolism. A total of 180-day-old broiler chicks w...

  10. Antiproliferative Action of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Human MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells Mediated by Enhancement of Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication through Inactivation of NF-κB

    OpenAIRE

    Rakib, Md. Abdur; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Gon Sup; Han, Jae Hee; Kim, Jeong Ok; Ha, Yeong Lae

    2013-01-01

    The major conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers, c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA, have anticancer effects; however, the exact mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. Evidence suggests that reversal of reduced gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in cancer cells inhibits cell growth and induces cell death. Hence, we determined that CLA isomers enhance GJIC in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. The CLA isomers significantly en...

  11. A proof of principle clinical trial to determine whether conjugated linoleic acid modulates the lipogenic pathway in human breast cancer tissue

    OpenAIRE

    McGowan, Margit M.; Eisenberg, Burton L.; Lewis, Lionel D; Froehlich, Heather M.; Wells, Wendy A.; Eastman, Alan; Kuemmerle, Nancy B.; Rosenkrantz, Kari M.; BARTH, RICHARD J.; Schwartz, Gary N.; Li, Zhongze; Tosteson, Tor D.; Beaulieu, Bernard B.; Kinlaw, William B

    2013-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is widely used as a “nutraceutical” for weight loss. CLA has anticancer effects in preclinical models, and we demonstrated in vitro that this can be attributed to the suppression of fatty acid (FA) synthesis. We tested the hypothesis that administration of CLA to breast cancer patients would inhibit expression of markers related to FA synthesis in tumor tissue, and that this would suppress tumor proliferation. Women with Stage I–III breast cancer were enrolled i...

  12. Antiproliferative Action of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Human MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells Mediated by Enhancement of Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication through Inactivation of NF- κ B

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Abdur Rakib; Won Sup Lee; Gon Sup Kim; Jae Hee Han; Jeong Ok Kim; Yeong Lae Ha

    2013-01-01

    The major conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers, c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA, have anticancer effects; however, the exact mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. Evidence suggests that reversal of reduced gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in cancer cells inhibits cell growth and induces cell death. Hence, we determined that CLA isomers enhance GJIC in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. The CLA isomers significantly en...

  13. The t10,c12 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid stimulates mammary tumorigenesis in transgenic mice overexpressing erbB2 in the mammary epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Ip, Margot M.; McGee, Sibel O.; Masso-Welch, Patricia A.; IP, CLEMENT; Meng, Xiaojing; Ou, Lihui; Shoemaker, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a family of isomers of octadecadienoic acid, inhibits rat mammary carcinogenesis, angiogenesis, and lung metastasis from a transplantable mammary tumor. c9,t11-CLA, the predominant isomer in dairy products, and t10,c12-CLA, a component of CLA supplements, are equally effective. The objective of the current studies was to test the efficacy of these two CLA isomers in a clinically relevant breast cancer model. Transgenic mice overexpressing erbB2 in the mammary e...

  14. Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) inhibits expression of the Spot 14 (THRSP) and fatty acid synthase genes and impairs the growth of human breast cancer and liposarcoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Donnelly, Christina; Olsen, Arne M.; Lewis, Lionel D; Eisenberg, Burton L.; Eastman, Alan; Kinlaw, William B

    2009-01-01

    Spot 14 (THRSP, S14) is a nuclear protein involved in the regulation of genes required for fatty acid synthesis in normal and malignant mammary epithelial and adipose cells. Havartine and Bauman reported that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) inhibits S14 gene expression in bovine mammary and mouse adipose tissues, and reduces milk fat production in cows. We hypothesized that CLA inhibits S14 gene expression in human breast cancer and liposarcoma cells, and that this will retard their growth. Ex...

  15. Conjugated linoleic acid and fatty acid binding protein as antioxidants Ácido linoleico conjugado y proteína transportadora de ácidos grasos como antioxidantes

    OpenAIRE

    V.A. Piergiacomi; Palacios, A.

    2006-01-01

    Studies were carried out to determine the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and rat liver cytosolic protein enriched in fatty acid binding protein (FABP) on the non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation of rat liver microsomes. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation was more evident when the FABP containing fraction obtained from CLA-group was used with either kind of microsomes (CLA and control). The chemiluminescence and polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of rat liver microsomes changed aft...

  16. Enrichment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in hen eggs and broiler chickens meat by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzallah, Saqer

    2013-01-01

    1. The aim of this work was to compare conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations in chickens supplemented with 4 American Tissue Culture Collection (ATCC) bacterial strains, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus fermentum, and 4 isolates of Lactobacillus reuteri from camel, cattle, sheep and goat rumen extracts. 2. Micro-organisms were grown anaerobically in MRS broth, and 10(6) CFU/ml of bacteria were administered orally to mixed-sex, 1-d-old broiler chickens weekly for 4 weeks and to 23-week-old layer hens weekly for 6 weeks. 3. The 4 strains were evaluated for their effects on synthesis of CLA in hen eggs and broiler meat cuts. 4. Administration of pure Lactobacillus and isolated L. reuteri strains from camel, cattle, goat and sheep led to significantly increased CLA concentrations of 0.2-1.2 mg/g of fat in eggs and 0.3-1.88 mg/g of fat in broiler chicken flesh homogenates of leg, thigh and breast. 5. These data demonstrate that lactic acid bacteria of animal origin (L. reuteri) significantly enhanced CLA synthesis in both eggs and broiler meat cuts. PMID:24397511

  17. Endurance exercise and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplementation up-regulate CYP17A1 and stimulate testosterone biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Barone

    Full Text Available A new role for fat supplements, in particular conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, has been delineated in steroidogenesis, although the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. The aims of the present study were to identify the pathway stimulated by CLA supplementation using a cell culture model and to determine whether this same pathway is also stimulated in vivo by CLA supplementation associated with exercise. In vitro, Leydig tumour rat cells (R2C supplemented with different concentrations of CLA exhibited increasing testosterone biosynthesis accompanied by increasing levels of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. In vivo, trained mice showed an increase in free plasma testosterone and an up-regulation of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. The effect of training on CYP17A1 expression and testosterone biosynthesis was significantly higher in the trained mice supplemented with CLA compared to the placebo. The results of the present study demonstrated that CLA stimulates testosterone biosynthesis via CYP17A1, and endurance training led to the synthesis of testosterone in vivo by inducing the overexpression of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein in the Leydig cells of the testis. This effect was enhanced by CLA supplementation. Therefore, CLA-associated physical activity may be used for its steroidogenic property in different fields, such as alimentary industry, human reproductive medicine, sport science, and anti-muscle wasting.

  18. Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Boar Semen Quality After Long-term Refrigeration at 17°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Smp; Chaveiro, A; Moreira da Silva, F

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (10 trans, 12 cis) (CLA) on refrigerated boar sperm quality parameters up to 14 days at 17°C was assessed. Semen was extended in Androhep and divided into four treatments supplemented with CLA (25, 50, 100 and 200 μm) and control group, then kept for 2 h at 22°C. Afterwards an aliquot of each treatment was removed, and mitochondrial activity, viability, lipid membrane peroxidation (LPO) and stability of the sperm plasma membrane were assessed by flow cytometry. The remaining extended semen was maintained at 17°C until 336 h, repeating the same analysis every 48 h. Regarding percentage of live spermatozoa, no statistical differences were observed among treatments up to 96 h. After this time, viability decreased significantly (p boar A presented better results when compared with the other boars, especially at concentrations of 50 and 100 μm boar B showed significantly higher results (p boar spermatozoa. PMID:25976112

  19. Medium-chain triglycerides and conjugated linoleic acids in beverage form increase satiety and reduce food intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Hannah; Quinn, Paul; Clegg, Miriam E

    2016-06-01

    Both developed and developing countries are seeing increasing trends of obesity in people young and old. It is thought that satiety may play a role in the prevention of obesity by increasing satiety and reducing energy intake. We hypothesized that medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) would increase satiety and decrease food intake compared with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and a control oil. Nineteen healthy participants were tested on 3 separate occasions, where they consumed a beverage test breakfast containing (1) vegetable oil (control), (2) CLA, or (3) MCT. Participants self-requested an ad libitum sandwich buffet lunch. Time between meals, satiety from visual analog scales, energy intake at lunch, and intake for the rest of the day using weighed food diaries were measured. The results indicated that the time until a meal request was significantly different between the 3 meals (P=.016); however, there were no differences in intakes at the ad libitum lunch (P>.05). The CLA breakfast generated the greatest delay in meal time request. There was a difference between the control lipid compared with both the CLA and MCT for energy intake over the remainder of the test day and for total energy intake on the test day (P.05). Both CLA and MCT increased satiety and reduced energy intake, indicating a potential role in aiding the maintenance of energy balance. PMID:27188898

  20. Stability assessment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) oil-in-water beverage emulsion formulated with acacia and xanthan gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Maryam; Goli, Sayed Amir Hossein; Nasirpour, Ali

    2016-05-15

    The development of a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) oil-in-water beverage emulsion containing acacia gum (AG) and xanthan gum (XG) was investigated. D-optimal design and response surface method was used and 10% w/w AG, 3.5% w/w CLA and 0.3% w/w XG was introduced as the optimum formula. Afterward the effect of storage time on the physicochemical properties of selected formulation including specific gravity, turbidity, viscosity, average droplet size, span, size index, creaming index, oxidation measurements and stability in its diluted form, were determined. Findings revealed that the size of oil droplets increased after six weeks and resulted in instability of the emulsion concentrate. Peroxide value increased until 21 days and then decreased dramatically, whereas TBA and Totox values began to increase after this time. Turbidity loss rate was low demonstrating the good stability of the diluted emulsion. The results revealed that it is possible to produce a stable CLA oil-in-water emulsion for using in beverages. PMID:26775969

  1. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids increase intramuscular fat deposition and decrease subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haibo; Dong, Xianwen; Wang, Zhisheng; Zhou, Aiming; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Xue, Bai; Wang, Lizhi

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on intramuscular and subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle. The experiment was conducted for 60 days. The results showed that the average backfat thickness, (testicles + kidney + pelvic) fat percentage and subcutaneous fat percentage in dietary CLA were significantly lower than in the control group, while intramuscular the fat percentage was significantly higher. Compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle enzyme activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) in dietary CLA and the subcutaneous fat enzyme activities of LPL, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) were significantly increased. Similarly, compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), FAS, stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), ACC, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), heart fatty-acid binding protein (H-FABP) and LPL gene expression in dietary CLA were significant increased, as were the subcutaneous fat of PPARγ, H-FABP, LPL, CPT-1 and HSL in dietary CLA. These results indicated that dietary CLA increases IMF deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipogenic gene expression, while decreasing subcutaneous fat deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipolytic gene expression. PMID:26582037

  2. Influence of fish oil in the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid and omega 6 and 3 in buffalo milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Patiño

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research work was to investigate the influence of fish oil supplementation on the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and omega 6 and 3 in samples of buffalo milk. A total of 24 female buffaloes separated at random into three groups were fed for 49 days with: natural pasture (group I, supplemented with 70mL of fish oil (group II and 140mL of fish oil (group III. In the experiment the concentration of CLA showed differences (P<0.05 among the three groups, with a maximum of 7.14mg/g fat in group II. No significant differences were found in omega-6 among the three groups. The highest value of 3.82mg/g fat corresponded to group I, whicht had not been supplemented with fish oil. Significant differences were observed in omega 3 (P<0.05 in groups II and III with respect to group I. The highest average value of 2.42mg/g fat was obtained in group III. The closest relationship omega 6/3 (1.37:1 was observed in group III. As a result, the diets of groups II and III, which included fish oil, increased significantly the content of CLA and omega 3 with reductions in levels of omega 6.

  3. Cell nanomechanics and focal adhesions are regulated by retinol and conjugated linoleic acid in a dose-dependent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retinol and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) have previously been shown to have an important role in gene expression and various cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation and cell death. In this study we have investigated the effect of retinol and CLA, both individually and in combination, on the intracellular cytoskeleton, focal adhesions (FAs) and the nanomechanical properties of 3T3 fibroblasts. We observed a dose-dependent decrease in the formation of FAs following treatment with either compound, which was directly correlated to an increase in cell height (>30%) and a decrease in the measured Young's modulus (∼28%). Furthermore, treatments with both compounds demonstrated an increased effect and led to a reduction of>70% in the average number of FAs per cell and a decrease of >50% in average cell stiffness. These data reveal that retinol and CLA disrupt FA formation, leading to an increase in cell height and a significant decrease in stiffness. These results may broaden our understanding of the interplay between cell nanomechanics and cellular contact with the external microenvironment, and help to shed light on the important role of retinoids and CLA in health and disease.

  4. The conjugated linoleic acid isomer trans-9,trans-11 is a dietary occurring agonist of liver X receptor α

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers are dietary fatty acids that modulate gene expression in many cell types. We have previously reported that specifically trans-9,trans-11 (t9,t11)-CLA induces expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism of human macrophages. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this transcriptional activation, we asked whether t9,t11-CLA affects activity of liver X receptor (LXR) α, a major regulator of macrophage lipid metabolism. Here we show that t9,t11-CLA is a regulator of LXRα. We further demonstrate that the CLA isomer induces expression of direct LXRα target genes in human primary macrophages. Knockdown of LXRα with RNA interference in THP-1 cells inhibited t9,t11-CLA mediated activation of LXRα including its target genes. To evaluate the effective concentration range of t9,t11-CLA, human primary macrophages were treated with various doses of CLA and well known natural and synthetic LXR agonists and mRNA expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 was analyzed. Incubation of human macrophages with 10 μM t9,t11-CLA led to a significant modulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1 transcription and caused enhanced cholesterol efflux to high density lipoproteins and apolipoprotein AI. In summary, these data show that t9,t11-CLA is an agonist of LXRα in human macrophages and that its effects on macrophage lipid metabolism can be attributed to transcriptional regulations associated with this nuclear receptor.

  5. Production of bioactive substances by intestinal bacteria as a basis for explaining probiotic mechanisms: bacteriocins and conjugated linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Eileen F; Cotter, Paul D; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2012-01-16

    The mechanisms by which intestinal bacteria achieve their associated health benefits can be complex and multifaceted. In this respect, the diverse microbial composition of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) provides an almost unlimited potential source of bioactive substances (pharmabiotics) which can directly or indirectly affect human health. Bacteriocins and fatty acids are just two examples of pharmabiotic substances which may contribute to probiotic functionality within the mammalian GIT. Bacteriocin production is believed to confer producing strains with a competitive advantage within complex microbial environments as a consequence of their associated antimicrobial activity. This has the potential to enable the establishment and prevalence of producing strains as well as directly inhibiting pathogens within the GIT. Consequently, these antimicrobial peptides and the associated intestinal producing strains may be exploited to beneficially influence microbial populations. Intestinal bacteria are also known to produce a diverse array of health-promoting fatty acids. Indeed, certain strains of intestinal bifidobacteria have been shown to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid which has been associated with a variety of systemic health-promoting effects. Recently, the ability to modulate the fatty acid composition of the liver and adipose tissue of the host upon oral administration of CLA-producing bifidobacteria and lactobacilli was demonstrated in a murine model. Importantly, this implies a potential therapeutic role for probiotics in the treatment of certain metabolic and immunoinflammatory disorders. Such examples serve to highlight the potential contribution of pharmabiotic production to probiotic functionality in relation to human health maintenance. PMID:21742394

  6. Self-aggregated nanoparticles of linoleic acid-modified glycol chitosan conjugate as delivery vehicles for paclitaxel: preparation, characterization and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jingmou; Liu, Yonghua; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Jianguo; Ren, Jin; Zhang, Lifang; Jin, Yi

    2015-01-01

    A series of linoleic acid-modified glycol chitosan (LAGC) conjugates were synthesized and characterized by FTIR and (1)H NMR. The effect of the amount of linoleic acid (LA) on the physicochemical properties of LAGC conjugates was investigated. The mean diameters of three LAGC nanoparticles determined by dynamic light scattering ranged from 204 to 289 nm. The critical aggregation concentration values of LAGC conjugates in aqueous solution were 0.0148, 0.0348, and 0.0807 mg/ml, respectively. Paclitaxel (PTX) was physically loaded into the LAGC nanoparticles by a dialysis method. The drug loading content and encapsulation efficiency of PTX-loaded LAGC (PTX-LAGC) nanoparticles increased with an increasing ratio of the hydrophobic LA to hydrophilic glycol chitosan in the conjugates. PTX-LAGC nanoparticles were almost spherical in shape observed by transmission electron microscopy. In vitro release revealed that PTX release from the nanoparticles was reduced as the LA substitution degree of LAGC conjugates increased. Compared with the commercial formulation Taxol, PTX-LAGC-1 nanoparticles exhibited comparable cellular uptake and cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells in vitro. Importantly, PTX-LAGC-1 nanoparticles demonstrated the stronger antitumor efficacy against hepatic H22 tumor-bearing mice than Taxol (p delivery vehicles for tumor therapy.

  7. Effect of oleic and conjugated linoleic acid in the diet of broiler chickens on the live growth performances, carcass traits and meat fatty acid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Rapaccini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil and CLA enriched olive oil were compared with each other in a growth trial with broiler chickens, as energy supplements to the diet. A commercial CLA blend was used at the level of 1 kg per 100 kg mixed integrated feed. Two hundred and forty commercial hybrid broilers (Ross 308 were randomly subdivided and allotted to 8 pens of 30 birds each. Four pens of birds were fed the olive oil diet and considered the control group; the other 4 pens were fed the olive oil supplemented with CLA and considered the treated group. The experiment lasted 47 days. The live performance of the treated birds resulted different from the performance of the control ones: the final body weight was slightly lighter (2.544 kg vs 2.639 kg; P≤0.05 with a lower feed intake (4.886 kg feed vs 4.998 kg, P≤0.05 and, of course, an almost perfectly overlapping feed/gain ratio (1.90 vs 1.91. The fatty acid composition of the breast fat of the CLA treated birds resulted enriched by the two major CLA isomers, trans 10 cis 12 and cis 9 trans 11, whereas oleic acid and the linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic polyunsaturated acids showed a decrease (P≤0.05. CLA appears a recommendable ingredient in the diets of broilers as it improves the beneficial characteristics of poultry meat.

  8. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid mixtures and different edible oils on body composition and lipid regulation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Scalerandi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evidences suggest that commercial and natural conjugated linoleic acids (CLA differentially affect nutritional status and lipid metabolism. Objective: To investigate the differential effect of two types of CLA preparations supplemented to dietary fats containing different proportions of n-9, n-6 and n-3 fatty acids (FA on body composition, triacylglycerol (TG levels and lipid metabolism in mice. Methods: Growing mice were fed diets containing olive, maize and rapeseed oils supplemented with an equimolecular mixture of CLA (mix-CLA or a rumenic acid (RA-rich oil for 30 days. Body weight gain, carcass composition, tissue weights, plasma and tissue TG levels, and lipid regulation parameters were evaluated. Results: Independently of the dietary fats, mix-CLA decreased body weight gain and fat depots related to lower energy efficiency, hepatomegaly, increase of serum TG and decrease of muscle TG. Rapeseed oil prevented the hepatic steatosis observed with mix-CLA supplementation to olive and maize oils by increasing TG secretion. RA-rich oil supplementation decreased fat depots without hepatomegaly, hepatic steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia. Olive oil, by an equilibrium between FA uptake/oxidation, prevented the increase of muscle TG induced by the RA-rich oil supplementation to maize and rapeseed oils. Discussion and conclusion: The proportions of dietary unsaturated FA modulated the different mix-CLA and RA-rich oil response to lipid metabolism in mice. Finally, rapeseed oil prevented the hepatic steatosis induced by mix-CLA, and the most beneficial effects of RA-rich oil were observed when supplemented to olive oil, due to the reduced lipid accretion without changes in TG levels.

  9. The conjugated linoleic acid isomer trans-9,trans-11 is a dietary occurring agonist of liver X receptor {alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecker, Josef; Liebisch, Gerhard [Institute of Clinical Chemistry, University of Regensburg (Germany); Patsch, Wolfgang [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Hospital of Salzburg (Austria); Schmitz, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.schmitz@klinik.uni-regensburg.de [Institute of Clinical Chemistry, University of Regensburg (Germany)

    2009-10-30

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers are dietary fatty acids that modulate gene expression in many cell types. We have previously reported that specifically trans-9,trans-11 (t9,t11)-CLA induces expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism of human macrophages. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this transcriptional activation, we asked whether t9,t11-CLA affects activity of liver X receptor (LXR) {alpha}, a major regulator of macrophage lipid metabolism. Here we show that t9,t11-CLA is a regulator of LXR{alpha}. We further demonstrate that the CLA isomer induces expression of direct LXR{alpha} target genes in human primary macrophages. Knockdown of LXR{alpha} with RNA interference in THP-1 cells inhibited t9,t11-CLA mediated activation of LXR{alpha} including its target genes. To evaluate the effective concentration range of t9,t11-CLA, human primary macrophages were treated with various doses of CLA and well known natural and synthetic LXR agonists and mRNA expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 was analyzed. Incubation of human macrophages with 10 {mu}M t9,t11-CLA led to a significant modulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1 transcription and caused enhanced cholesterol efflux to high density lipoproteins and apolipoprotein AI. In summary, these data show that t9,t11-CLA is an agonist of LXR{alpha} in human macrophages and that its effects on macrophage lipid metabolism can be attributed to transcriptional regulations associated with this nuclear receptor.

  10. Diet supplementation with the cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid isomer affects the size of adipocytes in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Paula A; Martins, Susana V; Pinho, Mário S; Alfaia, Cristina M; Fontes, Carlos M G A; Rodrigues, Pedro O; Morais, Graça S L; Castro, Matilde F; Pinto, Rui; Prates, José A M

    2008-07-01

    Previous reports have demonstrated that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) acts on body fat accumulation in a variety of animal models. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cis (c)-9,trans (t)-11 and t10,c12 CLA isomers on the number and size of adipocytes from the inguinal and retroperitoneal fats in Wistar male rats. A 5.1% palm oil-based diet was supplemented with CLA isomers as follows: 0.6% of c9,t11, 0.6% of t10,c12, 1.3% of c9,t11 and t10,c12 isomers in mixture, and a control nonsupplemented group for comparative purposes. Fat tissues were prepared on microscope slides for histologic examination using an image-analysis software to count the number of adipocytes and measure cell sizes. The results showed that CLA isomers did not affect (P > .05) either final body and fat depot weights or serum lipids (with the exception of triacylglycerols) and adipocytokines (leptin and adiponectin). Animals fed the c9,t11 CLA isomer diet showed larger adipocytes when compared to other groups. Independently of the CLA dietary treatment, retroperitoneal fat showed larger adipocytes (3319 microm(2)) and therefore a smaller number of adipocytes per unit of area, compared to inguinal fat (3055 microm(2)). Taken together, the data suggest that a palm oil-based diet supplemented with the c9,t11 CLA isomer in Wistar rats, in contrast to the t10,c12 isomer and the mixture of both isomers, increases adipocyte dimensions in inguinal and retroperitoneal fat depots, while having a minor effect in serum lipids and adipocytokines. PMID:19083449

  11. [Influence of dietotherapy enriched with conjugated linoleic acid on anthropometrical indicators and body composite structure in patients with an overweight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, A R; Derbeneva, S A

    2013-01-01

    The clinical efficiency of dietotherapy enriched with conjugated linoleic acid (3 g per day) in patients, suffering from the excess mass of a body and obesity of I and II degrees has been investigated. Dynamics of anthropometrical indicators and body composite structure before and after the treatment of patients from the main (n = 20) and control groups were estimated. Studied parameters were fixed in day 0, 14 and 28. Statistically significant reduction of the weight, body mass index (BMI), anthropometrical parameters (volumes of a waist, hips, a shoulder), indicators of body composite structure (fatty weight, area of splanchnic fat, muscular weight) has been revealed as a result of the carried-out course of treatment, and they were more expressed in patients of the main group. In particular, the waist size authentically decreased by 6.5% in patients from the main group, while in patients from the group of comparison the decrease reached only 4.2%. Average change of waist volume was--7.0 cm in the main group and--4.5 cm in the control group. The grasp of hips in the main group decreased by 4.2%, in the group of comparison for 2.8%. Absolute change of hips volume in the main group 1.67 fold exceeded that in the group of comparison (p < 0.005). The shin grasp in the main group decreased by 9.7%, while in the control group remained invariable. BMI decreased by 7.2% and 5%, respectively. Thus, the reduction of body fatty weight was 10% in patients from the main group and 4% in patients from the group of comparison. The body total liquid decreased by 1.4 l in the main group, and only by 0.3 l in the group of comparison. The received intergroup distinctions are statistically reliable (p < 0.05). PMID:24340933

  12. In vitro study of the effect of diesterified alkoxyglycerols with conjugated linoleic acid on adipocyte inflammatory mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reglero Guillermo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adipocytes contribute to inflammation and the innate immune response through expression of inflammatory mediators. High levels of these mediators have been related to chronic inflammation state and insulin resistance, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes type 2, among other disorders. 3-octadecylglycerol (batyl alcohol has been described as an inflammatory agent, whereas Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA is considered effective against obesity. In this study we examined the anti-inflammatory activity and mechanisms of modified alkoxyglycerols. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α activated mature adipocytes were used as cellular model of inflammation. Secreted levels and gene expressions of some inflammatory mediators, such as the adipokines, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10; and the levels of leptin and adiponectin hormones were quantified in presence and absence of alkoxyglycerols and when human adipocyte cells were or not activated by TNF-α. The aim of this study is to describe the effects of nonesterified alkoxyglycerols, CLA and diesterified alkoxyglycerols with CLA (DEA-CLA and check if they present beneficial properties using an in vitro model of some chronic diseases related to the inflammatory process, such as obesity, using human mature adipocytes activated with TNF-α. Results Our data suggest that DEA-CLA, product of the esterification between the CLA and batyl alcohol, present beneficial effects on adipocytes close to observed and described for CLA (i.e. decrease of IL-1β and no adverse effects as observed for batyl alcohol (i.e. decrease of IL-10. In addition, DEA-CLA presented similar activity to CLA showing a trend to increase the secreted levels of adiponectin and decreasing the secreted levels of leptin. Conclusions CLA and DEA-CLA modify adipocyte inflammatory mediators and also could play a role on energy homeostasis through depletion of leptin levels.

  13. Effect of conjugated linoleic acids from beef or industrial hydrogenation on growth and adipose tissue characteristics of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Mao L

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA content of beef can be increased by supplementing appropriate beef cattle diets with vegetable oil or oil seed. Yet the effect of consumption of such beef on adipose tissue characteristics is unclear, thus the study was conducted to compare adipose tissue responses of rats to diets containing beef from steers either not provided or provided the oil supplements to alter CLA composition of the fat in muscle. Methods Effects of feeding synthetic (industrial hydrogenation CLA or CLA from beef on growth and adipose tissue responses of weanling, male, Wistar rats (n = 56; 14 per treatment diet were investigated in a completely randomized design experiment. Diets were: control (CON diet containing casein and soybean oil, synthetic CLA (SCLA diet; where 1.69% synthetic CLA replaced soybean oil, two beef-diets; CONM and CLAM, containing freeze dried beef from steers either not fed or fed 14% sunflower seeds to increase CLA content of beef. Diets were isonitrogenous (20% protein and isocaloric. Rat weights and ad libitum intakes were recorded every 2 wk. After 9 wk, rats were fasted for 24 h, blood sampled by heart puncture, sacrificed, tissue and organs were harvested and weights recorded. The adipose tissue responses with regard to cellularity and fatty acid compositions of retroperitoneal and inguinal adipose tissue were determined. Results Body weights and gains were comparable, but organ weights as percent of body weight were greater for rats fed SCLA than CONM. Fasting blood glucose concentration was lower (p 7 cells/g and 8.03 × 108 cells than those fed CONM (28.88 × 107 cells/g and 32.05 × 108 cells, respectively. Conclusion Study suggests that dietary CLA either as synthetic or high CLA-beef may alter adipose tissue characteristics by decreasing the number of adipocytes and by decreasing the size of the tissue.

  14. Gene expression profiles in rat mesenteric lymph nodes upon supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid during gestation and suckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivero Montserrat

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet plays a role on the development of the immune system, and polyunsaturated fatty acids can modulate the expression of a variety of genes. Human milk contains conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, a fatty acid that seems to contribute to immune development. Indeed, recent studies carried out in our group in suckling animals have shown that the immune function is enhanced after feeding them with an 80:20 isomer mix composed of c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA. However, little work has been done on the effects of CLA on gene expression, and even less regarding immune system development in early life. Results The expression profile of mesenteric lymph nodes from animals supplemented with CLA during gestation and suckling through dam's milk (Group A or by oral gavage (Group B, supplemented just during suckling (Group C and control animals (Group D was determined with the aid of the specific GeneChip® Rat Genome 230 2.0 (Affymettrix. Bioinformatics analyses were performed using the GeneSpring GX software package v10.0.2 and lead to the identification of 89 genes differentially expressed in all three dietary approaches. Generation of a biological association network evidenced several genes, such as connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (Timp1, galanin (Gal, synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1, growth factor receptor bound protein 2 (Grb2, actin gamma 2 (Actg2 and smooth muscle alpha actin (Acta2, as highly interconnected nodes of the resulting network. Gene underexpression was confirmed by Real-Time RT-PCR. Conclusions Ctgf, Timp1, Gal and Syt1, among others, are genes modulated by CLA supplementation that may have a role on mucosal immune responses in early life.

  15. Shelf life of ground beef enriched with omega‐3 and/or conjugated linoleic acid and use of grape seed extract to inhibit lipid oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, Inmaculada; Beriain, María J.; Mendizabal, Jose A.; Realini, Carolina; Purroy, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The shelf life and oxidative stability of refrigerated raw ground beef enriched with omega‐3 and/or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were studied. Grape seed extract (GSE) was used to inhibit lipid oxidation in the ground beef. Eight treatments of ground beef were established according to the enrichment of beef (control, enriched with omega‐3, with CLA, or with omega‐3 plus CLA) and the use of GSE (0 and 250 mg GSE/kg product). Fresh beef was ground and mixed with GSE and salt. Treatme...

  16. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) during gestation and lactation does not alter sow performance or body weight gain and adiposity in progeny

    OpenAIRE

    Poulos, Sylvia; Azain, Michael; Hausman, Gary

    2004-01-01

    International audience The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in pigs exposed to CLA during fetal and neonatal growth. Sows were fed a diet with 0.83% soy oil or 0.83% CLA-60 containing 60% active CLA isomers from either d 40 (group 1; CON n = 8, CLA n = 6) or d 75 (group 2; CON n = 8, CLA n = 8) of gestation through weaning on d 28. Within group 1, one male and one female piglet per litter (CON n = 6, CLA n = 5) were sacrificed...

  17. Potent inhibitory effect of trans9, trans11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid on the growth of human colon cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Beppu, Fumiaki; Hosokawa, Masashi; Tanaka, Leo; Kohno, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Takuji; Miyashita, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the growth inhibitory effects of pure conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers [cis(c)9,c11-CLA, c9,trans(t)11-CLA, t9,t11-CLA, and t10,c12-CLA] on human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2, HT-29 and DLD-1). When Caco-2 cells were incubated up to 72 h with 200 μM, each isomer, even in the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), cell proliferation was inhibited by all CLA isomers in a time-dependent manner. The strongest inhibitory effect was shown by t9,t11-CLA, followed by t...

  18. Use of immobilized phospholipase A1-catalyzed acidolysis for the production of structured phosphatidylcholine with an elevated conjugated linoleic acid content

    OpenAIRE

    Baeza-Jiménez, R.; GonzáLez-RodríGuez, J.; Kim, In-H.; García, H. S.; Otero, C.

    2012-01-01

    Structured phosphatidylcholine (SPC) was successfully produced via immobilized phospholipase A1 (PLA1) – catalyzed acidolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The effects of enzyme loading (2, 5, 10, 15 and 20%, with respect to the weight of substrates), temperature (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 °C) and the molar ratio of substrates (1:2, 1:4, 1:6, 1:8 and 1:10, PC/CLA) were evaluated to maximize the incorporation of CLA i...

  19. Effects of milk supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid on weight control and body composition in healthy overweight people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brida López-Plaza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs have shown beneficial effects in weight control therapy however this relation is not clear. Objetive: The aim of the study was to examine the effects and safety of 3 g of a 1:1 mix of c9-t11 and t10-c12 on weight control and body composition in healthy overweight individuals. Methods: A prospective, placebo-controlled, randomised double-blind, parallel clinical trial lasting 24 weeks was carried out in 38 volunteers (29w, 9m aged 30-55 years and BMI ≥ 27 -<30 kg/m² who consumed 200 ml/day of skimmed milk with 3g of CLAs or 3g olive oil (placebo. Anthropometric, biochemical and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA tests were measured. Diet and physical activity were assessed. Results: Subjects maintained their habitual dietary and exercise patterns over the study. Only CLA group showed a significant decrease in weight (74.43 ± 10.45 vs 73.54 ± 11.66 kg, p = 0.029 and waist circumference (91.45 ± 10.33 vs 90.65 ± 9.84 cm, p = 0.012 between baseline and end of the study. BMI and waist height ratio decreased (28.44 ± 1.08 vs 27.81 ± 1.43 kg/m², p = 0.030 and 0.57 ± 0.05 vs 0.56 ± 0.04 p = 0.013 respectively in CLA group at the end. CLA group experienced a reduction in total fat mass after 24 weeks (38.62 ± 5.02 vs 36.65 ± 5.64%, p = 0.035. No decrease was observed in Control group. HOMA index had no changes. Conclusions: The consumption of skimmed milk enriched with 3g of a 1:1 mixture of c9-t11 and t10-c12 for 24 weeks led to a decrease in body weight and total fat mass in healthy, overweight subjects who maintained habitual diets and exercise patterns. No adverse effects were observed. Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier No. NCT01503047.

  20. The potential benefits of creatine and conjugated linoleic acid as adjuncts to resistance training in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Safdar, Adeel

    2008-02-01

    Human aging is associated with a significant reduction in muscle mass (sarcopenia) resulting in muscle weakness and functional limitations in the elderly. Sarcopenia has been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and the accumulation of mtDNA deletions. Resistance training increases muscle strength and size and can increase mitochondrial capacity and decrease oxidative stress in older adults. Creatine monohydrate (CrM) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) have biological effects that could enhance some of the beneficial effects of resistance training in older adults (i.e., up arrow fat-free mass, down arrow total body fat). We have completed two resistance-training studies with CrM alone and CrM+CLA supplementation in older adults to evaluate the independent effects of exercise and dietary supplements, as well as their interactive effects. Our studies, and several others, have found that CrM enhanced the resistance exercise mediated gains in fat-free mass and strength. More recently, we found that the addition of CLA also lead to a significant reduction of body fat after six months of resistance training in older adults. Older adults have fewer wild-type mtDNA copies and higher amounts of mtDNA deletions as compared with younger adults in mature skeletal muscle; however, these deletions are not seen in the satellite cell-derived myoblast cultures. These findings, and the fact that mtDNA deletions are lower and wild-type mtDNA copy number is higher after resistance training in older adults, suggests that activation of satellite cells secondary to resistance exercise-induced muscle damage can dilute or "shift" the proportion of mtDNA genotype towards that of a younger adult. Recent evidence suggests that CrM supplementation in combination with strength training can enhance satellite cell activation and total myonuclei number per muscle fiber in young men. Future studies are required to determine whether the mitochondrial adaptations to resistance exercise in older

  1. Radiosensitizing effect of conjugated linoleic acid in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apoptotic pathways in breast cancer cells are frequently altered, reducing the efficiency of radiotherapy. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), known to trigger apoptosis, was tested as radiosensitizer in breast cancer cells MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. The CLA-mix, made up of the isomers CLA-9cis 11trans and CLA-10trans 12cis, was compared to three purified isomers, i.e., the CLA-9cis 11cis, CLA-9cis 11trans, and CLA-10trans 12cis. Using the apoptotic marker YO-PRO-1, the CLA-9cis 11cis at 50 μmol/L turned out to be the best apoptotic inducer leading to a 10-fold increase in MCF-7 cells and a 2,5-fold increase in MDA-MB-231 cells, comparatively to the CLA-mix. Contrary to previous studies on colorectal and prostate cancer cells, CLA-10trans 12cis does not lead to an apoptotic response on breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Our results also suggest that the main components of the CLA-mix (CLA-9cis 11trans and CLA-10trans 12cis) are not involved in the induction of apoptosis in the breast cancer cells studied. A dose of 5 Gy did not induce apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The addition of CLA-9cis 11cis or CLA-mix has allowed us to observe a radiation-induced apoptosis, with the CLA-9cis 11cis being about 8-fold better than the CLA-mix. CLA-9cis 11cis turned out to be the best radiosensitizer, although the isomers CLA-9cis 11trans and CLA-10trans 12cis have also reduced the cell survival following irradiation, but using a mechanism not related to apoptosis. In conclusion, the radiosensitizing property of CLA-9cis 11cis supports its potential as an agent to improve radiotherapy against breast carcinoma. (author)

  2. EFFECT OF CIS-9, TRANS-11-CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID ON CELL CYCLE OF MAMMARY ADENOCARCINOMA CELLS(MCF-7)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘家仁; 陈炳卿; 韩晓辉; 杨艳梅; 郑玉梅; 刘瑞海

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of cis-9, trans-1 1-conjugated linoleic acid on the cell cycle of mammary cancer cells (MCF-7) and the possible mechanism of the inhibitory effect of c9,t11-CLA. Methods: Using cell culture and immunocytochemical techniques, we examined the cell growth, DNA synthesis, expression of PCNA , cyclin A, B1, D1, p16ink4a and p21cip/waf1 of MCF-7 cells at various c9,t11-CLA concentrations (25μM, 50μM, 100μM and 200μM), at 24h and 48h. 96% ethand was used as negative control. Results: The cell growth and DNA synthesis of MCF-7 cells were inhibited by c9,t11-CLA. After treatment with various doses of c9,t11-CLA mentioned above for 8 days, the inhibition frequency was 27.18%, 35.43%, 91.05%, and 92.86%, respectively. Inhibitory effect of c9,t11-CLA on DNA synthesis (except for 25μM, 24h) was demonstrated by significantly less incorporation of 3H-TdR than the negative control (P<0.05 and P<0.01). To further investigate the influence of the cell cycle progression, we found that c9,t11-CLA may arrest the cell cycle of MCF-7 cells. Immunocytochemical staining demonstrated that incubation with different concentration of c9,t11-CLA at various times significantly decreased the expression of PCNA, Cyclin A, B1, D1 in MCF-7 cells compared to the negative control (P<0.01), whereas the expression of p16ink4a and p21cip/waf1, cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitors (CDKI), were increased. Conclusions: The cell growth and proliferation of MCF-7 cells is inhibited by c9,t11-CLA via blocking cell cycle, accompanying reduced expression of cyclin A, B1, D1 and enhanced expression of CDKI (p16ink4a and p21cip/wafl).

  3. Influence of a rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid mixture on carcass traits and meat quality in young Simmental heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, G; Ringseis, R; Shibani, M; Most, E; Schuster, M; Schwarz, F J; Eder, K

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of feeding rumen-protected CLA during the early growing period on physical and chemical beef properties in young Simmental heifers. A total of 36 heifers (5 mo old; initial BW 185 ± 21 kg) were fed 250 g of different rumen-protected fats daily for 16 wk in 1 of 3 treatment groups: 250 g of a CLA-free control fat; 100 g of a CLA fat containing 2.4% of cis-9,trans-11 CLA and 2.1% of trans-10,cis-12 CLA and 150 g control fat; or 250 g of the CLA fat. Heifer growth performance variables as well as carcass weight, classification (conformation and fatness), and weights of organs and fat depots were not affected (P > 0.05) by CLA supplementation. Concentration of trans-10,cis-12 CLA in tissues (LM and subcutaneous fat) was dose-dependently increased (P 0.05) between groups. The ratio of SFA to MUFA was increased (P 0.05) between groups. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that feeding rumen-protected CLA during the early growing period changes tissue fatty acid composition but does not influence beef quality variables. Performance variables and carcass traits in young heifers, unlike in pigs and laboratory animals, are not influenced by CLA feeding. PMID:22573839

  4. Application Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Pig Production%共轭亚油酸在养猪生产中的应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓红

    2011-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid is a kind of unsaturated fatty acid, which is a safe and update feed additive, with anti-cancer, arteriosclerosis resistance, immunity enhancement, body fat deposits reduction and bone formation promotion and other biological functions. In this paper, the structure of conjugated linoleic acid and its application effect in pig production were prospected.%共轭亚油酸是一种不饱和脂肪酸,是安全性较高的新型饲料添加剂,具有抗癌、抗动脉硬化、增强机体免疫、降低体脂肪沉积及促进骨生成等生物学功能。文章综述了共轭亚油酸的结构及其养猪生产中的应用效果,展望了共轭亚油酸在养猪业中的应用前景。

  5. Effect of silage type and energy concentration on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk fat from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.S.; Sejrsen, K.; Andersen, H.R;

    2004-01-01

    40 lactating cows were fed either clovergrass or maize silage and a low or high dietary energy concentration in a 2x2 factorial design. The maize silage diets rich in starch and linoleic acid resulted in a higher content of c9t11 and t10c12 CLA in milk fat than the grass silage diets. A high ener...... concentration plus maize silage led to a pronounced shift in the biohydrogenation pathway of linoleic acid, the highest t10c12 CLA content and lowest milk fat percentage. Energy concentration had no effect on milk fat CLA content or milk fat percentage in grass silage fed cows....

  6. Inhibition of conjugated linoleic acid on mouse forestomach neoplasia induced by benzo (a) pyrene and chemopreventive mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-Qing Chen; Ying-Ben Xue; Jia-Ren Liu; Yan-Mei Yang; Yu-Mei Zheng; Xuan-Lin Wang; Rui-Hai Liu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To explore the inhibition of conjugated linoleic acidisomers in different purity (75 % purity c9,t11-, 98 % purityc9,t11- and 98 % purity t10,c12-CLA) on the formation offorestomach neoplasm and cheopreventive mechanisms.METHODS: Forestomach neoplasm model induced by B(a)P in KunMing mice was established. The numbers of tumorand diameter of each tumor in forestomach were counted;the mice plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) were measuredby TBARS assay; TUNEL assay was used to analyze theapoptosis in forestomach neoplasia and the expression ofMEK-1, ERK-1, MKP-1 protein in forestomach neoplasm werestudied by Western Blotting assay.RESULTS: The incidence of neoplasm in B(a)P group, 75 %purity c9, t11-CLA group, 98 % purity cg,t11-CLA groupand 98 % purity t10, c12-CLA group was 100 %, 75.0 %(P>0.05), 69.2 % (P<0.05) and 53.8 % (P<0.05) respectivelyand the effect of two CLA isomers in 98 % purity onforestomach neoplasia was significant; CLA showed noinfluence on the average tumor numbers in tumor-bearingmouse, but significantly decreased the tumor size, the tumoraverage diameter of mice in 75 % purity c9,t11-CLA group,98 % purity cg,t11-CLA group and 98 % purity t10, c12-CLAgroup was 0.157±0.047 cm, 0.127±0.038 cm and 0.128±0.077 cm (P<0.05) and 0.216±0.088 cm in B(a)P group;CLA could also significantly increase the apoptosis cellnumbers by 144.00±20.31, 153.75±23.25, 157.25±15.95(P<0.05) in 75 % purity c9,t11-CLA group, 98 % purity c9,t11-CLA group and 98 % purity t10,c12-CLA group (30.88±3.72 in BP group); but there were no significant differencesbetween the effects of 75 % purity c9,t11-CLA and twoisomers in 98 % purity on tumor size and apoptotic cellnumbers; the plasma levels of MDA in were increased by75 % purity c9,t11-ClA, 98 % purity c9,t11-CLA and 98 %purity t10,c12-CLA. The 75 % purity c9,t11-CLA showedstronger inhibition; CLA could also inhibit the expression ofERK-1 protein and promote the expression of MKP-1 protein,however no influence of

  7. Preparation of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Identification of Its Isomers%高纯度共轭亚油酸的规模化制备及其异构体的鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭诤; 张根旺; 孙彦

    2003-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a kind of fatty acid with physiological activities and potential application prospect. A synthesis method of conjugated linoleic acid and a purification technology were studied. CLA was prepared and purified by urea-complexation and conjugation using safflower oil as raw material. The purity of CLA and total recovery of the product was more than 95% and 48%, respectively. The main isomers produced in alkali-catalyzed conjugation were identified by gas chromatography (GC) linked to mass spectrometry (MS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The total amount of the two main isomers (9cis, 11trans-and 10trans, 12cis-CLA) determined by GC was more than 90% of the product.

  8. New Regulation Agent on Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Milk-Compositae%乳中共轭亚油酸生成的新型调控剂——菊科植物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽芳; 卢德勋; 丁国和; 马燕芬

    2011-01-01

    共轭亚油酸(CLA)是一组含有共轭双键的亚油酸(linoleic acid)的几何异构体和位置异构体的总称。目前有研究报道,菊科植物及其提取物能增加乳中CLA的含量。主要综述了CLA的营养调控方法及菊科植物增加CLA含量的研究进展。%The conjugated linoleic acid(CLA) was a general name of a group of geometric isomer and positional isomer that contained linoleic acid with conjugated double bond.At present,researches showed that the compositae and its extract could increase the CLA content in milk.The nutritional regulation method of CLA and increasing CLA content by compositae in the previous research reports were reviewed in this paper.

  9. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergi es (NDA) ; Scientific Opinion - Statement on the safety of the “conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) - rich oils” Clarinol ® and Tonalin TG 80 as Novel Food ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to update its opinions on the safety of the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-rich oils Clarinol® and Tonalin® TG 80 as Novel Food ingredients in the light of additional information...

  10. 利用黄须菜籽油为原料制备共轭亚油酸%Preparation of Conjugated Linoleic Acid From Suueda Sulsa Seed Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid was prepared from suueda sulsa seed oil, suitable preparation conditions were determined as follows:reaction temperature 185~190℃,reaction time 2~3 h,catalyst dosage 20(w/w heavy oil);urea inclusion separation and purification process conditions of linoleic acid are as follows: inclusion temperature -10℃,inclusion time 6 h,fatty acids / urea / methanol ratio (W/W/V) 1  2  6;supercritical CO2 extraction pressure 30 MPa, temperature 60 ℃, extraction time 3 h.%以黄须菜籽油为原料生产共轭亚油酸的中试条件为:共轭化反应的温度185~190℃,共轭化反应时间2~3 h,共轭化反应使用催化剂得量20(w/w 油重);用尿素包合分离纯化亚油酸的工艺条件:包合温度-10℃、包合时间6 h、脂肪酸/尿素/甲醇比(W/W/V)126;超临界 CO2萃取压力30 MPa,温度60℃,萃取时间3 h。

  11. Use of immobilized phospholipase A1-catalyzed acidolysis for the production of structured phosphatidylcholine with an elevated conjugated linoleic acid content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza-Jimenez, R.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.; Kim, I. H.; Gracia, H. S.; Otero, C.

    2012-11-01

    Structured phosphatidylcholine (SPC) was successfully produced via immobilized phospholipase A1 (PLA1) catalyzed acidolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The effects of enzyme loading (2, 5, 10, 15 and 20%, with respect to the weight of substrates), temperature (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 degree centigrade) and the molar ratio of substrates (1:2, 1:4, 1:6, 1:8 and 1:10, PC/CLA) were evaluated to maximize the incorporation of CLA into PC. The maximum incorporation of CLA achieved was ca. 90% for 24 h of reaction at 50 degree centigrade and 200 rpm, using a 1:4 substrate molar ratio and an enzyme loading of 15%. (Author) 30 refs.

  12. Effect of whole linseed and rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid enriched diets on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and adipose tissue development in young Holstein bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertí, P; Gómez, I; Mendizabal, J A; Ripoll, G; Barahona, M; Sarriés, V; Insausti, K; Beriain, M J; Purroy, A; Realini, C

    2013-06-01

    Forty-eight young Holstein bulls (slaughtered at 458.6±9.79 kg body weight) were used to evaluate the effect of whole linseed and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on animal performance, adipose tissue development, and carcass characteristics. The animals were fed with one of four isoenergetic and isoproteic diets: control (0% linseed, 0% CLA), linseed (10% linseed, 0% CLA), CLA (0% linseed, 2% CLA), and linseed plus CLA (10% linseed, 2% CLA). Animal performance and carcass characteristics were unaffected by diet composition. Adding linseed or CLA to the concentrate diet did not result in significant differences in adipocyte size and number or lipogenic enzyme activity. However, while the frequency distribution of subcutaneous adipocyte diameters followed a normal distribution, the frequency distribution of intramuscular adipocyte diameters was not normal in any dietary group (skewness coefficients: 0.8, 1.2, 0.9, 0.8 for control, linseed, CLA, and linseed plus CLA, respectively; Padipose tissue.

  13. Dietary Supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid Plus n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Increases Food Intake and Brown Adipose Tissue in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda C. Morris

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of supplementation with 1% conjugated linoleic acid and 1% n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (CLA/n-3 was assessed in rats. Food intake increased with no difference in body weights. White adipose tissue weights were reduced whereas brown adipose tissue and uncoupling protein-1 expression were increased. Plasma adiponectin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels were reduced while leptin, ghrelin and liver weight and lipid content were unchanged. Hypothalamic gene expression measurements revealed increased expression of orexigenic and decreased expression of anorexigenic signals. Thus, CLA/n-3 increases food intake without affecting body weight potentially through increasing BAT size and up-regulating UCP-1 in rats.

  14. A diet rich in conjugated linoleic acid and butter increases lipid peroxidation but does not affect atherosclerotic, inflammatory, or diabetic risk markers in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, Marianne; Tholstrup, Tine; Basu, Samar;

    2008-01-01

    Intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been demonstrated to beneficially affect risk markers of atherosclerosis and diabetes in rats. CLA is naturally found in milk fat, especially from cows fed a diet high in oleic acid, and increased CLA intake can occur concomitantly with increased milk...... fat intake. Our objective was to investigate the effect of CLA as part of a diet rich in butter as a source of milk fat on risk markers of atherosclerosis, inflammation, diabetes type 11, and lipid peroxidation. A total of 38 healthy young men were given a diet with 115g/d of CLA-rich fat (5.5 g/d CLA...... esters, and phospholipids reflected that of the intervention diets. The CLA diet resulted in increased lipid peroxidation measured as an 83% higher 8-iso-prostaglandin F-2 alpha concentration compared with the control, P...

  15. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on lipoprotein lipase activity in 3T3-L1 adipocyte culture Efeito da suplementação com ácido linoléico conjugado sobre a atividade da lípase lipoprotéica em cultura de adipócitos 3T3-L1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Prais Botelho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid may reduce fat body mass and increase lean body mass in various species. Some studies have demonstrated that conjugated linoleic acid reduces body fat, in part, by inhibiting the activity of lipoprotein lipase in adipocytes. The objective of this work was to study the effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on lipoprotein lipase activity in 3T3-L1 adipocyte culture. 3T3-L1 adipocytes received linoleic acid (group C or conjugated linoleic acid (group AE, supplemented with AdvantEdge® CLA, and group CO, supplemented with CLA One® in concentrations of 1 mmol/L. Heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase activity was analyzed by means of a 3T3-L1 adipocyte culture. After 7 days, heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase activity was lower in the groups AE and CO supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid. These results suggest that one of the mechanisms by which CLA is capable of reducing body fat is by reducing lipoprotein lipase activity.A suplementação com ácido linoléico conjugado pode reduzir a gordura corporal e aumentar a massa magra em diferentes espécies. Alguns estudos têm demonstrado que o ácido linoléico conjugado reduz a gordura corporal, por meio da inibição da atividade de lípase lipoprotéica em adipócitos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da suplementação com uma mistura de isômeros do ácido linoléico conjugado sobre a atividade da lípase lipoprotéica em cultura de adipócitos 3T3-L1. Os adipócitos 3T3-L1 receberam ácido linoléico (grupo controle ou ácido linoléico conjugado (grupo AE, suplementado com AdvantEdge® CLA, e grupo CO, suplementado com CLA One® na concentração de 1 mmol/L. A atividade de lípase lipoprotéica livre de heparina foi analisada pela média da cultura de adipócitos. Após 7 dias, a atividade da lípase lipoprotéica livre de heparina mostrou menores valores nos grupos AE e CO, suplementados com ácido linol

  16. 共轭亚油酸对奶山羊公羔肉用性能以及肌肉和脂肪中脂肪酸组成的影响%Effects of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acids on Meat Performance and Fatty Acid Composition in Muscle and Fat Tissues in Male Kids of Guanzhong Dairy Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗军; 单翠燕; 王海滨; 滕炎玲; 崔志宇; 余刚; 张宁

    2010-01-01

    本研究旨在探讨日粮中添加不同水平的共轭哑油酸(conjugated linoleic acid,CLA)对奶山羊公羔肉用性能以及肌肉和脂肪中脂肪酸组成的影响.选择28只健康、体重相近[(25.46±4.37)kg]的关中奶山羊公羔,按随机区组试验设计原则等分为4组.每组7个重复,每个重复1只.对照组(C组)饲喂基础日粮,试验组分别饲喂添加1%(CLA1组)、2%(CLA2组)和3%(CLA3组)CLA油的试验日粮.试验期12周.结果表明:日粮中CLA添加水平对奶山羊公羔生长性能无显著影响(P>0.05);除CLA1组的胴体胸深显著高于CLA2组(P0.05);肌肉和脂肪中cis-9,trans-11-CLA、trans-10,cis-12-CLA和总CLA的含量随日粮CLA添加水平的升高显著或极显著增加(P<0.05或P<0.01).由此得出,日粮添加CLA可以提高肌肉和脂肪中CLA含量,改善羊肉品质.

  17. Direct nuclear magnetic resonance identification and quantification of geometric isomers of conjugated linoleic acid in milk lipid fraction without derivatization steps: Overcoming sensitivity and resolution barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The first NMR quantification of four geometric 18:2 CLA isomers has been achieved. • Sensitivity and resolution NMR barriers have been overcome. • Selective suppression and reduced 13C spectral width have been utilized. • The method is applied in the milk lipid fraction without derivatization steps. • The method is selective, sensitive with very good analytical characteristics. - Abstract: We report the first successful direct and unequivocal identification and quantification of four minor geometric (9-cis, 11-trans) 18:2, (9-trans, 11-cis) 18:2, (9-cis, 11-cis) 18:2 and (9-trans, 11-trans) 18:2 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in lipid fractions of lyophilized milk samples with the combined use of 1D 1H-NMR, 2D 1H-1H TOCSY and 2D 1H-13C HSQC NMR. The significant sensitivity barrier has been successfully overcome under selective suppression of the major resonances, with over 104 greater equilibrium magnetization of the -(CH2)n-1H spins compared to that of the 1H spins of the conjugated bonds of the CLA isomers. The resolution barrier has been significantly increased using reduced 13C spectral width in the 2D 1H-13C HSQC experiment. The assignment was confirmed with spiking experiments with CLA standard compounds and the method does not require any derivatization steps for the lipid fraction. The proposed method is selective, sensitive and compares favorably with the GS-MS method of analysis

  18. Analysis of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Isomers by Gas Chromatography%气相色谱法定量分析共轭亚油酸异构体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 杨虹; 杨天奎

    2012-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are the positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid,among them,9 c,11t-CLA and 10 t,12 c-CLA exhibited the stronger biological activity. In this study,a method was developed for the quantitative determination of 9 c, 11t-CLA and 10 t, 12 c-CLA by capillary gas chromatography. The sample of CLA oil was methylated with KOH in methanol.The calculation of results was carried out with external standards. The recovery of 9c, 11t-CLA and,10 t,12 c-CLA was between 97.66%-103.51% ,96.12%-102.48% , respectively. The detection and quantitation limits were separately 2.4 mg/kg and 8 mg/kg.%共轭亚油酸(CLA)是亚油酸的位置和几何异构体.其中9c,11t-CLA和10t,12c-CLA是目前发现生理活性比较强的两种共轭结构.作者使用氢氧化钾甲醇溶液对油脂中的共轭亚油酸甘三酯进行水解和甲酯化,利用毛细管气相色谱进行分离后外标法定量.作者得到共轭亚油酸9c,11t-CLA回收率在97.66%~ 103.51%之间,10t,12c-CLA回收率在96.12%~ 102.48%之间,检出限2.4 mg/kg,定量限8 mg/kg.

  19. New insights into biological effects of conjugated linoleic acid and saturated fats in body fat composition, obesity and related disorders: experimental studies in normal-weight Wistar and obese Zucker rats

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Susana Isabel Vargas

    2010-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Ciência e Tecnologia Animal The daily intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers by humans, through diet and supplementation, and the controversial effects of these compounds in human health, were the main motivation for the elaboration of this thesis. Firstly, the present work intended to estimate the daily CLA ingestion by the Portuguese population. Secondly, the biological effects of CLA were exploited using two distinct animal models, normal-weight (Wistar...

  20. Direct nuclear magnetic resonance identification and quantification of geometric isomers of conjugated linoleic acid in milk lipid fraction without derivatization steps: Overcoming sensitivity and resolution barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsiafoulis, Constantinos G. [NMR Center, University of Ioannina, Ioannina GR-45 110 (Greece); Skarlas, Theodore [Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, Ioannina GR-45 110 (Greece); Tzamaloukas, Ouranios; Miltiadou, Despoina [Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Cyprus University of Technology, P.O Box 50329, Limassol 3603 (Cyprus); Gerothanassis, Ioannis P., E-mail: igeroth@uoi.gr [Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, Ioannina GR-45 110 (Greece)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • The first NMR quantification of four geometric 18:2 CLA isomers has been achieved. • Sensitivity and resolution NMR barriers have been overcome. • Selective suppression and reduced {sup 13}C spectral width have been utilized. • The method is applied in the milk lipid fraction without derivatization steps. • The method is selective, sensitive with very good analytical characteristics. - Abstract: We report the first successful direct and unequivocal identification and quantification of four minor geometric (9-cis, 11-trans) 18:2, (9-trans, 11-cis) 18:2, (9-cis, 11-cis) 18:2 and (9-trans, 11-trans) 18:2 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in lipid fractions of lyophilized milk samples with the combined use of 1D {sup 1}H-NMR, 2D {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H TOCSY and 2D {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C HSQC NMR. The significant sensitivity barrier has been successfully overcome under selective suppression of the major resonances, with over 10{sup 4} greater equilibrium magnetization of the -(CH{sub 2}){sub n}-{sup 1}H spins compared to that of the {sup 1}H spins of the conjugated bonds of the CLA isomers. The resolution barrier has been significantly increased using reduced {sup 13}C spectral width in the 2D {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C HSQC experiment. The assignment was confirmed with spiking experiments with CLA standard compounds and the method does not require any derivatization steps for the lipid fraction. The proposed method is selective, sensitive and compares favorably with the GS-MS method of analysis.

  1. Dual response surface-optimized synthesis of L-menthyl conjugated linoleate in solvent-free system by Candida rugosa lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Wang, Yulun; Li, Jia; Wang, Ping; Wei, Wei; Gao, Yang; Fu, Chenyin; Dong, Wenqi

    2010-02-01

    Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of L-menthyl conjugated linoleate in solvent-free system was studied in this paper. Duel response surface methodology was employed to explore the factors which would influence the reaction conversion by a range of independent experiments. The conditions of reaction temperature, reaction time, enzyme amount, substrate molar ratio and water content were symmetrically investigated. When the substrates were 1 mmol CLA and 1 mmol L-menthol, the maximum conversion (79.1+/-0.8%) was obtained at 30 degrees C, Candida rugosa lipase of 33.7% (w/w by weight of L-menthol), water content of 32% (w/w by weight of L-menthol), reaction time of 43 h. The product isomers (9Z,11E-/10E,12Z-=63/37) were analyzed by GC/MS. The similarity between the oleic acid and 9Z,11E-CLA conformations which were obtained by molecular modeling could account for the specific catalyzed by C. rugosa lipase. PMID:19833506

  2. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on blood lipids and adiposity of rats fed diets rich in saturated versus unsaturated fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloss, Rebecca; Linscheid, Janna; Johnson, Amy; Lawson, Brian; Edwards, Kylie; Linder, Travis; Stocker, Kelly; Petitte, Jeremy; Kern, Mark

    2005-06-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may decrease adiposity and improve blood lipid profiles under some conditions. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of CLA supplementation on blood lipid profiles and adiposity of rats fed a diet containing a primarily saturated fat versus a diet containing a primarily unsaturated fat. Twenty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of four diets containing coconut oil, coconut oil with CLA, corn oil or corn oil with CLA. After 28 days, blood was collected and serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and triacylglycerols (TG) were assessed. Food intake, body weights, and epididymal fat pads were measured. No significant differences (p>0.05) were noted among groups for amount of food consumed, weight gained, food efficiency ratio or serum TG concentrations. TC concentrations were lower (pHDL-C was lower (p0.05) for CLA supplemented groups. Epididymal fat pads weighed significantly more (p0.05) between the corn oil and coconut oil + CLA group. Overall, this study suggests that CLA is more beneficial for control of blood lipids and adiposity when supplemented to a diet rich in saturated versus unsaturated fat.

  3. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid induces lipolysis in adipose tissue of coconut oil-fed mice but not soy oil-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippagunta, S; Hadenfeldt, T J; Miner, J L; Hargrave-Barnes, K M

    2011-09-01

    Mice fed diets containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are leaner than mice not fed CLA. This anti-obesity effect is amplified in mice fed coconut oil-containing or fat free diets, compared to soy oil diets. The present objective was to determine if CLA alters lipolysis in mice fed different base oils. Mice were fed diets containing soy oil (SO), coconut oil (CO), or fat free (FF) for 6 weeks, followed by 10 or 12 days of CLA or no CLA supplementation. Body fat, tissue weights, and ex vivo lipolysis were determined. Relative protein abundance and activation of perilipin, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and adipose differentiation related protein (ADRP) were determined by western blotting. CLA feeding caused mice to have less (P oil source, P oil source interaction on lipolysis as CO + CLA and FF + CLA-fed mice had increased (P < 0.05) rates of lipolysis but SO + CLA-fed mice did not. However, after 12 days of CLA consumption, activated perilipin was increased (P < 0.05) only in SO + CLA-fed mice and total HSL and ATGL were decreased (P < 0.05) in CO + CLA-fed mice. Therefore, the enhanced CLA-induced body fat loss in CO and FF-fed mice appears to involve increased lipolysis but this effect may be decreasing by 12 days of CLA consumption.

  4. Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Associated With Aerobic Exercise on Body Fat and Lipid Profile in Obese Women: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Alex S; Pina, Fábio Luiz; Dodero, Soraya R; Silva, Danilo R; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Sugihara Júnior, Paulo; Fernandes, Rodrigo R; Barbosa, Décio S; Cyrino, Edilson S; Tirapegui, Julio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of 8 weeks of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation associated with aerobic exercise on body fat and lipid profile on obese women. We performed a randomized, double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial with 28 obese women who received 3.2 g/day of CLA or 4 g/day of olive oil (placebo group) while performing an 8-week protocol of aerobic exercise. Dietary intake (food record), body fat (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and biochemical analysis (blood sample) were assessed before and after the intervention period. Independent of CLA supplementation, both groups improved (p CLA group, 13.2%; PLC group, 14.8%), trunk fat (CLA group, -1.0%; PLC group, -0.5%), leg fat (CLA group, -1.0%; PLC group, -1.6%), and total body fat (CLA group, -1.7%; PLC group, -1.3%) after the 8-week intervention. No main effect or Group × Time interaction was found for total cholesterol, triglycerides, and plasma lipoproteins (p > .05). We conclude that CLA supplementation associated with aerobic exercise has no effect on body fat reduction and lipid profile improvements over placebo in young adult obese women. PMID:26402730

  5. Conjugated linoleic acids suppress inflammatory response and ICAM-1 expression through inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK signaling in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Chung; Tu, Rong-Syuan; Chen, Ya-Ling; Tsai, Yun-Yun; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Liou, Chian-Jiun

    2016-04-20

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) comprise a group of natural unsaturated fatty acids. CLA was reported to have anti-asthma, anti-adiposity, and anti-tumor effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the suppressive effects of cis-9, trans-11-CLA (c9,t11-CLA) on the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in TNF-α-stimulated human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. After treating with various doses of c9,t11-CLA (12.5-100 μg ml(-1)), BEAS-2B cells were induced into an inflamed state by adding TNF-α or TNF-α/IL-4. The presence of c9,t11-CLA significantly suppressed the secretion of cytokines IL-6, IL-8, CCL5, and MCP-1. We also found that c9,t11-CLA inhibited ICAM-1 expression, and decreased monocyte adhesion to inflamed bronchial epithelial cells. Interestingly, c9,t11-CLA attenuated the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and down-regulated the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). These results suggested that the anti-inflammatory effects of c9,t11-CLA were mediated by inhibiting proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and ICAM-1 expression by blocking NF-κB transcription regulation and by attenuating MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:27007063

  6. In-vitro microbial production of conjugated linoleic acid by probiotic L. plantarum strains: Utilization as a functional starter culture in sucuk fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, Cem O; Kılıç, Birol; Kılıç, Gülden Başyiğit

    2016-04-01

    Twenty-three probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strains were screened in-vitro to determine their ability to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). L. plantarum AA1-2 and L. plantarum AB20-961 were identified as potential strains for CLA production. Optimum conditions for these strains to produce high levels of CLA were determined by evaluating the amount of added hydrolyzed sunflower oil (HSO) and initial pH levels in a nutrient medium. The highest CLA production was obtained in medium with pH6.0 and 2% HSO (PCLA in sucuk at initial pH of 5.8 and 6.0 levels during first 24h of fermentation compared with other groups. CLA isomer concentration decreased in all sucuk groups during the rest of the fermentation period (P<0.05) and remained quite stable during the storage. This study demonstrated that probiotic L. plantarum AB20-961 can be used in sucuk manufacturing without posing any quality problems. PMID:26720888

  7. Upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and liver fatty acid binding protein in hepatic cells of broiler chicken supplemented with conjugated linoleic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriya Kumari Ramiah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since conjugated linoleic acid (CLA has structural and physiological characteristics similar to peroxisome proliferators, it is hypothesized that CLA would upregulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR and liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP in the liver of broiler chicken. The aim of the present study was to determine fatty acid composition of liver in CLA-fed broiler chickens and the genes associated with hepatic lipid metabolism. A total of 180-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to two diets containing 0 and 2.5% CLA and fed for 6 weeks. Fatty acid (FA composition of liver and PPAR α and γ and L-FABP were analyzed. It has been demonstrated that CLA was found in the liver of CLA-feed chicken compared to control group. Hepatic PPAR α and γ mRNA levels were upregulated 1.2 and 3-fold in CLA-fed chickens compared to chickens fed diet without CLA respectively. A similar response of upregulation was observed for L-FABP mRNA expression. Our data highlights the role of PPARs as a core regulator in the regulation of lipid metabolism in chicken liver.

  8. Shelf life of ground beef enriched with omega-3 and/or conjugated linoleic acid and use of grape seed extract to inhibit lipid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Inmaculada; Beriain, María J; Mendizabal, Jose A; Realini, Carolina; Purroy, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The shelf life and oxidative stability of refrigerated raw ground beef enriched with omega-3 and/or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were studied. Grape seed extract (GSE) was used to inhibit lipid oxidation in the ground beef. Eight treatments of ground beef were established according to the enrichment of beef (control, enriched with omega-3, with CLA, or with omega-3 plus CLA) and the use of GSE (0 and 250 mg GSE/kg product). Fresh beef was ground and mixed with GSE and salt. Treatments of beef were stored at 2 ± 1°C in aerobic packaging for 0, 1, 3, and 6 days under retail display conditions. Oxidation stability (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS]), pH, instrumental color, metmyoglobin formation, and sensory attributes (color and odor) were measured. Omega-3-enriched beef increased the oxidation level at day 6 as determined by TBARS (P color was not affected. The enrichment of CLA improved the coordinates of color (P color and odor values among the types of beef during display, except at day 3, when CLA treatments had the highest scores. Addition of GSE decreased the oxidation level (P color or the sensory parameters. PMID:26788312

  9. Diets rich in conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid have no effect on blood pressure and isobaric arterial elasticity in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, M.; Tholstrup, T.; Sejrsen, K.;

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect on blood pressure (BP) and isobaric arterial elasticity (AE), as a measure of arterial health, of a commercial mixture of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and of milk fat produced through livestock feeding to have a high content of vaccenic acid...... (VA). Healthy young men (n = 60) with a BMI of 22.5 +/- 2 kg/m(2) (mean +/- SD) participated in this double-blind, randomized, 5-wk, parallel intervention study. The participants substituted 115 g of their daily fat intake with fat from 1 of 3 test diets: 1) CLA-diet rich in CLA (4.7 g/d of c9, t11......- and t10, c12-CLA isomers in equal amounts); 2) VA-diet rich in VA (3.6 g/d); or 3) C-diet, a control diet with a low content of VA and CLA. All test diets were based on milk fat. BP and AE (measured by an oscillometric method) were measured before and after the intervention period. The effects...

  10. Antiproliferative Action of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Human MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells Mediated by Enhancement of Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication through Inactivation of NF-κB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdur Rakib

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The major conjugated linoleic acid (CLA isomers, c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA, have anticancer effects; however, the exact mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. Evidence suggests that reversal of reduced gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC in cancer cells inhibits cell growth and induces cell death. Hence, we determined that CLA isomers enhance GJIC in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. The CLA isomers significantly enhanced GJIC of MCF-7 cells at 40 μM concentration, whereas CLA inhibited cell growth and induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. CLA increased connexin43 (Cx43 expression both at the transcriptional and translational levels. CLA inhibited nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activity and enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS generation. No significant difference was observed in the efficacy of c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA. These results suggest that the anticancer effect of CLA is associated with upregulation of GJIC mediated by enhanced Cx43 expression through inactivation of NF-κB and generation of ROS in MCF-7 cells.

  11. Transcriptional regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase α isoforms in dairy ewes during conjugated linoleic acid induced milk fat depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticiani, E; Urio, M; Ferreira, R; Harvatine, K J; De Oliveira, D E

    2016-10-01

    Feeding trans-10, cis-12 CLA to lactating ewes reduces milk fat by down-regulating expression of enzymes involved in lipid synthesis in the mammary gland and increases adipose tissue lipogenesis. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACC-α) is a key regulated enzyme in de novo fatty acid synthesis and is decreased by CLA. In the ovine, the ACC-α gene is expressed from three tissue-specific promoters (PI, PII and PIII). This study evaluated promoter-specific ACC-α expression in mammary and adipose tissue of lactating cross-bred Lacaune/Texel ewes during milk fat depression induced by rumen-unprotected trans-10, cis-12 CLA supplement. In all, 12 ewes arranged in a completely randomized design were fed during early, mid and late lactation one of the following treatments for 14 days: Control (forage+0.9 kg of concentrate on a dry matter basis) and CLA (forage+0.9 kg of concentrate+27 g/day of CLA (29.9% trans-10, cis-12)). Mammary gland and adipose tissue biopsies were taken on day 14 for gene expression analysis by real-time PCR. Milk fat yield and concentration were reduced with CLA supplementation by 27%, 21% and 35% and 28%, 26% and 42% during early, mid and late lactation, respectively. Overall, our results suggest that trans-10, cis-12 CLA down-regulates mammary ACC-α gene expression by decreasing expression from PII and PIII in mammary gland and up-regulates adipose ACC-α gene expression by increasing expression from PI.

  12. EFFECT OF PROTEIN SHORTAGE AND CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION ON QUALITY TRAITS AND MODELLING OF COAGULATION, CURD FIRMING AND SYNERESIS OF HOLSTEIN-FRESIAN MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Cesaro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of diets with optimal (CP 15% DM or suboptimal (CP 12.3% DM protein content, supplemented (CLA+ or not (CLA- with rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid (rpCLA on some cheesemaking properties. Twenty Holstein-Fresian mid lactating dairy cows have been reared following a 4×4 Latin square experimental design of 4 periods, 3 weeks each. Individual milk samples, collected during the third week of each period, were analysed for chemical composition, traditional milk coagulation properties (MCP: RCT, k20 and a30 and for recording curd firmness (CF every 15 s over a 90 min period. Data acquired from each sample were used to model CF over time calculating the following parameters: rennet coagulation time (RCTeq, asymptotic potential CF (CFP, CF rate constant (kCF, syneresis rate constant (kCF, maximum CF achieved within 90 min (CFmax and time to CFmax (tmax. Data were analysed using period, diet and group (random as sources of variation. Cows evidenced a strong individual variability within groups and were classified as early (RCT20 min coagulating cows. Dietary protein shortage reduced milk protein and lactose content, while rpCLA supplementation depressed milk fat synthesis. Results showned that traditional MCP parameters were worsened by reduction of dietary protein in the case of milk produced by early coagulating cows, while rpCLA supplementation affected negatively all three traits on all cows. The study of CF model parameters evidenced that CP12 diets have improved CF (CFP and CFmax respect to CP15 when fed to late coagulating cows while worsened CF (CFP and CFmax and reduced kCF when fed to early coagulating cows. The results of the present study underline the complex relationship between dietary fat and protein and their consequences on milk technological properties highlighting the need for further investigations.

  13. Short communication. Effect of forage source (grazing vs. silage) on conjugated linoleic acid content in milk fat of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from Galicia (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca-Fernandez, A. I.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, A.; Vazquez-Yanez, O. P.; Fernandez-Casado, J. A.

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different feeding proportions of forage ?grazing vs. silage? on milk fatty acids (FA) profile and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of autumn calving Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 61) at CIAM (Galicia, NW Spain). Three treatments (S, 100% silage; G/S, 50% grazing + 50% silage; G, 100% grazing) were set and milk FA profile of dairy cows was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The G group showed a decrease in short (p < 0.05) and medium chain FA (p < 0.001), with an increase in long chain FA (p < 0.001) in comparison to the G/S and S groups, which showed the lowest levels (p < 0.001) of mono- and polyunsaturated FA. The CLA content in milk fat increased (p < 0.001) linearly in relation to the increased proportion of fresh grass in the diet of dairy cows from 0.49 and 0.82 to 1.14 g/100 g FA for the treatments S, G/S and G, respectively. During spring and summer, the levels of CLA were three times higher (p < 0.001, +0.76 g/100 g FA) in milk from dairy cows at the G group than in cows at the S group and twice higher (p < 0.001, +0.40 g/100 g FA) than in cows at the G/S group. High proportion of grass in the diet of cows increased CLA content, with the highest levels of unsaturated FA and the lowest levels of saturated FA, increasing the added value of milk on grazing systems using available farm resources. (Author) 20 refs.

  14. A conjugated linoleic acid-enriched beef diet attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in mice in part through PPARgamma-mediated suppression of toll-like receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Clare M; Draper, Eve; Keogh, Brian; Rahman, Arman; Moloney, Aidan P; Mills, Kingston H G; Loscher, Christine E; Roche, Helen M

    2009-12-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a PUFA found in beef and dairy products that has immunoregulatory properties. The level of CLA in beef can be enhanced by feeding cattle fresh grass rather than concentrates. This study determined the effect of feeding a high-CLA beef diet on inflammation in an in vivo model of septic shock. Mice were fed a high-CLA beef (4.3% total fatty acid composition) or low-CLA beef diet (0.84% total fatty acid composition) for 6 wk. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 3 microg) or sterile PBS was injected i.v. and serum was harvested 6 h after injection. Serum interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-12p70, IL-12p40, and interferon-gamma concentrations were significantly reduced in response to the LPS challenge in the high-CLA beef diet group. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) from the high-CLA beef diet group had significantly less IL-12 and more IL-10 in response to ex vivo LPS stimulation. Furthermore, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14 protein and mRNA expression on BMDC was significantly attenuated in the high-CLA compared with the low-CLA beef diet group. Complimentary in vitro experiments to determine the specificity of the effect showed that synthetic cis9, trans11-CLA suppressed surface expression of CD14 and TLR4 on BMDC. Treatment with the PPARgamma inhibitor GW9662 partially reversed TLR4 expression in immature BMDC. The results of this study demonstrate that feeding a diet enriched in high-beef CLA exerts profound antiinflammatory effects in vivo within the context of LPS-induced sepsis. In addition, downregulation of BMDC TLR4 is mediated through induction of PPARgamma. PMID:19846417

  15. Effects of butter naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid on blood lipids and LDL particle size in growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Anna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cow milk is a natural source of the cis 9, trans 11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA and trans vaccenic acid (VA. These fatty acids may be considered as functional foods, and the concentration in milk can be increased by e.g. sunflower oil supplementation to the dairy cow feed. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of regular butter with a special butter naturally enriched in c9,t11-CLA and VA on plasma lipids in female growing pigs. The experimental period lasted for three weeks and the two diets provided daily either 5.0 g c9,t11-CLA plus 15.1 g VA or 1.3 g c9,t11-CLA plus 3.6 g VA. Results The serum concentrations of c9,t11-CLA, VA and alpha-linolenic acid were increased and myristic (14:0 and palmitic acid (16:0 were reduced in the pigs fed the CLA+VA-rich butter-diet compared to regular butter, but no differences in plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, LDL particle size distribution or total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol were observed among the two dietary treatment groups. Conclusion Growing pigs fed diets containing butter naturally enriched in about 20 g c9,t11-CLA plus VA daily for three weeks, had increased serum concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid and decreased myristic and palmitic acid compared to pigs fed regular butter, implying a potential benefit of the CLA+VA butter on serum fatty acid composition. Butter enriched in CLA+VA does not appear to have significant effect on the plasma lipoprotein profile in pigs.

  16. Maternal conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reverses high-fat diet-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and inflammation in adult male rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileggi, C A; Segovia, S A; Markworth, J F; Gray, C; Zhang, X D; Milan, A M; Mitchell, C J; Barnett, M P G; Roy, N C; Vickers, M H; Reynolds, C M; Cameron-Smith, D

    2016-03-01

    A high-saturated-fat diet (HFD) during pregnancy and lactation leads to metabolic disorders in offspring concomitant with increased adiposity and a proinflammatory phenotype in later life. During the fetal period, the impact of maternal diet on skeletal muscle development is poorly described, despite this tissue exerting a major influence on life-long metabolic health. This study investigated the effect of a maternal HFD on skeletal muscle anabolic, catabolic, and inflammatory signaling in adult rat offspring. Furthermore, the actions of maternal-supplemented conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on these measures of muscle phenotype were investigated. A purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal fat), a CD supplemented with CLA (CLA; 10% kcal fat, 1% total fat as CLA), a high-fat (HFD; 45% kcal fat from lard), or a HFD supplemented with CLA (HFCLA; 45% kcal fat from lard, 1% total fat as CLA) was fed ad libitum to female Sprague-Dawley rats for 10 days before mating and throughout gestation and lactation. Male offspring received a standard chow diet from weaning, and the gastrocnemius was collected for analysis at day 150. Offspring from HF and HFCLA mothers displayed lower muscular protein content accompanied by elevated monocyte chemotactic protein-1, IL-6, and IL-1β concentrations. Phosphorylation of NF-κBp65 (Ser(536)) and expression of the catabolic E3 ligase muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) were increased in HF offspring, an effect reversed by maternal CLA supplementation. The present study demonstrates the importance of early life interventions to ameliorate the negative effects of poor maternal diet on offspring skeletal muscle development. PMID:26632603

  17. Intake of butter naturally enriched with cis9,trans11 conjugated linoleic acid reduces systemic inflammatory mediators in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penedo, Letícia A; Nunes, Juliana C; Gama, Marco Antônio S; Leite, Paulo Emilio C; Quirico-Santos, Thereza F; Torres, Alexandre G

    2013-12-01

    A conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) depletion-repletion study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary c9,t11 CLA on C-reactive protein, transcription factor NFκB, metalloproteinases 2 and 9, inflammatory mediators (adiponectin, TNFα, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10), body composition, and erythrocyte membrane composition in healthy normal-weight human adults. CLA depletion was achieved through an 8-week period of restricted dairy fat intake (depletion phase; CLA intake was 5.2±5.8 mg/day), followed by an 8-week period in which individuals consumed 20 g/day of butter naturally enriched with c9,t11 CLA (repletion phase; CLA intake of 1020±167 mg/day). The participants were 29 healthy adult volunteers (19 women and 10 men, aged 22 to 36 years), with body mass index between 18.0 and 29.9 kg m(-2). Blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of both depletion and repletion phases. The content of CLA in erythrocytes decreased during CLA-depletion and increased during CLA-repletion. Intake of CLA-enriched butter increased the serum levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10 but reduced transcription factor NFκB in blood and serum levels of TNFα, IL-2, IL-8 and inactive metalloproteinase-9. Moreover, reduced activity of metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in serum was observed during the CLA-repletion period. In contrast, intake of CLA-enriched butter had no effects on body composition (DXA analysis) as well as on serum levels of adiponectin, C-reactive protein, and IL-4. Taken together, our results indicate that the intake of a c9,t11 CLA-enriched butter by normal-weight subjects induces beneficial changes in immune modulators associated with sub-clinical inflammation in overweight individuals.

  18. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA versus saturated fats/cholesterol: their proportion in fatty and lean meats may affect the risk of developing colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Cristina B

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In spite of the considerable amount of experimental, clinical and epidemiological research about the consumption of red meat, total fats, saturated/unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol with regard to the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC, the issue remains controversial. The general belief is a reduction of red meat intake, and subsequent nutritional advice usually strongly recommends this. Paradoxically, beef together with whole milk and dairy derivatives, are almost the only sources for conjugated linoleic acid (CLAs family. Furthermore CLAs are the only natural fatty acids accepted by the National Academy of Sciences of USA as exhibiting consistent antitumor properties at levels as low as 0.25 – 1.0 per cent of total fats. Beside CLA, other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA belonging to the essential fatty acid (EFA n-3 family, whose main source are fish and seafood, are generally believed to be antipromoters for several cancers. The purpose of this work is to critically analyze the epidemiological and experimental evidence by tentatively assuming that the reciprocal proportions of saturated fats (SA plus cholesterol (CH versus CLAs levels in fatty or lean beef may play an antagonistic role underlying the contradictory effects reported for red meats consumption and CRC risk. Recent results about meat intake and risk for CRC in Argentina have shown an unexpected dual behaviour related to the type of meats. Fatty meat derivatives, such as cold cuts and sausages, mainly prepared from fatty beef (up to 37% fat were associated with higher risk, whereas high consumption of lean beef (

  19. Conjugated linoleic acid-enriched butter improved memory and up-regulated phospholipase A2 encoding-genes in rat brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Marco A S; Raposo, Nádia R B; Mury, Fábio B; Lopes, Fernando C F; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Talib, Leda L; Gattaz, Wagner F

    2015-10-01

    Reduced phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity has been reported in blood cells and in postmortem brains of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), and there is evidence that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) modulates the activity of PLA2 groups in non-brain tissues. As CLA isomers were shown to be actively incorporated and metabolized in the brains of rats, we hypothesized that feeding a diet naturally enriched in CLA would affect the activity and expression of Pla 2 -encoding genes in rat brain tissue, with possible implications for memory. To test this hypothesis, Wistar rats were trained for the inhibitory avoidance task and fed a commercial diet (control) or experimental diets containing either low CLA- or CLA-enriched butter for 4 weeks. After this period, the rats were tested for memory retrieval and killed for tissue collection. Hippocampal expression of 19 Pla 2 genes was evaluated by qPCR, and activities of PLA2 groups (cPLA2, iPLA2, and sPLA2) were determined by radioenzymatic assay. Rats fed the high CLA diet had increased hippocampal mRNA levels for specific PLA2 isoforms (iPla 2 g6γ; cPla 2 g4a, sPla 2 g3, sPla 2 g1b, and sPla 2 g12a) and higher enzymatic activity of all PLA2 groups as compared to those fed the control and the low CLA diet. The increment in PLA2 activities correlated significantly with memory enhancement, as assessed by increased latency in the step-down inhibitory avoidance task after 4 weeks of treatment (rs = 0.69 for iPLA2, P PLA2 activity in AD brains, the present findings suggest that dairy products enriched in cis-9, trans-11 CLA may be useful in the treatment of this disease. PMID:25913570

  20. Conjugated linoleic acid isomers induced apoptosis of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7%共轭亚油酸单体诱导乳腺癌细胞MCF-7凋亡及其作用机制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁贤琳; 陈青; 杨湘玲; 钟翎

    2009-01-01

    目的:研究2种共轭亚油酸(conjugated linoleic acid,CLA)单体--顺9,反11-CLA(cis 9,trans11-CLA, c 9,t11-CLA)和反10,顺12- CLA(trans10,cis12-CLA, t10,c12-CLA) 诱导乳腺癌细胞MCF-7凋亡及其作用机制.方法:采用MTT法检测CLA对MCF-7细胞的生长抑制作用,锥虫蓝染色绘制CLA作用后MCF-7细胞的生长曲线;荧光显微镜观察及FCM检测MCF-7细胞的凋亡和细胞周期的改变;RT-PCR和Western印迹法检测MCF-7细胞PPARγ、Bcl-xL和Bcl-xS mRNA以及PPARγ、Bcl-2、Bax和caspase-3的蛋白表达.结果:2种CLA单体均可抑制MCF-7细胞增殖并诱导细胞凋亡,与对照组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);RT-PCR和Western印迹法检测结果显示,2种CLA单体均可以提高PPARγ、Bcl-xS mRNA和PPARγ、Bax、caspase-3蛋白的表达,降低Bcl-xL mRNA和Bcl-2蛋白的表达,与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);且2种CLA单体对PPARγ与凋亡相关蛋白Bax、Bcl-2和caspase-3的表达影响呈剂量和时间依赖性及同步相关性.结论:c 9,t11-CLA和t10,c12-CLA对乳腺癌MCF-7细胞具有抑制生长和促凋亡的作用,CLA可能作为PPARγ的配体通过激活PPARγ-Bcl-2-caspase-3细胞凋亡信号通路而实现抑制肿瘤细胞生长的作用.

  1. El ácido linoleico conjugado disminuye la hipercolesterolemia pero aumenta el riesgo de litiasis biliar Conjugated linoleic acid lowers hypercholesterolemia but increases the risk for biliary lithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    V. Navarro; M.ª T. Macarulla; M.ª Chávarri; Fernández-Quintela, A.; Rodríguez, V. M.; M.ª Puy Portillo

    2005-01-01

    El término ácido linoleico conjugado (ALC) designa una serie de isómeros del ácido linoleico, presentes en la carne y productos lácteos de rumiantes, que presentan sus dos dobles enlaces en posición conjugada. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar los efectos de un isómero del ALC, el trans-10, cis-12, sobre la colesterolemia y el riesgo de litiasis biliar en un modelo animal de hipercolesterolemia inducida por dieta. Para ello se utilizaron dos grupos de hámsters alimentados con una ...

  2. Regulation of conjugated linoleic acid(CLA) content in butterfat by dietary nutrition%日粮营养调控牛乳脂中共轭亚油酸CLA的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐淑玲; 陈丽玲; 熊智辉

    2008-01-01

    共轭亚油酸(conjugated Linoleic acids CLA)是亚油酸的一组构象和位置异构体,是专一存在于反刍动物脂肪中的具抗癌活性的天然活性成分.日粮因素能影响并改变CLA的含量.本文主要阐述CLA的结构、生理作用以及影响牛乳脂肪中CLA含量的日粮因素.

  3. CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID (CLA) CONTENT AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF SOME COMMERCIAL YOGURTS FROM COLOMBIA CONTENIDO DE ÁCIDO LINOLEICO CONJUGADO (CLA) Y COMPOSICIÓN DE ÁCIDOS GRASOS EN ALGUNOS YOGURES COMERCIALES DE COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Felipe Gutiérrez Álvarez; Jenny Carolina Martínez; Marby Rocío Barón Núñez

    2010-01-01

    The concentration of the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) of the fifteen commercial yogurts corresponding to the main consumption and distribution in the Colombian market was studied, as well as their fatty acid composition. The concentration of CLA, expressed as mg of cis-9,trans-11 octadecadienoic acid/g fat and as mg of cis-9,trans-11 octadecadienoic acid/100 g sample varied between 4.5 and 8.2, and between 7.8 and 25.5, respectively. The higher values of CLA (>6.0 mg/g fat) corresponded to ...

  4. 食品中共轭亚油酸的组成与抗病保健机理%Composition of Conjugated Linoleic Acids in Food and It's Anti-disease Hygiogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏彩欣; 李汉昌; 陈淑芬

    2002-01-01

    @@ 在动物性食品中,除了传统的营养价值之外,也含有一些对人体健康和疾病预防具有有益作用的微量成分,CLA(conjugated linoleic acid,共轭亚油酸)就是其中的一个例子.近年来大量的动物实验和细胞培养实验证明了CLA系列的生物学保健功能.

  5. Conjugated linoleic acid-enriched butter improved memory and up-regulated phospholipase A2 encoding-genes in rat brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Marco A S; Raposo, Nádia R B; Mury, Fábio B; Lopes, Fernando C F; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Talib, Leda L; Gattaz, Wagner F

    2015-10-01

    Reduced phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity has been reported in blood cells and in postmortem brains of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), and there is evidence that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) modulates the activity of PLA2 groups in non-brain tissues. As CLA isomers were shown to be actively incorporated and metabolized in the brains of rats, we hypothesized that feeding a diet naturally enriched in CLA would affect the activity and expression of Pla 2 -encoding genes in rat brain tissue, with possible implications for memory. To test this hypothesis, Wistar rats were trained for the inhibitory avoidance task and fed a commercial diet (control) or experimental diets containing either low CLA- or CLA-enriched butter for 4 weeks. After this period, the rats were tested for memory retrieval and killed for tissue collection. Hippocampal expression of 19 Pla 2 genes was evaluated by qPCR, and activities of PLA2 groups (cPLA2, iPLA2, and sPLA2) were determined by radioenzymatic assay. Rats fed the high CLA diet had increased hippocampal mRNA levels for specific PLA2 isoforms (iPla 2 g6γ; cPla 2 g4a, sPla 2 g3, sPla 2 g1b, and sPla 2 g12a) and higher enzymatic activity of all PLA2 groups as compared to those fed the control and the low CLA diet. The increment in PLA2 activities correlated significantly with memory enhancement, as assessed by increased latency in the step-down inhibitory avoidance task after 4 weeks of treatment (rs = 0.69 for iPLA2, P < 0.001; rs = 0.81 for cPLA2, P < 0.001; and rs = 0.69 for sPLA2, P < 0.001). In face of the previous reports showing reduced PLA2 activity in AD brains, the present findings suggest that dairy products enriched in cis-9, trans-11 CLA may be useful in the treatment of this disease.

  6. Orchidectomy-induced alterations in volumetric bone density, cortical porosity and strength of femur are attenuated by dietary conjugated linoleic acid in aged guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGuire, Jason R; Mak, Ivy L; Lavery, Paula; Agellon, Sherry; Wykes, Linda J; Weiler, Hope A

    2015-04-01

    Age-related osteoporosis and sarcopenia are ascribed in part to reductions in anabolic hormones. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) improves lean and bone mass, but its impact during androgen deficiency is not known. This study tested if CLA would attenuate the effects of orchidectomy (ORX)-induced losses of bone and lean tissue. Male guinea pigs (n=40; 70-72 weeks), were randomized into four groups: (1) SHAM+Control diet, (2) SHAM+CLA diet, (3) ORX+Control diet, (4) ORX+CLA diet. Baseline blood sampling and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were conducted, followed by surgery 4 days later with the test diets started 7 days after baseline sampling. Serial blood sampling and DXA scans were repeated 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks on the test diets. Body composition and areal BMD (aBMD) of whole body, lumbar spine, femur and tibia were measured using DXA. At week 16, muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR), volumetric BMD (vBMD), microarchitecture and bone strength were assessed. Body weight declined after SHAM and ORX surgery, with slower recovery in the ORX group. Dietary CLA did not affect weight or lean mass, but attenuated gains in fat mass. Lean mass was stable in SHAM and reduced in ORX by 2 weeks with whole body and femur bone mineral content (BMC) reduced by 4 weeks; CLA did not alter BMC. By week 16 ORX groups had lower free testosterone and myofibrillar FSR, yet higher cortisol, osteocalcin and ionized calcium with no alterations due to CLA. ORX+Control had higher prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and total alkaline phosphatase compared to SHAM+Control whereas ORX+CLA were not different from SHAM groups. Femur metaphyseal vBMD was reduced in ORX+CTRL with the reduction attenuated by CLA. Femur cortical thickness (Ct.Th.) and biomechanical strength were reduced and cortical porosity (Ct.Po.) elevated by ORX and attenuated by CLA. This androgen deficient model with a sarcopenic-osteoporotic phenotype similar to aging men responded to dietary CLA with

  7. Low Dietary c9t11-Conjugated Linoleic Acid Intake from Dairy Fat or Supplements Reduces Inflammation in Collagen-Induced Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Shane M; Olson, Jake M; Campbell, James P; Bishop, Jeffrey W; Crump, Peter M; Cook, Mark E

    2016-07-01

    Dietary cis-9,trans-11 (c9t11) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) fed at 0.5 % w/w was previously shown to attenuate inflammation in the murine collagen-induced (CA) arthritis model, and growing evidence implicates c9t11-CLA as a major anti-inflammatory component of dairy fat. To understand c9t11-CLA's contribution to dairy fat's anti-inflammatory action, the minimum amount of dietary c9t11-CLA needed to reduce inflammation must be determined. This study had two objectives: (1) determine the minimum dietary anti-inflammatory c9t11-CLA intake level in the CA model, and (2) compare this to anti-inflammatory effects of dairy fat (non-enriched, naturally c9t11-CLA-enriched, or c9t11-CLA-supplemented). Mice received the following dietary fat treatments (w/w) post arthritis onset: corn oil (6 % CO), 0.125, 0.25, 0.375, and 0.5 % c9t11-CLA, control butter (6 % CB), c9t11-enriched butter (6 % EB), or c9t11-CLA-supplemented butter (6 % SB, containing 0.2 % c9t11-CLA). Paw arthritic severity and pad swelling were scored and measured, respectively, over an 84-day study period. All c9t11-CLA and butter diets decreased the arthritic score (25-51 %, P CLA- and EB-fed mice. Interleukin-1β and IL-6 were increased in arthritic CO-fed mice compared to NA mice but were reduced in 0.5 % c9t11-CLA- and EB-fed mice through day 42. In conclusion, 0.125 % c9t11-CLA reduced clinical arthritis as effectively as higher doses, and decreased arthritis in CB-fed mice suggested that the minimal anti-inflammatory levels of c9t11-CLA might be below 0.125 %. PMID:27270404

  8. Meta-análise do uso de ácido linoleico conjugado na alimentação de suínos Meta-analysis of conjugated linoleic acid use in pigs feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Andretta

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma meta-análise da associação do ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA com o desempenho e a qualidade de carcaça e de carne em suínos (Sus scrofa domesticus. A base de dados utilizada contemplou 15 artigos publicados entre 1999 e 2006, e totalizou 216 dietas e 5.223 animais. A meta-análise foi realizada por meio de análises gráficas (para observar coerência biológica dos dados, de correlação (para identificar variáveis correlacionadas e de variância-covariância. O modelo da análise de variância incluiu apenas as variáveis de carne e carcaça mais correlacionadas com o consumo de CLA pelos animais, além das codificações para os efeitos inter e intra-experimentos. A inclusão do ácido linoleico apresentou correlação negativa com a eficiência alimentar e positiva com o consumo de ração e o ganho de peso dos animais. Não houve alteração do consumo de ração, do ganho de peso e da eficiência alimentar dos suínos. O ácido linoleico conjugado aumentou em 9% o conteúdo de carne magra na carcaça, e seu consumo variou a espessura média de toucinho. O ácido linoleico conjugado aumenta o conteúdo de carne magra e reduz a espessura de toucinho na carcaça, sem influenciar o desempenho e a qualidade da carne em suínos.This work aimed at meta-analyzing the association of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA with the performance and the carcass and meat quality in pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus. The database used assembled 15 scientific papers, published from 1999 to 2006, comprising 216 diets and 5,223 animals. Meta-analysis was carried out by graphical examination (to observe biological coherency, correlation (to identify correlated variables and variance-covariance analysis of the data. The analysis of variance included only meat and carcass variables with stronger correlation to CLA consumption by the animals, and encodings to inter and intra-experimental effects. The inclusion of CLA in diets

  9. 超临界CO2体系中固定化亚油酸异构酶催化合成共轭亚油酸%Synthesis of conjugated linoleic acid with immobilized linoleic acid isomerase in supercritical CO2 system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦江华; 刘璘; 康凌; 丁玉庭

    2012-01-01

    以固定化亚油酸异构酶和亚油酸(LA)为原料,在考察超临界CO2(SC-CO2)处理对酶稳定性影响的基础上,采用单因素试验和响应面法研究SC-CO2中LA质量浓度、反应温度、压力、反应时间对共轭亚油酸(CLA)合成的影响.结果表明:固定化亚油酸异构酶在SC-CO2压力小于30MPa,处理温度低于40℃,处理时间小于2h时,相对酶活较高,具有较好的稳定性;响应面法优化CLA合成条件为LA质量浓度0.05 g/mL,反应温度36℃,压力30 MPa,反应时间1.5h;在此条件下,CLA的含量为60.58 mg/g;固定化亚油酸异构酶重复使用3次,CLA保持较高的含量.%The immobilized linoleic acid isomerase and linoleic acid ( LA) were used as raw materials, and the effects of LA mass concentration, reaction temperature, pressure and reaction time on the synthesis of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in supercritical CO2(SC -CO2) system were studied by single -factor experiment and response surface methodology on the basis of the study on stability of the enzyme treated with SC - CO2. The results showed that the immobilized linoleic acid isomerase had high activity and good stability when the SC - CO2 conditions were below 40 ℃ , 30 Mpa, 2 h. The optimal conditions for synthesis of CLA by the response surface methodology were as follows; LA mass concentration 0. 05 g/ mL, reaction temperature 36℃, pressure 30 Mpa, reaction time 1. 5 h. Under these conditions, the CLA content was 60. 58 mg/g. The synthesis of CLA had good efficiency when the immobilized linoleic acid isomerase was used three times repeatedly.

  10. Ácido linoléico conjugado em dietas para pacu: tempo de deposição, desempenho e perfil de ácidos graxos Conjugated linoleic acid in pacu diets: deposition time, performance and fatty acids profile

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian Dena dos Santos; Wilson Massamitu Furuya; Tarcila Souza de Castro Silva; Mariana Michelato; Makoto Matsushita

    2009-01-01

    Avaliou-se a influência da adição (1,2%) de ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA) na dieta sobre o desempenho, a deposição e o perfil de ácidos graxos na carne de pacus. Foram utilizados 112 pacus em crescimento (256,19 ± 24,09), distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com dois tratamentos e quatro repetições, em oito tanques (1 m³ cada), e alimentados até a saciedade aparente, três vezes ao dia, durante 60 dias. Utilizou-se dieta extrusada, com 28% PB e 3.000 kcal ED/kg de ração. A ...

  11. Deposição de ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA) em tilápias-do-nilo Deposition of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in Nile tilapia

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian Dena dos Santos; Wilson Massamitu Furuya; Makoto Matsushita; Lilian Carolina Rosa da Silva; Tarcila Souza de Castro Silva; Daniele Botaro; Priscila Pinsetta Sales

    2007-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar a deposição de ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA) em filés de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). Foram utilizados peixes com 121,08 ± 8,48 g, distribuídos em quatro caixas de cimento amianto (1,0 m³ cada uma) e arraçoados até saciedade aparente, duas vezes ao dia, durante 49 dias. Como alimento, utilizou-se ração comercial extrusada com 28% de PB e 3.000 kcal de energia digestível/kg, acrescida de 2% do produto comercial Luta-CLAâ (BASF Brasil). No início do exp...

  12. 共轭亚油酸在液态乳制品中的应用研究%Study on the Application of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Fluid Dairy Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕桂善; 成官哲

    2004-01-01

    本文研究了在液态乳制品中添加不同含量的共轭亚油酸(Conjugated linoleic Acid,CLA)及不同的CLA产品形式(CLA,CLA乙酯,CLA甘油三酯)后对产品感官品质(可接受度)的影响,并对CLA的贮藏稳定性进行了研究.研究结果表明,当CLA的添加量超过1‰时,产品即有一种CLA特有的涩味,比较难以让人接受;当使用CLA甘油三酯时,对产品的感官品质没有影响,反而使得产品更加滑爽,脂肪香味更浓;CLA甘油三酯在贮藏过程中具有良好的稳定性.

  13. Conjugated linoleic acid isomers and their precursor fatty acids regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor subtypes and major peroxisome proliferator responsive element-bearing target genes in HepG2 cell model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sailas BENJAMIN; Silke FLOTHO; Torsten B(O)RCHERS; Friedrich SPENER

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the induction profiles(as judged by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(qRT-PCR))of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor(PPAR)α,β,Y subtypes and major PPAR-target genes bearing a functional peroxisome proliferator responsive element(PPRE)in HepG2 cell model upon feeding with cis-9,trans-11-octadecadienoic acid(9-CLA)or trans-10,cis-12-octadecadienoic acid (10-CLA)or their precursor fatty acids(FAs).HepG2 cells were treated with 100 μmol/L 9-CLA or 10-CLA or their precursor FAs,viz.,oleic,linoleic,and trans-11-vaccenic acids against bezafibrate control to evaluate the induction/expression profiles of PPAR α,β,Y subtypes and major PPAR-target genes bearing a functional PPRE,i.e.,fatty acid transporter(FAT),glucose transporter-2(GLUT-2),liver-type FA binding protein(L-FABP),acyl CoA oxidase-1 (ACOX-1),and peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme(PBE)with reference to β-actin as house keeping gene.Of the three housekeeping genes(glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase(GAPDH),β-actin,and ubiquitin),β-actin was found to be stable.Dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO),the common solubilizer of agonists,showed a significantly higher induction of genes analyzed.qRT-PCR profiles of CLAs and their precursor FAs clearly showed upregulation of FAT,GLUT-2,and L-FABP(~0.5-2.0-fold).Compared to 10-CLA,9-CLA decreased the induction of the FA metabolizing gene ACOX-1 less than did PBE,while 10-CLA decreased the induction of PBE less than did ACOX-1.Both CLAs and precursor FAs upregulated PPRE-bearing genes,but with comparatively less or marginal activation of PPAR subtypes.This indicates that the binding of CLAs and their precursor FAs to PPAR subtypes results in PPAR activation,thereby induction of the target transporter genes coupled with downstream lipid metabolising genes such as ACOX-1 and PBE.To sum up,the expression profiles of these candidate genes showed that CLAs and their precursor FAs are involved in lipid

  14. Body measurements and serum lipid profile of overweight adult dogs fed diet with containing conjugated linoleic acid Medidas corporais e perfil lipídico plasmático de cães adultos com sobrepeso alimentados com dieta contendo ácido linoléico conjugado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Lorena Montaño Rivera

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies with human beings and animals have shown that dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA promotes changes in body structure, markedly, body fat reduction. This research aimed to assess the effect of CLA (60% of conjugated linoleic acid methyl ester, at the proportion of 1:1 of the 9, 11: 10, 12 isomers on changes in body weight, subcutaneous tissue thickness, body fat mass and concentration of serum lipids (triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL in overweight dogs. Dogs of different breeds weighting 16.85±7.13 assigned in a randomized assay. Two types of diets were offered for 120 days: control (-CLA and test (+CLA, 0.3%. There was no difference between control and test groups considering body weight and serum levels of triacylglycerols, total cholesterol and LDL portion. There was a significant difference between the final and initial results for subcutaneous tissue thickness and body fat mass and for serum concentration of HDL in dogs supplemented with CLA. The addition of 0.3% of CLA in the diet of overweight dogs decreased the fat deposition on subcutaneous tissue and the development of body fat mass but increased blood levels of HDL.Estudos em humanos e animais têm demonstrado que o uso do ácido linoléico conjugado (ALC promove alterações na composição corporal, principalmente reduzindo a deposição de gordura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações sobre o peso corporal, tecido adiposo subcutâneo, gordura corporal e concentração sérica de lípideos (triacilglicerol, colesterol total, LDL e HDL de cães com sobrepeso alimentados com ALC (60% de ácido linoléico conjugado metil ester, na proporção de 1:1 de 9, 11: 10, 12 isômeros na dieta. Duas dietas foram fornecidas por quatro meses, para 14 cães com sobrepeso (16,85±7,13 de diferentes raças: dietas controle (-ALC e teste (+ALC, 0,3%. O experimento seguiu delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Não houve diferença entre os grupos para peso

  15. Milk composition during duodenal infusion of conjugated linoleic acid in dairy goats fed diets with different C18:2/C18:1 ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Ph Schmidely; P.V.D Andrade

    2011-01-01

    O efeito do t10,c12-C18:2 na produção de leite e no perfil em ácidos graxos (AG) da gordura do leite foi estudado em oito cabras que receberam t10,c12-C18:2 por infusão duodenal (ácido linoléico conjugado -CLA, 2g/10 h) durante três dias, seguido por dois dias de infusão de leite desnatado (SM). As cabras foram distribuídas em quatro grupos em um delineamento fatorial 2x2: duas porcentagens de concentrado da dieta - L, baixa 45% ou H, alta 65% - e dois tipos de gordura adicionada para modific...

  16. Milk composition during duodenal infusion of conjugated linoleic acid in dairy goats fed diets with different C18:2/C18:1 ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidely, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    O efeito do t10,c12-C18:2 na produção de leite e no perfil em ácidos graxos (AG) da gordura do leite foi estudado em oito cabras que receberam t10,c12-C18:2 por infusão duodenal (ácido linoléico conjugado - CLA, 2g/10 h) durante três dias, seguido por dois dias de infusão de leite desnatado (SM). As cabras foram distribuídas em quatro grupos em um delineamento fatorial 2x2: duas porcentagens de concentrado da dieta – L, baixa 45% ou H, alta 65% – e dois tipos de gordura adicionada para modifi...

  17. Higher PUFA and n-3 PUFA, conjugated linoleic acid, α-tocopherol and iron, but lower iodine and selenium concentrations in organic milk: a systematic literature review and meta- and redundancy analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Średnicka-Tober, Dominika; Barański, Marcin; Seal, Chris J; Sanderson, Roy; Benbrook, Charles; Steinshamn, Håvard; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Skwarło-Sońta, Krystyna; Eyre, Mick; Cozzi, Giulio; Larsen, Mette Krogh; Jordon, Teresa; Niggli, Urs; Sakowski, Tomasz; Calder, Philip C; Burdge, Graham C; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Stefanakis, Alexandros; Stergiadis, Sokratis; Yolcu, Halil; Chatzidimitriou, Eleni; Butler, Gillian; Stewart, Gavin; Leifert, Carlo

    2016-03-28

    Demand for organic milk is partially driven by consumer perceptions that it is more nutritious. However, there is still considerable uncertainty over whether the use of organic production standards affects milk quality. Here we report results of meta-analyses based on 170 published studies comparing the nutrient content of organic and conventional bovine milk. There were no significant differences in total SFA and MUFA concentrations between organic and conventional milk. However, concentrations of total PUFA and n-3 PUFA were significantly higher in organic milk, by an estimated 7 (95 % CI -1, 15) % and 56 (95 % CI 38, 74) %, respectively. Concentrations of α-linolenic acid (ALA), very long-chain n-3 fatty acids (EPA+DPA+DHA) and conjugated linoleic acid were also significantly higher in organic milk, by an 69 (95 % CI 53, 84) %, 57 (95 % CI 27, 87) % and 41 (95 % CI 14, 68) %, respectively. As there were no significant differences in total n-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA) concentrations, the n-6:n-3 and LA:ALA ratios were lower in organic milk, by an estimated 71 (95 % CI -122, -20) % and 93 (95 % CI -116, -70) %. It is concluded that organic bovine milk has a more desirable fatty acid composition than conventional milk. Meta-analyses also showed that organic milk has significantly higher α-tocopherol and Fe, but lower I and Se concentrations. Redundancy analysis of data from a large cross-European milk quality survey indicates that the higher grazing/conserved forage intakes in organic systems were the main reason for milk composition differences. PMID:26878105

  18. Manipulation of the fatty acids composition of poultry meat and giblets by dietary inclusion of two oil sources and conjugated linoleic acid Mudança na composição de ácidos graxos das vísceras e da carne de aves tratadas com uma dieta contendo ácido linoléico conjugado e duas fontes de óleo

    OpenAIRE

    Zanini, S.F.; Vicente, E.; G.L. Colnago; B.M.S. Pessotti; Silva, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in association with two vegetable oil sources on the fatty acids of meat and giblets of broiler chickens was evaluated. Two hundred 21-day-old broiler chickens were distributed in a completely randomized factorial design 2 x 5 (two oil sources, soybean or canola oil; and five levels of CLA, 0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0g/kg). The addition of CLA to the diet resulted in an increase (P

  19. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers as anticancer lipids: analysis, bioformation and mechanisms of action in the HT-29 human colon cancer cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Shafiqur

    2006-01-01

    Conjugated hnoleic acid (CLA), a group of polyunsaturated fatty acids occurring naturally in dairy products but also produced by certain strains of human intestinal bifidobacteria is known to exhibit potent anticancer effect both in vivo and in a range of tumour epithelial cell lines The HT-29 human colon cancer cell line was used in this study as an in vitro model to investigate the effects of CLA and ¿raws-vaccemc acid (¿- VA), a putative precursor of c9, t \\ \\ CLA on markers of growth, dif...

  20. pH非敏感型自交联共轭亚油酸囊泡的构建和表征%Construction and Characterization of a Novel pH-insensitive Self-crosslinked Ufasome of Conjugated Linoleic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊晔; 方云; 高迪

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid( CLA) was employed as a molecular building block to construct a novel pH-insensitive fatty acid vesicle(FAV). First, CLA was semi-synthesized from linoleic acid through alkali isomerization. Subsequently, the ufasome(unsaturated fatty acid liposome) of CLA was self-assembled from the CLA molecules together with the CLA ions in response to pH, and a novel pH-insensitive FAV, the self-crosslinked-CLA FAV, was prepared by chemical tethering the CLA-ufasome through UV irradiation. The sui-table pH ranges and the CLA concentrations were determined by acid-base titration and surface tension mea-surement. The morphology of the self-crosslinked-CLA FAV was imaged by transmission electro microscopy ( TEM) and the pH-insensitive characteristic of the self-crosslinked-CLA FAV was tested by dynamic light scattering ( DLS ) . The experimental results indicated that the self-crosslinked-CLA FAV with diameter of 10-20 nm and wall thickness of 2.0 nm was obtained through a two-step procedure. At first, the CLA-ufa-some formed using the CLA species as a molecular building block at pH=8.6 and CLA concentration of 3 mmol/L, and then followed by UV irradiation self-crosslinking for 2.5 h. It was verified by DLS data that the self-crosslinked-CLA FAV is pH-insensitive in almost all pH ranges. Finally, the in vitro release results of 5-fluorouracil from the self-crosslinked-CLA FAV showed that the process was slow and sustainable.%以共轭亚油酸( Conjugated linoleic acid, CLA)为构造pH非敏感型脂肪酸囊泡( Fatty acid vesicle, FAV)的分子砌块,通过碱异构化法从亚油酸半合成CLA,然后采用pH刺激响应自组装法获得CLA的不饱和脂肪酸囊泡( Ufasome),采用紫外辐照诱导方式对CLA-ufasome实施囊泡内化学绑定,获得一种新的pH非敏感型FAV.通过酸碱滴定和表面张力实验确定CLA-ufasome形成的适宜pH范围和浓度,利用透射电子显微镜( TEM)表征了自交联CLA的FAV的

  1. Determination by GC×GC of fatty acid and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer profiles in six selected tissues of lambs fed on pasture or on indoor diets with and without rumen-protected CLA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellattiero, Erika; Cecchinato, Alessio; Tagliapietra, Franco; Schiavon, Stefano; Bittante, Giovanni

    2015-01-28

    In this study GC×GC was used to study the effects of pasture, hay, concentrate (indoor), and indoor plus 8 g/day of a rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid (indoor-CLA) diets on the detailed fatty acid (FA) profiles of six tissues (muscles, fatty tissues, and liver) collected from 36 lambs. This powerful technique allowed the quantification of 128 FAs, of which 21 SFAs, 16 MUFAs, 19 PUFAs were identified by reference standards. The diets had similar, but not identical, effects on FA profiles (g/100 g FA) in the various tissues, as both indoor diets reduced total PUFAs (from 8.91 ± 6.27 to 8.06 ± 5.97; p odd-chain FAs (from 5.88 ± 5.33 to 7.07 ± 1.51; p < 0.01) compared to pasture. Indoor-CLA increased CLAc9,t11 (from 0.42 ± 0.13 to 0.53 ± 0.19; p < 0.01), CLAt10,c12 (from 0.07 ± 0.06 to 0.12 ± 0.22; p < 0.05), and CLAc11,t13 (from 0.02 ± 0.04 to 0.05 ± 0.04; p < 0.05) compared to indoor. PMID:25525905

  2. 乳中共轭亚油酸异构体合成机制的研究进展%Research Progress in the Mechanism of the Biosynthesis of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Isomers in Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付金衡; 丁宜春; 李海星; 陈燕; 李超波; 曹郁生; 刘晓华

    2013-01-01

    共轭亚油酸(conjugated linoleic acid,CLA)是一组十八碳共轭二烯酸的统称,具有多种重要的生理活性,其中c9,t11-CLA具有很强的抗癌作用,t10,c12-CLA具有减肥和防治Ⅱ型糖尿病的功能.在自然界,CLA主要存在于牛羊的乳中,通常包含c9,t11-CLA和t10,c12-CLA等异构体,但含量很低.牛羊瘤胃中的一些微生物参与了不同CLA异构体的生物合成.本文综述了CLA的结构和功能、CLA异构体分析方法、乳中CLA的组成、乳中CLA的合成途径、提高乳中CLA含量的方法和瘤胃中合成CLA的微生物的研究进展,为开展更深入的研究提供一些思路和参考.

  3. Efeito da suplementação com ácido linoléico conjugado e do treinamento em natação sobre a composição corporal e os parâmetros bioquímicos de ratos Wistar em crescimento Effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and swimming training on the body composition and biochemical parameters of Wistar pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Eduardo de Aquino Junior

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da suplementação com ácido linoléico conjugado, associada ao treinamento moderado em natação, sobre a composição corporal, o consumo e a eficiência alimentar, a glicemia, o perfil lipídico e o glicogênio muscular e hepático de ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar (30 dias foram divididos em: sedentário, sedentário suplementado, treinado e treinado suplementado. Permaneceram em gaiolas individuais com comida e água ad libitum, temperatura de 23ºC (com variação de1ºC e ciclo claro-escuro de 12 horas, durante 8 semanas. A sessão de natação durou 1 hora e foi realizada três vezes/semana, bem como a suplementação com ácido linoléico conjugado a 2%. Após sacrifício, o plasma, os tecidos adiposos brancos e o marrom, o músculo gastrocnêmio e o fígado foram coletados e pesados. RESULTADOS: A suplementação per se não promoveu modificação na ingestão alimentar e na massa corporal dos animais. Houve aumento na glicemia de jejum (pOBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation associated with moderate swimming training on body composition, food efficiency and consumption, blood glucose, lipid profile, and muscle and liver glycogen of Wistar rats. METHODS: Thirty-day old Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: inactive, inactive with 2% conjugated linoleic acid supplementation, active, and active with 2% conjugated linoleic acid supplementation. They remained in individual cages with food and water ad libitum, temperature of 23±1ºC and a light and dark cycle of 12 hours for 8 weeks. The active groups swam for one hour three times per week. The animals were killed and the plasma, white and brown fat tissues, gastrocnemius muscle and liver were collected and weighted. RESULTS: Supplementation per se did not promote food intake or body weight changes in the animals. Fasting glucose (p<0.05 and high density lipoproteins

  4. Effect of the inclusion of quebracho tannins in a diet rich in linoleic acid on milk fatty acid composition in dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Hervás, G; Belenguer, A; Bichi, E; Frutos, P

    2013-01-01

    Despite controversy surrounding the ability of tannins to modulate the fatty acid (FA) profile of ruminant-derived products, reports on this issue are still very limited for dairy sheep. This study was conducted to examine the effect of the inclusion of quebracho tannins in a diet rich in linoleic acid on ewe performance and milk FA composition. Thirty-six lactating ewes were distributed into 6 lots and allocated to 2 treatments (3 lots/treatment): control or quebracho. All sheep received a total mixed ration based on alfalfa hay and a concentrate (forage:concentrate ratio of 40:60) supplemented with 20 g of sunflower oil/kg of dry matter plus 0 (control diet) or 20 g of an extract of quebracho tannins/kg of dry matter (QUE diet). Milk production and composition were analyzed on d 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, and 27 on treatments, and milk FA profile on d 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 27. On d 27, samples of rumen fluid were collected for pH, and lactate, ammonia, and volatile FA concentration analysis. Feeding the QUE diet had no apparent effect on animal performance and hardly modified ruminal fermentation characteristics, except for a reduction in the molar proportions of minor volatile FA. Dietary tannins increased the milk concentration of several 18:1 and 18:2 isomers and decreased that of branched-chain FA. Some of these changes were relatively constant throughout the experiment (e.g., cis-12 18:1 and trans-9,cis-12 18:2), whereas others varied over time (e.g., trans-10 18:1, which increased gradually with the QUE diet). Significant differences between treatments in trans-11 18:1 and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid were only observed on d 3. Overall, addition of quebracho tannins to a diet rich in linoleic acid did not prove useful to beneficially modify milk FA composition, especially over the long term.

  5. 田口设计优化保加利亚乳杆菌静息细胞转化合成共轭亚油酸%Optimization of bioconversion conditions for the production of conjugated linoleic acids with resting cells of Lactobacillus bulgaricus by Taguchi design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游庆红; 尹秀莲

    2012-01-01

    The production of conjugated linoleic acids by resting cells of Lactobacillus bulgaricus was optimized using Taguchi design. On the basis of single factor test, the Ls(24) of orthogonal experiment was designed using Minitab software, and the results were analyzed using Taguchi design. The results indicated that the effects of the concentration of resting cells, pH value, temperature and the concentration of linoleic acids on the production of conjugated linoleic acids were insignificant. Minitab software predicted the optimal production of conjugated linoleic acids were as follows: the concentration of resting cells 7%, pH value 5.7, temperature 32℃ and the concentration of linoleic acids 1.7g/L. Under these conditions, the yield of conjugated linoleic acids reached 142.3mg/L, which corresponded to the predicted value (140.63mg/L). This indicated that optimum program is good.%应用田口设计对保加利亚乳杆菌静息细胞转化合成共轭亚油酸进行优化.在单因素试验基础上,应用Minitab设计2水平4因素正交试验,采用田口设计方法分析正交试验结果.结果表明,静息细胞浓度、pH值、温度、亚油酸浓度对共轭亚油酸产量影响均不显著.软件预测产共轭亚油酸的最佳工艺为静息细胞浓度7%、pH值为5.7、温度32℃、亚油酸浓度1.7g/L,此时共轭亚油酸产量为142.3mg/L,与软件预测值140.63mg/L相吻合,表明优化方案达到了预期效果,且具有良好的稳定性.

  6. Ácido linoléico conjugado, na nutrição de suínos, sobre desempenho zootécnico, características de carcaça e rendimento de cortes Conjugated linoleic acid in swine nutrition on animal performance, carcass traits and cut yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Surek

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da inclusão de ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA em dietas de suínos dos 65kg de peso vivo até a fase de abate (100kg sobre desempenho zootécnico, rendimento de corte e características de carcaça. Foram utilizados 200 suínos provenientes do cruzamento industrial JSR x PIC, em igual proporção de sexo. Os tratamentos foram compostos por dietas com (+CLA e sem (-CLA adição de CLA. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi completamente casualizado, sendo as características de carcaça avaliadas em esquema fatorial 2x2 (dieta x sexo. Os animais que consumiram CLA apresentaram melhor ganho de peso diário, redução da espessura de toucinho e maior rendimento de carne magra. A retenção de líquidos da carne não apresentou diferença em relação à dieta. Conclui-se, com base nos resultados, que é benéfica a inclusão de CLA na alimentação de suínos em terminação.The proposal of this study was to evaluate the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplementation on swine diets, reared from 65kg body weight up to slaughter (100kg body weight on animal performance, cut yields and carcass traits. Two hundred crossbred pigs (JSR x PIC were used, half barrows and half gilts. The treatments were diets with (+CLA and without (-CLA supplementation of CLA. A completely randomly experimental design was used, and for the carcass traits and cut yield it was a 2x2 factorial design (diet and sex. Animals that consumed CLA presented a better average daily gain, decreased backfat thickness and a higher lean meat yield. Meat liquid retention capacity was not affected by diets. Based in these results it is beneficial the inclusion of CLA on finishing pigs feed.

  7. 玉米胚芽油制备共轭亚油酸的微波工艺研究%Study on Microwave Preparation of Conjugated Linoleic Acid from Corn Germ Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振强; 申森; 樊欣

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective] The optimal craft of preparing conjugated linoleic acid from corn germ oil by dint of microwave method was studied. [Method] Microwave power, microwave mode of action, the amount of catalyst and solvent were selected for single-factor-experiment. Then, based on the single-factor-experiment, the catalyst and solvent amount, and microwave function time were chosen for orthogonal experiment sc as to determine the optimal craft of preparing CLA from corn germ oil. UV absorption spectra and infrared absorption spectrum were used to analyze the structural features of natural corn germ oil and CLA. [ Result] The optimal preparation condition was as follow; the catalyst was 0.6 times heavier than oil, solvent was 3 times heavier than oil weight, microwave worked for ten minutes. Under the optimal condition, CLA was 56.3% and conversion rate was 99. 47 %. The results indicated that non-conjugated double bonds of linoleic acid can be isomerized and changed into conjugated double bonds under the conditions of microwave irradiation. [ Conclusion ] The study provided new way for the preparation of CLA.%[目的]采用微波法,研究利用玉米胚芽油制备共轭亚油酸(CLA)的最佳工艺.[方法]选择微波作用功率、微波作用方式、催化剂用量、溶剂用量进行单因素试验,然后在单因素试验的基础上选取催化剂用量、溶剂用量和微波作用时间进行正交试验,以确定由玉米胚芽油制备CLA的最佳工艺.并对天然玉米胚芽油和微波异构化产物进行紫外吸收光谱和红外吸收光谱分析.[结果]最佳制备工艺条件为催化剂用量为油重的0.6倍、溶剂用量为油重的3倍、微波作用10min;在最佳条件下进行试验,CLA含量为56.3%,转化率为99.47%.结构特征分析结果表明,微波能促进亚油酸的非共轭双键发生异构化,转变为共轭双键亚油酸.[结论]该研究为人工合成CLA提供了新的途径.

  8. A Rapid Method for Determination of the Main Conjugated Linoleic Acid Precursors (C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3) in Forage by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis with Ultraviolet Detection Using Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detection as a Comparative Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus Coelho Castro, Renata; Sobrinho, Fausto Souza; Sundfeld da Gama, Marco Antônio; Takabayashi Sato, Renata; Lavorato Lima, Larissa; Leal de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto

    2015-01-01

    A rapid method has been proposed for determination of the main conjugated linoleic acid precursors such as linoleic (C18:2 n-6) and linolenic (C18:3 n-3) acids in forages by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with direct UV detection at 200 nm. Among the fatty acids found in forages, C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 have received particular attention due to their roles as precursors for the synthesis of conjugated linoleic acid, a class of health-enhancing compounds that is predominantly found in dairy products. The electrolyte background consisted of 12.0 mmol/L tetraborate buffer (pH 9.2) added to 12.0 mmol/L Brij 35®, 17% acetonitrile, and 33% methanol. Under the optimized conditions, the baseline separation of C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 was achieved within 4 min. The CZE-UV method was compared to GC with a flame ionization detector, which is the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS 996.06) official method for fatty acid analysis. The methods did not show any evidence of significant differences within 95% confidence interval (P>0.05). The CZE-UV method was successfully applied to the analysis of 80 genotypes of Brachiaria ruzizienses clones submitted to a genetic improvement program in agricultural research. PMID:26651572

  9. Enzymatic synthesis of structured lipid containing conjugated linoleic acid in a solvent-free system%无溶剂体系酶法催化酸解合成共轭亚油酸甘油酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠菊; 单良; 金青哲; 刘元法; 王兴国

    2009-01-01

    A structured lipid (SL) containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was prepared using immobilized lipase(Novozym 435)-catalyzed acidolysis of sunflower seed oil with CLA. The acidolysis reaction was carried out in a solvent-free system. The effects on incorporation of CLA, and the CLA content in Sn-2 position of water content, molar ratio of substrates, enzyme dosage, reaction temperature, and reaction time were evaluated.The results showed that the optimal reaction conditions were as follows:molar ratio of CLA to sunflower seed oil 3 ∶1,enzyme dosage 10%,water content in the system 1%,reaction temperature 55 ℃,reaction time 36 h.Under the optimal condtions,the CLA content and the Sn-2 position CLA content in the finished product were 15.7% and 2.73%,respectively.%采用商业化固定化酶Novozym 435作为生物催化剂,催化共轭亚油酸(CLA)和葵花籽油的酸解反应合成富含CLA的结构脂质(CLA-SL).研究了在无溶剂体系中,底物摩尔比、酶用量、体系含水量、反应温度和反应时间对产物中CLA含量和Sn-2位CLA含量的影响.结果表明,最佳反应条件为:CLA与葵花籽油摩尔比3 :1,酶用量10%,体系含水量1%,反应温度55 ℃,反应时间36 h.在最佳反应条件下,产物中的CLA含量和Sn-2位CLA含量分别为15.7%和2.73%.

  10. Effects of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Egg Quality and Serum Biochemical Indexes of Gushi Layers%共轭亚油酸对固始鸡蛋品质和血清生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓轩; 靳明明; 田亚东; 康相涛

    2009-01-01

    A total of 288 30-week-old Gushi layers were randomly divided into four groups and maintained in individual laying cages throughout 6 weeks of the experimental period. The layers were assigned to four treat-menu that consisted of commercial layer diets containing 0,0.5%,1.0%,2.0%. The results showed that CLA reduced TC and TG of yolk (P<0.05). Egg mass, egg shape index and Haugh units were not influenced by the dietary of CLA. Hens fed 2% dietary of CLA increased yolk weight and yolk color (P<0.05). The TC and VLDL-C increased at the first and then decreased as conjugated linoleic acid to add volume, reaching a significant difference (P<0.05).%选用288只30周龄健康固始母鸡,随机分为4组,分别饲喂添加不同共轭亚油酸(0、0.5% 1.0%和2.0%)的饲粮,经过6周饲养后测定蛋品质及鸡血清指标.结果表明:随着共轭亚油酸添加量的增加,蛋黄总胆固醇和总甘油三酯显著减少(P<0.05).当共轭亚油酸添加量达到2.0%时,能显著增加蛋黄重和改善蛋黄色泽(P<0.05).鸡血清中的总胆固醇和极低密度脂蛋白随着共轭亚油酸添加量的增加,有先增大然后减小的趋势,差异达到显著水平(P<0.05).

  11. Ácido linoléico conjugado e perfil de ácidos graxos no músculo e na capa de gordura de novilhos bubalinos alimentados com diferentes fontes de lipídios Linoleic conjugated acid and fatty acids profile in the muscle and fat layer of water buffalo steers fed different fat sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Oliveira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o teor de ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA e o perfil de ácidos graxos no músculo e na capa de gordura de novilhos bubalinos alimentados com diferentes fontes de lipídios. Utilizaram-se 12 animais castrados, da raça Murrah, com peso vivo de 306±8kg, submetidos aos tratamentos sem lipídeo adicional, grão de soja e óleo de soja, confinados durante 84 dias. Após o abate a carcaça foi resfriada a 5ºC, durante 24 horas. Foi feita secção entre a nona e a 11ª costelas da meia carcaça direita, de onde se separou músculo e capa de gordura, analisadas as concentrações de CLA e de ácidos graxos, por cromatografia gasosa. O fornecimento de óleo de soja resultou em maior concentração de CLA no músculo e na capa de gordura, e a adição de óleo de soja menores concentrações de ácidos graxos saturados, principalmente os ácidos mirístico e palmítico. Os animais que receberam a dieta com grão de soja integral também apresentaram menor teor de CLA e redução nas concentrações de mirístico e palmítico. Esses efeitos foram observados somente na capa de gordura e em menor intensidade.The effect of different fat sources on fatty acid concentrations in the muscle and in the fat layer of water buffalo steers was studied. Twelve water buffalo steers weighting 306±8kg, fed without additional fat, soybean grain or soybean oil and confined during 84 days were used. The animals were slaughtered after 16-hours-fasting and the carcass was cooled at 5ºC, for 24 hours. A section was extracted between 9th and 11th ribs from the right half carcass and this section was separated in bone, muscle and fat layer. In the last two fractions, the fatty acids, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, were quantified by gaseous chromatography. The soybean oil provided higher CLA concentrations in the steers muscle and fat layer. Moreover, the soybean oil inclusion promoted lower saturated fatty acids contents, mainly miristic and palmitic

  12. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on serum leptin and follicle development in mice%日粮中添加共轭亚油酸对小鼠血清瘦素水平及卵泡发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔亚利; 李三吓; 李同洲; 李敏; 陈宝江

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at disclosing the effects of conjugated linoleic acid on follicle development of mice .Sixty female mice ,6 ~ 7 week‐old ,were randomly divided into two groups on the basis of the diet to be fed as follows :1 .5% peanut oil (control group);1 .5%peanut oil and 1 .5% conjugated linoleic acid diet (experimental group) .Serum leptin was de‐termined by ELISA .Paraffin section of ovaries was made to calculate primary and secondary follicles .The results showed as the follows :(1)Serum leptin in dioestrous ,oestrous ,5 days of pregnancy and 9 days of pregnancy were significantly lower in conjugated linoleic acid‐fed group than that of in peanut oil merely diet group .(2) No change of the numbers of primary follicles by conjugated linoleic acid was observed .Dietary conjugated linoleic acid increased the numbers of secondary follicles (P<0 .01) in ovary of oestrous .It was concluded that dietary conjugated linoleic acid affected reproductive function of mice by decreasing serum leptin ,in‐creasing the numbers of secondary follicles ,promoting the number of ovulation .%为了研究共轭亚油酸对小鼠卵泡发育的影响。将60只6~7周龄的K M 雌性小鼠,随机分为2组。对照组饲喂添加了1.5%花生油的繁殖颗粒料,试验组饲喂添加了1.5%花生油和1.5%共轭亚油酸的繁殖颗粒料。酶联免疫法测定不同生殖阶段血清瘦素浓度,常规石蜡切片法制备卵巢切片,观察卵巢的组织学结构并计数初级和次级卵泡数量。结果表明:(1)共轭亚油酸极显著降低了间情期、发情期、妊娠5 d小鼠的血清瘦素浓度(P<0.01),显著降低了妊娠9 d的血清瘦素浓度(P<0.05)。(2)共轭亚油酸对初级卵泡数量没有显著影响,极显著增加发情期次级卵泡的数量和产仔数。由此可见,共轭亚油酸可能通过降低血清瘦素水平,增加发情期次级卵泡数量,进而增加排卵数影响小鼠的生殖功能。

  13. Preparation of Conjugated Linoleic Acid of High Purity and Its Apparent Kinetic Characteristics During Formation%高纯度共轭亚油酸的制备及其转化过程的表观动力学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐向阳; 郭诤; 张根旺

    2002-01-01

    共轭亚油酸是一种具有多种生理活性和潜在应用前景的脂肪酸.研究了可用于规模化生产的高纯度共轭亚油酸的合成方法及其纯化的工艺路线和条件.以红花油为原料,通过脲包纯化、共轭化制备出纯度高达950  0的共轭亚油酸,总收率在480  0以上.并对以葵花油为原料的亚油酸转化为共轭亚油酸的反应动力学进行了研究,建立了其表观动力学模型,为工业设计提供了依据.%Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a fatty acid with physiological activities and potential application prospect. This paper focuses on the method of synthesis of conjugated linoleic acid of high purity and the process line and conditions for its purification that can be used in large-scale production. CLA of more than 950  0 purity was prepared by means of urea adduct purification and conjugation using safflower oil as material. The total recovery of the product adds up to more than 480  0. The reactive kinetics about linoleic acid from sunflower oil converted into CLA was investigated, and its apparent kinetic model was also established, which can be used as a base for industrial designs.

  14. Conjugated linoleic acid isomers and their precursor fatty acids regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor subtypes and major peroxisome proliferator responsive element-bearing target genes in HepG2 cell model*

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin, Sailas; Flotho, Silke; Börchers, Torsten; Spener, Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the induction profiles (as judged by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)) of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α, β, γ subtypes and major PPAR-target genes bearing a functional peroxisome proliferator responsive element (PPRE) in HepG2 cell model upon feeding with cis-9,trans-11-octadecadienoic acid (9-CLA) or trans-10,cis-12-octadecadienoic acid (10-CLA) or their precursor fatty acids (FAs). HepG2 cel...

  15. Radiosensitizing effect of conjugated linoleic acid in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells; Effet radiosensibilisateur de l'acide linoleique conjugue chez les cellules cancereuses de sein MCF-7 et MDA-MB-231

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drouin, G.; Douillette, A. [Univ. de Sherbrooke, Dept. de medecine nucleaire de radiobiologie, Faculte de medecine, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada); Lacasse, P. [Centre de recherche et development sur le bovin laitier et le porc, Lennoxville, Quebec (Canada); Paquette, B. [Univ. de Sherbrooke, Dept. de medecine nucleaire de radiobiologie, Faculte de medecine, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: benoit.paquette@USherbrooke.ca

    2004-02-01

    Apoptotic pathways in breast cancer cells are frequently altered, reducing the efficiency of radiotherapy. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), known to trigger apoptosis, was tested as radiosensitizer in breast cancer cells MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. The CLA-mix, made up of the isomers CLA-9cis 11trans and CLA-10trans 12cis, was compared to three purified isomers, i.e., the CLA-9cis 11cis, CLA-9cis 11trans, and CLA-10trans 12cis. Using the apoptotic marker YO-PRO-1, the CLA-9cis 11cis at 50 {mu}mol/L turned out to be the best apoptotic inducer leading to a 10-fold increase in MCF-7 cells and a 2,5-fold increase in MDA-MB-231 cells, comparatively to the CLA-mix. Contrary to previous studies on colorectal and prostate cancer cells, CLA-10trans 12cis does not lead to an apoptotic response on breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Our results also suggest that the main components of the CLA-mix (CLA-9cis 11trans and CLA-10trans 12cis) are not involved in the induction of apoptosis in the breast cancer cells studied. A dose of 5 Gy did not induce apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The addition of CLA-9cis 11cis or CLA-mix has allowed us to observe a radiation-induced apoptosis, with the CLA-9cis 11cis being about 8-fold better than the CLA-mix. CLA-9cis 11cis turned out to be the best radiosensitizer, although the isomers CLA-9cis 11trans and CLA-10trans 12cis have also reduced the cell survival following irradiation, but using a mechanism not related to apoptosis. In conclusion, the radiosensitizing property of CLA-9cis 11cis supports its potential as an agent to improve radiotherapy against breast carcinoma. (author)

  16. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid and high oleic acid safflower oil in the treatment of children with HPV-induced laryngeal papillomatosis: a randomized, double-blinded and crossover preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louw Louise

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgery is the mainstay therapy for HPV-induced laryngeal papillomatosis (LP and adjuvant therapies are palliative at best. Research revealed that conjugated-linoleic acid (CLA may improve the outcome of virally-induced diseases. The effects of Clarinol™ G-80 (CLA and high oleic safflower oil (HOSF on children with LP (concomitant with surgery were evaluated. Design A randomized, double-blinded, crossover and reference-oil controlled trial was conducted at a South African medical university. Study components included clinical, HPV type/load and lymphocyte/cytokine analyses, according to routine laboratory methods. Participants Overall: ten children enrolled; eight completed the trial; five remained randomized; seven received CLA first; all treatments remained double-blinded. Intervention Children (4 to 12 years received 2.5 ml p/d CLA (8 weeks and 2.5 ml p/d HOSF (8 weeks with a washout period (6 weeks in-between. The one-year trial included a post-treatment period (30 weeks and afterwards was a one-year follow-up period. Main outcome measures Changes in numbers of surgical procedures for improved disease outcome, total/anatomical scores (staging system for papillomatosis prevention/viral inhibition, and lymphocyte/cytokine counts for immune responses between baselines and each treatment/end of trial were measured. Findings After each treatment all the children were in remission (no surgical procedures; after the trial two had recurrence (surgical procedures in post-treatment period; after the follow-up period three had recurrence (several surgical procedures and five recovered (four had no surgical procedures. Effects of CLA (and HOSF to a lesser extent were restricted to mildly/moderately aggressive papillomatosis. Children with low total scores (seven/less and reduced infections (three/less laryngeal sub-sites recovered after the trial. No harmful effects were observed. The number of surgical procedures during the trial

  17. A maternal high fat diet programmes endothelial function and cardiovascular status in adult male offspring independent of body weight, which is reversed by maternal conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint Gray

    Full Text Available Maternal high fat intake during pregnancy and lactation can result in obesity and adverse cardio-metabolic status in offspring independent of postnatal diet. While it is clear that maternal high fat intake can cause hypertension in adult offspring, there is little evidence regarding the role of dietary interventions in terms of reversing these adverse effects. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is an omega 6 fatty acid with beneficial effects in obesity and metabolic status. However, the impact of CLA supplementation in the context of pregnancy disorders and high fat diet-induced developmental programming of offspring cardio-metabolic dysfunction has not been investigated. We have utilised a model of maternal overnutrition to examine the effects of CLA supplementation on programmed endothelial dysfunction during adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a purified control diet (CON or purified control diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat, a purified high fat (HF diet (45%kcal from fat and a purified HF diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat (HFCLA. All dams were fed ad libitum throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were fed a standard chow diet from weaning (day 21 until the end of the study (day 150. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was measured at day 85 and 130 by tail cuff plethysmography. At day 150, offspring mesenteric vessels were mounted on a pressure myograph and vascular responses to agonist-induced constriction and endothelium-dependent vasodilators were investigated. SBP was increased at day 85 and 130 in HF and HFCLA adult male offspring compared to CON and CLA groups with no effect of CLA supplementation. An overall effect of a maternal HF diet was observed in adult male vessels with a reduced vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine and blunted vasodilatory response to acetylcholine (ACh. Furthermore, HF and HFCLA offspring displayed a reduction in nitric oxide pathway function and an increased compensatory

  18. Growth, carcass characteristics, muscle conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content, and response to intravenous glucose challenge in high percentage Wagyu, Wagyu x Limousin, and Limousin steers fed sunflower oil-containing diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, P S; Mir, Z; Kubert, P S; Gaskins, C T; Martin, E L; Dodson, M V; Calles, J A Elias; Johnson, K A; Busboom, J R; Wood, A J; Pittenger, G J; Reeves, J J

    2002-11-01

    muscle fat content but increased (P = 0.01) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations by 339%. Results indicated that IVGTT measures were not appropriate indices of marbling potential in cattle and that dietary oil can enhance CLA content of beef.

  19. Efecto del ácido linoleico conjugado sobre la proporción de sexos y calidad de embriones bovinos producidos in vitro Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on sex ratio and quality of in vitro produced bovine embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NA Gómez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la suplementación del medio de cultivo con ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA sobre el clivaje, producción, proporción de sexos y calidad embrionaria en embriones bovinos producidos in vitro al día 7 de cultivo. Se fertilizaron 308 CCO suplementados en cultivo con 100 µM del isómero de CLA Cis-9 Trans-11 y Cis-10-Trans-12 y 257 CCO en el grupo control; la producción de embriones fue 25,32% vs 35,40% respectivamente con diferencia significativa (P The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of culture medium supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA on embryo cleavage, embryo production, sex ratio and embry o quality in in vitro produced bovine embryos at day 7 of culture. 308 COCs were used for the group supplemented with 100 µM of the CLA isomer Cis-9 trans-11 and Cis-10-Trans-12 and 257 COCs for the untreated control group; the embryo production was 25.32% vs 35.40%, respectively, with significant difference between them (P < 0.05. The embryos were classified according to the IETS in Mo, Bt, Bl and Bx stages for morphological and molecular analysis. PCR was used for sex determination; embryo quality was assessed as grade 1 (excellent or good and Grade 2 (regular. The results showed no significant difference in the proportion of embryos male:female for any of the stages in the CLA supplemented group achieving the expected natural ratio (50:50, while the control maintained a greater number of males. The CLA improved quality in Bl and Bt stages for both females and males (P < 0.05 having a greater number of grade 1 embryos in supplemented group, while control embryos were more in grade 2. In conclusion, CLA adversely affects the production of bovine embryos in vitro, but the sex ratio equals the natural one in all stages and improves embryo quality in some stages of early development.

  20. Effects of different fermentation mediums on conjugated linoleic acid production by Yarrowia lipolytica%不同培养基对耶氏解脂酵母合成共轭亚油酸的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张白曦; 李敏; 陈海琴; 宋元达; 陈卫; 张灏

    2013-01-01

    为了提高共轭亚油酸(CLA)在耶氏解脂酵母重组菌株中的产量,选择YEA、YPD、YP2D4、YNBDO2和YNBDL25种培养基,对其进行摇瓶发酵,分析其生长状态,并利用气相色谱法测定菌体中的总脂含量及脂肪酸组成.结果表明:培养基中充足的碳源和氮源是提高菌体生物量及重组蛋白表达量的前提;在培养基中添加脂肪酸显著提高了菌体中的总脂含量和t10,c12-CLA产量;在5种培养基中,YNBDL2是最适合t10,c12-CLA合成的培养基,其培养基中t10,c12-CLA产量为185.8 mg/L,是YPD培养基中t10,c12-CLA产量的13倍.%In order to increase the yield of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in recombinant Yarrowia lipolytica, five mediums (YEA,YPD,YP2D4,YNBDO2 and YNBDL2) were used for flask fermentation to analyze its growing state. Total lipid content and fatty acid composition of strains in different mediums were determined by gas chromatography. The results showed that sufficient carbon source and nitrogen source in medium ensured high levels of biomass and recombinant protein expression. Adding fatty acid to medium had significantly positive effects on lipid accumulation and biosynthesis of t10,cl2 - CLA. Among five mediums, YNBDL2 was the best fermentation medium for t10,cl2 - CLA production by Yarrowia lipolytica,and the yield of t10,cl2 - CLA was 185. 8 mg/L,which was thirteen times as high as that produced in YPD.

  1. Ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA) em dietas para tilápia-do-nilo: desempenho produtivo, composição química e perfil de ácidos graxos Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in Nile tilapia diets: productive performance, chemical and fatty acids composition

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian Dena dos Santos; Wilson Massamitu Furuya; Makoto Matsushita; Lilian Carolina Rosa da Silva; Tarcila Souza de Castro Silva; Daniele Botaro

    2007-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar a influência da adição de CLA na dieta sobre o desempenho produtivo, a composição química e o perfil de ácidos graxos de tilápia-do-nilo. Foram utilizados 80 peixes revertidos, com 109 ± 10 g, distribuídos em oito tanques (0,8 m³ cada), em densidade de 10 peixes/tanque, durante 90 dias. Avaliou-se a inclusão na dieta de 2% de CLA (Luta-CLA®-BASF, Brasil) com 60% dos isômeros (cis-9,trans-11 e trans-10,cis-12) e 40% do veículo (ácido oléico e outros ácidos graxos). Como di...

  2. Separation of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Isomers in Milk by Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography%胶束电动色谱法分析奶中两种主要的共轭亚油酸异构体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王腊梅; 陈燕; 刘晓华; 曹郁生

    2011-01-01

    以胶束电动色谱法对奶样中共轭亚油酸主要的两种异构体进行了分析.在优化条件下(80 mM pH 9.0的磷酸盐缓冲液,54 mM SDS,4%(w/v)β-CD,8 M尿素,4%(v/v)乙醇作为运行缓冲液,分离电压25 kV,柱温20 ℃),胶束电动色谱可在15 min内对奶样中两种主要CLA,即9c,11t-CLA和10t,12c-CLA进行分离测定,最低检出限为0.081 ng/mL.分析结果显示,不同处理奶样中的CLA含量差异显著(P<0.001),但CLA的组成相近,其中的10t,12c-CLA含量差异不显著P=0.999,约为3%;不同品种奶样,如牛奶、水牛奶和羊奶中的CLA含量差异显著(P<0.001),其中CLA含量次序为牛奶>羊奶>水牛奶,并且不同品种奶的9c,11t-CLA与10t,12c-CLA比例差异显著(P<0.05).%A micellar electrokinetic chromatography method was used to analyze the major conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in milk.Under the optimized conditions (80 mM borate (pH 9.0) ,54 mM sodium dodecyl sulphate,4% (w/v) β-cyclodextrin,8 M urea,4% (v/v) ethanol,25 kV and 20 ℃ ) ,the major CLA isomers 9c, 11t-CLA and 10t, 12c-CLA could be separated within 15 min by MEKC.Limit of detection of this method is 0.081 ng/mL.The results indicated that there was a significant difference in the total CIA content among raw milks, pasteurized milk, UHT milk (P<0.001).However,the content of 10t,12c-CLA from all samples was similar (3%).The result also showed there was a significant difference in the total CLA content and 10t,12c -CLA content among the cow milk,goat milk and buffalo milk.

  3. Ácido linoléico conjugado e perfil de ácidos graxos no músculo e na capa de gordura de novilhos bubalinos alimentados com diferentes fontes de lipídios Linoleic conjugated acid and fatty acids profile in the muscle and fat layer of water buffalo steers fed different fat sources

    OpenAIRE

    M.M. Ladeira; M.A.A.F. Barbosa; D.M.P. Assunção; Matsushita, M.; G.T. Santos; Oliveira, R. L.

    2008-01-01

    Avaliaram-se o teor de ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA) e o perfil de ácidos graxos no músculo e na capa de gordura de novilhos bubalinos alimentados com diferentes fontes de lipídios. Utilizaram-se 12 animais castrados, da raça Murrah, com peso vivo de 306±8kg, submetidos aos tratamentos sem lipídeo adicional, grão de soja e óleo de soja, confinados durante 84 dias. Após o abate a carcaça foi resfriada a 5ºC, durante 24 horas. Foi feita secção entre a nona e a 11ª costelas da meia carc...

  4. Ácido linoléico conjugado, na nutrição de suínos, sobre desempenho zootécnico, características de carcaça e rendimento de cortes Conjugated linoleic acid in swine nutrition on animal performance, carcass traits and cut yield

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Surek; Alex Maiorka; Simone Gisele de Oliveira; Fabiano Dahlke; Everton Luis Krabbe

    2011-01-01

    O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da inclusão de ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA) em dietas de suínos dos 65kg de peso vivo até a fase de abate (100kg) sobre desempenho zootécnico, rendimento de corte e características de carcaça. Foram utilizados 200 suínos provenientes do cruzamento industrial JSR x PIC, em igual proporção de sexo. Os tratamentos foram compostos por dietas com (+CLA) e sem (-CLA) adição de CLA. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi completame...

  5. Ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA em dietas para tilápia-do-nilo: desempenho produtivo, composição química e perfil de ácidos graxos Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in Nile tilapia diets: productive performance, chemical and fatty acids composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Dena dos Santos

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência da adição de CLA na dieta sobre o desempenho produtivo, a composição química e o perfil de ácidos graxos de tilápia-do-nilo. Foram utilizados 80 peixes revertidos, com 109 ± 10 g, distribuídos em oito tanques (0,8 m³ cada, em densidade de 10 peixes/tanque, durante 90 dias. Avaliou-se a inclusão na dieta de 2% de CLA (Luta-CLA®-BASF, Brasil com 60% dos isômeros (cis-9,trans-11 e trans-10,cis-12 e 40% do veículo (ácido oléico e outros ácidos graxos. Como dieta utilizou-se ração comercial extrusada, com 29% PB e 3.000 kcal ED/kg de ração. Ao final do experimento, todos os peixes foram utilizados para avaliação do desempenho, da composição química e do perfil de ácidos graxos no fígado e nos filés. A taxa de eficiência protéica, o rendimento de carcaça, o índice hepatossomático e a gordura visceral não diferiram com a adição de CLA a dieta. A adição de CLA a dieta promoveu melhora no ganho de peso, aumento no consumo e melhora na conversão alimentar. Os peixes alimentados com dietas com adição de CLA apresentaram aumento na composição de ácidos graxos saturados e redução dos ácidos graxos n-6 nos filés. Houve também aumento na composição de ácidos graxos n-3 e de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados totais no fígado. Houve aumento da proteína nos filés de tilápias alimentadas com dietas enriquecidas com CLA. O uso do CLA melhora variáveis de desempenho produtivo, afeta o metabolismo e a proporção dos ácidos graxos nos filés e fígados e aumenta proteína nos filés em tilápia-do-nilo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the addition of CLA in the diet on Nile tilapia productive performance, chemical and fatty acids composition. Eighty reversed fish with 109 ± 10 g were used, distributed in eight tanks (0.8 m³ each in density of ten fishes/tank, during 90 days. It was evaluated the inclusion in the diets of 2% of CLA (Luta

  6. Starch and oil in the donor cow diet and starch in substrate differently affect the in vitro ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic and linolenic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zened, A; Troegeler-Meynadier, A; Nicot, M C; Combes, S; Cauquil, L; Farizon, Y; Enjalbert, F

    2011-11-01

    Trans isomers of fatty acids exhibit different health properties. Among them, trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid has negative effects on milk fat production and can affect human health. A shift from the trans-11 to the trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of dairy cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with highly unsaturated fat sources. The differences of BH patterns between linoleic acid (LeA) and linolenic acid (LnA) in such ruminal conditions remain unknown; thus, the aim of this work was to investigate in vitro the effects of starch and sunflower oil in the diet of the donor cows and starch level in the incubates on the BH patterns and efficiencies of LeA and LnA. The design was a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 cows, 4 periods, and 4 diets with combinations of 21 or 34% starch and 0 or 5% sunflower oil. The rumen content of each cow during each period was incubated with 4 substrates, combining 2 starch levels and either LeA or LnA addition. Capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism of incubates showed that dietary starch decreased the diversity of the bacterial community and the high-starch plus oil diet modified its structure. High-starch diets poorly affected isomerization and first reduction of LeA and LnA, but decreased the efficiencies of trans-11,cis-15-C18:2 and trans C18:1 reduction. Dietary sunflower oil increased the efficiency of LeA isomerization but decreased the efficiency of trans C18:1 reduction. An interaction between dietary starch and dietary oil resulted in the highest trans-10 isomers production in incubates when the donor cow received the high-starch plus oil diet. The partition between trans-10 and trans-11 isomers was also affected by an interaction between starch level and the fatty acid added to the incubates, showing that the trans-10 shift only occurred with LeA, whereas LnA was mainly hydrogenated via the more usual trans-11

  7. Effect of sunflower seed on conjugated linoleic acid accumulation and relative enzymes gene expression of sheep%葵花籽对羊组织共轭亚油酸沉积及相关酶基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东; 屈小丹; 富俊才

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to study the effects of dietary sunflower seed(SS) on conjugated linoleic acid(CLA)content,Stearoyl-CoA desaturase(SCD) and fatty acid synthase(FAS)gene expression in different tissues of growing sheep.Eighteen 3-month old male growing sheeps((22.47 kg±0.62) kg) were randomly divided into two groups,where one group was fed basic dietary without SS(the Control Group) for 30 days,and the other group was fed experimental dietary with 6% SS(the Treatment Group) for 30 days.Results showed that supplementation of SS in dietary significantly increased the content of t11-C18:1,c9 and t11-CLA(P0.01) in blood,and it also increased the content of c9 and t11-CLA in subcutaneus adipose tissue.The content of c9 and t11-CLA in perinephrit fat and liver had a growing tendency,while the content of c9 and t11-CLA in Longissimus dorsi muscles had no significant change.SCD gene expression of treatment group in subcutaneous fat increased 2.88 times(P0.01),but there is no significantly change in liver and perinephrit fat(P0.05).FAS gene expression of the treatment group in liver and perinephrit fat decreased significantly(P0.05),while no significant change was observed in subcutaneous fat(P0.05).%研究日粮中添加葵花籽(SS)对生长羊血液、不同组织共轭亚油酸(conjugated linoleic acid,CLA)的含量、硬脂酰辅酶A去饱和酶和脂肪酸合成酶基因表达的影响,选用18只健康体重相近3月龄生长羊(公)随机分为2组,分别饲喂不含葵花籽的基础日粮(对照组)和含6%葵花籽的日粮(处理组),进行为期30d的试验。结果表明:日粮中添加葵花籽极显著提高血液中t11-C18∶1和CLA-c9,t11的含量(P〈0.01),处理组羊皮下脂肪组织中CLA-c9,t11含量极显著增加(P〈0.01),肾周脂肪和肝脏组织中CLA-c9,t11含量有增加趋势,背最长肌CLA-c9,t11含量无显著变化(P〉0.05)。葵

  8. Linoleic acid: between doubts and certainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choque, Benjamin; Catheline, Daniel; Rioux, Vincent; Legrand, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Linoleic acid is the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in human nutrition and represents about 14 g per day in the US diet. Following the discovery of its essential functions in animals and humans in the early 1920's, studies are currently questioning the real requirement of linoleic acid. It seems now overestimated and creates controversy: how much linoleic acid should be consumed in a healthy diet? Beyond the necessity to redefine the dietary requirement of linoleic acid, many questions concerning the consequences of its excessive consumption on human health arise. Linoleic acid is a direct precursor of the bioactive oxidized linoleic acid metabolites. It is also a precursor of arachidonic acid, which produces pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and endocannabinoids. A majority of the studies on linoleic acid and its derivatives show a direct/indirect link with inflammation and metabolic diseases. Many authors claim that a high linoleic acid intake may promote inflammation in humans. This review tries to (i) highlight the importance of reconsidering the actual requirement of linoleic acid (ii) point out the lack of knowledge between dietary levels of linoleic acid and the molecular mechanisms explaining its physiological roles (iii) demonstrate the relevance of carrying out further human studies on the single variable linoleic acid.

  9. Genetic and functional aspects of linoleate isomerase in Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macouzet, Martin; Robert, Normand; Lee, Byong H

    2010-08-01

    While the remarkable health effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) catalyzed from alpha-linoleic acid by the enzyme linoleate isomerase (LI, EC 5.2.1.5) are well recognized, how widely this biochemical activity is present and the mechanisms of its regulation in lactic acid bacteria are unknown. Although certain strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus can enrich CLA in fermented dairy products, it is unknown if other strains share this capacity. Due to its immense economic importance, this work aimed to investigate genetic aspects of CLA production in L. acidophilus for the first time. The genomic DNA from industrial and type strains of L. acidophilus were subjected to PCR and immunoblot analyses using the putative LI gene of L. reuteri ATCC 55739 as probe. The CLA production ability was estimated by gas chromatography of the biomass extracts. The presumptive LI gene from L. acidophilus ATCC 832 was isolated and sequenced. The resulting sequence shared 71% identity with that of L. reuteri and at least 99% with reported sequences from other L. acidophilus strains. All the strains accumulated detectable levels of CLA and tested positive by PCR and immunoblotting. However, no apparent correlation was observed between the yields and the hybridization patterns. The results suggest that LI activity might be common among L. acidophilus and related species and provide a new tool for screening potential CLA producers. PMID:20461509

  10. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) prevents age associated skeletal muscle loss

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md M.; Ganesh V. Halade; Jamali, Amina El; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of CLA isomers in preventing age-associated muscle loss and the mechanisms underlying this effect, using 12 months old C57BL/6 mice fed 10% corn oil (CO) or a diet supplemented with 0.5% c9t11-CLA, t10c12-CLA or c9t11-CLA+t10c12-CLA (CLA-mix) for 6 months. Both t10c12-CLA and CLA-mix groups showed significantly higher muscle mass, as compared to CO and c9t11-CLA groups, measured by dual-energy-Xray-absorptiometry and muscle wet weight. Enhanced mitochondr...

  11. Characterization by NMR of ozonized methyl linoleate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Maritza F. [National Center for Scientific Research, Havana (Cuba). Ozone Research Center. Dept. of Ozonized Substances]. E-mail: maritza.diaz@cnic.edu.cu; Gavin, Jose A. [University of the Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    In the present study ozonized methyl linoleate with peroxide index of 1,800 mmol-equiv kg{sup -1} was chemically characterized. Ozonation of methyl linoleate produced hydroperoxides, ozonides and aldehydes which were identified by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR two-dimensional. The standard methyl linoleate and ozonized methyl linoleate shown very similar {sup 1}H NMR spectra except for the signals at {delta} 9.7 and {delta} 9.6 that correspond to aldehydic hydrogen, {delta} 5.7 and {delta} 5.5 (olefinic signals from hydroperoxides) and {delta} 5.2 ppm (multiplet from ozonides methynic hydrogen). Other resonance assignments are based on the connectivities provided by the hydrogen scalar coupling constants. These results indicate that NMR spectroscopy can provide valuable information about the amount of formed oxygenated compounds in the ozonized methyl linoleate in order to use it to follow up ozone therapy and chemistry of ozonized vegetable oil. (author)

  12. Suplementação com ácido linoléico conjugado: estabilidade oxidativa dos suplementos e correlações com conteúdo dos lípides totais hepáticos e indicadores da oxidação dos lípides biológicos de ratos Wistar Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation: oxidative stability of supplements and correlations with total hepatic lipid contents and biological lipid oxidation indicators in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lilia Ferreira Santos-Zago; Adriana Prais Botelho; Admar Costa de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO:O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a estabilidade oxidativa de misturas comerciais de ácido linoléico conjugado e buscar possível correlação entre a suplementação e o conteúdo total de lípides hepáticos, e também de alguns indicadores da oxidação lipídica em ratos. MÉTODOS:Um ensaio biológico com 30 ratos divididos em três grupos (n=10) caracterizando os grupos controle e suplementados com as misturas comerciais AdvantEdge® e One® foi realizado. A concentração administrada foi de 2% ...

  13. Perfil de ácidos graxos e conteúdo de ácido linoléico conjugado no leite de vacas alimentadas com a combinação de óleo de soja e fontes de carboidratos na dieta Milk fatty acid profile and milk conjugated linoleic acid content of dairy cows fed diets with different carbohydrate sources with or without soybean oil supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo da Costa Eifert; Rogério de Paula Lana; Dante Pazzanese Duarte Lanna; Rafael Monteiro Araújo Teixeira; Pedro Braga Arcuri; Maria Ignez Leão; Marcus Vinícius Morais de Oliveira; Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho

    2006-01-01

    A gordura do leite de 12 vacas lactantes 7/8 Holandês-Gir foi utilizada para avaliar o efeito de diferentes dietas sobre o perfil dos ácidos graxos (AG) e o conteúdo de ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA) no leite. Os tratamentos consistiram de concentrados formulados com milho (MI) ou sua total substituição por farelo de trigo (FT) ou por polpa cítrica (PC), associados ou não a óleo de soja (0 e 2,25%). A análise cromatográfica indicou que mais de 95% dos ácidos graxos (AG) foram recuperados. Nã...

  14. Synthesis of Environmentally Friendly Magnesium Linoleate Detergent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yonglei; Li Haiyun; Fang Hongxia; Ni Zhifei; Zhao Lele

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly covers a method for preparing a highly alkaline magnesium linoleate solution with a total base number (TBN) value of 328 mg KOH/g using linoleic acid as the biodegradable raw material, which can substitute for traditional lubricant detergents as an environmentally friendly detergent. Reaction conditions, including the molar ratio of magnesium oxide to linoleic acid, the molar ratio of methanol to magnesium oxide, the carbonation temperature, the molar ratio of water to magnesium oxide, the lfow rate of CO2 gas and the duration for injection of CO2 to magnesium oxide sys-tem, were optimized.

  15. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Level Affects Performance, Eggshell Quality and Serum Biochemical Indices of Laying Hens%共轭亚油酸对蛋鸡生产性能、蛋壳质量和血清生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪兰; 石天虹; 井庆川; 阎佩佩; 魏祥法; 刘瑞亭

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of the supplementation of conjugated linole-ic acid (CLA) on the performance, eggshell quality, and its mechanism. Four hundred and eighty healthy 40-week-old Hy-Line White laying hens with similar body weight and laying rate were divided randomly into 4 groups with 3 replicates per group and 40 birds in each replicate. The control diet had no CLA, and the experimental diets contained 0. 5% , 1.0% and 2.0% CLA, respectively. Eight weeks later, six of each group was slaughtered and the blood was collected to determine the contents of thiothyone ( T3) , tetraiodothyronine (T4) , cortisol, estradiol ( E2) , Ca2 + and Ps + , the alkaline phosphatase activity ( ALP) in serum, and the carnitine palmitoyltransterase (CPT- I ) activity in liver. The results showed as follows: 1) there was no significant difference in performance between the control group and experimental groups (P >0. 05). 2) Compared with the control group, the eggshell strength in experimental groups was significantly improved (P 0. 05). 3) The contents of T3, T4, cortisol and E2 in serum of laying hens in 2. 0% CLA group were significant higher than those in the other groups (P 0. 05) ; compared with the control group, the ALP activity in serum of laying hens in experimental groups was significantly increased (P <0. 05) except for 2.0% CLA group. 4) The CPT- I activity in liver of laying hens was significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0. 05). It is concluded that 1.0% CLA can significantly increase serum ALP activity, and improve serum E2 content, so it can significantly improve the eggshell strength, furthermore, it has no bad effect on performance of layers.%为了研究共轭亚油酸(CLA)对蛋鸡生产性能和蛋壳质量的影响及机理,试验选用40周龄健康、体重和产蛋率相近的海兰白蛋鸡480只,采用单因素试验设计,随机分为4组,每组3个重复,每个重复40只,试验组分别添加0.5

  16. Quality traits and modeling of coagulation, curd firming, and syneresis of sheep milk of Alpine breeds fed diets supplemented with rumen-protected conjugated fatty acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittante, G; Pellattiero, E; Malchiodi, F; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Pazzola, M; Vacca, G M; Schiavon, S; Cecchinato, A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test the modeling of curd-firming (CF) measures and to compare the sheep milk of 3 Alpine breeds supplemented with or without rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid (rpCLA). Twenty-four ewes of the Brogna, Foza, and Lamon breeds were allotted to 6 pens (2 pens/breed) and fed a diet composed of corn grain, corn silage, dried sugar beet pulp, soybean meal, wheat bran, wheat straw, and a vitamin-mineral mixture. The rpCLA supplement (12 g/d per ewe plus 4 g/d for each lamb older than 30 d) was mixed into the diet of 1 pen per sheep breed (3 pens/treatment) to provide an average of 0.945 and 0.915 g/d per ewe of the cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 conjugated linoleic acid isomers, respectively. The trial started at 38 ± 23 d after parturition, and individual morning milk samples were collected on d 16, 23, 37, 44, and 59 of the trial. Milk samples were analyzed for composition, and duplicate samples were assessed for milk coagulation properties (MCP). A total of 180 CF measures for each sample (1 every 15s) were recorded. Model parameters were the rennet coagulation time, the asymptotic potential CF, the CF instant rate constant, the syneresis instant rate constant, the maximum CF achieved within 45 min (CFmax), and the time at achievement of CFmax. The data were analyzed using a hierarchical model that considered the fixed effects of breed, diet, lamb birth, and initial days in milk, which were tested on individual ewe (random) variance; the fixed effect of sampling day, which was tested on the within-ewe sample (random) variance; and the fixed effect of instrument or cuvette position (only for MCP), which was tested on the residual (replicates within samples) variance. The local Alpine sheep breeds displayed similar milk compositions, traditional MCP, and CF modeling parameters. Supplementation with rpCLA triggered changes in milk composition and worsened MCP (e.g., delayed rennet coagulation time, slower CF instant rate

  17. Quality traits and modeling of coagulation, curd firming, and syneresis of sheep milk of Alpine breeds fed diets supplemented with rumen-protected conjugated fatty acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittante, G; Pellattiero, E; Malchiodi, F; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Pazzola, M; Vacca, G M; Schiavon, S; Cecchinato, A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test the modeling of curd-firming (CF) measures and to compare the sheep milk of 3 Alpine breeds supplemented with or without rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid (rpCLA). Twenty-four ewes of the Brogna, Foza, and Lamon breeds were allotted to 6 pens (2 pens/breed) and fed a diet composed of corn grain, corn silage, dried sugar beet pulp, soybean meal, wheat bran, wheat straw, and a vitamin-mineral mixture. The rpCLA supplement (12 g/d per ewe plus 4 g/d for each lamb older than 30 d) was mixed into the diet of 1 pen per sheep breed (3 pens/treatment) to provide an average of 0.945 and 0.915 g/d per ewe of the cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 conjugated linoleic acid isomers, respectively. The trial started at 38 ± 23 d after parturition, and individual morning milk samples were collected on d 16, 23, 37, 44, and 59 of the trial. Milk samples were analyzed for composition, and duplicate samples were assessed for milk coagulation properties (MCP). A total of 180 CF measures for each sample (1 every 15s) were recorded. Model parameters were the rennet coagulation time, the asymptotic potential CF, the CF instant rate constant, the syneresis instant rate constant, the maximum CF achieved within 45 min (CFmax), and the time at achievement of CFmax. The data were analyzed using a hierarchical model that considered the fixed effects of breed, diet, lamb birth, and initial days in milk, which were tested on individual ewe (random) variance; the fixed effect of sampling day, which was tested on the within-ewe sample (random) variance; and the fixed effect of instrument or cuvette position (only for MCP), which was tested on the residual (replicates within samples) variance. The local Alpine sheep breeds displayed similar milk compositions, traditional MCP, and CF modeling parameters. Supplementation with rpCLA triggered changes in milk composition and worsened MCP (e.g., delayed rennet coagulation time, slower CF instant rate

  18. Modificación en la composición de ácidos grasos del huevo al incluir aceite de sardina y ácido linoleico conjugado en dietas para gallinas ponedoras Modulation in egg fatty acids composition when laying hens diets are supplemented with sardine oil and conjugated linoleic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Carrillo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente el consumo regular de ácidos grasos omega 3 (C18:3 ALA, C20:5 EPA, C22:6 DHA y de ácido linoleico conjugado (C18:2 CLA es recomendado debido a la importancia que estos compuestos bioactivos tienen en la prevención y control de enfermedades cardiovasculares, diabetes y diferentes tipos de cáncer. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto sobre la composición en ácidos grasos del huevo cuando la dieta de las gallinas es suplementada con aceite de sardina y CLA. 240 gallinas Bovans White fueron distribuidas aleatoriamente en cuatro tratamientos con cinco réplicas de 12 aves cada una. Los tratamientos fueron: testigo (T1 con una dieta basal, la misma que T1 más 2,5% de aceite de sardina (T2, la misma que T2 pero adicionando 1% y 2% de CLA (T3 y T4 respectivamente. El ensayo experimental tuvo una duración de cuatro semanas. Al final de este período, 50 huevos de cada tratamiento fueron tomados para realizar la determinación de ácidos grasos por cromatografía de gases. Con respecto al tratamiento testigo, los resultados mostraron un incremento en la concentración total de ácidos grasos omega 3 (1,6% vs 6,0% del total de ácidos grasos y de CLA (0,7% vs 3-5% del total de ácidos grasos en el huevo de los tratamientos T3, T4 y T5 en conjunto, y una relación n6:n3 de 11:1 vs 1.3:1 (P The regular intake of omega 3 fatty acids (C18:3 ALA, C20:5 EPA, C22:6 DHA and conjugated linoleic acid (C18:2 CLA is currently recommended due to their importance in the prevention and control of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and several types of cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of supplementing laying hens diets with sardine oil and CLA on egg fatty acid composition. 240 Bovans White hens were randomly distributed into four treatments with 5 replicates of 12 hens each one. The treatments consisted in a control diet (T1, T1 plus 2.5% of sardine oil (T2, and T2 padded with 1% and 2% of CLA (T3 and T4

  19. Studies on mechanism of cis9,trans11-CLA and trans10,cis12-CLA inducing apoptosis of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianzi Wan; Xianlin Yuan; Xiangling Yang; Yichen Li; Ling Zhong

    2010-01-01

    Objective:The aim of the study was to explore the activities of cis9,trans11-CLA (C9,t11-CLA) and trans10,cis12-CLA (t10,c12-CLA)inhibiting tumor,and investigate their relationships with PPARy and apoptotic proteins,and mechanism of anti-cancer.Methods:The inhibitory rate,cell growth curve and apoptotic morphological observation of MCF-7 cells were obtained by MTT assay,trypan blue staining and Hoechst33342 fluorescence staining.The apoptotic rate and cell cycle were detected with flow cytometry.Transcriptional level of genes was detected with RT-PCR semi-quantitative method,and Western blot was performed to detect proteins levels.Results:The two CLA isomers could reduce cell proliferation (P<0.05),increase apoptotic rate (P<0.05),and increase obviously the transcriptional and protein levels of PPARy (P<0.01).The synchronism and correlation between the effects of CLA to PPARy and apoptotic proteins Bax,Bcl-2,Caspase 3 changes were found with the dose-and time-dependent manners.There was cooperative relation between the levels of PPARy and the rates of Bax/Bcl-2,Caspase 3 (small fragment) by experiments of PPARy inhibitor GW9662 and ligand Rosiglitazone.Conclusion:The apoptotic pathway of PPARy-Bcl-2-Caspase 3 signaling was found.The C9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA could inhibit MCF-7 cell proliferation and promote apoptosis via activating PPARy-Bcl-2-Caspase 3 pathway.CLA may be a kind of activator of PPARy.

  20. EFFECT OF CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID ON THE EXPRESSION OF LIPOGENIC GENES IN MOUSE MAMMARY GLAND%共轭亚油酸对小鼠乳腺脂肪合成相关基因表达的作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩立强; 郭豫杰; 鲁维飞; 朱河水; 杨国庆; 杨国宇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the expression of lipogenic gene in mammary gland of mice. Method The lactating KM mice were randomly assigned to four groups (77=8 for each group), control group (2% peanut oil) ,0.5% CLA group (0.5% CLA +1.5% peanut oil), 1.0% CLA group (1%CLA+1% peanut oil) and 1.5% CLA group (1.5%CLA+0.5% peanut oil). All animals were fed the diet from D 4 to D 14 postpartum.The food intake, body weight of dams and litters were assessed. The content of milk fat, protein and lactose was determined. The expression of lipogenic genes was analyzed in mammary tissue between control and 1.5% CLA group via Real-time PCR. Results The body weight of dams was unaffected by treatment. The 1.5%CLA diet siginificantly decreased the food intake of dams ,body weight of litters and milk fat of dams (P<0.05). The expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) genes were significantly inhibited in mammary tissue by the intake of 1.5%CLA (P<0.05). The expression of transcription factor (sferol regulatory element binding factor, SREBF and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ, PPARγ) genes were also down-regulated in mammary tissue in 1.5%CLA group compared with control (P<0.01). Conclusion Supplementing the diet with 1.5%CLA significant decreased the content of milk fat and inhibited the expression of lipogenic genes in mammary gland of lactating mouse.%目的 研究共轭亚油酸(CLA)对小鼠乳腺脂肪合成相关基因表达的影响.方法 选取32只泌乳昆明鼠,随机分为对照组(2%花生油);0.5%CLA组(0.5%CLA+1.5%花生油);1.0%CLA组(1%CLA+1%花生油);1.5%CLA组(1.5%CLA+0.5%花生油),每组8只小鼠,从泌乳第4日饲喂至第14日,每日检测母鼠采食量、体重和仔鼠窝重,分析乳成分,采用荧光定量PCR检测对照组和1.5%CLA组母鼠乳腺组织脂肪合

  1. Perfil de ácidos graxos e conteúdo de ácido linoléico conjugado no leite de vacas alimentadas com a combinação de óleo de soja e fontes de carboidratos na dieta Milk fatty acid profile and milk conjugated linoleic acid content of dairy cows fed diets with different carbohydrate sources with or without soybean oil supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Costa Eifert

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A gordura do leite de 12 vacas lactantes 7/8 Holandês-Gir foi utilizada para avaliar o efeito de diferentes dietas sobre o perfil dos ácidos graxos (AG e o conteúdo de ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA no leite. Os tratamentos consistiram de concentrados formulados com milho (MI ou sua total substituição por farelo de trigo (FT ou por polpa cítrica (PC, associados ou não a óleo de soja (0 e 2,25%. A análise cromatográfica indicou que mais de 95% dos ácidos graxos (AG foram recuperados. Não foi verificada interação significativa da presença de óleo e fonte de carboidratos em qualquer variável avaliada, à exceção das concentrações de trans-10 C18:1 e da proporção de trans-10 C18:1 e trans-11 C18:1 nos totais trans- C18:1 do leite. A fonte de carboidrato utilizada não influenciou o perfil de ácidos graxos do leite ou o teor de CLA. A inclusão de óleo de soja aumentou em 35% os AG insaturados do leite e reduziu em 14% os AG saturados, principalmente os de cadeia curta (9,66 vs 7,59 g/100 g e os de cadeia média (51,80 vs 40,86 g/100 g. As dietas com óleo promoveram aumento dos AG de cadeia longa (32,17 vs 46,47 g/100 g, principalmente C18:0 (9,44 vs 13,63 g/100 g, C18:1 (20,28 vs 29,74 g/100 g e C18:2 (2,16 vs 2,92 g/100 g. A concentração de CLA cis-9 trans-11 C18:2 foi aumentada em 230% (0,46 vs 1,06 g/100 g na presença de óleo. A concentração dos AG cis e trans-C18:1 também foi aumentada; trans-11 C18:1 foi o principal isômero trans, embora a concentração de trans-10 C18:1 tenha se elevado de 0,28 para 1,11 g/100 g na presença de óleo, sendo influenciada pela fonte de carboidrato. Os tratamentos MI, FT e PC resultaram em conteúdos deste isômero semelhantes na gordura do leite, mas, na presença de óleo, as fontes MI e FT proporcionaram valores muito superiores aos obtidos com PC, indicando diferentes rotas de biohidrogenação.Milk fat from 12 7/8 crossbred Holstein-Zebu lactating dairy cows was used to

  2. 21 CFR 184.1065 - Linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... catalyst, continuous high pressure counter current splitting, and medium pressure autoclave splitting with... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Linoleic acid. 184.1065 Section 184.1065 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  3. Linoleic acid intake and vitamin E requirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, F.C.

    1973-01-01

    In experiments with rats and Peking ducklings it has been investigated to what extent the linoleic acid content of the diet is of influence on the requirement of vitamin E. This requirement was determined by adding D-α-tocopheryl acetate in increasing doses to vitamin E-free diets and to determine h

  4. Autoxidation of methyl linoleate initiated by the ozonide of allylbenzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, J.C.; Cosgrove, J.P.; Giamalva, D.H.; Church, D.F.; Pryor, W.A. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge (USA))

    1989-07-01

    Allylbenzene ozonide (ABO), a model for polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ozonides, initiates the autoxidation of methyl linoleate (18:2 ME) at 37 degrees C under 760 torr of oxygen. This process is inhibited by d-alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T) and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT). The autoxidation was followed by the appearance of conjugated diene (CD), as well as by oxygen-uptake. The rates of autoxidation are proportional to the square root of ABO concentration, implying that the usual free radical autoxidation rate law is obeyed. Activation parameters for the thermal decomposition of ABO were determined under N2 in the presence of radical scavengers and found to be Ea = 28.2 +/- 0.3 kcal mol-1 and log A = 13.6 +/- 0.2; kd (37 degrees C) is calculated to be (5.1 +/- 0.3) X 10(-7) sec-1. Autoxidation data are also reported for ozonides of 18:2 ME and methyl oleate (18:1 ME).

  5. Isomer-specific regulation of metabolism and PPARγ signaling by CLA in human preadipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, J. Mark; Boysen, Maria Sandberg; Jensen, Søren Skov; Morrison, Ron F.; Storkson, Jayne; Lea-Currie, Renee; Pariza, Michael; Mandrup, Susanne; McIntosh, Michael K.

    2003-01-01

    Trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has previously been shown to be the CLA isomer responsible for CLA-induced reductions in body fat in animal models, and we have shown that this isomer, but not the cis-9,trans-11 CLA isomer, specifically decreased triglyceride (TG) accumulation in primary human adiopcytes in vitro. Here we investigated the mechanism behind the isomer-specific, CLA-mediated reduction in TG accumulation in differentiating human preadipocytes. Trans-10,cis-12 CLA de...

  6. The essential nature of linoleic acid in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.

    1986-01-01

    Linoleic acid [CH(CH)(CH = CHCH)(CH) COOH] is a precursor of the icosanoids -20-carbon fatty acids which include leukotrienes, prostaglandins, thromboxanes and related compounds. Until recently, the classical symptoms resulting from deficiency of linoleic and other essential fatty acids (EFAs) ha...

  7. Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Isomers on Eicosanoids in Fatty Liver of Obese Zucker Rats%共轭亚油酸同分异构体对肥胖Zucker大鼠的脂肪肝中的类二十烷酸的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石红; 潘瑞; 洪晶安

    2013-01-01

    目的:检测使用共轭亚油酸(CLA)同分异构体后,Zucker大鼠肝脏中多种类二十烷酸水平以及探测与这些种类二十烷酸合成有关的酶的蛋白表达.方法:17周的雄性Zucker大鼠被随机分为对照组[瘦鼠对照组(lean control),和胖鼠对照组(fa/fa control)n=7]和治疗组[随机由取的肥胖鼠(fa/fa9,11CLA、fa/fa 10,12CLA),n=7],分别接受无CLA的对照饮食和加入0.4% (w/w) CLA的治疗饮食.8周后用高效液相质谱仪(HPLC/MS/MS)检测多种类二十烷酸水平;使用免疫印迹法(Westernblotting)探测与这些种类二十烷酸合成有关的酶的蛋白表达.结果:与对照组比较,t10,c12 CLA升高了肝组织中的白三烯4(LTB4)的水平(P<0.01).然而,免疫印迹实验(Western blotting)显示,t10,c12 CLA (P <0.005)和c9,t11CLA (P <0.005)都抑制环氧合酶(COX2)的表达.与胖鼠对照组比较,瘦鼠对照组有较高的羟二十碳四烯酸(HODE)水平.结论:t1O,c12 CLA减少脂肪肝里的总脂肪量,而抑制了COX2的蛋白表达、升高LTB4水平,两者对肝组织的影响,有待于组织学研究证实.胖鼠对照组有较低的13-HODE和9-HODE水平,与脂肪肝的饱和脂肪酸代谢酶的活性降低,引起亚油酸(LA)降低有关,不能反映血循环中的氧化应激状态.%[Objective J To investigate the eicosanoid levels and the related protein levels of enzymes involved in eicosanoid synthesis after the supplementation of CLA isomers. [Method]Totally 17 week old male Zucker rats were randomly assigned into control groups (lean control and fa/fa control) fed with control diet and treatment groups given 0. 4% (w/w) cis-9, trans-11 CLA (fa/fa c9, tl1 CLA) and trans-10, cis-12 CLA (fa/fa t10, c12 CLA) respectively for 8 weeks. High performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/ mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) was used for the measurement of eicosanods and Western blotting for the detection of protein expression of enzymes. [Result] HPLC/MS/MS showed that

  8. Catalytic production of conjugated fatty acids and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippaerts, An; Goossens, Steven; Jacobs, Pierre A; Sels, Bert F

    2011-06-20

    The reactive double bonds in conjugated vegetable oils are of high interest in industry. Traditionally, conjugated vegetable oils are added to paints, varnishes, and inks to improve their drying properties, while recently there is an increased interest in their use in the production of bioplastics. Besides the industrial applications, also food manufactures are interested in conjugated vegetable oils due to their various positive health effects. While the isomer type is less important for their industrial purposes, the beneficial health effects are mainly associated with the c9,t11, t10,c12 and t9,t11 CLA isomers. The production of CLA-enriched oils as additives in functional foods thus requires a high CLA isomer selectivity. Currently, CLAs are produced by conjugation of oils high in linoleic acid, for example soybean and safflower oil, using homogeneous bases. Although high CLA productivities and very high isomer selectivities are obtained, this process faces many ecological drawbacks. Moreover, CLA-enriched oils can not be produced directly with the homogeneous bases. Literature reports describe many catalytic processes to conjugate linoleic acid, linoleic acid methyl ester, and vegetable oils rich in linoleic acid: biocatalysts, for example enzymes and cells; metal catalysts, for example homogeneous metal complexes and heterogeneous catalysts; and photocatalysts. This Review discusses state-of-the-art catalytic processes in comparison with some new catalytic production routes. For each category of catalytic process, the CLA productivities and the CLA isomer selectivity are compared. Heterogeneous catalysis seems the most attractive approach for CLA production due to its easy recovery process, provided that the competing hydrogenation reaction is limited and the CLA production rate competes with the current homogeneous base catalysis. The most important criteria to obtain high CLA productivity and isomer selectivity are (1) absence of a hydrogen donor, (2

  9. Sources and Bioactive Properties of Conjugated Dietary Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Alan A; Ross, Paul R; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Stanton, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The group of conjugated fatty acids known as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have been extensively studied with regard to their bioactive potential in treating some of the most prominent human health malignancies. However, CLA isomers are not the only group of potentially bioactive conjugated fatty acids currently undergoing study. In this regard, isomers of conjugated α-linolenic acid, conjugated nonadecadienoic acid and conjugated eicosapentaenoic acid, to name but a few, have undergone experimental assessment. These studies have indicated many of these conjugated fatty acid isomers commonly possess anti-carcinogenic, anti-adipogenic, anti-inflammatory and immune modulating properties, a number of which will be discussed in this review. The mechanisms through which these bioactivities are mediated have not yet been fully elucidated. However, existing evidence indicates that these fatty acids may play a role in modulating the expression of several oncogenes, cell cycle regulators, and genes associated with energy metabolism. Despite such bioactive potential, interest in these conjugated fatty acids has remained low relative to the CLA isomers. This may be partly attributed to the relatively recent emergence of these fatty acids as bioactives, but also due to a lack of awareness regarding sources from which they can be produced. In this review, we will also highlight the common sources of these conjugated fatty acids, including plants, algae, microbes and chemosynthesis. PMID:26968402

  10. Optical Properties of Linoleic Acid Protected Gold Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Ratan Das; Nath, Siddartha S.; Ramendu Bhattacharjee

    2011-01-01

    Linoleic acid-protected gold nanoparticles have been synthesized through the chemical reduction of tetrachloroaurate ions by ethanol in presence of sodium linoleate. The structure of these nanoparticles is investigated using transmission electron microscopy, which shows that the Au nanoparticles are spherical in shape with a narrow size distribution which ranges from 8 to 15 nm. Colloidal dispersion of gold nanoparticles in cyclohexane exhibits absorption bands in the ultraviolet-visible ran...

  11. Optical Properties of Linoleic Acid Protected Gold Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Ratan; Nath, Siddartha S.; Bhattacharjee, Ramendu

    2011-01-01

    Linoleic acid-protected gold nanoparticles have been synthesized through the chemical reduction of tetrachloroaurate ions by ethanol in presence of sodium linoleate. The structure of these nanoparticles is investigated using transmission electron microscopy, which shows that the Au nanoparticles are spherical in shape with a narrow size distribution which ranges from 8 to 15 nm. Colloidal dispersion of gold nanoparticles in cyclohexane exhibits absorption bands in the ultraviolet-visible rang...

  12. Influence of conjugated linoleic acid (c9, t11-CLA and t10, c12-CLA) on mRNA expression of bone metabolism related markers of bone marrow cells%共轭亚油酸c9,t11-CLA及t10,c12-CLA对大鼠骨髓细胞骨代谢相关基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱亦堃; 李丽婷; 郗光霞; 史书红; 李兴; 赵宝珍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA) on the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptorγ2 (PPARγ2),receptor activator of NF-κB ligand ( RANKL),alkaline phosphatase ( ALP),osteoprotegerin ( OPG),receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) of bone marrow cells,and study the effect of c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA on bone metabolism.Methods Bone marrow cells of Wistar rats were cultured in vitro and then the cells were cultured in DMEM with c9,t11-CLA or t10,c12-CLA at different concentrations (the final concentration was 0,12.5,25.0,50.0 μmol/L,respectively) for 24 h.Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect the mRNA expression of PPARγ2,RANKL,ALP,OPG,RANK and TRAP.Results Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that c9,t11-CLA down-regulated the mRNA expression of RANK and TRAP in a dose-dependent manner,and statistically significant difference was found in interclass comparison (P < 0.05,P < 0.01 ),while it had no effect on the mRNA expression of RANKL,ALP,OPG and PPARγ2.The results also showed that t10,c12-CLA up-regulated the mRNA expression of RANKL and OPG in a dose-dependent manner and down-regnlated the mRNA expression of RANK,TRAP and PPARγ2 in a dose-dependent manner,statistically significant difference was found in interclass comparison ( P < 0.05,P < 0.01 ),while it had no effect on the mRNA expression of ALP.Conclusion Our findings suggest that c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA can suppress the expression of osteoclastogenesis genes and t10,c12-CLA can also promote the expression of osteogenic genes,which suggests a possible benecial effect on bone formation.%目的 观察c9,t11-CLA及t10,c12-CLA干预后,大鼠骨髓细胞过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体2(PPARγ2)及核因子(NF)-κB活化受体配体(RANKL)、碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、骨保护素(OPG)、NF-κB活化受体(RANK)、

  13. Effect of Deep Frying on Trans-linoleic Acid Content in Edible Oil%深度油炸对食用油中反式亚油酸含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯俊财; 江连洲; 王芳; 张春伟

    2012-01-01

    With the testing materials of the most common pressed soybean oil and three - level leached soybean oil consumed in our country, the article aims was to research the influence of repeated soybean oil frying on translinoleic acid content and the increasing principles of the content along with oil frying. The testing materials were divided into two groups and fried repeatedly for 40 times. Oil samples were taken for every 5 frying times, and each group was tested for three times. Potato strips were fried intermittently at 180~185 ℃ with total frying time of 32 h. It was found that the initial amounts of total trans - linoleic acids were 0. 18 g/100 g and 0.08 g/100 g in the pressed soybean oil and the three - level leached soybean oil respectively. The total linoleic acids contents of the pressed soybean oil was significantly higher than that of the three - level leached soybean oil before frying( P = 0. 001). 9 - cis, 12-trans C18:2 and 9 -trans, 12 -cis C18:2 were the major trans -linoleic acids in soybean oil. Repeated deep frying significantly enhanced the content of trans -linoleic acids(P =0.000)in soybean oil. After 40 times of repeated frying in oil, the contents of trans - linoleic acids in the pressed soybean oil and the three - level leached soybean oil were respectively 1.11 g/100 g and 0.68 g/100 g,and the former was much higher than the latter(P =0.008). So,after frying,the content of trans -linoleic acids in the pressed soybean oil increased in a larger extent than that in the three - level leached soybean oil.%选用我国消费最普遍的压榨大豆油和三级浸提大豆油为试验材料,研究不同大豆油经反复油炸对反式亚油酸含量的影响及其含量随油炸次数增加的变化规律.试验分为2组,反复油炸40次,每炸5次采集1次油样,每组测定3个重复.薯条油炸温度为180~ 185℃,油炸时间为32 h.试验结果表明,压榨大豆油和三级浸提大豆油中总反式亚油酸含量分别为0.18 g

  14. ELASTICITY OF MONOLAYER OF LINOLEIC ACID AND ITS POLYMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The dynamic elasticity of linoleic acid monolayer on a subphase of 10-4mol/L TbCla at various surface pressure has been measured by means of dynamic oscillation method in measuring the change of surface pressure caused by periodic compressionexpansion cycles of the barrier. The elasticity of monolayer increases with increasing of surface pressure linegrly. The linoleic acid polymer monolayer has been obtained under UV-irradiation in situ when keeping a constant surface pressure. But the elasticity of the resulting polymerized monolayer is even smaller than that of its corresponding monomer monolayer. The elasticity of the polymerized linoleic acid monolayer decreases with increasing polymerization time. The explanation based on entropy has been presented.

  15. Molecular targets of omega 3 and conjugated linoleic fatty acids – micromanaging cellular response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eVisioli

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized de novo by mammals and need to be ingested either with the diet or through the use of supplements/functional foods to ameliorate cardiovascular prognosis. This review focus on the molecular targets of omega 3 fatty acids and CLA, as paradigmatic molecules that can be explored both as nutrients and as pharmacological agents, especially as related to cardioprotection. In addition, we indicate novel molecular targets, namely microRNAs that might contribute to the observed biological activities of such essential fatty acids.

  16. Maternal dietary Alpine butter intake affects human milk: fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertschi, Isabelle; Collomb, Marius; Rist, Lukas; Eberhard, Pius; Sieber, Robert; Bütikofer, Ulrich; Wechsler, Daniel; Folkers, Gerd; von Mandach, Ursula

    2005-06-01

    Consumption of CLA by lactating women affects the composition of their milk, but the pattern of the different CLA isomers is still unknown. We determined the effects of short maternal supplementation with CLA-rich Alpine butter on the occurrence of FA and CLA isomers in human milk. In an open randomized controlled study with a two-period cross-over design, milk FA and CLA isomer concentrations were measured on postpartum days > or = 20 in two parallel groups of lactating women before, during, and after consumption of defined quantities of Alpine butter or margarine with comparable fat content (10 d of butter followed by 10 d of margarine for one group, and vice versa in the other). In the 16 women who completed the study (8/group), Alpine butter supplementation increased the C16 and C18 FA, the sum of saturated FA, the 18:1 trans FA, and the trans FA with CLA. The CLA isomer 18:2 c9,t11 increased by 49.7%. Significant increases were also found for the isomers t9,t11, t7,c9, t11,c13, and t8,c10 18:2. The remaining nine of the total 14 detectable isomers showed no changes, and concentrations were <5 mg/100 g fat. A breastfeeding mother can therefore modulate the FA/CLA supply of her child by consuming Alpine butter. Further studies will show whether human milk containing this FA and CLA isomer pattern acts as a functional food for newborns. PMID:16149737

  17. Co-treatment with conjugated linoleic acid and nitrite protects against myocardial infarction ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Natia Qipshidze-Kelm; Piell, Kellianne M.; Solinger, Jane C.; Cole, Marsha P.

    2013-01-01

    According to the CDC, the most common type of heart disease is coronary artery disease, which commonly leads to myocardial infarction (MI). Therapeutic approaches to lessen the resulting cardiovascular injury associated with MI are limited. Recently, MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to act as negative regulators of gene expression by inhibiting mRNA translation and/or stimulating mRNA degradation. A single miRNA can modulate physiological or disease phenotypes by regulating whole functional...

  18. Conjugate Linoleic Acid and Its Origin%共轭亚油酸及其来源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云琦

    2003-01-01

    本文综述了共轭亚油酸 (CLA)的生理作用、结构与种类;并详细阐述了 CLA中主要的活性异构体之一 c9、 t12- CLA的可能来源与可能的合成途径;列表指出了常见食物中 CLA的含量,并列表简述了影响牛乳脂中 CLA含量的因素等.

  19. Isolation and Characterization of Chicken Yolk Vitelline Membrane Lipids Using Eggs Enriched With Conjugated Linoleic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Sara Elizabeth; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jackson O; Proctor, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    The vitelline membrane (VM) encloses the chicken egg yolk, separating it from albumen. The VM weakens during storage, and dietary lipid modification significantly affects its strength. However, no studies have characterize the fatty acyl residue (FA) composition of the VM, and reports of VM isolation and quantified lipid content are inconsistent. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: (1) to develop a washing and isolation method that removes residual yolk from VM without damage; (2) to determine the FA and lipid composition of CLA-rich egg yolk VM, relative to controls; (3) to determine the effect of 20 days of refrigeration on VM FA and lipid composition. To determine VM FA and lipid composition, 36 hens received either a corn-soybean meal-based control diet ("Control"), or the Control supplemented with either 10 % soy oil ("Soy control"), or 10 % CLA-rich soy oil ("CLA") for 30 days. VM were analyzed the day of collection ("fresh"), or after 20 days of refrigeration ("refrigerated"). There were no differences in FA compositions of fresh and refrigerated membranes within a treatment. CLA-rich yolk VM contains CLA, greater SFA, and significantly greater DHA relative to controls. Direct MALDI-TOF-MS identified 15 phosphatidylcholines, three phosphatidylethanolamines, one sphingomyelin, and 15 triacylglycerols in VM. Lipid species that showed significant differences among egg types included nine phosphatidylcholines and six triacylglycerols. MALDI analysis indicated significant differences in nine lipid classes on the VM inner layer. After refrigeration, five lipid classes on the inner layer and seven lipid classes on the outer layer had statistically significant differences among VM types. PMID:27108035

  20. Weight gain and psychiatric treatment: is there as role for green tea and conjugated linoleic acid?

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Madalyn; Jacobs Leslie; Katzman Martin A; Vermani Monica; Logan Alan C

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Dietary supplement use is widespread in developed nations. In particular, patients who utilize mental health services also report frequent consumption of dietary supplements, often in relation to management of adverse events and specifically weight gain. Weight gain induced by psychotropic medications can further compound psychological distress and negatively influence compliance. Here we report on four cases of social anxiety disorder treated with the atypical antipsychotic quetiap...

  1. Microorganisms and dietary factors affecting biohydrogenation and conjugated linoleic acid production in the rumen ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Margarida Rosa Garcez

    2010-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Ciências Veterinárias, especialidade de Produção Animal Consumption of animal fat has been associated with an increased incidence of chronic diseases, as cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes. Ruminant products, milk and meat, have high saturated fatty acids (FA) content as a result of biohydrogenation by microbial metabolic activity in the rumen. Biohydrogenation also originates FA with health promoting or disease preventing properties, including...

  2. Cancer Chemopreventive Ability of Conjugated Linolenic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Miyashita

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated fatty acids (CFA have received increased interest because of their beneficial effects on human health, including preventing cancer development. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are such CFA, and have been reviewed extensively for their multiple biological activities. In contrast to other types of CFAs including CLA that are found at low concentrations (less than 1% in natural products, conjugated linolenic acids (CLN are the only CFAs that occur in higher quantities in natural products. Some plant seeds contain a considerably high concentration of CLN (30 to 70 wt% lipid. Our research group has screened CLN from different plant seed oils to determine their cancer chemopreventive ability. This review describes the physiological functions of CLN isomers that occur in certain plant seeds. CLN are able to induce apoptosis through decrease of Bcl-2 protein in certain human cancer cell lines, increase expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ, and up-regulate gene expression of p53. Findings in our preclinical animal studies have indicated that feeding with CLN resulted in inhibition of colorectal tumorigenesis through modulation of apoptosis and expression of PPARγ and p53. In this review, we summarize chemopreventive efficacy of CLN against cancer development, especially colorectal cancer.

  3. Efecto de la suplementación con concentrado de soja entera extrusionada en vacas Jersey en pastoreo sobre el contenido de ácido linoléico conjugado en la leche

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar, P.; Díaz, C.; von Fabeck, C.; Matamoros, R.; García, F.

    2012-01-01

    Contradictory results has been found on the effects of soybean supplementation and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content in milk on feeding systems based on fresh forage The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement with different quantities of extruded whole soybean on the production and composition of milk, and CLA concentration or their isomers in Jersey cows under pasture conditions. Twenty-one Jersey cows were randomly assigned into 3 groups o...

  4. Optical Properties of Linoleic Acid Protected Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratan Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Linoleic acid-protected gold nanoparticles have been synthesized through the chemical reduction of tetrachloroaurate ions by ethanol in presence of sodium linoleate. The structure of these nanoparticles is investigated using transmission electron microscopy, which shows that the Au nanoparticles are spherical in shape with a narrow size distribution which ranges from 8 to 15 nm. Colloidal dispersion of gold nanoparticles in cyclohexane exhibits absorption bands in the ultraviolet-visible range due to surface plasmon resonance, with absorption maximum at 530 nm. Fluorescence spectra of gold nanoparticles also show an emission peak at 610 nm when illuminated at 450 nm. UV-Vis spectroscopy reveals that these nanoparticles remain stable for 10 days.

  5. Linoleate impairs collagen synthesis in primary cultures of avian chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, B A; Xu, H; Turek, J J

    1996-06-01

    The effects of supplemental fatty acids, vitamin E (VIT E), and iron-induced oxidative stress on collagen synthesis, cellular injury, and lipid peroxidation were evaluated in primary cultures of avian epiphyseal chondrocytes. The treatments included oleic and linoleic acids (O or 50 microM) complexed with BSA and dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (VIT E at 0 or 100 microM). After 14 days of preculture, the chondrocytes were enriched with fatty acids for 8 days then cultured with VIT E for 2 days. The chondrocytes were then treated with ferrous sulfate (O or 20 microM) for 24 hr to induce oxidative stress. Collagen synthesis was the lowest and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was the highest in chondrocyte cultures treated with 50 microM linoleic acid and 0 VIT E. In contrast, VIT E supplemented at 100 microM partially restored collagen synthesis in the chondrocytes enriched with linoleic acid and lowered LDH activity in the media. The iron oxidative inducer significantly increased the values of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in the culture medium. The data showed that linoleic acid impaired chondrocyte cell function and caused cellular injury but that VIT E reversed these effects. Results from a previous study demonstrated that VIT E stimulated bone formation in chicks fed unsaturated fat, and the present findings in cultures of epiphyseal chondrocytes suggest that VIT E is important for chondrocyte function in the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids. VIT E appears to be beneficial for growth cartilage biology and in optimizing bone growth.

  6. AWARD LECTURES Trans — and conjugated fatty acids in food — contents and analytical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Steinhart Hans; Winkler Kirstin; Rickert Rainer

    2001-01-01

    The current investigations on fatty acids are focused on long chain fatty acids, trans fatty acids (TFA) and conjugated fatty acids (CFA), especially isomers of linoleic acid (CLA). This paper deals with the origins of TFA and CLA and their physiological significance. Furthermore an overview is given of analytical procedures of both TFA and CLA. In addition the contents and isomeric distribution of these groups of fatty acids in foods are presented.

  7. AWARD LECTURES Trans — and conjugated fatty acids in food — contents and analytical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinhart Hans

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The current investigations on fatty acids are focused on long chain fatty acids, trans fatty acids (TFA and conjugated fatty acids (CFA, especially isomers of linoleic acid (CLA. This paper deals with the origins of TFA and CLA and their physiological significance. Furthermore an overview is given of analytical procedures of both TFA and CLA. In addition the contents and isomeric distribution of these groups of fatty acids in foods are presented.

  8. The effect of conjugated linoneic acid, a natural trans fat from milk and meat, on human blood pressure: results from a randomized crossover feeding study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberink, M.F.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Wanders, A.J.; Brouwer, I.A.

    2012-01-01

    Cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a natural trans fatty acid that is largely restricted to ruminant fats and consumed in foods and supplements. Its role in blood pressure (BP) regulation is still unclear. We examined the effect of cis-9, trans-11 CLA on BP compared with oleic acid. A

  9. Revisiting conjugate schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAleese, Kenneth R; Ghezzi, Patrick M; Rapp, John T

    2015-07-01

    The effects of conjugate reinforcement on the responding of 13 college students were examined in three experiments. Conjugate reinforcement was provided via key presses that changed the clarity of pictures displayed on a computer monitor in a manner proportional to the rate of responding. Experiment 1, which included seven parameters of clarity change per response, revealed that responding decreased as the percentage clarity per response increased for all five participants. These results indicate that each participant's responding was sensitive to intensity change, which is a parameter of conjugate reinforcement schedules. Experiment 2 showed that responding increased during conjugate reinforcement phases and decreased during extinction phases for all four participants. Experiment 3 also showed that responding increased during conjugate reinforcement and further showed that responding decreased during a conjugate negative punishment condition for another four participants. Directions for future research with conjugate schedules are briefly discussed.

  10. Revisiting conjugate schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAleese, Kenneth R; Ghezzi, Patrick M; Rapp, John T

    2015-07-01

    The effects of conjugate reinforcement on the responding of 13 college students were examined in three experiments. Conjugate reinforcement was provided via key presses that changed the clarity of pictures displayed on a computer monitor in a manner proportional to the rate of responding. Experiment 1, which included seven parameters of clarity change per response, revealed that responding decreased as the percentage clarity per response increased for all five participants. These results indicate that each participant's responding was sensitive to intensity change, which is a parameter of conjugate reinforcement schedules. Experiment 2 showed that responding increased during conjugate reinforcement phases and decreased during extinction phases for all four participants. Experiment 3 also showed that responding increased during conjugate reinforcement and further showed that responding decreased during a conjugate negative punishment condition for another four participants. Directions for future research with conjugate schedules are briefly discussed. PMID:26150349

  11. 固定化亚油酸异构酶制备及其性质%Preparation and Properties of Immobilized Linoleate Isomerase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏明; 杨超英; 钱森和

    2012-01-01

    以海藻酸钠、壳聚糖为载体,分别采用直接包埋、交联一包埋法制备固定化亚油酸异构酶;研究酶的固定化条件和固定化酶的部分性质。结果表明:以海藻酸钠为载体,采用交联.包埋法以戊二醛为交联剂时固定化效果较好;最佳固定化条件为:海藻酸钠质量浓度为3g/100mL,戊二醛质量浓度为0.3g/100mL,CaCl2质量浓度为2g/100mL;固定化酶的最适反应温度为50℃,最适反应pH值为5.0;与游离酶相比,固定化酶的热稳定性显著提高,温度在20-60℃之间较稳定,pH值在2-8之间表现出较好的酸碱耐受性;固定化亚油酸异构酶的Km为0.36mg/mL。连续操作6次固定化相对酶活力仍保持70.6%,与游离酶相比,固定化亚油酸异构酶催化效率约提高了50%。%Sodium alginate and chitosan were used as the carriers for immobilizing linoleate isomerase by entrapment and cross- linking entrapment methods. The immobilization conditions of linoleate isomerase and properties of immobilized linoleate isomerase were investigated. The results indicated that the optimal conditions for immobilizing linoleate isomerase were 3 g/100 mL sodium alginate, 2 g/100 mL CaCI2 and 0.3 g/100 mL glutaraldehyde. The optimal temperature and pH for the conversion of linoleic acid (LA) to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were 50 ℃ and 5.0, respectively. The thermal and pH stabilities of immobilized linoleate iosmerase were better than those of native enzyme in the range of 20 - 60℃ and pH 2 -8. The K= of immobilized linoleate iosmerase was 0.36 mg/mL. After sixth repeated use, the immobilized enzyme remained 70.6% of its original activity. It could increase CLA production by 50% when compared with native linoleate isomerase.

  12. Dietary medium chain fatty acid supplementation leads to reduced VLDL lipolysis and uptake rates in comparison to linoleic acid supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalkwijk, D.B. van; Pasman, W.J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Verheij, E.R.; Rubingh, C.M.; Bochove, K. van; Vaes, W.H.J.; Adiels, M.; Freidig, A.P.; Graaf, A.A. de

    2014-01-01

    Dietary medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and linoleic acid follow different metabolic routes, and linoleic acid activates PPAR receptors. Both these mechanisms may modify lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism after dietary intervention. Our objective was to investigate how dietary MCFA and linoleic a

  13. The effect of linoleic acid on the Sauvignon blanc fermentation by different wine yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casu, Francesca; Pinu, Farhana R; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Greenwood, David R; Villas-Boas, Silas G

    2016-08-01

    The level of linoleic acid in the Sauvignon blanc (SB) grape juice affects the development of different aroma compounds during fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118, including key varietal thiols such as 3-mercaptohexanol (3MH) and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA). However, it is still unknown if linoleic acid would affect in a similar way other commonly used S. cerevisiae wine strains. Here we investigated the effect of grape juice linoleic acid on the development of aroma compounds and other metabolites of SB wines using different wine yeast strains: EC1118, AWRI796 and VIN13. Linoleic acid clearly affected the levels of acetylated aroma compounds, several amino acids, and antioxidant molecules, independent of yeast strain, but the production of 3MH was affected by linoleic acid in a strain-specific manner. Moreover, the supplementation of deuterium-labelled 3MH also affected the production of varietal thiols in a strain-specific way. Linoleic acid reduced the acetylation process probably by inhibiting an acetyltransferase, an effect that was independent of the yeast strain. However, regulation of the 3MH biosynthesis is strain-specific, which suggests a mindful consideration not only towards the wine yeast but also to the linoleic acid concentration in the grape juice in order to obtain the desired wine aroma characteristics. PMID:27364827

  14. Segmented conjugated polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Padmanaban; S Ramakrishnan

    2003-08-01

    Segmented conjugated polymers, wherein the conjugation is randomly truncated by varying lengths of non-conjugated segments, form an interesting class of polymers as they not only represent systems of varying stiffness, but also ones where the backbone can be construed as being made up of chromophores of varying excitation energies. The latter feature, especially when the chromophores are fluorescent, like in MEHPPV, makes these systems particularly interesting from the photophysics point of view. Segmented MEHPPV- samples, where x represents the mole fraction of conjugated segments, were prepared by a novel approach that utilizes a suitable precursor wherein selective elimination of one of the two eliminatable groups is affected; the uneliminated units serve as conjugation truncations. Control of the composition x of the precursor therefore permits one to prepare segmented MEHPPV- samples with varying levels of conjugation (elimination). Using fluorescence spectroscopy, we have seen that even in single isolated polymer chains, energy migration from the shorter (higher energy) chromophores to longer (lower energy) ones occurs – the extent of which depends on the level of conjugation. Further, by varying the solvent composition, it is seen that the extent of energy transfer and the formation of poorly emissive inter-chromophore excitons are greatly enhanced with increasing amounts of non-solvent. A typical S-shaped curve represents the variation of emission yields as a function of composition suggestive of a cooperative collapse of the polymer coil, reminiscent of conformational transitions seen in biological macromolecules.

  15. Los isómeros cis-9, trans-11 y trans-10, cis-12 de ácido linoleico conjugado y su relación con producción de leche de vacas Holstein-Friesian. Revisión

    OpenAIRE

    José Guadalupe García Muñiz; Rufino López Ordaz; Amado Islas Espejel; Rodolfo Ramírez Valverde; Agustín Ruíz Flores; Ismael Ponce Candelario; Reyes López Ordaz

    2013-01-01

    Los objetivos de la presente revisión fueron estudiar los mecanismos de la adición de cis-9, trans-11 y trans-10, cis- 12 del ácido linoleico conjugado (ALC) en la dieta y su relación con producción de leche. Ambos isómeros se forman por la isomerización del ALC por la bacteria ruminal Butyrivibrio fribisolvens. También pueden ser producidos por desaturación del ácido vaccénico (18:1, trans-11) en el intestino delgado o el hígado de la vaca lechera. En humanos, el consumo de ambos se relacion...

  16. The combination of resveratrol and CLA does not increase the delipidating effect of each molecule in 3T3-L1 adipocytes La combinación de resveratrol y CLA no incrementa el efecto hipolipemiante de cada molécula en adipocitos 3T3-L1

    OpenAIRE

    Lasa, A; Miranda, J.; I. Churruca; Simón, E.; N. Arias; Milagro, F.; J. A. Martínez; Mª del Puy Portillo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and resveratrol have been shown to reduce TG content in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocyte acting on different pathways. In recent years, the method of simultaneously targeting several signal transduction pathways with multiple natural products in order to achieve additive or synergistic effects has been tested. However, the combined effect of both molecules on lipid metabolism has not been described before. Objective: The aim of the presen...

  17. Polymers for Protein Conjugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Pasut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG at the moment is considered the leading polymer for protein conjugation in view of its unique properties, as well as to its low toxicity in humans, qualities which have been confirmed by its extensive use in clinical practice. Other polymers that are safe, biodegradable and custom-designed have, nevertheless, also been investigated as potential candidates for protein conjugation. This review will focus on natural polymers and synthetic linear polymers that have been used for protein delivery and the results associated with their use. Genetic fusion approaches for the preparation of protein-polypeptide conjugates will be also reviewed and compared with the best known chemical conjugation ones.

  18. Linoleic acid, thymine, and tryptophan radiosensitization by protoporphyrin in presence of oxygene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitizing effect induced by protoporphyrin, an active molecule in photooxidation is studied. Studied substances are tryptophan, thymine, linoleic acid, each component representing one of the great groups of biological components, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids

  19. Cell density-dependent linoleic acid toxicity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Túlio César; de Moraes, Lídia Maria Pepe; Campos, Elida Geralda

    2011-08-01

    Since the discovery of the apoptotic pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, several compounds have been shown to cause apoptosis in this organism. While the toxicity of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) peroxides towards S. cerevisiae has been known for a long time, studies on the effect of nonoxidized PUFA are scarce. The present study deals specifically with linoleic acid (LA) in its nonoxidized form and investigates its toxicity to yeast. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unable to synthesize PUFA, but can take up and incorporate them into its membranes. Reports from the literature indicate that LA is not toxic to yeast cells. However, we demonstrated that yeast cell growth decreased in cultures treated with 0.1 mM LA for 4 h, and 3-(4,5 dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide reduction (a measure of respiratory activity) decreased by 47%. This toxicity was dependent on the number of cells used in the experiment. We show apoptosis induction by LA concomitant with increases in malondialdehyde, glutathione content, activities of catalase and cytochrome c peroxidase, and decreases in two metabolic enzyme activities. While the main purpose of this study was to show that LA causes cell death in yeast, our results indicate some of the molecular mechanisms of the cell toxicity of PUFA. PMID:21457450

  20. Linoleic and linolenic acids analysis of soybean tofu with Rhizopus oryzae and Rhizopus oligosporus as coagulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUPYANI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sudaryatiningsih C, Supyani. 2009. Linoleic and linolenic acids analysis of soybean tofu with Rhizopus oryzae and Rhizopus oligosporus as coagulant. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 110-116. The aims of this research are to know the potency of Rhizopus oligosporus and Rhizopus oryzae as a coagulant in tofu processing for increasing the amount of linoleic and linolenic acids, and to know the time that needed by R. oligosporus and R. oryzae for increasing the amount of linoleic and linolenic acids. It uses PDA for inoculating fungi, and it is done at Sub-Lab Chemistry, Central Laboratory for Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta. The tofu making was done in “Dele Emas” Tofu Factory, Surakarta. Analysis of linoleic and linolenic acids were done by Gas Chromatography, in LPPT-UGM Yogyakarta. The conclusion of this research are R. oligosporus dan R. oryzae having a potency as a coagulant in tofu processing for increasing the amount of linoleic and linolenic acids. R. oryzae needs 18 hours to coagulate the tofu, and R. oligosporus needs 12 hours for the same process. The highest amount of linoleic and linolenic acids were obtained by R. oryzae at 6 hours of fermentation (0.26% and 0.14%, and 24 hours of fermentation by R. oligosporus (0.06% and 0.04%.

  1. Synergistic Chemotherapeutic Activity of Curcumin Bearing Methoxypolyethylene Glycol-g-Linoleic Acid Based Micelles on Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzarlamudi, Sofia; Singh, Pankaj K; Pawar, Vivek K; Singh, Yuvraj; Sharma, Komal; Paliwal, S K; Chourasia, Manish K; Ramana, M V; Chaurasia, Mohini

    2016-04-01

    Although curcumin (Cur), has been poised to be an anticancer boon for quite some, its progress from bench to bed has been strained due to various pharmaceutical hurdles. Consequently curcumin has been entrapped in methoxy poly ethylene glycol and linoleic acid conjugated polymeric micelles (PMs) to not only tackle the routine issues but to also provide a synergetic effect against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Optimized PMs of Cur had size 186.53 ± 12.10 nm with polydispersity index 0.143 ± 0.031 and zeta potential -30.1 ± 3.2 mV. Developed formulation (Mpeg-Cla-Cur PMs) was hemocompatible and had high cytotoxicity (IC50 55.80 ± 4.63 µ/mL) against MCF-7 cells in comparison to pure Cur suspension (IC50 75.05 ± 5.75 µg/mL). As postulated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis studies revealed synergetic effect of Mpeg-Cla-Cur PMs with higher cell population in G1 phase in addition to high apoptosis of MCF-7 cells as compared to pure Cur suspension and con- trol group. Pharmacokinetic studies also show PMs enhanced MRT and T1/2 of Cur indicating its longer retention time in body. Mpeg-Cla-Cur PMs might become as an excellent chemotherapeutic alternative candidate for treatment of breast cancer with higher commercial value. PMID:27451784

  2. Qualidade conjugal: mapeando conceitos

    OpenAIRE

    Clarisse Mosmann; Adriana Wagner; Terezinha Féres-Carneiro

    2006-01-01

    Apesar da ampla utilização do conceito de qualidade conjugal, identifica-se falta de clareza conceitual acerca das variáveis que o compõem. Esse artigo apresenta revisão da literatura na área com o objetivo de mapear o conceito de qualidade conjugal. Foram analisadas sete principais teorias sobre o tema: Troca Social, Comportamental, Apego, Teoria da Crise, Interacionismo Simbólico. Pelos postulados propostos nas diferentes teorias, podem-se identificar três grupos de variáveis fundamentais n...

  3. 76 FR 32332 - BASF Corp.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Methyl Esters of Conjugated Linoleic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... additive regulations in part 573 Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals (21 CFR... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 BASF Corp.; Filing of Food Additive Petition... that BASF Corp. has filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to...

  4. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid mixtures and different edible oils in body composition and lipid regulation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalerandi, María Victoria; Gonzalez, Marcela Aida; Saín, Juliana; Fariña, Ana Clara; Bernal, Claudio Adrián

    2014-03-01

    Introducción: Las evidencias sugieren que las mezclas de Ácido Linoleico Conjugado (ALC) de origen comercial o natural diferencialmente afectan diferencialment al estado nutricional y al metabolismo lipídico. Objetivo: Investigar el efecto de dos preparaciones de ALC como complemento de grasas dietarias con diferentes proporciones de ácidos grasos (AG) n-9, n-6 y n-3 sobre composición corporal, niveles de triacilglicéridos (TG) y metabolismo lipídico en ratones. Métodos: Se alimentó a ratones en crecimiento con dietas con aceite de oliva, maíz y canola, o colza suplementadas con una mezcla equimolecular de ALC (mezcla-ALC) o aceites ricos en ácido ruménico (AR) por 30 días. Se evaluó: ganancia de peso, composición corporal, peso de tejidos, niveles de TG plasmáticos y séricos, y parámetros de regulación lipídica. Resultados: Independientemente de las grasas dietarias, la mezcla-ALC redujo el peso corporal y depósitos grasos relacionados con hepatomegalia, incremento de TG séricos y descenso de TG musculares. El aceite de canola previno la esteatosis hepática producida por la mezcla-ALC a aceites de oliva y maíz por incremento de la secreción de TG. AR decreció los depósitos grasos sin hepatomegalia, esteatosis hepática e hipertrigliceridemia. Aceite de oliva previno el incremento de TG musculares inducidos por suplementación con AR al aceite de maíz y canola. Discusión y conclusión: Las proporciones de AG insaturados dietarios modularon la respuesta de mezcla-ALC y AR al metabolismo lipídico en ratones. Finalmente, aceite de canola previno la esteatosis hepática inducida por mezcla-ALC, y los efectos benéficos más notorios fueron observados cuando aceite de oliva fue suplementado con AR, debido a la reducida acreción de lípidos sin cambios en los niveles de TG.

  5. Optical fibre-based methodology for screening the effect of probiotic bacteria on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in curdled milk

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Lurdes I. B.; Rodrigues, Dina M.; Freitas, Ana C.; Gomes, Ana M; Teresa A P Rocha-Santos; Pereira, M. E.; Duarte, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    A methodology based on optical fibre (OF) detection was developed for screening the potential of CLA production by Lactobacillus casei-01, Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium lactis B94 in probiotic curdled milk. The OF based methodology was validated by comparison with an analytical method based on gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and it showed comparable linearity (between 5 and 130 lg), accuracy and detection limits, which ranged from 1.92 to 2.56 lg ...

  6. System Development from Organic Solvents to Ionic Liquids for Synthesiz-ing Ascorbyl Esters with Conjugated Linoleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Schultz, Lise; Guo, Zheng;

    2012-01-01

    -ferred to an ionic liquid system for the purpose of improving solubility of the polar substrate and avoiding the application of organic solvents. From screening experiments, it was evident that only methyltrioctylammonium triflouroacetate (tO-MA·TFA) could provide a proper reaction environment for production...... of ascorbyl-CLA ester when using Novozym® 435 as biocatalyst. It was possible to significantly increase the productivity (150 g/l) through the increase of ascorbic acid sol-ubility in ionic liquids by super saturation together with the increase of reaction temperature to 70°C, far beyond than that in organic...

  7. Determination of conjugated linoleic acid with Ag-+ HPLC%Ag-+HPLC测定共轭亚油酸的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余迎利; 邓泽元; 曹树稳

    2005-01-01

    将经TLC鉴定为游离脂肪酸的样品用三甲基硅重氮甲烷甲基化,用Ag-+HPLC来测定共轭亚油酸(CLA)的组成.用GC和HPLC这二种方法所得的结果很相近,但各有特色.Ag-+HPLC可以将t,t-CLA异构体8t10t-、9t11t-和10t12t-CLA等分离,也可以很好地分离11c13t-CLA、10t12c-CLA、9c11t-CLA和8t10c-CLA.结果显示Ag-+HPLC是测定CLA较好的一种方法,测定的二种样品CLA组成有较大的差异,反映其合成工艺有较大的不同.

  8. Chemical composition of colostrum and milk of sows fed conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) during last period of pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Barowicz T.; Migdal W.; Pieszka M.; Živković Branislav

    2002-01-01

    42 Large Polish White x Polish Landrace sows in the 3 rd and 4th reproductive cycle were divided into four groups. The sows were fed completed pelleted feeds with free access to water. The 2% or 4% sunflower oil (for control groups) and 2 or 4% CLA oil (for experimental groups), were added to the feeds for groups from 90th day of gestation to the parturition. CLA oil contained 61% CLA isomers (EDENOR UKD 6010, Henkel). Colostrum and milk samples (100 ml) were taken 24 hours after placental ex...

  9. Stabilized polyacrylic saccharide protein conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callstrom, M.R.; Bednarski, M.D.; Gruber, P.R.

    1996-02-20

    This invention is directed to water soluble protein polymer conjugates which are stable in hostile environments. The conjugate comprises a protein which is linked to an acrylic polymer at multiple points through saccharide linker groups. 16 figs.

  10. DNA-cell conjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Shih-Chia; Francis, Matthew B.; Bertozzi, Carolyn; Mathies, Richard; Chandra, Ravi; Douglas, Erik; Twite, Amy; Toriello, Nicholas; Onoe, Hiroaki

    2016-05-03

    The present invention provides conjugates of DNA and cells by linking the DNA to a native functional group on the cell surface. The cells can be without cell walls or can have cell walls. The modified cells can be linked to a substrate surface and used in assay or bioreactors.

  11. Conjugation in "Escherichia coli"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phornphisutthimas, Somkiat; Thamchaipenet, Arinthip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial conjugation is a genetic transfer that involves cell-to-cell between donor and recipient cells. With the current method used to teach students in genetic courses at the undergraduate level, the transconjugants are identified using bacterial physiology and/or antibiotic resistance. Using physiology, however, is difficult for both…

  12. Peptide-Carrier Conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Paul Robert

    2015-01-01

    To produce antibodies against synthetic peptides it is necessary to couple them to a protein carrier. This chapter provides a nonspecialist overview of peptide-carrier conjugation. Furthermore, a protocol for coupling cysteine-containing peptides to bovine serum albumin is outlined....

  13. Oleic, Linoleic and Linolenic Acids Increase ROS Production by Fibroblasts via NADPH Oxidase Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Elaine; Dermargos, Alexandre; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael; Newsholme, Philip; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Curi, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on ROS production by 3T3 Swiss and Rat 1 fibroblasts was investigated. Using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, a dose-dependent increase in extracellular superoxide levels was observed during the treatment of fibroblasts with oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids. ROS production was dependent on the addition of β-NADH or NADPH to the medium. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibited the effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on fibroblast superoxide release by 79%, 92% and 82%, respectively. Increased levels of p47phox phosphorylation due to fatty acid treatment were detected by Western blotting analyses of fibroblast proteins. Increased p47phox mRNA expression was observed using real-time PCR. The rank order for the fatty acid stimulation of the fibroblast oxidative burst was as follows: γ-linolenic > linoleic > oleic. In conclusion, oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids stimulated ROS production via activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex in fibroblasts. PMID:23579616

  14. Characterization of Linoleate 10-Hydratase of Lactobacillus plantarum and Novel Antifungal Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan Y.; Liang, Nuan Y.; Curtis, Jonathan M.; Gänzle, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to the antifungal compound 10-hydroxy-12-octadecenoic acid (10-HOE) by linoleate 10-hydratase (10-LAH). However, the effect of this conversion on cellular membrane physiology and properties of the cell surface have not been demonstrated. Moreover, Lactobacillus plantarum produces 13-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid (13-HOE) in addition to 10-HOE, but the antifungal activity of 13-HOE was unknown. Phylogenetic analyses conducted in this study did not differentiate between 10-LAH and linoleate 13-hydratase (13-LAH). Thus, linoleate hydratases (LAHs) must be characterized through their differences in their activities of linoleate conversion. Four genes encoding putative LAHs from lactobacilli were cloned, heterologous expressed, purified and identified as FAD-dependent 10-LAH. The unsaturated fatty acid substrates stimulated the growth of lactobacilli. We also investigated the role of 10-LAH in ethanol tolerance, membrane fluidity and hydrophobicity of cell surfaces in lactobacilli by disruption of lah. Compared with the L. plantarum lah deficient strain, 10-LAH in wild-type strain did not exert effect on cell survival and membrane fluidity under ethanol stress, but influenced the cell surface hydrophobicity. Moreover, deletion of 10-LAH in L. plantarum facilitated purification of 13-HOE and demonstration of its antifungal activity against Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus niger. PMID:27757104

  15. [Conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA, super CLA)--natural sources and biological activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Agnieszka; Teryks, Marta; Tokarz, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have a wide range of biological activity. Among them conjugated fatty acids are of great interest. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), which exert a multidirectional health-benefiting influence, and conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA, super CLA) are examples of this group of fatty acids. CLnA are a group of positional and geometric isomers of octadecatrienoic acid (C18:3), which possess double bonds at positions 9, 11, 13 or 8, 10, 12 of their chain. Some vegetable oils are rich sources of CLnA, e.g. bitter melon oil (from Momordica charantia seeds) and pomegranate oil (from Punica granatum seeds). The aim of this paper was to present information concerning natural sources and health-promoting activities of conjugated linolenic acids. The presented data reveal that conjugated linolenic acids may be very useful in prevention and treatment of many diseases, especially diabetes, arteriosclerosis , obesity and cancers (mammary, prostate and colon cancer). Among many potential mechanisms of their action, the fact that some CLnA are converted by oxidoreductases into CLA is very important. It seems to be very reasonable to conduct research concerning the possibility of CLnA use in prevention of many diseases. PMID:25380206

  16. Conjugated polymer nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncel, Dönüs; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2010-04-01

    Conjugated polymer nanoparticles are highly versatile nano-structured materials that can potentially find applications in various areas such as optoelectronics, photonics, bio-imaging, bio-sensing and nanomedicine. Their straightforward synthesis in desired sizes and properties, biocompatibility and non-toxicity make these materials highly attractive for the aforementioned applications. This feature article reviews the recent developments in the synthesis, characterization, properties and application of these exciting nanostructured materials.

  17. Anti- (conjugate) linearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Armin

    2016-03-01

    This is an introduction to antilinear operators. In following Wigner the terminus antilinear is used as it is standard in Physics. Mathematicians prefer to say conjugate linear. By restricting to finite-dimensional complex-linear spaces, the exposition becomes elementary in the functional analytic sense. Nevertheless it shows the amazing differences to the linear case. Basics of antilinearity is explained in sects. 2, 3, 4, 7 and in sect. 1.2: Spectrum, canonical Hermitian form, antilinear rank one and two operators, the Hermitian adjoint, classification of antilinear normal operators, (skew) conjugations, involutions, and acq-lines, the antilinear counterparts of 1-parameter operator groups. Applications include the representation of the Lagrangian Grassmannian by conjugations, its covering by acq-lines. As well as results on equivalence relations. After remembering elementary Tomita-Takesaki theory, antilinear maps, associated to a vector of a two-partite quantum system, are defined. By allowing to write modular objects as twisted products of pairs of them, they open some new ways to express EPR and teleportation tasks. The appendix presents a look onto the rich structure of antilinear operator spaces.

  18. Intestinal absorption and postabsorptive metabolism of linoleic acid in rats with short-term bile duct ligation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minich, DM; Havinga, R; Stellaard, F; Vonk, RJ; Kuipers, F; Verkade, HJ

    2000-01-01

    We investigated in bile duct-ligated (BDL) and sham-operated control rats whether the frequent presence of essential fatty acid deficiency in cholestatic liver disease could be related to linoleic acid malabsorption, altered linoleic acid metabolism, or both. In plasma of BDL rats, the triene-to-tet

  19. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic...: This regulation establishes an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of castor oil... residues of castor oil, polymer with adipic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid and ricinoleic acid on food...

  20. Theory of Digitized Conjugate Surface and Solution to Conjugate Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Lai-yuan; Liao Dao-xun; Yi Chuan-yun

    2004-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of designing and processing digitized surfaces, the method to spreading digitized surface has been proposed. The key technique is to solve the problem of digitized conjugate surface. In the paper, the digitized conjugate surface was theoretically investigated, and the solution of conjugate surface based on digitized surface was also studied. The digitized conjugate surface theory was then proposed, and applied to build the model of solving conjugate surface based on digitized surface. A corresponding algorithm was developed. This paper applies the software Conjugater-1.0 that is developed by ourselves to compute the digitized conjugate surfaces of the drum-tooth surface. This study provides theoretical and technical bases for analyzing engagement of digitized surface, simulation and numerical processing technique.

  1. Effect of oilseeds rich in linoleic and linolenic acids on milk production and milk fatty acid composition in dairy cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanxia GAO; Tao SUN; Jianguo LI

    2009-01-01

    Nine multiparous cows averaging 93±13 days in milk production (DIM) were used in a triple 3×3 Latin square design to determine the effects of feeding them whole roasted flaxseed, cracked roasted soybean and fresh alfalfa in the diet on milk production, milk fatty acid profiles and the digestibility of nutrients. Each experimental period lasted 30 d and a sample collection was performed during the last 7 d. The cows were fed on the control basal diet (CON) or diets containing whole roasted flaxseed (FLA) or cracked roasted soybean (SOY). All diets were fed as a total mixed ration (TMR) and had similar concentrations of crude protein (CP), Net Energy Lactation (NEL), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). The dry matter intake (DMI) was not significantly different (P>0.05), but tended to increase in FLA and SOY diets compared with the control (P > 0.05). Cows in all treatments had a similar milk yield, although 4% fat corrected milk (FCM) yield was higher on the FLA and SOY diets than on the CON diet. Milk fat percentage (3.45%) increased in the FLA diet compared with the control (3.31%) and SOY diets (3.39%). Milk protein percentages were similar among the diets (P > 0.05). There were similar digestibilities of DM, CP and ADF among the treatments and lower digestibilities of NDF and ether extract in the SOY diet compared with the CON diet. Feeding various oilseeds significantly increased the concentrations of C18:1, C18:3 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The FLA diet decreased the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty-acids in the milk, which would improve the nutritive value of the milk.

  2. Ion pairing with linoleic acid simultaneously enhances encapsulation efficiency and antibacterial activity of vancomycin in solid lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhapure, Rahul S; Mocktar, Chunderika; Sikwal, Dhiraj R; Sonawane, Sandeep J; Kathiravan, Muthu K; Skelton, Adam; Govender, Thirumala

    2014-05-01

    Ion pairing of a fatty acid with an antibiotic may be an effective strategy for formulation optimization of a nanoantibiotic system. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the potential of linoleic acid (LA) as an ion pairing agent to simultaneously enhance encapsulation efficiency and antibacterial activity of triethylamine neutralized vancomycin (VCM) in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). The prepared VCM-LA2 conjugate was characterized by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, logP and binding energy calculations. The shifts in the FT-IR frequencies of COOH, NH2 and CO functionalities, an increase in logP value (1.37) and a lower interaction energy between LA and VCM (-125.54 kcal/mol) confirmed the formation of the conjugate. SLNs were prepared by a hot homogenization and ultrasonication method, and characterized for size, polydispersity index (PI), zeta potential (ZP), entrapment efficiency (%EE), surface morphology and physical stability. In vitro antibacterial activity studies against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were conducted. Size, PI and ZP for VCM-LA2_SLNs were 102.7±1.01, 0.225±0.02 and -38.8±2.1 (mV) respectively. SLNs were also stable at 4 °C for 3 months. %EE for VCM-HCl_SLNs and VCM-LA2_SLNs were 16.81±3.64 and 70.73±5.96 respectively, indicating a significant improvement in encapsulation of the drug through ion pairing with LA. Transmission electron microscopy images showed spherical nanoparticles with sizes in the range of 95-100 nm. After 36 h, VCM-HCl showed no activity against MRSA. However, the minimum inhibitory concentration for VCM-HCl_SLNs and VCM-LA2_SLNs were 250 and 31.25 μg/ml respectively against S. aureus, while against MRSA it was 500 and 15.62 μg/ml respectively. This confirms the enhanced antibacterial activity of VCM-LA2_SLNs over VCM-HCl_SLNs. These findings therefore suggest that VCM-LA2_SLNs is a promising nanoantibiotic system for effective treatment against both

  3. Vitamin E supplementation in elderly lowers the oxidation rate of linoleic acid in LDL.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waart, de F.; Moser, U.; Kok, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    .Oxidation of LDL–linoleic acid (LDL–LA), a major substrate for lipid peroxidation, may be counteracted by the antioxidant vitamin E. In a 3-month randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in 83 apparently healthy Dutch elderly, aged 67–85 years, the direct protective effect of 100 IU vitamin

  4. Use of capillary electrophoresis to determine oleic and linoleic acid content of peanut seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    A common consumer complaint regarding peanut products is one involving short shelf life and rapid rancidity. Peanut cultivars with elevated oleic acid content (and decreased linoleic content) have been shown to have an increased shelf life and thus have become largely preferred by peanut processors...

  5. Influence of trans fatty acids on linoleic acid metabolism in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Zevenbergen

    1988-01-01

    textabstractAt the start of the work described in this thesis, most reviewers on trans fatty acids agreed that these isomeric fatty acids did not induce undesirable effects, provided sufficient linoleic acid was present in the diet (Beare-Rogers, 1983; Emken, 1983; Gottenbos, 1983; Gurr, 1983). Howe

  6. Organometallic B12-DNA conjugate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunger, Miriam; Mutti, Elena; Rieder, Alexander;

    2014-01-01

    Design, synthesis, and structural characterization of a B12-octadecanucleotide are presented herein, a new organometallic B12-DNA conjugate. In such covalent conjugates, the natural B12 moiety may be a versatile vector for controlled in vivo delivery of oligonucleotides to cellular targets in hum...

  7. Isolation of linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids as COX-1 and -2 inhibitors in rose hip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäger, Anna; Petersen, K N; Thomasen, G.;

    2008-01-01

    /2 activity-guided. The bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of linoleic acid (the IC50 for COX-1 was 85 microm and 0.6 microM for COX-2) and alpha-linolenic acid (the IC50 for COX-1 was 52 microM and 12 microM for COX-2). The COX-2/COX-1 ratio was 0.007 for linoleic acid and 0.2 for alpha......-linolenic acid. Linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid contribute to the COX-1 and -2 inhibitory activity of rose hip....

  8. Enrichment of Linoleic Acid from Sunflower Seed Oil by Urea Adduction Method%尿素包合法对葵花籽油中亚油酸的富集研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵萍; 夏文旭; 袁亚兰; 王聪; 芮文君; 邱悦; 何永芳; 张亚菲; 王雅

    2015-01-01

    Linoleic acid is abundant in sunflower oil, which is one of raw materials for preparation of conjugated linoleic acid. Preparation of polyunsaturated fatty acid and linoleic acid by urea adduction and purification process were studied , effects of saponification temperature, sulfuric acid concentration, centrifugal speed and time, ratio of 95%ethanol and urea (v/w), ratio of urea and fatty acids ( w/w) and inclusion time of urea on enrichment efficiency were examined. Results showed that optimum purification conditions were saponification temperature 80℃, sulfuric acid concentration 20%, rotation speed 3 000r/min, centrifugation time 10 min, ratio of 95% ethanol and urea 3:1, ratio of urea and fatty acids 1.5:1, and urea inclusion time 12 h.%本文以葵花籽油为原料,以制备多不饱和共轭亚油酸及尿素包合法纯化亚油酸的工艺进行了研究,重点考察了皂化温度、稀硫酸的浓度、离心转速、离心时间、95%乙醇与尿素配比(v/w)、尿素与脂肪酸配比(w/w)以及尿素包合时间对富集效率的影响.结果表明: 最佳分离纯化工艺条件为皂化温度80℃、稀硫酸浓度20%、离心转速3 000r/min、离心时间10min、95%乙醇尿素比为3:1、尿素脂肪酸比为1.5:1和尿素包合时间12h.

  9. Dihydroazulene-buckminsterfullerene conjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santella, Marco; Mazzanti, Virginia; Jevric, Martyn;

    2012-01-01

    The dihydroazulene (DHA)/vinylheptafulvene (VHF) photo/thermoswitch has recently attracted interest as a molecular switch for molecular electronics. In this field, Buckminsterfullerene, C(60), has been shown to be a useful anchoring group for adhering a molecular wire to an electrode. Here we have...... combined the two units with the overall aim to elucidate how C(60) influences the DHA-VHF switching events. Efficient synthetic protocols for making covalently linked DHA-C(60) conjugates were developed, using Prato, Sonogashira, Hay, and Cadiot-Chodkiewicz reactions. These syntheses provide as well...... a variety of potentially useful DHA and C(60) building blocks for acetylenic scaffolding. The two units were separated by bridges of various lengths, such as oligo(phenyleneethynylene) (OPE2 and OPE3) wires. The distance of separation was found to influence strongly the light-induced ring-opening reaction...

  10. Generalized conjugate gradient squared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fokkema, D.R.; Sleijpen, G.L.G. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands)

    1994-12-31

    In order to solve non-symmetric linear systems of equations, the Conjugate Gradient Squared (CGS) is a well-known and widely used iterative method. In practice the method converges fast, often twice as fast as the Bi-Conjugate Gradient method. This is what you may expect, since CGS uses the square of the BiCG polynomial. However, CGS may suffer from its erratic convergence behavior. The method may diverge or the approximate solution may be inaccurate. BiCGSTAB uses the BiCG polynomial and a product of linear factors in an attempt to smoothen the convergence. In many cases, this has proven to be very effective. Unfortunately, the convergence of BiCGSTAB may stall when a linear factor (nearly) degenerates. BiCGstab({ell}) is designed to overcome this degeneration of linear factors. It generalizes BiCGSTAB and uses both the BiCG polynomial and a product of higher order factors. Still, CGS may converge faster than BiCGSTAB or BiCGstab({ell}). So instead of using a product of linear or higher order factors, it may be worthwhile to look for other polynomials. Since the BiCG polynomial is based on a three term recursion, a natural choice would be a polynomial based on another three term recursion. Possibly, a suitable choice of recursion coefficients would result in method that converges faster or as fast as CGS, but less erratic. It turns out that an algorithm for such a method can easily be formulated. One particular choice for the recursion coefficients leads to CGS. Therefore one could call this algorithm generalized CGS. Another choice for the recursion coefficients leads to BiCGSTAB. It is therefore possible to mix linear factors and some polynomial based on a three term recursion. This way one may get the best of both worlds. The authors will report on their findings.

  11. Concentration of α-Linoleic Acid of Perilla Oil by Gradient Cooling Urea Inclusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Hai-bo; MA Xue-yi; WU Jing-bo; ZHANG Qi; YUAN Wen-bing; CHEN Yi-ping

    2009-01-01

    In this study,production of α-linoleic acid concentrated from crude perilla oil by gradient cooling urea inclusion was optimized.The fatty acid composition was determined after ethyl esterification by gas chromatography (GC).In this process,orthogonal experiment was carried out.Under optimum conditions,the maximum amount of α-linoleic acid (91.5%) was obtained at a urea to fatty acid ratio of 3,a solvent to fatty acids ratio of 7,a reaction temperature of 348 K and a crystallization time of 690 min.A simple method of gradient cooling urea inclusion was used to purify α-Iinolenie acid by using urea to form inclusion complexes with the saturated and the less unsaturated fatty acids,which enhanced the purity of α-iinoleic acid ethyl ester by above 90%.

  12. Incorporation of 14C-linoleic acid in cerebrosides of psoriatic and normal human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was shown that the incorporation of 14C-linoleic acid in cerebrosides of normal and psoriatic human skin is different. In psoriatic epidermis and corium the turnover of this fatty acid is significantly elevated. It is suggested that in psoriasis the epidermal cell is not able to build up a regular carbohydrate sequences of lipids because the false carbohydrate chain activates the degradation of glycolipids and in compensating for the increased degradation raises the synthesis rate of glycolipids. (orig./MG)

  13. Apparent in vivo retroconversion of dietary arachidonic to linoleic acid in essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.; von Wettstein-Knowles, P.

    1986-01-01

    Essential fatty acid-deficient rats were fed ethyl [U-C]arachidonate (308 dpm/nmol) and when a decrease in the transepidermal water loss was seen, the epidermal sphingolipids, acylglucosylceramide and acylceramide were isolated. [C]Linoleic acid (approx. 130 dpm/nmol) was present in both lipid...... classes, while the substrate was only detected in the former. These results intimate that in vivo retroconversion of arachidonic to linoleic acid can be induced in the rat....

  14. Star-Shaped Conjugated Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiner Detert

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The present review deals with the preparation and the properties of star-shaped conjugated compounds. Three, four or six conjugated arms are attached to cross-conjugated cores, which consist of single atoms (B, C+, N, benzene or azine rings or polycyclic ring systems, as for example triphenylene or tristriazolotriazine. Many of these shape-persistent [n]star compounds tend to π-stacking and self-organization, and exhibit interesting properties in materials science: Linear and non-linear optics, electrical conductivity, electroluminescence, formation of liquid crystalline phases, etc.

  15. Polyesters Based on Linoleic Acid for Biolubricant Basestocks: Low-Temperature, Tribological and Rheological Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Bashar Mudhaffar; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan; Huri, Hasniza Zaman; Hairunisa, Nany; Yousif, Emad; Basu, Roma Choudhury

    2016-01-01

    Presently, plant oils which contain high percentage of linoleic acid 1 are perceived to be a viable alternative to mineral oil for biolubricant applications due to their biodegradability and technical properties. In order to get biodegradable lubricant, triester derivatives compounds (1-5) were synthesized and characterized. The processes involved were monoepoxidation of linoleic acid 2, oxirane ring opening 3, esterification 4 and acylation 5. The structures of the products were confirmed by FTIR, 1H and 13C-NMR and LC-MS. The results that showed lowest temperature properties were obtained for triester 5, with a pour point value (PP) of -73°C, highest onset temperature (260°C) and lowest volatility at 0.30%. Viscosity index (VI) increased for the ester's synthetic compounds (2, 3, 4, 5), while the PP decreased. This behavior is the result of the increase of the chain length of the branching agents. Triester based linoleic acid has improved properties such as low-temperature and tribological properties. These results will make it feasible for plant oil to be used for biolubricants, fuels in chain saws, transmission oil and brake fluid. PMID:27008312

  16. Polyesters Based on Linoleic Acid for Biolubricant Basestocks: Low-Temperature, Tribological and Rheological Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar Mudhaffar Abdullah

    Full Text Available Presently, plant oils which contain high percentage of linoleic acid 1 are perceived to be a viable alternative to mineral oil for biolubricant applications due to their biodegradability and technical properties. In order to get biodegradable lubricant, triester derivatives compounds (1-5 were synthesized and characterized. The processes involved were monoepoxidation of linoleic acid 2, oxirane ring opening 3, esterification 4 and acylation 5. The structures of the products were confirmed by FTIR, 1H and 13C-NMR and LC-MS. The results that showed lowest temperature properties were obtained for triester 5, with a pour point value (PP of -73°C, highest onset temperature (260°C and lowest volatility at 0.30%. Viscosity index (VI increased for the ester's synthetic compounds (2, 3, 4, 5, while the PP decreased. This behavior is the result of the increase of the chain length of the branching agents. Triester based linoleic acid has improved properties such as low-temperature and tribological properties. These results will make it feasible for plant oil to be used for biolubricants, fuels in chain saws, transmission oil and brake fluid.

  17. Polyesters Based on Linoleic Acid for Biolubricant Basestocks: Low-Temperature, Tribological and Rheological Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Bashar Mudhaffar; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan; Huri, Hasniza Zaman; Hairunisa, Nany; Yousif, Emad; Basu, Roma Choudhury

    2016-01-01

    Presently, plant oils which contain high percentage of linoleic acid 1 are perceived to be a viable alternative to mineral oil for biolubricant applications due to their biodegradability and technical properties. In order to get biodegradable lubricant, triester derivatives compounds (1–5) were synthesized and characterized. The processes involved were monoepoxidation of linoleic acid 2, oxirane ring opening 3, esterification 4 and acylation 5. The structures of the products were confirmed by FTIR, 1H and 13C-NMR and LC-MS. The results that showed lowest temperature properties were obtained for triester 5, with a pour point value (PP) of -73°C, highest onset temperature (260°C) and lowest volatility at 0.30%. Viscosity index (VI) increased for the ester’s synthetic compounds (2, 3, 4, 5), while the PP decreased. This behavior is the result of the increase of the chain length of the branching agents. Triester based linoleic acid has improved properties such as low-temperature and tribological properties. These results will make it feasible for plant oil to be used for biolubricants, fuels in chain saws, transmission oil and brake fluid. PMID:27008312

  18. Effects of Oils Rich in Linoleic and α-Linolenic Acids on Fatty Acid Profile and Gene Expression in Goat Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alteration of the lipid content and fatty acid (FA composition of foods can result in a healthier product. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of flaxseed oil or sunflower oil in the goat diet on fatty acid composition of muscle and expression of lipogenic genes in the semitendinosus (ST muscle. Twenty-one entire male Boer kid goats were fed diets containing different levels of linoleic acid (LA and α-linolenic acid (LNA for 100 days. Inclusion of flaxseed oil increased (p < 0.05 the α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3 concentration in the ST muscle. The diet high in α-linolenic acid (p < 0.05 decreased the arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6 and conjugated linolenic acid (CLA c-9 t-11 content in the ST muscle. There was a significant (p < 0.05 upregulation of PPARα and PPARγ gene expression and downregulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD gene in the ST muscle for the high α-linolenic acid group compared with the low α-linolenic acid group. The results of the present study show that flaxseed oil as a source of α-linolenic acid can be incorporated into the diets of goats to enrich goat meat with n-3 fatty acids, upregulate the PPARα and PPARγ, and downregulate the SCD gene expression.

  19. Characterisation of a cell wall-anchored protein of Staphylococcus saprophyticus associated with linoleic acid resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Nathan P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus saprophyticus is the second most frequent causative agent of community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI, accounting for up to 20% of cases. A common feature of staphylococci is colonisation of the human skin. This involves survival against innate immune defenses including antibacterial unsaturated free fatty acids such as linoleic acid which act by disrupting bacterial cell membranes. Indeed, S. saprophyticus UTI is usually preceded by perineal skin colonisation. Results In this study we identified a previously undescribed 73.5 kDa cell wall-anchored protein of S. saprophyticus, encoded on plasmid pSSAP2 of strain MS1146, which we termed S. saprophyticus surface protein F (SssF. The sssF gene is highly prevalent in S. saprophyticus clinical isolates and we demonstrate that the SssF protein is expressed at the cell surface. However, unlike all other characterised cell wall-anchored proteins of S. saprophyticus, we were unable to demonstrate a role for SssF in adhesion. SssF shares moderate sequence identity to a surface protein of Staphylococcus aureus (SasF recently shown to be an important mediator of linoleic acid resistance. Using a heterologous complementation approach in a S. aureus sasF null genetic background, we demonstrate that SssF is associated with resistance to linoleic acid. We also show that S. saprophyticus strains lacking sssF are more sensitive to linoleic acid than those that possess it. Every staphylococcal genome sequenced to date encodes SssF and SasF homologues. Proteins in this family share similar predicted secondary structures consisting almost exclusively of α-helices in a probable coiled-coil formation. Conclusions Our data indicate that SssF is a newly described and highly prevalent surface-localised protein of S. saprophyticus that contributes to resistance against the antibacterial effects of linoleic acid. SssF is a member of a protein family

  20. Sequential measurements of conjugate observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmeli, Claudio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Heinosaari, Teiko [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, University of Turku, 20014 Turku (Finland); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: claudio.carmeli@gmail.com, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica ' Francesco Brioschi' , Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-07-15

    We present a unified treatment of sequential measurements of two conjugate observables. Our approach is to derive a mathematical structure theorem for all the relevant covariant instruments. As a consequence of this result, we show that every Weyl-Heisenberg covariant observable can be implemented as a sequential measurement of two conjugate observables. This method is applicable both in finite- and infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces, therefore covering sequential spin component measurements as well as position-momentum sequential measurements.

  1. Research study of conjugate materials; Conjugate material no chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper reported an introductory research on possibilities of new glass `conjugate materials.` The report took up the structure and synthetic process of conjugate materials to be researched/developed, classified them according to structural elements on molecular, nanometer and cluster levels, and introduced the structures and functions. Further, as glasses with new functions to be proposed, the paper introduced transparent and high-strength glass used for houses and vehicles, light modulation glass which realizes energy saving and optical data processing, and environmentally functional glass which realizes environmental cleaning or high performance biosensor. An initial survey was also conducted on rights of intellectual property to be taken notice of in Japan and abroad in the present situation. Reports were summed up and introduced of Osaka National Research Institute, Electrotechnical Laboratory, and National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya which are all carrying out leading studies of conjugate materials. 235 refs., 135 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Atopic eczema unresponsive to evening primrose oil (linoleic and gamma-linolenic acids).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, J T; Gibson, R W; Renier, C M

    1985-12-01

    This study was designed to look at the effect of evening primrose oil (linoleic and gamma-linolenic acids) as an oral supplement for patients with atopic eczema. We used a double-blind, blocked crossover design with random assignment of patients to treatment groups. We used Wilcoxon's signed-ranks method of comparing changes during the trial. We observed no significant effect on erythema, scale, excoriation, lichenification, or overall severity in 123 patients with atopic eczema of average severity while they took oral doses of evening primrose oil (2 or 4 gm in children, 6 or 8 gm in adults). PMID:3908514

  3. Effect of linoleic-acid modified carboxymethyl chitosan on bromelain immobilization onto self-assembled nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogel nanoparticles could be prepared by using linoleic acid (LA) modified carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) after sonication.Bromelain could be loaded onto nanoparticles of LA-CMCS.Factors affecting the activity of the immobilized enzyme,including temperature,storage etc.,were investigated in this study.The results showed that the stability of bromelain for heat and storage was improved after immobilization on nanoparticles.The Michaelis constant (Km) of the immobilized enzyme was smaller than that of free enzyme,indicating that the immobilization could promote the stability of the enzyme and strengthen the affinity of the enzyme for the substrate.

  4. A Geometric View of Conjugate Priors

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    In Bayesian machine learning, conjugate priors are popular, mostly due to mathematical convenience. In this paper, we show that there are deeper reasons for choosing a conjugate prior. Specifically, we formulate the conjugate prior in the form of Bregman divergence and show that it is the inherent geometry of conjugate priors that makes them appropriate and intuitive. This geometric interpretation allows one to view the hyperparameters of conjugate priors as the {\\it effective} sample points, thus providing additional intuition. We use this geometric understanding of conjugate priors to derive the hyperparameters and expression of the prior used to couple the generative and discriminative components of a hybrid model for semi-supervised learning.

  5. 植物乳杆菌转化合成共轭亚油酸的培养基条件优化%Opimization of conjugated linoleic acid production from linoleic acid by Lactobacillus plantarum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈珊

    2013-01-01

    生物法转化合成共轭亚油酸,产物中异构体组成单一,具有很好的应用前景.通过一株植物乳杆菌(Lactobacillus plantarum)合成共轭亚油酸的培养基成分进行优化,确定最优的培养基组成:葡萄糖20g/L,酵母浸出物40g/L,硫酸镁0.5g/L,硫酸锰0.5g/L,乙酸钠2g/L,磷酸氢二钾1g/L.优化后,共轭亚油酸产量达到0.259g/L,相比优化前(0.0455g)有了较大的提升.

  6. Ácido linoléico conjugado: efeitos no perfil lipídico e na composição corporal de camundongos exercitados Conjugated linoleic acid: effects on lipid profile and body composition of exercised mice

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio Anderson Toledo Fernandes; Antônio José Natali; Mateus Camaroti Laterza; Bruno Gonzaga Teodoro; Frederico Souzalima Caldoncelli Franco; Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos do CLA associado à dieta hiperlipídica sobre o perfil lipídico e composição corporal de camundongos knockout para o gene da ApoE exercitados. Métodos: 32 camundongos foram divididos e submetidos à dieta normo e hiperlipídica suplementadas ou não com 1% de CLA. Todos realizaram exercício físico em esteira, durante 12 semanas. Utilizou-se o teste de Kruskal-Wallis ao nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: Os animais que ingeriram dieta hiperlipídica com CLA aumen...

  7. Persistence Mechanisms of Conjugative Plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Hansen, Lars H.; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2009-01-01

    maintenance in the host cell. These importantly include the ability to self-mobilize in a process termed conjugative transfer, which may occur across species barriers. Other plasmid stabilizing mechanisms include the multimer resolution system, active partitioning, and post-segregational-killing of plasmid......Are plasmids selfish parasitic DNA molecules or an integrated part of the bacterial genome? This chapter reviews the current understanding of the persistence mechanisms of conjugative plasmids harbored by bacterial cells and populations. The diversity and intricacy of mechanisms affecting the...... successful propagation and long-term continued existence of these extra-chromosomal elements is extensive. Apart from the accessory genetic elements that may provide plasmid-harboring cells a selective advantage, special focus is placed on the mechanisms conjugative plasmids employ to ensure their stable...

  8. Isomer-specific regulation of metabolism and PPARgamma signaling by CLA in human preadipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, J Mark; Boysen, Maria Sandberg; Jensen, Søren Skov;

    2003-01-01

    Trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has previously been shown to be the CLA isomer responsible for CLA-induced reductions in body fat in animal models, and we have shown that this isomer, but not the cis-9,trans-11 CLA isomer, specifically decreased triglyceride (TG) accumulation...... in primary human adipocytes in vitro. Here we investigated the mechanism behind the isomer-specific, CLA-mediated reduction in TG accumulation in differentiating human preadipocytes. Trans-10,cis-12 CLA decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and oxidation, and reduced insulin-dependent glucose...... uptake and oxidation and preadipocyte differentiation by altering preadipocyte gene transcription in a manner that appeared to be due, in part, to decreased PPARgamma expression....

  9. Determination of α-Linoleic Acid, Linoleic Acid and Oleic Acid in Hemp Seed by HPLC%HPLC同时测定火麻仁中α-亚麻酸、亚油酸和油酸含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦建平; 陆艳芹; 罗雪磊; 吴建雄; 李家春; 萧伟

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立同时测定火麻仁中的α-亚麻酸、亚油酸和油酸含量的HPLC方法.方法:色谱柱为Kromasil 100-5 C18(4.6 mm×250 mm,5 μm),以乙腈-o.1%磷酸(80∶20)为流动相,流速1 mL? min-1,柱温30℃,检测波长203 nm.结果:α-亚麻酸在34.625~554 mg? L-1(r=0.999 9),亚油酸在56.375~902 mg?L -1(r=1),油酸在17.125 ~ 274 mg? L-1(r =0.999 9)呈良好的线性关系;平均回收率α-亚麻酸为96.38%,RSD0.93%(n=6);亚油酸为97.79%,RSD 0.92%(n=6);油酸为97.06%,RSD 1.51% (n =6).结论:本法简便准确,专属性强,重复性好,可作为火麻仁的质量控制的参考.%Objective: To establish a HPLC method for the determination of a-linoleic acid, linoleic acid and oleic acid in Hemp Seed. Method; The Kromasil 100-5 C18 (4.6 mm ×250 mm, 5 μm) column was used with a mobile phase of acetonitrile-0. 1% phosphoric acid (80:20) , the flow rate was 1 mL ? Min-1 , the column temperature was at 30 ℃, the detection wavelength was at 203 nm. Result: The linear ranges of a-linoleic acid, linoleic acid and oleic acid were 34. 625-554 mg ? L-1 ( r = 0. 999 9) , 56. 375-902 mg ? L-1 ( r = 1 ) and 17. 125-274 mg ? L-1 (r=0. 999 9) respectively. The average recoveries were 96. 38% with RSD 0. 93% for a-linoleic acid, 97. 79% with RSD 0. 92% for linoleic acid, 97. 06% with RSD 1. 51% for oleic acid. Conclusion; The method can be used to control the quality of a-linoleic acid, linoleic acid and oleic acid in Hemp Seed, which is simple, accurate, convenient, specific and repeatable.

  10. Cardiolipin linoleic acid content and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity are associated in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Val Andrew; McMeekin, Lauren; Saint, Caitlin; LeBlanc, Paul J

    2015-04-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is an inner-mitochondrial membrane phospholipid that is important for optimal mitochondrial function. Specifically, CL and CL linoleic (18:2ω6) content are known to be positively associated with cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity. However, this association has not been examined in skeletal muscle. In this study, rats were fed high-fat diets with a naturally occurring gradient in linoleic acid (coconut oil [CO], 5.8%; flaxseed oil [FO], 13.2%; safflower oil [SO], 75.1%) in an attempt to alter both mitochondrial CL fatty acyl composition and COX activity in rat mixed hind-limb muscle. In general, mitochondrial membrane lipid composition was fairly resistant to dietary treatments as only modest changes in fatty acyl composition were detected in CL and other major mitochondrial phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). As a result of this resistance, CL 18:2ω6 content was not different between the dietary groups. Consistent with the lack of changes in CL 18:2ω6 content, mitochondrial COX activity was also not different between the dietary groups. However, correlational analysis using data obtained from rats across the dietary groups showed a significant relationship (p = 0.009, R(2) = 0.21). Specifically, our results suggest that CL 18:2ω6 content may positively influence mitochondrial COX activity thereby making this lipid molecule a potential factor related to mitochondrial health and function in skeletal muscle.

  11. Alkylation of Methyl Linoleate with Propene in Ionic Liquids in the Presence of Metal Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Silvio Pomelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils and fatty acid esters are suitable precursor molecules for the production of a variety of bio-based products and materials, such as paints and coatings, plastics, soaps, lubricants, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, printing inks, surfactants, and biofuels. Here, we report the possibility of using Lewis acidic ionic liquids (ILs to obtain polyunsaturated ester dimerization-oligomerization and/or, in the presence of another terminal alkene (propene, co-polymerization. In particular, we have tested the Lewis acidic mixtures arising from the addition of a proper amount of GaCl3 (Χ > 0.5 to two chloride-based (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [bmim]Cl, and 1-butylisoquinolium chloride, [BuIsoq]Cl or by dissolution of a smaller amount of Al(Tf2N3 (Χ = 0.1 in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide, [bmim][Tf2N]. On the basis of product distribution studies, [bmim][Tf2N]/Al(Tf2N3 appears the most suitable medium in which methyl linoleate alkylation with propene can compete with methyl linoleate or propene oligomerization.

  12. Optimization of the In Situ Epoxidation of Linoleic Acid of Jatropha Curcas Oil With Performic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to optimise the epoxidation of linoleic acid of Jatropha curcas oil. This experiment was carried out with performic acid generated in situ by using hydrogen peroxide and formic acid. The method was evaluated on different parameters such as reaction temperature, mole ratios of formic acid to ethylenic unsaturation and hydrogen peroxide to ethylenic unsaturation. The optimum relative conversion into oxirane (80.4 %) and conversion of iodine (94.7 %) was achieved with ∼70 % yield at the condition of 45 degree Celsius reaction temperature, formic acid to ethylenic unsaturation mole ratio of 2.0, hydrogen peroxide to ethylenic unsaturation mole ratio of 12.0 for 2 hours of reaction time. The epoxidized linoleic acid was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and NMR analysis. The result was also found that the formations of an epoxide and oxirane ring cleavage were both occurred at the same time if low amount of hydrogen peroxide was used. (author)

  13. On contravariant product conjugate connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Blaga

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Invariance properties for the covariant and contravariant connections on a Riemannian manifold with respect to an almost product structure are stated. Restricting to a distribution of the contravariant connections is also discussed. The particular case of the conjugate connection is investigated and properties of the extended structural and virtual tensors for the contravariant connections are given.

  14. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of the Combination of Gallic and Linoleic Acid in Thigh Meat of Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyung Haeng; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Il Suk; Lee, Jun Heon; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the combined effect of dietary supplementation of gallic and linoleic acid (GL) on the antioxidative effect and quality of thigh meat from broilers. Broilers received 3 dietary treatments: i) commercial finisher diet (control), ii) 0.5% GL (gallic:linoleic acid = 1 M:1 M), and iii) 1.0% GL during the 22 to 36 d. The pH value of broiler thigh meat was increased by GL supplementation. Water holding capacity of the thigh meat was enhanced by the 1.0% dieta...

  15. THE EFFECT OF COTTONSEED AND SOYBEAN SUPPLEMENTATION ON CLA ISOMERS AND OTHER UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION IN SHEEP MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marmaryan G. Y.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the supplementation effect of different treatments of whole cottonseed and full fat soybean on the diet of dairy ewes and the milk fatty acid profile and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA content. The results indicate for both diets it is most suitable to use the second treatment in order to increase the level of cis- 9,trans-11 CLA isomer in milk. In the level of trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9, cis-11 no changes were observed in neither of the diets.

  16. Glutathione conjugation as a bioactivation reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bladeren, P.J. van

    2000-01-01

    In general, glutathione conjugation is regarded as a detoxication reaction. However, depending on the properties of the substrate, bioactivation is also possible. Four types of activation reaction have been recognized: direct-acting compounds, conjugates that are activated through cysteine conjugate

  17. Conjugative plasmids of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Pachulec

    Full Text Available Many clinical isolates of the human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae contain conjugative plasmids. The host range of these plasmids is limited to Neisseria species, but presence of a tetracycline (tetM determinant inserted in several of these plasmids is an important cause of the rapid spread of tetracycline resistance. Previously plasmids with different backbones (Dutch and American type backbones and with and without different tetM determinants (Dutch and American type tetM determinants have been identified. Within the isolates tested, all plasmids with American or Dutch type tetM determinants contained a Dutch type plasmid backbone. This demonstrated that tetM determinants should not be used to differentiate between conjugal plasmid backbones. The nucleotide sequences of conjugative plasmids with Dutch type plasmid backbones either not containing the tetM determinant (pEP5233 or containing Dutch (pEP5289 or American (pEP5050 type tetM determinants were determined. Analysis of the backbone sequences showed that they belong to a novel IncP1 subfamily divergent from the IncP1alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subfamilies. The tetM determinants were inserted in a genetic load region found in all these plasmids. Insertion was accompanied by the insertion of a gene with an unknown function, and rearrangement of a toxin/antitoxin gene cluster. The genetic load region contains two toxin/antitoxins of the Zeta/Epsilon toxin/antitoxin family previously only found in Gram positive organisms and the virulence associated protein D of the VapD/VapX toxin/antitoxin family. Remarkably, presence of VapX of pJD1, a small cryptic neisserial plasmid, in the acceptor strain strongly increased the conjugation efficiency, suggesting that it functions as an antitoxin for the conjugative plasmid. The presence of the toxin and antitoxin on different plasmids might explain why the host range of this IncP1 plasmid is limited to Neisseria species. The isolated plasmids

  18. Preferential oxidation of linolenic acid compared to linoleic acid in the liver of catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fate of [1(-14C] linoleic acid and [1(14C] linolenic acid in the liver slices and also in the liver tissues of live carnivorous catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus, was studied. Incorporation of the fatty acids into different lipid classes in the live fish differed greatly from the tissue slices, indicating certain physiological control operative in vivo. The extent of desaturation and chain elongation of linoleic and linolenic acids into long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids was low. Linolenic acid was oxidized (thus labeling the saturated fatty acid with liberated 14C-acetyl-CoA) in preference to linoleic acid, and this oxidation also seemed to be under physiological control since both of the fatty acids were poorly oxidized in the tissue slices and in the killed fish. These fish can therefore recognize the difference in the acyl chain structures of linoleate and linolenate. The higher oxidation of linolenic acid and poor capacity for its conversion to longer chain, highly unsaturated derivatives indicates a higher demand for the dietary supply of these essential fatty acids in these two species

  19. Biliary phospholipid secretion is not required for intestinal absorption and plasma status of linoleic acid in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minich, DM; Voshol, PJ; Havinga, R; Stellaard, F; Kuipers, F; Vonk, RJ; Verkade, HJ

    1999-01-01

    Biliary phospholipids have been hypothesized to be important for essential fatty acid homeostasis. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the intestinal absorption and the status of linoleic acid in mdr2 Pgp-deficient mice which secrete phospholipid-free bile. In mice homozygous (-/-) for disrup

  20. The ISG15 conjugation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Larissa A; Huibregtse, Jon M

    2012-01-01

    ISG15 is a ubiquitin-like modifier that is expressed in response to type 1 interferon signaling (IFN-α/β) and plays a role in antiviral responses. The core E1, E2, and E3 enzymes for ISG15 are Ube1L, UbcH8, and Herc5, respectively, and these are all also induced at the transcriptional level by IFN-α/β. We recently showed that Herc5 associates with polysomes and modifies target proteins in a cotranslational manner. Here, we describe the expression of the core conjugating enzymes in human cells, the detection of ISG15 conjugates, and the methods for fractionation of Herc5 with polysomes. PMID:22350882

  1. Conjugated Polymers for Energy Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livi, Francesco

    This dissertation is aimed at developing materials for flexible, large area, ITO-free polymer solar cells (PSCs) fully printed under ambient conditions. A large screening of conjugated polymers, both novel and well-known materials, has been carried out in order to find suitable candidates...... for scalable PSCs fully printed under ambient conditions [Adv. Energy Mater. 2015, 5, 1402186]. PPDTBT resulted to be the conjugated polymer with the best photovoltaic performance within the 104 synthesized macromolecules. Therefore, further studies have been done on such material. The impact of side chain...... arylation (DAr) and direct arylation polymerization (DArP) have been applied to the preparation of PPDTBT, making this polymer readily available in only 4 synthetic steps and thus easily transferable to a large scale-production setup. DArP avoids organometallic species and therefore is an appealing...

  2. A Study on Anti-oxidative Activity of Soybean Peptides with Linoleic Acid Peroxidation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Soybean bioactive peptides(SBPs) were prepared from the isolated soybean protein by proteolysis with an alkaline protease, alcalase, at 50 ℃ and pH = 8. 0. The dependence of hydrolysis time on hydrolysis degree and molecular weight distribution were examined. The hydrolysate was fractionated on a Sephadex G-25 column and the anti-oxidative activities of the fractions were detected by the method of pyrogallol auto-oxidation. The average chain length of soybean peptides that have anti-oxidative activity was estimated to be about 7. The anti-oxidative properties of the soybean peptide were also studied by using linoleic acid peroxidation systems. The optimal condition of the peroxidation system was set up, Vc/Cu2 + as the inducer at pH = 7.4 and 25 ℃. In addition, soybean peptides show higher antioxidative activity compared with GSH.

  3. Linoleic acid derivative DCP-LA improves learning impairment in SAMP8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguchi, Takahiro; Nagata, Tetsu; Mukasa, Takeshi; Fujikawa, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Iso, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Akito; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2006-01-23

    In the water-maze test, the linoleic acid derivative, 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA) (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), significantly shortened the prolonged latency for accelerated-senescence-prone mice 8 (SAMP8), reaching a level similar to the latency for accelerated-senescence-resistant mice 1 (SAMR1) as control. In the open-field test to assess motor activity, it was confirmed that the DCP-LA effect is not due to increased motor activity. In the passive avoidance test to assess fear memory, DCP-LA had no effect on the latency of acquisition and retention for SAMP8. The results of the present study, thus, suggest that DCP-LA could improve age-related learning impairment by enhancing cognitive functions.

  4. Conjugated polyelectrolytes fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    This is the first monograph to specifically focus on fundamentals and applications of polyelectrolytes, a class of molecules that gained substantial interest due to their unique combination of properties. Combining both features of organic semiconductors and polyelectrolytes, they offer a broad field for fundamental research as well as applications to analytical chemistry, optical imaging, and opto-electronic devices. The initial chapters introduce readers to the synthesis, optical and electrical properties of various conjugated polyelectrolytes. This is followed by chapters on the applica

  5. Ozone-Induced Dissociation of Conjugated Lipids Reveals Significant Reaction Rate Enhancements and Characteristic Odd-Electron Product Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Huong T.; Maccarone, Alan T.; Campbell, J. Larry; Mitchell, Todd W.; Blanksby, Stephen J.

    2013-02-01

    Ozone-induced dissociation (OzID) is an alternative ion activation method that relies on the gas phase ion-molecule reaction between a mass-selected target ion and ozone in an ion trap mass spectrometer. Herein, we evaluated the performance of OzID for both the structural elucidation and selective detection of conjugated carbon-carbon double bond motifs within lipids. The relative reactivity trends for [M + X]+ ions (where X = Li, Na, K) formed via electrospray ionization (ESI) of conjugated versus nonconjugated fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were examined using two different OzID-enabled linear ion-trap mass spectrometers. Compared with nonconjugated analogues, FAMEs derived from conjugated linoleic acids were found to react up to 200 times faster and to yield characteristic radical cations. The significantly enhanced reactivity of conjugated isomers means that OzID product ions can be observed without invoking a reaction delay in the experimental sequence (i.e., trapping of ions in the presence of ozone is not required). This possibility has been exploited to undertake neutral-loss scans on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer targeting characteristic OzID transitions. Such analyses reveal the presence of conjugated double bonds in lipids extracted from selected foodstuffs. Finally, by benchmarking of the absolute ozone concentration inside the ion trap, second order rate constants for the gas phase reactions between unsaturated organic ions and ozone were obtained. These results demonstrate a significant influence of the adducting metal on reaction rate constants in the fashion Li > Na > K.

  6. Incremental amounts of ground flaxseed decrease milk yield but increase n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in dairy cows fed high-forage diets(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, T L; Kraft, J; Soder, K J; Pereira, A B D; Woitschach, D E; Reis, R B; Brito, A F

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of incremental amounts of ground flaxseed (GFX) on milk yield and concentrations and yields of milk components, milk fatty acids (FA) profile, ruminal metabolism, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean ± SD) 112±68d in milk and 441±21kg of body weight and 8 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 98±43d in milk and 401±43kg of body weight were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21d with 14d for diet adaptation and 7d for data and sample collection. Treatments were fed as a total mixed ration (63:37 forage-to-concentrate ratio) with corn meal and soybean meal replaced by incremental levels (i.e., 0, 5, 10, or 15% diet dry matter) of GFX. The ruminal molar proportions of acetate and butyrate decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, whereas the ruminal molar proportion of propionate increased linearly resulting in decreased acetate-to-propionate ratio. Apparent total-tract digestibilities of nutrients either decreased (dry matter) or tended to decrease (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber) linearly in cows fed GFX. Milk yield decreased linearly in cows fed increasing amounts of GFX, which is explained by the linear reduction in dry matter intake. Except for the concentrations of milk protein and urea N, which decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, no other changes in the concentration of milk components were observed. However, yields of milk protein and fat decreased linearly with GFX supplementation. The linear decrease in the yields of milk fat and protein are explained by reduced milk yield, whereas that in milk urea N is explained by decreased crude protein intake. No treatment effects were observed for plasma urea N and nonesterified fatty acids, serum cortisol, and body weight change. Milk odd- and branched-chain FA and saturated FA decreased linearly with GFX supplementation. Milk trans-11 18:1, α-linolenic acid, cis-9,trans-11 18:2, and the sum of n-3 FA all increased linearly and quadratically, whereas the milk ratio of n-6 to n-3 decreased linearly in cows fed GFX. Overall, compared with the control diet (0% GFX), the diet with 15% GFX supplementation resulted in the lowest milk yield but highest milk proportions and yields (data not shown) of cis-9,trans-11 18:2 and n-3 FA. PMID:25958281

  7. 植物乳杆菌发酵生产共轭亚油酸%Production of conjugated linoleic acid by the fermentation of lactobacillus plantarum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董明; 齐树亭

    2007-01-01

    共轭亚油酸是一种具有多种生理活性的天然脂肪酸.以盐生植物紫花苜蓿的种籽油为底物,用植物乳杆菌(Lactobacillus plantarum)6026催化紫花苜蓿籽油中的亚油酸转化为共轭亚油酸.通过单因素试验分析了发酵过程中pH值、预培养、温度和时间对生产共轭亚油酸的影响.

  8. The study actuality of conjugated linoleic acid of cattle's milk fat%牛乳脂共轭亚油酸研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜宁娟; 甘伯中

    2007-01-01

    论述CLA的天然来源及活性成分,牛乳脂CLA的来源,牛品种、季节变化、日粮中不同脂肪来源、饲喂方式、分子生物学与细胞学对牛乳脂CLA含量的影响,加工贮存条件、加工中添加物和发酵菌种对乳制品中CLA含量的影响及CLA应用现状和安全性评价等方面.

  9. 牛乳中共轭亚油酸(CLA)的研究%Study on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) from milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华伟; 盛漪; 张灏

    2001-01-01

    共轭亚油酸(CLA)是亚油酸的同分异构体的混合物,主要来源于牛乳、乳制品及反刍动物食品的天然营养成分.本文就CLA的抑癌和降血脂等多种生理功能及其作用机理,阐述了CLA作为一种新型营养物质的潜力.

  10. Formation of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Ruminant Animals and Its Affecting Factors%反刍动物体内CLA的形成及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩正强

    2005-01-01

    共轭亚油酸(CLA)是一种主要从反刍动物脂肪及其奶产品中发现的天然活性物质.一些多不饱和脂肪酸(主要是亚油酸和亚麻酸)在反刍动物瘤胃内通过异构化和生物脱氢反应形成CLA;另外,反式油酸在动物细胞内经Δ9-脱氢酶的脱氢作用也能形成CLA.c9,t11-CLA是反刍动物脂肪中CLA的主要异构体,其在乳脂中占80%~90%,在肉中要稍低.多种自然因素,人工手段能够影响反刍动物体内CLA含量.

  11. 共轭亚油酸对缺氧损伤的保护作用%Protective Role of Conjugated Linoleic Acid to Hypoxia Injury in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏登邦; 魏莲

    2005-01-01

    为了探讨共轭亚油酸(CLA)对缺氧损伤的保护作用,40只SD大鼠随机分为4个组:1%CLA组、1%CLA缺氧组、空白对照组和空白缺氧组.CLA组和空白对照组用1%CLA和蒸馏水分别连续灌胃4周,剂量为20ml/kg/d.灌胃结束后,1%CLA缺氧组和空白缺氧组大鼠在5000m海拔高度下,连续缺氧15d,每天8h,然后测定各组大鼠脏器/体重比、血清SOD和GSH-PX活性以及MDA含量.结果发现,在缺氧条件下,大鼠脏器/体重比显著增大(p<0.05),SOD和GSH-PX活性显著下降(p<0.05),MDA含量明显升高(p<0.05).1%CLA缺氧组大鼠脏器/体重比、血清SOD和GSH-PX活性以及MDA含量与正常大鼠无明显差异(p>0.05).上述结果说明,1%CLA对缺氧损伤具有明显的保护作用.

  12. Factors affecting conjugated linoleic acid in dairy products%影响乳制品中共轭亚油酸(CLA)含量的因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于国萍; 霍贵成; 李庆章

    2005-01-01

    概述了共轭亚油酸(CLA)的形成方式、影响乳制品中CLA含量的因素及如何提高乳中CLA含量的方法.动物的种类、饲料的成分、喂养方式、季节等对原料乳产生的影响,以及加工方法、贮存条件、发酵菌种等对乳制品中CLA的含量的影响.

  13. Research of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Aggrandizement Quail Eggs%共轭亚油酸强化鹌鹑蛋的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟红英

    2010-01-01

    试验选择132日龄的产蛋期健康鹌鹑450只,随机分成3组,各组日粮中共轭亚油酸(CLA)的添加量分别为0、2.0%和4.0%.试验期30 d.结果表明,日粮中添加CLA对鹌鹑产蛋率、平均蛋重、料蛋比均无显著影响(P>0.05).脂肪酸分析表明,CLA能明显降低鹌鹑蛋黄中总单不饱和脂肪酸含量,但能增加总饱和脂肪酸和总多不饱和脂肪酸及CLA的含量.CLA 2.O%水平组饲喂20 d鹌鹑蛋黄中的CLA含量迭最大.饲粮中添加CLA可生产出富含CLA的鹌鹑蛋.

  14. progress on regulate Conjugated Linoleic Acid in milk fat%调控乳脂中共轭亚油酸的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖传英; 戴晋军; 郑金玉

    2006-01-01

    共轭亚油酸(CLA)是亚油酸的一组构象和位置异构体,对人体健康有着重大的意义.而动物食品是CLA的重要来源,通过调控提高牛乳中CLA的含量,近年来成为研究的热点.本文主要阐述了CLA的结构、生理作用和调控乳中CLA合成的研究进展.

  15. Determinación de ácido linoleico conjugado en leche materna / Determination of conjugated linoleic acid in human milk

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra Báez, Heidy Lulieth

    2010-01-01

    Se analizaron 9 muestras de leche madura de madres lactantes de Bogotá - Colombia, para determinar el contenido de cis-9, trans-11 C: 18-2 o ácido ruménico, isómero mayoritario del grupo CLA (Ácido Linoleico Conjugado) y caracterizar el perfil de ácidos grasos, por la técnica de cromatografía de gases; se relacionó el contenido de ácido cis-9, trans-11 C: 18-2 con la ingesta de alimentos fuente del grupo CLA. La participación de cis-9, trans-11 dentro del total de lípidos fue de 0,60 a 0,42%...

  16. Effects of feeding different vegetal fat sources to increase conjugated linoleic acid in milk of small ruminants and interaction with fibrolytic enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Bouattour, M. Amine

    2007-01-01

    El objetivo principal de la presente tesis doctoral fue estudiar la posibilidad de mejorar la calidad nutritiva de la leche de oveja y de cabra, y en particular la concentración de ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA) mediante la incorporación de diferentes fuentes de lípidos vegetales a la ración.El primer capitulo fue realizado para investigar los efectos de la suplementación con Semillas Enteras de Lino (WLS) o de Aceite de Lino (LSO) sobre la producción y composición de leche, así como el perf...

  17. Effects of Artemisia annua Extracts on Ruminal Fermentation Parameters in vivo,Concentration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in the Rumen and Milk in Dairy Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; MA Yan-fen; GAO Min; LU De-xun

    2011-01-01

    Introduction It has been well established that plant oil or fish oil could enhance cis-9 trans-11CLA content in the ruminant food products.However,it is generally accepted that adding unsaturated fatty acid to ruminant diets may exert negative effects on fiber degradation and rumen microbe populations.For this reason,there is

  18. Effects of Artemisia annua Extracts on Ruminal Fermentation Parameters in vivo,Concentration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in the Rumen and Milk in Dairy Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; MA Yan-fen; GAO Min; LU De-xun

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionIt has been well established that plant oil or fish oil could enhance cis-9 trans-11CLA content in the ruminant food products.However, it is generally accepted that adding unsaturated fatty acid to ruminant diets may exert negative effects on fiber degradation and rumen microbe populations.For this reason,there is growing interest in evaluating the potential measures of increasing cis-9 trans-11CLA content in the ruminant food products.Recently some researches showed that some plants or plant extracts could increase cis-9 trans-11CLA content in milk.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of Artemisia annua Extracts (AAE) on ruminal fermentation parameters in vivo,the proportions of cis-9 trans11CLA and trans-11 C18∶1 in the ruminal fluid and in dairy goats milk.

  19. Effect of silage type and concentrate level on conjugated linoleic acids, trans-C18 : 1 isomers and fat content in milk from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Skov; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Jungersen, Mogens Vestergaard;

    2006-01-01

    :1 and reduced cis9, trans11-CLA and trans11-C18:1 when maize but not grass silage was provided. The results suggest that high levels of concentrate (grain) do not significantly alter the pattern of PUFA biohydrogenation in the rumen, the concentration of CLA and trans-C18:1 isomers in milk or cause milk fat...

  20. ON CONJUGATES AND MODULII OF BICOMPLEX NUMBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAISHREE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents extensive use of complex pairs to develop the algebraic properties of bicomplex numbers and contains various aspects of finding the conjugates and modulii of bicomplex numbers.We discuss three types of conjugations and some specific modulii with complex and hyperbolic ranges. We also examine the impact of different conjugations on the principal ideals I1 and I2.

  1. Cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur J. L. Cooper; Krasnikov, Boris F.; Pinto, John T.; Bruschi, Sam A.

    2010-01-01

    Cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases are pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-containing enzymes that catalyze the conversion of cysteine S-conjugates [RSCH2CH(NH3+)CO2−] and selenium Se-conjugates [RSeCH2CH(NH3+)CO2−] that contain a leaving group in the β position to pyruvate, ammonium and a sulfur-containing fragment (RSH) or selenium-containing fragment (RSeH), respectively. At least ten PLP enzymes catalyze β-elimination reactions with such cysteine S-conjugates. All are enzymes involved in amino acid m...

  2. The Precise Structures and Stereochemistry of Trihydroxy-linoleates Esterified in Human and Porcine Epidermis and Their Significance in Skin Barrier Function: IMPLICATION OF AN EPOXIDE HYDROLASE IN THE TRANSFORMATIONS OF LINOLEATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Takahito; Thomas, Christopher P; Calcutt, M Wade; Boeglin, William E; O'Donnell, Valerie B; Brash, Alan R

    2016-07-01

    Creation of an intact skin water barrier, a prerequisite for life on dry land, requires the lipoxygenase-catalyzed oxidation of the essential fatty acid linoleate, which is esterified to the ω-hydroxyl of an epidermis-specific ceramide. Oxidation of the linoleate moiety by lipoxygenases is proposed to facilitate enzymatic cleavage of the ester bond, releasing free ω-hydroxyceramide for covalent binding to protein, thus forming the corneocyte lipid envelope, a key component of the epidermal barrier. Herein, we report the transformations of esterified linoleate proceed beyond the initial steps of oxidation and epoxyalcohol synthesis catalyzed by the consecutive actions of 12R-LOX and epidermal LOX3. The major end product in human and porcine epidermis is a trihydroxy derivative, formed with a specificity that implicates participation of an epoxide hydrolase in converting epoxyalcohol to triol. Of the 16 possible triols arising from hydrolysis of 9,10-epoxy-13-hydroxy-octadecenoates, using LC-MS and chiral analyses, we identify and quantify specifically 9R,10S,13R-trihydroxy-11E-octadecenoate as the single major triol esterified in porcine epidermis and the same isomer with lesser amounts of its 10R diastereomer in human epidermis. The 9R,10S,13R-triol is formed by SN2 hydrolysis of the 9R,10R-epoxy-13R-hydroxy-octadecenoate product of the LOX enzymes, a reaction specificity characteristic of epoxide hydrolase. The high polarity of triol over the primary linoleate products enhances the concept that the oxidations disrupt corneocyte membrane lipids, promoting release of free ω-hydroxyceramide for covalent binding to protein and sealing of the waterproof barrier. PMID:27151221

  3. Solution assembly of conjugated polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokel, Felicia A.

    This dissertation focuses on the solution-state polymer assembly of conjugated polymers with specific attention to nano- and molecular-scale morphology. Understanding how to control these structures holds potential for applications in polymer-based electronics. Optimization of conjugated polymer morphology was performed with three objectives: 1) segregation of donor and acceptor materials on the nanometer length-scale, 2) achieving molecular-scale ordering in terms of crystallinity within distinct domains, and 3) maximizing the number and quality of well-defined donor/acceptor interfaces. Chapter 1 introduces the development of a mixed solvent method to create crystalline poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (P3HT) fibrils in solution. Chapter 2 describes fibril purification and approaches to robust and functional fibrils, while chapters 3 and 4 demonstrate the formation of hybrid nanocomposite wires of P3HT and cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles by two methods: 1) co-crystallization of free and P3HT-grafted CdSe for composite nanowires and 2) direct attachment of CdSe nanoparticles at fibril edges to give superhighway structures. These composite structures show great potential in the application of optoelectronic devices, such as the active layer of solar cells. Finally, ultrafast photophysical characterization of these polymers, using time-resolved photoluminescence and transient absorption, was performed to determine the aggregation types present in suspended fibrils and monitor the formation and decay of charged species in fibrils and donor-acceptor systems.

  4. Subgap Absorption in Conjugated Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, M.; Seager, C. H.; McBranch, D.; Heeger, A. J; Baker, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical absorption in the transparent window below the principal absorption edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an absorptance sensitivity of conjugated polymers poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (and derivitives) and polydiacetylene-4BCMU in the spectral region from 0.55 eV to 3 eV. Our spectra show that the shape of the absorption edge varies considerably from polymer to polymer, with polydiacetylene-4BCMU having the steepest absorption edge. The minimum absorption coefficients measured varied somewhat with sample age and quality, but were typically in the range 1 cm{sup {minus}1} to 10 cm{sup {minus}1}. In the region below 1 eV, overtones of C-H stretching modes were observed, indicating that further improvements in transparency in this spectral region might be achieved via deuteration of fluorination.

  5. Les acides linoléiques conjugués : 2. Origines et effets sur les productions animales

    OpenAIRE

    Troegeler-Meynadier, Annabelle; Enjalbert, Francis

    2005-01-01

    Les aliments d’origine animale, surtout la viande et le lait des ruminants, contiennent en quantités non négligeables les deux principaux isomères biologiquement actifs des acides linoléiques conjugués (CLA), le c9t11-CLA et le t10c12-CLA. Ils sont obtenus au cours de la biohydrogénation de l’acide linoléique dans le rumen des polygastriques, et par désaturation tissulaire de l’acide trans-vaccénique chez tous les animaux. Comme cet acide gras est également synthétisé au cours de la biohyd...

  6. Zum Einfluss konjugierter Linolsäureisomere auf zootechnische Parameter und das Lebensmittel Fisch am Beispiel von Karpfen und Forellen

    OpenAIRE

    Maaß, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    In vorliegender Arbeit sollte ein Beitrag zur Einschätzung der Wirkung von konjugierten Linolsäureisomeren (CLA) auf die Leistungsparameter wie Gewichtsentwicklung und Futteraufwand, die Nährstoffverdaulichkeit und die Körperzusammensetzung von Karpfen und Forellen anhand des Datenmaterials aus drei Fütterungsversuchen vorgenommen werden. Des weiteren wurde untersucht, inwieweit nutritive CLA-Zulagen das Fettsäuremuster und die sensorische Qualität des Filets als verzehrsrelevantes Teilstück ...

  7. CONJUGATE-SYMPLECTICITY OF LINEAR MULTISTEP METHODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ernst Hairer

    2008-01-01

    For the numerical treatment of Hamiltonian differential equations, symplectic integra-tors are the most suitable choice, and methods that are conjugate to a symplectic integrator share the same good long-time behavior. This note characterizes linear multistep methods whose underlying one-step method is conjugate to a symplectic integrator. The bounded-hess of parasitic solution components is not addressed.

  8. The Conjugate Acid-Base Chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treptow, Richard S.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the difficulties that beginning chemistry students have in understanding acid-base chemistry. Describes the use of conjugate acid-base charts in helping students visualize the conjugate relationship. Addresses chart construction, metal ions, buffers and pH titrations, and the organic functional groups and nonaqueous solvents. (TW)

  9. DENDRIMER CONJUGATES FOR SELECTIVE OF PROTEIN AGGREGATES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    Dendrimer conjugates are presented, which are formed between a dendrimer and a protein solubilising substance. Such dendrimer conjugates are effective in the treatment of protein aggregate-related diseases (e.g. prion-related diseases). The protein solubilising substance and the dendrimer together...

  10. Kinetic models of conjugated metabolic cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershov, Yu. A.

    2016-01-01

    A general method is developed for the quantitative kinetic analysis of conjugated metabolic cycles in the human organism. This method is used as a basis for constructing a kinetic graph and model of the conjugated citric acid and ureapoiesis cycles. The results from a kinetic analysis of the model for these cycles are given.

  11. LEDs based on conjugated PPV block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, H.J.; Hilberer, A.; Krasnikov, V.V.; Werts, M.; Wildeman, J.; Hadziioannou, G.

    1997-01-01

    A way to control the bandgap in semi-conducting polymers is by preparing polymers with a partially conjugated backbone. In our laboratory, three conjugated copolymers containing PPV trimers as light emitting chromophores have been synthesized, which emit in the blue, green and orange wavelength regi

  12. CONJUGATED BLOCK-COPOLYMERS FOR ELECTROLUMINESCENT DIODES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilberer, A; Gill, R.E; Herrema, J.K; Malliaras, G.G; Wildeman, J.; Hadziioannou, G

    1995-01-01

    In this article we review results obtained in our laboratory on the design and study of new light-emitting polymers. We are interested in the synthesis and characterisation of block copolymers with regularly alternating conjugated and non conjugated sequences. The blocks giving rise to luminescence

  13. Preparation and characterization Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang for esterification fatty acid (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulloh, Abdulloh; Aminah, Nanik Siti; Triyono, Mudasir, Trisunaryanti, Wega

    2016-03-01

    Catalyst preparation and characterization of Al3+-bentonite for esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid has been done. Al3+-bentonite catalyst was prepared from natural bentonite of Turen Malang through cation exchange reaction using AlCl3 solution. The catalysts obtained were characterized by XRD, XRF, pyridine-FTIR and surface area analyser using the BET method. Catalyst activity test of Al3+-bentonite for esterification reaction was done at 65°C using molar ratio of metanol-fatty acid of 30:1 and 0.25 g of Al3+-bentonite catalyst for the period of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours. Based on the characterization results, the Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst has a d-spacing of 15.63 Ǻ, acid sites of Brönsted and Lewis respectively of 230.79 µmol/g and 99.39 µmol/g, surface area of 507.3 m2/g and the average of radius pore of 20.09 Å. GC-MS analysis results of the oil phase after esterification reaction showed the formation of biodiesel (FAME: Fatty acid methyl ester), namely methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl linoleate. The number of conversions resulted in esterification reaction using Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst was 74.61%, 37.75%, and 20, 93% for the esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively.

  14. Phase equilibria of oleic, palmitic, stearic, linoleic and linolenic acids in supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Penedo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the phase equilibrium is one of the most important factors to study the design of separation processes controlled by the equilibrium. Fatty acids are present in high concentration as by-products in vegetable oils but the equilibrium data involving these components is scarce. The objective of this work is the experimental determination of the liquid-vapor equilibrium of five binary different systems formed by carbon dioxide and palmitic acid (C16:0, stearic acid (C18:0, oleic acid (C18:1, linoleic acid (C18:2 and linolenic acid (C18:3. The equilibrium experimental data was collected at 40, 60 and 80ºC at 60, 90 and 120 bar, at the extract and raffinate phases, using an experimental apparatus containing an extractor, a gas cylinder and pressure and temperature controllers. The data was modeled using the cubic equation of state of Peng-Robinson with the mixing rule of van der Waals with binary interaction parameters. The model was adequate to treat the experimental data at each temperature and at all the temperatures together. The best model that includes the van der Waals mixing rule with two parameters has maximum deviation of 17%. The distribution coefficients were also analyzed and it was concluded that the fractionation of the fatty acids is possible using supercritical carbon dioxide.

  15. Linoleic acid suppresses colorectal cancer cell growth by inducing oxidant stress and mitochondrial dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Shengrong

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Some polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, if not all, have been shown to have tumoricidal action, but their exact mechanism(s of action is not clear. In the present study, we observed that n-6 PUFA linoleic acid (LA inhibited tumor cell growth at high concentrations (above 300 μM; while low concentrations (100-200 μM promoted proliferation. Analysis of cell mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species (ROS formation, malondialdehyde (MDA accumulation and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity suggested that anti-cancer action of LA is due to enhanced ROS generation and decreased cell anti-oxidant capacity that resulted in mitochondrial damage. Of the three cell lines tested, semi-differentiated colorectal cancer cells RKO were most sensitive to the cytotoxic action of LA, followed by undifferentiated colorectal cancer cell line (LOVO while the normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC were the most resistant (the degree of sensitivity to LA is as follows: RKO > LOVO > HUVEC. LA induced cell death was primed by mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Pre-incubation of cancer cells with 100 μM LA for 24 hr enhanced sensitivity of differentiated and semi-differentiated cells to the subsequent exposure to LA. The relative resistance of LOVO cells to the cytotoxic action of LA is due to a reduction in the activation of caspase-3. Thus, LA induced cancer cell apoptosis by enhancing cellular oxidant status and inducing mitochondrial dysfunction.

  16. Complexes between ovalbumin nanoparticles and linoleic acid: Stoichiometric, kinetic and thermodynamic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponton, Osvaldo E; Perez, Adrián A; Carrara, Carlos R; Santiago, Liliana G

    2016-11-15

    Stoichiometric, kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of complex formation between heat-induced aggregates of ovalbumin (ovalbumin nanoparticles, OVAn) and linoleic acid (LA) were evaluated. Extrinsic fluorescence data were fitted to modified Scatchard model yielding the following results: n: 49±2 LA molecules bound per OVA monomer unit and Ka: 9.80±2.53×10(5)M. Kinetic and thermodynamic properties were analyzed by turbidity measurements at different LA/OVA monomer molar ratios (21.5-172) and temperatures (20-40°C). An adsorption approach was used and a pseudo-second-order kinetics was found for LA-OVAn complex formation. This adsorption process took place within 1h. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that LA adsorption on OVAn was a spontaneous, endothermic and entropically-driven process, highlighting the hydrophobic nature of the LA and OVAn interaction. Finally, Atomic Force Microscopy imaging revealed that both OVAn and LA-OVAn complexes have a roughly rounded form with size lower than 100nm. PMID:27283701

  17. Effect of oral supplementation of the linoleic and gammalinolenic acids on the diabetic pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Consonni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the direct protective action of oral fatty acid supplementation against the deleterious effect of hyperglycemia on maternal reproductive outcomes; fetal growth and development on female Wistar rats. The animals were distributed into four experimental groups: G1= non-diabetic without supplementation (Control group; G2= non-diabetic treated with linoleic (LA and gammalinolenic acid (GLA (1 mL of Gamaline-V/day; G3= diabetic without supplementation and G4= diabetic treated with LA and GLA. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (40 mg/kg. At day 21 of pregnancy, the gravid uterus was weighed and dissected to count the dead and live fetuses, resorption, implantation, and corpora lutea numbers. The fetuses were analyzed for external and internal anomalies. The treatment with Gamaline-V supplementation to diabetic rats interfered in the maternal reproductive outcome (reduced number of live fetuses and embryonic implantation; however, it protected the deleterious on the incidence of congenital anomalies caused by hyperglycemia.

  18. Production of Palmitoleic and Linoleic Acid in Oleaginous and Nonoleaginous Yeast Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kolouchová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the possibility of utilizing both oleaginous yeast species accumulating large amounts of lipids (Yarrowia lipolytica, Rhodotorula glutinis, Trichosporon cutaneum, and Candida sp. and traditional biotechnological nonoleaginous ones (Kluyveromyces polysporus, Torulaspora delbrueckii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as potential producers of dietetically important major fatty acids. The main objective was to examine the cultivation conditions that would induce a high ratio of dietary fatty acids and biomass. Though genus-dependent, the type of nitrogen source had a higher influence on biomass yield than the C/N ratio. The nitrogen source leading to the highest lipid accumulation was potassium nitrate, followed by ammonium sulfate, which is an ideal nitrogen source supporting, in both oleaginous and nonoleaginous species, sufficient biomass growth with concomitantly increased lipid accumulation. All yeast strains displayed high (70–90% content of unsaturated fatty acids in total cell lipids. The content of dietary fatty acids of interest, namely, palmitoleic acid and linoleic acid, reached in Kluyveromyces and Trichosporon strains over 50% of total fatty acids and the highest yield, over 280 mg per g of dry cell weight of these fatty acids, was observed in Trichosporon with ammonium sulfate as nitrogen source at C/N ratio 70.

  19. A High Linoleic Acid Diet does not Induce Inflammation in Mouse Liver or Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Roger A; Garrison, Richard L; Stamatikos, Alexis D; Kang, Minsung; Cooper, Jamie A; Paton, Chad M

    2015-11-01

    Recently, the pro-inflammatory effects of linoleic acid (LNA) have been re-examined. It is now becoming clear that relatively few studies have adequately assessed the effects of LNA, independent of obesity. The purpose of this work was to compare the effects of several fat-enriched but non-obesigenic diets on inflammation to provide a more accurate assessment of LNA's ability to induce inflammation. Specifically, 8-week-old male C57Bl/6 mice were fed either saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), LNA, or alpha-linolenic acid enriched diets (50 % Kcal from fat, 22 % wt/wt) for 4 weeks. Chow and high-fat, hyper-caloric diets were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulant markers from epididymal fat, liver, and plasma were measured along with food intake and body weights. Mice fed the high SFA, MUFA, and high-fat diets exhibited increased pro-inflammatory markers in liver and adipose tissue; however, mice fed LNA for four weeks did not display significant changes in pro-inflammatory or pro-coagulant markers in epididymal fat, liver, or plasma. The present study demonstrates that LNA alone is insufficient to induce inflammation. Instead, it is more likely that hyper-caloric diets are responsible for diet-induced inflammation possibly due to adipose tissue remodeling.

  20. Determination of Content of Linoleic Acid and α-linoleic Acid in Hemp Fruit by GC%气相色谱法测定火麻仁中亚油酸及α-亚麻酸的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩娜; 赵建邦; 宋平顺

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To establish the method for determination of the content of linoleic acid and α-linoleic acid in hemp fruit by GC, and provide evidence for evaluating quality and criterion. Method: The GC separation was performed on a ZB-WAX column (0. 5 μm ×0. 32 mm ×30 m) at 190 ℃, inject temperature at 250 ℃, FID detecter temperature was at 250 ℃, gas as N2 (99. 99% ); flow rate was 1.0 mL·min-1, air 450 mL·min -1 , H2 45 mL·min-1. Result: The content of linoleic acid and α-linoleie acid in hemp fruit was 31.42%-37.21%, 8.02% -9. 65%. Conclusion: The method can be used to control the quality of linoleic acid and α-linoleic acid in hemp fruit, which is accurate, convenient and repeatable.%目的:建立气相色谱测定火麻仁中亚油酸、α-亚麻酸的含量方法,为评价质量和标准制定提供依据.方法:ZB-WAX毛细管柱(0.5 μm×0.32 mm×30 m),载气为高纯度氮气,流速1.0 mL·min-1,分流比5∶1,柱温为190℃,进样口温度为250℃,FID检测器温度为250℃,空气450 mL·min-1,氢气45 mL·min-1.结果:火麻仁中亚油酸、α-亚麻酸含量分别31.42%~37.21%,8.02%~9.65%.结论:该法准确,简便,重复性好,可用于火麻仁中亚油酸、α-亚麻酸的质量控制.

  1. Theoretical analysis and simulation of conjugate heights for dual-conjugate AO system in lidar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueke Ding; Jian Rong; Hong Bai; Xiu Wang; Jine Shen; Fang Li

    2008-01-01

    A multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) can offer a possibility of widening field of view (FOV) characterized by the isoplanatic angle, and the choose of conjugate height becomes a basic problem for MCAO,which influences the size of iosplanatic angle. Considering the application of lidar, the isoplanatic angle's expressions of two deformable mirrors (DMs) MCAO for uplink and downlink are deduced. The effects of conjugate heights for dual-conjugate AO are thoughtfully discussed, and the isoplanatic angles are further analyzed. The results show that the isopanatic angle varies with the conjugate height and reaches the maximum as the conjugate height is at the optimal altitude. Moreover, the optimal conjugate height changes with the propagation distance.

  2. Immunization of newborns with bacterial conjugate vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Biggelaar, Anita H J; Pomat, William S

    2013-05-17

    Bacterial conjugate vaccines are based on the principle of coupling immunogenic bacterial capsular polysaccharides to a carrier protein to facilitate the induction of memory T-cell responses. Following the success of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines in the 1980s, conjugate vaccines for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis infections were developed and proven to be effective in protecting children against invasive disease. In this review, the use of conjugate vaccines in human newborns is discussed. Neonatal Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal conjugate vaccination schedules have been trialed and proven to be safe, with the majority of studies demonstrating no evidence for the induction of immune tolerance. Whether their neonatal administration also results in an earlier induction of clinical protection in the first 2-3 critical months of life is still to be demonstrated. PMID:22728221

  3. Photoconductive properties of conjugated polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Halls, J J M

    1997-01-01

    The research described in my dissertation has involved the fabrication and characterisation of photovoltaic cells based on conjugated polymers, including the widely studied polymer poly(p-phenylenevinylene). These materials have semiconducting properties which arise from the delocalisation of electrons along the pi-electron systems of the polymer chains. Research into these materials is motivated both by their novel electronic properties, and also their potential for use in a wide range of applications including light-emitting diodes (LEDs), thin-film transistors, and photovoltaic cells (solar cells and light detectors). Light absorbed in a photovoltaic cell generates opposite charges which are collected at two different electrodes, giving rise to an electric current

  4. TAT Peptide and Its Conjugates: Proteolytic Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Jacob; Rejtar, Tomas; Sawant, Rupa; Wang, Zhouxi; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2009-01-01

    The proteolytic cleavage of TATp, TATp-PEG1000-PE conjugate (TATp-conjugate), and TATp as TATp-conjugate in mixed micelles made of TATp-conjugate and PEG5000-PE (2.5% mol of TATp-conjugate, TATp-Mic) were studied by HPLC with fluorescent detection using fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC) labeling and by MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The cleavage kinetics were analyzed in human blood plasma and in trypsin-containing phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4, to simulate the proteolytic activity of human plasma. The trypsinolysis of free TATp, TATp-conjugate, and TATp-Mic revealed that the main initial fragmentation is an endocleavage at the carboxyl terminus resulting in an Arg-Arg (RR) dimer. The trypsinolysis followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The cleavage of the free TATp was relatively fast with a half-life of a few minutes (t1/2 ∼ 3.5 min). The TATp-conjugate showed more stability with about a 3-fold increase in half-life (t1/2 ∼ 10 min). TATp in TATp-Mic was highly protected against proteolysis with an over 100-fold increase in half-life (t1/2 ∼ 430 min). The shielding of TATp by PEG moieties in the proposed TATp-Mic is of great importance for its potential use as a cell-penetrating moiety for multifunctional “smart” drug delivery systems with detachable PEG. PMID:19601640

  5. Differential effects of adulterated versus unadulterated forms of linoleic acid on cardiovascular health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen D.Anton; Kacey Heekin; Carrah Simkins; Andres Acosta

    2013-01-01

    According to the classic "diet-heart" hypothesis,high dietary intake of saturated fats and cholesterol combined with low intake of polyunsaturated fats can increase levels of serum cholesterol and lead to the development of atherogenic plaques and ultimately cardiovascular diseases.Recently,the beneficial health effects of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids,particularly linoleic acid (LA),on cardiovascular health have been called into question with some scientists suggesting that consumption of LA should be reduced in Western countries.The focus of this critical review is on the controversy surrounding the effects of dietary intake of LA on cardiovascular health.Specifically,we critically examined the effects of both unadulterated and adulterated forms of LA on cardiovascular health outcomes based on findings from epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials.Additionally,we address common concerns surrounding dietary intake of LA regarding its relationship with arachidonic acid,the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids,and its relationship with inflammation.Our critical review indicates that unadulterated forms of LA are cardioprotective and should be consumed as part of a healthy diet.In contrast,abundant evidence now indicates that adulterated forms of LA,predominantly hydrogenated vegetable oils,are atherogenic and should not be considered part of a healthy diet.The ability to adulterate the natural omega-6 fatty acid,LA,has contributed to mixed findings regarding the effects of this fatty acid on cardiovascular health.Thus,it is critical that the source of LA be taken into account when drawing conclusions about the physiological effects of this fatty acid.The findings of the present review are in line with current dietary recommendations of the American Heart Association.

  6. A simulated mucus layer protects Lactobacillus reuteri from the inhibitory effects of linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Weirdt, R; Coenen, E; Vlaeminck, B; Fievez, V; Van den Abbeele, P; Van de Wiele, T

    2013-12-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri is a commensal, beneficial gut microbe that colonises the intestinal mucus layer, where it makes close contact with the human host and may significantly affect human health. Here, we investigated the capacity of linoleic acid (LA), the most common polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in a Western-style diet, to affect L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 prevalence and survival in a simulated mucus layer. Short-term (1 h) survival and mucin-agar adhesion assays of a log-phase L. reuteri suspension in intestinal water demonstrated that the simulated mucus layer protected L. reuteri against the inhibitory effects of LA by lowering its contact with the bacterial cell membrane. The protective effect of the simulated mucus layer was further evaluated using a more complex and dynamic model of the colon microbiota (SHIME®), in which L. reuteri survival was monitored during 6 days of daily exposure to LA in the absence (L-SHIME) and presence (M-SHIME) of a simulated mucus layer. After 6 days, luminal L- and M-SHIME L. reuteri plate counts had decreased by 3.1±0.5 and 2.6±0.9 log cfu/ml, respectively. Upon supplementation of 1.0 g/l LA, the decline in the luminal L. reuteri population started earlier than was observed for the control. In contrast, mucin-agar levels of L. reuteri (in the M-SHIME) remained unaffected throughout the experiment even in the presence of high concentrations of LA. Overall, the results of this study indicate the importance of the mucus layer as a protective environment for beneficial gut microbes to escape from stress by high loads of the antimicrobial PUFA LA to the colon, i.e. due to a Western-style diet. PMID:24311313

  7. Inability of murine peritoneal macrophages to convert linoleic acid into arachidonic acid. Evidence of chain elongation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various murine macrophage populations synthesize and secrete large amounts of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) derived eicosanoids (cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase products). These metabolites are known to possess a wide variety of functions with regard to the initiation and regulation of inflammation and tumorigenesis. Because the dietary intake of 20:4n-6 is usually low, tissues are largely dependent upon dietary linoleic acid (18:2n-6) as an initial unsaturated precursor for the biosynthesis of 20:4n-6. The purpose of these experiments was to determine whether resident or responsive murine macrophages possess desaturase and elongase activities capable of in vitro conversion of 18:2n-6 into 20:4n-6. Peritoneal exudate macrophages were purified by adherence and incubated in serum-free medium containing fatty acid-free BSA with [1-14C] 18:2n-6. Approximately 90 to 98% of the [14C]18:2n-6 at 4 and 16 h was recovered in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. The metabolism of [14C]18:2n-6 was determined after transesterification and separation of the 14C-fatty acid methyl esters by argentation TLC, reverse phase HPLC, and electron impact gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Resident and responsive macrophages lacked the capacity to transform [14C]18:2n-6 into 20:4n-6. In addition, prelabeled macrophages incubated with soluble, calcium ionophore A23187 or phorbol myristate, or particulate, zymosan, membrane perturbing agents also lacked delta 6 desaturase activity. All macrophages tested were capable of elongating [14C]18:2n-6 into [14C]20:2n-6. These observations suggest that 20:4n-6, present in macrophage phospholipids, is biosynthesized elsewhere and transported to the macrophage for esterification into the phospholipids. In addition, these findings demonstrate that elongase activity is present in both the resident and responsive peritoneal macrophage

  8. Mitigation of nonlinearities using conjugate data repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasson, Henrik; Johannisson, Pontus; Karlsson, Magnus; Andrekson, Peter A

    2015-02-01

    We investigate a time-domain implementation of generalized phase-conjugated twin waves which we call conjugate data repetition. A theory based on time-domain perturbation analysis explaining the mitigation of nonlinear effects is provided, and the concept is evaluated using numerical simulations. Compared to PM-QPSK at the same channel bit rate, the single-channel transmission reach in a conventional system with standard single-mode fiber of conjugate data repetition-QPSK is increased by approximately a factor of 2. PMID:25836107

  9. Modelling conjugation with stochastic differential equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Kirsten Riber; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Hasman, Henrik;

    2010-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium strains in a rich exhaustible media. The model contains a new expression for a substrate dependent conjugation rate. A maximum likelihood based method is used to estimate the model parameters. Different models including different noise structure for the system and observations are compared...... using a likelihood-ratio test and Akaike's information criterion. Experiments indicating conjugation on the agar plates selecting for transconjugants motivates the introduction of an extended model, for which conjugation on the agar plate is described in the measurement equation. This model is compared...

  10. Bio-Conjugates for Nanoscale Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Klaus

    Bio-conjugates for Nanoscale Applications is the title of this thesis, which covers three different projects in chemical bio-conjugation research, namely synthesis and applications of: Lipidated fluorescent peptides, carbohydrate oxime-azide linkers and N-aryl O-R2 oxyamine derivatives. Lipidated...... fluorescent peptides were designed and synthesized as part of two collaboration projects utilizing peptide conjugates in nanoscale applications to increase understanding of the role peptides and proteins plays in biological systems. Ras proteins are membrane bound molecular switches involved in many signaling...

  11. Conjugated amplifying polymers for optical sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Sébastien; Swager, Timothy M

    2013-06-12

    Thanks to their unique optical and electrochemical properties, conjugated polymers have attracted considerable attention over the last two decades and resulted in numerous technological innovations. In particular, their implementation in sensing schemes and devices was widely investigated and produced a multitude of sensory systems and transduction mechanisms. Conjugated polymers possess numerous attractive features that make them particularly suitable for a broad variety of sensing tasks. They display sensory signal amplification (compared to their small-molecule counterparts) and their structures can easily be tailored to adjust solubility, absorption/emission wavelengths, energy offsets for excited state electron transfer, and/or for use in solution or in the solid state. This versatility has made conjugated polymers a fluorescence sensory platform of choice in the recent years. In this review, we highlight a variety of conjugated polymer-based sensory mechanisms together with selected examples from the recent literature.

  12. Design and Application of Antimicrobial Peptide Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Reinhardt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are an interesting class of antibiotics characterized by their unique antibiotic activity and lower propensity for developing resistance compared to common antibiotics. They belong to the class of membrane-active peptides and usually act selectively against bacteria, fungi and protozoans. AMPs, but also peptide conjugates containing AMPs, have come more and more into the focus of research during the last few years. Within this article, recent work on AMP conjugates is reviewed. Different aspects will be highlighted as a combination of AMPs with antibiotics or organometallic compounds aiming to increase antibacterial activity or target selectivity, conjugation with photosensitizers for improving photodynamic therapy (PDT or the attachment to particles, to name only a few. Owing to the enormous resonance of antimicrobial conjugates in the literature so far, this research topic seems to be very attractive to different scientific fields, like medicine, biology, biochemistry or chemistry.

  13. Conjugated microporous polymers: design, synthesis and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanhong; Jin, Shangbin; Xu, Hong; Nagai, Atsushi; Jiang, Donglin

    2013-10-21

    Conjugated microporous polymers (CMPs) are a class of organic porous polymers that combine π-conjugated skeletons with permanent nanopores, in sharp contrast to other porous materials that are not π-conjugated and with conventional conjugated polymers that are nonporous. As an emerging material platform, CMPs offer a high flexibility for the molecular design of conjugated skeletons and nanopores. Various chemical reactions, building blocks and synthetic methods have been developed and a broad variety of CMPs with different structures and specific properties have been synthesized, driving the rapid growth of the field. CMPs are unique in that they allow the complementary utilization of π-conjugated skeletons and nanopores for functional exploration; they have shown great potential for challenging energy and environmental issues, as exemplified by their excellent performance in gas adsorption, heterogeneous catalysis, light emitting, light harvesting and electrical energy storage. This review describes the molecular design principles of CMPs, advancements in synthetic and structural studies and the frontiers of functional exploration and potential applications.

  14. 5-lipoxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein gene polymorphisms, dietary linoleic acid, and risk for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2008-10-01

    The n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid 5-lipoxygenase pathway has been shown to play a role in the carcinogenesis of breast cancer. We conducted a population-based case-control study among Latina, African-American, and White women from the San Francisco Bay area to examine the association of the 5-lipoxygenase gene (ALOX5) and 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein gene (ALOX5AP) with breast cancer risk. Three ALOX5AP polymorphisms [poly(A) microsatellite, -4900 A>G (rs4076128), and -3472 A>G (rs4073259)] and three ALOX5 polymorphisms [Sp1-binding site (-GGGCGG-) variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism, -1279 G>T (rs6593482), and 760 G>A (rs2228065)] were genotyped in 802 cases and 888 controls. We did not find significant main effects of ALOX5 and ALOX5AP genotypes on breast cancer risk that were consistent across race or ethnicity; however, there was a significant interaction between the ALOX5AP -4900 A>G polymorphism and dietary linoleic acid intake (P=0.03). Among women consuming a diet high in linoleic acid (top quartile of intake, >17.4 g/d), carrying the AA genotype was associated with higher breast cancer risk (age- and race-adjusted odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.9) compared with carrying genotypes AG or GG. Among women consuming linoleic acid, ALOX5AP -4900 genotype was not associated with breast cancer risk (age- and race-adjusted odds ratio, 0.9; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.2). These results support a role for n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast carcinogenesis and suggest that epidemiologic studies on dietary fat and breast cancer should take into account genetic predisposition related to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism.

  15. Reduced ex Vivo Interleukin-6 Production by Dietary Fish Oil Is Not Modified by Linoleic Acid Intake in Healthy Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Lauritzen, L.; Calder, P. C.;

    2009-01-01

    production from cultures of whole blood, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and monocytes in healthy men. The study was a double-blinded, controlled, 2 X 2 factorial 8-wk intervention. Sixty-four healthy men were randomized to 5 mL/d FO or olive oil (00) provided in capsules and to spreads and oils......Fish oil (FO) is considered antiinflammatory, but evidence regarding its effect on human cytokine production is conflicting. High linoleic acid (LA) intake may impair any effects of FO. The aim of this study was to investigate how FO combined with high or low LA intake affected ex vivo cytokine...

  16. Effect of oleic-linoleic acid and ?-sitosterol to freezing extender of bulls and stallions semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Saltiva Cruz Bender

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Addition of polyunsaturated fatty acids and/or cholesterol to a freezing diluent can modify the sperm plasma membrane composition, influencing its behavior during cryopreservation, thus, favoring seminal cryoresistance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of the addition of oleic-linoleic acid, (OLA; ?-sitosterol (?-sit, a plant analog of cholesterol; and OLA + ?-sit in combination to a freezing diluent, on the cryopreservation bull and stallion semen. The following variables were analyzed: motility/vigor, plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity (by Trypan Blue/Giemsa staining, mitochondrial activity (by DAB staining, and lipid peroxidation (by a TBARS assays. The lipids were added according to experimental treatments: C – control group, A1 and A2 – OLA at concentrations of 37 ?M and 74 ?M, B1 and B2 – ?-sit at concentrations of 1 ?g mL-1 and 2 ?g mL-1; AB1 and AB2 – OLA 37 ?M + ?-sit 1 ?g mL-1 and OLA 74 ?M + ?-sit 2 ?g mL-1, respectively. The study was divided into three experiments; in Experiment 1, the concentrations of the groups A1, B1, and AB1 were evaluated, whereas in Experiment 2 the concentrations of the groups A2, B2, and AB2 were analyzed, both experiments were performed with bull semen. We conducted Experiment 3 using equine semen with the addition of lipids at all of the concentrations described. Data were subjected to analysis of variance, using the GLM procedure of SAS, with treatment means compared by Duncan test considering 5% significance. These variables differed significantly after thawing the semen post-collection. However, there was no significant difference between treatments when variables were compared within the same time point, except for Experiment 2, where there was a decrease in motility and vigor decrease post-thaw in the groups following ?-sit addition (C – 51.0 ± 13.7%/2.9 ± 0.4; B2 – 35.8 ± 15.8%/2.3 ± 0.6; AB2 – 38.5 ± 16.6%/2.5 ± 0.5, respectively; p < 0.05. In conclusion, the

  17. In vitro release and antibacterial activity of poly(oleic/linoleic acid dimer:sebacic acid)-gentamicin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGXiu-Fen; ZHOUZhi-Bin; 等

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To investigate whether poly(oleic/linoleic acid dimer:sebacic acid)-getamicin[Poly(OAD/LOAD:SA)-gentamicin]delivery system was useful to treat chronic osteomyelitis.METHODS:Drug delivery system consisted of gentamicin sufate dispersed in a copolymer containing oleic/linoleic acid dimer(OAD/LOAD)and sebacic acid(SA)in a 1:1 weight ration.The gentamicin releast from[Poly(OAD/LOAD:SA)-gentamicin]was tested in water 0.9% saline,and phosphate buffer 0.1mol/L,RESULTS:The gentamicin concentration peak was found on d2,then slowly decreased.considerable amout of gentamicin was still released on d 50.From d 2 o d 50,the gentamicin concentration in the releasing fluids was from 59 to 42128-fold and 1.8 to 1314-fold of the MIC for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli,respectively.Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were strongly inhibited by the releasing fluids for 50d.The gentamicin release and anti-bacterial activity in the three media were similar.only in 0.1mol/L phosphate buffer,from d 2 to 14 it was lower.CONCLUSION:Poly(OAD/LOAD:SA)-gentamicin was useful to treat chronic osteomyelitis.

  18. 亚油酸对Lipstatin发酵生产的影响研究%Effects of Linoleic Acid on Fermentative Production of Lipstatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永青; 张小琴; 王宇池; 韩力挥

    2013-01-01

    亚油酸作为一种前体物质,对Lipstatin的生物合成有重要的影响.通过研究发酵培养基中亚油酸浓度对毒三素链霉菌发酵的影响,表明合适的亚油酸浓度能显著促进Lipstatin的生物合成.在此基础上,进一步研究了不同补料时间和补料速率对毒三素链霉菌发酵生产Lipstatin的影响,最终确定了最佳的补料时间和补料速率.在亚油酸浓度为20 g· L-1的发酵培养基中,接种后发酵36 h时开始补料、补料速率为0.35g· L-1·h-1时,Lipstatin的发酵效价最高,为6.8g·L-1.%Linoleic acid,as a precursor of lipstatin,has a great effect on the production of lipstatin.The effect of linoleic acid concentration in the fermentation medium on the fermentation of Streptomyces toxytricini was studied.The results demonstrated that the addition of proper linoleic acid to the fermentation medium could greatly promote the biosynthesis of lipstatin.The fed-batch process of linoleic acid was further optimized.The result showed that in the fermentation medium containing 20 g · L-1 linoleic acid,when linoleic acid was fed after fermentation for 36 h at a feeding rate of 0.35 g · L-1 · h-1,the highest lipstatin titer of 6.8 g · L-1 was obtained.

  19. Geometric and Meshing Properties of Conjugate Curves for Gear Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjugate curves have been put forward previously by authors for gear transmission. Compared with traditional conjugate surfaces, the conjugate curves have more flexibility and diversity in aspects of gear design and generation. To further extend its application in power transmission, the geometric and meshing properties of conjugate curves are discussed in this paper. Firstly, general principle descriptions of conjugate curves for arbitrary axial position are introduced. Secondly, geometric analysis of conjugate curves is carried out based on differential geometry including tangent and normal in arbitrary contact direction, characteristic point, and curvature relationships. Then, meshing properties of conjugate curves are further revealed. According to a given plane or spatial curve, the uniqueness of conjugated curve under different contact angle conditions is discussed. Meshing commonality of conjugate curves is also demonstrated in terms of a class of spiral curves contacting in the given direction for various gear axes. Finally, a conclusive summary of this study is given.

  20. AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN EKSTRAK DIKHLOROMETANA DAN AIR JAHE (Zingiber officinale Roscoe PADA ASAM LINOLEAT [Antioxidant Activity of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe Dichloromethane and Water Exctract on Linoleic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisyah Tri Septiana 1

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of various ginger extracts are different. The aims of this work are to determine the antioxidant activity of ginger extracts on linoleic acid. The antioxidant activities were tested on linoleic acid supplemented with water and dichloromethane extract of ginger. The antioxidant activity was tested by measuring malonaldehide absorbance. Total phenol and iron content of the extracts were analyzed by spectrometry. This research showed that antioxidant activity of water and dichloromethane extract of ginger was stronger than a-tocopherol, and antioxidant activity of dichloromethane extract is stronger than water extract of ginger. Antioxidant activity of ginger extracts, seems to be correlated with the total phenol and iron contents

  1. Complex conjugate pairs in stationary Sturmians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturmian expansions enable a simply accurate separable specification of two nucleon t matrices based upon realistic two nucleon interactions. Sturmian eigenstates specified by stationary scattering boundary conditions are particularly useful in that context, and they can be calculated by solving a generalised eigenvalue equation using real and symmetric matrices. In general, the spectrum of such an equation may contain complex eigenvalues. But to each complex eigenvalues there is a corresponding conjugate partner. In studies using realistic two nucleon potentials, and in certain positive energy intervals, these complex conjugated pairs indeed appear in the Sturmian spectrum. However, it is demonstrated that it is possible to recombine the complex conjugate pairs and corresponding states into a new, (and useful) pair of real eigenvalues and eigenstates with which of effect separable expansions of the (real) two nucleon reactance matrices. 8 refs

  2. Complex conjugate pairs in stationary Sturmian eigenstates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturmian eigenstates specified by stationary scattering boundary conditions are particularly useful in contexts such as forming simple separable two nucleon t matrices, and are determined via solution of generalized eigenvalue equation using real and symmetric matrices. In general, the spectrum of such an equation may contain complex eigenvalues. But to each complex eigenvalue there is a corresponding conjugate partner. In studies using realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials, and in certain positive energy intervals, these complex conjugated pairs indeed appear in the Sturmian spectrum. However, as we demonstrate herein, it is possible to recombine the complex conjugate pairs and corresponding states into a new, sign-definite pair of real quantities with which to effect separable expansions of the (real) nucleon-nucleon reactance matrices

  3. Triplex glue by synthesizing conjugated flexible intercalators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Erik B; Osman, Amany M A; Globisch, Daniel; Paramasivam, Manikandan; Cogoi, Susanna; Bomholt, Niels; Jørgensen, Per T; Xodo, Luigi E; Filichev, Vyacheslav V

    2008-01-01

    Bulge insertions of conjugated intercalators into the DNA triplex structure are found to give a dramatic contribution to the triplex stability. On the other hand insertions of conjugated intercalators are found to diminish quadruplex structures and in this way breaking down the self association of G-rich oligonucleotides under physiologically potassium ion conditions. A large number of intercalators are described here and they all result in dramatic increases of thermal stability of the corresponding triplexes. Another interesting aspect of conjugated intercalators is their use for assembling alternate strand triplexes. Targeting of neighbouring purine sequences on each their strand in the duplex DNA is a challenge for the 5'- 5' connectivity of the TFOs because of a large distance between the 5'-ends. The intercalator approach offers a linkage with the proper combination of flexibility and rigidity to produce alternate strand triplexes with higher stability than a similar wild type triplex of the same total length. PMID:18776241

  4. Conjugate Meningococcal Vaccines Development: GSK Biologicals Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Meningococcal diseases are serious threats to global health, and new vaccines specifically tailored to meet the age-related needs of various geographical areas are required. This paper focuses on the meningococcal conjugate vaccines developed by GSK Biologicals. Two combined conjugate vaccines were developed to help protect infants and young children in countries where the incidence of meningococcal serogroup C or serogroup C and Y disease is important: Hib-MenC-TT vaccine, which offers protection against Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C diseases, is approved in several countries; and Hib-MenCY-TT vaccine, which adds N. meningitidis serogroup Y antigen, is currently in the final stages of development. Additionally, a tetravalent conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT designed to help protect against four meningococcal serogroups is presently being evaluated for global use in all age groups. All of these vaccines were shown to be highly immunogenic and to have clinically acceptable safety profiles.

  5. Tight-binding treatment of conjugated polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Thomas Bastholm

    This PhD thesis concerns conjugated polymers which constitute a constantly growing research area. Today, among other things, conjugated polymers play a role in plastic based solar cells, photodetectors and light emitting diodes, and even today such plastic-based components constitute an alternative...... of tomorrow. This thesis specifically treats the three conjugated polymers trans-polyacetylene (tPA), poly(para-phenylene) (PPP) and poly(para-phe\\-nylene vinylene) (PPV). The present results, which are derived within the tight-binding model, are divided into two parts. In one part, analytic results...... are derived for the optical properties of the polymers expressed in terms of the optical susceptibility both in the presence and in the absence of a static electric field. In the other part, the cumputationally efficient Density Functional-based Tight-Binding (DFTB) model is applied to the description...

  6. Conjugate gradient algorithms using multiple recursions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, T.; Manteuffel, T.

    1996-12-31

    Much is already known about when a conjugate gradient method can be implemented with short recursions for the direction vectors. The work done in 1984 by Faber and Manteuffel gave necessary and sufficient conditions on the iteration matrix A, in order for a conjugate gradient method to be implemented with a single recursion of a certain form. However, this form does not take into account all possible recursions. This became evident when Jagels and Reichel used an algorithm of Gragg for unitary matrices to demonstrate that the class of matrices for which a practical conjugate gradient algorithm exists can be extended to include unitary and shifted unitary matrices. The implementation uses short double recursions for the direction vectors. This motivates the study of multiple recursion algorithms.

  7. Conjugation in hydrogen-bonded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Novakovskaya, Yulia V

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the electron density distribution in clusters composed of hydrogen fluoride, water, and ammonia molecules, especially within the hydrogen-bond domains, reveals the existence of both \\sigma- and \\pi-binding between molecules. The \\sigma-kind density distribution determines the mutual orientation of molecules. A \\pi-system may be delocalized conjugated, which provides additional stabilization of molecular clusters. In those clusters where the sequence of hydrogen bonds is not planar, a peculiar kind of \\pi-conjugation exists. HF anion and H5O2 cation are characterized by quasi-triple bonds between the electronegative atoms. The most long-lived species stabilized by delocalized \\pi-binding are rings and open or closed hoops composed of fused rings. It is conjugated \\pi-system that determines cooperativity phenomenon.

  8. Phase conjugation of high energy lasers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss, David E; Valley, Michael T.; Atherton, Briggs W.; Bigman, Verle Howard; Boye, Lydia Ann; Broyles, Robin Scott; Kimmel, Mark W.; Law, Ryan J.; Yoder, James R.

    2013-01-01

    In this report we explore claims that phase conjugation of high energy lasers by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) can compensate optical aberrations associated with severely distorted laser amplifier media and aberrations induced by the atmosphere. The SBS media tested was a gas cell pressurized up to 300 psi with SF6 or Xe or both. The laser was a 10 Hz, 3J, Q-switched Nd:YAG with 25 ns wide pulses. Atmospheric aberrations were created with space heaters, helium jets and phase plates designed with a Kolmogorov turbulence spectrum characterized by a Fried parameter, ro , ranging from 0.6 6.0 mm. Phase conjugate tests in the laboratory were conducted without amplification. For the strongest aberrations, D/ro ~ 20, created by combining the space heaters with the phase plate, the Strehl ratio was degraded by a factor of ~50. Phase conjugation in SF6 restored the peak focusable intensity to about 30% of the original laser. Phase conjugate tests at the outdoor laser range were conducted with laser amplifiers providing gain in combination with the SBS cell. A large 600,000 BTU kerosene space heater was used to create turbulence along the beam path. An atmospheric structure factor of Cn2 = 5x10-13 m2/3 caused the illumination beam to expand to a diameter 250mm and overfill the receiver. The phase conjugate amplified return could successfully be targeted back onto glints 5mm in diameter. Use of a lenslet arrays to lower the peak focusable intensity in the SBS cell failed to produce a useful phase conjugate beam; The Strehl ratio was degraded with multiple random lobes instead of a single focus. I will review literature results which show how multiple beams can be coherently combined by SBS when a confocal reflecting geometry is used to focus the laser in the SBS cell.

  9. Synthesis of cyanopyridine based conjugated polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hemavathi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This data file contains the detailed synthetic procedure for the synthesis of two new cyanopyridine based conjugated polymer P1 and P2 along with the synthesis of its monomers. The synthesised polymers can be used for electroluminescence and photovoltaic (PV application. The physical data of the polymers are provided in this data file along with the morphological data of the polymer thin films. The data provided here are in association with the research article entitled ‘Cyanopyridine based conjugated polymer-synthesis and characterisation’ (Hemavathi et al., 2015 [3].

  10. Conjugated polymers as actuators: modes of actuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen

    2007-01-01

    The physical and chemical properties of conjugated polymers often depend very strongly on the degree of doping with anions or cations. The movement of ions in and out of the polymer matrix as it is redox cycled is also accompanied by mechanical changes. Both the volume and the stiffness can exhibit...... significant differences between the oxidized and reduced states. These effects form the basis of the use of conjugated polymers as actuators (or “artificial muscles”) controllable by a small (1-10 V) voltage. Three basic modes of actuation (bending, linear extension and stiffness change) have been proposed...

  11. Conjugated Polymers as Actuators: Modes of Actuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen

    The physical and chemical properties of conjugated polymers often depend very strongly on the degree of doping with anions or cations. The movement of ions in and out of the polymer matrix as it is redox cycled is also accompanied by mechanical changes. Both the volume and the stiffness can exhibit...... significant differences between the oxidized and reduced states. These effects form the basis of the use of conjugated polymers as actuators (or “artificial muscles”) controllable by a small (1-10 V) voltage. Three basic modes of actuation (bending, linear extension and stiffness change) have been proposed...

  12. Dynamics of Photogenerated Polarons in Conjugated Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Z.; Wu, C. Q.; Sun, X.

    2004-11-01

    Within a tight-binding electron-phonon interacting model, we investigate the dynamics of photoexcitations to address the generation mechanism of charged polarons in conjugated polymers by using a nonadiabatic evolution method. Besides the neutral polaron exciton which is well known, we identify a novel product of lattice dynamic relaxation from the photoexcited states in a few hundreds of femtoseconds, which is a mixed state composed of both charged polarons and neutral excitons. Our results show that the charged polarons are generated directly with a yield of about 25%, which is independent of the excitation energies, in good agreement with results from experiments. Effects of the conjugation length are also discussed.

  13. Theoretical study of conjugated porphyrin polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, T.G.; Lynge, T.B.; Kristensen, P.K.;

    2005-01-01

    for these applications. From a theoretical analysis of excitons in long metalloporphyrin chains, we demonstrate that the binding energy is much lower than in usual conjugated polymers. Our calculated absorption spectra are in good agreement with measurements. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......The optical gap of conjugated triply linked porphyrin chains is exceptionally low (similar to 0.5 eV). Hence, such chains are candidates for organic infrared detectors and solar cells harvesting the infrared part of the solar spectrum. However, a low exciton binding energy is required...

  14. Conjugate metamaterials and the perfect lens

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Yadong; Xu, Lin; Chen, Huanyang

    2015-01-01

    In this letter, we show how transformation optics makes it possible to design what we call conjugate metamaterials. We show that these materials can also serve as substrates for making a subwavelength-resolution lens. The so-called "perfect lens", which is a lens that could focus all components of light (including propagating and evanescent waves), can be regarded as a limiting case, in which the respective conjugate metamaterials approach the characteristics of left-handed metamaterials, which have a negative refractive index.

  15. Accumulation Properties of Conjuagted Linoleic Acid Isomers Biosynthesized by Ruminal Bacteria%瘤胃细菌生物合成共轭亚油酸的累积特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓华; 李海星; 陈燕; 曹郁生

    2011-01-01

    为了解瘤胃细菌生物合成共轭亚油酸(CLA)的特性,通过毛细管电泳(CE)分析,发现瘤胃细菌生物合成CLA的主要异构体有c9,t11-CLA、t10,c12-CLA和t9,t11-CLA 3种。在厌氧和有氧条件下,瘤胃细菌均能合成CLA,且氧气有利于CLA的累积,随反应时间的延长,CLA的量呈现先增加后减少的变化趋势。结果表明瘤胃细菌参与了反刍动物体内CLA异构体的生物合成与代谢,瘤胃细菌生物合成CLA异构体的特异性还有待更深入的研究。%In order to understand accumulation properties of conjugated linoleic acid(CLA) biosynthesized by ruminal bacteria,capillary electrophoresis(ce)was used to analyze CLA isomers.Three main isomers including c9,t11-CLA,t10,c12-CLA and t9,t11-CLA were synthesized by ruminal bacteria under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions.Aerobic environment was more beneficial for the accumulation of CLA than anaerobic environment.The yield of CLA exhibited a trend of initial increase and final decrease.Therefore,ruminal bacteria play key roles in the biosynthesis and metabolism of CLA in rumen.

  16. Essential function of linoleic acid esterified in acylglucosylceramide and acylceramide in maintaining the epidermal water permeability barrier. Evidence from feeding studies with oleate, linoleate, arachidonate, columbinate and a-linolenate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1985-01-01

    Essential fatty acid-deficient rats were supplemented with 300 mg per day of pure fatty acid esters: oleate (O), linoleate (L), arachidonate (A), and columbinate (C) for 10 days. During this period, the rats in groups L, A, and C all showed a decrease in their initially high trans-epidermal water...... loss, a classical essential fatty acid-deficiency symptom, to a level seen in non-deficient rats (group N). The trans-epidermal water loss in rats of group O was unaffected by the supplementation. Fatty acid composition of two epidermal sphingolipids, acylglucosylceramide and acylceramide, from...... the skin were determined. The results indicate that re-establishment of a low trans-epidermal water loss was associated with incorporation of linolenate into the two epidermal sphingolipids. Supplementation with columbinate resulted in relatively high amounts of this fatty acid in the investigated...

  17. Conjugate Gradient Methods with Armijo-type Line Searches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Hong DAI

    2002-01-01

    Two Armijo-type line searches are proposed in this paper for nonlinear conjugate gradient methods.Under these line searches, global convergence results are established for several famous conjugate gradient method.

  18. Hydrogenation Alternatives - Effects of Trans-Fatty-Acids and Stearic-Acid Versus Linoleic-Acid on Serum-Lipids and Lipoproteins in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of linoleic acid (cis,cis-C18:2(n-6)) and its hydrogenation products elaidic (trans-C18:1(n-9)) and stearic acid (C18:0) on serum lipoprotein levels in humans.Twenty-six men and 30 women, all nor

  19. The effect of adding urea, manganese and linoleic acid to wheat straw and wood chips on lignin degradation by fungi and subsequent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was optimizing Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes pre-treatment of wheat straw and wood chips by adding urea, manganese and linoleic acid. Optimization was defined as more lignin degradation and an increase in in vitro gas produ

  20. The effects of a single oral dose of ethyl linoleate on urinary prostaglandin E excretion in essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of a single oral dose of ethyl linoleate on urinary prostaaglandin E (PGE) excretion and urine output were investigated in essential fatty acid (EFA)-deficient rats. Weanling male rats were fed a fat-free diet. After 13 wk of feeding, eight rats received an oral dose of 400 mg of ethy...

  1. Expression analysis identifies FAD2-2 as the olive oleate desaturase gene mainly responsible for the linoleic acid content in virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, M Luisa; Padilla, María N; Mancha, Manuel; Martínez-Rivas, José M

    2009-07-22

    The effect of ripening stage and water regimen on oleate desaturase gene expression levels in the fruit of different olive ( Olea europaea L.) varieties was investigated to elucidate the contribution of each to the linoleic acid content in virgin olive oil. To this end, fatty acid analysis and quantitative real time PCR were performed using distinct olive tissues and different developmental stages from the Picual and Arbequina cultivars. The results showed that the olive FAD2-1, FAD2-2, and FAD6 genes were spatial and temporally regulated. In addition, the data indicated that FAD2-2 seems to be the main gene responsible for the linoleic acid content in the olive fruit mesocarp tissue. This conclusion was also confirmed when the study was extended to Hojiblanca, Picudo, and Manzanilla varieties. With regard to the water regimen, unlike the Picual cultivar, a small increase of linoleic acid was observed in the Arbequina variety cultivated with irrigation, which correlated well with the increase detected for the FAD2-2 gene expression level. All of these data strongly suggest that FAD2-2 is the main gene that determines the linoleic acid content in the virgin olive oil. PMID:19601663

  2. Linoleic acid intake, plasma cholesterol and 10-year incidence of CHD in 20.000 middle-aged men and women in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, de J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Boer, J.M.A.; Kromhout, D.; Verschuren, W.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the associations of a difference in linoleic acid or carbohydrate intake with plasma cholesterol levels and risk of CHD in a prospective cohort study in the Netherlands. Data on diet (FFQ) and plasma total and HDL-cholesterol were available at baseline (1993–7) of 20 069 men and women, ag

  3. Interaction of antithrombin III with preadsorbed albumin-heparin conjugates

    OpenAIRE

    Hennink, W.E.; Ebert, C.D.; Kim, S. W.; Breemhaar, W.; Bantjes, A.; Feijen, J.

    1984-01-01

    The adsorption of antithrombin III (AT III) onto polystyrene surfaces preadsorbed with albumin or albuminheparin conjugates was studied using a two step enzyme immuno assay. When AT III-buffer solutions were used, the highest adsorption values were measured on high affinity albumin-heparin conjugate pretreated surfaces. Less AT III adsorption was found on nonfractionated albumin-heparin conjugate preadsorbed surfaces. AT III adsorption could also be detected on low affinity conjugate and albu...

  4. Biocatalytic Synthesis of Fluorescent Conjugated Indole Oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M. Bouldin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent conjugated materials exhibiting reasonable biocompatibility that are capable of interacting with biological molecules are of interest for bio-sensing and imaging applications. Traditional approaches do not allow for the synthesis of conjugated materials in the presence of biologically relevant substrates. Further conjugated polymers synthesized using conventional methods are doped and not fluorescent. Here we explore the possibility of synthesizing fluorescent oligomers of indole using enzymes as catalyst under mild conditions. The peroxidase catalyzed coupling reaction presented here creates a photoluminescent material that allows for direct utilization (without purification and separation of the dopant in biosensing applications. The polymerization reaction proceeds smoothly in just deionized water and ethanol. Monitoring of the absorption and fluorescence spectra over one hour shows that the concentration of both absorbing and emitting species grows steadily over time. The presence of anionic buffers and templates is shown to effectively retard the development of light emitting species and instead leads to the formation of an electrically doped conjugated polymer. Structural characterization through FTIR and 1H-NMR analysis suggests that the oligomer is coupled through the 2 and 3 positions on the indole ring.

  5. Women experiencing the intergenerationality of conjugal violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvânia Patrícia do Nascimento Paixão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the family relationship, in childhood and adolescence, of women who experience conjugal violence.Method: qualitative study. Interviews were held with 19 women, who were experiencing conjugal violence, and who were resident in a community in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (N. 42/2011.Results: the data was organized using the Discourse of the Collective Subject, identifying the summary central ideas: they witnessed violence between their parents; they suffered repercussions from the violence between their parents: they were angry about the mother's submission to her partner; and they reproduced the conjugal violence. The discourse showed that the women witnessed, in childhood and adolescence, violence between their parents, and were injured both physically and psychologically. As a result of the mother's submission, feelings of anger arose in the children. However, in the adult phase of their own lives, they noticed that their conjugal life resembled that of their parents, reproducing the violence.Conclusion: investment is necessary in strategies designed to break inter-generational violence, and the health professionals are important in this process, as it is a phenomenon with repercussions in health. Because they work in the Family Health Strategy, which focuses on the prevention of harm and illness, health promotion and interdepartmentality, the nurses are essential in the process of preventing and confronting this phenomenon.

  6. Stochastic differential equations used to model conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Kirsten Riber; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    Stochastic differential equations (SDEs) are used to model horizontal transfer of antibiotic resis- tance by conjugation. The model describes the concentration of donor, recipient, transconjugants and substrate. The strength of the SDE model over the traditional ODE models is that the noise can...

  7. Charge Conjugation in the Galilean Limit

    OpenAIRE

    Socolovsky, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    Strictly working in the framework of the nonrelativistic quantum mechanics of a spin 1/2 particle coupled to an external electromagnetic field, we show, by explicit construction, the existence of a charge conjugation operator matrix which defines the corresponding antiparticle wave function and leads to the galilean and gauge invariant Schroedinger-Pauli equation satisfied by it.

  8. Conjugate Function Method for Numerical Conformal Mappings

    CERN Document Server

    Hakula, Harri; Rasila, Antti

    2011-01-01

    We present a method for numerical computation of conformal mappings from simply or doubly connected domains onto so-called canonical domains, which in our case are rectangles or annuli. The method is based on conjugate harmonic functions and properties of quadrilaterals. Several numerical examples are given.

  9. Predicting the optical gap of conjugated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Andre Leitao

    The adapted Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model is developed in this work as a tool for in silico prediction of the optical gap of pi-conjugated systems for photovoltaic applications. Full transferability of the model ensures reliable predictive power - excellent agreement with 180 independent experimental data points covering virtually all existing conjugated system types with an accuracy exceeding the time-dependent density functional theory, one of the most accurate first-principles methods. Insights on the structure-property relation of conjugated systems obtained from the model lead to guiding rules for optical gap design: 1) fusing aromatic rings parallel to the conjugated path does not significantly lower the optical gap, 2) fusing rings perpendicularly lowers the optical gap of the monomer, but has a reduced benefit from polymerization, and 3) copolymers take advantage of the lower optical gap of perpendicular fused rings and benefit from further optical gap reduction through added parallel fused rings as electronic communicators. A copolymer of parallel and perpendicular benzodithiophenes, differing only in sulfur atom locations, is proposed as a candidate to achieve the optimal 1.2 eV donor optical gap for organic photovoltaics. For small-molecule organic photovoltaics, substituting the end pairs of carbon atoms on pentacene with sulfur atoms is predicted to lower the optical gap from 1.8 eV to 1.1 eV. Furthermore, the model offers an improvement of orders of magnitude in the computational efficiency over commonly used first-principles tools.

  10. Conjugate Problems in Convective Heat Transfer: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abram Dorfman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of conjugate convective heat transfer problems solved during the early and current time of development of this modern approach is presented. The discussion is based on analytical solutions of selected typical relatively simple conjugate problems including steady-state and transient processes, thermal material treatment, and heat and mass transfer in drying. This brief survey is accompanied by the list of almost two hundred publications considering application of different more and less complex analytical and numerical conjugate models for simulating technology processes and industrial devices from aerospace systems to food production. The references are combined in the groups of works studying similar problems so that each of the groups corresponds to one of selected analytical solutions considered in detail. Such structure of review gives the reader the understanding of early and current situation in conjugate convective heat transfer modeling and makes possible to use the information presented as an introduction to this area on the one hand, and to find more complicated publications of interest on the other hand.

  11. New Antibody Conjugates in Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serengulam V. Govindan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeting of radiation, drugs, and protein toxins to cancers selectively with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs has been a topic of considerable interest and an area of continued development. Radioimmunotherapy (RAIT of lymphoma using directly labeled MAbs is of current interest after approval of two radiolabeled anti-CD20 MAbs, as illustrated with the near 100% overall response rate obtained in a recent clinical trial using an investigational radiolabeled anti-CD22 MAb, 90Y-epratuzumab. The advantage of pretargeted RAIT over directly labeled MAbs is continuing to be validated in preclinical models of lymphoma and solid tumors. Importantly, the advantages of combining RAIT with radiation sensitizers, with immunotherapy, or a drug conjugate targeting a different antigen are being studied clinically and preclinically. The area of drug-conjugated antibodies is progressing with encouraging data published for the trastuzumab-DM1 conjugate in a phase I clinical trial in HER2-positive breast cancer. The Dock-and-Lock platform technology has contributed to the design and the evaluation of complex antibody-cytokine and antibody-toxin conjugates. This review describes the advances made in these areas, with illustrations taken from advances made in the authors' institutions.

  12. Conjugate problems in convective heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Dorfman, Abram S

    2009-01-01

    The conjugate heat transfer (CHT) problem takes into account the thermal interaction between a body and fluid flowing over or through it, a key consideration in both mechanical and aerospace engineering. Presenting more than 100 solutions of non-isothermal and CHT problems, this title considers the approximate solutions of CHT problems.

  13. Compositions for directed alignment of conjugated polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinsang; Kim, Bong-Gi; Jeong, Eun Jeong

    2016-04-19

    Conjugated polymers (CPs) achieve directed alignment along an applied flow field and a dichroic ratio of as high as 16.67 in emission from well-aligned thin films and fully realized anisotropic optoelectronic properties of CPs in field-effect transistor (FET).

  14. Bacillus thuringiensis Conjugation in Simulated Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuls, Elise; van Houdt, Rob; Leys, Natalie; Dijkstra, Camelia; Larkin, Oliver; Mahillon, Jacques

    2009-10-01

    Spaceflight experiments have suggested a possible effect of microgravity on the plasmid transfer among strains of the Gram-positive Bacillus thuringiensis, as opposed to no effect recorded for Gram-negative conjugation. To investigate these potential effects in a more affordable experimental setup, three ground-based microgravity simulators were tested: the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV), the Random Positioning Machine (RPM), and a superconducting magnet. The bacterial conjugative system consisted in biparental matings between two B. thuringiensis strains, where the transfer frequencies of the conjugative plasmid pAW63 and its ability to mobilize the nonconjugative plasmid pUB110 were assessed. Specifically, potential plasmid transfers in a 0-g position (simulated microgravity) were compared to those obtained under 1-g (normal gravity) condition in each device. Statistical analyses revealed no significant difference in the conjugative and mobilizable transfer frequencies between the three different simulated microgravitational conditions and our standard laboratory condition. These important ground-based observations emphasize the fact that, though no stimulation of plasmid transfer was observed, no inhibition was observed either. In the case of Gram-positive bacteria, this ability to exchange plasmids in weightlessness, as occurs under Earth's conditions, should be seen as particularly relevant in the scope of spread of antibiotic resistances and bacterial virulence.

  15. Hyperbranched: a universal conjugated polymer platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosa, Juan; Kub, Chris; Bunz, Uwe H F

    2009-01-01

    Out on a limb: Sonogashira coupling of a suitable AB(2) monomer containing two iodine and one alkyne group forms a hyperbranched conjugated polymer that is studded with iodine end groups (see picture: I purple). These iodine groups are a perfect handle for convenient, efficient, and high-yielding post-functionalization to access hyperbranched, fluorescent poly(phenyleneethynylene)s. PMID:19373821

  16. Conjugated Polymer Actuators: Prospects and Limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen

    2007-01-01

    Actuators constructed with a conjugated polymer as the active part have been predicted to have a number of highly desirable properties: Large mechanical strength, high power density, i.e. high actuation speeds possible, sufficient maximum strain values, high reversibility and safe, low voltages (1...

  17. Continuous flow synthesis of conjugated polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyler, Helga; Jones, David J; Holmes, Andrew B; Wong, Wallace W H

    2012-02-01

    A selection of conjugated polymers, widely studied in organic electronics, was synthesised using continuous flow methodology. As a result of superior heat transfer and reagent control, excellent polymer molecular mass distributions were achieved in significantly reduced reaction times compared to conventional batch reactions.

  18. Conjugal Succession and the American Kinship System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr.

    Although not the preferred type of family formation, conjugal succession is now an accepted, if not expected, alternative to continuous marriage in the United States. This new trend appears to be related to a shift in the meaning of matrimony. Previously, marriage was part of a cultural pattern of transitions and as such was closely timed to…

  19. Meningococcal conjugate vaccines: optimizing global impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terranella A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Andrew Terranella1,2, Amanda Cohn2, Thomas Clark2 1Epidemic Intelligence Service, Division of Applied Sciences, Scientific Education and Professional Development Program Office, 2Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: Meningococcal conjugate vaccines have several advantages over polysaccharide vaccines, including the ability to induce greater antibody persistence, avidity, immunologic memory, and herd immunity. Since 1999, meningococcal conjugate vaccine programs have been established across the globe. Many of these vaccination programs have resulted in significant decline in meningococcal disease in several countries. Recent introduction of serogroup A conjugate vaccine in Africa offers the potential to eliminate meningococcal disease as a public health problem in Africa. However, the duration of immune response and the development of widespread herd immunity in the population remain important questions for meningococcal vaccine programs. Because of the unique epidemiology of meningococcal disease around the world, the optimal vaccination strategy for long-term disease prevention will vary by country. Keywords: conjugate vaccine, meningitis, meningococcal vaccine, meningococcal disease

  20. Synthesis and characterization of NiO nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of nickel linoleate and their optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalam, Abul, E-mail: abul_k33@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha 61413, P.O. Box 9004 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G.; Al-Shihri, Ayed S. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha 61413, P.O. Box 9004 (Saudi Arabia); Du Gaohui [Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Reactive Chemistry on Solid Surfaces, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Ahmad, Tokeer [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India)

    2012-06-15

    Well dispersed nickel oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized successfully by direct calcination of nickel linoleate. The structure, morphology and properties of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopic studies show that nickel oxide nanoparticles are uniform with an average size of 14-20 nm. The optical band gap of 3.8 eV is obtained using UV-Visible spectroscopy which exhibits the red shift compared with the bulk counterpart. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles by using metal complexes as precursors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization of isolated nanoparticles using XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM and HRTEM data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The expected optical properties of these nanoparticles are clarified.

  1. Synthesis of Indomethacin Conjugates with D-Glucosamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Chun ZHANG; Ying Xia LI; Hua Shi GUAN

    2005-01-01

    Two series of indomethacin conjugates with D-glucosamine were prepared with the objectives of reducing ulcerogenic potency, increasing the bioavailability of indomethacin and exerting the coordinative effects on osteoarthritis. The structures of the conjugates were identified by 1H NMR and 13C NMR. The ester conjugates inhibited edema as potent as indomethacin.

  2. Conjugated Educational System: Notion, Structure, Educational Potential 

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei A. Ostapenko; Dar'ya S. Tkach

    2012-01-01

    The article indicates the ways to decrease risk from teenagers and youth’s growing-up in today’s Russia by development of fundamental models of conjugated educational systems and their mass implementation in educational practice, introduces the notion of “conjugated educational system” for scientific use, describes types of conjugation and educational results of submitted models use.

  3. The Oxidized Linoleic Acid Metabolite-Cytochrome P450 System is Active in Biopsies from Patients with Inflammatory Dental Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruparel, Shivani; Hargreaves, Kenneth M.; Eskander, Michael; Rowan, Spencer; de Almeida, Jose F.A.; Roman, Linda; Henry, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Endogenous TRPV1 agonists such as oxidized linoleic acid metabolites (OLAMs) and the enzymes releasing them [e.g., cytochrome P450 (CYP)], are up-regulated following inflammation in the rat. However, it is not known if such agonists are elevated in human inflammatory pain conditions. Since TRPV1 is expressed in human dental pulp nociceptors, we hypothesized that OLAM-CYP machinery is active in this tissue type and is increased under painful inflammatory conditions such as irreversible pulpitis (IP). The aim of this study was to compare CYP expression and linoleic acid (LA) metabolism in normal versus inflamed human dental pulp. Our data showed that exogenous LA metabolism was significantly increased in IP tissues compared to normal tissues and that pretreatment with a CYP inhibitor, ketoconazole, significantly inhibited LA metabolism. Additionally, extracts obtained from LA-treated inflamed tissues, evoked significant inward currents in TG neurons, and were blocked by pretreatment with the TRPV1 antagonist, IRTX. Moreover, extracts obtained from ketoconazole-pretreated inflamed tissues significantly reduced inward currents in TG neurons. These data suggest that LA metabolites produced in human inflamed tissues act as TRPV1 agonists and that the metabolite production can be targeted by CYP inhibition. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis of two CYP isoforms, CYP2J and CYP3A1, were shown to be predominately expressed in immune cells infiltrating the inflamed dental pulp, emphasizing the paracrine role of CYP enzymes in OLAM regulation. Collectively, our data indicates that the machinery responsible for OLAM production is up-regulated during inflammation and can be targeted to develop potential analgesics for inflammatory-induced dental pain. PMID:23867730

  4. Resolution of Digitized Conjugate Tooth-Face Surface Based on the Theory of Digitized Conjugate Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Lai-yuan; LIAO Dao-xun; YI Chuan-yun

    2004-01-01

    According to the principle of meshing engagement and the theory of the digitized conjugate surface, this paper applies the software Conjugater-l. 0 that is developed by ourselves to compute, respectivcly, the digitized conjugate curved surfaces of the straight-tooth surface and drum-tooth surface,which will establish the theoretical and technical foundation for digitized engaging analysis, simulation, and digitized manufacturing technology of the diversified gears.

  5. Chemical and physiological aspects of isomers of conjugated fatty acids Aspectos químicos e fisiológicos de isômeros conjugados de ácidos graxos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Bonifácio Teixeira de Carvalho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated fatty acid (CFA is the general term to describe the positional and geometric isomers of polyunsaturated fatty acids with conjugated double bonds. The CFAs of linoleic acid (CLAs are found naturally in foods derived from ruminant animals, meat, or dairy products. The CFAs of α-linolenic acid (CLNAs are found exclusively in various types of seed oils of plants. There are many investigations to assess the effects to health from CFAs consumption, which have been associated with physiological processes that are involved with non transmissible chronic diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and obesity. Conclusive studies about the CFAs effects in the body are still scarce and further research about their participation in physiological processes are necessary. This review aimed to discuss the influence of conjugated fatty acids on physiological processes in animal organism.Ácido graxo conjugado (AGC é o termo geral usado para descrever os isômeros posicionais e geométricos dos ácidos graxos poliinsaturados com duplas ligações conjugadas. Os AGCs do ácido linoléico (ALCs são encontrados naturalmente em alimentos derivados de animais ruminantes, carnes e produtos lácteos. Os AGCs do ácido α-linolênico (ALNCs são encontrados exclusivamente em óleos de sementes de vários tipos de plantas. Desenvolvem-se muitas investigações com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do consumo de AGCs para a saúde, já que estes têm sido associados a processos fisiológicos relacionados com doenças crônicas não transmissíveis como câncer, aterosclerose, inflamação e obesidade. Estudos conclusivos sobre os efeitos dos AGCs no organismo humano ainda são raros e mais pesquisas sobre sua atuação em processos fisiológicos são necessárias. O objetivo desta revisão é discutir a influência dos ácidos graxos conjugados sobre os processos fisiológicos.

  6. Application of optical phase conjugation to plasma diagnostics (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahoda, F.C.; Anderson, B.T.; Forman, P.R.; Weber, P.G.

    1985-05-01

    Several possibilities for plasma diagnostics provided by optical phase conjugation and, in particular, self-pumped phase conjugation in barium titanate (BaTiO/sub 3/) are discussed. These include placing a plasma within a dye laser cavity equipped with a phase conjugate mirror for intracavity absorption measurements, time differential refractometry with high spatial resolution, and simplified real-time holographic interferometry. The principles of phase conjugation with particular reference to photorefractive media and the special advantages of self-pumped phase conjugation are reviewed prior to the discussion of the applications. Distinctions are made in the applications between those for which photorefractive conjugators are essential and those for which they only offer experimental simplification relative to other types of phase conjugators.

  7. Highly sensitive biosensors based on water-soluble conjugated polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hui; WU Haiping; FAN Chunhai; LI Wenxin; ZHANG Zhizhou; HE Lin

    2004-01-01

    Conjugated, conductive polymers are a kind of important organic macromolecules, which has found applications in a variety of areas. The application of conjugated polymers in developing fluorescent biosensors represents the merge of polymer sciences and biological sciences. Conjugated polymers are very good light harvesters as well as fluorescent polymers, and they are also "molecular wires". Through elaborate designs, these important features, i.e. efficient light harvesting and electron/energy transfer, can be used as signal amplification in fluorescent biosensors. This might significantly improve the sensitivity of conjugated polymer-based biosensors. In this article, we reviewed the application of conjugated polymers, via either electron transfer or energy transfer, to detections of gene targets, antibodies or enzymes. We also reviewed recent efforts in conjugated polymer-based solid-state sensor designs as well as chip-based multiple target detection. Possible directions in this conjugated polymer-based biosensor area are also discussed.

  8. PRINCIPLE AND TRANSMISSION TECHNOLOGY OF BERTRAND CONJUGATE SURFACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Zhenyun; CHEN Houjun; LIU Jian

    2006-01-01

    Bertrand surface is presented by abstracting and subliming the common characteristic of the usual surfaces including rotational surfaces, developable surfaces, normal circular-arc surfaces,etc. Basic characteristic of Bertrand surface is that normals along generator are coplanar. Bertrand conjugate principle is studied and its basic characteristic is that the instantaneous contact line between a pair of Bertrand conjugate surfaces is generator. Bertrand conjugate can be divided into three kinds of typical conjugation forms in terms of the generators that are general plane curve, circular-arc and straight line. Basic conjugate condition is given respectively, and structure condition, which reflects transmission forms and directrix characteristic of this kind of conjugation, is researched. As typical engineering application of Bertrand conjugate surface principle, transmission technology of loxodromic-type normal circular-arc bevel gear is studied.

  9. Discrete modelling of bacterial conjugation dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Goni-Moreno, Angel

    2012-01-01

    In bacterial populations, cells are able to cooperate in order to yield complex collective functionalities. Interest in population-level cellular behaviour is increasing, due to both our expanding knowledge of the underlying biological principles, and the growing range of possible applications for engineered microbial consortia. Researchers in the field of synthetic biology - the application of engineering principles to living systems - have, for example, recently shown how useful decision-making circuits may be distributed across a bacterial population. The ability of cells to interact through small signalling molecules (a mechanism known as it quorum sensing) is the basis for the majority of existing engineered systems. However, horizontal gene transfer (or conjugation) offers the possibility of cells exchanging messages (using DNA) that are much more information-rich. The potential of engineering this conjugation mechanism to suit specific goals will guide future developments in this area. Motivated by a l...

  10. Development of a conjugate heat transfer solver

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Qubeissi, Mansour

    2013-01-01

    The current research study presents a numerical approach in modelling the conjugate heat transfer system of the gas-turbine rotating discs-cavities. The work was undertaken to understand such phenomena and, more specifically, to numerically investigate the thermal interactions in rotating discs-cavities. The developed solver is capable of dealing with complex heat transfer problems, such as unsteady three-dimensional compressible rotating-flows. The development was based on integrating...

  11. Functionalized conjugated polyelectrolytes design and biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shu

    2013-01-01

    Functionalized Conjugated Polyelectrolytes presents a comprehensive review of these polyelectrolytes and their biomedical applications. Basic aspects like molecular design and optoelectronic properties are covered in the first chapter. Emphasis is placed on the various applications including sensing (chemical and biological), disease diagnosis, cell imaging, drug/gene delivery and disease treatment. This book explores a multi-disciplinary topic of interest to researchers working in the fields of chemistry, materials, biology and medicine. It also offers an integrated perspective on both basic

  12. Synchronization in nonlinear oscillators with conjugate coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Wenchen; Zhang, Mei; Yang, Junzhong

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the synchronization in oscillators with conjugate coupling in which oscillators interact via dissimilar variables. The synchronous dynamics and its stability are investigated theoretically and numerically. We ?nd that the synchronous dynamics and its stability are dependent on both coupling scheme and the coupling constant. We also ?nd that the synchronization may be independent of the number of oscillators. Numerical demonstrations with Lorenz oscillators are pro...

  13. Applications of Conjugated Polymers to DNA Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jadranka; Travas-Sejdic; Christian; Soeller

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Detection of biomolecules relies on a highly specific recognition event between an analyte biomolecule and a probe that is often closely connected or integrated within a sensor transducer element to provide a suitable signal. More widespread application of gene detection on a routine basis demands the development of a new generation of gene sensors that are fast, reliable and cost-effective.Conjugated polymers (CPs) have been shown to be a versatile substrate for DNA sensor construction, where...

  14. Spectral phase conjugation via extended phase matching

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, Mankei

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that the copropagating three-wave-mixing parametric process, with appropriate type-II extended phase matching and pumped with a short second-harmonic pulse, can perform spectral phase conjugation and parametric amplification, which shows a threshold behavior analogous to backward wave oscillation. The process is also analyzed in the Heisenberg picture, which predicts a spontaneous parametric down conversion rate in agreement with the experimental result reported by Kuzucu et al. [...

  15. Solventless processing of conjugated polymers - a review

    OpenAIRE

    Brandão, Lúcia; Viana, Júlio; David G. Bucknall; Bernardo, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mobility of polymers in their solid or molten states allows their processing without the need for toxic, “non-friendly” solvents. In this work, the main features of solvent-free processing methods applied to conjugated polymers are reviewed taking into consideration that these materials are largely used in a broad range of (opto-)electronic applications, including organic field-effect transistors, polymer light-emitting diodes and polymer photovoltaic devices. This review addres...

  16. Peptide conjugation: before or after nanoparticle formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valetti, Sabrina; Mura, Simona; Noiray, Magali; Arpicco, Silvia; Dosio, Franco; Vergnaud, Juliette; Desmaële, Didier; Stella, Barbara; Couvreur, Patrick

    2014-11-19

    We report herein a detailed study concerning the impact of different bioconjugation and nanoformulation strategies on the in vitro targeting ability of peptide-decorated squalenoyl gemcitabine (SQdFdC) nanoparticles (NPs). NPs have been functionalized with the CKAAKN peptide, previously identified as an efficient homing device within the pancreatic pathological microenvironment. Two approaches have been followed: (i) either the CKAAKN peptide was directly conjugated at the surface of preformed SQdFdC nanoparticles (conjugation after NP formation) or (ii) it was first reacted with a maleimide squalenoyl derivative before the resulting bioconjugate was co-nanoprecipitated with SQdFdC to form the peptide-decorated NPs (conjugation before NP formation). NPs were characterized with respect to mean diameter, zeta potential, and stability over time. Then, their specific interaction with the sFRP-4 protein was evaluated by surface plasmon resonance. Although both synthetic strategies allowed us to formulate NPs able to interact with the corresponding receptor, enhanced target binding and better specific avidity were observed with CKAAKN-NPs functionalized before NP formation. These NPs displayed the highest cell uptake and cytotoxicity in an in vitro model of human MIA Paca-2 pancreatic cancer cells.

  17. Structural investigation of PEG-fibrinogen conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisman, Ilya; Orbach, Ron; Seliktar, Dror; Bianco-Peled, Havazelet

    2010-01-01

    Controllable bio-synthetic polymeric hydrogels made from fibrinogen-poly(ethylene glycol) adducts have been successfully employed in tissue engineering. The structural consequences of PEG conjugation to fibrinogen (i.e., PEGylation) in such a hydrogel network are not fully understood. The current investigation details the structural alterations caused to the reduced fibrinogen polypeptides by the covalent attachment of linear or branched PEG chains. The structure of PEGylated fibrinogen polypeptides were comprehensively characterized using small angle X-ray scattering, light scattering, and cryo-transmission electron microscopy. These characterizations concur that the bio-synthetic hybrids self-assemble into elongated objects, having a protein core of about 50 A in diameter decorated with multiple PEG chains. Conjugates with branched PEG chains were shorter, and have lower average molecular weight compared to conjugates with linear chains. The diameter of the protein core of both samples was similar, suggesting a tail-to-head aggregation of the PEGylated fibrinogen polypeptide. A more complete understanding of this unique structural arrangement can provide further insight into the full extent of biofunctional accessibility in a biomaterial that combines the advantages of synthetic polymers with bioactive proteins. PMID:19693654

  18. Oligonucleotide conjugates - Candidates for gene silencing therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Matt; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Evans, James C; Darcy, Raphael; O'Driscoll, Caitriona M

    2016-10-01

    The potential therapeutic and diagnostic applications of oligonucleotides (ONs) have attracted great attention in recent years. The capability of ONs to selectively inhibit target genes through antisense and RNA interference mechanisms, without causing un-intended sideeffects has led them to be investigated for various biomedical applications, especially for the treatment of viral diseases and cancer. In recent years, many researchers have focused on enhancing the stability and target specificity of ONs by encapsulating/complexing them with polymers or lipid chains to formulate nanoparticles/nanocomplexes/micelles. Also, chemical modification of nucleic acids has emerged as an alternative to impart stability to ONs against nucleases and other degrading enzymes and proteins found in blood. In addition to chemically modifying the nucleic acids directly, another strategy that has emerged, involves conjugating polymers/peptide/aptamers/antibodies/proteins, preferably to the sense strand (3'end) of siRNAs. Conjugation to the siRNA not only enhances the stability and targeting specificity of the siRNA, but also allows for the development of self-administering siRNA formulations, with a much smaller size than what is usually observed for nanoparticle (∼200nm). This review concentrates mainly on approaches and studies involving ON-conjugates for biomedical applications. PMID:27521696

  19. Conjugation, characterization and toxicity of lipophosphoglycan-polyacrylic acid conjugate for vaccination against leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuzogullari, Murat; Cakir Koc, Rabia; Dincer Isoglu, Sevil; Bagirova, Melahat; Akdeste, Zeynep; Elcicek, Serhat; Oztel, Olga N; Yesilkir Baydar, Serap; Canim Ates, Sezen; Allahverdiyev, Adil M

    2013-01-01

    Research on the conjugates of synthetic polyelectrolytes with antigenic molecules, such as proteins, peptides, or carbohydrates, is an attractive area due to their highly immunogenic character in comparison to classical adjuvants. For example, polyacrylic acid (PAA) is a weak polyelectrolyte and has been used in several biomedical applications such as immunological studies, drug delivery, and enzyme immobilization. However, to our knowledge, there are no studies that document immune-stimulant properties of PAA in Leishmania infection. Therefore, we aimed to develop a potential vaccine candidate against leishmaniasis by covalently conjugating PAA with an immunologically vital molecule of lipophosphoglycan (LPG) found in Leishmania parasites. In the study, LPG and PAA were conjugated by a multi-step procedure, and final products were analyzed with GPC and MALDI-TOF MS techniques. In cytotoxicity experiments, LPG-PAA conjugates did not indicate toxic effects on L929 and J774 murine macrophage cells. We assume that LPG-PAA conjugate can be a potential vaccine candidate, and will be immunologically characterized in further studies to prove its potential. PMID:23731716

  20. Conjugation, characterization and toxicity of lipophosphoglycan-polyacrylic acid conjugate for vaccination against leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuzogullari, Murat; Cakir Koc, Rabia; Dincer Isoglu, Sevil; Bagirova, Melahat; Akdeste, Zeynep; Elcicek, Serhat; Oztel, Olga N; Yesilkir Baydar, Serap; Canim Ates, Sezen; Allahverdiyev, Adil M

    2013-06-03

    Research on the conjugates of synthetic polyelectrolytes with antigenic molecules, such as proteins, peptides, or carbohydrates, is an attractive area due to their highly immunogenic character in comparison to classical adjuvants. For example, polyacrylic acid (PAA) is a weak polyelectrolyte and has been used in several biomedical applications such as immunological studies, drug delivery, and enzyme immobilization. However, to our knowledge, there are no studies that document immune-stimulant properties of PAA in Leishmania infection. Therefore, we aimed to develop a potential vaccine candidate against leishmaniasis by covalently conjugating PAA with an immunologically vital molecule of lipophosphoglycan (LPG) found in Leishmania parasites. In the study, LPG and PAA were conjugated by a multi-step procedure, and final products were analyzed with GPC and MALDI-TOF MS techniques. In cytotoxicity experiments, LPG-PAA conjugates did not indicate toxic effects on L929 and J774 murine macrophage cells. We assume that LPG-PAA conjugate can be a potential vaccine candidate, and will be immunologically characterized in further studies to prove its potential.