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Sample records for cirrus optical depth

  1. Factors controlling contrail cirrus optical depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kärcher

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft contrails develop into contrail cirrus by depositional growth and sedimentation of ice particles and horizontal spreading due to wind shear. Factors controlling this development include temperature, ice supersaturation, thickness of ice-supersaturated layers, and vertical gradients in the horizontal wind field. An analytical microphysical cloud model is presented and validated that captures these processes. Many individual contrail cirrus are simulated that develop differently owing to the variability in the controlling factors, resulting in large samples of cloud properties that are statistically analyzed. Contrail cirrus development is studied over the first four hours past formation, similar to the ages of line-shaped contrails that were tracked in satellite imagery on regional scales. On these time scales, contrail cirrus optical depth and microphysical variables exhibit a marked variability, expressed in terms of broad and skewed probability distribution functions. Simulated mean optical depths at a wavelength of 0.55 μm range from 0.05-0.5 and a substantial fraction 20-50% of contrail cirrus stay subvisible (optical depth <0.02, depending on meteorological conditions.

    A detailed analysis based on an observational case study over the continental USA suggests that previous satellite measurements of line-shaped persistent contrails have missed about 89%, 50%, and 11% of contrails with optical depths 0-0.05, 0.05-0.1, and 0.1-0.2, respectively, amounting to 65% of contrail coverage of all optical depths. When comparing observations with simulations and when estimating the contrail cirrus climate impact, not only mean values but also the variability in optical depth and microphysical properties need to be considered.

  2. Macrophysical and optical properties of mid-latitude cirrus clouds over a semi-arid area observed by micro-pulse lidar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jin; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Jianping; Cao, Xianjie; Liu, Ruijin; Zhou, Bi; Wang, Hongbin; Huang, Zhongwei; Bi, Jianrong; Zhou, Tian; Zhang, Beidou; Wang, Tengjiao

    2013-01-01

    Macrophysical and optical characteristics of cirrus clouds were investigated at the Semi-Arid Climate Observatory and Laboratory (SACOL; 35.95°N, 104.14°E) of Lanzhou University in northwest China during April to December 2007 using micro-pulse lidar data and profiling radiometer measurements. Analysis of the measurements allowed the determination of macrophysical properties such as cirrus cloud height, ambient temperature, and geometrical depth, and optical characteristics were determined in terms of optical depth, extinction coefficient, and lidar ratio. Cirrus clouds were generally observed at heights ranging from 5.8 to 12.7 km, with a mean of 9.0±1.0 km. The mean cloud geometrical depth and optical depth were found to be 2.0±0.6 km and 0.350±0.311, respectively. Optical depth increased linearly with increasing geometrical depth. The results derived from lidar signals showed that cirrus over SACOL consisted of thin cirrus and opaque cirrus which occurred frequently in the height of 8–10 km. The lidar ratio varied from 5 to 70 sr, with a mean value of 26±16 sr, after taking into account multiple scattering effects. The mean lidar ratio of thin cirrus was greater than that of opaque cirrus. The maximum lidar ratio appeared between 0.058 and 0.3 when plotted against optical depth. The lidar ratio increased exponentially as the optical depth increased. The maximum lidar ratio fell between 11 and 12 km when plotted against cloud mid-height. The lidar ratio first increased and then decreased with increasing mid-height. -- Highlights: ► Cirrus clouds over semi-arid area were firstly observed by ground-based lidar. ► Macrophysical and optical characteristics of cirrus clouds were discussed. ► Thin cirrus and opaque cirrus occurred most frequently over SACOL. ► Thin cirrus often occurred above 10 km

  3. Measurement of Optic Disc Cup Surface Depth Using Cirrus HD-OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Kook; Ha, Ahnul; Lee, Won June; Jeoung, Jin Wook; Park, Ki Ho

    2017-12-01

    To introduce the measurement method of optic disc cup surface depth using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and then evaluate the rates of cup surface depression at 3 different stages of glaucoma. We retrospectively identified 52 eyes with preperimetric glaucoma, 56 with mild-or-moderate glaucoma and 50 with severe glaucoma and followed them for at least 48 months. Eyes were imaged using SD-OCT (Cirrus HD-OCT) at 12-month intervals. The mean cup surface depth was calculated using the following formula: Cup volume/(disc area×average cup-to-disc ratio)-200 μm. The rates of mean cup surface depression (μm/y) were significantly greater in mild-or-moderate glaucoma (-7.96±1.03) than in preperimetric (-3.11±0.61) and severe glaucoma (-0.70±0.12; all Pcup surface depression (%/y) were significantly greater than those of average of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning (%/y) in preperimetric glaucoma (-1.64±0.12 vs. -1.11±0.07; Pcup surface depth changed slower than did average RNFL thickness (-0.64±0.06 vs. -0.75±0.08%/y; Pcup surface depth changed faster than did the RNFL thickness. These results signify the possibility that SD-OCT-based estimation of cup surface depth might be useful for monitoring of glaucoma development and progression.

  4. Retrieval of Cirrus Cloud Optical Depth under Day and Night Conditions from MODIS Collection 6 Cloud Property Data

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    Andrew K. Heidinger

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technique to generate cirrus optical depth and particle effective size estimates from the cloud emissivities at 8.5, 11 and 12 μm contained in the Collection-6 (C6 MYD06 cloud product. This technique employs the latest scattering models and scattering radiative transfer approximations to estimate cloud optical depth and particle effective size using efficient analytical formulae. Two scattering models are tested. The first is the same scattering model as that used in the C6 MYD06 solar reflectance products. The second model is an empirical model derived from radiometric consistency. Both models are shown to generate optical depths that compare well to those from constrained CALIPSO retrievals and MYD06. In terms of effective radius retrievals, the results from the radiometric empirical model agree more closely with MYD06 than those from the C6 model. This analysis is applied to AQUA/MODIS data collocated with CALIPSO/CALIOP during January 2010.

  5. Investigation of tropical cirrus cloud properties using ground based lidar measurements

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    Dhaman, Reji K.; Satyanarayana, Malladi; Krishnakumar, V.; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.; Jayeshlal, G. S.; Raghunath, K.; Venkat Ratnam, M.

    2016-05-01

    Cirrus clouds play a significant role in the Earths radiation budget. Therefore, knowledge of geometrical and optical properties of cirrus cloud is essential for the climate modeling. In this paper, the cirrus clouds microphysical and optical properties are made by using a ground based lidar measurements over an inland tropical station Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E), Andhra Pradesh, India. The variation of cirrus microphysical and optical properties with mid cloud temperature is also studied. The cirrus clouds mean height is generally observed in the range of 9-17km with a peak occurrence at 13- 14km. The cirrus mid cloud temperature ranges from -81°C to -46°C. The cirrus geometrical thickness ranges from 0.9- 4.5km. During the cirrus occurrence days sub-visual, thin and dense cirrus were at 37.5%, 50% and 12.5% respectively. The monthly cirrus optical depth ranges from 0.01-0.47, but most (<80%) of the cirrus have values less than 0.1. Optical depth shows a strong dependence with cirrus geometrical thickness and mid-cloud height. The monthly mean cirrus extinction ranges from 2.8E-06 to 8E-05 and depolarization ratio and lidar ratio varies from 0.13 to 0.77 and 2 to 52 sr respectively. A positive correlation exists for both optical depth and extinction with the mid-cloud temperature. The lidar ratio shows a scattered behavior with mid-cloud temperature.

  6. Climatology analysis of cirrus cloud in ARM site: South Great Plain

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    Olayinka, K.

    2017-12-01

    Cirrus cloud play an important role in the atmospheric energy balance and hence in the earth's climate system. The properties of optically thin clouds can be determined from measurements of transmission of the direct solar beam. The accuracy of cloud optical properties determined in this way is compromised by contamination of the direct transmission by light that is scattered into the sensors field of view. With the forward scattering correction method developed by Min et al., (2004), the accuracy of thin cloud retrievals from MFRSR has been improved. Our result shows over 30% of cirrus cloud present in the atmosphere are within optical depth between (1-2). In this study, we do statistics studies on cirrus clouds properties based on multi-years cirrus cloud measurements from MFRSR at ARM site from the South Great Plain (SGP) site due to its relatively easy accessibility, wide variability of climate cloud types and surface flux properties, large seasonal variation in temperature and specific humidity. Through the statistic studies, temporal and spatial variations of cirrus clouds are investigated. Since the presence of cirrus cloud increases the effect of greenhouse gases, we will retrieve the aerosol optical depth in all the cirrus cloud regions using a radiative transfer model for atmospheric correction. Calculate thin clouds optical depth (COD), and aerosol optical depth (AOD) using a radiative transfer model algorithm, e.g.: MODTRAN (MODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission)

  7. Application of a multiple scattering model to estimate optical depth, lidar ratio and ice crystal effective radius of cirrus clouds observed with lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Diego; Baars, Holger; Seifert, Patric; Wandinger, Ulla; Barbosa, Henrique; Barja, Boris; Artaxo, Paulo; Lopes, Fabio; Landulfo, Eduardo; Ansmann, Albert

    2018-04-01

    Lidar measurements of cirrus clouds are highly influenced by multiple scattering (MS). We therefore developed an iterative approach to correct elastic backscatter lidar signals for multiple scattering to obtain best estimates of single-scattering cloud optical depth and lidar ratio as well as of the ice crystal effective radius. The approach is based on the exploration of the effect of MS on the molecular backscatter signal returned from above cloud top.

  8. Optical and geometrical properties of cirrus clouds in Amazonia derived from 1 year of ground-based lidar measurements

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    Gouveia, Diego A.; Barja, Boris; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Seifert, Patric; Baars, Holger; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Artaxo, Paulo

    2017-03-01

    Cirrus clouds cover a large fraction of tropical latitudes and play an important role in Earth's radiation budget. Their optical properties, altitude, vertical and horizontal coverage control their radiative forcing, and hence detailed cirrus measurements at different geographical locations are of utmost importance. Studies reporting cirrus properties over tropical rain forests like the Amazon, however, are scarce. Studies with satellite profilers do not give information on the diurnal cycle, and the satellite imagers do not report on the cloud vertical structure. At the same time, ground-based lidar studies are restricted to a few case studies. In this paper, we derive the first comprehensive statistics of optical and geometrical properties of upper-tropospheric cirrus clouds in Amazonia. We used 1 year (July 2011 to June 2012) of ground-based lidar atmospheric observations north of Manaus, Brazil. This dataset was processed by an automatic cloud detection and optical properties retrieval algorithm. Upper-tropospheric cirrus clouds were observed more frequently than reported previously for tropical regions. The frequency of occurrence was found to be as high as 88 % during the wet season and not lower than 50 % during the dry season. The diurnal cycle shows a minimum around local noon and maximum during late afternoon, associated with the diurnal cycle of precipitation. The mean values of cirrus cloud top and base heights, cloud thickness, and cloud optical depth were 14.3 ± 1.9 (SD) km, 12.9 ± 2.2 km, 1.4 ± 1.1 km, and 0.25 ± 0.46, respectively. Cirrus clouds were found at temperatures down to -90 °C. Frequently cirrus were observed within the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), which are likely associated to slow mesoscale uplifting or to the remnants of overshooting convection. The vertical distribution was not uniform, and thin and subvisible cirrus occurred more frequently closer to the tropopause. The mean lidar ratio was 23.3 ± 8.0 sr. However, for

  9. Application of a multiple scattering model to estimate optical depth, lidar ratio and ice crystal effective radius of cirrus clouds observed with lidar.

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    Gouveia Diego

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lidar measurements of cirrus clouds are highly influenced by multiple scattering (MS. We therefore developed an iterative approach to correct elastic backscatter lidar signals for multiple scattering to obtain best estimates of single-scattering cloud optical depth and lidar ratio as well as of the ice crystal effective radius. The approach is based on the exploration of the effect of MS on the molecular backscatter signal returned from above cloud top.

  10. Orographic cirrus in a future climate

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    H. Joos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A cloud resolving model (CRM is used to investigate the formation of orographic cirrus clouds in the current and future climate. The formation of cirrus clouds depends on a variety of dynamical and thermodynamical processes, which act on different scales. First, the capability of the CRM in realistically simulating orographic cirrus clouds has been tested by comparing the simulated results to aircraft measurements of an orographic cirrus cloud. The influence of a warmer climate on the microphysical and optical properties of cirrus clouds has been investigated by initializing the CRM with vertical profiles of horizontal wind, potential temperature and equivalent potential temperature, respectively. The vertical profiles are extracted from IPCC A1B simulations for the current climate and for the period 2090–2099 for two regions representative for North and South America. The influence of additional moisture in a future climate on the propagation of gravity waves and the formation of orographic cirrus could be estimated. In a future climate, the increase in moisture dampens the vertical propagation of gravity waves and the occurring vertical velocities in the moist simulations. Together with higher temperatures fewer ice crystals nucleate homogeneously. Assuming that the relative humidity does not change in a warmer climate the specific humidity in the model is increased. This increase in specific humidity in a warmer climate results in a higher ice water content. The net effect of a reduced ice crystal number concentration and a higher ice water content is an increased optical depth. However, in some moist simulations dynamical changes contribute to changes in the ice water content, ice crystal number concentration and optical depth. For the corresponding dry simulations dynamical changes are more pronounced leading to a decreased optical depth in a future climate in some cases.

  11. Subtropical Cirrus Properties Derived from GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar Measurements during CAMEX 3

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    Whiteman, D. N.; Wang, Z.; Demoz, B.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) was stationed on Andros Island, Bahamas for the third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX 3) held in August - September, 1998 and acquired an extensive set of water vapor and cirrus cloud measurements (Whiteman et al., 2001). The cirrus data studied here have been segmented by generating mechanism. Distinct differences in the optical properties of the clouds are found when the cirrus are hurricane-induced versus thunderstom-induced. Relationships of cirrus cloud optical depth, mean cloud temperature, and layer mean extinction-to-backscatter ratio (S) are presented and compared with mid-latitude and tropical results. Hurricane-induced cirrus clouds are found to generally possess lower values of S than thunderstorm induced clouds. Comparison of these measurements of S are made with other studies revealing at times large differences in the measurements. Given that S is a required parameter for spacebased retrievals of cloud optical depth using backscatter lidar, these large diffaences in S measurements present difficulties for space-based retrievals of cirrus cloud extinction and optical depth.

  12. The effect of optically thin cirrus clouds on solar radiation in Camagüey, Cuba

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    B. Barja

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of optically thin cirrus clouds on solar radiation is analyzed by numerical simulation, using lidar measurements of cirrus conducted at Camagüey, Cuba. Sign and amplitude of the cirrus clouds effect on solar radiation is evaluated. There is a relation between the solar zenith angle and solar cirrus cloud radiative forcing (SCRF present in the diurnal cycle of the SCRF. Maximums of SCRF out of noon located at the cirrus cloud base height are found for the thin and opaque cirrus clouds. The cirrus clouds optical depth (COD threshold for having double SCRF maximum out of noon instead of a single one at noon was 0.083. In contrast, the heating rate shows a maximum at noon in the location of cirrus clouds maximum extinction values. Cirrus clouds have a cooling effect in the solar spectrum at the Top of the Atmosphere (TOA and at the surface (SFC. The daily mean value of SCRF has an average value of −9.1 W m−2 at TOA and −5.6 W m−2 at SFC. The cirrus clouds also have a local heating effect on the atmospheric layer where they are located. Cirrus clouds have mean daily values of heating rates of 0.63 K day−1 with a range between 0.35 K day−1 and 1.24 K day−1. The principal effect is in the near-infrared spectral band of the solar spectrum. There is a linear relation between SCRF and COD, with −30 W m−2 COD−1 and −26 W m−2 COD−1, values for the slopes of the fits at the TOA and SFC, respectively, in the broadband solar spectrum.

  13. The optical properties of equatorial cirrus in the pilot radiation observation experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, C.M.R.; Young, S.A.; Manson, P.; Patterson, G.R. [CSIRO, Victoria (Australia)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    The development of a sensitive filter radiometer for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has been reported. The aim was to develop a reliable and fast instrument that could be used alongside a lidar to obtain near realtime optical properties of clouds, particularly high ice clouds, as they drifted over an ARM Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site allowing calculation of the radiation divergence in the atmosphere over the site. Obtaining cloud optical properties by the lidar/radiometer, or LIRAD, method was described by Platt et al.; the latter paper also describes a year`s data on mid-latitude cirrus. The optical properties of equatorial cirrus (i.e., cirrus within a few degrees of the equator) have hardly been studied at all. The same is true of tropical cirrus, although a few observations have been reported by Davis and Platt et al.This paper describes obersvations performed on cirrus clouds, analysis methods used, and results.

  14. Cloud-radiation interactions - Effects of cirrus optical thickness feedbacks

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    Somerville, Richard C. J.; Iacobellis, Sam

    1987-01-01

    The paper is concerned with a cloud-radiation feedback mechanism which may be an important component of the climate changes expected from increased atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other trace greenhouse gases. A major result of the study is that cirrus cloud optical thickness feedbacks may indeed tend to increase the surface warming due to trace gas increases. However, the positive feedback from cirrus appears to be generally weaker than the negative effects due to lower clouds. The results just confirm those of earlier research indicating that the net effect of cloud optical thickness feedbacks may be a negative feedback which may substantially (by a factor of about 2) reduce the surface warming due to the doubling of CO2, even in the presence of cirrus clouds.

  15. Lidar inelastic multiple-scattering parameters of cirrus particle ensembles determined with geometrical-optics crystal phase functions.

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    Reichardt, J; Hess, M; Macke, A

    2000-04-20

    Multiple-scattering correction factors for cirrus particle extinction coefficients measured with Raman and high spectral resolution lidars are calculated with a radiative-transfer model. Cirrus particle-ensemble phase functions are computed from single-crystal phase functions derived in a geometrical-optics approximation. Seven crystal types are considered. In cirrus clouds with height-independent particle extinction coefficients the general pattern of the multiple-scattering parameters has a steep onset at cloud base with values of 0.5-0.7 followed by a gradual and monotonic decrease to 0.1-0.2 at cloud top. The larger the scattering particles are, the more gradual is the rate of decrease. Multiple-scattering parameters of complex crystals and of imperfect hexagonal columns and plates can be well approximated by those of projected-area equivalent ice spheres, whereas perfect hexagonal crystals show values as much as 70% higher than those of spheres. The dependencies of the multiple-scattering parameters on cirrus particle spectrum, base height, and geometric depth and on the lidar parameters laser wavelength and receiver field of view, are discussed, and a set of multiple-scattering parameter profiles for the correction of extinction measurements in homogeneous cirrus is provided.

  16. Cirrus cloud-temperature interactions over a tropical station, Gadanki from lidar and satellite observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S, Motty G; Satyanarayana, M.; Krishnakumar, V.; Dhaman, Reji k.

    2014-01-01

    The cirrus clouds play an important role in the radiation budget of the earth's atmospheric system and are important to characterize their vertical structure and optical properties. LIDAR measurements are obtained from the tropical station Gadanki (13.5 0 N, 79.2 0 E), India, and meteorological indicators derived from Radiosonde data. Most of the cirrus clouds are observed near to the tropopause, which substantiates the strength of the tropical convective processes. The height and temperature dependencies of cloud height, optical depth, and depolarization ratio were investigated. Cirrus observations made using CALIPSO satellite are compared with lidar data for systematic statistical study of cirrus climatology

  17. CSIR NLC mobile lidar observation of cirrus cloud

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivakumar, V

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present a night-time continuous CSIR-NLC mobile observation of highaltitude cirrus cloud. The LIDAR measurements will also elucidate the aerosol concentration, optical depth, cloud position, thickness and other general...

  18. Influences of cloud heterogeneity on cirrus optical properties retrieved from the visible and near-infrared channels of MODIS/SEVIRI for flat and optically thick cirrus clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yongbo; Sun, Xuejin; Zhang, Riwei; Zhang, Chuanliang; Li, Haoran; Zhou, Junhao; Li, Shaohui

    2017-01-01

    The influences of three-dimensional radiative effects and horizontal heterogeneity effects on the retrieval of cloud optical thickness (COT) and effective diameter (De) for cirrus clouds are explored by the SHDOM radiative transfer model. The stochastic cirrus clouds are generated by the Cloudgen model based on the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program data. Incorporating a new ice cloud spectral model, we evaluate the retrieval errors for two solar zenith angles (SZAs) (30° and 60°), four solar azimuth angles (0°, 45°, 90°, and 180°), and two sensor settings (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) onboard Aqua and Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) onboard METEOSAT-8). The domain-averaged relative error of COT (μ) ranges from −24.1 % to -1.0 % (SZA = 30°) and from −11.6 % to 3.3 % (SZA = 60°), with the uncertainty within 7.5 % to –12.5 % (SZA = 30°) and 20.0 % - 27.5 % (SZA = 60°). For the SZA of 60° only, the relative error and uncertainty are parameterized by the retrieved COT by linear functions, providing bases to correct the retrieved COT and estimate their uncertainties. Besides, De is overestimated by 0.7–15.0 μm on the domain average, with the corresponding uncertainty within 6.7–26.5 μm. The retrieval errors show no discernible dependence on solar azimuth angle due to the flat tops and full coverage of the cirrus samples. The results are valid only for the two samples and for the specific spatial resolution of the radiative transfer simulations. - Highlights: • The retrieved cloud optical properties for 3-D cirrus clouds are evaluated. • The cloud optical thickness and uncertainty could be corrected and estimated. • On the domain average, the effective diameter of ice crystal is overestimated. • The optical properties show non-obvious dependence on the solar azimuth angle.

  19. Subtropical and Polar Cirrus Clouds Characterized by Ground-Based Lidars and CALIPSO/CALIOP Observations

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    Córdoba-Jabonero Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cirrus clouds are product of weather processes, and then their occurrence and macrophysical/optical properties can vary significantly over different regions of the world. Lidars can provide height-resolved measurements with a relatively good both vertical and temporal resolutions, making them the most suitable instrumentation for high-cloud observations. The aim of this work is to show the potential of lidar observations on Cirrus clouds detection in combination with a recently proposed methodology to retrieve the Cirrus clouds macrophysical and optical features. In this sense, a few case studies of cirrus clouds observed at both subtropical and polar latitudes are examined and compared to CALIPSO/CALIOP observations. Lidar measurements are carried out in two stations: the Metropolitan city of Sao Paulo (MSP, Brazil, 23.3°S 46.4°W, located at subtropical latitudes, and the Belgrano II base (BEL, Argentina, 78ºS 35ºW in the Antarctic continent. Optical (COD-cloud optical depth and LR-Lidar Ratio and macrophysical (top/base heights and thickness properties of both the subtropical and polar cirrus clouds are reported. In general, subtropical Cirrus clouds present lower LR values and are found at higher altitudes than those detected at polar latitudes. In general, Cirrus clouds are detected at similar altitudes by CALIOP. However, a poor agreement is achieved in the LR retrieved between ground-based lidars and space-borne CALIOP measurements, likely due to the use of a fixed (or low-variable LR value in CALIOP inversion procedures.

  20. Optics and geometric characterization of cirrus from Lille lidar measurements over the period 2008-2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohra, R.; Parol, F.; Dubuisson

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is the detection and characterization of cirrus clouds from ground-based lidar measurements acquired at 532 nm wave length. An inversion method has been developed during this work to realize a climatologyof cirrus clouds over Lille, France (50.65°N, 3.08ºE) from 2008 to 2013. The mid-cloud height is generally observed between 7 and 13 km, and a mean thickness is found to be 1.4 ±0.8 km. Visibleclouds, characterized by anoptical thickness between 0.03 and 0.3, present 68 % of the total observed cirrus clouds. The methodology used in this work andthe retrieved geometrical and optical parameters of cirrus clouds are presented in this article. (author)

  1. Statistics of optical and geometrical properties of cirrus cloud over tibetan plateau measured by lidar and radiosonde

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    Dai Guangyao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cirrus clouds affect the energy budget and hydrological cycle of the earth’s atmosphere. The Tibetan Plateau (TP plays a significant role in the global and regional climate. Optical and geometrical properties of cirrus clouds in the TP were measured in July-August 2014 by lidar and radiosonde. The statistics and temperature dependences of the corresponding properties are analyzed. The cirrus cloud formations are discussed with respect to temperature deviation and dynamic processes.

  2. Contrail Cirrus Forecasts for the ML-CIRRUS Experiment and Some Comparison Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Ulrich; Graf, Kaspar; Bugliaro, Luca; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Giez, Andreas; Jurkat, Tina; Kaufmann, Stefan; Krämer, Martina; Minikin, Andreas; Schäfler, Andreas; Voigt, Christiane; Wirth, Martin; Zahn, Andreas; Ziereis, Helmut

    2015-04-01

    Model simulations with the contrail cirrus prediction model CoCiP driven by numerical weather prediction (NWP) data provided from the European Centre for Medium Range Forecasts (ECMWF) and global aircraft waypoint data show a mean computed cover (for optical depth larger than 0.1) of 0.23% globally, and 5.4% over mid Europe (Schumann and Graf, JGR, 2013). The computed mean longwave radiative forcing (RF) reaches 3 W m-2 over mid Europe (10°W-20°E and 40°N-55°N), and 0.13 W m-2 globally. The global net RF is about 40-60% smaller because of compensating shortwave cooling induced by contrails during daytime. The results depend on several model details such as the number of ice particles forming from aircraft soot emissions, the contrail plume dispersion, ice particle sedimentation etc., all influencing contrail life time and their optical properties. The quantitative results depend also strongly on ambient relative humidity, vertical motion and on ice water content of other cirrus predicted by the NWP model. In order to test and possibly improve this and other contrail models, high-quality observations are needed to which multi-parameter model output can be compared. The Mid-Latitude Cirrus Experiment ML-CIRRUS was performed (see C. Voigt et al., this conference) with a suite of in-situ and Lidar instruments for airborne measurements on the research aircraft HALO. Before and during the mission, CoCiP was run daily to provide 3-days forecasts of contrail cover using operational ECMWF forecasts and historical traffic data. CoCiP forecast output was made available in an internet tool twice a day for experiment planning. The one-day and two-day contrail forecasts often showed only small differences. Still, most recent forecasts and detailed satellite observations results were transmitted via satellite link to the crew for onboard campaign optimization. After the campaign, a data base of realistic air traffic data has been setup from various sources, and CoCiP was

  3. Aviation effects on already-existing cirrus clouds.

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    Tesche, Matthias; Achtert, Peggy; Glantz, Paul; Noone, Kevin J

    2016-06-21

    Determining the effects of the formation of contrails within natural cirrus clouds has proven to be challenging. Quantifying any such effects is necessary if we are to properly account for the influence of aviation on climate. Here we quantify the effect of aircraft on the optical thickness of already-existing cirrus clouds by matching actual aircraft flight tracks to satellite lidar measurements. We show that there is a systematic, statistically significant increase in normalized cirrus cloud optical thickness inside mid-latitude flight tracks compared with adjacent areas immediately outside the tracks.

  4. Retrieval of subvisual cirrus cloud optical thickness from limb-scatter measurements

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    J. T. Wiensz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a technique for estimating the optical thickness of subvisual cirrus clouds detected by OSIRIS (Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging System, a limb-viewing satellite instrument that measures scattered radiances from the UV to the near-IR. The measurement set is composed of a ratio of limb radiance profiles at two wavelengths that indicates the presence of cloud-scattering regions. Cross-sections and phase functions from an in situ database are used to simulate scattering by cloud-particles. With appropriate configurations discussed in this paper, the SASKTRAN successive-orders of scatter radiative transfer model is able to simulate accurately the in-cloud radiances from OSIRIS. Configured in this way, the model is used with a multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART to retrieve the cloud extinction profile for an assumed effective cloud particle size. The sensitivity of these retrievals to key auxiliary model parameters is shown, and it is shown that the retrieved extinction profile, for an assumed effective cloud particle size, models well the measured in-cloud radiances from OSIRIS. The greatest sensitivity of the retrieved optical thickness is to the effective cloud particle size. Since OSIRIS has an 11-yr record of subvisual cirrus cloud detections, the work described in this manuscript provides a very useful method for providing a long-term global record of the properties of these clouds.

  5. Daytime Land Surface Temperature Extraction from MODIS Thermal Infrared Data under Cirrus Clouds

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    Xiwei Fan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Simulated data showed that cirrus clouds could lead to a maximum land surface temperature (LST retrieval error of 11.0 K when using the generalized split-window (GSW algorithm with a cirrus optical depth (COD at 0.55 μm of 0.4 and in nadir view. A correction term in the COD linear function was added to the GSW algorithm to extend the GSW algorithm to cirrus cloudy conditions. The COD was acquired by a look up table of the isolated cirrus bidirectional reflectance at 0.55 μm. Additionally, the slope k of the linear function was expressed as a multiple linear model of the top of the atmospheric brightness temperatures of MODIS channels 31–34 and as the difference between split-window channel emissivities. The simulated data showed that the LST error could be reduced from 11.0 to 2.2 K. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the total errors from all the uncertainties of input parameters, extension algorithm accuracy, and GSW algorithm accuracy were less than 2.5 K in nadir view. Finally, the Great Lakes surface water temperatures measured by buoys showed that the retrieval accuracy of the GSW algorithm was improved by at least 1.5 K using the proposed extension algorithm for cirrus skies.

  6. Potential of remote sensing of cirrus optical thickness by airborne spectral radiance measurements at different sideward viewing angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Kevin; Ehrlich, André; Hüneke, Tilman; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Werner, Frank; Wirth, Martin; Wendisch, Manfred

    2017-03-01

    Spectral radiance measurements collected in nadir and sideward viewing directions by two airborne passive solar remote sensing instruments, the Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation measurement sysTem (SMART) and the Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer (mini-DOAS), are used to compare the remote sensing results of cirrus optical thickness τ. The comparison is based on a sensitivity study using radiative transfer simulations (RTS) and on data obtained during three airborne field campaigns: the North Atlantic Rainfall VALidation (NARVAL) mission, the Mid-Latitude Cirrus Experiment (ML-CIRRUS) and the Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation, and Radiation Interactions and Dynamics of Convective Cloud Systems (ACRIDICON) campaign. Radiative transfer simulations are used to quantify the sensitivity of measured upward radiance I with respect to τ, ice crystal effective radius reff, viewing angle of the sensor θV, spectral surface albedo α, and ice crystal shape. From the calculations it is concluded that sideward viewing measurements are generally better suited than radiance data from the nadir direction to retrieve τ of optically thin cirrus, especially at wavelengths larger than λ = 900 nm. Using sideward instead of nadir-directed spectral radiance measurements significantly improves the sensitivity and accuracy in retrieving τ, in particular for optically thin cirrus of τ ≤ 2. The comparison of retrievals of τ based on nadir and sideward viewing radiance measurements from SMART, mini-DOAS and independent estimates of τ from an additional active remote sensing instrument, the Water Vapor Lidar Experiment in Space (WALES), shows general agreement within the range of measurement uncertainties. For the selected example a mean τ of 0.54 ± 0.2 is derived from SMART, and 0.49 ± 0.2 by mini-DOAS nadir channels, while WALES obtained a mean value of τ = 0.32 ± 0.02 at 532 nm wavelength, respectively. The mean of τ derived from the sideward viewing mini

  7. Comparing Gonioscopy With Visante and Cirrus Optical Coherence Tomography for Anterior Chamber Angle Assessment in Glaucoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Cindy X; Mantravadi, Anand; Zangalli, Camila; Ali, Mohsin; Faria, Bruno M; Richman, Jesse; Wizov, Sheryl S; Razeghinejad, M Reza; Moster, Marlene R; Katz, L Jay

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare gonioscopy with Visante and Cirrus optical coherence tomography (OCT) for identifying angle structures and the presence of angle closure in patients with glaucoma. A secondary objective was to assess interrater agreement for gonioscopy grading among 3 independent examiners. Gonioscopy grading using Spaeth Classification and determination of angle-closure risk was performed on 1 randomly selected eye for 50 phakic patients. Images of the same eye using both Visante and Cirrus OCT were obtained in both light and dark conditions. Agreement of angle closure among 3 devices and interrater agreement for gonioscopy were determined using Cohen's κ (K) or Kendall's coefficient of concordance (W). Of the 50 patients, 60% were female, 64% were white, and the mean age was 62 years. Angle closure was detected in 18%, 16%, and 48% of quadrants with Visante, Cirrus, and gonioscopy, respectively. The scleral spur was identified in 56% and 50% of quadrants with Visante and Cirrus OCT, respectively. Visante and Cirrus OCT showed moderate agreement in detecting angle closure (K=0.42 light, K=0.53 dark) but slight-to-fair agreement with gonioscopy (Visante K=0.25, Cirrus K=0.15). Gonioscopy demonstrated substantial agreement in angle closure (K=0.65 to 0.68) and angle-closure risk assessment (W=0.83) among 3 examiners. Visante and Cirrus OCT imaging may have limited ability to identify angle closure because of difficulty identifying angle structures. Gonioscopy by well-trained clinicians had remarkably consistent agreement for identifying angle-closure risk.

  8. Discriminating ability of Cirrus and RTVue optical coherence tomography in different stages of glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Deepti; Dubey, Suneeta; Gandhi, Monica; Pegu, Julie; Bhoot, Madhu; Gupta, Yadunandan Prasad

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study is to determine which parameter of Cirrus and RTVue optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the highest ability to discriminate between early, moderate, and advanced glaucoma. Simultaneously, to compare the performance of the two OCT devices in terms of their ability to differentiate the three stages of glaucoma. Further, to analyze the macular parameters of both devices and compare them with the conventional retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) parameters. One hundred and twenty eyes (30 healthy and 90 glaucomatous [30 mild, 30 moderate, and 30 advanced glaucoma]) of 65 participants (15 healthy, 50 glaucomatous [15 mild, 15 moderate, and 20 advanced glaucoma]) underwent Cirrus and RTVue OCT scanning on a single visit. Average RNFL thickness and superior RNFL thickness of both the devices and inferior (ganglion cell complex [GCC] of RTVue device best differentiated normals from all stage glaucomatous eyes (P > 0.05). Cirrus average RNFL thickness and superior RNFL thickness performed better than other parameters (P device in different severity levels. No significant difference was observed between RNFL and macular parameters in different stages of glaucoma.

  9. Validation of POLDER/ADEOS data using a ground-based lidar network: Preliminary results for semi-transparent and cirrus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepfer, H.; Sauvage, L.; Flamant, P. H.; Pelon, J.; Goloub, P.; Brogniez, G.; spinhirne, J.; Lavorato, M.; Sugimoto, N.

    1998-01-01

    At mid and tropical latitudes, cirrus clouds are present more than 50% of the time in satellites observations. Due to their large spatial and temporal coverage, and associated low temperatures, cirrus clouds have a major influence on the Earth-Ocean-Atmosphere energy balance through their effects on the incoming solar radiation and outgoing infrared radiation. At present the impact of cirrus clouds on climate is well recognized but remains to be asserted more precisely, for their optical and radiative properties are not very well known. In order to understand the effects of cirrus clouds on climate, their optical and radiative characteristics of these clouds need to be determined accurately at different scales in different locations i.e. latitude. Lidars are well suited to observe cirrus clouds, they can detect very thin and semi-transparent layers, and retrieve the clouds geometrical properties i.e. altitude and multilayers, as well as radiative properties i.e. optical depth, backscattering phase functions of ice crystals. Moreover the linear depolarization ratio can give information on the ice crystal shape. In addition, the data collected with an airborne version of POLDER (POLarization and Directionality of Earth Reflectances) instrument have shown that bidirectional polarized measurements can provide information on cirrus cloud microphysical properties (crystal shapes, preferred orientation in space). The spaceborne version of POLDER-1 has been flown on ADEOS-1 platform during 8 months (October 96 - June 97), and the next POLDER-2 instrument will be launched in 2000 on ADEOS-2. The POLDER-1 cloud inversion algorithms are currently under validation. For cirrus clouds, a validation based on comparisons between cloud properties retrieved from POLDER-1 data and cloud properties inferred from a ground-based lidar network is currently under consideration. We present the first results of the validation.

  10. Cirrus Cloud Optical Thickness and Effective Diameter Retrieved by MODIS: Impacts of Single Habit Assumption, 3-D Radiative Effects, and Cloud Inhomogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongbo; Sun, Xuejin; Mielonen, Tero; Li, Haoran; Zhang, Riwei; Li, Yan; Zhang, Chuanliang

    2018-01-01

    For inhomogeneous cirrus clouds, cloud optical thickness (COT) and effective diameter (De) provided by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Collection 6 cloud products are associated with errors due to the single habit assumption (SHA), independent pixel assumption (IPA), photon absorption effect (PAE), and plane-parallel assumption (PPA). SHA means that every cirrus cloud is assumed to have the same shape habit of ice crystals. IPA errors are caused by three-dimensional (3D) radiative effects. PPA and PAE errors are caused by cloud inhomogeneity. We proposed a method to single out these different errors. These errors were examined using the Spherical Harmonics Discrete Ordinate Method simulations done for the MODIS 0.86 μm and 2.13 μm bands. Four midlatitude and tropical cirrus cases were studied. For the COT retrieval, the impacts of SHA and IPA were especially large for optically thick cirrus cases. SHA errors in COT varied distinctly with scattering angles. For the De retrieval, SHA decreased De under most circumstances. PAE decreased De for optically thick cirrus cases. For the COT and De retrievals, the dominant error source was SHA for overhead sun whereas for oblique sun, it could be any of SHA, IPA, and PAE, varying with cirrus cases and sun-satellite viewing geometries. On the domain average, the SHA errors in COT (De) were within -16.1%-42.6% (-38.7%-2.0%), whereas the 3-D radiative effects- and cloud inhomogeneity-induced errors in COT (De) were within -5.6%-19.6% (-2.9%-8.0%) and -2.6%-0% (-3.7%-9.8%), respectively.

  11. Numerical simulations of contrail-to-cirrus transition – Part 2: Impact of initial ice crystal number, radiation, stratification, secondary nucleation and layer depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Unterstrasser

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of contrail-to-cirrus transition were performed with an LES model. In Part 1 the impact of relative humidity, temperature and vertical wind shear was explored in a detailed parametric study. Here, we study atmospheric parameters like stratification and depth of the supersaturated layer and processes which may affect the contrail evolution. We consider contrails in various radiation scenarios herein defined by the season, time of day and the presence of lower-level cloudiness which controls the radiance incident on the contrail layer. Under suitable conditions, controlled by the radiation scenario and stratification, radiative heating lifts the contrail-cirrus and prolongs its lifetime. The potential of contrail-driven secondary nucleation is investigated. We consider homogeneous nucleation and heterogeneous nucleation of preactivated soot cores released from sublimated contrail ice crystals. In our model the contrail dynamics triggered by radiative heating does not suffice to force homogeneous freezing of ambient liquid aerosol particles. Furthermore, our model results suggest that heterogeneous nucleation of preactivated soot cores is unimportant. Contrail evolution is not controlled by the depth of the supersaturated layer as long as it exceeds roughly 500 m. Deep fallstreaks however need thicker layers. A variation of the initial ice crystal number is effective during the whole evolution of a contrail. A cut of the soot particle emission by two orders of magnitude can reduce the contrail timescale by one hour and the optical thickness by a factor of 5. Hence future engines with lower soot particle emissions could potentially lead to a reduction of the climate impact of aviation.

  12. Characterization of optical and micro-physical properties of cirrus clouds using a wideband thermal infrared spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchetti, Luca; Di Natale, Gianluca; Bianchini, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    High-altitude ice clouds such as cirrus clouds play a key role in the Earth's radiation budget since they cover permanently about 20-30% of the surface of the planet, reaching even to 60-70% in the tropics. The modulation of the incoming solar radiation and the outgoing Earth's thermal emission due to cirrus can contribute to heat or to cool the atmosphere, according to their optical properties, which must be characterised with great accuracy and over the whole spectral range involved in the scattering and emission processes. Here we present the infrared measurements over the wide spectral range from 9 to 50 micron performed by the Fourier transform spectrometer REFIR-PAD (Radiation Explorer in Far InfraRed - Prototype for Application and Development) during many field campaigns that have taken place since 2007 from different high-altitude ground-based stations: Testa Grigia Station, Cervinia-Italy, (3480 m asl), Cerro Toco, Atacama-Chile, (5380 m asl), Concordia Base, Dome C-Antarctica (3230 m asl). These measurements show for the first time the spectral effect of cirrus clouds in the long-wave part of the emission spectrum above 15 micron of wavelength. To characterise these measurements over the wide spectral range as a function of the optical properties of ice particles, a model of the radiative transfer, that integrates the well known numerical code LBLRTM, which simulates the radiative transfer in the atmosphere, with a specific code which simulates the propagation of the radiation through the cloud, was developed. The optical properties of clouds have been modelled using the δ-scaled Eddington approximation for a single layer and the Ping Yang's database for the single-scattering properties of ice crystals. The preliminary results of the fit procedure used for the determination of the micro-physical parameters of ice crystals, such as the effective diameter, ice water path, effective temperature and optical thickness will be shown in the presentation. The

  13. Cirrus and aerosol lidar profilometer - analysis and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinhirne, J.D.; Scott, V.S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Reagan, J.A.; Galbraith, A. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A cloud and aerosol lidar set from over a year of near continuous operation of a micro pulse lidar (MPL) instrument at the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site has been established. MPL instruments are to be included in the Ames Research Center (ARC) instrument compliments for the SW Pacific and Arctic ARM sites. Operational processing algorithms are in development for the data sets. The derived products are to be cloud presence and classification, base height, cirrus thickness, cirrus optical thickness, cirrus extinction profile, aerosol optical thickness and profile, and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height. A cloud presence and base height algorithm is in use, and a data set from the CART site is available. The scientific basis for the algorithm development of the higher level data products and plans for implementation are discussed.

  14. Modification of cirrus clouds to reduce global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, D. L.

    2009-12-01

    Since both greenhouse gases and cirrus clouds strongly affect outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) with no affect or less affect on solar radiation, respectively, an attempt to delay global warming to buy time for emission reduction strategies to work might naturally target cirrus clouds. Cirrus having optical depths competition effects, thus increasing OLR and surface cooling. Preliminary estimates of this global net cloud forcing via GCM simulations are more negative than -2.8 W m-2 and could neutralize the radiative forcing due to a CO2 doubling (3.7 W m-2). This cirrus engineered net forcing is due to (1) reduced cirrus coverage and (2) reduced upper tropospheric water vapor, due to enhanced ice sedimentation. The implementation of this climate engineering could use the airline industry to disperse the seeding material. Commercial airliners typically fly at temperatures between -40 and -60 deg. C (where homogeneous freezing nucleation dominates). Weather modification research has developed ice nucleating substances that are extremely effective at these cold temperatures, are non-toxic and are relatively inexpensive. The seeding material could be released in both clear and cloudy conditions to build up a background concentration of efficient ice nuclei so that non-contrail cirrus will experience these nuclei and grow larger ice crystals. Flight corridors are denser in the high- and mid-latitudes where global warming is more severe. A risk with any geoengineering experiment is that it could affect climate in unforeseen ways, causing more harm than good. Since seeding aerosol residence times in the troposphere are 1-2 weeks, the climate might return back to its normal state within a few months after stopping the geoengineering. A drawback to this approach is that it would not stop ocean acidification. It may not have many of the draw-backs that stratospheric injection of sulfur species has, such as ozone destruction, decreased solar radiation possibly altering the

  15. Subfoveal choroidal thickness measured by Cirrus HD optical coherence tomography in myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ATM: To measure the subfoveal choroidal thickness(SFCTin myopia using Cirrus HD optical coherence tomography(OCT, and to explore the relationship between the SFCT, axial length and myopic refractive spherical equivalent.METHODS: One-hundred thirty-three eyes of 70 healthy volunteers were recruited, and were divided into emmetropia group, low-degree myopia, middle-degree myopia and high-degree myopia group. SFCT were measured by Cirrus HD OCT, and the relationship between the SFCT, axial length and myopic refractive spherical equivalent were evaluated.RESULTS: 1Average SFCT was(275.91±55.74μm in normals, that in emmetropia group, low-degree myopia, middle-degree myopia and high-degree myopia group were(290.03±34.82μm,(287.64±51.51μm,(274.95±56.83μm,(248.37±67.98μm; 2the SFCT of high-degree myopia group was significant thinner than that of emmetropia group(PPPCONCLUSION: the SFCT is inversely correlated with increasing axial length and myopic refractive error.

  16. Characterisation of the artificial neural network CiPS for cirrus cloud remote sensing with MSG/SEVIRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Strandgren

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cirrus clouds remain one of the key uncertainties in atmospheric research. To better understand the properties and physical processes of cirrus clouds, accurate large-scale observations from satellites are required. Artificial neural networks (ANNs have proved to be a useful tool for cirrus cloud remote sensing. Since physics is not modelled explicitly in ANNs, a thorough characterisation of the networks is necessary. In this paper the CiPS (Cirrus Properties from SEVIRI algorithm is characterised using the space-borne lidar CALIOP. CiPS is composed of a set of ANNs for the cirrus cloud detection, opacity identification and the corresponding cloud top height, ice optical thickness and ice water path retrieval from the imager SEVIRI aboard the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation satellites. First, the retrieval accuracy is characterised with respect to different land surface types. The retrieval works best over water and vegetated surfaces, whereas a surface covered by permanent snow and ice or barren reduces the cirrus detection ability and increases the retrieval errors for the ice optical thickness and ice water path if the cirrus cloud is thin (optical thickness less than approx. 0.3. Second, the retrieval accuracy is characterised with respect to the vertical arrangement of liquid, ice clouds and aerosol layers as derived from CALIOP lidar data. The CiPS retrievals show little interference from liquid water clouds and aerosol layers below an observed cirrus cloud. A liquid water cloud vertically close or adjacent to the cirrus clearly increases the average retrieval errors for the optical thickness and ice water path, respectively, only for thin cirrus clouds with an optical thickness below 0.3 or ice water path below 5.0 g m−2. For the cloud top height retrieval, only aerosol layers affect the retrieval error, with an increased positive bias when the cirrus is at low altitudes. Third, the CiPS retrieval error is

  17. A microphysics guide to cirrus clouds – Part 1: Cirrus types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krämer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The microphysical and radiative properties of cirrus clouds continue to be beyond understanding and thus still represent one of the largest uncertainties in the prediction of the Earth's climate (IPCC, 2013. Our study aims to provide a guide to cirrus microphysics, which is compiled from an extensive set of model simulations, covering the broad range of atmospheric conditions for cirrus formation and evolution. The model results are portrayed in the same parameter space as field measurements, i.e., in the Ice Water Content-Temperature (IWC-T parameter space. We validate this cirrus analysis approach by evaluating cirrus data sets from 17 aircraft campaigns, conducted in the last 15 years, spending about 94 h in cirrus over Europe, Australia, Brazil as well as South and North America. Altogether, the approach of this study is to track cirrus IWC development with temperature by means of model simulations, compare with observations and then assign, to a certain degree, cirrus microphysics to the observations. Indeed, the field observations show characteristics expected from the simulated Cirrus Guide. For example, high (low IWCs are found together with high (low ice crystal concentrations Nice. An important finding from our study is the classification of two types of cirrus with differing formation mechanisms and microphysical properties: the first cirrus type forms directly as ice (in situ origin cirrus and splits in two subclasses, depending on the prevailing strength of the updraft: in slow updrafts these cirrus are rather thin with lower IWCs, while in fast updrafts thicker cirrus with higher IWCs can form. The second type consists predominantly of thick cirrus originating from mixed phase clouds (i.e., via freezing of liquid droplets – liquid origin cirrus, which are completely glaciated while lifting to the cirrus formation temperature region (< 235 K. In the European field campaigns, slow updraft in situ origin cirrus occur frequently in

  18. Insights on the Feasibility, Modeling and Field Testing of Cirrus Cloud Thinning from Satellite Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, D. L.; Garnier, A.; Mejia, J.; Avery, M. A.; Erfani, E.

    2016-12-01

    To date, it is not clear whether the climate intervention method known as cirrus cloud thinning (CCT) can be viable since it requires cirrus clouds to form through homogeneous ice nucleation (henceforth hom) and some recent GCM studies predict cirrus are formed primarily through heterogeneous ice nucleation (henceforth het). A new CALIPSO infrared retrieval method has been developed for single-layer cirrus cloud that measures the temperature dependence of their layer-averaged number concentration N, effective diameter De and ice water content for optical depths (OD) between 0.3 and 3.0. Based on N, the prevailing ice nucleation mechanism (hom or het) can be estimated as a function of temperature, season, latitude and surface type. These satellite results indicate that seeding cirrus clouds at high latitudes during winter may produce significant global surface cooling. This is because hom often appears to dominate over land during winter north of 30°N latitude while the same appears true for most of the Southern Hemisphere (south of 30°S) during all seasons. Moreover, the sampled cirrus cloud frequency of occurrence in the Arctic is at least twice as large during winter relative to other seasons, while frequency of occurrence in the Antarctic peaks in the spring and is second-highest during winter. During Arctic winter, a combination of frequent hom cirrus, maximum cirrus coverage and an extreme or absent sun angle produces the maximum seasonal cirrus net radiative forcing (warming). Thus a reduction in OD and coverage (via CCT) for these cirrus clouds could yield a significant net cooling effect. From these CALIPSO retrievals, De-T relationships are generated as a function of season, latitude and surface type (land vs. ocean). These will be used in CAM5 to estimate De and the ice fall speed, from which the cirrus radiative forcing will be estimated during winter north of 30°latitude, where hom cirrus are common. Another CAM5 simulation will replace the hom

  19. Potential of remote sensing of cirrus optical thickness by airborne spectral radiance measurements at different sideward viewing angles

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Kevin; Ehrlich, André; Hüneke, Tilman; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Werner, Frank; Wirth, Martin; Wendisch, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Spectral radiance measurements collected in nadir and sideward viewing directions by two airborne passive solar remote sensing instruments, the Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation measurement sysTem (SMART) and the Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer (mini-DOAS), are used to compare the remote sensing results of cirrus optical thickness τ. The comparison is based on a sensitivity study using radiative transfer simulations (RTS) and on data obtained during three airb...

  20. What is the role of laminar cirrus cloud on regulating the cross-tropopause water vapor transport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D. L.; Gong, J.; Tsai, V.

    2016-12-01

    Laminar cirrus is an extremely thin ice cloud found persistently inhabit in the tropical and subtropical tropopause. Due to its sub-visible optical depth and high formation altitude, knowledge about the characteristics of this special type of cloud is very limited, and debates are ongoing about its role on regulating the cross-tropopause transport of water vapor. The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) onboard the CALIPSO satellite has been continuously providing us with unprecedented details of the laminar cirrus since its launch in 2006. In this research, we adapted Winker and Trepte (1998)'s eyeball detection method. A JAVA-based applet and graphical user interface (GUI) is developed to manually select the laminar, which then automatically record the cloud properties, such as spatial location, shape, thickness, tilt angle, and whether its isolated or directly above a deep convective cloud. Monthly statistics of the laminar cirrus are then separately analyzed according to the orbit node, isolated/convective, banded/non-banded, etc. Monthly statistics support a diurnal difference in the occurring frequency and formation height of the laminar cirrus. Also, isolated and convective laminars show diverse behaviors (height, location, distribution, etc.), which strongly implies that their formation mechanisms and their roles on depleting the upper troposphere water vapor are distinct. We further study the relationship between laminar characteristics and collocated and coincident water vapor gradient measurements from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) observations below and above the laminars. The identified relationship provides a quantitative answer to the role laminar cirrus plays on regulating the water vapor entering the stratosphere.

  1. Evaluation of the Anterior Segment Angle-to-Angle Scan of Cirrus High-Definition Optical Coherence Tomography and Comparison With Gonioscopy and With the Visante OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun, Tin A; Baskaran, Mani; Tan, Shayne S; Perera, Shamira A; Aung, Tin; Husain, Rahat

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the anterior segment angle-to-angle scan of the Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) in detecting eyes with closed angles. All subjects underwent dark-room gonioscopy by an ophthalmologist. A technician performed anterior segment imaging with Cirrus (n = 202) and Visante OCT (n = 85) under dark-room conditions. All eyes were categorized by two masked graders as per number of closed quadrants. Each quadrant of anterior chamber angle was categorized as a closed angle if posterior trabecular meshwork could not be seen on gonioscopy or if there was any irido-corneal contact anterior to scleral spur in Cirrus and Visante images. An eye was graded as having a closed angle if two or more quadrants were closed. Agreement and area under the curve (AUC) were performed. There were 50 (24.8%) eyes with closed angles. The agreements of closed-angle diagnosis (by eye) between Cirrus HD-OCT and gonioscopy (k = 0.59; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45-0.72; AC1 = 0.76) and between Cirrus and Visante OCT (k = 0.65; 95% CI 0.48-0.82, AC1 = 0.77) were moderate. The AUC for diagnosing the eye with gonioscopic closed angle by Cirrus HD-OCT was good (AUC = 0.86; sensitivity = 83.33; specificity = 77.78). The diagnostic performance of Cirrus HD-OCT in detecting the eyes with closed angles was similar to that of Visante (AUC 0.87 vs. 0.9, respectively; P = 0.51). The anterior segment angle-to-angle scans of Cirrus HD-OCT demonstrated similar diagnostic performance as Visante in detecting gonioscopic closed angles. The agreement between Cirrus and gonioscopy for detecting eyes with closed angles was moderate.

  2. Interdependence of tropical cirrus properties and their variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Sunilkumar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The mean properties of tropical cirrus, such as cloud top, cloud base, optic centre, cloud strength/optical depth, asymmetry factor and cloud depolarization, as well as their heterogeneities are examined using lidar observations over 281 nights from a tropical station Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E during the period 1998–2002. This study shows that as the cloud optical depth (τc increases the cloud becomes more asymmetric in its scattering property. The amount of asymmetry is less than 2% for very low values of (τc and increases nonlinearly with an increase in (τc. The physical properties of these clouds also show significant variation with different time scales during the course of each night. On average, while the short-term variations in (τc are in opposite phase with those of the asymmetry factor (ξ and volume depolarization ratio (δ, the long-term variation in (τc extending over a night are found to be in opposite phase with that of ξ and in-phase with that of δ. The short-term variations in δ and (τc were attributed to possible changes in the cloud particle orientation and the long period variations to cloud evolution process. The value of δ shows a pronounced variation along the vertical, with low values near the cloud top and cloud base and high values in the middle, which is attributed to the cloud dynamics.

  3. Modeling of Cloud/Radiation Processes for Cirrus Cloud Formation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liou, K

    1997-01-01

    This technical report includes five reprints and pre-prints of papers associated with the modeling of cirrus cloud and radiation processes as well as remote sensing of cloud optical and microphysical...

  4. Estimating nocturnal opaque ice cloud optical depth from MODIS multispectral infrared radiances using a neural network method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Patrick; Hong, Gang; Sun-Mack, Szedung; Smith, William L.; Chen, Yan; Miller, Steven D.

    2016-05-01

    Retrieval of ice cloud properties using IR measurements has a distinct advantage over the visible and near-IR techniques by providing consistent monitoring regardless of solar illumination conditions. Historically, the IR bands at 3.7, 6.7, 11.0, and 12.0 µm have been used to infer ice cloud parameters by various methods, but the reliable retrieval of ice cloud optical depth τ is limited to nonopaque cirrus with τ < 8. The Ice Cloud Optical Depth from Infrared using a Neural network (ICODIN) method is developed in this paper by training Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) radiances at 3.7, 6.7, 11.0, and 12.0 µm against CloudSat-estimated τ during the nighttime using 2 months of matched global data from 2007. An independent data set comprising observations from the same 2 months of 2008 was used to validate the ICODIN. One 4-channel and three 3-channel versions of the ICODIN were tested. The training and validation results show that IR channels can be used to estimate ice cloud τ up to 150 with correlations above 78% and 69% for all clouds and only opaque ice clouds, respectively. However, τ for the deepest clouds is still underestimated in many instances. The corresponding RMS differences relative to CloudSat are ~100 and ~72%. If the opaque clouds are properly identified with the IR methods, the RMS differences in the retrieved optical depths are ~62%. The 3.7 µm channel appears to be most sensitive to optical depth changes but is constrained by poor precision at low temperatures. A method for estimating total optical depth is explored for estimation of cloud water path in the future. Factors affecting the uncertainties and potential improvements are discussed. With improved techniques for discriminating between opaque and semitransparent ice clouds, the method can ultimately improve cloud property monitoring over the entire diurnal cycle.

  5. Effects of stratocumulus, cumulus, and cirrus clouds on the UV-B diffuse to global ratio: Experimental and modeling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López, María Laura; Palancar, Gustavo G.; Toselli, Beatriz M.

    2012-01-01

    Broadband measurements of global and diffuse UV-B irradiance (280-315 nm) together with modeled and measured diffuse to global ratios (DGR) have been used to characterize the influence of different types of clouds on irradiance at the surface. Measurements were carried out during 2000-2001 in Córdoba City, Argentina. The Tropospheric Ultraviolet Visible (TUV) model was used to analyze the behavior of the modeled DGRs for different cloud optical depths and at different altitudes and solar zenith angles (SZA). Different cloud altitudes were also tested, although only the results for a cloud placed at 1.5-2.5 km of altitude are shown. A total of 16 day with stratocumulus, 12 with cumulus, and 16 with cirrus have been studied and compared among them and also against 21 clear sky days. Different behaviors were clearly detected and also differentiated through the analysis of the averages and the standard deviations of the DGRs: 1.02±0.06 for stratocumulus, 0.74±0.18 for cumulus, 0.63±0.12 for cirrus, and 0.60±0.13 for the clear sky days, respectively. Stratocumulus clouds showed a low variability in the DGR values, which were concentrated close to one at all SZAs. DGR values for cumulus clouds presented a large variability at all SZAs, mostly associated with the different optical depths. Finally, the closeness between the DGR values for cirrus clouds and the DGR values for clear days showed that these clouds generally do not strongly affect the UV-B irradiance at the surface at any SZA. In the opposite side, stratocumulus clouds were identified as those with the largest effects, at all SZAs, on the UV-B irradiance at the surface.

  6. Long-term trend analysis and climatology of tropical cirrus clouds using 16 years of lidar data set over Southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, A. K.; Gadhavi, H. S.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Raghunath, K.; Rao, S. V. B.; Jayaraman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Sixteen-year (1998-2013) climatology of cirrus clouds and their macrophysical (base height, top height and geometrical thickness) and optical properties (cloud optical thickness) observed using a ground-based lidar over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E), India, is presented. The climatology obtained from the ground-based lidar is compared with the climatology obtained from 7 and a half years (June 2006-December 2013) of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) observations. A very good agreement is found between the two climatologies in spite of their opposite viewing geometries and the differences in sampling frequencies. Nearly 50-55 % of cirrus clouds were found to possess geometrical thickness less than 2 km. Ground-based lidar is found to detect a higher number of sub-visible clouds than CALIOP which has implications for global warming studies as sub-visible cirrus clouds have significant positive radiative forcing. Cirrus clouds with mid-cloud temperatures between -50 to -70 °C have a mean geometrical thickness greater than 2 km in contrast to the earlier reported value of 1.7 km. Trend analyses reveal a statistically significant increase in the altitude of sub-visible cirrus clouds which is consistent with the recent climate model simulations. The mid-cloud altitude of sub-visible cirrus clouds is found to be increasing at the rate of 41 ± 21 m year-1. Statistically significant decrease in optical thickness of sub-visible and thick cirrus clouds is observed. Also, the fraction of sub-visible cirrus cloud is found to have increased by 9 % in the last 16 years (1998 to 2013). This increase is mainly compensated by a 7 % decrease in thin cirrus cloud fraction. This has implications for the temperature and water vapour budget in the tropical tropopause layer.

  7. Macrophysical and optical properties of midlatitude cirrus clouds from four ground-based lidars and collocated CALIOP observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, Jean-Charles; Haeffelin, M.; Morille, Y.; Noel, V.; Keckhut, P.; Winker, D.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Chervet, P.; Roblin, A.

    2010-05-27

    Ground-based lidar and CALIOP datasets gathered over four mid-latitude sites, two US and two French sites, are used to evaluate the consistency of cloud macrophysical and optical property climatologies that can be derived by such datasets. The consistency in average cloud height (both base and top height) between the CALIOP and ground datasets ranges from -0.4km to +0.5km. The cloud geometrical thickness distributions vary significantly between the different datasets, due in part to the original vertical resolutions of the lidar profiles. Average cloud geometrical thicknesses vary from 1.2 to 1.9km, i.e. by more than 50%. Cloud optical thickness distributions in subvisible, semi-transparent and moderate intervals differ by more than 50% between ground and space-based datasets. The cirrus clouds with 2 optical thickness below 0.1 (not included in historical cloud climatologies) represent 30-50% of the non-opaque cirrus class. The differences in average cloud base altitude between ground and CALIOP datasets of 0.0-0.1 km, 0.0-0.2 km and 0.0-0.2 km can be attributed to irregular sampling of seasonal variations in the ground-based data, to day-night differences in detection capabilities by CALIOP, and to the restriction to situations without low-level clouds in ground-based data, respectively. The cloud geometrical thicknesses are not affected by irregular sampling of seasonal variations in the ground-based data, while up to 0.0-0.2 km and 0.1-0.3 km differences can be attributed to day-night differences in detection capabilities by CALIOP, and to the restriction to situations without lowlevel clouds in ground-based data, respectively.

  8. An automated cirrus classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryspeerdt, Edward; Quaas, Johannes; Goren, Tom; Klocke, Daniel; Brueck, Matthias

    2018-05-01

    Cirrus clouds play an important role in determining the radiation budget of the earth, but many of their properties remain uncertain, particularly their response to aerosol variations and to warming. Part of the reason for this uncertainty is the dependence of cirrus cloud properties on the cloud formation mechanism, which itself is strongly dependent on the local meteorological conditions. In this work, a classification system (Identification and Classification of Cirrus or IC-CIR) is introduced to identify cirrus clouds by the cloud formation mechanism. Using reanalysis and satellite data, cirrus clouds are separated into four main types: orographic, frontal, convective and synoptic. Through a comparison to convection-permitting model simulations and back-trajectory-based analysis, it is shown that these observation-based regimes can provide extra information on the cloud-scale updraughts and the frequency of occurrence of liquid-origin ice, with the convective regime having higher updraughts and a greater occurrence of liquid-origin ice compared to the synoptic regimes. Despite having different cloud formation mechanisms, the radiative properties of the regimes are not distinct, indicating that retrieved cloud properties alone are insufficient to completely describe them. This classification is designed to be easily implemented in GCMs, helping improve future model-observation comparisons and leading to improved parametrisations of cirrus cloud processes.

  9. Particle backscatter and relative humidity measured across cirrus clouds and comparison with microphysical cirrus modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brabec

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced measurement and modelling techniques are employed to estimate the partitioning of atmospheric water between the gas phase and the condensed phase in and around cirrus clouds, and thus to identify in-cloud and out-of-cloud supersaturations with respect to ice. In November 2008 the newly developed balloon-borne backscatter sonde COBALD (Compact Optical Backscatter and AerosoL Detector was flown 14 times together with a CFH (Cryogenic Frost point Hygrometer from Lindenberg, Germany (52° N, 14° E. The case discussed here in detail shows two cirrus layers with in-cloud relative humidities with respect to ice between 50% and 130%. Global operational analysis data of ECMWF (roughly 1° × 1° horizontal and 1 km vertical resolution, 6-hourly stored fields fail to represent ice water contents and relative humidities. Conversely, regional COSMO-7 forecasts (6.6 km × 6.6 km, 5-min stored fields capture the measured humidities and cloud positions remarkably well. The main difference between ECMWF and COSMO data is the resolution of small-scale vertical features responsible for cirrus formation. Nevertheless, ice water contents in COSMO-7 are still off by factors 2–10, likely reflecting limitations in COSMO's ice phase bulk scheme. Significant improvements can be achieved by comprehensive size-resolved microphysical and optical modelling along backward trajectories based on COSMO-7 wind and temperature fields, which allow accurate computation of humidities, homogeneous ice nucleation, resulting ice particle size distributions and backscatter ratios at the COBALD wavelengths. However, only by superimposing small-scale temperature fluctuations, which remain unresolved by the numerical weather prediction models, can we obtain a satisfying agreement with the observations and reconcile the measured in-cloud non-equilibrium humidities with conventional ice cloud microphysics. Conversely, the model-data comparison provides no evidence that additional

  10. Effects of ice crystal surface roughness and air bubble inclusions on cirrus cloud radiative properties from remote sensing perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Guanglin; Panetta, R. Lee; Yang, Ping; Kattawar, George W.; Zhai, Peng-Wang

    2017-01-01

    We study the combined effects of surface roughness and inhomogeneity on the optical scattering properties of ice crystals and explore the consequent implications to remote sensing of cirrus cloud properties. Specifically, surface roughness and inhomogeneity are added to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) collection 6 (MC6) cirrus cloud particle habit model. Light scattering properties of the new habit model are simulated using a modified version of the Improved Geometric Optics Method (IGOM). Both inhomogeneity and surface roughness affect the single scattering properties significantly. In visible bands, inhomogeneity and surface roughness both tend to smooth the phase function and eliminate halos and the backscattering peak. The asymmetry parameter varies with the degree of surface roughness following a U shape - decreases and then increases - with a minimum at around 0.15, whereas it decreases monotonically with the air bubble volume fraction. Air bubble inclusions significantly increase phase matrix element -P_1_2 for scattering angles between 20°–120°, whereas surface roughness has a much weaker effect, increasing -P_1_2 slightly from 60°–120°. Radiative transfer simulations and cirrus cloud property retrievals are conducted by including both the factors. In terms of surface roughness and air bubble volume fraction, retrievals of cirrus cloud optical thickness or the asymmetry parameter using solar bands show similar patterns of variation. Polarimetric simulations using the MC6 cirrus cloud particle habit model are shown to be more consistent with observations when both surface roughness and inhomogeneity are simultaneously considered. - Highlights: • Surface roughness and air bubble inclusions affect optical properties of ice crystals significantly. • Including both factors improves simulations of ice cloud.• Cirrus cloud particle habit model of the MODIS collection 6 achieves better self-consistency and consistency with

  11. Variability of cirrus clouds in a convective outflow during the Hibiscus campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierli, F.; di Donfrancesco, G.; Cairo, F.; Marécal, V.; Zampieri, M.; Orlandi, E.; Durry, G.

    2008-08-01

    Light-weight microlidar and water vapour measurements were taken on-board a stratospheric balloon during the HIBISCUS 2004 campaign, held in Bauru, Brazil (49° W, 22° S). Cirrus clouds were observed throughout the flight between 12 and 15 km height with a high mesoscale variability in optical and microphysical properties. It was found that the cirrus clouds were composed of different layers characterized by marked differences in height, thickness and optical properties. Simultaneous water vapour observations show that the different layers are characterized by different values of the saturation with respect to ice. A mesoscale simulation and a trajectory analysis clearly revealed that the clouds had formed in the outflow of a large and persistent convective region and that the observed variability of the optical properties and of the cloud structure is likely linked to the different residence times of the convectively-processed air in the upper troposphere.

  12. Scale dependence of cirrus horizontal heterogeneity effects on TOA measurements – Part I: MODIS brightness temperatures in the thermal infrared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Fauchez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the impact of cirrus cloud heterogeneities on MODIS simulated thermal infrared (TIR brightness temperatures (BTs at the top of the atmosphere (TOA as a function of spatial resolution from 50 m to 10 km. A realistic 3-D cirrus field is generated by the 3DCLOUD model (average optical thickness of 1.4, cloud-top and base altitudes at 10 and 12 km, respectively, consisting of aggregate column crystals of Deff = 20 µm, and 3-D thermal infrared radiative transfer (RT is simulated with the 3DMCPOL code. According to previous studies, differences between 3-D BT computed from a heterogenous pixel and 1-D RT computed from a homogeneous pixel are considered dependent at nadir on two effects: (i the optical thickness horizontal heterogeneity leading to the plane-parallel homogeneous bias (PPHB and the (ii horizontal radiative transport (HRT leading to the independent pixel approximation error (IPAE. A single but realistic cirrus case is simulated and, as expected, the PPHB mainly impacts the low-spatial-resolution results (above ∼ 250 m with averaged values of up to 5–7 K, while the IPAE mainly impacts the high-spatial-resolution results (below ∼ 250 m with average values of up to 1–2 K. A sensitivity study has been performed in order to extend these results to various cirrus optical thicknesses and heterogeneities by sampling the cirrus in several ranges of parameters. For four optical thickness classes and four optical heterogeneity classes, we have found that, for nadir observations, the spatial resolution at which the combination of PPHB and HRT effects is the smallest, falls between 100 and 250 m. These spatial resolutions thus appear to be the best choice to retrieve cirrus optical properties with the smallest cloud heterogeneity-related total bias in the thermal infrared. For off-nadir observations, the average total effect is increased and the minimum is shifted to coarser spatial

  13. Reproducibility of disc and macula optical coherence tomography using the Canon OCT-HS100 as compared with the Zeiss Cirrus HD-OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brautaset, Rune; Birkeldh, Ulrika; Rosén, Rebecka; Ramsay, Marika Wahlberg; Nilsson, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In a clinical setting, the usefulness of optical coherence tomography (OCT) is strongly dependent on reproducibility of the measurement. The aim of the present study was to evaluate macula and optic disc measurement reproducibility with the new spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) from Canon (Canon OCT-HS100) and to compare reproducibility and obtained measurements with the Zeiss Cirrus HD-OCT. Macula and optic disc parameters from the right eyes of 31 subjects were obtained twice with both instruments. Interoperator reproducibility was evaluated by use of the coefficient of repeatability (CR), and the obtained measurements were compared between the instruments. No difference in interoperator reproducibility could be found when comparing the 2 instruments and reproducibility ranged from 3.94% to 12.77% for optic disc parameters and from 1.19% to 3.54% for macula parameters. The lowest reproducibility was found for cup volume and vertical cup/disc ratio with both instruments. For all macula and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements, there was a statistical difference when comparing the 2 instruments, except for RFNL measurements of the superior quadrant, with the Canon OCT-HS100 always evaluating the thickness to be thicker; however, the 2 instruments correlated well. The Canon OCT-HS100 is a reproducible instrument that matches the Zeiss Cirrus HD-OCT well. It remains to be evaluated how sensitive the Canon OCT-HS100 is to detect small subtle changes in optic disc parameters and macular nerve fiber layer thickness. Furthermore, due to the differences in thickness estimation, it is important to emphasize that SD-OCTs are not interchangeable.

  14. Properties of CIRRUS Overlapping Clouds as Deduced from the GOES-12 Imagery Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fu-Lung; Minnis, Patrick; Lin, Bing; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Khaiyer, Mandana

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the impact of cirrus clouds on modifying both the solar reflected and terrestrial emitted radiations is crucial for climate studies. Unlike most boundary layer stratus and stratocumulus clouds that have a net cooling effect on the climate, high-level thin cirrus clouds can have a warming effect on our climate. Many research efforts have been devoted to retrieving cirrus cloud properties due to their ubiquitous presence. However, using satellite observations to detect and/or retrieve cirrus cloud properties faces two major challenges. First, they are often semitransparent at visible to infrared wavelengths; and secondly, they often occur over a lower cloud system. The overlapping of high-level cirrus and low-level stratus cloud poses a difficulty in determining the individual cloud top altitudes and optical properties, especially when the signals from cirrus clouds are overwhelmed by the signals of stratus clouds. Moreover, the operational satellite retrieval algorithms, which often assume only single layer cloud in the development of cloud retrieval techniques, cannot resolve the cloud overlapping situation properly. The new geostationary satellites, starting with the Twelfth Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-12), are providing a new suite of imager bands that have replaced the conventional 12-micron channel with a 13.3-micron CO2 absorption channel. The replacement of the 13.3-micron channel allows for the application of a CO2-slicing retrieval technique (Chahine et al. 1974; Smith and Platt 1978), which is one of the important passive satellite methods for remote sensing the altitudes of mid to high-level clouds. Using the CO2- slicing technique is more effective in detecting semitransparent cirrus clouds than using the conventional infrared-window method.

  15. Interocular symmetry of retinal nerve fiber layer and optic nerve head parameters measured by Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography in a normal pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Neelam; Maheshwari, Devendra; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Ramakrishnan, Renagappa

    2017-10-01

    To determine interocular differences in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and optic nerve head (ONH) parameters in a pediatric population using Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT). Seventy normal Indian children aged 5-17 years presenting to the Pediatric Clinic were included in this observational cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination and an evaluation of the RNFL and ONH by Cirrus HD-OCT. Differences between the right and left eyes were calculated and values were compared by means of a paired t-test. Subjects were also divided into two groups based on age (under or over 10 years of age). Interocular differences in RNFL and ONH parameters together with sex and age variations for these differences were determined. The mean age of studied pediatric population was 11.83 ± 3.3 years (range 5-17). Average RNFL thickness was 94.46 ± 8.7 μm (± SD) (range 77-111). Differences in the average RNFL between right and left eyes were not statistically significant (P = 0.060). Superior quadrant RNFL was thicker in the left eye and temporal quadrant was thicker in the right eye. Among ONH parameters, there were no statistically significant differences in any parameters, except vertical cup-disc (CD) ratio which was significant (P = 0.007). The 2.5%-97.5% limits of asymmetry were 9 μm for average RNFL, 0.14 for average CD ratio, and 0.22 for vertical CD ratio. Mean interocular RNFL thickness differences in superior, superior nasal, and temporal superior quadrants were 10.61 (P sex, while only significant differences with age were observed in 12 clock hour sector analysis, mainly in nasal inferior and inferior quadrant. We report the degree of interocular symmetry of RNFL and ONH parameters measured by Cirrus HD-OCT in a healthy pediatric population. The normal interocular RNFL asymmetry should not exceed 9 μm and vertical CD ratio beyond 0.22 should be considered for further investigations. The

  16. Comparing airborne and satellite retrievals of cloud optical thickness and particle effective radius using a spectral radiance ratio technique: two case studies for cirrus and deep convective clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisna, Trismono C.; Wendisch, Manfred; Ehrlich, André; Jäkel, Evelyn; Werner, Frank; Weigel, Ralf; Borrmann, Stephan; Mahnke, Christoph; Pöschl, Ulrich; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Voigt, Christiane; Machado, Luiz A. T.

    2018-04-01

    Solar radiation reflected by cirrus and deep convective clouds (DCCs) was measured by the Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation Measurement System (SMART) installed on the German High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft (HALO) during the Mid-Latitude Cirrus (ML-CIRRUS) and the Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation, and Radiation Interaction and Dynamic of Convective Clouds System - Cloud Processes of the Main Precipitation Systems in Brazil: A Contribution to Cloud Resolving Modelling and to the Global Precipitation Measurement (ACRIDICON-CHUVA) campaigns. On particular flights, HALO performed measurements closely collocated with overpasses of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Aqua satellite. A cirrus cloud located above liquid water clouds and a DCC topped by an anvil cirrus are analyzed in this paper. Based on the nadir spectral upward radiance measured above the two clouds, the optical thickness τ and particle effective radius reff of the cirrus and DCC are retrieved using a radiance ratio technique, which considers the cloud thermodynamic phase, the vertical profile of cloud microphysical properties, the presence of multilayer clouds, and the heterogeneity of the surface albedo. For the cirrus case, the comparison of τ and reff retrieved on the basis of SMART and MODIS measurements yields a normalized mean absolute deviation of up to 1.2 % for τ and 2.1 % for reff. For the DCC case, deviations of up to 3.6 % for τ and 6.2 % for reff are obtained. The larger deviations in the DCC case are mainly attributed to the fast cloud evolution and three-dimensional (3-D) radiative effects. Measurements of spectral upward radiance at near-infrared wavelengths are employed to investigate the vertical profile of reff in the cirrus. The retrieved values of reff are compared with corresponding in situ measurements using a vertical weighting method. Compared to the MODIS observations, measurements of SMART provide more information on the

  17. 16 year climatology of cirrus clouds over a tropical station in southern India using ground and space-based lidar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, A. K.; Gadhavi, H. S.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Raghunath, K.; Rao, S. V. B.; Jayaraman, A.

    2015-06-01

    16 year (1998-2013) climatology of cirrus clouds and their macrophysical (base height, top height and geometrical thickness) and optical properties (cloud optical thickness) observed using a ground-based lidar over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E), India, is presented. The climatology obtained from the ground-based lidar is compared with the climatology obtained from seven and half years (June 2006-December 2013) of Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) observations. A very good agreement is found between the two climatologies in spite of their opposite viewing geometries and difference in sampling frequencies. Nearly 50-55% of cirrus clouds were found to possess geometrical thickness less than 2 km. Ground-based lidar is found to detect more number of sub-visible clouds than CALIOP which has implications for global warming studies as sub-visible cirrus clouds have significant positive radiative forcing. Cirrus clouds with mid-cloud temperatures between -50 to -70 °C have a mean geometrical thickness greater than 2 km in contrast to the earlier reported value of 1.7 km. Trend analyses reveal a statistically significant increase in the altitude of sub-visible cirrus clouds which is consistent with the recent climate model simulations. Also, the fraction of sub-visible cirrus cloud is found to be increasing during the last sixteen years (1998 to 2013) which has implications to the temperature and water vapour budget in the tropical tropopause layer.

  18. An optical fiber expendable seawater temperature/depth profile sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiang; Chen, Shizhe; Zhang, Keke; Yan, Xingkui; Yang, Xianglong; Bai, Xuejiao; Liu, Shixuan

    2017-10-01

    Marine expendable temperature/depth profiler (XBT) is a disposable measuring instrument which can obtain temperature/depth profile data quickly in large area waters and mainly used for marine surveys, scientific research, military application. The temperature measuring device is a thermistor in the conventional XBT probe (CXBT)and the depth data is only a calculated value by speed and time depth calculation formula which is not an accurate measurement result. Firstly, an optical fiber expendable temperature/depth sensor based on the FBG-LPG cascaded structure is proposed to solve the problems of the CXBT, namely the use of LPG and FBG were used to detect the water temperature and depth, respectively. Secondly, the fiber end reflective mirror is used to simplify optical cascade structure and optimize the system performance. Finally, the optical path is designed and optimized using the reflective optical fiber end mirror. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of temperature and depth sensing based on FBG-LPG cascade structure is about 0.0030C and 0.1%F.S. respectively, which can meet the requirements of the sea water temperature/depth observation. The reflectivity of reflection mirror is in the range from 48.8% to 72.5%, the resonant peak of FBG and LPG are reasonable and the whole spectrum are suitable for demodulation. Through research on the optical fiber XBT (FXBT), the direct measurement of deep-sea temperature/depth profile data can be obtained simultaneously, quickly and accurately. The FXBT is a new all-optical seawater temperature/depth sensor, which has important academic value and broad application prospect and is expected to replace the CXBT in the future.

  19. Comparison of cloud optical depth and cloud mask applying BRDF model-based background surface reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. W.; Yeom, J. M.; Woo, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    Over the thin cloud region, satellite can simultaneously detect the reflectance from thin clouds and land surface. Since the mixed reflectance is not the exact cloud information, the background surface reflectance should be eliminated to accurately distinguish thin cloud such as cirrus. In the previous research, Kim et al (2017) was developed the cloud masking algorithm using the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), which is one of significant instruments for Communication, Ocean, and Meteorology Satellite (COMS). Although GOCI has 8 spectral channels including visible and near infra-red spectral ranges, the cloud masking has quantitatively reasonable result when comparing with MODIS cloud mask (Collection 6 MYD35). Especially, we noticed that this cloud masking algorithm is more specialized in thin cloud detections through the validation with Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) data. Because this cloud masking method was concentrated on eliminating background surface effects from the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance. Applying the difference between TOA reflectance and the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model-based background surface reflectance, cloud areas both thick cloud and thin cloud can be discriminated without infra-red channels which were mostly used for detecting clouds. Moreover, when the cloud mask result was utilized as the input data when simulating BRDF model and the optimized BRDF model-based surface reflectance was used for the optimized cloud masking, the probability of detection (POD) has higher value than POD of the original cloud mask. In this study, we examine the correlation between cloud optical depth (COD) and its cloud mask result. Cloud optical depths mostly depend on the cloud thickness, the characteristic of contents, and the size of cloud contents. COD ranges from less than 0.1 for thin clouds to over 1000 for the huge cumulus due to scattering by droplets. With

  20. On the origin of subvisible cirrus clouds in the tropical upper troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reverdy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Spaceborne lidar observations have recently revealed a previously undetected significant population of Subvisible Cirrus (SVC. We show them to be colder than −74 °, with an optical depth below 0.0015 on average. The formation and persistence over time of this new cloud population could be related to several atmospheric phenomena. In this paper, we investigate if these clouds follow the same formation mechanisms as the general tropical cirrus population (including convection and in-situ ice nucleation, or if specific nucleation sites and trace species play a role in their formation. The importance of three scenarios in the formation of the global SVC population is investigated through different approaches that include comparisons with data imaging from several spaceborne instruments and back-trajectories that document the history and behavior of air masses leading to the point in time and space where subvisible cirrus were detected. In order to simplify the study of their formation, we singled out SVC with coherent temperature histories (mean variance lower than 4 K according to back-trajectories along 5, 10 or 15 days (respectively 58, 25 and 11% of SVC. Our results suggest that external processes, including local increases in liquid and hygroscopic aerosol concentration (either through biomass burning or volcanic injection forming sulfate-based aerosols in the troposphere or the stratosphere have very limited short-term or mid-term impact on the SVC population. On the other hand, we find that ~20% of air masses leading to SVC formation interacted with convective activity 5 days before they led to cloud formation and detection, a number that climbs to 60% over 15 days. SVC formation appears especially linked to convection over Africa and Central America, more so during JJA than DJF. These results support the view that the SVC population observed by CALIOP is an extension of the general upper tropospheric ice clouds population with its extreme

  1. Cirrus Cloud Optical and Microphysical Property Retrievals from eMAS During SEAC4RS Using Bi-Spectral Reflectance Measurements Within the 1.88 micron Water Vapor Absorption Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K.; Platnick, S.; Arnold, G. T.; Holz, R. E.; Veglio, P.; Yorks, J.; Wang, C.

    2016-01-01

    Previous bi-spectral imager retrievals of cloud optical thickness (COT) and effective particle radius (CER) based on the Nakajima and King (1990) approach, such as those of the operational MODIS cloud optical property retrieval product (MOD06), have typically paired a non-absorbing visible or near-infrared wavelength, sensitive to COT, with an absorbing shortwave or midwave infrared wavelength sensitive to CER. However, in practice it is only necessary to select two spectral channels that exhibit a strong contrast in cloud particle absorption. Here it is shown, using eMAS observations obtained during NASAs SEAC4RS field campaign, that selecting two absorbing wavelength channels within the broader 1.88 micron water vapor absorption band, namely the 1.83 and 1.93 micron channels that have sufficient differences in ice crystal single scattering albedo, can yield COT and CER retrievals for thin to moderately thick single-layer cirrus that are reasonably consistent with other solar and IR imager-based and lidar-based retrievals. A distinct advantage of this channel selection for cirrus cloud retrievals is that the below cloud water vapor absorption minimizes the surface contribution to measured cloudy TOA reflectance, in particular compared to the solar window channels used in heritage retrievals such as MOD06. This reduces retrieval uncertainty resulting from errors in the surface reflectance assumption, as well as reduces the frequency of retrieval failures for thin cirrus clouds.

  2. Optical remote measurement of ozone in cirrus clouds; Optische Fernmessung von Ozon in Zirruswolken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichardt, J. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische und Chemische Analytik

    1998-12-31

    The subject of this thesis is theoretical and experimental investigations into the simultaneous optical remote measurement of atmospheric ozone concentration and particle properties. A lidar system was developed that combines the Raman-lidar and the polarization-lidar with the Raman-DIAL technique. An error analysis is given for ozone measurements in clouds. It turns out that the wavelength dependencies of photon multiple scattering and of the particle extinction coefficient necessitate a correction of the measured ozone concentration. To quantify the cloud influence, model calculations based on particle size distributions of spheres are carried out. The most important experimental result of this thesis is the measured evidence of pronounced minima in the ozone distribution in a humid upper troposphere shortly before and during cirrus observation. Good correlation between ozone-depleted altitude ranges and ice clouds is found. This finding is in contrast to ozone profiles measured in a dry and cloud-free troposphere. (orig.) 151 refs.

  3. Cirrus Airframe Parachute System and Odds of a Fatal Accident in Cirrus Aircraft Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaziz, Mustafa; Stolfi, Adrienne; Olson, Dean M

    2017-06-01

    General aviation (GA) accidents have continued to demonstrate high fatality rates. Recently, ballistic parachute recovery systems (BPRS) have been introduced as a safety feature in some GA aircraft. This study evaluates the effectiveness and associated factors of the Cirrus Airframe Parachute System (CAPS) at reducing the odds of a fatal accident in Cirrus aircraft crashes. Publicly available Cirrus aircraft crash reports were obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database for the period of January 1, 2001-December 31, 2016. Accident metrics were evaluated through univariate and multivariate analyses regarding odds of a fatal accident and use of the parachute system. Included in the study were 268 accidents. For CAPS nondeployed accidents, 82 of 211 (38.9%) were fatal as compared to 8 of 57 (14.0%) for CAPS deployed accidents. After controlling for all other factors, the adjusted odds ratio for a fatal accident when CAPS was not deployed was 13.1. The substantial increased odds of a fatal accident when CAPS was not deployed demonstrated the effectiveness of CAPS at providing protection of occupants during an accident. Injuries were shifted from fatal to serious or minor with the use of CAPS and postcrash fires were significantly reduced. These results suggest that BPRS could play a significant role in the next major advance in improving GA accident survival.Alaziz M, Stolfi A, Olson DM. Cirrus Airframe Parachute System and odds of a fatal accident in Cirrus aircraft crashes. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(6):556-564.

  4. Optical cryptography with biometrics for multi-depth objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Aimin; Wei, Yang; Hu, Zhijuan; Zhang, Jingtao; Tsang, Peter Wai Ming; Poon, Ting-Chung

    2017-10-11

    We propose an optical cryptosystem for encrypting images of multi-depth objects based on the combination of optical heterodyne technique and fingerprint keys. Optical heterodyning requires two optical beams to be mixed. For encryption, each optical beam is modulated by an optical mask containing either the fingerprint of the person who is sending, or receiving the image. The pair of optical masks are taken as the encryption keys. Subsequently, the two beams are used to scan over a multi-depth 3-D object to obtain an encrypted hologram. During the decryption process, each sectional image of the 3-D object is recovered by convolving its encrypted hologram (through numerical computation) with the encrypted hologram of a pinhole image that is positioned at the same depth as the sectional image. Our proposed method has three major advantages. First, the lost-key situation can be avoided with the use of fingerprints as the encryption keys. Second, the method can be applied to encrypt 3-D images for subsequent decrypted sectional images. Third, since optical heterodyning scanning is employed to encrypt a 3-D object, the optical system is incoherent, resulting in negligible amount of speckle noise upon decryption. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time optical cryptography of 3-D object images has been demonstrated in an incoherent optical system with biometric keys.

  5. Impact of varying lidar measurement and data processing techniques in evaluating cirrus cloud and aerosol direct radiative effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lolli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past 2 decades, ground-based lidar networks have drastically increased in scope and relevance, thanks primarily to the advent of lidar observations from space and their need for validation. Lidar observations of aerosol and cloud geometrical, optical and microphysical atmospheric properties are subsequently used to evaluate their direct radiative effects on climate. However, the retrievals are strongly dependent on the lidar instrument measurement technique and subsequent data processing methodologies. In this paper, we evaluate the discrepancies between the use of Raman and elastic lidar measurement techniques and corresponding data processing methods for two aerosol layers in the free troposphere and for two cirrus clouds with different optical depths. Results show that the different lidar techniques are responsible for discrepancies in the model-derived direct radiative effects for biomass burning (0.05 W m−2 at surface and 0.007 W m−2 at top of the atmosphere and dust aerosol layers (0.7 W m−2 at surface and 0.85 W m−2 at top of the atmosphere. Data processing is further responsible for discrepancies in both thin (0.55 W m−2 at surface and 2.7 W m−2 at top of the atmosphere and opaque (7.7 W m−2 at surface and 11.8 W m−2 at top of the atmosphere cirrus clouds. Direct radiative effect discrepancies can be attributed to the larger variability of the lidar ratio for aerosols (20–150 sr than for clouds (20–35 sr. For this reason, the influence of the applied lidar technique plays a more fundamental role in aerosol monitoring because the lidar ratio must be retrieved with relatively high accuracy. In contrast, for cirrus clouds, with the lidar ratio being much less variable, the data processing is critical because smoothing it modifies the aerosol and cloud vertically resolved extinction profile that is used as input to compute direct radiative effect calculations.

  6. Impact of varying lidar measurement and data processing techniques in evaluating cirrus cloud and aerosol direct radiative effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolli, Simone; Madonna, Fabio; Rosoldi, Marco; Campbell, James R.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Lewis, Jasper R.; Gu, Yu; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2018-03-01

    In the past 2 decades, ground-based lidar networks have drastically increased in scope and relevance, thanks primarily to the advent of lidar observations from space and their need for validation. Lidar observations of aerosol and cloud geometrical, optical and microphysical atmospheric properties are subsequently used to evaluate their direct radiative effects on climate. However, the retrievals are strongly dependent on the lidar instrument measurement technique and subsequent data processing methodologies. In this paper, we evaluate the discrepancies between the use of Raman and elastic lidar measurement techniques and corresponding data processing methods for two aerosol layers in the free troposphere and for two cirrus clouds with different optical depths. Results show that the different lidar techniques are responsible for discrepancies in the model-derived direct radiative effects for biomass burning (0.05 W m-2 at surface and 0.007 W m-2 at top of the atmosphere) and dust aerosol layers (0.7 W m-2 at surface and 0.85 W m-2 at top of the atmosphere). Data processing is further responsible for discrepancies in both thin (0.55 W m-2 at surface and 2.7 W m-2 at top of the atmosphere) and opaque (7.7 W m-2 at surface and 11.8 W m-2 at top of the atmosphere) cirrus clouds. Direct radiative effect discrepancies can be attributed to the larger variability of the lidar ratio for aerosols (20-150 sr) than for clouds (20-35 sr). For this reason, the influence of the applied lidar technique plays a more fundamental role in aerosol monitoring because the lidar ratio must be retrieved with relatively high accuracy. In contrast, for cirrus clouds, with the lidar ratio being much less variable, the data processing is critical because smoothing it modifies the aerosol and cloud vertically resolved extinction profile that is used as input to compute direct radiative effect calculations.

  7. Reducing Striping and Near Field Response Influence in the MODIS 1.38um Cirrus Detection Band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, S. A.; Moeller, C. C.; Frey, R. A.; Gumley, L. E.; Menzel, W. P.

    2002-05-01

    Since first light in February 2000, the MODIS L1B data from Terra has exhibited detector striping in the cirrus detection band at 1.38 um (B26). This band's unique characteristic is that it is potentially able to discriminate very thin cirrus (optical depth of 0.1) because water vapor absorption effectively attenuates the upwelling signal from the earth's surface, leaving a flat dark background underneath the thin cirrus. The striping has diminished the power of this band for detecting thin cirrus in the MODIS Cloud Mask (MOD35) over the global environment by imparting a structure on the background. The striping amplitude (valley to peak) is 10 - 15% of the MODIS Ltyp radiance in B26 over land backgrounds, thus exceeding the 5% radiance prelaunch accuracy specification for the band. Also unexpected has been the presence of earth surface reflectance in B26. Forward model calculations indicate that the two-way transmittance of B26 in-band (1% to 1% response) should be water (TPW) exceeds about 12 mm. However, MODIS B26 imagery has routinely shown land surface reflectance, such as Florida, even in very moist (TPW > 30 mm) tropical air masses. MODIS prelaunch test data suggests that a near field response (NFR) at about 1.3 um in the B26 filter may be contributing to this behavior. A destriping and out-of-band correction algorithm has been under development at the University of Wisconsin to address the these issues. The simple linear algorithm is based on tuning detector dependent influence coefficients for B26 as a function of B5 (1.24 um) radiance so that the corrected B26 radiance is near zero for all B26 detectors in moist atmospheric conditions. B5 was chosen as a surrogate to characterize the NFR leak in the B26 filter because of its close spectral proximity to the NFR leak. Real MODIS L1B data is being used to estimate the influence coefficients. The paper will describe the B5 based destriping and NFR correction algorithm and influence coefficient development. It

  8. Inhomogeneities in cirrus clouds and their effects on solar radiative transfer; Inhomogenitaeten in Cirren und ihre Auswirkungen auf den solaren Strahlungstransport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buschmann, N. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik

    2001-07-01

    Inhomogeneities in cirrus clouds have an important impact on radiative transfer calculations in climate models. Compared to homogeneous clouds, inhomogeneities within clouds decrease reflectivity and result in an increased transmission of solar radiation through the cloud towards the surface. A quantitative investigation of this effect is still to be done. In-situ and remote sensing data of 11 cirrus clouds are used to investigate horizontal inhomogeneities. The 3-dimensional radiative transfer model GRIMALDI is used to calculate radiative flux densities and absorption for a cloudy atmosphere. Comparisons between homogeneous and heterogeneous calculations show, that the homogeneous assumption can cause relative errors up to {+-} 30% for radiative flux densities and absorption especially for tropical cirrus clouds. Mid-latitude cirrus clouds with mean optical thickness smaller than 5 and minor inhomogeneity result in relative errors smaller than {+-} 10% for radiative flux density and absorption. A correction scheme is developed to account for horizontal inhomogeneity in optically thick cirrus clouds in homogeneous radiative transfer calculations. This way, for a known horizontal distribution of optical thickness, relative errors of radiative properties can be reduced to a maximum of {+-} 10%. (orig.) [German] Inhomogenitaeten in Cirrus-Wolken spielen insbesondere bei Strahlungstransportrechnungen in Klimamodellen eine bedeutende Rolle. Im Vergleich zur homogenen Wolkenbetrachtung verringern Inhomogenitaeten die Reflektivitaet der Wolken und fuehren zu einer hoeheren Transmission solarer Strahlung durch die Wolke zum Erdboden. Eine quantitative Untersuchung dieses Effekts steht allerdings bislang aus. Flugzeugmessungen sowie Fernerkundungsdaten von insgesamt 11 Cirrus-Wolken werden auf ihre horizontale Inhomogenitaet untersucht. Das 3-dimensionale Strahlungstransportmodell GRIMALDI wird fuer die Berechnung solarer Strahlungsflussdichten und Absorption in bewoelkter

  9. Cirrus Dopant Nano-Composite Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    coatings without alteration to the existing plating process. Glen Slater, Cirrus Materials | Stephen Flint, Auckland UniServices Ltd Report...ADDRESS(ES) University of Auckland ,Cirrus Materials, Auckland , New Zealand, 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY...JiA/ g THE UNIVERSITY ’-" OF AUCKLAND NEW ZEALAND Te Whare Wanan a o Thmaki Makaurau ~"""’ • ........,." ... Southwest Pacific Basin . p

  10. Comparisons of cirrus cloud microphysical properties between polluted and pristine air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Minghui; Schumann, Ulrich; Minikin, Andreas; Jensen, Jorgen

    2015-04-01

    from 87°N to 67°S. Ice crystals are measured by a Fast-2DC probe, and the analyses are restricted to particles ≥ 87.5 µm to minimize the shattering effects and optical uncertainties. When analyzing ice crystals distribution in the HIPPO campaign, the occurrence frequency of in-cloud conditions increases with both total aerosol and CO concentrations. On the other hand, the changes of ice crystal sizes are not the same for increases of total aerosol and CO concentrations, that is, Dc increases with higher total aerosol concentration but decreases with higher CO concentration. These results suggest that ice crystal formation is likely facilitated when the air parcel is under influence of both natural and anthropogenic emissions, but the anthropogenic emission is likely to decrease the sizes of ice crystals. During the INCA campaign, cirrus clouds were sampled with optical particle counters in the size range of about 1 to 800 μm at midlatitudes, mainly over the Pacific west of Punta Arenas and over the North Atlantic west of Great Britain. Simultaneous measurements of trace gases (CO, NOx and O3) and a suite of aerosols properties show that the INCA measurements in the SH occurred in air masses which were far cleaner than those measured in the NH. Previous INCA data analysis revealed differences between SH and NH cirrus: a lower Nc, a larger Deff, and a larger extinction in the cirrus in the SH compared to the NH (Gayet et al., JGR, 2004). We now recompiled the INCA data and performed a further analysis of the cirrus properties in correlation with simultaneous CO measurements. Based on in-situ sampling of ice crystals of different lower cut-off sizes ( ≥1, 3 and 6 µm) from the INCA campaign, Nc is found to have weak positive correlation with CO concentration (r2 within a range of 0.2 to 0.6). The correlation appears to be significant (95% level) based on a limited set of tests with different data subsets. The correlation is strongest for the smallest ice particles

  11. Corona-producing ice clouds: A case study of a cold mid-latitude cirrus layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassen, K.; Mace, G.G.; Hallett, J.; Poellot, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    A high (14.0-km), cold (-71.0thinsp degree C) cirrus cloud was studied by ground-based polarization lidar and millimeter radar and aircraft probes on the night of 19 April 1994 from the Cloud and Radiation Testbed site in northern Oklahoma. A rare cirrus cloud lunar corona was generated by this 1 - 2-km-deep cloud, thus providing an opportunity to measure the composition in situ, which had previously been assumed only on the basis of lidar depolarization data and simple diffraction theory for spheres. In this case, corona ring analysis indicated an effective particle diameter of ∼22 μm. A variety of in situ data corroborates the approximate ice-particle size derived from the passive retrieval method, especially near the cloud top, where impacted cloud samples show simple solid crystals. The homogeneous freezing of sulfuric acid droplets of stratospheric origin is assumed to be the dominant ice-particle nucleation mode acting in corona-producing cirrus clouds. It is speculated that this process results in a previously unrecognized mode of acid-contaminated ice-particle growth and that such small-particle cold cirrus clouds are potentially a radiatively distinct type of cloud. copyright 1998 Optical Society of America

  12. 77 FR 3585 - Airworthiness Directives; Cirrus Design Corporation Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Cirrus Design Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Corporation (Cirrus) Model SR22T airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports of partial loss of engine power.... ADDRESSES: For service information identified in this AD, contact Cirrus Design Corporation, 4515 Taylor...

  13. Remote sensing of contrails and aircraft altered cirrus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palikonda, R.; Nguyen, L.; Garber, D.P.; Smith, W.L. Jr [Analytical Services and Materials, Inc., Hampton, VA (United States); Minnis, P.; Young, D.F. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center

    1997-12-31

    Analyses of satellite imagery are used to show that contrails can develop into fully extended cirrus cloud systems. Contrails can be advective on great distances, but would appear to observers as natural cirrus clouds. The conversion of simple contrails into cirrus may help explain the apparent increase of cloudiness over populated areas since the beginning of commercial jet air travel. Statistics describing the typical growth, advection, and lifetime of contrail cirrus is needed to evaluate their effects on climate. (author) 4 refs.

  14. Remote sensing of contrails and aircraft altered cirrus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palikonda, R; Nguyen, L; Garber, D P; Smith, Jr, W L [Analytical Services and Materials, Inc., Hampton, VA (United States); Minnis, P; Young, D F [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center

    1998-12-31

    Analyses of satellite imagery are used to show that contrails can develop into fully extended cirrus cloud systems. Contrails can be advective on great distances, but would appear to observers as natural cirrus clouds. The conversion of simple contrails into cirrus may help explain the apparent increase of cloudiness over populated areas since the beginning of commercial jet air travel. Statistics describing the typical growth, advection, and lifetime of contrail cirrus is needed to evaluate their effects on climate. (author) 4 refs.

  15. A Comparison of Cloud Microphysical and Optical Properties during TOGA-COARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawa, A. W.; Pueschel, R. F.; Pilewskie, P.; Valero, F. P. J.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The impact of cirrus clouds on climate is an issue of research interest currently. Whether cirrus clouds heat or cool the Earth-atmosphere system depends on the cloud shortwave albedo and infrared reflectance and absorptance. These in turn are determined by the size distribution, phase, and composition of particles in the clouds. The TOGA-COARE campaign presented an excellent opportunity to study cirrus clouds and their influence on climate. In this campaign, a microphysics instrument package was flown aboard the DC-8 aircraft at medium altitudes in cirrus clouds. This package included a 2D Greyscale Cloud Particle Probe, a Forward Scattering Spectrometer Aerosol Probe, and an ice crystal replicator. At the same time the ER-2 equipped with a radiation measurement system flew coordinated flight tracks above the DC-8 at very high altitude. The radiation measurement made were short and long wave fluxes, as well as narrowband fluxes, both upwelling and downwelling. In addition LIDAR data is available. The existence of these data sets allows for a the comparison of radiation measurement with microphysical measurements. For example, the optical depth and effective radius retrieved from the ER-2 radiation measurements can be compared to the microphysical data. Conversely, the optical properties and fluxes produced by the clouds can be calculated from the microphysical measurements and compared to those measured aboard the ER-2. The assumptions required to make these comparisons are discussed. Typical microphysical results show a prevalence of micron-sized particles, in addition to the cloud particles that exceed 100 mm. The large number of small particles or "haze" cause the effective cloud radii to shift to smaller sizes, leading to changes in optical parameters.

  16. 16-year Climatology of Cirrus cloud properties using ground-based Lidar over Gadanki (13.45˚N, 79.18˚E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Amit Kumar; Raghunath, Karnam; Jayaraman, Achuthan; Venkat Ratnam, Madineni; Gadhavi, Harish

    Cirrus clouds are ubiquitous high level cold clouds predominantly consisting of ice-crystals. With their highest coverage over the tropics, these are one of the most vital and complex components of Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) due to their strong radiative feedback and dehydration in upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) regions. The continuous changes in their coverage, position, thickness, and ice-crystal size and shape distributions bring uncertainties in the estimates of cirrus cloud radiative forcing. Long-term changes in the distribution of aerosols and water vapour in the TTL can influence cirrus properties. This necessitates long-term studies of tropical cirrus clouds, which are only few. The present study provides 16-year climatology of physical and optical properties of cirrus clouds observed using a ground-based Lidar located at Gadanki (13.45(°) N, 79.18(°) ˚E and 375 m amsl) in south-India. In general, cirrus clouds occurred for about 44% of the total Lidar observation time. Owing to the increased convective activities, the occurrence of cirrus clouds during the southwest-monsoon season is highest while it is lowest during the winter. Altitude distribution of cirrus clouds reveals that the peak occurrence was about 25% at 14.5 km. The most probable base and top height of cirrus clouds are 14 and 15.5 km, respectively. This is also reflected in the bulk extinction coefficient profile (at 532 nm) of cirrus clouds. These results are compared with the CALIPSO observations. Most of the time cirrus clouds are located within the TTL bounded by convective outflow level and cold-point tropopause. Cirrus clouds are thick during the monsoon season as compared to that during winter. An inverse relation between the thickness of cirrus clouds and TTL thickness is found. The occurrence of cirrus clouds at an altitude close to the tropopause (16 km) showed an increase of 8.4% in the last 16 years. Base and top heights of cirrus clouds also showed

  17. A Characterization of Cirrus Cloud Properties That Affect Laser Propagation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Norquist, Donald C; Desrochers, Paul R; McNicholl, Patrick J; Roadcap, John R

    2008-01-01

    Future high-altitude laser systems may be affected by cirrus clouds. Laser transmission models were applied to measured and retrieved cirrus properties to determine cirrus impact on power incident on a target or receiver...

  18. Modification of cirrus clouds to reduce global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, David L; Finnegan, William

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse gases and cirrus clouds regulate outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and cirrus cloud coverage is predicted to be sensitive to the ice fall speed which depends on ice crystal size. The higher the cirrus, the greater their impact is on OLR. Thus by changing ice crystal size in the coldest cirrus, OLR and climate might be modified. Fortunately the coldest cirrus have the highest ice supersaturation due to the dominance of homogeneous freezing nucleation. Seeding such cirrus with very efficient heterogeneous ice nuclei should produce larger ice crystals due to vapor competition effects, thus increasing OLR and surface cooling. Preliminary estimates of this global net cloud forcing are more negative than -2.8 W m -2 and could neutralize the radiative forcing due to a CO 2 doubling (3.7 W m -2 ). A potential delivery mechanism for the seeding material is already in place: the airline industry. Since seeding aerosol residence times in the troposphere are relatively short, the climate might return to its normal state within months after stopping the geoengineering experiment. The main known drawback to this approach is that it would not stop ocean acidification. It does not have many of the drawbacks that stratospheric injection of sulfur species has.

  19. Modification of cirrus clouds to reduce global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, David L; Finnegan, William, E-mail: david.mitchell@dri.ed [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV 89512-1095 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Greenhouse gases and cirrus clouds regulate outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and cirrus cloud coverage is predicted to be sensitive to the ice fall speed which depends on ice crystal size. The higher the cirrus, the greater their impact is on OLR. Thus by changing ice crystal size in the coldest cirrus, OLR and climate might be modified. Fortunately the coldest cirrus have the highest ice supersaturation due to the dominance of homogeneous freezing nucleation. Seeding such cirrus with very efficient heterogeneous ice nuclei should produce larger ice crystals due to vapor competition effects, thus increasing OLR and surface cooling. Preliminary estimates of this global net cloud forcing are more negative than -2.8 W m{sup -2} and could neutralize the radiative forcing due to a CO{sub 2} doubling (3.7 W m{sup -2}). A potential delivery mechanism for the seeding material is already in place: the airline industry. Since seeding aerosol residence times in the troposphere are relatively short, the climate might return to its normal state within months after stopping the geoengineering experiment. The main known drawback to this approach is that it would not stop ocean acidification. It does not have many of the drawbacks that stratospheric injection of sulfur species has.

  20. Research of detection depth for graphene-based optical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Sun, Jialve; Liu, Lu; Zhu, Siwei; Yuan, Xiaocong

    2018-03-01

    Graphene-based optical sensors have been developed for research into the biological intercellular refractive index (RI) because they offer greater detection depths than those provided by the surface plasmon resonance technique. In this Letter, we propose an experimental approach for measurement of the detection depth in a graphene-based optical sensor system that uses transparent polydimethylsiloxane layers with different thicknesses. The experimental results show that detection depths of 2.5 μm and 3 μm can be achieved at wavelengths of 532 nm and 633 nm, respectively. These results prove that graphene-based optical sensors can realize long-range RI detection and are thus promising for use as tools in the biological cell detection field. Additionally, we analyze the factors that influence the detection depth and provide a feasible approach for detection depth control based on adjustment of the wavelength and the angle of incidence. We believe that this approach will be useful in RI tomography applications.

  1. Cloud Physics Lidar Measurements During the SAFARI-2000 Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Matthew; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Spinhirne, James; Scott, Stan; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new remote sensing instrument, the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) has been built for use on the ER-2 aircraft. The first deployment for CPL was the SAFARI-2000 field campaign during August-September 2000. The CPL is a three-wavelength lidar designed for studies of cirrus, subvisual cirrus, and boundary layer aerosols. The CPL utilizes a high repetition rate, low pulse energy laser with photon counting detectors. A brief description of the CPL instrument will be given, followed by examples of CPL data products. In particular, examples of aerosol backscatter, including boundary layer smoke and cirrus clouds will be shown. Resulting optical depth estimates derived from the aerosol measurements will be shown. Comparisons of the CPL optical depth and optical depth derived from microPulse Lidar and the AATS-14 sunphotomer will be shown.

  2. Lidar investigations on the optical and dynamical properties of cirrus clouds in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere regions at a tropical station, Gadanki, India (13.5°N, 79.2°E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, Vasudevannair; Satyanarayana, Malladi; Radhakrishnan, Soman R.; Dhaman, Reji K.; Jayeshlal, Glory Selvan; Motty, Gopinathan Nair S.; Pillai, Vellara P. Mahadevan; Raghunath, Karnam; Ratnam, Madineni Venkat; Rao, Duggirala Ramakrishna; Sudhakar, Pindlodi

    2014-01-01

    High altitude cirrus clouds are composed mainly of ice crystals with a variety of sizes and shapes. They have a large influence on Earth's energy balance and global climate. Recent studies indicate that the formation, dissipation, life time, optical, and micro-physical properties are influenced by the dynamical conditions of the surrounding atmosphere like background aerosol, turbulence, etc. In this work, an attempt has been made to quantify some of these characteristics by using lidar and mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar. Mie lidar and 53 MHz MST radar measurements made over 41 nights during the period 2009 to 2010 from the tropical station, Gadanki, India (13.5°N, 79.2°E). The optical and microphysical properties along with the structure and dynamics of the cirrus are presented as observed under different atmospheric conditions. The study reveals the manifestation of different forms of cirrus with a preferred altitude of formation in the 13 to 14 km altitude. There are considerable differences in the properties obtained among 2009 and 2010 showing significant anomalous behavior in 2010. The clouds observed during 2010 show relatively high asymmetry and large multiple scattering effects. The anomalies found during 2010 may be attributed to the turbulence noticed in the surrounding atmosphere. The results show a clear correlation between the crystal morphology in the clouds and the dynamical conditions of the prevailing atmosphere during the observational period.

  3. Comparison and interchangeability of macular thickness measured with Cirrus OCT and Stratus OCT in myopic eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the difference of macular thickness measurements between stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT and Cirrus OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA in the same myopic patient and to develop a conversion equation to interchange macular thickness obtained with these two OCT devices. METHODS: Eighty-nine healthy Chinese adults with spherical equivalent (SE ranging from -1.13 D to -9.63 D were recruited. The macular thickness was measured by Cirrus OCT and Stratus OCT. The correlation between macular thickness and axial length and the agreement between two OCT measurements were evaluated. A formula was generated to interchange macular thickness obtained with two OCT devices. RESULTS: Average macular thickness measured with Stratus OCT (r=-0.280, P=0.008 and Cirrus OCT (r=-0.224, P=0.034 were found to be negatively correlated with axial length. No statistically significant correlation was found between axial length and central subfield macular thickness (CMT measured with Stratus OCT (r=0.191, P=0.073 and Cirrus OCT (r=0.169, P=0.113. The mean CMT measured with Cirrus OCT was 53.63±7.94 μm thicker than with Stratus OCT. The formula CMTCirrus OCT=78.328+0.874×CMTStratus OCT was generated to interchange macular thickness obtained with two OCT devices. CONCLUSION: Macular thickness measured with Cirrus OCT were thicker than with Stratus OCT in myopic eyes. A formula can be used to interchange macular thickness measured with two OCT devices in myopic eyes. Studies with different OCT devices and larger samples are warranted to enable the comparison of macular values measured with different OCT devices.

  4. Technical note: A new day- and night-time Meteosat Second Generation Cirrus Detection Algorithm MeCiDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Krebs

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A new cirrus detection algorithm for the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infra-Red Imager (SEVIRI aboard the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG, MeCiDA, is presented. The algorithm uses the seven infrared channels of SEVIRI and thus provides a consistent scheme for cirrus detection at day and night. MeCiDA combines morphological and multi-spectral threshold tests and detects optically thick and thin ice clouds. The thresholds were determined by a comprehensive theoretical study using radiative transfer simulations for various atmospheric situations as well as by manually evaluating actual satellite observations. The cirrus detection has been optimized for mid- and high latitudes but it could be adapted to other regions as well. The retrieved cirrus masks have been validated by comparison with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Cirrus Reflection Flag. To study possible seasonal variations in the performance of the algorithm, one scene per month of the year 2004 was randomly selected and compared with the MODIS flag. 81% of the pixels were classified identically by both algorithms. In a comparison of monthly mean values for Europe and the North-Atlantic MeCiDA detected 29.3% cirrus coverage, while the MODIS SWIR cirrus coverage was 38.1%. A lower detection efficiency is to be expected for MeCiDA, as the spatial resolution of MODIS is considerably better and as we used only the thermal infrared channels in contrast to the MODIS algorithm which uses infrared and visible radiances. The advantage of MeCiDA compared to retrievals for polar orbiting instruments or previous geostationary satellites is that it permits the derivation of quantitative data every 15 min, 24 h a day. This high temporal resolution allows the study of diurnal variations and life cycle aspects. MeCiDA is fast enough for near real-time applications.

  5. On the distribution of relative humidity in cirrus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Spichtinger

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We have analysed relative humidity statistics from measurements in cirrus clouds taken unintentionally during the Measurement of OZone by Airbus In-service airCraft project (MOZAIC. The shapes of the in-cloud humidity distributions change from nearly symmetric in relatively warm cirrus (warmer than −40°C to considerably positively skew (i.e. towards high humidities in colder clouds. These results are in agreement to findings obtained recently from the INterhemispheric differences in Cirrus properties from Anthropogenic emissions (INCA campaign (Ovarlez et al., 2002. We interprete the temperature dependence of the shapes of the humidity distributions as an effect of the length of time a cirrus cloud needs from formation to a mature equilibrium stage, where the humidity is close to saturation. The duration of this transitional period increases with decreasing temperature. Hence cold cirrus clouds are more often met in the transitional stage than warm clouds.

  6. Microphysical and optical properties of contrails and cirrus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayet, J F; Febvre, G [Universite Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferand (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Physique; Brogniez, G [Universite des Sciences et Techniques de Lille, (France). Lab. d` Optique Atmospherique; Wendling, P [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Larsen, H [National Inst. for Water and Atmospheric Research, Wellington (New Zealand)

    1998-12-31

    Aircraft contrails have significantly different properties to natural cirrus clouds. Their local and global climate impact cannot be assessed without consideration of these differences. Microphysical data were obtained from the Merlin aircraft equipped with a PMS FSSP-100 for particle spectrum measurements over the 3 {mu}m to 45 {mu}m diameter range; a PMS 2D-C for particle size spectrum and particle shape over the size range from 25 {mu}m to 800 {mu}m and a Johnson-Williams cloud liquid-water probe. Radiative measurements were obtained from a Do228 aircraft which carried the upward looking ALEX-F Lidar operating at a wavelength of 1.06 {mu}m and a Barnes PRT-5 radiometer aligned parallel to the lidar and with a 9 to 11 {mu}m spectral range. The limitation in accuracy of cloud microphysical sensor used in contrail studies are also discussed with subsequent errors on description of cloud radiative properties. (R.P.) 9 refs.

  7. Microphysical and optical properties of contrails and cirrus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayet, J.F.; Febvre, G. [Universite Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferand (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Physique; Brogniez, G. [Universite des Sciences et Techniques de Lille, (France). Lab. d`Optique Atmospherique; Wendling, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Larsen, H. [National Inst. for Water and Atmospheric Research, Wellington (New Zealand)

    1997-12-31

    Aircraft contrails have significantly different properties to natural cirrus clouds. Their local and global climate impact cannot be assessed without consideration of these differences. Microphysical data were obtained from the Merlin aircraft equipped with a PMS FSSP-100 for particle spectrum measurements over the 3 {mu}m to 45 {mu}m diameter range; a PMS 2D-C for particle size spectrum and particle shape over the size range from 25 {mu}m to 800 {mu}m and a Johnson-Williams cloud liquid-water probe. Radiative measurements were obtained from a Do228 aircraft which carried the upward looking ALEX-F Lidar operating at a wavelength of 1.06 {mu}m and a Barnes PRT-5 radiometer aligned parallel to the lidar and with a 9 to 11 {mu}m spectral range. The limitation in accuracy of cloud microphysical sensor used in contrail studies are also discussed with subsequent errors on description of cloud radiative properties. (R.P.) 9 refs.

  8. MST radar and polarization lidar observations of tropical cirrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bhavani Kumar

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Significant gaps in our understanding of global cirrus effects on the climate system involve the role of frequently occurring tropical cirrus. Much of the cirrus in the atmosphere is largely due to frequent cumulus and convective activity in the tropics. In the Indian sub-tropical region, the deep convective activity is very prominent from April to December, which is a favorable period for the formation of deep cumulus clouds. The fibrous anvils of these clouds, laden with ice crystals, are one of the source mechanisms for much of the cirrus in the atmosphere. In the present study, several passages of tropical cirrus were investigated by simultaneously operating MST radar and a co-located polarization lidar at the National MST Radar Facility (NMRF, Gadanki (13.45° N, 79.18° E, India to understand its structure, the background wind field and the microphysics at the cloud boundaries. The lidar system used is capable of measuring the degree of depolarization in the laser backscatter. It has identified several different cirrus structures with a peak linear depolarization ratio (LDR in the range of 0.1 to 0.32. Simultaneous observations of tropical cirrus by the VHF Doppler radar indicated a clear enhancement of reflectivity detected in the vicinity of the cloud boundaries, as revealed by the lidar and are strongly dependent on observed cloud LDR. An inter-comparison of radar reflectivity observed for vertical and oblique beams reveals that the radar-enhanced reflectivity at the cloud boundaries is also accompanied by significant aspect sensitivity. These observations indicate the presence of anisotropic turbulence at the cloud boundaries. Radar velocity measurements show that boundaries of cirrus are associated with enhanced horizontal winds, significant vertical shear in the horizontal winds and reduced vertical velocity. Therefore, these measurements indicate that a circulation at the cloud boundaries suggest an entrainment taking place close to

  9. MST radar and polarization lidar observations of tropical cirrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bhavani Kumar

    Full Text Available Significant gaps in our understanding of global cirrus effects on the climate system involve the role of frequently occurring tropical cirrus. Much of the cirrus in the atmosphere is largely due to frequent cumulus and convective activity in the tropics. In the Indian sub-tropical region, the deep convective activity is very prominent from April to December, which is a favorable period for the formation of deep cumulus clouds. The fibrous anvils of these clouds, laden with ice crystals, are one of the source mechanisms for much of the cirrus in the atmosphere. In the present study, several passages of tropical cirrus were investigated by simultaneously operating MST radar and a co-located polarization lidar at the National MST Radar Facility (NMRF, Gadanki (13.45° N, 79.18° E, India to understand its structure, the background wind field and the microphysics at the cloud boundaries. The lidar system used is capable of measuring the degree of depolarization in the laser backscatter. It has identified several different cirrus structures with a peak linear depolarization ratio (LDR in the range of 0.1 to 0.32. Simultaneous observations of tropical cirrus by the VHF Doppler radar indicated a clear enhancement of reflectivity detected in the vicinity of the cloud boundaries, as revealed by the lidar and are strongly dependent on observed cloud LDR. An inter-comparison of radar reflectivity observed for vertical and oblique beams reveals that the radar-enhanced reflectivity at the cloud boundaries is also accompanied by significant aspect sensitivity. These observations indicate the presence of anisotropic turbulence at the cloud boundaries. Radar velocity measurements show that boundaries of cirrus are associated with enhanced horizontal winds, significant vertical shear in the horizontal winds and reduced vertical velocity. Therefore, these measurements indicate that a circulation at the cloud boundaries suggest an entrainment taking place close to

  10. Measurement errors in cirrus cloud microphysical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Larsen

    Full Text Available The limited accuracy of current cloud microphysics sensors used in cirrus cloud studies imposes limitations on the use of the data to examine the cloud's broadband radiative behaviour, an important element of the global energy balance. We review the limitations of the instruments, PMS probes, most widely used for measuring the microphysical structure of cirrus clouds and show the effect of these limitations on descriptions of the cloud radiative properties. The analysis is applied to measurements made as part of the European Cloud and Radiation Experiment (EUCREX to determine mid-latitude cirrus microphysical and radiative properties.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (cloud physics and chemistry · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics · Radiative processes · Instruments and techniques

  11. A one year Landsat 8 conterminous United States study of spatial and temporal patterns of cirrus and non-cirrus clouds and implications for the long term Landsat archive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalskyy, V.; Roy, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The successful February 2013 launch of the Landsat 8 satellite is continuing the 40+ year legacy of the Landsat mission. The payload includes the Operational Land Imager (OLI) that has a new 1370 mm band designed to monitor cirrus clouds and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) that together provide 30m low, medium and high confidence cloud detections and 30m low and high confidence cirrus cloud detections. A year of Landsat 8 data over the Conterminous United States (CONUS), composed of 11,296 acquisitions, was analyzed comparing the spatial and temporal incidence of these cloud and cirrus states. This revealed (i) 36.5% of observations were detected with high confidence cloud with spatio-temporal patterns similar to those observed by previous Landsat 7 cloud analyses, (ii) 29.2% were high confidence cirrus, (iii) 20.9% were both high confidence cloud and high confidence cirrus, (iv) 8.3% were detected as high confidence cirrus but not as high confidence cloud. The results illustrate the value of the cirrus band for improved Landsat 8 terrestrial monitoring but imply that the historical CONUS Landsat archive has a similar 8% of undetected cirrus contaminated pixels. The implications for long term Landsat time series records, including the global Web Enabled Landsat Data (WELD) product record, are discussed.

  12. Interference phenomena at backscattering by ice crystals of cirrus clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovoi, Anatoli; Kustova, Natalia; Konoshonkin, Alexander

    2015-09-21

    It is shown that light backscattering by hexagonal ice crystals of cirrus clouds is formed within the physical-optics approximation by both diffraction and interference phenomena. Diffraction determines the angular width of the backscattering peak and interference produces the interference rings inside the peak. By use of a simple model for distortion of the pristine hexagonal shape, we show that the shape distortion leads to both oscillations of the scattering (Mueller) matrix within the backscattering peak and to a strong increase of the depolarization, color, and lidar ratios needed for interpretation of lidar signals.

  13. Classifying stages of cirrus life-cycle evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Benedikt; Groß, Silke; Schäfler, Andreas; Wirth, Martin

    2018-04-01

    Airborne lidar backscatter data is used to determine in- and out-of-cloud regions. Lidar measurements of water vapor together with model temperature fields are used to calculate relative humidity over ice (RHi). Based on temperature and RHi we identify different stages of cirrus evolution: homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing, depositional growth, ice sublimation and sedimentation. We will present our classification scheme and first applications on mid-latitude cirrus clouds.

  14. Characteristics of cirrus clouds and tropical tropopause layer: Seasonal variation and long-term trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Amit Kumar; Gadhavi, Harish; Ratnam, M. Venkat; Jayaraman, A.; Raghunath, K.; Rao, S. Vijaya Bhaskara

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, characteristics of tropical cirrus clouds observed during 1998-2013 using a ground-based lidar located at Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E), India, are presented. Altitude occurrences of cirrus clouds as well as its top and base heights are estimated using the advanced mathematical tool, wavelet covariance transform (WCT). The association of observed cirrus cloud properties with the characteristics of tropical tropopause layer (TTL) is investigated using co-located radiosonde measurements available since 2006. In general, cirrus clouds occurred for about 44% of the total lidar observation time (6246 h). The most probable altitude at which cirrus clouds occurr is 14.5 km. The occurrence of cirrus clouds exhibited a strong seasonal dependence with maximum occurrence during monsoon season (76%) and minimum occurrence during winter season (33%) which is consistent with the results reported recently using space-based lidar measurements. Most of the time, cirrus top was located within the TTL (between cold point and convective outflow level) while cirrus base occurred near the convective outflow level. The geometrical thickness of the cirrus cloud is found to be higher during monsoon season compared to winter and there exists a weak inverse relation with TTL thickness. During the observation period the percentage occurrence of cirrus clouds near the tropopause showed an 8.4% increase at 70% confidence level. In the last 16 years, top and base heights of cirrus cloud increased by 0.56 km and 0.41 km, respectively.

  15. Measurements of Terminal Velocities of Cirrus Clouds in the Upper Trosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nee Jan Bai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cirrus clouds are composed of ice crystals condensed from humidity due to low temperature condition in the upper atmosphere. The microphysics of cirrus clouds including sizes and shapes of ice particles are not well understood but are important in climate modeling. Ice crystal will fall under gravitational sedimentation to reach terminal velocities which depend on the size, mass, and ice habit. We studied here the terminal velocity of cirrus clouds by using lidar observations at Chungli (25N, 121E. The terminal velocities for a few cases of stable cirrus clouds are measured to determine the ice particle sizes and processes in the upper atmosphere.

  16. 76 FR 67631 - Airworthiness Directives; Cirrus Design Corporation Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... Corporation, 4515 Taylor Circle, Duluth, Minnesota 55811- 1548, phone: (218) 788-3000; fax: (218) 788-3525... as applicable. (f) Compliance Comply with this AD following Cirrus Design Corporation SR22T Service... this AD, contact Cirrus Design Corporation, 4515 Taylor Circle, Duluth, Minnesota 55811-1548, phone...

  17. Aerosol-cirrus interactions: a number based phenomenon at all?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Seifert

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ measurements of the partitioning of aerosol particles within cirrus clouds were used to investigate aerosol-cloud interactions in ice clouds. The number density of interstitial aerosol particles (non-activated particles in between the cirrus crystals was compared to the number density of cirrus crystal residuals. The data was obtained during the two INCA (Interhemispheric Differences in Cirrus Properties from Anthropogenic Emissions campaigns, performed in the Southern Hemisphere (SH and Northern Hemisphere (NH midlatitudes. Different aerosol-cirrus interactions can be linked to the different stages of the cirrus lifecycle. Cloud formation is linked to positive correlations between the number density of interstitial aerosol (Nint and crystal residuals (Ncvi, whereas the correlations are smaller or even negative in a dissolving cloud. Unlike warm clouds, where the number density of cloud droplets is positively related to the aerosol number density, we observed a rather complex relationship when expressing Ncvi as a function of Nint for forming clouds. The data sets are similar in that they both show local maxima in the Nint range 100 to 200cm, where the SH- maximum is shifted towards the higher value. For lower number densities Nint and Ncvi are positively related. The slopes emerging from the data suggest that a tenfold increase in the aerosol number density corresponds to a 3 to 4 times increase in the crystal number density. As Nint increases beyond the ca. 100 to 200cm, the mean crystal number density decreases at about the same rate for both data sets. For much higher aerosol number densities, only present in the NH data set, the mean Ncvi remains low. The situation for dissolving clouds allows us to offer two possible, but at this point only speculative, alternative interactions between aerosols and cirrus: evaporating clouds might be associated with a source of aerosol particles, or air pollution (high aerosol number density might

  18. Influence of cirrus clouds on weather and climate processes A global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, K.-N.

    1986-01-01

    Current understanding and knowledge of the composition and structure of cirrus clouds are reviewed and documented in this paper. In addition, the radiative properties of cirrus clouds as they relate to weather and climate processes are described in detail. To place the relevance and importance of cirrus composition, structure and radiative properties into a global perspective, pertinent results derived from simulation experiments utilizing models with varying degrees of complexity are presented; these have been carried out for the investigation of the influence of cirrus clouds on the thermodynamics and dynamics of the atmosphere. In light of these reviews, suggestions are outlined for cirrus-radiation research activities aimed toward the development and improvement of weather and climate models for a physical understanding of cause and effect relationships and for prediction purposes.

  19. Retrieving microphysics of cirrus clouds from data measured with raman lidar ramses and a tilted ceilometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovoi, Anatoli; Reichardt, Jens; Görsdorf, Ulrich; Wolf, Veronika; Konoshonkin, Alexander; Shishko, Victor; Kustova, Natalia

    2018-04-01

    To develop a microphysical model of cirrus clouds, data obtained by Raman lidar RAMSES and a tilted ceilometer are studied synergistically. The measurements are interpreted by use of a data archive containing the backscattering matrixes as well as the depolarization, color and lidar ratios of ice crystals of different shapes, sizes and spatial orientations calculated within the physical-optics approximation.

  20. Fractal properties and denoising of lidar signals from cirrus clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, J.C. van den; Driesenaar, M.L.; Lerou, R.J.L.

    2000-01-01

    Airborne lidar signals of cirrus clouds are analyzed to determine the cloud structure. Climate modeling and numerical weather prediction benefit from accurate modeling of cirrus clouds. Airborne lidar measurements of the European Lidar in Space Technology Experiment (ELITE) campaign were analyzed by

  1. PROPERTIES OF GALACTIC CIRRUS CLOUDS OBSERVED BY BOOMERANG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneziani, M.; De Bernardis, P.; Masi, S.; Ade, P. A. R.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Bock, J. J.; Crill, B. P.; Lange, A. E.; Boscaleri, A.; De Gasperis, G.; De Troia, G.; Natoli, P.; De Oliveira-Costa, A.; Stefano, G. Di; Ganga, K. M.; Jones, W. C.; Kisner, T. S.; Montroy, T. E.; MacTavish, C. J.; Netterfield, C. B.

    2010-01-01

    The physical properties of galactic cirrus emission are not well characterized. BOOMERANG is a balloon-borne experiment designed to study the cosmic microwave background at high angular resolution in the millimeter range. The BOOMERANG 245 and 345 GHz channels are sensitive to interstellar signals, in a spectral range intermediate between FIR and microwave frequencies. We look for physical characteristics of cirrus structures in a region at high galactic latitudes (b ∼ -40 deg.) where BOOMERANG performed its deepest integration, combining the BOOMERANG data with other available data sets at different wavelengths. We have detected eight emission patches in the 345 GHz map, consistent with cirrus dust in the Infrared Astronomical Satellite maps. The analysis technique we have developed allows us to identify the location and the shape of cirrus clouds, and to extract the flux from observations with different instruments at different wavelengths and angular resolutions. We study the integrated flux emitted from these cirrus clouds using data from Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), DIRBE, BOOMERANG and Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe in the frequency range 23-3000 GHz (13 mm-100 μm wavelength). We fit the measured spectral energy distributions with a combination of a gray body and a power-law spectra considering two models for the thermal emission. The temperature of the thermal dust component varies in the 7-20 K range and its emissivity spectral index is in the 1-5 range. We identified a physical relation between temperature and spectral index as had been proposed in previous works. This technique can be proficiently used for the forthcoming Planck and Herschel missions data.

  2. Modeling single-scattering properties of small cirrus particles by use of a size-shape distribution of ice spheroids and cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Li; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Cairns, Brian; Carlson, Barbara E.; Travis, Larry D.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we model single-scattering properties of small cirrus crystals using mixtures of polydisperse, randomly oriented spheroids and cylinders with varying aspect ratios and with a refractive index representative of water ice at a wavelength of 1.88 μm. The Stokes scattering matrix elements averaged over wide shape distributions of spheroids and cylinders are compared with those computed for polydisperse surface-equivalent spheres. The shape-averaged phase function for a mixture of oblate and prolate spheroids is smooth, featureless, and nearly flat at side-scattering angles and closely resembles those typically measured for cirrus. Compared with the ensemble-averaged phase function for spheroids, that for a shape distribution of cylinders shows a relatively deeper minimum at side-scattering angles. This may indicate that light scattering from realistic cirrus crystals can be better represented by a shape mixture of ice spheroids. Interestingly, the single-scattering properties of shape-averaged oblate and prolate cylinders are very similar to those of compact cylinders with a diameter-to-length ratio of unity. The differences in the optical cross sections, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter between the spherical and the nonspherical particles studied appear to be relatively small. This may suggest that for a given optical thickness, the influence of particle shape on the radiative forcing caused by a cloud composed of small ice crystals can be negligible

  3. Optical Instruments Synergy in Determination of Optical Depth of Thin Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladutescu, Daniela V.; Schwartz, Stephen E.

    2017-06-25

    Optically thin clouds have a strong radiative effect and need to be represented accurately in climate models. Cloud optical depth of thin clouds was retrieved using high resolution digital photography, lidar, and a radiative transfer model. The Doppler Lidar was operated at 1.5 μm, minimizing return from Rayleigh scattering, emphasizing return from aerosols and clouds. This approach examined cloud structure on scales 3 to 5 orders of magnitude finer than satellite products, opening new avenues for examination of cloud structure and evolution.

  4. Application of simple all-sky imagers for the estimation of aerosol optical depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantzidis, Andreas; Tzoumanikas, Panagiotis; Nikitidou, Efterpi; Salamalikis, Vasileios; Wilbert, Stefan; Prahl, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    Aerosol optical depth is a key atmospheric constituent for direct normal irradiance calculations at concentrating solar power plants. However, aerosol optical depth is typically not measured at the solar plants for financial reasons. With the recent introduction of all-sky imagers for the nowcasting of direct normal irradiance at the plants a new instrument is available which can be used for the determination of aerosol optical depth at different wavelengths. In this study, we are based on Red, Green and Blue intensities/radiances and calculations of the saturated area around the Sun, both derived from all-sky images taken with a low-cost surveillance camera at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Spain. The aerosol optical depth at 440, 500 and 675nm is calculated. The results are compared with collocated aerosol optical measurements and the mean/median difference and standard deviation are less than 0.01 and 0.03 respectively at all wavelengths.

  5. Estimates of the aerosol optical depth over Pretoria using the CSIR mobile lidar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shikwambana, L

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the estimates of aerosol optical depth measured over Pretoria, South Africa, using the CSIR-NLC mobile LIDAR. The measurements are also compared with observations from the Level-3 MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) data...

  6. Realization of arbitrarily long focus-depth optical vortices with spiral area-varying zone plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chenglong; Zang, Huaping; Du, Yanli; Tian, Yongzhi; Ji, Ziwen; Zhang, Jing; Fan, Quanping; Wang, Chuanke; Cao, Leifeng; Liang, Erjun

    2018-05-01

    We provide a methodology to realize an optical vortex with arbitrarily long focus-depth. With a technique of varying each zone area of a phase spiral zone plate one can obtain optics capable of generating ultra-long focus-depth optical vortex from a plane wave. The focal property of such optics was analysed using the Fresnel diffraction theory, and an experimental demonstration was performed to verify its effectiveness. Such optics may bring new opportunity and benefits for optical vortex application such as optical manipulation and lithography.

  7. Signal filtering algorithm for depth-selective diffuse optical topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, M; Nakayama, K

    2009-01-01

    A compact filtered backprojection algorithm that suppresses the undesirable effects of skin circulation for near-infrared diffuse optical topography is proposed. Our approach centers around a depth-selective filtering algorithm that uses an inverse problem technique and extracts target signals from observation data contaminated by noise from a shallow region. The filtering algorithm is reduced to a compact matrix and is therefore easily incorporated into a real-time system. To demonstrate the validity of this method, we developed a demonstration prototype for depth-selective diffuse optical topography and performed both computer simulations and phantom experiments. The results show that the proposed method significantly suppresses the noise from the shallow region with a minimal degradation of the target signal.

  8. Depth-resolved ballistic imaging in a low-depth-of-field optical Kerr gated imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yipeng; Tan, Wenjiang, E-mail: tanwenjiang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Si, Jinhai; Ren, YuHu; Xu, Shichao; Hou, Xun [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education and Shaanxi Key Lab of Information Photonic Technique, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xianning-xilu 28, Xi' an 710049 (China); Tong, Junyi [Departments of Applied Physics, Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China)

    2016-09-07

    We demonstrate depth-resolved imaging in a ballistic imaging system, in which a heterodyned femtosecond optical Kerr gate is introduced to extract useful imaging photons for detecting an object hidden in turbid media and a compound lens is proposed to ensure both the depth-resolved imaging capability and the long working distance. Two objects of about 15-μm widths hidden in a polystyrene-sphere suspension have been successfully imaged with approximately 600-μm depth resolution. Modulation-transfer-function curves with the object in and away from the object plane have also been measured to confirm the depth-resolved imaging capability of the low-depth-of-field (low-DOF) ballistic imaging system. This imaging approach shows potential for application in research of the internal structure of highly scattering fuel spray.

  9. Aerosol optical depth trend over the Middle East

    KAUST Repository

    Klingmü ller, Klaus; Pozzer, Andrea; Metzger, Swen; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-01-01

    We use the combined Dark Target/Deep Blue aerosol optical depth (AOD) satellite product of the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) collection 6 to study trends over the Middle East between 2000 and 2015. Our analysis corroborates a

  10. Revisiting the iris effect of tropical cirrus clouds with TRMM and A-Train satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong-Sang; Kim, WonMoo; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Masunaga, Hirohiko; Kwon, Min-Jae; Jo, Hyun-Su; Huang, Lei

    2017-06-01

    Just as the iris of human eye controls the light influx (iris effect), tropical anvil cirrus clouds may regulate the Earth's surface warming by controlling outgoing longwave radiation. This study examines this possible effect with monthly satellite observations such as Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer cirrus fraction, and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System top-of-the-atmosphere radiative fluxes averaged over different tropical domains from March 2000 to October 2014. To confirm that high-level cirrus is relevant to this study, Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization high cloud observations were also analyzed from June 2006 to December 2015. Our analysis revealed that the increase in sea surface temperature in the tropical western Pacific tends to concentrate convective cloud systems. This concentration effect very likely induces the significant reduction of both stratiform rain rate and cirrus fraction, without appreciable change in the convective rain rate. This reduction of stratiform rain rate and cirrus fraction cannot be found over its subregion or the tropical eastern Pacific, where the concentration effect of anvil cirrus is weak. Consistently, over the tropical western Pacific, the higher ratio of convective rain rate to total rain rate (i.e., precipitation efficiency) significantly correlates with warmer sea surface temperature and lower cirrus fraction. The reduced cirrus eventually increased outgoing longwave radiation to a greater degree than absorbed solar radiation. Finally, the negative relationship between precipitation efficiency and cirrus fraction tends to correspond to a low global equilibrium climate sensitivity in the models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5. This suggests that tropical anvil cirrus clouds exert a negative climate feedback in strong association with precipitation efficiency.

  11. Rattlesnake Mountain Observator (46.4{degrees}N, 119.6{degrees}W) multispectral optical depth measurements, 1979--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, R.C. [ed.

    1995-09-22

    Surface measurements of solar irradiance of the atmosphere were made by a multipurpose computer-controlled scanning photometer at the Rattlesnake Mountain Observatory. The observatory is located at 46.4{degrees}N, 119.6{degrees}W at an elevation of 1088 m above mean sea level. The photometer measures the attenuation of direct solar radiation for different wavelengths using 12 filters. Five of these filters (ie., at 428 nm, 486 nm, 535 nm, 785 nm, and 1010 nm, with respective half-power widths of 2, 2, 3, 18, and 28 nm) are suitable for monitoring variations in the total optical depth of the atmosphere. Total optical depths for the five wavelength bands were derived from solar irradiance measurements taken at the observatory from August 5, 1979, to September 2, 1994; these total optical depth data are distributed with this numeric data package (NDP). To determine the contribution of atmospheric aerosols to the total optical depths, the effects of Rayleigh scattering and ozone absorption were subtracted (other molecular scattering was minimal for the five filters) to obtain total column aerosol optical depths. The total aerosol optical depths were further decomposed into tropospheric and stratospheric components by calculating a robustly smoothed mean background optical depth (tropospheric component) for each wavelength using data obtained during periods of low stratospheric aerosol loading. By subtracting the smoothed background tropospheric aerosol optical depths from the total aerosol optical depths, residual aerosol optical depths were obtained. These residuals are good estimates of the stratospheric aerosol optical depth at each wavelength and may be used to monitor the long-term effects of volcanic eruptions on the atmosphere. These data are available as an NDP from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), and the NDP consists of this document and a set of computerized data files.

  12. Remote sensing of atmospheric optical depth using a smartphone sun photometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tingting; Thompson, Jonathan E

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, smart phones have been explored for making a variety of mobile measurements. Smart phones feature many advanced sensors such as cameras, GPS capability, and accelerometers within a handheld device that is portable, inexpensive, and consistently located with an end user. In this work, a smartphone was used as a sun photometer for the remote sensing of atmospheric optical depth. The top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) irradiance was estimated through the construction of Langley plots on days when the sky was cloudless and clear. Changes in optical depth were monitored on a different day when clouds intermittently blocked the sun. The device demonstrated a measurement precision of 1.2% relative standard deviation for replicate photograph measurements (38 trials, 134 datum). However, when the accuracy of the method was assessed through using optical filters of known transmittance, a more substantial uncertainty was apparent in the data. Roughly 95% of replicate smart phone measured transmittances are expected to lie within ±11.6% of the true transmittance value. This uncertainty in transmission corresponds to an optical depth of approx. ±0.12-0.13 suggesting the smartphone sun photometer would be useful only in polluted areas that experience significant optical depths. The device can be used as a tool in the classroom to present how aerosols and gases effect atmospheric transmission. If improvements in measurement precision can be achieved, future work may allow monitoring networks to be developed in which citizen scientists submit acquired data from a variety of locations.

  13. Remote sensing of atmospheric optical depth using a smartphone sun photometer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Cao

    Full Text Available In recent years, smart phones have been explored for making a variety of mobile measurements. Smart phones feature many advanced sensors such as cameras, GPS capability, and accelerometers within a handheld device that is portable, inexpensive, and consistently located with an end user. In this work, a smartphone was used as a sun photometer for the remote sensing of atmospheric optical depth. The top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA irradiance was estimated through the construction of Langley plots on days when the sky was cloudless and clear. Changes in optical depth were monitored on a different day when clouds intermittently blocked the sun. The device demonstrated a measurement precision of 1.2% relative standard deviation for replicate photograph measurements (38 trials, 134 datum. However, when the accuracy of the method was assessed through using optical filters of known transmittance, a more substantial uncertainty was apparent in the data. Roughly 95% of replicate smart phone measured transmittances are expected to lie within ±11.6% of the true transmittance value. This uncertainty in transmission corresponds to an optical depth of approx. ±0.12-0.13 suggesting the smartphone sun photometer would be useful only in polluted areas that experience significant optical depths. The device can be used as a tool in the classroom to present how aerosols and gases effect atmospheric transmission. If improvements in measurement precision can be achieved, future work may allow monitoring networks to be developed in which citizen scientists submit acquired data from a variety of locations.

  14. Variations of aerosol optical depth and Angstrom parameters at a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, aerosol optical properties including aerosol optical depth (AOD), Angstrom exponent () and Angstrom turbidity coefficient () have been investigated during December 2009 to October 2010, in a suburban area of Zanjan (36°N, 43°E, 1700 m), in the north–west of Iran, using meteorological and sun ...

  15. The matter power spectrum from the Ly alpha forest : an optical depth estimate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaroubi, S; Nusser, A; Haehnelt, M; Kim, TS; Viel, M.

    2006-01-01

    We measure the matter power spectrum from 31 Ly alpha spectra spanning the redshift range of 1.6-3.6. The optical depth, tau, for Ly alpha absorption of the intergalactic medium is obtained from the flux using the inversion method of Nusser & Haehnelt. The optical depth is converted to density by

  16. Importance of representing optical depth variability for estimates of global line-shaped contrail radiative forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärcher, Bernd; Burkhardt, Ulrike; Ponater, Michael; Frömming, Christine

    2010-11-09

    Estimates of the global radiative forcing by line-shaped contrails differ mainly due to the large uncertainty in contrail optical depth. Most contrails are optically thin so that their radiative forcing is roughly proportional to their optical depth and increases with contrail coverage. In recent assessments, the best estimate of mean contrail radiative forcing was significantly reduced, because global climate model simulations pointed at lower optical depth values than earlier studies. We revise these estimates by comparing the probability distribution of contrail optical depth diagnosed with a climate model with the distribution derived from a microphysical, cloud-scale model constrained by satellite observations over the United States. By assuming that the optical depth distribution from the cloud model is more realistic than that from the climate model, and by taking the difference between the observed and simulated optical depth over the United States as globally representative, we quantify uncertainties in the climate model's diagnostic contrail parameterization. Revising the climate model results accordingly increases the global mean radiative forcing estimate for line-shaped contrails by a factor of 3.3, from 3.5 mW/m(2) to 11.6 mW/m(2) for the year 1992. Furthermore, the satellite observations and the cloud model point at higher global mean optical depth of detectable contrails than often assumed in radiative transfer (off-line) studies. Therefore, we correct estimates of contrail radiative forcing from off-line studies as well. We suggest that the global net radiative forcing of line-shaped persistent contrails is in the range 8-20 mW/m(2) for the air traffic in the year 2000.

  17. Study of total column atmospheric aerosol optical depth, ozone and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Extensive observations of the columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD), total column ozone (TCO) and precipitable water content (PWC) have been carried out using the on-line, multi-band solar radiometers onboard ORV Sagar Kanya (Cruise#SK 147B) over Bay of Bengal during 11th-28th August 1999. Aerosol optical and ...

  18. A review of the light scattering properties of cirrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, Anthony J.

    2009-01-01

    In this review paper the light scattering properties of naturally occurring ice crystals that are found in cirrus are discussed. Cirrus, also referred to as ice crystal clouds, due to their cold temperatures, consist of a variety of non-spherical ice particles which may take on a variety of geometrical forms. These geometrical forms can range from symmetric pristine hexagonal ice columns and plates, single bullets and bullet-rosettes to non-symmetric aggregates of these shapes. These aggregates may also consist of highly complex three-dimensional structures, which may themselves consist of symmetric components. Not only does cirrus consist of a wide variety of shapes but also sizes too, and these sizes can range between <10 μm to over 1 cm. With such a variety of shapes and sizes predicting the light scattering properties from such an ensemble of ice crystals is the current challenge. This challenge is important to overcome since with cirrus being so high in the Earth's atmosphere it has an important influence on the Earth-atmosphere radiation balance and consequently adds to the uncertainty of predicting climate change. This is why it is important to represent as accurately as possible the single-scattering properties of cirrus ice crystals within general circulation models so that uncertainties in climate change predictions can be reduced. In this review paper the current measurements and observations of ice crystal size and shape are discussed and how these observations relate to current ice crystal models is reviewed. The light scattering properties of the current ice crystal models are also discussed and it is shown how space-based instruments may be used to test these models. The need for particular microphysical and space-based measurements is stressed in order to further constrain ice crystal light scattering models.

  19. Effective Ice Particle Densities for Cold Anvil Cirrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Schmitt, Carl G.; Bansemer, Aaron; Baumgardner, Darrel; Weinstock, Elliot M.; Smith, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    This study derives effective ice particle densities from data collected from the NASA WB-57F aircraft near the tops of anvils during the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers (CRYSTAL) Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (FACE) in southern Florida in July 2002. The effective density, defined as the ice particle mass divided by the volume of an equivalent diameter liquid sphere, is obtained for particle populations and single sizes containing mixed particle habits using measurements of condensed water content and particle size distributions. The mean effective densities for populations decrease with increasing slopes of the gamma size distributions fitted to the size distributions. The population-mean densities range from near 0.91 g/cu m to 0.15 g/cu m. Effective densities for single sizes obey a power-law with an exponent of about -0.55, somewhat less steep than found from earlier studies. Our interpretations apply to samples where particle sizes are generally below 200-300 microns in maximum dimension because of probe limitations.

  20. Fiber-optic annular detector array for large depth of field photoacoustic macroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Bauer-Marschallinger

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on a novel imaging system for large depth of field photoacoustic scanning macroscopy. Instead of commonly used piezoelectric transducers, fiber-optic based ultrasound detection is applied. The optical fibers are shaped into rings and mainly receive ultrasonic signals stemming from the ring symmetry axes. Four concentric fiber-optic rings with varying diameters are used in order to increase the image quality. Imaging artifacts, originating from the off-axis sensitivity of the rings, are reduced by coherence weighting. We discuss the working principle of the system and present experimental results on tissue mimicking phantoms. The lateral resolution is estimated to be below 200 μm at a depth of 1.5 cm and below 230 μm at a depth of 4.5 cm. The minimum detectable pressure is in the order of 3 Pa. The introduced method has the potential to provide larger imaging depths than acoustic resolution photoacoustic microscopy and an imaging resolution similar to that of photoacoustic computed tomography.

  1. Fiber-optic annular detector array for large depth of field photoacoustic macroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer-Marschallinger, Johannes; Höllinger, Astrid; Jakoby, Bernhard; Burgholzer, Peter; Berer, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    We report on a novel imaging system for large depth of field photoacoustic scanning macroscopy. Instead of commonly used piezoelectric transducers, fiber-optic based ultrasound detection is applied. The optical fibers are shaped into rings and mainly receive ultrasonic signals stemming from the ring symmetry axes. Four concentric fiber-optic rings with varying diameters are used in order to increase the image quality. Imaging artifacts, originating from the off-axis sensitivity of the rings, are reduced by coherence weighting. We discuss the working principle of the system and present experimental results on tissue mimicking phantoms. The lateral resolution is estimated to be below 200 μm at a depth of 1.5 cm and below 230 μm at a depth of 4.5 cm. The minimum detectable pressure is in the order of 3 Pa. The introduced method has the potential to provide larger imaging depths than acoustic resolution photoacoustic microscopy and an imaging resolution similar to that of photoacoustic computed tomography.

  2. Techniques of surface optical breakdown prevention for low-depths femtosecond waveguides writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukharin, M A; Skryabin, N N; Ganin, D V; Khudyakov, D V; Vartapetov, S.K.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated technique of direct femtosecond waveguide writing at record low depth (2-15 μm) under surface of lithium niobate, that play a key role in design of electrooptical modulators with low operating voltage. To prevent optical breakdown of crystal surface we used high numerical aperture objectives for focusing of light and non-thermal regime of inscription in contrast to widespread femtosecond writing technique at depths of tens micrometers or higher. Surface optical breakdown threshold was measured for both x- and z- cut crystals. Inscribed waveguides were examined for intrinsic microstructure. It also reported sharp narrowing of operating pulses energy range with writing depth under the surface of crystal, that should be taken in account when near-surface waveguides design. Novelty of the results consists in reduction of inscription depth under the surface of crystals that broadens applications of direct femtosecond writing technique to full formation of near-surface waveguides and postproduction precise geometry correction of near-surfaces optical integrated circuits produced with proton-exchanged technique. (paper)

  3. Ion induced optical emission for surface and depth profile analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, C.W.

    1977-01-01

    Low-energy ion bombardment of solid surfaces results in the emission of infrared, visible, and ultraviolet radiation produced by inelastic ion-solid collision processes. The emitted optical radiation provides important insight into low-energy particle-solid interactions and provides the basis for an analysis technique which can be used for surface and depth profile analysis with high sensitivity. The different kinds of collision induced optical radiation emitted as a result of low-energy particle-solid collisions are reviewed. Line radiation arising from excited states of sputtered atoms or molecules is shown to provide the basis for surface and depth profile analysis. The spectral characteristics of this type of radiation are discussed and applications of the ion induced optical emission technique are presented. These applications include measurements of ion implant profiles, detection sensitivities for submonolayer quantities of impurities on elemental surfaces, and the detection of elemental impurities on complex organic substrates

  4. Overview of the CERES Edition-4 Multilayer Cloud Property Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, F. L.; Minnis, P.; Sun-Mack, S.; Chen, Y.; Smith, R. A.; Brown, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge of the cloud vertical distribution is important for understanding the role of clouds on earth's radiation budget and climate change. Since high-level cirrus clouds with low emission temperatures and small optical depths can provide a positive feedback to a climate system and low-level stratus clouds with high emission temperatures and large optical depths can provide a negative feedback effect, the retrieval of multilayer cloud properties using satellite observations, like Terra and Aqua MODIS, is critically important for a variety of cloud and climate applications. For the objective of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), new algorithms have been developed using Terra and Aqua MODIS data to allow separate retrievals of cirrus and stratus cloud properties when the two dominant cloud types are simultaneously present in a multilayer system. In this paper, we will present an overview of the new CERES Edition-4 multilayer cloud property datasets derived from Terra as well as Aqua. Assessment of the new CERES multilayer cloud datasets will include high-level cirrus and low-level stratus cloud heights, pressures, and temperatures as well as their optical depths, emissivities, and microphysical properties.

  5. Monitoring cirrus cloud and tropopause height over Hanoi using a compact lidar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui Van Hai; Dinh Van Trung; Nguyen Xuan Tuan; Dao Duy Thang; Nguyen Thanh Binh

    2012-01-01

    Cirrus clouds in the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere have attracted great attention due to their important role and impact on the atmospheric radioactive balance. Because cirrus clouds are located high in the atmosphere, their study requires a high resolution remote sensing technique not only for detection but also for the characterization of their properties. The lidar technique with its inherent high sensitivity and resolution has become an indispensable tool for studying and improving our understanding of cirrus cloud. Using lidar technique we can simultaneously measure the cloud height, thickness and follow its temporal evolution. In this paper we describe the development of a compact and highly sensitive lidar system with the aim to remotely monitor for the first time the cirrus clouds over Hanoi (2101:42 N, 10551:12 W). From the lidar data collected during the year 2011. We derive the mean cloud height, location of cloud top, the cloud mean thickness and their temporal evolution. We then compare the location of the cloud top with the position of the tropopause determined the radiosonde data and found good that the distance between cloud top and tropopause remains fairly stable, indicating that generally the top of cirrus clouds is the good tracer of the tropopause. We found that the cirrus clouds are generally located at height between 11.2 to 15 km with average height of 13.4 km. Their thickness is between 0.3 and 3.8 km with average value of 1.7 km. We also compare the properties of cirrus cloud with that observed at other locations around the world based on lidar technique. (author)

  6. Modeled Impact of Cirrus Cloud Increases Along Aircraft Flight Paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, David; Lonergan, P.; Shah, K.

    1999-01-01

    The potential impact of contrails and alterations in the lifetime of background cirrus due to subsonic airplane water and aerosol emissions has been investigated in a set of experiments using the GISS GCM connected to a q-flux ocean. Cirrus clouds at a height of 12-15km, with an optical thickness of 0.33, were input to the model "x" percentage of clear-sky occasions along subsonic aircraft flight paths, where x is varied from .05% to 6%. Two types of experiments were performed: one with the percentage cirrus cloud increase independent of flight density, as long as a certain minimum density was exceeded; the other with the percentage related to the density of fuel expenditure. The overall climate impact was similar with the two approaches, due to the feedbacks of the climate system. Fifty years were run for eight such experiments, with the following conclusions based on the stable results from years 30-50 for each. The experiments show that adding cirrus to the upper troposphere results in a stabilization of the atmosphere, which leads to some decrease in cloud cover at levels below the insertion altitude. Considering then the total effect on upper level cloud cover (above 5 km altitude), the equilibrium global mean temperature response shows that altering high level clouds by 1% changes the global mean temperature by 0.43C. The response is highly linear (linear correlation coefficient of 0.996) for high cloud cover changes between 0. 1% and 5%. The effect is amplified in the Northern Hemisphere, more so with greater cloud cover change. The temperature effect maximizes around 10 km (at greater than 40C warming with a 4.8% increase in upper level clouds), again more so with greater warming. The high cloud cover change shows the flight path influence most clearly with the smallest warming magnitudes; with greater warming, the model feedbacks introduce a strong tropical response. Similarly, the surface temperature response is dominated by the feedbacks, and shows

  7. Secchi depth analysis using bio-optical parameters measured in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Naik, P.; Bandishte, M.; Desa, E.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Matondkar, S.G.P.

    spatial and temporal variability of Secchi depth and their dependence on the optical properties beam attenuation and diffuse attenuation the biological parameter of Chlorophyll. The in-situ measured inherent and apparent optical properties have been used...

  8. Microphysical properties of contrails and natural cirrus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, B; Wendling, P [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The radiative properties of a condensation trail (contrail) are determined by its microphysical properties. Therefore an understanding of the concentration, size distribution, and shapes of the particles is necessary for an estimation of the climatic impact of contrails. In-situ particle measurements by use of an ice replicator are presented for several contrail and cirrus events. Contrail particles aged about 2 minutes show shapes which are nearly spherical. Typical sizes are 5 to 10 {mu}m. Concentration values reach up to the order of 1000 cm{sup -3}. Aged contrail size distributions are within the variability of those found in natural cirrus clouds. (author) 2 refs.

  9. Microphysical properties of contrails and natural cirrus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, B.; Wendling, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The radiative properties of a condensation trail (contrail) are determined by its microphysical properties. Therefore an understanding of the concentration, size distribution, and shapes of the particles is necessary for an estimation of the climatic impact of contrails. In-situ particle measurements by use of an ice replicator are presented for several contrail and cirrus events. Contrail particles aged about 2 minutes show shapes which are nearly spherical. Typical sizes are 5 to 10 {mu}m. Concentration values reach up to the order of 1000 cm{sup -3}. Aged contrail size distributions are within the variability of those found in natural cirrus clouds. (author) 2 refs.

  10. A method for determination of cirrus extinction-to-backscatter ratio from CALIOP data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jingbin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting an empirical equation to retrieve cirrus lidar ratio by using CALIOP 532 nm level 1 data for nighttime cases. Retrieval results have non-relationship with cirrus multiple scattering effects and not affected by the error of transmission. The average CALIPSO 532 nm cirrus lidar ratio over Longitude 120+/- 10 and Latitude 25+/-10 for whole year of 2008 are 21.66±0.06sr for the year of 2008 respectively, with the maximum bias of 9.25% for the year 2008, the results is fairly stable and reasonable.

  11. Preliminary results of the aerosol optical depth retrieval in Johor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, H Q; Lau, A M S; Kanniah, K D

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring of atmospheric aerosols over the urban area is important as tremendous amounts of pollutants are released by industrial activities and heavy traffic flow. Air quality monitoring by satellite observation provides better spatial coverage, however, detailed aerosol properties retrieval remains a challenge. This is due to the limitation of aerosol retrieval algorithm on high reflectance (bright surface) areas. The aim of this study is to retrieve aerosol optical depth over urban areas of Iskandar Malaysia; the main southern development zone in Johor state, using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 500 m resolution data. One of the important steps is the aerosol optical depth retrieval is to characterise different types of aerosols in the study area. This information will be used to construct a Look Up Table containing the simulated aerosol reflectance and corresponding aerosol optical depth. Thus, in this study we have characterised different aerosol types in the study area using Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data. These data were processed using cluster analysis and the preliminary results show that the area is consisting of coastal urban (65%), polluted urban (27.5%), dust particles (6%) and heavy pollution (1.5%) aerosols

  12. A statistical comparison of cirrus particle size distributions measured using the 2-D stereo probe during the TC4, SPARTICUS, and MACPEX flight campaigns with historical cirrus datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, M. Christian

    2017-08-01

    This paper addresses two straightforward questions. First, how similar are the statistics of cirrus particle size distribution (PSD) datasets collected using the Two-Dimensional Stereo (2D-S) probe to cirrus PSD datasets collected using older Particle Measuring Systems (PMS) 2-D Cloud (2DC) and 2-D Precipitation (2DP) probes? Second, how similar are the datasets when shatter-correcting post-processing is applied to the 2DC datasets? To answer these questions, a database of measured and parameterized cirrus PSDs - constructed from measurements taken during the Small Particles in Cirrus (SPARTICUS); Mid-latitude Airborne Cirrus Properties Experiment (MACPEX); and Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling (TC4) flight campaigns - is used.Bulk cloud quantities are computed from the 2D-S database in three ways: first, directly from the 2D-S data; second, by applying the 2D-S data to ice PSD parameterizations developed using sets of cirrus measurements collected using the older PMS probes; and third, by applying the 2D-S data to a similar parameterization developed using the 2D-S data themselves. This is done so that measurements of the same cloud volumes by parameterized versions of the 2DC and 2D-S can be compared with one another. It is thereby seen - given the same cloud field and given the same assumptions concerning ice crystal cross-sectional area, density, and radar cross section - that the parameterized 2D-S and the parameterized 2DC predict similar distributions of inferred shortwave extinction coefficient, ice water content, and 94 GHz radar reflectivity. However, the parameterization of the 2DC based on uncorrected data predicts a statistically significantly higher number of total ice crystals and a larger ratio of small ice crystals to large ice crystals than does the parameterized 2D-S. The 2DC parameterization based on shatter-corrected data also predicts statistically different numbers of ice crystals than does the parameterized 2D-S, but the

  13. A statistical comparison of cirrus particle size distributions measured using the 2-D stereo probe during the TC4, SPARTICUS, and MACPEX flight campaigns with historical cirrus datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Schwartz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses two straightforward questions. First, how similar are the statistics of cirrus particle size distribution (PSD datasets collected using the Two-Dimensional Stereo (2D-S probe to cirrus PSD datasets collected using older Particle Measuring Systems (PMS 2-D Cloud (2DC and 2-D Precipitation (2DP probes? Second, how similar are the datasets when shatter-correcting post-processing is applied to the 2DC datasets? To answer these questions, a database of measured and parameterized cirrus PSDs – constructed from measurements taken during the Small Particles in Cirrus (SPARTICUS; Mid-latitude Airborne Cirrus Properties Experiment (MACPEX; and Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling (TC4 flight campaigns – is used.Bulk cloud quantities are computed from the 2D-S database in three ways: first, directly from the 2D-S data; second, by applying the 2D-S data to ice PSD parameterizations developed using sets of cirrus measurements collected using the older PMS probes; and third, by applying the 2D-S data to a similar parameterization developed using the 2D-S data themselves. This is done so that measurements of the same cloud volumes by parameterized versions of the 2DC and 2D-S can be compared with one another. It is thereby seen – given the same cloud field and given the same assumptions concerning ice crystal cross-sectional area, density, and radar cross section – that the parameterized 2D-S and the parameterized 2DC predict similar distributions of inferred shortwave extinction coefficient, ice water content, and 94 GHz radar reflectivity. However, the parameterization of the 2DC based on uncorrected data predicts a statistically significantly higher number of total ice crystals and a larger ratio of small ice crystals to large ice crystals than does the parameterized 2D-S. The 2DC parameterization based on shatter-corrected data also predicts statistically different numbers of ice crystals than does the

  14. Fog Density Estimation and Image Defogging Based on Surrogate Modeling for Optical Depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yutong; Sun, Changming; Zhao, Yu; Yang, Li

    2017-05-03

    In order to estimate fog density correctly and to remove fog from foggy images appropriately, a surrogate model for optical depth is presented in this paper. We comprehensively investigate various fog-relevant features and propose a novel feature based on the hue, saturation, and value color space which correlate well with the perception of fog density. We use a surrogate-based method to learn a refined polynomial regression model for optical depth with informative fog-relevant features such as dark-channel, saturation-value, and chroma which are selected on the basis of sensitivity analysis. Based on the obtained accurate surrogate model for optical depth, an effective method for fog density estimation and image defogging is proposed. The effectiveness of our proposed method is verified quantitatively and qualitatively by the experimental results on both synthetic and real-world foggy images.

  15. Constraining the CMB optical depth through the dispersion measure of cosmological radio transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fialkov, A.; Loeb, A.

    2016-01-01

    The dispersion measure of extragalactic radio transients can be used to measure the column density of free electrons in the intergalactic medium. The same electrons also scatter the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons, affecting precision measurements of cosmological parameters. We explore the connection between the dispersion measure of radio transients existing during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) and the total optical depth for the CMB showing that the existence of such transients would provide a new sensitive probe of the CMB optical depth. As an example, we consider the population of FRBs. Assuming they exist during the EoR, we show that: (i) such sources can probe the reionization history by measuring the optical depth to sub-percent accuracy, and (ii) they can be detected with high significance by an instrument such as the Square Kilometer Array.

  16. Constraining the CMB optical depth through the dispersion measure of cosmological radio transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fialkov, A.; Loeb, A., E-mail: anastasia.fialkov@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Teory and Computation, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The dispersion measure of extragalactic radio transients can be used to measure the column density of free electrons in the intergalactic medium. The same electrons also scatter the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons, affecting precision measurements of cosmological parameters. We explore the connection between the dispersion measure of radio transients existing during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) and the total optical depth for the CMB showing that the existence of such transients would provide a new sensitive probe of the CMB optical depth. As an example, we consider the population of FRBs. Assuming they exist during the EoR, we show that: (i) such sources can probe the reionization history by measuring the optical depth to sub-percent accuracy, and (ii) they can be detected with high significance by an instrument such as the Square Kilometer Array.

  17. Dual-wavelength millimeter-wave radar measurements of cirrus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekelsky, S.M.; Firda, J.M.; McIntosh, R.E. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    In April 1994, the University of Massachusetts` 33-GHz/95-GHz Cloud Profiling Radar System (CPRS) participated in the multi-sensor Remote Cloud Sensing (RCS) Intensive Operation Period (IOP), which was conducted at the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART). During the 3-week experiment, CPRS measured a variety of cloud types and severe weather. In the context of global warming, the most significant measurements are dual-frequency observations of cirrus clouds, which may eventually be used to estimate ice crystal size and shape. Much of the cirrus data collected with CPRS show differences between 33-GHz and 95-GHz reflectivity measurements that are correlated with Doppler estimates of fall velocity. Because of the small range of reflectivity differences, a precise calibration of the radar is required and differential attenuation must also be removed from the data. Depolarization, which is an indicator of crystal shape, was also observed in several clouds. In this abstract we present examples of Mie scattering from cirrus and estimates of differential attenuation due to water vapor and oxygen that were derived from CART radiosonde measurements.

  18. An Optical Fibre Depth (Pressure) Sensor for Remote Operated Vehicles in Underwater Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraibabu, Dinesh Babu; Poeggel, Sven; Omerdic, Edin; Capocci, Romano; Lewis, Elfed; Newe, Thomas; Leen, Gabriel; Toal, Daniel; Dooly, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    A miniature sensor for accurate measurement of pressure (depth) with temperature compensation in the ocean environment is described. The sensor is based on an optical fibre Extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) combined with a Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG). The EFPI provides pressure measurements while the Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) provides temperature measurements. The sensor is mechanically robust, corrosion-resistant and suitable for use in underwater applications. The combined pressure and temperature sensor system was mounted on-board a mini remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV) in order to monitor the pressure changes at various depths. The reflected optical spectrum from the sensor was monitored online and a pressure or temperature change caused a corresponding observable shift in the received optical spectrum. The sensor exhibited excellent stability when measured over a 2 h period underwater and its performance is compared with a commercially available reference sensor also mounted on the ROV. The measurements illustrates that the EFPI/FBG sensor is more accurate for depth measurements (depth of ~0.020 m). PMID:28218727

  19. Zooming in on cirrus with the Canadian Regional Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanof, C.; Stefanof, A.; Beaulne, A.; Munoz Alpizar, R.; Szyrmer, W.; Blanchet, J.

    2004-05-01

    The Canadian Regional Climate Model plus a microphysical scheme: two-moments microphysics with three hydrometeor categories (cloud liquid water, pristine ice crystals and larger precipitation crystals) is used to test the simulation in forecast mode using ECMWF data at 0.4 X 0.4 degree. We are zooming in on cirrus at higher resolutions (9, 1.8, 0.36 km). We are currently using the data set measured in APEX-E3, measurements of radar, lidar, passive instruments and interpreted microphysics for some flights (G-II, C404, B200). The radar and lidar data are available for high level cirrus. The south west of Japon is the flight region. The dates are March 20, March 27 and April 2, 2003. We first focus on the March 27 frontal system. We did a rigorous synoptical analysis for the cases. The cirrus at 360 m resolution are simulated. The cloud structure and some similarities between model simulation and observations will be presented.

  20. Depth-of-field effects in wiggler radiation sources: Geometrical versus wave optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Walker

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis is carried out of the optical properties of synchrotron radiation emitted by multipole wigglers, concentrating on the effective source size and brightness and the so-called “depth of field” effects, concerning which there has been some controversy in the literature. By comparing calculations made with both geometrical optics and wave optics methods we demonstrate that the two approaches are not at variance, and that the wave optics results tend towards those of geometrical optics under well-defined conditions.

  1. Estimating the maritime component of aerosol optical depth and its dependency on surface wind speed using satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lehahn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Six years (2003–2008 of satellite measurements of aerosol parameters from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and surface wind speeds from Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT, the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E, and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I, are used to provide a comprehensive perspective on the link between surface wind speed and marine aerosol optical depth over tropical and subtropical oceanic regions. A systematic comparison between the satellite derived fields in these regions allows to: (i separate the relative contribution of wind-induced marine aerosol to the aerosol optical depth; (ii extract an empirical linear equation linking coarse marine aerosol optical depth and wind intensity; and (iii identify a time scale for correlating marine aerosol optical depth and surface wind speed. The contribution of wind induced marine aerosol to aerosol optical depth is found to be dominated by the coarse mode elements. When wind intensity exceeds 4 m/s, coarse marine aerosol optical depth is linearly correlated with the surface wind speed, with a remarkably consistent slope of 0.009±0.002 s/m. A detailed time scale analysis shows that the linear correlation between the fields is well kept within a 12 h time frame, while sharply decreasing when the time lag between measurements is longer. The background aerosol optical depth, associated with aerosols that are not produced in-situ through wind driven processes, can be used for estimating the contributions of terrestrial and biogenic marine aerosol to over-ocean satellite retrievals of aerosol optical depth.

  2. Single particle measurements of the chemical composition of cirrus ice residue during CRYSTAL-FACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cziczo, D. J.; Murphy, D. M.; Hudson, P. K.; Thomson, D. S.

    2004-02-01

    The first real-time, in situ, investigation of the chemical composition of the residue of cirrus ice crystals was performed during July 2002. This study was undertaken on a NASA WB-57F high-altitude research aircraft as part of CRYSTAL-FACE, a field campaign which sought to further our understanding of the relation of clouds, water vapor, and climate by characterizing, among other parameters, anvil cirrus formed about the Florida peninsula. A counter flow virtual impactor (CVI) was used to separate cirrus ice from the unactivated interstitial aerosol particles and evaporate condensed-phase water. Residual material, on a crystal-by-crystal basis, was subsequently analyzed using the NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory's Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry (PALMS) instrument. Sampling was performed from 5 to 15 km altitude and from 12° to 28° north latitude within cirrus originating over land and ocean. Chemical composition measurements provided several important results. Sea salt was often incorporated into cirrus, consistent with homogeneous ice formation by aerosol particles from the marine boundary layer. Size measurements showed that large particles preferentially froze over smaller ones. Meteoritic material was found within ice crystals, indicative of a relation between stratospheric aerosol particles and tropospheric clouds. Mineral dust was the dominant residue observed in clouds formed during a dust transport event from the Sahara, consistent with a heterogeneous freezing mechanism. These results show that chemical composition and size are important determinants of which aerosol particles form cirrus ice crystals.

  3. Simulation of idealized warm fronts and life cycles of cirrus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bense, Vera; Spichtinger, Peter

    2013-04-01

    One of the generally accepted formation mechanisms of cirrus clouds is connected to warm fronts. As the warm air glides over the cold air mass, it cools through adiabatic expansion and reaches ice supersaturation that eventually leads to the formation of ice clouds. Within this work, the EULAG model (see e.g. Prusa et al., 2008) was used to study the formation and life cycles of cirrus clouds in idealized 2-dimensional simulations. The microphysical processes were modelled with the double-moment bulk scheme of Spichtinger and Gierens (2009), which describes homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. In order to represent the gradual gliding of the air along the front, a ramp was chosen as topography. The sensibility of cloud formation to different environmental conditions such as wind shear, aerosol distribution and slope of the front was analyzed. In case of cirrus cloud formation its persistence after the front was studied as well as the change in microphysical properties such as ice crystal number concentrations. References: Prusa, J.M., P.K. Smolarkiewicz, A.A. Wyszogrodzki, 2008: EULAG, a computational model for multiscale flows. Computers and Fluids, doi:10.1016/j.compfluid.2007.12.001. Spichtinger, P., K. M. Gierens, 2009: Modelling of cirrus clouds - Part 1a: Model description and validation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 685-706.

  4. Robust calibration of an optical-lattice depth based on a phase shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Gutiérrez, C.; Michon, E.; Brunaud, V.; Kawalec, T.; Fortun, A.; Arnal, M.; Billy, J.; Guéry-Odelin, D.

    2018-04-01

    We report on a method to calibrate the depth of an optical lattice. It consists of triggering the intrasite dipole mode of the cloud by a sudden phase shift. The corresponding oscillatory motion is directly related to the interband frequencies on a large range of lattice depths. Remarkably, for a moderate displacement, a single frequency dominates the oscillation of the zeroth and first orders of the interference pattern observed after a sufficiently long time of flight. The method is robust against atom-atom interactions and the exact value of the extra weak external confinement superimposed to the optical lattice.

  5. MODA: a new algorithm to compute optical depths in multidimensional hydrodynamic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, Albino; Gafton, Emanuel; Cabezón, Rubén; Rosswog, Stephan; Liebendörfer, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    Aims: We introduce the multidimensional optical depth algorithm (MODA) for the calculation of optical depths in approximate multidimensional radiative transport schemes, equally applicable to neutrinos and photons. Motivated by (but not limited to) neutrino transport in three-dimensional simulations of core-collapse supernovae and neutron star mergers, our method makes no assumptions about the geometry of the matter distribution, apart from expecting optically transparent boundaries. Methods: Based on local information about opacities, the algorithm figures out an escape route that tends to minimize the optical depth without assuming any predefined paths for radiation. Its adaptivity makes it suitable for a variety of astrophysical settings with complicated geometry (e.g., core-collapse supernovae, compact binary mergers, tidal disruptions, star formation, etc.). We implement the MODA algorithm into both a Eulerian hydrodynamics code with a fixed, uniform grid and into an SPH code where we use a tree structure that is otherwise used for searching neighbors and calculating gravity. Results: In a series of numerical experiments, we compare the MODA results with analytically known solutions. We also use snapshots from actual 3D simulations and compare the results of MODA with those obtained with other methods, such as the global and local ray-by-ray method. It turns out that MODA achieves excellent accuracy at a moderate computational cost. In appendix we also discuss implementation details and parallelization strategies.

  6. Spherical aberration of an optical system and its influence on depth of focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikš, Antonín; Pokorný, Petr

    2017-06-10

    This paper analyzes the influence of spherical aberration on the depth of focus of symmetrical optical systems for imaging of axial points. A calculation of a beam's caustics is discussed using ray equations in the image plane and considering longitudinal spherical aberration as well. Concurrently, the influence of aberration coefficients on extremes of such a curve is presented. Afterwards, conditions for aberration coefficients are derived if the Strehl definition should be the same in two symmetrically placed planes with respect to the paraxial image plane. Such conditions for optical systems with large aberrations are derived with the use of geometric-optical approximation where the gyration diameter of the beam in given planes of the optical system is evaluated. Therefore, one can calculate aberration coefficients in such a way that the optical system generates a beam of rays that has the gyration radius in a given interval smaller than the defined limit value. Moreover, one can calculate the maximal depth of focus of the optical system respecting the aforementioned conditions.

  7. The Effect of Cirrus Clouds on Water Vapor Transport in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, L.; McCormick, M. P.; Anderson, J.

    2017-12-01

    Water vapor plays an important role in the Earth's radiation budget and stratospheric chemistry. It is widely accepted that a large percentage of water vapor entering the stratosphere travels through the tropical tropopause and is dehydrated by the cold tropopause temperature. The vertical transport of water vapor is also affected by the radiative effects of cirrus clouds in the tropical tropopause layer. This latter effect of cirrus clouds was investigated in this research. The work focuses on the tropical and mid-latitude region (50N-50S). Water vapor data from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and cirrus cloud data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) instruments were used to investigate the relationship between the water vapor and the occurrence of cirrus cloud. A 10-degree in longitude by 10-degree in latitude resolution was chosen to bin the MLS and CALIPSO data. The result shows that the maximum water vapor in the upper troposphere (below 146 hPa) is matched very well with the highest frequency of cirrus cloud occurrences. Maximum water vapor in the lower stratosphere (100 hPa) is partly matched with the maximum cirrus cloud occurrence in the summer time. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Interpolated Outgoing Longwave Radiation data and NCEP-DOE Reanalysis 2 wind data were used also to investigate the relationship between the water vapor entering the stratosphere, deep convection, and wind. Results show that maximum water vapor at 100 hPa coincides with the northern hemisphere summer-time anticyclone. The effects from both single-layer cirrus clouds and cirrus clouds above the anvil top on the water vapor entering the stratosphere were also studied and will be presented.

  8. Variations of aerosol optical depth and Angstrom parameters at a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E, 1700 m), in the north–west of Iran, using meteorological and sun .... However, a few works have been carried out in the Middle-East region .... 3.1.2 Diurnal behaviour of AOD ... work, showed a prevailing pattern of the optical depth in which ...

  9. Validation of the large-scale Lagrangian cirrus model CLaMS-Ice by in-situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anja; Rolf, Christian; Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Afchine, Armin; Spelten, Nicole; Dreiling, Volker; Zöger, Martin; Krämer, Martina

    2015-04-01

    Cirrus clouds are an element of uncertainty in the climate system and have received increasing attention since the last IPCC reports. The interaction of varying freezing meachanisms, sedimentation rates, temperature and updraft velocity fluctuations and other factors that lead to the formation of those clouds is still not fully understood. During the ML-Cirrus campaign 2014 (Germany), the new cirrus cloud model CLaMS-Ice (see Rolf et al., EGU 2015) has been used for flight planning to direct the research aircraft HALO into interesting cirrus cloud regions. Now, after the campaign, we use our in-situ aircraft measurements to validate and improve this model - with the long-term goal to enable it to simulate cirrus cloud cover globally, with reasonable computing times and sufficient accuracy. CLaMS-Ice consists of a two-moment bulk model established by Spichtinger and Gierens (2009a, 2009b), which simulates cirrus clouds along trajectories that the Lagrangian model CLaMS (McKenna et al., 2002 and Konopka et al. 2007) derived from ECMWF data. The model output covers temperature, pressure, relative humidity, ice water content (IWC), and ice crystal numbers (Nice). These parameters were measured on board of HALO by the following instruments: temperature and pressure by BAHAMAS, total and gas phase water by the hygrometers FISH and SHARC (see Meyer et al 2014, submitted to ACP), and Nice as well as ice crystal size distributions by the cloud spectrometer NIXE-CAPS (see also Krämer et al., EGU 2015). Comparisons of the model results with the measurements yield that cirrus clouds can be successfully simulated by CLaMS-Ice. However, there are sections in which the model's relative humidity and Nice deviate considerably from the measured values. This can be traced back to e.g. the initialization of total water from ECMWF data. The simulations are therefore reinitiated with the total water content measured by FISH. Other possible sources of uncertainties are investigated, as

  10. Midlatitude Cirrus Clouds Derived from Hurricane Nora: A Case Study with Implications for Ice Crystal Nucleation and Shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Arnott, W. Patrick; O'C. Starr, David; Mace, Gerald G.; Wang, Zhien; Poellot, Michael R.

    2003-04-01

    Hurricane Nora traveled up the Baja Peninsula coast in the unusually warm El Niño waters of September 1997 until rapidly decaying as it approached southern California on 24 September. The anvil cirrus blowoff from the final surge of tropical convection became embedded in subtropical flow that advected the cirrus across the western United States, where it was studied from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (FARS) in Salt Lake City, Utah, on 25 September. A day later, the cirrus shield remnants were redirected southward by midlatitude circulations into the southern Great Plains, providing a case study opportunity for the research aircraft and ground-based remote sensors assembled at the Clouds and Radiation Testbed (CART) site in northern Oklahoma. Using these comprehensive resources and new remote sensing cloud retrieval algorithms, the microphysical and radiative cloud properties of this unusual cirrus event are uniquely characterized.Importantly, at both the FARS and CART sites the cirrus generated spectacular halos and arcs, which acted as a tracer for the hurricane cirrus, despite the limited lifetimes of individual ice crystals. Lidar depolarization data indicate widespread regions of uniform ice plate orientations, and in situ particle replicator data show a preponderance of pristine, solid hexagonal plates and columns. It is suggested that these unusual aspects are the result of the mode of cirrus particle nucleation, presumably involving the lofting of sea salt nuclei in strong thunderstorm updrafts into the upper troposphere. This created a reservoir of haze particles that continued to produce halide-salt-contaminated ice crystals during the extended period of cirrus cloud maintenance. The inference that marine microbiota are embedded in the replicas of some ice crystals collected over the CART site points to the longevity of marine effects. Various nucleation scenarios proposed for cirrus clouds based on this and other studies, and the

  11. Underwater Inherent Optical Properties Estimation Using a Depth Aided Deep Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater inherent optical properties (IOPs are the fundamental clues to many research fields such as marine optics, marine biology, and underwater vision. Currently, beam transmissometers and optical sensors are considered as the ideal IOPs measuring methods. But these methods are inflexible and expensive to be deployed. To overcome this problem, we aim to develop a novel measuring method using only a single underwater image with the help of deep artificial neural network. The power of artificial neural network has been proved in image processing and computer vision fields with deep learning technology. However, image-based IOPs estimation is a quite different and challenging task. Unlike the traditional applications such as image classification or localization, IOP estimation looks at the transparency of the water between the camera and the target objects to estimate multiple optical properties simultaneously. In this paper, we propose a novel Depth Aided (DA deep neural network structure for IOPs estimation based on a single RGB image that is even noisy. The imaging depth information is considered as an aided input to help our model make better decision.

  12. Underwater Inherent Optical Properties Estimation Using a Depth Aided Deep Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhibin; Wang, Yubo; Zheng, Bing; Zheng, Haiyong; Wang, Nan; Gu, Zhaorui

    2017-01-01

    Underwater inherent optical properties (IOPs) are the fundamental clues to many research fields such as marine optics, marine biology, and underwater vision. Currently, beam transmissometers and optical sensors are considered as the ideal IOPs measuring methods. But these methods are inflexible and expensive to be deployed. To overcome this problem, we aim to develop a novel measuring method using only a single underwater image with the help of deep artificial neural network. The power of artificial neural network has been proved in image processing and computer vision fields with deep learning technology. However, image-based IOPs estimation is a quite different and challenging task. Unlike the traditional applications such as image classification or localization, IOP estimation looks at the transparency of the water between the camera and the target objects to estimate multiple optical properties simultaneously. In this paper, we propose a novel Depth Aided (DA) deep neural network structure for IOPs estimation based on a single RGB image that is even noisy. The imaging depth information is considered as an aided input to help our model make better decision.

  13. Influence of crystal shapes on radiative fluxes in visible wavelength: ice crystals randomly oriented in space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chervet

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Radiative properties of cirrus clouds are one of the major unsolved problems in climate studies and global radiation budget. These clouds are generally composed of various ice-crystal shapes, so we tried to evaluate effects of the ice-crystal shape on radiative fluxes. We calculated radiative fluxes of cirrus clouds with a constant geometrical depth, composed of ice crystals with different shapes (hexagonal columns, bullets, bullet-rosettes, sizes and various concentrations. We considered ice particles randomly oriented in space (3D case and their scattering phase functions were calculated by a ray-tracing method. We calculated radiative fluxes for cirrus layers for different microphysical characteristics by using a discrete-ordinate radiative code. Results showed that the foremost effect of the ice-crystal shape on radiative properties of cirrus clouds was that on the optical thickness, while the variation of the scattering phase function with the ice shape remained less than 3% for our computations. The ice-water content may be a better choice to parameterize the optical properties of cirrus, but the shape effect must be included.

  14. Cirrus Susceptibility to Changes in Ice Nuclei: Physical Processes, Model Uncertainties, and Measurement Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric

    2018-01-01

    One of the proposed concepts for mitigating the warming effect of increasing greenhouse gases is seeding cirrus cloud with ice nuclei (IN) in order to reduce the lifetime and coverage of cold cirrus that have a net warming impact on the earth's surface. Global model simulations of the net impact of changing upper tropospheric IN have given widely disparate results, partly as a result of poor understanding of ice nucleation processes in the current atmosphere, and partly as a result of poor representation of these processes in global models. Here, we present detailed process-model simulations of tropical tropopause layer (TTL) transport and cirrus formation with ice nuclei properties based on recent laboratory nucleation experiments and field measurements of aerosol composition. The model is used to assess the sensitivity of TTL cirrus occurrence frequency and microphysical properties to the abundance and efficacy of ice nuclei. The simulated cloud properties compared with recent high-altitude aircraft measurements of TTL cirrus and ice supersaturation. We find that abundant effective IN (either from glassy organic aerosols or crystalline ammonium sulfate with concentrations greater than about 100/L) prevent the occurrences of large ice concentration and large ice supersaturations, both of which are clearly indicated by the in situ observations. We find that concentrations of effective ice nuclei larger than about 50/L can drive significant changes in cirrus microphysical properties and occurrence frequency. However, the cloud occurrence frequency can either increase or decrease, depending on the efficacy and abundance of IN added to the TTL. We suggest that our lack of information about ice nuclei properties in the current atmosphere, as well as uncertainties in ice nucleation processes and their representations in global models, preclude meaningful estimates of climate impacts associated with addition of ice nuclei in the upper troposphere. We will briefly discuss

  15. Temperature dependence of the optical conductivity and penetration depth in superconductor MgB2 film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moarrefi, M.; Yavari, H.; Elahi, M.

    2010-01-01

    By using Green's function method the temperature dependence of the optical conductivity and penetration depth of high-quality MgB 2 film are calculated in the framework of the two-band model. We compare our results with experimental data and we argue that the single gap model is insufficient to describe the optical and penetration depth behavior, but the two-band model with different symmetries describes the data rather well. In the two gap model we consider that the both components of optical conductivity are a weighted sum of the contribution from σ and π bonds and hybridization between them is negligible.

  16. Extended depth of field imaging through multicore optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Antony; Ploschner, Martin; Maksymov, Ivan S; Gibson, Brant C

    2018-03-05

    Compact microendoscopes use multicore optical fibers (MOFs) to visualize hard-to-reach regions of the body. These devices typically have a large numerical aperture (NA) and are fixed-focus, leading to blurry images from a shallow depth of field with little focus control. In this work, we demonstrate a method to digitally adjust the collection aperture and therefore extend the depth of field of lensless MOF imaging probes. We show that the depth of field can be more than doubled for certain spatial frequencies, and observe a resolution enhancement of up to 78% at a distance of 50μm from the MOF facet. Our technique enables imaging of complex 3D objects at a comparable working distance to lensed MOFs, but without the requirement of lenses, scan units or transmission matrix calibration. Our approach is implemented in post processing and may be used to improve contrast in any microendoscopic probe utilizing a MOF and incoherent light.

  17. Effects of Optical Combiner and IPD Change for Convergence on Near-Field Depth Perception in an Optical See-Through HMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangyoon; Hu, Xinda; Hua, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Many error sources have been explored in regards to the depth perception problem in augmented reality environments using optical see-through head-mounted displays (OST-HMDs). Nonetheless, two error sources are commonly neglected: the ray-shift phenomenon and the change in interpupillary distance (IPD). The first source of error arises from the difference in refraction for virtual and see-through optical paths caused by an optical combiner, which is required of OST-HMDs. The second occurs from the change in the viewer's IPD due to eye convergence. In this paper, we analyze the effects of these two error sources on near-field depth perception and propose methods to compensate for these two types of errors. Furthermore, we investigate their effectiveness through an experiment comparing the conditions with and without our error compensation methods applied. In our experiment, participants estimated the egocentric depth of a virtual and a physical object located at seven different near-field distances (40∼200 cm) using a perceptual matching task. Although the experimental results showed different patterns depending on the target distance, the results demonstrated that the near-field depth perception error can be effectively reduced to a very small level (at most 1 percent error) by compensating for the two mentioned error sources.

  18. The influence of cirrus cloud-radiative forcing on climate and climate sensitivity in a general circulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohmann, U.; Roeckner, E.

    1994-01-01

    Six numerical experiments have been performed with a general circulation model (GCM) to study the influence of high-level cirrus clouds and global sea surface temperature (SST) perturbations on climate and climate sensitivity. The GCM used in this investigation is the third-generation ECHAM3 model developed jointly by the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology and the University of Hamburg. It is shown that the model is able to reproduce many features of the observed cloud-radiative forcing with considerable skill, such as the annual mean distribution, the response to seasonal forcing and the response to observed SST variations in the equatorial Pacific. In addition to a reference experiment where the cirrus emissivity is computed as a function of the cloud water content, two sensitivity experiments have been performed in which the cirrus emissivity is either set to zero everywhere above 400 hPa ('transparent cirrus') or set to one ('black cirrus'). These three experiments are repeated identically, except for prescribing a globally uniform SST warming of 4 K. (orig.)

  19. Relating Line Width and Optical Depth for CO Emission in the Large Mgellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Evan; Wong, Tony; Bandurski, Jeffrey; MC3 (Mapping CO in Molecular Clouds in the Magellanic Clouds) Team

    2018-01-01

    We investigate data produced from ALMA observations of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) located in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), using 12CO(2–1) and 13CO(2–1) emission. The spectral line width is generally interpreted as tracing turbulent rather than thermal motions in the cloud, but could also be affected by optical depth, especially for the 12CO line (Hacar et al. 2016). We compare the spectral line widths of both lines with their optical depths, estimated from an LTE analysis, to evaluate the importance of optical depth effects. Our cloud sample includes two regions recently published by Wong et al. (2017, submitted): the Tarantula Nebula or 30 Dor, an HII region rife with turbulence, and the Planck cold cloud (PCC), located in a much calmer environment near the fringes of the LMC. We also include four additional LMC clouds, which span intermediate levels of star formation relative to these two clouds, and for which we have recently obtained ALMA data in Cycle 4.

  20. A modelling study of the impact of cirrus clouds on the moisture budget of the upper troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fueglistaler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a modelling study of the effect of cirrus clouds on the moisture budget of the layer wherein the cloud formed. Our framework simplifies many aspects of cloud microphysics and collapses the problem of sedimentation onto a 0-dimensional box model, but retains essential feedbacks between saturation mixing ratio, particle growth, and water removal through particle sedimentation. The water budget is described by two coupled first-order differential equations for dimensionless particle number density and saturation point temperature, where the parameters defining the system (layer depth, reference temperature, amplitude and time scale of temperature perturbation and inital particle number density, which may or may not be a function of reference temperature and cooling rate are encapsulated in a single coefficient. This allows us to scale the results to a broad range of atmospheric conditions, and to test sensitivities. Results of the moisture budget calculations are presented for a range of atmospheric conditions (T: 238–205 K; p: 325–180 hPa and a range of time scales τT of the temperature perturbation that induces the cloud formation. The cirrus clouds are found to efficiently remove water for τT longer than a few hours, with longer perturbations (τT≳10 h required at lower temperatures (T≲210 K. Conversely, we find that temperature perturbations of duration order 1 h and less (a typical timescale for e.g., gravity waves do not efficiently dehydrate over most of the upper troposphere. A consequence is that (for particle densities typical of current cirrus clouds the assumption of complete dehydration to the saturation mixing ratio may yield valid predictions for upper tropospheric moisture distributions if it is based on the large scale temperature field, but this assumption is not necessarily valid if it is based on smaller scale temperature fields.

  1. Clarifying the dominant sources and mechanisms of cirrus cloud formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cziczo, Daniel J; Froyd, Karl D; Hoose, Corinna; Jensen, Eric J; Diao, Minghui; Zondlo, Mark A; Smith, Jessica B; Twohy, Cynthia H; Murphy, Daniel M

    2013-06-14

    Formation of cirrus clouds depends on the availability of ice nuclei to begin condensation of atmospheric water vapor. Although it is known that only a small fraction of atmospheric aerosols are efficient ice nuclei, the critical ingredients that make those aerosols so effective have not been established. We have determined in situ the composition of the residual particles within cirrus crystals after the ice was sublimated. Our results demonstrate that mineral dust and metallic particles are the dominant source of residual particles, whereas sulfate and organic particles are underrepresented, and elemental carbon and biological materials are essentially absent. Further, composition analysis combined with relative humidity measurements suggests that heterogeneous freezing was the dominant formation mechanism of these clouds.

  2. Agreement of Two Different Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Instruments for Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Faghihi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the agreement between Spectralis and Cirrus spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT measurements of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness. Methods: Suspected or confirmed cases of glaucoma who met the inclusion criteria underwent peripapillary RNFL thickness measurement using both the Spectralis and Cirrus on the same day within a few minutes. Results: Measurements were performed on 103 eyes of 103 patients with mean age of 50.4±17.7 years. Mean RNFL thickness was 89.22±15.87 versus 84.54±13.68 μm using Spectralis and Cirrus, respectively. The difference between measurements and the average of paired measurements with the two devices showed a significant linear relationship. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated that Spectralis thickness values were systematically larger than that of Cirrus. Conclusion: Spectralis OCT generates higher peripapillary RNFL thickness readings as compared to Cirrus OCT; this should be kept in mind when values obtained with different instruments are compared during follow-up.

  3. Properties of subvisible cirrus clouds formed by homogeneous freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kärcher

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Number concentrations and mean sizes of ice crystals and derived microphysical and optical properties of subvisible cirrus clouds (SVCs formed by homogeneous freezing of supercooled aerosols are investigated as a function of temperature and updraft speed of adiabatically ascending air parcels. The properties of such clouds are insensitive to variations of the aerosol number and size distribution. Based on criteria constraining the optical extinction, sedimentation time, and existence time of SVCs, longer-lived (>10min clouds, capable of exerting a measurable radiative or chemical impact, are generated within a narrow range of updraft speeds below 1-2cm s-1 at temperatures below about 215K, with concentrations of ice crystals not exceeding 0.1cm-3. The clouds do not reach an equilibrium state because the ice crystals sediment out of the formation layer typically before the supersaturation is removed. Two important conclusions emerge from this work. First, the above characteristics of SVCs may provide an explanation for why SVCs are more common in the cold tropical than in the warmer midlatitude tropopause region. Second, it seems likely that a limited number (-3 of effective heterogeneous freezing nuclei that nucleate ice below the homogeneous freezing threshold can control the formation and properties of SVCs, although homogeneous freezing nuclei are far more abundant.

  4. Optical depth sectioning in the aberration-corrected scanning transmission and scanning confocal electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behan, G; Nellist, P D

    2008-01-01

    The use of spherical aberration correctors in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) has the effect of reducing the depth of field of the microscope, making three-dimensional imaging of a specimen possible by optical sectioning. Depth resolution can be improved further by placing aberration correctors and lenses pre and post specimen to achieve an imaging mode known as scanning confocal electron microscopy (SCEM). We present the calculated incoherent point spread functions (PSF) and optical transfer functions (OTF) of a STEM and SCEM. The OTF for a STEM is shown to have a missing cone region which results in severe blurring along the optic axis, which can be especially severe for extended objects. We also present strategies for reconstruction of experimental data, such as three-dimensional deconvolution of the point spread function.

  5. Microphysical parameters of cirrus clouds using lidar at a tropical station, Gadanki, Tirupati (13.5° N, 79.2°E), India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, M.; Radhakrishnan, S.-R.; Krishnakumar, V.; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.; Raghunath, K.

    2008-12-01

    Cirrus clouds have been identified as one of the most uncertain component in the atmospheric research. It is known that cirrus clouds modulate the earth's climate through direct and indirect modification of radiation. The role of cirrus clouds depends mainly on their microphysical properties. To understand cirrus clouds better, we must observe and characterize their properties. In-situ observation of such clouds is a challenging experiment, as the clouds are located at high altitudes. Active remote sensing method based on lidar can detect high and thin cirrus clouds with good spatial and temporal resolution. We present the result obtained on the microphysical properties of the cirrus clouds at two Tropical stations namely Gadhanki, Tirupati (13.50 N, 79.20 E), India and Trivandrum (13.50 N, 770 E) Kerala, India from the ground based pulsed Nd: YAG lidar systems installed at the stations. A variant of the widely used Klett's lidar inversion method with range dependent scattering ratio is used for the present study for the retrieval of aerosol extinction and microphysical parameters of cirrus cloud.

  6. UV Raman lidar measurements of relative humidity for the characterization of cirrus cloud microphysical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Masiello

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Raman lidar measurements performed in Potenza by the Raman lidar system BASIL in the presence of cirrus clouds are discussed. Measurements were performed on 6 September 2004 in the frame of the Italian phase of the EAQUATE Experiment.

    The major feature of BASIL is represented by its capability to perform high-resolution and accurate measurements of atmospheric temperature and water vapour, and consequently relative humidity, both in daytime and night-time, based on the application of the rotational and vibrational Raman lidar techniques in the UV. BASIL is also capable to provide measurements of the particle backscatter and extinction coefficient, and consequently lidar ratio (at the time of these measurements, only at one wavelength, which are fundamental to infer geometrical and microphysical properties of clouds.

    A case study is discussed in order to assess the capability of Raman lidars to measure humidity in presence of cirrus clouds, both below and inside the cloud. While air inside the cloud layers is observed to be always under-saturated with respect to water, both ice super-saturation and under-saturation conditions are found inside these clouds. Upper tropospheric moistening is observed below the lower cloud layer.

    The synergic use of the data derived from the ground based Raman Lidar and of spectral radiances measured by the NAST-I Airborne Spectrometer allows the determination of the temporal evolution of the atmospheric cooling/heating rates due to the presence of the cirrus cloud.

    Lidar measurements beneath the cirrus cloud layer have been interpreted using a 1-D cirrus cloud model with explicit microphysics. The 1-D simulations indicate that sedimentation-moistening has contributed significantly to the moist anomaly, but other mechanisms are also contributing. This result supports the hypothesis that the observed mid-tropospheric humidification is a real feature which is

  7. Optical depth retrievals from Delta-T SPN1 measurements of broadband solar irradiance at ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estelles, Victor; Serrano, David; Segura, Sara; Wood, John; Webb, Nick

    2016-04-01

    The SPN1 radiometer, manufactured by Delta-T Devices Ltd., is an instrument designed for the measurement of global solar irradiance and its components (diffuse, direct) at ground level. In the present study, the direct irradiance component has been used to retrieve an effective total optical depth, by applying the Beer-Lambert law to the broadband measurements. The results have been compared with spectral total optical depths derived from two Cimel CE318 and Prede POM01 sun-sky radiometers, located at the Burjassot site in Valencia (Spain), during years 2013 - 2015. The SPN1 is an inexpensive and versatile instrument for the measurement of the three components of the solar radiation without any mobile part and without any need to azimuthally align the instrument to track the sun (http://www.delta-t.co.uk). The three components of the solar radiation are estimated from a combination of measurements performed by 7 different miniature thermopiles. In turn, the Beer-Lambert law has been applied to the broadband direct solar component to obtain an effective total optical depth, representative of the total extinction in the atmosphere. For the assessment of the total optical depth values retrieved with the SPN1, two different sun-sky radiometers (Cimel CE318 and Prede POM01L) have been employed. Both instruments belong to the international networks AERONET and SKYNET. The modified SUNRAD package has been applied in both Cimel and Prede instruments. Cloud affected data has been removed by applying the Smirnov cloud-screening procedure in the SUNRAD algorithm. The broadband SPN1 total optical depth has been analysed by comparison with the spectral total optical depth from the sun-sky radiometer measurements at wavelengths 440, 500, 675, 870 and 1020 nm. The slopes and intercepts have been estimated to be 0.47 - 0.98 and 0.055 - 0.16 with increasing wavelength. The average correlation coefficients and RMSD were 0.80 - 0.83 and 0.034 - 0.036 for all the channels. The

  8. Climate impact of anthropogenic aerosols on cirrus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, J.; Zhou, C.

    2017-12-01

    Cirrus clouds have a net warming effect on the atmosphere and cover about 30% of the Earth's area. Aerosol particles initiate ice formation in the upper troposphere through modes of action that include homogeneous freezing of solution droplets, heterogeneous nucleation on solid particles immersed in a solution, and deposition nucleation of vapor onto solid particles. However, the efficacy with which particles act to form cirrus particles in a model depends on the representation of updrafts. Here, we use a representation of updrafts based on observations of gravity waves, and follow ice formation/evaporation during both updrafts and downdrafts. We examine the possible change in ice number concentration from anthropogenic soot originating from surface sources of fossil fuel and biomass burning and from aircraft particles that have previously formed ice in contrails. Results show that fossil fuel and biomass burning soot aerosols with this version exert a radiative forcing of -0.15±0.02 Wm-2 while aircraft aerosols that have been pre-activated within contrails exert a forcing of -0.20±0.06 Wm-2, but it is possible to decrease these estimates of forcing if a larger fraction of dust particles act as heterogeneous ice nuclei. In addition aircraft aerosols may warm the climate if a large fraction of these particles act as ice nuclei. The magnitude of the forcing in cirrus clouds can be comparable to the forcing exerted by anthropogenic aerosols on warm clouds. This assessment could therefore support climate models with high sensitivity to greenhouse gas forcing, while still allowing the models to fit the overall historical temperature change.

  9. Observations of Subvisual Cirrus Clouds with Optical Particle Counters at Thailand; Comparisons with Observation and Parcel Model Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, S.; Maruyama, K.; Hayashi, M.; Ogino, S.; Ishimoto, H.

    2006-12-01

    1. Introduction Subvisual cirrus clouds (SVC) generally exist at a height of around 17 km in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). In order to research SVC, in situ measurements are effective. However, since all in situ measurements are airborne measurements, they are fairly expensive to conduct and are not suitable for measuring the vertical profiles of the particles. Hence, we launched 11 balloon-borne optical particle counters (OPC) from April to June 2003 in Thailand (17.9 °N, 99.5 °E). 2. Optical particle counter Our OPC has 8 channels, of which radii are from 0.15 to 3.5 μm for spherical particles, to measure the accumulated number concentrations. Because ice particles are not spherical, the measurement error is estimated by the finite-difference time domain method (FDTD). The minimum detectable number concentration and the vertical resolution are approximately 1.5 × 104 number/m3 and 50 m at the TTL. 3. Results We launched 11 OPCs and 5 of them measured SVCs in the TTL in Thailand. Comparisons between the averaged particle size distributions in the TTL in the presence and absence of SVCs show the following features: (1) the regression lines of droplet (aerosol) size distributions in the two cases are not significantly different, (2) 5 OPCs detected enhancements in the number of particles as compared with the background aerosol number for the radius of 1.2 μm or 1.7 μm in the presence of SVCs, and (3) 5 OPCs detected the local maximum value at a radius of 1.7 μm. A parcel model whose initial relative humidity with respect to ice and ambient temperature were 120 % and - 80 °C satisfied abovementioned items when the vertical wind velocity was defined as the Brunt-Vaisala frequency, w = 20 cm/s × cos(2πt/7min); hence the comparison suggests ithe frequency is one of the possibility of the SVC generation mechanism.

  10. Radiative-dynamical and microphysical processes of thin cirrus clouds controlling humidity of air entering the stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Tra; Fueglistaler, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    Thin cirrus clouds in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) are of great interest due to their role in the control of water vapor and temperature in the TTL. Previous research on TTL cirrus clouds has focussed mainly on microphysical processes, specifically the ice nucleation mechanism and dehydration efficiency. Here, we use a cloud resolving model to analyse the sensitivity of TTL cirrus characteristics and impacts with respect to microphysical and radiative processes. A steady-state TTL cirrus cloud field is obtained in the model forced with dynamical conditions typical for the TTL (2-dimensional setup with a Kelvin-wave temperature perturbation). Our model results show that the dehydration efficiency (as given by the domain average relative humidity in the layer of cloud occurrence) is relatively insensitive to the ice nucleation mechanism, i.e. homogeneous versus heterogeneous nucleation. Rather, TTL cirrus affect the water vapor entering the stratosphere via an indirect effect associated with the cloud radiative heating and dynamics. Resolving the cloud radiative heating and the radiatively induced circulations approximately doubles the domain average ice mass. The cloud radiative heating is proportional to the domain average ice mass, and the observed increase in domain average ice mass induces a domain average temperature increase of a few Kelvin. The corresponding increase in water vapor entering the stratosphere is estimated to be about 30 to 40%.

  11. The 27-28 October 1986 FIRE IFO cirrus case study: Comparison of satellite and aircraft derived particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Suttles, J. T.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Welch, Ronald M.; Spinhirne, James D.; Wu, Man-Li C.; Starr, David; Parker, Lindsay; Arduini, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical calculations predict that cloud reflectance in near infrared windows such as those at 1.6 and 2.2 microns should give lower reflectances than at visible wavelengths. The reason for this difference is that ice and liquid water show significant absorption at those wavelengths, in contrast to the nearly conservative scattering at wavelengths shorter than 1 micron. In addition, because the amount of absorption scales with the path length of radiation through the particle, increasing cloud particle size should lead to decreasing reflectances at 1.6 and 2.2 microns. Measurements at these wavelengths to date, however, have often given unpredicted results. Twomey and Cocks found unexpectedly high absorption (factors of 3 to 5) in optically thick liquid water clouds. Curran and Wu found expectedly low absorption in optically thick high clouds, and postulated the existence of supercooled small water droplets in place of the expected large ice particles. The implications of the FIRE data for optically thin cirrus are examined.

  12. Aerosol Optical Depth Distribution in Extratropical Cyclones over the Northern Hemisphere Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naud, Catherine M.; Posselt, Derek J.; van den Heever, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and an extratropical cyclone database,the climatological distribution of aerosol optical depth (AOD) in extratropical cyclones is explored based solely on observations. Cyclone-centered composites of aerosol optical depth are constructed for the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude ocean regions, and their seasonal variations are examined. These composites are found to be qualitatively stable when the impact of clouds and surface insolation or brightness is tested. The larger AODs occur in spring and summer and are preferentially found in the warm frontal and in the post-cold frontal regions in all seasons. The fine mode aerosols dominate the cold sector AODs, but the coarse mode aerosols display large AODs in the warm sector. These differences between the aerosol modes are related to the varying source regions of the aerosols and could potentially have different impacts on cloud and precipitation within the cyclones.

  13. Far-infrared Spectral Radiance Observations and Modeling of Arctic Cirrus: Preliminary Results From RHUBC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpage, Neil; Green, Paul D.; Harries, John E.

    2009-03-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the important contribution of the far-infrared (electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths greater than 12 μm) to the Earth's radiative energy budget. In a cloud-free atmosphere, a significant fraction of the Earth's cooling to space from the mid- and upper troposphere takes place via the water vapor pure rotational band between 17 and 33 μm. Cirrus clouds also play an important role in the Earth's outgoing longwave radiation. The effect of cirrus on far-infrared radiation is of particular interest, since the refractive index of ice depends strongly on wavelength in this spectral region. The scattering properties of ice crystals are directly related to the refractive index, so consequently the spectral signature of cirrus measured in the FIR is sensitive to the cloud microphysical properties [1, 2]. By examining radiances measured at wavelengths between the strong water vapor absorption lines in the FIR, the understanding of the relationship between cirrus microphysics and the radiative transfer of thermal energy through cirrus may be improved. Until recently, very few observations of FIR spectral radiances had been made. The Tropospheric Airborne Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TAFTS) was developed by Imperial College to address this lack of observational data. TAFTS observes both zenith and nadir radiances at 0.1 cm-1 resolution, between 80 and 600 cm-1. During February and March 2007, TAFTS was involved in RHUBC (the Radiative Heating in Under-explored Bands Campaign), an ARM funded field campaign based at the ACRF-North Slope of Alaska site near Barrow, situated at 71° latitude. Infrared zenith spectral observations were taken by both TAFTS and the AERI-ER (spectral range 400-3300 cm-1) from the ground during both cloud-free and cirrus conditions. A wide range of other instrumentation was also available at the site, including a micropulse lidar, 35 GHz radar and the University of Colorado/NOAA Ground-based Scanning Radiometer

  14. Derivation of Aerosol Columnar Mass from MODIS Optical Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasso, Santiago; Hegg, Dean A.

    2003-01-01

    In order to verify performance, aerosol transport models (ATM) compare aerosol columnar mass (ACM) with those derived from satellite measurements. The comparison is inherently indirect since satellites derive optical depths and they use a proportionality constant to derive the ACM. Analogously, ATMs output a four dimensional ACM distribution and the optical depth is linearly derived. In both cases, the proportionality constant requires a direct intervention of the user by prescribing the aerosol composition and size distribution. This study introduces a method that minimizes the direct user intervention by making use of the new aerosol products of MODIS. A parameterization is introduced for the derivation of columnar aerosol mass (AMC) and CCN concentration (CCNC) and comparisons between sunphotometer, MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) and in-measurements are shown. The method still relies on the scaling between AMC and optical depth but the proportionality constant is dependent on the MODIS derived r$_{eff}$,\\eta (contribution of the accumulation mode radiance to the total radiance), ambient RH and an assumed constant aerosol composition. The CCNC is derived fkom a recent parameterization of CCNC as a function of the retrieved aerosol volume. By comparing with in-situ data (ACE-2 and TARFOX campaigns), it is shown that retrievals in dry ambient conditions (dust) are improved when using a proportionality constant dependent on r$ {eff}$ and \\eta derived in the same pixel. In high humidity environments, the improvement inthe new method is inconclusive because of the difficulty in accounting for the uneven vertical distribution of relative humidity. Additionally, two detailed comparisons of AMC and CCNC retrieved by the MAS algorithm and the new method are shown. The new method and MAS retrievals of AMC are within the same order of magnitude with respect to the in-situ measurements of aerosol mass. However, the proposed method is closer to the in-situ measurements than

  15. Simultaneous retrieval of water vapour, temperature and cirrus clouds properties from measurements of far infrared spectral radiance over the Antarctic Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Natale, Gianluca; Palchetti, Luca; Bianchini, Giovanni; Del Guasta, Massimo

    2017-03-01

    used to perform the retrieval. In most cases, the retrieved humidity and temperature profiles show a good agreement with the radiosoundings, demonstrating that the simultaneous retrieval of the atmospheric state is not biased by the presence of cirrus clouds. Finally, the retrieved cloud parameters allow us to study the relationships between cloud temperature and optical depth and between effective particle diameter and ice water content. These relationships are similar to the statistical correlations measured on the Antarctic coast at Dumont d'Urville and in the Arctic region.

  16. A case study of formation and maintenance of a lower stratospheric cirrus cloud over the tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sandhya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A rare occurrence of stratospheric cirrus at 18.6 km height persisting for about 5 days during 3–7 March 2014 is inferred from the ground-based Mie lidar observations over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E and spaceborne observations. Due to the vertical transport by large updrafts on 3 March in the troposphere, triggered by a potential vorticity intrusion, the water vapour mixing ratio shows an increase around the height of 18.6 km. Relative humidity with respect to ice is ~ 150%, indicating that the cirrus cloud may be formed though homogeneous nucleation of sulfuric acid. The cirrus cloud persists due to the cold anomaly associated with the presence of a 4-day wave.

  17. 3D reconstruction of tropospheric cirrus clouds by stereovision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadjib Kouahla, Mohamed; Moreels, Guy; Seridi, Hamid

    2016-07-01

    A stereo imaging method is applied to measure the altitude of cirrus clouds and provide a 3D map of the altitude of the layer centroid. They are located in the high troposphere and, sometimes in the lower stratosphere, between 6 and 10 km high. Two simultaneous images of the same scene are taken with Canon cameras (400D) in two sites distant of 37 Km. Each image processed in order to invert the perspective effect and provide a satellite-type view of the layer. Pairs of matched points that correspond to a physical emissive point in the common area are identified in calculating a correlation coefficient (ZNCC: Zero mean Normalized Cross-correlation or ZSSD: as Zero mean Sum of Squared Differences). This method is suitable for obtaining 3D representations in the case of low-contrast objects. An observational campaign was conducted in June 2014 in France. The images were taken simultaneously at Marnay (47°17'31.5" N, 5°44'58.8" E; altitude 275 m) 25 km northwest of Besancon and in Mont poupet (46°58'31.5" N, 5°52'22.7" E; altitude 600 m) southwest of Besancon at 43 km. 3D maps of the Natural cirrus clouds and artificial like "aircraft trails" are retrieved. They are compared with pseudo-relief intensity maps of the same region. The mean altitude of the cirrus barycenter is located at 8.5 ± 1km on June 11.

  18. Do detailed simulations with size-resolved microphysics reproduce basic features of observed cirrus ice size distributions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridlind, A. M.; Atlas, R.; van Diedenhoven, B.; Ackerman, A. S.; Rind, D. H.; Harrington, J. Y.; McFarquhar, G. M.; Um, J.; Jackson, R.; Lawson, P.

    2017-12-01

    It has recently been suggested that seeding synoptic cirrus could have desirable characteristics as a geoengineering approach, but surprisingly large uncertainties remain in the fundamental parameters that govern cirrus properties, such as mass accommodation coefficient, ice crystal physical properties, aggregation efficiency, and ice nucleation rate from typical upper tropospheric aerosol. Only one synoptic cirrus model intercomparison study has been published to date, and studies that compare the shapes of observed and simulated ice size distributions remain sparse. Here we amend a recent model intercomparison setup using observations during two 2010 SPARTICUS campaign flights. We take a quasi-Lagrangian column approach and introduce an ensemble of gravity wave scenarios derived from collocated Doppler cloud radar retrievals of vertical wind speed. We use ice crystal properties derived from in situ cloud particle images, for the first time allowing smoothly varying and internally consistent treatments of nonspherical ice capacitance, fall speed, gravitational collection, and optical properties over all particle sizes in our model. We test two new parameterizations for mass accommodation coefficient as a function of size, temperature and water vapor supersaturation, and several ice nucleation scenarios. Comparison of results with in situ ice particle size distribution data, corrected using state-of-the-art algorithms to remove shattering artifacts, indicate that poorly constrained uncertainties in the number concentration of crystals smaller than 100 µm in maximum dimension still prohibit distinguishing which parameter combinations are more realistic. When projected area is concentrated at such sizes, the only parameter combination that reproduces observed size distribution properties uses a fixed mass accommodation coefficient of 0.01, on the low end of recently reported values. No simulations reproduce the observed abundance of such small crystals when the

  19. Novel optical waveguides by in-depth controlled electronic damage with swift ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, J.; García-Navarro, A.; Méndez, A.; Agulló-López, F.; García, G.; García-Cabañes, A.; Carrascosa, M.

    2007-04-01

    We review recent results on a novel method to modify crystalline dielectric materials and fabricate optical waveguides and integrated optics devices. It relies on irradiation with medium-mass high-energy ions (2-50 MeV) where the electronic stopping power is dominant over that one associated to nuclear collisions. By exploiting the processing capabilities of the method, novel optical structures can be achieved at moderate (1014 cm-2) and even low and ultralow (1012 cm-2) fluences. In particular, step-like waveguides with a high index jump Δn ∼ 0.1-0.2, guiding both ordinary and extraordinary modes, have been prepared with F and O ions (20 MeV) at moderate fluences. They present good non-linear and electrooptic perfomance and low losses. (1 dB/cm). Moreover, useful optical waveguiding has been also achieved at ultralow frequencies (isolated track regime), using Cl and Si ions (40-45 MeV). In this latter case, the individual amorphous nanotracks, whose radius increases with depth, create an effective optical medium causing optical trapping.

  20. Novel optical waveguides by in-depth controlled electronic damage with swift ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, J.; Garcia-Navarro, A.; Mendez, A.; Agullo-Lopez, F.; Garcia, G.; Garcia-Cabanes, A.; Carrascosa, M.

    2007-01-01

    We review recent results on a novel method to modify crystalline dielectric materials and fabricate optical waveguides and integrated optics devices. It relies on irradiation with medium-mass high-energy ions (2-50 MeV) where the electronic stopping power is dominant over that one associated to nuclear collisions. By exploiting the processing capabilities of the method, novel optical structures can be achieved at moderate (10 14 cm -2 ) and even low and ultralow (10 12 cm -2 ) fluences. In particular, step-like waveguides with a high index jump Δn ∼ 0.1-0.2, guiding both ordinary and extraordinary modes, have been prepared with F and O ions (20 MeV) at moderate fluences. They present good non-linear and electrooptic perfomance and low losses. (1 dB/cm). Moreover, useful optical waveguiding has been also achieved at ultralow frequencies (isolated track regime), using Cl and Si ions (40-45 MeV). In this latter case, the individual amorphous nanotracks, whose radius increases with depth, create an effective optical medium causing optical trapping

  1. Four-dimensional Microscope-Integrated Optical Coherence Tomography to Visualize Suture Depth in Strabismus Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasricha, Neel D; Bhullar, Paramjit K; Shieh, Christine; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar M; Keller, Brenton; Izatt, Joseph A; Toth, Cynthia A; Freedman, Sharon F; Kuo, Anthony N

    2017-02-14

    The authors report the use of swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography (SS-MIOCT), capable of live four-dimensional (three-dimensional across time) intraoperative imaging, to directly visualize suture depth during lateral rectus resection. Key surgical steps visualized in this report included needle depth during partial and full-thickness muscle passes along with scleral passes. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017;54:e1-e5.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Simulating gas-aerosol-cirrus interactions: Process-oriented microphysical model and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kärcher

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a process-oriented, microphysical-chemical model to simulate the formation and evolution of aerosols and ice crystals under the conditions prevailing in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The model can be run as a box model or along atmospheric trajectories, and considers mixing, gas phase chemistry of aerosol precursors, binary homogeneous aerosol nucleation, homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation, coagulation, condensation and dissolution, gas retention during particle freezing, gas trapping in growing ice crystals, and reverse processes. Chemical equations are solved iteratively using a second order implicit integration method. Gas-particle interactions and coagulation are treated over various size structures, with fully mass conserving and non-iterative numerical solution schemes. Particle types include quinternary aqueous solutions composed of H2SO4, HNO3, HCl, and HBr with and without insoluble components, insoluble aerosol particles, and spherical or columnar ice crystals deriving from each aerosol type separately. Three case studies are discussed in detail to demonstrate the potential of the model to simulate real atmospheric processes and to highlight current research topics concerning aerosol and cirrus formation near the tropopause. Emphasis is placed on how the formation of cirrus clouds and the scavenging of nitric acid in cirrus depends on small-scale temperature fluctuations and the presence of efficient ice nuclei in the tropopause region, corroborating and partly extending the findings of previous studies.

  3. Depth-resolved imaging of colon tumor using optical coherence tomography and fluorescence laminar optical tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qinggong; Frank, Aaron; Wang, Jianting; Chen, Chao-wei; Jin, Lily; Lin, Jon; Chan, Joanne M.; Chen, Yu

    2016-03-01

    Early detection of neoplastic changes remains a critical challenge in clinical cancer diagnosis and treatment. Many cancers arise from epithelial layers such as those of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Current standard endoscopic technology is unable to detect those subsurface lesions. Since cancer development is associated with both morphological and molecular alterations, imaging technologies that can quantitative image tissue's morphological and molecular biomarkers and assess the depth extent of a lesion in real time, without the need for tissue excision, would be a major advance in GI cancer diagnostics and therapy. In this research, we investigated the feasibility of multi-modal optical imaging including high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) and depth-resolved high-sensitivity fluorescence laminar optical tomography (FLOT) for structural and molecular imaging. APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) mice model were imaged using OCT and FLOT and the correlated histopathological diagnosis was obtained. Quantitative structural (the scattering coefficient) and molecular imaging parameters (fluorescence intensity) from OCT and FLOT images were developed for multi-parametric analysis. This multi-modal imaging method has demonstrated the feasibility for more accurate diagnosis with 87.4% (87.3%) for sensitivity (specificity) which gives the most optimal diagnosis (the largest area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve). This project results in a new non-invasive multi-modal imaging platform for improved GI cancer detection, which is expected to have a major impact on detection, diagnosis, and characterization of GI cancers, as well as a wide range of epithelial cancers.

  4. Diffuse optical microscopy for quantification of depth-dependent epithelial backscattering in the cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenschatz, Nico; Lam, Sylvia; Carraro, Anita; Korbelik, Jagoda; Miller, Dianne M.; McAlpine, Jessica N.; Lee, Marette; Kienle, Alwin; MacAulay, Calum

    2016-06-01

    A fiber optic imaging approach is presented using structured illumination for quantification of almost pure epithelial backscattering. We employ multiple spatially modulated projection patterns and camera-based reflectance capture to image depth-dependent epithelial scattering. The potential diagnostic value of our approach is investigated on cervical ex vivo tissue specimens. Our study indicates a strong backscattering increase in the upper part of the cervical epithelium caused by dysplastic microstructural changes. Quantization of relative depth-dependent backscattering is confirmed as a potentially useful diagnostic feature for detection of precancerous lesions in cervical squamous epithelium.

  5. Correction of fluorescence for depth-specific optical and vascular properties using reflectance and differential path-length spectroscopy during PDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zaane, F.; Middelburg, T. A.; de Bruijn, H. S.; van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, A.; de Haas, E. R. M.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; Neumann, H. A. M.; Robinson, D. J.

    2009-06-01

    Introduction: The rate of PpIX fluorescence photobleaching is routinely used as a dose metric for ALA-PDT. Diffuse reflection spectroscopy is often used to account for variations in tissue optical properties at the photosensitizer excitation and emission bands. It can be used to quantify changes in vascular parameters, such as blood volume fraction and saturation, and can aid understanding of tissue response to PDT. The volume and(/or) depth over which these signals are acquired are critical. The aim of this study is to use quantitative reflectance spectroscopy (DPS) to correct fluorescence for changes in tissue optical properties and monitor PDT. Materials & Methods: ALA was topically applied to hairless mice skin and the incubated spot was treated with PDT according to fractionated illumination schemes. DPS measurements of vascular parameters and optical properties were performed directly before and after illumination. Both the differential signal, delivery-and-collection-fiber signal and the collection fiber signal, which all probe different measurement volumes, are analyzed. Results & Conclusions: Analysis of DPS measurements shows that at the depth where most fluorescence originates, there is almost no blood present. During PDT vascular parameters at this depth stay constant. In more oxygenated layers of the tissue, the optical properties do change during PDT, suggesting that only a small part of PpIX fluorescence originates from the interesting depths where vascular response occurs. Correcting fluorescence emission spectra for optical changes at specific depths and not for the total of changes in a larger volume, as is usually done now, can improve PpIX photobleaching based treatment monitoring.

  6. Effects on stratospheric moistening by rates of change of aerosol optical depth and ozone due to solar activity in extra-tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, U.; Maitra, A.

    2014-11-01

    The solar-induced changes in ozone and aerosol optical depth have relative effects on stratospheric moistening at upper troposphere/lower stratosphere region. Wavelet-based multi-scale principal component analysis technique has been applied to de-noise component of quasi-biennial oscillation and El Niño-Southern Oscillation from ozone and aerosol optical depth variations. Rate of change of aerosol optical depth sharply increases indicating a positive gradient whereas rate of change of ozone sharply decreases indicating a negative gradient with solar activity during the years 2004-2010. It is also observed that with increase of rate of change of aerosol optical depth, there is a sharp increase of stratospheric moistening caused by enhanced deep convection. On the contrary, with the increase of stratospheric moistening, there is a sharp decrease of rate of change of ozone resulting in a cross-over between the two parameters. An increase in aerosol optical depth may cause a significant increase in the gradient of vertical temperature profile, as well as formation of cloud condensation nuclei, clouds and hence rainfall. This may lead to formation of strong convective system in the atmosphere that is essential for vertical transfer of water vapour in the tropics percolating tropical tropopause layer and depleting stratospheric ozone in the extra-tropics.

  7. High-latitude molecular clouds and infrared cirrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, H.W. de.

    1988-01-01

    The high-latitude infrared cirrus detected by IRAS is identified with atomic and molecular clouds. These clouds are small (usually less than 1 sq. deg.) and show weak CO emission. On the basis of a distance of 100 pc they are characterized by a mass of a few solar masses and a radius of about 1 pc. Thermal radiation by dust as a results of heating by the diffuse interstellar radiation field is the most-plausible origin of the cirrus emission at far-infrared wavelengths. On the basis of plausible assumptions regarding the uniformity of both the gas-to-dust ratio and the heating and cooling of the dust, the flux density at 100 μm from regions with low visual extinction should be a good tracer of the gas column density. Indeed, the data show an approximately linear proportionality between N(HI), obtained from 21-cm observations, and I 100 (HI), the flux density from dust associated with HI. If the ratio of column density to flux density in high-latitude molecular clouds is equal to the corresponding relation in atomic ones, a value for the ratio of H 2 column density to CO velocity-integrated radiation temperature may be obtained. Although low-mass clouds may be large in number, the fraction of the Galactic molecular mass in the form of these clouds is probably no more than 1%

  8. Structure-function relationships with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography retinal nerve fiber layer and optic nerve head measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollet-Villard, Frédéric; Chiquet, Christophe; Romanet, Jean-Paul; Noel, Christian; Aptel, Florent

    2014-05-02

    To evaluate the regional structure-function relationship between visual field sensitivity and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and optic nerve head (ONH) measurements using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Prospective cross-sectional study conducted on patients with glaucoma, suspected glaucoma, and healthy subjects. Eyes were tested on Cirrus OCT and standard achromatic perimetry. RNFL thickness of 12 peripapillary 30° sectors, neuroretinal rim thickness extracted from 36 neuroretinal rim scans, and Bruch membrane opening minimum rim width (BMO-MRW)-a recently defined parameter-extracted from 36 neuroretinal rim scans were obtained. Correlations between peripapillary RNFL thickness, neuroretinal rim thickness, all six sectors of BMO-MRW, and visual field sensitivity in the six corresponding areas were evaluated using logarithmic regression analysis. Receiver operating curve areas were calculated for each RNFL, ONH, and macular ganglion cell analysis parameter. We included 142 eyes of 142 subjects. The correlations (r(2)) between RNFL thickness, Cirrus-based neuroretinal rim thickness, BMO-MRW and visual field sensitivity ranged from 0.07 to 0.60, 0.15 to 0.49, and 0.24 to 0.66, respectively. The structure-function correlations were stronger with BMO-MRW than with Cirrus-based neuroretinal rim thickness. The largest areas under the receiver operating curve were seen for rim area (0.926 [95% confidence interval 0.875, 0.977]; P function relationship was significantly stronger with BMO-MRW than other ONH SD-OCT parameters. The best diagnostic capabilities were seen with rim area and average RNFL.

  9. Lidar observation and model simulation of a volcanic-ash-induced cirrus cloud during the Eyjafjallajökull eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rolf

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous ice formation induced by volcanic ash from the Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption in April 2010 is investigated based on the combination of a cirrus cloud observed with a backscatter lidar over Jülich (western Germany and model simulations along backward trajectories. The microphysical properties of the cirrus cloud could only be represented by the microphysical model under the assumption of an enhanced number of efficient ice nuclei originating from the volcanic eruption. The ice nuclei (IN concentration determined by lidar measurements directly before and after cirrus cloud occurrence implies a value of around 0.1 cm−3 (in comparison normal IN conditions: 0.01 cm−3. This leads to a cirrus cloud with rather small ice crystals having a mean radius of 12 μm and a modification of the ice particle number (0.08 cm−3 instead of 3 × 10−4 cm−3 under normal IN conditions. The effectiveness of ice nuclei was estimated by the use of the microphysical model and the backward trajectories based on ECMWF data, establishing a freezing threshold of around 105% relative humidity with respect to ice in a temperature range from −45 to −55 °C . Only with these highly efficient ice nuclei was it possible for the cirrus cloud to be formed in a slightly supersaturated environment.

  10. Depth estimation of laser glass drilling based on optical differential measurements of acoustic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodesky, Niv; Ozana, Nisan; Berg, Yuval; Dolev, Omer; Danan, Yossef; Kotler, Zvi; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2016-09-01

    We present the first steps of a device suitable for characterization of complex 3D micro-structures. This method is based on an optical approach allowing extraction and separation of high frequency ultrasonic sound waves induced to the analyzed samples. Rapid, non-destructive characterization of 3D micro-structures are limited in terms of geometrical features and optical properties of the sample. We suggest a method which is based on temporal tracking of secondary speckle patterns generated when illuminating a sample with a laser probe while applying known periodic vibration using an ultrasound transmitter. In this paper we investigated lasers drilled through glass vias. The large aspect ratios of the vias possess a challenge for traditional microscopy techniques in analyzing depth and taper profiles of the vias. The correlation of the amplitude vibrations to the vias depths is experimentally demonstrated.

  11. Study of temperature increase and optic depth penetration in photo irradiated human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolik, Suren; Delgado, Jose A.; Perez, Arllene M.; Anasagasti, Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    Optical radiation is widely applied in the treatment and diagnosis of different pathologies. If the power density of the incident light is sufficiently high to induce a significant temperature rise in the irradiated tissue, then it is also needed the knowledge of the thermal properties of the tissue for a complete understanding of the therapeutic effects. The thermal penetration depth of several human tissues has been measured applying the diffusion approximation of the radiative transfer equation for the distribution of optical radiation. The method, the experimental setup and the results are presented and discussed. (Author)

  12. Glassy aerosols with a range of compositions nucleate ice heterogeneously at cirrus temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. W. Wilson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA is likely to exist in a semi-solid or glassy state, particularly at low temperatures and humidities. Previously, it has been shown that glassy aqueous citric acid aerosol is able to nucleate ice heterogeneously under conditions relevant to cirrus in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL. In this study we test if glassy aerosol distributions with a range of chemical compositions heterogeneously nucleate ice under cirrus conditions. Three single component aqueous solution aerosols (raffinose, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-DL-mandelic acid (HMMA and levoglucosan and one multi component aqueous solution aerosol (raffinose mixed with five dicarboxylic acids and ammonium sulphate were studied in both the liquid and glassy states at a large cloud simulation chamber. The investigated organic compounds have similar functionality to oxidised organic material found in atmospheric aerosol and have estimated temperature/humidity induced glass transition thresholds that fall within the range predicted for atmospheric SOA. A small fraction of aerosol particles of all compositions were found to nucleate ice heterogeneously in the deposition mode at temperatures relevant to the TTL (<200 K. Raffinose and HMMA, which form glasses at higher temperatures, nucleated ice heterogeneously at temperatures as high as 214.6 and 218.5 K respectively. We present the calculated ice active surface site density, ns, of the aerosols tested here and also of glassy citric acid aerosol as a function of relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi. We also propose a parameterisation which can be used to estimate heterogeneous ice nucleation by glassy aerosol for use in cirrus cloud models up to ~220 K. Finally, we show that heterogeneous nucleation by glassy aerosol may compete with ice nucleation on mineral dust particles in mid-latitudes cirrus.

  13. Relative skills of soil moisture and vegetation optical depth retrievals for agricultural drought monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil moisture condition is an important indicator for agricultural drought monitoring. Through the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM), vegetation optical depth (VOD) as well as surface soil moisture (SM) can be retrieved simultaneously from brightness temperature observations from the Advanced Mi...

  14. Black carbon's contribution to aerosol absorption optical depth over S. Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, K.; Perring, A. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Anderson, B. E.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Redemann, J.; Holben, B. N.; Schwarz, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) monitored by ground-based sites (AERONET, SKYNET, etc.) is used to constrain climate radiative forcing from black carbon (BC) and other absorbing aerosols in global models, but few validation studies between in situ aerosol measurements and ground-based AAOD exist. AAOD is affected by aerosol size distributions, composition, mixing state, and morphology. Megacities provide appealing test cases for this type of study due to their association with very high concentrations of anthropogenic aerosols. During the KORUS-AQ campaign in S. Korea, which took place in late spring and early summer of 2016, in situ aircraft measurements over the Seoul Metropolitan Area and Taehwa Research Forest (downwind of Seoul) were repeated three times per flight over a 6 week period, providing significant temporal coverage of vertically resolved aerosol properties influenced by different meteorological conditions and sources. Measurements aboard the NASA DC-8 by the NOAA Humidified Dual Single Particle Soot Photometers (HD-SP2) quantified BC mass, size distributions, mixing state, and the hygroscopicity of BC containing aerosols. The in situ BC mass vertical profiles are combined with estimated absorption enhancement calculated from observed optical size and hygroscopicity using Mie theory, and then integrated over the depth of the profile to calculate BC's contribution to AAOD. Along with bulk aerosol size distributions and hygroscopicity, bulk absorbing aerosol optical properties, and on-board sky radiance measurements, these measurements are compared with ground-based AERONET site measurements of AAOD to evaluate closure between in situ vertical profiles of BC and AAOD measurements. This study will provide constraints on the relative importance of BC (including lensing and hygroscopicity effects) and non-BC components to AAOD over S. Korea.

  15. Multiscale periodicities in aerosol optical depth over India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, S; Ghosh, Sayantan; Verma, Amit; Panigrahi, P K

    2013-01-01

    Aerosols exhibit periodic or cyclic variations depending on natural and anthropogenic sources over a region, which can become modulated by synoptic meteorological parameters such as winds, rainfall and relative humidity, and long-range transport. Information on periodicity and phase in aerosol properties assumes significance in prediction as well as examining the radiative and climate effects of aerosols including their association with changes in cloud properties and rainfall. Periodicity in aerosol optical depth, which is a columnar measure of aerosol distribution, is determined using continuous wavelet transform over 35 locations (capitals of states and union territories) in India. Continuous wavelet transform is used in the study because continuous wavelet transform is better suited to the extraction of the periodic and local modulations present in various frequency ranges when compared to Fourier transform. Monthly mean aerosol optical depths (AODs) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board the Terra satellite at 1° × 1° resolution from January 2001 to December 2012 are used. Annual and quasi-biennial oscillations (QBOs) in AOD are evident in addition to the weak semi-annual (5–6 months) and quasi-triennial oscillations (∼40 months). The semi-annual and annual oscillations are consistent with the seasonal and yearly cycle of variations in AODs. The QBO type periodicity in AOD is found to be non-stationary while the annual period is stationary. The 40 month periodicity indicates the presence of long term correlations in AOD. The observed periodicities in MODIS Terra AODs are also evident in the ground-based AOD measurements made over Kanpur in the Indo-Gangetic Plain. The phase of the periodicity in AOD is stable in the mid-frequency range, while local disturbances in the high-frequency range and long term changes in the atmospheric composition give rise to unstable phases in the low-frequency range. The presence of phase

  16. Evaluation of sulfate aerosol optical depths over the North Atlantic and comparison with satellite observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, C.M.; Ghan, S.J.; Benkovitz, C.M.; Wagener, R.; Nemesure, S.; Schwartz, S.E.

    1993-11-01

    It has been postulated that scattering of sunlight by aerosols can significantly reduce the amount of solar energy absorbed by the climate system. Aerosol measurement programs alone cannot provide all the information needed to evaluate the radiative forcing due to anthropogenic aerosols. Thus, comprehensive global-scale aerosol models, properly validated against surface-based and satellite measurements, are a fundamental tool for evaluating the impacts of aerosols on the planetary radiation balance. Analyzed meteorological fields from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts are used to drive a modified version of the PNL Global Chemistry Model, applied to the atmospheric sulfur cycle. The resulting sulfate fields are used to calculate aerosol optical depths, which in turn are compared to estimates of aerosol optical depth based on satellite observations

  17. Tree-based solvers for adaptive mesh refinement code FLASH - I: gravity and optical depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünsch, R.; Walch, S.; Dinnbier, F.; Whitworth, A.

    2018-04-01

    We describe an OctTree algorithm for the MPI parallel, adaptive mesh refinement code FLASH, which can be used to calculate the gas self-gravity, and also the angle-averaged local optical depth, for treating ambient diffuse radiation. The algorithm communicates to the different processors only those parts of the tree that are needed to perform the tree-walk locally. The advantage of this approach is a relatively low memory requirement, important in particular for the optical depth calculation, which needs to process information from many different directions. This feature also enables a general tree-based radiation transport algorithm that will be described in a subsequent paper, and delivers excellent scaling up to at least 1500 cores. Boundary conditions for gravity can be either isolated or periodic, and they can be specified in each direction independently, using a newly developed generalization of the Ewald method. The gravity calculation can be accelerated with the adaptive block update technique by partially re-using the solution from the previous time-step. Comparison with the FLASH internal multigrid gravity solver shows that tree-based methods provide a competitive alternative, particularly for problems with isolated or mixed boundary conditions. We evaluate several multipole acceptance criteria (MACs) and identify a relatively simple approximate partial error MAC which provides high accuracy at low computational cost. The optical depth estimates are found to agree very well with those of the RADMC-3D radiation transport code, with the tree-solver being much faster. Our algorithm is available in the standard release of the FLASH code in version 4.0 and later.

  18. Global Annual Average PM2.5 Grids from MODIS and MISR Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Annual PM2.5 Grids from MODIS and MISR Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data set represents a series of annual average grids (2001-2010) of fine particulate matter...

  19. Global Annual Average PM2.5 Grids from MODIS and MISR Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Annual PM2.5 Grids from MODIS and MISR Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data sets represent a series of annual average grids (2001-2010) of fine particulate matter...

  20. Accuracy assessment of Terra-MODIS aerosol optical depth retrievals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safarpour, Sahabeh; Abdullah, Khiruddin; Lim, Hwee San; Dadras, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol products have been widely used to address environment and climate change subjects with daily global coverage. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is retrieved by different algorithms based on the pixel surface, determining between land and ocean. MODIS-Terra and Global Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) products can be obtained from the Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS) for coastal regions during 2000-2010. Using data collected from 83 coastal stations worldwide from AERONET from 2000-2010, accuracy assessments are made for coastal aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved from MODIS aboard the Terra satellite. AOD retrieved from MODIS at 0.55μm wavelength has been compared With the AERONET derived AOD, because it is reliable with the major wavelength used by many chemistry transport and climate models as well as previous MODIS validation studies. After removing retrievals with quality flags below1 for Ocean algorithm and below 3 for Land algorithm, The accuracy of AOD retrieved from MODIS Dark Target Ocean algorithms (correlation coefficient R 2 is 0.844 and a regression equation of τ M = 0.91·τ A + 0.02 (where subscripts M and A represent MODIS and AERONET respectively), is the greater than the MODIS Dark Target Land algorithms (correlation coefficient R 2 is 0.764 and τ M = 0.95·τ A + 0.03) and the Deep Blue algorithm (correlation coefficient R 2 is 0.652 and τ M = 0.81·τ A + 0.04). The reasons of the retrieval error in AOD are found to be the various underlying surface reflectance. Therefore, the aerosol models and underlying surface reflectance are the dominant factors which influence the accuracy of MODIS retrieval performance. Generally the MODIS Land algorithm implements better than the Ocean algorithm for coastal sites

  1. Depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy for noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Richard Alan

    Oral cancer is the 11th most common cancer in the world. Cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx account for more than 7,500 deaths each year in the United States alone. Major advances have been made in the management of oral cancer through the combined use of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, improving the quality of life for many patients; however, these advances have not led to a significant increase in survival rates, primarily because diagnosis often occurs at a late stage when treatment is more difficult and less successful. Accurate, objective, noninvasive methods for early diagnosis of oral neoplasia are needed. Here a method is presented to noninvasively evaluate oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy (DSOS). A ball lens coupled fiber-optic probe was developed to enable preferential targeting of different depth regions in the oral mucosa. Clinical studies of the diagnostic performance of DSOS in 157 subjects were carried out in collaboration with the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. An overall sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 89% were obtained for nonkeratinized oral tissue relative to histopathology. Based on these results a compact, portable version of the clinical DSOS device with real-time automated diagnostic capability was developed. The portable device was tested in 47 subjects and a sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 83% were obtained for nonkeratinized oral tissue. The diagnostic potential of multimodal platforms incorporating DSOS was explored through two pilot studies. A pilot study of DSOS in combination with widefield imaging was carried out in 29 oral cancer patients, resulting in a combined sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 69%. Widefield imaging and spectroscopy performed slightly better in combination than each method performed independently. A pilot study of DSOS in combination with the optical contrast agents 2-NBDG, EGF-Alexa 647, and proflavine was carried out in resected tissue

  2. Depth discrimination in acousto-optic cerebral blood flow measurement simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsalach, A.; Schiffer, Z.; Ratner, E.; Breskin, I.; Zeitak, R.; Shechter, R.; Balberg, M.

    2016-03-01

    Monitoring cerebral blood flow (CBF) is crucial, as inadequate perfusion, even for relatively short periods of time, may lead to brain damage or even death. Thus, significant research efforts are directed at developing reliable monitoring tools that will enable continuous, bed side, simple and cost-effective monitoring of CBF. All existing non invasive bed side monitoring methods, which are mostly NIRS based, such as Laser Doppler or DCS, tend to underestimate CBF in adults, due to the indefinite effect of extra-cerebral tissues on the obtained signal. If those are to find place in day to day clinical practice, the contribution of extra-cerebral tissues must be eliminated and data from the depth (brain) should be extracted and discriminated. Recently, a novel technique, based on ultrasound modulation of light was developed for non-invasive, continuous CBF monitoring (termed ultrasound-tagged light (UTL or UT-NIRS)), and shown to correlate with readings of 133Xe SPECT and laser Doppler. We have assembled a comprehensive computerized simulation, modeling this acousto-optic technique in a highly scattering media. Using the combination of light and ultrasound, we show how depth information may be extracted, thus distinguishing between flow patterns taking place at different depths. Our algorithm, based on the analysis of light modulated by ultrasound, is presented and examined in a computerized simulation. Distinct depth discrimination ability is presented, suggesting that using such method one can effectively nullify the extra-cerebral tissues influence on the obtained signals, and specifically extract cerebral flow data.

  3. Parameterization of cirrus microphysical and radiative properties in larger-scale models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heymsfield, A.J.; Coen, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    This study exploits measurements in clouds sampled during several field programs to develop and validate parameterizations that represent the physical and radiative properties of convectively generated cirrus clouds in intermediate and large-scale models. The focus is on cirrus anvils because they occur frequently, cover large areas, and play a large role in the radiation budget. Preliminary work focuses on understanding the microphysical, radiative, and dynamical processes that occur in these clouds. A detailed microphysical package has been constructed that considers the growth of the following hydrometer types: water drops, needles, plates, dendrites, columns, bullet rosettes, aggregates, graupel, and hail. Particle growth processes include diffusional and accretional growth, aggregation, sedimentation, and melting. This package is being implemented in a simple dynamical model that tracks the evolution and dispersion of hydrometers in a stratiform anvil cloud. Given the momentum, vapor, and ice fluxes into the stratiform region and the temperature and humidity structure in the anvil's environment, this model will suggest anvil properties and structure

  4. Comparison of two spectral domain optical coherence tomography devices for angle-closure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Desmond T; Narayanaswamy, Arun K; Tun, Tin A; Htoon, Hla M; Baskaran, Mani; Perera, Shamira A; Aung, Tin

    2012-08-03

    To compare two spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) devices for the identification of angle structures and the presence of angle closure. This was a prospective comparative study. Consecutive patients underwent gonioscopy and anterior segment imaging using two SD-OCT devices (iVue and Cirrus). Images were evaluated for the ability to detect angle structures such as Schwalbe's line (SL), trabecular meshwork (TM), Schlemm's canal (SC), and scleral spur (SS), and the presence of angle closure. Angle closure was defined as iris contact with the angle wall anterior to the SS on SD-OCT, and nonvisibility of the posterior TM on gonioscopy. Angle closure in an eye was defined as ≥two quadrants of closed angles. AC1 statistic was used to assess the agreement between devices. Of the 69 subjects studied (46.4% male, 84.1% Chinese, mean age 64.0 ± 10.5 years), 40 subjects (40 eyes, 58.0%) had angle closure on gonioscopy. The most identifiable structure on Cirrus SD-OCT was the SS (82.2%) and SL on iVue SD-OCT (74.5%). Angle closure was indeterminable in 14.5% and 50.7% of Cirrus and iVue scans (P gonioscopy was only fair (AC1 = 0.35 and 0.50 for Cirrus and iVue, respectively). It was more difficult to determine angle closure status with iVue compared with Cirrus SD-OCT. There was fair agreement between both devices with gonioscopy for identifying angle closure.

  5. Preliminary Analysis of Night-time Aerosol Optical Depth Retrievals at a Rural, Near-urban Site in Southern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baibakov, K.; O'Neill, N. T.; Firanski, B.; Strawbridge, K.

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of 2007, a SPSTAR03 starphotometer was installed at Egbert, Canada (44 deg. 13' N, 79 deg. 45' W, alt 264 m) and a continuous series of initial measurements was performed between August 26 and September 19. Several sunphotometry parameters such as the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the 'fine' and 'coarse' optical depths were extracted from the SPSTAR03 extinction spectra. The SPSTAR03 data was analyzed in conjunction with sunphotometry and zenith-pointing lidar data acquired during the same time period. Preliminary results show coarse continuity between the day- and night time AOD values (with the mean difference between the measured and the interpolated values being 0.05) as well as a qualitative correlation between the 'fine' and 'coarse' optical depths and the normalized lidar backscatter coefficient profiles. It was also found that the spectra produced with the differential two-star measurement method were sensitive to non-horizontally homogeneous differences in the line-of-sight conditions of both stars. The one-star method helps to reduce the uncertainties but requires the determination of a calibration constant.

  6. Optical identifications of IRAS point sources: the Fornax, Hydra I and Coma clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G.; Leggett, S.K.; Savage, A.

    1991-01-01

    We present optical identifications for 66 IRAS point sources in the region of the Fornax cluster of galaxies, 106 IRAS point sources in the region of the Hydra I cluster of galaxies (Abell 1060) and 59 IRAS point sources in the region of the Coma cluster of galaxies (Abell 1656). Eight other sources in Hydra I do not have optical counterparts and are very probably due to infrared cirrus. Twenty-three (35 per cent) of the Fornax sources are associated with stars and 43 (65 per cent) with galaxies; 48 (42 per cent) of the Hydra I sources are associated with stars and 58 (51 per cent) with galaxies; 18 (31 per cent) of the Coma sources are associated with stars and 41 (69 per cent) with galaxies. The stellar and infrared cirrus surface density is consistent with the galactic latitude of each field. (author)

  7. THE ORIGIN AND OPTICAL DEPTH OF IONIZING RADIATION IN THE 'GREEN PEA' GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaskot, A. E.; Oey, M. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Although Lyman-continuum (LyC) radiation from star-forming galaxies likely drove the reionization of the universe, observations of star-forming galaxies at low redshift generally indicate low LyC escape fractions. However, the extreme [O III]/[O II] ratios of the z = 0.1-0.3 Green Pea galaxies may be due to high escape fractions of ionizing radiation. To analyze the LyC optical depths and ionizing sources of these rare, compact starbursts, we compare nebular photoionization and stellar population models with observed emission lines in the Peas' Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra. We focus on the six most extreme Green Peas, the galaxies with the highest [O III]/[O II] ratios and the best candidates for escaping ionizing radiation. The Balmer line equivalent widths and He I {lambda}3819 emission in the extreme Peas support young ages of 3-5 Myr, and He II {lambda}4686 emission in five extreme Peas signals the presence of hard ionizing sources. Ionization by active galactic nuclei or high-mass X-ray binaries is inconsistent with the Peas' line ratios and ages. Although stacked spectra reveal no Wolf-Rayet (WR) features, we tentatively detect WR features in the SDSS spectra of three extreme Peas. Based on the Peas' ages and line ratios, we find that WR stars, chemically homogeneous O stars, or shocks could produce the observed He II emission. If hot stars are responsible, then the Peas' optical depths are ambiguous. However, accounting for emission from shocks lowers the inferred optical depth and suggests that the Peas may be optically thin. The Peas' ages likely optimize the escape of LyC radiation; they are old enough for supernovae and stellar winds to reshape the interstellar medium, but young enough to possess large numbers of UV-luminous O or WR stars.

  8. Analysis of aerosol optical depth evaluation in polar regions and associated uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ortiz de Galisteo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Some available processing algorithms used to calculate the aerosol optical depth from radiometric measurements were tested. The aim was to evaluate the associated uncertainties in polar regions due to the data processing, in order to adjust the methodology of the calculation and illustrate the importance of these error sources. The measurements were obtained during a sun photometer campaign in Ny-Ålesund within the framework of the POLAR-AOD project.

  9. Hyperspectral aerosol optical depths from TCAP flights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinozuka, Yohei [NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Moffett Field, Mountain View, CA (United States); Bay Area Environmental REsearch Institute; Johnson, Roy R [NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Moffett Field, Mountain View, CA (United States); Flynn, Connor J [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Russell, Philip B [NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Moffett Field, Mountain View, CA (United States); Schmid, Beat [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research), a hyperspectral airborne sunphotometer, acquired aerosol optical depths (AOD) at 1 Hz during all July 2012 flights of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). Root-mean-square differences from AERONET ground-based observations were 0.01 at wavelengths between 500-1020 nm, 0.02 at 380 and 1640 nm and 0.03 at 440 nm in four clear-sky fly-over events, and similar in ground side-by-side comparisons. Changes in the above-aircraft AOD across 3- km-deep spirals were typically consistent with integrals of coincident in situ (on DOE Gulfstream 1 with 4STAR) and lidar (on NASA B200) extinction measurements within 0.01, 0.03, 0.01, 0.02, 0.02, 0.02 at 355, 450, 532, 550, 700, 1064 nm, respectively, despite atmospheric variations and combined measurement uncertainties. Finer vertical differentials of the 4STAR measurements matched the in situ ambient extinction profile within 14% for one homogeneous column. For the AOD observed between 350-1660 nm, excluding strong

  10. Retrieving cirrus microphysical properties from stellar aureoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, J. G.; Kristl, J. A.; Rappaport, S. A.

    2013-06-01

    The aureoles around stars caused by thin cirrus limit nighttime measurement opportunities for ground-based astronomy, but can provide information on high-altitude ice crystals for climate research. In this paper we attempt to demonstrate quantitatively how this works. Aureole profiles can be followed out to ~0.2° from stars and ~0.5° from Jupiter. Interpretation of diffracted starlight is similar to that for sunlight, but emphasizes larger particles. Stellar diffraction profiles are very distinctive, typically being approximately flat out to a critical angle followed by gradually steepening power-law falloff with slope less steep than -3. Using the relationship between the phase function for diffraction and the average Fourier transform of the projected area of complex ice crystals, we show that defining particle size in terms of average projected area normal to the propagation direction of the starlight leads to a simple, analytic approximation representing large-particle diffraction that is nearly independent of crystal habit. A similar analytic approximation for the diffraction aureole allows it to be separated from the point spread function and the sky background. Multiple scattering is deconvolved using the Hankel transform leading to the diffraction phase function. Application of constrained numerical inversion to the phase function then yields a solution for the particle size distribution in the range between ~50 μm and ~400 μm. Stellar aureole measurements can provide one of the very few, as well as least expensive, methods for retrieving cirrus microphysical properties from ground-based observations.

  11. Analysis of cirrus cloud spectral signatures in the far infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maestri, T.; Rizzi, R.; Tosi, E.; Veglio, P.; Palchetti, L.; Bianchini, G.; Di Girolamo, P.; Masiello, G.; Serio, C.; Summa, D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses high spectral resolution downwelling radiance measurements in the far infrared in the presence of cirrus clouds taken by the REFIR-PAD interferometer, deployed at 3500 m above the sea level at the Testa Grigia station (Italy), during the Earth COoling by WAter vapouR emission (ECOWAR) campaign. Atmospheric state and cloud geometry are characterised by the co-located millimeter-wave spectrometer GBMS and by radiosonde profile data, an interferometer (I-BEST) and a Raman lidar system deployed at a nearby location (Cervinia). Cloud optical depth and effective diameter are retrieved from REFIR-PAD data using a limited number of channels in the 820–960 cm −1 interval. The retrieved cloud parameters are the input data for simulations covering the 250–1100 cm −1 band in order to test our ability to reproduce the REFIR-PAD spectra in the presence of ice clouds. Inverse and forward simulations are based on the same radiative transfer code. A priori information concerning cloud ice vertical distribution is used to better constrain the simulation scheme and an analysis of the degree of approximation of the phase function within the radiative transfer codes is performed to define the accuracy of computations. Simulation-data residuals over the REFIR-PAD spectral interval show an excellent agreement in the window region, but values are larger than total measurement uncertainties in the far infrared. Possible causes are investigated. It is shown that the uncertainties related to the water vapour and temperature profiles are of the same order as the sensitivity to the a priori assumption on particle habits for an up-looking configuration. In case of a down-looking configuration, errors due to possible incorrect description of the water vapour profile would be drastically reduced. - Highlights: • We analyze down-welling spectral radiances in the far infrared (FIR) spectrum. • Discuss the scattering in the fir and the ice crystals phase function

  12. Femtosecond laser excitation of dielectric materials: experiments and modeling of optical properties and ablation depths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wædegaard, Kristian Juncher; Frislev, Martin Thomas; Balling, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Modeling of the interaction between a dielec- tric material and ultrashort laser pulses provides the tem- poral evolution of the electronic excitation and the optical properties of the dielectric. Experimentally determined re- flectances and ablation depths for sapphire are compared...... to the calculations. A decrease in reflectance at high fluences is observed experimentally, which demonstrates the neces- sity of a temperature-dependent electron scattering rate in the model. The comparison thus provides new constraints on the optical parameters of the model....

  13. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence findings in bilateral choroidal osteoma: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erol, Muhammet Kazim; Coban, Deniz Turgut; Ceran, Basak Bostanci; Bulut, Mehmet, E-mail: muhammetkazimerol@gmail.com [Kazim Erol. Antalya Training and Research Hospital, Ophthalmology Department, Antalya (Turkey)

    2013-11-01

    The authors present enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI OCT) and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) characteristics of a patient with bilateral choroidal osteoma and try to make a correlation between two imaging techniques. Two eyes of a patient with choroidal osteoma underwent complete ophthalmic examination. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography revealed a cage-like pattern, which corresponded to the calcified region of the tumor. Fundus autofluorescence imaging of the same area showed slight hyperautofluorescence. Three different reflectivity patterns in the decalcified area were defined. In the areas of subretinal fluid, outer segment elongations similar to central serous chorioretinopathy were observed. Hyperautofluorescent spots were evident in fundus autofluorescence in the same area. Calcified and decalcified portions of choroidal osteoma as well as the atrophy of choriocapillaris demonstrated different patterns with enhanced depth imaging and fundus autofluorescence imaging. Both techniques were found to be beneficial in the diagnosis and follow-up of choroidal osteoma. (author)

  14. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence findings in bilateral choroidal osteoma: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erol, Muhammet Kazim; Coban, Deniz Turgut; Ceran, Basak Bostanci; Bulut, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The authors present enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI OCT) and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) characteristics of a patient with bilateral choroidal osteoma and try to make a correlation between two imaging techniques. Two eyes of a patient with choroidal osteoma underwent complete ophthalmic examination. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography revealed a cage-like pattern, which corresponded to the calcified region of the tumor. Fundus autofluorescence imaging of the same area showed slight hyperautofluorescence. Three different reflectivity patterns in the decalcified area were defined. In the areas of subretinal fluid, outer segment elongations similar to central serous chorioretinopathy were observed. Hyperautofluorescent spots were evident in fundus autofluorescence in the same area. Calcified and decalcified portions of choroidal osteoma as well as the atrophy of choriocapillaris demonstrated different patterns with enhanced depth imaging and fundus autofluorescence imaging. Both techniques were found to be beneficial in the diagnosis and follow-up of choroidal osteoma. (author)

  15. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence findings in bilateral choroidal osteoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Kazim Erol

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors present enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI OCT and fundus autofluorescence (FAF characteristics of a patient with bilateral choroidal osteoma and try to make a correlation between two imaging techniques. Two eyes of a patient with choroidal osteoma underwent complete ophthalmic examination. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography revealed a cage-like pattern, which corresponded to the calcified region of the tumor. Fundus autofluorescence imaging of the same area showed slight hyperautofluorescence. Three different reflectivity patterns in the decalcified area were defined. In the areas of subretinal fluid, outer segment elongations similar to central serous chorioretinopathy were observed. Hyperautofluorescent spots were evident in fundus autofluorescence in the same area. Calcified and decalcified portions of choroidal osteoma as well as the atrophy of choriocapillaris demonstrated different patterns with enhanced depth imaging and fundus autofluorescence imaging. Both techniques were found to be beneficial in the diagnosis and follow-up of choroidal osteoma.

  16. Aerosol Optical Depth Over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Liji Mary; Ravishankara, A. R.; Kodros, John K.; Venkataraman, Chandra; Sadavarte, Pankaj; Pierce, Jeffrey R.; Chaliyakunnel, Sreelekha; Millet, Dylan B.

    2018-04-01

    Tropospheric aerosol optical depth (AOD) over India was simulated by Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS)-Chem, a global 3-D chemical-transport model, using SMOG (Speciated Multi-pOllutant Generator from Indian Institute of Technology Bombay) and GEOS-Chem (GC) (current inventories used in the GEOS-Chem model) inventories for 2012. The simulated AODs were 80% (SMOG) and 60% (GC) of those measured by the satellites (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer). There is no strong seasonal variation in AOD over India. The peak AOD values are observed/simulated during summer. The simulated AOD using SMOG inventory has particulate black and organic carbon AOD higher by a factor 5 and 3, respectively, compared to GC inventory. The model underpredicted coarse-mode AOD but agreed for fine-mode AOD with Aerosol Robotic Network data. It captured dust only over Western India, which is a desert, and not elsewhere, probably due to inaccurate dust transport and/or noninclusion of other dust sources. The calculated AOD, after dust correction, showed the general features in its observed spatial variation. Highest AOD values were observed over the Indo-Gangetic Plain followed by Central and Southern India with lowest values in Northern India. Transport of aerosols from Indo-Gangetic Plain and Central India into Eastern India, where emissions are low, is significant. The major contributors to total AOD over India are inorganic aerosol (41-64%), organic carbon (14-26%), and dust (7-32%). AOD over most regions of India is a factor of 5 or higher than over the United States.

  17. Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth Over Land by Inverse Modeling of Multi-Source Satellite Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.

    2018-01-01

    The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), a measure of the scattering and absorption of light by aerosols, has been extensively used for scientific research such as monitoring air quality near the surface due to fine particles aggregated, aerosol radiative forcing (cooling effect against the warming effect

  18. Extending the Effective Ranging Depth of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography by Spatial Frequency Domain Multiplexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a spatial frequency domain multiplexing method for extending the imaging depth range of a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT system without any expensive device. This method uses two galvo scanners with different pivot-offset distances in two independent reference arms for spatial frequency modulation and multiplexing. The spatial frequency contents corresponding to different depth regions of the sample can be shifted to different frequency bands. The spatial frequency domain multiplexing SDOCT system provides an approximately 1.9-fold increase in the effective ranging depth compared with that of a conventional full-range SDOCT system. The reconstructed images of phantom and biological tissue demonstrate the expected increase in ranging depth. The parameters choice criterion for this method is discussed.

  19. Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth Above Clouds from OMI Observations: Sensitivity Analysis, Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, O.; Jethva, H.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2012-01-01

    A large fraction of the atmospheric aerosol load reaching the free troposphere is frequently located above low clouds. Most commonly observed aerosols above clouds are carbonaceous particles generally associated with biomass burning and boreal forest fires, and mineral aerosols originated in arid and semi-arid regions and transported across large distances, often above clouds. Because these aerosols absorb solar radiation, their role in the radiative transfer balance of the earth atmosphere system is especially important. The generally negative (cooling) top of the atmosphere direct effect of absorbing aerosols, may turn into warming when the light-absorbing particles are located above clouds. The actual effect depends on the aerosol load and the single scattering albedo, and on the geometric cloud fraction. In spite of its potential significance, the role of aerosols above clouds is not adequately accounted for in the assessment of aerosol radiative forcing effects due to the lack of measurements. In this paper we discuss the basis of a simple technique that uses near-UV observations to simultaneously derive the optical depth of both the aerosol layer and the underlying cloud for overcast conditions. The two-parameter retrieval method described here makes use of the UV aerosol index and reflectance measurements at 388 nm. A detailed sensitivity analysis indicates that the measured radiances depend mainly on the aerosol absorption exponent and aerosol-cloud separation. The technique was applied to above-cloud aerosol events over the Southern Atlantic Ocean yielding realistic results as indicated by indirect evaluation methods. An error analysis indicates that for typical overcast cloudy conditions and aerosol loads, the aerosol optical depth can be retrieved with an accuracy of approximately 54% whereas the cloud optical depth can be derived within 17% of the true value.

  20. Sub-40 fs, 1060-nm Yb-fiber laser enhances penetration depth in nonlinear optical microscopy of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Mihaela; Saytashev, Ilyas; Hou, Jue; Dantus, Marcos; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2015-12-01

    Advancing the practical utility of nonlinear optical microscopy requires continued improvement in imaging depth and contrast. We evaluated second-harmonic generation (SHG) and third-harmonic generation images from ex vivo human skin and showed that a sub-40 fs, 1060-nm Yb-fiber laser can enhance SHG penetration depth by up to 80% compared to a >100 fs, 800 nm Ti:sapphire source. These results demonstrate the potential of fiber-based laser systems to address a key performance limitation related to nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM) technology while providing a low-barrier-to-access alternative to Ti:sapphire sources that could help accelerate the movement of NLOM into clinical practice.

  1. Removal of Thin Cirrus Path Radiances in the 0.4-1.0 micron Spectral Region Using the 1.375-micron Strong Water Vapor Absorption Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bo-Cai; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Han, Wei; Wiscombe, Warren J.

    1998-01-01

    Through analysis of spectral imaging data acquired with the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) from an ER-2 aircraft at 20 km altitude during several field programs, it was found that narrow channels near the center of the strong 1.38-micron water vapor band are very sensitive in detecting thin cirrus clouds. Based on this observation from AVIRIS data, a channel centered at 1.375 microns with a width of 30 nm was selected for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) for remote sensing of cirrus clouds from space. The sensitivity of the 1.375-micron MODIS channel to detect thin cirrus clouds during the day time is expected to be one to two orders of magnitude better than the current infrared emission techniques. As a result, a larger fraction of the satellite data will likely be identified as containing cirrus clouds. In order to make better studies of surface reflectance properties, thin cirrus effects must be removed from satellite images. We have developed an empirical approach for removing/correcting thin cirrus effects in the 0.4 - 1.0 micron region using channels near 1.375 microns. This algorithm will be incorporated into the present MODIS atmospheric correction algorithms for ocean color and land applications and will yield improved MODIS atmospheric aerosol, land surface, and ocean color products.

  2. Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth over Land using two-angle view Satellite Radiometry during TARFOX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veefkind, J.P.; Leeuw, G. de; Durkee, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    A new aerosol optical depth retrieval algorithm is presented that uses the two-angle view capability of the Along Track Scanning Radiometer 2 (ATSR-2). By combining the two-angle view and the spectral information this so-called dual view algorithm separates between aerosol and surface contributions

  3. Measurements and estimation of the columnar optical depth of tropospheric aerosols in the UV spectral region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Cachorro

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available We report values of the columnar tropospheric aerosol optical depth at UV wavelengths based on experimental measurements of the direct spectral irradiances carried out by a commercial spectroradiometer (Li1800 of Licor company covering the range from 300–1100 nm at two stations with different climate characteristics in Spain. The first station is located in a rural site in north central Spain with continental climate. The data extend from March to the end of October of 1995. The other station is a coastal site in the Gulf of Cádiz (southwest Spain of maritime climate type. This study is mainly focused on the capability of estimating aerosol optical depth values in the UV region based on the extracted information in the visible and near infrared ranges. A first method has been used based on the Ångström turbidity parameters. However, since this method requires detailed spectral information, a second method has also been used, based on the correlation between wavelengths. A correlation has been established between the experimental aerosol optical depth values at 350 nm and 500 nm wavelengths. Although the type of aerosol seems to be the key factor that determines the quality of these estimations, the evaluation of the associated error is necessary to know the behaviour of these estimations in each area of study.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; transmission and scattering of radiation; troposphere – composition and chemistry

  4. Measurements and estimation of the columnar optical depth of tropospheric aerosols in the UV spectral region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Cachorro

    Full Text Available We report values of the columnar tropospheric aerosol optical depth at UV wavelengths based on experimental measurements of the direct spectral irradiances carried out by a commercial spectroradiometer (Li1800 of Licor company covering the range from 300–1100 nm at two stations with different climate characteristics in Spain. The first station is located in a rural site in north central Spain with continental climate. The data extend from March to the end of October of 1995. The other station is a coastal site in the Gulf of Cádiz (southwest Spain of maritime climate type. This study is mainly focused on the capability of estimating aerosol optical depth values in the UV region based on the extracted information in the visible and near infrared ranges. A first method has been used based on the Ångström turbidity parameters. However, since this method requires detailed spectral information, a second method has also been used, based on the correlation between wavelengths. A correlation has been established between the experimental aerosol optical depth values at 350 nm and 500 nm wavelengths. Although the type of aerosol seems to be the key factor that determines the quality of these estimations, the evaluation of the associated error is necessary to know the behaviour of these estimations in each area of study.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; transmission and scattering of radiation; troposphere – composition and chemistry

  5. Method of optical coherence tomography with parallel depth-resolved signal reception and fibre-optic phase modulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, A N; Turchin, I V [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-31

    The method of optical coherence tomography with the scheme of parallel reception of the interference signal (P-OCT) is developed on the basis of spatial paralleling of the reference wave by means of a phase diffraction grating producing the appropriate time delay in the Mach–Zehnder interferometer. The absence of mechanical variation of the optical path difference in the interferometer essentially reduces the time required for 2D imaging of the object internal structure, as compared to the classical OCT that uses the time-domain method of the image construction, the sensitivity and the dynamic range being comparable in both approaches. For the resulting field of the interfering object and reference waves an analytical expression is derived that allows the calculation of the autocorrelation function in the plane of photodetectors. For the first time a method of linear phase modulation by 2π is proposed for P-OCT systems, which allows the use of compact high-frequency (a few hundred kHz) piezoelectric cell-based modulators. For the demonstration of the P-OCT method an experimental setup was created, using which the images of the inner structure of biological objects at the depth up to 1 mm with the axial spatial resolution of 12 μm were obtained. (optical coherence tomography)

  6. Planck early results. XIX. All-sky temperature and dust optical depth from Planck and IRAS. Constraints on the "dark gas" in our Galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.; Polenta, G.

    2011-01-01

    An all sky map of the apparent temperature and optical depth of thermal dust emission is constructed using the Planck-HFI (350μm to 2 mm) andIRAS(100μm) data. The optical depth maps are correlated with tracers of the atomic (Hi) and molecular gas traced by CO. The correlation with the column dens...

  7. Technical note: Fu-Liou-Gu and Corti-Peter model performance evaluation for radiative retrievals from cirrus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolli, Simone; Campbell, James R.; Lewis, Jasper R.; Gu, Yu; Welton, Ellsworth J.

    2017-06-01

    We compare, for the first time, the performance of a simplified atmospheric radiative transfer algorithm package, the Corti-Peter (CP) model, versus the more complex Fu-Liou-Gu (FLG) model, for resolving top-of-the-atmosphere radiative forcing characteristics from single-layer cirrus clouds obtained from the NASA Micro-Pulse Lidar Network database in 2010 and 2011 at Singapore and in Greenbelt, Maryland, USA, in 2012. Specifically, CP simplifies calculation of both clear-sky longwave and shortwave radiation through regression analysis applied to radiative calculations, which contributes significantly to differences between the two. The results of the intercomparison show that differences in annual net top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) cloud radiative forcing can reach 65 %. This is particularly true when land surface temperatures are warmer than 288 K, where the CP regression analysis becomes less accurate. CP proves useful for first-order estimates of TOA cirrus cloud forcing, but may not be suitable for quantitative accuracy, including the absolute sign of cirrus cloud daytime TOA forcing that can readily oscillate around zero globally.

  8. Empirical Relationship between particulate matter and Aerosol Optical Depth over Northern Tien-Shan, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements were obtained at two sites in northern Tien-Shan in Central Asia during a 1-year period beginning July 2008 to examine the statistical relationship between aerosol optical depth (AOD) and of fine [PM2.5, particles less than 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (AD)] and coars...

  9. Multichannel optical mapping: investigation of depth information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sase, Ichiro; Eda, Hideo; Seiyama, Akitoshi; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Takatsuki, Akira; Yanagida, Toshio

    2001-06-01

    Near infrared (NIR) light has become a powerful tool for non-invasive imaging of human brain activity. Many systems have been developed to capture the changes in regional brain blood flow and hemoglobin oxygenation, which occur in the human cortex in response to neural activity. We have developed a multi-channel reflectance imaging system, which can be used as a `mapping device' and also as a `multi-channel spectrophotometer'. In the present study, we visualized changes in the hemodynamics of the human occipital region in multiple ways. (1) Stimulating left and right primary visual cortex independently by showing sector shaped checkerboards sequentially over the contralateral visual field, resulted in corresponding changes in the hemodynamics observed by `mapping' measurement. (2) Simultaneous measurement of functional-MRI and NIR (changes in total hemoglobin) during visual stimulation showed good spatial and temporal correlation with each other. (3) Placing multiple channels densely over the occipital region demonstrated spatial patterns more precisely, and depth information was also acquired by placing each pair of illumination and detection fibers at various distances. These results indicate that optical method can provide data for 3D analysis of human brain functions.

  10. Depth probing of the hydride formation process in thin Pd films by combined electrochemistry and fiber optics-based in situ UV/vis spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickman, Björn; Fredriksson, Mattias; Feng, Ligang; Lindahl, Niklas; Hagberg, Johan; Langhammer, Christoph

    2015-07-15

    We demonstrate a flexible combined electrochemistry and fiber optics-based in situ UV/vis spectroscopy setup to gain insight into the depth evolution of electrochemical hydride and oxide formation in Pd films with thicknesses of 20 and 100 nm. The thicknesses of our model systems are chosen such that the films are thinner or significantly thicker than the optical skin depth of Pd to create two distinctly different situations. Low power white light is irradiated on the sample and analyzed in three different configurations; transmittance through, and, reflectance from the front and the back side of the film. The obtained optical sensitivities correspond to fractions of a monolayer of adsorbed or absorbed hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) on Pd. Moreover, a combined simultaneous readout obtained from the different optical measurement configurations provides mechanistic insights into the depth-evolution of the studied hydrogenation and oxidation processes.

  11. Retrievals of aerosol optical depth and Angström exponent from ground-based Sun-photometer data of Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Santo V; Chew, Boon N; Liew, Soo C

    2009-03-10

    The role of aerosols in climate and climate change is one of the factors that is least understood at the present. Aerosols' direct interaction with solar radiation is a well understood mechanism that affects Earth's net radiative forcing. However, quantifying its magnitude is more problematic because of the temporal and spatial variability of aerosol particles. To enhance our understanding of the radiative effects of aerosols on the global climate, Singapore has joined the AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) worldwide network by contributing ground-based direct Sun measurements performed by means of a multiwavelength Sun-photometer instrument. Data are collected on an hourly basis, then are uploaded to be fully screened and quality assured by AERONET. We use a one year data record (level 1.5/2.0) of measured columnar atmospheric optical depth, spanning from November 2006 to October 2007, to study the monthly and seasonal variability of the aerosol optical depth and the Angström exponent. We performed independent retrievals of these parameters (aerosol optical depth and Angström exponent) by using the photometer's six available bands covering the near-UV to near-IR (380-1080 nm). As a validation, our independent retrievals were compared with AERONET 1.5/2.0 level direct Sun product.

  12. Support for the Harvard University Water Vapor and Total Water Instruments for the 2004 NASA WB57 Middle Latitude Cirrus Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James G.

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve our understanding of the role clouds play in the climate system, NASA is investing considerable effort in characterizing clouds with instruments ranging from passive remote sensors on board the EOS platforms, to the forthcoming active remote sensors on Cloudsat and Calipso. These missions, when taken together, have the capacity to advance our understanding of the coupling between various components of the hydrologic cycle and the atmospheric circulation, and hold the additional potential of leading to significant improvements in the characterization of cloud feedbacks in global models. This is especially true considering that several of these platforms will be flown in an identical orbit within several minutes of one another-a constellation of satellites known as the A-Train. The algorithms that are being implemented and developed to convert these new data streams from radiance and reflectivity measurements into geophysical parameters invariably rely on some set of simplifymg assumptions and empirical constants. Uncertainties in these relationships lead to poorly understood random and systematic errors in the retrieved properties. This lack of understanding introduces ambiguity in interpreting the data and in using the global data sets for their intended purposes. In light of this, a series of flights with the W57F was proposed to address certain specific issues related to the basic properties of mid latitude cirrus clouds: the NASA WE357 Middle Latitude Cirrus Experiment ("MidCiX"). The science questions addressed are: 1) Can cloud property retrieval algorithms developed for A-Train active and passive remote sensing measurements accurately characterize the microphysical properties of synoptic and convectively generated cirrus cloud systems? 2) What are the relationships between the cirrus particle mass, projected area, and particle size spectrum in various genre of cirrus clouds? 3) Does the present compliment of state of the art in situ cloud

  13. Assessment of Retinal and Choroidal Measurements in Chinese School-Age Children with Cirrus-HD Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    Full Text Available To evaluate retinal thickness (RT, retinal volume (RV and choroidal thickness (ChT in Chinese children using Cirrus-HD optical coherence tomography (OCT, and assess their associations with spherical equivalent (SE, age and gender.This was a prospective study that recruited 193 healthy Chinese children (193 eyes with no ophthalmic disease history between December 2012 and December 2013. RT and RV were acquired using OCT. Subfoveal ChT (SFCT and ChT1-mm and 2-mm temporal, nasal, superior and inferior to the fovea were measured manually.RT in the inner temporal and nasal regionsdiffered significantly between refraction groups (both P<0.05. Significant differences were also found inSFCT andChT 1- and 2-mm inferior to the fovea (all P<0.05. RT differed significantly between males and females in the outer superior region in the emmetropia group (P<0.05. ChT differed significantly between males and females 2-mm temporal to the fovea in the emmetropia group (P<0.05, and 1-mm temporal to the fovea in the mild myopia group (P<0.05. SE correlated positively with RT in the inner temporal (r = 0.230,nasal (r = 0.252 and inferior (r = 0.149 regions (all P<0.05. Age correlated positively with foveolar (r = 0.169, total macular (r = 0.202, inner temporal (r = 0.237, inner nasal (r = 0.248, inner superior (r = 0.378 and inner inferior (r = 0.345 region thicknesses, and with RV (r = 0.207(all P<0.05. SE correlated positively with SFCT (r = 0.195, and with ChT1-mm temporal (r = 0.167, 1- and 2-mm nasal (r = 0.144 and r = 0.162, 2-mm superior (r = 0.175, and 1- and 2-mm inferior (r = 0.207 and r = 0.238 to the fovea (all P<0.05. Age had no significant association with ChT.SE, age and gender did not influence macular RT and ChT in most regions, and correlations of RT with age and ChT with SE were weak.

  14. Large depth of focus dynamic micro integral imaging for optical see-through augmented reality display using a focus-tunable lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xin; Javidi, Bahram

    2018-03-01

    We have developed a three-dimensional (3D) dynamic integral-imaging (InIm)-system-based optical see-through augmented reality display with enhanced depth range of a 3D augmented image. A focus-tunable lens is adopted in the 3D display unit to relay the elemental images with various positions to the micro lens array. Based on resolution priority integral imaging, multiple lenslet image planes are generated to enhance the depth range of the 3D image. The depth range is further increased by utilizing both the real and virtual 3D imaging fields. The 3D reconstructed image and the real-world scene are overlaid using an optical see-through display for augmented reality. The proposed system can significantly enhance the depth range of a 3D reconstructed image with high image quality in the micro InIm unit. This approach provides enhanced functionality for augmented information and adjusts the vergence-accommodation conflict of a traditional augmented reality display.

  15. The World Optical Depth Research and Calibration Center (WORCC) quality assurance and quality control of GAW-PFR AOD measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazadzis, Stelios; Kouremeti, Natalia; Nyeki, Stephan; Gröbner, Julian; Wehrli, Christoph

    2018-02-01

    The World Optical Depth Research Calibration Center (WORCC) is a section within the World Radiation Center at Physikalisches-Meteorologisches Observatorium (PMOD/WRC), Davos, Switzerland, established after the recommendations of the World Meteorological Organization for calibration of aerosol optical depth (AOD)-related Sun photometers. WORCC is mandated to develop new methods for instrument calibration, to initiate homogenization activities among different AOD networks and to run a network (GAW-PFR) of Sun photometers. In this work we describe the calibration hierarchy and methods used under WORCC and the basic procedures, tests and processing techniques in order to ensure the quality assurance and quality control of the AOD-retrieved data.

  16. Depth Estimation of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation in Clear Water Streams Using Low-Altitude Optical Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Fleur; Buis, Kerst; Verschoren, Veerle; Meire, Patrick

    2015-09-30

    UAVs and other low-altitude remote sensing platforms are proving very useful tools for remote sensing of river systems. Currently consumer grade cameras are still the most commonly used sensors for this purpose. In particular, progress is being made to obtain river bathymetry from the optical image data collected with such cameras, using the strong attenuation of light in water. No studies have yet applied this method to map submergence depth of aquatic vegetation, which has rather different reflectance characteristics from river bed substrate. This study therefore looked at the possibilities to use the optical image data to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) depth in shallow clear water streams. We first applied the Optimal Band Ratio Analysis method (OBRA) of Legleiter et al. (2009) to a dataset of spectral signatures from three macrophyte species in a clear water stream. The results showed that for each species the ratio of certain wavelengths were strongly associated with depth. A combined assessment of all species resulted in equally strong associations, indicating that the effect of spectral variation in vegetation is subsidiary to spectral variation due to depth changes. Strongest associations (R²-values ranging from 0.67 to 0.90 for different species) were found for combinations including one band in the near infrared (NIR) region between 825 and 925 nm and one band in the visible light region. Currently data of both high spatial and spectral resolution is not commonly available to apply the OBRA results directly to image data for SAV depth mapping. Instead a novel, low-cost data acquisition method was used to obtain six-band high spatial resolution image composites using a NIR sensitive DSLR camera. A field dataset of SAV submergence depths was used to develop regression models for the mapping of submergence depth from image pixel values. Band (combinations) providing the best performing models (R²-values up to 0.77) corresponded with the OBRA

  17. Structural changes of macula and optic disk of the fellow eye in patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, R; Yavas, G F; Veliyev, I; Dogan, M; Duman, R

    2018-05-10

    The aim was to assess the ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and optic disk features in the affected eyes (AE) and unaffected fellow eyes (FE) of subjects with unilateral nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and to compare with healthy control eyes (CE) using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). This study included 28 patients and age, sex and refraction-matched 28 control subjects. Mean GCC thickness and peripapillary RNFL thickness in four quadrants measured by cirrus SD-OCT were evaluated in both AE and FE of patients and CE. In addition, optic disk measurements obtained with OCT were evaluated. Mean GCC thickness was significantly lower in AE compared with both FE and CE (P optic disk cupping compared with both FE and CE (P optic disk features between the CE and FE. And significantly greater optic disk cupping in the AE compared with both FE and CE supports the acquired enlargement of cupping after the onset of NAION.

  18. Comparisons of cirrus cloud properties between polluted and pristine air based on in-situ observations from the NSF HIPPO, EU INCA and NASA ATTREX campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, M.; Schumann, U.; Jensen, J. B.; Minikin, A.

    2015-12-01

    The radiative forcing of cirrus clouds is influenced by microphysical (e.g., ice crystal number concentration and size distribution) and macroscopic properties. Currently it is still unclear how the formation of cirrus clouds and their microphysical properties are influenced by anthropogenic emissions. In this work, we use airborne in-situ observations to compare cirrus cloud properties between polluted and pristine regions. Our dataset includes: the NSF HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) Global campaign (2009-2011), the EU Interhemispheric Differences In Cirrus Properties from Anthropogenic Emissions (INCA) campaign (2000) and the NASA Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) campaign (2014). The combined dataset include observations of both extratropical (HIPPO and INCA) and tropical (ATTREX) cirrus, over the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. We use the in-situ measured carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratio as a pollution indicator, and compare ice microphysical properties (i.e., ice crystal number concentration (Nc) and number-weighted mean diameter (Dc)) between air masses with higher and lower CO. All analyses are restricted to T ≤ -40°C. By analyzing ice crystals (Fast-2DC, 87.5-1600 µm) in HIPPO, we found that Dc decreases with increasing CO concentration at multiple constant pressure levels. In addition, analysis of INCA data shows that Nc and extinction of small ice particles (FSSP 3-20 µm) increases with increasing CO. Particles < 87.5 µm in Fast-2DC data are not considered due to uncertainty in sample volume, and the FSSP measurements are subject to possible shattering. We further analyze the ice crystals (SPEC FCDP, 1-50 µm) in the tropical tropopause layer in ATTREX. At -70°C to -90°C, we found that the average Nc (Dc) increases (decreases) at higher CO. Overall, our results suggest that extratropical and tropical cirrus are likely to have more numerous small ice particles, when sampled in the more polluted background. Back

  19. Beveled fiber-optic probe couples a ball lens for improving depth-resolved fluorescence measurements of layered tissue: Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaillon, Franck; Zheng Wei; Huang Zhiwei

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we evaluate the feasibility of designing a beveled fiber-optic probe coupled with a ball lens for improving depth-resolved fluorescence measurements of epithelial tissue using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The results show that by using the probe configuration with a beveled tip collection fiber and a flat tip excitation fiber associated with a ball lens, discrimination of fluorescence signals generated in different tissue depths is achievable. In comparison with a flat-tip collection fiber, the use of a large bevel angled collection fiber enables a better differentiation between the shallow and deep tissue layers by changing the excitation-collection fiber separations. This work suggests that the beveled fiber-optic probe coupled with a ball lens has the potential to facilitate depth-resolved fluorescence measurements of epithelial tissues

  20. Retrieval of Surface Lambert Albedos and Aerosols Optical Depths Using OMEGA Near-IR EPF Observations of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincendon, M.; Langevin, Y.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Gondet, B.

    2007-03-01

    We have analyzed five EPF sequences acquired by OMEGA/Mars Express in the near-IR over ice-free and ice-covered surfaces to retrieve simultaneously the Lambert albedo of the surface and the optical depth of aerosols.

  1. Segmentation error and macular thickness measurements obtained with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography devices in neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosang Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate frequency and severity of segmentation errors of two spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT devices and error effect on central macular thickness (CMT measurements. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven eyes of 25 patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration, examined using the Cirrus HD-OCT and Spectralis HRA + OCT, were retrospectively reviewed. Macular cube 512 × 128 and 5-line raster scans were performed with the Cirrus and 512 × 25 volume scans with the Spectralis. Frequency and severity of segmentation errors were compared between scans. Results: Segmentation error frequency was 47.4% (baseline, 40.7% (1 month, 40.7% (2 months, and 48.1% (6 months for the Cirrus, and 59.3%, 62.2%, 57.8%, and 63.7%, respectively, for the Spectralis, differing significantly between devices at all examinations (P < 0.05, except at baseline. Average error score was 1.21 ± 1.65 (baseline, 0.79 ± 1.18 (1 month, 0.74 ± 1.12 (2 months, and 0.96 ± 1.11 (6 months for the Cirrus, and 1.73 ± 1.50, 1.54 ± 1.35, 1.38 ± 1.40, and 1.49 ± 1.30, respectively, for the Spectralis, differing significantly at 1 month and 2 months (P < 0.02. Automated and manual CMT measurements by the Spectralis were larger than those by the Cirrus. Conclusions: The Cirrus HD-OCT had a lower frequency and severity of segmentation error than the Spectralis HRA + OCT. SD-OCT error should be considered when evaluating retinal thickness.

  2. Overview of MPLNET Version 3 Cloud Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jasper R.; Campbell, James; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Stewart, Sebastian A.; Haftings, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Micro Pulse Lidar Network, version 3, cloud detection algorithm is described and differences relative to the previous version are highlighted. Clouds are identified from normalized level 1 signal profiles using two complementary methods. The first method considers vertical signal derivatives for detecting low-level clouds. The second method, which detects high-level clouds like cirrus, is based on signal uncertainties necessitated by the relatively low signal-to-noise ratio exhibited in the upper troposphere by eye-safe network instruments, especially during daytime. Furthermore, a multitemporal averaging scheme is used to improve cloud detection under conditions of a weak signal-to-noise ratio. Diurnal and seasonal cycles of cloud occurrence frequency based on one year of measurements at the Goddard Space Flight Center (Greenbelt, Maryland) site are compared for the new and previous versions. The largest differences, and perceived improvement, in detection occurs for high clouds (above 5 km, above MSL), which increase in occurrence by over 5%. There is also an increase in the detection of multilayered cloud profiles from 9% to 19%. Macrophysical properties and estimates of cloud optical depth are presented for a transparent cirrus dataset. However, the limit to which the cirrus cloud optical depth could be reliably estimated occurs between 0.5 and 0.8. A comparison using collocated CALIPSO measurements at the Goddard Space Flight Center and Singapore Micro Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) sites indicates improvements in cloud occurrence frequencies and layer heights.

  3. The impact on UT/LS cirrus clouds in the CAM/CARMA model using a new interactive aerosol parameterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, C.; Toon, B.; Bardeen, C.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that heterogeneous nucleation may play a large role in cirrus cloud formation in the UT/LS, a region previously thought to be primarily dominated by homogeneous nucleation. As a result, it is beneficial to ensure that general circulation models properly represent heterogeneous nucleation in ice cloud simulations. Our work strives towards addressing this issue in the NSF/DOE Community Earth System Model's atmospheric model, CAM. More specifically we are addressing the role of heterogeneous nucleation in the coupled sectional microphysics cloud model, CARMA. Currently, our CAM/CARMA cirrus model only performs homogenous ice nucleation while ignoring heterogeneous nucleation. In our work, we couple the CAM/CARMA cirrus model with the Modal Aerosol Model (MAM). By combining the aerosol model with CAM/CARMA we can both account for heterogeneous nucleation, as well as directly link the sulfates used for homogeneous nucleation to computed fields instead of the current static field being utilized. Here we present our initial results and compare our findings to observations from the long running CALIPSO and MODIS satellite missions.

  4. A Neural Network Approach to Infer Optical Depth of Thick Ice Clouds at Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, P.; Hong, G.; Sun-Mack, S.; Chen, Yan; Smith, W. L., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    One of the roadblocks to continuously monitoring cloud properties is the tendency of clouds to become optically black at cloud optical depths (COD) of 6 or less. This constraint dramatically reduces the quantitative information content at night. A recent study found that because of their diffuse nature, ice clouds remain optically gray, to some extent, up to COD of 100 at certain wavelengths. Taking advantage of this weak dependency and the availability of COD retrievals from CloudSat, an artificial neural network algorithm was developed to estimate COD values up to 70 from common satellite imager infrared channels. The method was trained using matched 2007 CloudSat and Aqua MODIS data and is tested using similar data from 2008. The results show a significant improvement over the use of default values at night with high correlation. This paper summarizes the results and suggests paths for future improvement.

  5. Cirrus cloud-temperature interactions in the tropical tropopause layer: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Taylor

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Thin cirrus clouds in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL have important ramifications for radiative transfer, stratospheric humidity, and vertical transport. A horizontally extensive and vertically thin cirrus cloud in the TTL was detected by the Cloud Aerosol LIDAR and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO on 27–29 January 2009 in the Tropical Eastern Pacific region, distant from any regions of deep convection. These observations indicate that the cloud is close to 3000 km in length along the CALIPSO orbit track. Measurements over this three day period indicate that the cloud event extended over a region from approximately 15° S to 10° N and 90° W to 150° W and may be one of the most extensive cirrus events ever observed. Coincident temperature observations from the Constellation of Observing Satellites for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC suggest that the cloud formed in-situ as a result of a cold anomaly arising from a midlatitude intrusion. The event appears to last for up to 2 days and the temperature observations do not show any indication of the expected infrared heating. It is hypothesized that the cloud could be maintained by either nucleation of numerous small ice crystals that don't sediment or by multiple localized ice nucleation events driven by temperature variability at scales smaller than the overall cloud field, producing small ice-crystal sizes which have sufficiently long residence times (≈53 h to maintain the cloud. It is possible that the residence times are augmented by vertical motion which could also act to offset the expected infrared heating. Further observations of similar events will be required in order to conclusively explain this curious cloud.

  6. Optical coherence tomography, scanning laser polarimetry and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in retinal nerve fiber layer measurements of glaucoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanihagh, Farsad; Kremmer, Stephan; Anastassiou, Gerasimos; Schallenberg, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    To determine the correlations and strength of association between different imaging systems in analyzing the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) of glaucoma patients: optical coherence tomography (OCT), scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (CSLO). 114 eyes of patients with moderate open angle glaucoma underwent spectral domain OCT (Topcon SD-OCT 2000 and Zeiss Cirrus HD-OCT), SLP (GDx VCC and GDx Pro) and CSLO (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph, HRT 3). Correlation coefficients were calculated between the structural parameters yielded by these examinations. The quantitative relationship between the measured RNFL thickness globally and for the four regions (superior, inferior, nasal, temporal) were evaluated with different regression models for all used imaging systems. The strongest correlation of RNFL measurements was found between devices using the same technology like GDx VCC and GDx Pro as well as Topcon OCT and Cirrus OCT. In glaucoma patients, the strongest associations (R²) were found between RNFL measurements of the two optical coherence tomography devices Topcon OCT and Cirrus OCT (R² = 0.513) and between GDx VCC and GDx Pro (R² = 0.451). The results of the OCTs and GDX Pro also had a strong quantitative relationship (Topcon OCT R² = 0.339 and Cirrus OCT R² = 0.347). GDx VCC and the OCTs showed a mild to moderate association (Topcon OCT R² = 0.207 and Cirrus OCT R² = 0.258). The confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (HRT 3) had the lowest association to all other devices (Topcon OCT R² = 0.254, Cirrus OCT R² = 0.158, GDx Pro R² = 0.086 and GDx VCC R² = 0.1). The measurements of the RNFL in glaucoma patients reveal a high correlation of OCT and GDx devices because OCTs can measure all major retinal layers and SLP can detect nerve fibers allowing a comparison between the results of this devices. However, CSLO by means of HRT topography can only measure height values of the retinal surface but it cannot distinguish

  7. “Using Statistical Comparisons between SPartICus Cirrus Microphysical Measurements, Detailed Cloud Models, and GCM Cloud Parameterizations to Understand Physical Processes Controlling Cirrus Properties and to Improve the Cloud Parameterizations”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Sarah [SPEC Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The dual objectives of this project were improving our basic understanding of processes that control cirrus microphysical properties and improvement of the representation of these processes in the parameterizations. A major effort in the proposed research was to integrate, calibrate, and better understand the uncertainties in all of these measurements.

  8. Neutral Hydrogen Optical Depth near Star-forming Galaxies at z ≈ 2.4 in the Keck Baryonic Structure Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakic, Olivera; Schaye, Joop; Steidel, Charles C.; Rudie, Gwen C.

    2012-06-01

    We study the interface between galaxies and the intergalactic medium by measuring the absorption by neutral hydrogen in the vicinity of star-forming galaxies at z ≈ 2.4. Our sample consists of 679 rest-frame UV-selected galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts that have impact parameters advantage of all available Lyman series lines. The median optical depth, and hence the median density of atomic hydrogen, drops by more than an order of magnitude around 100 kpc, which is similar to the virial radius of the halos thought to host the galaxies. The median remains enhanced, at the >3σ level, out to at least 2.8 Mpc (i.e., >9 comoving Mpc), but the scatter at a given distance is large compared with the median excess optical depth, suggesting that the gas is clumpy. Within 100 (200) kpc, and over ±165 km s-1, the covering fraction of gas with Lyα optical depth greater than unity is 100+0 - 32% (66% ± 16%). Absorbers with τLyα > 0.1 are typically closer to galaxies than random. The mean galaxy overdensity around absorbers increases with the optical depth and also as the length scale over which the galaxy overdensity is evaluated is decreased. Absorbers with τLyα ~ 1 reside in regions where the galaxy number density is close to the cosmic mean on scales >=0.25 Mpc. We clearly detect two types of redshift space anisotropies. On scales 3σ significance), an effect that we attribute to large-scale infall (i.e., the Kaiser effect). Based on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  9. Evidence of impact of aviation on cirrus cloud formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Zerefos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This work examines changes in cirrus cloud cover (CCC in possible association with aviation activities at congested air corridors. The analysis is based on the latest version of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project D2 data set and covers the period 1984-1998. Over the studied areas, the effect of large-scale modes of natural climate variability such as ENSO, QBO and NAO as well as the possible influence of the tropopause variability, were first removed from the cloud data set in order to calculate long-term changes of observed cirrus cloudiness. The results show increasing trends in (CCC between 1984 and 1998 over the high air traffic corridors of North America, North Atlantic and Europe. Of these upward trends, only in the summertime over the North Atlantic and only in the wintertime over North America are statistically significant (exceeding +2.0% per decade. Over adjacent locations with low air traffic, the calculated trends are statistically insignificant and in most cases negative both during winter and summer in the regions studied. These negative trends, over low air traffic regions, are consistent with the observed large scale negative trends seen in (CCC over most of the northern middle latitudes and over the tropics. Moreover, further investigation of vertical velocities over high and low air traffic regions provide evidence that the trends of opposite signs in (CCC over these regions, do not seem to be caused by different trends in dynamics. It is also shown that the longitudinal distribution of decadal changes in (CCC along the latitude belt centered at the North Atlantic air corridor, parallels the spatial distribution of fuel consumption from highflying air traffic, providing an independent test of possible impact of aviation on contrail cirrus formation. The correlation between the fuel consumption and the longitudinal variability of (CCC is significant (+0.7 over the middle latitudes but not over the tropics

  10. Empirical analysis of aerosol and thin cloud optical depth effects on CO2 retrievals from GOSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, A.; O'Neill, N. T.; Strong, K.; Nakajima, T.; Uchino, O.; Shiobara, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ground-based sunphotometer observations of aerosol and cloud optical properties at AEROCAN / AERONET sites co-located with TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) high resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) were used to investigate the aerosol and cloud influence on column-averaged dry-air mole fraction of carbon dioxide (XCO2) retrieved from the TANSO-FTS (Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation - FTS) of GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite). This instrument employs high resolution spectra measured in the Short-Wavelength InfraRed (SWIR) band to retrieve XCO2estimates. GOSAT XCO2 retrievals are nominally corrected for the contaminating backscatter influence of aerosols and thin clouds. However if the satellite-retrieved aerosol and thin cloud optical depths applied to the CO2 correction is biased then the correction and the retrieved CO2 values will be biased. We employed independent ground based estimates of both cloud screened and non cloud screened AOD (aerosol optical depth) in the CO2 SWIR channel and compared this with the GOSAT SWIR-channel OD retrievals to see if that bias was related to variations in the (generally negative) CO2 bias (ΔXCO2= XCO2(GOSAT) - XCO2(TCCON)). Results are presented for a number of TCCON validation sites.

  11. VARIABILITY IN FOVEAL AVASCULAR ZONE AND CAPILLARY DENSITY USING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY MACHINES IN HEALTHY EYES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrath, George N; Say, Emil Anthony T; Sioufi, Kareem; Ferenczy, Sandor; Samara, Wasim A; Shields, Carol L

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the variability in foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and capillary density measurements on optical coherence tomography angiography using Optovue RTVue XR Avanti (OA) (Optovue) and Zeiss Cirrus HD-OCT 5000 (ZC) (Carl Zeiss Meditec). In this prospective, comparative case series, parafoveal (3 × 3 mm) optical coherence tomography angiography scans were obtained on healthy volunteers using both the Avanti and Cirrus. The FAZ area and capillary density at the level of both the superficial and deep capillary plexus were measured automatically using the built-in ReVue software (Optovue) with the Avanti as well as manually using ImageJ (National Institutes of Health) with both machines. There were 50 eyes in 25 healthy volunteers included in the analysis. Mean subject age was 33 years and there were 14 women (56%). On optical coherence tomography, mean central macular thickness was significantly greater on OA (259.1 μm) than ZC (257.6 μm, P = 0.0228). On optical coherence tomography angiography, mean superficial and deep plexus FAZ measured 0.2855 mm and 0.3465 mm on Avanti automated (A-A), 0.2739 mm and 0.3637 mm on Avanti manual (A-M), and 0.2657 mm and 0.3993 mm on Cirrus manual (C-M), respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in superficial plexus FAZ measurements between the A-A and A-M (P = 0.4019) or A-A and C-M (P = 0.1336). The A-M measured significantly larger than C-M (P = 0.0396). Deep plexus FAZ measurements were similar on A-A and A-M (P = 0.6299), but both were significantly less compared with C-M (P machine and technique are consistent and reliable between fellow eyes, significant variability exists in FAZ and capillary density measurements among different machines and techniques. Comparison of measurements across machines and techniques should be considered with caution.

  12. Combined in-depth, 3D, en face imaging of the optic disc, optic disc pits and optic disc pit maculopathy using swept-source megahertz OCT at 1050 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertz, Josef; Kolb, Jan Philip; Klein, Thomas; Mohler, Kathrin J; Eibl, Matthias; Wieser, Wolfgang; Huber, Robert; Priglinger, Siegfried; Wolf, Armin

    2018-02-01

    To demonstrate papillary imaging of eyes with optic disc pits (ODP) or optic disc pit associated maculopathy (ODP-M) with ultrahigh-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) at 1.68 million A-scans/s. To generate 3D-renderings of the papillary area with 3D volume-reconstructions of the ODP and highly resolved en face images from a single densely-sampled megahertz-OCT (MHz-OCT) dataset for investigation of ODP-characteristics. A 1.68 MHz-prototype SS-MHz-OCT system at 1050 nm based on a Fourier-domain mode-locked laser was employed to acquire high-definition, 3D datasets with a dense sampling of 1600 × 1600 A-scans over a 45° field of view. Six eyes with ODPs, and two further eyes with glaucomatous alteration or without ocular pathology are presented. 3D-rendering of the deep papillary structures, virtual 3D-reconstructions of the ODPs and depth resolved isotropic en face images were generated using semiautomatic segmentation. 3D-rendering and en face imaging of the optic disc, ODPs and ODP associated pathologies showed a broad spectrum regarding ODP characteristics. Between individuals the shape of the ODP and the appending pathologies varied considerably. MHz-OCT en face imaging generates distinct top-view images of ODPs and ODP-M. MHz-OCT generates high resolution images of retinal pathologies associated with ODP-M and allows visualizing ODPs with depths of up to 2.7 mm. Different patterns of ODPs can be visualized in patients for the first time using 3D-reconstructions and co-registered high-definition en face images extracted from a single densely sampled 1050 nm megahertz-OCT (MHz-OCT) dataset. As the immediate vicinity to the SAS and the site of intrapapillary proliferation is located at the bottom of the ODP it is crucial to image the complete structure and the whole depth of ODPs. Especially in very deep pits, where non-swept-source OCT fails to reach the bottom, conventional swept-source devices and the MHz-OCT alike are feasible

  13. Improvement of Aerosol Optical Depth Retrieval over Hong Kong from a Geostationary Meteorological Satellite Using Critical Reflectance with Background Optical Depth Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijin; Kim, Jhoon; Wong, Man Sing; Yoon, Jongmin; Lee, Jaehwa; Wu, Dong L.; Chan, P.W.; Nichol, Janet E.; Chung, Chu-Yong; Ou, Mi-Lim

    2014-01-01

    Despite continuous efforts to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) using a conventional 5-channelmeteorological imager in geostationary orbit, the accuracy in urban areas has been poorer than other areas primarily due to complex urban surface properties and mixed aerosol types from different emission sources. The two largest error sources in aerosol retrieval have been aerosol type selection and surface reflectance. In selecting the aerosol type from a single visible channel, the season-dependent aerosol optical properties were adopted from longterm measurements of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun-photometers. With the aerosol optical properties obtained fromthe AERONET inversion data, look-up tableswere calculated by using a radiative transfer code: the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S). Surface reflectance was estimated using the clear sky composite method, awidely used technique for geostationary retrievals. Over East Asia, the AOD retrieved from the Meteorological Imager showed good agreement, although the values were affected by cloud contamination errors. However, the conventional retrieval of the AOD over Hong Kong was largely underestimated due to the lack of information on the aerosol type and surface properties. To detect spatial and temporal variation of aerosol type over the area, the critical reflectance method, a technique to retrieve single scattering albedo (SSA), was applied. Additionally, the background aerosol effect was corrected to improve the accuracy of the surface reflectance over Hong Kong. The AOD retrieved froma modified algorithmwas compared to the collocated data measured by AERONET in Hong Kong. The comparison showed that the new aerosol type selection using the critical reflectance and the corrected surface reflectance significantly improved the accuracy of AODs in Hong Kong areas,with a correlation coefficient increase from0.65 to 0.76 and a regression line change from tMI [basic algorithm] = 0

  14. Optical coherence tomography-based decision making in exudative age-related macular degeneration: comparison of time- vs spectral-domain devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukras, C; Wang, Y D; Meyerle, C B; Forooghian, F; Chew, E Y; Wong, W T

    2010-05-01

    To determine whether optical coherence tomography (OCT) device-type influences clinical grading of OCT imaging in the context of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Ninety-six paired OCT scans from 49 patients with active exudative AMD were obtained on both the time-domain Stratus OCT system and the spectral-domain Cirrus OCT system at the same visit. Three independent graders judged each scan for the presence of intraretinal fluid (IRF) or subretinal fluid (SRF). The degree of grader consensus was evaluated and the ability of the systems to detect the presence of disease activity was analysed. Cirrus OCT generated a higher degree of inter-grader consensus than Stratus OCT with higher intraclass correlation coefficients for all parameters analysed. A pair-wise comparison of Cirrus OCT with Stratus OCT systems revealed that Cirrus-based gradings more frequently reported the presence of SRF and IRF and detected overall neovascular activity at a higher rate (P<0.05) compared with Stratus-based gradings. The choice of time-domain (Stratus) vs spectra-domain (Cirrus) OCT systems has a measurable impact on clinical decision making in exudative AMD. Spectral-domain OCT systems may be able to generate more consensus in clinical interpretation and, in particular cases, detect disease activity not detected by time-domain systems. Clinical trials using OCT-based clinical evaluations of exudative AMD may need to account for these inter-system differences in planning and analysis.

  15. Photoirradiation system with depth optical dosimetry control in initial oxygen saturation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintanar, L.; Stolik, S.; Rosa, J. de la; Moreno, E.

    2012-01-01

    Photodynamic Therapy is a technique in which a photosensitizing substance is applied that is activated by light and it generates reactive oxygen species which cause selective cell destruction. The efficiency of the therapy is affected by the parameters dose. In this work it is shown a photo-irradiation system for superficial Photodynamic Therapy, using as a light source a light emitting diode with an automatic control of optical power based on a model of the distribution of light in depth that was tested in tissue phantoms. It also has a reflective pulse oximeter for the measurement of the initial oxygen saturation. (Author)

  16. Spectral Discrimination of Fine and Coarse Mode Aerosol Optical Depth from AERONET Direct Sun Data of Singapore and South-East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas Cortijo, S.; Chew, B.; Liew, S.

    2009-12-01

    Aerosol optical depth combined with the Angstrom exponent and its derivative, are often used as a qualitative indicator of aerosol particle size, with Angstrom exp. values greater than 2 indicating small (fine mode) particles associated with urban pollution and bio-mass burning. Around this region, forest fires are a regular occurrence during the dry season, specially near the large land masses of Sumatra and Borneo. The practice of clearing land by burning the primary and sometimes secondary forest, results in a smog-like haze covering large areas of regional cities such as cities Singapore, Kuala Lumpur and sometimes the south of Thailand, often reducing visibility and increasing health problems for the local population. In Singapore, the sources of aerosols are mostly from fossil fuel burning (energy stations, incinerators, urban transport etc.) and from the industrial and urban areas. The proximity to the sea adds a possible oceanic source. However, as stated above and depending on the time of the year, there can be a strong bio-mass component coming from forest fires from various regions of the neighboring countries. Bio-mass related aerosol particles are typically characterized by showing a large optical depth and small, sub-micron particle size distributions. In this work, we analyze three years of direct Sun measurements performed with a multi-channel Cimel Sun-Photometer (part of the AERONET network) located at our site. In order to identify bio-mass burning events in this region, we perform a spectral discrimination between coarse and fine mode optical depth; subsequently, the fine mode parameters such as optical depth, optical ratio and fine mode Angstrom exponents (and its derivative) are used to identify possible bio-mass related events within the data set.

  17. In Situ Balloon-Borne Ice Particle Imaging in High-Latitude Cirrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Thomas; Heymsfield, Andrew J.

    2016-09-01

    Cirrus clouds reflect incoming solar radiation, creating a cooling effect. At the same time, these clouds absorb the infrared radiation from the Earth, creating a greenhouse effect. The net effect, crucial for radiative transfer, depends on the cirrus microphysical properties, such as particle size distributions and particle shapes. Knowledge of these cloud properties is also needed for calibrating and validating passive and active remote sensors. Ice particles of sizes below 100 µm are inherently difficult to measure with aircraft-mounted probes due to issues with resolution, sizing, and size-dependent sampling volume. Furthermore, artefacts are produced by shattering of particles on the leading surfaces of the aircraft probes when particles several hundred microns or larger are present. Here, we report on a series of balloon-borne in situ measurements that were carried out at a high-latitude location, Kiruna in northern Sweden (68N 21E). The method used here avoids these issues experienced with the aircraft probes. Furthermore, with a balloon-borne instrument, data are collected as vertical profiles, more useful for calibrating or evaluating remote sensing measurements than data collected along horizontal traverses. Particles are collected on an oil-coated film at a sampling speed given directly by the ascending rate of the balloon, 4 m s-1. The collecting film is advanced uniformly inside the instrument so that an always unused section of the film is exposed to ice particles, which are measured by imaging shortly after sampling. The high optical resolution of about 4 µm together with a pixel resolution of 1.65 µm allows particle detection at sizes of 10 µm and larger. For particles that are 20 µm (12 pixel) in size or larger, the shape can be recognized. The sampling volume, 130 cm3 s-1, is well defined and independent of particle size. With the encountered number concentrations of between 4 and 400 L-1, this required about 90- to 4-s sampling times to

  18. PROCEDURE ENABLING SIMULATION AND IN-DEPTH ANALYSIS OF OPTICAL EFFECTS IN CAMERA-BASED TIME-OF-FLIGHT SENSORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Baumgart

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simulation approach for Time-of-Flight cameras to estimate sensor performance and accuracy, as well as to help understanding experimentally discovered effects. The main scope is the detailed simulation of the optical signals. We use a raytracing-based approach and use the optical path length as the master parameter for depth calculations. The procedure is described in detail with references to our implementation in Zemax OpticStudio and Python. Our simulation approach supports multiple and extended light sources and allows accounting for all effects within the geometrical optics model. Especially multi-object reflection/scattering ray-paths, translucent objects, and aberration effects (e.g. distortion caused by the ToF lens are supported. The optical path length approach also enables the implementation of different ToF senor types and transient imaging evaluations. The main features are demonstrated on a simple 3D test scene.

  19. Results from the Fourth WMO Filter Radiometer Comparison for aerosol optical depth measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazadzis, Stelios; Kouremeti, Natalia; Diémoz, Henri; Gröbner, Julian; Forgan, Bruce W.; Campanelli, Monica; Estellés, Victor; Lantz, Kathleen; Michalsky, Joseph; Carlund, Thomas; Cuevas, Emilio; Toledano, Carlos; Becker, Ralf; Nyeki, Stephan; Kosmopoulos, Panagiotis G.; Tatsiankou, Viktar; Vuilleumier, Laurent; Denn, Frederick M.; Ohkawara, Nozomu; Ijima, Osamu; Goloub, Philippe; Raptis, Panagiotis I.; Milner, Michael; Behrens, Klaus; Barreto, Africa; Martucci, Giovanni; Hall, Emiel; Wendell, James; Fabbri, Bryan E.; Wehrli, Christoph

    2018-03-01

    This study presents the results of the Fourth Filter Radiometer Comparison that was held in Davos, Switzerland, between 28 September and 16 October 2015. Thirty filter radiometers and spectroradiometers from 12 countries participated including reference instruments from global aerosol networks. The absolute differences of all instruments compared to the reference have been based on the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) criterion defined as follows: 95% of the measured data has to be within 0.005 ± 0.001/m (where m is the air mass). At least 24 out of 29 instruments achieved this goal at both 500 and 865 nm, while 12 out of 17 and 13 out of 21 achieved this at 368 and 412 nm, respectively. While searching for sources of differences among different instruments, it was found that all individual differences linked to Rayleigh, NO2, ozone, water vapor calculations and related optical depths and air mass calculations were smaller than 0.01 in aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 and 865 nm. Different cloud-detecting algorithms used have been compared. Ångström exponent calculations showed relatively large differences among different instruments, partly because of the high calculation uncertainty of this parameter in low AOD conditions. The overall low deviations of these AOD results and the high accuracy of reference aerosol network instruments demonstrated a promising framework to achieve homogeneity, compatibility and harmonization among the different spectral AOD networks in the near future.

  20. Optical Estimation of Depth and Current in a Ebb Tidal Delta Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, R. A.; Stanley, J.

    2012-12-01

    A key limitation to our ability to make nearshore environmental predictions is the difficulty of obtaining up-to-date bathymetry measurements at a reasonable cost and frequency. Due to the high cost and complex logistics of in-situ methods, research into remote sensing approaches has been steady and has finally yielded fairly robust methods like the cBathy algorithm for optical Argus data that show good performance on simple barred beach profiles and near immunity to noise and signal problems. In May, 2012, data were collected in a more complex ebb tidal delta environment during the RIVET field experiment at New River Inlet, NC. The presence of strong reversing tidal currents led to significant errors in cBathy depths that were phase-locked to the tide. In this paper we will test methods for the robust estimation of both depths and vector currents in a tidal delta domain. In contrast to previous Fourier methods, wavenumber estimation in cBathy can be done on small enough scales to resolve interesting nearshore features.

  1. On the composition and optical extinction of particles in the tropopause region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaercher, B. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Solomon, S. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Aeronomy Lab.

    1999-06-01

    Liquid aerosol particles and ice crystals in subvisible cirrus clouds in the tropopause region are characterized in terms of size distributions, chemical composition, and optical extinction. These particle properties are studied by means of simple models and are related to satellite extinction measurements, particularly for midlatitudes. Sulfuric acid aerosols can take up nitric acid near the ice frost point, just before ice nucleation. Aerosols in the tropopause region may show a larger spread of extinction and extinction ratios at different wavelengths than background stratospheric aerosols. The high surface areas and low extinction ratios of subvisible cirrus deduced from satellite observations are unlikely to be due purely to aerosols, except for high sulfate loadings. It is shown that mixtures of liquid aerosols and ice particles can more readily explain these data with only small cloud fractions along the line of sight of the optical sensors. The efficiency of heterogeneous chlorine activation in aerosol/cloud mixtures, the availability of water vapor, sulfate, and nitrate, and the effects of temperature, ammonium, ice nuclei and aircraft emissions on the properties of particles in the tropopause region are explored. (orig.)

  2. Sub?40?fs, 1060?nm Yb?fiber laser enhances penetration depth in nonlinear optical microscopy of human skin

    OpenAIRE

    Balu, Mihaela; Saytashev, Ilyas; Hou, Jue; Dantus, Marcos; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Authors. Advancing the practical utility of nonlinear optical microscopy requires continued improvement in imaging depth and contrast. We evaluated second-harmonic generation (SHG) and third-harmonic generation images from ex vivo human skin and showed that a sub-40 fs, 1060-nm Yb-fiber laser can enhance SHG penetration depth by up to 80% compared to a > 100 fs, 800 nm Ti:sapphire source. These results demonstrate the potential of fiber-based laser systems to address a key perform...

  3. Measurements of UV aerosol optical depth in the French Southern Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lenoble

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Routine measurements of global and diffuse UV irradiances at Briançon station (1310 m a.s.l. are used to retrieve the direct solar irradiance and the aerosol optical depth (AOD, for cloudless days. Data of three years (2003, 2004, 2005 are analyzed; the results confirm those of a preliminary analysis for 2001, 2002.

    The atmosphere is very clear in winter, with AODs between 0.05 and 0.1. The turbidity increases slowly in spring, starting end of February, with AODs around 0.2–0.3 in mid summer, some values reaching 0.4. A similar behaviour is observed for all years, with somewhat higher values in late summer for the year 2003.

  4. Evaluation of cloud-resolving model simulations of midlatitude cirrus with ARM and A-train observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlbauer, A.; Ackerman, T. P.; Lawson, R. P.; Xie, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-07-01

    Cirrus clouds are ubiquitous in the upper troposphere and still constitute one of the largest uncertainties in climate predictions. This paper evaluates cloud-resolving model (CRM) and cloud system-resolving model (CSRM) simulations of a midlatitude cirrus case with comprehensive observations collected under the auspices of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program and with spaceborne observations from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration A-train satellites. The CRM simulations are driven with periodic boundary conditions and ARM forcing data, whereas the CSRM simulations are driven by the ERA-Interim product. Vertical profiles of temperature, relative humidity, and wind speeds are reasonably well simulated by the CSRM and CRM, but there are remaining biases in the temperature, wind speeds, and relative humidity, which can be mitigated through nudging the model simulations toward the observed radiosonde profiles. Simulated vertical velocities are underestimated in all simulations except in the CRM simulations with grid spacings of 500 m or finer, which suggests that turbulent vertical air motions in cirrus clouds need to be parameterized in general circulation models and in CSRM simulations with horizontal grid spacings on the order of 1 km. The simulated ice water content and ice number concentrations agree with the observations in the CSRM but are underestimated in the CRM simulations. The underestimation of ice number concentrations is consistent with the overestimation of radar reflectivity in the CRM simulations and suggests that the model produces too many large ice particles especially toward the cloud base. Simulated cloud profiles are rather insensitive to perturbations in the initial conditions or the dimensionality of the model domain, but the treatment of the forcing data has a considerable effect on the outcome of the model simulations. Despite considerable progress in observations and microphysical parameterizations, simulating

  5. Analysis od aerosol optical depth retrieved by MODIS and MERIS and comparison with photometer data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocci, E.; Bonafoni, S.; Basili, P.; Biondi, R.; Arino, O.

    2009-01-01

    In this work a validation of aerosol optical depth (AOD) value provided by two different satellite sensor (MODIS and MERIS) is proposed. A comparison between satellite and ground-based AERONET data is carried out to verify the reliability of space borne instruments. Finally the behavior of AOD is analyzed monitoring particular events such as desert dust transport occurred on the 9 of October 2004 over the Mediterranean [it

  6. Assessment of cirrus cloud and aerosol radiative effect in South-East Asia by ground-based NASA MPLNET lidar network data and CALIPSO satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolli, Simone; Campbell, James R.; Lewis, Jasper R.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Di Girolamo, Paolo; Fatkhuroyan, Fatkhuroyan; Gu, Yu; Marquis, Jared W.

    2017-10-01

    Aerosol, together with cirrus clouds, play a fundamental role in the earth-atmosphere system radiation budget, especially at tropical latitudes, where the Earth surface coverage by cirrus cloud can easily reach 70%. In this study we evaluate the combined aerosol and cirrus cloud net radiative effects in a wild and barren region like South East Asia. This part of the world is extremely vulnerable to climate change and it is source of important anthropogenic and natural aerosol emissions. The analysis has been carried out by computing cirrus cloud and aerosol net radiative effects through the Fu-Liou-Gu atmospheric radiative transfer model, adequately adapted to input lidar measurements, at surface and top-of-the atmosphere. The aerosol radiative effects were computed respectively using the retrieved lidar extinction from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization in 2011 and 2012 and the lidar on-board of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations for the South East Asia Region (27N-12S, 77E-132E) with 5° x 5° spatial resolution. To assess the cirrus cloud radiative effect, we used the ground-based Micro Pulse Lidar Network measurements at Singapore permanent observational site. Results put in evidence that strong aerosol emission areas are related on average to a net surface cooling. On the contrary, cirrus cloud radiative effect shows a net daytime positive warming of the system earth-atmosphere. This effect is weak over the ocean where the albedo is lower and never counter-balances the net cooling produced by aerosols. The net cooling is stronger in 2011, with an associated reduction in precipitations by the four of the five rain-gauges stations deployed in three regions as Sumatra, Kalimantan and Java with respect to 2012. We can speculate that aerosol emissions may be associated with lower rainfall, however some very important phenomena as El Nino Southern Oscillation , Madden-Julian Oscillation, Monsoon and Indian Dipole are not

  7. Investigating Freezing Point Depression and Cirrus Cloud Nucleation Mechanisms Using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzewski, Kentaro Y.; Caylor, Ryan L.; Comstock, Ashley M.; Hadley, Austin T.; Imholt, Felisha M.; Kirwan, Kory D.; Oyama, Kira S.; Wise, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    A differential scanning calorimeter was used to study homogeneous nucleation of ice from micron-sized aqueous ammonium sulfate aerosol particles. It is important to understand the conditions at which these particles nucleate ice because of their connection to cirrus cloud formation. Additionally, the concept of freezing point depression, a topic…

  8. Depth dependent modification of optical constants arising from H+ implantation in n-type 4H-SiC measured using coherent acoustic phonons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Baydin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Silicon carbide (SiC is a promising material for new generation electronics including high power/high temperature devices and advanced optical applications such as room temperature spintronics and quantum computing. Both types of applications require the control of defects particularly those created by ion bombardment. In this work, modification of optical constants of 4H-SiC due to hydrogen implantation at 180 keV and at fluences ranging from 1014 to 1016 cm−2 is reported. The depth dependence of the modified optical constants was extracted from coherent acoustic phonon spectra. Implanted spectra show a strong dependence of the 4H-SiC complex refractive index depth profile on H+ fluence. These studies provide basic insight into the dependence of optical properties of 4H silicon carbide on defect densities created by ion implantation, which is of relevance to the fabrication of SiC-based photonic and optoelectronic devices.

  9. Optical coherence tomography to evaluate variance in the extent of carious lesions in depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Jin; Schneider, Hartmut; Ziebolz, Dirk; Krause, Felix; Haak, Rainer

    2018-05-03

    Evaluation of variance in the extent of carious lesions in depth at smooth surfaces within the same ICDAS code group using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in vitro and in vivo. (1) Verification/validation of OCT to assess non-cavitated caries: 13 human molars with ICDAS code 2 at smooth surfaces were imaged using OCT and light microscopy. Regions of interest (ROI) were categorized according to the depth of carious lesions. Agreement between histology and OCT was determined by unweighted Cohen's Kappa and Wilcoxon test. (2) Assessment of 133 smooth surfaces using ICDAS and OCT in vitro, 49 surfaces in vivo. ROI were categorized according to the caries extent (ICDAS: codes 0-4, OCT: scoring based on lesion depth). A frequency distribution of the OCT scores for each ICDAS code was determined. (1) Histology and OCT agreed moderately (κ = 0.54, p ≤ 0.001) with no significant difference between both methods (p = 0.25). The lesions (76.9% (10 of 13)) _were equally scored. (2) In vitro, OCT revealed caries in 42% of ROI clinically assessed as sound. OCT detected dentin-caries in 40% of ROIs visually assessed as enamel-caries. In vivo, large differences between ICDAS and OCT were observed. Carious lesions of ICDAS codes 1 and 2 vary largely in their extent in depth.

  10. Evaluation of time domain and spectral domain optical coherence tomography in the measurement of diabetic macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forooghian, Farzin; Cukras, Catherine; Meyerle, Catherine B; Chew, Emily Y; Wong, Wai T

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate macular thickness and volume measurements and their intrasession repeatability in two optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems: the Stratus OCT, a time domain system, and the Cirrus HD-OCT, a spectral domain system (both by Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, CA), in the context of diabetic macular edema (DME). Thirty-three eyes of 33 diabetic patients with clinically significant macular edema (CSME) were scanned in a single session by a single operator on both OCT systems. Macular thickness measurements of nine standard macular subfields and total macular volume were obtained and analyzed. Bland-Altman plots were constructed to assess agreement in macular measurements. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), coefficients of repeatability (CR(W)), and coefficients of variation (CV(W)) were used to assess intrasession repeatability. Macular thickness in nine retinal subfields and macular volume were significantly higher in the Cirrus HD-OCT system compared with the Stratus OCT system. Subfield thickness and total volume measurements, respectively, were 30 to 55 microm and 3.2 mm(3) greater for the Cirrus HD-OCT system compared with the Stratus OCT system. Both Stratus OCT and Cirrus HD-OCT systems demonstrated high intrasession repeatability, with overlapping ranges for CR(W), CV(W), and ICC. Repeatability measures (CR(W) and CV(W)) differed significantly between systems in only one of nine subfields (outer temporal subfield). Absolute measures of macular thickness and volume in patients with DME differed significantly in magnitude between the Stratus OCT and Cirrus HD-OCT systems. However, both OCT systems demonstrated high intrasessional repeatability. Although the two systems may not be used interchangeably, they appear equally reliable in generating macular measurements for clinical practice and research.

  11. Retrieval of Saharan desert dust optical depth from thermal infrared measurements by IASI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbussche, S.; Kochenova, S.; Vandaele, A.-C.; Kumps, N.; De Mazière, M.

    2012-04-01

    Aerosols are a major actor in the climate system. They are responsible for climate forcing by both direct (by emission, absorption and scattering) and indirect effects (for example, by altering cloud microphysics). A better knowledge of aerosol optical properties, of the atmospheric aerosol load and of aerosol sources and sinks may therefore significantly improve the modeling of climate changes. Aerosol optical depth and other properties are retrieved on an operational basis from daytime measurements in the visible and near infrared spectral range by a number of instruments, like the satellite instruments MODIS, CALIOP, POLDER, MISR and ground-based sunphotometers. Aerosol retrievals from day and night measurements at thermal infrared (TIR) wavelengths (for example, from SEVIRI, AIRS and IASI satellite instruments) are less common, but they receive growing interest in more recent years. Among those TIR measuring instruments, IASI on METOP has one major advantage for aerosol retrievals: its large continuous spectral coverage, allowing to better capture the broadband signature of aerosols. Furthermore, IASI has a high spectral resolution (0.5cm-1 after apodization) which allows retrieving a large number of trace gases at the same time, it will nominally be in orbit for 15 years and offers a quasi global Earth coverage twice a day. Here we will show recently obtained results of desert aerosol properties (concentration, altitude, optical depth) retrieved from IASI TIR measurements, using the ASIMUT software (BIRA-IASB, Belgium) linked to (V)LIDORT (R. Spurr, RTsolutions Inc, US) and to SPHER (M. Mishchenko, NASA GISS, USA). In particular, we will address the case of Saharan desert dust storms, which are a major source of desert dust particles in the atmosphere. Those storms frequently transport sand to Europe, Western Asia or even South America. We will show some test-case comparisons between our retrievals and measurements from other instruments like those listed

  12. Comparison of Coincident Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aerosol Optical Depths over Land and Ocean Scenes Containing Aerosol Robotic Network Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Wedad A.; Diner, David J.; Martonchik, John V.; Bruegge, Carol J.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Gaitley, Barbara J.; Crean, Kathleen A.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Holben, Brent

    2005-01-01

    The Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), launched on 18 December 1999 aboard the Terra spacecraft, are making global observations of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances. Aerosol optical depths and particle properties are independently retrieved from these radiances using methodologies and algorithms that make use of the instruments corresponding designs. This paper compares instantaneous optical depths retrieved from simultaneous and collocated radiances measured by the two instruments at locations containing sites within the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). A set of 318 MISR and MODIS images, obtained during the months of March, June, and September 2002 at 62 AERONET sites, were used in this study. The results show that over land, MODIS aerosol optical depths at 470 and 660 nm are larger than those retrieved from MISR by about 35% and 10% on average, respectively, when all land surface types are included in the regression. The differences decrease when coastal and desert areas are excluded. For optical depths retrieved over ocean, MISR is on average about 0.1 and 0.05 higher than MODIS in the 470 and 660 nm bands, respectively. Part of this difference is due to radiometric calibration and is reduced to about 0.01 and 0.03 when recently derived band-to-band adjustments in the MISR radiometry are incorporated. Comparisons with AERONET data show similar patterns.

  13. Ice nucleation and cloud microphysical properties in tropical tropopause layer cirrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Jensen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In past modeling studies, it has generally been assumed that the predominant mechanism for nucleation of ice in the uppermost troposphere is homogeneous freezing of aqueous aerosols. However, recent in situ and remote-sensing measurements of the properties of cirrus clouds at very low temperatures in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL are broadly inconsistent with theoretial predictions based on the homogeneous freezing assumption. The nearly ubiquitous occurence of gravity waves in the TTL makes the predictions from homogeneous nucleation theory particularly difficult to reconcile with measurements. These measured properties include ice number concentrations, which are much lower than theory predicts; ice crystal size distributions, which are much broader than theory predicts; and cloud extinctions, which are much lower than theory predicts. Although other explanations are possible, one way to limit ice concentrations is to have on the order of 50 L−1 effective ice nuclei (IN that could nucleate ice at relatively low supersaturations. We suggest that ammonium sulfate particles, which would be dry much of the time in the cold TTL, are a potential IN candidate for TTL cirrus. However, this mechanism remains to be fully quantified for the size distribution of ammonium sulfate (possibly internally mixed with organics actually present in the upper troposphere. Possible implications of the observed cloud microphysical properties for ice sedimentation, dehydration, and cloud persistence are also discussed.

  14. Motivation with Depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSpezio, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    Presents an illusional arena by offering experience in optical illusions in which students must apply critical analysis to their innate information gathering systems. Introduces different types of depth illusions for students to experience. (ASK)

  15. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Angstrom exponent of aerosols observed by the Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network from August 2004 to September 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinyuan Xin; Yuesi Wang; Zhanqing Li; Pucai Wang; Wei Min Hao; Bryce L. Nordgren; Shigong Wang; Guangren Lui; Lili Wang; Tianxue Wen; Yang Sun; Bo Hu

    2007-01-01

    To reduce uncertainties in the quantitative assessment of aerosol effects on regional climate and environmental changes, extensive measurements of aerosol optical properties were made with handheld Sun photometers in the Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network (CSHNET) starting in August 2004. Regional characteristics of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm and Angstrom...

  16. Electron beam and optical depth profiling of quasibulk GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyak, L.; Osinsky, A.; Nootz, G.; Schulte, A.; Jasinski, J.; Benamara, M.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Look, D. C.; Molnar, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    Electron beam and optical depth profiling of thick (5.5--64 μm) quasibulk n-type GaN samples, grown by hydride vapor-phase epitaxy, were carried out using electron beam induced current (EBIC), microphotoluminescence (PL), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The minority carrier diffusion length, L, was found to increase linearly from 0.25 μm, at a distance of about 5 μm from the GaN/sapphire interface, to 0.63 μm at the GaN surface, for a 36-μm-thick sample. The increase in L was accompanied by a corresponding increase in PL band-to-band radiative transition intensity as a function of distance from the GaN/sapphire interface. We attribute the latter changes in PL intensity and minority carrier diffusion length to a reduced carrier mobility and lifetime at the interface, due to scattering at threading dislocations. The results of EBIC and PL measurements are in good agreement with the values for dislocation density obtained using TEM

  17. Aerosol spectral optical depths and size characteristics at a coastal industriallocation in India - effect of synoptic and mesoscale weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Niranjan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol spectral optical depths at ten discrete channels in the visible and near IR bands, obtained from a ground-based passive multi-wavelength solar radiometer at a coastal industrial location, Visakhapatnam, on the east coast of India, are used to study the response of the aerosol optical properties and size distributions to the changes in atmospheric humidity, wind speed and direction. It is observed that during high humidity conditions, the spectral optical depths show about 30% higher growth factors, and the size distributions show the generation of a typical new mode around 0.4 microns. The surface wind speed and direction also indicate the formation of new particles when the humid marine air mass interacts with the industrial air mass. This is interpreted in terms of new particle formation and subsequent particle growth by condensation and self-coagulation. The results obtained on the surface-size segregated aerosol mass distribution from a co-located Quartz Crystal Microbalance during different humidity conditions also show a large mass increase in the sub-micron size range with an increase in atmospheric humidity, indicating new particle formation at the sub-micron size range.

  18. The Dependence of Cirrus Gamma Size Distributions Expressed as Volumes in N(sub 0)-Lambda-Mu Phase Space and Bulk Cloud Properties on Environmental Conditions: Results from the Small Ice Particles in Cirrus Experiment (SPARTICUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert C.; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Fridlind, Ann M.; Atlas, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The variability of cirrus ice microphysical properties is investigated using observations obtained during the Small Particles in Cirrus (SPARTICUS) campaign. An existing approach that represents a size distribution (SD) as a single gamma function using an ellipsoid of equally realizable solutions in (N(sub 0), lambda, mu) phase space is modified to automatically identify multiple modes in SDs and characterize each mode by such an ellipsoid. The modified approach is applied to ice crystals with maximum dimension D greater than15 micrometers collected by the 2-D stereo and 2-D precipitation probes on the Stratton Park Engineering Company Learjet. The dependencies of N(sub 0), mu, and lambda from each mode, total number concentration, bulk extinction, ice water content (IWC), and mass median maximum dimension D(sub mm) as a function of temperature T and cirrus type are then analyzed. The changes in the observed codependencies between N(sub 0), mu, and lambda, bulk extinction, IWC, and D(sub mm) with environmental conditions indicate that particles were larger at higher T during SPARTICUS. At most two modes were observed in any SD during SPARTICUS, with the average boundary between them at 115 micrometers, similar to past studies not using probes with shatter mitigating tips and artifact removal algorithms. The bimodality of the SDs increased with T. This and the differences in N(sub 0), mu, and lambda between the modes suggest that particles with smaller D nucleated more recently than particles with larger D, which grew via vapor deposition and aggregation. Because smaller crystals, whose concentrations are uncertain, make marginal contributions to higher order moments, the use of higher moments for evaluating model fields is suggested.

  19. Towards a Model Climatology of Relative Humidity in the Upper Troposphere for Estimation of Contrail and Contrail-Induced Cirrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkirk, Henry B.; Manyin, M.; Ott, L.; Oman, L.; Benson, C.; Pawson, S.; Douglass, A. R.; Stolarski, R. S.

    2011-01-01

    The formation of contrails and contrail cirrus is very sensitive to the relative humidity of the upper troposphere. To reduce uncertainty in an estimate of the radiative impact of aviation-induced cirrus, a model must therefore be able to reproduce the observed background moisture fields with reasonable and quantifiable fidelity. Here we present an upper tropospheric moisture climatology from a 26-year ensemble of simulations using the GEOS CCM. We compare this free-running model's moisture fields to those obtained from the MLS and AIRS satellite instruments, our most comprehensive observational databases for upper tropospheric water vapor. Published comparisons have shown a substantial wet bias in GEOS-5 assimilated fields with respect to MLS water vapor and ice water content. This tendency is clear as well in the GEOS CCM simulations. The GEOS-5 moist physics in the GEOS CCM uses a saturation adjustment that prevents supersaturation, which is unrealistic when compared to in situ moisture observations from MOZAIC aircraft and balloon sondes as we will show. Further, the large-scale satellite datasets also consistently underestimate super-saturation when compared to the in-situ observations. We place these results in the context of estimates of contrail and contrail cirrus frequency.

  20. Optical Depth Estimates and Effective Critical Densities of Dense Gas Tracers in the Inner Parts of Nearby Galaxy Discs

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez-Donaire, M. J.; Bigiel, F.; Leroy, A. K.; Cormier, D.; Gallagher, M.; Usero, A.; Bolatto, A.; Colombo, D.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Hughes, A.; Kramer, C.; Krumholz, M. R.; Meier, D. S.; Murphy, E.; Pety, J.

    2016-01-01

    High critical density molecular lines like HCN(1-0) or HCO+(1-0) represent our best tool to study currently star-forming, dense molecular gas at extragalactic distances. The optical depth of these lines is a key ingredient to estimate the effective density required to excite emission. However, constraints on this quantity are even scarcer in the literature than measurements of the high density tracers themselves. Here, we combine new observations of HCN, HCO+ and HNC(1-0) and their optically ...

  1. Optic Nerve Head and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Differences Between Caribbean Black and African American Patients as Measured by Spectral Domain OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rohini; Dhrami-Gavazi, Elona; Al-Aswad, Lama; Ciarleglio, Adam; Cioffi, George A; Blumberg, Dana M

    2015-01-01

    There are well-established differences in optic nerve morphology between patients of African and European descent. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning has demonstrated these differences with respect to optic disc area (DA), average cup-disc ratio, cup volume, and nerve fiber layer thickness. However, the term "African descent" describes a heterogenous group with considerable variability. This study evaluates differences in optic nerve and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) parameters as measured by Cirrus HD-OCT between Caribbean black and African American patients. A total of 25 African American subjects and 25 Caribbean black subjects with normal ocular examinations were consecutively recruited to this study. All patients received imaging of the optic nerve and nerve fiber layer with Cirrus HD-OCT. Optic nerve and RNFL parameters were evaluated for statistically significant differences using a t test. A mixed effect model for correlated data was then created to adjust outcome variables for (1) repeated measures and (2) optic nerve size. Two one-sided t tests were then utilized to determine equivalence. After adjustment for DA, RNFL thickness, cup volume, DA, inferior nerve fiber layer, and vertical cup-disc ratio demonstrated statistically significant equivalence between the 2 groups (P value fiber layer quadrant was significantly different between the 2 groups and may merit further investigation. Findings of this study suggest that optic nerve and RNFL morphology is markedly similar between Caribbean blacks and African Americans once adjusted for optic nerve size but cannot be considered equivalent in all measures, particularly in the superior nerve fiber layer.

  2. 75 FR 20518 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation Model SF50 Airplane; Full Authority Digital Engine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... issuance. Comments Invited Interested persons are invited to submit such written data, views, or arguments... On September 9, 2008, Cirrus Design Corporation applied for a type certificate for their new model... the digital engine control must provide an equivalent reliability to mechanical engine controls. Type...

  3. THEORETICAL MODELLING STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MULTI-FREQUENCY MICROWAVE VEGETATION INDEX AND VEGETATION PROPERTIES (OPTICAL DEPTH AND SINGLE SCATTERING ALBEDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Talebi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical study of derivation Microwave Vegetation Indices (MVIs in different pairs of frequencies using two methods. In the first method calculating MVI in different frequencies based on Matrix Doubling Model (to take in to account multi scattering effects has been done and analyzed in various soil properties. The second method was based on MVI theoretical basis and its independency to underlying soil surface signals. Comparing the results from two methods with vegetation properties (single scattering albedo and optical depth indicated partial correlation between MVI from first method and optical depth, and full correlation between MVI from second method and vegetation properties. The second method to derive MVI can be used widely in global microwave vegetation monitoring.

  4. Variations in retinal nerve fiber layer measurements on optical coherence tomography after implantation of trifocal intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bella, Javier; Martínez de la Casa, José M; Talavero González, Paula; Fernández-Vigo, José I; Valcarce Rial, Laura; García-Feijóo, Julián

    2018-01-01

    To establish the changes produced after implantation of a trifocal intraocular lens (IOL) on retinal nerve fiber layer measurements performed with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). This prospective study included 100 eyes of 50 patients with bilateral cataract in surgical range, no other associated ocular involvement, refractive errors between +5 and -5 spherical diopters, and less than 1.5 D of corneal astigmatism. The eyes were operated by phacoemulsification with implantation of 2 different trifocal IOLs (FineVision and AT LISA tri 839MP) in randomized equal groups. Cirrus OCT and Spectralis OCT were performed before surgery and 3 months later. Both analyzed the thickness of the nerve fiber layer and thickness divided by quadrants (6 in case of Spectralis and 4 in case of Cirrus HD). The mean age of patients was 67.5 ± 5.8 years. The global nerve fiber layer thickness measured with Spectralis OCT was 96.77 μm before surgery and 99.55 μm after. With Cirrus OCT, the global thickness was 85.29 μm before surgery and 89.77 μm after. Statistically significant differences in global thickness measurements between preimplantation and postimplantation of the IOL were found with both OCT in the 2 groups. Statistically significant differences were also found in temporal and superior quadrants. The implantation of a diffractive trifocal IOL alters the results of the optic nerve fiber layer on Fourier-domain OCT in these patients, which should be taken into account in the posterior study of these patients.

  5. Motionless active depth from defocus system using smart optics for camera autofocus applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M. Junaid; Riza, Nabeel A.

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes a motionless active Depth from Defocus (DFD) system design suited for long working range camera autofocus applications. The design consists of an active illumination module that projects a scene illuminating coherent conditioned optical radiation pattern which maintains its sharpness over multiple axial distances allowing an increased DFD working distance range. The imager module of the system responsible for the actual DFD operation deploys an electronically controlled variable focus lens (ECVFL) as a smart optic to enable a motionless imager design capable of effective DFD operation. An experimental demonstration is conducted in the laboratory which compares the effectiveness of the coherent conditioned radiation module versus a conventional incoherent active light source, and demonstrates the applicability of the presented motionless DFD imager design. The fast response and no-moving-parts features of the DFD imager design are especially suited for camera scenarios where mechanical motion of lenses to achieve autofocus action is challenging, for example, in the tiny camera housings in smartphones and tablets. Applications for the proposed system include autofocus in modern day digital cameras.

  6. Cirrus clouds properties derived from polarized micro pulse lidar (p-mpl) observations at the atmospheric observatory `el arenosillo' (sw iberian peninsula): a case study for radiative implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Águila, Ana del; Gómez, Laura; Vilaplana, José Manuel; Sorribas, Mar; Córdoba-Jabonero, Carmen

    2018-04-01

    Cirrus (Ci) clouds are involved in Climate Change concerns since they affect the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Recently, a polarized Micro Pulse Lidar (P-MPL), standard system within NASA/MPLNET has been deployed at the INTA/Atmospheric Observatory `El Arenosillo' (ARN), located in the SW Iberian Peninsula. Hence, the INTA/P-MPL system is used for Ci detection over that station for the first time. Radiative effects of a Ci case observed over ARN are examined, as reference for future long-term Ci observations. Optical and macrophysical properties are retrieved, and used for radiative transfer simulations. Data are compared to the measured surface radiation levels and all-sky images simultaneously performed at the ARN station.

  7. Hemispheric aerosol vertical profiles: anthropogenic impacts on optical depth and cloud nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Antony; Kapustin, Vladimir

    2010-09-17

    Understanding the effect of anthropogenic combustion upon aerosol optical depth (AOD), clouds, and their radiative forcing requires regionally representative aerosol profiles. In this work, we examine more than 1000 vertical profiles from 11 major airborne campaigns in the Pacific hemisphere and confirm that regional enhancements in aerosol light scattering, mass, and number are associated with carbon monoxide from combustion and can exceed values in unperturbed regions by more than one order of magnitude. Related regional increases in a proxy for cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and AOD imply that direct and indirect aerosol radiative effects are coupled issues linked globally to aged combustion. These profiles constrain the influence of combustion on regional AOD and CCN suitable for challenging climate model performance and informing satellite retrievals.

  8. Wind Speed Influences on Marine Aerosol Optical Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin O'Dowd

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mulcahy (Mulcahy et al., 2008 power-law parameterization, derived at the coastal Atlantic station Mace Head, between clean marine aerosol optical depth (AOD and wind speed is compared to open ocean MODIS-derived AOD versus wind speed. The reported AOD versus wind speed (U was a function of ∼U2. The open ocean MODIS-derived AOD at 550 nm and 860 nm wavelengths, while in good agreement with the general magnitude of the Mulcahy parameterization, follows a power-law with the exponent ranging from 0.72 to 2.47 for a wind speed range of 2–18 m s−1. For the four cases examined, some MODIS cases underestimated AOD while other cases overestimated AOD relative to the Mulcahy scheme. Overall, the results from MODIS support the general power-law relationship of Mulcahy, although some linear cases were also encountered in the MODIS dataset. Deviations also arise between MODIS and Mulcahy at higher wind speeds (>15 m s−1, where MODIS-derived AOD returns lower values as compared to Mulcahy. The results also support the suggestion than wind generated sea spray, under moderately high winds, can rival anthropogenic pollution plumes advecting out into marine environments with wind driven AOD contributing to AOD values approaching 0.3.

  9. Spatial Interpolation of Aerosol Optical Depth Pollution: Comparison of Methods for the Development of Aerosol Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarpour, S.; Abdullah, K.; Lim, H. S.; Dadras, M.

    2017-09-01

    Air pollution is a growing problem arising from domestic heating, high density of vehicle traffic, electricity production, and expanding commercial and industrial activities, all increasing in parallel with urban population. Monitoring and forecasting of air quality parameters are important due to health impact. One widely available metric of aerosol abundance is the aerosol optical depth (AOD). The AOD is the integrated light extinction coefficient over a vertical atmospheric column of unit cross section, which represents the extent to which the aerosols in that vertical profile prevent the transmission of light by absorption or scattering. Seasonal aerosol optical depth (AOD) values at 550 nm derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor onboard NASA's Terra satellites, for the 10 years period of 2000 - 2010 were used to test 7 different spatial interpolation methods in the present study. The accuracy of estimations was assessed through visual analysis as well as independent validation based on basic statistics, such as root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient. Based on the RMSE and R values of predictions made using measured values from 2000 to 2010, Radial Basis Functions (RBFs) yielded the best results for spring, summer and winter and ordinary kriging yielded the best results for fall.

  10. SPATIAL INTERPOLATION OF AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTH POLLUTION: COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF AEROSOL DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Safarpour

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a growing problem arising from domestic heating, high density of vehicle traffic, electricity production, and expanding commercial and industrial activities, all increasing in parallel with urban population. Monitoring and forecasting of air quality parameters are important due to health impact. One widely available metric of aerosol abundance is the aerosol optical depth (AOD. The AOD is the integrated light extinction coefficient over a vertical atmospheric column of unit cross section, which represents the extent to which the aerosols in that vertical profile prevent the transmission of light by absorption or scattering. Seasonal aerosol optical depth (AOD values at 550 nm derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor onboard NASA’s Terra satellites, for the 10 years period of 2000 - 2010 were used to test 7 different spatial interpolation methods in the present study. The accuracy of estimations was assessed through visual analysis as well as independent validation based on basic statistics, such as root mean square error (RMSE and correlation coefficient. Based on the RMSE and R values of predictions made using measured values from 2000 to 2010, Radial Basis Functions (RBFs yielded the best results for spring, summer and winter and ordinary kriging yielded the best results for fall.

  11. Evaluation of white-to-white distance and anterior chamber depth measurements using the IOL Master, slit-lamp adapted optical coherence tomography and digital photographs in phakic eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczyński, Michał; Pośpiech-Zabierek, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    The accurate measurement of the anterior chamber internal diameter and depth is important in ophthalmic diagnosis and before some eye surgery procedures. The purpose of the study was to compare the white-to-white distance measurements performed using the IOL-Master and photography with internal anterior chamber diameter determined using slit lamp adapted optical coherence tomography in healthy eyes, and to compare anterior chamber depth measurements by IOL-Master and slit lamp adapted optical coherence tomography. The data were gathered prospectively from a non-randomized consecutive series of patients. The examined group consisted of 46 eyes of 39 patients. White-to-white was measured using IOL-Master and photographs of the eye were taken with a digital camera. Internal anterior chamber diameter was measured with slit-lamp adapted optical coherence tomography. Anterior chamber depth was measured using the IOL Master and slit-lamp adapted optical coherence tomography. Statistical analysis was performed using parametric tests. A Bland-Altman plot was drawn. White-to-white distance by the IOL Master was 11.8 +/- 0.40 mm, on photographs it was 11.29 +/- 0.58 mm and internal anterior chamber diameter by slit-lamp adapted optical coherence tomography was 11.34?0.54 mm. A significant difference was found between IOL-Master and slit-lamp adapted optical coherence tomography (pphotographs (pphotographs (p>0.05). All measurements were correlated (Spearman pphotographs. In order to obtain accurate measurements of the internal anterior chamber diameter and anterior chamber depth, a method involving direct visualization of intraocular structures should be used.

  12. PRECISE MEASUREMENT OF THE REIONIZATION OPTICAL DEPTH FROM THE GLOBAL 21 cm SIGNAL ACCOUNTING FOR COSMIC HEATING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fialkov, Anastasia; Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: anastasia.fialkov@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-04-10

    As a result of our limited data on reionization, the total optical depth for electron scattering, τ, limits precision measurements of cosmological parameters from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). It was recently shown that the predicted 21 cm signal of neutral hydrogen contains enough information to reconstruct τ with sub-percent accuracy, assuming that the neutral gas was much hotter than the CMB throughout the entire epoch of reionization (EoR). Here we relax this assumption and use the global 21 cm signal alone to extract τ for realistic X-ray heating scenarios. We test our model-independent approach using mock data for a wide range of ionization and heating histories and show that an accurate measurement of the reionization optical depth at a sub-percent level is possible in most of the considered scenarios even when heating is not saturated during the EoR, assuming that the foregrounds are mitigated. However, we find that in cases where heating sources had hard X-ray spectra and their luminosity was close to or lower than what is predicted based on low-redshift observations, the global 21 cm signal alone is not a good tracer of the reionization history.

  13. PRECISE MEASUREMENT OF THE REIONIZATION OPTICAL DEPTH FROM THE GLOBAL 21 cm SIGNAL ACCOUNTING FOR COSMIC HEATING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fialkov, Anastasia; Loeb, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    As a result of our limited data on reionization, the total optical depth for electron scattering, τ, limits precision measurements of cosmological parameters from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). It was recently shown that the predicted 21 cm signal of neutral hydrogen contains enough information to reconstruct τ with sub-percent accuracy, assuming that the neutral gas was much hotter than the CMB throughout the entire epoch of reionization (EoR). Here we relax this assumption and use the global 21 cm signal alone to extract τ for realistic X-ray heating scenarios. We test our model-independent approach using mock data for a wide range of ionization and heating histories and show that an accurate measurement of the reionization optical depth at a sub-percent level is possible in most of the considered scenarios even when heating is not saturated during the EoR, assuming that the foregrounds are mitigated. However, we find that in cases where heating sources had hard X-ray spectra and their luminosity was close to or lower than what is predicted based on low-redshift observations, the global 21 cm signal alone is not a good tracer of the reionization history

  14. Effective aerosol optical depth from pyranometer measurements of surface solar radiation (global radiation) at Thessaloniki, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Lindfors, A. V.; Kouremeti, N.; Arola, A.; Kazadzis, S.; Bais, A. F.; Laaksonen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Pyranometer measurements of the solar surface radiation (SSR) are available at many locations worldwide, often as long time series covering several decades into the past. These data constitute a potential source of information on the atmospheric aerosol load. Here, we present a method for estimating the aerosol optical depth (AOD) using pyranometer measurements of the SSR together with total water vapor column information. The method, which is based on radiative transfer simulations, w...

  15. Understanding Cirrus Ice Crystal Number Variability for Different Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sylvia C.; Betancourt, Ricardo Morales; Barahona, Donifan; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    Along with minimizing parameter uncertainty, understanding the cause of temporal and spatial variability of the nucleated ice crystal number, Ni, is key to improving the representation of cirrus clouds in climate models. To this end, sensitivities of Ni to input variables like aerosol number and diameter provide valuable information about nucleation regime and efficiency for a given model formulation. Here we use the adjoint model of the adjoint of a cirrus formation parameterization (Barahona and Nenes, 2009b) to understand Ni variability for various ice-nucleating particle (INP) spectra. Inputs are generated with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5, and simulations are done with a theoretically derived spectrum, an empirical lab-based spectrum and two field-based empirical spectra that differ in the nucleation threshold for black carbon particles and in the active site density for dust. The magnitude and sign of Ni sensitivity to insoluble aerosol number can be directly linked to nucleation regime and efficiency of various INP. The lab-based spectrum calculates much higher INP efficiencies than field-based ones, which reveals a disparity in aerosol surface properties. Ni sensitivity to temperature tends to be low, due to the compensating effects of temperature on INP spectrum parameters; this low temperature sensitivity regime has been experimentally reported before but never deconstructed as done here.

  16. Evaluation of cloud resolving model simulations of midlatitude cirrus with ARM and A-Train observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlbauer, A. D.; Ackerman, T. P.; Lawson, P.; Xie, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    This paper evaluates cloud resolving model (CRM) and cloud system-resolving model (CSRM) simulations of a midlatitude cirrus case with comprehensive observations collected under the auspices of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program and with spaceborne observations from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) A-train satellites. Vertical profiles of temperature, relative humidity and wind speeds are reasonably well simulated by the CSRM and CRM but there are remaining biases in the temperature, wind speeds and relative humidity, which can be mitigated through nudging the model simulations toward the observed radiosonde profiles. Simulated vertical velocities are underestimated in all simulations except in the CRM simulations with grid spacings of 500m or finer, which suggests that turbulent vertical air motions in cirrus clouds need to be parameterized in GCMs and in CSRM simulations with horizontal grid spacings on the order of 1km. The simulated ice water content and ice number concentrations agree with the observations in the CSRM but are underestimated in the CRM simulations. The underestimation of ice number concentrations is consistent with the overestimation of radar reflectivity in the CRM simulations and suggests that the model produces too many large ice particles especially toward cloud base. Simulated cloud profiles are rather insensitive to perturbations in the initial conditions or the dimensionality of the model domain but the treatment of the forcing data has a considerable effect on the outcome of the model simulations. Despite considerable progress in observations and microphysical parameterizations, simulating the microphysical, macrophysical and radiative properties of cirrus remains challenging. Comparing model simulations with observations from multiple instruments and observational platforms is important for revealing model deficiencies and for providing rigorous benchmarks. However, there still is considerable

  17. Influence of cataract surgery on optical coherence tomography and neurophysiology measurements in patients with retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Martin, Elena; Rodriguez-Mena, Diego; Dolz, Isabel; Almarcegui, Carmen; Gil-Arribas, Laura; Bambo, Maria P; Larrosa, Jose M; Polo, Vicente; Pablo, Luis E

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of uncomplicated cataract phacoemulsification on the measurements of visual evoked potentials (VEP), pattern electroretinogram (PERG), and macular and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) using 2 spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) instruments, the Cirrus OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditech) and Spectralis OCT (Heidelberg Engineering), in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and to assess the reliability of the OCT measurements before and after cataract surgery. Observational cross-sectional study. Thirty-five eyes of 35 patients with RP (20 men and 15 women, 45-66 years) who underwent cataract phacoemulsification were studied. At 1 month before and 1 month after surgery, visual acuity, VEP, PERG, and 3 repetitions of scans using the RNFL and macular analysis protocols of the Cirrus and Spectralis OCT instruments were performed. The differences in measurements between the 2 visits were analyzed. Repeatability of OCT measurements was evaluated by calculating the coefficients of variation. VEP amplitude, RNFL thicknesses provided by Cirrus and Spectralis, and macular measurements provided by Cirrus OCT differed between the 2 visits. VEP latency, PERG measurements, and macular thicknesses provided by the Spectralis OCT before surgery did not differ significantly from those after surgery. The OCT repeatability was better after surgery, with lower coefficients of variation for scans performed after surgical removal of the cataract. The nuclear, cortical, and posterior subcapsular types of cataracts did not show different repeatability. The presence of cataracts affects VEP amplitude, RNFL, and macular measurements performed with OCT in eyes with RP. Image repeatability significantly improves after cataract phacoemulsification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. First test model of the optical microscope which images the whole vertical particle tracks without any depth scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroko, L.M.

    2001-01-01

    The first test model of the optical microscope which produces the in focus image of the whole vertical particle track without depth scanning is described. The in focus image of the object consisting of the linear array of the point-like elements was obtained. A comparison with primary out of focus image of such an object has been made

  19. Diagnosing causes of extreme aerosol optical depth events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, D. N.; Sullivan, R.; Crippa, P.; Thota, A.; Pryor, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol burdens and optical properties exhibit substantial spatiotemporal variability, and simulation of current and possible future aerosol burdens and characteristics exhibits relatively high uncertainty due to uncertainties in emission estimates and in chemical and physical processes associated with aerosol formation, dynamics and removal. We report research designed to improve understanding of the causes and characteristics of extreme aerosol optical depth (AOD) at the regional scale, and diagnose and attribute model skill in simulating these events. Extreme AOD events over the US Midwest are selected by identifying all dates on which AOD in a MERRA-2 reanalysis grid cell exceeds the local seasonally computed 90th percentile (p90) value during 2004-2016 and then finding the dates on which the highest number of grid cells exceed their local p90. MODIS AOD data are subsequently used to exclude events dominated by wildfires. MERRA-2 data are also analyzed within a synoptic classification to determine in what ways the extreme AOD events are atypical and to identify possible meteorological `finger-prints' that can be detected in regional climate model simulations of future climate states to project possible changes in the occurrence of extreme AOD. Then WRF-Chem v3.6 is applied at 12-km resolution and regridded to the MERRA-2 resolution over eastern North America to quantify model performance, and also evaluated using in situ measurements of columnar AOD (AERONET) and near-surface PM2.5 (US EPA). Finally the sensitivity to (i) spin-up time (including procedure used to spin-up the chemistry), (ii) modal versus sectional aerosol schemes, (iii) meteorological nudging, (iv) chemistry initial and boundary conditions, and (v) anthropogenic emissions is quantified. Despite recent declines in mean AOD, supraregional (> 1000 km) extreme AOD events continue to occur. During these events AOD exceeds 0.6 in many Midwestern grid cells for multiple consecutive days. In all

  20. Relative humidity and its effect on aerosol optical depth in the vicinity of convective clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaratz, O; Bar-Or, R Z; Wollner, U; Koren, I

    2013-01-01

    The hygroscopic growth of aerosols is controlled by the relative humidity (RH) and changes the aerosols’ physical and hence optical properties. Observational studies of aerosol–cloud interactions evaluate the aerosol concentration using optical parameters, such as the aerosol optical depth (AOD), which can be affected by aerosol humidification. In this study we evaluate the RH background and variance values, in the lower cloudy atmosphere, an additional source of variance in AOD values beside the natural changes in aerosol concentration. In addition, we estimate the bias in RH and AOD, related to cloud thickness. This provides the much needed range of RH-related biases in studies of aerosol–cloud interaction. Twelve years of radiosonde measurements (June–August) in thirteen globally distributed stations are analyzed. The estimated non-biased AOD variance due to day-to-day changes in RH is found to be around 20% and the biases linked to cloud development around 10%. Such an effect is important and should be considered in direct and indirect aerosol effect estimations but it is inadequate to account for most of the AOD trend found in observational studies of aerosol–cloud interactions. (letter)

  1. Aerosol optical depth in the European Brewer Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Solano, Javier; Redondas, Alberto; Carlund, Thomas; Rodriguez-Franco, Juan J.; Diémoz, Henri; León-Luis, Sergio F.; Hernández-Cruz, Bentorey; Guirado-Fuentes, Carmen; Kouremeti, Natalia; Gröbner, Julian; Kazadzis, Stelios; Carreño, Virgilio; Berjón, Alberto; Santana-Díaz, Daniel; Rodríguez-Valido, Manuel; De Bock, Veerle; Moreta, Juan R.; Rimmer, John; Smedley, Andrew R. D.; Boulkelia, Lamine; Jepsen, Nis; Eriksen, Paul; Bais, Alkiviadis F.; Shirotov, Vadim; Vilaplana, José M.; Wilson, Keith M.; Karppinen, Tomi

    2018-03-01

    Aerosols play an important role in key atmospheric processes and feature high spatial and temporal variabilities. This has motivated scientific interest in the development of networks capable of measuring aerosol properties over large geographical areas in near-real time. In this work we present and discuss results of an aerosol optical depth (AOD) algorithm applied to instruments of the European Brewer Network. This network is comprised of close to 50 Brewer spectrophotometers, mostly located in Europe and adjacent areas, although instruments operating at, for example, South America and Australia are also members. Although we only show results for instruments calibrated by the Regional Brewer Calibration Center for Europe, the implementation of the AOD algorithm described is intended to be used by the whole network in the future. Using data from the Brewer intercomparison campaigns in the years 2013 and 2015, and the period in between, plus comparisons with Cimel sun photometers and UVPFR instruments, we check the precision, stability, and uncertainty of the Brewer AOD in the ultraviolet range from 300 to 320 nm. Our results show a precision better than 0.01, an uncertainty of less than 0.05, and, for well-maintained instruments, a stability similar to that of the ozone measurements. We also discuss future improvements to our algorithm with respect to the input data, their processing, and the characterization of the Brewer instruments for the measurement of AOD.

  2. Influence of water vapour and permanent gases on the atmospheric optical depths and transmittance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, V.

    1991-05-01

    The influence of the atmospheric state on the extinction of direct solar radiation has been studied by using a four layer atmospheric model. Simple analytical formulae are established for the spectral optical depths of permanent gases and water vapour. These formulae use the ground level values of air pressure, temperature and relative huniidity. An additional parameter, related to the vertical distribution of the hunmidity content, is used for a better estimation of the water vapour optical depth. Good agreement between theory and measurements is found. The paper shows the dependence of the atmospheric spectral transmittance on the above mentioned parameters. L'influence de l'état atmosphérique sur l'extinction de la radiation solaire directe a été étudiée à l'aide d'un modèle atmosphérique développé antérieurement par l'auteur. Des formules simples ont été établies pour l'épaisseur optique spectrale des gaz et de la vapeur d'eau. Ces formules utilisent les valeurs de la pression atmosphérique, de la température et de l'humidité relative, mesurées au niveau du sol. Un paramètre supplémentaire, lié à la distribution verticale du contenu d'humidité, est utilisé pour calculer l'épaisseur optique due à la vapeur d'eau. La théorie est en bon accord avec les résultats des mesures. Le travail montre la dépendance de la transmittance atmosphérique spectrale en fonction des paramètres spécifiés ci-dessus.

  3. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Aerosol Optical Depth and Aerosol Particle Size Distribution Environmental Data Record (EDR) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and particle size from the Visible Infrared Imaging...

  4. A comparison of two methods to measure choroidal thickness by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Lars Kristian; Vestergaard, Anders Højslet; Vergmann, Anna Stage

    Introduction The choroid is believed to be involved in the pathophysiology of several vision threatening diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, central serous chorioretinopathy, inflammatory disorders and myopic macular degeneration. Enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical...... millimeter in each direction of fovea. Only the horizontal and vertical sections were selected for analysis. A total of 9 targets per eye that represented anatomically different choroidal locations were analysed for every subject. We used 2 different methods from the Heidelberg Explorer software to measure...

  5. Evaluation of Optical Depths and Self-Absorption of Strontium and Aluminum Emission Lines in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfarraj, Bader A; Bhatt, Chet R; Yueh, Fang Yu; Singh, Jagdish P

    2017-04-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a widely used laser spectroscopic technique in various fields, such as material science, forensic science, biological science, and the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In most LIBS work, the analysis is performed using radiative transitions from atomic emissions. In this study, the plasma temperature and the product [Formula: see text] (the number density N and the absorption path length [Formula: see text]) were determined to evaluate the optical depths and the self-absorption of Sr and Al lines. A binary mixture of strontium nitrate and aluminum oxide was used as a sample, consisting of variety of different concentrations in powder form. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra were collected by varying various parameters, such as laser energy, gate delay time, and gate width time to optimize the LIBS signals. Atomic emission from Sr and Al lines, as observed in the LIBS spectra of different sample compositions, was used to characterize the laser induced plasma and evaluate the optical depths and self-absorption of LIBS.

  6. Validation of new satellite aerosol optical depth retrieval algorithm using Raman lidar observations at radiative transfer laboratory in Warsaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzka, Olga; Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Markowicz, Krzysztof M.; Nemuc, Anca; Stebel, Kerstin

    2018-04-01

    During an exceptionally warm September of 2016, the unique, stable weather conditions over Poland allowed for an extensive testing of the new algorithm developed to improve the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval. The development was conducted in the frame of the ESA-ESRIN SAMIRA project. The new AOD algorithm aims at providing the aerosol optical depth maps over the territory of Poland with a high temporal resolution of 15 minutes. It was tested on the data set obtained between 11-16 September 2016, during which a day of relatively clean atmospheric background related to an Arctic airmass inflow was surrounded by a few days with well increased aerosol load of different origin. On the clean reference day, for estimating surface reflectance the AOD forecast available on-line via the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) was used. The obtained AOD maps were validated against AODs available within the Poland-AOD and AERONET networks, and with AOD values obtained from the PollyXT-UW lidar. of the University of Warsaw (UW).

  7. Optical gesture sensing and depth mapping technologies for head-mounted displays: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Bernard; Lee, Johnny

    2013-05-01

    Head Mounted Displays (HMDs), and especially see-through HMDs have gained renewed interest in recent time, and for the first time outside the traditional military and defense realm, due to several high profile consumer electronics companies presenting their products to hit market. Consumer electronics HMDs have quite different requirements and constrains as their military counterparts. Voice comments are the de-facto interface for such devices, but when the voice recognition does not work (not connection to the cloud for example), trackpad and gesture sensing technologies have to be used to communicate information to the device. We review in this paper the various technologies developed today integrating optical gesture sensing in a small footprint, as well as the various related 3d depth mapping sensors.

  8. Detecting Super-Thin Clouds With Polarized Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenbo; Videen, Gorden; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2014-01-01

    We report a novel method for detecting cloud particles in the atmosphere. Solar radiation backscattered from clouds is studied with both satellite data and a radiative transfer model. A distinct feature is found in the angle of linear polarization of solar radiation that is backscattered from clouds. The dominant backscattered electric field from the clear-sky Earth-atmosphere system is nearly parallel to the Earth surface. However, when clouds are present, this electric field can rotate significantly away from the parallel direction. Model results demonstrate that this polarization feature can be used to detect super-thin cirrus clouds having an optical depth of only 0.06 and super-thin liquid water clouds having an optical depth of only 0.01. Such clouds are too thin to be sensed using any current passive satellite instruments.

  9. Lidar and aircraft studies of deep Cirrus systems from the 1986 FIRE IFO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Knight, Nancy C.

    1990-01-01

    Several NCAR King Air flight missions were conducted during the Wisconsin FIRE IFO experiment in support of the University of Utah polarization lidar observations of deep cirrus cloud systems at the Wausau ground site. Data collected from four cirrus systems are included in this analysis, including those of 22 and 28 October, and 1 and 2 November. Lidar data were generally obtained at 2 min intervals in the zenith direction over observation periods that ranged from approximately 4 to 10 h, bracketing the aircraft missions. The data were processed to yield height-time (HTI) displays of lidar linear depolarization ratio sigma and relative range-normalized return power P. King Air operations consisted of a combination of rapid profiling and Lagrangian spiral descents and stacked racetrack patterns in the vicinity of the field site. From the spiral descents are constructed vertical profiles of ice particle concentration N(sub i) and ice mass content IWC derived from PMS 2-D probe imagery and, when detected, FSSP cloud droplet concentration N(sub W) and liquid water content, LWC. Aircraft flight leg data are presented for the vertical velocity W and the same ice and water cloud content parameters. In addition, aerosol particle concentrations obtained with the ASAS probe are examined, and photographs of ice particles collected in-situ on oil-coated slides are presented to illustrate ice particle habit.

  10. Strategies for cloud-top phase determination: differentiation between thin cirrus clouds and snow in manual (ground truth) analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Keith D.; Etherton, Brian J.; Topping, Phillip C.

    1996-12-01

    Quantitative assessments on the performance of automated cloud analysis algorithms require the creation of highly accurate, manual cloud, no cloud (CNC) images from multispectral meteorological satellite data. In general, the methodology to create ground truth analyses for the evaluation of cloud detection algorithms is relatively straightforward. However, when focus shifts toward quantifying the performance of automated cloud classification algorithms, the task of creating ground truth images becomes much more complicated since these CNC analyses must differentiate between water and ice cloud tops while ensuring that inaccuracies in automated cloud detection are not propagated into the results of the cloud classification algorithm. The process of creating these ground truth CNC analyses may become particularly difficult when little or no spectral signature is evident between a cloud and its background, as appears to be the case when thin cirrus is present over snow-covered surfaces. In this paper, procedures are described that enhance the researcher's ability to manually interpret and differentiate between thin cirrus clouds and snow-covered surfaces in daytime AVHRR imagery. The methodology uses data in up to six AVHRR spectral bands, including an additional band derived from the daytime 3.7 micron channel, which has proven invaluable for the manual discrimination between thin cirrus clouds and snow. It is concluded that while the 1.6 micron channel remains essential to differentiate between thin ice clouds and snow. However, this capability that may be lost if the 3.7 micron data switches to a nighttime-only transmission with the launch of future NOAA satellites.

  11. Precision of high definition spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for measuring central corneal thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Pérez, María E; López-Miguel, Alberto; Miranda-Anta, Silvia; Iglesias-Cortiñas, Darío; Alió, Jorge L; Maldonado, Miguel J

    2012-04-06

    This study was intended to assess the reliability of central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements using Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) in healthy subjects and its accuracy compared with ultrasonic pachymetry. Seventy-seven consecutive subjects were recruited for evaluating repeatability, and agreement between two examiners. To analyze repeatability, one examiner measured 77 eyes four times in succession. To study agreement between two observers, a second independently trained examiner obtained another CCT measurement. We also measured eyes in a subgroup of 20 patients using standard ultrasonic pachymetry. Within-subject standard deviation (S(w)), coefficient of variation (CV), limits of agreement (LoA), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) data were obtained. For repeatability, the S(w) and precision (1.96 × S(w)) were 4.86 and 9.52 μm, respectively. Intraobserver CV was 0.89% and the ICC was 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97-0.99). For agreement between two examiners, the S(w) and precision were 7.58 and 14.85 μm, respectively; the CV was 1.40%. The mean difference between observers was -0.13 μm (95% CI, -1.85 to 1.58; P = 0.87). The width of the LoA was 29.64 μm. Median difference between Cirrus HD-OCT and ultrasound CCT measurements was -4.5 μm (interquartile range, -7.0-0.0; P = 0.04). Cirrus HD-OCT provides repeatable CCT measurements, good agreement between two independently trained examiners, and its systematic bias compared to ultrasonic pachymetry is clinically negligible. Therefore, research laboratories and eye clinics using Cirrus HD-OCT as a diagnostic imaging method, can also benefit from a reliable noncontact pachymeter when counseling patients with glaucoma and those undergoing corneal and refractive surgeries.

  12. Comparison of automated analysis of Cirrus HD OCT spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with stereo photographs of the optic disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashish; Oakley, Jonathan D; Schiffman, Joyce C; Budenz, Donald L; Anderson, Douglas R

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate a new automated analysis of optic disc images obtained by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). Areas of the optic disc, cup, and neural rim in SD OCT images were compared with these areas from stereoscopic photographs to represent the current traditional optic nerve evaluation. The repeatability of measurements by each method was determined and compared. Evaluation of diagnostic technology. One hundred nineteen healthy eyes, 23 eyes with glaucoma, and 7 glaucoma suspect eyes. Optic disc and cup margins were traced from stereoscopic photographs by 3 individuals independently. Optic disc margins and rim widths were determined automatically in SD OCT. A subset of photographs was examined and traced a second time, and duplicate SD OCT images also were analyzed. Agreement among photograph readers, between duplicate readings, and between SD OCT and photographs were quantified by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), by the root mean square, and by the standard deviation of the differences. Optic disc areas tended to be slightly larger when judged in photographs than by SD OCT, whereas cup areas were similar. Cup and optic disc areas showed good correlation (0.8) between the average photographic reading and SD OCT, but only fair correlation of rim areas (0.4). The SD OCT was highly reproducible (ICC, 0.96-0.99). Each reader also was consistent with himself on duplicate readings of 21 photographs (ICC, 0.80-0.88 for rim area and 0.95-0.98 for all other measurements), but reproducibility was not as good as SD OCT. Measurements derived from SD OCT did not differ from photographic readings more than the readings of photographs by different readers differed from each other. Designation of the cup and optic disc boundaries by an automated analysis of SD OCT was within the range of variable designations by different readers from color stereoscopic photographs, but use of different landmarks typically made the designation of the optic disc

  13. The impact of molecular emission in compositional depth profiling using Glow Discharge-Optical Emission Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtson, Arne

    2008-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to investigate and discuss how molecular emission can affect elemental analysis in glow discharge optical emission (GD-OES), particularly in compositional depth profiling (CDP) applications. Older work on molecular emission in glow discharges is briefly reviewed, and the nature of molecular emission spectra described. Work on the influence of hydrogen in the plasma, in particular elevated background due to a continuum spectrum, is discussed. More recent work from sputtering of polymers and other materials with a large content of light elements in a Grimm type source is reviewed, where substantial emission has been observed from several light diatomic molecules (CO, CH, OH, NH, C 2 ). It is discussed how the elevated backgrounds from such molecular emission can lead to significant analytical errors in the form of 'false' depth profile signals of several atomic analytical lines. Results from a recent investigation of molecular emission spectra from mixed gases in a Grimm type glow discharge are presented. An important observation is that dissociation and subsequent recombination processes occur, leading to formation of molecular species not present in the original plasma gas. Experimental work on depth profiling of a polymer coating and a thin silicate film, using a spectrometer equipped with channels for molecular emission lines, is presented. The results confirm that molecular emission gives rise to apparent depth profiles of elements not present in the sample. The possibilities to make adequate corrections for such molecular emission in CDP of organic coatings and very thin films are discussed

  14. The impact of molecular emission in compositional depth profiling using Glow Discharge-Optical Emission Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengtson, Arne [Corrosion and Metals Research Institute, Dr. Kristinas vaeg 48, Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: arne.bengtson@kimab.com

    2008-09-15

    The scope of this paper is to investigate and discuss how molecular emission can affect elemental analysis in glow discharge optical emission (GD-OES), particularly in compositional depth profiling (CDP) applications. Older work on molecular emission in glow discharges is briefly reviewed, and the nature of molecular emission spectra described. Work on the influence of hydrogen in the plasma, in particular elevated background due to a continuum spectrum, is discussed. More recent work from sputtering of polymers and other materials with a large content of light elements in a Grimm type source is reviewed, where substantial emission has been observed from several light diatomic molecules (CO, CH, OH, NH, C{sub 2}). It is discussed how the elevated backgrounds from such molecular emission can lead to significant analytical errors in the form of 'false' depth profile signals of several atomic analytical lines. Results from a recent investigation of molecular emission spectra from mixed gases in a Grimm type glow discharge are presented. An important observation is that dissociation and subsequent recombination processes occur, leading to formation of molecular species not present in the original plasma gas. Experimental work on depth profiling of a polymer coating and a thin silicate film, using a spectrometer equipped with channels for molecular emission lines, is presented. The results confirm that molecular emission gives rise to apparent depth profiles of elements not present in the sample. The possibilities to make adequate corrections for such molecular emission in CDP of organic coatings and very thin films are discussed.

  15. Nanometric resolution in glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry depth profiling of metal (Cr, Al) nitride multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar Galindo, R.; Gago, R.; Fornies, E.; Munoz-Martin, A.; Climent Font, A.; Albella, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we address the capability of glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) for fast and accurate depth profiling of multilayer nitride coatings down to the nanometer range. This is shown by resolving the particular case of CrN/AlN structures with individual thickness ranging from hundreds to few nanometers. In order to discriminate and identify artefacts in the GDOES depth profile due to the sputtering process, the layered structures were verified by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The interfaces in the GDOES profiles for CrN/AlN structures are sharper than the ones measured for similar metal multilayers due to the lower sputtering rate of the nitrides. However, as a consequence of the crater shape, there is a linear degradation of the depth resolution with depth (approximately 40 nm/μm), saturating at a value of approximately half the thickness of the thinner layer. This limit is imposed by the simultaneous sputtering of consecutive layers. The ultimate GDOES depth resolution at the near surface region was estimated to be of 4-6 nm

  16. Cirrus clouds properties derived from polarized micro pulse lidar (p-mpl observations at the atmospheric observatory ‘el arenosillo’ (sw iberian peninsula: a case study for radiative implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Águila Ana del

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cirrus (Ci clouds are involved in Climate Change concerns since they affect the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Recently, a polarized Micro Pulse Lidar (P-MPL, standard system within NASA/MPLNET has been deployed at the INTA/Atmospheric Observatory ‘El Arenosillo’ (ARN, located in the SW Iberian Peninsula. Hence, the INTA/P-MPL system is used for Ci detection over that station for the first time. Radiative effects of a Ci case observed over ARN are examined, as reference for future long-term Ci observations. Optical and macrophysical properties are retrieved, and used for radiative transfer simulations. Data are compared to the measured surface radiation levels and all-sky images simultaneously performed at the ARN station.

  17. Using the OMI aerosol index and absorption aerosol optical depth to evaluate the NASA MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P. R.; Darmenov, A.; Randles, C. A.; Govindaraju, R.; Torres, O.; Campbell, J.; Spurr, R.

    2015-05-01

    A radiative transfer interface has been developed to simulate the UV aerosol index (AI) from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) aerosol assimilated fields. The purpose of this work is to use the AI and aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements as independent validation for the Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero). MERRAero is based on a version of the GEOS-5 model that is radiatively coupled to the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) aerosol module and includes assimilation of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Since AI is dependent on aerosol concentration, optical properties and altitude of the aerosol layer, we make use of complementary observations to fully diagnose the model, including AOD from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), aerosol retrievals from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and attenuated backscatter coefficients from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) mission to ascertain potential misplacement of plume height by the model. By sampling dust, biomass burning and pollution events in 2007 we have compared model-produced AI and AAOD with the corresponding OMI products, identifying regions where the model representation of absorbing aerosols was deficient. As a result of this study over the Saharan dust region, we have obtained a new set of dust aerosol optical properties that retains consistency with the MODIS AOD data that were assimilated, while resulting in better agreement with aerosol absorption measurements from OMI. The analysis conducted over the southern African and South American biomass burning regions indicates that revising the spectrally dependent aerosol absorption properties in the near-UV region improves the modeled-observed AI comparisons

  18. UTILIZATION OF FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE, SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY, AND ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING IN THE CHARACTERIZATION OF BIETTI CRYSTALLINE DYSTROPHY IN DIFFERENT STAGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Li, Yang; Zhang, Xiaohui; Xu, Zhangxing; Zhu, Xiaoqing; Ma, Kai; She, Haicheng; Peng, Xiaoyan

    2015-10-01

    To characterize Bietti crystalline dystrophy (BCD) in different stages using multiple imaging modalities. Sixteen participants clinically diagnosed as BCD were included in the retrospective study and were categorized into 3 stages according to fundus photography. Eleven patients were genetically confirmed. Fundus autofluorescence, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and enhanced depth imaging features of BCD were analyzed. On fundus autofluorescence, the abnormal autofluorescence was shown to enlarge in area and decrease in intensity with stages. Using spectral domain optical coherence tomography, the abnormalities in Stage 1 were observed to localize in outer retinal layers, whereas in Stage 2 and Stage 3, more extensive retinal atrophy was seen. In enhanced depth imaging, the subfoveal choroidal layers were delineated clearly in Stage 1; in Stage 2, destructions were primarily found in the choriocapillaris with associated alterations in the outer vessels; Stage 3 BCD displayed severe choroidal thinning. Choroidal neovascularization and macular edema were exhibited with high incidence. IVS6-8del17bp/inGC of the CYP4V2 gene was the most common mutant allele. Noninvasive fundus autofluorescence, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and enhanced depth imaging may help to characterize the chorioretinal pathology of BCD at different degrees, and therefore, we propose staging of BCD depending on those methods. Physicians should be cautious of the vision-threatening complications of the disease.

  19. Assessing the relationship between microwave vegetation optical depth and gross primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubner, Irene E.; Forkel, Matthias; Jung, Martin; Liu, Yi Y.; Miralles, Diego G.; Parinussa, Robert; van der Schalie, Robin; Vreugdenhil, Mariette; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Tramontana, Gianluca; Camps-Valls, Gustau; Dorigo, Wouter A.

    2018-03-01

    At the global scale, the uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide by terrestrial ecosystems through photosynthesis is commonly estimated through vegetation indices or biophysical properties derived from optical remote sensing data. Microwave observations of vegetated areas are sensitive to different components of the vegetation layer than observations in the optical domain and may therefore provide complementary information on the vegetation state, which may be used in the estimation of Gross Primary Production (GPP). However, the relation between GPP and Vegetation Optical Depth (VOD), a biophysical quantity derived from microwave observations, is not yet known. This study aims to explore the relationship between VOD and GPP. VOD data were taken from different frequencies (L-, C-, and X-band) and from both active and passive microwave sensors, including the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT), the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observation System (AMSR-E) and a merged VOD data set from various passive microwave sensors. VOD data were compared against FLUXCOM GPP and Solar-Induced chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF) from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2). FLUXCOM GPP estimates are based on the upscaling of flux tower GPP observations using optical satellite data, while SIF observations present a measure of photosynthetic activity and are often used as a proxy for GPP. For relating VOD to GPP, three variables were analyzed: original VOD time series, temporal changes in VOD (ΔVOD), and positive changes in VOD (ΔVOD≥0). Results show widespread positive correlations between VOD and GPP with some negative correlations mainly occurring in dry and wet regions for active and passive VOD, respectively. Correlations between VOD and GPP were similar or higher than between VOD and SIF. When comparing the three variables for relating VOD to GPP, correlations with GPP were higher for the original VOD time

  20. Upper tropospheric cloud systems determined from IR Sounders and their influence on the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubenrauch, Claudia; Protopapadaki, Sofia; Feofilov, Artem; Velasco, Carola Barrientos

    2017-02-01

    Covering about 30% of the Earth, upper tropospheric clouds play a key role in the climate system by modulating the Earth's energy budget and heat transport. Infrared Sounders reliably identify cirrus down to an IR optical depth of 0.1. Recently LMD has built global cloud climate data records from AIRS and IASI observations, covering the periods from 2003-2015 and 2008-2015, respectively. Upper tropospheric clouds often form mesoscale systems. Their organization and properties are being studied by (1) distinguishing cloud regimes within 2° × 2° regions and (2) applying a spatial composite technique on adjacent cloud pressures, which estimates the horizontal extent of the mesoscale cloud systems. Convective core, cirrus anvil and thin cirrus of these systems are then distinguished by their emissivity. Compared to other studies of tropical mesoscale convective systems our data include also the thinner anvil parts, which make out about 30% of the area of tropical mesoscale convective systems. Once the horizontal and vertical structure of these upper tropospheric cloud systems is known, we can estimate their radiative effects in terms of top of atmosphere and surface radiative fluxes and by computing their heating rates.

  1. Evaluating the impact of aerosol particles above cloud on cloud optical depth retrievals from MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro-Contreras, Ricardo; Zhang, Jianglong; Campbell, James R.; Holz, Robert E.; Reid, Jeffrey S.

    2014-05-01

    Using two different operational Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud optical depth (COD) retrievals (0.86 versus 1.6 µm), we evaluate the impact of above-cloud smoke aerosol particles on near-IR (0.86 µm) COD retrievals. Aerosol Index (AI) from the collocated Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) are used to identify above-cloud aerosol particle loading over the southern Atlantic Ocean, including both smoke and dust from the African subcontinent. Collocated Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation data constrain cloud phase and provide contextual above-cloud aerosol optical depth. The frequency of occurrence of above-cloud aerosol events is depicted on a global scale for the spring and summer seasons from OMI and Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization. Seasonal frequencies for smoke-over-cloud off the southwestern Africa coastline reach 20-50% in boreal summer. We find a corresponding low COD bias of 10-20% for standard MODIS COD retrievals when averaged OMI AI are larger than 1. No such bias is found over the Saharan dust outflow region off northern Africa, since both MODIS 0.86 and 1.6 µm channels are vulnerable to radiance attenuation due to dust particles. A similar result is found for a smaller domain, in the Gulf of Tonkin region, from smoke advection over marine stratocumulus clouds and outflow into the northern South China Sea in spring. This study shows the necessity of accounting for the above-cloud aerosol events for future studies using standard MODIS cloud products in biomass burning outflow regions, through the use of collocated OMI AI and supplementary MODIS 1.6 µm COD products.

  2. Effect of Wind Speed on Aerosol Optical Depth over Remote Oceans, Based on Data from the Maritime Aerosol Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, A.; Sayer, A. M.; Holben, B. N.; Hsu, N. C.; Sakerin, S. M.; Macke, A.; Nelson, N. B.; Courcoux, Y.; Smyth, T. J.; Croot, P.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) has been collecting data over the oceans since November 2006. The MAN archive provides a valuable resource for aerosol studies in maritime environments. In the current paper we investigate correlations between ship-borne aerosol optical depth (AOD) and near-surface wind speed, either measured (onboard or from satellite) or modeled (NCEP). According to our analysis, wind speed influences columnar aerosol optical depth, although the slope of the linear regression between AOD and wind speed is not steep (approx. 0.004 - 0.005), even for strong winds over 10m/s. The relationships show significant scatter (correlation coefficients typically in the range 0.3 - 0.5); the majority of this scatter can be explained by the uncertainty on the input data. The various wind speed sources considered yield similar patterns. Results are in good agreement with the majority of previously published relationships between surface wind speed and ship-based or satellite-based AOD measurements. The basic relationships are similar for all the wind speed sources considered; however, the gradient of the relationship varies by around a factor of two depending on the wind data used

  3. Pixel-based parametric source depth map for Cerenkov luminescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altabella, L.; Spinelli, A.E.; Boschi, F.

    2016-01-01

    Optical tomography represents a challenging problem in optical imaging because of the intrinsically ill-posed inverse problem due to photon diffusion. Cerenkov luminescence tomography (CLT) for optical photons produced in tissues by several radionuclides (i.e.: 32P, 18F, 90Y), has been investigated using both 3D multispectral approach and multiviews methods. Difficult in convergence of 3D algorithms can discourage to use this technique to have information of depth and intensity of source. For these reasons, we developed a faster 2D corrected approach based on multispectral acquisitions, to obtain source depth and its intensity using a pixel-based fitting of source intensity. Monte Carlo simulations and experimental data were used to develop and validate the method to obtain the parametric map of source depth. With this approach we obtain parametric source depth maps with a precision between 3% and 7% for MC simulation and 5–6% for experimental data. Using this method we are able to obtain reliable information about the source depth of Cerenkov luminescence with a simple and flexible procedure

  4. Comparison of optic area measurement using fundus photography and optical coherence tomography between optic nerve head drusen and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rodríguez, Patricia; Gili, Pablo; Martín-Ríos, María Dolores; Grifol-Clar, Eulalia

    2013-03-01

    To compare optic disc area measurement between optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) and control subjects using fundus photography, time-domain optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We also made a comparison between each of the three techniques. We performed our study on 66 eyes (66 patients) with ONHD and 70 healthy control subjects (70 controls) with colour ocular fundus photography at 20º (Zeiss FF 450 IR plus), TD-OCT (Stratus OCT) with the Fast Optic Disc protocol and SD-OCT (Cirrus OCT) with the Optic Disc Cube 200 × 200 protocol for measurement of the optic disc area. The measurements were made by two observers and in each measurement a correction of the image magnification factor was performed. Measurement comparison using the Student's t-test/Mann-Whitney U test, the intraclass correlation coefficient, Pearson/Spearman rank correlation coefficient and the Bland-Altman plot was performed in the statistical analysis. Mean and standard deviation (SD) of the optic disc area in ONHD and in controls was 2.38 (0.54) mm(2) and 2.54 (0.42) mm(2), respectively with fundus photography; 2.01 (0.56) mm(2) and 1.66 (0.37) mm(2), respectively with TD-OCT, and 2.03 (0.49) mm(2) and 1.75 (0.38) mm(2), respectively with SD-OCT. In ONHD and controls, repeatability of optic disc area measurement was excellent with fundus photography and optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT and SD-OCT), but with a low degree of agreement between both techniques. Optic disc area measurement is smaller in ONHD compared to healthy subjects with fundus photography, unlike time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in which the reverse is true. Both techniques offer good repeatability, but a low degree of correlation and agreement, which means that optic disc area measurement is not interchangeable or comparable between techniques. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College of Optometrists.

  5. Using high-resolution satellite aerosol optical depth to estimate daily PM2.5 geographical distribution in Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    Just, Allan C.; Wright, Robert O.; Schwartz, Joel; Coull, Brent A.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Tellez-Rojo, Martha María; Moody, Emily; Wang, Yujie; Lyapustin, Alexei; Kloog, Itai

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in estimating fine particle (PM2.5) ambient concentrations use daily satellite measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) for spatially and temporally resolved exposure estimates. Mexico City is a dense megacity that differs from other previously modeled regions in several ways: it has bright land surfaces, a distinctive climatological cycle, and an elevated semi-enclosed air basin with a unique planetary boundary layer dynamic. We extend our previous satellite methodology to...

  6. All-optical in-depth detection of the acoustic wave emitted by a single gold nanorod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Guillet, Yannick; Ravaine, Serge; Audoin, Bertrand

    2018-04-01

    A single gold nanorod dropped on the surface of a silica substrate is used as a transient optoacoustic source of gigahertz hypersounds. We demonstrate the all-optical detection of the as-generated acoustic wave front propagating in the silica substrate. For this purpose, time-resolved femtosecond pump-probe experiments are performed in a reflection configuration. The fundamental breathing mode of the nanorod is detected at 23 GHz by interferometry, and the longitudinal acoustic wave radiated in the silica substrate is detected by time-resolved Brillouin scattering. By tuning the optical probe wavelength from 750 to 900 nm, hypersounds with wavelengths of 260-315 nm are detected in the silica substrate, with corresponding acoustic frequencies in the range of 19-23 GHz. To confirm the origin of these hypersounds, we theoretically analyze the influence of the acoustic excitation spectrum on the temporal envelope of the transient reflectivity. This analysis proves that the acoustic wave detected in the silica substrate results from the excitation of the breathing mode of the nanorod. These results pave the way for performing local in-depth elastic nanoscopy.

  7. Signal Normalization Reduces Image Appearance Disparity Among Multiple Optical Coherence Tomography Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chieh-Li; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Wollstein, Gadi; Bilonick, Richard A; Kagemann, Larry; Schuman, Joel S

    2017-02-01

    To assess the effect of the previously reported optical coherence tomography (OCT) signal normalization method on reducing the discrepancies in image appearance among spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) devices. Healthy eyes and eyes with various retinal pathologies were scanned at the macular region using similar volumetric scan patterns with at least two out of three SD-OCT devices at the same visit (Cirrus HD-OCT, Zeiss, Dublin, CA; RTVue, Optovue, Fremont, CA; and Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). All the images were processed with the signal normalization. A set of images formed a questionnaire with 24 pairs of cross-sectional images from each eye with any combination of the three SD-OCT devices either both pre- or postsignal normalization. Observers were asked to evaluate the similarity of the two displayed images based on the image appearance. The effects on reducing the differences in image appearance before and after processing were analyzed. Twenty-nine researchers familiar with OCT images participated in the survey. Image similarity was significantly improved after signal normalization for all three combinations ( P ≤ 0.009) as Cirrus and RTVue combination became the most similar pair, followed by Cirrus and Spectralis, and RTVue and Spectralis. The signal normalization successfully minimized the disparities in the image appearance among multiple SD-OCT devices, allowing clinical interpretation and comparison of OCT images regardless of the device differences. The signal normalization would enable direct OCT images comparisons without concerning about device differences and broaden OCT usage by enabling long-term follow-ups and data sharing.

  8. Aerosol optical depth trend over the Middle East

    KAUST Repository

    Klingmüller, Klaus

    2016-04-22

    We use the combined Dark Target/Deep Blue aerosol optical depth (AOD) satellite product of the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) collection 6 to study trends over the Middle East between 2000 and 2015. Our analysis corroborates a previously identified positive AOD trend over large parts of the Middle East during the period 2001 to 2012. We relate the annual AOD to precipitation, soil moisture and surface winds to identify regions where these attributes are directly related to the AOD over Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Iran. Regarding precipitation and soil moisture, a relatively small area in and surrounding Iraq turns out to be of prime importance for the AOD over these countries. Regarding surface wind speed, the African Red Sea coastal area is relevant for the Saudi Arabian AOD. Using multiple linear regression we show that AOD trends and interannual variability can be attributed to soil moisture, precipitation and surface winds, being the main factors controlling the dust cycle. Our results confirm the dust driven AOD trends and variability, supported by a decreasing MODIS-derived Ångström exponent and a decreasing AERONET-derived fine mode fraction that accompany the AOD increase over Saudi Arabia. The positive AOD trend relates to a negative soil moisture trend. As a lower soil moisture translates into enhanced dust emissions, it is not needed to assume growing anthropogenic aerosol and aerosol precursor emissions to explain the observations. Instead, our results suggest that increasing temperature and decreasing relative humidity in the last decade have promoted soil drying, leading to increased dust emissions and AOD; consequently an AOD increase is expected due to climate change.

  9. Total Volcanic Stratospheric Aerosol Optical Depths and Implications for Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, D. A.; Solomon, S.; Barnes, J. E.; Burlakov, V. D.; Deshler, T.; Dolgii, S. I.; Herber, A. B.; Nagai, T.; Neely, R. R., III; Nevzorov, A. V.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the cooling effect of recent volcanoes is of particular interest in the context of the post-2000 slowing of the rate of global warming. Satellite observations of aerosol optical depth above 15 km have demonstrated that small-magnitude volcanic eruptions substantially perturb incoming solar radiation. Here we use lidar, Aerosol Robotic Network, and balloon-borne observations to provide evidence that currently available satellite databases neglect substantial amounts of volcanic aerosol between the tropopause and 15 km at middle to high latitudes and therefore underestimate total radiative forcing resulting from the recent eruptions. Incorporating these estimates into a simple climate model, we determine the global volcanic aerosol forcing since 2000 to be 0.19 +/- 0.09W/sq m. This translates into an estimated global cooling of 0.05 to 0.12 C. We conclude that recent volcanic events are responsible for more post-2000 cooling than is implied by satellite databases that neglect volcanic aerosol effects below 15 km.

  10. Can MODIS detect trends in aerosol optical depth over land?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuehua; Xia, Xiang'ao; Chen, Hongbin

    2018-02-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor onboard NASA's Aqua satellite has been collecting valuable data about the Earth system for more than 14 years, and one of the benefits of this is that it has made it possible to detect the long-term variation in aerosol loading across the globe. However, the long-term aerosol optical depth (AOD) trends derived from MODIS need careful validation and assessment, especially over land. Using AOD products with at least 70 months' worth of measurements collected during 2002-15 at 53 Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites over land, Mann-Kendall (MK) trends in AOD were derived and taken as the ground truth data for evaluating the corresponding results from MODIS onboard Aqua. The results showed that the AERONET AOD trends over all sites in Europe and North America, as well as most sites in Africa and Asia, can be reproduced by MODIS/Aqua. However, disagreement in AOD trends between MODIS and AERONET was found at a few sites in Australia and South America. The AOD trends calculated from AERONET instantaneous data at the MODIS overpass times were consistent with those from AERONET daily data, which suggests that the AOD trends derived from satellite measurements of 1-2 overpasses may be representative of those from daily measurements.

  11. Possible influence of anthropogenic aerosols on cirrus clouds and anthropogenic forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Penner

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Cirrus clouds have a net warming effect on the atmosphere and cover about 30% of the Earth's area. Aerosol particles initiate ice formation in the upper troposphere through modes of action that include homogeneous freezing of solution droplets, heterogeneous nucleation on solid particles immersed in a solution, and deposition nucleation of vapor onto solid particles. Here, we examine the possible change in ice number concentration from anthropogenic soot originating from surface sources of fossil fuel and biomass burning, from anthropogenic sulfate aerosols, and from aircraft that deposit their aerosols directly in the upper troposphere. We use a version of the aerosol model that predicts sulfate number and mass concentrations in 3-modes and includes the formation of sulfate aerosol through homogeneous binary nucleation as well as a version that only predicts sulfate mass. The 3-mode version best represents the Aitken aerosol nuclei number concentrations in the upper troposphere which dominated ice crystal residues in the upper troposphere. Fossil fuel and biomass burning soot aerosols with this version exert a radiative forcing of −0.3 to −0.4 Wm−2 while anthropogenic sulfate aerosols and aircraft aerosols exert a forcing of −0.01 to 0.04 Wm−2 and −0.16 to −0.12 Wm−2, respectively, where the range represents the forcing from two parameterizations for ice nucleation. The sign of the forcing in the mass-only version of the model depends on which ice nucleation parameterization is used and can be either positive or negative. The magnitude of the forcing in cirrus clouds can be comparable to the forcing exerted by anthropogenic aerosols on warm clouds, but this forcing has not been included in past assessments of the total anthropogenic radiative forcing of climate.

  12. Intercomparison of Aerosol Optical Depth from Brewer Ozone spectrophotometers and CIMEL sunphotometers measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cheymol

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Langley plot method applied on the Brewer Ozone measurements can provide accurate Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD in the UV-B. We present seven intercomparisons between AOD retrieved from Brewer Ozone measurements at 320 nm and AOD measured by CIMEL sunphotometer at 340 nm or 440 nm (shifted to 320 nm in using the Angström's law, which are stored in the international AERONET database. Only the intercomparisons between co-located instruments can be used to validate the Langley Plot Method applied to the Brewer measurements: in this case, all the correlation coefficients are above 0.82. If the instruments are not at the same site, the correlation between the AOD retrieved by both instruments is much lower. In applying the Angström's law the intercomparison is improved compared to previous study.

  13. Development of a fibre-optic dosemeter to measure the skin dose and percentage depth dose in the build-up region of therapeutic photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. A.; Yoo, W. J.; Jang, K. W.; Moon, J.; Han, K. T.; Jeon, D.; Park, J. Y.; Cha, E. J.; Lee, B.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a fibre-optic dosemeter (FOD) using an organic scintillator with a diameter of 0.5 mm for photon-beam therapy dosimetry was fabricated. The fabricated dosemeter has many advantages, including water equivalence, high spatial resolution, remote sensing and real-time measurement. The scintillating light generated from an organic-dosemeter probe embedded in a solid-water stack phantom is guided to a photomultiplier tube and an electrometer via 20 m of plastic optical fibre. Using this FOD, the skin dose and the percentage depth dose in the build-up region according to the depths of a solid-water stack phantom are measured with 6- and 15-MV photon-beam energies with field sizes of 10310 and 20320 cm 2 , respectively. The results are compared with those measured using conventional dosimetry films. It is expected that the proposed FOD can be effectively used in radiotherapy dosimetry for accurate measurement of the skin dose and the depth dose distribution in the build-up region due to its high spatial resolution. (authors)

  14. Importance of aggregation and small ice crystals in cirrus clouds, based on observations and an ice particle growth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, David L.; Chai, Steven K.; Dong, Yayi; Arnott, W. Patrick; Hallett, John

    1993-01-01

    The 1 November 1986 FIRE I case study was used to test an ice particle growth model which predicts bimodal size spectra in cirrus clouds. The model was developed from an analytically based model which predicts the height evolution of monomodal ice particle size spectra from the measured ice water content (IWC). Size spectra from the monomodal model are represented by a gamma distribution, N(D) = N(sub o)D(exp nu)exp(-lambda D), where D = ice particle maximum dimension. The slope parameter, lambda, and the parameter N(sub o) are predicted from the IWC through the growth processes of vapor diffusion and aggregation. The model formulation is analytical, computationally efficient, and well suited for incorporation into larger models. The monomodal model has been validated against two other cirrus cloud case studies. From the monomodal size spectra, the size distributions which determine concentrations of ice particles less than about 150 mu m are predicted.

  15. Wave like signatures in aerosol optical depth and associated radiative impacts over the central Himalayan region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, K. K.; Phanikumar, D. V.; Kumar, K.  Niranjan; Reddy, Kishore; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Newsom, Rob K.; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.

    2015-10-01

    Doppler Lidar and Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) observations are utilized to show wave like signatures in aerosol optical depth (AOD) during daytime boundary layer evolution over the Himalayan region. Fourier analysis depicted 60–80 min periods dominant during afternoon hours, implying that observed modulations could be plausible reason for the AOD forenoon–afternoon asymmetry which was previously reported. Inclusion of wave amplitude in diurnal variation of aerosol radiative forcing estimates showed ~40% additional warming in the atmosphere relative to mean AOD. The present observations emphasize the importance of wave induced variations in AOD and radiation budget over the site.

  16. Black Carbon, Aerosol optical depth and Angstrom Exponent in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, R. M.; Perez-Martinez, P. J.; Andrade, M. D. F.

    2017-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a major absorber of solar radiation, and its impact on the radiative balance is therefore considered important. Fossil fuel combustion processes and biomass burning result in the emission of BC. Black carbon is being monitored since 2014 with a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer-MAAP (5012; Thermo Scientific) in the East Zone of São Paulo, Brazil. São Paulo Metropolitan Area with more than 19 million inhabitants, 7 million vehicles, has high concentrations of air pollutants, especially in the winter. Vehicles can be considered the principal source of particles emitted to the atmosphere. Concentration of the pollutant had an average of 1.95 ug.m-3 ± 2.06 and a maximum value of 19.93 ug.m-3. These large variations were due to meteorological effects and to the influence of anthropogenic activities, since samples were collected close to important highways. Winds coming from the East part predominate. Higher concentrations were found in the winter months (June, July and August). Optical data from AERONET (Aerosol Optical Depth-AOD 550 nm and Angstrom Exponent 440-675 nm) were related to BC concentrations for the period from August, 2016. Average values of AOD at 500 nm and Angstrom Parameter (440-675nm) were 0.16±0.11 and 1.44±0.23, respectively. Higher BC concentrations were related to lower Angstrom values.

  17. The applicability of physical optics in the millimetre and sub-millimetre spectral region. Part I: The ray tracing with diffraction on facets method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, A. J.; Hesse, Evelyn; Sourdeval, Odran

    2017-03-01

    Future satellite missions, from 2022 onwards, will obtain near-global measurements of cirrus at microwave and sub-millimetre frequencies. To realise the potential of these observations, fast and accurate light-scattering methods are required to calculate scattered millimetre and sub-millimetre intensities from complex ice crystals. Here, the applicability of the ray tracing with diffraction on facets method (RTDF) in predicting the bulk scalar optical properties and phase functions of randomly oriented hexagonal ice columns and hexagonal ice aggregates at millimetre frequencies is investigated. The applicability of RTDF is shown to be acceptable down to size parameters of about 18, between the frequencies of 243 and 874 GHz. It is demonstrated that RTDF is generally well within about 10% of T-matrix solutions obtained for the scalar optical properties assuming hexagonal ice columns. Moreover, on replacing electromagnetic scalar optical property solutions obtained for the hexagonal ice aggregate with the RTDF counterparts at size parameter values of about 18 or greater, the bulk scalar optical properties can be calculated to generally well within ±5% of an electromagnetic-based database. The RTDF-derived bulk scalar optical properties result in brightness temperature errors to generally within about ±4 K at 874 GHz. Differing microphysics assumptions can easily exceed such errors. Similar findings are found for the bulk scattering phase functions. This finding is owing to the scattering solutions being dominated by the processes of diffraction and reflection, both being well described by RTDF. The impact of centimetre-sized complex ice crystals on interpreting cirrus polarisation measurements at sub-millimetre frequencies is discussed.

  18. The impact of aerosol vertical distribution on aerosol optical depth retrieval using CALIPSO and MODIS data : Case study over dust and smoke regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.; de Graaf, M.; Menenti, M.

    2017-01-01

    Global quantitative aerosol information has been derived from MODerate Resolution Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MODIS) observations for decades since early 2000 and widely used for air quality and climate change research. However, the operational MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) products Collection

  19. Measurements of the Ice Water Content of Cirrus in the Tropics and Subtropics. I; Instrument Details and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, E. M.; Smith, J. B.; Sayres, D.; Pittman, J. V.; Allen, N.; Demusz, J.; Greenberg, M.; Rivero, M.; Anderson, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    We describe an instrument mounted in a pallet on the NASA WB-57 aircraft that is designed to measure the sum of gas phase and solid phase water, or total water, in cirrus clouds. Using an isokinetic inlet, a 600-watt heater mounted directly in the flow, and Lyman-alpha photofragment fluorescence technique for detection, accurate measurements of total water have been made over almost three orders of magnitude. Isokinetic flow is achieved with an actively controlled roots pump by referencing aircraft pressure, temperature, and true air speed, together with instrument flow velocity, temperature, and pressure. During CRYSTAL FACE, the instrument operated at duct temperatures sufficiently warm to completely evaporate particles up to 150 microns diameter. In flight diagnostics, intercomparison with water measured by absorption in flight, as well as intercomparisons in clear air with water vapor measured by the Harvard water vapor instrument and the JPL infrared tunable diode laser hygrometer validate the detection sensitivity of the instrument and illustrate minimal hysteresis from instrument surfaces. The simultaneous measurement of total water and water vapor in cirrus clouds yields their ice water content.

  20. Segmentation of microcystic macular edema in Cirrus OCT scans with an exploratory longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swingle, Emily K.; Lang, Andrew; Carass, Aaron; Al-Louzi, Omar; Saidha, Shiv; Prince, Jerry L.; Calabresi, Peter A.

    2015-03-01

    Microcystic macular edema (MME) is a term used to describe pseudocystic spaces in the inner nuclear layer (INL) of the human retina. It has been noted in multiple sclerosis (MS) as well as a variety of other diseases. The processes that lead to MME formation and their change over time have yet to be explained sufficiently. The low rate at which MME occurs within such diverse patient groups makes the identification and consistent quantification of this pathology important for developing patient-specific prognoses. MME is observed in optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans of the retina as changes in light reflectivity in a pattern suggestive of fluid accumulations called pseudocysts. Pseudocysts can be readily identified in higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) images, however pseudocysts can be indistinguishable from noise in lower SNR scans. In this work, we expand upon our earlier MME identification methods on Spectralis OCT scans to handle lower quality Cirrus OCT scans. Our approach uses a random forest classifier, trained on manual segmentation of ten subjects, to automatically detect MME. The algorithm has a true positive rate for MME identification of 0.95 and a Dice score of 0.79. We include a preliminary longitudinal study of three patients over four to five years to explore the longitudinal changes of MME. The patients with relapsing-remitting MS and neuromyelitis optica appear to have dynamic pseudocyst volumes, while the MME volume appears stable in the one patient with primary progressive MS.

  1. Evaluating the impact of above-cloud aerosols on cloud optical depth retrievals from MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Ricardo

    Using two different operational Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud optical depth (COD) retrievals (visible and shortwave infrared), the impacts of above-cloud absorbing aerosols on the standard COD retrievals are evaluated. For fine-mode aerosol particles, aerosol optical depth (AOD) values diminish sharply from the visible to the shortwave infrared channels. Thus, a suppressed above-cloud particle radiance aliasing effect occurs for COD retrievals using shortwave infrared channels. Aerosol Index (AI) from the spatially and temporally collocated Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) are used to identify above-cloud aerosol particle loading over the southern Atlantic Ocean, including both smoke and dust from the African sub-continent. MODIS and OMI Collocated Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) data are used to constrain cloud phase and provide contextual above-cloud AOD values. The frequency of occurrence of above-cloud aerosols is depicted on a global scale for the spring and summer seasons from OMI and CALIOP, thus indicating the significance of the problem. Seasonal frequencies for smoke-over-cloud off the southwestern Africa coastline reach 20--50% in boreal summer. We find a corresponding low COD bias of 10--20% for standard MODIS COD retrievals when averaged OMI AI are larger than 1.0. No such bias is found over the Saharan dust outflow region off northern Africa, since both MODIS visible and shortwave in channels are vulnerable to dust particle aliasing, and thus a COD impact cannot be isolated with this method. A similar result is found for a smaller domain, in the Gulf of Tonkin region, from smoke advection over marine stratocumulus clouds and outflow into the northern South China Sea in spring. This study shows the necessity of accounting for the above-cloud aerosol events for future studies using standard MODIS cloud products in biomass burning outflow regions, through the use of

  2. Characterisation of optically cleared paper by optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabritius, T; Alarousu, E; Prykaeri, T; Hast, J; Myllylae, Risto

    2006-01-01

    Due to the highly light scattering nature of paper, the imaging depth of optical methods such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) is limited. In this work, we study the effect of refractive index matching on improving the imaging depth of OCT in paper. To this end, four different refractive index matching liquids (ethanol, 1-pentanol, glycerol and benzyl alcohol) with a refraction index between 1.359 and 1.538 were used in experiments. Low coherent light transmission was studied in commercial copy paper sheets, and the results indicate that benzyl alcohol offers the best improvement in imaging depth, while also being sufficiently stable for the intended purpose. Constructed cross-sectional images demonstrate visually that the imaging depth of OCT is considerably improved by optical clearing. Both surfaces of paper sheets can be detected along with information about the sheet's inner structure. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  3. INTRASURGICAL MICROSCOPE-INTEGRATED SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY-ASSISTED MEMBRANE PEELING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner-Radler, Christiane I; Glittenberg, Carl; Gabriel, Max; Binder, Susanne

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate microscope-integrated intrasurgical spectral domain optical coherence tomography during macular surgery in a prospective monocenter study. Before pars plana vitrectomy and before, during, and after membrane peeling, 512 × 128 macular cube scans were performed using a Carl Zeiss Meditec Cirrus high-definition OCT system adapted to the optical pathway of a Zeiss OPMI VISU 200 surgical microscope and compared with retinal staining. The study included 51 patients with epiretinal membranes, with 8 of those having additional lamellar macular holes, 11 patients with vitreomacular traction, and 8 patients with full-thickness macular holes. Intraoperative spectral domain optical coherence tomography allowed performing membrane peeling without using retinal dyes in 40% of cases (28 of 70 patients). No residual membranes were found in 94.3% of patients (66 of 70 patients) in intrasurgical spectral domain optical coherence tomography and subsequent (re)staining. In patients with vitreomacular traction, intrasurgical spectral domain optical coherence tomography scans facilitated decisions on the need for an intraocular tamponade after membrane peeling. Intraoperative spectral domain optical coherence tomography was comparable with retinal dyes in confirming success after membrane peeling. However, the visualization of flat membranes was better after staining.

  4. Extended depth of focus adaptive optics spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Makita, Shuichi; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2012-01-01

    We present an adaptive optics spectral domain optical coherence tomography (AO-SDOCT) with a long focal range by active phase modulation of the pupil. A long focal range is achieved by introducing AO-controlled third-order spherical aberration (SA). The property of SA and its effects on focal range are investigated in detail using the Huygens-Fresnel principle, beam profile measurement and OCT imaging of a phantom. The results indicate that the focal range is extended by applying SA, and the direction of extension can be controlled by the sign of applied SA. Finally, we demonstrated in vivo human retinal imaging by altering the applied SA. PMID:23082278

  5. Optical coherence tomography in retinitis pigmentosa: reproducibility and capacity to detect macular and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Martin, Elena; Pinilla, Isabel; Sancho, Eva; Almarcegui, Carmen; Dolz, Isabel; Rodriguez-Mena, Diego; Fuertes, Isabel; Cuenca, Nicolas

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the ability of time-domain and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomographies (OCTs) to detect macular and retinal nerve fiber layer atrophies in retinitis pigmentosa (RP). To test the intrasession reproducibility using three OCT instruments (Stratus, Cirrus, and Spectralis). Eighty eyes of 80 subjects (40 RP patients and 40 healthy subjects) underwent a visual field examination, together with 3 macular scans and 3 optic disk evaluations by the same experienced examiner using 3 OCT instruments. Differences between healthy and RP eyes were compared. The relationship between measurements with each OCT instrument was evaluated. Repeatability was studied by intraclass correlation coefficients and coefficients of variation. Macular and retinal nerve fiber layer atrophies were detected in RP patients for all OCT parameters. Macular and retinal nerve fiber layer thicknesses, as determined by the different OCTs, were correlated but significantly different (P < 0.05). Reproducibility was moderately high using Stratus, good using Cirrus and Spectralis, and excellent using the Tru-track technology of Spectralis. In RP eyes, measurements showed higher variability compared with healthy eyes. Differences in thickness measurements existed between OCT instruments, despite there being a high degree of correlation. Fourier-domain OCT can be considered a valid and repeatability technique to detect retinal nerve fiber layer atrophy in RP patients.

  6. Reconstructing the Gamma-Ray Photon Optical Depth of the Universe To Z Approx. 4 from Multiwavelength Galaxy Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgason, Kari; Kashlinsky, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Reconstructing the Gamma-Ray Photon Optical Depth of the Universe To Z Approx. 4fFrom Multiwavelength Galaxy Survey Data We reconstruct the gamma-ray opacity of the universe out to z approx. photons already at z approx. < 0.2 and reaching tau approx 10 at z = 1. Comparing with the currently available Fermi/LAT gamma-ray burst and blazar data shows that there is room for significant emissions originating in the first stars era.

  7. A Study of the Optical Properties of Ice Crystals with Black Carbon Inclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arienti, Marco [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Yang, Xiaoyuan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Kopacz, Adrian M [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Geier, Manfred [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The report focu ses on the modification of the optical properties of ice crystals due to atmospheric black car bon (BC) contamination : the objective is to advance the predictive capabilities of climate models through an improved understanding of the radiative properties of compound particles . The shape of the ice crystal (as commonly found in cirrus clouds and cont rails) , the volume fraction of the BC inclusion , and its location inside the crystal are the three factors examined in this study. In the multiscale description of this problem, where a small absorbing inclusion modifies the optical properties of a much la rger non - absorbing particle, state - of - the - art discretization techniques are combined to provide the best compromise of flexibility and accuracy over a broad range of sizes .

  8. Climatology and trends of aerosol optical depth over the Mediterranean basin during the last 12years (2002-2014) based on Collection 006 MODIS-Aqua data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floutsi, A A; Korras-Carraca, M B; Matsoukas, C; Hatzianastassiou, N; Biskos, G

    2016-05-01

    The Mediterranean basin is a region of particular interest for studying atmospheric aerosols due to the large variety of air masses it receives, and its sensitivity to climate change. In this study we use the newest collection (C006) of aerosol optical depth from MODIS-Aqua, from which we also derived the fine-mode fraction and Ångström exponent over the last 12years (i.e., from 2002 to 2014), providing the longest analyzed dataset for this region. The long-term regional optical depth average is 0.20±0.05, with the indicated uncertainty reflecting the inter-annual variability. Overall, the aerosol optical depth exhibits a south-to-north decreasing gradient and an average decreasing trend of 0.0030 per year (19% total decrease over the study period). The correlation between the reported AOD observations with measurements from the ground AERONET stations is high (R=0.76-0.80 depending on the wavelength), with the MODIS-Aqua data being slightly overestimated. Both fine-fraction and Ångström exponent data highlight the dominance of anthropogenic aerosols over the northern, and of desert aerosols over the southern part of the region. Clear intrusions of desert dust over the Eastern Mediterranean are observed principally in spring, and in some cases in winter. Dust intrusions dominate the Western Mediterranean in the summer (and sometimes in autumn), whereas anthropogenic aerosols dominate the sub-region of the Black Sea in all seasons but especially during summer. Fine-mode optical depth is found to decrease over almost all areas of the study region during the 12-year period, marking the decreasing contribution of anthropogenic particulate matter emissions over the study area. Coarse-mode aerosol load also exhibits an overall decreasing trend. However, its decrease is smaller than that of fine aerosols and not as uniformly distributed, underlining that the overall decrease in the region arises mainly from reduced anthropogenic emissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  9. Tracers and traceability: implementing the cirrus parameterisation from LACM in the TOMCAT/SLIMCAT chemistry transport model as an example of the application of quality assurance to legacy models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Horseman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A new modelling tool for the investigation of large-scale behaviour of cirrus clouds has been developed. This combines two existing models, the TOMCAT/SLIMCAT chemistry transport model (nupdate library version 0.80, script mpc346_l and cirrus parameterisation of Ren and MacKenzie (LACM implementation not versioned. The development process employed a subset of best-practice software engineering and quality assurance processes, selected to be viable for small-scale projects whilst maintaining the same traceability objectives. The application of the software engineering and quality control processes during the development has been shown to be not a great overhead, and their use has been of benefit to the developers as well as the end users of the results. We provide a step-by-step guide to the implementation of traceability tailored to the production of geo-scientific research software, as distinct from commercial and operational software. Our recommendations include: maintaining a living "requirements list"; explicit consideration of unit, integration and acceptance testing; and automated revision/configuration control, including control of analysis tool scripts and programs.

    Initial testing of the resulting model against satellite and in-situ measurements has been promising. The model produces representative results for both spatial distribution of the frequency of occurrence of cirrus ice, and the drying of air as it moves across the tropical tropopause. The model is now ready for more rigorous quantitative testing, but will require the addition of a vertical wind velocity downscaling scheme to better represent extra-tropical continental cirrus.

  10. Retinal nerve fiber and optic disc morphology using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in scleroderma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin-Atik, Sevinc; Koc, Feray; Akin-Sari, Sirin; Ozmen, Mustafa

    2017-05-11

    To evaluate the optic nerve head parameters and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in a systemic sclerosis (SSc) cohort and age-matched controls to determine whether SSc patients have an increased risk of normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). We examined 30 patients (3 male, 27 female) with SSc and 28 age- and sex-matched controls. Retinal nerve fiber and optic disc morphology were evaluated using Cirrus SD-OCT. Optic disc morphology measurements including disc area, rim area, average and vertical cup/disc (C/D) ratio, and cup volume were not significantly different between the study groups. The average and 4-quadrant retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measurements of the C/D >0.3 subgroups were not significantly different in the patients and controls. These values were also similar for the C/D >0.5 subgroups except that the average inferior quadrant RNFL thickness of the right eyes in the patient subgroup was significantly thinner than in the control subgroup (p<0.05). Our SSc cohort had relatively shorter disease duration but increased prevalence of early glaucomatous damage signs. Our findings indicate that SSc is a risk factor for developing normal-tension glaucoma. Further studies combined with visual field evaluation are necessary to identify the long-term glaucomatous effects of SSc.

  11. Validation of Cloud Properties From Multiple Satellites Using CALIOP Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Christopher R.; Minnis, Patrick; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Heck, Patrick W.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Trepte, Qing

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Langley Satellite ClOud and Radiative Property retrieval System (SatCORPS) is routinely applied to multispectral imagery from several geostationary and polar-orbiting imagers to retrieve cloud properties for weather and climate applications. Validation of the retrievals with independent datasets is continuously ongoing in order to understand differences caused by calibration, spatial resolution, viewing geometry, and other factors. The CALIOP instrument provides a decade of detailed cloud observations which can be used to evaluate passive imager retrievals of cloud boundaries, thermodynamic phase, cloud optical depth, and water path on a global scale. This paper focuses on comparisons of CALIOP retrievals to retrievals from MODIS, VIIRS, AVHRR, GOES, SEVIRI, and MTSAT. CALIOP is particularly skilled at detecting weakly-scattering cirrus clouds with optical depths less than approx. 0.5. These clouds are often undetected by passive imagers and the effect this has on the property retrievals is discussed.

  12. Photothermal optical coherence tomography for depth-resolved imaging of mesenchymal stem cells via single wall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhash, Hrebesh M.; Connolly, Emma; Murphy, Mary; Barron, Valerie; Leahy, Martin

    2014-03-01

    The progress in stem cell research over the past decade holds promise and potential to address many unmet clinical therapeutic needs. Tracking stem cell with modern imaging modalities are critically needed for optimizing stem cell therapy, which offers insight into various underlying biological processes such as cell migration, engraftment, homing, differentiation, and functions etc. In this study we report the feasibility of photothermal optical coherence tomography (PT-OCT) to image human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) labeled with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for in vitro cell tracking in three dimensional scaffolds. PT-OCT is a functional extension of conventional OCT with extended capability of localized detection of absorbing targets from scattering background to provide depth-resolved molecular contrast imaging. A 91 kHz line rate, spectral domain PT-OCT system at 1310nm was developed to detect the photothermal signal generated by 800nm excitation laser. In general, MSCs do not have obvious optical absorption properties and cannot be directly visualized using PT-OCT imaging. However, the optical absorption properties of hMSCs can me modified by labeling with SWNTs. Using this approach, MSC were labeled with SWNT and the cell distribution imaged in a 3D polymer scaffold using PT-OCT.

  13. Aerosol Optical Depths over Oceans: a View from MISR Retrievals and Collocated MAN and AERONET in Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witek, Marcin L.; Garay, Michael J.; Diner, David J.; Smirnov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    In this study, aerosol optical depths over oceans are analyzed from satellite and surface perspectives. Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) aerosol retrievals are investigated and validated primarily against Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) observations. Furthermore, AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) data from 19 island and coastal sites is incorporated in this study. The 270 MISRMAN comparison points scattered across all oceans were identified. MISR on average overestimates aerosol optical depths (AODs) by 0.04 as compared to MAN; the correlation coefficient and root-mean-square error are 0.95 and 0.06, respectively. A new screening procedure based on retrieval region characterization is proposed, which is capable of substantially reducing MISR retrieval biases. Over 1000 additional MISRAERONET comparison points are added to the analysis to confirm the validity of the method. The bias reduction is effective within all AOD ranges. Setting a clear flag fraction threshold to 0.6 reduces the bias to below 0.02, which is close to a typical ground-based measurement uncertainty. Twelve years of MISR data are analyzed with the new screening procedure. The average over ocean AOD is reduced by 0.03, from 0.15 to 0.12. The largest AOD decrease is observed in high latitudes of both hemispheres, regions with climatologically high cloud cover. It is postulated that the screening procedure eliminates spurious retrieval errors associated with cloud contamination and cloud adjacency effects. The proposed filtering method can be used for validating aerosol and chemical transport models.

  14. Detection of single and multilayer clouds in an artificial neural network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun-Mack, Sunny; Minnis, Patrick; Smith, William L.; Hong, Gang; Chen, Yan

    2017-10-01

    Determining whether a scene observed with a satellite imager is composed of a thin cirrus over a water cloud or thick cirrus contiguous with underlying layers of ice and water clouds is often difficult because of similarities in the observed radiance values. In this paper an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm, employing several Aqua MODIS infrared channels and the retrieved total cloud visible optical depth, is trained to detect multilayer ice-over-water cloud systems as identified by matched April 2009 CloudSat and CALIPSO (CC) data. The CC lidar and radar profiles provide the vertical structure that serves as output truth for a multilayer ANN, or MLANN, algorithm. Applying the trained MLANN to independent July 2008 MODIS data resulted in a combined ML and single layer hit rate of 75% (72%) for nonpolar regions during the day (night). The results are comparable to or more accurate than currently available methods. Areas of improvement are identified and will be addressed in future versions of the MLANN.

  15. Distribution in depth of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.; Green, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    The authors discuss the distribution in depth of different kinds of quasars: quasi-stellar radio sources with steep radio spectrum, those with flat radio spectrum, and optically selected quasars. All exhibit an increase of space density with distance to a different degree. The optically selected quasars, in particular, show a steep increase of surface density with magnitude. The steepness of the increase is inconsistent with a uniform distribution of quasars in the local hypothesis. In the cosmological hypothesis the co-moving space density of optically selected quasars increases by a factor of 100,000 to a redshift of 2, and by factors of 1000 and 10 for steep-spectrum and flat-spectrum radio quasars, respectively. (Auth.)

  16. Computational adaptive optics for broadband optical interferometric tomography of biological tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adie, Steven G; Graf, Benedikt W; Ahmad, Adeel; Carney, P Scott; Boppart, Stephen A

    2012-05-08

    Aberrations in optical microscopy reduce image resolution and contrast, and can limit imaging depth when focusing into biological samples. Static correction of aberrations may be achieved through appropriate lens design, but this approach does not offer the flexibility of simultaneously correcting aberrations for all imaging depths, nor the adaptability to correct for sample-specific aberrations for high-quality tomographic optical imaging. Incorporation of adaptive optics (AO) methods have demonstrated considerable improvement in optical image contrast and resolution in noninterferometric microscopy techniques, as well as in optical coherence tomography. Here we present a method to correct aberrations in a tomogram rather than the beam of a broadband optical interferometry system. Based on Fourier optics principles, we correct aberrations of a virtual pupil using Zernike polynomials. When used in conjunction with the computed imaging method interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy, this computational AO enables object reconstruction (within the single scattering limit) with ideal focal-plane resolution at all depths. Tomographic reconstructions of tissue phantoms containing subresolution titanium-dioxide particles and of ex vivo rat lung tissue demonstrate aberration correction in datasets acquired with a highly astigmatic illumination beam. These results also demonstrate that imaging with an aberrated astigmatic beam provides the advantage of a more uniform depth-dependent signal compared to imaging with a standard gaussian beam. With further work, computational AO could enable the replacement of complicated and expensive optical hardware components with algorithms implemented on a standard desktop computer, making high-resolution 3D interferometric tomography accessible to a wider group of users and nonspecialists.

  17. Constraining the optical depth of galaxies and velocity bias with cross-correlation between the kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect and the peculiar velocity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yin-Zhe; Gong, Guo-Dong; Sui, Ning; He, Ping

    2018-03-01

    We calculate the cross-correlation function between the kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich (kSZ) effect and the reconstructed peculiar velocity field using linear perturbation theory, with the aim of constraining the optical depth τ and peculiar velocity bias of central galaxies with Planck data. We vary the optical depth τ and the velocity bias function bv(k) = 1 + b(k/k0)n, and fit the model to the data, with and without varying the calibration parameter y0 that controls the vertical shift of the correlation function. By constructing a likelihood function and constraining the τ, b and n parameters, we find that the quadratic power-law model of velocity bias, bv(k) = 1 + b(k/k0)2, provides the best fit to the data. The best-fit values are τ = (1.18 ± 0.24) × 10-4, b=-0.84^{+0.16}_{-0.20} and y0=(12.39^{+3.65}_{-3.66})× 10^{-9} (68 per cent confidence level). The probability of b > 0 is only 3.12 × 10-8 for the parameter b, which clearly suggests a detection of scale-dependent velocity bias. The fitting results indicate that the large-scale (k ≤ 0.1 h Mpc-1) velocity bias is unity, while on small scales the bias tends to become negative. The value of τ is consistent with the stellar mass-halo mass and optical depth relationship proposed in the literature, and the negative velocity bias on small scales is consistent with the peak background split theory. Our method provides a direct tool for studying the gaseous and kinematic properties of galaxies.

  18. Comparison between a New Optical Biometry Device and an Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomographer for Measuring Central Corneal Thickness and Anterior Chamber Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhai Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare between a new optical biometer (AL-Scan, Nidek Co., Aichi, Japan and an anterior segment optical coherence tomographer (Visante AS-OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, USA for measuring central corneal thickness (CCT, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and aqueous depth (AD. Methods. Sixty-three eyes of 63 normal subjects were examined with AL-Scan and Visante AS-OCT in this prospective study. One eye per subject was measured three times with both devices to record their CCT, ACD, and AD. All procedures were performed by the same operator. Agreement between the two devices was assessed using paired t-tests, Bland-Altman plots, and 95% limits of agreement (LoA. Results. The mean CCT, ACD, and AD measured by AL-Scan were 538.59±27.37 μm, 3.70±0.30 mm, and 3.16±0.30 mm, respectively. The mean values obtained by the Visante OCT were 536.14±26.61 μm for CCT, 3.71±0.29 mm for ACD, and 3.17±0.29 mm for AD. The mean CCT by the AL-Scan was higher than that obtained by the Visante AS-OCT (difference = 2.45±6.07 μm, P<0.05. The differences in ACD and AD measurements were not statistically significant. The 95% LoA of CCT, ACD, and AD were between −9.44 and 14.35 μm, −0.15 and 0.12 mm, and −0.15 and 0.12 mm, respectively. Conclusions. Since these two devices were comparable for measuring CCT, ACD, and AD, their results can be interchangeably used in the clinic.

  19. Utilizing the ratio and the summation of two spectral lines for estimation of optical depth: Focus on thick plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Tavassoli, Seyed Hassan

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a study is performed on the spectral lines of plasma radiations created from focusing of the Nd:YAG laser on Al standard alloys at atmospheric air pressure. A new theoretical method is presented to investigate the evolution of the optical depth of the plasma based on the radiative transfer equation, in LTE condition. This work relies on the Boltzmann distribution, lines broadening equations, and as well as the self-absorption relation. Then, an experimental set-up is devised to extract some of plasma parameters such as temperature from modified line ratio analysis, electron density from Stark broadening mechanism, line intensities of two spectral lines in the same order of ionization from similar species, and the plasma length from the shadowgraphy section. In this method, the summation and the ratio of two spectral lines are considered for evaluation of the temporal variations of the plasma parameters in a LIBS homogeneous plasma. The main advantage of this method is that it comprises the both of thin and thick laser induced plasmas without straight calculation of self-absorption coefficient. Moreover, the presented model can also be utilized for evaluation the transition of plasma from the thin condition to the thick one. The results illustrated that by measuring the line intensities of two spectral lines at different evolution times, the plasma cooling and the growth of the optical depth can be followed.

  20. All-fiber probe for optical coherence tomography with an extended depth of focus by a high-efficient fiber-based filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jianrong; Shen, Yi; Shangguan, Ziwei; Bao, Wen; Yang, Shanshan; Li, Peng; Ding, Zhihua

    2018-04-01

    Although methods have been proposed to maintain high transverse resolution over an increased depth range, it is not straightforward to scale down the bulk-optic solutions to minimized probes of optical coherence tomography (OCT). In this paper, we propose a high-efficient fiber-based filter in an all-fiber OCT probe to realize an extended depth of focus (DOF) while maintaining a high transverse resolution. Mode interference in the probe is exploited to modulate the complex field with controllable radial distribution. The principle of DOF extension by the fiber-based filter is theoretically analyzed. Numerical simulations are conducted to evaluate the performances of the designed probes. A DOF extension ratio of 2.6 over conventional Gaussian beam is obtainable in one proposed probe under a focused beam diameter of 4 . 6 μm. Coupling efficiencies of internal interfaces of the proposed probe are below -40 dB except the last probe-air interface, which can also be depressed to be -44 dB after minor modification in lengths for the filter. Length tolerance of the proposed probe is determined to be - 28 / + 20 μm, which is readily satisfied in fabrication. With the merits of extended-DOF, high-resolution, high-efficiency and easy-fabrication, the proposed probe is promising in endoscopic applications.

  1. Aerosol Optical Depth investigated with satellite remote sensing observations in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Die, Hu; Lei, Zhang; Hongbin, Wang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) at 550nm from the MODIS sensor on board the Terra/Aqua satellites were compared with sun photometer (CE-318) measurements from 11 AERONET stations in China. The average correlation coefficient (R) value from the AOD product, using the Aqua-MODIS Deep Blue algorithm, in the Hexi Corridor was 0.67. The MODIS Dark Target algorithm AOD product is superior to Deep Blue algorithm AOD products in SACOL of the Semi-arid regions of the Loess Plateau. These two kinds of algorithm are not applicable to sites in Lanzhou city. The average R value of Dark Target algorithm AOD MODIS products is 0.91 for Terra and 0.88 for Aqua in the eastern part of China. According to the analysis of spatial and temporal characteristics of the two MODIS AOD products in China, high value areas are mainly distributed in the southern part of Xinjiang (0.5∼0.8), Sichuan Basin (0.8∼0.9), North China (0.6∼0.8) and the middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang River (0.8∼1.0). The Deep Blue algorithm for Aqua-MODIS is a good supplement for the retrieval of AOD above bright surfaces of deserts in Northwest China

  2. Impact of the optical depth of field on cytogenetic image quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yuchen; Chen, Xiaodong; Li, Yuhua; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong

    2012-09-01

    In digital pathology, clinical specimen slides are converted into digital images by microscopic image scanners. Since random vibration and mechanical drifting are unavoidable on even high-precision moving stages, the optical depth of field (DOF) of microscopic systems may affect image quality, in particular when using an objective lens with high magnification power. The DOF of a microscopic system was theoretically analyzed and experimentally validated using standard resolution targets under 60× dry and 100× oil objective lenses, respectively. Then cytogenetic samples were imaged at in-focused and off-focused states to analyze the impact of DOF on the acquired image qualities. For the investigated system equipped with the 60× dry and 100× oil objective lenses, the theoretical estimation of the DOF are 0.855 μm and 0.703 μm, and the measured DOF are 3.0 μm and 1.8 μm, respectively. The observation reveals that the chromosomal bands of metaphase cells are distinguishable when images are acquired up to approximately 1.5 μm or 1 μm out of focus using the 60× dry and 100× oil objective lenses, respectively. The results of this investigation provide important designing trade-off parameters to optimize the digital microscopic image scanning systems in the future.

  3. Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, Anthony B.; Rohde, Charles A.; Tellier, Larry; Ho, Cheng

    2002-09-01

    At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data on various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

  4. Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging LIDAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, Anthony B.; Rohde, Charles A.; Tellier, Larry L.; Ho, Cheng

    2002-01-01

    At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data oti various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

  5. Aerosol optical depth in a western Mediterranean site: An assessment of different methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Romero, A.; González, J. A.; Calbó, J.; Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.; Michalsky, J.

    2016-06-01

    Column aerosol optical properties were derived from multifilter rotating shadowing radiometer (MFRSR) observations carried out at Girona (northeast Spain) from June 2012 to June 2014. We used a technique that allows estimating simultaneously aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (AE) at high time-resolution. For the period studied, mean AOD at 500 nm was 0.14, with a noticeable seasonal pattern, i.e. maximum in summer and minimum in winter. Mean AE from 500 to 870 nm was 1.2 with a strong day-to-day variation and slightly higher values in summer. So, the summer increase in AOD seems to be linked with an enhancement in the number of fine particles. A radiative closure experiment, using the SMARTS2 model, was performed to confirm that the MFRSR-retrieved aerosol optical properties appropriately represent the continuously varying atmospheric conditions in Girona. Thus, the calculated broadband values of the direct flux show a mean absolute difference of less than 5.9 W m- 2 (0.77%) and R = 0.99 when compared to the observed fluxes. The sensitivity of the achieved closure to uncertainties in AOD and AE was also examined. We use this MFRSR-based dataset as a reference for other ground-based and satellite measurements that might be used to assess the aerosol properties at this site. First, we used observations obtained from a 100 km away AERONET station; despite a general similar behavior when compared with the in-situ MFRSR observations, certain discrepancies for AOD estimates in the different channels (R < 0.84 and slope < 1) appear. Second, AOD products from MISR and MODIS satellite observations were compared with our ground-based retrievals. Reasonable agreements are found for the MISR product (R = 0.92), with somewhat poorer agreement for the MODIS product (R = 0.70). Finally, we apply all these methods to study in detail the aerosol properties during two singular aerosol events related to a forest fire and a desert dust intrusion.

  6. Comparison of optic disc morphology of optic nerve atrophy between compressive optic neuropathy and glaucomatous optic neuropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Hata

    Full Text Available To compare the optic nerve head (ONH structure between compressive optic neuropathy (CON and glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON, and to determine whether selected ONH quantitative parameters effectively discriminate between GON and CON, especially CON cases presenting with a glaucoma-like disc.We prospectively assessed 34 patients with CON, 34 age-matched patients with moderate or severe GON, and 34 age-matched healthy control subjects. The quantitative parameters of ONH structure were compared using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 2 (HRT2 and Spectralis optical coherence tomography with an enhanced depth imaging method.The mean and maximum cup depths of CON were significantly smaller than those with GON (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively. The distance between Bruch's membrane opening and anterior surface of the lamina cribrosa (BMO-anterior LC of CON was also significantly smaller than that of glaucoma but was similar to that of the healthy group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.47, respectively. Based on Moorfields regression analysis of the glaucoma classification of HRT2, 15 eyes with CON were classified with a glaucoma-like disc. The cup/disc area ratio did not differ between cases of CON with a glaucoma-like disc and cases of GON (P = 0.16, but the BMO-anterior LC and mean and maximum cup depths of CON cases with a glaucoma-like disc were smaller than those in GON (P = 0.005, P = 0.003, and P = 0.001, respectively.Measurements of the cup depths and the LC depth had good ability to differentiate between CON with a glaucoma-like disc and glaucoma. There was no laminar remodeling detected by laminar surface position in the patients with CON compared to those with GON.

  7. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography of the sclera in dome-shaped macula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Yutaka; Iida, Tomohiro; Maruko, Ichiro; Zweifel, Sandrine A; Spaide, Richard F

    2011-02-01

    To examine the posterior anatomic structure of eyes with dome-shaped macula using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). Retrospective observational case series. Patients with dome-shaped macula, a condition defined as convex elevation of the macula as compared with the surrounding staphylomatous region in a highly myopic eye, were identified through routine examinations using optical coherence tomography (OCT). EDI-OCT was used to examine their posterior anatomic changes. The scleral thickness was measured from the outer border of the choroid to the outer scleral border under the fovea and 3000 μm temporal to the fovea. The mean age of the 15 patients (23 eyes) was 59.3 (± 12.2) years, and the mean refractive error was -13.6 (± 5.0) diopters. The best-corrected visual acuity ranged from 20/15 to 20/800 (median: 20/30). Eight patients (53%) had dome-shaped macula bilaterally. The mean subfoveal scleral thickness in 23 eyes with dome-shaped macula was 570 (± 221) μm, and that in 25 eyes of 15 myopic patients with staphyloma but without dome-shaped macula was 281 (± 85) μm (P macula is the result of a relative localized thickness variation of the sclera under the macula in highly myopic patients, and it cannot be categorized into any of the known types of staphyloma. This finding suggests the ocular expansion in myopia may be more complex than previously thought. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Depth-resolved multilayer pigment identification in paintings: combined use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszewska, Ewa A; Sylwestrzak, Marcin; Marczak, Jan; Skrzeczanowski, Wojciech; Iwanicka, Magdalena; Szmit-Naud, Elżbieta; Anglos, Demetrios; Targowski, Piotr

    2013-08-01

    A detailed feasibility study on the combined use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with optical coherence tomography (LIBS/OCT), aiming at a realistic depth-resolved elemental analysis of multilayer stratigraphies in paintings, is presented. Merging a high spectral resolution LIBS system with a high spatial resolution spectral OCT instrument significantly enhances the quality and accuracy of stratigraphic analysis. First, OCT mapping is employed prior to LIBS analysis in order to assist the selection of specific areas of interest on the painting surface to be examined in detail. Then, intertwined with LIBS, the OCT instrument is used as a precise profilometer for the online determination of the depth of the ablation crater formed by individual laser pulses during LIBS depth-profile analysis. This approach is novel and enables (i) the precise in-depth scaling of elemental concentration profiles, and (ii) the recognition of layer boundaries by estimating the corresponding differences in material ablation rate. Additionally, the latter is supported, within the transparency of the object, by analysis of the OCT cross-sectional views. The potential of this method is illustrated by presenting results on the detailed analysis of the structure of an historic painting on canvas performed to aid planned restoration of the artwork.

  9. Effects of high altitude clouds on the earth's infrared radiation flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.-C.; Kaplan, L. D.

    1983-01-01

    Attention is given to the results of a study of cirrus cloud properties which employed the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences' general circulation model and concentrated on the effects of the nonblackness of high clouds on the IR radiation flux. Although the thermal radiation flux is very sensitive to the treatment of cirrus optical properties in the IR, a more realistic assessment will depend on better parameterizations for cirrus cloud formation, persistence, and dissipation.

  10. In-depth imaging and quantification of degenerative changes associated with Achilles ruptured tendons by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnaninchi, P O; Yang, Y; Maffulli, G; El Haj, A; Maffulli, N; Bonesi, M; Meglinski, I; Phelan, C

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a method based on polarization-sensitive optical coherent tomography (PSOCT) for the imaging and quantification of degenerative changes associated with Achilles tendon rupture. Ex vivo PSOCT examinations were performed in 24 patients. The study involved samples from 14 ruptured Achilles tendons, 4 tendinopathic Achilles tendons and 6 patellar tendons (collected during total knee replacement) as non-ruptured controls. The samples were imaged in both intensity and phase retardation modes within 24 h after surgery, and birefringence was quantified. The samples were fixed and processed for histology immediately after imaging. Slides were assessed twice in a blind manner to provide a semi-quantitative histological score of degeneration. In-depth micro structural imaging was demonstrated. Collagen disorganization and high cellularity were observable by PSOCT as the main markers associated with pathological features. Quantitative assessment of birefringence and penetration depth found significant differences between non-ruptured and ruptured tendons. Microstructure abnormalities were observed in the microstructure of two out of four tendinopathic samples. PSOCT has the potential to explore in situ and in-depth pathological change associated with Achilles tendon rupture, and could help to delineate abnormalities in tendinopathic samples in vivo.

  11. Ice Nucleation in the Tropical Tropopause Layer: Implications for Cirrus Occurrence, Cirrus Microphysical Properties, and Dehydration of Air Entering the Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric; Kaercher, Bernd; Ueyama, Rei; Pfister, Leonhard

    2017-01-01

    Recent laboratory experiments have advanced our understanding of the physical properties and ice nucleating abilities of aerosol particles atlow temperatures. In particular, aerosols containing organics will transition to a glassy state at low temperatures, and these glassy aerosols are moderately effective as ice nuclei. These results have implications for ice nucleation in the cold Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL; 13-19 km). We have developed a detailed cloud microphysical model that includes heterogeneous nucleation on a variety of aerosol types and homogeneous freezing of aqueous aerosols. This model has been incorporated into one-dimensional simulations of cirrus and water vapor driven by meteorological analysis temperature and wind fields. The model includes scavenging of ice nuclei by sedimenting ice crystals. The model is evaluated by comparing the simulated cloud properties and water vapor concentrations with aircraft and satellite measurements. In this presentation, I will discuss the relative importance of homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation, the impact of ice nuclei scavenging as air slowly ascends through the TTL, and the implications for the final dehydration of air parcels crossing the tropical cold-point tropopause and entering the tropical stratosphere.

  12. Enhanced depth-of-field of an integral imaging microscope using a bifocal holographic optical element-micro lens array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ki-Chul; Lim, Young-Tae; Shin, Chang-Won; Erdenebat, Munkh-Uchral; Hwang, Jae-Moon; Kim, Nam

    2017-08-15

    We propose and implement an integral imaging microscope with extended depth-of-field (DoF) using a bifocal holographic micro lens array (MLA). The properties of the two MLAs are switched via peristrophic multiplexing, where different properties of the MLA are recorded onto the single holographic optical element (HOE). The recorded MLA properties are perpendicular to each other: after the first mode is recorded, the HOE is rotated by 90° clockwise, and the second mode is recorded. The experimental results confirm that the DoF of the integral imaging microscopy system is extended successfully by using the bifocal MLA.

  13. Cloud chamber experiments on the origin of ice crystal complexity in cirrus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schnaiter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the origin of small-scale ice crystal complexity and its influence on the angular light scattering properties of cirrus clouds. Cloud simulation experiments were conducted at the AIDA (Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT. A new experimental procedure was applied to grow and sublimate ice particles at defined super- and subsaturated ice conditions and for temperatures in the −40 to −60 °C range. The experiments were performed for ice clouds generated via homogeneous and heterogeneous initial nucleation. Small-scale ice crystal complexity was deduced from measurements of spatially resolved single particle light scattering patterns by the latest version of the Small Ice Detector (SID-3. It was found that a high crystal complexity dominates the microphysics of the simulated clouds and the degree of this complexity is dependent on the available water vapor during the crystal growth. Indications were found that the small-scale crystal complexity is influenced by unfrozen H2SO4 / H2O residuals in the case of homogeneous initial ice nucleation. Angular light scattering functions of the simulated ice clouds were measured by the two currently available airborne polar nephelometers: the polar nephelometer (PN probe of Laboratoire de Métérologie et Physique (LaMP and the Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering (PHIPS-HALO probe of KIT. The measured scattering functions are featureless and flat in the side and backward scattering directions. It was found that these functions have a rather low sensitivity to the small-scale crystal complexity for ice clouds that were grown under typical atmospheric conditions. These results have implications for the microphysical properties of cirrus clouds and for the radiative transfer through these clouds.

  14. Automatic segmentation of the choroid in enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Marziliano, Pina; Baskaran, Mani; Tun, Tin Aung; Aung, Tin

    2013-03-01

    Enhanced Depth Imaging (EDI) optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides high-definition cross-sectional images of the choroid in vivo, and hence is used in many clinical studies. However, the quantification of the choroid depends on the manual labelings of two boundaries, Bruch's membrane and the choroidal-scleral interface. This labeling process is tedious and subjective of inter-observer differences, hence, automatic segmentation of the choroid layer is highly desirable. In this paper, we present a fast and accurate algorithm that could segment the choroid automatically. Bruch's membrane is detected by searching the pixel with the biggest gradient value above the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the choroidal-scleral interface is delineated by finding the shortest path of the graph formed by valley pixels using Dijkstra's algorithm. The experiments comparing automatic segmentation results with the manual labelings are conducted on 45 EDI-OCT images and the average of Dice's Coefficient is 90.5%, which shows good consistency of the algorithm with the manual labelings. The processing time for each image is about 1.25 seconds.

  15. About microlensing optical depth and rates for free-floating planets towards the Kepler's field of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafizi, M; Hamolli, L

    2012-01-01

    In this work we examine the possibility of observing microlensing events in the Kepler space observatory field of view, caused by brown dwarfs or free-floating planets. We calculate the optical depth towards the field of view of the Kepler satellite and the rate of these events based on latest results about mass distribution of astrophysical objects from brown dwarf down to Earth mass order. With the current data, the probability of such events is insignificant, due to the small number of stars observed by this instrument compared to other experiments devoted to the microlensing method. Nevertheless, this probability may increase significantly in the case of a higher presence of free-floating planets, whose number is poorly defined so far.

  16. High resolution coherence domain depth-resolved nailfold capillaroscopy based on correlation mapping optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhash, Hrebesh M.; O'Gorman, Sean; Neuhaus, Kai; Leahy, Martin

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a novel application of correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cm-OCT) for volumetric nailfold capillaroscopy (NFC). NFC is a widely used non-invasive diagnostic method to analyze capillary morphology and microvascular abnormalities of nailfold area for a range of disease conditions. However, the conventional NFC is incapable of providing volumetric imaging, when volumetric quantitative microangiopathic parameters such as plexus morphology, capillary density, and morphologic anomalies of the end row loops most critical. cm-OCT is a recently developed well established coherence domain magnitude based angiographic modality, which takes advantage of the time-varying speckle effect, which is normally dominant in the vicinity of vascular regions compared to static tissue region. It utilizes the correlation coefficient as a direct measurement of decorrelation between two adjacent B-frames to enhance the visibility of depth-resolved microcirculation.

  17. Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation Ability of NaCl and Sea Salt Aerosol Particles at Cirrus Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Robert; Kaufmann, Julia; Möhler, Ottmar; Saathoff, Harald; Schnaiter, Martin; Ullrich, Romy; Leisner, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    In situ measurements of the composition of heterogeneous cirrus ice cloud residuals have indicated a substantial contribution of sea salt in sampling regions above the ocean. We have investigated the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of sodium chloride (NaCl) and sea salt aerosol (SSA) particles at cirrus cloud temperatures between 235 and 200 K in the Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere aerosol and cloud chamber. Effloresced NaCl particles were found to act as ice nucleating particles in the deposition nucleation mode at temperatures below about 225 K, with freezing onsets in terms of the ice saturation ratio, Sice, between 1.28 and 1.40. Above 225 K, the crystalline NaCl particles deliquesced and nucleated ice homogeneously. The heterogeneous ice nucleation efficiency was rather similar for the two crystalline forms of NaCl (anhydrous NaCl and NaCl dihydrate). Mixed-phase (solid/liquid) SSA particles were found to act as ice nucleating particles in the immersion freezing mode at temperatures below about 220 K, with freezing onsets in terms of Sice between 1.24 and 1.42. Above 220 K, the SSA particles fully deliquesced and nucleated ice homogeneously. Ice nucleation active surface site densities of the SSA particles were found to be in the range between 1.0 · 1010 and 1.0 · 1011 m-2 at T < 220 K. These values are of the same order of magnitude as ice nucleation active surface site densities recently determined for desert dust, suggesting a potential contribution of SSA particles to low-temperature heterogeneous ice nucleation in the atmosphere.

  18. On the regional climatic impact of contrails: microphysical and radiative properties of contrails and natural cirrus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Strauss

    Full Text Available The impact of contrail-induced cirrus clouds on regional climate is estimated for mean atmospheric conditions of southern Germany in the months of July and October. This is done by use of a regionalized one-dimensional radiative convective model (RCM. The influence of an increased ice cloud cover is studied by comparing RCM results representing climatological values with a modified case. In order to study the sensitivity of this effect on the radiative characteristics of the ice cloud, two types of additional ice clouds were modelled: cirrus and contrails, the latter cloud type containing a higher number of smaller and less of the larger cloud particles. Ice cloud parameters are calculated on the basis of a particle size distribution which covers the range from 2 to 2000 µm, taking into consideration recent measurements which show a remarkable amount of particles smaller than 20 µm. It turns out that a 10% increase in ice cloud cover leads to a surface temperature increase in the order of 1K, ranging from 1.1 to 1.2K in July and from 0.8 to 0.9K in October depending on the radiative characteristics of the air-traffic-induced ice clouds. Modelling the current contrail cloud cover which is near 0.5% over Europe yields a surface temperature increase in the order of 0.05K.

  19. On the regional climatic impact of contrails: microphysical and radiative properties of contrails and natural cirrus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Strauss

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact of contrail-induced cirrus clouds on regional climate is estimated for mean atmospheric conditions of southern Germany in the months of July and October. This is done by use of a regionalized one-dimensional radiative convective model (RCM. The influence of an increased ice cloud cover is studied by comparing RCM results representing climatological values with a modified case. In order to study the sensitivity of this effect on the radiative characteristics of the ice cloud, two types of additional ice clouds were modelled: cirrus and contrails, the latter cloud type containing a higher number of smaller and less of the larger cloud particles. Ice cloud parameters are calculated on the basis of a particle size distribution which covers the range from 2 to 2000 µm, taking into consideration recent measurements which show a remarkable amount of particles smaller than 20 µm. It turns out that a 10% increase in ice cloud cover leads to a surface temperature increase in the order of 1K, ranging from 1.1 to 1.2K in July and from 0.8 to 0.9K in October depending on the radiative characteristics of the air-traffic-induced ice clouds. Modelling the current contrail cloud cover which is near 0.5% over Europe yields a surface temperature increase in the order of 0.05K.

  20. Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Converges More Convexly on Normal Smaller Optic Nerve Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyoung In; Shin, Jeong Ah; Park, Hae-Young Lopilly; Park, Chan Kee

    2015-08-01

    To investigate retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) configuration in the optic nerve head (ONH) and peripapillary area according to disc size and to determine whether it explains cup discrepancy among eyes with different disc sizes. Horizontal and vertical RNFL curvature and mean thickness were measured using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph) in 63 normal subjects grouped by disc size. Average and quadrant RNFL thickness, disc size, average cup-to-disc ratio (CDR), and convergence angle at the optic disc were also measured using Cirrus HD-optical coherence tomography. The relationships between disc size and RNFL curvature, thickness, angle at optic disc, and CDR were evaluated. RNFL curvature and convergence angle reflects convexity "on" and "into" the optic disc, respectively. CDR was smaller for small discs and was positively correlated with disc size (Poptic disc were positively correlated with disc size (POptic disc area was negatively correlated with mean RNFL thickness at the optic disc margin measured by HRT (P=0.002), but not in the peripapillary area by optical coherence tomography. Using imaging techniques, we demonstrated that the shape of the RNFLs converging "on" and entering "into" the optic disc was more convex for small optic discs compared with large discs. A low CDR for small discs could be mediated by these RNFL profiles at the ONH, which may guide the clinical evaluation of glaucomatous ONH damage.

  1. Scene depth estimation using a moving camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sune, Jean-Luc

    1995-01-01

    This thesis presents a solution of the depth-from-motion problem. The movement of the monocular observer is known. We have focused our research on a direct method which avoid the optical flow estimation required by classical approaches. The direct application of this method is not exploitable. We need to define a validity domain to extract the set of image points where it is possible to get a correct depth value. Also, we use a multi-scale approach to improve the derivatives estimation. The depth estimation for a given scale is obtained by the minimisation of an energy function established in the context of statistic regularization. A fusion operator, merging the various spatial and temporal scales, has been used to estimate the final depth map. A correction-prediction schema is used to integrate the temporal information from an image sequence. The predicted depth map is considered as an additional observation and integrated in the fusion process. At each time, an error depth map is associated to the estimated depth map. (author) [fr

  2. Shaded-Mask Filtering for Extended Depth-of-Field Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar García, Isabel María; Saavedra Tortosa, Genaro; Martínez Corral, Manuel; Calatayud, Arnau; Doblas Expósito, Ana Isabel

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new spatial filtering approach for increasing the depth-of-field (DOF) of imaging systems, which is very useful for obtaining sharp images for a wide range of axial positions of the object. Many different techniques have been reported to increase the depth of field. However the main advantage in our method is its simplicity, since we propose the use of purely absorbing beam-shaping elements, which allows a high focal depth with a minimum modification of the optical archi...

  3. Electrochemical depth profiling of multilayer metallic structures: An aluminum brazing sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afshar, F. Norouzi; Ambat, R.; Kwakernaak, C.; Wit, J.H.W. de; Mol, J.M.C.; Terryn, H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Localized electrochemical cell and glow discharge optical emission spectrometry were used. ► An electrochemical depth profile of an aluminum brazing sheet was obtained. ► The electrochemical responses were correlated to the microstructural features. - Abstract: Combinatory localized electrochemical cell and glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES) measurements were performed to obtain a thorough in depth electrochemical characterization of an aluminum brazing sheet. By defining electrochemical criteria i.e. breakdown potential, corrosion potential, cathodic and anodic reactivities, and tracking their changes as a function of depth, the evolution of electrochemical responses through out the material thickness were analyzed and correlated to the corresponding microstructural features. Polarization curves in 1 wt% NaCl solution at pH 2.8 were obtained at different depths from the surface using controlled sputtering in a glow discharge optical emission spectrometer as a sample preparation technique. The anodic and cathodic reactivity of the top surface areas were significantly higher than that of the bulk, thus indicating these areas to be more susceptible to localized attack. Consistent with this, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscope analysis revealed a relatively high density of fine intermetallic and silicon particles at these areas. The corrosion mechanism of the top layers was identified to be intergranular and pitting corrosion, while lower sensitivity to these localized attacks were detected toward the brazing sheet core. The results highlight the successful application of the electrochemical depth profiling approach in prediction of the corrosion behavior of the aluminum brazing sheet and the importance of the electrochemical activity of the outer 10 μm in controlling the corrosion performance of the aluminum brazing sheet.

  4. Analysis of SMOS brightness temperature and vegetation optical depth data with coupled land surface and radiative transfer models in Southern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Schlenz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS L1c brightness temperature and L2 optical depth data are analysed with a coupled land surface (PROMET and radiative transfer model (L-MEB. The coupled models are validated with ground and airborne measurements under contrasting soil moisture, vegetation and land surface temperature conditions during the SMOS Validation Campaign in May and June 2010 in the SMOS test site Upper Danube Catchment in southern Germany. The brightness temperature root-mean-squared errors are between 6 K and 9 K. The L-MEB parameterisation is considered appropriate under local conditions even though it might possibly be further optimised. SMOS L1c brightness temperature data are processed and analysed in the Upper Danube Catchment using the coupled models in 2011 and during the SMOS Validation Campaign 2010 together with airborne L-band brightness temperature data. Only low to fair correlations are found for this comparison (R between 0.1–0.41. SMOS L1c brightness temperature data do not show the expected seasonal behaviour and are positively biased. It is concluded that RFI is responsible for a considerable part of the observed problems in the SMOS data products in the Upper Danube Catchment. This is consistent with the observed dry bias in the SMOS L2 soil moisture products which can also be related to RFI. It is confirmed that the brightness temperature data from the lower SMOS look angles and the horizontal polarisation are less reliable. This information could be used to improve the brightness temperature data filtering before the soil moisture retrieval. SMOS L2 optical depth values have been compared to modelled data and are not considered a reliable source of information about vegetation due to missing seasonal behaviour and a very high mean value. A fairly strong correlation between SMOS L2 soil moisture and optical depth was found (R = 0.65 even though the two variables are considered independent in the

  5. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2015-01-01

    The Progress in Optics series contains more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments, helping optical scientists and optical engineers stay abreast of their fields. Comprehensive, in-depth reviewsEdited by the leading authority in the field

  6. Modified Linnik microscopic interferometry for quantitative depth evaluation of diffraction-limited microgroove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shiwei; Takahashi, Satoru; Michihata, Masaki; Takamasu, Kiyoshi

    2018-05-01

    The quality control of microgrooves is extremely crucial to ensure the performance and stability of microstructures and improve their fabrication efficiency. This paper introduces a novel optical inspection method and a modified Linnik microscopic interferometer measurement system to detect the depth of microgrooves with a width less than the diffraction limit. Using this optical method, the depth of diffraction-limited microgrooves can be related to the near-field optical phase difference, which cannot be practically observed but can be computed from practical far-field observations. Thus, a modified Linnik microscopic interferometer system based on three identical objective lenses and an optical path reversibility principle were developed. In addition, experiments for standard grating microgrooves on the silicon surface were carried out to demonstrate the feasibility and repeatability of the proposed method and developed measurement system.

  7. Intercomparison study and optical asphericity measurements of small ice particles in the CERN CLOUD experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichman, Leonid; Järvinen, Emma; Dorsey, James; Connolly, Paul; Duplissy, Jonathan; Fuchs, Claudia; Ignatius, Karoliina; Sengupta, Kamalika; Stratmann, Frank; Möhler, Ottmar; Schnaiter, Martin; Gallagher, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Optical probes are frequently used for the detection of microphysical cloud particle properties such as liquid and ice phase, size and morphology. These properties can eventually influence the angular light scattering properties of cirrus clouds as well as the growth and accretion mechanisms of single cloud particles. In this study we compare four commonly used optical probes to examine their response to small cloud particles of different phase and asphericity. Cloud simulation experiments were conducted at the Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) chamber at European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN). The chamber was operated in a series of multi-step adiabatic expansions to produce growth and sublimation of ice particles at super- and subsaturated ice conditions and for initial temperatures of -30, -40 and -50 °C. The experiments were performed for ice cloud formation via homogeneous ice nucleation. We report the optical observations of small ice particles in deep convection and in situ cirrus simulations. Ice crystal asphericity deduced from measurements of spatially resolved single particle light scattering patterns by the Particle Phase Discriminator mark 2 (PPD-2K, Karlsruhe edition) were compared with Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer with Polarisation (CASPOL) measurements and image roundness captured by the 3View Cloud Particle Imager (3V-CPI). Averaged path light scattering properties of the simulated ice clouds were measured using the Scattering Intensity Measurements for the Optical detectioN of icE (SIMONE) and single particle scattering properties were measured by the CASPOL. We show the ambiguity of several optical measurements in ice fraction determination of homogeneously frozen ice in the case where sublimating quasi-spherical ice particles are present. Moreover, most of the instruments have difficulties of producing reliable ice fraction if small aspherical ice particles are present, and all of the instruments cannot separate perfectly

  8. Depth of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3 in Peruvian Women: Implications for Therapeutic Depth of Necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxa, Luis; Jeronimo, Jose; Alonzo, Todd A; Gage, Julia; Castle, Philip E; Cremer, Miriam L; Felix, Juan C

    2018-01-01

    To determine the involvement of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) in a population of women in a lower-resource setting. One hundred twelve consecutive cone excision specimens with histological diagnosis of CIN3 were retrieved from the National Institute of Neoplastic Diseases in Lima Peru. Two pathologists independently evaluated each specimen microscopically and confirmed 107 cases that could be measured by optical micrometry. Depth and breadth of the lesions were measured microscopically. The mean maximal depth of cervical involvement by CIN3 was 2 ± 0.13 mm; depth was less than 3.5 mm in 89.7% of cases and less than 5 mm in 93.5%. Mean breadth of CIN3 was 7.3 ± 4.4 mm; breadth was less than 15.9 mm in 95% of cases and less than 20.5 mm in 99.7%. The correlation coefficient between breadth and depth of CIN3 was 0.61. No significant correlation was found between age and depth. Depth of CIN3 involvement in a developing country is significantly deeper than that reported in the United States. Treatment selection for women with CIN3 and risk of treatment failure may vary between developing and developed countries because of the difference in the depth of lesions. Countries with underscreened populations need to consider the increased disease severity in devising treatment strategies.

  9. Depth Profiles in Maize ( Zea mays L.) Seeds Studied by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Domínguez-Pacheco, A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Zepeda-Bautista, R.

    2015-06-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) has been used to analyze agricultural seeds and can be applied to the study of seed depth profiles of these complex samples composed of different structures. The sample depth profile can be obtained through the photoacoustic (PA) signal, amplitude, and phase at different light modulation frequencies. The PA signal phase is more sensitive to changes of thermal properties in layered samples than the PA signal amplitude. Hence, the PA signal phase can also be used to characterize layers at different depths. Thus, the objective of the present study was to obtain the optical absorption spectra of maize seeds ( Zea mays L.) by means of PAS at different light modulation frequencies (17 Hz, 30 Hz, and 50 Hz) and comparing these spectra with the ones obtained from the phase-resolved method in order to separate the optical absorption spectra of seed pericarp and endosperm. The results suggest the possibility of using the phase-resolved method to obtain optical absorption spectra of different seed structures, at different depths, without damaging the seed. Thus, PAS could be a nondestructive method for characterization of agricultural seeds and thus improve quality control in the food industry.

  10. Cirrus cloud mimic surfaces in the laboratory: organic acids, bases and NOx heterogeneous reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodeau, J.; Oriordan, B.

    2003-04-01

    CIRRUS CLOUD MIMIC SURFACES IN THE LABORATORY:ORGANIC ACIDS, BASES AND NOX HETEROGENEOUS REACTIONS. B. ORiordan, J. Sodeau Department of Chemistry and Environment Research Institute, University College Cork, Ireland j.sodeau@ucc.ie /Fax: +353-21-4902680 There are a variety of biogenic and anthropogenic sources for the simple carboxylic acids to be found in the troposphere giving rise to levels as high as 45 ppb in certain urban areas. In this regard it is of note that ants of genus Formica produce some 10Tg of formic acid each year; some ten times that produced by industry. The expected sinks are those generally associated with tropospheric chemistry: the major routes studied, to date, being wet and dry deposition. No studies have been carried out hitherto on the role of water-ice surfaces in the atmospheric chemistry of carboxylic acids and the purpose of this paper is to indicate their potential function in the heterogeneous release of atmospheric species such as HONO. The deposition of formic acid on a water-ice surface was studied using FT-RAIR spectroscopy over a range of temperatures between 100 and 165K. In all cases ionization to the formate (and oxonium) ions was observed. The results were confirmed by TPD (Temperature Programmed Desorption) measurements, which indicated that two distinct surface species adsorb to the ice. Potential reactions between the formic acid/formate ion surface and nitrogen dioxide were subsequently investigated by FT-RAIRS. Co-deposition experiments showed that N2O3 and the NO+ ion (associated with water) were formed as products. A mechanism is proposed to explain these results, which involves direct reaction between the organic acid and nitrogen dioxide. Similar experiments involving acetic acid also indicate ionization on a water-ice surface. The results are put into the context of atmospheric chemistry potentially occuring on cirrus cloud surfaces.

  11. Depth profile measurement with lenslet images of the plenoptic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng; Wang, Zhaomin; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Hongying; Qu, Weijuan; Zhao, Haimeng; Asundi, Anand; Yan, Lei

    2018-03-01

    An approach for carrying out depth profile measurement of an object with the plenoptic camera is proposed. A single plenoptic image consists of multiple lenslet images. To begin with, these images are processed directly with a refocusing technique to obtain the depth map, which does not need to align and decode the plenoptic image. Then, a linear depth calibration is applied based on the optical structure of the plenoptic camera for depth profile reconstruction. One significant improvement of the proposed method concerns the resolution of the depth map. Unlike the traditional method, our resolution is not limited by the number of microlenses inside the camera, and the depth map can be globally optimized. We validated the method with experiments on depth map reconstruction, depth calibration, and depth profile measurement, with the results indicating that the proposed approach is both efficient and accurate.

  12. Extended focused imaging and depth map reconstruction in optical scanning holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhenbo; Chen, Ni; Lam, Edmund Y

    2016-02-10

    In conventional microscopy, specimens lying within the depth of field are clearly recorded whereas other parts are blurry. Although digital holographic microscopy allows post-processing on holograms to reconstruct multifocus images, it suffers from defocus noise as a traditional microscope in numerical reconstruction. In this paper, we demonstrate a method that can achieve extended focused imaging (EFI) and reconstruct a depth map (DM) of three-dimensional (3D) objects. We first use a depth-from-focus algorithm to create a DM for each pixel based on entropy minimization. Then we show how to achieve EFI of the whole 3D scene computationally. Simulation and experimental results involving objects with multiple axial sections are presented to validate the proposed approach.

  13. Calculation of optical properties of dental composites as a basis for determining color impression and penetration depth of laser light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, Kirsten K.; Muller, Gerhard J.

    2005-03-01

    In order to achieve esthetic dental restorations, there should be no visible difference between restorative material and treated teeth. This requires a match of the optical properties of both restorative material and natural teeth. These optical properties are determined by absorption and scattering of light emerging not only on the surface but also inside the material. Investigating different dental composites in several shades, a method has been developed to calculate the optical parameters absorption coefficient μa, scattering coefficient μs, anisotropy factor g and reduced scattering coefficient μs'. The method includes sample preparation and measurements of transmittance and reflectance in an integrating sphere spectrometer, followed by inverse Monte Carlo simulations. Determination of optical properties is more precise and comprehensive than with the previously used Kubelka Munk theory because scattering can be looked at separated into pure scattering with the scattering coefficient μs and its direction with the anisotropy factor g. Moreover the use of the inverse Monte Carlo simulation not only minimizes systematic errors and considers the scattering phase function, but also takes into account the measuring geometry. The compilation of a data pool of optical parameters now enables the application of further calculation models as a basis for optimization of the composition of new materials. For example, a prediction of the general color impression for multiple layers can be carried out as well as the calculation of the wavelength dependent penetration depths of light with regard to photo polymerization. Further applications are possible in the area of laser ablation.

  14. Electrochemical depth profiling of multilayer metallic structures: An aluminum brazing sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshar, F. Norouzi; Ambat, R.; Kwakernaak, C.

    2012-01-01

    Combinatory localized electrochemical cell and glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES) measurements were performed to obtain a thorough in depth electrochemical characterization of an aluminum brazing sheet. By defining electrochemical criteria i.e. breakdown potential, corrosion...... potential, cathodic and anodic reactivities, and tracking their changes as a function of depth, the evolution of electrochemical responses through out the material thickness were analyzed and correlated to the corresponding microstructural features. Polarization curves in 1wt% NaCl solution at pH 2.8 were...... obtained at different depths from the surface using controlled sputtering in a glow discharge optical emission spectrometer as a sample preparation technique. The anodic and cathodic reactivity of the top surface areas were significantly higher than that of the bulk, thus indicating these areas to be more...

  15. Parameterizing Size Distribution in Ice Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSlover, Daniel; Mitchell, David L.

    2009-09-25

    PARAMETERIZING SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN ICE CLOUDS David L. Mitchell and Daniel H. DeSlover ABSTRACT An outstanding problem that contributes considerable uncertainty to Global Climate Model (GCM) predictions of future climate is the characterization of ice particle sizes in cirrus clouds. Recent parameterizations of ice cloud effective diameter differ by a factor of three, which, for overcast conditions, often translate to changes in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) of 55 W m-2 or more. Much of this uncertainty in cirrus particle sizes is related to the problem of ice particle shattering during in situ sampling of the ice particle size distribution (PSD). Ice particles often shatter into many smaller ice fragments upon collision with the rim of the probe inlet tube. These small ice artifacts are counted as real ice crystals, resulting in anomalously high concentrations of small ice crystals (D < 100 µm) and underestimates of the mean and effective size of the PSD. Half of the cirrus cloud optical depth calculated from these in situ measurements can be due to this shattering phenomenon. Another challenge is the determination of ice and liquid water amounts in mixed phase clouds. Mixed phase clouds in the Arctic contain mostly liquid water, and the presence of ice is important for determining their lifecycle. Colder high clouds between -20 and -36 oC may also be mixed phase but in this case their condensate is mostly ice with low levels of liquid water. Rather than affecting their lifecycle, the presence of liquid dramatically affects the cloud optical properties, which affects cloud-climate feedback processes in GCMs. This project has made advancements in solving both of these problems. Regarding the first problem, PSD in ice clouds are uncertain due to the inability to reliably measure the concentrations of the smallest crystals (D < 100 µm), known as the “small mode”. Rather than using in situ probe measurements aboard aircraft, we employed a treatment of ice

  16. Optical coherence tomography findings of quinine poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Christoforidis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available John Christoforidis, Robert Ricketts, Theodore Loizos, Susie ChangThe Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USAPurpose: To report a case of acute quinine poisoning, document acute and chronic macular changes with optical coherence tomography imaging and fluorescein angiography (FA, and to review the literature on ocular toxicity of quinine.Methods: A 32-year-old white female presented to our Emergency Department after ingesting over 7.5 g of quinine. She underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, fluorescein angiography, Stratus time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT, and electroretinography at 72 hours and 15 months postingestion. Stratus time-domain and Cirrus spectral-domain OCT, fundus autofluorescence, and FA were obtained at 28 months postingestion.Results: Fluorescein angiography at 72 hours postingestion revealed normal filling times and vasculature. OCT showed marked thickening of the inner retina bilaterally. At 15 and 28 months follow-up, fundus photography and fluorescein angiography demonstrated optic nerve pallor, severely attenuated retinal vessels while OCT showed inner retinal atrophy. Fundus autofluorescence did not reveal any retinal pigmentary abnormalities.Conclusions: Quinine toxicity as seen by OCT reveals increased thickness with inner retinal hyperreflectivity acutely with development of significant retinal atrophy in the long-term. Fundus autofluorescence reveals an intact retinal pigment epithelial layer at 28 months. These findings suggest that quinine poisoning may produce a direct toxic effect on the inner retina in the acute phase resulting in long-term retinal atrophy.Keywords: retinal, optical coherence tomography, quinine toxicity 

  17. Depth-variant blind restoration with pupil-phase constraints for 3D confocal microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadj, Saima Ben; Blanc-Féraud, Laure; Engler, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional images of confocal laser scanning microscopy suffer from a depth-variant blur, due to refractive index mismatch between the different mediums composing the system as well as the specimen, leading to optical aberrations. Our goal is to develop an image restoration method for 3D confocal microscopy taking into account the blur variation with depth. The difficulty is that optical aberrations depend on the refractive index of the biological specimen. The depth-variant blur function or the Point Spread Function (PSF) is thus different for each observation. A blind or semi-blind restoration method needs to be developed for this system. For that purpose, we use a previously developed algorithm for the joint estimation of the specimen function (original image) and the 3D PSF, the continuously depth-variant PSF is approximated by a convex combination of a set of space-invariant PSFs taken at different depths. We propose to add to that algorithm a pupil-phase constraint for the PSF estimation, given by the the optical instrument geometry. We thus define a blind estimation algorithm by minimizing a regularized criterion in which we integrate the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm allowing to include these physical constraints. We show the efficiency of this method relying on some numerical tests

  18. Validating MODIS Above-Cloud Aerosol Optical Depth Retrieved from Color Ratio Algorithm Using Direct Measurements Made by NASA's Airborne AATS and 4STAR Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethva, Hiren; Torres, Omar; Remer, Lorraine; Redemann, Jens; Livingston, John; Dunagan, Stephen; Shinozuka, Yohei; Kacenelenbogen, Meloe; Segal Rozenhaimer, Michal; Spurr, Rob

    2016-01-01

    We present the validation analysis of above-cloud aerosol optical depth (ACAOD) retrieved from the color ratio method applied to MODIS cloudy-sky reflectance measurements using the limited direct measurements made by NASAs airborne Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS) and Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) sensors. A thorough search of the airborne database collection revealed a total of five significant events in which an airborne sun photometer, coincident with the MODIS overpass, observed partially absorbing aerosols emitted from agricultural biomass burning, dust, and wildfires over a low-level cloud deck during SAFARI-2000, ACE-ASIA 2001, and SEAC4RS 2013 campaigns, respectively. The co-located satellite-airborne match ups revealed a good agreement (root-mean-square difference less than 0.1), with most match ups falling within the estimated uncertainties associated with the MODIS retrievals (about -10 to +50 ). The co-retrieved cloud optical depth was comparable to that of the MODIS operational cloud product for ACE-ASIA and SEAC4RS, however, higher by 30-50% for the SAFARI-2000 case study. The reason for this discrepancy could be attributed to the distinct aerosol optical properties encountered during respective campaigns. A brief discussion on the sources of uncertainty in the satellite-based ACAOD retrieval and co-location procedure is presented. Field experiments dedicated to making direct measurements of aerosols above cloud are needed for the extensive validation of satellite based retrievals.

  19. Major Optical Depth Perturbations to the Stratosphere from Volcanic Eruptions: Stellar-Extinction Period, 1961-1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A revised chronology of stratospheric aerosol extinction due to volcanic eruptions has been assembled for the period 1961-1978, which immediately precedes the era of dedicated satellite measurements. On the whole, the most accurate data consist of published observations of stellar extinction, supplemented in part by other kinds of observational data. The period covered encompasses the important eruptions of Agung (1963) and Fuego (1974), whose dust veils are discussed with respect to their transport, decay, and total mass. The effective (area-weighted mean) radii of the aerosols for both eruptions are found to be 0.3-0.4 microns. It is confirmed that, among known tropical eruptions, Agung's dust was unique for a low-latitude eruption in remaining almost entirely confined to the hemisphere of its production. A new table of homogeneous visual optical depth perturbations, listed by year and by hemisphere, is provided for the whole period 1881-1978, including the pyrheliometric period before 1961 that was investigated previously.

  20. Depth sectioning using electron energy loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alfonso, A J; Findlay, S D; Allen, L J; Cosgriff, E C; Kirkland, A I; Nellist, P D; Oxley, M P

    2008-01-01

    The continued development of electron probe aberration correctors for scanning transmission electron microscopy has enabled finer electron probes, allowing atomic resolution column-by-column electron energy loss spectroscopy. Finer electron probes have also led to a decrease in the probe depth of focus, facilitating optical slicing or depth sectioning of samples. The inclusion of post specimen aberration corrected image forming lenses allows for scanning confocal electron microscopy with further improved depth resolution and selectivity. We show that in both scanning transmission electron microscopy and scanning confocal electron microscopy geometries, by performing a three dimensional raster scan through a specimen and detecting electrons scattered with a characteristic energy loss, it will be possible to determine the location of isolated impurities embedded within the bulk.

  1. Fast and automatic depth control of iterative bone ablation based on optical coherence tomography data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Alexander; Pengel, Steffen; Bergmeier, Jan; Kahrs, Lüder A.; Ortmaier, Tobias

    2015-07-01

    Laser surgery is an established clinical procedure in dental applications, soft tissue ablation, and ophthalmology. The presented experimental set-up for closed-loop control of laser bone ablation addresses a feedback system and enables safe ablation towards anatomical structures that usually would have high risk of damage. This study is based on combined working volumes of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Er:YAG cutting laser. High level of automation in fast image data processing and tissue treatment enables reproducible results and shortens the time in the operating room. For registration of the two coordinate systems a cross-like incision is ablated with the Er:YAG laser and segmented with OCT in three distances. The resulting Er:YAG coordinate system is reconstructed. A parameter list defines multiple sets of laser parameters including discrete and specific ablation rates as ablation model. The control algorithm uses this model to plan corrective laser paths for each set of laser parameters and dynamically adapts the distance of the laser focus. With this iterative control cycle consisting of image processing, path planning, ablation, and moistening of tissue the target geometry and desired depth are approximated until no further corrective laser paths can be set. The achieved depth stays within the tolerances of the parameter set with the smallest ablation rate. Specimen trials with fresh porcine bone have been conducted to prove the functionality of the developed concept. Flat bottom surfaces and sharp edges of the outline without visual signs of thermal damage verify the feasibility of automated, OCT controlled laser bone ablation with minimal process time.

  2. MODIS Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth over Turbid Coastal Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approach to retrieve Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS over the turbid coastal water. This approach supplements the operational Dark Target (DT aerosol retrieval algorithm that currently does not conduct AOD retrieval in shallow waters that have visible sediments or sea-floor (i.e., Class 2 waters. Over the global coastal water regions in cloud-free conditions, coastal screening leads to ~20% unavailability of AOD retrievals. Here, we refine the MODIS DT algorithm by considering that water-leaving radiance at 2.1 μm to be negligible regardless of water turbidity, and therefore the 2.1 μm reflectance at the top of the atmosphere is sensitive to both change of fine-mode and coarse-mode AODs. By assuming that the aerosol single scattering properties over coastal turbid water are similar to those over the adjacent open-ocean pixels, the new algorithm can derive AOD over these shallow waters. The test algorithm yields ~18% more MODIS-AERONET collocated pairs for six AERONET stations in the coastal water regions. Furthermore, comparison of the new retrieval with these AERONET observations show that the new AOD retrievals have equivalent or better accuracy than those retrieved by the MODIS operational algorithm’s over coastal land and non-turbid coastal water product. Combining the new retrievals with the existing MODIS operational retrievals yields an overall improvement of AOD over those coastal water regions. Most importantly, this refinement extends the spatial and temporal coverage of MODIS AOD retrievals over the coastal regions where 60% of human population resides. This expanded coverage is crucial for better understanding of impact of anthropogenic aerosol particles on coastal air quality and climate.

  3. High resolution axicon-based endoscopic FD OCT imaging with a large depth range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kye-Sung; Hurley, William; Deegan, John; Dean, Scott; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2010-02-01

    Endoscopic imaging in tubular structures, such as the tracheobronchial tree, could benefit from imaging optics with an extended depth of focus (DOF). This optics could accommodate for varying sizes of tubular structures across patients and along the tree within a single patient. In the paper, we demonstrate an extended DOF without sacrificing resolution showing rotational images in biological tubular samples with 2.5 μm axial resolution, 10 ìm lateral resolution, and > 4 mm depth range using a custom designed probe.

  4. Comparison of Monthly Mean Cloud Fraction and Cloud Optical depth Determined from Surface Cloud Radar, TOVS, AVHRR, and MODIS over Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttal, Taneil; Frisch, Shelby; Wang, Xuan-Ji; Key, Jeff; Schweiger, Axel; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Minnis, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    A one year comparison is made of mean monthly values of cloud fraction and cloud optical depth over Barrow, Alaska (71 deg 19.378 min North, 156 deg 36.934 min West) between 35 GHz radar-based retrievals, the TOVS Pathfinder Path-P product, the AVHRR APP-X product, and a MODIS based cloud retrieval product from the CERES-Team. The data sets represent largely disparate spatial and temporal scales, however, in this paper, the focus is to provide a preliminary analysis of how the mean monthly values derived from these different data sets compare, and determine how they can best be used separately, and in combination to provide reliable estimates of long-term trends of changing cloud properties. The radar and satellite data sets described here incorporate Arctic specific modifications that account for cloud detection challenges specific to the Arctic environment. The year 2000 was chosen for this initial comparison because the cloud radar data was particularly continuous and reliable that year, and all of the satellite retrievals of interest were also available for the year 2000. Cloud fraction was chosen as a comparison variable as accurate detection of cloud is the primary product that is necessary for any other cloud property retrievals. Cloud optical depth was additionally selected as it is likely the single cloud property that is most closely correlated to cloud influences on surface radiation budgets.

  5. Enhanced-Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography of the Human Choroid In Vivo Compared With Histology After Enucleation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiao Qiang; Heegaard, Steffen; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study compared in vivo enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) with ex vivo histology of the choroid in human eyes. METHODS: Three eyes in three patients with advanced iris melanoma without posterior segment involvement underwent EDI-OCT less than 24 hours prior...... to enucleation and, in one eye, immediately after enucleation. Following fixation in 4% buffered formaldehyde and paraffin embedding, serial sections of the whole eye were cut horizontally, mounted, stained with hematoxylin-eosin and digitized. Alignment between histology and EDI-OCT was made on landmarks...... and subfoveal choroid thickness reduced to 56%, 45%, and 56%, respectively, of its in vivo thickness on EDI-OCT. CONCLUSIONS: There were no identifiable discrepancies in choroidal structural patterns between clinical EDI-OCT and histologic sections except that after enucleation and histologic fixation choroidal...

  6. Modelling of cirrus clouds – Part 2: Competition of different nucleation mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Spichtinger

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We study the competition of two different freezing mechanisms (homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing in the same environment for cold cirrus clouds. To this goal we use the recently developed and validated ice microphysics scheme (Spichtinger and Gierens, 2009a which distinguishes between ice classes according to their formation process. We investigate cases with purely homogeneous ice formation and compare them with cases where background ice nuclei in varying concentration heterogeneously form ice prior to homogeneous nucleation. We perform additionally a couple of sensitivity studies regarding threshold humidity for heterogeneous freezing, uplift speed, and ambient temperature, and we study the influence of random motions induced by temperature fluctuations in the clouds. We find three types of cloud evolution, homogeneously dominated, heterogeneously dominated, and a mixed type where neither nucleation process dominates. The latter case is prone to long–lasting in–cloud ice supersaturation of the order 30% and more.

  7. Effect of ocular magnification on macular measurements made using spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohana Kuppuswamy Parthasarathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to study the effect of ocular magnification on macular measurements made using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty-one subjects were included from the normative study of foveal morphology carried out at our hospital. Subjects underwent comprehensive eye examination and macular scanning using Cirrus high-definition OCT and axial length (AXL measurement. Macular cube 512 × 128 scan protocol was used for scanning the macula. Automated measurements of the fovea namely foveal diameter, foveal slope (lateral measurements and foveal depth (axial measurement were taken. A correction factor for ocular magnification was done using the formula t = p × q × s, where "t0" is the corrected measurement, "p" is the magnification of OCT, "q0" is the ocular magnification, and "s" is the measurement on OCT without correction. The difference between corrected and uncorrected measurements was evaluated for statistical significance. Results: Mean AXL was 22.95 ± 0.78 mm. Refractive error ranged from −3D to +4D. Mean difference between measured and corrected foveal diameter, slope and depth was 166.05 ± 95.37 ΅m (P < 0.001, 0.81° ± 0.53° (P < 0.001 and 0.05 ± 0.49 ΅m (P = 0.178 respectively. AXL lesser than the OCT calibrated value of 24.46 mm showed an increased foveal diameter (r = 0.961, P < 0.001 and a reduced foveal slope (r = −0.863, P < 0.001 than the corrected value. Conclusion: Lateral measurements made on OCT varied with AXL s other than the OCT calibrated value of 24.46 mm. Therefore, to estimate the actual dimensions of a retinal lesion using OCT, especially lateral dimensions, we recommend correction for the ocular magnification factor.

  8. Sensitivity of surface temperature to radiative forcing by contrail cirrus in a radiative-mixing model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Schumann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Earth's surface temperature sensitivity to radiative forcing (RF by contrail cirrus and the related RF efficacy relative to CO2 are investigated in a one-dimensional idealized model of the atmosphere. The model includes energy transport by shortwave (SW and longwave (LW radiation and by mixing in an otherwise fixed reference atmosphere (no other feedbacks. Mixing includes convective adjustment and turbulent diffusion, where the latter is related to the vertical component of mixing by large-scale eddies. The conceptual study shows that the surface temperature sensitivity to given contrail RF depends strongly on the timescales of energy transport by mixing and radiation. The timescales are derived for steady layered heating (ghost forcing and for a transient contrail cirrus case. The radiative timescales are shortest at the surface and shorter in the troposphere than in the mid-stratosphere. Without mixing, a large part of the energy induced into the upper troposphere by radiation due to contrails or similar disturbances gets lost to space before it can contribute to surface warming. Because of the different radiative forcing at the surface and at top of atmosphere (TOA and different radiative heating rate profiles in the troposphere, the local surface temperature sensitivity to stratosphere-adjusted RF is larger for SW than for LW contrail forcing. Without mixing, the surface energy budget is more important for surface warming than the TOA budget. Hence, surface warming by contrails is smaller than suggested by the net RF at TOA. For zero mixing, cooling by contrails cannot be excluded. This may in part explain low efficacy values for contrails found in previous global circulation model studies. Possible implications of this study are discussed. Since the results of this study are model dependent, they should be tested with a comprehensive climate model in the future.

  9. Evaluation of the MODIS C6 Aerosol Optical Depth Products over Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangming Shi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Collection 6 (C6 aerosol optical depth (AOD products from the 10/3 km Dark Target (DT and Deep Blue (DB algorithms are firstly evaluated using ground observed AODs by the sun photometer in Chongqing, a mountainous mega-city in southwest China. The validation results show that MODIS AODs from 10/3 km DT algorithm are comparable with those of the sun photometer, although there are slight overestimations. However, the DB algorithm substantially underestimates MODIS AODs when comparing with those of the sun photometer. Error analyses imply that the bias of surface reflectance estimation is the main error source for both algorithms. The cloud screening scheme of the DT algorithm is more effective than the DB algorithm. The cloud vicinity effect should be considered in the quality control processes for both of the algorithms. A sensitivity test suggests that in complex terrain area, like Chongqing, the collocation method in the validation of satellite products should be carefully selected according to local circumstances. When comparing the monthly mean AODs of MODIS products with sun photometer observations, it shows that the Terra MODIS AOD products are valid to represent the mean statuses in summer and autumn, but the monthly mean of Aqua MODIS AODs are limited in Chongqing.

  10. Practical Atmospheric Correction Algorithms for a Multi-Spectral Sensor From the Visible Through the Thermal Spectral Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borel, C.C.; Villeneuve, P.V.; Clodium, W.B.; Szymenski, J.J.; Davis, A.B.

    1999-04-04

    Deriving information about the Earth's surface requires atmospheric corrections of the measured top-of-the-atmosphere radiances. One possible path is to use atmospheric radiative transfer codes to predict how the radiance leaving the ground is affected by the scattering and attenuation. In practice the atmosphere is usually not well known and thus it is necessary to use more practical methods. The authors will describe how to find dark surfaces, estimate the atmospheric optical depth, estimate path radiance and identify thick clouds using thresholds on reflectance and NDVI and columnar water vapor. The authors describe a simple method to correct a visible channel contaminated by a thin cirrus clouds.

  11. Retrieval of Cloud Properties for Partially Cloud-Filled Pixels During CRYSTAL-FACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L.; Minnis, P.; Smith, W. L.; Khaiyer, M. M.; Heck, P. W.; Sun-Mack, S.; Uttal, T.; Comstock, J.

    2003-12-01

    Partially cloud-filled pixels can be a significant problem for remote sensing of cloud properties. Generally, the optical depth and effective particle sizes are often too small or too large, respectively, when derived from radiances that are assumed to be overcast but contain radiation from both clear and cloud areas within the satellite imager field of view. This study presents a method for reducing the impact of such partially cloud field pixels by estimating the cloud fraction within each pixel using higher resolution visible (VIS, 0.65mm) imager data. Although the nominal resolution for most channels on the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imager and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra are 4 and 1 km, respectively, both instruments also take VIS channel data at 1 km and 0.25 km, respectively. Thus, it may be possible to obtain an improved estimate of cloud fraction within the lower resolution pixels by using the information contained in the higher resolution VIS data. GOES and MODIS multi-spectral data, taken during the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE), are analyzed with the algorithm used for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) and the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) to derive cloud amount, temperature, height, phase, effective particle size, optical depth, and water path. Normally, the algorithm assumes that each pixel is either entirely clear or cloudy. In this study, a threshold method is applied to the higher resolution VIS data to estimate the partial cloud fraction within each low-resolution pixel. The cloud properties are then derived from the observed low-resolution radiances using the cloud cover estimate to properly extract the radiances due only to the cloudy part of the scene. This approach is applied to both GOES and MODIS data to estimate the improvement in the retrievals for each

  12. Ground and satellite-based remote sensing of mineral dust using AERI spectra and MODIS thermal infrared window brightness temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansell, Richard Allen, Jr.

    The radiative effects of dust aerosol on our climate system have yet to be fully understood and remain a topic of contemporary research. To investigate these effects, detection/retrieval methods for dust events over major dust outbreak and transport areas have been developed using satellite and ground-based approaches. To this end, both the shortwave and longwave surface radiative forcing of dust aerosol were investigated. The ground-based remote sensing approach uses the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer brightness temperature spectra to detect mineral dust events and to retrieve their properties. Taking advantage of the high spectral resolution of the AERI instrument, absorptive differences in prescribed thermal IR window sub-band channels were exploited to differentiate dust from cirrus clouds. AERI data collected during the UAE2 at Al-Ain UAE was employed for dust retrieval. Assuming a specified dust composition model a priori and using the light scattering programs of T-matrix and the finite difference time domain methods for oblate spheroids and hexagonal plates, respectively, dust optical depths have been retrieved and compared to those inferred from a collocated and coincident AERONET sun-photometer dataset. The retrieved optical depths were then used to determine the dust longwave surface forcing during the UAE2. Likewise, dust shortwave surface forcing is investigated employing a differential technique from previous field studies. The satellite-based approach uses MODIS thermal infrared brightness temperature window data for the simultaneous detection/separation of mineral dust and cirrus clouds. Based on the spectral variability of dust emissivity at the 3.75, 8.6, 11 and 12 mum wavelengths, the D*-parameter, BTD-slope and BTD3-11 tests are combined to identify dust and cirrus. MODIS data for the three dust-laden scenes have been analyzed to demonstrate the effectiveness of this detection/separation method. Detected daytime dust and cloud

  13. Differences between Non-arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy and Open Angle Glaucoma with Altitudinal Visual Field Defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sangyoun; Jung, Jong Jin; Kim, Ungsoo Samuel

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the differences in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) change and optic nerve head parameters between non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and open angle glaucoma (OAG) with altitudinal visual field defect. Seventeen NAION patients and 26 OAG patients were enrolled prospectively. The standard visual field indices (mean deviation, pattern standard deviation) were obtained from the Humphrey visual field test and differences between the two groups were analyzed. Cirrus HD-OCT parameters were used, including optic disc head analysis, average RNFL thickness, and RNFL thickness of each quadrant. The mean deviation and pattern standard deviation were not significantly different between the groups. In the affected eye, although the disc area was similar between the two groups (2.00 ± 0.32 and 1.99 ± 0.33 mm(2), p = 0.586), the rim area of the OAG group was smaller than that of the NAION group (1.26 ± 0.56 and 0.61 ± 0.15 mm(2), respectively, p field defects, optic disc head analysis of not only the affected eye, but also the unaffected eye, by using spectral domain optical coherence tomography may be helpful.

  14. Bottom depth and type for shallow waters: Hyperspectral observations from a blimp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, ZhongPing; Carder, K.; Steward, R. [Univ. of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    In a study of a blimp transect over Tampa Bay (Florida), hyperspectral upwelling radiance over the sand and seagrass bottoms was measured. These measurements were converted to hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectances. Using a shallow-water remote-sensing-reflectance model, in-water optical properties, bottom depths and bottom albedos were derived analytically and simultaneously by an optimization procedure. In the process, curvatures of sand and seagrass albedos were used. Also used was a model of absorption spectrum of phytoplankton pigments. The derived bottom depths were compared with bathymetry charts and found to agree well. This study suggests that a low-flying blimp is a useful platform for the study and mapping of coastal water environments. The optical model as well as the data-reduction procedure used are practical for the retrieval of shallow water optical properties.

  15. Imaging of the vertical particle tracks without any depth scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroko, L.M.

    2001-01-01

    The principle of a new optical microscope which enables us to get the image of a vertical particle track without any depth scanning is described. This new optical microscope contains a spatial transformer which consists of mirror lamellar elements and which produces a secondary in focus image of the vertical particle track. Properties of such a system are presented. A longitudinal resolution is estimated

  16. Improving Satellite Quantitative Precipitation Estimation Using GOES-Retrieved Cloud Optical Depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenz, Ronald; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Feng, Zhe; Kuligowski, Robert J.

    2016-02-01

    To address significant gaps in ground-based radar coverage and rain gauge networks in the U.S., geostationary satellite quantitative precipitation estimates (QPEs) such as the Self-Calibrating Multivariate Precipitation Retrievals (SCaMPR) can be used to fill in both the spatial and temporal gaps of ground-based measurements. Additionally, with the launch of GOES-R, the temporal resolution of satellite QPEs may be comparable to that of Weather Service Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) volume scans as GOES images will be available every five minutes. However, while satellite QPEs have strengths in spatial coverage and temporal resolution, they face limitations particularly during convective events. Deep Convective Systems (DCSs) have large cloud shields with similar brightness temperatures (BTs) over nearly the entire system, but widely varying precipitation rates beneath these clouds. Geostationary satellite QPEs relying on the indirect relationship between BTs and precipitation rates often suffer from large errors because anvil regions (little/no precipitation) cannot be distinguished from rain-cores (heavy precipitation) using only BTs. However, a combination of BTs and optical depth (τ) has been found to reduce overestimates of precipitation in anvil regions (Stenz et al. 2014). A new rain mask algorithm incorporating both τ and BTs has been developed, and its application to the existing SCaMPR algorithm was evaluated. The performance of the modified SCaMPR was evaluated using traditional skill scores and a more detailed analysis of performance in individual DCS components by utilizing the Feng et al. (2012) classification algorithm. SCaMPR estimates with the new rain mask applied benefited from significantly reduced overestimates of precipitation in anvil regions and overall improvements in skill scores.

  17. The spatial-temporal evolution of aerosol optical depth and the analysis of influence factors in Bohai Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Chunliang; Jiang, Hong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Pei, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) is an important parameter of aerosol optical properties and it is an important physical parameter quantity to understanding the atmospheric environment. Bohai Rim is one of the three major urban agglomeration regions with rapidly developing economy in China. The study of AOD over this region is important to understand the environment and climate in Bohai Rim. Firstly, aerosol product data from 2000 to 2010, published by NASA, were used to analyze the temporal-spatial evolution of AOD in Bohai Rim with precision evaluation. The results showed that the spatial distribution of AOD had an obvious regional characteristic. The spatial distribution characterized that a much high value existed at urban areas and plain areas. On the contrary, the low value data existed in some mountainous regions which had higher percentages of forest coverage. The AOD values fluctuated somewhat each year in the region, from the minimum annual mean in 2003 to the maximum in 2009. Generally, the highest AOD value was in summer, followed by spring, autumn and winter. In terms of monthly variation, the value of AOD reached its peak in June and the lowest value was in December. This study analyzed the relation between AOD and some influence factors such as land use types, elevation, and distribution of urban agglomeration and so on. These results provide an important basic dataset for climate and environmental research

  18. Intercomparison study and optical asphericity measurements of small ice particles in the CERN CLOUD experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Nichman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Optical probes are frequently used for the detection of microphysical cloud particle properties such as liquid and ice phase, size and morphology. These properties can eventually influence the angular light scattering properties of cirrus clouds as well as the growth and accretion mechanisms of single cloud particles. In this study we compare four commonly used optical probes to examine their response to small cloud particles of different phase and asphericity. Cloud simulation experiments were conducted at the Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD chamber at European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN. The chamber was operated in a series of multi-step adiabatic expansions to produce growth and sublimation of ice particles at super- and subsaturated ice conditions and for initial temperatures of −30, −40 and −50 °C. The experiments were performed for ice cloud formation via homogeneous ice nucleation. We report the optical observations of small ice particles in deep convection and in situ cirrus simulations. Ice crystal asphericity deduced from measurements of spatially resolved single particle light scattering patterns by the Particle Phase Discriminator mark 2 (PPD-2K, Karlsruhe edition were compared with Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer with Polarisation (CASPOL measurements and image roundness captured by the 3View Cloud Particle Imager (3V-CPI. Averaged path light scattering properties of the simulated ice clouds were measured using the Scattering Intensity Measurements for the Optical detectioN of icE (SIMONE and single particle scattering properties were measured by the CASPOL. We show the ambiguity of several optical measurements in ice fraction determination of homogeneously frozen ice in the case where sublimating quasi-spherical ice particles are present. Moreover, most of the instruments have difficulties of producing reliable ice fraction if small aspherical ice particles are present, and all of the instruments cannot

  19. Fast Extended Depth-of-Field Reconstruction for Complex Holograms Using Block Partitioned Entropy Minimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wai Ming Tsang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical scanning holography (OSH is a powerful and effective method for capturing the complex hologram of a three-dimensional (3-D scene. Such captured complex hologram is called optical scanned hologram. However, reconstructing a focused image from an optical scanned hologram is a difficult issue, as OSH technique can be applied to acquire holograms of wide-view and complicated object scenes. Solutions developed to date are mostly computationally intensive, and in so far only reconstruction of simple object scenes have been demonstrated. In this paper we report a low complexity method for reconstructing a focused image from an optical scanned hologram that is representing a 3-D object scene. Briefly, a complex hologram is back-propagated onto regular spaced images along the axial direction, and from which a crude, blocky depth map of the object scene is computed according to non-overlapping block partitioned entropy minimization. Subsequently, the depth map is low-pass filtered to decrease the blocky distribution, and employed to reconstruct a single focused image of the object scene for extended depth of field. The method proposed here can be applied to any complex holograms such as those obtained from standard phase-shifting holography.

  20. Optical tomography of tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimnyakov, D A; Tuchin, Valerii V

    2002-01-01

    Methods of optical tomography of biological tissues are considered, which include pulse-modulation and frequency-modulation tomography, diffusion tomography with the use of cw radiation sources, optical coherent tomography, speckle-correlation tomography of nonstationary media, and optoacoustic tomography. The method for controlling the optical properties of tissues is studied from the point of view of increasing a probing depth in optical coherent tomography. The modern state and prospects of the development of optical tomography are discussed. (review)

  1. Optical modeling of a corneal inlay in real eyes to increase depth of focus: optimum centration and residual defocus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabernero, Juan; Artal, Pablo

    2012-02-01

    To determine the optimum position to center a small-aperture corneal inlay and the effect of residual defocus in the surgical eye to maximize depth of focus. Laboratorio de Óptica, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain. Cohort study. Personalized eye models were built using actual data (corneal topography, eye length, ocular aberrations, and eye alignment). A small aperture 1.6 mm in diameter was placed at the corneal plane in each model. The monochromatic and polychromatic Strehl ratios were calculated as a function of the pinhole position. Different residual defocus values were also incorporated into the models, and the through-focus Strehl ratios were calculated. Sixteen eye models were built. For most subjects, the optimum location of the aperture for distance vision was close to the corneal reflex position. For a given optimized centration of the aperture, the best compromise of depth of focus was obtained when the eyes had some residual myopic defocus (range -0.75 to -1.00 diopter [D]). Strehl ratio values were over 0.1 for far distance, which led to visual acuities better than 20/20. The depth of focus was 2.50 D with a mean near visual acuity of Jaeger 1 or better. In eyes with little astigmatism and aberrations, the optimum centration of the small aperture was near the corneal reflex position. To improve optical outcomes with the inlay, some small residual myopia and correction of corneal astigmatism might be required. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The applicability of physical optics in the millimetre and sub-millimetre spectral region. Part I: The ray tracing with diffraction on facets method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, A.J.; Hesse, Evelyn; Sourdeval, Odran

    2017-01-01

    Future satellite missions, from 2022 onwards, will obtain near-global measurements of cirrus at microwave and sub-millimetre frequencies. To realise the potential of these observations, fast and accurate light-scattering methods are required to calculate scattered millimetre and sub-millimetre intensities from complex ice crystals. Here, the applicability of the ray tracing with diffraction on facets method (RTDF) in predicting the bulk scalar optical properties and phase functions of randomly oriented hexagonal ice columns and hexagonal ice aggregates at millimetre frequencies is investigated. The applicability of RTDF is shown to be acceptable down to size parameters of about 18, between the frequencies of 243 and 874 GHz. It is demonstrated that RTDF is generally well within about 10% of T-matrix solutions obtained for the scalar optical properties assuming hexagonal ice columns. Moreover, on replacing electromagnetic scalar optical property solutions obtained for the hexagonal ice aggregate with the RTDF counterparts at size parameter values of about 18 or greater, the bulk scalar optical properties can be calculated to generally well within ±5% of an electromagnetic-based database. The RTDF-derived bulk scalar optical properties result in brightness temperature errors to generally within about ±4 K at 874 GHz. Differing microphysics assumptions can easily exceed such errors. Similar findings are found for the bulk scattering phase functions. This finding is owing to the scattering solutions being dominated by the processes of diffraction and reflection, both being well described by RTDF. The impact of centimetre-sized complex ice crystals on interpreting cirrus polarisation measurements at sub-millimetre frequencies is discussed. - Highlights: • A method of physical optics is shown to apply to size parameters as low as 18 in the mm and sub-mm-wave spectral regions. • Including ray tracing with diffraction on facets and diffraction at the cross-section of

  3. The effect of aerosol optical depth on rainfall with reference to meteorology over metro cities in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaseelan, Indira; Bhaskar, B Vijay; Muthuchelian, K

    2014-01-01

    Rainfall is a key link in the global water cycle and a proxy for changing climate; therefore, proper assessment of the urban environment's impact on rainfall will be increasingly important in ongoing climate diagnostics and prediction. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements on the monsoon seasons of the years 2008 to 2010 were made over four metro regional hotspots in India. The highest average of AOD was in the months of June and July for the four cities during 3 years and lowest was in September. Comparing the four regions, Kolkata was in the peak of aerosol contamination and Chennai was in least. Pearson correlation was made between AOD with climatic parameters. Some changes in the parameters were found during drought year. Temperature, cloud parameters, and humidity play an important role for the drought conditions. The role of aerosols, meteorological parameters, and their impacts towards the precipitation during the monsoon was studied.

  4. Photothermal radiometric determination of thermal diffusivity depth profiles in a dental resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MartInez-Torres, P; Alvarado-Gil, J J; Mandelis, A

    2010-01-01

    The depth of curing due to photopolymerization in a commercial dental resin is studied using photothermal radiometry. The sample consists of a thick layer of resin on which a thin metallic layer is deposited guaranteeing full opacity of the sample. In this case, purely thermal-wave inverse problem techniques without the interference of optical profiles can be used. Thermal profiles are obtained by heating the coating with a modulated laser beam and performing a modulation frequency scan. Before each frequency scan, photopolymerization was induced using a high power blue LED. However due to the fact that dental resins are highly light dispersive materials, the polymerization process depends strongly on the optical absorption coefficient inducing a depth dependent thermal diffusion in the sample. It is shown that using a robust depth profilometric inverse method one can reconstruct the thermal diffusivity profile of the photopolymerized resin.

  5. Determination of Thermal Equilibrium in a Sealed Cell Based on Optical Depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Sheng; Zhang, Hong; Chen, Xi-yuan [Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Shan, Guang-cun; Quan, Wei [Beihang University, Beijing (China)

    2017-01-15

    An effective method based on optical depth (OD) is presented to measure thermal equilibrium in a cell. First, the principle of determining the temperature distribution in the cell by using the OD is demonstrated. Subsequently, relevant experiments are carried out. Original experimental results showed that some gradients of OD distributions in the cell at different wavelengths and variations of the OD increased slowly along the direction of motion of the beam at a fixed wavelength. At a wavelength of 766.6839 nm, which is about 7 GHz blue shifted with respect to the potassium resonance, the average value of the OD was about 0.764 and the maximal and the minimum inhomogeneity biases among all location points were about 6.07% and 0.56%, respectively. As for the corresponding wavelengths of 766.67785 nm and 766.73004 nm, some deviations from previous results, which were caused by different absorptions of the alkali-metal atoms at different frequencies of the laser beam, were observed. The nonuniform OD values along the direction of motion of the beam reflected an inhomogeneous distribution of the temperature in the cell, which may have been caused by layout of the oven. When the layout of the oven was modified, comparative experiments comparable to these with the previous layout of the oven demonstrated that the uniformity of the temperature distribution in the cell was improved and that thermal equilibrium time was shorter by about 10 minutes. This method played an important role in determining the thermal equilibrium time in the cell.

  6. Determination of the columnar aerosol size distribution by inversion of spectral aerosol optical depth measurements at different areas in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Metwally, M.; Madkour, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Aerosols have a great effects on nuclear safety calculations and atmospheric environment. The aerosol optical depth measurements are carried out at four areas in Egypt: Cairo and Helwan as urban/industrial areas, Aswan as an arid area and Mansoura as an agricultural area covering the period from Jun 1992 to May 1993. These measurements were recorded by ground-based pyrheliometers with large band-pass filters. Monthly average values of aerosol optical depth (AOD) showed a pronounced temporal trend, with a maximum AOD during summer and the transition seasons (spring and autumn) at all sites. Levels of AODs are higher at both urban and industrial areas than at other areas. Variation of Angstrom exponent a with the AOD was clear at most sites and the a value depends on the spectral range used in its determination. The mean contribution of anthropogenic sources to AOD over Cairo was at the range of 25.1-54.3%, whereas those values in Helwan were at the range of 34.5-59.8%. Finally, columnar aerosol size distributions have been inferred by inverting particularly AOD measurements as a function of wavelength. The Junge (type I) and bimodal (type III) distributions are dominant at urban and arid areas (Cairo and Aswan), whereas mono dispersion distribution (type II) are dominant in industrial and agricultural areas (Helwan and Mansoura). In Cairo and Aswan, the peak of columnar size distribution for the fine mode at radius r is around 0.1 and 0.2 μm respectively, while it is around 1.0 and 2.0 μm for the coarse mode. .Also, the peak of size distribution for the mono dispersion mode was marked at radius around 0.2 μm at both Helwan and Mansoura. A comprehensive comparison of our results with literature size distributions is very sparse, nevertheless, our size distributions in general agree with them

  7. Real-time depth monitoring and control of laser machining through scanning beam delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Yang; Grindal, Alexander W; Fraser, James M; Webster, Paul J L

    2015-01-01

    Scanning optics enable many laser applications in manufacturing because their low inertia allows rapid movement of the process beam across the sample. We describe our method of inline coherent imaging for real-time (up to 230 kHz) micron-scale (7–8 µm axial resolution) tracking and control of laser machining depth through a scanning galvo-telecentric beam delivery system. For 1 cm trench etching in stainless steel, we collect high speed intrapulse and interpulse morphology which is useful for further understanding underlying mechanisms or comparison with numerical models. We also collect overall sweep-to-sweep depth penetration which can be used for feedback depth control. For trench etching in silicon, we show the relationship of etch rate with average power and scan speed by computer processing of depth information without destructive sample post-processing. We also achieve three-dimensional infrared continuous wave (modulated) laser machining of a 3.96 × 3.96 × 0.5 mm 3 (length × width × maximum depth) pattern on steel with depth feedback. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first successful demonstration of direct real-time depth monitoring and control of laser machining with scanning optics. (paper)

  8. A Review on Predicting Ground PM2.5 Concentration Using Satellite Aerosol Optical Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Chu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reviewed the prediction of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 from satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD and summarized the advantages and limitations of these predicting models. A total of 116 articles were included from 1436 records retrieved. The number of such studies has been increasing since 2003. Among these studies, four predicting models were widely used: Multiple Linear Regression (MLR (25 articles, Mixed-Effect Model (MEM (23 articles, Chemical Transport Model (CTM (16 articles and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR (10 articles. We found that there is no so-called best model among them and each has both advantages and limitations. Regarding the prediction accuracy, MEM performs the best, while MLR performs worst. CTM predicts PM2.5 better on a global scale, while GWR tends to perform well on a regional level. Moreover, prediction performance can be significantly improved by combining meteorological variables with land use factors of each region, instead of only considering meteorological variables. In addition, MEM has advantages in dealing with the AOD data with missing values. We recommend that with the help of higher resolution AOD data, future works could be focused on developing satellite-based predicting models for the prediction of historical PM2.5 and other air pollutants.

  9. Shave-off depth profiling: Depth profiling with an absolute depth scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, M.; Maekawa, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Tomiyasu, B.; Sakamoto, T.; Owari, M.; Nihei, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Shave-off depth profiling provides profiling with an absolute depth scale. This method uses a focused ion beam (FIB) micro-machining process to provide the depth profile. We show that the shave-off depth profile of a particle reflected the spherical shape of the sample and signal intensities had no relationship to the depth. Through the introduction of FIB micro-sampling, the shave-off depth profiling of a dynamic random access memory (DRAM) tip was carried out. The shave-off profile agreed with a blue print from the manufacturing process. Finally, shave-off depth profiling is discussed with respect to resolutions and future directions

  10. Spatial resolution in depth-controlled surface sensitive x-ray techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, W.B.; Viccaro, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    The spatial resolution along the surface normal and the total depth probed are two important parameters in depth-controlled surface sensitive X-ray techniques employing grazing incidence geometry. The two parameters are analyzed in terms of optical properties (refractive indices) of the media involved and parameters of the incident X-ray beam: beam divergence, X-ray energy, and spectral bandwidth. We derive analytical expressions of the required beam divergence and spectral bandwidth of the incident beam as a function of the two parameters. Sample calculations are made for X-ray energies between 0.1 and 100 keV and for solid Be, Cu, and Au, representing material matrices consisting of low, medium, and high atomic number elements. A brief discussion on obtaining the required beam divergence and spectral bandwidth from present X-ray sources and optics is given

  11. OCT angiography of acute non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, M-B; Delyfer, M-N; Korobelnik, J-F

    2017-02-01

    To describe changes of the retinal peripapillary microvasculature on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) in non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic (NAION) neuropathy. Observational study of 10 patients at the acute phase of NAION. OCT-A was performed using a 3mm×3mm square centered on the optic disc (Cirrus HD-OCT with Angioplex, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA). A qualitative comparison was made with the healthy fellow eye of each patient. All patients had a fluorescein angiography (HRA2, Heidelberg, Germany) and a visual field examination (Octopus 101 ® , Haag-Streit, USA). In the affected eyes, OCT-A showed clear modifications in the radial peripapillary network. In all these eyes, a focal disappearance of the superficial capillary radial pattern was present, twisted and irregular. In 8 eyes, there was also a lack of vascularization in some focal areas, appearing as dark areas. No correlation was found between the topography of the vascular alteration shown on OCT-A and visual field pattern defects. OCT-A is a new imaging technology able to demonstrate easily and safely the changes in the peripapillary capillary network during the acute phase of NAION. These changes are likely related to a decrease of the prelaminar optic nerve blood flow during the acute phase of NAION. Visual field defects are not correlated with OCT-A images, suggesting that they may be due mainly to disturbances in posterior ciliary artery blood flow. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Ice Nucleation and Dehydration in the Tropical Tropopause Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric J.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Lawson, R Paul; Lance, Sara; Bui, Thaopaul Van; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Mcgill, Matthew J.; Pfister, Leonhard; Toon, Owen B.; Gao, Rushan

    2013-01-01

    Optically thin cirrus near the tropical tropopause regulate the humidity of air entering the stratosphere, which in turn has a strong influence on the Earth's radiation budget and climate. Recent highaltitude, unmanned aircraft measurements provide evidence for two distinct classes of cirrus formed in the tropical tropopause region: (i) vertically extensive cirrus with low ice number concentrations, low extinctions, and large supersaturations (up to approx. 70%) with respect to ice; and (ii) vertically thin cirrus layers with much higher ice concentrations that effectively deplete the vapor in excess of saturation. The persistent supersaturation in the former class of cirrus is consistent with the long time-scales (several hours or longer) for quenching of vapor in excess of saturation given the low ice concentrations and cold tropical tropopause temperatures. The low-concentration clouds are likely formed on a background population of insoluble particles with concentrations less than 100 L-1 (often less than 20 L-1), whereas the high ice concentration layers (with concentrations up to 10,000 L-1) can only be produced by homogeneous freezing of an abundant population of aqueous aerosols. These measurements, along with past high-altitude aircraft measurements, indicate that the low-concentration cirrus occur frequently in the tropical tropopause region, whereas the high-concentration cirrus occur infrequently. The predominance of the low-concentration clouds means cirrus near the tropical tropopause may typically allow entry of air into the stratosphere with as much as approx. 1.7 times the ice saturation mixing ratio.

  13. Biogenic Aerosols – Effects on Climate and Clouds. Cloud Optical Depth (COD) Sensor Three-Waveband Spectrally-Agile Technique (TWST) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niple, E. R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Scott, H. E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This report describes the data collected by the Three-Waveband Spectrally-agile Technique (TWST) sensor deployed at Hyytiälä, Finland from 16 July to 31 August 2014 as a guest on the Biogenic Aerosols Effects on Climate and Clouds (BAECC) campaign. These data are currently available from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Archive website and consists of Cloud Optical Depth (COD) measurements for the clouds directly overhead approximately every second (with some dropouts described below) during the daylight periods. A good range of cloud conditions were observed from clear sky to heavy rainfall.

  14. A methodology for in-situ and remote sensing of microphysical and radiative properties of contrails as they evolve into cirrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H. M.; Haywood, J.; Marenco, F.; O'Sullivan, D.; Meyer, J.; Thorpe, R.; Gallagher, M. W.; Krämer, M.; Bower, K. N.; Rädel, G.; Rap, A.; Woolley, A.; Forster, P.; Coe, H.

    2012-09-01

    Contrails and especially their evolution into cirrus-like clouds are thought to have very important effects on local and global radiation budgets, though are generally not well represented in global climate models. Lack of contrail parameterisations is due to the limited availability of in situ contrail measurements which are difficult to obtain. Here we present a methodology for successful sampling and interpretation of contrail microphysical and radiative data using both in situ and remote sensing instrumentation on board the FAAM BAe146 UK research aircraft as part of the COntrails Spreading Into Cirrus (COSIC) study. Forecast models were utilised to determine flight regions suitable for contrail formation and sampling; regions that were both free of cloud but showed a high probability of occurrence of air mass being supersaturated with respect to ice. The FAAM research aircraft, fitted with cloud microphysics probes and remote sensing instruments, formed a distinctive spiral-shaped contrail in the predicted area by flying in an orbit over the same ground position as the wind advected the contrails to the east. Parts of these contrails were sampled during the completion of four orbits, with sampled contrail regions being between 7 and 30 min old. Lidar measurements were useful for in-flight determination of the location and spatial extent of the contrails, and also to report extinction values that agreed well with those calculated from the microphysical data. A shortwave spectrometer was also able to detect the contrails, though the signal was weak due to the dispersion and evaporation of the contrails. Post-flight the UK Met Office NAME III dispersion model was successfully used as a tool for modelling the dispersion of the persistent contrail; determining its location and age, and determining when there was interference from other measured aircraft contrails or when cirrus encroached on the area later in the flight. The persistent contrails were found to

  15. A methodology for in-situ and remote sensing of microphysical and radiative properties of contrails as they evolve into cirrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Jones

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Contrails and especially their evolution into cirrus-like clouds are thought to have very important effects on local and global radiation budgets, though are generally not well represented in global climate models. Lack of contrail parameterisations is due to the limited availability of in situ contrail measurements which are difficult to obtain. Here we present a methodology for successful sampling and interpretation of contrail microphysical and radiative data using both in situ and remote sensing instrumentation on board the FAAM BAe146 UK research aircraft as part of the COntrails Spreading Into Cirrus (COSIC study.

    Forecast models were utilised to determine flight regions suitable for contrail formation and sampling; regions that were both free of cloud but showed a high probability of occurrence of air mass being supersaturated with respect to ice. The FAAM research aircraft, fitted with cloud microphysics probes and remote sensing instruments, formed a distinctive spiral-shaped contrail in the predicted area by flying in an orbit over the same ground position as the wind advected the contrails to the east. Parts of these contrails were sampled during the completion of four orbits, with sampled contrail regions being between 7 and 30 min old. Lidar measurements were useful for in-flight determination of the location and spatial extent of the contrails, and also to report extinction values that agreed well with those calculated from the microphysical data. A shortwave spectrometer was also able to detect the contrails, though the signal was weak due to the dispersion and evaporation of the contrails. Post-flight the UK Met Office NAME III dispersion model was successfully used as a tool for modelling the dispersion of the persistent contrail; determining its location and age, and determining when there was interference from other measured aircraft contrails or when cirrus encroached on the area later in the flight.

    The

  16. Variability of aerosol optical depth and Angstrom wavelength exponent derived from AERONET observations in recent decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Xiangao

    2011-01-01

    Using aerosol loading data from 79 Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations with observations from more than six years, changes in aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Angstrom wavelength exponent (AWE) were studied. A statistical method was developed to determine whether AOD changes were due to increased background AOD values and/or an increased number of high AOD events. AOD decreased significantly at AERONET sites in northeastern North American and in Western Europe, which was accompanied by decreased AWE. Reduction of AOD there was mainly due to a decreased frequency of high AOD events and an increased frequency of background AOD events. In addition, decreased AOD values for high AOD events also accounted for ∼ 16–32% of the AOD reduction. This is indicative of significant meteorological effects on AOD variability. AOD trends in other regions were marginal and most were not significant; however, AOD increased significantly at one site in the Sahel and another in Saudi Arabia, predominantly due to the increased frequency of high AOD events and their average AOD.

  17. Stiffness of RBC optical confinement affected by optical clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, Oleg V.; Fedosov, Ivan V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2017-03-01

    In vivo optical trapping is a novel applied direction of an optical manipulation, which enables one to noninvasive measurement of mechanical properties of cells and tissues in living animals directly. But an application area of this direction is limited because strong scattering of many biological tissues. An optical clearing enables one to decrease the scattering and therefore increase a depth of light penetration, decrease a distortion of light beam, improve a resolution in imaging applications. Now novel methods had appeared for a measurement an optical clearing degree at a cellular level. But these methods aren't applicable in vivo. In this paper we present novel measurement method of estimate of the optical clearing, which are based on a measurement of optical trap stiffness. Our method may be applicable in vivo.

  18. Variations of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness according to the torsion direction of optic disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Hoon; Kim, Chan Yun; Kim, Na Rae

    2014-02-20

    To examine the relationship between the optic disc torsion and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness through a comparison with the macular ganglion cell inner plexiform layer complex (GCIPL) thickness measured by Cirrus optical coherence tomography (OCT). Ninety-four eyes of 94 subjects with optic disc torsion and 114 eyes of 114 subjects without optic disc torsion were enrolled prospectively. The participants underwent fundus photography and OCT imaging in peripapillary RNFL mode and macular GCIPL mode. The participants were divided into groups according to the presence or absence of optic disc torsion. The eyes with optic disc torsion were further divided into supranasal torsion and inferotemporal torsion groups according to the direction of optic disc torsion. The mean RNFL and GCIPL thicknesses for the quadrants and subsectors were compared. The superior and inferior peak locations of the RNFL were also measured according to the torsion direction. The temporal RNFL thickness was significantly thicker in inferotemporal torsion, whereas the GCIPL thickness at all segments was unaffected. The inferotemporal optic torsion had more temporally positioned superior peak locations of the RNFL than the nontorsion and supranasal-torted optic disc. Thickening of the temporal RNFL with a temporal shift in the superior peak within the eyes with inferotemporal optic disc torsion can lead to interpretation errors. The ganglion cell analysis algorithm can assist in differentiating eyes with optic disc torsion.

  19. Development and Applications of Time of Flight Neutron Depth Profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cady, Bingham; Unlu, Kenan

    2005-01-01

    The depth profiles of intentional or intrinsic constituents of a sample provide valuable information for the characterization of materials. For example, the subtle differences in spatial distribution and composition of many chemical species in the near surface region and across interfacial boundaries can significantly alter the electronic and optical properties of materials. A number of analytical techniques for depth profiling have been developed during the last two decades. neutron Depth Profiling (NDP) is one of the leading analytical techniques. The NDP is a nondestructive near surface technique that utilizes thermal/cold neutron beam to measure the concentration of specific light elements versus their depth in materials. The depth is obtained from the energy loss of protons, alphas or recoil atoms in substrate materials. Since the charged particle energy determination using surface barrier detector is used for NDP, the depth resolution is highly dependent on the detectors an d detection instruments. The depth resolutions of a few tens of nm are achieved with available NDP facilities in the world. However, the performance of NDP needs to be improved in order to obtain a few A depth resolutions

  20. Moderate Imaging Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aerosol Optical Depth Retrieval for Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmat, A.; Jalal, K. A.; Ahmad, N.

    2018-02-01

    The present study uses the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) retrieved from Moderate Imaging Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data for the period from January 2011 until December 2015 over an urban area in Kuching, Sarawak. The results show the minimum AOD value retrieved from MODIS is -0.06 and the maximum value is 6.0. High aerosol loading with high AOD value observed during dry seasons and low AOD monitored during wet seasons. Multi plane regression technique used to retrieve AOD from MODIS (AODMODIS) and different statistics parameter is proposed by using relative absolute error for accuracy assessment in spatial and temporal averaging approach. The AODMODIS then compared with AOD derived from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sunphotometer (AODAERONET) and the results shows high correlation coefficient (R2) for AODMODIS and AODAERONET with 0.93. AODMODIS used as an input parameters into Santa Barbara Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer (SBDART) model to estimate urban radiative forcing at Kuching. The observed hourly averaged for urban radiative forcing is -0.12 Wm-2 for top of atmosphere (TOA), -2.13 Wm-2 at the surface and 2.00 Wm-2 in the atmosphere. There is a moderate relationship observed between urban radiative forcing calculated using SBDART and AERONET which are 0.75 at the surface, 0.65 at TOA and 0.56 in atmosphere. Overall, variation in AOD tends to cause large bias in the estimated urban radiative forcing.

  1. Comparison of Aerosol optical depth (AOD) derived from AERONET sunphotometer and Lidar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khor, Wei Ying; Hee, Wan Shen; Tan, Fuyi; Lim, Hwee San; Jafri, Mohamad Zubir Mat; Holben, Brent

    2014-01-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is the measure of aerosols distributed within a column of air from the instrument or Earth's surface to the top of the atmosphere. In this paper, we compared the AOD measured by the Raymetrics Lidar system and AERONET sunphotometer. A total of 6 days data which was collected by both instruments were compiled and compared. Generally, AOD value calculated from Lidar data are higher than that calculated from AERONET data. Differences and similarities in the AOD data trend were observed and the corresponding explanations were done. Level 1.5 data of AERONET is estimated to have an accuracy of ±0.03, thus the Lidar data should follow the trend of the AERONET. But in this regards, this study was conducted less than one month and was very difficult to justify the differences and similarities between AOD measured by the Raymetrics Lidar system and AERONET sunphotometer. So further studies for an extended period will be needed and performed with more comprehensive LIDAR measurements. The slope of the best-fit straight line for the data points between the AOD values retrieved from LIDAR and the AERONET measurements is the closest to unity and the coefficient of determination is high (above 0. 6692). Factors which affect AOD data were discussed. As a conclusion, the trends of the AOD of both systems are similar. Yet due to some external factors, the trend will be slightly different

  2. Parameterizing the competition between homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing in cirrus cloud formation – monodisperse ice nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Barahona

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a parameterization of cirrus cloud formation that computes the ice crystal number and size distribution under the presence of homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing. The parameterization is very simple to apply and is derived from the analytical solution of the cloud parcel equations, assuming that the ice nuclei population is monodisperse and chemically homogeneous. In addition to the ice distribution, an analytical expression is provided for the limiting ice nuclei number concentration that suppresses ice formation from homogeneous freezing. The parameterization is evaluated against a detailed numerical parcel model, and reproduces numerical simulations over a wide range of conditions with an average error of 6±33%. The parameterization also compares favorably against other formulations that require some form of numerical integration.

  3. Quasi-simultaneous OCT en-face imaging with two different depth resolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podoleanu, Adrian Gh; Cucu, Radu G; Rosen, Richard B; Dobre, George M; Rogers, John A; Jackson, David A

    2003-01-01

    We report a system capable of acquiring two quasi-simultaneous en-face optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of different depth resolution (one better than 20 μm and the other between 80 and 330 μm) at a frame rate of 2 Hz. The larger depth resolution image makes it ideal for target positioning in the OCT imaging of moving organs, such as eye fundus and cornea, as well as in the alignment of stacks of en-face OCT images. This role is similar to that of the confocal channel in a previously reported dual channel OCT/confocal imaging instrument. The system presented operates as a dual channel imaging instrument, where both channels operate on the OCT principle. We illustrate the functionality of the system with examples from a coin, skin from a finger and optic nerve in vivo

  4. Multiparallel Three-Dimensional Optical Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lam K.; Price, Jeffrey H.; Kellner, Albert L.; Bravo-Zanoquera, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Multiparallel three-dimensional optical microscopy is a method of forming an approximate three-dimensional image of a microscope sample as a collection of images from different depths through the sample. The imaging apparatus includes a single microscope plus an assembly of beam splitters and mirrors that divide the output of the microscope into multiple channels. An imaging array of photodetectors in each channel is located at a different distance along the optical path from the microscope, corresponding to a focal plane at a different depth within the sample. The optical path leading to each photodetector array also includes lenses to compensate for the variation of magnification with distance so that the images ultimately formed on all the photodetector arrays are of the same magnification. The use of optical components common to multiple channels in a simple geometry makes it possible to obtain high light-transmission efficiency with an optically and mechanically simple assembly. In addition, because images can be read out simultaneously from all the photodetector arrays, the apparatus can support three-dimensional imaging at a high scanning rate.

  5. Optics for mobile phone imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigier-Blanc, Emmanuelle E.

    2004-02-01

    Micro cameras for mobile phones require specific opto electronic designs using high-resolution micro technologies for compromising optical, electronical and mechanical requirements. The purpose of this conference is to present the optical critical parameters for imaging optics embedded into mobile phones. We will overview the optics critical parameters involved into micro optical cameras, as seen from user point of view, and their interdependence and relative influence onto optical performances of the product, as: -Focal length, field of view and array size. -Lens speed and depth of field: what is hidden behind lens speed, how to compromise small aperture, production tolerances, sensitivity, good resolution in corners and great depth of field -Relative illumination, this smooth fall off of intensity toward edge of array -Resolution; how to measure it, the interaction of pixel size, small dimensions -Sensitivity, insuring same sensitivity as human being under both twilight and midday sunny conditions. -Mischievous effects, as flare, glare, ghost effects and how to avoid them -How to match sensor spectrum and photopic eye curve: IR filter, and color balancing. We will compromise above parameters and see how to match with market needs and productivity insurance.

  6. Quantitative Assessment of Hyaline Cartilage Elasticity During Optical Clearing Using Optical Coherence Elastography

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-Hao Liu; Manmohan Singh; Jiasong Li; Zhaolong Han; Chen Wu; Shang Wang; Rita Idugboe; Raksha Raghunathan; Emil N. Sobol; Valery V. Tuchin; Michael Twa; Kirill V. Larin

    2015-01-01

    Tissue optical clearing is an emerging technique for dynamically modifying tissue optical properties to increase imaging depth, which is useful in applications such as imaging and functional diagnostics of many diseases. For example, optical clearing of cartilage allowed imaging of subchondral bone that is used to assess orthopedic diseases. However, the effect of the clearing processes on tissue elastic properties has not been investigated yet. In this study we report the first use of phase-...

  7. Ice nucleation and dehydration in the Tropical Tropopause Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric J; Diskin, Glenn; Lawson, R Paul; Lance, Sara; Bui, T Paul; Hlavka, Dennis; McGill, Matthew; Pfister, Leonhard; Toon, Owen B; Gao, Rushan

    2013-02-05

    Optically thin cirrus near the tropical tropopause regulate the humidity of air entering the stratosphere, which in turn has a strong influence on the Earth's radiation budget and climate. Recent high-altitude, unmanned aircraft measurements provide evidence for two distinct classes of cirrus formed in the tropical tropopause region: (i) vertically extensive cirrus with low ice number concentrations, low extinctions, and large supersaturations (up to ∼70%) with respect to ice; and (ii) vertically thin cirrus layers with much higher ice concentrations that effectively deplete the vapor in excess of saturation. The persistent supersaturation in the former class of cirrus is consistent with the long time-scales (several hours or longer) for quenching of vapor in excess of saturation given the low ice concentrations and cold tropical tropopause temperatures. The low-concentration clouds are likely formed on a background population of insoluble particles with concentrations less than 100 L(-1) (often less than 20 L(-1)), whereas the high ice concentration layers (with concentrations up to 10,000 L(-1)) can only be produced by homogeneous freezing of an abundant population of aqueous aerosols. These measurements, along with past high-altitude aircraft measurements, indicate that the low-concentration cirrus occur frequently in the tropical tropopause region, whereas the high-concentration cirrus occur infrequently. The predominance of the low-concentration clouds means cirrus near the tropical tropopause may typically allow entry of air into the stratosphere with as much as ∼1.7 times the ice saturation mixing ratio.

  8. Depth-encoded all-fiber swept source polarization sensitive OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Ahsen, Osman Oguz; Lee, ByungKun; Choi, WooJhon; Potsaid, Benjamin; Liu, Jonathan; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Cable, Alex; Kraus, Martin F.; Liang, Kaicheng; Hornegger, Joachim; Fujimoto, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is a functional extension of conventional OCT and can assess depth-resolved tissue birefringence in addition to intensity. Most existing PS-OCT systems are relatively complex and their clinical translation remains difficult. We present a simple and robust all-fiber PS-OCT system based on swept source technology and polarization depth-encoding. Polarization multiplexing was achieved using a polarization maintaining fiber. Polarization sensitive signals were detected using fiber based polarization beam splitters and polarization controllers were used to remove the polarization ambiguity. A simplified post-processing algorithm was proposed for speckle noise reduction relaxing the demand for phase stability. We demonstrated systems design for both ophthalmic and catheter-based PS-OCT. For ophthalmic imaging, we used an optical clock frequency doubling method to extend the imaging range of a commercially available short cavity light source to improve polarization depth-encoding. For catheter based imaging, we demonstrated 200 kHz PS-OCT imaging using a MEMS-tunable vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) and a high speed micromotor imaging catheter. The system was demonstrated in human retina, finger and lip imaging, as well as ex vivo swine esophagus and cardiovascular imaging. The all-fiber PS-OCT is easier to implement and maintain compared to previous PS-OCT systems and can be more easily translated to clinical applications due to its robust design. PMID:25401008

  9. Climatological aspects of aerosol optical properties in Northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gerasopoulos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of aerosol optical properties (aerosol optical depth, scattering and backscattering coefficients have been conducted at two ground-based sites in Northern Greece, Ouranoupolis (40° 23' N, 23° 57' E, 170 m a.s.l. and Thessaloniki (40° 38' N, 22° 57' E, 80 m a.s.l., between 1999 and 2002. The frequency distributions of the observed parameters have revealed the presence of individual modes of high and low values, indicating the influence from different sources. At both sites, the mean aerosol optical depth at 500 nm was 0.23. Values increase considerably during summer when they remain persistently between 0.3 and 0.5, going up to 0.7-0.8 during specific cases. The mean value of 65±40 Mm-1 of the particle scattering coefficient at 550 nm reflects the impact of continental pollution in the regional boundary layer. Trajectory analysis has shown that higher values of aerosol optical depth and the scattering coefficient are found in the east sector (former Soviet Union countries, eastern Balkan countries, whereas cleaner conditions are found for the NW direction. The influence of Sahara dust events is clearly reflected in the Ångström exponents. About 45-60% of the observed diurnal variation of the optical properties was attributed to the growth of aerosols with humidity, while the rest of the variability is in phase with the evolution of the sea-breeze cell. The contribution of local pollution is estimated to contribute 35±10% to the average aerosol optical depth at the Thessaloniki site during summer. Finally, the aerosol scale height (aerosol optical depth divided by scattering coefficient was found to be related to the height of the boundary layer with values between 0.5-1 km during winter and up to 2.5-3 km during summer.

  10. An algorithm for estimating aerosol optical depth from HIMAWARI-8 data over Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwon Ho

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents currently developing algorithm for aerosol detection and retrieval over ocean for the next generation geostationary satellite, HIMAWARI-8. Enhanced geostationary remote sensing observations are now enables for aerosol retrieval of dust, smoke, and ash, which began a new era of geostationary aerosol observations. Sixteen channels of the Advanced HIMAWARI Imager (AHI) onboard HIMAWARI-8 offer capabilities for aerosol remote sensing similar to those currently provided by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Aerosols were estimated in detection processing from visible and infrared channel radiances, and in retrieval processing using the inversion-optimization of satellite-observed radiances with those calculated from radiative transfer model. The retrievals are performed operationally every ten minutes for pixel sizes of ~8 km. The algorithm currently under development uses a multichannel approach to estimate the effective radius, aerosol optical depth (AOD) simultaneously. The instantaneous retrieved AOD is evaluated by the MODIS level 2 operational aerosol products (C006), and the daily retrieved AOD was compared with ground-based measurements from the AERONET databases. The results show that the detection of aerosol and estimated AOD are in good agreement with the MODIS data and ground measurements with a correlation coefficient of ˜0.90 and a bias of 4%. These results suggest that the proposed method applied to the HIMAWARI-8 satellite data can accurately estimate continuous AOD. Acknowledgments This work was supported by "Development of Geostationary Meteorological Satellite Ground Segment(NMSC-2014-01)" program funded by National Meteorological Satellite Centre(NMSC) of Korea Meteorological Administration(KMA).

  11. An aerosol optical depth climatology for NOAA's national surface radiation budget network (SURFRAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, John A.; Hodges, Gary B.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Cornwall, Christopher R.

    2008-06-01

    A series of algorithms developed to process spectral solar measurements for aerosol optical depth (AOD) for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) national surface radiation budget network (SURFRAD) is summarized, and decadal results are presented. AOD is a measure of the extinction of the Sun's beam due to aerosols. Daily files of AOD for five spectral measurements in the visible and near-infrared have been produced for 1997-2006. Comparisons of SURFRAD daily AOD averages to NASA's Aerosol Robotic Network product at two of the stations were generally good. An AOD climatology for each SURFRAD station is presented as an annual time series of composite monthly means that represents a typical intra-annual AOD variation. Results are similar to previous U.S. climatologies in that the highest AOD magnitude and greatest variability occur in summer, the lowest AOD levels are in winter, and geographically, the highest-magnitude AOD is in the eastern United States. Springtime Asian dust intrusions show up as a secondary maximum at the western stations. A time series of nationwide annual means shows that 500-nm AOD has decreased over the United States by about 0.02 AOD units over the 10-year period. However, this decline is not statistically significant nor geographically consistent within the country. The eastern U.S. stations and westernmost station at Desert Rock, Nevada, show decreasing AOD, whereas the other two western stations show an increase that is attributed to an upsurge in wildfire activity in the last half of the decade.

  12. Inferring river bathymetry via Image-to-Depth Quantile Transformation (IDQT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legleiter, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Conventional, regression-based methods of inferring depth from passive optical image data undermine the advantages of remote sensing for characterizing river systems. This study introduces and evaluates a more flexible framework, Image-to-Depth Quantile Transformation (IDQT), that involves linking the frequency distribution of pixel values to that of depth. In addition, a new image processing workflow involving deep water correction and Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) transformation can reduce a hyperspectral data set to a single variable related to depth and thus suitable for input to IDQT. Applied to a gravel bed river, IDQT avoided negative depth estimates along channel margins and underpredictions of pool depth. Depth retrieval accuracy (R25 0.79) and precision (0.27 m) were comparable to an established band ratio-based method, although a small shallow bias (0.04 m) was observed. Several ways of specifying distributions of pixel values and depths were evaluated but had negligible impact on the resulting depth estimates, implying that IDQT was robust to these implementation details. In essence, IDQT uses frequency distributions of pixel values and depths to achieve an aspatial calibration; the image itself provides information on the spatial distribution of depths. The approach thus reduces sensitivity to misalignment between field and image data sets and allows greater flexibility in the timing of field data collection relative to image acquisition, a significant advantage in dynamic channels. IDQT also creates new possibilities for depth retrieval in the absence of field data if a model could be used to predict the distribution of depths within a reach.

  13. Reducing Multisensor Satellite Monthly Mean Aerosol Optical Depth Uncertainty: 1. Objective Assessment of Current AERONET Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Li, Xichen; Carlson, Barbara E.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Lacis, Andrew A.; Dubovik, Oleg; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2016-01-01

    Various space-based sensors have been designed and corresponding algorithms developed to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD), the very basic aerosol optical property, yet considerable disagreement still exists across these different satellite data sets. Surface-based observations aim to provide ground truth for validating satellite data; hence, their deployment locations should preferably contain as much spatial information as possible, i.e., high spatial representativeness. Using a novel Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF)- based approach, we objectively evaluate the spatial representativeness of current Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites. Multisensor monthly mean AOD data sets from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer, Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor, Ozone Monitoring Instrument, and Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar are combined into a 605-member ensemble, and AERONET data are considered as the observations to be assimilated into this ensemble using the EnKF. The assessment is made by comparing the analysis error variance (that has been constrained by ground-based measurements), with the background error variance (based on satellite data alone). Results show that the total uncertainty is reduced by approximately 27% on average and could reach above 50% over certain places. The uncertainty reduction pattern also has distinct seasonal patterns, corresponding to the spatial distribution of seasonally varying aerosol types, such as dust in the spring for Northern Hemisphere and biomass burning in the fall for Southern Hemisphere. Dust and biomass burning sites have the highest spatial representativeness, rural and oceanic sites can also represent moderate spatial information, whereas the representativeness of urban sites is relatively localized. A spatial score ranging from 1 to 3 is assigned to each AERONET site based on the uncertainty

  14. Quantum dot imaging in the second near-infrared optical window: studies on reflectance fluorescence imaging depths by effective fluence rate and multiple image acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yebin; Jeong, Sanghwa; Nayoun, Won; Ahn, Boeun; Kwag, Jungheon; Geol Kim, Sang; Kim, Sungjee

    2015-04-01

    Quantum dot (QD) imaging capability was investigated by the imaging depth at a near-infrared second optical window (SOW; 1000 to 1400 nm) using time-modulated pulsed laser excitations to control the effective fluence rate. Various media, such as liquid phantoms, tissues, and in vivo small animals, were used and the imaging depths were compared with our predicted values. The QD imaging depth under excitation of continuous 20 mW/cm2 laser was determined to be 10.3 mm for 2 wt% hemoglobin phantom medium and 5.85 mm for 1 wt% intralipid phantom, which were extended by more than two times on increasing the effective fluence rate to 2000 mW/cm2. Bovine liver and porcine skin tissues also showed similar enhancement in the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) values. A QD sample was inserted into the abdomen of a mouse. With a higher effective fluence rate, the CNR increased more than twofold and the QD sample became clearly visualized, which was completely undetectable under continuous excitation. Multiple acquisitions of QD images and averaging process pixel by pixel were performed to overcome the thermal noise issue of the detector in SOW, which yielded significant enhancement in the imaging capability, showing up to a 1.5 times increase in the CNR.

  15. Depth distributions of light action spectra for skin chromophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barun, V. V.; Ivanov, A. P.

    2010-03-01

    Light action spectra over wavelengths of 300-1000 nm are calculated for components of the human cutaneous covering: melanin, basal (bloodless) tissue, and blood oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin. The transformation of the spectra with depth in biological tissue results from two factors. The first is the wavelength dependence of the absorption coefficient corresponding to a particular skin chromophore and the second is the spectral selectivity of the radiation flux in biological tissue. This factor is related to the optical properties of all chromophores. A significant change is found to take place in the spectral distribution of absorbed radiant power with increasing depth. The action spectrum of light for the molecular oxygen contained in all components of biological tissue is also studied in the 625-645 nm range. The spectra are found to change with both the volume fraction of blood vessels and the degree of oxygenation of the blood. These results are useful for analyzing processes associated with optical absorption that are possible mechanisms for the interaction of light with biological tissues: photodissociation of oxyhemoglobin and the light-oxygen effect.

  16. Are galaxy discs optically thick?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, Michael; Davies, Jonathan; Phillipps, Steven

    1989-01-01

    We re-examine the classical optical evidence for the low optical depths traditionally assigned to spiral discs and argue that it is highly model-dependent and unconvincing. In particular, layered models with a physically thin but optically thick dust layer behave like optically thin discs. The opposite hypotheses, that such discs are optically thick is then examined in the light of modern evidence. We find it to be consistent with the near-infrared and IRAS observations, with the surface brightnesses, with the HI and CO column densities and with the Hα measurements. (author)

  17. Front lighted optical tooling method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    An optical tooling method and apparatus uses a front lighted shadowgraphic technique to enhance visual contrast of reflected light. The apparatus includes an optical assembly including a fiducial mark, such as cross hairs, reflecting polarized light with a first polarization, a polarizing element backing the fiducial mark and a reflective surface backing the polarizing element for reflecting polarized light bypassing the fiducial mark and traveling through the polarizing element. The light reflected by the reflecting surface is directed through a second pass of the polarizing element toward the frontal direction with a polarization differing from the polarization of the light reflected by the fiducial mark. When used as a tooling target, the optical assembly may be mounted directly to a reference surface or may be secured in a mounting, such as a magnetic mounting. The optical assembly may also be mounted in a plane defining structure and used as a spherometer in conjunction with an optical depth measuring instrument. A method of measuring a radius of curvature of an unknown surface includes positioning the spherometer on a surface between the surface and a depth measuring optical instrument. As the spherometer is frontally illuminated, the distance from the depth measuring instrument to the fiducial mark and the underlying surface are alternately measured and the difference in these measurements is used as the sagittal height to calculate a radius of curvature

  18. A characterization of Arctic aerosols on the basis of aerosol optical depth and black carbon measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Stone

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aerosols, transported from distant source regions, influence the Arctic surface radiation budget. When deposited on snow and ice, carbonaceous particles can reduce the surface albedo, which accelerates melting, leading to a temperature-albedo feedback that amplifies Arctic warming. Black carbon (BC, in particular, has been implicated as a major warming agent at high latitudes. BC and co-emitted aerosols in the atmosphere, however, attenuate sunlight and radiatively cool the surface. Warming by soot deposition and cooling by atmospheric aerosols are referred to as “darkening” and “dimming” effects, respectively. In this study, climatologies of spectral aerosol optical depth AOD (2001–2011 and Equivalent BC (EBC (1989–2011 from three Arctic observatories and from a number of aircraft campaigns are used to characterize Arctic aerosols. Since the 1980s, concentrations of BC in the Arctic have decreased by more than 50% at ground stations where in situ observations are made. AOD has increased slightly during the past decade, with variations attributed to changing emission inventories and source strengths of natural aerosols, including biomass smoke and volcanic aerosol, further influenced by deposition rates and airflow patterns.

  19. Subjective method of refractometry and depth of focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai M. Sergienko

    2012-04-01

    Conclusion: The traditional method of subjective refractometry with application of trial lenses was developed on the basis of data of large optical aberrations and significant depth of focus which values should be taken into account during interpretation of results of subjective refractometry. Our data regarding to prevalence of emmetropic refraction falls in line with basic science provisions in respect of the physiology of the eye.

  20. Long-term analysis of aerosol optical depth over Northeast Asia using a satellite-based measurement: MI Yonsei Aerosol Retrieval Algorithm (YAER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijin; Kim, Jhoon; Yoon, Jongmin; Chung, Chu-Yong; Chung, Sung-Rae

    2017-04-01

    In 2010, the Korean geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellite, the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS), was launched including the Meteorological Imager (MI). The MI measures atmospheric condition over Northeast Asia (NEA) using a single visible channel centered at 0.675 μm and four IR channels at 3.75, 6.75, 10.8, 12.0 μm. The visible measurement can also be utilized for the retrieval of aerosol optical properties (AOPs). Since the GEO satellite measurement has an advantage for continuous monitoring of AOPs, we can analyze the spatiotemporal variation of the aerosol using the MI observations over NEA. Therefore, we developed an algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) using the visible observation of MI, and named as MI Yonsei Aerosol Retrieval Algorithm (YAER). In this study, we investigated the accuracy of MI YAER AOD by comparing the values with the long-term products of AERONET sun-photometer. The result showed that the MI AODs were significantly overestimated than the AERONET values over bright surface in low AOD case. Because the MI visible channel centered at red color range, contribution of aerosol signal to the measured reflectance is relatively lower than the surface contribution. Therefore, the AOD error in low AOD case over bright surface can be a fundamental limitation of the algorithm. Meanwhile, an assumption of background aerosol optical depth (BAOD) could result in the retrieval uncertainty, also. To estimate the surface reflectance by considering polluted air condition over the NEA, we estimated the BAOD from the MODIS dark target (DT) aerosol products by pixel. The satellite-based AOD retrieval, however, largely depends on the accuracy of the surface reflectance estimation especially in low AOD case, and thus, the BAOD could include the uncertainty in surface reflectance estimation of the satellite-based retrieval. Therefore, we re-estimated the BAOD using the ground-based sun-photometer measurement, and

  1. Interference of Heavy Aerosol Loading on the VIIRS Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD Retrieval Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol optical depth (AOD has been widely used in climate research, atmospheric environmental observations, and other applications. However, high AOD retrieval remains challenging over heavily polluted regions, such as the North China Plain (NCP. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS, which was designed as a successor to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, will undertake the aerosol observations mission in the coming years. Using the VIIRS AOD retrieval algorithm as an example, we analyzed the influence of heavy aerosol loading through the 6SV radiative transfer model (RTM with a focus on three aspects: cloud masking, ephemeral water body tests, and data quality estimation. First, certain pixels were mistakenly screened out as clouds and ephemeral water bodies because of heavy aerosols, resulting in the loss of AOD retrievals. Second, the greenness of the surface could not be accurately identified by the top of atmosphere (TOA index, and the quality of the aggregation data may be artificially high. Thus, the AOD retrieval algorithm did not perform satisfactorily, indicated by the low availability of data coverage (at least 37.97% of all data records were missing according to ground-based observations and overestimation of the data quality (high-quality data increased from 63.42% to 80.97% according to radiative simulations. To resolve these problems, the implementation of a spatial variability cloud mask method and surficial index are suggested in order to improve the algorithm.

  2. A Raman lidar at La Reunion (20.8° S, 55.5° E for monitoring water vapour and cirrus distributions in the subtropical upper troposphere: preliminary analyses and description of a future system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hoareau

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A ground-based Rayleigh lidar has provided continuous observations of tropospheric water vapour profiles and cirrus cloud using a preliminary Raman channels setup on an existing Rayleigh lidar above La Reunion over the period 2002–2005. With this instrument, we performed a first measurement campaign of 350 independent water vapour profiles. A statistical study of the distribution of water vapour profiles is presented and some investigations concerning the calibration are discussed. Analysis regarding the cirrus clouds is presented and a classification has been performed showing 3 distinct classes. Based on these results, the characteristics and the design of a future lidar system, to be implemented at the new Reunion Island altitude observatory (2200 m for long-term monitoring, is presented and numerical simulations of system performance have been realised to compare both instruments.

  3. Nonlinear optical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lugiato, Luigi; Brambilla, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Guiding graduate students and researchers through the complex world of laser physics and nonlinear optics, this book provides an in-depth exploration of the dynamics of lasers and other relevant optical systems, under the umbrella of a unitary spatio-temporal vision. Adopting a balanced approach, the book covers traditional as well as special topics in laser physics, quantum electronics and nonlinear optics, treating them from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamical systems. These include laser emission, frequency generation, solitons, optically bistable systems, pulsations and chaos and optical pattern formation. It also provides a coherent and up-to-date treatment of the hierarchy of nonlinear optical models and of the rich variety of phenomena they describe, helping readers to understand the limits of validity of each model and the connections among the phenomena. It is ideal for graduate students and researchers in nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics and photonics.

  4. Possible influences of Asian dust aerosols on cloud properties and radiative forcing observed from MODIS and CERES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianping; Minnis, Patrick; Lin, Bing; Wang, Tianhe; Yi, Yuhong; Hu, Yongxiang; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Ayers, Kirk

    2006-03-01

    The effects of dust storms on cloud properties and Radiative Forcing (RF) are analyzed over Northwestern China from April 2001 to June 2004 using data collected by the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on the Aqua and Terra satellites. On average, ice cloud effective particle diameter, optical depth and ice water path of cirrus clouds under dust polluted conditions are 11%, 32.8%, and 42% less, respectively, than those derived from ice clouds in dust-free atmospheric environments. Due to changes in cloud microphysics, the instantaneous net RF is increased from -161.6 W/m2 for dust-free clouds to -118.6 W/m2 for dust-contaminated clouds.

  5. The Two-Column Aerosol Project: Phase I - Overview and Impact of Elevated Aerosol Layers on Aerosol Optical Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Barnard, James C.; Burton, Sharon P.; Cairns, Brian; Chand, Duli; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Dunagan, Stephen; Ferrare, Richard A.; Flynn, Connor J.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP), conducted from June 2012 through June 2013, was a unique study designed to provide a comprehensive data set that can be used to investigate a number of important climate science questions, including those related to aerosol mixing state and aerosol radiative forcing. The study was