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Sample records for cirrus cloud properties

  1. Measurement errors in cirrus cloud microphysical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Larsen

    Full Text Available The limited accuracy of current cloud microphysics sensors used in cirrus cloud studies imposes limitations on the use of the data to examine the cloud's broadband radiative behaviour, an important element of the global energy balance. We review the limitations of the instruments, PMS probes, most widely used for measuring the microphysical structure of cirrus clouds and show the effect of these limitations on descriptions of the cloud radiative properties. The analysis is applied to measurements made as part of the European Cloud and Radiation Experiment (EUCREX to determine mid-latitude cirrus microphysical and radiative properties.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (cloud physics and chemistry · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics · Radiative processes · Instruments and techniques

  2. Estimating cirrus cloud properties from MIPAS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendrok, J.; Schreier, F.; Höpfner, M.

    2007-04-01

    High resolution mid-infrared limb emission spectra observed by the spaceborne Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) showing evidence of cloud interference are analyzed. Using the new line-by-line multiple scattering [Approximate] Spherical Atmospheric Radiative Transfer code (SARTre), a sensitivity study with respect to cirrus cloud parameters, e.g., optical thickness and particle size distribution, is performed. Cirrus properties are estimated by fitting spectra in three distinct microwindows between 8 and 12 μm. For a cirrus with extremely low ice water path (IWP = 0.1 g/m2) and small effective particle size (D e = 10 μm) simulated spectra are in close agreement with observations in broadband signal and fine structures. We show that a multi-microwindow technique enhances reliability of MIPAS cirrus retrievals compared to single microwindow methods.

  3. Microphysical properties of contrails and natural cirrus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, B.; Wendling, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The radiative properties of a condensation trail (contrail) are determined by its microphysical properties. Therefore an understanding of the concentration, size distribution, and shapes of the particles is necessary for an estimation of the climatic impact of contrails. In-situ particle measurements by use of an ice replicator are presented for several contrail and cirrus events. Contrail particles aged about 2 minutes show shapes which are nearly spherical. Typical sizes are 5 to 10 {mu}m. Concentration values reach up to the order of 1000 cm{sup -3}. Aged contrail size distributions are within the variability of those found in natural cirrus clouds. (author) 2 refs.

  4. Fractal properties and denoising of lidar signals from cirrus clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, J.C. van den; Driesenaar, M.L.; Lerou, R.J.L.

    2000-01-01

    Airborne lidar signals of cirrus clouds are analyzed to determine the cloud structure. Climate modeling and numerical weather prediction benefit from accurate modeling of cirrus clouds. Airborne lidar measurements of the European Lidar in Space Technology Experiment (ELITE) campaign were analyzed by

  5. Cirrus cloud properties measurement using lidar in Beijing

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    Ji, Chengli; Tao, Zongming; Hu, Shunxing; Che, Huizheng; Yu, Jie; Feng, Caiyun; Xie, Chenbo; Liu, Dong; Zhong, Zhiqing; Yuan, Ke'e.; Cao, Kaifa; Huang, Jian; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Yingjian; Chen, Zhenyi

    2016-01-01

    Cirrus cloud has an important effect on the radiation balance between the earth's surface and the atmosphere. The vertical structures, optical depth and effective lidar ratio of cirrus cloud detected by Mie scattering-polarization-Raman lidar system in Beijing from April 11 to December 31, 2012 are analyzed. The results show that the cloud height in Beijing is lower in spring and higher in autumn, with a mean value of about 8km. The mean of cloud thickness is 0.74km. The mean of optical depth is 0.092, and most observed cirrus cloud is thin while optical depth is less than 0.3. The effective lidar ratio of cirrus is lower in summer and higher in winter, inversely related to local temperature, with a mean value of 32.29Sr.

  6. Investigation of tropical cirrus cloud properties using ground based lidar measurements

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    Dhaman, Reji K.; Satyanarayana, Malladi; Krishnakumar, V.; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.; Jayeshlal, G. S.; Raghunath, K.; Venkat Ratnam, M.

    2016-05-01

    Cirrus clouds play a significant role in the Earths radiation budget. Therefore, knowledge of geometrical and optical properties of cirrus cloud is essential for the climate modeling. In this paper, the cirrus clouds microphysical and optical properties are made by using a ground based lidar measurements over an inland tropical station Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E), Andhra Pradesh, India. The variation of cirrus microphysical and optical properties with mid cloud temperature is also studied. The cirrus clouds mean height is generally observed in the range of 9-17km with a peak occurrence at 13- 14km. The cirrus mid cloud temperature ranges from -81°C to -46°C. The cirrus geometrical thickness ranges from 0.9- 4.5km. During the cirrus occurrence days sub-visual, thin and dense cirrus were at 37.5%, 50% and 12.5% respectively. The monthly cirrus optical depth ranges from 0.01-0.47, but most (extinction ranges from 2.8E-06 to 8E-05 and depolarization ratio and lidar ratio varies from 0.13 to 0.77 and 2 to 52 sr respectively. A positive correlation exists for both optical depth and extinction with the mid-cloud temperature. The lidar ratio shows a scattered behavior with mid-cloud temperature.

  7. Properties of subvisible cirrus clouds formed by homogeneous freezing

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    B. Kärcher

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Number concentrations and mean sizes of ice crystals and derived microphysical and optical properties of subvisible cirrus clouds (SVCs formed by homogeneous freezing of supercooled aerosols are investigated as a function of temperature and updraft speed of adiabatically ascending air parcels. The properties of such clouds are insensitive to variations of the aerosol number and size distribution. Based on criteria constraining the optical extinction, sedimentation time, and existence time of SVCs, longer-lived (>10 min clouds, capable of exerting a measurable radiative or chemical impact, are generated within a narrow range of updraft speeds below 1 - 2 cm s -1 at temperatures below about 215K, with concentrations of ice crystals not exceeding 0.1 cm-3. The clouds do not reach an equilibrium state because the ice crystals sediment out of the formation layer typically before the supersaturation is removed. Given these results, it seems likely that a limited number (<0.1 cm-3 of effective heterogeneous freezing nuclei that nucleate ice below the homogeneous freezing threshold can control the formation and properties of SVCs, although homogeneous freezing nuclei are far more abundant.

  8. Climatological and radiative properties of midlatitude cirrus clouds derived by automatic evaluation of lidar measurements

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    Kienast-Sjögren, Erika; Rolf, Christian; Seifert, Patric; Krieger, Ulrich K.; Luo, Bei P.; Krämer, Martina; Peter, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Cirrus, i.e., high, thin clouds that are fully glaciated, play an important role in the Earth's radiation budget as they interact with both long- and shortwave radiation and affect the water vapor budget of the upper troposphere and stratosphere. Here, we present a climatology of midlatitude cirrus clouds measured with the same type of ground-based lidar at three midlatitude research stations: at the Swiss high alpine Jungfraujoch station (3580 m a.s.l.), in Zürich (Switzerland, 510 m a.s.l.), and in Jülich (Germany, 100 m a.s.l.). The analysis is based on 13 000 h of measurements from 2010 to 2014. To automatically evaluate this extensive data set, we have developed the Fast LIdar Cirrus Algorithm (FLICA), which combines a pixel-based cloud-detection scheme with the classic lidar evaluation techniques. We find mean cirrus optical depths of 0.12 on Jungfraujoch and of 0.14 and 0.17 in Zürich and Jülich, respectively. Above Jungfraujoch, subvisible cirrus clouds (τ change in cloud morphology at Jungfraujoch above ˜ 13 km, possibly because high particle number densities form in the observed cirrus clouds, when many ice crystals nucleate in the high supersaturations following rapid uplifts in lee waves above mountainous terrain. The retrieved optical properties are used as input for a radiative transfer model to estimate the net cloud radiative forcing, CRFNET, for the analyzed cirrus clouds. All cirrus detected here have a positive CRFNET. This confirms that these thin, high cirrus have a warming effect on the Earth's climate, whereas cooling clouds typically have cloud edges too low in altitude to satisfy the FLICA criterion of temperatures below -38 °C. We find CRFNET = 0.9 W m-2 for Jungfraujoch and 1.0 W m-2 (1.7 W m-2) for Zürich (Jülich). Further, we calculate that subvisible cirrus (τ < 0.03) contribute about 5 %, thin cirrus (0.03 < τ < 0.3) about 45 %, and opaque cirrus (0.3 < τ) about 50 % of the total cirrus radiative forcing.

  9. Cirrus Cloud Macrophysical and Optical Properties over North China from CALIOP Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN Min; WANG Pucai; James R. CAMPBELL; ZONG Xuemei; XIA Junrong

    2011-01-01

    Two years of mid-latitude cirrus cloud macrophysical and optical properties over North China are described from Earth-orbiting Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) satellite measurements. Global cloud climatological studies based on active remote sensing data sets benefit from more accurate resolution of vertical structure and more reliable detection of optically thin layers. The mean values for cirrus cases over North China are 0.19-0.18 for infrared emittance, 0.41±0.68 for visible optical depth,0.26±0.12 for integrated depolarization ratio, and 0.72±0.22 for integrated color ratio. When studied using reasonable assumptions for the relationship between extinction and ice crystal backscatter coefficients, our results show that most of the cirrus clouds profiled using the 0.532 μm channel data stream correspond with an optical depth of less than 1.0. The dependence of cirrus cloud properties on cirrus cloud mid-cloud temperature and geometry thickness are generally similar to the results derived from the ground-based lidar,which are mainly impacted by the adiabatic process on the ice cloud content. However, the differences in macrophysical parameter variability indicate the limits of spaceborne-lidar and dissimilarities in regional climate variability and the nature and source of cloud nuclei in different geographical regions.

  10. Cirrus Cloud Macrophysical and Optical Properties over North China from CALIOP Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Two years of mid-latitude cirrus cloud macrophysical and optical properties over North China are described from Earth-orbiting Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization(CALIOP) satellite measurements. Global cloud climatological studies based on active remote sensing data sets benefit from more accurate resolution of vertical structure and more reliable detection of optically thin layers.The mean values for cirrus cases over North China are 0.19±0.18 for infrared emittance,0.41±0.68 for visible optical depth, 0.26±0.12 for integrated depolarization ratio,and 0.72±0.22 for integrated color ratio.When studied using reasonable assumptions for the relationship between extinction and ice crystal backscatter coefficients,our results show that most of the cirrus clouds profiled using the 0.532μm channel data stream correspond with an optical depth of less than 1.0.The dependence of cirrus cloud properties on cirrus cloud mid-cloud temperature and geometry thickness are generally similar to the results derived from the ground-based lidar, which are mainly impacted by the adiabatic process on the ice cloud content.However,the differences in macrophysical parameter variability indicate the limits of spaceborne-lidar and dissimilarities in regional climate variability and the nature and source of cloud nuclei in different geographical regions.

  11. Impacts of cloud heterogeneities on cirrus optical properties retrieved from spatial thermal infrared radiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Fauchez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study, based on simulations, of the impact of cirrus cloud heterogeneities on the retrieval of cloud parameters (optical thickness and effective diameter for the Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR on board CALIPSO. Cirrus clouds are generated by the stochastic model 3DCLOUD for two different cloud fields and for several averaged cloud parameters. One is obtained from a cirrus observed on the 25 May 2007 during the airborne campaign CIRCLE-2 and the other is a cirrus uncinus. The radiative transfer is simulated with the code 3DMCPOL. To assess the errors due to cloud heterogeneities, two related retrieval algorithms are used: (i The split window technique to retrieve the ice crystal effective diameter and (ii an algorithm similar to the IIR operational algorithm to retrieve the effective emissivity and the effective optical thickness. Differences between input parameters and retrieved parameters are compared as a function of different cloud properties such as the mean optical thickness, the heterogeneity parameter and the effective diameter. The optical thickness heterogeneity for each 1 km × 1 km observation pixel is represented by the optical thickness standard deviation computed using 100 m × 100 m subpixels. We show that optical thickness heterogeneity may have a strong impact on the retrieved parameters, mainly due to the Plane Parallel Approximation (PPA. In particular, for cirrus cloud with ice crystal size of approximately 10 μm, the averaged error on the retrieved effective diameter is about 2.5 μm (~ 25% and on the effective optical thickness of about −0.20 (~ 12%. Then, these biases decrease with the increase of the ice effective size due to a decrease of the cloud absorption and thus of the PPA bias. Cloud heterogeneity effects are much more higher than other possible sources of error. They become larger than the retrieval incertitude of the IIR algorithm from a standard deviation of the optical thickness

  12. Optical and geometrical properties of cirrus clouds in Amazonia derived from 1 year of ground-based lidar measurements

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    Gouveia, Diego A.; Barja, Boris; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Seifert, Patric; Baars, Holger; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Artaxo, Paulo

    2017-03-01

    Cirrus clouds cover a large fraction of tropical latitudes and play an important role in Earth's radiation budget. Their optical properties, altitude, vertical and horizontal coverage control their radiative forcing, and hence detailed cirrus measurements at different geographical locations are of utmost importance. Studies reporting cirrus properties over tropical rain forests like the Amazon, however, are scarce. Studies with satellite profilers do not give information on the diurnal cycle, and the satellite imagers do not report on the cloud vertical structure. At the same time, ground-based lidar studies are restricted to a few case studies. In this paper, we derive the first comprehensive statistics of optical and geometrical properties of upper-tropospheric cirrus clouds in Amazonia. We used 1 year (July 2011 to June 2012) of ground-based lidar atmospheric observations north of Manaus, Brazil. This dataset was processed by an automatic cloud detection and optical properties retrieval algorithm. Upper-tropospheric cirrus clouds were observed more frequently than reported previously for tropical regions. The frequency of occurrence was found to be as high as 88 % during the wet season and not lower than 50 % during the dry season. The diurnal cycle shows a minimum around local noon and maximum during late afternoon, associated with the diurnal cycle of precipitation. The mean values of cirrus cloud top and base heights, cloud thickness, and cloud optical depth were 14.3 ± 1.9 (SD) km, 12.9 ± 2.2 km, 1.4 ± 1.1 km, and 0.25 ± 0.46, respectively. Cirrus clouds were found at temperatures down to -90 °C. Frequently cirrus were observed within the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), which are likely associated to slow mesoscale uplifting or to the remnants of overshooting convection. The vertical distribution was not uniform, and thin and subvisible cirrus occurred more frequently closer to the tropopause. The mean lidar ratio was 23.3 ± 8.0 sr. However, for

  13. Correlations among the Optical Properties of Cirrus-Cloud Particles: Microphysical Interpretation

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    Reichardt, J.; Reichardt, S.; Hess, M.; McGee, T. J.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Cirrus measurements obtained with a ground-based polarization Raman lidar at 67.9 deg N in January 1997 reveal a strong positive correlation between the particle optical properties, specifically depolarization ratio delta(sub par) and extinction- to-backscatter (lidar) ratio S, for delta(sub par) less than approximately 40%, and an anti-correlation for delta(sub par) greater than approximately 40%. Over the length of the measurements the particle properties vary systematically. Initially, delta (sub par) approximately equals 60% and S approximately equals 10sr are observed. Then, with decreasing delta(sub par), S first increases to approximately 27sr (delta(sub par) approximately equals 40%) before decreasing to values around 10sr again (delta(sub par) approximately equals 20%). The analysis of lidar humidity and radiosonde temperature data shows that the measured optical properties stem from scattering by dry solid ice particles, while scattering by supercooled droplets, or by wetted or subliming ice particles can be excluded. For the microphysical interpretation of the lidar measurements, ray-tracing computations of particle scattering properties have been used. The comparison with the theoretical data suggests that the observed cirrus data can be interpreted in terms of size, shape, and, under the assumption that the lidar measurements of consecutive cloud segments can be mapped on the temporal development of a single cloud parcel moving along its trajectory, growth of the cirrus particles: Near the cloud top in the early stage of cirrus development, light scattering by nearly isometric particles that have the optical characteristics of hexagonal columns (short, column-like particles) is dominant. Over time the ice particles grow, and as the cloud base height extends to lower altitudes characterized by warmer temperatures they become morphologically diverse. For large S and depolarization values of approximately 40%, the scattering contributions of column- and

  14. Spectral emissivity of cirrus clouds

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    Beck, Gordon H.; Davis, John M.; Cox, Stephen K.

    1993-01-01

    The inference of cirrus cloud properties has many important applications including global climate studies, radiation budget determination, remote sensing techniques and oceanic studies from satellites. Data taken at the Parsons Kansas site during the FIRE II project are used for this study. On November 26 there were initially clear sky conditions gradually giving way to a progressively thickening cirrus shield over a period of a few hours. Interferometer radiosonde and lidar data were taken throughout this event. Two techniques are used to infer the downward spectral emittance of the observed cirrus layer. One uses only measurements and the other involves measurements and FASCODE III calculations. FASCODE III is a line-by line radiance/transmittance model developed at the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory.

  15. Comparisons of cirrus cloud microphysical properties between polluted and pristine air

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    Diao, Minghui; Schumann, Ulrich; Minikin, Andreas; Jensen, Jorgen

    2015-04-01

    Cirrus clouds occur in the upper troposphere at altitudes where atmospheric radiative forcing is most sensitive to perturbations of water vapor concentration and water phase. The formation of cirrus clouds influences the distributions of water in both vapor and ice forms. The radiative properties of cirrus depend strongly on particle sizes. Currently it is still unclear how the formation of cirrus clouds and their microphysical properties are influenced by anthropogenic emissions (e.g., industrial emission and biomass burning). If anthropogenic emissions influence cirrus formation in a significant manner, then one should expect a systematic difference in cirrus properties between pristine (clean) air and polluted air. Because of the pollution contrasts between the Southern (SH) and Northern Hemispheres (NH), cirrus properties could have hemispheric differences as well. Therefore, we study high-resolution (~200 m), in-situ observations from two global flight campaigns: 1) the HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) global campaign in 2009-2011 funded by the US National Science Foundation (NSF), and 2) the Interhemispheric Differences In Cirrus Properties from Anthropogenic Emissions (INCA) campaign in 2000 funded by the European Union and participating research institutions. To investigate the changes of cirrus clouds by anthropogenic emissions, we compare ice crystal distributions in polluted and pristine air, in terms of their frequency occurrence, number concentration (Nc) and mean diameter (i.e., effective-mean Deff and volume-mean Dc). Total aerosol concentration is used to represent the combined influence of natural and anthropogenic aerosols. In addition, measured carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratio is used to discriminate between polluted and pristine air masses. All analyses are restricted to temperatures ≤ -40°C to exclude mixed-phased clouds. The HIPPO campaign observations were obtained over the North America continent and the central Pacific Ocean

  16. Cirrus cloud properties from combined IIR and lidar observations of CALIPSO

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    Garnier, Anne; Pelon, Jacques; Winker, Dave M.; Dubuisson, Philippe; Vaughan, Mark A.; Pascal, Nicolas

    2013-05-01

    Cirrus clouds are of particular importance for the understanding and the survey of climate change due to their impact on the Earth radiation budget. However, their optical and microphysical properties are still poorly known. The NASA-CNES CALIPSO mission provides new pieces of information by combining observations of active (lidar) and passive (radiometer) remote sensing instruments. Cirrus cloud optical depths derived in the thermal infrared (12 μm) from the IIR are found in excellent agreement with those retrieved in the visible spectrum (532 nm) from the CALIOP lidar, down to optical depths smaller than 0.05. The ice water paths derived from the two instruments use very different approaches, and show a highly correlated linear relationship. On average, CALIOP retrievals are 1.7 times larger than IIR estimates, requiring further studies.

  17. Influence of heterogeneous freezing on the microphysical and radiative properties of orographic cirrus clouds

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    H. Joos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of heterogeneous freezing on the microphysical and optical properties of orographic cirrus clouds has been simulated with the cloud resolving model EULAG. Idealized simulations with different concentrations of ice nuclei (IN in a dynamically dominated regime with high vertical velocities have been performed. Furthermore the temperature under which the cloud forms as well as the critical supersaturation which is needed for the initiation of heterogenoues freezing have been varied. The short wave, long wave and net cloud forcing has been calculated under the assumption that the clouds form between 06:00 and 12:00 LT or between 12:00 and 18:00 LT, respectively. In general it can be seen that the onset of homogeneous freezing is shifted in time depending on the IN concentration as part of the available water vapor is depleted before the critical threshold for homogeneous freezing is reached. Although the high vertical velocities in an orographic gravity wave lead to a strong adiabatic cooling followed by high ice supersaturations, a small number concentration of IN in the order of 5 L−1 is already able to strongly decrease the simulated ice crystal number burden (ICNB, ice water path (IWP and optical depth of the cloud. In general, the ICNB, IWP and optical depth strongly decrease when the IN concentrations are increased from 0 to 50 L−1. The absolute values of the short wave, long wave and net cloud forcing are also reduced with increasing IN concentrations. If a cloud produces a net warming or cooling depends on the IN concentration, the temperature and the time of day at which the cloud forms. The clouds that form between 06:00 and 12:00 LT are mainly cooling whereas the clouds with the same microphysical properties can lead to a warming when they form between 12:00 and 18:00 LT. In order to predict the radiative forcing of cirrus clouds it is therefore necessary to take the correct dynamical and thermodynamical processes as

  18. Ice nucleation and cloud microphysical properties in tropical tropopause layer cirrus

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    E. J. Jensen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In past modeling studies, it has generally been assumed that the predominant mechanism for nucleation of ice in the uppermost troposphere is homogeneous freezing of aqueous aerosols. However, recent in situ and remote-sensing measurements of the properties of cirrus clouds at very low temperatures in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL are broadly inconsistent with theoretial predictions based on the homogeneous freezing assumption. The nearly ubiquitous occurence of gravity waves in the TTL makes the predictions from homogeneous nucleation theory particularly difficult to reconcile with measurements. These measured properties include ice number concentrations, which are much lower than theory predicts; ice crystal size distributions, which are much broader than theory predicts; and cloud extinctions, which are much lower than theory predicts. Although other explanations are possible, one way to limit ice concentrations is to have on the order of 50 L−1 effective ice nuclei (IN that could nucleate ice at relatively low supersaturations. We suggest that ammonium sulfate particles, which would be dry much of the time in the cold TTL, are a potential IN candidate for TTL cirrus. Possible implications of the observed cloud microphysical properties for ice sedimentation, dehydration, and cloud persistence are also discussed.

  19. Ice nucleation and cloud microphysical properties in tropical tropopause layer cirrus

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    E. J. Jensen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In past modeling studies, it has generally been assumed that the predominant mechanism for nucleation of ice in the uppermost troposphere is homogeneous freezing of aqueous aerosols. However, recent in situ and remote-sensing measurements of the properties of cirrus clouds at very low temperatures in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL are broadly inconsistent with theoretial predictions based on the homogeneous freezing assumption. The nearly ubiquitous occurence of gravity waves in the TTL makes the predictions from homogeneous nucleation theory particularly difficult to reconcile with measurements. These measured properties include ice number concentrations, which are much lower than theory predicts; ice crystal size distributions, which are much broader than theory predicts; and cloud extinctions, which are much lower than theory predicts. Although other explanations are possible, one way to limit ice concentrations is to have on the order of 50 L−1 effective ice nuclei (IN that could nucleate ice at relatively low supersaturations. We suggest that ammonium sulfate particles, which would be dry much of the time in the cold TTL, are a potential IN candidate for TTL cirrus. However, this mechanism remains to be fully quantified for the size distribution of ammonium sulfate (possibly internally mixed with organics actually present in the upper troposphere. Possible implications of the observed cloud microphysical properties for ice sedimentation, dehydration, and cloud persistence are also discussed.

  20. Could cirrus clouds have warmed early Mars?

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    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kasting, James F.

    2017-01-01

    The presence of the ancient valley networks on Mars indicates that the climate at 3.8 Ga was warm enough to allow substantial liquid water to flow on the martian surface for extended periods of time. However, the mechanism for producing this warming continues to be debated. One hypothesis is that Mars could have been kept warm by global cirrus cloud decks in a CO2sbnd H2O atmosphere containing at least 0.25 bar of CO2 (Urata and Toon, 2013). Initial warming from some other process, e.g., impacts, would be required to make this model work. Those results were generated using the CAM 3-D global climate model. Here, we use a single-column radioactive-convective climate model to further investigate the cirrus cloud warming hypothesis. Our calculations indicate that cirrus cloud decks could have produced global mean surface temperatures above freezing, but only if cirrus cloud cover approaches ∼75 - 100% and if other cloud properties (e.g., height, optical depth, particle size) are chosen favorably. However, at more realistic cirrus cloud fractions, or if cloud parameters are not optimal, cirrus clouds do not provide the necessary warming, suggesting that other greenhouse mechanisms are needed.

  1. Retrieving Microphysical Properties and Air Motion of Cirrus Clouds Based on the Doppler Moments Method Using Cloud Radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Lingzhi; LIU Liping; DENG Min; ZHOU Xiuji

    2012-01-01

    Radar parameters including radar reflectivity,Doppler velocity,and Doppler spectrum width were obtained from Doppler spectrum moments.The Doppler spectrum moment is the convolution of both the particle spectrum and the mean air vertical motion.Unlike strong precipitation,the motion of particles in cirrus clouds is quite close to the air motion around them.In this study,a method of Doppler moments was developed and used to retrieve cirrus cloud microphysical properties such as the mean air vertical velocity,mass-weighted diameter,effective particle size,and ice content. Ice content values were retrieved using both the Doppler spectrum method and classic Z-IWC (radar reflectivity-ice water content) relationships;however,the former is a more reasonable method.

  2. Investigation on the monthly variation of cirrus optical properties over the Indian subcontinent using cloud-aerosol lidar and infrared pathfinder satellite observation (Calipso)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaman, Reji K.; Satyanarayana, Malladi; Jayeshlal, G. S.; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.; Krishnakumar, V.

    2016-05-01

    Cirrus clouds have been identified as one of the atmospheric component which influence the radiative processes in the atmosphere and plays a key role in the Earth Radiation Budget. CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) is a joint NASA-CNES satellite mission designed to provide insight in understanding of the role of aerosols and clouds in the climate system. This paper reports the study on the variation of cirrus cloud optical properties of over the Indian sub - continent for a period of two years from January 2009 to December 2010, using cloud-aerosol lidar and infrared pathfinder satellite observations (Calipso). Indian Ocean and Indian continent is one of the regions where cirrus occurrence is maximum particularly during the monsoon periods. It is found that during the south-west monsoon periods there is a large cirrus cloud distribution over the southern Indian land masses. Also it is observed that the north-east monsoon periods had optical thick clouds hugging the coast line. The summer had large cloud formation in the Arabian Sea. It is also found that the land masses near to the sea had large cirrus presence. These cirrus clouds were of high altitude and optical depth. The dependence of cirrus cloud properties on cirrus cloud mid-cloud temperature and geometrical thickness are generally similar to the results derived from the ground-based lidar. However, the difference in macrophysical parameter variability shows the limits of space-borne-lidar and dissimilarities in regional climate variability and the nature and source of cloud nuclei in different geographical regions.

  3. Could Cirrus Clouds Have Warmed Early Mars?

    CERN Document Server

    Ramirez, Ramses M

    2016-01-01

    The presence of the ancient valley networks on Mars indicates that the climate at 3.8 Ga was warm enough to allow substantial liquid water to flow on the martian surface for extended periods of time. However, the mechanism for producing this warming continues to be debated. One hypothesis is that Mars could have been kept warm by global cirrus cloud decks in a CO2-H2O atmosphere containing at least 0.25 bar of CO2 (Urata and Toon, 2013). Initial warming from some other process, e.g., impacts, would be required to make this model work. Those results were generated using the CAM 3-D global climate model. Here, we use a single-column radiative-convective climate model to further investigate the cirrus cloud warming hypothesis. Our calculations indicate that cirrus cloud decks could have produced global mean surface temperatures above freezing, but only if cirrus cloud cover approaches ~75 - 100% and if other cloud properties (e.g., height, optical depth, particle size) are chosen favorably. However, at more real...

  4. On the distribution of relative humidity in cirrus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Spichtinger

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We have analysed relative humidity statistics from measurements in cirrus clouds taken unintentionally during the Measurement of OZone by Airbus In-service airCraft project (MOZAIC. The shapes of the in-cloud humidity distributions change from nearly symmetric in relatively warm cirrus (warmer than −40° to considerably positively skew (i.e. towards high humidities in colder clouds. These results are in agreement to findings obtained recently from the INterhemispheric differences in Cirrus properties from Anthropogenic emissions (INCA campaign (Ovarlez et al., 2002. We interprete the temperature dependence of the shapes of the humidity distributions as an effect of the length of time a cirrus cloud needs from formation to a mature equilibrium stage, where the humidity is close to saturation. The duration of this transitional period increases with decreasing temperature. Hence cold cirrus clouds are more often met in the transitional stage than warm clouds.

  5. On the distribution of relative humidity in cirrus clouds

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    P. Spichtinger

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We have analysed relative humidity statistics from measurements in cirrus clouds taken unintentionally during the Measurement of OZone by Airbus In-service airCraft project (MOZAIC. The shapes of the in-cloud humidity distributions change from nearly symmetric in relatively warm cirrus (warmer than −40°C to considerably positively skew (i.e. towards high humidities in colder clouds. These results are in agreement to findings obtained recently from the INterhemispheric differences in Cirrus properties from Anthropogenic emissions (INCA campaign (Ovarlez et al., 2002. We interprete the temperature dependence of the shapes of the humidity distributions as an effect of the length of time a cirrus cloud needs from formation to a mature equilibrium stage, where the humidity is close to saturation. The duration of this transitional period increases with decreasing temperature. Hence cold cirrus clouds are more often met in the transitional stage than warm clouds.

  6. Lidar cirrus cloud retrieval - methodology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larroza, Eliane; Keckhut, Philippe; Nakaema, Walter; Brogniez, Gérard; Dubuisson, Philippe; Pelon, Jacques; Duflot, Valentin; Marquestaut, Nicolas; Payen, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    In the last decades numerical modeling has experimented sensitive improvements on accuracy and capability for climate predictions. In the same time it has demanded the reduction of uncertainties related with the respective input parameters. In this context, high altitude clouds (cirrus) have attracted special attention for their role as radiative forcing. Also such clouds are associated with the vertical transport of water vapor from the surface to upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (URLS) in form of ice crystals with variability of concentration and morphology. Still cirrus formation can occur spatially and temporally in great part of the globe due to horizontal motion of air masses and circulations. Determining accurately the physical properties of cirrus clouds still represents a challenge. Especially the so-called subvisible cirrus clouds (optical depth inferior to 0.03) are invisible for space-based passive observations. On the other hand, ground based active remote sensing as lidar can be used to suppress such deficiency. Lidar signal can provide spatial and temporal high resolution to characterize physically (height, geometric thickness, mean temperature) and optically (optical depth, extinction-to-scattering ratio or lidar ratio, depolarization ratio) the cirrus clouds. This report describes the evolution of the methodology initially adopted to retrieval systematically the lidar ratio and the subsequent application on case studies and climatology on the tropical sites of the globe - São Paulo, Brazil (23.33 S, 46.44 W) and OPAR observatory at Ille de La Réunion (21.07 S, 55.38 W). Also is attempting a synergy between different instrumentations and lidar measurements: a infrared radiometer to estimate the kind of ice crystals compounding the clouds; CALIPSO satellite observations and trajectory model (HYSPLIT) for tracking air masses potentially responsible for the horizontal displacement of cirrus. This last approach is particularly interesting to

  7. Dust ice nuclei effects on cirrus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kuebbeler

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study aerosol-cloud interactions in cirrus clouds we apply a new multiple-mode ice microphysical scheme to the general circulation model ECHAM5-HAM. The multiple-mode ice microphysical scheme allows to analyse the competition between homogeneous freezing of solution droplets, deposition nucleation of pure dust particles, immersion freezing of coated dust particles and pre-existing ice. We base the freezing efficiencies of coated and pure dust particles on most recent laboratory data. The effect of pre-existing ice, which was neglected in previous ice nucleation parameterizations, is to deplete water vapour by depositional growth and thus prevent homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing from occurring. In a first step, we extensively tested the model and validated the results against in-situ measurements from various aircraft campaigns. The results compare well with observations; properties like ice crystal size and number concentration as well as supersaturation are predicted within the observational spread. We find that heterogeneous nucleation on mineral dust particles and the consideration of pre-existing ice in the nucleation process may lead to significant effects: globally, ice crystal number and mass are reduced by 10% and 5%, whereas the ice crystals size is increased by 3%. The reductions in ice crystal number are most pronounced in the tropics and mid-latitudes on the Northern Hemisphere. While changes in the microphysical and radiative properties of cirrus clouds in the tropics are mostly driven by considering pre-existing ice, changes in the northern hemispheric mid-latitudes mainly result from heterogeneous nucleation. The so called negative Twomey-effect in cirrus clouds is represented in ECHAM5-HAM. The net change in the radiation budget is −0.94 W m−2, implying that both, heterogeneous nucleation on dust and pre-existing ice have the potential to modulate cirrus properties in climate simulations and thus should be

  8. Seasonal and optical characterisation of cirrus clouds over Indian sub-continent using LIDAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayeshlal, G. S., E-mail: drssatyanarayana.malladi@gmail.com; Satyanarayana, Malladi, E-mail: drssatyanarayana.malladi@gmail.com; Dhaman, Reji K., E-mail: drssatyanarayana.malladi@gmail.com; Motty, G. S., E-mail: drssatyanarayana.malladi@gmail.com [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala, Karyavattom, Trivandrum-695 581, Kerala (India)

    2014-10-15

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) is an important remote sensing technique to study about the cirrus clouds. The subject of cirrus clouds and related climate is challenging one. The received scattered signal from Lidar contains information on the physical and optical properties of cirrus clouds. The Lidar profile of the cirrus cloud provides information on the optical characteristics like depolarisation ratio, lidar ratio and optical depth, which give knowledge about possible phase, structure and orientation of cloud particle that affect the radiative budgeting of cirrus clouds. The findings from the study are subjected to generate inputs for better climatic modelling.

  9. Distribution and Radiative Forcing of Tropical Thin Cirrus Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    depths of thin cirrus clouds. 1. Introduction Numerous studies have demonstrated that thin cirrus clouds are frequently present near the tropical tropo ...Methodology a. Optical depth of tropical thin cirrus clouds Cirrus clouds are often present in the upper tropo - sphere or lower stratosphere, and more than

  10. Cirrus microphysics and radiative transfer: Cloud field study on October 28, 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinne, Stefan; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Valero, Francisco P. J.; Sassen, Kenneth; Spinhirne, James D.

    1990-01-01

    The radiative properties of cirrus clouds present one of the unresolved problems in weather and climate research. Uncertainties in ice particle amount and size and, also, the general inability to model the single scattering properties of their usually complex particle shapes, prevent accurate model predictions. For an improved understanding of cirrus radiative effects, field experiments, as those of the Cirrus IFO of FIRE, are necessary. Simultaneous measurements of radiative fluxes and cirrus microphysics at multiple cirrus cloud altitudes allows the pitting of calculated versus measured vertical flux profiles; with the potential to judge current cirrus cloud modeling. Most of the problems in this study are linked to the inhomogeneity of the cloud field. Thus, only studies on more homogeneous cirrus cloud cases promises a possibility to improve current cirrus parameterizations. Still, the current inability to detect small ice particles will remain as a considerable handicap.

  11. Development and Comparison of Ground and Satellite-based Retrievals of Cirrus Cloud Physical Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, David L

    2009-10-14

    This report is the final update on ARM research conducted at DRI through May of 2006. A relatively minor amount of work was done after May, and last month (November), two journal papers partially funded by this project were published. The other investigator on this project, Dr. Bob d'Entremont, will be submitting his report in February 2007 when his no-cost extension expires. The main developments for this period, which concludes most of the DRI research on this project, are as follows: (1) Further development of a retrieval method for cirrus cloud ice particle effective diameter (De) and ice water path (IWP) using terrestrial radiances measured from satellites; (2) Revision and publication of the journal article 'Testing and Comparing the Modified Anomalous Diffraction Approximation'; and (3) Revision and publication of our radar retrieval method for IWC and snowfall rate.

  12. Towards an automatic Lidar cirrus cloud retrieval for climate studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Larroza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a methodology to calculate lidar ratios for distinct cirrus clouds has been implemented for a site located in the Southern Hemisphere. The cirrus cloud lidar data processing has been developed to consider a large cloud variability with the final aim of cirrus cloud monitoring through a robust retrieval process. Among the many features lidar systems can extract for cirrus detection, we highlight: cloud geometrical information and extinction-to-backscatter ratio (also called lidar ratio – LR. LR's can, in general, provide important information on cirrus cloud microphysics due to the presence of ice crystals and their properties such as shape, size, composition and orientation of particles and their effect on LR values. Conditions for LR calculations and their resulting uncertainty have been improved as their analysis requires identifying cirrus cloud stationary periods through the use of a specific statistical approach well-established in the literature and employed here with good results, allowing for the study of specific cases with multi-layer cirrus cloud occurrence. The results from the measurements taken in the region of the Metropolitan City of São Paulo – MSP have been used to implement and test the methodology developed herein. In addition to the geometrical parameters extracted, improved values of LR's were calculated and showed significantly different values for the different layers inspected, varying between 19 ± 01 sr and 74 ± 13 sr. This large value interval allowed us to indirectly verify the presence of different ice crystal sizes and shapes and those associated with different air mass sources for the cirrus cloud formation.

  13. Derivation of Physical and Optical Properties of Midlatitude Cirrus Ice Crystals for a Size-Resolved Cloud Microphysics Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridlind, Ann M.; Atlas, Rachel; Van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Um, Junshik; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Moyer, Elisabeth J.; Lawson, R. Paul

    2016-01-01

    Single-crystal images collected in mid-latitude cirrus are analyzed to provide internally consistent ice physical and optical properties for a size-resolved cloud microphysics model, including single-particle mass, projected area, fall speed, capacitance, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter. Using measurements gathered during two flights through a widespread synoptic cirrus shield, bullet rosettes are found to be the dominant identifiable habit among ice crystals with maximum dimension (Dmax) greater than 100µm. Properties are therefore first derived for bullet rosettes based on measurements of arm lengths and widths, then for aggregates of bullet rosettes and for unclassified (irregular) crystals. Derived bullet rosette masses are substantially greater than reported in existing literature, whereas measured projected areas are similar or lesser, resulting in factors of 1.5-2 greater fall speeds, and, in the limit of large Dmax, near-infrared single-scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter (g) greater by approx. 0.2 and 0.05, respectively. A model that includes commonly imaged side plane growth on bullet rosettes exhibits relatively little difference in microphysical and optical properties aside from approx. 0:05 increase in mid-visible g primarily attributable to plate aspect ratio. In parcel simulations, ice size distribution, and g are sensitive to assumed ice properties.

  14. Derivation of Physical and Optical Properties of Midlatitude Cirrus Ice Crystals for a Size-Resolved Cloud Microphysics Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridlind, Ann M.; Atlas, Rachel; Van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Um, Junshik; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Moyer, Elisabeth J.; Lawson, R. Paul

    2016-01-01

    Single-crystal images collected in mid-latitude cirrus are analyzed to provide internally consistent ice physical and optical properties for a size-resolved cloud microphysics model, including single-particle mass, projected area, fall speed, capacitance, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter. Using measurements gathered during two flights through a widespread synoptic cirrus shield, bullet rosettes are found to be the dominant identifiable habit among ice crystals with maximum dimension (Dmax) greater than 100µm. Properties are therefore first derived for bullet rosettes based on measurements of arm lengths and widths, then for aggregates of bullet rosettes and for unclassified (irregular) crystals. Derived bullet rosette masses are substantially greater than reported in existing literature, whereas measured projected areas are similar or lesser, resulting in factors of 1.5-2 greater fall speeds, and, in the limit of large Dmax, near-infrared single-scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter (g) greater by approx. 0.2 and 0.05, respectively. A model that includes commonly imaged side plane growth on bullet rosettes exhibits relatively little difference in microphysical and optical properties aside from approx. 0:05 increase in mid-visible g primarily attributable to plate aspect ratio. In parcel simulations, ice size distribution, and g are sensitive to assumed ice properties.

  15. Optical properties of the cirrus cloud ice crystals with preferred azimuthal orientation for polarization lidars with azimuthal scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konoshonkin, Alexander V.; Kustova, Natalia V.; Nasonov, Sergey V.; Bryukhanov, Ilia D.; Shishko, Viktor A.; Timofeev, Dmitriy N.; Borovoi, Anatoly G.

    2016-10-01

    Optical properties of the cirrus cloud ice crystals with preferred azimuthal orientation are required for current numerical models of the Earth's radiation balance. Retrieving the orientation distributions function of the crystals from a vertically pointing polarization lidar measuring the full Mueller matrix is a very complicated problem because of lake of information. Lidars with zenith scanning can be used only to retrieve the properties of horizontally oriented particles. The paper shows that if the particles have preferred azimuthal orientation, the polarization lidars with azimuthal scanning should be used. It is also shown that all the elements of the Mueller matrix give no extra information compare to the depolarization ratio. Optical properties of preferred azimuthal oriented hexagonal ice columns with size from 10 to 1000 μm for wavelengths of 0.355, 0.532 and 1.064 μm were collected as a data bank.

  16. Cirrus cloud iridescence: a rare case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassen, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    On the evening of 25 November 1998, a cirrus cloud revealing the pastel colors of the iridescence phenomenon was photographed and studied by a polarization lidar system at the University of Utah Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (FARS). The diffraction of sunlight falling on relatively minute cloud particles, which display spatial gradients in size, is the cause of iridescence. According to the 14-year study of midlatitude cirrus clouds at FARS, cirrus rarely produce even poor iridescent patches, making this particularly long-lived and vivid occurrence unique. In this unusually high (13.2-14.4-km) and cold (-69.7 ° to -75.5°) tropopause-topped cirrus cloud, iridescence was noted from ~6.0° to ~13.5° from the Sun. On the basis of simple diffraction theory, this indicates the presence of particles of 2.5-5.5-μm effective diameter. The linear depolarization ratios of δ = 0.5 measured by the lidar verify that the cloud particles were nonspherical ice crystals. The demonstration that ice clouds can generate iridescence has led to the conclusion that iridescence is rarely seen in midlatitude cirrus clouds because populations of such small particles do not exist for long in the presence of the relatively high water-vapor supersaturations needed for ice-particle nucleation.

  17. Retrieval of Cirrus Cloud Optical Depth under Day and Night Conditions from MODIS Collection 6 Cloud Property Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Heidinger

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technique to generate cirrus optical depth and particle effective size estimates from the cloud emissivities at 8.5, 11 and 12 μm contained in the Collection-6 (C6 MYD06 cloud product. This technique employs the latest scattering models and scattering radiative transfer approximations to estimate cloud optical depth and particle effective size using efficient analytical formulae. Two scattering models are tested. The first is the same scattering model as that used in the C6 MYD06 solar reflectance products. The second model is an empirical model derived from radiometric consistency. Both models are shown to generate optical depths that compare well to those from constrained CALIPSO retrievals and MYD06. In terms of effective radius retrievals, the results from the radiometric empirical model agree more closely with MYD06 than those from the C6 model. This analysis is applied to AQUA/MODIS data collocated with CALIPSO/CALIOP during January 2010.

  18. Diversity on subtropical and polar cirrus clouds properties as derived from both ground-based lidars and CALIPSO/CALIOP measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba-Jabonero, Carmen; Lopes, Fabio J. S.; Landulfo, Eduardo; Cuevas, Emilio; Ochoa, Héctor; Gil-Ojeda, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Cirrus (Ci) cloud properties can change significantly from place to place over the globe as a result of weather processes, reflecting their likely different radiative and climate implications. In this work Cirrus clouds (Ci) features observed in late autumn/early winter season at both subtropical and polar latitudes are examined and compared to CALIPSO/CALIOP observations. Lidar measurements were carried out in three stations: São Paulo (MSP, Brazil) and Tenerife (SCO, Canary Islands, Spain), as subtropical sites, and the polar Belgrano II base (BEL, Argentina) in the Antarctic continent. The backscattering ratio (BSR) profiles and the top and base heights of the Ci layers together to their Cirrus Cloud Optical Depth (CCOD) and Lidar Ratio (LR) for Ci clouds were derived. In addition, temperatures at the top and base boundaries of the Ci clouds were also obtained from local radiosoundings to verify pure ice Ci clouds occurrence using a given temperature top threshold ( 70 km far), inferring the irregular extension and inhomogeneity of the Ci clouds over each study area. These considerations can be useful for assimilation of the Ci features into climate models and evaluation of future space-borne lidar observations of Ci clouds, especially for the future ESA/Copernicus-Sentinel and ESA/EarthCARE missions.

  19. Microphysical properties of cirrus clouds between 75°N and 25°S derived from extensive airborne in-situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Martina

    2016-04-01

    Numerous airborne field campaigns were performed in the last decades to record cirrus clouds microphysical properties. Beside the understanding of the processes of cirrus formation and evolution, an additional motivation for those studies is to provide a database to evaluate the representation of cirrus clouds in global climate models. This is of importance for an improved certainty of climate predictions, which are affected by the poor understanding of the microphysical processes of ice clouds (IPCC, 2013). To this end, the observations should ideally cover the complete respective parameter range and not be influenced by instrumental artifacts. However, due to the difficulties in measuring cirrus properties on fast-flying, high-altitude aircraft, some issues with respect to the measurements %evolved have arisen. In particular, concerns about the relative humidity in and around cirrus clouds and the ice crystal number concentrations were under discussion. Too high ice supersaturations as well as ice number concentrations were often reported. These issues have made more challenging the goal of compiling a large database using data from a suite of different instruments that were used on different campaigns. In this study, we have have addressed these challenges and compiled a large data set of cirrus clouds, sampled during eighteen field campaigns between 75°N and 25°S, representing measurements fulfilling the above mentioned requirements. The most recent campaigns were performed in 2014; namely, the ATTREX campaign with the research aircraft Global Hawk and the ML-CIRRUS and ACRIDICON campaigns with HALO. % The observations include ice water content (IWC: 130 hours of observations), ice crystal numbers (N_ice: 83 hours), ice crystal mean mass size (Rice: 83 hours) and relative humidity (RH_ice) in- and outside of cirrus clouds (78 and 140 hours). % We will present the parameters as PDFs versus temperature and derive medians and core ranges (including the most

  20. Comparisons of cirrus cloud properties between polluted and pristine air based on in-situ observations from the NSF HIPPO, EU INCA and NASA ATTREX campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, M.; Schumann, U.; Jensen, J. B.; Minikin, A.

    2015-12-01

    The radiative forcing of cirrus clouds is influenced by microphysical (e.g., ice crystal number concentration and size distribution) and macroscopic properties. Currently it is still unclear how the formation of cirrus clouds and their microphysical properties are influenced by anthropogenic emissions. In this work, we use airborne in-situ observations to compare cirrus cloud properties between polluted and pristine regions. Our dataset includes: the NSF HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) Global campaign (2009-2011), the EU Interhemispheric Differences In Cirrus Properties from Anthropogenic Emissions (INCA) campaign (2000) and the NASA Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) campaign (2014). The combined dataset include observations of both extratropical (HIPPO and INCA) and tropical (ATTREX) cirrus, over the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. We use the in-situ measured carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratio as a pollution indicator, and compare ice microphysical properties (i.e., ice crystal number concentration (Nc) and number-weighted mean diameter (Dc)) between air masses with higher and lower CO. All analyses are restricted to T ≤ -40°C. By analyzing ice crystals (Fast-2DC, 87.5-1600 µm) in HIPPO, we found that Dc decreases with increasing CO concentration at multiple constant pressure levels. In addition, analysis of INCA data shows that Nc and extinction of small ice particles (FSSP 3-20 µm) increases with increasing CO. Particles < 87.5 µm in Fast-2DC data are not considered due to uncertainty in sample volume, and the FSSP measurements are subject to possible shattering. We further analyze the ice crystals (SPEC FCDP, 1-50 µm) in the tropical tropopause layer in ATTREX. At -70°C to -90°C, we found that the average Nc (Dc) increases (decreases) at higher CO. Overall, our results suggest that extratropical and tropical cirrus are likely to have more numerous small ice particles, when sampled in the more polluted background. Back

  1. Depolarization properties of cirrus clouds from polarization lidar measurements over Hefei in spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenzhu Wang; Ruli Chi; Bo Liu; Jun Zhou

    2008-01-01

    @@ A new polarization lidar has been developed for detecting depolarization characteristics of aerosol and cirrus over Hefei (31.90°N, 117.16°E), China. The fundamental principle of polarization lidar is briefly introduced.

  2. Statistics of vertical backscatter profile of cirrus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Veglio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A nearly global statistical analysis of vertical backscatter and extinction profiles of cirrus clouds collected by the CALIOP lidar, on-board of the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation, is presented.

    Statistics on frequency of occurrence and distributions of bulk properties of cirrus clouds in general and, for the first time, of horizontally homogeneous (on a 5-km field of view cirrus clouds only are provided. Annual and seasonal backscatter profiles (BSP are computed for the horizontally homogeneous cirri. Differences found in the day/night cases and for midlatitudes and tropics are studied in terms of the mean physical parameters of the clouds from which they are derived.

    The relation between cloud physical parameters (optical depth, geometrical thickness and temperature and the shape of the BSP is investigated. It is found that cloud geometrical thickness is the main parameter affecting the shape of the mean CALIOP BSP. Specifically, cirrus clouds with small geometrical thicknesses show a maximum in mean BSP curve placed near cloud top. As the cloud geometrical thickness increases the BSP maximum shifts towards cloud base. Cloud optical depth and temperature have smaller effect on the shape of the CALIOP BSPs. In general a slight increase in the BSP maximum is observed as cloud temperature and optical depth increase.

    In order to fit mean BSPs, as functions of geometrical thickness and position within the cloud layer, polynomial functions are provided. The impact on satellite radiative transfer simulations in the infrared spectrum when using either a constant ice-content (IWC along the cloud vertical dimension or an IWC profile derived from the BSP fitting functions is evaluated. It is, in fact, demonstrated that, under realistic hypotheses, the mean BSP is linearly proportional to the IWC profile.

  3. Statistics of vertical backscatter profiles of cirrus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Veglio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A nearly global statistical analysis of vertical backscatter and extinction profiles of cirrus clouds collected by the CALIOP lidar, on-board of the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation, is presented.

    Statistics on frequency of occurrence and distribution of bulk properties of cirrus clouds in general and, for the first time, of horizontally homogeneous (on a 5-km field of view cirrus clouds only are provided. Annual and seasonal backscatter profiles (BSP are computed for the horizontally homogeneous cirri. Differences found in the day/night cases and for midlatitudes and tropics are studied in terms of the mean physical parameters of the clouds from which they are derived.

    The relationship between cloud physical parameters (optical depth, geometrical thickness and temperature and the shape of the BSP is investigated. It is found that cloud geometrical thickness is the main parameter affecting the shape of the mean CALIOP BSP. Specifically, cirrus clouds with small geometrical thicknesses show a maximum in mean BSP curve located near cloud top. As the cloud geometrical thickness increases the BSP maximum shifts towards cloud base. Cloud optical depth and temperature have smaller effects on the shape of the CALIOP BSPs. In general a slight increase in the BSP maximum is observed as cloud temperature and optical depth increase.

    In order to fit mean BSPs, as functions of geometrical thickness and position within the cloud layer, polynomial functions are provided. The impact on satellite radiative transfer simulations in the infrared spectrum when using either a constant ice-content (IWC along the cloud vertical dimension or an IWC profile derived from the BSP fitting functions is evaluated. It is, in fact, demonstrated that, under realistic hypotheses, the mean BSP is linearly proportional to the IWC profile.

  4. In-situ measurements of tropical cloud properties in the West African monsoon: upper tropospheric ice clouds, mesoscale convective system outflow, and subvisual cirrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, W.; Borrmann, S.; Kunkel, D.; Weigel, R.; de Reus, M.; Schlager, H.; Roiger, A.; Voigt, C.; Hoor, P.; Curtius, J.; Krämer, M.; Schiller, C.; Volk, C. M.; Homan, C. D.; Fierli, F.; di Donfrancesco, G.; Ulanovsky, A.; Ravegnani, F.; Sitnikov, N. M.; Viciani, S.; D'Amato, F.; Shur, G. N.; Belyaev, G. V.; Law, K. S.; Cairo, F.

    2011-01-01

    In-situ measurements of ice crystal size distributions in tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) clouds were performed during the SCOUT-AMMA campaign over West Africa in August 2006. The cloud properties were measured with a Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP-100) and a Cloud Imaging Probe (CIP) operated aboard the Russian high altitude research aircraft M-55 ''Geophysica'' with the mission base in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. A total of 117 ice particle size distributions were obtained from the measurements in the vicinity of Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS). Two or three modal lognormal size distributions were fitted to the average size distributions for different potential temperature bins. The measurements showed proportionate more large ice particles compared to former measurements above maritime regions. With the help of trace gas measurements of NO, NOy, CO2, CO, and O3, and satellite images clouds in young and aged MCS outflow were identified. These events were observed at altitudes of 11.0 km to 14.2 km corresponding to potential temperature levels of 346 K to 356 K. In a young outflow (developing MCS) ice crystal number concentrations of up to 8.3 cm-3 and rimed ice particles with maximum dimensions exceeding 1.5 mm were found. A maximum ice water content of 0.05 g m-3 was observed and an effective radius of about 90 μm. In contrast the aged outflow events were more diluted and showed a maximum number concentration of 0.03 cm-3, an ice water content of 2.3 × 10-4 g m-3, an effective radius of about 18 μm, while the largest particles had a maximum dimension of 61 μm. Close to the tropopause subvisual cirrus were encountered four times at altitudes of 15 km to 16.4 km. The mean ice particle number concentration of these encounters was 0.01 cm-3 with maximum particle sizes of 130 μm, and the mean ice water content was about 1.4 × 10-4 g m-3. All known in-situ measurements of subvisual tropopause cirrus are compared and an

  5. In situ measurements of tropical cloud properties in the West African Monsoon: upper tropospheric ice clouds, Mesoscale Convective System outflow, and subvisual cirrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, W.; Borrmann, S.; Kunkel, D.; Weigel, R.; de Reus, M.; Schlager, H.; Roiger, A.; Voigt, C.; Hoor, P.; Curtius, J.; Krämer, M.; Schiller, C.; Volk, C. M.; Homan, C. D.; Fierli, F.; di Donfrancesco, G.; Ulanovsky, A.; Ravegnani, F.; Sitnikov, N. M.; Viciani, S.; D'Amato, F.; Shur, G. N.; Belyaev, G. V.; Law, K. S.; Cairo, F.

    2011-06-01

    In situ measurements of ice crystal size distributions in tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) clouds were performed during the SCOUT-AMMA campaign over West Africa in August 2006. The cloud properties were measured with a Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP-100) and a Cloud Imaging Probe (CIP) operated aboard the Russian high altitude research aircraft M-55 Geophysica with the mission base in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. A total of 117 ice particle size distributions were obtained from the measurements in the vicinity of Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS). Two to four modal lognormal size distributions were fitted to the average size distributions for different potential temperature bins. The measurements showed proportionately more large ice particles compared to former measurements above maritime regions. With the help of trace gas measurements of NO, NOy, CO2, CO, and O3 and satellite images, clouds in young and aged MCS outflow were identified. These events were observed at altitudes of 11.0 km to 14.2 km corresponding to potential temperature levels of 346 K to 356 K. In a young outflow from a developing MCS ice crystal number concentrations of up to (8.3 ± 1.6) cm-3 and rimed ice particles with maximum dimensions exceeding 1.5 mm were found. A maximum ice water content of 0.05 g m-3 was observed and an effective radius of about 90 μm. In contrast the aged outflow events were more diluted and showed a maximum number concentration of 0.03 cm-3, an ice water content of 2.3 × 10-4 g m-3, an effective radius of about 18 μm, while the largest particles had a maximum dimension of 61 μm. Close to the tropopause subvisual cirrus were encountered four times at altitudes of 15 km to 16.4 km. The mean ice particle number concentration of these encounters was 0.01 cm-3 with maximum particle sizes of 130 μm, and the mean ice water content was about 1.4 × 10-4 g m-3. All known in situ measurements of subvisual tropopause cirrus are compared

  6. Polarimetric Retrievals of Surface and Cirrus Clouds Properties in the Region Affected by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, Matteo; Cairns, Brian; Chowdhary, Jacek; Van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Knobelspiesse, Kirk; Hostetler, Chris; Ferrare, Rich; Burton, Sharon; Hair, John; Obland, Michael D.; Rogers, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    prohibitive variability in atmospheric conditions (very inhomogeneous aerosol distribution and cloud cover). Although the results presented for the surface are essentially unaffected, we discuss the results obtained by typing algorithms in sorting the complex mix of aerosol types, and show evidence of oriented ice in cirrus clouds present in the area. In this context, polarization measurements at 1880 nm were used to infer ice habit and cirrus optical depth, which was found in the subvisual/threshold-visible regime, confirming the utility of the aforementioned RSP channel for the remote sensing of even thin cold clouds.

  7. “Using Statistical Comparisons between SPartICus Cirrus Microphysical Measurements, Detailed Cloud Models, and GCM Cloud Parameterizations to Understand Physical Processes Controlling Cirrus Properties and to Improve the Cloud Parameterizations”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Sarah [SPEC Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The dual objectives of this project were improving our basic understanding of processes that control cirrus microphysical properties and improvement of the representation of these processes in the parameterizations. A major effort in the proposed research was to integrate, calibrate, and better understand the uncertainties in all of these measurements.

  8. Cirrus cloud retrieval from MSG/SEVIRI during day and night using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandgren, Johan; Bugliaro, Luca

    2017-04-01

    By covering a large part of the Earth, cirrus clouds play an important role in climate as they reflect incoming solar radiation and absorb outgoing thermal radiation. Nevertheless, the cirrus clouds remain one of the largest uncertainties in atmospheric research and the understanding of the physical processes that govern their life cycle is still poorly understood, as is their representation in climate models. To monitor and better understand the properties and physical processes of cirrus clouds, it's essential that those tenuous clouds can be observed from geostationary spaceborne imagers like SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager), that possess a high temporal resolution together with a large field of view and play an important role besides in-situ observations for the investigation of cirrus cloud processes. CiPS (Cirrus Properties from Seviri) is a new algorithm targeting thin cirrus clouds. CiPS is an artificial neural network trained with coincident SEVIRI and CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) observations in order to retrieve a cirrus cloud mask along with the cloud top height (CTH), ice optical thickness (IOT) and ice water path (IWP) from SEVIRI. By utilizing only the thermal/IR channels of SEVIRI, CiPS can be used during day and night making it a powerful tool for the cirrus life cycle analysis. Despite the great challenge of detecting thin cirrus clouds and retrieving their properties from a geostationary imager using only the thermal/IR wavelengths, CiPS performs well. Among the cirrus clouds detected by CALIOP, CiPS detects 70 and 95 % of the clouds with an optical thickness of 0.1 and 1.0 respectively. Among the cirrus free pixels, CiPS classify 96 % correctly. For the CTH retrieval, CiPS has a mean absolute percentage error of 10 % or less with respect to CALIOP for cirrus clouds with a CTH greater than 8 km. For the IOT retrieval, CiPS has a mean absolute percentage error of 100 % or less with respect to

  9. Microphysical Ice Crystal Properties in Mid-Latitude Frontal Cirrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlage, Romy; Jurkat, Tina; Voigt, Christiane; Minikin, Andreas; Weigel, Ralf; Molleker, Sergej; Klingebiel, Marcus; Borrmann, Stephan; Luebke, Anna; Krämer, Martina; Kaufmann, Stefan; Schäfler, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Cirrus clouds modulate the climate by reflection of shortwave solar radiation and trapping of longwave terrestrial radiation. Their net radiative effect can be positive or negative depending on atmospheric and cloud parameters including ice crystal number density, size and shape. Latter microphysical ice crystal properties have been measured during the mid-latitude cirrus mission ML-CIRRUS with a set of cloud instruments on the new research aircraft HALO. The mission took place in March/April 2014 with 16 flights in cirrus formed above Europe and the Atlantic. The ice clouds were encountered at altitudes from 7 to 14 km in the typical mid-latitude temperature range. A focus of the mission was the detection of frontal cirrus linked to warm conveyor belts (WCBs). Within WCBs, water vapor is transported in the warm sector of an extra-tropical cyclone from the humid boundary layer to the upper troposphere. Cirrus cloud formation can be triggered in the WCB outflow region at moderate updraft velocities and additionally at low updrafts within the high pressure system linked to the WCB. Due to their frequent occurrence, WCBs represent a major source for regions of ice supersaturation and cirrus formation in the mid-latitudes. Here, we use data from the Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer with detection for POLarization (CAS-POL) and the Cloud Combination Probe (CCP), combining a Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP) and a greyscale Cloud Imaging Probe (CIPgs) to investigate the ice crystal distribution in the size range from 0.5 µm to 1 mm. We derive microphysical cirrus properties in mid-latitude warm front cirrus. Further, we investigate their variability and their dependence on temperature and relative humidity. Finally, we compare the microphysical properties of these frontal cirrus to cirrus clouds that formed at low updrafts within high pressure systems or at high updraft velocities in lee waves. We quantify statistically significant differences in cirrus properties formed in these

  10. Balloon-borne and Raman lidar observations of Asian dust and cirrus cloud properties over Tsukuba, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tetsu; Orikasa, Narihiro; Nagai, Tomohiro; Murakami, Masataka; Tajiri, Takuya; Saito, Atsushi; Yamashita, Katsuya; Hashimoto, Akihiro

    2014-03-01

    The vertical distributions of the microphysical and optical properties of tropospheric aerosols and cirrus cloud were measured using an instrumented balloon and a ground-based Raman lidar over Tsukuba, Japan (36°N, 140°E), during the Asian dust events on 9 and 21 May 2007 to investigate the influence of Asian mineral dust on ice cloud formation in the upper troposphere. The instrumented balloon measured the particle size distribution, ice crystal images, dew/frost point, relative humidity, and temperature. The Raman lidar measured the particle backscattering and extinction coefficients and the depolarization ratio at a wavelength of 532 nm. The results of the balloon measurements showed that supermicrometer (0.7 to 2.8 µm in optical-equivalent radius) dust particles and ice crystals (10 to 400 µm in maximum dimension) were present in the upper troposphere (8 to 12 km in altitude), with number concentrations varying from 5 × 10-3 to 0.6 cm-3 for dust and from 5 × 10-3 to 0.15 cm-3 for ice crystals. The Raman lidar measurement indicated that the particle depolarization ratios were 15 to 35% in the altitude range of 6 to 12 km, indicating the predominance of nonspherical particles in the region. The temperature ranged from -33 to -63°C, and the relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi), estimated from the total (vapor plus condensate) water content obtained with the Snow White hygrometer in the cloud, was 130% at maximum on 9 May, which was close to the activation point of Asian mineral dust as ice nuclei to form ice crystals.

  11. Cirrus cloud-temperature interactions over a tropical station, Gadanki from lidar and satellite observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S, Motty G, E-mail: mottygs@gmail.com; Satyanarayana, M., E-mail: mottygs@gmail.com; Krishnakumar, V., E-mail: mottygs@gmail.com; Dhaman, Reji k., E-mail: mottygs@gmail.com [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Trivandrum-695 581, Kerala (India)

    2014-10-15

    The cirrus clouds play an important role in the radiation budget of the earth's atmospheric system and are important to characterize their vertical structure and optical properties. LIDAR measurements are obtained from the tropical station Gadanki (13.5{sup 0} N, 79.2{sup 0} E), India, and meteorological indicators derived from Radiosonde data. Most of the cirrus clouds are observed near to the tropopause, which substantiates the strength of the tropical convective processes. The height and temperature dependencies of cloud height, optical depth, and depolarization ratio were investigated. Cirrus observations made using CALIPSO satellite are compared with lidar data for systematic statistical study of cirrus climatology.

  12. Remote sensing of contrails and aircraft altered cirrus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palikonda, R.; Nguyen, L.; Garber, D.P.; Smith, W.L. Jr [Analytical Services and Materials, Inc., Hampton, VA (United States); Minnis, P.; Young, D.F. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center

    1997-12-31

    Analyses of satellite imagery are used to show that contrails can develop into fully extended cirrus cloud systems. Contrails can be advective on great distances, but would appear to observers as natural cirrus clouds. The conversion of simple contrails into cirrus may help explain the apparent increase of cloudiness over populated areas since the beginning of commercial jet air travel. Statistics describing the typical growth, advection, and lifetime of contrail cirrus is needed to evaluate their effects on climate. (author) 4 refs.

  13. Can cirrus clouds warm early Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    The presence of the ancient valley networks on Mars indicates a climate 3.8 Ga that was warm enough to allow substantial liquid water to flow on the martian surface for extended periods of time. However, the origin of these enigmatic features is hotly debated and discussion of their formation has been focused on how warm such a climate may have been and for how long. Recent warm and wet solutions using single-column radiative convective models involve supplementing CO2-H2O atmospheres with other greenhouse gases, such as H2 (i.e. Ramirez et al., 2014; Batalha et al., 2015). An interesting recent proposal, using the CAM 3-D General Circulation model, argues that global cirrus cloud decks in CO2-H2O atmospheres with at least 0.25 bar of CO2 , consisting of 10-micron (and larger) sized particles, could have generated the above-freezing temperatures required to explain the early martian surface geology (Urata and Toon, 2013). Here, we use our single-column radiative convective climate model to check these 3-D results and analyze the likelihood that such warm atmospheres, with mean surface pressures of up to 3 bar, could have supported cirrus cloud decks at full and fractional cloud cover for sufficiently long durations to form the ancient valleys. Our results indicate that cirrus cloud decks could have provided the mean surface temperatures required, but only if cloud cover approaches 100%, in agreement with Urata and Toon (2013). However, even should cirrus cloud coverage approach 100%, we show that such atmospheres are likely to have been too short-lived to produce the volumes of water required to carve the ancient valleys. At more realistic early Mars cloud fractions (~50%, Forget et al., 2013), cirrus clouds do not provide the required warming. Batalha, N., Domagal-Goldman, S. D., Ramirez, R.M., & Kasting, J. F., 2015. Icarus, 258, 337-349. Forget, F., Wordsworth, R., Millour, E., Madeleine, J. B., Kerber, L., Leconte, J., ... & Haberle, R. M., 2013. Icarus, 222

  14. In situ measurements of tropical cloud properties in the West African Monsoon: upper tropospheric ice clouds, Mesoscale Convective System outflow, and subvisual cirrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Frey

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In situ measurements of ice crystal size distributions in tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS clouds were performed during the SCOUT-AMMA campaign over West Africa in August 2006. The cloud properties were measured with a Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP-100 and a Cloud Imaging Probe (CIP operated aboard the Russian high altitude research aircraft M-55 Geophysica with the mission base in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. A total of 117 ice particle size distributions were obtained from the measurements in the vicinity of Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS. Two to four modal lognormal size distributions were fitted to the average size distributions for different potential temperature bins. The measurements showed proportionately more large ice particles compared to former measurements above maritime regions. With the help of trace gas measurements of NO, NOy, CO2, CO, and O3 and satellite images, clouds in young and aged MCS outflow were identified. These events were observed at altitudes of 11.0 km to 14.2 km corresponding to potential temperature levels of 346 K to 356 K. In a young outflow from a developing MCS ice crystal number concentrations of up to (8.3 ± 1.6 cm−3 and rimed ice particles with maximum dimensions exceeding 1.5 mm were found. A maximum ice water content of 0.05 g m−3 was observed and an effective radius of about 90 μm. In contrast the aged outflow events were more diluted and showed a maximum number concentration of 0.03 cm−3, an ice water content of 2.3 × 10−4 g m−3, an effective radius of about 18 μm, while the largest particles had a maximum dimension of 61 μm.

    Close to the tropopause subvisual cirrus were encountered four times at altitudes of 15 km to 16.4 km. The mean ice particle number concentration of these encounters was 0.01 cm−3 with maximum particle sizes of 130

  15. In-situ measurements of tropical cloud properties in the West African monsoon: upper tropospheric ice clouds, mesoscale convective system outflow, and subvisual cirrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Frey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In-situ measurements of ice crystal size distributions in tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS clouds were performed during the SCOUT-AMMA campaign over West Africa in August 2006. The cloud properties were measured with a Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP-100 and a Cloud Imaging Probe (CIP operated aboard the Russian high altitude research aircraft M-55 ''Geophysica'' with the mission base in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. A total of 117 ice particle size distributions were obtained from the measurements in the vicinity of Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS. Two or three modal lognormal size distributions were fitted to the average size distributions for different potential temperature bins. The measurements showed proportionate more large ice particles compared to former measurements above maritime regions. With the help of trace gas measurements of NO, NOy, CO2, CO, and O3, and satellite images clouds in young and aged MCS outflow were identified. These events were observed at altitudes of 11.0 km to 14.2 km corresponding to potential temperature levels of 346 K to 356 K. In a young outflow (developing MCS ice crystal number concentrations of up to 8.3 cm−3 and rimed ice particles with maximum dimensions exceeding 1.5 mm were found. A maximum ice water content of 0.05 g m−3 was observed and an effective radius of about 90 μm. In contrast the aged outflow events were more diluted and showed a maximum number concentration of 0.03 cm−3, an ice water content of 2.3 × 10−4 g m−3, an effective radius of about 18 μm, while the largest particles had a maximum dimension of 61 μm.

    Close to the tropopause subvisual cirrus were encountered four times at altitudes of 15 km to 16.4 km. The mean ice particle number concentration of these encounters was 0.01 cm−3 with maximum particle sizes of 130 μm, and the mean

  16. Airborne lidar observations of cirrus clouds in the Tropics, Mid-latitudes, and the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, S.; Browell, E.; Ferrare, R.; Grant, W.; Kooi, S.; Brackett, V.; Mahoney, M.

    2003-04-01

    Airborne lidar systems have demonstrated an unsurpassed capability to detect and profile optically thin cirrus. The airborne Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) has demonstrated a capability to detect thin cirrus at aerosol scattering levels of latitudes. LASE data from these field experiments have been used to characterize the cirrus as thin laminae, thick cirrus, deep convective cirrus, and cirrus anvils. In addition, characteristics including the cloud top height, optical depth, aerosol scattering ratio, lidar extinction-to-backscatter ratio have been derived for optically thin cirrus. During these field experiments, many data sets were available to interpret the cirrus cloud properties including data from satellites, in situ temperature and moisture instruments on aircraft, radiosondes, and during some field experiments, the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP). LASE data from long-range flights have been used to derive a relationship between the latitudinal variation of cloud top heights and tropopause locations. These measurements were also used to examine the relationship between relative humidity and the presence of cirrus. LASE observations of cirrus clouds and water vapor fields have also been used to identify dynamical processes like stratosphere-troposphere exchange and to study their characteristics. Examples of these observations and analyses are presented to demonstrate the advantage of using LASE measurements for conducting atmospheric science investigations.

  17. Cirrus cloud seeding has potential to cool climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelvmo, T.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Muri, H.; Pfeffer, M.; Barahona, D.; Nenes, A.

    2013-01-01

    Cirrus clouds, thin ice clouds in the upper troposphere, have a net warming effect on Earth's climate. Consequently, a reduction in cirrus cloud amount or optical thickness would cool the climate. Recent research indicates that by seeding cirrus clouds with particles that promote ice nucleation, their lifetimes and coverage could be reduced. We have tested this hypothesis in a global climate model with a state-of-the-art representation of cirrus clouds and find that cirrus cloud seeding has the potential to cancel the entire warming caused by human activity from pre-industrial times to present day. However, the desired effect is only obtained for seeding particle concentrations that lie within an optimal range. With lower than optimal particle concentrations, a seeding exercise would have no effect. Moreover, a higher than optimal concentration results in an over-seeding that could have the deleterious effect of prolonging cirrus lifetime and contributing to global warming.

  18. The SARTre model for radiative transfer in spherical atmospheres and its application to the derivation of cirrus cloud properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendrock, J.

    2006-07-01

    Modeling of radiative transfer (RT) is one of the essentials of atmospheric remote sensing. It has been common to use separate models for the simulation of shortwave radiation dominated by scattering of sunlight and longwave radiation characterized by emission from trace gases. These days also shortwave instruments are operated in limb mode, which demand models taking the sphericity of the Earth and atmosphere into account. On the other hand, infrared and microwave sounders are increasingly being used for the observation of ice clouds, that necessitate the modeling of scattering by cloud particles. Both trends require RT models, that are capable of taking into account scattering as well as the sphericity of the atmosphere. This suggests a unified handling of short- and longwave radiation, which furthermore allows for a consistent evaluation of multispectral data. Focusing on these aspects, the RT-model SARTre ([Approximate] Spherical Atmospheric Radiative Transfer model) has been developed. To our knowledge, SARTre is the first model, that is capable of limb modeling in the ultraviolet, visible, near to far infrared, and microwave spectral region. Here, algorithm baseline, implementation, verification and validation of SARTre are presented. SARTre has been used to study effects of cirrus clouds on infrared limb emission spectra. An exemplary retrieval of cirrus parameters from MIPAS measurements is demonstrated, and the plausibility of the results is discussed. (orig.)

  19. A combined atmospheric radiative transfer (CART) model and its applications for cirrus clouds simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Heli; Cao, Ya'nan; Chen, Xiuhong

    2012-11-01

    A fast atmospheric radiative transfer model called Combined Atmospheric Radiative Transfer model (CART) has been developed to rapidly calculate atmospheric transmittance and background radiance in the wavenumber range from 1 to 25000 cm-1 with spectral resolution of 1 cm-1. The spectral radiative properties of cirrus clouds at various effective sizes, optical thicknesses, and altitudes from visible to infrared wavelength region are simulated using the CART. The analyses show that the properties of cirrus clouds might be retrieved from the satellite-base spectral characteristics of cirrus clouds based on these simulations.

  20. Simultaneous retrieval of water vapour, temperature and cirrus clouds properties from measurements of far infrared spectral radiance over the Antarctic Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Natale, Gianluca; Palchetti, Luca; Bianchini, Giovanni; Del Guasta, Massimo

    2017-03-01

    The possibility separating the contributions of the atmospheric state and ice clouds by using spectral infrared measurements is a fundamental step to quantifying the cloud effect in climate models. A simultaneous retrieval of cloud and atmospheric parameters from infrared wideband spectra will allow the disentanglement of the spectral interference between these variables. In this paper, we describe the development of a code for the simultaneous retrieval of atmospheric state and ice cloud parameters, and its application to the analysis of the spectral measurements acquired by the Radiation Explorer in the Far Infrared - Prototype for Applications and Development (REFIR-PAD) spectroradiometer, which has been in operation at Concordia Station on the Antarctic Plateau since 2012. The code performs the retrieval with a computational time that is comparable with the instrument acquisition time. Water vapour and temperature profiles and the cloud optical and microphysical properties, such as the generalised effective diameter and the ice water path, are retrieved by exploiting the 230-980 cm-1 spectral band. To simulate atmospheric radiative transfer, the Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) has been integrated with a specifically developed subroutine based on the δ-Eddington two-stream approximation, whereas the single-scattering properties of cirrus clouds have been derived from a database for hexagonal column habits. In order to detect ice clouds, a backscattering and depolarisation lidar, co-located with REFIR-PAD has been used, allowing us to infer the position and the cloud thickness to be used in the retrieval. A climatology of the vertical profiles of water vapour and temperature has been performed by using the daily radiosounding available at the station at 12:00 UTC. The climatology has been used to build an a priori profile correlation to constrain the fitting procedure. An optimal estimation method with the Levenberg-Marquardt approach has been

  1. 3D reconstruction of tropospheric cirrus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouahla, M. N.; Faivre, M.; Moreels, G.; Seridi, H.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we present a series of results from stereo-imagery of cirrus clouds in the troposphere. These clouds are either of natural origin or are created by aircraft exhausts. They are presently considered to be a major cause for the climate change. Two observation campaigns were conducted in France in 2013 and 2014. The observing sites were located in Marnay (47°17‧31.5″ N, 5°44‧58.8″ E; altitude 275 m) and in Mont Poupet (46°58‧31.5″ N, 5°52‧22.7″ E; altitude 600 m). The distance between both sites was 36 km. We used numeric CMOS photographic cameras. The image processing sequence included a contrast enhancement and a perspective inversion to obtain a satellite-type view. Finally, the triangulation procedure was used in an area that is a common part of both fields of view.

  2. Cirrus clouds in a global climate model with a statistical cirrus cloud scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A statistical cirrus cloud scheme that accounts for mesoscale temperature perturbations is implemented in a coupled aerosol and atmospheric circulation model to better represent both subgrid-scale supersaturation and cloud formation. This new scheme treats the effects of aerosol on cloud formation and ice freezing in an improved manner, and both homogeneous freezing and heterogeneous freezing are included. The scheme is able to better simulate the observed probability distribution of relative humidity compared to the scheme that was implemented in an older version of the model. Heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN are shown to decrease the frequency of occurrence of supersaturation, and improve the comparison with observations at 192 hPa. Homogeneous freezing alone can not reproduce observed ice crystal number concentrations at low temperatures (<205 K, but the addition of heterogeneous IN improves the comparison somewhat. Increases in heterogeneous IN affect both high level cirrus clouds and low level liquid clouds. Increases in cirrus clouds lead to a more cloudy and moist lower troposphere with less precipitation, effects which we associate with the decreased convective activity. The change in the net cloud forcing is not very sensitive to the change in ice crystal concentrations, but the change in the net radiative flux at the top of the atmosphere is still large because of changes in water vapor. Changes in the magnitude of the assumed mesoscale temperature perturbations by 25% alter the ice crystal number concentrations and the net radiative fluxes by an amount that is comparable to that from a factor of 10 change in the heterogeneous IN number concentrations. Further improvements on the representation of mesoscale temperature perturbations, heterogeneous IN and the competition between homogeneous freezing and heterogeneous freezing are needed.

  3. Aviation effects on already-existing cirrus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesche, Matthias; Achtert, Peggy; Glantz, Paul; Noone, Kevin J.

    2016-06-01

    Determining the effects of the formation of contrails within natural cirrus clouds has proven to be challenging. Quantifying any such effects is necessary if we are to properly account for the influence of aviation on climate. Here we quantify the effect of aircraft on the optical thickness of already-existing cirrus clouds by matching actual aircraft flight tracks to satellite lidar measurements. We show that there is a systematic, statistically significant increase in normalized cirrus cloud optical thickness inside mid-latitude flight tracks compared with adjacent areas immediately outside the tracks.

  4. Subtropical and Polar Cirrus Clouds Characterized by Ground-Based Lidars and CALIPSO/CALIOP Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Córdoba-Jabonero Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cirrus clouds are product of weather processes, and then their occurrence and macrophysical/optical properties can vary significantly over different regions of the world. Lidars can provide height-resolved measurements with a relatively good both vertical and temporal resolutions, making them the most suitable instrumentation for high-cloud observations. The aim of this work is to show the potential of lidar observations on Cirrus clouds detection in combination with a recently proposed methodology to retrieve the Cirrus clouds macrophysical and optical features. In this sense, a few case studies of cirrus clouds observed at both subtropical and polar latitudes are examined and compared to CALIPSO/CALIOP observations. Lidar measurements are carried out in two stations: the Metropolitan city of Sao Paulo (MSP, Brazil, 23.3°S 46.4°W, located at subtropical latitudes, and the Belgrano II base (BEL, Argentina, 78ºS 35ºW in the Antarctic continent. Optical (COD-cloud optical depth and LR-Lidar Ratio and macrophysical (top/base heights and thickness properties of both the subtropical and polar cirrus clouds are reported. In general, subtropical Cirrus clouds present lower LR values and are found at higher altitudes than those detected at polar latitudes. In general, Cirrus clouds are detected at similar altitudes by CALIOP. However, a poor agreement is achieved in the LR retrieved between ground-based lidars and space-borne CALIOP measurements, likely due to the use of a fixed (or low-variable LR value in CALIOP inversion procedures.

  5. Subtropical and Polar Cirrus Clouds Characterized by Ground-Based Lidars and CALIPSO/CALIOP Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba-Jabonero, Carmen; Lopes, Fabio J. S.; Landulfo, Eduardo; Ochoa, Héctor; Gil-Ojeda, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    Cirrus clouds are product of weather processes, and then their occurrence and macrophysical/optical properties can vary significantly over different regions of the world. Lidars can provide height-resolved measurements with a relatively good both vertical and temporal resolutions, making them the most suitable instrumentation for high-cloud observations. The aim of this work is to show the potential of lidar observations on Cirrus clouds detection in combination with a recently proposed methodology to retrieve the Cirrus clouds macrophysical and optical features. In this sense, a few case studies of cirrus clouds observed at both subtropical and polar latitudes are examined and compared to CALIPSO/CALIOP observations. Lidar measurements are carried out in two stations: the Metropolitan city of Sao Paulo (MSP, Brazil, 23.3°S 46.4°W), located at subtropical latitudes, and the Belgrano II base (BEL, Argentina, 78ºS 35ºW) in the Antarctic continent. Optical (COD-cloud optical depth and LR-Lidar Ratio) and macrophysical (top/base heights and thickness) properties of both the subtropical and polar cirrus clouds are reported. In general, subtropical Cirrus clouds present lower LR values and are found at higher altitudes than those detected at polar latitudes. In general, Cirrus clouds are detected at similar altitudes by CALIOP. However, a poor agreement is achieved in the LR retrieved between ground-based lidars and space-borne CALIOP measurements, likely due to the use of a fixed (or low-variable) LR value in CALIOP inversion procedures.

  6. Towards Improved Cirrus Cloud Optical Depths from CALIPSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Anne; Vaughan, Mark; Pelon, Jacques; Winker, David; Trepte, Chip; Young, Stuart

    2016-06-01

    This paper reviews recent advances regarding the retrieval of optical depths of semi-transparent cirrus clouds using synergetic analyses of perfectly collocated observations from the CALIOP lidar and the IIR infrared radiometer aboard the CALIPSO satellite.

  7. The optical properties of equatorial cirrus in the pilot radiation observation experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, C.M.R.; Young, S.A.; Manson, P.; Patterson, G.R. [CSIRO, Victoria (Australia)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    The development of a sensitive filter radiometer for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has been reported. The aim was to develop a reliable and fast instrument that could be used alongside a lidar to obtain near realtime optical properties of clouds, particularly high ice clouds, as they drifted over an ARM Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site allowing calculation of the radiation divergence in the atmosphere over the site. Obtaining cloud optical properties by the lidar/radiometer, or LIRAD, method was described by Platt et al.; the latter paper also describes a year`s data on mid-latitude cirrus. The optical properties of equatorial cirrus (i.e., cirrus within a few degrees of the equator) have hardly been studied at all. The same is true of tropical cirrus, although a few observations have been reported by Davis and Platt et al.This paper describes obersvations performed on cirrus clouds, analysis methods used, and results.

  8. Quantifying the Amount of Ice in Cold Tropical Cirrus Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Melody A.; Winker, David M.; Garnier, Anne; Lawson, R. Paul; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Mo, Qixu; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Woods, Sarah; Lance, Sara; Young, Stuart A.; Vaughan, Mark A.; Trepte, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    How much ice is there in the Tropical Tropopause layer, globally? How does one begin to answer that question? Clouds are currently the largest source of uncertainty in climate models, and the ice water content (IWC) of cold cirrus clouds is needed to understand the total water and radiation budgets of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS). The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite, originally a "pathfinder" mission only expected to last for three years, has now been operational for more than eight years. Lidar data from CALIPSO can provide information about how IWC is vertically distributed in the UT/LS, and about inter-annual variability and seasonal changes in cloud ice. However, cloud IWC is difficult to measure accurately with either remote or in situ instruments because IWC from cold cirrus clouds is derived from the particle cross-sectional area or visible extinction coefficient. Assumptions must be made about the relationship between the area, volume and density of ice particles with various crystal habits. Recently there have been numerous aircraft field campaigns providing detailed information about cirrus ice water content from cloud probes. This presentation evaluates the assumptions made when creating the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) global IWC data set, using recently reanalyzed aircraft particle probe measurements of very cold, thin TTL cirrus from the 2006 CR-AVE.

  9. Modification of cirrus clouds to reduce global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, David L; Finnegan, William, E-mail: david.mitchell@dri.ed [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV 89512-1095 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Greenhouse gases and cirrus clouds regulate outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and cirrus cloud coverage is predicted to be sensitive to the ice fall speed which depends on ice crystal size. The higher the cirrus, the greater their impact is on OLR. Thus by changing ice crystal size in the coldest cirrus, OLR and climate might be modified. Fortunately the coldest cirrus have the highest ice supersaturation due to the dominance of homogeneous freezing nucleation. Seeding such cirrus with very efficient heterogeneous ice nuclei should produce larger ice crystals due to vapor competition effects, thus increasing OLR and surface cooling. Preliminary estimates of this global net cloud forcing are more negative than -2.8 W m{sup -2} and could neutralize the radiative forcing due to a CO{sub 2} doubling (3.7 W m{sup -2}). A potential delivery mechanism for the seeding material is already in place: the airline industry. Since seeding aerosol residence times in the troposphere are relatively short, the climate might return to its normal state within months after stopping the geoengineering experiment. The main known drawback to this approach is that it would not stop ocean acidification. It does not have many of the drawbacks that stratospheric injection of sulfur species has.

  10. Midlatitude Cirrus Clouds and Multiple Tropopauses from a 2002-2006 Climatology over the SIRTA Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Noel, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    This study present a comparison of lidar observations of midlatitude cirrus clouds over the SIRTA observatory between 2002 and 2006 with multiple tropopauses (MT) retrieved from radiosounding temperature profiles. The temporal variability of MT properties (frequency, thickness) are discussed. Results show a marked annual cycle, with MT frequency reaching its lowest point in May (~18% occurrence of MT) and slowly rising to more than 40% in DJF. The average thickness of the MT also follows an annual cycle, going from less than 1 km in spring to 1.5 km in late autumn. Comparison with lidar observations show that cirrus clouds show a preference for being located close below the 1st tropopause. When the cloud top is above the 1st tropopause (7% of observations), in 20% of cases the cloud base is above it as well, resulting in a cirrus cloud "sandwiched" between the two tropopauses. Compared to the general distribution of cirrus, cross-tropopause cirrus show a higher frequency of large optical depths, while inter-t...

  11. Why cirrus cloud seeding cannot substantially cool the planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Blaž; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2016-05-01

    The net warming effect of cirrus clouds has driven part of the geoengineering research toward the idea of decreasing their occurrence frequency by seeding them with efficient ice nucleating particles. We study responses of cirrus clouds to simplified global seeding strategies in terms of their radiative fluxes with the help of the ECHAM-HAM general circulation model. Our cirrus scheme takes into account the competition between homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing, preexisting ice crystals, and the full spectrum of updraft velocities. While we find that the cirrus cloud radiative effect evaluated from our model is positive and large enough (5.7 W/m2) to confirm their geoengineering potential, none of the seeding strategies achieves a significant cooling due to complex microphysical mechanisms limiting their climatic responses. After globally uniform seeding is applied, we observe an increase in cirrus cloud cover, a decrease in ice crystal number concentration, and a decrease in ice crystal radius. An analysis of their respective radiative contributions points to the ice crystal radius decrease as the main factor limiting seeding effectiveness.

  12. Cirrus Microphysical Properties from Stellar Aureole Measurements, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVore, J. G.; Kristl, J. A.; Rappaport, S. A.

    2012-04-20

    While knowledge of the impact of aerosols on climate change has improved significantly due to the routine, ground-based, sun photometer measurements of aerosols made at AERONET sites world-wide, the impact of cirrus clouds remains much less certain because they occur high in the atmosphere and are more difficult to measure. This report documents work performed on a Phase I SBIR project to retrieve microphysical properties of cirrus ice crystals from stellar aureole imagery. The Phase I work demonstrates that (1) we have clearly measured stellar aureole profiles; (2) we can follow the aureole profiles out to ~1/4 degree from stars (~1/2 degree from Jupiter); (3) the stellar aureoles from cirrus have very distinctive profiles, being flat out to a critical angle, followed by a steep power-law decline with a slope of ~-3; (4) the profiles are well modeled using exponential size distributions; and (5) the critical angle in the profiles is ~0.12 degrees, (6) indicating that the corresponding critical size ranges from ~150 to ~200 microns. The stage has been set for a Phase II project (1) to proceed to validating the use of stellar aureole measurements for retrieving cirrus particle size distributions using comparisons with optical property retrievals from other, ground-based instruments and (2) to develop an instrument for the routine, automatic measurement of thin cirrus microphysical properties.

  13. Evidence of impact of aviation on cirrus cloud formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Zerefos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This work examines changes in cirrus cloud cover in possible association with aviation activities at congested air corridors. The analysis is based on the latest version of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project D2 data set and covers the period 1984&ndash1998. Over areas with heavy air traffic, the effect of large-scale modes of natural climate variability such as ENSO, QBO and NAO as well as the possible influence of the tropopause variability, were first removed from the cloud data set in order to calculate long-term changes of observed cirrus cloudiness. The results show increasing trends in cirrus cloud coverage, between 1984 and 1998, over the high air traffic corridors of North America, North Atlantic and Europe, which in the summertime only over the North Atlantic are statistically significant at the 99.5% confidence level (2.6% per decade. In wintertime however, statistically significant changes at the 95% confidence level are found over North America, amounting to +2.1% per decade. Statistically significant increases at the 95% confidence level are also found for the annual mean cirrus cloud coverage over the North Atlantic air corridor (1.2% per decade. Over adjacent locations with lower air traffic, the calculated trends are statistically insignificant and in most cases negative both during winter and summer in regions studied. Moreover, it is shown that the longitudinal distribution of decadal changes in cirrus cloudiness along the latitude belt centered at the North Atlantic air corridor, parallels the spatial distribution of fuel consumption from highflying air traffic, providing an independent test of possible impact of aviation on contrail cirrus formation. Results from this study are compared with other studies and different periods of records and it appears as evidenced in this and in earlier studies that there exists general agreement on the aviation effect on high cloud trends.

  14. Understanding Ice Supersaturation, Particle Growth, and Number Concentration in Cirrus Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, Jennifer M.; Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, David O'C.; Yang, Ping

    2008-01-01

    Many factors control the ice supersaturation and microphysical properties in cirrus clouds. We explore the effects of dynamic forcing, ice nucleation mechanisms, and ice crystal growth rate on the evolution and distribution of water vapor and cloud properties in nighttime cirrus clouds using a one-dimensional cloud model with bin microphysics and remote sensing measurements obtained at the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility located near Lamont, OK. We forced the model using both large-scale vertical ascent and, for the first time, mean mesoscale velocity derived from radar Doppler velocity measurements. Both heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation processes are explored, where a classical theory heterogeneous scheme is compared with empirical representations. We evaluated model simulations by examining both bulk cloud properties and distributions of measured radar reflectivity, lidar extinction, and water vapor profiles, as well as retrieved cloud microphysical properties. Our results suggest that mesoscale variability is the primary mechanism needed to reproduce observed quantities. Model sensitivity to the ice growth rate is also investigated. The most realistic simulations as compared with observations are forced using mesoscale waves, include fast ice crystal growth, and initiate ice by either homogeneous or heterogeneous nucleation. Simulated ice crystal number concentrations (tens to hundreds particles per liter) are typically two orders of magnitude smaller than previously published results based on aircraft measurements in cirrus clouds, although higher concentrations are possible in isolated pockets within the nucleation zone.

  15. Cirrus cloud radiative forcing on surface-level shortwave and longwave irradiances at regional and global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, J. C.; Haeffelin, M.; Long, C. N.

    2009-04-01

    Cirrus clouds not only play a major role in the energy budget of the Earth-Atmosphere system, but are also important in the hydrological cycle. According to satellite passive remote sensing high-altitude clouds cover as much as 40% of the earth's surface on average and can reach 70% of cloud cover over the Tropics. Hence, given their very large cloud cover, the relatively small instantaneous radiative effects of these cirrus clouds can engender a significant cumulative radiative forcing at the surface. Precise calculations of the cirrus cloud radiative forcing are obtained from the difference between measured radiative fluxes downwelling at the surface in the presence of cirrus clouds (broadband flux measurements) and computed clear sky references (parametric models with RMS error water vapor content obtained in studying the 4 observatories allows us to quantify the combined influence of aerosol optical thickness and integrated water vapor on CRFSW* : 10 to 20 % CRFSW* range for turbid and pristine atmosphere. Moreover, the sensitivity of the CRFLW to both cloud emissivity and cloud temperature (noted CRFLW*) is established and the influence of integrated water vapor on CRFLW* quantified: partial infrared opacity for arctic site (dry atmosphere) and quasi-total infrared opacity for tropical site (wet atmosphere), respectively 20% and 97% of opacity. Cirrus cloud radiative forcing parameterizations are hence developed starting from the ground-based collocated measurements. They relate CRFSW or CRFLW to cirrus cloud macrophysical properties, atmospheric humidity, aerosol content and solar zenith angle. Satellite measurements are used next as input parameters to the cirrus cloud radiative forcing parameterizations to calculate CRFSW and CRFLW at global scale. CALIOP provide aerosol and cirrus cloud properties and AIRS the integrated water vapor. Meridian distribution are shown and discussed. They reveal a positive cirrus cloud net radiative effect (CRFSW + CRFLW) from

  16. The accommodation coefficient of water molecules on ice – cirrus cloud studies at the AIDA simulation chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Skrotzki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cirrus clouds and their impact on the Earth's radiative budget are subjects of current research. The processes governing the growth of cirrus ice particles are central to the radiative properties of cirrus clouds. At temperatures relevant to cirrus clouds, the growth of ice crystals smaller than a few microns in size is strongly influenced by the accommodation coefficient of water molecules on ice, αice, making this parameter relevant for cirrus cloud modeling. However, the experimentally determined magnitude of αice for cirrus temperatures is afflicted with uncertainties of almost three orders of magnitude, and values for αice derived from cirrus cloud data lack significance so far. This has motivated dedicated experiments at the cloud chamber AIDA (Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere to determine αice in the cirrus-relevant temperature interval between 190 K and 235 K under realistic cirrus ice particle growth conditions. The experimental data sets have been evaluated independently with two model approaches: the first relying on the newly developed model SIGMA (Simple Ice Growth Model for determining Alpha, the second one on an established model, ACPIM (Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation Interaction Model. Within both approaches a careful uncertainty analysis of the obtained αice values has been carried out for each AIDA experiment. The results show no significant dependence of αice on temperature between 190 K and 235 K. In addition, we find no evidence for a dependence of αice on ice particle size or on water vapor supersaturation for ice particles smaller than 20 μm and supersaturations of up to 70%. The temperature-averaged and combined result from both models is αice = 0.7−0.5+0.3, which implies that αice may only exert a minor impact on cirrus clouds and their characteristics when compared to the assumption of αice =1. Impact on prior calculations of cirrus cloud properties, e.g., in climate models, with

  17. Retrieval of subvisual cirrus cloud optical thickness from limb-scatter measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. Wiensz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a technique for estimating the optical thickness of subvisual cirrus clouds detected by OSIRIS (Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging System, a limb-viewing satellite instrument that measures scattered radiances from the UV to the near-IR. The measurement set is composed of a ratio of limb radiance profiles at two wavelengths that indicates the presence of cloud-scattering regions. Cross-sections and phase functions from an in situ database are used to simulate scattering by cloud-particles. With appropriate configurations discussed in this paper, the SASKTRAN successive-orders of scatter radiative transfer model is able to simulate accurately the in-cloud radiances from OSIRIS. Configured in this way, the model is used with a multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART to retrieve the cloud extinction profile for an assumed effective cloud particle size. The sensitivity of these retrievals to key auxiliary model parameters is shown, and it is shown that the retrieved extinction profile, for an assumed effective cloud particle size, models well the measured in-cloud radiances from OSIRIS. The greatest sensitivity of the retrieved optical thickness is to the effective cloud particle size. Since OSIRIS has an 11-yr record of subvisual cirrus cloud detections, the work described in this manuscript provides a very useful method for providing a long-term global record of the properties of these clouds.

  18. Can cirrus cloud seeding be used for geoengineering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Joyce E.; Zhou, Cheng; Liu, Xiaohong

    2015-10-01

    Cirrus cloud seeding has been proposed as a possible technique that might thin cirrus clouds leading to reduced heating. The technique was shown to be viable in one model evaluation. Here we use an updated version of the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) and reevaluate whether seeding is a viable mechanism for cooling. We explore different model setups (with and without secondary organic aerosols acting as heterogeneous ice nuclei). None of the updated versions of the CAM5 lead to a significant amount of negative climate forcing and hence do not lead to cooling. We only calculate a net negative cloud forcing (-0.74 ± 0.25 W m-2) if we restrict the modeled subgrid-scale updraft velocity during nucleation to <0.2 m s-1 and if the deposition of water vapor onto preexisting ice crystals during nucleation is not included. Hence, we do not find that cirrus cloud seeding is a viable climate intervention technique.

  19. Aerosol Indirect Effects on Cirrus Clouds in Global Aerosol-Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Zhang, K.; Wang, Y.; Neubauer, D.; Lohmann, U.; Ferrachat, S.; Zhou, C.; Penner, J.; Barahona, D.; Shi, X.

    2015-12-01

    Cirrus clouds play an important role in regulating the Earth's radiative budget and water vapor distribution in the upper troposphere. Aerosols can act as solution droplets or ice nuclei that promote ice nucleation in cirrus clouds. Anthropogenic emissions from fossil fuel and biomass burning activities have substantially perturbed and enhanced concentrations of aerosol particles in the atmosphere. Global aerosol-climate models (GCMs) have now been used to quantify the radiative forcing and effects of aerosols on cirrus clouds (IPCC AR5). However, the estimate uncertainty is very large due to the different representation of ice cloud formation and evolution processes in GCMs. In addition, large discrepancies have been found between model simulations in terms of the spatial distribution of ice-nucleating aerosols, relative humidity, and temperature fluctuations, which contribute to different estimates of the aerosol indirect effect through cirrus clouds. In this presentation, four GCMs with the start-of-the art representations of cloud microphysics and aerosol-cloud interactions are used to estimate the aerosol indirect effects on cirrus clouds and to identify the causes of the discrepancies. The estimated global and annual mean anthropogenic aerosol indirect effect through cirrus clouds ranges from 0.1 W m-2 to 0.3 W m-2 in terms of the top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) net radiation flux, and 0.5-0.6 W m-2 for the TOA longwave flux. Despite the good agreement on global mean, large discrepancies are found at the regional scale. The physics behind the aerosol indirect effect is dramatically different. Our analysis suggests that burden of ice-nucleating aerosols in the upper troposphere, ice nucleation frequency, and relative role of ice formation processes (i.e., homogeneous versus heterogeneous nucleation) play key roles in determining the characteristics of the simulated aerosol indirect effects. In addition to the indirect effect estimate, we also use field campaign

  20. An automated cirrus classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryspeerdt, Edward; Quaas, Johannes; Sourdeval, Odran; Goren, Tom

    2017-04-01

    Cirrus clouds play an important role in determining the radiation budget of the earth, but our understanding of the lifecycle and controls on cirrus clouds remains incomplete. Cirrus clouds can have very different properties and development depending on their environment, particularly during their formation. However, the relevant factors often cannot be distinguished using commonly retrieved satellite data products (such as cloud optical depth). In particular, the initial cloud phase has been identified as an important factor in cloud development, but although back-trajectory based methods can provide information on the initial cloud phase, they are computationally expensive and depend on the cloud parametrisations used in re-analysis products. In this work, a classification system (Identification and Classification of Cirrus, IC-CIR) is introduced. Using re-analysis and satellite data, cirrus clouds are separated in four main types: frontal, convective, orographic and in-situ. The properties of these classes show that this classification is able to provide useful information on the properties and initial phase of cirrus clouds, information that could not be provided by instantaneous satellite retrieved cloud properties alone. This classification is designed to be easily implemented in global climate models, helping to improve future comparisons between observations and models and reducing the uncertainty in cirrus clouds properties, leading to improved cloud parametrisations.

  1. Modification of cirrus clouds to reduce global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, D. L.

    2009-12-01

    Since both greenhouse gases and cirrus clouds strongly affect outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) with no affect or less affect on solar radiation, respectively, an attempt to delay global warming to buy time for emission reduction strategies to work might naturally target cirrus clouds. Cirrus having optical depths Seeding such cirrus with very efficient heterogeneous ice nuclei should produce larger ice crystals due to vapor competition effects, thus increasing OLR and surface cooling. Preliminary estimates of this global net cloud forcing via GCM simulations are more negative than -2.8 W m-2 and could neutralize the radiative forcing due to a CO2 doubling (3.7 W m-2). This cirrus engineered net forcing is due to (1) reduced cirrus coverage and (2) reduced upper tropospheric water vapor, due to enhanced ice sedimentation. The implementation of this climate engineering could use the airline industry to disperse the seeding material. Commercial airliners typically fly at temperatures between -40 and -60 deg. C (where homogeneous freezing nucleation dominates). Weather modification research has developed ice nucleating substances that are extremely effective at these cold temperatures, are non-toxic and are relatively inexpensive. The seeding material could be released in both clear and cloudy conditions to build up a background concentration of efficient ice nuclei so that non-contrail cirrus will experience these nuclei and grow larger ice crystals. Flight corridors are denser in the high- and mid-latitudes where global warming is more severe. A risk with any geoengineering experiment is that it could affect climate in unforeseen ways, causing more harm than good. Since seeding aerosol residence times in the troposphere are 1-2 weeks, the climate might return back to its normal state within a few months after stopping the geoengineering. A drawback to this approach is that it would not stop ocean acidification. It may not have many of the draw-backs that

  2. The Dependence of Cirrus Gamma Size Distributions Expressed as Volumes in N(sub 0)-Lambda-Mu Phase Space and Bulk Cloud Properties on Environmental Conditions: Results from the Small Ice Particles in Cirrus Experiment (SPARTICUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert C.; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Fridlind, Ann M.; Atlas, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The variability of cirrus ice microphysical properties is investigated using observations obtained during the Small Particles in Cirrus (SPARTICUS) campaign. An existing approach that represents a size distribution (SD) as a single gamma function using an ellipsoid of equally realizable solutions in (N(sub 0), lambda, mu) phase space is modified to automatically identify multiple modes in SDs and characterize each mode by such an ellipsoid. The modified approach is applied to ice crystals with maximum dimension D greater than15 micrometers collected by the 2-D stereo and 2-D precipitation probes on the Stratton Park Engineering Company Learjet. The dependencies of N(sub 0), mu, and lambda from each mode, total number concentration, bulk extinction, ice water content (IWC), and mass median maximum dimension D(sub mm) as a function of temperature T and cirrus type are then analyzed. The changes in the observed codependencies between N(sub 0), mu, and lambda, bulk extinction, IWC, and D(sub mm) with environmental conditions indicate that particles were larger at higher T during SPARTICUS. At most two modes were observed in any SD during SPARTICUS, with the average boundary between them at 115 micrometers, similar to past studies not using probes with shatter mitigating tips and artifact removal algorithms. The bimodality of the SDs increased with T. This and the differences in N(sub 0), mu, and lambda between the modes suggest that particles with smaller D nucleated more recently than particles with larger D, which grew via vapor deposition and aggregation. Because smaller crystals, whose concentrations are uncertain, make marginal contributions to higher order moments, the use of higher moments for evaluating model fields is suggested.

  3. Lidar observations of high-altitude aerosol layers (cirrus clouds)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleva, Atanaska D.; Grigorov, Ivan V.

    2013-03-01

    Aerosols, clouds and aerosol-cloud interactions are recognized as the key factors influencing the climate. Clouds are the primary modulators of the Earth's radiative budget. This paper focuses on the detection of high-altitude aerosol layers in the troposphere over mid-latitude lidar station in Sofia, Bulgaria. They are situated in the height-region 6 km÷16 km, with thickness in the range 0.2 km÷5 km and have varying optical characteristics. On the basis of the general utilized classification of the Cirrus clouds, high values of the calculated atmospheric backscatter coefficient and Angströmexponent estimation results we conclude that the registered strongly scattered aerosol layers are Cirrus clouds. Lidar measurements are performed with an aerosol lidar, equipped with Nd:YAG laser at wavelengths 532 nm and 1064 nm. Mainly, lidar data are presented in terms of vertical atmospheric backscatter coefficient profiles. We also include 2Dcolormap in height-time coordinates build on the basis of so called range corrected signals. It shows in general changes of the aerosol stratification over the lidar station during the measurement period. We employed HYSPLIT backward trajectories and DREAM forecasts to analyze the lidar profile outlines and characterize the events during which Cirrus cloud samples were observed. So was remarked that most of the results were obtained during Saharan dust long-way transport over the city of Sofia. Reported experimental examples are extracted from regular lidar investigations of the atmosphere within the frame of European project EARLINET.

  4. The Three-Dimensional Spatial Structure of Cirrus Clouds Determined from Lidar Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloranta, E. W.; Wylie, D.; Wolf, W.

    1996-01-01

    Simultaneous imagery from the University of Wisconsin Volume Imaging Lidar (VIL) and meteorological satellites were used to quantify the spatial structure of cirrus clouds with 60 m resolution. This data was used to determine the spatial distributions of cloud base altitude, cloud top altitude, and mid-cloud altitude. Two dimensional auto-correlation functions describing the mean shape of cirrus clouds were computed. Because cirrus clouds seldom have distinct edges, these correlation functions are derived as a function of a threshold value which defines the cloud edge.

  5. 3D reconstruction of tropospheric cirrus clouds by stereovision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadjib Kouahla, Mohamed; Moreels, Guy; Seridi, Hamid

    2016-07-01

    A stereo imaging method is applied to measure the altitude of cirrus clouds and provide a 3D map of the altitude of the layer centroid. They are located in the high troposphere and, sometimes in the lower stratosphere, between 6 and 10 km high. Two simultaneous images of the same scene are taken with Canon cameras (400D) in two sites distant of 37 Km. Each image processed in order to invert the perspective effect and provide a satellite-type view of the layer. Pairs of matched points that correspond to a physical emissive point in the common area are identified in calculating a correlation coefficient (ZNCC: Zero mean Normalized Cross-correlation or ZSSD: as Zero mean Sum of Squared Differences). This method is suitable for obtaining 3D representations in the case of low-contrast objects. An observational campaign was conducted in June 2014 in France. The images were taken simultaneously at Marnay (47°17'31.5" N, 5°44'58.8" E; altitude 275 m) 25 km northwest of Besancon and in Mont poupet (46°58'31.5" N, 5°52'22.7" E; altitude 600 m) southwest of Besancon at 43 km. 3D maps of the Natural cirrus clouds and artificial like "aircraft trails" are retrieved. They are compared with pseudo-relief intensity maps of the same region. The mean altitude of the cirrus barycenter is located at 8.5 ± 1km on June 11.

  6. Parameterization of cirrus optical depth and cloud fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soden, B. [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This research illustrates the utility of combining satellite observations and operational analysis for the evaluation of parameterizations. A parameterization based on ice water path (IWP) captures the observed spatial patterns of tropical cirrus optical depth. The strong temperature dependence of cirrus ice water path in both the observations and the parameterization is probably responsible for the good correlation where it exists. Poorer agreement is found in Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes where the temperature dependence breaks down. Uncertainties in effective radius limit quantitative validation of the parameterization (and its inclusion into GCMs). Also, it is found that monthly mean cloud cover can be predicted within an RMS error of 10% using ECMWF relative humidity corrected by TOVS Upper Troposphere Humidity. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  7. A modelling study of moisture redistribution by thin cirrus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dinh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A high resolution 2-dimensional numerical model is used to study the moisture redistribution following homogeneous ice nucleation induced by Kelvin waves in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL. We compare results for dry/moist initial conditions, and three levels of complexity for the representation of cloud processes: full bin microphysics and radiative effects of the ice, ditto but without radiative effects, and instantaneous removal of moisture in excess of saturation upon nucleation. Cloud evolution and the profiles of moisture redistribution are found to be sensitive to initial conditions and cloud processes. Ice sedimentation leads to a downward flux of water. On the other hand, the cloud radiative heating induces upward advection of the cloudy air. This results in an upward flux of water vapour if the cloudy air is moister (or drier than the environment, which is typically when the environment is subsaturated (or supersaturated. The numerical results show that only a small fraction (less than 25% of the cloud experiences nucleation. Sedimentation and reevaporation are important, and hydrated layers in observation may be as good an indicator as dehydrated layers for the occurrence of thin cirrus clouds. The calculation with instantaneous removal of condensates misses the hydration by construction, but also underestimates dehydration due to lack of moisture removal from sedimenting particles below the nucleation level, and due to nucleation before reaching the minimum saturation mixing ratio. The sensitivity to initial conditions and cloud processes suggests that it is difficult to reach generic, quantitative conclusions regarding the role of thin cirrus clouds for the moisture distribution in the TTL and stratosphere.

  8. Radiative Effects on the Diffusional Growth of Ice Particles in Cirrus Clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Cotton, William R.; Cheng, William Y. Y.

    2000-09-01

    At Colorado State University the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) has been used to study the radiative effect on the diffusional growth of ice particles in cirrus clouds. Using soundings extracted from a mesoscale simulation of the 26 November 1991 cirrus event, the radiative effect was studied using a two-dimensional cloud-resolving model (CRM) version of RAMS, coupled to an explicit bin-resolving microphysics.The CRM simulations of the 26 November 1991 cirrus event demonstrate that the radiative impact on the diffusional growth (or sublimation) of ice crystals is significant. Even in a radiatively cooled atmospheric environment, ice particles may experience radiative warming because the net radiation received by an ice particle depends upon the emission from the particle, and the local upwelling and downwelling radiative fluxes.Model results show that radiative feedbacks on the diffusional growth of ice particles can be very complex. Radiative warming of an ice particle will restrict the particle's diffusional growth. In the case of radiative warming, ice particles larger than a certain size will experience so much radiative warming that surface ice saturation vapor pressures become large enough to cause sublimation of the larger crystals, while smaller crystals are growing by vapor deposition. However, ice mass production can be enhanced in the case of radiative cooling of an ice particle. For the 26 November 1991 cirrus event, radiative feedback results in significant reduction in the total ice mass, especially in the production of large ice crystals, and consequently, both radiative and dynamic properties of the cirrus cloud are significantly affected.

  9. Impact of large-scale dynamics on the microphysical properties of midlatitude cirrus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhlbauer, Andreas; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Diskin, G. S.; Evans, Stuart; Lawson, Paul; Marchand, Roger

    2014-04-16

    In situ microphysical observations 3 of mid-latitude cirrus collected during the Department of Energy Small Particles in Cirrus (SPAR-TICUS) field campaign are combined with an atmospheric state classification for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site to understand statistical relationships between cirrus microphysics and the large-scale meteorology. The atmospheric state classification is informed about the large-scale meteorology and state of cloudiness at the ARM SGP site by combining ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis data with 14 years of continuous observations from the millimeter-wavelength cloud radar. Almost half of the cirrus cloud occurrences in the vicinity of the ARM SGP site during SPARTICUS can be explained by three distinct synoptic condi- tions, namely upper-level ridges, mid-latitude cyclones with frontal systems and subtropical flows. Probability density functions (PDFs) of cirrus micro- physical properties such as particle size distributions (PSDs), ice number con- centrations and ice water content (IWC) are examined and exhibit striking differences among the different synoptic regimes. Generally, narrower PSDs with lower IWC but higher ice number concentrations are found in cirrus sam- pled in upper-level ridges whereas cirrus sampled in subtropical flows, fronts and aged anvils show broader PSDs with considerably lower ice number con- centrations but higher IWC. Despite striking contrasts in the cirrus micro- physics for different large-scale environments, the PDFs of vertical velocity are not different, suggesting that vertical velocity PDFs are a poor predic-tor for explaining the microphysical variability in cirrus. Instead, cirrus mi- crophysical contrasts may be driven by differences in ice supersaturations or aerosols.

  10. Understanding Seasonal Variability in thin Cirrus Clouds from Continuous MPLNET Observations at GSFC in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolli, Simone; Lewis, Jasper R.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Campbell, James R.; Gu, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Optically thin cirrus cloud (optical depth effect can outweigh the infrared greenhouse effect, cooling the earthatmosphere system rather than warming it exclusively. As result, based on latitude, the net forcing of sub-visible cirrus clouds can be more accurately parameterized in climate models.

  11. Distinguishing cirrus cloud presence in autonomous lidar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Campbell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Level 2 Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP satellite-based cloud datasets from 2012 are investigated for metrics that help distinguish the cirrus cloud presence of in autonomous lidar measurements, using temperatures, heights, optical depth and phase. A thermal threshold, proposed by Sassen and Campbell (2001; SC2001 for cloud top temperature Ttop ≤ −37 °C, is evaluated vs. CALIOP algorithms that identify ice-phase cloud layers alone using depolarized backscatter. Global mean cloud top heights (11.15 vs. 10.07 km a.m.s.l., base heights (8.76 vs. 7.95 km a.m.s.l., temperatures (−58.48 °C vs. −52.18 °C and −42.40 °C vs. −38.13 °C, respectively for tops and bases and optical depths (1.18 vs. 1.23 reflect the sensitivity to these competing constraints. Over 99% of all Ttop ≤ −37 °C clouds are classified as ice by CALIOP Level 2 algorithms. Over 81% of all ice clouds correspond with Ttop ≤ −37 °C. For instruments lacking polarized measurements, and thus practical phase estimates, Ttop ≤ −37 °C proves stable for distinguishing cirrus, as opposed to the risks of glaciated liquid water cloud contamination occurring in a given sample from clouds identified at warmer temperatures. Uncertainties in temperature profiles use to collocate with lidar data (i.e., model reanalyses/sondes may justifiably relax the Ttop ≤ −37 °C threshold to include warmer cases. The ambiguity of "warm" (Ttop > −37 °C ice cloud genus cannot be reconciled completely with available measurements, however, conspicuously including phase. Cloud top heights and optical depths are evaluated as potential constraints, as functions of CALIOP-retrieved phase. However, these data provide, at best, additional constraint in regional samples, compared with temperature alone, and may exacerbate classification uncertainties overall globally.

  12. CSIR NLC mobile lidar observation of cirrus cloud

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivakumar, V

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available and with less frequent content of super-cooled water. Apart from the cirrus cloud observations, the figure clearly illustrates the temporal evolution of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). At the beginning of the observation, the PBL is observed... at the height range just above 2 km and later it gradually decreased to 1.2 ? 1.5 km during the middle of the observation. Thereafter, a slow increase in the PBL is noted indicating the decrease in atmosphere stability. It is important to note here...

  13. Cirrus microphysics and radiative transfer - Cloud field study on 28 October 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinne, Stefan; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Valero, Francisco P. J.; Sassen, Kenneth; Spinhirne, James D.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis of remote-sensing measurements which had detected an inhomogeneous cloud structure, at 6-11 km altitude, in the data acquired during the FIRE 86 experiment in a 75 x 50 km cirrus cloud field, has derived fluxes whose comparison with modeled fluxes imply a modeling-based underestimation of both solar reflectivity/attenuation and downward IR fluxes. Reconciliation of model results with measurements can be achieved either by adding large concentrations of ice crystals or by altering the backscattering properties of ice crystals.

  14. A new retrieval method for the ice water content of cirrus using data from the CloudSat and CALIPSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Honglin; Bu, Lingbing; Kumar, K. Raghavendra; Gao, Haiyang; Huang, Xingyou; Zhang, Wentao

    2017-08-01

    The CloudSat and CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) are the members of satellite observation system of A-train to achieve the quasi-synchronization observation on the same orbit. With the help of active (CALIOP and CPR) and passive payloads from these two satellites, respectively, unprecedented detailed information of microphysical properties of ice cloud can be retrieved. The ice water content (IWC) is regarded as one of the most important microphysical characteristics of cirrus for its prominent role in cloud radiative forcing. In this paper, we proposed a new joint (Combination) retrieval method using the full advantages of different well established retrieval methods, namely the LIDAR method (for the region Lidar-only), the MWCR method (for the region Radar-only), and Wang method (for the region Lidar-Radar) proposed by Wang et al. (2002). In retrieval of cirrus IWC, empirical formulas of the exponential type were used for both thinner cirrus (detected by Lidar-only), thicker cirrus (detected by radar-only), and the part of cirrus detected by both, respectively. In the present study, the comparison of various methods verified that our proposed new joint method is more comprehensive, rational and reliable. Further, the retrieval information of cirrus is complete and accurate for the region that Lidar cannot penetrate and Radar is insensitive. On the whole, the retrieval results of IWC showed certain differences retrieved from the joint method, Ca&Cl, and ICARE which can be interpreted from the different hypothesis of microphysical characteristics and parameters used in the retrieval method. In addition, our joint method only uses the extinction coefficient and the radar reflectivity factor to calculate the IWC, which is simpler and reduces to some extent the accumulative error. In future studies, we will not only compare the value of IWC but also explore the detailed macrophysical and microphysical characteristics of

  15. Properties of small cirrus ice crystals from commercial aircraft measurements and implications for flight operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Beswick

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of cloud ice crystal size distributions have been made by a backscatter cloud probe (BCP mounted on five commercial airliners flying international routes that cross five continents. Bulk cloud parameters were also derived from the size distributions. As of 31 December 2014, a total of 4399 flights had accumulated data from 665 hours in more than 19 000 cirrus clouds larger than 5 km in length. The BCP measures the equivalent optical diameter (EOD of individual crystals in the 5–90 µm range from which size distributions are derived and recorded every 4 seconds. The cirrus cloud property database, an ongoing development stemming from these measurements, registers the total crystal number and mass concentration, effective and median volume diameters and extinction coefficients derived from the size distribution. This information is accompanied by the environmental temperature, pressure, aircraft position, date and time of each sample. The seasonal variations of the cirrus cloud properties measured from 2012 to 2014 are determined for six geographic regions in the tropics and extratropics. Number concentrations range from a few per litre for thin cirrus to several hundreds of thousands for heavy cirrus. Temperatures range from 205 to 250 K and effective radii from 12 to 20 µm. A comparison of the regional and seasonal number and mass size distributions, and the bulk microphysical properties derived from them, demonstrates that cirrus properties cannot be easily parameterised by temperature or by latitude. The seasonal changes in the size distributions from the extratropical Atlantic and Eurasian air routes are distinctly different, showing shifts from mono-modal to bi-modal spectra out of phase with one another. This phase difference may be linked to the timing of deep convection and cold fronts that lead to the cirrus formation. Likewise, the size spectra of cirrus over the tropical Atlantic and Eastern Brazil differ from each

  16. Evidence of impact of aviation on cirrus cloud formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Zerefos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This work examines changes in cirrus cloud cover (CCC in possible association with aviation activities at congested air corridors. The analysis is based on the latest version of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project D2 data set and covers the period 1984-1998. Over the studied areas, the effect of large-scale modes of natural climate variability such as ENSO, QBO and NAO as well as the possible influence of the tropopause variability, were first removed from the cloud data set in order to calculate long-term changes of observed cirrus cloudiness. The results show increasing trends in (CCC between 1984 and 1998 over the high air traffic corridors of North America, North Atlantic and Europe. Of these upward trends, only in the summertime over the North Atlantic and only in the wintertime over North America are statistically significant (exceeding +2.0% per decade. Over adjacent locations with low air traffic, the calculated trends are statistically insignificant and in most cases negative both during winter and summer in the regions studied. These negative trends, over low air traffic regions, are consistent with the observed large scale negative trends seen in (CCC over most of the northern middle latitudes and over the tropics. Moreover, further investigation of vertical velocities over high and low air traffic regions provide evidence that the trends of opposite signs in (CCC over these regions, do not seem to be caused by different trends in dynamics. It is also shown that the longitudinal distribution of decadal changes in (CCC along the latitude belt centered at the North Atlantic air corridor, parallels the spatial distribution of fuel consumption from highflying air traffic, providing an independent test of possible impact of aviation on contrail cirrus formation. The correlation between the fuel consumption and the longitudinal variability of (CCC is significant (+0.7 over the middle latitudes but not over the tropics

  17. A tandem approach for collocated measurements of microphysical and radiative cirrus properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingebiel, Marcus; Ehrlich, André; Finger, Fanny; Röschenthaler, Timo; Jakirlić, Suad; Voigt, Matthias; Müller, Stefan; Maser, Rolf; Wendisch, Manfred; Hoor, Peter; Spichtinger, Peter; Borrmann, Stephan

    2017-09-01

    Microphysical and radiation measurements were collected with the novel AIRcraft TOwed Sensor Shuttle (AIRTOSS) - Learjet tandem platform. The platform is a combination of an instrumented Learjet 35A research aircraft and an aerodynamic bird, which is detached from and retracted back to the aircraft during flight via a steel wire with a length of 4000 m. Both platforms are equipped with radiative, cloud microphysical, trace gas, and meteorological instruments. The purpose of the development of this tandem set-up is to study the inhomogeneity of cirrus as well as other stratiform clouds. Sophisticated numerical flow simulations were conducted in order to optimally integrate an axially asymmetric Cloud Combination Probe (CCP) inside AIRTOSS. The tandem platform was applied during measurements at altitudes up to 36 000 ft (10 970 m) in the framework of the AIRTOSS - Inhomogeneous Cirrus Experiment (AIRTOSS-ICE). Ten flights were performed above the North Sea and Baltic Sea to probe frontal and in situ formed cirrus, as well as anvil outflow cirrus. For one flight, cirrus microphysical and radiative properties displayed significant inhomogeneities resolved by both measurement platforms. The CCP data show that the maximum of the observed particle number size distributions shifts with decreasing altitude from 30 to 300 µm, which is typical for frontal, midlatitude cirrus. Theoretical considerations imply that cloud particle aggregation inside the studied cirrus is very unlikely. Consequently, diffusional growth was identified to be the dominant microphysical growth process. Measurements of solar downward and upward irradiances at 670 nm wavelength were conducted above, below, and in the cirrus on both the Learjet and AIRTOSS. The observed variability of the downward irradiance below the cirrus reflects the horizontal heterogeneity of the observed thin cirrus. Vertically resolved solar heating rates were derived by either using single-platform measurements at different

  18. Optical remote measurement of ozone in cirrus clouds; Optische Fernmessung von Ozon in Zirruswolken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichardt, J. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische und Chemische Analytik

    1998-12-31

    The subject of this thesis is theoretical and experimental investigations into the simultaneous optical remote measurement of atmospheric ozone concentration and particle properties. A lidar system was developed that combines the Raman-lidar and the polarization-lidar with the Raman-DIAL technique. An error analysis is given for ozone measurements in clouds. It turns out that the wavelength dependencies of photon multiple scattering and of the particle extinction coefficient necessitate a correction of the measured ozone concentration. To quantify the cloud influence, model calculations based on particle size distributions of spheres are carried out. The most important experimental result of this thesis is the measured evidence of pronounced minima in the ozone distribution in a humid upper troposphere shortly before and during cirrus observation. Good correlation between ozone-depleted altitude ranges and ice clouds is found. This finding is in contrast to ozone profiles measured in a dry and cloud-free troposphere. (orig.) 151 refs.

  19. Evaluation of cloud resolving model simulations of midlatitude cirrus with ARM and A-Train observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlbauer, A. D.; Ackerman, T. P.; Lawson, P.; Xie, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    This paper evaluates cloud resolving model (CRM) and cloud system-resolving model (CSRM) simulations of a midlatitude cirrus case with comprehensive observations collected under the auspices of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program and with spaceborne observations from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) A-train satellites. Vertical profiles of temperature, relative humidity and wind speeds are reasonably well simulated by the CSRM and CRM but there are remaining biases in the temperature, wind speeds and relative humidity, which can be mitigated through nudging the model simulations toward the observed radiosonde profiles. Simulated vertical velocities are underestimated in all simulations except in the CRM simulations with grid spacings of 500m or finer, which suggests that turbulent vertical air motions in cirrus clouds need to be parameterized in GCMs and in CSRM simulations with horizontal grid spacings on the order of 1km. The simulated ice water content and ice number concentrations agree with the observations in the CSRM but are underestimated in the CRM simulations. The underestimation of ice number concentrations is consistent with the overestimation of radar reflectivity in the CRM simulations and suggests that the model produces too many large ice particles especially toward cloud base. Simulated cloud profiles are rather insensitive to perturbations in the initial conditions or the dimensionality of the model domain but the treatment of the forcing data has a considerable effect on the outcome of the model simulations. Despite considerable progress in observations and microphysical parameterizations, simulating the microphysical, macrophysical and radiative properties of cirrus remains challenging. Comparing model simulations with observations from multiple instruments and observational platforms is important for revealing model deficiencies and for providing rigorous benchmarks. However, there still is considerable

  20. Comparisons of cirrus cloud formation and evolution lifetime between five field campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, M.; Zondlo, M. A.; DiGangi, J. P.; O'Brien, A.; Heymsfield, A.; Rogers, D. C.; Beaton, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    In order to understand the microphysical properties of cirrus clouds, it is important to understand the formation and evolution of the environments where ice crystals form and reside on the microscale (~100 m). Uncertainties remain in simulating/parameterizing the evolution of ice crystals, which require more analyses in the Lagrangian view. However, most in situ observations are in the Eulerian view and are restricted from examining the lifecycle of cirrus clouds. In this work, a new method of Diao et al. GRL (2013)* is used to separate out five phases of ice crystal evolution, using the horizontal spatial relationships between ice supersaturated regions (ISSRs) and ice crystal regions (ICRs). In-situ, aircraft-based observations from five flight campaigns are used to compare the evolution processes of ISSRs and ICRs, which include the National Science Foundation HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) Global campaign (2009-2011 Arctic to Antarctic over the central Pacific Ocean), the Stratosphere Troposphere Analyses Regional Transport 2008 (START08) campaign (2008 North America), the Pre-Depression Investigation of Cloud-Systems in the Tropics (PREDICT) campaign (2010 tropical western Atlantic), the Tropical Ocean Troposphere Exchange of Reactive Halogen Species and Oxygenated VOC (2012 Costa Rica), and the Deep Convection, Clouds, and Chemistry (DC3) campaign (2011 Interior North America). To understand the evolution of ICRs and ISSRs on the microscale, we compare the microphysical evolution processes inside ISSRs and ICRs in terms of relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi), ice crystal mean diameter (Dc) and ice crystal number density (Nc) at different meteorological and dynamical backgrounds during these five campaigns. Different phases of ice nucleation and evolution are contrasted to understand how cirrus clouds evolve from clear-sky ISS into fully developed clouds, and finally into sedimentation/evaporation phase. The results show that the ratios of

  1. Revisiting the iris effect of tropical cirrus clouds with TRMM and A-Train satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong-Sang; Kim, WonMoo; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Masunaga, Hirohiko; Kwon, Min-Jae; Jo, Hyun-Su; Huang, Lei

    2017-06-01

    Just as the iris of human eye controls the light influx (iris effect), tropical anvil cirrus clouds may regulate the Earth's surface warming by controlling outgoing longwave radiation. This study examines this possible effect with monthly satellite observations such as Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer cirrus fraction, and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System top-of-the-atmosphere radiative fluxes averaged over different tropical domains from March 2000 to October 2014. To confirm that high-level cirrus is relevant to this study, Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization high cloud observations were also analyzed from June 2006 to December 2015. Our analysis revealed that the increase in sea surface temperature in the tropical western Pacific tends to concentrate convective cloud systems. This concentration effect very likely induces the significant reduction of both stratiform rain rate and cirrus fraction, without appreciable change in the convective rain rate. This reduction of stratiform rain rate and cirrus fraction cannot be found over its subregion or the tropical eastern Pacific, where the concentration effect of anvil cirrus is weak. Consistently, over the tropical western Pacific, the higher ratio of convective rain rate to total rain rate (i.e., precipitation efficiency) significantly correlates with warmer sea surface temperature and lower cirrus fraction. The reduced cirrus eventually increased outgoing longwave radiation to a greater degree than absorbed solar radiation. Finally, the negative relationship between precipitation efficiency and cirrus fraction tends to correspond to a low global equilibrium climate sensitivity in the models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5. This suggests that tropical anvil cirrus clouds exert a negative climate feedback in strong association with precipitation efficiency.

  2. Microphysical and optical properties of contrails and cirrus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayet, J.F.; Febvre, G. [Universite Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferand (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Physique; Brogniez, G. [Universite des Sciences et Techniques de Lille, (France). Lab. d`Optique Atmospherique; Wendling, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Larsen, H. [National Inst. for Water and Atmospheric Research, Wellington (New Zealand)

    1997-12-31

    Aircraft contrails have significantly different properties to natural cirrus clouds. Their local and global climate impact cannot be assessed without consideration of these differences. Microphysical data were obtained from the Merlin aircraft equipped with a PMS FSSP-100 for particle spectrum measurements over the 3 {mu}m to 45 {mu}m diameter range; a PMS 2D-C for particle size spectrum and particle shape over the size range from 25 {mu}m to 800 {mu}m and a Johnson-Williams cloud liquid-water probe. Radiative measurements were obtained from a Do228 aircraft which carried the upward looking ALEX-F Lidar operating at a wavelength of 1.06 {mu}m and a Barnes PRT-5 radiometer aligned parallel to the lidar and with a 9 to 11 {mu}m spectral range. The limitation in accuracy of cloud microphysical sensor used in contrail studies are also discussed with subsequent errors on description of cloud radiative properties. (R.P.) 9 refs.

  3. Study of Ice Crystal Orientation in Cirrus Clouds based on Satellite Polarized Radiance Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Noel, Vincent; Chepfer, Hélène

    2004-01-01

    International audience; The goal of this paper is to retrieve information about ice particle orientation in cirrus clouds. This is achieved by comparing simulations of sunlight reflection on a cirrus cloud with measurements of polarized radiances from the spaceborne instrument Polarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectance (POLDER-1) on Advanced Earth Observing Satellite-1 (ADEOS-1). Results show that horizontal orientation of cr ystals can be spotted by the presence of a local ma...

  4. Freezing thresholds and cirrus cloud formation mechanisms inferred from in situ measurements of relative humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Haag

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Factors controlling the distribution of relative humidity above ice saturation in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere in the presence of cirrus clouds are examined with the help of microphysical trajectory simulations using a box model. Our findings are related to results from recent field campaigns and global model studies. We suggest that the relative humidities at which ice crystals form in the atmosphere can be inferred from in situ measurements of water vapor and temperature close to, but outside of, cirrus clouds. The comparison with similar measurements performed inside cirrus clouds provides a clue to freezing mechanisms active in cirrus. The comparison with field data reveals distinct interhemispheric differences in cirrus cloud freezing thresholds. Combining the present findings with recent results addressing the frequency distributions of updraft speeds and cirrus ice crystal number densities (Kärcher and Ström, 2993} provides evidence for the existence of complex heterogeneous freezing mechanisms in cirrus, at least in the polluted northern hemisphere, and further emphasizes the key role of gravity wave-induced dynamical variability in vertical air motion at the mesoscale. The key features of distributions of upper tropospheric relative humidity simulated by a global climate model are shown to be in general agreement with both, microphysical simulations and field observations, delineating a feasible method to include and validate ice supersaturation in other large-scale models of the atmosphere, in particular chemistry-transport and weather forecast models.

  5. Insights into the role of soot aerosols in cirrus cloud formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kärcher

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Cirrus cloud formation is believed to be dominated by homogeneous freezing of supercooled liquid aerosols in many instances. Heterogeneous ice nuclei such as mineral dust, metallic, and soot particles, and some crystalline solids within partially soluble aerosols are suspected to modulate cirrus properties. Among those, the role of ubiquitous soot particles is perhaps the least understood. Because aviation is a major source of upper tropospheric soot particles, we put emphasis on ice formation in dispersing aircraft plumes. The effect of aircraft soot on cirrus formation in the absence of contrails is highly complex and depends on a wide array of emission and environmental parameters. We use a microphysical-chemical model predicting the formation of internally mixed, soot-containing particles up to two days after emission, and suggest two principal scenarios: high concentrations of original soot emissions could slightly increase the number of ice crystals; low concentrations of particles originating from coagulation of emitted soot with background aerosols could lead to a significant reduction in ice crystal number. Both scenarios assume soot particles to be moderate ice nuclei relative to cirrus formation by homogeneous freezing in the presence of few efficient dust ice nuclei. A critical discussion of laboratory experiments reveals that the ice nucleation efficiency of soot particles depends strongly on their source, and, by inference, on atmospheric aging processes. Mass and chemistry of soluble surface coatings appear to be crucial factors. Immersed soot particles tend to be poor ice nuclei, some bare ones nucleate ice at low supersaturations. However, a fundamental understanding of these studies is lacking, rendering extrapolations to atmospheric conditions speculative. In particular, we cannot yet decide which indirect aircraft effect scenario is more plausible, and options suggested to mitigate the problem remain uncertain.

  6. Insights into the role of soot aerosols in cirrus cloud formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kärcher

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cirrus cloud formation is believed to be domi-nated by homogeneous freezing of supercooled liquid aerosols in many instances. Heterogeneous ice nuclei such as mineral dust, metallic, and soot particles, and some crystalline solids within partially soluble aerosols are suspected to modulate cirrus properties. Among those, the role of ubiqui-tous soot particles is perhaps the least understood. Because aviation is a major source of upper tropospheric soot particles, we put emphasis on ice formation in dispersing aircraft plumes. The effect of aircraft soot on cirrus formation in the absence of contrails is highly complex and depends on a wide array of emission and environmental parameters. We use a microphysical-chemical model predicting the formation of internally mixed, soot-containing particles up to two days after emission, and suggest two principal scenarios, both assuming soot particles to be moderate ice nuclei relative to cirrus formation by homogeneous freezing in the presence of few efficient dust ice nuclei: high concentrations of original soot emissions could slightly increase the number of ice crystals; low concentrations of particles originating from coagulation of emitted soot with background aerosols could lead to a significant reduction in ice crystal number. A critical discussion of laboratory experiments reveals that the ice nucleation efficiency of soot particles depends strongly on their source, and, by inference, on atmospheric aging processes. Mass and chemistry of soluble surface coatings appear to be crucial factors. Immersed soot particles tend to be poor ice nuclei, some bare ones nucleate ice at low supersaturations. However, a fundamental understanding of these studies is lacking, rendering extrapolations to atmospheric conditions speculative. In particular, we cannot yet decide which indirect aircraft effect scenario is more plausible, and options suggested to mitigate the problem remain uncertain.

  7. Particle backscatter and relative humidity measured across cirrus clouds and comparison with state-of-the-art cirrus modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brabec

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Advanced measurement and modelling techniques are employed to determine the partitioning of atmospheric water between the gas phase and the condensed phase in and around cirrus clouds, and thus to identify in-cloud and out-of-cloud supersaturations with respect to ice. In November 2008 the newly developed balloon-borne backscatter sonde COBALD (Compact Optical Backscatter and AerosoL Detector was flown 14 times together with a CFH (Cryogenic Frost point Hygrometer from Lindenberg, Germany (52° N, 14° E. The case discussed here in detail shows two cirrus layers with in-cloud relative humidities with respect to ice between 50% and 130%. Global operational analysis data of ECMWF (roughly 1° × 1° horizontal and 1 km vertical resolution, 6-hourly stored fields fail to represent ice water contents and relative humidities. Conversely, regional COSMO-7 forecasts (6.6 km × 6.6 km, 5-min stored fields capture the measured humidities and cloud positions remarkably well. The main difference between ECMWF and COSMO data is the resolution of small-scale vertical features responsible for cirrus formation. Nevertheless, ice water contents in COSMO-7 are still off by factors 2–10, likely reflecting limitations in COSMO's ice phase bulk scheme. Significant improvements can be achieved by comprehensive size-resolved microphysical and optical modelling along backward trajectories based on COSMO-7 wind and temperature fields, which allow accurate computation of humidities, ice particle size distributions and backscatter ratios at the COBALD wavelengths. However, only by superimposing small-scale temperature fluctuations, which remain unresolved by the NWP models, can we obtain a satisfying agreement with the observations and reconcile the measured in-cloud non-equilibrium humidities with conventional ice cloud microphysics.

  8. Cirrus cloud occurrence as function of ambient relative humidity: a comparison of observations obtained during the INCA experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ström

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on in-situ observations performed during the Interhemispheric differences in cirrus properties from anthropogenic emissions (INCA experiment, we introduce and discuss the cloud presence fraction (CPF defined as the ratio between the number of data points determined to represent cloud at a given ambient relative humidity over ice (RHI divided by the total number of data points at that value of RHI. The CPFs are measured with four different cloud probes. Within similar ranges of detected particle sizes and concentrations, it is shown that different cloud probes yield results that are in good agreement with each other. The CPFs taken at Southern Hemisphere (SH and Northern Hemisphere (NH midlatitudes differ from each other. Above ice saturation, clouds occurred more frequently during the NH campaign. Local minima in the CPF as a function of RHI are interpreted as a systematic underestimation of cloud presence when cloud particles become invisible to cloud probes. Based on this interpretation, we find that clouds during the SH campaign formed preferentially at RHIs between 140 and 155%, whereas clouds in the NH campaign formed at RHIs somewhat below 130%. The data show that interstitial aerosol and ice particles coexist down to RHIs of 70-90%, demonstrating that the ability to distinguish between different particle types in cirrus conditions depends on the sensors used to probe the aerosol/cirrus system. Observed distributions of cloud water content differ only slightly between the NH and SH campaigns and seem to be only weakly, if at all, affected by the freezing aerosols.

  9. Ice crystal characterization in cirrus clouds: a sun-tracking camera system and automated detection algorithm for halo displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Linda; Seefeldner, Meinhard; Wiegner, Matthias; Mayer, Bernhard

    2017-07-01

    Halo displays in the sky contain valuable information about ice crystal shape and orientation: e.g., the 22° halo is produced by randomly oriented hexagonal prisms while parhelia (sundogs) indicate oriented plates. HaloCam, a novel sun-tracking camera system for the automated observation of halo displays is presented. An initial visual evaluation of the frequency of halo displays for the ACCEPT (Analysis of the Composition of Clouds with Extended Polarization Techniques) field campaign from October to mid-November 2014 showed that sundogs were observed more often than 22° halos. Thus, the majority of halo displays was produced by oriented ice crystals. During the campaign about 27 % of the cirrus clouds produced 22° halos, sundogs or upper tangent arcs. To evaluate the HaloCam observations collected from regular measurements in Munich between January 2014 and June 2016, an automated detection algorithm for 22° halos was developed, which can be extended to other halo types as well. This algorithm detected 22° halos about 2 % of the time for this dataset. The frequency of cirrus clouds during this time period was estimated by co-located ceilometer measurements using temperature thresholds of the cloud base. About 25 % of the detected cirrus clouds occurred together with a 22° halo, which implies that these clouds contained a certain fraction of smooth, hexagonal ice crystals. HaloCam observations complemented by radiative transfer simulations and measurements of aerosol and cirrus cloud optical thickness (AOT and COT) provide a possibility to retrieve more detailed information about ice crystal roughness. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a completely automated method to collect and evaluate a long-term database of halo observations and shows the potential to characterize ice crystal properties.

  10. Ice crystal characterization in cirrus clouds: a sun-tracking camera system and automated detection algorithm for halo displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Forster

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Halo displays in the sky contain valuable information about ice crystal shape and orientation: e.g., the 22° halo is produced by randomly oriented hexagonal prisms while parhelia (sundogs indicate oriented plates. HaloCam, a novel sun-tracking camera system for the automated observation of halo displays is presented. An initial visual evaluation of the frequency of halo displays for the ACCEPT (Analysis of the Composition of Clouds with Extended Polarization Techniques field campaign from October to mid-November 2014 showed that sundogs were observed more often than 22° halos. Thus, the majority of halo displays was produced by oriented ice crystals. During the campaign about 27 % of the cirrus clouds produced 22° halos, sundogs or upper tangent arcs. To evaluate the HaloCam observations collected from regular measurements in Munich between January 2014 and June 2016, an automated detection algorithm for 22° halos was developed, which can be extended to other halo types as well. This algorithm detected 22° halos about 2 % of the time for this dataset. The frequency of cirrus clouds during this time period was estimated by co-located ceilometer measurements using temperature thresholds of the cloud base. About 25 % of the detected cirrus clouds occurred together with a 22° halo, which implies that these clouds contained a certain fraction of smooth, hexagonal ice crystals. HaloCam observations complemented by radiative transfer simulations and measurements of aerosol and cirrus cloud optical thickness (AOT and COT provide a possibility to retrieve more detailed information about ice crystal roughness. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a completely automated method to collect and evaluate a long-term database of halo observations and shows the potential to characterize ice crystal properties.

  11. Understanding Seasonal Variability in thin Cirrus Clouds from Continuous MPLNET Observations at GSFC in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lolli Simone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optically thin cirrus cloud (optical depth < 0.3 net radiative forcing represents one of the primary uncertainties in climate feedback, as sub-visible clouds play a fundamental role in atmospheric radiation balance and climate change. A lidar is a very sensitive optical device to detect clouds with an optical depth as low as 10−4. In this paper we assess the daytime net radiative forcing of subvisible cirrus clouds detected at Goddard Space Flight Center, a permanent observational site of the NASA Micro Pulse Lidar Network in 2012. Depending on their height, season and hour of the day, the solar albedo effect can outweigh the infrared greenhouse effect, cooling the earthatmosphere system rather than warming it exclusively. As result, based on latitude, the net forcing of sub-visible cirrus clouds can be more accurately parameterized in climate models.

  12. A decadal cirrus clouds climatology from ground-based and spaceborne lidars above the south of France (43.9° N–5.7° E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hoareau

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an analysis of cirrus cloud properties at midlatitude in the southern part of France from ground-based and spaceborne lidars. A climatology of cirrus cloud properties and their evolution over more than 12 yr is presented and compared to other mid-latitude climatological studies. Cirrus clouds occur ~37% of the total observation time and remain quasi-constant across seasons with a variation within ~5% around the mean occurrence. Similar results are obtained from CALIOP and the ground-based lidar, with a mean difference in occurrence of ~5% between both instruments. From the ground-based lidar data, a slight decrease in occurrence of ~3% per decade is observed but found statistically insignificant. Based on a clustering analysis of cirrus cloud parameters, three distinct classes have been identified and investigations concerning their origin are discussed. Properties of these different classes are analysed, showing that thin cirrus in the upper troposphere represent ~50% of cloud cover detected in summer and fall, decreasing by 15–20% for other seasons.

  13. 16 year climatology of cirrus clouds over a tropical station in southern India using ground and space-based lidar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Pandit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available 16 year (1998–2013 climatology of cirrus clouds and their macrophysical (base height, top height and geometrical thickness and optical properties (cloud optical thickness observed using a ground-based lidar over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, India, is presented. The climatology obtained from the ground-based lidar is compared with the climatology obtained from seven and half years (June 2006–December 2013 of Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP observations. A very good agreement is found between the two climatologies in spite of their opposite viewing geometries and difference in sampling frequencies. Nearly 50–55% of cirrus clouds were found to possess geometrical thickness less than 2 km. Ground-based lidar is found to detect more number of sub-visible clouds than CALIOP which has implications for global warming studies as sub-visible cirrus clouds have significant positive radiative forcing. Cirrus clouds with mid-cloud temperatures between −50 to −70 °C have a mean geometrical thickness greater than 2 km in contrast to the earlier reported value of 1.7 km. Trend analyses reveal a statistically significant increase in the altitude of sub-visible cirrus clouds which is consistent with the recent climate model simulations. Also, the fraction of sub-visible cirrus cloud is found to be increasing during the last sixteen years (1998 to 2013 which has implications to the temperature and water vapour budget in the tropical tropopause layer.

  14. Corona-producing ice clouds: a case study of a cold mid-latitude cirrus layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassen, K; Mace, G G; Hallett, J; Poellot, M R

    1998-03-20

    A high (14.0-km), cold (-71.0 degrees C) cirrus cloud was studied by ground-based polarization lidar and millimeter radar and aircraft probes on the night of 19 April 1994 from the Cloud and Radiation Testbed site in northern Oklahoma. A rare cirrus cloud lunar corona was generated by this 1-2-km-deep cloud, thus providing an opportunity to measure the composition in situ, which had previously been assumed only on the basis of lidar depolarization data and simple diffraction theory for spheres. In this case, corona ring analysis indicated an effective particle diameter of ~22 mum. A variety of in situ data corroborates the approximate ice-particle size derived from the passive retrieval method, especially near the cloud top, where impacted cloud samples show simple solid crystals. The homogeneous freezing of sulfuric acid droplets of stratospheric origin is assumed to be the dominant ice-particle nucleation mode acting in corona-producing cirrus clouds. It is speculated that this process results in a previously unrecognized mode of acid-contaminated ice-particle growth and that such small-particle cold cirrus clouds are potentially a radiatively distinct type of cloud.

  15. Corona-producing ice clouds: A case study of a cold mid-latitude cirrus layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassen, K.; Mace, G.G. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Hallett, J. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada 89506 (United States); Poellot, M.R. [University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota 58202 (United States)

    1998-03-01

    A high (14.0-km), cold ({minus}71.0thinsp{degree}C) cirrus cloud was studied by ground-based polarization lidar and millimeter radar and aircraft probes on the night of 19 April 1994 from the Cloud and Radiation Testbed site in northern Oklahoma. A rare cirrus cloud lunar corona was generated by this 1{endash}2-km-deep cloud, thus providing an opportunity to measure the composition {ital in situ}, which had previously been assumed only on the basis of lidar depolarization data and simple diffraction theory for spheres. In this case, corona ring analysis indicated an effective particle diameter of {approximately}22 {mu}m. A variety of {ital in situ} data corroborates the approximate ice-particle size derived from the passive retrieval method, especially near the cloud top, where impacted cloud samples show simple solid crystals. The homogeneous freezing of sulfuric acid droplets of stratospheric origin is assumed to be the dominant ice-particle nucleation mode acting in corona-producing cirrus clouds. It is speculated that this process results in a previously unrecognized mode of acid-contaminated ice-particle growth and that such small-particle cold cirrus clouds are potentially a radiatively distinct type of cloud. {copyright} 1998 Optical Society of America

  16. Airborne observations of the microphysical structure of two contrasting cirrus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, S. J.; Choularton, T. W.; Lloyd, G.; Crosier, J.; Bower, K. N.; Gallagher, M.; Abel, S. J.; Cotton, R. J.; Brown, P. R. A.; Fugal, J. P.; Schlenczek, O.; Borrmann, S.; Pickering, J. C.

    2016-11-01

    We present detailed airborne in situ measurements of cloud microphysics in two midlatitude cirrus clouds, collected as part of the Cirrus Coupled Cloud-Radiation Experiment. A new habit recognition algorithm for sorting cloud particle images using a neural network is introduced. Both flights observed clouds that were related to frontal systems, but one was actively developing while the other dissipated as it was sampled. The two clouds showed distinct differences in particle number, habit, and size. However, a number of common features were observed in the 2-D stereo data set, including a distinct bimodal size distribution within the higher-temperature regions of the clouds. This may result from a combination of local heterogeneous nucleation and large particles sedimenting from aloft. Both clouds had small ice crystals (developing case the ice concentrations at the lowest temperatures are best explained by homogenous nucleation.

  17. Evaluation of Cirrus Cloud Simulations using ARM Data-Development of Case Study Data Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, David OC.; Demoz, Belay; Wang, Yansen; Lin, Ruei-Fong; Lare, Andrew; Mace, Jay; Poellot, Michael; Sassen, Kenneth; Brown, Philip

    2002-01-01

    Cloud-resolving models (CRMs) are being increasingly used to develop parametric treatments of clouds and related processes for use in global climate models (GCMs). CRMs represent the integrated knowledge of the physical processes acting to determine cloud system lifecycle and are well matched to typical observational data in terms of physical parameters/measurables and scale-resolved physical processes. Thus, they are suitable for direct comparison to field observations for model validation and improvement. The goal of this project is to improve state-of-the-art CRMs used for studies of cirrus clouds and to establish a relative calibration with GCMs through comparisons among CRMs, single column model (SCM) versions of the GCMs, and observations. The objective is to compare and evaluate a variety of CRMs and SCMs, under the auspices of the GEWEX Cloud Systems Study (GCSS) Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems (WG2), using ARM data acquired at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This poster will report on progress in developing a suitable WG2 case study data set based on the September 26, 1996 ARM IOP case - the Hurricane Nora outflow case. Progress is assessing cloud and other environmental conditions will be described. Results of preliminary simulations using a regional cloud system model (MM5) and a CRM will be discussed. Focal science questions for the model comparison are strongly based on results of the idealized GCSS WG2 cirrus cloud model comparison projects (Idealized Cirrus Cloud Model Comparison Project and Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project), which will also be briefly summarized.

  18. Diagnosis of cirrus cloud occurrence using large-scale analysis data and a cloud-scale model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cautenet

    Full Text Available The development of cirrus clouds is governed by large-scale synoptic movements such as updraft regions in convergence zones, but also by smaller scale features, for instance microphysical phenomena, entrainment, small-scale turbulence and radiative field, fall-out of the ice phase or wind shear. For this reason, the proper handling of cirrus life cycles is not an easy task using a large-scale model alone. We present some results from a small-scale cirrus cloud model initialized by ECMWF first-guess data, which prove more convenient for this task than the analyzed ones. This model is Starr's 2-D cirrus cloud model, where the rate of ice production/destruction is parametrized from environmental data. Comparison with satellite and local observations during the ICE89 experiment (North Sea shows that such an efficient model using large-scale data as input provides a reasonable diagnosis of cirrus occurrence in a given meteorological field. The main driving features are the updraft provided by the large-scale model, which enhances or inhibits the cloud development according to its sign, and the water vapour availability. The cloud fields retrieved are compared to satellite imagery. Finally, the use of a small-scale model in large-scale numerical studies is examined.

  19. Combining multiple remote sensors with reanalysis and a radiative transfer model to assess the microphysical impact of smoke on cirrus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kablick, G. P.

    2011-12-01

    A multi-spectral technique for retrieving properties of smoke contaminated ice clouds is evaluated. This method utilizes Earth orbiting active and passive remote sensors combined with atmospheric reanalysis and a multiple scattering, single column radiative transfer algorithm. This study focuses on a specific type of cirrus cloud that exhibits IR radiances, lidar backscatter values, color ratios and depolarization ratios comparable to thick cirrus as observed by MODIS and CALIPSO. However, the radar reflectivities as determined by CloudSat are significantly lower than expected for clouds with such large visible optical depths. This work also demonstrates the sensitivity of retrievals to a priori assumptions by using a few notable cases. Collocated data observed during the boreal fire season of 2010 is analyzed using this methodology as a first step to ascertain the impact that pyroconvection may have on ice cloud properties.

  20. A case study of formation and maintenance of a lower stratospheric cirrus cloud over the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhya, M.; Sridharan, S.; Indira Devi, M.; Niranjan, K.; Jayaraman, A.

    2015-05-01

    A rare occurrence of stratospheric cirrus at 18.6 km height persisting for about 5 days during 3-7 March 2014 is inferred from the ground-based Mie lidar observations over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E) and spaceborne observations. Due to the vertical transport by large updrafts on 3 March in the troposphere, triggered by a potential vorticity intrusion, the water vapour mixing ratio shows an increase around the height of 18.6 km. Relative humidity with respect to ice is ~ 150%, indicating that the cirrus cloud may be formed though homogeneous nucleation of sulfuric acid. The cirrus cloud persists due to the cold anomaly associated with the presence of a 4-day wave.

  1. Retrieval of Cirrus properties by Sunphotometry: A new perspective on an old issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Ramachandran, S.; Redemann, J.; Baum, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    Cirrus clouds are important modulators of the earth radiation budget and continue to be one of the most uncertain components in weather and climate modeling and in the estimations of cooling and warming effects. This is mainly due to the high uncertainty in the derivation of their optical thicknesses and ice crystal size, shape and amount. While sunphotometers are widely accepted as one of the most accurate platforms for measuring aerosol optical depth (AOD), such measurements under cirrus are still considered unreliable. The ease and the relatively widespread use of sunphotometers globally, both as airborne and ground-based platforms, can potentially contribute to our increased capability in quantifying some of the most important cirrus properties such as cloud optical thickness (COT) and ice crystal effective diameter. However, under cloudy conditions, the signal received at the sunphotometer FOV contains not only the direct attenuated solar irradiation, but also the forward scattered term, which interferes with the proper derivation of AOD via the simple Beer-Lambert relation. Solutions to this problem were previously suggested in the form of correction factors. In the present work we have proposed a new approach that utilizes the additional information content that lies within the total measured irradiance under a cloudy scene. Relatively thin cirrus clouds (i.e. COT<4.0) allow direct sun irradiation to reach the detector, and at the same time strongly scatter some of this radiation into the instrument FOV. This results in increased transmittance values due to both the direct and scattered components. This quantity was modeled for the spectral range of 400-2200 nm, for a range of COT (0-4), and a range of ice particle effective diameters using the explicit Baum and Yang cirrus optical properties data sets. This allowed the derivations of transmittance look-up tables that were used for the retrieval procedure. The new approach was tested on two cases; an

  2. Evidence of High Ice Supersaturation in Cirrus Clouds Using ARM Raman Lidar Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comstock, Jennifer M.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Turner, David D.

    2004-06-05

    Water vapor amounts in the upper troposphere are crucial to understanding the radiative feedback of cirrus clouds on the Earth’s climate. We use a unique, year-long dataset of water vapor mixing ratio inferred from ground-based Raman lidar measurements to study the role of ice supersaturation in ice nucleation processes. We find that ice supersaturation occurs 31% of the time in over 300,000 data points. We also examine the distribution of ice supersaturation with height and find that in the uppermost portion of a cloud layer, the air is ice supersaturated 43% of the time. These measurements show that large ice supersaturation is common in cirrus clouds, which supports the theory of ice forming homogeneously. Given the continuous nature of these Raman lidar measurements, our results have important implications for studying ice nucleation processes using cloud microphysical models.

  3. ARM Raman Lidar Measurements of High Ice Supersaturation in Cirrus Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comstock, Jennifer M.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Turner, David D.

    2004-09-01

    Water vapor amounts in the upper troposphere are crucial to understanding the radiative feedback of cirrus clouds on the Earth's climate. We use a unique, year-long dataset of water vapor mixing ratio inferred from ground-based Raman lidar measurements to study the role of ice supersaturation in ice nucleation processes. We find that ice supersaturation occurs 31% of the time in over 300,000 data points. We also examine the distribution of ice supersaturation with height and find that in the uppermost portion of a cloud layer, the air is ice supersaturated 43% of the time. These measurements show that large ice supersaturation is common in cirrus clouds, which supports the theory of ice forming homogeneously. Given the continuous nature of these Raman lidar measurements, our results have important implications for studying ice nucleation processes using cloud microphysical models.

  4. Sensitivity Studies of Dust Ice Nuclei Effect on Cirrus Clouds with the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Kai; Jensen, Eric J.; Gettelman, Andrew; Barahona, Donifan; Nenes, Athanasios; Lawson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this study the effect of dust aerosol on upper tropospheric cirrus clouds through heterogeneous ice nucleation is investigated in the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5) with two ice nucleation parameterizations. Both parameterizations consider homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation and the competition between the two mechanisms in cirrus clouds, but differ significantly in the number concentration of heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN) from dust. Heterogeneous nucleation on dust aerosol reduces the occurrence frequency of homogeneous nucleation and thus the ice crystal number concentration in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) cirrus clouds compared to simulations with pure homogeneous nucleation. Global and annual mean shortwave and longwave cloud forcing are reduced by up to 2.0+/-0.1Wm (sup-2) (1 uncertainty) and 2.4+/-0.1Wm (sup-2), respectively due to the presence of dust IN, with the net cloud forcing change of -0.40+/-0.20W m(sup-2). Comparison of model simulations with in situ aircraft data obtained in NH mid-latitudes suggests that homogeneous ice nucleation may play an important role in the ice nucleation at these regions with temperatures of 205-230 K. However, simulations overestimate observed ice crystal number concentrations in the tropical tropopause regions with temperatures of 190- 205 K, and overestimate the frequency of occurrence of high ice crystal number concentration (greater than 200 L(sup-1) and underestimate the frequency of low ice crystal number concentration (less than 30 L(sup-1) at NH mid-latitudes. These results highlight the importance of quantifying the number concentrations and properties of heterogeneous IN (including dust aerosol) in the upper troposphere from the global perspective.

  5. Dual-wavelength millimeter-wave radar measurements of cirrus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekelsky, S.M.; Firda, J.M.; McIntosh, R.E. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    In April 1994, the University of Massachusetts` 33-GHz/95-GHz Cloud Profiling Radar System (CPRS) participated in the multi-sensor Remote Cloud Sensing (RCS) Intensive Operation Period (IOP), which was conducted at the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART). During the 3-week experiment, CPRS measured a variety of cloud types and severe weather. In the context of global warming, the most significant measurements are dual-frequency observations of cirrus clouds, which may eventually be used to estimate ice crystal size and shape. Much of the cirrus data collected with CPRS show differences between 33-GHz and 95-GHz reflectivity measurements that are correlated with Doppler estimates of fall velocity. Because of the small range of reflectivity differences, a precise calibration of the radar is required and differential attenuation must also be removed from the data. Depolarization, which is an indicator of crystal shape, was also observed in several clouds. In this abstract we present examples of Mie scattering from cirrus and estimates of differential attenuation due to water vapor and oxygen that were derived from CART radiosonde measurements.

  6. Cirrus clouds triggered by radiation, a multiscale phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the influence of radiative cooling and small eddies on cirrus formation is investigated. For this purpose the non-hydrostatic, anelastic model EULAG is used with a recently developed and validated ice microphysics scheme (Spichtinger and Gierens, 2009a). Additionally, we implemented a fast radiation transfer code (Fu et al., 1998). Using idealized profiles with high ice supersaturations up to 144% and weakly stable stratifications with Brunt-Vaisala frequencies down to 0....

  7. Retrieving Cirrus Microphysical Properties from Stellar Aureoles

    CERN Document Server

    DeVore, John G; Rappaport, Saul

    2013-01-01

    The aureoles around stars caused by thin cirrus limit nighttime measurement opportunities for ground-based astronomy but can provide information on high-altitude ice crystals for climate research. In this paper we attempt to demonstrate quantitatively how this works. Aureole profiles can be followed out to ~0.2 degrees from stars and ~0.5 degrees from Jupiter. Interpretation of diffracted starlight is similar to that for sunlight, but emphasizes larger particles. Stellar diffraction profiles are very distinctive, typically being approximately flat out to a critical angle followed by gradually steepening power-law falloff with slope less steep than -3. Using the relationship between the phase function for diffraction and the average Fourier transform of the projected area of complex ice crystals we show that defining particle size in terms of average projected area normal to the propagation direction of the starlight leads to a simple, analytic approximation representing large-particle diffraction that is near...

  8. Satellite observations of cirrus clouds in the Northern Hemisphere lowermost stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Spang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Here we present observations of the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA of cirrus cloud and water vapour in August 1997 in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS region. The observations indicate a considerable flux of moisture from the upper tropical troposphere into the extra-tropical lowermost stratosphere (LMS, resulting in the occurrence of high altitude optically thin cirrus clouds in the LMS. The locations of the LMS cloud events observed by CRISTA are consistent with the tropopause height determined from coinciding radiosonde data. For a hemispheric analysis in tropopause relative coordinates an improved tropopause determination has been applied to the ECMWF temperature profiles. We found that a significant fraction of the cloud occurrences in the tropopause region are located in the LMS, even if a conservative overestimate of the cloud top height (CTH determination by CRISTA of 500 m is assumed. The results show rather high occurrence frequencies (∼5% up to high northern latitudes (70° N and altitudes well above the tropopause (>500 m at ∼350 K and above in large areas at mid and high latitudes. Comparisons with model runs of the Chemical Lagragian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS over the CRISTA period show a reasonable consistency for the retrieved cloud pattern. For this purpose a limb ray tracing approach was applied through the 3-D model fields to obtain integrated measurement information through the atmosphere along the limb path of the instrument. The simplified cirrus scheme implemented in CLaMS seems to cause a systematic underestimation in the CTH occurrence frequencies in the LMS with respect to the observations. The observations together with the model results demonstrate the importance of isentropic, quasi-horizontal transport of water vapour from the sub-tropics and the potential for the occurrence of cirrus clouds in the lowermost stratosphere and tropopause region.

  9. Interactions of radiation, microphysics, and turbulence in the evolution of cirrus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yu

    2000-12-01

    A two-dimensional cirrus cloud model has been developed to investigate the interaction and feedback of radiation, ice microphysics, and turbulence-scale turbulence, and their influence on the evolution of cirrus clouds. The new features of the model include a detailed ice microphysical module for the prediction of ice crystal size distributions, a radiation scheme which interacts with the ice crystal size distribution via ice water content (IWC) and a mean effective ice crystal size, the effects of radiation on the diffusional growth of ice crystals, and a second-order closure for turbulence. Simulation results show that initial cloud formation occurs through ice nucleation associated with dynamic and thermodynamic forcings. Radiative processes enhance both the growth of ice crystals at the cloud top by radiative cooling and the sublimation of ice crystals in the lower region by radiative heating. In addition, the radiation effect on individual ice crystals through diffusional growth is shown to be significant. Turbulence begins to play a substantial role in cloud evolution during the maintenance and dissipation period of the cirrus cloud life cycle. The inclusion of turbulence tends to generate more intermediate-to-large ice crystals, especially in the middle and lower parts of the cloud. A three-dimensional (3D) radiative transfer model has also been developed to simulate the transfer of solar and thermal infrared radiation in inhomogeneous cirrus clouds. The model utilizes a diffusion approximation approach for application to inhomogeneous media employing Cartesian coordinates. The extinction coefficient, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry factor are parameterized in terms of the ice water content and mean effective ice crystal size. We employ the correlated k- distribution method for incorporation of gaseous absorption in multiple scattering atmospheres. Delta- function adjustment is used to account for the strong forward diffraction nature of the phase

  10. Evaluation of cloud-resolving model simulations of midlatitude cirrus with ARM and A-train observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlbauer, A.; Ackerman, T. P.; Lawson, R. P.; Xie, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-07-01

    Cirrus clouds are ubiquitous in the upper troposphere and still constitute one of the largest uncertainties in climate predictions. This paper evaluates cloud-resolving model (CRM) and cloud system-resolving model (CSRM) simulations of a midlatitude cirrus case with comprehensive observations collected under the auspices of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program and with spaceborne observations from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration A-train satellites. The CRM simulations are driven with periodic boundary conditions and ARM forcing data, whereas the CSRM simulations are driven by the ERA-Interim product. Vertical profiles of temperature, relative humidity, and wind speeds are reasonably well simulated by the CSRM and CRM, but there are remaining biases in the temperature, wind speeds, and relative humidity, which can be mitigated through nudging the model simulations toward the observed radiosonde profiles. Simulated vertical velocities are underestimated in all simulations except in the CRM simulations with grid spacings of 500 m or finer, which suggests that turbulent vertical air motions in cirrus clouds need to be parameterized in general circulation models and in CSRM simulations with horizontal grid spacings on the order of 1 km. The simulated ice water content and ice number concentrations agree with the observations in the CSRM but are underestimated in the CRM simulations. The underestimation of ice number concentrations is consistent with the overestimation of radar reflectivity in the CRM simulations and suggests that the model produces too many large ice particles especially toward the cloud base. Simulated cloud profiles are rather insensitive to perturbations in the initial conditions or the dimensionality of the model domain, but the treatment of the forcing data has a considerable effect on the outcome of the model simulations. Despite considerable progress in observations and microphysical parameterizations, simulating

  11. Daytime Land Surface Temperature Extraction from MODIS Thermal Infrared Data under Cirrus Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwei Fan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Simulated data showed that cirrus clouds could lead to a maximum land surface temperature (LST retrieval error of 11.0 K when using the generalized split-window (GSW algorithm with a cirrus optical depth (COD at 0.55 μm of 0.4 and in nadir view. A correction term in the COD linear function was added to the GSW algorithm to extend the GSW algorithm to cirrus cloudy conditions. The COD was acquired by a look up table of the isolated cirrus bidirectional reflectance at 0.55 μm. Additionally, the slope k of the linear function was expressed as a multiple linear model of the top of the atmospheric brightness temperatures of MODIS channels 31–34 and as the difference between split-window channel emissivities. The simulated data showed that the LST error could be reduced from 11.0 to 2.2 K. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the total errors from all the uncertainties of input parameters, extension algorithm accuracy, and GSW algorithm accuracy were less than 2.5 K in nadir view. Finally, the Great Lakes surface water temperatures measured by buoys showed that the retrieval accuracy of the GSW algorithm was improved by at least 1.5 K using the proposed extension algorithm for cirrus skies.

  12. Discovery and imaging of a Galactic cirrus cloud with the far ultraviolet space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haikala, Lauri K.; Mattila, Kalevi; Bowyer, Stuart; Sasseen, Timothy P.; Lampton, Michael; Knude, Jens

    1995-01-01

    We present new far-ultraviolet (1400-1800 A) data concerning a Galactic cirrus cloud G251.2+73.3 near the north Galactic pole obtained with the space-borne imaging telescope FAUST (Far Ultraviolet Space Telescope). We obtain a good correlation between the far-ultraviolet (FUV) and IRAS 100 micrometers surface brightnesses, their relation being I(sub FUV) = (128 +/- 3) I(sub 100 micrometers) - (264 +/- 9), where the I(sub FUV) flux is given in units of photon/s/sq cm/A/sr and I(sub 100 micrometers) in MJy/sr. Using uvbyH-beta photometry, we get a distance of 120 pc and a visual extinction in the center of the cloud of 0.39 mag corresponding to an extinction of 1.0 mag at 1565 A. We have performed a multiple scattering calculation for the scattered light using the Monte Carlo method. These calculations provide restrictions on the FUV scattering properties of the interstellar dust.

  13. Inhomogeneities in cirrus clouds and their effects on solar radiative transfer; Inhomogenitaeten in Cirren und ihre Auswirkungen auf den solaren Strahlungstransport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buschmann, N. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik

    2001-07-01

    Inhomogeneities in cirrus clouds have an important impact on radiative transfer calculations in climate models. Compared to homogeneous clouds, inhomogeneities within clouds decrease reflectivity and result in an increased transmission of solar radiation through the cloud towards the surface. A quantitative investigation of this effect is still to be done. In-situ and remote sensing data of 11 cirrus clouds are used to investigate horizontal inhomogeneities. The 3-dimensional radiative transfer model GRIMALDI is used to calculate radiative flux densities and absorption for a cloudy atmosphere. Comparisons between homogeneous and heterogeneous calculations show, that the homogeneous assumption can cause relative errors up to {+-} 30% for radiative flux densities and absorption especially for tropical cirrus clouds. Mid-latitude cirrus clouds with mean optical thickness smaller than 5 and minor inhomogeneity result in relative errors smaller than {+-} 10% for radiative flux density and absorption. A correction scheme is developed to account for horizontal inhomogeneity in optically thick cirrus clouds in homogeneous radiative transfer calculations. This way, for a known horizontal distribution of optical thickness, relative errors of radiative properties can be reduced to a maximum of {+-} 10%. (orig.) [German] Inhomogenitaeten in Cirrus-Wolken spielen insbesondere bei Strahlungstransportrechnungen in Klimamodellen eine bedeutende Rolle. Im Vergleich zur homogenen Wolkenbetrachtung verringern Inhomogenitaeten die Reflektivitaet der Wolken und fuehren zu einer hoeheren Transmission solarer Strahlung durch die Wolke zum Erdboden. Eine quantitative Untersuchung dieses Effekts steht allerdings bislang aus. Flugzeugmessungen sowie Fernerkundungsdaten von insgesamt 11 Cirrus-Wolken werden auf ihre horizontale Inhomogenitaet untersucht. Das 3-dimensionale Strahlungstransportmodell GRIMALDI wird fuer die Berechnung solarer Strahlungsflussdichten und Absorption in bewoelkter

  14. Dual wavelength lidar observation of tropical high-altitude cirrus clouds during the ALBATROSS 1996 Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyerle, G.; Schäfer, H.-J.; Neuber, R.; Schrems, O.; McDermid, I. S.

    Dual wavelength aerosol lidar observations of tropical high-altitude cirrus clouds were performed during the ALBATROSS 1996 campaign aboard the research vessel “POLARSTERN” on the Atlantic ocean in October-November 1996. On the basis of 57 hours of night-time observations between 23.5°N and 23.5°S we find in 72% of the altitude profiles indications of the presence of cirrus cloud layers. This percentage drops to 32% at subtropical latitudes (23.5°-30°) based on 15 hours of data. About one-half of the subtropical and tropical cirrus layers are subvisual with an optical depth of less than 0.03 at a wavelength of 532 nm. In general the clouds exhibit high spatial and temporal variability on scales of a few tens of meters vertically and a few hundred meters horizontally. No clouds are observed above the tropopause. An abrupt change in the relation between the color ratios of the parallel and perpendicular backscatter coefficients at about 240 K is interpreted in terms of changes of particle shape and/or size distribution. At temperatures between 195 and 255 K only a small fraction of the observations are consistent with the presence of small particles with dimensions of less than 0.1 µm.

  15. LIDAR and Millimeter-Wave Cloud RADAR (MWCR) techniques for joint observations of cirrus in Shouxian (32.56°N, 116.78°E), China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Lingbing; Pan, Honglin; Kumar, K. Raghavendra; Huang, Xingyou; Gao, Haiyang; Qin, Yanqiu; Liu, Xinbo; Kim, Dukhyeon

    2016-10-01

    Cirrus plays an important role in the regulation of the Earth-atmosphere radiation budget. The joint observation using both the LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) and Millimeter-Wave Cloud RADAR (MWCR) was implemented in this study to obtain properties of cirrus at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) mobile facility in Shouxian (32.56°N, 116.78°E, 21 m above sea level), China during May-December 2008. We chose the simultaneous measurements of LIDAR and MWCR with effective data days, and the days must with cirrus. Hence, the cirrus properties based on 37 days of data between October 18th and December 13th, 2008 were studied in the present work. By comparing the LIDAR data with the MWCR data, we analyzed the detection capabilities of both instruments quantitatively for measuring the cirrus. The LIDAR cannot penetrate through the thicker cirrus with optical depth (τ) of more than 1.5, while the MWCR cannot sense the clouds with an optical depth of less than 0.3. Statistical analysis showed that the mean cloud base height (CBH) and cloud thickness (CT) of cirrus were 6.5±0.8 km and 2.1±1.1 km, respectively. Furthermore, we investigated three existing inversion methods for deriving the ice water content (IWC) by using the separate LIDAR, MWCR, and the combination of both, respectively. Based on the comparative analysis, a novel joint method was provided to obtain more accurate IWC. In this joint method, cirrus was divided into three different categories according to the optical depth (τ≤0.3, τ≥1.5, and 0.3<τ<1.5). Based on the joint method used in this study, the mean IWC was calculated by means of the statistics, which showed that the mean IWC of cirrus was 0.011±0.008 g m-3.

  16. Utilizing the MODIS 1.38 micrometer Channel for Cirrus Cloud Optical Thickness Retrievals: Algorithm and Retrieval Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Kerry; Platnick, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The cloud products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua have been widely used within the atmospheric research community. The retrieval algorithms, however, oftentimes have difficulty detecting and retrieving thin cirrus, due to sensitivities to surface reflectance. Conversely, the 1.38 micron channel, located within a strong water vapor absorption band, is quite useful for detecting thin cirrus clouds since the signal from the surface can be blocked or substantially attenuated by the absorption of atmospheric water vapor below cirrus. This channel, however, suffers from nonnegligible attenuation due to the water vapor located above and within the cloud layer. Here we provide details of a new technique pairing the 1.38 micron and 1.24 micron channels to estimate the above/in-cloud water vapor attenuation and to subsequently retrieve thin cirrus optical thickness (tau) from attenuation-corrected 1.38 p.m reflectance measurements. In selected oceanic cases, this approach is found to increase cirrus retrievals by up to 38% over MOD06. For these cases, baseline 1.38 micron retrieval uncertainties are estimated to be between 15 and 20% for moderately thick cirrus (tau > 1), with the largest error source being the unknown cloud effective particle radius, which is not retrieved with the described technique. Uncertainties increase to around 90% for the thinnest clouds (tau < 0.5) where instrument and surface uncertainties dominate.

  17. Polarization lidars with conical scanning for retrieving the microphysical characteristics of cirrus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konoshonkin, Alexander V.; Borovoi, Anatoli G.; Liu, Dong; Wang, Zhenzhu; Balin, Yuri S.; Kustova, Natalia V.; Kokhanenko, Grigorii; Penner, Iogannes; Nasonov, Sergey V.; Bryukhanov, Ilia D.; Doroshkevich, Anton A.

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents the first results of observations of cirrus clouds by polarization lidars with conical scanning, which were developed in Hefei (China) and in Tomsk (Russia). The light scattering matrix of ice crystal particles of cirrus clouds has been calculated for the first by the authors within the framework of the physical optics approximations in the case of conical scanning lidar. It is found that in this case the Mueller matrix consists of ten non-zero elements, four of which are small and can't be applied to interpret the azimuthal distribution of particle orientation. All the diagonal elements have a strong azimuthal dependence. Among the off-diagonal elements only one element M34 carries additional information for interpreting the azimuthal distribution.

  18. Aerosol Particles From Tropical Cirrus Clouds in the Lower Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, T.; Buseck, P. R.; Wilson, J. C.; Reeves, J. M.

    2002-12-01

    Aerosol samples were collected from convective systems and cirrus layers over Florida during the July 2002 CRYSTAL-FACE Mission. Particles between 0.02 and 700 \\micron were deposited directly onto TEM grids. Here we report preliminary results of the TEM study of particles collected near and above the tropopause. Most particles are sulfate droplets that range from 0.8 to 5 \\micron in diameter on the TEM grids. All have a characteristic appearance that consists of a main central particle (0.3 -1 \\micron) surrounded by many smaller satellite droplets. Their appearance suggests that the droplets were sulfuric acid partially neutralized with ammonium at the time of collection, with ammonium sulfate and bisulfate constituting the central particles (Bigg, 1975, 1980). The degree of ammoniation in individual droplets, which is indicated by the size of central particles relative to satellite ring diameter, is fairly uniform. The ratio of central particle diameter to satellite ring diameter is generally around 0.3. Such ammoniated droplets with solid cores may be more efficient in nucleating cirrus than pure sulfuric acid droplets (Tabazadeh and Toon, 1998). Ammonium sulfate particles without satellites commonly coexist with the acid droplets. Minor particles consist of C-rich amorphous material, silicates, Na- and K-chlorides and sulfates, and Cr- and Ti-oxides. Some were coated with sulfate. Many of the C-rich particles contain significant amount of K, S, and O with lesser N. All silicate particles are flakes of clay minerals that have pseudohexagonal structures. They would work as effective ice nuclei (Pruppacher and Klett, 1997).

  19. Vertical Sizing of Cirrus Clouds using the 1.38 μm Spectral Lines and MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Liou, K.; Ou, S.

    2006-12-01

    Atmospheric albedo and heating rates in cloudy conditions are dependent on the vertical inhomogeneity of clouds. For example, small ice crystal sizes aloft coupled with larger sizes at the cloud base would reflect more solar radiation as compared to the use of an averaged ice crystal size for the same cloud. Significant variability of the heating rate also occurs in association with vertical inhomogeneity. In situ measurements from the airborne optical probe, replicator, and cloud scope clearly illustrate the vertical distribution of ice crystal size and shape. We have developed an approach to infer the vertical profile of mean effective particle size on the basis of the spectral line reflectance of the 1.38 μm water vapor band. In it, seventeen narrow bands of various water vapor absorption strengths have been selected. The physical principle for this approach is based on the fact that the reflectance in strong absorptive wavelengths is most sensitive to cloud top properties, whereas the reflectance in less absorptive wavelengths senses the microphysical properties deeper into the cloud. To test this concept, we have prescribed several cloud vertical structures and used an adding-doubling radiative transfer program coupled with the correlated k-distribution method to calculate the look-up tables of reflectance for a variety of cloud settings. We show some success of hypothetical retrieval exercises by applying a χ2 minimization principle. The vertical sizing idea described above has been applied to the MODIS visible and three near-IR channels and we demonstrate that it is possible to derive two vertical ice crystal sizes from a combination of these channels. For validation purposes, we have selected a number of cirrus scenes over the ARM Southern Great Plain site and compared the retrieved vertical ice crystal sizes with the ground-based cloud radar retrieval values. The vertical sizing results determined from the 1.38 μm spectral lines and MODIS data will be

  20. A Simple Framework for the Dynamic Response of Cirrus Clouds to Local Diabatic Radiative Heating

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, C T

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a simple analytical framework for the dynamic response of cirrus to a local radiative flux convergence, expressible in terms of three independent modes of cloud evolution. Horizontally narrow and tenuous clouds within a stable environment adjust to radiative heating by ascending gradually across isentropes while spreading sufficiently fast so as to keep isentropic surfaces nearly flat. More optically dense clouds experience very concentrated heating, and if they are also very broad, they develop a convecting mixed layer. Along isentropic spreading still occurs, but in the form of turbulent density currents rather than laminar flows. A third adjustment mode relates to evaporation, which erodes cloudy air as it lofts. The dominant mode is determined from two dimensionless numbers, whose predictive power is shown in comparisons with high resolution numerical cloud simulations. The power and simplicity of the approach hints that fast, sub-grid scale radiative-dynamic atmospheric interactions m...

  1. On the origin of subvisible cirrus clouds in the tropical upper troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reverdy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Spaceborne lidar observations have recently revealed a previously undetected significant population of Subvisible Cirrus (SVC. We show them to be colder than −74 °, with an optical depth below 0.0015 on average. The formation and persistence over time of this new cloud population could be related to several atmospheric phenomena. In this paper, we investigate if these clouds follow the same formation mechanisms as the general tropical cirrus population (including convection and in-situ ice nucleation, or if specific nucleation sites and trace species play a role in their formation. The importance of three scenarios in the formation of the global SVC population is investigated through different approaches that include comparisons with data imaging from several spaceborne instruments and back-trajectories that document the history and behavior of air masses leading to the point in time and space where subvisible cirrus were detected. In order to simplify the study of their formation, we singled out SVC with coherent temperature histories (mean variance lower than 4 K according to back-trajectories along 5, 10 or 15 days (respectively 58, 25 and 11% of SVC. Our results suggest that external processes, including local increases in liquid and hygroscopic aerosol concentration (either through biomass burning or volcanic injection forming sulfate-based aerosols in the troposphere or the stratosphere have very limited short-term or mid-term impact on the SVC population. On the other hand, we find that ~20% of air masses leading to SVC formation interacted with convective activity 5 days before they led to cloud formation and detection, a number that climbs to 60% over 15 days. SVC formation appears especially linked to convection over Africa and Central America, more so during JJA than DJF. These results support the view that the SVC population observed by CALIOP is an extension of the general upper tropospheric ice clouds population with its extreme

  2. The vertical distribution of aerosols, Saharan dust and cirrus clouds in Rome (Italy in the year 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Gobbi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of 813 lidar profiles of tropospheric aerosol and cirrus clouds extinction and depolarization observed in Rome, Italy, between February 2001 and February 2002 is analyzed and discussed. The yearly record reveals a meaningful contribution of both cirrus clouds (38% and Saharan dust (12% to the total optical thickness (OT of 0.26, at 532nm. Seasonal analysis shows the planetary boundary layer (PBL aerosols to be confined below 2km in winter and 3.8km in summer, with relevant OT shifting from 0.08 to 0.16, respectively. Cirrus clouds maximise in spring and autumn, in both cases with average OT similar to the PBL aerosols one. With the exception of winter months, Saharan dust is found to represent an important third layer mostly residing between PBL aerosols and cirrus clouds, with yearly average OT0.03. Saharan dust and cirrus clouds were detected in 20% and in 45% of the observational days, respectively. Validation of the lidar OT retrievals against collocated sunphotometer observations show very good agreement. These results represent one of the few yearly records of tropospheric aerosol vertical profiles available in the literature.

  3. On the origin of subvisible cirrus clouds in the tropical upper troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reverdy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Spaceborne lidar observations have recently revealed a previously undetected significant population of SubVisible Cirrus (SVC. We show them to be colder than −74 °C, with an optical depth below 0.0015 on average. The formation and persistence over time of this new cloud population could be related to several atmospheric phenomena. In this paper, we investigate the importance of external processes in the creation of this cloud population, vs. the traditional ice cloud formation theory through convection. The importance of three scenarios in the formation of the global SVC population is investigated through different approaches that include comparisons with data imaging from several spaceborne instruments and back-trajectories that document the history and behavior of air masses leading to a point in time and space where subvisible cirrus were detected. In order simplify the study of cloud formation processes, we singled out SVC with coherent temperature histories (mean variance lower than 4 K according to back-trajectories along 5, 10 or 15 days (respectively 58, 25 and 11% of SVC. Our results suggest that external processes, including local increases in liquid and hygroscopic aerosol concentration (either through biomass burning or volcanic injection forming sulfate-based aerosols in the troposphere or the stratosphere have no noticeable short-term or mid-term impact on the SVC population. On the other hand, we find that ~60% of air masses interacted with convective activity in the days before they led to cloud formation and detection, which correspond to 37 to 65% of SVC. These results put forward the important influence of classical cloud formation processes compared to external influences in forming SVC. They support the view that the SVC population observed by CALIOP is an extension of the general upper tropospheric ice clouds population with its extreme thinness as its only differentiating factor.

  4. Spectral reflectance and atmospheric energetics in cirrus-like clouds. Part II: Applications of a Fourier-Riccati approach to radiative transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsay, S.C.; King, M.D. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Gabriel, P.M.; Stephens, G.L. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1996-12-01

    One of the major sources of uncertainty in climate studies is the detection of cirrus clouds and characterization of their radiative properties. Combinations of water vapor absorption channels (e.g., 1.38 {mu}m), ice-water absorption channels (e.g., 1.64 {mu}m), and atmospheric window channels (e.g., 11 {mu}m) in the imager, together with a lidar profiler on future EOS platforms, will contribute to enhancing present understanding of cirrus clouds. The aforementioned spectral channels are used in this study to explore the effects exerted by uncertainties in cloud microphysical properties (e.g., particle size distribution) and cloud morphology on the apparent radiative properties, such as spectral reflectance and heating and cooling rate profiles. As in Part I of the previous study, which establishes the foundations of the Fourier-Riccati method of radiative transfer in inhomogeneous media, cloud extinction and scattering functions are characterized by simple spatial variations with measured and hypothesized microphysics to facilitate the understanding of their radiative properties. Results of this study suggest that (i) while microphysical variations in the scattering and extinction functions of clouds affect the magnitudes of their spectral reflectances, cloud morphology significantly alters the shape of their angular distribution; (ii) spectral reflectances viewed near nadir are least affected by cloud variability; and (iii) cloud morphology can lead to spectral heating and cooling rate profiles that differ substantially from their plane-parallel averaged equivalents. Since there are no horizontal thermal gradients in plane-parallel clouds, it may be difficult to correct for this deficiency. 32 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Lidar Observations of Tropical High-altitude Cirrus Clouds: Results form Dual Wavelength Raman Lidar Measurements During the ALBATROSS Campaign 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuber, R.; Wegener, Alfred; Schrems, O.; McDermid, I. S.

    1997-01-01

    Results from dual wavelength Raman Lidar Observations of tropical high-altitude cirrus clouds are reported. Based on 107 hours of night-time measurements cirrus cloud were present in more than 50% of the observations at latitudes between 23.5 degress S and 23.5 degrees N and altitudes between 11 and 16km.

  6. Lidar Observations of Tropical High-altitude Cirrus Clouds: Results form Dual Wavelength Raman Lidar Measurements During the ALBATROSS Campaign 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuber, R.; Wegener, Alfred; Schrems, O.; McDermid, I. S.

    1997-01-01

    Results from dual wavelength Raman Lidar Observations of tropical high-altitude cirrus clouds are reported. Based on 107 hours of night-time measurements cirrus cloud were present in more than 50% of the observations at latitudes between 23.5 degress S and 23.5 degrees N and altitudes between 11 and 16km.

  7. The Polarization Signature of Cirrus Clouds At Mm and Sub-mm Wavelength: Effect of Particle Size, Shape, and Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, J.

    Cirrus clouds can be found globally from the tropics to polar regions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. They are composed primarily of ice crystals in various shapes, with or without preferred orientation. Research shows that they have significant effects on the radiation budget of the Earth, on the water budget of the atmosphere, and therefore on the global climate. Information on the microphysical parameters of cirrus clouds is crucial to the understanding of the cirrus clouds impact on our climate. Recent work in both simulations and measurements has demonstrated the usefulness of passive millimeter and sub-millimeter radiometric measurements from space in determining cirrus cloud parameters such as the integrated ice water content (or ice water path) and the characteristic size of ice particles. However, these studies were mainly concerned with the information content of the radiometric inten- sity measurements, albeit some brief discussions on the potential of the polarization measurements were given in some literature. Frankly speaking, there is a shortage of systematic studies on the polarization signature from cirrus clouds at the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths, i.e., how the polarization difference measured at two orthogonal polarizations is related to the ice particle size, the shape, and the orienta- tion. Here we present some results of a systematic analysis on the polarization effect of non-spherical ice particles. Three types of particles are considered: nearly spherical, cylindrical, and plate-like particles. Studies are carried out at the following 7 frequen- cies: 90, 157, 220, 340, 463, 683, and 874 GHz. Among these frequencies some (e.g. 90, 157, 220, and 340 GHz) have been tested in space-borne or air-borne sensors and some (e.g. 463, 683, and 874 GHz) are proved by simulations to be well suited for cirrus clouds measurements and therefore planned currently for a future satellite mis- sion.

  8. The Prevalence of the 22 deg Halo in Cirrus Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedenhoven, vanBastiaan

    2014-01-01

    Halos at 22 deg from the sun attributed to randomly-orientated, pristine hexagonal crystals are frequently observed through ice clouds. These frequent sightings of halos formed by pristine crystals pose an apparent inconsistency with the dominance of distorted, nonpristine ice crystals indicated by in situ and remote sensing data. Furthermore, the 46 deg halo, which is associated with pristine hexagonal crystals as well, is observed far less frequently than the 22 deg halo. Considering that plausible mechanisms that could cause crystal distortion such as aggregation, sublimation, riming and collisions are stochastic processes that likely lead to distributions of crystals with varying distortion levels, here the presence of the 22 deg and 46 deg halo features in phase functions of mixtures of pristine and distorted hexagonal ice crystals is examined. We conclude that the 22 deg halo feature is generally present if the contribution by pristine crystals to the total scattering cross section is greater than only about 10% in the case of compact particles or columns, and greater than about 40% for plates. The 46 deg halo feature is present only if the mean distortion level is low and the contribution of pristine crystals to the total scattering cross section is above about 20%, 50% and 70%, in the case of compact crystals, plates and columns, respectively. These results indicate that frequent sightings of 22 deg halos are not inconsistent with the observed dominance of distorted, non-pristine ice crystals. Furthermore, the low mean distortion levels and large contributions by pristine crystals needed to produce the 461 halo features provide a potential explanation of the common sighting of the 22 deg halo without any detectable 46 deg halo.

  9. Radiative properties of ice clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, D.L.; Koracin, D.; Carter, E. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A new treatment of cirrus cloud radiative properties has been developed, based on anomalous diffraction theory (ADT), which does not parameterize size distributions in terms of an effective radius. Rather, is uses the size distribution parameters directly, and explicitly considers the ice particle shapes. There are three fundamental features which characterize this treatment: (1) the ice path radiation experiences as it travels through an ice crystal is parameterized, (2) only determines the amount of radiation scattered and absorbed, and (3) as in other treatments, the projected area of the size distribution is conserved. The first two features are unique to this treatment, since it does not convert the ice particles into equivalent volume or area spheres in order to apply Mie theory.

  10. Influence of aerosols and thin cirrus clouds on the GOSAT-observed CO2: a case study over Tsukuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bril

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Lidar observations of vertical profiles of aerosols and thin cirrus clouds were made at Tsukuba (36.1° N, 140.1° E, Japan, to investigate the influence of aerosols and thin cirrus clouds on the column-averaged dry-air mole fraction of carbon dioxide (XCO2 retrieved from observation data of the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer, measured in the Short-Wavelength InfraRed band (TANSO-FTS SWIR, onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT. The lidar system measured the backscattering ratio, depolarization ratio, and/or the wavelength exponent of atmospheric particles. The lidar observations and ground-based high-resolution FTS measurements at the Tsukuba Total Carbon Column Observing Network (Tsukuba TCCON site were recorded simultaneously during passages of GOSAT over Tsukuba. GOSAT SWIR XCO2 data (version 01.xx released in August 2010 were compared with the lidar and Tsukuba TCCON data. High-altitude aerosols and thin cirrus clouds had a large impact on the GOSAT SWIR XCO2 results. By taking into account the observed aerosol/cirrus vertical profiles and using a more adequate solar irradiance database in the GOSAT SWIR retrieval, the difference between the GOSAT SWIR XCO2 data and the Tsukuba TCCON data was greatly reduced.

  11. Implications of the ISOCLOUD campaigns at the AIDA Cloud Chamber for ice growth in cold cirrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Kara; Clouser, Benjamin; Sarkozy, Laszlo; Wagner, Steven; Ebert, Volker; Kerstel, Erik; Saathoff, Harald; Möhler, Ottmar; Moyer, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    In-situ water vapor measurements in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) have routinely observed anomalous supersaturations on the order of 10-20particles when temperatures were below 200 K, raising questions about the physics of how ice forms at cold temperatures in the atmosphere1,2,3,4. The ISOCLOUD campaigns in 2012-2013 at the AIDA Aerosol and Cloud Chamber sought to investigate ice growth at cold temperatures by simulating cirrus clouds at temperatures and pressures characteristic of the upper troposphere. Experiments tested both homogeneous nucleation of sulfate aerosols and heterogeneous nucleation with various ice nuclei, including mineral dust and organic aerosols with and without nitric acid coatings. Optical instruments, both in-situ (TDLAS) and extractive (TDLAS and OFCEAS), measured ice particle number density, water vapor, total water, and water vapor isotopic concentrations, with multiple instruments measuring water. In a series of cirrus formation experiments, we observed no evidence of anomalous saturation vapor pressure and no evidence of ice growth inhibition at low temperatures for the parameter space tested during the ISOCLOUD campaigns. That is, we see no evidence for temperature dependence in the deposition coefficient. In these experiments we determined the deposition coefficient from bulk parameters of the gas (vapor concentration and ice number density). The ISOCLOUD experiments were particularly suited to deposition coefficient measurements since they involved lower pressures and often lower temperatures than previous similar campaigns, producing lower error bars.5 These results can aid in the interpretation of data from aircraft campaigns in the UTLS by solidifying our understanding of the microphysics of ice formation at cold temperatures. [1] Gao, R. et al., Science, 303, no. 6567, 516-520, (2004). [2] Jensen, E. et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 851-862, (2005). [3] Peter, T. et al., Science, 314, no. 5804, 1399

  12. Effects of Ice-Crystal Structure on Halo Formation: Cirrus Cloud Experimental and Ray-Tracing Modeling Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Knight, Nancy C.; Takano, Yoshihide; Heymsfield, Andrew J.

    1994-01-01

    During the 1986 Project FIRE (First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Regional Experiment) field campaign, four 22 deg halo-producing cirrus clouds were studied jointly from a ground-based polarization lidar and an instrumented aircraft. The lidar data show the vertical cloud structure and the relative position of the aircraft, which collected a total of 84 slides by impaction, preserving the ice crystals for later microscopic examination. Although many particles were too fragile to survive impaction intact, a large fraction of the identifiable crystals were columns and radial bullet rosettes, with both displaying internal cavitations and radial plate-column combinations. Particles that were solid or displayed only a slight amount of internal structure were relatively rare, which shows that the usual model postulated by halo theorists, i.e., the randomly oriented, solid hexagonal crystal, is inappropriate for typical cirrus clouds. With the aid of new ray-tracing simulations for hexagonal hollow-ended column and bullet-rosette models, we evaluate the effects of more realistic ice-crystal structures on halo formation and lidar depolarization and consider why the common halo is not more common in cirrus clouds.

  13. Cloud radiative properties and aerosol - cloud interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviana Vladutescu, Daniela; Gross, Barry; Li, Clement; Han, Zaw

    2015-04-01

    The presented research discusses different techniques for improvement of cloud properties measurements and analysis. The need for these measurements and analysis arises from the high errors noticed in existing methods that are currently used in retrieving cloud properties and implicitly cloud radiative forcing. The properties investigated are cloud fraction (cf) and cloud optical thickness (COT) measured with a suite of collocated remote sensing instruments. The novel approach makes use of a ground based "poor man's camera" to detect cloud and sky radiation in red, green, and blue with a high spatial resolution of 30 mm at 1km. The surface-based high resolution photography provides a new and interesting view of clouds. As the cloud fraction cannot be uniquely defined or measured, it depends on threshold and resolution. However as resolution decreases, cloud fraction tends to increase if the threshold is below the mean, and vice versa. Additionally cloud fractal dimension also depends on threshold. Therefore these findings raise concerns over the ability to characterize clouds by cloud fraction or fractal dimension. Our analysis indicate that Principal Component analysis may lead to a robust means of quantifying cloud contribution to radiance. The cloud images are analyzed in conjunction with a collocated CIMEL sky radiometer, Microwave Radiometer and LIDAR to determine homogeneity and heterogeneity. Additionally, MFRSR measurements are used to determine the cloud radiative properties as a validation tool to the results obtained from the other instruments and methods. The cloud properties to be further studied are aerosol- cloud interaction, cloud particle radii, and vertical homogeneity.

  14. Optical-Microphysical Cirrus Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, J.; Reichardt, S.; Lin, R.-F.; Hess, M.; McGee, T. J.; Starr, D. O.

    2008-01-01

    A model is presented that permits the simulation of the optical properties of cirrus clouds as measured with depolarization Raman lidars. It comprises a one-dimensional cirrus model with explicit microphysics and an optical module that transforms the microphysical model output to cloud and particle optical properties. The optical model takes into account scattering by randomly oriented or horizontally aligned planar and columnar monocrystals and polycrystals. Key cloud properties such as the fraction of plate-like particles and the number of basic crystals per polycrystal are parameterized in terms of the ambient temperature, the nucleation temperature, or the mass of the particles. The optical-microphysical model is used to simulate the lidar measurement of a synoptically forced cirrostratus in a first case study. It turns out that a cirrus cloud consisting of only monocrystals in random orientation is too simple a model scenario to explain the observations. However, good agreement between simulation and observation is reached when the formation of polycrystals or the horizontal alignment of monocrystals is permitted. Moreover, the model results show that plate fraction and morphological complexity are best parameterized in terms of particle mass, or ambient temperature which indicates that the ambient conditions affect cirrus optical properties more than those during particle formation. Furthermore, the modeled profiles of particle shape and size are in excellent agreement with in situ and laboratory studies, i.e., (partly oriented) polycrystalline particles with mainly planar basic crystals in the cloud bottom layer, and monocrystals above, with the fraction of columns increasing and the shape and size of the particles changing from large thin plates and long columns to small, more isometric crystals from cloud center to top. The findings of this case study corroborate the microphysical interpretation of cirrus measurements with lidar as suggested previously.

  15. A Study of Global Cirrus Cloud Morphology with AIRS Cloud-clear Radiances (CCRs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong L.; Gong, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Version 6 (V6) AIRS cloud-clear radiances (CCR) are used to derive cloud-induced radiance (Tcir=Tb-CCR) at the infrared frequencies of weighting functions peaked in the middle troposphere. The significantly improved V 6 CCR product allows a more accurate estimation of the expected clear-sky radiance as if clouds are absent. In the case where strong cloud scattering is present, the CCR becomes unreliable, which is reflected by its estimated uncertainty, and interpolation is employed to replace this CCR value. We find that Tcir derived from this CCR method are much better than other methods and detect more clouds in the upper and lower troposphere as well as in the polar regions where cloud detection is particularly challenging. The cloud morphology derived from the V6 test month, as well as some artifacts, will be shown.

  16. Influence of aerosols and thin cirrus clouds on the GOSAT-observed CO2: a case study over Tsukuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bril

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Lidar observations of vertical profiles of aerosols and thin cirrus clouds were made at Tsukuba (36.05° N, 140.12° E, Japan, to investigate the influence of aerosols and thin cirrus clouds on the column-averaged dry-air mole fraction of carbon dioxide (XCO2 retrieved from observation data of the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer, measured in the Short-Wavelength InfraRed band (TANSO-FTS SWIR, onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT. The lidar system measured the backscattering ratio, depolarization ratio, and/or the wavelength exponent of atmospheric particles. The lidar observations and ground-based high-resolution FTS measurements at the Tsukuba Total Carbon Column Observing Network (Tsukuba TCCON site were recorded simultaneously during passages of GOSAT over Tsukuba. GOSAT SWIR XCO2 data (Version 01.xx released in August 2010 were compared with the lidar and Tsukuba TCCON data. High-altitude aerosols and thin cirrus clouds had a large impact on the GOSAT SWIR XCO2 results. By taking into account the observed aerosol/cirrus vertical profiles and using a more adequate solar irradiance database in the GOSAT SWIR retrieval, the difference between the GOSAT SWIR XCO2 data and the Tsukuba TCCON data was reduced. The 3-band retrieval approach where the aerosol and cirrus profiles were retrieved gave us the best results and the retrieved XCO2 data followed the seasonal cycle of ~8 ppm observed at Tsukuba TCCON site.

  17. The origin of midlatitude ice clouds and the resulting influence on their microphysical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Luebke

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The radiative role of ice clouds in the atmosphere is known to be important, but uncertainties remain concerning the magnitude and net effects. However, through measurements of the microphysical properties of cirrus clouds, we can better characterize them, which can ultimately allow for their radiative properties to be more accurately ascertained. It has recently been proposed that there are two types of cirrus clouds – in situ and liquid origin. In this study, we present observational evidence to show that two distinct types of cirrus do exist. Airborne, in situ measurements of cloud ice water content (IWC, ice crystal concentration (Nice, and ice crystal size from the 2014 ML-CIRRUS campaign provide cloud samples that have been divided according to their origin type. The key features that set liquid origin cirrus apart from the in situ origin cirrus are a higher frequency of high IWC (> 100 ppmv, higher Nice values, and larger ice crystals. A vertical distribution of Nice shows that the in situ origin cirrus clouds exhibit a median value of around 0.1 cm−3, while the liquid origin concentrations are slightly, but notably higher. The median sizes of the crystals contributing the most mass are less than 200 μm for in situ origin cirrus, with some of the largest crystals reaching 550 μm in size. The liquid origin cirrus, on the other hand, were observed to have median diameters greater than 200 μm, and crystals that were up to 750 μm. An examination of these characteristics in relation to each other and their relationship to temperature provides strong evidence that these differences arise from the dynamics and conditions in which the ice crystals formed. Additionally, the existence of these two groups in cirrus cloud populations may explain why a bimodal distribution in the IWC-temperature relationship has been observed. We hypothesize that the low IWC mode is the result of in situ origin cirrus and the high IWC mode is the result of

  18. Technical note: Fu-Liou-Gu and Corti-Peter model performance evaluation for radiative retrievals from cirrus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolli, Simone; Campbell, James R.; Lewis, Jasper R.; Gu, Yu; Welton, Ellsworth J.

    2017-06-01

    We compare, for the first time, the performance of a simplified atmospheric radiative transfer algorithm package, the Corti-Peter (CP) model, versus the more complex Fu-Liou-Gu (FLG) model, for resolving top-of-the-atmosphere radiative forcing characteristics from single-layer cirrus clouds obtained from the NASA Micro-Pulse Lidar Network database in 2010 and 2011 at Singapore and in Greenbelt, Maryland, USA, in 2012. Specifically, CP simplifies calculation of both clear-sky longwave and shortwave radiation through regression analysis applied to radiative calculations, which contributes significantly to differences between the two. The results of the intercomparison show that differences in annual net top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) cloud radiative forcing can reach 65 %. This is particularly true when land surface temperatures are warmer than 288 K, where the CP regression analysis becomes less accurate. CP proves useful for first-order estimates of TOA cirrus cloud forcing, but may not be suitable for quantitative accuracy, including the absolute sign of cirrus cloud daytime TOA forcing that can readily oscillate around zero globally.

  19. Technical note: Fu–Liou–Gu and Corti–Peter model performance evaluation for radiative retrievals from cirrus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lolli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We compare, for the first time, the performance of a simplified atmospheric radiative transfer algorithm package, the Corti–Peter (CP model, versus the more complex Fu–Liou–Gu (FLG model, for resolving top-of-the-atmosphere radiative forcing characteristics from single-layer cirrus clouds obtained from the NASA Micro-Pulse Lidar Network database in 2010 and 2011 at Singapore and in Greenbelt, Maryland, USA, in 2012. Specifically, CP simplifies calculation of both clear-sky longwave and shortwave radiation through regression analysis applied to radiative calculations, which contributes significantly to differences between the two. The results of the intercomparison show that differences in annual net top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA cloud radiative forcing can reach 65 %. This is particularly true when land surface temperatures are warmer than 288 K, where the CP regression analysis becomes less accurate. CP proves useful for first-order estimates of TOA cirrus cloud forcing, but may not be suitable for quantitative accuracy, including the absolute sign of cirrus cloud daytime TOA forcing that can readily oscillate around zero globally.

  20. Large scale and cloud scale dynamics and microphysics in the formation and evolution of a TTL cirrus : a case modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podglajen, Aurélien; Plougonven, Riwal; Hertzog, Albert; Legras, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    Cirrus clouds in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) control dehydration of air masses entering the stratosphere and strongly contribute to the local radiative heating. In this study, we aim at understanding, through a real case simulation, the dynamics controlling the formation and life cycle of a cirrus cloud event in the TTL. We also aim at quantifying the chemical and radiative impacts of the clouds. To do this, we use the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model to simulate a large scale TTL cirrus event happening in January 2009 (27-29) over the Eastern Pacific, which has been extensively described through satellite observations (Taylor et al., 2011). Comparison of simulated and observed high clouds shows a fair agreement, and validates the reference simulation regarding cloud extension, location and life time. The simulation and Lagrangian trajectories within the simulation are then used to characterize the evolution of the cloud : displacement, Lagrangian life time and links with dynamics. The efficiency of dehydration by such clouds is also examined. Sensitivity tests were performed to evaluate the importance of different microphysics schemes and initial and boundary conditions to accurately simulate the cirrus. As expected, both were found to have strong impacts. In particular, there were substantial differences between simulations using different initial and boundary conditions from atmospheric analyses (NCEP CFSR and ECMWF). This illustrates the primordial role of accurate vapour and dynamics for realistic cirrus modelling, on top of the need for appropriate microphysics. Last, we examined the effects of cloud radiative heating. Long wave radiative heating in cirrus clouds has been invoked to induce a cloud scale circulation that would lengthen the cloud lifetime, and increase the size of its dehydration area (Dinh et al. 2010). To try to diagnose this, we have carried out simulations using different radiative schemes, including or suppressing the

  1. Persistent Ice Supersaturation in Tropical Anvil Cirrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, E.; Fridlind, A.; Ackerman, A.; Pfister, L.; Herman, R.; Bui, T.; Baumgardner, D.; Lawson, P.

    2003-12-01

    During the 2002 Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE), the NASA WB-57 spent many hours sampling cloud microphysical properties, temperature, turbulence, and water vapor concentration within subtropical anvil cirrus. These measurements indicate that air within the cirrus is often substantially supersaturated with respect to ice, with average ice supersaturations increasing from about 5 to 30% as cloud temperature decreases from 220 to 195 K. The persistence of large supersaturations in cirrus with high ice crystal surface areas is unexpected. In this study, we examine the dependence of the measured anvil supersaturations on parameters such as ice water content, turbulence, anvil age, and temperature. We also use a three-dimensional cloud model that resolves the size distributions of cloud particles to investigate the physical processes responsible for the maintenance of ice supersaturation in anvils. The effects of radiatively driven turbulence, wave-driven temperature oscillations, and entrainment of ambient air will be discussed.

  2. Cloud chamber experiments on the origin of ice crystal complexity in cirrus clouds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valery N Shcherbakov; Carl G Schmitt; Andrew J Heymsfield

    2016-01-01

    ...) cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). A new experimental procedure was applied to grow and sublimate ice particles at defined super- and subsaturated ice conditions and for temperatures in the -40 to -60-°C range...

  3. Likely seeding of cirrus clouds by stratospheric Kasatochi volcanic aerosol particles near a mid-latitude tropopause fold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James R.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Yang, Kai; Stewart, Sebastian A.; Fromm, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Following the explosive 7-8 August 2008 Mt. Kasatochi volcanic eruption in southwestern Alaska, a segment of the dispersing stratospheric aerosol layer was profiled beginning 16 August in continuous ground-based lidar measurements over the Mid-Atlantic coast of the eastern United States. On 17-18 August, the layer was displaced downward into the upper troposphere through turbulent mixing near a tropopause fold. Cirrus clouds and ice crystal fallstreaks were subsequently observed, having formed within the entrained layer. The likely seeding of these clouds by Kasatochi aerosol particles is discussed. Cloud formation is hypothesized as resulting from either preferential homogenous freezing of relatively large sulfate-based solution droplets deliquesced after mixing into the moist upper troposphere or through heterogeneous droplet activation by volcanic ash. Satellite-borne spectrometer measurements illustrate the evolution of elevated Kasatochi SO 2 mass concentrations regionally and the spatial extent of the cirrus cloud band induced by likely particle seeding. Satellite-borne polarization lidar observations confirm ice crystal presence within the clouds. Geostationary satellite-based water vapor channel imagery depicts strong regional subsidence, symptomatic of tropopause folding, along a deepening trough in the sub-tropical westerlies. Regional radiosonde profiling confirms both the position of the fold and depth of upper-tropospheric subsidence. These data represent the first unambiguous observations of likely cloud seeding by stratospheric volcanic aerosol particles after mixing back into the upper troposphere.

  4. Orographic cirrus in the future climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Joos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A cloud resolving model (CRM is used to investigate the formation of orographic cirrus clouds in the current and future climate. The formation of cirrus clouds depends on a variety of dynamical and thermodynamical processes, which act on different scales. First, the capability of the CRM in realistically simulating orographic cirrus clouds has been tested by comparing the simulated results to aircraft measurements of an orographic cirrus cloud. The influence of a warmer climate on the microphysical and optical properties of cirrus clouds has been investigated by initializing the CRM with vertical profiles of horizontal wind, temperature and moisture from IPCC A1B simulations for the current climate and for the period 2090–2099 for two regions representative for North and South America. In a future climate, the increase in moisture dampens the vertical propagation of gravity waves and the occurring vertical velocities. Together with higher temperatures fewer ice crystals nucleate homogeneously. Assuming that the relative humidity does not change in a warmer climate the specific humidity in the model is increased. This increase in specific humidity in a warmer climate results in a higher ice water content. The net effect of a reduced ice crystal number concentration and a higher ice water content is an increased optical depth.

  5. Validation of the CALIPSO-CALIOP extinction coefficients from in situ observations in midlatitude cirrus clouds during the CIRCLE-2 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioche, Guillaume; Josset, Damien; Gayet, Jean-FrançOis; Pelon, Jacques; Garnier, Anne; Minikin, Andreas; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of combined Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) extinction retrievals with airborne lidar and in situ cirrus cloud measurements. Specially oriented research flights were carried out in western Europe in May 2007 during the Cirrus Cloud Experiment (CIRCLE-2) with the German Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) and the French Service des Avions Français Instrumentés pour la Recherche en Environnement (SAFIRE) Falcon aircraft equipped for remote and in situ measurements, respectively. Four cirrus cloud situations including thin cirrus layers and outflow cirrus linked to midlatitude fronts and convective systems were chosen to perform experimental collocated observations along the satellite overpasses. The measurements were carried out with temperatures ranging between -38°C and -60°C and with extinction coefficients no larger than 2 km-1. Comparisons between CALIOP and airborne lidar (LEANDRE New Generation (LNG)) attenuated backscatter coefficients reveal much larger CALIOP values for one frontal cirrus situation which could be explained by oriented pristine ice crystals. During the four selected cases the CALIOP cirrus extinction profiles were compared with in situ extinction coefficients derived from the Polar Nephelometer. The results show a very good agreement for two situations (frontal and outflow cases) despite very different cloud conditions. The slope parameters of linear fittings of CALIOP extinction coefficients with respect to in situ measurements are 0.90 and 0.94, with correlation coefficients of 0.69 and only 0.36 for the latter case because of a small number of measurements. On the contrary, significant differences are evidenced for two other situations. In thin frontal cirrus at temperatures ranging between -58°C and -60°C, systematic larger CALIOP extinctions can be explained by horizontally

  6. Cloud chamber experiments on the origin of ice crystal complexity in cirrus clouds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. Schnaiter; E. Järvinen; P. Vochezer; A. Abdelmonem; R. Wagner; O. Jourdan; G. Mioche; V. N. Shcherbakov; C. G. Schmitt; U. Tricoli; Z. Ulanowski; A. J. Heymsfield

    2015-01-01

    ...) cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). A new experimental procedure was applied to grow and sublimate ice particles at defined super- and subsaturated ice conditions and for temperatures in the −40 to −60 °C range...

  7. Lidar observations of tropical high-altitude cirrus clouds: results from dual-wavelength Raman lidar measurements during the ALBATROSS campaign 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyerle, Georg; Schaefer, H. J.; Schrems, Otto; Neuber, R.; Rairoux, P.; McDermid, I. S.

    1997-05-01

    Results from dual wavelength Raman lidar observations of tropical high-altitude cirrus clouds are reported. Based on 107 hours of night-time measurements cirrus clouds were present in more than 50% of the observations at latitudes between 23.5 degrees south and 23.5 degrees north and altitudes between 11 and 16 km. Volume depolarization is found to be a sensitive parameter for the detection of subvisible cloud layers. Using Mie scattering calculations estimates of the ice water content are derived.

  8. Characterization of 3D Cirrus Cloud and Radiation Fields Using ARS/AIRS/MODIS data and its Application to Climate Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Kuo-Nan [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ou, S. C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Gu, Y. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Takano, Y. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-02-22

    During the report period, we have made the following research accomplishments. First, we performed analysis for a number of MODIS scenes comprising of heavy dust events and ice clouds, covering regions of frequent dust outbreaks in East Asia, Middle East, and West Africa, as well as areas associated with long-range dust transports over the Equatorial Tropical Atlantic Ocean. These scenes contain both dust/aerosols and clouds. We collected suitable aerosol/ice-cloud data, correlated ice cloud and aerosol parameters by means of statistical analysis, and interpreted resulting correlation trends based on the physical principles governing cloud microphysics. Aerosol and cloud optical depths and cloud effective particle size inferred from MODIS for selected domains were analyzed from which the parameters including dust aerosol number concentration, ice cloud water path, and ice particle number concentration were subsequently derived. We illustrated that the Twomey (solar albedo) effect can be statistically quantified based on the slope of best-fit straight lines in the correlation study. Analysis of aerosol and cloud retrieval products revealed that for all cases, the region with a larger dust aerosol optical depth is always characterized by a smaller cloud particle size, consistent with the Twomey hypothesis for aerosol-cloud interactions. Second, we developed mean correlation curves with uncertainties associated with small ice-crystal concentration observations for the mean effective ice crystal size (De) and ice water content (IWC) by dividing the atmosphere into three characteristic regions: Tropics cirrus, Midlatitude cirrus, including a temperature classification to improve correlation, and Arctic ice clouds. We illustrated that De has a high correlation with IWC based on theoretical consideration and analysis of thousands of observed ice crystal data obtained from a number of ARM-DOE field campaigns and other experiments. The correlation has the form: ln(De) = a

  9. Cirrus Susceptibility to Changes in Ice Nuclei: Physical Processes, Model Uncertainties, and Measurement Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric

    2017-01-01

    In this talk, I will begin by discussing the physical processes that govern the competition between heterogeneous and homogeneous ice nucleation in upper tropospheric cirrus clouds. Next, I will review the current knowledge of low-temperature ice nucleation from laboratory experiments and field measurements. I will then discuss the uncertainties and deficiencies in representations of cirrus processes in global models used to estimate the climate impacts of changes in cirrus clouds. Lastly, I will review the critical field measurements needed to advance our understanding of cirrus and their susceptibility to changes in aerosol properties.

  10. Effects of air traffic on cirrus cloud formation in Europe. Final report of the development area environmental and climate research; Untersuchungen zum Einfluss des Flugverkehrs auf die Cirrus-Bewoelkung in Europa. Endbericht im Foerdergebiet Umwelt und Klimaforschung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannstein, H.; Wendling, P.

    2001-06-01

    The cloud cover over Europe caused by linear condensation trails has been investigated already in earlier studies. However, after quite a short period of time, these can no longer be distinguished from natural cirrus clouds. There were no data on the effect of air travel on cirrus formation. This study investigated the effects of air travel on cirrus cloud formation by investigating a time series of METEOSAT data and relating it to air travel data in high temporal and local resolution. (orig.) [German] Der Bedeckungsgrad an deutlich im Satellitenbild erkennbaren, linearen Kondensstreifen ueber Europa wurde bereits untersucht. Nach relativ kurzer Zeit sind Kondensstreifen jedoch mit den bisher bekannten Fernerkundungsmethoden nicht mehr von natuerlichen Cirren zu unterscheiden. In welchem Masse der Flugverkehr zur Cirrus-Bewoelkung beitraegt, war bisher nicht bekannt. In dieser Arbeit wurde mit hoher Signifikanz der Einfluss des Flugverkehrs auf die Cirrusbedeckung, wie sie sich ans METEOSAT-Daten ableiten laesst, nachgewiesen. Dazu wurde eine Zeitserie von METEOSAT-Daten im Vergleich zu zeitlich und raeumlich hochaufgeloesten Flugverkehrsdaten untersucht. (orig.)

  11. Influence of aerosols and thin cirrus clouds on the GOSAT-observed CO2: a case study over Tsukuba

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bril; S. Oshchepkov; A. Uchiyama; A. Yamazaki; Shibata, T.; Shimizu, A.; T. Nagai; Y. Yoshida; Morino, I.; Sakai, T; N. Kikuchi; O. Uchino; Yokota, T

    2011-01-01

    Lidar observations of vertical profiles of aerosols and thin cirrus clouds were made at Tsukuba (36.1° N, 140.1° E), Japan, to investigate the influence of aerosols and thin cirrus clouds on the column-averaged dry-air mole fraction of carbon dioxide (XCO2) retrieved from observation data of the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer, measured in the Short-Wavelength InfraRed band (TANSO-FTS SWIR), onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing ...

  12. Aerosol-cirrus interactions: a number based phenomenon at all?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Seifert

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ measurements of the partitioning of aerosol particles within cirrus clouds were used to investigate aerosol-cloud interactions in ice clouds. The number density of interstitial aerosol particles (non-activated particles in between the cirrus crystals was compared to the number density of cirrus crystal residuals. The data was obtained during the two INCA (Interhemispheric Differences in Cirrus Properties from Anthropogenic Emissions campaigns, performed in the Southern Hemisphere (SH and Northern Hemisphere (NH midlatitudes. Different aerosol-cirrus interactions can be linked to the different stages of the cirrus lifecycle. Cloud formation is linked to positive correlations between the number density of interstitial aerosol (Nint and crystal residuals (Ncvi, whereas the correlations are smaller or even negative in a dissolving cloud. Unlike warm clouds, where the number density of cloud droplets is positively related to the aerosol number density, we observed a rather complex relationship when expressing Ncvi as a function of Nint for forming clouds. The data sets are similar in that they both show local maxima in the Nint range 100 to 200cm, where the SH- maximum is shifted towards the higher value. For lower number densities Nint and Ncvi are positively related. The slopes emerging from the data suggest that a tenfold increase in the aerosol number density corresponds to a 3 to 4 times increase in the crystal number density. As Nint increases beyond the ca. 100 to 200cm, the mean crystal number density decreases at about the same rate for both data sets. For much higher aerosol number densities, only present in the NH data set, the mean Ncvi remains low. The situation for dissolving clouds allows us to offer two possible, but at this point only speculative, alternative interactions between aerosols and cirrus: evaporating clouds might be associated with a source of aerosol particles, or air pollution (high aerosol number density might

  13. Orographic cirrus in a future climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Joos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A cloud resolving model (CRM is used to investigate the formation of orographic cirrus clouds in the current and future climate. The formation of cirrus clouds depends on a variety of dynamical and thermodynamical processes, which act on different scales. First, the capability of the CRM in realistically simulating orographic cirrus clouds has been tested by comparing the simulated results to aircraft measurements of an orographic cirrus cloud. The influence of a warmer climate on the microphysical and optical properties of cirrus clouds has been investigated by initializing the CRM with vertical profiles of horizontal wind, potential temperature and equivalent potential temperature, respectively. The vertical profiles are extracted from IPCC A1B simulations for the current climate and for the period 2090–2099 for two regions representative for North and South America. The influence of additional moisture in a future climate on the propagation of gravity waves and the formation of orographic cirrus could be estimated. In a future climate, the increase in moisture dampens the vertical propagation of gravity waves and the occurring vertical velocities in the moist simulations. Together with higher temperatures fewer ice crystals nucleate homogeneously. Assuming that the relative humidity does not change in a warmer climate the specific humidity in the model is increased. This increase in specific humidity in a warmer climate results in a higher ice water content. The net effect of a reduced ice crystal number concentration and a higher ice water content is an increased optical depth. However, in some moist simulations dynamical changes contribute to changes in the ice water content, ice crystal number concentration and optical depth. For the corresponding dry simulations dynamical changes are more pronounced leading to a decreased optical depth in a future climate in some cases.

  14. Midlatitude cirrus classification at Rome Tor Vergata through a multichannel Raman-Mie-Rayleigh lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisi, D.; Keckhut, P.; Liberti, G. L.; Cardillo, F.; Congeduti, F.

    2013-12-01

    range between 10-60 sr, and the estimated mean value is 31 ± 15 sr, similar to LR values of lower latitude cirrus measurements. The obtained results are consistent with previous studies conducted with different systems and confirm that cirrus classification based on a statistical approach seems to be a good tool both to validate the height-resolved cirrus fields calculated by models and to investigate the key processes governing cirrus formation and evolution. However, the lidar ratio and optical depth analyses are affected by some uncertainties (e.g., lidar error noise, multiple scattering effects, supercooled water clouds) that reduce the confidence of the results. Future studies are needed to improve the characterization of the cirrus optical properties and, thus, the determination of their radiative impact.

  15. Nucleation and growth of crystals under cirrus and polar stratospheric cloud conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, John; Queen, Brian; Teets, Edward; Fahey, James

    1995-03-01

    Laboratory studies examine phase changes of hygroscopic substances which occur as aerosol in stratosphere and troposphere (sodium chloride, ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate, nitric acid, sulfuric acid), under controlled conditions, in samples volume 1 to 10(exp -4) ml. Crystallization of salts from supersaturated solutions is examined by slowly evaporating a solution drop on a substrate, under controlled relative humidity, until self nucleation occurs; controlled nucleation of ice in a mm capillary U-tube gives a measured ice crystallization velocity at known supercooling. Two states of crystallization occur for regions where hydrates exist. It is inferred that all of the materials readily exist as supersaturated/supercooled solutions; the degree of metastability appears to be slightly enhanced by inclusion of aircraft produced soot. The crystallization velocity is taken as a measure of viscosity. Results suggest an approach to a glass transition at high molality, supersaturation and/or supercooling within the range of atmospheric interest. It is hypothesized that surface reactions occur more readily on solidified particles - either crystalline or glass, whereas volume reactions are more important on droplets with sufficiently low viscosity and volume diffusivity. Implications are examined for optical properties of such particles in the atmosphere. In a separate experiment, crystal growth was examined in a modified thermal vapor diffusion chamber over the range of cirrus temperature (-30 to -70 C) and under controlled supersaturation and air pressure. The crystals grew at a velocity of 1-2 microns/s, thickness 60-70 micron, in the form of thin column crystals. Design criteria are given for a system to investigate particle growth down to -100 C, (PSC temperatures) where nitric acid particles can be grown under similar control and in the form of hydrate crystals.

  16. Origin and transport of tropical cirrus clouds observed over Paramaribo, Suriname (5.8°N, 55.2°W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuin, J. P. F.; Becker, C. R.; Fujiwara, M.; Immler, F.; Kelder, H. M.; Scheele, M. P.; Schrems, O.; Verver, G. H. L.

    2007-05-01

    The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) passes twice a year over tropical Suriname, bringing two wet and two dry seasons. During a pilot study campaign in Suriname, cirrus clouds were observed with a mobile aerosol Raman lidar (MARL) and with balloon sondes containing a frost point hygrometer called Snow White, over the period October-November 2004. These observations are used to study the origin of cirrus clouds and the dynamical processes that determine their transport, using European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analyses. The height of cirrus occurrence is in phase with the height of the cold point tropopause, with maximum heights occurring during Northern Hemisphere winter that are about 2 km above the minimum values in summertime. The occurrence of cirrus often corresponds with a northerly meridional wind flow (in a layer underneath the tropopause), also when the ITCZ lies to the south in the period January-May. ECMWF analyses point out that inertial instability flow, in the form of vertically stacked meridional circulation cells in the upper troposphere (UT), can explain the transport of these cirrus events. Also evident is that radiative cooling of a moist layer transported in the UT leads to a thermal wind in the form of an easterly/westerly jet associated with the southward/northward transport of moist air. An interactive play between the inertial instability and thermal wind mechanisms explains many of the observed features of cirrus occurrence over Suriname. The observed cirrus mostly originates from the ITCZ or from deep convective centers to the south that form during the early summer monsoon.

  17. Cirrus clouds, humidity, and dehydration in the tropical tropopause layer observed at Paramaribo, Suriname (5.8°N, 55.2°W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immler, Franz; Krüger, Kirstin; Tegtmeier, Susann; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Fortuin, Paul; Verver, Gé; Schrems, Otto

    2007-02-01

    In the framework of the European Project STAR the Mobile Aerosol Raman Lidar (MARL) of the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) was operated in Paramaribo, Suriname (5.8°N, 55.2°W), and carried out extensive observations of tropical cirrus clouds during the local dry season from 28 September 2004 to 16 November 2004. The coverage with ice clouds was very high with 81% in the upper troposphere (above 12 km). The frequency of occurrence of subvisual clouds was found to be clearly enhanced compared to similar observations performed with the same instrument at a station in the midlatitudes. The extinction-to-backscatter ratio of thin tropical cirrus is with 26 ± 7 sr significantly higher than that of midlatitude cirrus (16 ± 9 sr). Subvisual cirrus clouds often occur in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) above an upper tropospheric inversion. Our observations show that the ice-forming ability of the TTL is very high. The transport of air in this layer was investigated by means of a newly developed trajectory model. We found that the occurrence of clouds is highly correlated with the temperature and humidity history of the corresponding air parcel. Air that experienced a temperature minimum before the measurement took place was generally cloud free, while air that was at its temperature minimum during the observation and thus was saturated contained ice. We also detected extremely thin cloud layers slightly above the temperature minimum in subsaturated air. The solid particles of such clouds are likely to consist of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) rather than ice.

  18. Cirrus microphysics and infrared radiative transfer: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Thomas P.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Valero, Francisco P. J.; Kinne, Stefan

    1988-01-01

    Coincident measurements of cirrus cloud microphysical properties such as particle size distribution and particle shape and morphology, and measurements of infrared intensity and flux were made. Data was acquired nearly simultaneously in space and time by a KingAir in cloud and by an ER-2 at an altitude of 19 km. Upwelling infrared intensities and fluxes measured from the ER-2 and observations of cloud particle size distributions and particle phase and morphology made from the KingAir are discussed. Broad-band flux measurements were available both in and below the cirrus layer from the KingAir.

  19. An intensified hydrological cycle in the simulation of geoengineering by cirrus cloud thinning using ice crystal fall speed changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, L. S.; Crook, J. A.; Forster, P. M.

    2016-06-01

    Proposals to geoengineer Earth's climate by cirrus cloud thinning (CCT) potentially offer advantages over solar radiation management schemes: amplified cooling of the Arctic and smaller perturbations to global mean precipitation in particular. Using an idealized climate model implementation of CCT in which ice particle fall speeds were increased 2×, 4×, and 8× we examine the relationships between effective radiative forcing (ERF) at the top of atmosphere, near-surface temperature, and the response of the hydrological cycle. ERF was nonlinear with fall speed change and driven by the trade-off between opposing positive shortwave and negative longwave radiative forcings. ERF was -2.0 Wm-2 for both 4× and 8× fall speeds. Global mean temperature decreased linearly with ERF, while Arctic temperature reductions were amplified compared with the global mean change. The change in global mean precipitation involved a rapid adjustment (~ 1%/Wm2), which was linear with the change in the net atmospheric energy balance, and a feedback response (~2%/°C). Global mean precipitation and evaporation increased strongly in the first year of CCT. Intensification of the hydrological cycle was promoted by intensification of the vertical overturning circulation of the atmosphere, changes in boundary layer climate favorable for evaporation, and increased energy available at the surface for evaporation (from increased net shortwave radiation and reduced subsurface storage of heat). Such intensification of the hydrological cycle is a significant side effect to the cooling of climate by CCT. Any accompanying negative cirrus cloud feedback response would implicitly increase the costs and complexity of CCT deployment.

  20. Relationships Between Ice Cloud Properties and Radiative Effects from A-Train Observations and Global Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, B. J.; Mace, G. G.

    2014-12-01

    Using data from the A-Train satellites, we investigate the distribution of clouds and their microphysical and radiative properties in Southeast Asia during the summer monsoon. We find an approximate balance in the top of the atmosphere (TOA) cloud radiative effect, which is largely due to commonly occurring cirrus layers that warm the atmosphere, and less frequent deep layer clouds, which produce a strong cooling at the surface. The distribution of cloud ice water path (IWP) in cirrus layers, obtained from the 2C-ICE CloudSat data product, is highly skewed with a mean value of 170 g m-2 and a median of 16 g m-2. We evaluate the fraction of the total IWP observed by CloudSat and CALIPSO individually and find that both instruments are necessary for describing the overall IWP statistics and particularly the values that are most important to cirrus radiative impact. In examining how cirrus cloud radiative effects at the TOA vary as a function of IWP, we find that cirrus with IWP less than 200 g m-2 produce a net warming. Weighting the distribution of radiative effect by the frequency of occurrence of IWP values, we find that cirrus with IWP around 20 g m-2 contribute most to heating at the TOA. We conclude that the mean IWP is a poor diagnostic of radiative impact. We suggest that climate model intercomparisons with data should focus on the median IWP because that statistic is more descriptive of the cirrus that contribute most to the radiative impacts of tropical ice clouds. Given these findings, we use the A-Train observations to address the issues of IWP occurrence and high cloud forcing in a global climate model (GCM). Our goal is to determine whether the clouds that heat the upper troposphere in the model are the same genre of clouds that heat the upper troposphere in the real atmosphere. First, we define a cloud radiative kernel that's a function of IWP to determine whether the modeled ice clouds produce similar shortwave and longwave radiative effects at the TOA

  1. Seasonal Variations of the Relative Optical Air Mass Function for Background Aerosol and Thin Cirrus Clouds at Arctic and Antarctic Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Tomasi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available New calculations of the relative optical air mass function are made over the 0°–87° range of apparent solar zenith angle θ, for various vertical profiles of background aerosol, diamond dust and thin cirrus cloud particle extinction coefficient in the Arctic and Antarctic atmospheres. The calculations were carried out by following the Tomasi and Petkov (2014 procedure, in which the above-mentioned vertical profiles derived from lidar observations were used as weighting functions. Different sets of lidar measurements were examined, recorded using: (i the Koldewey-Aerosol-Raman Lidar (KARL system (AWI, Germany at Ny-Ålesund (Spitsbergen, Svalbard in January, April, July and October 2013; (ii the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO satellite-based sensor over Barrow (Alaska, Eureka (Nunavut, Canada and Sodankylä (northern Finland, and Neumayer III, Mario Zucchelli and Mirny coastal stations in Antarctica in the local summer months of the last two years; (iii the National Institute of Optics (INO, National Council of Research (CNR Antarctic lidar at Dome C on the Antarctic Plateau for a typical “diamond dust” case; and (iv the KARL lidar at Ny-Ålesund and the University of Rome/National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA lidar at Thule (northwestern Greenland for some cirrus cloud layers in the middle and upper troposphere. The relative optical air mass calculations are compared with those obtained by Tomasi and Petkov (2014 to define the seasonal changes produced by aerosol particles, diamond dust and cirrus clouds. The results indicate that the corresponding air mass functions generally decrease as angle θ increases with rates that are proportional to the increase in the pure aerosol, diamond dust and cirrus cloud particle optical thickness.

  2. Cirrus feedback on interannual climate fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, C; Dessler, A E; Zelinka, M D; Yang, P; Wang, T

    2014-12-28

    Cirrus clouds are not only important in determining the current climate, but also play an important role in climate change and variability. Analysis of satellite observations shows that the amount and altitude of cirrus clouds (optical depth <3.6, cloud top pressure <440 hPa) increase in response to inter-annual surface warming. Thus, cirrus clouds are likely to act as a positive feedback on short-term climate fluctuations, by reducing the planet’s ability to radiate longwave radiation to space in response to planetary surface warming. Using cirrus cloud radiative kernels, the magnitude of cirrus feedback is estimated to be 0.20±0.21W/m2/°C, which is comparable to the surface albedo feedback. Most of the cirrus feedback comes from increasing cloud amount in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and subtropical upper troposphere.

  3. Mid-latitude cirrus classification at Rome Tor Vergata through a multi-channel Raman–Mie–Rayleigh lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dionisi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A methodology to identify and characterize cirrus clouds has been developed and applied to the multichannel-multiwavelength Rayleigh–Mie–Raman (RMR lidar in Rome-Tor Vergata (RTV. A set of 167 cirrus cases, defined on the basis of quasi-stationary temporal period conditions, has been selected in a dataset consisting of about 500 h of nighttime lidar sessions acquired between February 2007 and April 2010. The derived lidar parameters (effective height, geometrical and optical thickness and mean back-scattering ratio and the cirrus mid-height temperature (estimated from the radiosoundings of Pratica di Mare, WMO site #16245 of this sample have been analyzed by the means of a clustering multivariate analysis. This approach identified four cirrus classes above the RTV site: two thin cirrus clusters in mid and upper troposphere and two thick cirrus clusters in mid-upper troposphere. These results, which are very similar to those derived through the same approach in the lidar site of the Observatoire of Haute Provence (OHP, allows characterizing cirrus clouds over RTV site and attests the robustness of such classification. To have some indications about the cirrus generation methods for the different classes, the analyses of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio, LReff, in terms of the frequency distribution functions and depending on the mid-height cirrus temperature have been performed. This study suggests that smaller (larger ice crystals compose thin (thick cirrus classes. This information, together with the value of relative humidity over ice (110 ± 30%, calculated through the simultaneous WV Raman measurements for the mid-tropospheric thin class, indicates that this class could be formed by an heterogeneous nucleation mechanism. The RTV cirrus results, re-computed through the cirrus classification by Sassen and Cho (1992, shows good agreement to other mid-latitude lidar cirrus observation for the relative occurrence of

  4. Factors controlling contrail cirrus optical depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kärcher

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft contrails develop into contrail cirrus by depositional growth and sedimentation of ice particles and horizontal spreading due to wind shear. Factors controlling this development include temperature, ice supersaturation, thickness of ice-supersaturated layers, and vertical gradients in the horizontal wind field. An analytical microphysical cloud model is presented and validated that captures these processes. Many individual contrail cirrus are simulated that develop differently owing to the variability in the controlling factors, resulting in large samples of cloud properties that are statistically analyzed. Contrail cirrus development is studied over the first four hours past formation, similar to the ages of line-shaped contrails that were tracked in satellite imagery on regional scales. On these time scales, contrail cirrus optical depth and microphysical variables exhibit a marked variability, expressed in terms of broad and skewed probability distribution functions. Simulated mean optical depths at a wavelength of 0.55 μm range from 0.05-0.5 and a substantial fraction 20-50% of contrail cirrus stay subvisible (optical depth <0.02, depending on meteorological conditions.

    A detailed analysis based on an observational case study over the continental USA suggests that previous satellite measurements of line-shaped persistent contrails have missed about 89%, 50%, and 11% of contrails with optical depths 0-0.05, 0.05-0.1, and 0.1-0.2, respectively, amounting to 65% of contrail coverage of all optical depths. When comparing observations with simulations and when estimating the contrail cirrus climate impact, not only mean values but also the variability in optical depth and microphysical properties need to be considered.

  5. Characterization of 3D Cirrus Cloud and Radiation Fields Using ARS/AIRS/MODIS data and its Application to Climate Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Kuo-Nan [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ou, S. C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Gu, Y. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Takano, Y. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-02-22

    During the report period, we have made the following research accomplishments. First, we performed analysis for a number of MODIS scenes comprising of heavy dust events and ice clouds, covering regions of frequent dust outbreaks in East Asia, Middle East, and West Africa, as well as areas associated with long-range dust transports over the Equatorial Tropical Atlantic Ocean. These scenes contain both dust/aerosols and clouds. We collected suitable aerosol/ice-cloud data, correlated ice cloud and aerosol parameters by means of statistical analysis, and interpreted resulting correlation trends based on the physical principles governing cloud microphysics. Aerosol and cloud optical depths and cloud effective particle size inferred from MODIS for selected domains were analyzed from which the parameters including dust aerosol number concentration, ice cloud water path, and ice particle number concentration were subsequently derived. We illustrated that the Twomey (solar albedo) effect can be statistically quantified based on the slope of best-fit straight lines in the correlation study. Analysis of aerosol and cloud retrieval products revealed that for all cases, the region with a larger dust aerosol optical depth is always characterized by a smaller cloud particle size, consistent with the Twomey hypothesis for aerosol-cloud interactions. Second, we developed mean correlation curves with uncertainties associated with small ice-crystal concentration observations for the mean effective ice crystal size (De) and ice water content (IWC) by dividing the atmosphere into three characteristic regions: Tropics cirrus, Midlatitude cirrus, including a temperature classification to improve correlation, and Arctic ice clouds. We illustrated that De has a high correlation with IWC based on theoretical consideration and analysis of thousands of observed ice crystal data obtained from a number of ARM-DOE field campaigns and other experiments. The correlation has the form: ln(De) = a

  6. Cirrus cloud occurrence as function of ambient relative humidity: A comparison of observations from the Southern and Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes obtained during the INCA experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ström

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence frequency of cirrus clouds as function of ambient relative humidity over ice, based on in-situ observations performed during the INCA experiment, show a clear difference between the campaign carried out at Southern Hemisphere (SH midlatitudes and the campaign carried out at Northern Hemisphere (NH midlatitudes. At a given relative humidity above ice saturation, clouds are more frequent in the NH. At relative humidities near ice saturation, clouds defined as containing particles with sizes larger than 0.55 μm diameter and an integral number density above 0.2 cm−3 were present 70% of the time during the SH campaign, whereas clouds where present 95% of the time during the NH campaign. Using a size threshold of 1 μm diameter to define the presence of clouds result in a less frequent occurrence of 60% of the time in the SH campaign and 75% of the time in the NH campaign. The data show that the presence of particles is a common characteristic of cirrus clouds. Clouds at ice saturation defined as having crystal sizes of at least 5 μm diameter and a number density exceeding 0.001 cm−3 were present in about 80% of the time during the SH campaign, and almost 90% of the time during the NH campaign. The observations reveal a significant cloud presence fraction at humidities well below ice saturation. Local minima in the cloud presence fraction as a function of relative humidity are interpreted as systematic underestimation of cloud presence because cloud particles may become invisible to cloud probes. Based on this interpretation the data suggests that clouds in the SH form preferentially at relative humidities between 140 and 155%, whereas clouds in the NH formed at relative humidities less than 130%. A simple assumption about the probability to reach successively higher humidities in an ice supersaturated air parcel provides a model that explains the main trend of the cloud presence fraction as function of

  7. Statistical properties of the ice particle distribution in stratiform clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanoe, J.; Tinel, C.; Testud, J.

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents an extensive analysis of several microphysical data bases CEPEX, EUCREX, CLARE and CARL to determine statistical properties of the Particle Size Distribution (PSD). The data base covers different type of stratiform clouds : tropical cirrus (CEPEX), mid-latitude cirrus (EUCREX) and mid-latitude cirrus and stratus (CARL,CLARE) The approach for analysis uses the concept of normalisation of the PSD developed by Testud et al. (2001). The normalization aims at isolating three independent characteristics of the PSD : its "intrinsic" shape, the "average size" of the spectrum and the ice water content IWC, "average size" is meant the mean mass weighted diameter. It is shown that concentration should be normalized by N_0^* proportional to IWC/D_m^4. The "intrinsic" shape is defined as F(Deq/D_m)=N(Deq)/N_0^* where Deq is the equivalent melted diameter. The "intrinsic" shape is found to be very stable in the range 001.5, more scatter is observed, but future analysis should decide if it is representative of real physical variation or statistical "error" due to counting problem. Considering an overall statistics over the full data base, a large scatter of the N_0^* against Dm plot is found. But in the case of a particular event or a particular leg of a flight, the N_0^* vs. Dm plot is much less scattered and shows a systematic trend for decaying of N_0^* when Dm increases. This trend is interpreted as the manifestation of the predominance of the aggregation process. Finally an important point for cloud remote sensing is investigated : the normalised relationships IWC/N_0^* against Z/N_0^* is much less scattered that the classical IWC against Z the radar reflectivity factor.

  8. Shallow cirrus convection – a source for ice supersaturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Spichtinger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The origin and persistence of high ice supersaturation is still not well understood. In this study, the impact of local dynamics as source for ice supersaturation inside cirrus clouds is investigated. Nucleation and growth of ice crystals inside potentially unstable layers in the tropopause region might lead to shallow convection inside (layered cirrus clouds due to latent heat release. The intrinsic updraught inside convective cells constitutes a dominant but transient source for ice supersaturation. A realistic case of shallow cirrus convection is investigated using radiosonde data, meteorological analyses and large-eddy simulations of cirrus clouds. The simulations corroborate the existence of ice supersaturation inside cirrus clouds as a transient phenomenon. Ice supersaturation is frequent, but determined by the life cycle of convective cells in shallow cirrus convection. Cirrus clouds driven by shallow cirrus convection are mostly not in thermodynamic equilibrium; they are usually in a subsaturated or supersaturated state.

  9. An improved cirrus detection algorithm MeCiDA2 for SEVIRI and its evaluation with MODIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ewald

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a substantially improved version of the Meteosat cirrus detection algorithm (MeCiDA2 will be presented, which now allows application to the full earth disc visible by the Meteosat satellite. As cirrus clouds have an influence on the radiation budget of the earth, their optical properties and their global coverage has to be monitored at the global scale using instruments aboard geostationary satellites. Since MeCiDA was optimised for the area of Europe only, various changes were necessary to handle the variable conditions found over the full Meteosat disc. Required changes include the consideration of the viewing angle dependency and of the sensitivity of the 9.7 μm channel to the ozone column. To this end, a correction is implemented that minimises the influence of the variability of the stratospheric ozone. The evaluation of the proposed improvements is carried out by using MeCiDA applied to MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectrometer data to address viewing angle-dependent cirrus detection, and by additionally comparing it to the cloud optical properties MOD06 cirrus product. The new MeCiDA version detects less cirrus than the original one for latitudes larger than 40°, but almost the same amount elsewhere. MeCiDA's version for MODIS is more sensitive than that for SEVIRI (spinning enhanced visible and infrared imager with cirrus occurrences higher by 10%, and the new MeCiDA provides almost the same cirrus coverage (±0.1 as given by the cloud phase optical properties from MODIS for latitudes smaller than 50°. Finally, the influence of sub-pixel clouds on the SEVIRI cirrus detection has been examined: more than 60% of the undetected SEVIRI cirrus pixels have a cirrus coverage smaller than 0.5.

  10. Cirrus microphysics and radiative transfer: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinne, Stefan A.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.

    1990-01-01

    During the Cirrus Intensive Field Operations of FIRE, data collected by the NCAR King Air in the vicinity of Wausau, WI on October 28 were selected to study the influence of cirrus cloud microphysics on radiative transfer and the role of microphysical approximations in radiative transfer models. The instrumentation of the King Air provided, aside from temperature and wind data, up-and downwelling broadband solar and infrared fluxes as well as detailed microphysical data. The aircraft data, supplied every second, are averaged over the 7 legs to represent the properties for that altitude. The resulting vertical profiles, however, suffer from the fact that each leg represents a different cloud column path. Based on the measured microphysical data particle size distributions of equivalent spheres for each cloud level are developed. Accurate radiative transfer calculations are performed, incorporating atmospheric and radiative data from the ground and the stratosphere. Comparing calculated to the measured up- and downwelling fluxes at the seven cloud levels for both the averaged and the three crossover data will help to assess the validity of particle size and shape approximation as they are frequently used to model cirrus clouds. Once agreement is achieved the model results may be applied to determine, in comparison to a cloudfree case, the influence of this particular cirrus on the radiation budget of the earth atmosphere system.

  11. Cluster analysis of midlatitude oceanic cloud regimes: mean properties and temperature sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Gordon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Clouds play an important role in the climate system by reducing the amount of shortwave radiation reaching the surface and the amount of longwave radiation escaping to space. Accurate simulation of clouds in computer models remains elusive, however, pointing to a lack of understanding of the connection between large-scale dynamics and cloud properties. This study uses a k-means clustering algorithm to group 21 years of satellite cloud data over midlatitude oceans into seven clusters, and demonstrates that the cloud clusters are associated with distinct large-scale dynamical conditions. Three clusters correspond to low-level cloud regimes with different cloud fraction and cumuliform or stratiform characteristics, but all occur under large-scale descent and a relatively dry free troposphere. Three clusters correspond to vertically extensive cloud regimes with tops in the middle or upper troposphere, and they differ according to the strength of large-scale ascent and enhancement of tropospheric temperature and humidity. The final cluster is associated with a lower troposphere that is dry and an upper troposphere that is moist and experiencing weak ascent and horizontal moist advection.

    Since the present balance of reflection of shortwave and absorption of longwave radiation by clouds could change as the atmosphere warms from increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gases, we must also better understand how increasing temperature modifies cloud and radiative properties. We therefore undertake an observational analysis of how midlatitude oceanic clouds change with temperature when dynamical processes are held constant (i.e., partial derivative with respect to temperature. For each of the seven cloud regimes, we examine the difference in cloud and radiative properties between warm and cold subsets. To avoid misinterpreting a cloud response to large-scale dynamical forcing as a cloud response to temperature, we require horizontal and vertical

  12. Cirrus Crystal Terminal Velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Iaquinta, Jean

    2000-04-01

    Cirrus crystal terminal velocities are of primary importance in determining the rate of transport of condensate from upper- to middle-tropospheric levels and profoundly influence the earth's radiation balance through their effect on the rate of buildup or decay of cirrus clouds. In this study, laboratory and field-based cirrus crystal drag coefficient data, as well as analytical descriptions of cirrus crystal shapes, are used to derive more physically based expressions for the velocities of cirrus crystals than have been available in the past.Polycrystals-often bullet rosettes-are shown to be the dominant crystal types in synoptically generated cirrus, with columns present in varying but relatively large percentages, depending on the cloud. The two critical parameters needed to calculate terminal velocity are the drag coefficient and the ratio of mass to cross-sectional area normal to their fall direction. Using measurements and calculations, it is shown that drag coefficients from theory and laboratory studies are applicable to crystals of the types found in cirrus. The ratio of the mass to area, which is shown to be relatively independent of the number of bullets in the rosette, is derived from an analytic model that represents bullet rosettes containing one to eight bullets in 19 primary geometric configurations. The ratio is also derived for columns. Using this information, a general set of equations is developed to calculate the terminal velocities and masses in terms of the aspect ratio (width divided by length), ice density, and rosette maximum dimension. Simple expressions for terminal velocity and mass as a function of bullet rosette maximum dimension are developed by incorporating new information on bullet aspect ratios.The general terminal velocity and mass relations are then applied to a case from the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Research Experiment (FIRE) 2, when size spectra from a balloon-borne ice crystal

  13. Lidar multiple scattering factors inferred from CALIPSO lidar and IIR retrievals of semi-transparent cirrus cloud optical depths over oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, A.; Pelon, J.; Vaughan, M. A.; Winker, D. M.; Trepte, C. R.; Dubuisson, P.

    2015-07-01

    Cirrus cloud absorption optical depths retrieved at 12.05 μm are compared to extinction optical depths retrieved at 0.532 μm from perfectly co-located observations of single-layered semi-transparent cirrus over ocean made by the Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR) and the Cloud and Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) flying on board the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) satellite. IIR infrared absorption optical depths are compared to CALIOP visible extinction optical depths when the latter can be directly derived from the measured apparent two-way transmittance through the cloud. An evaluation of the CALIOP multiple scattering factor is inferred from these comparisons after assessing and correcting biases in IIR and CALIOP optical depths reported in version 3 data products. In particular, the blackbody radiance taken in the IIR version 3 algorithm is evaluated, and IIR retrievals are corrected accordingly. Numerical simulations and IIR retrievals of ice crystal sizes suggest that the ratios of CALIOP extinction and IIR absorption optical depths should remain roughly constant with respect to temperature. Instead, these ratios are found to increase quasi-linearly by about 40 % as the temperature at the layer centroid altitude decreases from 240 to 200 K. It is discussed that this behavior can be explained by variations of the multiple scattering factor ηT applied to correct the measured apparent two-way transmittance for contribution of forward-scattering. While the CALIOP version 3 retrievals hold ηT fixed at 0.6, this study shows that ηT varies with temperature (and hence cloud particle size) from ηT = 0.8 at 200 K to ηT = 0.5 at 240 K for single-layered semi-transparent cirrus clouds with optical depth larger than 0.3. The revised parameterization of ηT introduces a concomitant temperature dependence in the simultaneously derived CALIOP lidar ratios that is consistent with observed changes in CALIOP

  14. The Cloud Radar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Paul; Heymsfield, Gerald; Li, Lihua; Tian, Lin; Zenker, Ed

    2003-01-01

    Improvement in our understanding of the radiative impact of clouds on the climate system requires a comprehensive view of clouds including their physical dimensions, dynamical generation processes, and detailed microphysical properties. To this end, millimeter vave radar is a powerful tool by which clouds can be remotely sensed. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed the Cloud Radar System (CRS). CRS is a highly sensitive 94 GHz (W-band) pulsed-Doppler polarimetric radar that is designed to fly on board the NASA high-altitude ER-2 aircraft. The instrument is currently the only millimeter wave radar capable of cloud and precipitation measurements from above most all clouds. Because it operates from high-altitude, the CRS provides a unique measurement perspective for cirrus cloud studies. The CRS emulates a satellite view of clouds and precipitation systems thus providing valuable measurements for the implementation and algorithm validation for the upcoming NASA CloudSat mission that is designed to measure ice cloud distributions on the global scale using a spaceborne 94 GHz radar. This paper describes the CRS instrument and preliminary data from the recent Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE). The radar design is discussed. Characteristics of the radar are given. A block diagram illustrating functional components of the radar is shown. The performance of the CRS during the CRYSTAL-FACE campaign is discussed.

  15. Sensitivity of Cirrus and Mixed-phase Clouds to the Ice Nuclei Spectra in McRAS-AC: Single Column Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, R. Morales; Lee, D.; Oreopoulos, L.; Sud, Y. C.; Barahona, D.; Nenes, A.

    2012-01-01

    The salient features of mixed-phase and ice clouds in a GCM cloud scheme are examined using the ice formation parameterizations of Liu and Penner (LP) and Barahona and Nenes (BN). The performance of LP and BN ice nucleation parameterizations were assessed in the GEOS-5 AGCM using the McRAS-AC cloud microphysics framework in single column mode. Four dimensional assimilated data from the intensive observation period of ARM TWP-ICE campaign was used to drive the fluxes and lateral forcing. Simulation experiments where established to test the impact of each parameterization in the resulting cloud fields. Three commonly used IN spectra were utilized in the BN parameterization to described the availability of IN for heterogeneous ice nucleation. The results show large similarities in the cirrus cloud regime between all the schemes tested, in which ice crystal concentrations were within a factor of 10 regardless of the parameterization used. In mixed-phase clouds there are some persistent differences in cloud particle number concentration and size, as well as in cloud fraction, ice water mixing ratio, and ice water path. Contact freezing in the simulated mixed-phase clouds contributed to transfer liquid to ice efficiently, so that on average, the clouds were fully glaciated at T approximately 260K, irrespective of the ice nucleation parameterization used. Comparison of simulated ice water path to available satellite derived observations were also performed, finding that all the schemes tested with the BN parameterization predicted 20 average values of IWP within plus or minus 15% of the observations.

  16. Sensitivity of cirrus and mixed-phase clouds to the ice nuclei spectra in McRAS-AC: single column model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Morales Betancourt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The salient features of mixed-phase and ice clouds in a GCM cloud scheme are examined using the ice formation parameterizations of Liu and Penner (LP and Barahona and Nenes (BN. The performance of LP and BN ice nucleation parameterizations were assessed in the GEOS-5 AGCM using the McRAS-AC cloud microphysics framework in single column mode. Four dimensional assimilated data from the intensive observation period of ARM TWP-ICE campaign was used to drive the fluxes and lateral forcing. Simulation experiments where established to test the impact of each parameterization in the resulting cloud fields. Three commonly used IN spectra were utilized in the BN parameterization to described the availability of IN for heterogeneous ice nucleation. The results show large similarities in the cirrus cloud regime between all the schemes tested, in which ice crystal concentrations were within a factor of 10 regardless of the parameterization used. In mixed-phase clouds there are some persistent differences in cloud particle number concentration and size, as well as in cloud fraction, ice water mixing ratio, and ice water path. Contact freezing in the simulated mixed-phase clouds contributed to transfer liquid to ice efficiently, so that on average, the clouds were fully glaciated at T~260 K, irrespective of the ice nucleation parameterization used. Comparison of simulated ice water path to available satellite derived observations were also performed, finding that all the schemes tested with the BN parameterization predicted average values of IWP within ±15% of the observations.

  17. Sensitivity of cirrus and mixed-phase clouds to the ice nuclei spectra in McRAS-AC: single column model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Morales Betancourt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The salient features of mixed-phase and ice clouds in a GCM cloud scheme are examined using the ice nucleation parameterizations of Liu and Penner (LP and Barahona and Nenes (BN. The performance of both parameterizations was assessed in the GEOS-5 AGCM using the McRAS-AC cloud microphysics framework in single column mode. Four dimensional assimilated data from the intensive observation period of ARM TWP-ICE campaign was used to drive the fluxes and lateral forcing. Simulation experiments were established to test the impact of each parameterization in the resulting cloud fields. Three commonly used IN spectra were utilized in the BN parameterization to describe the availability of IN for heterogeneous ice nucleation. The results showed large similarities in the cirrus cloud regime between all the schemes tested, in which ice crystal concentrations were within a factor of 10 regardless of the parameterization used. In mixed-phase clouds there were some persistent differences in cloud particle number concentration and size, as well as in cloud fraction, ice water mixing ratio, and ice water path. Contact freezing in the simulated mixed-phase clouds contributed to the effective transfer of liquid to ice, so that on average, the clouds were fully glaciated at T 260 K, irrespective of the ice nucleation parameterization used. Comparison of simulated ice water path to available satellite derived observations were also performed, finding that all the schemes tested with the BN parameterization predicted average values of IWP within ±15% of the observations.

  18. Cloud properties retrieved from infrared sounders and their analysis in synergy with active remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feofilov, Artem; Stubenrauch, Claudia; Armante, Raymond

    2014-05-01

    Clouds play an important role in the energy budget of the planet: optically thick clouds reflect the incoming solar radiation leading to cooling of the Earth while thinner clouds act as 'greenhouse films' preventing escape of the Earth's infrared radiation to space. Satellite observations provide a continuous survey of clouds over the whole globe and IR sounders have been observing our planet since 1979. The spectral resolution has strongly improved from the TIROS-N Operational Vertical Sounders (TOVS) onboard the NOAA polar satellites to the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) onboard Aqua (since 2002) and to the InfraRed Atmospheric Sounding Interferometers (IASI) on board the METOP (since 2006). Their spectral resolution along the CO2 absorption band makes IR sounders most sensitive to cirrus, day and night. In addition, they provide atmospheric temperature and water vapour vertical distribution, surface temperature, and dust aerosol properties. The LMD IR sounder cloud property retrievals are based on a weighted Ξ2 method. Once the cloud physical properties (cloud pressure and IR emissivity) are retrieved, cirrus bulk microphysical properties (De and IWP) are determined by investigating their spectral emissivity difference between 8 and 12 μm. The AIRS instrument is a part of the A-Train constellation, which also includes two active sounders, the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) lidar and the CloudSat radar, providing the vertical structure of the clouds. The IASI observations with their improved spectral and, therefore, vertical resolution complement the AIRS observations in the diurnal cycle. In addition to satellite data, we use temperature, water vapor, and wind distributions from the ERA Interim reanalysis to better assess the environmental conditions for the clouds. The analysis of the joint dataset helps to (1) extend the quantitative and global characterization of cloud properties into a statistical model of

  19. The retrieval of cloud microphysical properties using satellite measurements and an in situ database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Poix

    Full Text Available By combining AVHRR data from the NOAA satellites with information from a database of in situ measurements, large-scale maps can be generated of the microphysical parameters most immediately significant for the modelling of global circulation and climate. From the satellite data, the clouds can be classified into cumuliform, stratiform and cirrus classes and then into further sub-classes by cloud top temperature. At the same time a database of in situ measurements made by research aircraft is classified into the same sub-classes and a statistical analysis is used to derive relationships between the sub-classes and the cloud microphysical properties. These two analyses are then linked to give estimates of the microphysical properties of the satellite observed clouds. Examples are given of the application of this technique to derive maps of the probability of occurrence of precipitating clouds and of precipitating water content derived from a case study within the International Cirrus Experiment (ICE held in 1989 over the North Sea.

  20. A variational approach for retrieving ice cloud properties from infrared measurements: application in the context of two IIR validation campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourdeval, O.; -Labonnote, L. C.; Brogniez, G.; Jourdan, O.; Pelon, J.; Garnier, A.

    2013-08-01

    Cirrus are cloud types that are recognized to have a strong impact on the Earth-atmosphere radiation balance. This impact is however still poorly understood, due to the difficulties in describing the large variability of their properties in global climate models. Consequently, numerous airborne and space-borne missions have been dedicated to their study in the last decades. The satellite constellation A-Train has for instance proven to be particularly helpful for the study of cirrus. More particularly, the Infrared Imaging Radiometer (IIR) carried onboard the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite shows a great sensitivity to the radiative and microphysical properties of these clouds. Our study presents a novel methodology that uses the thermal infrared measurements of IIR to retrieve the ice crystal effective size and optical thickness of cirrus. This methodology is based on an optimal estimation scheme, which possesses the advantage of attributing precise uncertainties to the retrieved parameters. Two IIR airborne validation campaigns have been chosen as case studies for illustrating the results of our retrieval method. It is observed that optical thicknesses could be accurately retrieved but that large uncertainties may occur on the effective diameters. Strong agreements have also been found between the products of our method when separately applied to the measurements of IIR and of the airborne radiometer CLIMAT-AV, which consolidates the results of previous validation studies of IIR level-1 measurements. Comparisons with in situ observations and with operational products of IIR are also discussed and appear to be coherent with our results. However, we have found that the quality of our retrievals can be strongly impacted by uncertainties related to the choice of a pristine crystal model and by poor constraints on the properties of possible liquid cloud layers underneath cirrus. Simultaneous retrievals of liquid

  1. Molecular Hydrogen in Infrared Cirrus

    CERN Document Server

    Gillmon, K; Gillmon, Kristen

    2006-01-01

    We combine data from our recent FUSE survey of interstellar molecular hydrogen absorption toward 50 high-latitude AGN with COBE-corrected IRAS 100 micron emission maps to study the correlation of infrared cirrus with H2. A plot of the H2 column density vs. IR cirrus intensity shows the same transition in molecular fraction, f_H2, as seen with total hydrogen column density, N_H. This transition is usually attributed to H2 self-shielding, and it suggests that many diffuse cirrus clouds contain H2 in significant fractions, f_H2 = 1-30%. These clouds cover approximately 50% of the northern sky at latitudes b > 30 degrees, at temperature-corrected 100 micron intensities D_100 > 1.5 MJy/sr. The sheetlike cirrus clouds, with hydrogen densities n_H > 30 cm^-3, may be compressed by dynamical processes at the disk-halo interface, and they are conducive to H2 formation on grain surfaces. Exploiting the correlation between N(H2) and 100 micron intensity, we estimate that cirrus clouds at b > 30 contain approximately 3000...

  2. Contrails, contrail cirrus, and ship tracks

    OpenAIRE

    Gierens, Klaus Martin

    2007-01-01

    The following text is an enlarged version of the conference tutorial lecture on contrails, contrail cirrus, and ship tracks. I start with a general introduction into aerosol effects on clouds. Contrail formation and persistence, aviation’s share to cirrus trends and ship tracks are treated then.

  3. Laboratory measurements of HDO/H$_{2}$O isotopic fractionation during ice deposition in simulated cirrus clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Lamb, Kara; Bolot, Maximilien; Sarkozy, Laszlo; Saathoff, Harald; Möhler, Ottmar; Moyer, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The stable isotopologues of water have been used in atmospheric and climatic studies for over fifty years, because the temperature-dependent preferential condensation of heavy isotopologues during phase changes makes them useful diagnostics of the hydrological cycle. However, the degree of preferential condensation has never been directly measured at temperatures below 233 K (-40$^{\\circ}$C), conditions of cirrus formation in the atmosphere and routinely observed at surface elevation in polar regions. (Models generally assume an extrapolation from the warmer experiments of Merlivat and Nief, 1967.) Non-equilibrium effects that should alter preferential partitioning have also not been well-characterized experimentally (Jouzel and Merlivat 1984). We present here the first direct experimental measurements of the HDO/H$_2$O equilibrium fractionation factor between vapour and ice ($\\alpha_{\\mathrm {eq}}$) at cirrus-relevant temperatures, and the first quantitative validation of the kinetic modification to equilibr...

  4. Optical depths of semi-transparent cirrus clouds over oceans from CALIPSO infrared radiometer and lidar measurements, and an evaluation of the lidar multiple scattering factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Garnier

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a detailed evaluation of cloud absorption optical depths retrieved at 12.05 μm and comparisons to extinction optical depths retrieved at 0.532 μm from perfectly co-located observations of single-layered semi-transparent cirrus over ocean made by the Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR and the Cloud and Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP flying on-board the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations satellite. The blackbody radiance taken in the IIR Version 3 algorithm is evaluated, and IIR retrievals are corrected accordingly. IIR infrared absorption optical depths are then compared to CALIOP visible extinction optical depths when the latter can be directly derived from the measured apparent 2-way transmittance through the cloud. Numerical simulations and IIR retrievals of ice crystal sizes suggest that the ratios of CALIOP extinction and IIR absorption optical depths should remain roughly constant with respect to temperature. Instead, these ratios are found to increase quasi-linearly by about 40% as the temperature at the layer centroid altitude decreases from 240 to 200 K. This behavior is explained by variations of the multiple scattering factor ηT to be applied to correct the measured transmittance, which is taken equal to 0.6 in the CALIOP Version 3 algorithm, and which is found here to vary with temperature (and hence cloud particle size from ηT = 0.8 at 200 K to ηT = 0.5 at 240 K for clouds with optical depth larger than 0.3. The revised parameterization of ηT introduces a concomitant temperature dependence in the simultaneously derived CALIOP lidar ratios that is consistent with observed changes in CALIOP depolarization ratios and particle habits derived from IIR measurements.

  5. Abundance of fluorescent biological aerosol particles at temperatures conducive to the formation of mixed-phase and cirrus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohy, Cynthia H.; McMeeking, Gavin R.; DeMott, Paul J.; McCluskey, Christina S.; Hill, Thomas C. J.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Tanarhte, Meryem; Kafle, Durga N.; Toohey, Darin W.

    2016-07-01

    Some types of biological particles are known to nucleate ice at warmer temperatures than mineral dust, with the potential to influence cloud microphysical properties and climate. However, the prevalence of these particle types above the atmospheric boundary layer is not well known. Many types of biological particles fluoresce when exposed to ultraviolet light, and the Wideband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor takes advantage of this characteristic to perform real-time measurements of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAPs). This instrument was flown on the National Center for Atmospheric Research Gulfstream V aircraft to measure concentrations of fluorescent biological particles from different potential sources and at various altitudes over the US western plains in early autumn. Clear-air number concentrations of FBAPs between 0.8 and 12 µm diameter usually decreased with height and generally were about 10-100 L-1 in the continental boundary layer but always much lower at temperatures colder than 255 K in the free troposphere. At intermediate temperatures where biological ice-nucleating particles may influence mixed-phase cloud formation (255 K ≤ T ≤ 270 K), concentrations of fluorescent particles were the most variable and were occasionally near boundary-layer concentrations. Predicted vertical distributions of ice-nucleating particle concentrations based on FBAP measurements in this temperature regime sometimes reached typical concentrations of primary ice in clouds but were often much lower. If convection was assumed to lift boundary-layer FBAPs without losses to the free troposphere, better agreement between predicted ice-nucleating particle concentrations and typical ice crystal concentrations was achieved. Ice-nucleating particle concentrations were also measured during one flight and showed a decrease with height, and concentrations were consistent with a relationship to FBAPs established previously at the forested surface site below. The vertical

  6. Estimation of the Vertical Velocity Leading to the Formation of Cirrus Using Ultra-High Resolution Global Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, D.; Molod, A.; Putman, W.; Suarez, M.

    2014-12-01

    Cirrus clouds significantly impact the radiative and transport processes of the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere. State-of-the-art global models parameterize the formation of cirrus explicitly linking ice nucleation events to the aerosol properties and the cloud-scale dynamics. However most GCMs cannot resolve the scale at which cloud formation occurs. Thus subgrid scale dynamics is typically parameterized by relating the vertical velocity variance, σw, to grid-scale fields. These parameterizations are typically validated against field campaign data for specific locations. However an assessment of the global spatial distribution of σw is lacking, limiting the ability of GCMs to describe cirrus formation. Here the non-hydrostatic version of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System model (GEOS-5) is used to estimate the variance of vertical velocity in GCMs. GEOS-5 was run at cloud-resolving resolutions (~7 km), allowing the explicit calculation of σw. Our results indicate that σw is determined by orographic drag and local convection, and higher over the continents than over the ocean. A recently developed parameterization of σw is also evaluated. Compared to the model results the parameterization is able to reproduce the global distribution of σw for warm cirrus clouds but tends to overestimate σw near the tropopause. Our work provides for the first time an assessment of the global variability in the subgrid scale dynamics leading to the formation of cirrus.

  7. Abundance of fluorescent biological aerosol particles at temperatures conducive to the formation of mixed-phase and cirrus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twohy, Cynthia H.; McMeeking, Gavin R.; DeMott, Paul J.; McCluskey, Christina S.; Hill, Thomas C. J.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Tanarhte, Meryem; Kafle, Durga N.; Toohey, Darin W.

    2016-01-01

    Some types of biological particles are known to nucleate ice at warmer temperatures than mineral dust, with the potential to influence cloud microphysical properties and climate. However, the prevalence of these particle types above the atmospheric boundary layer is not well known. Many types of biological particles fluoresce when exposed to ultraviolet light, and the Wideband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor takes advantage of this characteristic to perform real-time measurements of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAPs). This instrument was flown on the National Center for Atmospheric Research Gulfstream V aircraft to measure concentrations of fluorescent biological particles from different potential sources and at various altitudes over the US western plains in early autumn. Clear-air number concentrations of FBAPs between 0.8 and 12 µm diameter usually decreased with height and generally were about 10–100 L-1 in the continental boundary layer but always much lower at temperatures colder than 255 K in the free troposphere. At intermediate temperatures where biological ice-nucleating particles may influence mixed-phase cloud formation (255 K ≤ T ≤ 270 K), concentrations of fluorescent particles were the most variable and were occasionally near boundary-layer concentrations. Predicted vertical distributions of ice-nucleating particle concentrations based on FBAP measurements in this temperature regime sometimes reached typical concentrations of primary ice in clouds but were often much lower. If convection was assumed to lift boundary-layer FBAPs without losses to the free troposphere, better agreement between predicted ice-nucleating particle concentrations and typical ice crystal concentrations was achieved. Ice-nucleating particle concentrations were also measured during one flight and showed a decrease with height, and concentrations were consistent with a relationship to FBAPs established previously at the forested surface

  8. Ground Based Retrievals of Small Ice Crystals and Water Phase in Arctic Cirrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Subhashree; Mitchell, David L.; DeSlover, Daniel

    2009-03-01

    The microphysical properties of cirrus clouds are uncertain due to the problem of ice particles shattering at the probe inlet upon sampling. To facilitate better estimation of small ice crystal concentrations in cirrus clouds, a new ground-based remote sensing technique has been used in combination with in situ aircraft measurements. Data from the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), conducted at the north slope of Alaska (winter 2004), have been used to test a new method for retrieving the liquid water path (LWP) and ice water path (IWP) in mixed phase clouds. The framework of the retrieval algorithm consists of the modified anomalous diffraction approximation or MADA (for mixed phase cloud optical properties), a radar reflectivity-ice microphysics relationship and a temperature-dependent ice particle size distribution (PSD) scheme. Cloud thermal emission measurements made by the ground-based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) yield information on the total water path (TWP) while reflectivity measurements from the Millimeter Cloud Radar (MMCR) are used to derive the IWP. The AERI is also used to indicate the concentration of small ice crystals (DBeer's law absorption. While this is still a work in progress, the anticipated products from this AERI-radar retrieval scheme are the IWP, LWP, small-to-large ice crystal number concentration ratio and effective diameter for cirrus, as well as the ice particle number concentration for a given ice water content (IWC).

  9. CALIPSO Observations of Aerosol Properties Near Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, Alexander; Varnai, Tamas; Yang, Weidong

    2010-01-01

    Clouds are surrounded by a transition zone of rapidly changing aerosol properties. Characterizing this zone is important for better understanding aerosol-cloud interactions and aerosol radiative effects as well as for improving satellite measurements of aerosol properties. We present a statistical analysis of a global dataset of CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) Lidar observations over oceans. The results show that the transition zone extends as far as 15 km away from clouds and it is ubiquitous over all oceans. The use of only high confidence level cloud-aerosol discrimination (CAD) data confirms the findings. However, the results underline the need for caution to avoid biases in studies of satellite aerosol products, aerosol-cloud interactions, and aerosol direct radiative effects.

  10. Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project. Phase 1: The Critical Components to Simulate Cirrus Initiation Explicitly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ruei-Fong; O'C. Starr, David; Demott, Paul J.; Cotton, Richard; Sassen, Kenneth; Jensen, Eric; Kärcher, Bernd; Liu, Xiaohong

    2002-08-01

    The Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project, a project of the GCSS [Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Cloud System Studies] Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems, involves the systematic comparison of current models of ice crystal nucleation and growth for specified, typical, cirrus cloud environments. In Phase 1 of the project reported here, simulated cirrus cloud microphysical properties from seven models are compared for `warm' (40°C) and `cold' (60°C) cirrus, each subject to updrafts of 0.04, 0.2, and 1 m s1. The models employ explicit microphysical schemes wherein the size distribution of each class of particles (aerosols and ice crystals) is resolved into bins or the evolution of each individual particle is traced. Simulations are made including both homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanisms (all-mode simulations). A single initial aerosol population of sulfuric acid particles is prescribed for all simulations. Heterogeneous nucleation is disabled for a second parallel set of simulations in order to isolate the treatment of the homogeneous freezing (of haze droplets) nucleation process. Analysis of these latter simulations is the primary focus of this paper.Qualitative agreement is found for the homogeneous-nucleation-only simulations; for example, the number density of nucleated ice crystals increases with the strength of the prescribed updraft. However, significant quantitative differences are found. Detailed analysis reveals that the homogeneous nucleation rate, haze particle solution concentration, and water vapor uptake rate by ice crystal growth (particularly as controlled by the deposition coefficient) are critical components that lead to differences in the predicted microphysics.Systematic differences exist between results based on a modified classical theory approach and models using an effective freezing temperature approach to the treatment of nucleation. Each method is constrained by critical freezing data from

  11. Preliminary laboratory studies of the optical scattering properties of the crystal clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Saunders

    Full Text Available Ice crystal clouds have an influence on the radiative budget of the earth; however, the exact size and nature of this influence has yet to be determined. A laboratory cloud chamber experiment has been set up to provide data on the optical scattering behaviour of ice crystals at a visible wavelength in order to gain information which can be used in climate models concerning the radiative characteristics of cirrus clouds. A PMS grey-scale probe is used to monitor simultaneously the cloud microphysical properties in order to correlate these closely with the observed radiative properties. Preliminary results show that ice crystals scatter considerably more at 90° than do water droplets, and that the halo effects are visible in a laboratory-generated cloud when the ice crystal concentration is sufficiently small to prevent masking from multiple scattering.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmosphere dynamics · Climatology · Radiative process · Atmospheric composition and structure · Cloud physics and chemistry

  12. Estimation of cirrus parameters from multispectral measurements in the near-infrared and statements about multilayered clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Claudio; Bakan, Stephan

    1997-01-01

    During the aircraft campaign EUCREX 94 different missions with the multispectral sensor OVID were flown inside frontal ice cloud systems. This study present estimated effective radii and cloud optical depths from measurements around 1.05 and 1.6 micrometer under the assumption of different particle shapes. The best agreement with independent measurements of other instruments result from the assumption of an irregular polycrystal. The measured effective radii vary between 18 and 46 micrometer which is compatible with published particle size distributions of moderate ambient temperatures between minus 45 and minus 55 degrees Celsius. An additional consideration of spatial features allow the distinction of cloud layers in different altitudes in the atmosphere and perhaps the estimation of cloud parameters from individual layers. This study show an example of such a recognition and discuss the potential for an operational algorithm.

  13. Global Analysis of Aerosol Properties Above Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waquet, F.; Peers, F.; Ducos, F.; Goloub, P.; Platnick, S. E.; Riedi, J.; Tanre, D.; Thieuleux, F.

    2013-01-01

    The seasonal and spatial varability of Aerosol Above Cloud (AAC) properties are derived from passive satellite data for the year 2008. A significant amount of aerosols are transported above liquid water clouds on the global scale. For particles in the fine mode (i.e., radius smaller than 0.3 m), including both clear sky and AAC retrievals increases the global mean aerosol optical thickness by 25(+/- 6%). The two main regions with man-made AAC are the tropical Southeast Atlantic, for biomass burning aerosols, and the North Pacific, mainly for pollutants. Man-made AAC are also detected over the Arctic during the spring. Mineral dust particles are detected above clouds within the so-called dust belt region (5-40 N). AAC may cause a warming effect and bias the retrieval of the cloud properties. This study will then help to better quantify the impacts of aerosols on clouds and climate.

  14. Parameterization of convective clouds mesoscale convective systems, and convective-generated cirrus. Final report, September 15, 1990--October 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, W.R.

    1993-11-05

    The overall goal of this research is to develop a scheme to parameterize diabatic heating, moisture/water substance, and momentum transports, and precipitation from mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) for use in general circulation models (GCMs). Our approach is to perform explicit cloud-resolving simulations of MCSs in the spirit of the GEWEX Cloud Systems Study (GCSS), by using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) developed at Colorado State University (CSU). We then perform statistical analyses (conditional sampling, ensemble-averages, trajectory analyses) of simulated MCSs to assist in fabricating a parameterization scheme, calibrating coefficients, and provide independent tests of the efficacy of the parameterization scheme. A cloud-resolving simulation of ordinary cumulonimbi forced by sea breeze fronts has been completed. Analysis of this case and comparison with parameterized convection simulations has resulted in a number of refinements in the scheme. Three three-dimensional, cloud-resolving simulations of MCSs have been completed. Statistical analyses of model-output data are being performed to assist in developing a parameterization scheme of MCSs in general circulation models.

  15. A comparison of radiometric fluxes influenced by parameterization cirrus clouds with observed fluxes at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) cloud and radiation testbed (CART) site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, G.G.; Ackerman, T.P.; George, A.T. [Penn State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program`s Southern Great plains Site (SCP) is a valuable resource. We have developed an operational data processing and analysis methodology that allows us to examine continuously the influence of clouds on the radiation field and to test new and existing cloud and radiation parameterizations.

  16. A statistical comparison of cirrus particle size distributions measured using the 2-D stereo probe during the TC4, SPARTICUS, and MACPEX flight campaigns with historical cirrus datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, M. Christian

    2017-08-01

    This paper addresses two straightforward questions. First, how similar are the statistics of cirrus particle size distribution (PSD) datasets collected using the Two-Dimensional Stereo (2D-S) probe to cirrus PSD datasets collected using older Particle Measuring Systems (PMS) 2-D Cloud (2DC) and 2-D Precipitation (2DP) probes? Second, how similar are the datasets when shatter-correcting post-processing is applied to the 2DC datasets? To answer these questions, a database of measured and parameterized cirrus PSDs - constructed from measurements taken during the Small Particles in Cirrus (SPARTICUS); Mid-latitude Airborne Cirrus Properties Experiment (MACPEX); and Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling (TC4) flight campaigns - is used.Bulk cloud quantities are computed from the 2D-S database in three ways: first, directly from the 2D-S data; second, by applying the 2D-S data to ice PSD parameterizations developed using sets of cirrus measurements collected using the older PMS probes; and third, by applying the 2D-S data to a similar parameterization developed using the 2D-S data themselves. This is done so that measurements of the same cloud volumes by parameterized versions of the 2DC and 2D-S can be compared with one another. It is thereby seen - given the same cloud field and given the same assumptions concerning ice crystal cross-sectional area, density, and radar cross section - that the parameterized 2D-S and the parameterized 2DC predict similar distributions of inferred shortwave extinction coefficient, ice water content, and 94 GHz radar reflectivity. However, the parameterization of the 2DC based on uncorrected data predicts a statistically significantly higher number of total ice crystals and a larger ratio of small ice crystals to large ice crystals than does the parameterized 2D-S. The 2DC parameterization based on shatter-corrected data also predicts statistically different numbers of ice crystals than does the parameterized 2D-S, but the

  17. Ready-to-Use Methods for the Detection of Clouds, Cirrus, Snow, Shadow, Water and Clear Sky Pixels in Sentinel-2 MSI Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hollstein

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Classification of clouds, cirrus, snow, shadows and clear sky areas is a crucial step in the pre-processing of optical remote sensing images and is a valuable input for their atmospheric correction. The Multi-Spectral Imager on board the Sentinel-2’s of the Copernicus program offers optimized bands for this task and delivers unprecedented amounts of data regarding spatial sampling, global coverage, spectral coverage, and repetition rate. Efficient algorithms are needed to process, or possibly reprocess, those big amounts of data. Techniques based on top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectra for single-pixels without exploitation of external data or spatial context offer the largest potential for parallel data processing and highly optimized processing throughput. Such algorithms can be seen as a baseline for possible trade-offs in processing performance when the application of more sophisticated methods is discussed. We present several ready-to-use classification algorithms which are all based on a publicly available database of manually classified Sentinel-2A images. These algorithms are based on commonly used and newly developed machine learning techniques which drastically reduce the amount of time needed to update the algorithms when new images are added to the database. Several ready-to-use decision trees are presented which allow to correctly label about 91 % of the spectra within a validation dataset. While decision trees are simple to implement and easy to understand, they offer only limited classification skill. It improves to 98 % when the presented algorithm based on the classical Bayesian method is applied. This method has only recently been used for this task and shows excellent performance concerning classification skill and processing performance. A comparison of the presented algorithms with other commonly used techniques such as random forests, stochastic gradient descent, or support vector machines is also given. Especially

  18. Validation of Model Simulations of Anvil Cirrus Properties During TWP-ICE: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipser, Edward J. [University of Utah

    2013-05-20

    This 3-year grant, with two extensions, resulted in a successful 5-year effort, led by Ph.D. student Adam Varble, to compare cloud resolving model (CRM) simulations with the excellent database obtained during the TWP-ICE field campaign. The objective, largely achieved, is to undertake these comparisons comprehensively and quantitatively, informing the community in ways that goes beyond pointing out errors in the models, but points out ways to improve both cloud dynamics and microphysics parameterizations in future modeling efforts. Under DOE support, Adam Varble, with considerable assistance from Dr. Ann Fridlind and others, entrained scientists who ran some 10 different CRMs and 4 different limited area models (LAMs) using a variety of microphysics parameterizations, to ensure that the conclusions of the study will have considerable generality.

  19. Contrail Cirrus Forecasts for the ML-CIRRUS Experiment and Some Comparison Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Ulrich; Graf, Kaspar; Bugliaro, Luca; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Giez, Andreas; Jurkat, Tina; Kaufmann, Stefan; Krämer, Martina; Minikin, Andreas; Schäfler, Andreas; Voigt, Christiane; Wirth, Martin; Zahn, Andreas; Ziereis, Helmut

    2015-04-01

    rerun with improved ECMWF-NWP data (at one-hour time resolution). The model results are included in the HALO mission data bank, and the results are available for comparison to in-situ data. The data are useful for identifying aircraft and other sources for measured air properties. The joint analysis of observations and model result has basically just started. Preliminary results from comparisons with lidar-measured extinction profiles, in-situ measured humidity, nitrogen oxides, and aerosol and ice particle concentrations, and with meteorological observations (wind, temperature etc.) illustrate the expected gain in insight. The contrail forecasts have been checked by comparison to available data including satellite data and HALO observations. During the campaign, it became obvious that predicted contrail cirrus cover compared qualitatively mostly well with what was found when HALO reached predicted cirrus regions. From the analysis of the measured data, some examples of significant correlation between model results and observations have been found. However, the quantitative agreement is not uniform. As expected, nature is far more variable than a model can predict. The observed optical properties of cirrus and contrails vary far more in time and space than predicted. Local values were often far higher or lower than mean values. A one-to-one correlation between local observations and model results is not to be expected. This inhomogeneity may have consequences for the climate impact of aviation induced cloud changes.

  20. CALIPSO Observations of Near-Cloud Aerosol Properties as a Function of Cloud Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weidong; Marshak, Alexander; Varnai, Tamas; Wood, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses spaceborne lidar data to study how near-cloud aerosol statistics of attenuated backscatter depend on cloud fraction. The results for a large region around the Azores show that: (1) far-from-cloud aerosol statistics are dominated by samples from scenes with lower cloud fractions, while near-cloud aerosol statistics are dominated by samples from scenes with higher cloud fractions; (2) near-cloud enhancements of attenuated backscatter occur for any cloud fraction but are most pronounced for higher cloud fractions; (3) the difference in the enhancements for different cloud fractions is most significant within 5km from clouds; (4) near-cloud enhancements can be well approximated by logarithmic functions of cloud fraction and distance to clouds. These findings demonstrate that if variability in cloud fraction across the scenes used to composite aerosol statistics are not considered, a sampling artifact will affect these statistics calculated as a function of distance to clouds. For the Azores-region dataset examined here, this artifact occurs mostly within 5 km from clouds, and exaggerates the near-cloud enhancements of lidar backscatter and color ratio by about 30. This shows that for accurate characterization of the changes in aerosol properties with distance to clouds, it is important to account for the impact of changes in cloud fraction.

  1. A methodology for in-situ and remote sensing of microphysical and radiative properties of contrails as they evolve into cirrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Jones

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Contrails and especially their evolution into cirrus-like clouds are thought to have very important effects on local and global radiation budgets, though are generally not well represented in global climate models. Lack of contrail parameterisations is due to the limited availability of in situ contrail measurements which are difficult to obtain. Here we present a methodology for successful sampling and interpretation of contrail microphysical and radiative data using both in situ and remote sensing instrumentation on board the FAAM BAe146 UK research aircraft as part of the COntrails Spreading Into Cirrus (COSIC study.

    Forecast models were utilised to determine flight regions suitable for contrail formation and sampling; regions that were both free of cloud but showed a high probability of occurrence of air mass being supersaturated with respect to ice. The FAAM research aircraft, fitted with cloud microphysics probes and remote sensing instruments, formed a distinctive spiral-shaped contrail in the predicted area by flying in an orbit over the same ground position as the wind advected the contrails to the east. Parts of these contrails were sampled during the completion of four orbits, with sampled contrail regions being between 7 and 30 min old. Lidar measurements were useful for in-flight determination of the location and spatial extent of the contrails, and also to report extinction values that agreed well with those calculated from the microphysical data. A shortwave spectrometer was also able to detect the contrails, though the signal was weak due to the dispersion and evaporation of the contrails. Post-flight the UK Met Office NAME III dispersion model was successfully used as a tool for modelling the dispersion of the persistent contrail; determining its location and age, and determining when there was interference from other measured other aircraft contrails or when cirrus encroached on the area later in the flight.

  2. Lifetime Extension of Cirrus Cloud Ice Particles upon Contamination with HCl and HNO3 under conditions of the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Michel J.; Delval, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Ice particles in the Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere (UT/LS) are the seat of heterogeneous chemical processes that are important in polar ozone chemistry. Estimated evaporative lifetimes of typical pure ice particles of a few micrometers radius in Cirrus clouds are on the order of a minute or so at 80% relative humidity, too short to allow significant heterogeneous processing. We took this as a motivation to systematically measure absolute rates of evaporation and condensation of H2O in 1 to 2 micrometer thick ice films taken as proxies for small atmospheric ice particles under controlled conditions of HCl and HNO3 trace gas contamination. We have used a multidiagnostic reaction vessel equipped with residual gas mass spectrometry (MS), FTIR absorption spectroscopy in transmission and a quartz crystal microbalance (QCMB) in order to simultaneously observe both the gas and condensed phases under relevant atmospheric conditions. The rates (Rev(H2O)) or fluxes of evaporation (Jev(H2O)) of H2O from thin ice films contaminated by a measured amount of HCl in the range of 10% of a formal monolayer to 20 formal monolayers decreased by factors of between 2 and 50 depending on parameters such as temperature of deposition (Tdep), rate (RHCl) and dose (NHCl) of contaminant doping. Experiments with HCl fell into two categories as far as the decrease of Jev with the average mole fraction of contaminant (χHCl) in the remaining ice slab was concerned: one group where Jev(H2O) decreased gradually after pure ice evaporated, and another group where Jev(H2O) abruptly changes with χHCl after evaporation of excess ice. FTIR spectroscopy revealed an unknown, yet crystalline form of HCl hydrate upon HCl doping that does not correspond to a known crystalline hydrate. Of importance is the observation, that the equilibrium vapor pressure of these contaminated ices correspond to that of pure ice even after evaporation of excess ice at the characteristic rate of pure ice evaporation

  3. Submillimeter-Wave Cloud Ice Radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Steven J.

    1999-01-01

    Submillimeter-wave cloud ice radiometry is a new and innovative technique for characterizing cirrus ice clouds. Cirrus clouds affect Earth's climate and hydrological cycle by reflecting incoming solar energy, trapping outgoing IR radiation, sublimating into vapor, and influencing atmospheric circulation. Since uncertainties in the global distribution of cloud ice restrict the accuracy of both climate and weather models, successful development of this technique could provide a valuable tool for investigating how clouds affect climate and weather. Cloud ice radiometry could fill an important gap in the observational capabilities of existing and planned Earth-observing systems. Using submillimeter-wave radiometry to retrieve properties of ice clouds can be understood with a simple model. There are a number of submillimeter-wavelength spectral regions where the upper troposphere is transparent. At lower tropospheric altitudes water vapor emits a relatively uniform flux of thermal radiation. When cirrus clouds are present, they scatter a portion of the upwelling flux of submillimeter-wavelength radiation back towards the Earth as shown in the diagram, thus reducing the upward flux o f energy. Hence, the power received by a down-looking radiometer decreases when a cirrus cloud passes through the field of view causing the cirrus cloud to appear radiatively cool against the warm lower atmospheric thermal emissions. The reduction in upwelling thermal flux is a function of both the total cloud ice content and mean crystal size. Radiometric measurements made at multiple widely spaced frequencies permit flux variations caused by changes in crystal size to be distinguished from changes in ice content, and polarized measurements can be used to constrain mean crystal shape. The goal of the cloud ice radiometry program is to further develop and validate this technique of characterizing cirrus. A multi-frequency radiometer is being designed to support airborne science and

  4. A 6-year global cloud climatology from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder AIRS and a statistical analysis in synergy with CALIPSO and CloudSat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Stubenrauch

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a six-year global climatology of cloud properties, obtained from observations of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS onboard the NASA Aqua satellite. Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO combined with CloudSat observations, both missions launched as part of the A-Train in 2006, provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the retrieved AIRS cloud properties such as cloud amount and height as well as to explore the vertical structure of different cloud types. AIRS-LMD cloud detection agrees with CALIPSO about 85% over ocean and about 75% over land. Global cloud amount has been estimated as about 66% to 74%, depending on the weighting of not cloudy AIRS footprints by partial cloud cover (0 or 0.3. 40% of all clouds are high clouds, and about 44% of all clouds are single layer low-level clouds. The "radiative" cloud height determined by the AIRS-LMD retrieval corresponds well to the height of the maximum backscatter signal and of the "apparent middle" of the cloud. Whereas the real cloud thickness of high opaque clouds often fills the whole troposphere, their "apparent" cloud thickness (at which optical depth reaches about 5 is on average only 2.5 km. The real geometrical thickness of optically thin cirrus as identified by AIRS-LMD is identical to the "apparent" cloud thickness with an average of about 2.5 km in the tropics and midlatitudes. High clouds in the tropics have slightly more diffusive cloud tops than at higher latitudes. In general, the depth of the maximum backscatter signal increases nearly linearly with increasing "apparent" cloud thickness. For the same "apparent" cloud thickness optically thin cirrus show a maximum backscatter about 10% deeper inside the cloud than optically thicker clouds. We also show that only the geometrically thickest opaque clouds and (the probably surrounding anvil cirrus penetrate the stratosphere in the tropics.

  5. A 6-year global cloud climatology from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder AIRS and a statistical analysis in synergy with CALIPSO and CloudSat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cros

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a six-year global climatology of cloud properties, obtained from observations of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS onboard the NASA Aqua satellite. Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO combined with CloudSat observations, both missions launched as part of the A-Train in 2006, provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the retrieved AIRS cloud properties such as cloud amount and height. In addition, they permit to explore the vertical structure of different cloud types. AIRS-LMD cloud detection agrees with CALIPSO about 85% over ocean and about 75% over land. Global cloud amount has been estimated from 66% to 74%, depending on the weighting of not cloudy AIRS footprints by partial cloud cover from 0 to 0.3. 42% of all clouds are high clouds, and about 42% of all clouds are single layer low-level clouds. The "radiative" cloud height determined by the AIRS-LMD retrieval corresponds well to the height of the maximum backscatter signal and of the "apparent middle" of the cloud. Whereas the real cloud thickness of high opaque clouds often fills the whole troposphere, their "apparent" cloud thickness (at which optical depth reaches about 5 is on average only 2.5 km. The real geometrical thickness of optically thin cirrus as identified by AIRS-LMD is identical to the "apparent" cloud thickness with an average of about 2.5 km in the tropics and midlatitudes. High clouds in the tropics have slightly more diffusive cloud tops than at higher latitudes. In general, the depth of the maximum backscatter signal increases nearly linearly with increasing "apparent" cloud thickness. For the same "apparent" cloud thickness optically thin cirrus show a maximum backscatter about 10% deeper inside the cloud than optically thicker clouds. We also show that only the geometrically thickest opaque clouds and (the probably surrounding anvil cirrus penetrate the stratosphere in the tropics.

  6. Retrievals of ice cloud microphysical properties of deep convective systems using radar measurements: Convective Cloud Microphysical Retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Jingjing [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks North Dakota USA; Dong, Xiquan [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks North Dakota USA; Xi, Baike [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks North Dakota USA; Wang, Jingyu [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks North Dakota USA; Homeyer, Cameron R. [School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman Oklahoma USA; McFarquhar, Greg M. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana Illinois USA; Fan, Jiwen [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA

    2016-09-23

    This study presents new algorithms for retrieving ice cloud microphysical properties (ice water content (IWC) and median mass diameter (Dm)) for the stratiform and thick anvil regions of Deep Convective Systems (DCSs) using Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) reflectivity and recently developed empirical relationships from aircraft in situ measurements during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). A classic DCS case on 20 May 2011 is used to compare the retrieved IWC profiles with other retrieval and cloud-resolving model simulations. The mean values of each retrieved and simulated IWC fall within one standard derivation of the other two. The statistical results from six selected cases during MC3E show that the aircraft in situ derived IWC and Dm are 0.47 ± 0.29 g m-3 and 2.02 ± 1.3 mm, while the mean values of retrievals have a positive bias of 0.16 g m-3 (34%) and a negative bias of 0.39 mm (19%). To validate the newly developed retrieval algorithms from this study, IWC and Dm are performed with other DCS cases during Bow Echo and Mesoscale Convective Vortex Experiment (BAMEX) field campaign using composite gridded NEXRAD reflectivity and compared with in situ IWC and Dm from aircraft. A total of 64 1-min collocated aircraft and radar samples are available for comparisons, and the averages of radar retrieved and aircraft in situ measured IWCs are 1.22 g m-3 and 1.26 g m-3 with a correlation of 0.5, and their averaged Dm values are 2.15 and 1.80 mm. These comparisons have shown that the retrieval algorithms 45 developed during MC3E can retrieve similar ice cloud microphysical properties of DCS to aircraft in situ measurements during BAMEX with median errors of ~40% and ~25% for IWC and Dm retrievals, respectively. This is indicating our retrieval algorithms are suitable for other midlatitude continental DCS ice clouds, especially at stratiform rain and thick anvil regions. In addition, based on the averaged IWC and Dm values during MC3E and

  7. The Effects of Water Vapor and Clouds on the Spectral Distribution of Solar Radiation at the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilewskie, P.; Bergstrom, R.; Mariani, P.; Gore, Warren J. Y. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    During the Subsonic Contrail and Cloud Effect Special Study (SUCCESS) a Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer was deployed at the surface in a zenith observing position. The instrument measured the solar spectral downwelling irradiance between 350 and 2500 nm with 10 nm resolution. From April 12 through April 29 approximately 18000 spectra were acquired, under a variety of meteorological conditions including cloud free, cirrus, Stearns, and cumulonimbus clouds. This study focuses on the effect of cirrus and cirrus contrails on the spectral distribution of solar irradiance at the surface and on inferring cirrus properties from their spectral transmittance. The observations have also proven to be useful for comparing the solar spectral irradiance measurements with model predictions, and in particular, for inferring the amount of solar radiation absorbed in the clear and cloudy atmosphere.

  8. A method for estimating optical properties of dusty cloud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianhe Wang; Jianping Huang

    2009-01-01

    Based on the scattering properties of nonspherical dust aerosol,a new method is developed for retrieving dust aerosol optical depths of dusty clouds.The dusty clouds are defined as the hybrid system of dust plume and cloud.The new method is based on transmittance measurements from surface-based instruments multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer(MFRSR)and cloud parameters from lidar measurements.It uses the difference of absorption between dust aerosols and water droplets for distinguishing and estimating the optical properties of dusts and clouds,respectively.This new retrieval method is not sensitive to the retrieval error of cloud properties and the maximum absolute deviations of dust aerosol and total optical depths for thin dusty cloud retrieval algorithm are only 0.056 and 0.1.respectively,for given possible uncertainties.The retrieval error for thick dusty cloud mainly depends on lidar-based total dusty cloud properties.

  9. Death of an Arctic Mixed Phase Cloud: How Changes in the Arctic Environment Influence Cloud Properties and Cloud Radiative Feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, E. L.; Posselt, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    Arctic mixed phase stratocumulus clouds exert an important influence on the radiative budget over the Arctic ocean and sea ice. Field programs and numerical experiments have shown the properties of these clouds to be sensitive to changes in the surface properties, thermodynamic environment, and aerosols. While it is clear that Arctic mixed-phase clouds respond to changes in the Arctic environment, uncertainty remains as to how climate warming will affect the cloud micro- and macrophysical properties. This is in no small part due to the fact that there are nonlinear interactions between changes in atmospheric and surface properties and changes in cloud characteristics. In this study, large-eddy simulations are performed of an arctic mixed phase cloud observed during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign. A parameter-space-filling uncertainty quantification technique is used to rigorously explore how simulated arctic mixed phase clouds respond to changes in the properties of the environment. Specifically, the cloud ice and aerosol concentration, surface sensible and latent heat fluxes, and large scale temperature, water vapor, and vertical motion are systematically changed, and the properties of the resulting clouds are examined. It is found that Arctic mixed phase clouds exhibit four characteristic behaviors: stability, growth, decay, and dissipation. Sets of environmental and surface properties that lead to the emergence of each type of behavior are presented, and the implications for the response of Arctic clouds to changes in climate are explored.

  10. Impact of Cirrus Crystal Shape on Solar Spectral Irradiance: A Case Study for Subtropical Cirrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendisch, Manfred; Pilewskie, Peter; Pommier, John; Howard, Steve; Yang, Ping; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Schmitt, Carl G.; Baumgardner, Darrel; Mayer, Barnhard

    2005-01-01

    Profiles of in situ measurements of ice crystal size distribution of subtropical cirrus were used to calculate solar spectral irradiances above and below the clouds. Spheres and nonspherical ice crystal habits (columns, hollows, plates, bullets, and aggregates) were assumed in the calculations. The simulation results were compared to irradiance measurements from the NASA Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer. The microphysical and radiation data were collected by three aircraft during CRYSTAL-FACE. Two cirrus cases (optical thickness of about 1 and 7) from two mission dates (26 and 23 July 2002) were investigated in detail. The measured downwelling and upwelling irradiance spectra above the cirrus could mostly be reproduced by the radiation model to within +/- 5-10% for most ice crystal habits. Below the cirrus the simulations disagreed with the measured irradiances due to surface albedo variability along the flight track, and nonoptimal colocation between the microphysical and irradiance measurements. The impact of shape characteristics of the crystals was important for the reflected irradiances above the optically thin cirrus, especially for small solar zenith angles, because in this case single-scattering dominated the solar radiation field. For the cirrus of moderate optical thickness the enhanced multiple scattering tended to diminish particular shape features caused by nonspherical single-scattering. Within the ice absorption bands the shape-related differences in the absorption characteristics of the individual nonspherical ice crystals were amplified if multiple scattering prevailed. Furthermore, it was found that below the cloud the shape sensitivity of the downwelling irradiance spectra is larger compared to the nonsphericity effects on reflected irradiances above the cirrus. Finally, it was shown that the calculated cirrus solar radiative forcing could vary by as much as 26% depending on the ice crystal habit.

  11. Terahertz Remote Sensing of Ice Clouds - Sensitivity on Ice Dielectric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendrok, J.; Baron, P.; Kasai, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Initiated by current developments in terahertz sensor technology the application of instruments operating in the spectral region between 0.1 - 30 THz is considered for a number of remote sensing issues. Accounting for more than 50 percent of the outgoing longwave radiation and with the major component of cirrus radiative forcing in the far-infrared, satellite measurements in this spectral region will significantly support the determination of the radiation budget of the Earth. Furthermore, spanning the whole range of particle sizes found in tropospheric ice clouds, the Terahertz region bears the potential to complement existing methods and improve our knowlegde and understanding of those clouds. Both, determination of the Earth's radiation budget as well as retrieving ice cloud properties require appropriately accurate calculations of radiative transfer. Hence, a good knowledge of the input parameters to the radiative transfer models is needed. In particular, this includes spectrally dependent properties of the molecular as well as particulate atmospheric matter, i.e., spectroscopic parameters of the molecular absorption lines and continua as well as the dielectric properties of aerosol and cloud particle material. Due to the lack of Terahertz light source and receiver technology in the past, measurements of these parameters have been sparse and the knowledge about them is rather poor. In preparation to evaluate the feasibility of monitoring tropospheric ice clouds using passive Terahertz observations, we study the modeling uncertainties due to the unconfident knowledge of the complex refractive index of ice. We give an overview of the consistency and discrepancies, respectively, of the existing measurements and models for ice refractive index in the Terahertz region. Using calculations of particle optical properties according to Mie theory as well as the radiative transfer models Moliere and SARTre, we estimate the deviations in particle optical properties and

  12. First correlated measurements of the shape and light scattering properties of cloud particles using the new Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering (PHIPS probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abdelmonem

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds requires knowledge of the relationship between their microphysics and the single scattering properties of cloud particles. Usually, this relationship is obtained by modeling the optical scattering properties from in situ measurements of ice crystal size distributions. The measured size distribution and the assumed particle shape might be erroneous in case of non-spherical ice particles. We present here a novel optical sensor (the Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering probe, PHIPS designed to measure simultaneously the 3-D morphology and the corresponding optical and microphysical parameters of individual cloud particles. Clouds containing particles ranging from a few micrometers to about 800 μm diameter in size can be characterized systematically with an optical resolution power of 2 μm and polar scattering resolution of 1° for forward scattering directions (from 1° to 10° and 8° for side and backscattering directions (from 18° to 170°. The maximum acquisition rates for scattering phase functions and images are 262 KHz and 10 Hz, respectively. Some preliminary results collected in two ice cloud campaigns conducted in the AIDA cloud simulation chamber are presented. PHIPS showed reliability in operation and produced size distributions and images comparable to those given by other certified cloud particles instruments. A 3-D model of a hexagonal ice plate is constructed and the corresponding scattering phase function is compared to that modeled using the Ray Tracing with Diffraction on Facets (RTDF program. PHIPS is a highly promising novel airborne optical sensor for studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds and correlating the particle habit-scattering properties which will serve as a reference for other single, or multi-independent, measurement instruments.

  13. Ice water content of arctic, midlatitude, and tropical cirrus – Part 2: Extension of the database and new statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rolf

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ice clouds are known to be major contributors to radiative forcing in the Earth's atmosphere, yet describing their microphysical properties in climate models remains challenging. Among these properties, the ice water content (IWC of cirrus clouds is of particular interest both because it is measurable and because it can be directly related to a number of other radiatively important variables such as extinction and effective radius. This study expands upon the work of Schiller et al. (2008, extending a climatology of IWC by combining datasets from several European and US airborne campaigns and ground-based lidar measurements over Jülich, Germany. The relationship between IWC and temperature is further investigated using the new merged dataset and probability distribution functions (PDFs. A PDF-based formulation allows for representation of not only the mean values of IWC, but also the variability of IWC within a temperature band. The IWC-PDFs are found to be bimodal over the whole cirrus temperature range, which might be attributed to different cirrus formation mechanisms such as heterogeneous and homogeneous freezing. The PDFs of IWC are further compared to distributions of cirrus ice crystal number and mass mean radius, which show that the general relationship between IWC and temperature appears to be influenced much more by particle number than by particle size.

  14. Evaluations of cirrus contamination and screening in ground aerosol observations using collocated lidar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingfeng; Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Holben, Brent N.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Smirnov, Alexander; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Hansell, Richard A.; Berkoff, Timothy A.; Liu, Zhaoyan; Liu, Gin-Rong; Campbell, James R.; Liew, Soo Chin; Barnes, John E.

    2012-08-01

    Cirrus clouds, particularly subvisual high thin cirrus with low optical thickness, are difficult to screen in operational aerosol retrieval algorithms. Collocated aerosol and cirrus observations from ground measurements, such as the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and the Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET), provide us with an unprecedented opportunity to systematically examine the susceptibility of operational aerosol products to cirrus contamination. Quality assured aerosol optical thickness (AOT) measurements were also tested against the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) vertical feature mask (VFM) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thin cirrus screening parameters for the purpose of evaluating cirrus contamination. Key results of this study include: (1) quantitative evaluations of data uncertainties in AERONET AOT retrievals are conducted; although AERONET cirrus screening schemes are successful in removing most cirrus contamination, strong residuals displaying strong spatial and seasonal variability still exist, particularly over thin cirrus prevalent regions during cirrus peak seasons; (2) challenges in matching up different data for analysis are highlighted and corresponding solutions proposed; and (3) estimates of the relative contributions from cirrus contamination to aerosol retrievals are discussed. The results are valuable for better understanding and further improving ground aerosol measurements that are critical for aerosol-related climate research.

  15. Statistical properties of cloud lifecycles in cloud-resolving models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Plant

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new technique is described for the analysis of cloud-resolving model simulations, which allows one to investigate the statistics of the lifecycles of cumulus clouds. Clouds are tracked from timestep-to-timestep within the model run. This allows for a very simple method of tracking, but one which is both comprehensive and robust. An approach for handling cloud splits and mergers is described which allows clouds with simple and complicated time histories to be compared within a single framework. This is found to be important for the analysis of an idealized simulation of radiative-convective equilibrium, in which the moist, buoyant, updrafts (i.e., the convective cores were tracked. Around half of all such cores were subject to splits and mergers during their lifecycles. For cores without any such events, the average lifetime is 30 min, but events can lengthen the typical lifetime considerably.

  16. Progress in Understanding the Impacts of 3-D Cloud Structure on MODIS Cloud Property Retrievals for Marine Boundary Layer Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Werner, Frank; Miller, Daniel; Platnick, Steven; Ackerman, Andrew; DiGirolamo, Larry; Meyer, Kerry; Marshak, Alexander; Wind, Galina; Zhao, Guangyu

    2016-01-01

    Theory: A novel framework based on 2-D Tayler expansion for quantifying the uncertainty in MODIS retrievals caused by sub-pixel reflectance inhomogeneity. (Zhang et al. 2016). How cloud vertical structure influences MODIS LWP retrievals. (Miller et al. 2016). Observation: Analysis of failed MODIS cloud property retrievals. (Cho et al. 2015). Cloud property retrievals from 15m resolution ASTER observations. (Werner et al. 2016). Modeling: LES-Satellite observation simulator (Zhang et al. 2012, Miller et al. 2016).

  17. Constraining the Properties of Cold Interstellar Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spraggs, Mary Elizabeth; Gibson, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Since the interstellar medium (ISM) plays an integral role in star formation and galactic structure, it is important to understand the evolution of clouds over time, including the processes of cooling and condensation that lead to the formation of new stars. This work aims to constrain and better understand the physical properties of the cold ISM by utilizing large surveys of neutral atomic hydrogen (HI) 21cm spectral line emission and absorption, carbon monoxide (CO) 2.6mm line emission, and multi-band infrared dust thermal continuum emission. We identify areas where the gas may be cooling and forming molecules using HI self-absorption (HISA), in which cold foreground HI absorbs radiation from warmer background HI emission.We are developing an algorithm that uses total gas column densities inferred from Planck and other FIR/sub-mm data in parallel with CO and HISA spectral line data to determine the gas temperature, density, molecular abundance, and other properties as functions of position. We can then map these properties to study their variation throughout an individual cloud as well as any dependencies on location or environment within the Galaxy.Funding for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation, the NASA Kentucky Space Grant Consortium, the WKU Ogden College of Science and Engineering, and the Carol Martin Gatton Academy for Mathematics and Science in Kentucky.

  18. MST radar and polarization lidar observations of tropical cirrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bhavani Kumar

    Full Text Available Significant gaps in our understanding of global cirrus effects on the climate system involve the role of frequently occurring tropical cirrus. Much of the cirrus in the atmosphere is largely due to frequent cumulus and convective activity in the tropics. In the Indian sub-tropical region, the deep convective activity is very prominent from April to December, which is a favorable period for the formation of deep cumulus clouds. The fibrous anvils of these clouds, laden with ice crystals, are one of the source mechanisms for much of the cirrus in the atmosphere. In the present study, several passages of tropical cirrus were investigated by simultaneously operating MST radar and a co-located polarization lidar at the National MST Radar Facility (NMRF, Gadanki (13.45° N, 79.18° E, India to understand its structure, the background wind field and the microphysics at the cloud boundaries. The lidar system used is capable of measuring the degree of depolarization in the laser backscatter. It has identified several different cirrus structures with a peak linear depolarization ratio (LDR in the range of 0.1 to 0.32. Simultaneous observations of tropical cirrus by the VHF Doppler radar indicated a clear enhancement of reflectivity detected in the vicinity of the cloud boundaries, as revealed by the lidar and are strongly dependent on observed cloud LDR. An inter-comparison of radar reflectivity observed for vertical and oblique beams reveals that the radar-enhanced reflectivity at the cloud boundaries is also accompanied by significant aspect sensitivity. These observations indicate the presence of anisotropic turbulence at the cloud boundaries. Radar velocity measurements show that boundaries of cirrus are associated with enhanced horizontal winds, significant vertical shear in the horizontal winds and reduced vertical velocity. Therefore, these measurements indicate that a circulation at the cloud boundaries suggest an entrainment taking place close to

  19. Depolarization Lidar Determination of Cloud-Base Microphysical Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donovan, D.P.; Klein Baltink, H.; Henzing, J.S.; Roode, S. de; Siebesma, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    The links between multiple-scattering induced depolarization and cloud microphysical properties (e.g. cloud particle number density, effective radius, water content) have long been recognised. Previous efforts to use depolarization information in a quantitative manner to retrieve cloud microphysical

  20. Cirrus and aerosol lidar profilometer - analysis and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinhirne, J.D.; Scott, V.S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Reagan, J.A.; Galbraith, A. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A cloud and aerosol lidar set from over a year of near continuous operation of a micro pulse lidar (MPL) instrument at the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site has been established. MPL instruments are to be included in the Ames Research Center (ARC) instrument compliments for the SW Pacific and Arctic ARM sites. Operational processing algorithms are in development for the data sets. The derived products are to be cloud presence and classification, base height, cirrus thickness, cirrus optical thickness, cirrus extinction profile, aerosol optical thickness and profile, and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height. A cloud presence and base height algorithm is in use, and a data set from the CART site is available. The scientific basis for the algorithm development of the higher level data products and plans for implementation are discussed.

  1. Infrared radiative transfer modelling in a 3D scattering cloudy atmosphere: Application to limb sounding measurements of cirrus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewen, G.B.L. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: gewen@atm.ox.ac.uk; Grainger, R.G. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Lambert, A. [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO (United States); Baran, A.J. [Met Office, Exeter (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-15

    The Monte Carlo cloud scattering forward model (McClouds{sub F}M) has been developed to simulate limb radiative transfer in the presence of cirrus clouds, for the purposes of simulating cloud contaminated measurements made by an infrared limb sounding instrument, e.g. the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS). A reverse method three-dimensional Monte Carlo transfer model is combined with a line-by-line model for radiative transfer through the non-cloudy atmosphere to explicitly account for the effects of multiple scattering by the clouds. The ice cloud microphysics are characterised by a size distribution of randomly oriented ice crystals, with the single scattering properties of the distribution determined by accurate calculations accounting for non-spherical habit. A comparison of McClouds{sub F}M simulations and real MIPAS spectra of cirrus shows good agreement. Of particular interest are several noticeable spectral features (i.e. H{sub 2}O absorption lines) in the data that are replicated in the simulations: these can only be explained by upwelling tropospheric radiation scattered into the line-of-sight by the cloud ice particles.

  2. The DC-8 Submillimeter-Wave Cloud Ice Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Steven J.; Batelaan, Paul; Siegel, Peter; Evans, K. Franklin; Evans, Aaron; Balachandra, Balu; Gannon, Jade; Guldalian, John; Raz, Guy; Shea, James

    2000-01-01

    An airborne radiometer is being developed to demonstrate the capability of radiometry at submillimeter-wavelengths to characterize cirrus clouds. At these wavelengths, cirrus clouds scatter upwelling radiation from water vapor in the lower troposphere. Radiometric measurements made at multiple widely spaced frequencies permit flux variations caused by changes in scattering due to crystal size to be distinguished from changes in cloud ice content. Measurements at dual polarizations can also be used to constrain the mean crystal shape. An airborne radiometer measuring the upwelling submillimeter-wave flux should then able to retrieve both bulk and microphysical cloud properties. The radiometer is being designed to make measurements at four frequencies (183 GHz, 325 GHz, 448 GHz, and 643 GHz) with dual-polarization capability at 643 GHz. The instrument is being developed for flight on NASA's DC-8 and will scan cross-track through an aircraft window. Measurements with this radiometer in combination with independent ground-based and airborne measurements will validate the submillimeter-wave radiometer retrieval techniques. The goal of this effort is to develop a technique to enable spaceborne characterization of cirrus, which will meet a key climate measurement need. The development of an airborne radiometer to validate cirrus retrieval techniques is a critical step toward development of spaced-based radiometers to investigate and monitor cirrus on a global scale. The radiometer development is a cooperative effort of the University of Colorado, Colorado State University, Swales Aerospace, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory and is funded by the NASA Instrument Incubator Program.

  3. Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment TWP-ICE Cloud and rain characteristics in the Australian Monsoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, P.T., Jakob, C., and Mather, J.H.

    2004-05-31

    The impact of oceanic convection on its environment and the relationship between the characteristics of the convection and the resulting cirrus characteristics is still not understood. An intense airborne measurement campaign combined with an extensive network of ground-based observations is being planned for the region near Darwin, Northern Australia, during January-February, 2006, to address these questions. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) will be the first field program in the tropics that attempts to describe the evolution of tropical convection, including the large scale heat, moisture, and momentum budgets, while at the same time obtaining detailed observations of cloud properties and the impact of the clouds on the environment. The emphasis will be on cirrus for the cloud properties component of the experiment. Cirrus clouds are ubiquitous in the tropics and have a large impact on their environment but the properties of these clouds are poorly understood. A crucial product from this experiment will be a dataset suitable to provide the forcing and testing required by cloud-resolving models and parameterizations in global climate models. This dataset will provide the necessary link between cloud properties and the models that are attempting to simulate them.

  4. A Certification Framework for Cloud Security Properties: The Monitoring Path

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe the structure and functionality of a certification integrated framework aimed to support the certification of security properties of a Cloud infrastructure (IaaS), a platform (PaaS), or the software layer (SaaS). Such framework will bring service users, service providers and cloud suppliers to work together with certification authorities in order to ensure security properties and certificates validity in the continuously evolving cloud environment. For this purpose, ...

  5. MAGIC Cloud Properties from Zenith Radiance Data Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, J. -Y.C. [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); Gregory, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wagener, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Cloud droplet size and optical depth are the most fundamental properties for understanding cloud formation, dissipation and interactions with aerosol and drizzle. They are also a crucial determinant of Earth’s radiative and water-energy balances. However, these properties are poorly predicted in climate models. As a result, the response of clouds to climate change is one of the major sources of uncertainty in climate prediction.

  6. Intercomparison of MAS, AVIRIS, and HIS data from FIRE cirrus 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumley, Liam E.; King, Michael D.; Tsay, Si-Chee; Gao, Bo-Cai; Arnold, G. Thomas

    1993-01-01

    The NASA ER-2 flight on 5 Dec. 1991 is unique among the FIRE Cirrus 2 missions in that data were acquired simultaneously by the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS), the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), and the High Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS). These data represent a unique source of information about the spatial and spectral properties of cirrus clouds. The MAS is a new instrument which will aid in defining algorithms and building an understanding of the ability of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to remotely sense atmospheric conditions for assessing global change. In order to establish confidence in the absolute calibration accuracy of the MAS radiances, an inter-comparison of MAS radiances with AVIRIS and HIS has been undertaken.

  7. Sub-visual cirrus LIDAR measurements for satellite masking improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landulfo, Eduardo; Larroza, Eliane G.; Lopes, Fábio J. S.; de Jesus, Wellington C.; Bottino, Marcus; Nakaema, Walter M.; Steffens, Juliana

    2008-10-01

    Understanding the impact of cirrus cloud on modifying both the solar reflected and terrestrial emitted radiations is crucial for climate studies. Unlike most boundary layer stratus and stratocumulus clouds that have a net cooling effect on the climate, high-level thin cirrus clouds have a warming effect on our climate. However, the satellites as GOES from the NOAA series are limited to the cloud top and its reflectivity or brightness temperature, without assessing accurately the optical depth or physical thickness. Other more recent sensors as MODIS are able to determine optical depths for aerosols and clouds but when related to cirrus they are still inaccurate. Research programs as First ISCCP, FIRE, HOIST, ECLIPS and ARM have concentrated efforts in the research of cirrus, being based mainly on the observations of combined terrestrial remote sensing and airplanes instruments. LIDARs are able to detect sub-visual cirrus cloud (SVCs) in altitudes above 15 km and estimate exactly their height, thickness and optical depth, contributing with information for satellites sensors and radiative transfer models. In order to research characteristics of SVCs, the LIDAR system at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares has as objective to determine such parameters and implement a cirrus cloud mask that could be used in the satellite images processing as well as in the qualitative improvement of the radiative parameters for numerical models of climate changes. The first preliminary study shows where we compare the data lidar with Brightness temperature differences between the split-window data from GOES-10 (DSA/INPE) and CALIPSO.

  8. Effect of CALIPSO Cloud Aerosol Discrimination (CAD) Confidence Levels on Observations of Aerosol Properties near Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weidong; Marshak, Alexander; Varnai, Tamas; Liu, Zhaoyan

    2012-01-01

    CALIPSO aerosol backscatter enhancement in the transition zone between clouds and clear sky areas is revisited with particular attention to effects of data selection based on the confidence level of cloud-aerosol discrimination (CAD). The results show that backscatter behavior in the transition zone strongly depends on the CAD confidence level. Higher confidence level data has a flatter backscatter far away from clouds and a much sharper increase near clouds (within 4 km), thus a smaller transition zone. For high confidence level data it is shown that the overall backscatter enhancement is more pronounced for small clear-air segments and horizontally larger clouds. The results suggest that data selection based on CAD reduces the possible effects of cloud contamination when studying aerosol properties in the vicinity of clouds.

  9. Parameterization for narrow band optical properties of water clouds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The equivalent radius of cloud droplets is an important microphysical parameter in determining the optical properties of clouds. But for the present schemes of parameterization with merely the equivalent radius, the role of small droplets in clouds has not been considered properly. In this paper, several parameterization schemes are pre sented, and their performances have been analyzed through comparison with Mie scattering calculations and accurate ra diative transfer computations. The results show that for the parameterization scheme, in addition to the equivalent ra dius, including also the mean radius of cloud droplets, the role of small cloud droplets might be considered more proper ly and better accuracy could be achieved.

  10. Some Technical Aspects of a CALIOP and MODIS Data Analysis that Examines Near-Cloud Aerosol Properties as a Function of Cloud Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnai, Tamas; Yang, Weidong; Marshak, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    CALIOP shows stronger near-cloud changes in aerosol properties at higher cloud fractions. Cloud fraction variations explain a third of near-cloud changes in overall aerosol statistics. Cloud fraction and aerosol particle size distribution have a complex relationship.

  11. Long Term Cloud Property Datasets From MODIS and AVHRR Using the CERES Cloud Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Patrick; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Doelling, David R.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Yost, Christopher R.; Trepte, Qing Z.; Bedka, Sarah T.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Scarino, Benjamin R.; Chen, Yan; Hong, Gang; Bhatt, Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    Cloud properties play a critical role in climate change. Monitoring cloud properties over long time periods is needed to detect changes and to validate and constrain models. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project has developed several cloud datasets from Aqua and Terra MODIS data to better interpret broadband radiation measurements and improve understanding of the role of clouds in the radiation budget. The algorithms applied to MODIS data have been adapted to utilize various combinations of channels on the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the long-term time series of NOAA and MetOp satellites to provide a new cloud climate data record. These datasets can be useful for a variety of studies. This paper presents results of the MODIS and AVHRR analyses covering the period from 1980-2014. Validation and comparisons with other datasets are also given.

  12. Using SEVIRI radiances to retrieve cloud optical properties of convective cloud systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jennifer; Fischer, Jürgen; Hünerbein, Anja; Deneke, Hartwig; Macke, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    In this case study the development of cloud properties (cloud optical depth, effective radius and cloud top height) during the life-cycle of a convective cloud system over Europe was analyzed. To retrieve the properties we developed a retrieval scheme based on the radiative transfer code MOMO and an optimal estimation procedure. Input data are the visible to short-wavelength infrared channels from SEVIRI. In contrast to many other retrieval schemes we used 4 channels simultaneously. Especially the 3,9μm channel provides additional information due to the fact that it measures solar reflectance and thermal emission and allows the inclusion of cloud top height into the retrieval. By using a time series of SEVIRI measurements we want to provide and examine the microphysical development of the cloud over life-time. We monitored the growth of the system and found the most active parts of the convection with the highest water content and optical depth in those regions where the cloud top height is largest, too. The effective radius of the cloud particles is largest in older regions of the cloud system, where the cloud is already decaying.

  13. Sensitivity Studies For Cirrus Effective Ice Crystal Size Retrieval In The Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radel, G.; Stubenrauch, C.; Holz, R.; Mitchell, D.

    During the last years, much effort has been made to find a realistic description of the single-scattering properties of non-spherical ice crystals of cirrus clouds explicitely in dependence of ice crystal shape and size distribution. By using single scattering properties of non-spherical ice crystals instead of ice spheres, one observes that the spectral region between 8 and 12 micron offers a possibility of effective ice crystal size retrieval. The difference between cirrus emissivities at these wavelengths is sen- sitive to the mean ice crystal size of the cirrus cloud. At present, we use two different sets of ice crystal single scattering properties in the infrared: one for randomly oriented planar polycrystals and the other for hexagonal columns. For planar polycrystals, mod- ified Anomalous Diffraction Approximation (mADA) is used to describe absorption coefficients as analytical expressions of size distribution parameters, ice crystal shape, wavelength and refractive index, taking into account a parameterized correction for internal reflection and refraction. As scattering cannot be calculated through mADA, scattering contributions are obtained from different combinations of Improved Geo- metric Optics and Finite Difference Time Domain. For hexagonal columns the single scattering properties have been computed using the Finite Difference Time Domain method. Retrievals of mean effective ice crystal sizes in the infrared have the advan- tage that they are less dependent on the assumed shape of the ice crystals, in contrary to retrievals from differences between the visible and near-infrared radiation. Several satellite instruments measure now emitted and scattered radiation from different lev- els of the atmosphere. The longest time period is covered by the TOVS instruments aboard the NOAA Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (since 1979). These obser- vations have been converted into atmospheric temperature and water vapor profiles as well as cloud and

  14. Satellite cloud and precipitation property retrievals for climate monitoring and hydrological applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, E.L.A.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents the retrieval, evaluation, and application of cloud physical property datasets (cloud phase, cloud particle effective radius, and precipitation occurrence and intensity) obtained from Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) reflectance measurements using the Cloud

  15. Ground-based SMART-COMMIT Measurements for Studying Aerosol and Cloud Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee

    2008-01-01

    From radiometric principles, it is expected that the retrieved properties of extensive aerosols and clouds from reflected/emitted measurements by satellite (and/or aircraft) should be consistent with those retrieved from transmitted/emitted radiance observed at the surface. Although space-borne remote sensing observations cover large spatial domain, they are often plagued by contamination of surface signatures. Thus, ground-based in-situ and remote-sensing measurements, where signals come directly from atmospheric constituents, the sun, and/or the Earth-atmosphere interactions, provide additional information content for comparisons that confirm quantitatively the usefulness of the integrated surface, aircraft, and satellite data sets. The development and deployment of SMARTCOMMIT (Surface-sensing Measurements for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer - Chemical, Optical & Microphysical Measurements of In-situ Troposphere) mobile facilities are aimed for the optimal utilization of collocated ground-based observations as constraints to yield higher fidelity satellite retrievals and to determine any sampling bias due to target conditions. To quantify the energetics of the surface-atmosphere system and the atmospheric processes, SMART-COMMIT instruments fall into three categories: flux radiometer, radiance sensor and in-situ probe. In this paper, we will demonstrate the capability of SMART-COMMIT in recent field campaigns (e.g., CRYSTAL-FACE, UAE 2, BASEASIA, NAMMA) that were designed and executed to study the compelling variability in temporal scale of both anthropogenic and natural aerosols (e.g., biomass-burning smoke, airborne dust) and cirrus clouds. We envision robust approaches in which well-collocated ground-based measurements and space-borne observations will greatly advance our knowledge of extensive aerosols and clouds.

  16. Low cloud properties influenced by cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, N D; Marsh, Nigel D; Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    The influence of solar variability on climate is currently uncertain. Recent observations have indicated a possible mechanism via the influence of solar modulated cosmic rays on global cloud cover. Here we show that the influence of solar variability is strongest in low clouds (<= 3.2km). These are liquid water clouds which points to a microphysical mechanism involving enhanced aerosol formation. If confirmed it suggests that the average state of the Heliosphere is important for climate on Earth. The estimated response in low clouds due to a doubling of solar activity is a 1.4 W/m2 warming.

  17. Meteorological and aerosol effects on marine cloud microphysical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, K. J.; Russell, L. M.; Modini, R. L.; Frossard, A. A.; Ahlm, L.; Corrigan, C. E.; Roberts, G. C.; Hawkins, L. N.; Schroder, J. C.; Bertram, A. K.; Zhao, R.; Lee, A. K. Y.; Lin, J. J.; Nenes, A.; Wang, Z.; Wonaschütz, A.; Sorooshian, A.; Noone, K. J.; Jonsson, H.; Toom, D.; Macdonald, A. M.; Leaitch, W. R.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2016-04-01

    Meteorology and microphysics affect cloud formation, cloud droplet distributions, and shortwave reflectance. The Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment and the Stratocumulus Observations of Los-Angeles Emissions Derived Aerosol-Droplets studies provided measurements in six case studies of cloud thermodynamic properties, initial particle number distribution and composition, and cloud drop distribution. In this study, we use simulations from a chemical and microphysical aerosol-cloud parcel (ACP) model with explicit kinetic drop activation to reproduce observed cloud droplet distributions of the case studies. Four cases had subadiabatic lapse rates, resulting in fewer activated droplets, lower liquid water content, and higher cloud base height than an adiabatic lapse rate. A weighted ensemble of simulations that reflect measured variation in updraft velocity and cloud base height was used to reproduce observed droplet distributions. Simulations show that organic hygroscopicity in internally mixed cases causes small effects on cloud reflectivity (CR) (modal peak near 0.1 µm). Differences in simulated droplet spectral widths (k) caused larger differences in CR than organic hygroscopicity in cases with organic mass fractions of 60% or less for the cases shown. Finally, simulations from a numerical parameterization of cloud droplet activation suitable for general circulation models compared well with the ACP model, except under high organic mass fraction.

  18. Cloud Computing Services: Benefits, Risks and Intellectual Property Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONELA BĂLŢĂTESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Major software players of the global market, such as Google, Amazon and Microsoft are developing cloud computing solutions, providing cloud services on demand: Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS, Platform as a Service (PaaS and Software as a service (SaaS. In software industry and also in ICT services market, cloud computing is playing an increasingly important role. Moreover, the expansion of cloud services indirectly contributed to the development and improvement of other types of services on the market – financial and accounting services, human resources services, educational services etc. – in terms of quality and affordability. Given the fact that cloud computing applications proved to be more affordable for small and medium enterprises (SME, an increasing number of companies in almost all the fields of activity have chosen cloud based solutions, such as Enterprise Resource Management (ERP software and Customer Relationship Management (CRM software. However, cloud computing services involve also some risks concerning privacy, security of data and lack of interoperability between cloud platforms. Patent strategy of certain proprietary software companies leaded to a veritable “patent war” and “patent arm race” endangering the process of standardization in software industry, especially in cloud computing. Intellectual property (IP legislation and court ruling in patent litigations is likely to have a significant impact on the development of cloud computing industry and cloud services.

  19. Radiative Effect of Clouds on Tropospheric Chemistry: Sensitivity to Cloud Vertical Distributions and Optical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Crawford, J. H.; Pierce, R. B.; Considine, D. B.; Logan, J. A.; Duncan, B. N.; Norris, P.; Platnick, S. E.; Chen, G.; Yantosca, R. M.; Evans, M. J.

    2005-12-01

    Representation of clouds in global models poses a significant challenge since most cloud processes occur on sub-grid scales and must be parameterized. Uncertainties in cloud distributions and optical properties are therefore a limiting factor in model assessments of the radiative effect of clouds on global tropospheric chemistry. We present an analysis of the sensitivity of the radiative effect of clouds to cloud vertical distributions and optical properties with the use of the GEOS-CHEM global 3-D chemistry transport model coupled with the Fast-J radiative transfer algorithm. GEOS-CHEM was driven with a series of meteorological archives (GEOS1-STRAT, GEOS-3, and GEOS-4) generated by the Goddard Earth Observing System data assimilation system (GEOS DAS) at the NASA global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO), which have significantly different cloud optical depths and vertical distributions. The column cloud optical depths in GEOS-3 generally agree with the satellite retrieval products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) within ±10%, while those in GEOS1-STRAT and GEOS-4 are too low by factors of about 5 and 2, respectively. With respect to vertical distribution, clouds in GEOS-4 are optically much thinner in the tropical upper troposphere compared to those in GEOS1-STRAT and GEOS-3. Assuming linear scaling of cloud optical depth with cloud fraction in a grid-box, our model calculations indicate that the changes in global mean hydroxyl radical (OH) due to the radiative effect of clouds in June are about -1% (GEOS1-STRAT), 1% (GEOS-3), and 14% (GEOS-4), respectively. The effects on global mean OH are similar for GEOS1-STRAT and GEOS-3 due to similar vertical distributions of clouds, even though the column cloud optical depths in the two archives differ by a factor of about 5. Clouds in GEOS-4 have a much larger impact on global mean OH because more solar radiation is

  20. Parameterization of ice fall speeds in midlatitude cirrus: Results from SPartICus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Subhashree; Mitchell, David L.; Turner, David D.; Lawson, R. P.

    2014-04-01

    The climate sensitivity predicted in general circulation models can be sensitive to the treatment of the ice particle fall velocity. In this study, the mass-weighted ice fall speed (Vm) and the number concentration ice fall speed (Vn) in midlatitude cirrus clouds are computed from in situ measurements of ice particle area and number concentration made by the two-dimensional stereo probe during the Small Particles In Cirrus field campaign. For single-moment ice microphysical schemes, Vm and the ice particle size distribution effective diameter De were parameterized in terms of cloud temperature (T) and ice water content (IWC). For two-moment schemes, Vm and Vn were related to De and the mean maximum dimension¯D, respectively. For single-moment schemes, although the correlations of Vm and De with T were higher than the correlations of Vm and De with IWC, it is demonstrated that Vm and De are better predicted by using both T and IWC. The parameterization relating Vm to T and IWC is compared with another scheme relating Vm to T and IWC, with the latter based on millimeter cloud radar measurements. Regarding two-moment ice microphysical schemes, a strong correlation was found between De and Vm and between¯D and Vn owing to their similar weightings by ice particle mass and number concentration, respectively. Estimating Vm from De makes Vm a function of IWC and projected area, realistically coupling Vm with both the cloud microphysics and radiative properties.

  1. GCSS Idealized Cirrus Model Comparison Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, David OC.; Benedetti, Angela; Boehm, Matt; Brown, Philip R. A.; Gierens, Klaus; Girard, Eric; Giraud, Vincent; Jakob, Christian; Jensen, Eric; Khvorostyanov, Vitaly; hide

    2000-01-01

    The GCSS Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems (WG2) is conducting a systematic comparison and evaluation of cirrus cloud models. This fundamental activity seeks to support the improvement of models used for climate simulation and numerical weather prediction through assessment and improvement of the "process" models underlying parametric treatments of cirrus cloud processes in large-scale models. The WG2 Idealized Cirrus Model Comparison Project is an initial comparison of cirrus cloud simulations by a variety of cloud models for a series of idealized situations with relatively simple initial conditions and forcing. The models (16) represent the state-of-the-art and include 3-dimensional large eddy simulation (LES) models, two-dimensional cloud resolving models (CRMs), and single column model (SCM) versions of GCMs. The model microphysical components are similarly varied, ranging from single-moment bulk (relative humidity) schemes to fully size-resolved (bin) treatments where ice crystal growth is explicitly calculated. Radiative processes are included in the physics package of each model. The baseline simulations include "warm" and "cold" cirrus cases where cloud top initially occurs at about -47C and -66C, respectively. All simulations are for nighttime conditions (no solar radiation) where the cloud is generated in an ice supersaturated layer, about 1 km in depth, with an ice pseudoadiabatic thermal stratification (neutral). Continuing cloud formation is forced via an imposed diabatic cooling representing a 3 cm/s uplift over a 4-hour time span followed by a 2-hour dissipation stage with no cooling. Variations of these baseline cases include no-radiation and stable-thermal-stratification cases. Preliminary results indicated the great importance of ice crystal fallout in determining even the gross cloud characteristics, such as average vertically-integrated ice water path (IWP). Significant inter-model differences were found. Ice water fall speed is directly

  2. Cloud microphysics and surface properties in climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamnes, K. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Cloud optical thickness is determined from ground-based measurements of broadband incoming solar irradiance using a radiation model in which the cloud optical depth is adjusted until computed irradiance agrees with the measured value. From spectral measurements it would be feasible to determine both optical thickness and mean drop size, which apart from cloud structure and morphology, are the most important climatic parameters of clouds. A radiative convective model is used to study the sensitivity of climate to cloud liquid water amount and cloud drop size. This is illustrated in Figure 21.1 which shows that for medium thick clouds a 10 % increase in drop size yields a surface warming of 1.5{degrees}C, which is the same as that due to a doubling of carbon dioxide. For thick clouds, a 5% decrease in drop size is sufficient to offset the warming due to doubling of carbon dioxide. A radiative transfer model for the coupled atmosphere/sea ice/ocean system is used to study the partitioning of radiative energy between the three strata, and the potential for testing such a model in terms of planned experiments in the Arctic is discussed.

  3. Radiation properties and emissivity parameterization of high level thin clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M.-L. C.

    1984-01-01

    To parameterize emissivity of clouds at 11 microns, a study has been made in an effort to understand the radiation field of thin clouds. The contributions to the intensity and flux from different sources and through different physical processes are calculated by using the method of successive orders of scattering. The effective emissivity of thin clouds is decomposed into the effective absorption emissivity, effective scattering emissivity, and effective reflection emissivity. The effective absorption emissivity depends on the absorption and emission of the cloud; it is parameterized in terms of optical thickness. The effective scattering emissivity depends on the scattering properties of the cloud; it is parameterized in terms of optical thickness and single scattering albedo. The effective reflection emissivity follows the similarity relation as in the near infrared cases. This is parameterized in terms of the similarity parameter and optical thickness, as well as the temperature difference between the cloud and ground.

  4. Physical properties of Southern infrared dark clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyunina, T.; Linz, H.; Henning, Th.; Stecklum, B.; Klose, S.; Nyman, L.-Å.

    2009-05-01

    Context: What are the mechanisms by which massive stars form? What are the initial conditions for these processes? It is commonly assumed that cold and dense Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) represent the birth-sites of massive stars. Therefore, these clouds have been receiving an increasing amount of attention, and their analysis offers the opportunity to tackle the afore mentioned questions. Aims: To enlarge the sample of well-characterised IRDCs in the southern hemisphere, where ALMA will play a major role in the near future, we have developed a program to study the gas and dust of southern infrared dark clouds. The present paper attempts to characterize the continuum properties of this sample of IRDCs. Methods: We cross-correlated 1.2 mm continuum data from SIMBA bolometer array mounted on SEST telescope with Spitzer/GLIMPSE images to establish the connection between emission sources at millimeter wavelengths and the IRDCs that we observe at 8 μm in absorption against the bright PAH background. Analysing the dust emission and extinction enables us to determine the masses and column densities, which are important quantities in characterizing the initial conditions of massive star formation. We also evaluated the limitations of the emission and extinction methods. Results: The morphology of the 1.2 mm continuum emission is in all cases in close agreement with the mid-infrared extinction. The total masses of the IRDCs were found to range from 150 to 1150 M_⊙ (emission data) and from 300 to 1750 M_⊙ (extinction data). We derived peak column densities of between 0.9 and 4.6 × 1022 cm-2 (emission data) and 2.1 and 5.4 × 1022 cm-2 (extinction data). We demonstrate that the extinction method is unreliable at very high extinction values (and column densities) beyond AV values of roughly 75 mag according to the Weingartner & Draine (2001) extinction relation RV = 5.5 model B (around 200 mag when following the common Mathis (1990, ApJ, 548, 296) extinction calibration

  5. Masses, Radii, and Cloud Properties of the HR 8799 Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Marley, Mark S; Cushing, Michael; Ackerman, Andrew S; Fortney, Jonathan J; Freedman, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The near-infrared colors of the planets directly imaged around the A star HR 8799 are much redder than most field brown dwarfs of the same effective temperature. Previous theoretical studies of these objects have concluded that the atmospheres of planets b, c, and d are unusually cloudy or have unusual cloud properties. Most studies have also found that the inferred radii of some or all of the planets disagree with expectations of standard giant planet evolution models. Here we compare the available data to the predictions of our own set of atmospheric and evolution models that have been extensively tested against observations of field L and T dwarfs, including the reddest L dwarfs. Unlike almost all previous studies we require mutually consistent choices for effective temperature, gravity, cloud properties, and planetary radius. This procedure thus yields plausible values for the masses, effective temperatures, and cloud properties of all three planets. We find that the cloud properties of the HR 8799 planet...

  6. Cloud Scavenging Effects on Aerosol Radiative and Cloud-nucleating Properties - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogren, John A.; Sheridan, Patrick S.; Andrews, Elisabeth

    2009-03-05

    The optical properties of aerosol particles are the controlling factors in determining direct aerosol radiative forcing. These optical properties depend on the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, which can change due to various processes during the particles’ lifetime in the atmosphere. Over the course of this project we have studied how cloud processing of atmospheric aerosol changes the aerosol optical properties. A counterflow virtual impactor was used to separate cloud drops from interstitial aerosol and parallel aerosol systems were used to measure the optical properties of the interstitial and cloud-scavenged aerosol. Specifically, aerosol light scattering, back-scattering and absorption were measured and used to derive radiatively significant parameters such as aerosol single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction for cloud-scavenged and interstitial aerosol. This data allows us to demonstrate that the radiative properties of cloud-processed aerosol can be quite different than pre-cloud aerosol. These differences can be used to improve the parameterization of aerosol forcing in climate models.

  7. The Hyper-Angular Rainbow Polarimeter (HARP) CubeSat Observatory and the Characterization of Cloud Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilsen, T. L.; Martins, J. V.; Fernandez Borda, R. A.; Weston, C.; Frazier, C.; Cieslak, D.; Townsend, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Hyper-Angular Rainbow Polarimeter HARP instrument is a wide field-of-view imager that splits three spatially identical images into three independent polarizers and detector arrays.This technique achieves simultaneous imagery of the same ground target in three polarization states and is the key innovation to achieve high polarimetric accuracy with no moving parts. The spacecraft consists of a 3U CubeSat with 3-axis stabilization designed to keep the image optics pointing nadir during data collection but maximizing solar panel sun pointing otherwise. The hyper-angular capability is achieved by acquiring overlapping images at very fast speeds.An imaging polarimeter with hyper-angular capability can make a strong contribution to characterizing cloud properties. Non-polarized multi-angle measurements have been shown to besensitive to thin cirrus and can be used to provide climatology ofthese clouds. Adding polarization and increasing the number ofobservation angles allows for the retrieval of the complete sizedistribution of cloud droplets, including accurate information onthe width of the droplet distribution in addition to the currentlyretrieved effective radius.The HARP mission is funded by the NASA Earth Science Technology Office as part of In-Space Validation of Earth Science Technologies (InVEST) program. The HARP instrument is designed and built by a team of students and professionals lead by Dr. Vanderlei Martines at University of Maryland, Baltimore County. The HARP spacecraft is designed and built by a team of students and professionals and The Space Dynamics Laboratory.

  8. Low cloud properties influenced by cosmic rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Nigel; Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    The influence of solar variability on climate is currently uncertain. Recent observations have indicated a possible mechanism via the influence of solar modulated cosmic rays on global cloud cover. Surprisingly the influence of solar variability is strongest in low clouds (less than or equal to3 ......), which points to a microphysical mechanism involving aerosol formation that is enhanced by ionization due to cosmic rays. If confirmed it suggests that the average state of the heliosphere is important for climate on Earth.......The influence of solar variability on climate is currently uncertain. Recent observations have indicated a possible mechanism via the influence of solar modulated cosmic rays on global cloud cover. Surprisingly the influence of solar variability is strongest in low clouds (less than or equal to3 km...

  9. The radiation budget of a Cirrus layer deduced from simultaneous aircraft observations and model calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Thomas P.; Kinne, Stefan A.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Valero, Francisco P. J.

    1990-01-01

    Several aircraft were employed during the FIRE Cirrus IFO in order to make nearly simultaneous observations of cloud properties and fluxes. A segment of the flight data collected on 28 October 1988 during which the NASA Ames ER-2 overflew the NCAR King Air was analyzed. The ER-2 flew at high altitude making observations of visible and infrared radiances and infrared flux and cloud height and thickness. During this segment, the King Air flew just above the cloud base making observations of ice crystal size and shape, local meteorological variables, and infrared fluxes. While the two aircraft did not collect data exactly coincident in space and time, they did make observations within a few minutes of each other. For this case study, the infrared radiation balance of the cirrus layer is of primary concern. Observations of the upwelling 10 micron radiance, made from the ER-2, can be used to deduce the 10 micron optical depth of the layer. The upwelling broadband infrared flux is also measured from the ER-2. At the same time, the upwelling and downwelling infrared flux at the cloud base is obtained from the King Air measurements. Information on cloud microphysics is also available from the King Air. Using this data in conjunction with atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles from local radiosondes, the necessary inputs for an infrared radiative transfer model can be developed. Infrared radiative transfer calculations are performed with a multispectral two-stream model. The model fluxes at the cloud base and at 19 km are then compared with the aircraft observations to determine whether the model is performing well. Cloud layer heating rates can then be computed from the radiation exchange.

  10. Final Technical Report on Scaling Models of the Internal Variability of Clouds DoE Grant No. DE-FG02-04ER63773

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, Kristinka

    2008-04-24

    The purpose of this proposal is to gain a better understanding of the space-time correlations of atmospheric fluctuations in clouds through application of methods from statistical physics to high resolution, continuous data sets of cloud observations available at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program archive. In this report we present the accomplishments achieved during the four year period. Starting with the most recent one, we report on two break-throughs in our research that make the fourth year of the project exceptionally successful and markedly outperforming the objectives. The first break-through is on characterization of the structure of cirrus radiative properties at large, intermediate and small, generating cells scales by applying the Fokker-Planck equation method and other methods to ARM millimeter wavelength radar observations collected at the Southern Great Plains site. The second break-through is that we show that different characterizations of the cirrus radiative properties are obtained for different synoptic scale environments. We outline a stochastic approach to investigate the internal structure of radiative properties of cirrus clouds based on empirical modeling and draw conclusions about cirrus dynamical properties in the context of the synoptic environment. Results on the structure of cirrus dynamical properties are consistent with the structure of cirrus based on aircraft in situ measurements, with results from ground-based Raman lidar, and with results from model studies. These achievements would not have been possible without the accomplishments from the previous years on a number of problems that involve application of methods of analysis such as the Fokker-Planck equation approach, Tsallis nonextensive statistical mechanics, detrended fluctuation analysis, and others. These include stochastic analysis of neutrally stratified cirrus layers, internal variability and turbulence in cirrus, dynamical model and

  11. Sensitivity of Cirrus Simulations in Idealized Situations: The WG2 Test Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, David OC.

    1998-01-01

    GCSS Cirrus Cloud Systems Working Group (WG2) is presently conducting a comparison of cirrus cloud models for idealized initial conditions. The experiments involve binary (off/on) tests of model sensitivity to infrared radiative processes, and thermal stratification, and vertical wind shear for situations of weakly forced (3 cm/s uplift) cold (-60 to -70 C) and warm (-35 to -50 C) cirrus clouds. A range of model types are involved including parcel, SCM, 2-D CRM, 3-D CRM and LES models. The test cases will be described and results from 2-dimensional cirrus cloud models with bulk microphysics (implicit second moment scheme) and explicit bin microphysics will be compared. Vertical ice mass flux (particle fall speed) is a critical model component leading to significant intermodel differences. Efforts are ongoing to better quantify this aspect. Future plans of WG2 will also be briefly described and include model comparisons for a well-observed case of cold (ARM IOP) cirrus and of warm (EUCREX) cirrus, as well as, a joint activity with WG4 to consider the treatment of anvil cirrus in a variety of models.

  12. Southeast Atlantic Cloud Properties in a Multivariate Statistical Model - How Relevant is Air Mass History for Local Cloud Properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Julia; Cermak, Jan; Andersen, Hendrik

    2017-04-01

    This study aims at untangling the impacts of external dynamics and local conditions on cloud properties in the Southeast Atlantic (SEA) by combining satellite and reanalysis data using multivariate statistics. The understanding of clouds and their determinants at different scales is important for constraining the Earth's radiative budget, and thus prominent in climate-system research. In this study, SEA stratocumulus cloud properties are observed not only as the result of local environmental conditions but also as affected by external dynamics and spatial origins of air masses entering the study area. In order to assess to what extent cloud properties are impacted by aerosol concentration, air mass history, and meteorology, a multivariate approach is conducted using satellite observations of aerosol and cloud properties (MODIS, SEVIRI), information on aerosol species composition (MACC) and meteorological context (ERA-Interim reanalysis). To account for the often-neglected but important role of air mass origin, information on air mass history based on HYSPLIT modeling is included in the statistical model. This multivariate approach is intended to lead to a better understanding of the physical processes behind observed stratocumulus cloud properties in the SEA.

  13. Secure management of the Intellectual Property in the Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Mihai Machidon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of distributed computing systems – and especially cloud computing – has raised new vulnerability challenges regarding intellectual property (IP generated by moving client’s data to the cloud infrastructure. Sensitive data is thus located at a remote facility, where clients are not granted full control and administrative access, generating critical concerns about the security of their intellectual property. This paper proposes an approach based on securing the IP in the cloud using reconfigurable hardware architectures – FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array-based System-on-Chip (SoC: IP elements being integrated in the programmable logic as IP cores, benefiting from the security and management of on-chip integrated IP modules. Also, by transcending the cloud computing model from macro- to micro-structures, integrated IP cores gain a higher degree of adaptability and can be easily interconnected using Network-on-Chip architectures.

  14. The Sensitivity of Diagnostic Radiative Properties to Cloud Microphysics among Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuan-Man

    2005-04-01

    This study examines the sensitivity of diagnosed radiative fluxes and heating rates to different treatments of cloud microphysics among cloud-resolving models (CRMs). The domain-averaged CRM outputs are used in this calculation. The impacts of the cloud overlap and uniform hydrometeor assumptions are examined using outputs having spatially varying cloud fields from a single CRM. It is found that the cloud overlap assumption impacts the diagnosis more significantly than the uniform hydrometeor assumption for all radiative fluxes. This is also the case for the longwave radiative cooling rate except for a layer above 7 km where it is more significantly impacted by the uniform hydrometeor assumption. The radiative cooling above upper-tropospheric anvils and the warming below these clouds are overestimated by about 0.5 K day-1 using the domain-averaged outputs. These results are used to further quantify intermodel differences in radiative properties due to different treatments of cloud microphysics among 10 CRMs. The magnitudes of the intermodel differences, as measured by the deviations from the consensus of 10 CRMs, are found to be smaller than those due to the cloud overlap assumption and comparable to those due to the uniform hydrometeor assumption for most shortwave radiative fluxes and the net radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and at the surface. For all longwave radiative fluxes, they are smaller than those due to cloud overlap and uniform hydrometeor assumptions. The consensus of all diagnosed radiative fluxes except for the surface downward shortwave flux agrees with observations to a degree that is close to the uncertainties of satellite- and ground-based measurements.

  15. Parameterizing Size Distribution in Ice Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSlover, Daniel; Mitchell, David L.

    2009-09-25

    PARAMETERIZING SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN ICE CLOUDS David L. Mitchell and Daniel H. DeSlover ABSTRACT An outstanding problem that contributes considerable uncertainty to Global Climate Model (GCM) predictions of future climate is the characterization of ice particle sizes in cirrus clouds. Recent parameterizations of ice cloud effective diameter differ by a factor of three, which, for overcast conditions, often translate to changes in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) of 55 W m-2 or more. Much of this uncertainty in cirrus particle sizes is related to the problem of ice particle shattering during in situ sampling of the ice particle size distribution (PSD). Ice particles often shatter into many smaller ice fragments upon collision with the rim of the probe inlet tube. These small ice artifacts are counted as real ice crystals, resulting in anomalously high concentrations of small ice crystals (D < 100 µm) and underestimates of the mean and effective size of the PSD. Half of the cirrus cloud optical depth calculated from these in situ measurements can be due to this shattering phenomenon. Another challenge is the determination of ice and liquid water amounts in mixed phase clouds. Mixed phase clouds in the Arctic contain mostly liquid water, and the presence of ice is important for determining their lifecycle. Colder high clouds between -20 and -36 oC may also be mixed phase but in this case their condensate is mostly ice with low levels of liquid water. Rather than affecting their lifecycle, the presence of liquid dramatically affects the cloud optical properties, which affects cloud-climate feedback processes in GCMs. This project has made advancements in solving both of these problems. Regarding the first problem, PSD in ice clouds are uncertain due to the inability to reliably measure the concentrations of the smallest crystals (D < 100 µm), known as the “small mode”. Rather than using in situ probe measurements aboard aircraft, we employed a treatment of ice

  16. The Retrieval of Ice-Cloud Properties from Cloud Radar and Lidar Synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinel, Claire; Testud, Jacques; Pelon, Jacques; Hogan, Robin J.; Protat, Alain; Delanoë, Julien; Bouniol, Dominique

    2005-06-01

    Clouds are an important component of the earth's climate system. A better description of their microphysical properties is needed to improve radiative transfer calculations. In the framework of the Earth, Clouds, Aerosols, and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) mission preparation, the radar-lidar (RALI) airborne system, developed at L'Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (France), can be used as an airborne demonstrator. This paper presents an original method that combines cloud radar (94-95 GHz) and lidar data to derive the radiative and microphysical properties of clouds. It combines the apparent backscatter reflectivity from the radar and the apparent backscatter coefficient from the lidar. The principle of this algorithm relies on the use of a relationship between the extinction coefficient and the radar specific attenuation, derived from airborne microphysical data and Mie scattering calculations. To solve radar and lidar equations in the cloud region where signals can be obtained from both instruments, the extinction coefficients at some reference range z0 must be known. Because the algorithms are stable for inversion performed from range z0 toward the emitter, z0 is chosen at the farther cloud boundary as observed by the lidar. Then, making an assumption of a relationship between extinction coefficient and backscattering coefficient, the whole extinction coefficient, the apparent reflectivity, cloud physical parameters, the effective radius, and ice water content profiles are derived. This algorithm is applied to a blind test for downward-looking instruments where the original profiles are derived from in situ measurements. It is also applied to real lidar and radar data, obtained during the 1998 Cloud Lidar and Radar Experiment (CLARE'98) field project when a prototype airborne RALI system was flown pointing at nadir. The results from the synergetic algorithm agree reasonably well with the in situ measurements.

  17. Meteorological and Aerosol effects on Marine Cloud Microphysical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, K. J.; Russell, L. M.; Modini, R. L.; Frossard, A. A.; Ahlm, L.; Roberts, G.; Hawkins, L. N.; Schroder, J. C.; Wang, Z.; Lee, A.; Abbatt, J.; Lin, J.; Nenes, A.; Wonaschuetz, A.; Sorooshian, A.; Noone, K.; Jonsson, H.; Albrecht, B. A.; Desiree, T. S.; Macdonald, A. M.; Seinfeld, J.; Zhao, R.

    2015-12-01

    Both meteorology and microphysics affect cloud formation and consequently their droplet distributions and shortwave reflectance. The Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (EPEACE) and the Stratocumulus Observations of Los-Angeles Emissions Derived Aerosol-Droplets (SOLEDAD) studies provide detailed measurements in 6 case studies of both cloud thermodynamic properties and initial particle number distribution and composition, as well as the resulting cloud drop distribution and composition. This study uses simulations of a detailed chemical and microphysical aerosol-cloud parcel (ACP) model with explicit kinetic drop activation to reproduce the observed cloud droplet distribution and composition. Four of the cases examined had a sub-adiabatic lapse rate, which was shown to have fewer droplets due to decreased maximum supersaturation, lower LWC and higher cloud base height, consistent with previous findings. These detailed case studies provided measured thermodynamics and microphysics that constrained the simulated droplet size distribution sufficiently to match the droplet number within 6% and the size within 19% for 4 of the 6 cases, demonstrating "closure" or consistency of the measured composition with the measured CCN spectra and the inferred and modeled supersaturation. The contribution of organic components to droplet formation shows small effects on the droplet number and size in the 4 marine cases that had background aerosol conditions with varying amounts of coastal, ship or other non-biogenic sources. In contrast, the organic fraction and hygroscopicity increased the droplet number and size in the cases with generated smoke and cargo ship plumes that were freshly emitted and not yet internally mixed with the background particles. The simulation results show organic hygroscopicity causes small effects on cloud reflectivity (smoke plume which increased absolute cloud reflectivity fraction by 0.02 and 0.20 respectively. In addition, the ACP model

  18. A modelling case study of a large-scale cirrus in the tropical tropopause layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podglajen, Aurélien; Plougonven, Riwal; Hertzog, Albert; Legras, Bernard

    2016-03-01

    We use the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model to simulate a large-scale tropical tropopause layer (TTL) cirrus in order to understand the formation and life cycle of the cloud. This cirrus event has been previously described through satellite observations by Taylor et al. (2011). Comparisons of the simulated and observed cirrus show a fair agreement and validate the reference simulation regarding cloud extension, location and life time. The validated simulation is used to understand the causes of cloud formation. It is shown that several cirrus clouds successively form in the region due to adiabatic cooling and large-scale uplift rather than from convective anvils. The structure of the uplift is tied to the equatorial response (equatorial wave excitation) to a potential vorticity intrusion from the midlatitudes. Sensitivity tests are then performed to assess the relative importance of the choice of the microphysics parameterization and of the initial and boundary conditions. The initial dynamical conditions (wind and temperature) essentially control the horizontal location and area of the cloud. However, the choice of the microphysics scheme influences the ice water content and the cloud vertical position. Last, the fair agreement with the observations allows to estimate the cloud impact in the TTL in the simulations. The cirrus clouds have a small but not negligible impact on the radiative budget of the local TTL. However, for this particular case, the cloud radiative heating does not significantly influence the simulated dynamics. This result is due to (1) the lifetime of air parcels in the cloud system, which is too short to significantly influence the dynamics, and (2) the fact that induced vertical motions would be comparable to or smaller than the typical mesoscale motions present. Finally, the simulation also provides an estimate of the vertical redistribution of water by the cloud and the results emphasize the importance in our case of both

  19. Statistical Comparison of Cloud and Aerosol Vertical Properties between Two Eastern China Regions Based on CloudSat/CALIPSO Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujun Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between cloud and aerosol properties was investigated over two 4° × 4° adjacent regions in the south (R1 and in the north (R2 in eastern China. The CloudSat/CALIPSO data were used to extract the cloud and aerosol profiles properties. The mean value of cloud occurrence probability (COP was the highest in the mixed cloud layer (−40°C~0°C and the lowest in the warm cloud layer (>0°C. The atmospheric humidity was more statistically relevant to COP in the warm cloud layer than aerosol condition. The differences in COP between the two regions in the mixed cloud layer and ice cloud layer (<−40°C had good correlations with those in the aerosol extinction coefficient. A radar reflectivity factor greater than −10 dBZ occurred mainly in warm cloud layers and mixed cloud layers. A high-COP zone appeared in the above-0°C layer with cloud thicknesses of 2-3 km in both regions and in all the four seasons, but the distribution of the zonal layer in R2 was more continuous than that in R1, which was consistent with the higher aerosol optical thickness in R2 than in R1 in the above-0°C layer, indicating a positive correlation between aerosol and cloud probability.

  20. A modelling case study of a large-scale cirrus in the tropical tropopause layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podglajen, A.; Plougonven, R.; Hertzog, A.; Legras, B.

    2015-11-01

    We use the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model to simulate a large-scale tropical tropopause layer (TTL) cirrus, in order to understand the formation and life cycle of the cloud. This cirrus event has been previously described through satellite observations by Taylor et al. (2011). Comparisons of the simulated and observed cirrus show a fair agreement, and validate the reference simulation regarding cloud extension, location and life time. The validated simulation is used to understand the causes of cloud formation. It is shown that several cirrus clouds successively form in the region due to adiabatic cooling and large-scale uplift rather than from ice lofting from convective anvils. The equatorial response (equatorial wave excitation) to a midlatitude potential vorticity (PV) intrusion structures the uplift. Sensitivity tests are then performed to assess the relative importance of the choice of the microphysics parametrisation and of the initial and boundary conditions. The initial dynamical conditions (wind and temperature) essentially control the horizontal location and area of the cloud. On the other hand, the choice of the microphysics scheme influences the ice water content and the cloud vertical position. Last, the fair agreement with the observations allows to estimate the cloud impact in the TTL in the simulations. The cirrus clouds have a small but not negligible impact on the radiative budget of the local TTL. However, the cloud radiative heating does not significantly influence the simulated dynamics. The simulation also provides an estimate of the vertical redistribution of water by the cloud and the results emphasize the importance in our case of both re and dehydration in the vicinity of the cirrus.

  1. Scale Dependence of Cirrus Horizontal Heterogeneity Effects on TOA Measurements. Part I; MODIS Brightness Temperatures in the Thermal Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchez, Thomas; Platnick, Steven; Meyer, Kerry; Cornet, Celine; Szczap, Frederic; Varnai, Tamas

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the impact of cirrus cloud heterogeneities on MODIS simulated thermal infrared (TIR) brightness temperatures (BTs) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) as a function of spatial resolution from 50 meters to 10 kilometers. A realistic 3-D (three-dimensional) cirrus field is generated by the 3DCLOUD model (average optical thickness of 1.4, cloudtop and base altitudes at 10 and 12 kilometers, respectively, consisting of aggregate column crystals of D (sub eff) equals 20 microns), and 3-D thermal infrared radiative transfer (RT) is simulated with the 3DMCPOL (3-D Monte Carlo Polarized) code. According to previous studies, differences between 3-D BT computed from a heterogenous pixel and 1-D (one-dimensional) RT computed from a homogeneous pixel are considered dependent at nadir on two effects: (i) the optical thickness horizontal heterogeneity leading to the plane-parallel homogeneous bias (PPHB); and the (ii) horizontal radiative transport (HRT) leading to the independent pixel approximation error (IPAE). A single but realistic cirrus case is simulated and, as expected, the PPHB mainly impacts the low-spatial resolution results (above approximately 250 meters), with averaged values of up to 5-7 K (thousand), while the IPAE mainly impacts the high-spatial resolution results (below approximately 250 meters) with average values of up to 1-2 K (thousand). A sensitivity study has been performed in order to extend these results to various cirrus optical thicknesses and heterogeneities by sampling the cirrus in several ranges of parameters. For four optical thickness classes and four optical heterogeneity classes, we have found that, for nadir observations, the spatial resolution at which the combination of PPHB and HRT effects is the smallest, falls between 100 and 250 meters. These spatial resolutions thus appear to be the best choice to retrieve cirrus optical properties with the smallest cloud heterogeneity-related total bias in the thermal

  2. Impacts of Aerosol, Surface and Meteorological Conditions on Polar Cloud Properties: Use of In-Situ Cloud Probe Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarquhar, Greg; Wu, Wei; Maahn, Maximilian

    2017-04-01

    Over the Southern Oceans, models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) almost universally underestimate sunlight reflected by near surface cloud in the Austral summer compared to Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data. These and other biases in radiative fluxes over the Arctic are believed to be associated with the poorly modeled properties of low-level clouds that are frequently composed of supercooled water. Because changes in cloud macrophysical (heights, coverage) and microphysical (sizes, shapes and phases of particles) can alter the radiative impact of clouds, it is important to understand the processes that control cloud properties. In this presentation, in-situ microphysical observations obtained in prior arctic field campaigns (e.g., the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign ISDAC, the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment M-PACE, and the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Carbon Measurements Program-V ACME-V) are discussed. Strategies for comparing data collected in campaigns with different probes and processed with varying algorithms are introduced, along with procedures for using cloud probe data to refine assumptions about cloud properties in model schemes (e.g., size distributions, mass-dimension, and velocity-dimension relations) that affect rates at which mass and number are transferred between hydrometeor categories and hence estimates of latent and radiative heating, which feeds back on dynamics and hence cloud properties. Such observations from past arctic field experiments have enhanced our understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions acting in single-layer mixed phase clouds that are ubiquitous in the Arctic. But, it is still unknown what controls the amount of supercooled water in polar clouds (especially in frequently occurring complex multi-layer clouds), how probability distributions of cloud properties vary with aerosol loading and composition in different surface and meteorological conditions, and how

  3. Retrieving co-occurring cloud and precipitation properties of warm marine boundary layer clouds with A-Train data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Gerald G.; Avey, Stephanie; Cooper, Steven; Lebsock, Matthew; Tanelli, Simone; Dobrowalski, Greg

    2016-04-01

    In marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds the formation of precipitation from the cloud droplet distribution in the presence of variable aerosol plays a fundamental role in determining the coupling of these clouds to their environment and ultimately to the climate system. Here the degree to which A-Train satellite measurements can diagnose simultaneously occurring cloud and precipitation properties in MBL clouds is examined. Beginning with the measurements provided by CloudSat and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (including a newly available microwave brightness temperature from CloudSat), and a climatology of MBL cloud properties from past field campaigns, an assumption is made that any hydrometeor volume could contain both cloud droplet and precipitation droplet modes. Bayesian optimal estimation is then used to derive atmospheric states by inverting a measurement vector carefully accounting for uncertainties due to instrument noise, forward model error, and assumptions. It is found that in many cases where significant precipitation coexists with cloud, due to forward model error driven by uncertainties in assumptions, the uncertainty in retrieved cloud properties is greater than the variance in the prior climatology. It is often necessary to average several thousand (hundred) precipitating (weakly precipitating) profiles to obtain meaningful information regarding the properties important to microphysical processes. Regardless, if such process level information is deemed necessary for better constraining predictive models of the climate system, measurement systems specifically designed to accomplish such retrievals must be considered for the future.

  4. The CM SAF CLAAS-2 cloud property data record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benas, Nikos; Finkensieper, Stephan; Stengel, Martin; van Zadelhoff, Gerd-Jan; Hanschmann, Timo; Hollmann, Rainer; Fokke Meirink, Jan

    2017-04-01

    A new cloud property data record was lately released by the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF), based on measurements from geostationary Meteosat Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) sensors, spanning the period 2004-2015. The CLAAS-2 (Cloud property dAtAset using SEVIRI, Edition 2) data record includes cloud fractional coverage, thermodynamic phase, cloud top height, water path and corresponding optical thickness and particle effective radius separately for liquid and ice clouds. These variables are available at high resolution 15-minute, daily and monthly basis. In this presentation the main improvements in the retrieval algorithms compared to the first edition of the data record (CLAAS-1) are highlighted along with their impact on the quality of the data record. Subsequently, the results of extensive validation and inter-comparison efforts against ground observations, as well as active and passive satellite sensors are summarized. Overall good agreement is found, with similar spatial and temporal characteristics, along with small biases caused mainly by differences in retrieval approaches, spatial/temporal samplings and viewing geometries.

  5. Small Particles in Cirrus (SPartICus) and Storm Peak Lab Validation Experiment (StormVEx) Science Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, Gerald [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-10-28

    The Small Particles in Cirrus (SPartICus) campaign took place from January through June, 2011 and the Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment (StormVEx) took place from November, 2011 through April, 2012. The PI of this project, Dr. Gerald Mace, had the privilege to be the lead on both of these campaigns. The essence of the project that we report on here was to conduct preliminary work that was necessary to bring the field data sets to a point where they could be used for their intended science purposes

  6. Extraction of Profile Information from Cloud Contaminated Radiances. Appendixes 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. L.; Zhou, D. K.; Huang, H.-L.; Li, Jun; Liu, X.; Larar, A. M.

    2003-01-01

    Clouds act to reduce the signal level and may produce noise dependence on the complexity of the cloud properties and the manner in which they are treated in the profile retrieval process. There are essentially three ways to extract profile information from cloud contaminated radiances: (1) cloud-clearing using spatially adjacent cloud contaminated radiance measurements, (2) retrieval based upon the assumption of opaque cloud conditions, and (3) retrieval or radiance assimilation using a physically correct cloud radiative transfer model which accounts for the absorption and scattering of the radiance observed. Cloud clearing extracts the radiance arising from the clear air portion of partly clouded fields of view permitting soundings to the surface or the assimilation of radiances as in the clear field of view case. However, the accuracy of the clear air radiance signal depends upon the cloud height and optical property uniformity across the two fields of view used in the cloud clearing process. The assumption of opaque clouds within the field of view permits relatively accurate profiles to be retrieved down to near cloud top levels, the accuracy near the cloud top level being dependent upon the actual microphysical properties of the cloud. The use of a physically correct cloud radiative transfer model enables accurate retrievals down to cloud top levels and below semi-transparent cloud layers (e.g., cirrus). It should also be possible to assimilate cloudy radiances directly into the model given a physically correct cloud radiative transfer model using geometric and microphysical cloud parameters retrieved from the radiance spectra as initial cloud variables in the radiance assimilation process. This presentation reviews the above three ways to extract profile information from cloud contaminated radiances. NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer radiance spectra and Aqua satellite AIRS radiance spectra are used to illustrate how cloudy radiances can be used

  7. Contrail and Cirrus Observations over Europe from 6 Years of NOAA-AVHRR Data

    OpenAIRE

    R. Meyer; Mannstein, H.; Meerkötter, R.; Wendling, P.

    2002-01-01

    Thin ice cloudscirrus and contrails – are analysed in a long-term 1 km data set from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). Here twice daily data received at DLR Oberpfaffenhofen covering most of Europe over the full lifetime of the NOAA-14 satellite from January 1995 until October 2001 is taken into account to derive high resolution contrail and cirrus cloud maps. The data presented here is part of the ongoing European Cloud Climatology (ECC). For the detection of thin cirr...

  8. Properties of Diffuse Molecular Gas in the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    Studies of the interstellar medium in the lower-metallicity Magellanic Clouds explore somewhat different environmental conditions from those typically probed in our own Galactic ISM. Recent studies based on optical/UV spectra of SMC and LMC targets, for example, have revealed unexpected differences in gas-phase abundance patterns {for various atomic and molecular species} and have begun to explore the effects of differences in metallicity on the atomic-to-molecular transition and resulting molecular fraction f{H_2} - a key aspect in the formation of molecular clouds. We propose a more detailed study of the abundances, depletions, and local physical conditions characterizing diffuse molecular material in the Magellanic Clouds, using STIS E140H and E230M spectra of two sight lines with N{H_2} > 10^20 cm^-2 {both probing the outskirts of molecular clouds seen in CO emission}. The two STIS settings will include lines from various neutral and ionized species {with a range in depletion behavior}, several C I multiplets, and several bands of CO and C_2. By probing and characterizing the atomic-to-molecular transition in the Magellanic Clouds, we will address key issues regarding the effects of differences in metallicity on the relationship between the atomic and molecular gas in galaxies; on cloud structure, physical conditions, and diffuse cloud chemistry; and on the composition and properties of interstellar dust. The results of this project should thus aid in the interpretation of observations of atomic and molecular material in more distant low-metallicity systems.

  9. Liquid Water Cloud Properties During the Polarimeter Definition Experiment (PODEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Wasilewski, Andrzei P.; Ackerman, Andrew S.; McGill, Matthew J.; Yorks, John E.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Platnick, Steven; Arnold, George; Van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; hide

    2015-01-01

    We present retrievals of water cloud properties from the measurements made by the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) during the Polarimeter Definition Experiment (PODEX) held between January 14 and February 6, 2013. The RSP was onboard the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft based at NASA Dryden Aircraft Operation Facility in Palmdale, California. The retrieved cloud characteristics include cloud optical thickness, effective radius and variance of cloud droplet size distribution derived using a parameter-fitting technique, as well as the complete droplet size distribution function obtained by means of Rainbow Fourier Transform. Multi-modal size distributions are decomposed into several modes and the respective effective radii and variances are computed. The methodology used to produce the retrieval dataset is illustrated on the examples of a marine stratocumulus deck off California coast and stratus/fog over California's Central Valley. In the latter case the observed bimodal droplet size distributions were attributed to two-layer cloud structure. All retrieval data are available online from NASA GISS website.

  10. Liquid Water Cloud Properties During the Polarimeter Definition Experiment (PODEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Wasilewski, Andrzei P.; Ackerman, Andrew S.; McGill, Matthew J.; Yorks, John E.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Platnick, Steven; Arnold, George; Van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Chowdhary, Jacek; Ottaviani, Matteo; Knobelspiesse, Kirk D.

    2015-01-01

    We present retrievals of water cloud properties from the measurements made by the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) during the Polarimeter Definition Experiment (PODEX) held between January 14 and February 6, 2013. The RSP was onboard the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft based at NASA Dryden Aircraft Operation Facility in Palmdale, California. The retrieved cloud characteristics include cloud optical thickness, effective radius and variance of cloud droplet size distribution derived using a parameter-fitting technique, as well as the complete droplet size distribution function obtained by means of Rainbow Fourier Transform. Multi-modal size distributions are decomposed into several modes and the respective effective radii and variances are computed. The methodology used to produce the retrieval dataset is illustrated on the examples of a marine stratocumulus deck off California coast and stratus/fog over California's Central Valley. In the latter case the observed bimodal droplet size distributions were attributed to two-layer cloud structure. All retrieval data are available online from NASA GISS website.

  11. Comprehensive Radar Observations of Clouds and Precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau and Preliminary Analysis of Cloud Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Intensive fi eld experiment is an important approach to obtain microphysical information about clouds and precipitation. From 1 July to 31 August 2014, the third Tibetan Plateau Atmospheric Science Experiment was carried out and comprehensive measurements of water vapor, clouds, and precipitation were conducted at Naqu. The most advanced radars in China, such as Ka-band millimeter-wave cloud radar, Ku-band micro-rain radar, C-band continuous-wave radar and lidar, and microwave radiometer and disdrometer were deployed to observe high spatial-temporal vertical structures of clouds and precipitation. The C-band dual-linear polarization radar was coordinated with the China new generation weather radar to constitute a dual-Doppler radar system for the measurements of three-dimensional wind fi elds within convective precipitations and the structure and evolution of hydrometeors related to precipitation process. Based on the radar measurements in this experiment, the diurnal variations of several important cloud properties were analyzed, including cloud top and base, cloud depth, cloud cover, number of cloud layers, and their vertical structures during summertime over Naqu. The features of refl ectivity, velocity, and depolarization ratio for diff erent types of clouds observed by cloud radar are discussed. The results indicate that the cloud properties were successfully measured by using various radars in this fi eld experiment. During the summertime over Naqu, most of the clouds were located above 6 km and below 4 km above ground level. Statistical analysis shows that total amounts of clouds, the top of high-level clouds, and cloud depth, all demonstrated a distinct diurnal variation. Few clouds formed at 1000 LST (local standard time), whereas large amounts of clouds formed at 2000 LST. Newly formed cumulus and stratus clouds were often found at 3-km height, where there existed signifi cant updrafts. Deep convection reached up to 16.5 km (21 km above the mean sea level

  12. Cirrus, contrails, and ice supersaturated regions in high pressure systems at northern mid latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immler, F.; Treffeisen, R.; Engelbart, D.; Krüger, K.; Schrems, O.

    2008-03-01

    During the European heat wave summer 2003 with predominant high pressure conditions we performed a detailed study of upper tropospheric humidity and ice particles which yielded striking results concerning the occurrence of ice supersaturated regions (ISSR), cirrus, and contrails. Our study is based on lidar observations and meteorological data obtained at Lindenberg/Germany (52.2° N, 14.1° E) as well as the analysis of the European centre for medium range weather forecast (ECMWF). Cirrus clouds were detected in 55% of the lidar profiles and a large fraction of them were subvisible (optical depth <0.03). Thin ice clouds were particularly ubiquitous in high pressure systems. The radiosonde data showed that the upper troposphere was very often supersaturated with respect to ice. Relating the radiosonde profiles to concurrent lidar observations reveals that the ISSRs almost always contained ice particles. Persistent contrails observed with a camera were frequently embedded in these thin or subvisible cirrus clouds. The ECMWF cloud parametrisation reproduces the observed cirrus clouds consistently and a close correlation between the ice water path in the model and the measured optical depth of cirrus is demonstrated.

  13. Properties of High-Redshift Lyman Alpha Clouds II. Statistical Properties of the Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Press, W H; Press, William H.; Rybicki, George B.

    1993-01-01

    Curve of growth analysis, applied to the Lyman series absorption ratios deduced in our previous paper, yields a measurement of the logarithmic slope of distribution of \\Lya\\ clouds in column density $N$. The observed exponential distribution of the clouds' equivalent widths $W$ is then shown to require a broad distribution of velocity parameters $b$, extending up to 80 km s$^{-1}$. We show how the exponential itself emerges in a natural way. An absolute normalization for the differential distribution of cloud numbers in $z$, $N$, and $b$ is obtained. By detailed analysis of absorption fluctuations along the line of sight we are able to put upper limits on the cloud-cloud correlation function $\\xi$ on several megaparsec length scales. We show that observed $b$ values, if thermal, are incompatible, in several different ways, with the hypothesis of equilibrium heating and ionization by a background UV flux. Either a significant component of $b$ is due to bulk motion (which we argue against on several grounds), o...

  14. Development of Cloud and Precipitation Property Retrieval Algorithms and Measurement Simulators from ASR Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, Gerald G. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences

    2016-02-10

    What has made the ASR program unique is the amount of information that is available. The suite of recently deployed instruments significantly expands the scope of the program (Mather and Voyles, 2013). The breadth of this information allows us to pose sophisticated process-level questions. Our ASR project, now entering its third year, has been about developing algorithms that use this information in ways that fully exploit the new capacity of the ARM data streams. Using optimal estimation (OE) and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) inversion techniques, we have developed methodologies that allow us to use multiple radar frequency Doppler spectra along with lidar and passive constraints where data streams can be added or subtracted efficiently and algorithms can be reformulated for various combinations of hydrometeors by exchanging sets of empirical coefficients. These methodologies have been applied to boundary layer clouds, mixed phase snow cloud systems, and cirrus.

  15. Thermodynamic phase retrieval of convective clouds: impact of sensor viewing geometry and vertical distribution of cloud properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jäkel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of passive remote sensing measurements to retrieve microphysical parameters of convective clouds, in particular their thermodynamic phase, is investigated by three-dimensional (3-D radiative transfer simulations. The effects of different viewing geometries and vertical distributions of the cloud microphysical properties are investigated. Measurement examples of spectral solar radiance reflected by cloud sides (passive in the near-infrared (NIR spectral range are performed together with collocated lidar observations (active. The retrieval method to distinguish the cloud thermodynamic phase (liquid water or ice exploits different slopes of cloud side reflectivity spectra of water and ice clouds in the NIR. The concurrent depolarization backscattering lidar provides geometry information about the cloud distance and height as well as the depolarization.

  16. Tropical tropopause layer cirrus and its relation to tropopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, H.-H.; Fu, Q.

    2017-02-01

    This study examines the spatial and temporal patterns of tropical tropopause layer (TTL) cirrus clouds (i.e., clouds with bases higher than 14.5 km) and their relationship to tropical tropopause including both cold point tropopause (CPT) and lapse rate tropopause (LRT). We use eight years (2006-2014) data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) and Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) measurements. In addition to the CALIPSO cloud layer product, the clouds included in the current CALIPSO dataset as stratospheric features have been considered by separating clouds from aerosols, which are important in the TTL cloud analysis. It is also shown that the temporal variation of the stratospheric aerosols matches well with the volcanic eruption events. The TTL cloud fraction and the tropical tropopause temperature both have pronounced annual cycles and are strongly negatively correlated both temporally and spatially. The examination of the TTL cloud height relative to tropopause from collocated CALIPSO and COSMIC observations indicates that the tropopause plays a critical role in constraining the TTL cloud top height. We show that the probability density function of TTL cloud top height peaks just below the CPT while the occurrence of TTL clouds with cloud tops above the CPT could be largely explained by observed tropopause height uncertainty associated with the COSMIC vertical resolution.

  17. FAME-C: cloud property retrieval using synergistic AATSR and MERIS observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Carbajal Henken

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A newly developed daytime cloud property retrieval algorithm FAME-C (Freie Universität Berlin AATSR MERIS Cloud is presented. Synergistic observations from AATSR and MERIS, both mounted on the polar orbiting satellite ENVISAT, are used for cloud screening. For cloudy pixels two main steps are carried out in a sequential form. First, a micro-physical cloud property retrieval is performed using an AATSR near-infrared and visible channel. Cloud phase, cloud optical thickness, and effective radius are retrieved, and subsequently cloud water path is computed. Second, two independent cloud top height products are retrieved. For cloud top temperature AATSR brightness temperatures are used, while for cloud top pressure the MERIS oxygen-A absorption channel is used. Results from the micro-physical retrieval serve as input for the two cloud top height retrievals. Introduced are the AATSR and MERIS forward models and auxiliary data needed in FAME-C. Also, the optimal estimation method with uncertainty estimates, which also provides for uncertainty estimated of the retrieved property on a pixel-basis, is presented. Within the frame of the ESA Climate Change Initiative project first global cloud property retrievals have been conducted for the years 2007–2009. For this time period verification efforts are presented comparing FAME-C cloud micro-physical properties to MODIS-TERRA derived cloud micro-physical properties for four selected regions on the globe. The results show reasonable accuracies between the cloud micro-physical retrievals. Biases are generally smallest for marine stratocumulus clouds; −0.28, 0.41μm and −0.18 g m−2 for cloud optical thickness, effective radius and cloud water path, respectively. This is also true for the root mean square error. Also, both cloud top height products are compared to cloud top heights derived from ground-based cloud radars located at several ARM sites. FAME-C mostly shows an underestimation of cloud top

  18. Directional, horizontal inhomogeneities of cloud optical thickness fields retrieved from ground-based and airbornespectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Michael; Bierwirth, Eike; Ehrlich, André; Jäkel, Evelyn; Werner, Frank; Wendisch, Manfred

    2017-02-01

    Clouds exhibit distinct horizontal inhomogeneities of their optical and microphysical properties, which complicate their realistic representation in weather and climate models. In order to investigate the horizontal structure of cloud inhomogeneities, 2-D horizontal fields of optical thickness (τ) of subtropical cirrus and Arctic stratus are investigated with a spatial resolution of less than 10 m. The 2-D τ-fields are derived from (a) downward (transmitted) solar spectral radiance measurements from the ground beneath four subtropical cirrus and (b) upward (reflected) radiances measured from aircraft above 10 Arctic stratus. The data were collected during two field campaigns: (a) Clouds, Aerosol, Radiation, and tuRbulence in the trade wind regime over BArbados (CARRIBA) and (b) VERtical Distribution of Ice in Arctic clouds (VERDI). One-dimensional and 2-D autocorrelation functions, as well as power spectral densities, are derived from the retrieved τ-fields. The typical spatial scale of cloud inhomogeneities is quantified for each cloud case. Similarly, the scales at which 3-D radiative effects influence the radiance field are identified. In most of the investigated cloud cases considerable cloud inhomogeneities with a prevailing directional structure are found. In these cases, the cloud inhomogeneities favour a specific horizontal direction, while across this direction the cloud is of homogeneous character. The investigations reveal that it is not sufficient to quantify horizontal cloud inhomogeneities using 1-D inhomogeneity parameters; 2-D parameters are necessary.

  19. Microphysics of Pyrocumulonimbus Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Fridlind, Ann

    2004-01-01

    The intense heat from forest fires can generate explosive deep convective cloud systems that inject pollutants to high altitudes. Both satellite and high-altitude aircraft measurements have documented cases in which these pyrocumulonimbus clouds inject large amounts of smoke well into the stratosphere (Fromm and Servranckx 2003; Jost et al. 2004). This smoke can remain in the stratosphere, be transported large distances, and affect lower stratospheric chemistry. In addition recent in situ measurements in pyrocumulus updrafts have shown that the high concentrations of smoke particles have significant impacts on cloud microphysical properties. Very high droplet number densities result in delayed precipitation and may enhance lightning (Andrew et al. 2004). Presumably, the smoke particles will also lead to changes in the properties of anvil cirrus produces by the deep convection, with resulting influences on cloud radiative forcing. In situ sampling near the tops of mature pyrocumulonimbus is difficult due to the high altitude and violence of the storms. In this study, we use large eddy simulations (LES) with size-resolved microphysics to elucidate physical processes in pyrocumulonimbus clouds.

  20. Microphysics of Pyrocumulonimbus Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Fridlind, Ann

    2004-01-01

    The intense heat from forest fires can generate explosive deep convective cloud systems that inject pollutants to high altitudes. Both satellite and high-altitude aircraft measurements have documented cases in which these pyrocumulonimbus clouds inject large amounts of smoke well into the stratosphere (Fromm and Servranckx 2003; Jost et al. 2004). This smoke can remain in the stratosphere, be transported large distances, and affect lower stratospheric chemistry. In addition recent in situ measurements in pyrocumulus updrafts have shown that the high concentrations of smoke particles have significant impacts on cloud microphysical properties. Very high droplet number densities result in delayed precipitation and may enhance lightning (Andrew et al. 2004). Presumably, the smoke particles will also lead to changes in the properties of anvil cirrus produces by the deep convection, with resulting influences on cloud radiative forcing. In situ sampling near the tops of mature pyrocumulonimbus is difficult due to the high altitude and violence of the storms. In this study, we use large eddy simulations (LES) with size-resolved microphysics to elucidate physical processes in pyrocumulonimbus clouds.

  1. MASSES, RADII, AND CLOUD PROPERTIES OF THE HR 8799 PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marley, Mark S. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS-245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Saumon, Didier [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop F663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Cushing, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Ackerman, Andrew S. [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Freedman, Richard, E-mail: Mark.S.Marley@NASA.gov, E-mail: dsaumon@lanl.gov, E-mail: michael.cushing@utoledo.edu, E-mail: andrew.ackerman@nasa.gov, E-mail: jfortney@ucolick.org, E-mail: freedman@darkstar.arc.nasa.gov [SETI Institute and NASA Ames Research Center, MS-245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The near-infrared colors of the planets directly imaged around the A star HR 8799 are much redder than most field brown dwarfs of the same effective temperature. Previous theoretical studies of these objects have concluded that the atmospheres of planets b, c, and d are unusually cloudy or have unusual cloud properties. Some studies have also found that the inferred radii of some or all of the planets disagree with expectations of standard giant planet evolution models. Here, we compare the available data to the predictions of our own set of atmospheric and evolution models that have been extensively tested against observations of field L and T dwarfs, including the reddest L dwarfs. Unlike some previous studies, we require mutually consistent choices for effective temperature, gravity, cloud properties, and planetary radius. This procedure thus yields plausible values for the masses, effective temperatures, and cloud properties of all three planets. We find that the cloud properties of the HR 8799 planets are not unusual but rather follow previously recognized trends, including a gravity dependence on the temperature of the L to T spectral transition-some reasons for which we discuss. We find that the inferred mass of planet b is highly sensitive to whether or not we include the H- and the K-band spectrum in our analysis. Solutions for planets c and d are consistent with the generally accepted constraints on the age of the primary star and orbital dynamics. We also confirm that, like in L and T dwarfs and solar system giant planets, non-equilibrium chemistry driven by atmospheric mixing is also important for these objects. Given the preponderance of data suggesting that the L to T spectral type transition is gravity dependent, we present an exploratory evolution calculation that accounts for this effect. Finally we recompute the bolometric luminosity of all three planets.

  2. a Brief Climatology of Cirrus LIDAR Ratios Measured by High Spectral Resolution LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, R.; Holz, R.; Hair, J. W.; Vaughan, M. A.; Eloranta, E. W.

    2015-12-01

    Our ability to detect and probe the vertical extent of cirrus was hugely improved with the launch of the NASA-CNES CALIPSO mission in April 2006. However, our skill at retrieving the optical properties of the cirrus detected by the CALIPSO lidar is not yet commensurate with our detection abilities. As with any new observing system, CALIPSO faces challenges and uncertainties in the retrieval of the geophysical parameters from its fundamental measurements. Specifically, extinction and optical depth retrievals for elastic backscatter lidars like CALIPSO typically rely on a priori assumptions about layer-mean extinction-to-backscatter ratios (AKA lidar ratios), which can vary regionally and for which uncertainties are high. To improve CALIPSO optical properties retrievals, we show High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) measurements acquired with systems from the University of Wisconsin and NASA Langley. HSRLs can directly determine ice cloud extinction and lidar ratio by separately measuring the molecular and particulate components of the total backscattered signal, thus largely eliminating many of the uncertainties inherent in elastic backscatter retrievals. These measurements were acquired during the SEAC4RS (Huntsville, AL, USA and Singapore), and FRAPPE/DISCOVER-AQ 2014 (BAO tower near Boulder, CO, USA) field campaigns, and an intensive operations period in Hampton, VA, USA.

  3. Automated retrieval of cloud and aerosol properties from the ARM Raman lidar, part 1: feature detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorsen, Tyler J.; Fu, Qiang; Newsom, Rob K.; Turner, David D.; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2015-11-01

    A Feature detection and EXtinction retrieval (FEX) algorithm for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program’s Raman lidar (RL) has been developed. Presented here is part 1 of the FEX algorithm: the detection of features including both clouds and aerosols. The approach of FEX is to use multiple quantities— scattering ratios derived using elastic and nitro-gen channel signals from two fields of view, the scattering ratio derived using only the elastic channel, and the total volume depolarization ratio— to identify features using range-dependent detection thresholds. FEX is designed to be context-sensitive with thresholds determined for each profile by calculating the expected clear-sky signal and noise. The use of multiple quantities pro-vides complementary depictions of cloud and aerosol locations and allows for consistency checks to improve the accuracy of the feature mask. The depolarization ratio is shown to be particularly effective at detecting optically-thin features containing non-spherical particles such as cirrus clouds. Improve-ments over the existing ARM RL cloud mask are shown. The performance of FEX is validated against a collocated micropulse lidar and observations from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite over the ARM Darwin, Australia site. While we focus on a specific lidar system, the FEX framework presented here is suitable for other Raman or high spectral resolution lidars.

  4. 太赫兹波被动遥感卷云微物理参数的敏感性试验分析∗%Sensitivity analysis of terahertz wave passive remote sensing of cirrus microphysical parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李书磊; 刘磊; 高太长; 黄威; 胡帅

    2016-01-01

    Cirrus clouds play an important role in the energy budget and the hydrological cycle of the atmosphere. It is still one of the largest uncertainties in the global climate change studies. This is mainly attributable to the measurement dis-crepancies of cirrus parameters, especially the microphysical parameters, which are constrained by the existing methods. With THz wavelengths on the order of the size of typical cirrus cloud particles and therefore being sensitive to cirrus clouds, THz region is expected to have a promising prospect concerning measuring cirrus microphysical parameters (ice water path and effective particle size). In order to evaluate the effects of cirrus microphysical parameters on THz trans-mission characteristics and the sensitivity of cirrus in THz region, the THz radiation spectra at the top of atmosphere in the clear sky and the cloudy situations are simulated and calculated based on the atmospheric radiative transfer simulator. The effects of cirrus particle shape, particle size and ice water path on THz transmission characteristics are obtained by analyzing the brightness temperature difference between the two situations, and the sensitivity parameters that quantitatively describ the effects. The results indicate that cirrus particle shape, particle size and ice water path have different effects on the THz wave propagation. The cirrus effect varies also with channel frequency. Overall, in the low frequency channels, cirrus effects are enhanced with the increases of particle size and ice water path;in the high fre-quency channels, cirrus effects are more complicated and vary with particle size and ice water path. The effects are first enhanced and then turned into saturation. The THz wave is sensitive to cirrus cloud ice water path and effective particle size, and THz wave may be the best waveband for remote sensing of cirrus microphysical parameters in theory. For thin clouds, the sensitivity parameters are approximately constant

  5. Dust properties inside molecular clouds from coreshine modeling and observations

    CERN Document Server

    Lefèvre, Charlène; Juvela, Mika; Paladini, Roberta; Lallement, Rosine; Marshall, D J; Andersen, Morten; Bacmann, Aurore; Mcgee, Peregrine M; Montier, Ludovic; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Pelkonen, V -M; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Steinacker, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Context. Using observations to deduce dust properties, grain size distribution, and physical conditions in molecular clouds is a highly degenerate problem. Aims. The coreshine phenomenon, a scattering process at 3.6 and 4.5 $\\mu$m that dominates absorption, has revealed its ability to explore the densest parts of clouds. We want to use this effect to constrain the dust parameters. The goal is to investigate to what extent grain growth (at constant dust mass) inside molecular clouds is able to explain the coreshine observations. We aim to find dust models that can explain a sample of Spitzer coreshine data. We also look at the consistency with near-infrared data we obtained for a few clouds. Methods. We selected four regions with a very high occurrence of coreshine cases: Taurus-Perseus, Cepheus, Chameleon and L183/L134. We built a grid of dust models and investigated the key parameters to reproduce the general trend of surface bright- nesses and intensity ratios of both coreshine and near-infrared observation...

  6. Retrieval of liquid water cloud properties from ground-based remote sensing observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knist, C.L.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate ground-based remotely sensed microphysical and optical properties of liquid water clouds are essential references to validate satellite-observed cloud properties and to improve cloud parameterizations in weather and climate models. This requires the evaluation of algorithms for retrieval of

  7. Investigation of the Directional Structure of Horizontal Cloud Inhomogeneities Derived from Ground-Based and Airborne Spectral Imaging and Cloud Resolving Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Michael; Bierwirth, Eike; Ehrlich, André; Jäkel, Evelyn; Loewe, Katharina; Werner, Frank; Hoose, Corinna; Wendisch, Manfred

    2017-04-01

    Clouds exhibit considerable horizontal inhomogeneities of their optical and microphysical properties. This complicates their realistic representation in weather and climate models. In order to investigate cloud inhomogeneities with respect to their horizontal structure, two-dimensional (2D) fields of optical thickness of subtropical cirrus and Arctic stratus are investigated. The applied 2D cloud optical thickness fields with a spatial resolution of less than 10 m are derived from (a) ground-based measured downward (transmitted) solar spectral radiance fields of four subtropical cirrus clouds, and (b) upward (reflected) radiances measured airborne above ten Arctic stratus clouds. The measurements were performed during the two field campaigns: (a) Clouds, Aerosol, Radiation, and tuRbulence in the trade wInd regime over BArbados (CARRIBA), and (b) VERtical Distribution of Ice in Arctic clouds (VERDI). One-dimensional (1D) inhomogeneity parameters and 2D autocorrelation functions are derived from the retrieved fields of cloud optical thickness. For each measurement case, the typical spatial scale of horizontal cloud inhomogeneities is quantified. The results reveal that considerable cloud inhomogeneities with prevailing directional structures are found in most of the investigated cloud cases; the cloud inhomogeneities favour a specific horizontal direction while across this direction the cloud is of homogeneous character. The investigations show that it is not sufficient to quantify horizontal cloud inhomogeneities by 1D inhomogeneity parameters; 2D parameters are strongly required. Additionally, the applied methods are used in conjunction with simulated fields of Arctic stratus obtained from cloud resolving models in order to (I) validate model results against measurements and (II) to increase the number of available cloud fields, which improves the statistics of investigated cloud cases.

  8. Evaluation of Cloud Microphysical Parameterizations in Cloud Resolving Model Simulations using the ARM observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Muhlbauer, A.; Ackerman, T. P.

    2011-12-01

    Clouds modulate the distribution of energy and water within the atmosphere and regulate the hydrological cycle. Cloud microphysical parameterizations are critical for the representation of cloud microphysical properties in both cloud-resolving and climate models. In this study, we analyze the capabilities of a cloud-resolving model (CRM) with advanced bulk microphysics schemes to simulate the microphysical properties and evolution of convective clouds and anvil cirrus over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in the mid-latitudes and Kwajalein Atoll in the tropics. For evaluating simulated cloud properties, we use observations from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program 1997 summer Intensive Observations Period at the SGP site and the Kwajalein Experiment (KWAJEX) field campaign. The CRM simulations are evaluated with the ARM and KWAJEX observations, in particular using precipitation records, radiative fluxes, and radar reflectivity values observed by the ARM millimeter wavelength cloud radar (MMCR) and the Kwajalein precipitation radar. Preliminary analysis of the ARM SGP case shows that although the precipitation events during this period are well captured by the model, the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) is considerably underestimated and the model generates too much high cloud, which is inconsistent with the MMCR observations. In our study we especially focus on the causes of the overproduction of ice and high clouds in the CRM simulations. Improvements of the ice microphysics scheme and resulting impacts on the simulation are presented.

  9. Observations of Three-Dimensional Radiative Effects that Influence Satellite Retrievals of Cloud Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnai, Tamas; Marshak, Alexander; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines three-dimensional (3D) radiative effects, which arise from horizontal radiative interactions between areas that have different cloud properties. Earlier studies have argued that these effects can cause significant uncertainties in current satellite retrievals of cloud properties, because the retrievals rely on one-dimensional (1D) theory and do not consider the effects of horizontal changes in cloud properties. This study addresses two questions: which retrieved cloud properties are influenced by 3D radiative effects, and where 3D effects tend to occur? The influence of 3D effects is detected from the wayside illumination and shadowing make clouds appear asymmetric: Areas appear brighter if the cloud top surface is tilted toward, rather than away from, the Sun. The analysis of 30 images by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reveals that retrievals of cloud optical thickness and cloud water content are most influenced by 3D effects, whereas retrievals of cloud particle size are much less affected. The results also indicate that while 3D effects are strongest at cloud edges, cloud top variability in cloud interiors, even in overcast regions, also produces considerable 3D effects. Finally, significant 3D effects are found in a wide variety of situations, ranging from thin clouds to thick ones and from low clouds to high ones.

  10. In Situ Balloon-Borne Ice Particle Imaging in High-Latitude Cirrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Thomas; Heymsfield, Andrew J.

    2016-09-01

    Cirrus clouds reflect incoming solar radiation, creating a cooling effect. At the same time, these clouds absorb the infrared radiation from the Earth, creating a greenhouse effect. The net effect, crucial for radiative transfer, depends on the cirrus microphysical properties, such as particle size distributions and particle shapes. Knowledge of these cloud properties is also needed for calibrating and validating passive and active remote sensors. Ice particles of sizes below 100 µm are inherently difficult to measure with aircraft-mounted probes due to issues with resolution, sizing, and size-dependent sampling volume. Furthermore, artefacts are produced by shattering of particles on the leading surfaces of the aircraft probes when particles several hundred microns or larger are present. Here, we report on a series of balloon-borne in situ measurements that were carried out at a high-latitude location, Kiruna in northern Sweden (68N 21E). The method used here avoids these issues experienced with the aircraft probes. Furthermore, with a balloon-borne instrument, data are collected as vertical profiles, more useful for calibrating or evaluating remote sensing measurements than data collected along horizontal traverses. Particles are collected on an oil-coated film at a sampling speed given directly by the ascending rate of the balloon, 4 m s-1. The collecting film is advanced uniformly inside the instrument so that an always unused section of the film is exposed to ice particles, which are measured by imaging shortly after sampling. The high optical resolution of about 4 µm together with a pixel resolution of 1.65 µm allows particle detection at sizes of 10 µm and larger. For particles that are 20 µm (12 pixel) in size or larger, the shape can be recognized. The sampling volume, 130 cm3 s-1, is well defined and independent of particle size. With the encountered number concentrations of between 4 and 400 L-1, this required about 90- to 4-s sampling times to

  11. Impact of the ice phase on a mesoscale convective system: Implication of cloud parameterization and cloud radiative properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, H.N.S.; Bradley, M.M.; Molenkamp, C.R.; Grant, K.E.; Chuang, C.

    1991-08-01

    This study attempts to provide further understanding of the effect of the ice phase on cloud ensemble features which are useful for improving GCM cumulus parameterization. In addition, cloud model results are used to diagnose the radiative properties of anvils in order to assess cloud/radiation interaction and its feedback on the larger-scale climate for the future work. The heat, moisture and mass budget analyses of a simulated squall line system indicate that, at least for this type of system, the inclusion of the ice phase in the microphysics does not considerably change the net cloud heating and drying effects and the feedback on the large-scale motion. Nonetheless, its impact on the radiative properties of clouds significantly influences not only the squall line system itself, but also the larger-scale circulation due to the favorable stratification for long-lasting anvil clouds. The water budget suggests a simple methodology to parameterize the microphysical effect without considering it as a model physics module. Further application of the water budget might also be used to parameterize the cloud transport of condensates in the anvil cloud region, which allows the GCM columns to interact with each other. The findings of this study suggest that the ice phase could be ignored in the cloud parameterization in order to save significant amounts of computational resources and to simplify the model physics. More scientific effort should, however, be focused on the effect of the ice phase to further explore cloud feedback on the large-scale climate through the radiative process. The cloud/radiation interaction and its feedback on the larger-scale climate will be addressed in a companion study by coupling the radiative transfer model with the cloud model. 19 refs., 13 figs.

  12. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. XX. Dust and gas in the foreground Galactic cirrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, S.; Giovanardi, C.; Smith, M. W. L.; Fritz, J.; Davies, J. I.; Haynes, M. P.; Giovanelli, R.; Baes, M.; Bocchio, M.; Boissier, S.; Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Casasola, V.; Clark, C. J. R.; De Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Grossi, M.; Jones, A. P.; Hughes, T. M.; Hunt, L. K.; Madden, S.; Magrini, L.; Pappalardo, C.; Ysard, N.; Zibetti, S.

    2017-01-01

    We study the correlation between far-infrared/submm dust emission and atomic gas column density in order to derive the properties of the high Galactic latitude, low density, Milky Way cirrus in the foreground of the Virgo cluster of galaxies. Dust emission maps from 60 to 850 μm are obtained from observations with the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) and carried out within the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS); these are complemented by IRAS and Planck maps. Data from the Arecibo legacy Fast ALFA Survey is used to derive atomic gas column densities for two broad velocity components: low and intermediate velocity clouds. Dust emissivities are derived for each gas component and each far-infrared/submm band. For the low velocity clouds, we measure an average emissivity ɛLVCν = (0.79 ± 0.08) × 10-20 MJy sr-1 cm2 at 250 μm. After fitting a modified blackbody to the available bands, we estimated a dust absorption cross section of τLVCν/NH i = (0.49 ± 0.13) × 10-25 cm2 H-1 at 250 μm (with dust temperature T = 20.4 ± 1.5 K and spectral index β = 1.53 ± 0.17). The results are in excellent agreement with those obtained by Planck over a much larger coverage of the high Galactic latitude cirrus (50% of the sky versus 0.2% in our work). For dust associated with intermediate velocity gas, we confirm earlier Planck results and find a higher temperature and lower emissivity and cross section. After subtracting the modeled components, we find regions at scales smaller than 20' in which the residuals deviate significantly from the average scatter, which is dominated by cosmic infrared background. These large residuals are most likely due to local variations in the cirrus dust properties or to high-latitude molecular clouds with average NH2 ≲ 1020 cm-2. We find no conclusive evidence for intracluster dust emission in Virgo. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and

  13. Direct Estimate of Cirrus Noise in Herschel Hi-GAL Images

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, P G; Roy, A; Bernard, J -P; Molinari, S; Billot, N; Brunt, C; Calzoletti, L; DiGiorgio, A M; Elia, D; Faustini, F; Joncas, G; Mottram, J C; Natoli, P; Noriega-Crespo, A; Paladini, R; Robitaille, J F; Strafella, F; Traficante, A; Veneziani, M

    2010-01-01

    In Herschel images of the Galactic plane and many star forming regions, a major factor limiting our ability to extract faint compact sources is cirrus confusion noise, operationally defined as the "statistical error to be expected in photometric measurements due to confusion in a background of fluctuating surface brightness". The histogram of the flux densities of extracted sources shows a distinctive faint-end cutoff below which the catalog suffers from incompleteness and the flux densities become unreliable. This empirical cutoff should be closely related to the estimated cirrus noise and we show that this is the case. We compute the cirrus noise directly, both on Herschel images from which the bright sources have been removed and on simulated images of cirrus with statistically similar fluctuations. We connect these direct estimates with those from power spectrum analysis, which has been used extensively to predict the cirrus noise and provides insight into how it depends on various statistical properties ...

  14. A fast SEVIRI simulator for quantifying retrieval uncertainties in the CM SAF cloud physical property algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Jonkheid

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainties in the cloud physical properties derived from satellite observations make it difficult to interpret model evaluation studies. In this paper, the uncertainties in the cloud water path (CWP retrievals derived with the cloud physical properties retrieval algorithm (CPP of the climate monitoring satellite application facility (CM SAF are investigated. To this end, a numerical simulator of MSG-SEVIRI observations has been developed that calculates the reflectances at 0.64 and 1.63 μm for a wide range of cloud parameter values, satellite viewing geometries and surface albedos using a plane-parallel radiative transfer model. The reflectances thus obtained are used as input to CPP, and the retrieved values of CWP are compared to the original input of the simulator. Cloud parameters considered in this paper refer to e.g. sub-pixel broken clouds and the simultaneous occurrence of ice and liquid water clouds within one pixel. These configurations are not represented in the CPP algorithm and as such the associated retrieval uncertainties are potentially substantial.

    It is shown that the CWP retrievals are very sensitive to the assumptions made in the CPP code. The CWP retrieval errors are generally small for unbroken single-layer clouds with COT > 10, with retrieval errors of ~3% for liquid water clouds to ~10% for ice clouds. In a multi-layer cloud, when both liquid water and ice clouds are present in a pixel, the CWP retrieval errors increase dramatically; depending on the cloud, this can lead to uncertainties of 40–80%. CWP retrievals also become more uncertain when the cloud does not cover the entire pixel, leading to errors of ~50% for cloud fractions of 0.75 and even larger errors for smaller cloud fractions. Thus, the satellite retrieval of cloud physical properties of broken clouds as well as multi-layer clouds is complicated by inherent difficulties, and the proper interpretation of such retrievals requires extra care.

  15. Retrieval of radiative and microphysical properties of clouds from multispectral infrared measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabuchi, Hironobu; Saito, Masanori; Tokoro, Yuka; Putri, Nurfiena Sagita; Sekiguchi, Miho

    2016-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing of the macroscopic, microphysical, and optical properties of clouds are useful for studying spatial and temporal variations of clouds at various scales and constraining cloud physical processes in climate and weather prediction models. Instead of using separate independent algorithms for different cloud properties, a unified, optimal estimation-based cloud retrieval algorithm is developed and applied to moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations using ten thermal infrared bands. The model considers sensor configurations, background surface and atmospheric profile, and microphysical and optical models of ice and liquid cloud particles and radiative transfer in a plane-parallel, multilayered atmosphere. Measurement and model errors are thoroughly quantified from direct comparisons of clear-sky observations over the ocean with model calculations. Performance tests by retrieval simulations show that ice cloud properties are retrieved with high accuracy when cloud optical thickness (COT) is between 0.1 and 10. Cloud-top pressure is inferred with uncertainty lower than 10 % when COT is larger than 0.3. Applying the method to a tropical cloud system and comparing the results with the MODIS Collection 6 cloud product shows good agreement for ice cloud optical thickness when COT is less than about 5. Cloud-top height agrees well with estimates obtained by the CO2 slicing method used in the MODIS product. The present algorithm can detect optically thin parts at the edges of high clouds well in comparison with the MODIS product, in which these parts are recognized as low clouds by the infrared window method. The cloud thermodynamic phase in the present algorithm is constrained by cloud-top temperature, which tends not to produce results with an ice cloud that is too warm and liquid cloud that is too cold.

  16. Retrieval of Boundary Layer 3D Cloud Properties Using Scanning Cloud Radar and 3D Radiative Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, Roger [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-01-24

    Retrievals of cloud optical and microphysical properties for boundary layer clouds, including those widely used by ASR investigators, frequently assume that clouds are sufficiently horizontally homogeneous that scattering and absorption (at all wavelengths) can be treated using one dimensional (1D) radiative transfer, and that differences in the field-of-view of different sensors are unimportant. Unfortunately, most boundary layer clouds are far from horizontally homogeneous, and numerous theoretical and observational studies show that the assumption of horizontal homogeneity leads to significant errors. The introduction of scanning cloud and precipitation radars at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program sites presents opportunities to move beyond the horizontally homogeneous assumption. The primary objective of this project was to develop a 3D retrieval for warm-phase (liquid only) boundary layer cloud microphysical properties, and to assess errors in current 1D (non-scanning) approaches. Specific research activities also involved examination of the diurnal cycle of hydrometeors as viewed by ARM cloud radar, and continued assessment of precipitation impacts on retrievals of cloud liquid water path using passive microwaves.

  17. Intercomparisons of marine boundary layer cloud properties from the ARM CAP-MBL campaign and two MODIS cloud products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Song, Hua; Ma, Po-Lun; Ghan, Steven J.; Platnick, Steven; Minnis, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    From April 2009 to December 2010, the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program carried out an observational field campaign on Graciosa Island, targeting the marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds over the Azores region. In this paper, we present an intercomparison of the MBL cloud properties, namely, cloud liquid water path (LWP), cloud optical thickness (COT), and cloud-droplet effective radius (CER), among retrievals from the ARM mobile facility and two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud products (Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)-MODIS and Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System-MODIS). A total of 63 daytime single-layer MBL cloud cases are selected for intercomparison. Comparison of collocated retrievals indicates that the two MODIS cloud products agree well on both COT and CER retrievals, with the correlation coefficient R > 0.95, despite their significant difference in spatial sampling. In both MODIS products, the CER retrievals based on the 2.1 µm band (CER2.1) are significantly larger than those based on the 3.7 µm band (CER3.7). The GSFC-MODIS cloud product is collocated and compared with ground-based ARM observations at several temporal-spatial scales. In general, the correlation increases with more precise collocation. For the 63 selected MBL cloud cases, the GSFC-MODIS LWP and COT retrievals agree reasonably well with the ground-based observations with no apparent bias and correlation coefficient R around 0.85 and 0.70, respectively. However, GSFC-MODIS CER3.7 and CER2.1 retrievals have a lower correlation (R 0.5) with the ground-based retrievals. For the 63 selected cases, they are on average larger than ground observations by about 1.5 µm and 3.0 µm, respectively. Taking into account that the MODIS CER retrievals are only sensitive to cloud top reduces the bias only by 0.5 µm.

  18. Correlation among Cirrus Ice Content, Water Vapor and Temperature in the TTL as Observed by CALIPSO and Aura-MLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flury, T.; Wu, D. L.; Read, W. G.

    2012-01-01

    Water vapor in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) has a local radiative cooling effect. As a source for ice in cirrus clouds, however, it can also indirectly produce infrared heating. Using NASA A-Train satellite measurements of CALIPSO and Aura/MLS we calculated the correlation of water vapor, ice water content and temperature in the TTL. We find that temperature strongly controls water vapor (correlation r =0.94) and cirrus clouds at 100 hPa (r = -0.91). Moreover we observe that the cirrus seasonal cycle is highly (r =-0.9) anticorrelated with the water vapor variation in the TTL, showing higher cloud occurrence during December-January-February. We further investigate the anticorrelation on a regional scale and find that the strong anticorrelation occurs generally in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone). The seasonal cycle of the cirrus ice water content is also highly anticorrelated to water vapor (r = -0.91) and our results support the hypothesis that the total water at 100 hPa is roughly constant. Temperature acts as a main regulator for balancing the partition between water vapor and cirrus clouds. Thus, to a large extent, the depleting water vapor in the TTL during DJF is a manifestation of cirrus formation.

  19. CloudSat observations of cloud-type distribution over the Indian summer monsoon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Subrahmanyam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional distribution of various cloud types over the Indian summer monsoon (ISM region using five years (2006–2010 of CloudSat observations during June-July-August-September months is discussed for the first time. As the radiative properties, latent heat released and microphysical properties of clouds differ largely depending on the cloud type, it becomes important to know what types of clouds occur over which region. In this regard, the present analysis establishes the three-dimensional distribution of frequency of occurrence of stratus (St, stratocumulus (Sc, nimbostratus (Ns, cumulus (Cu, altocumulus (Ac, altostratus (As, cirrus (Ci and deep convective (DC clouds over the ISM region. The results show that the various cloud types preferentially occur over some regions of the ISM, which are consistent during all the years of observations. It is found that the DC clouds frequently occur over northeast of Bay of Bengal (BoB, Ci clouds over a wide region of south BoB–Indian peninsula–equatorial Indian Ocean, and Sc clouds over the north Arabian Sea. Ac clouds preferentially occur over land, and a large amount of As clouds are found over BoB. The occurrence of both St and Ns clouds over the study region is much lower than all other cloud types.The interannual variability of all these clouds including their vertical distribution is discussed. It is envisaged that the present study opens up possibilities to quantify the feedback of individual cloud type in the maintenance of the ISM through radiative forcing and latent heat release.

  20. On the Development of Above-Anvil Cirrus Plumes in Extratropical Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homeyer, C. R.; McAuliffe, J. D.; Bedka, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    Expansive cirrus clouds present above the anvils of extratropical convection have been observed in satellite and aircraft-based imagery for several decades. Despite knowledge of their occurrence, the precise mechanisms and atmospheric conditions leading to their formation and maintenance are not entirely known. Here, we examine the formation of these cirrus "plumes" using a combination of satellite imagery, three-dimensional ground-based radar observations, assimilated atmospheric states from a state-of-the-art reanalysis, and idealized numerical simulations with explicitly resolved convection. Using data from ten recent cases (2013-Present), we find that all storms with above-anvil cirrus plumes reach altitudes 1 to 6 km above the tropopause. Thus, it is likely that these clouds represent the injection of cloud material into the lower stratosphere. Comparison of above-anvil cirrus plume cases with ten additional cases of observed tropopause-penetrating convection without plumes reveals that these clouds are associated with large vector differences between the motion of a storm and the environmental wind in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), suggesting that gravity wave breaking and/or stretching of the tropopause-penetrating cloud are/is more prevalent in plume-producing storms. No relationship is found between above-anvil cirrus plume occurrence and the stability of the lower stratosphere (or tropopause structure) or the duration of stratospheric penetration. Idealized model simulations of tropopause-penetrating convection with small and large magnitudes of storm-relative wind in the UTLS are found to reproduce the established observational relationship and show that frequent gravity wave breaking is the primary mechanism responsible for above-anvil cirrus plume formation.

  1. Masses, Radii, and Cloud Properties of the HR 8799 Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, Didier; Cushing, Michael; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Freedman, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The near-infrared colors of the planets directly imaged around the A star HR 8799 are much redder than most field brown dwarfs of the same effective temperature. Previous theoretical studies of these objects have compared the photometric and limited spectral data of the planets to the predictions of various atmosphere and evolution models and concluded that the atmospheres of planets b, c, and d are unusually cloudy or have unusual cloud properties. Most studies have also found that the inferred radii of some or all of the planets disagree with expectations of standard giant planet evolution models. Here we compare the available data to the predictions of our own set of atmospheric and evolution models that have been extensively tested against field L and T dwarfs, including the reddest L dwarfs. Unlike almost all previous studies we specify mutually self-consistent choices for effective temperature, gravity, cloud properties, and planetary radius. This procedure yields plausible and self-consistent values for the masses, effective temperatures, and cloud properties of all three planets. We find that the cloud properties of the HR 8799 planets are in fact not unusual but rather follow previously recognized trends including a gravity dependence on the temperature of the L to T spectral transition, some reasons for which we discuss. We find that the inferred mass of planet b is highly sensitive to the H and K band spectrum. Solutions for planets c and particularly d are less certain but are consistent with the generally accepted constraints on the age of the primary star and orbital dynamics. We also confirm that as for L and T dwarfs and solar system giant planets, non-equilibrium chemistry driven by atmospheric mixing is also important for these objects. Given the preponderance of data suggesting that the L to T spectral type transition is gravity dependent, we present a new evolution calculation that predicts cooling tracks on the near-infrared color

  2. Tropical cloud and precipitation regimes as seen from near-simultaneous TRMM, CloudSat, and CALIPSO observations and comparison with ISCCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhengzhao Johnny; Anderson, Ricardo C.; Rossow, William B.; Takahashi, Hanii

    2017-06-01

    Although Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and CloudSat/CALIPSO fly in different orbits, they frequently cross each other so that for the period between 2006 and 2010, a total of 15,986 intersect lines occurred within 20 min of each other from 30°S to 30°N, providing a rare opportunity to study tropical cloud and precipitation regimes and their internal vertical structure from near-simultaneous measurements by these active sensors. A k-means cluster analysis of TRMM and CloudSat matchups identifies three tropical cloud and precipitation regimes: the first two regimes correspond to, respectively, organized deep convection with heavy rain and cirrus anvils with moderate rain; the third regime is a convectively suppressed regime that can be further divided into three subregimes, which correspond to, respectively, stratocumulus clouds with drizzle, cirrus overlying low clouds, and nonprecipitating cumulus. Inclusion of CALIPSO data adds to the dynamic range of cloud properties and identifies one more cluster; subcluster analysis further identifies a thin, midlevel cloud regime associated with tropical mountain ranges. The radar-lidar cloud regimes are compared with the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) weather states (WSs) for the extended tropics. Focus is placed on the four convectively active WSs, namely, WS1-WS4. ISCCP WS1 and WS2 are found to be counterparts of Regime 1 and Regime 2 in radar-lidar observations, respectively. ISCCP WS3 and WS4, which are mainly isolated convection and broken, detached cirrus, do not have a strong association with any individual radar and lidar regimes, a likely effect of the different sampling strategies between ISCCP and active sensors and patchy cloudiness of these WSs.

  3. Zooming in on cirrus with the Canadian Regional Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanof, C.; Stefanof, A.; Beaulne, A.; Munoz Alpizar, R.; Szyrmer, W.; Blanchet, J.

    2004-05-01

    The Canadian Regional Climate Model plus a microphysical scheme: two-moments microphysics with three hydrometeor categories (cloud liquid water, pristine ice crystals and larger precipitation crystals) is used to test the simulation in forecast mode using ECMWF data at 0.4 X 0.4 degree. We are zooming in on cirrus at higher resolutions (9, 1.8, 0.36 km). We are currently using the data set measured in APEX-E3, measurements of radar, lidar, passive instruments and interpreted microphysics for some flights (G-II, C404, B200). The radar and lidar data are available for high level cirrus. The south west of Japon is the flight region. The dates are March 20, March 27 and April 2, 2003. We first focus on the March 27 frontal system. We did a rigorous synoptical analysis for the cases. The cirrus at 360 m resolution are simulated. The cloud structure and some similarities between model simulation and observations will be presented.

  4. FAME-C: cloud property retrieval using synergistic AATSR and MERIS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal Henken, C. K.; Lindstrot, R.; Preusker, R.; Fischer, J.

    2014-11-01

    A newly developed daytime cloud property retrieval algorithm, FAME-C (Freie Universität Berlin AATSR MERIS Cloud), is presented. Synergistic observations from the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) and the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS), both mounted on the polar-orbiting Environmental Satellite (Envisat), are used for cloud screening. For cloudy pixels two main steps are carried out in a sequential form. First, a cloud optical and microphysical property retrieval is performed using an AATSR near-infrared and visible channel. Cloud phase, cloud optical thickness, and effective radius are retrieved, and subsequently cloud water path is computed. Second, two cloud top height products are retrieved based on independent techniques. For cloud top temperature, measurements in the AATSR infrared channels are used, while for cloud top pressure, measurements in the MERIS oxygen-A absorption channel are used. Results from the cloud optical and microphysical property retrieval serve as input for the two cloud top height retrievals. Introduced here are the AATSR and MERIS forward models and auxiliary data needed in FAME-C. Also, the optimal estimation method, which provides uncertainty estimates of the retrieved property on a pixel basis, is presented. Within the frame of the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (CCI) project, the first global cloud property retrievals have been conducted for the years 2007-2009. For this time period, verification efforts are presented, comparing, for four selected regions around the globe, FAME-C cloud optical and microphysical properties to cloud optical and microphysical properties derived from measurements of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite. The results show a reasonable agreement between the cloud optical and microphysical property retrievals. Biases are generally smallest for marine stratocumulus clouds: -0.28, 0.41 μm and -0.18 g m-2 for

  5. Serendipity observations of far infrared cirrus emission in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey: Analysis of far-infrared correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Bot, Caroline; Boulanger, Francois; Lagache, Guilaine; Miville-Deschenes, Marc-Antoine; Draine, Bruce; Martin, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of far-infrared dust emission from diffuse cirrus clouds. This study is based on serendipitous observations at 160 microns at high galactic latitude with the Multiband Imaging Photometer (MIPS) onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope by the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS). These observations are complemented with IRIS data at 100 and 60 microns and constitute one of the most sensitive and unbiased samples of far infrared observations at small scale of diffuse interstellar clouds. Outside regions dominated by the cosmic infrared background fluctuations, we observe a substantial scatter in the 160/100 colors from cirrus emission. We compared the 160/100 color variations to 60/100 colors in the same fields and find a trend of decreasing 60/100 with increasing 160/100. This trend can not be accounted for by current dust models by changing solely the interstellar radiation field. It requires a significant change of dust properties such as grain size distribution or emissivity or ...

  6. Cloud droplets to drizzle: Contribution of transition drops to microphysical and optical properties of marine stratocumulus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glienke, S.; Kostinski, A.; Fugal, J.; Shaw, R. A.; Borrmann, S.; Stith, J.

    2017-08-01

    Aircraft measurements of the ubiquitous marine stratocumulus cloud type, with over 3000 km of in situ data from the Pacific during the Cloud System Evolution in the Trades experiment, show the ability of the Holographic Detector for Clouds (HOLODEC) instrument to smoothly interpolate the small and large droplet data collected with Cloud Droplet Probe and 2DC instruments. The combined, comprehensive instrument suite reveals a surprisingly large contribution in the predrizzle size range of 40-80 μm (transition droplets, or drizzlets), a range typically not measured and assumed to reside in a condensation-to-collision minimum between cloud droplet and drizzle modes. Besides shedding light on the onset of collision coalescence, drizzlets are essential contributors to optical and chemical properties because of a substantial contribution to the total surface area. When adjusted to match spatial resolution of spaceborne remote sensing, the missing drizzlets bring in situ measurements to closer agreement with satellite observations.

  7. Numerical Analysis of Effects of Atmospheric Ice Nuclei Concentrations on Radiant Properties of Cold Clouds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Juan; MAO Jietai; HU Zhijin; YOU Laiguang; ZHANG Qiang

    2005-01-01

    Numerical simulations of 18 precipitation days from June to September in 1996 with the 3D convective cloud model of CAMS (Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Version 2000) were conducted. In these simulations, the concentration of IN (ice nuclei) was assumed to increase by 5 times. The results show that when IN concentrations increase, the amounts of precipitation decrease, cloud tops heighten and the areas of cloud tops increase in 80 percent simulated clouds. Moreover, in 95 percent simulated clouds, the sizes of ice crystals in clouds decrease and quantities increase. These results mean that the physical properties of clouds will change when IN concentration increases. The radiant properties of clouds and climate may also change directly and indirectly.

  8. Alpine cloud climatology using long-term NOAA-AVHRR satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaestner, M.; Kriebel, K.T.

    2000-07-01

    Three different climates have been identified by our evaluation of AVHRR (advanced very high resolution radiometer) data using APOLLO (AVHRR processing scheme over land, clouds and ocean) for a five-years cloud climatology of the Alpine region. The cloud cover data from four layers were spatially averaged in boxes of 15 km by 14 km. The study area only comprises 540 km by 560 km, but contains regions with moderate, Alpine and Mediterranean climate. Data from the period July 1989 until December 1996 have been considered. The temporal resolution is one scene per day, the early afternoon pass, yielding monthly means of satellite derived cloud coverages 5% to 10% above the daily mean compared to conventional surface observation. At nonvegetated sites the cloudiness is sometimes significantly overestimated. Averaging high resolution cloud data seems to be superior to low resolution measurements of cloud properties and averaging is favourable in topographical homogeneous regions only. The annual course of cloud cover reveals typical regional features as foehn or temporal singularities as the so-called Christmas thaw. The cloud cover maps in spatially high resolution show local luff/lee features which outline the orography. Less cloud cover is found over the Alps than over the forelands in winter, an accumulation of thick cirrus is found over the High Alps and an accumulation of thin cirrus north of the Alps. (orig.)

  9. The Properties of Bound and Unbound Molecular Cloud Populations Formed in Galactic Disc Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Rachel L; Wadsley, James; Sills, Alison; Couchman, H M P

    2015-01-01

    We explore the effect of galactic environment on properties of molecular clouds. Using clouds formed in a large-scale galactic disc simulation, we measure the observable properties from synthetic column density maps. We confirm that a significant fraction of unbound clouds forms naturally in a galactic disc environment and that a mixed population of bound and unbound clouds can match observed scaling relations and distributions for extragalactic molecular clouds. By dividing the clouds into inner and outer disc populations, we compare their distributions of properties and test whether there are statistically significant differences between them. We find that clouds in the outer disc have lower masses, sizes, and velocity dispersions as compared to those in the inner disc for reasonable choices of the inner/outer boundary. We attribute the differences to the strong impact of galactic shear on the disc stability at large galactocentric radii. In particular, our Toomre analysis of the disc shows a narrowing enve...

  10. Cloud Properties of CERES-MODIS Edition 4 and CERES-VIIRS Edition 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun-Mack, Sunny; Minnis, Patrick; Chang, Fu-Lung; Hong, Gang; Arduini, Robert; Chen, Yan; Trepte, Qing; Yost, Chris; Smith, Rita; Brown, Ricky; Chu, Churngwei; Heckert, Elizabeth; Gibson, Sharon; Heck, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) analyzes MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) to derive cloud properties that are combine with aerosol and CERES broadband flux data to create a multi-parameter data set for climate study. CERES has produced over 15 years of data from Terra and over 13 years of data from Aqua using the CERES-MODIS Edition-2 cloud retrieval algorithm. A recently revised algorithm, CERESMODIS Edition 4, has been developed and is now generating enhanced cloud data for climate research (over 10 years for Terra and 8 years for Aqua). New multispectral retrievals of properties are included along with a multilayer cloud retrieval system. Cloud microphysical properties are reported at 3 wavelengths, 0.65, 1.24, and 2.1 microns to enable better estimates of the vertical profiles of cloud water contents. Cloud properties over snow are retrieved using the 1.24-micron channel. A new CERES-VIIRS cloud retrieval package was developed for the VIIRS spectral complement and is currently producing the CERES-VIIRS Edition 1 cloud dataset. The results from CERES-MODIS Edition 4 and CERES-VIIRS Edition 1 are presented and compared with each other and other datasets, including CALIPSO, CloudSat and the CERES-MODIS Edition-2 results.

  11. Development of EarthCARE/MSI ice and water cloud properties products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, S.; Nagao, T. M.; Ishida, H.; Letu, H.; Hashimoto, M.; Nakajima, T. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Clouds and aerosols are the major uncertainty in the understanding of the Earth's climate system. An improvement of understanding and better modeling of the relationship of clouds, aerosols and radiation are therefore prominent part in climate research and weather prediction. It is important to obtain the global data of clouds and aerosols occurrence, structure and physical properties that are derived from measurements of solar and thermal radiation. EarthCARE (Earth Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation Explorer) is one of the future earth observation mission of ESA and JAXA. The satellite will carry four instruments for observation of clouds and aerosols; Atmospheric Lidar (ATLID), Cloud Profiling Rader (CPR), Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI), and Broad-Band Radiometer (BBR). This mission aims at understanding of the role that clouds and aerosols play in reflecting incident solar radiation back into space and trapping infrared radiation emitted from Earth's surface. These observations are needed to improve the precision of climate variability prediction. MSI provides across-track information on cloud with channels in the visible, near infrared, shortwave and thermal infrared. Water cloud optical properties are derived in using EarthCARE/MSI standard product based on CLAUDIA [Ishida and Nakajima, 2009] and CAPCOM [Nakajima and Nakajima, 1995; Kawamoto et al., 2001]. Research product based on MWP method [M. Hashimoto, 2015. PhD Thesis] is advanced to obtain the ice cloud optical properties. In this presentation, development of the products and retrieved cloud properties will be introduced.

  12. Comparison of surface-derived and ISCCP cloud optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Poole, L. R.; Lecroy, S. R.; Rossow, W. B.; Bell, K. L.; Robinson, David A.; Grund, Christian J.

    1990-01-01

    One objective of the FIRE Project is to validate the cloud parameters given on ISCCP tapes. ISCCP first defines whether or not a region is clear or has clouds based on two threshold algorithms. If the region has clouds, then a cloud optical depth is given as well as a cloud height. Special high resolution ISCCP CX tapes were created for the time period of the Wisconsin FIRE experiment. These tapes did not include the cloud height product, however, other parameters used to make up the standard ISCCP Cl products were available. The ISCCP cloud/no cloud and cloud depth parameters are compared with surface derived values for the Wisconsin FIRE region during the October 27 and 28 case study days.

  13. Ten Years of Cloud Properties from MODIS: Global Statistics and Use in Climate Model Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven E.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), launched onboard the Terra and Aqua spacecrafts, began Earth observations on February 24, 2000 and June 24,2002, respectively. Among the algorithms developed and applied to this sensor, a suite of cloud products includes cloud masking/detection, cloud-top properties (temperature, pressure), and optical properties (optical thickness, effective particle radius, water path, and thermodynamic phase). All cloud algorithms underwent numerous changes and enhancements between for the latest Collection 5 production version; this process continues with the current Collection 6 development. We will show example MODIS Collection 5 cloud climatologies derived from global spatial . and temporal aggregations provided in the archived gridded Level-3 MODIS atmosphere team product (product names MOD08 and MYD08 for MODIS Terra and Aqua, respectively). Data sets in this Level-3 product include scalar statistics as well as 1- and 2-D histograms of many cloud properties, allowing for higher order information and correlation studies. In addition to these statistics, we will show trends and statistical significance in annual and seasonal means for a variety of the MODIS cloud properties, as well as the time required for detection given assumed trends. To assist in climate model evaluation, we have developed a MODIS cloud simulator with an accompanying netCDF file containing subsetted monthly Level-3 statistical data sets that correspond to the simulator output. Correlations of cloud properties with ENSO offer the potential to evaluate model cloud sensitivity; initial results will be discussed.

  14. The interpretation of remotely sensed cloud properties from a model parameterization perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The goals of ISCCP and FIRE are, broadly speaking, to provide methods for the retrieval of cloud properties from satellites, and to improve cloud radiation models and the parameterization of clouds in GCMs. This study suggests a direction for GCM cloud parameterizations based on analysis of Landsat and ISCCP satellite data. For low level single layer clouds it is found that the mean retrieved liquid water pathe in cloudy pixels is essentially invariant to the cloud fraction, at least in the range 0.2 - 0.8. This result is very important since it allows the cloud fraction to be estimated if the mean liquid water path of cloud in a general circulation model gridcell is known. 3 figs.

  15. CCN Properties of Organic Aerosol Collected Below and within Marine Stratocumulus Clouds near Monterey, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akua Asa-Awuku

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The composition of aerosol from cloud droplets differs from that below cloud. Its implications for the Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN activity are the focus of this study. Water-soluble organic matter from below cloud, and cloud droplet residuals off the coast of Monterey, California were collected; offline chemical composition, CCN activity and surface tension measurements coupled with Köhler Theory Analysis are used to infer the molar volume and surfactant characteristics of organics in both samples. Based on the surface tension depression of the samples, it is unlikely that the aerosol contains strong surfactants. The activation kinetics for all samples examined are consistent with rapid (NH42SO4 calibration aerosol. This is consistent with our current understanding of droplet kinetics for ambient CCN. However, the carbonaceous material in cloud drop residuals is far more hygroscopic than in sub-cloud aerosol, suggestive of the impact of cloud chemistry on the hygroscopic properties of organic matter.

  16. The Resolved Properties of Extragalactic Giant Molecular Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Bolatto, Alberto D; Rosolowsky, Erik; Walter, Fabian; Blitz, Leo

    2008-01-01

    We use high spatial resolution observations of CO to systematically measure the resolved size-line width, luminosity-line width, luminosity-size, and the mass-luminosity relations of Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs) in a variety of extragalactic systems. Although the data are heterogeneous we analyze them in a consistent manner to remove the biases introduced by limited sensitivity and resolution, thus obtaining reliable sizes, velocity dispersions, and luminosities. We compare the results obtained in dwarf galaxies with those from the Local Group spiral galaxies. We find that extragalactic GMC properties measured across a wide range of environments are very much compatible with those in the Galaxy. We use these results to investigate metallicity trends in the cloud average column density and virial CO-to-H2 factor. We find that these measurements do not accord with simple predictions from photoionization-regulated star formation theory, although this could be due to the fact that we do not sample small enough s...

  17. Single-scattering properties of droxtals

    CERN Document Server

    Ping, Y; Heymsfield, A J; Hu, Y X; Huang, H L; Tsay, S C; Ackerman, S

    2003-01-01

    Small ice crystals have been found to occur in high concentrations in polar stratospheric clouds and the upper portion of cirrus clouds, where temperatures are extremely low (often less than -50 deg. C). The scattering properties of these small crystals are important to space-borne remote sensing, especially for the retrieval of cirrus properties using visible and near-infrared channels. Previous research has shown that the commonly used spherical and 'quasi-spherical' approximations for these ice crystals can lead to significant errors in light scattering and radiative transfer calculations. We suggest that droxtals more accurately represent the shape of these small ice crystals. The single-scattering properties of ice droxtals have been computed at visible and infrared wavelengths using the finite-difference time domain method for size parameters smaller than 20. Further study of the optical properties of larger droxtals (size parameter greater than 20) will be carried out using an improved geometric optics...

  18. Quantifying retrieval uncertainties in the CM-SAF cloud physical property algorithm with simulated SEVIRI observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Jonkheid

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainties in the cloud physical properties derived from satellite observations make it difficult to interpret model evaluation studies. In this paper, the uncertainties in the cloud water path (CWP retrievals derived with the cloud physical properties retrieval algorithm (CPP of the climate monitoring satellite application facility (CM-SAF are investigated. To this end, a numerical simulator of MSG-SEVIRI observations was developed that calculates the reflectances at 0.64 and 1.63 μm for a wide range of cloud parameters, satellite viewing geometries and surface albedos. These reflectances are used as input to CPP, and the retrieved values of CWP are compared to the original input of the simulator.

    It is shown that the CWP retrievals are very sensitive to the assumptions made in the CPP code. The CWP retrieval errors are generally small for unbroken single-phase clouds with COT >10, with retrieval errors of ~3% for liquid water clouds to ~10% for ice clouds. When both liquid water and ice clouds are present in a pixel, the CWP retrieval errors increase dramatically; depending on the cloud, this can lead to uncertainties of 40–80%. CWP retrievals also become more uncertain when the cloud does not cover the entire pixel, leading to errors of ~50% for cloud fractions of 0.75 and even larger errors for smaller cloud fractions. Thus, the satellite retrieval of cloud physical properties of broken clouds and multi-phase clouds is complicated by inherent difficulties, and the proper interpretation of such retrievals requires extra care.

  19. Satellite cloud and precipitation property retrievals for climate monitoring and hydrological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, E. L. A.

    2012-03-01

    This thesis presents the retrieval, evaluation, and application of cloud physical property datasets (cloud phase, cloud particle effective radius, and precipitation occurrence and intensity) obtained from Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) reflectance measurements using the Cloud Physical Properties (CPP) retrieval algorithm. In Chapter 3 it is shown that the CPP cloud-phase retrieval algorithm has sufficient accuracy (West Africa. During the afternoon, precipitation occurrence frequency over dry soils becomes significantly higher than over wet soils, whereas for precipitation intensity no significant difference is discerned. The study demonstrates that the combination of satellite-based soil moisture and precipitation observations can be helpful in improving the understanding of the land surface-precipitation interaction over tropical areas. The thesis concludes with a number of recommendations on future algorithm improvements and potential research applications. For both cloud phase and precipitation properties, extension of the algorithm to include nighttime observations would be desirable to enable detailed studies on the full diurnal cycle. Further, the SEVIRI High-Resolution Visible (HRV) channel could be incorporated to correct retrieved cloud physical properties for broken and inhomogeneous cloud cases. Finally, the accurate cloud phase and precipitation datasets combined with the high SEVIRI spatial and temporal sampling resolution enables possibilities for detailed research on climate monitoring, nowcasting applications, evaluation of cloud schemes in climate models, studies on land surface-precipitation interactions (with a special focus on the diurnal cycle), and assimilation of the datasets in weather and climate models

  20. To what extent can cirrus seeding counteract global warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Blaz; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2017-04-01

    The idea of modifying cirrus clouds to directly counteract greenhouse gas warming has gained a lot of momentum in recent years, despite large disputes over its physical feasibility. We use the ECHAM-HAM general circulation model to evaluate the temperature and precipitation responses to cirrus thinning by seeding with efficient ice nucleating particles and increasing ice crystal sedimentation velocities in a 1.5xCO2 world. The seeding scenario can counteract about 40% of the warming and precipitation increase induced by 1.5 x CO2 concentrations with respect to present day values. The idealized ice crystal sedimentation velocity increase scenario on the other hand fully restores the global annual temperature but counteracts only half of the precipitation increase. Moreover, we define a climate damage function, quadratic in temperature and precipitation anomalies to calculate the damage of the different scenarios in 21 selected land regions. Seeding can decrease about 55% of the CO2 induced damage, while the sedimentation velocity increase can counteract about 95% of the damage. A regional analysis shows the negative responses of seeding are minimal both in terms of precipitation and temperature, which makes cirrus seeding an attractive geoengineering method.

  1. Contrasting influences of aerosols on cloud properties during deficient and abundant monsoon years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Nitin; Dave, Prashant; Venkataraman, Chandra

    2017-03-24

    Direct aerosol radiative forcing facilitates the onset of Indian monsoon rainfall, based on synoptic scale fast responses acting over timescales of days to a month. Here, we examine relationships between aerosols and coincident clouds over the Indian subcontinent, using observational data from 2000 to 2009, from the core monsoon region. Season mean and daily timescales were considered. The correlation analyses of cloud properties with aerosol optical depth revealed that deficient monsoon years were characterized by more frequent and larger decreases in cloud drop size and ice water path, but increases in cloud top pressure, with increases in aerosol abundance. The opposite was observed during abundant monsoon years. The correlations of greater aerosol abundance, with smaller cloud drop size, lower evidence of ice processes and shallower cloud height, during deficient rainfall years, imply cloud inhibition; while those with larger cloud drop size, greater ice processes and a greater cloud vertical extent, during abundant rainfall years, suggest cloud invigoration. The study establishes that continental aerosols over India alter cloud properties in diametrically opposite ways during contrasting monsoon years. The mechanisms underlying these effects need further analysis.

  2. Modeling of Protostellar Clouds and their Observational Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Zhilkin, A G; Zamozdra, S N

    2009-01-01

    A physical model and two-dimensional numerical method for computing the evolution and spectra of protostellar clouds are described. The physical model is based on a system of magneto-gasdynamical equations, including ohmic and ambipolar diffusion, and a scheme for calculating the thermal and ionization structure of a cloud. The dust and gas temperatures are determined during the calculations of the thermal structure of the cloud. The results of computing the dynamical and thermal structure of the cloud are used to model the radiative transfer in continuum and in molecular lines. We presented the results for clouds in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium. The evolution of a rotating magnetic protostellar cloud starting from a quasi-static state is also considered. Spectral maps for optically thick lines of linear molecules are analyzed. We have shown that the influence of the magnetic field and rotation can lead to a redistribution of angular momentum in the cloud and the formation of a characteristic rotationa...

  3. Factors Controlling the Properties of Multi-Phase Arctic Stratocumulus Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridlind, Ann; Ackerman, Andrew; Menon, Surabi

    2005-01-01

    The 2004 Multi-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) IOP at the ARM NSA site focused on measuring the properties of autumn transition-season arctic stratus and the environmental conditions controlling them, including concentrations of heterogeneous ice nuclei. Our work aims to use a large-eddy simulation (LES) code with embedded size-resolved aerosol and cloud microphysics to identify factors controlling multi-phase arctic stratus. Our preliminary simulations of autumn transition-season clouds observed during the 1994 Beaufort and Arctic Seas Experiment (BASE) indicated that low concentrations of ice nuclei, which were not measured, may have significantly lowered liquid water content and thereby stabilized cloud evolution. However, cloud drop concentrations appeared to be virtually immune to changes in liquid water content, indicating an active Bergeron process with little effect of collection on drop number concentration. We will compare these results with preliminary simulations from October 8-13 during MPACE. The sensitivity of cloud properties to uncertainty in other factors, such as large-scale forcings and aerosol profiles, will also be investigated. Based on the LES simulations with M-PACE data, preliminary results from the NASA GlSS single-column model (SCM) will be used to examine the sensitivity of predicted cloud properties to changing cloud drop number concentrations for multi-phase arctic clouds. Present parametrizations assumed fixed cloud droplet number concentrations and these will be modified using M-PACE data.

  4. A test of cirrus ice crystal scattering phase functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, P. R.; Baran, A. J.; Kaye, P. H.; Hirst, E.; Greenaway, R.

    2003-07-01

    In-situ ice crystal scattering has been measured in cirrus cloud with the Small Ice Detector laser scattering probe. Using light scattered from single particles (maximum dimension ~<100 μm) at 4-10° and 20-40° we have tested ice crystal scattering phase functions for spheres, hexagonal columns, hexagonal plates, polycrystals an aggregate of columns and an analytic function. We find that phase functions that lack a pronounced 22° halo are the best representatives for the example data presented here. Spherical ice particle phase functions do not satisfy the measurements.

  5. Galactic cosmic ray and El Nino Southern Oscillation trends in International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project D2 low-cloud properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, N.; Svensmark, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    -cloud properties over the period July 1983 to August 1994 suggests that low clouds are statistically related to two processes, (1) GCR and (2) El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), with GCR explaining a greater percentage of the total variance. Areas where satellites have an unobstructed view of low cloud possess...

  6. The GALEX Ultraviolet Virgo Cluster Survey (GUViCS). V. Ultraviolet diffuse emission and cirrus properties in the Virgo cluster direction

    CERN Document Server

    Boissier, S; Voyer, E; Bianchi, S; Pappalardo, C; Guhathakurta, P; Heinis, S; Cortese, L; Duc, P -A; Cuillandre, J -C; Davies, J I; Smith, M W L

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: The Virgo direction has been observed at many wavelengths in the recent years, in particular in the ultraviolet with GALEX. The far ultraviolet (FUV) diffuse light detected by GALEX bears interesting information on the large scale distribution of Galactic dust, owing to the GALEX FUV band sensitivity and resolution. AIMS: We aim to characterise the ultraviolet large scale distribution of diffuse emission in the Virgo direction. A map of this emission may become useful for various studies by identifying regions where dust affects observations by either scattering light or absorbing radiation. METHODS: We construct mosaics of the FUV and near ultraviolet diffuse emission over a large sky region (RA 12 to 13 hours, DEC 0 to 20 degrees) surrounding the Virgo cluster, using all the GALEX available data in the area. We test for the first time the utilisation of the FUV diffuse light as a Galactic extinction E(B-V) tracer. RESULTS: The FUV diffuse light scattered on cirrus reveals details in their geometry....

  7. The properties of diffuse interstellar dust clouds as determined from GALEX and infrared (IRAS, Herschel) observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengot, M.; Gómez de Castro, A. I.

    2017-03-01

    Dust grain properties are known to vary in the interstellar medium depending on the density, the ultraviolet radiation field and the local abundances of metal elements. Though there are plenty of studies addressing the atomic and molecular gas component or the infrared radiation of dust grains, there are very few studies that address the spatial distribution of small large grains and large molecules such as the Polyaromathic Hydrocarbons (PAHs).In this work, we make use of the GALEX survey of the Galaxy to identify the absorption produced in the GALEX far UV (write in the spectral range) and new UV (write in the spectral range) by well know infrared cirrus and compare the absorption produced in the UV by the thin cirrus with the infrared dust emissivity in various bands; (describe the IRAS bands used and whether there is any Herschel band in this study). As the spatial resolution of GALEX images is significantly larger than that of IRAS images data handling has required mosaicking and and rescaling GALEX data as well as transforming the images form equinox 1950 to equinox 2000. We describe in this work the computational procedures used to generate the ultraviolet and infrared maps. Also we present our first results that show there is an anticorrelation between UV and infrared (IR) emission, as other wise expected. The largest concentrations of dust grains radiate IR photons and absorb UV photons.

  8. The effect of aerosol representation on cloud microphysical properties in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, In-Jin; Iguchi, Takamichi; Kim, Sang-Woo; Nakajima, Teruyuki; Yoon, Soon-Chang

    2014-02-01

    This study performed a three-dimensional regional-scale simulation of aerosol and cloud fields using a meso-scale non-hydrostatic model with a bin-based cloud microphysics. The representation of aerosols in the model has been improved to account for more realistic multi-modal size distribution and multiple chemical compositions. Two case studies for shallow stratocumulus over Northeast Asia in March 2005 were conducted with different aerosol conditions to evaluate model performance. Improved condensation nuclei (CN) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are attributable to the newly constructed aerosol size distribution. The simulated results of cloud microphysical properties (cloud droplet effective radius, liquid water path, and optical thickness) with improved CN/CCN number are close to the retrievals from satellite-based observation. The effects of aerosol on the microphysical properties of shallow stratocumulus are investigated by model simulation, in terms of columnar aerosol number concentration. Enhanced aerosol number concentration results in increased liquid water path in humid case, but invariant liquid water path in dry case primarily due to precipitation occurrence. The changes of cloud microphysical properties are more predominant for small aerosol burden than for large aerosol burden with the retarded changes in cloud mass and size due to inactive condensation and collision-coalescence processes. Quantitative evaluation of sensitivity factor between aerosol and cloud microphysical properties indicates a strong aerosol-cloud interaction in Northeast Asian region.

  9. The properties of bound and unbound molecular cloud populations formed in galactic disc simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Rachel L.; Benincasa, Samantha M.; Wadsley, James; Sills, Alison; Couchman, H. M. P.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the effect of galactic environment on properties of molecular clouds. Using clouds formed in a large-scale galactic disc simulation, we measure the observable properties from synthetic column density maps. We confirm that a significant fraction of unbound clouds forms naturally in a galactic disc environment and that a mixed population of bound and unbound clouds can match observed scaling relations and distributions for extragalactic molecular clouds. By dividing the clouds into inner and outer disc populations, we compare their distributions of properties and test whether there are statistically significant differences between them. We find that clouds in the outer disc have lower masses, sizes, and velocity dispersions as compared to those in the inner disc for reasonable choices of the inner/outer boundary. We attribute the differences to the strong impact of galactic shear on the disc stability at large galactocentric radii. In particular, our Toomre analysis of the disc shows a narrowing envelope of unstable masses as a function of radius, resulting in the formation of smaller, lower mass fragments in the outer disc. We also show that the star formation rate is affected by the environment of the parent cloud, and is particularly influenced by the underlying surface density profile of the gas throughout the disc. Our work highlights the strengths of using galaxy-scale simulations to understand the formation and evolution of cloud properties - and the star formation within them - in the context of their environment.

  10. Investigating the impact of anthropogenic pollution on cloud properties at the North Slope of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maahn, M.; de Boer, G.; Creamean, J.; Wu, W.; McFarquhar, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosols have a strong potential to influence cloud properties when acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) or ice nucleating particles (INPs). In particular, they can impact the number, size, and phase of cloud particles as well as the cloud lifetime through aerosol indirect and semi-direct effects. These effects are of great importance for the radiation budget in polar regions due to the longwave emissions of mixed-phase clouds. In this study, we investigate how cloud properties such as phase, liquid water content, and droplet effective radius are altered due to aerosols originating from mostly anthropogenic pollution. In situ aircraft observations obtained from June to September 2015 during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Airborne Carbon Measurements (ARM-ACME-V) field campaign are used to characterize the aerosol and cloud properties. For this, the Gulfstream-1 aircraft was equipped with a wide range of instruments to sample cloud particles (e.g., Fast Cloud Droplet Probe (FCDP), 2D Stereo Particle Imaging Probe (2DS), High Volume Precipitation Spectrometer (HVPS)), aerosols (e.g., nephelometer, Condensation Particle Counter (CPC), Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer (PCASP)) and trace gases. These in situ measurements are complemented by ground-based remote sensing cloud instruments (cloud radar, radiometer, and lidar) located at the two ARM sites on the North Slope of Alaska (Barrow and Oliktok Point). Additional surface observations at these sites enabled us to examine how meteorological and surface conditions influence the impact of aerosols on cloud properties. Comparisons of data collected at these two sites are of particular interest due to the different characteristics with respect to anthropogenic aerosol background: While Oliktok Point is surrounded by petroleum production facilities, Barrow represents a more pristine environment.

  11. On the importance of small ice crystals in tropical anvil cirrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Jensen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In situ measurements of ice crystal concentrations and sizes made with aircraft instrumentation over the past two decades have often indicated the presence of numerous relatively small (< 50 μm diameter crystals in cirrus clouds. Further, these measurements frequently indicate that small crystals account for a large fraction of the extinction in cirrus clouds. The fact that the instruments used to make these measurements, such as the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP and the Cloud Aerosol Spectrometer (CAS, ingest ice crystals into the sample volume through inlets has led to suspicion that the indications of numerous small-crystals could be artifacts of large-crystal shattering on the instrument inlets. We present new aircraft measurements in anvil cirrus sampled during the Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling (TC4 campaign with the 2-Dimensional Stereo (2D-S probe, which detects particles as small as 10 μm. The 2D-S has detector "arms" instead of an inlet tube. Since the 2D-S probe surfaces are much further from the sample volume than is the case for the instruments with inlets, it is expected that 2D-S will be less susceptible to shattering artifacts. In addition, particle inter-arrival times are used to identify and remove shattering artifacts that occur even with the 2D-S probe. The number of shattering artifacts identified by the 2D-S interarrival time analysis ranges from a negligible contribution to an order of magnitude or more enhancement in apparent ice concentration over the natural ice concentration, depending on the abundance of large crystals and the natural small-crystal concentration. The 2D-S measurements in tropical anvil cirrus suggest that natural small-crystal concentrations are typically one to two orders of magnitude lower than those inferred from CAS. The strong correlation between the CAS/2D-S ratio of small-crystal concentrations and large-crystal concentration suggests that the discrepancy is

  12. Validation of MODIS cloud microphysical properties with in situ measurements over the Southeast Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Min

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing the unique characteristics of the cloud over the Southeast Pacific (SEP off the coast of Chile during the VOCALS field campaign, we validated satellite remote sensing of cloud microphysical properties against in situ data from multi-aircraft observations, and studied the extent to which these retrieved properties are sufficiently constrained and consistent to reliably quantify the influence of aerosol loading on cloud droplet sizes. After constraining the spatial-temporal coincidence between satellite retrievals and in situ measurements, we selected 17 non-drizzle comparison pairs. For these cases the mean aircraft profiling times were within one hour of Terra overpass at both projected and un-projected (actual aircraft positions for two different averaging domains of 5 km and 25 km. Retrieved quantities that were averaged over a larger domain of 25 km compared better statistically with in situ observations than averages over a smaller domain of 5 km. Validation at projected aircraft positions was slightly better than un-projected aircraft positions for some parameters. Overall, both MODIS-retrieved effective radius and LWP were larger but highly correlated with the in situ measured effective radius and LWP. The observed effective radius difference between the two decreased with increasing cloud drop number concentration, and increased with increasing cloud geometrical thickness. Also, MODIS retrievals for adiabatic clouds agreed better with the in situ measurements than for sub-adiabatic clouds. Our validation and sensitivity analysis of simulated retrievals demonstrate that both cloud geometrical thickness and cloud adiabaticity are important factors in satellite retrievals of effective radius and cloud drop number concentration. The large variabilities in cloud geometric thickness and adiabaticity, the dependencies of cloud microphysical properties on both quantities (as demonstrated in our sensitivity study of simulated retrievals

  13. Unstable Dynamical Properties of Spiral Cloud Bands in Tropical Cyclones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Hong; ZHANG Ming

    2009-01-01

    A nondivergent barotropic model (Model 1) and a barotropic primitive equation vortex model (Model 2) are linearized respectively in this paper. Then their perturbation wave spectrums are computed with a normal mode approach to study the instability problem on an appointed tropical cyclone (TC)-like vortex, thereby, the dynamic instability properties of spiral cloud bands of TCs are discussed. The results show that the unstable mode of both models exhibits a spiral band-like structure that propagates away from the vortex outside the radius of maximum winds. The discrete modal instability of the pure vortex Rossby wave can account for the generation of the eyewall and the inner spiral band. The unstable mode in Model 2 has three parts, i.e., eyewall, inner and outer spiral bands. This mode can be interpreted as a mixed vortex Rossby-inertia gravitational wave. The unbalanced property of the wave outside the stagnation radius of the vortex Rossby wave is one of the important reasons for the formation of the outer spiral band in TCs. Accordingly, the outer spiral band can be identified to possess properties of an inertial-gravitational wave.When the formation of unstable inner and outer spiral bands is studied, a barotropic vortex model shall be used. In this model, the most unstable perturbation bears the attributes of either the vortex Rossby wave or the inertial-gravitational wave, depending on the vortex radius. So such perturbations shall be viewed as an unbalanced and unstable mixed wave of these two kinds of waves.

  14. Frequency and causes of failed MODIS cloud property retrievals for liquid phase clouds over global oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyoun‐Myoung; Meyer, Kerry; Lebsock, Matthew; Platnick, Steven; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Di Girolamo, Larry; C.‐Labonnote, Laurent; Cornet, Céline; Riedi, Jerome; Holz, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrieves cloud droplet effective radius (r e) and optical thickness (τ) by projecting observed cloud reflectances onto a precomputed look‐up table (LUT). When observations fall outside of the LUT, the retrieval is considered “failed” because no combination of τ and r e within the LUT can explain the observed cloud reflectances. In this study, the frequency and potential causes of failed MODIS retrievals for marine liquid phase (MLP) clouds are analyzed based on 1 year of Aqua MODIS Collection 6 products and collocated CALIOP and CloudSat observations. The retrieval based on the 0.86 µm and 2.1 µm MODIS channel combination has an overall failure rate of about 16% (10% for the 0.86 µm and 3.7 µm combination). The failure rates are lower over stratocumulus regimes and higher over the broken trade wind cumulus regimes. The leading type of failure is the “r e too large” failure accounting for 60%–85% of all failed retrievals. The rest is mostly due to the “r e too small” or τ retrieval failures. Enhanced retrieval failure rates are found when MLP cloud pixels are partially cloudy or have high subpixel inhomogeneity, are located at special Sun‐satellite viewing geometries such as sunglint, large viewing or solar zenith angles, or cloudbow and glory angles, or are subject to cloud masking, cloud overlapping, and/or cloud phase retrieval issues. The majority (more than 84%) of failed retrievals along the CALIPSO track can be attributed to at least one or more of these potential reasons. The collocated CloudSat radar reflectivity observations reveal that the remaining failed retrievals are often precipitating. It remains an open question whether the extremely large r e values observed in these clouds are the consequence of true cloud microphysics or still due to artifacts not included in this study. PMID:27656330

  15. Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE): Cloud and Rain Characteristics in the Australian Monsoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PT May; C Jakob; JH Mather

    2004-05-30

    The impact of oceanic convection on its environment and the relationship between the characteristics of the convection and the resulting cirrus characteristics is still not understood. An intense airborne measurement campaign combined with an extensive network of ground-based observations is being planned for the region near Darwin, Northern Australia, during January-February, 2006, to address these questions. The Tropical Warm Pool – International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) will be the first field program in the tropics that attempts to describe the evolution of tropical convection, including the large scale heat, moisture, and momentum budgets, while at the same time obtaining detailed observations of cloud properties and the impact of the clouds on the environment. The emphasis will be on cirrus for the cloud properties component of the experiment. Cirrus clouds are ubiquitous in the tropics and have a large impact on their environment but the properties of these clouds are poorly understood. A crucial product from this experiment will be a dataset suitable to provide the forcing and testing required by cloud-resolving models and parameterizations in global climate models. This dataset will provide the necessary link between cloud properties and the models that are attempting to simulate them. The experiment is a collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, the Bureau of Meteorology (BoM), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the European Commission DG RTD-1.2, and several United States, Australian, Canadian, and European Universities. This experiment will be undertaken over a 4-week period in early 2006. January and February corresponds to the wet phase of the Australia monsoon. This season has been selected because, despite Darwin’s coastal location, the convection that occurs over and near Darwin at this time is largely of maritime origin with a large fetch over water

  16. Transmission spectral properties of clouds for hot Jupiter exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Wakeford, Hannah R

    2014-01-01

    Clouds have an important role in the atmospheres of planetary bodies. It is expected that, like all the planetary bodies in our solar system, exoplanet atmospheres will also have substantial cloud coverage, and evidence is mounting for clouds in a number of hot Jupiters. In order to better characterise planetary atmospheres we need to consider the effects these clouds will have on the observed broadband transmission spectra. Here we examine the expected cloud condensate species for hot Jupiter exoplanets and the effects of various grain sizes and distributions on the resultant transmission spectra from the optical to infrared, which can be used as a broad framework when interpreting exoplanet spectra. We note that significant infrared absorption features appear in the computed transmission spectrum, the result of vibrational modes between the key species in each condensate, which can potentially be very constraining. While it may be hard to differentiate between individual condensates in the broad transmissio...

  17. Considerations for modeling thin cirrus effects via brightness temperature differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, E. O.; Arduini, R. F.; Wielicki, B. A.; Stone, R. S.; Tsay, S.-C.

    1995-01-01

    Brightness temperature difference (BTD) values are calculated for selected Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-6) channels (3.9, 12.7 micrometer) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer channels (3.7, 12.0 micrometer). Daytime and nighttime discrimination of particle size information is possible given the infrared cloud extinction optical depth and the BTD value. BTD values are presented and compared for cirrus clouds composed of equivalent ice spheres (volume, surface area) versus randomly oriented hexagonal ice crystals. The effect of the hexagonal ice crystals is to increase the magnitude of the BTD values calculated relative to equivalent ice sphere (volume, surface area) BTDs. Equivalent spheres (volume or surface area) do not do a very good job of modeling hexagonal ice crystal effects on BTDs; however, the use of composite spheres improves the simulation and offers interesting prospects. Careful consideration of the number of Legendre polynomial coefficients used to fit the scattering phase functions is crucial to realistic modeling of cirrus BTDs. Surface and view-angle effects are incorporated to provide more realistic simulation.

  18. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. XX. Dust and gas in the foreground Galactic cirrus

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, S; Smith, M W L; Fritz, J; Davies, J I; Haynes, M P; Giovanelli, R; Baes, M; Bocchio, M; Boissier, S; Boquien, M; Boselli, A; Casasola, V; Clark, C J R; De Looze, I; Alighieri, S di Serego; Grossi, M; Jones, A P; Hughes, T M; Hunt, L K; Madden, S; Magrini, L; Pappalardo, C; Ysard, N; Zibetti, S

    2016-01-01

    We study the correlation between far-infared/submm dust emission and atomic gas column density in order to derive the properties of the high Galactic latitude, low density, Milky Way cirrus in the foreground of the Virgo cluster of galaxies. Dust emission maps from 60 to 850 um are obtained from SPIRE observations carried out within the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey, complemented by IRAS-IRIS and Planck-HFI maps. Data from the Arecibo legacy Fast ALFA Survey is used to derive atomic gas column densities for two broad velocity components, low and intermediate velocity clouds. Dust emissivities are derived for each gas component and each far-infared/submm band. For the low velocity clouds, we measure an average emissivity 0.79 +/- 0.08 times 1E-20 MJy sr^-1 cm^2 at 250 um. After fitting a modified blackbody to the available bands, we estimated a dust absorption cross-section 0.49 +/- 0.13 times 1E-25 cm^2 H^-1 at 250 um (with dust temperature T = 20.4 +/- 1.5 K and spectral index beta = 1.53 +/- 0.17). The resu...

  19. Observed correlations between aerosol and cloud properties in an Indian Ocean trade cumulus regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistone, Kristina; Praveen, Puppala S.; Thomas, Rick M.; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran; Wilcox, Eric M.; Bender, Frida A.-M.

    2017-04-01

    There are multiple factors which affect the micro- and macrophysical properties of clouds, including the atmospheric vertical structure and dominant meteorological conditions in addition to aerosol concentration, all of which may be coupled to one another. In the quest to determine aerosol effects on clouds, these potential relationships must be understood. As bio- and fossil fuel combustion has increased in southeast Asia, corresponding increases in atmospheric aerosol pollution have been seen over the surrounding regions. These emissions notably include black carbon (BC) aerosols, which absorb rather than reflect solar radiation, affecting the atmosphere over the Indian Ocean through direct warming in addition to modifying cloud microphysical properties. The CARDEX (Cloud, Aerosol, Radiative forcing, Dynamics EXperiment) field campaign was conducted during the winter monsoon season (February and March) of 2012 in the northern Indian Ocean, a region dominated by trade cumulus clouds. During CARDEX, small unmanned aircraft were deployed, measuring aerosol, radiation, cloud, water vapor fluxes, and meteorological properties while a surface observatory collected continuous measurements of atmospheric precipitable water vapor (PWV), water vapor fluxes, surface and total-column aerosol, and cloud liquid water path (LWP). We present observations which indicate a positive correlation between aerosol and cloud LWP only when considering cases with low atmospheric water vapor (PWV)

  20. Microphysical Properties of Single and Mixed-Phase Arctic Clouds Derived from AERI Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, David D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2003-06-01

    A novel new approach to retrieve cloud microphysical properties from mixed-phase clouds is presented. This algorithm retrieves cloud optical depth, ice fraction, and the effective size of the water and ice particles from ground-based, high-resolution infrared radiance observations. The theoretical basis is that the absorption coefficient of ice is stronger than that of liquid water from 10-13 mm, whereas liquid water is more absorbing than ice from 16-25 um. However, due to strong absorption in the rotational water vapor absorption band, the 16-25 um spectral region becomes opaque for significant water vapor burdens (i.e., for precipitable water vapor amounts over approximately 1 cm). The Arctic is characterized by its dry and cold atmosphere, as well as a preponderance of mixed-phase clouds, and thus this approach is applicable to Arctic clouds. Since this approach uses infrared observations, cloud properties are retrieved at night and during the long polar wintertime period. The analysis of the cloud properties retrieved during a 7 month period during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) experiment demonstrates many interesting features. These results show a dependence of the optical depth on cloud phase, differences in the mode radius of the water droplets in liquid-only and mid-phase clouds, a lack of temperature dependence in the ice fraction for temperatures above 240 K, seasonal trends in the optical depth with the clouds being thinner in winter and becoming more optically thick in the late spring, and a seasonal trend in the effective size of the water droplets in liquid-only and mixed-phase clouds that is most likely related to aerosol concentration.

  1. Exploring the differences in cloud properties observed by the Terra and Aqua MODIS Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Meskhidze

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol-cloud interaction in different parts of the globe is examined here using multi-year statistics of remotely sensed data from two MODIS sensors aboard NASA's Terra (morning and Aqua (afternoon satellites. Simultaneous retrievals of aerosol loadings and cloud properties by the MODIS sensor allowed us to explore morning-to-afternoon variation of liquid cloud fraction (CF and optical thickness (COT for clean, moderately polluted and heavily polluted clouds in different seasons. Data analysis for seven-years of MODIS retrievals revealed strong temporal and spatial patterns in morning-to-afternoon variation of cloud fraction and optical thickness over different parts of the global oceans and the land. For the vast areas of stratocumulus cloud regions, the data shows that the days with elevated aerosol abundance were also associated with enhanced afternoon reduction of CF and COT pointing to the possible reduction of the indirect climate forcing. A positive correlation between aerosol optical depth and morning-to-afternoon variation of trade wind cumulus cloud cover was also found over the northern Indian Ocean, though no clear relationship between the concentration of Indo-Asian haze and morning-to-afternoon variation of COT was established. Over the Amazon region during wet conditions, aerosols are associated with an enhanced convective process in which morning shallow warm clouds are organized into afternoon deep convection with greater ice cloud coverage. Analysis presented here demonstrates that the new technique for exploring morning-to-afternoon variability in cloud properties by using the differences in data products from the two daily MODIS overpasses is capable of capturing some of the major features of diurnal variations in cloud properties and can be used for better understanding of aerosol radiative effects.

  2. Understanding the Effect of Aerosol Properties on Cloud Droplet Formation during TCAP Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cziczo, Daniel [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The formation of clouds is an essential element in understanding the Earth’s radiative budget. Liquid water clouds form when the relative humidity exceeds saturation and condensedphase water nucleates on atmospheric particulate matter. The effect of aerosol properties such as size, morphology, and composition on cloud droplet formation has been studied theoretically as well as in the laboratory and field. Almost without exception these studies have been limited to parallel measurements of aerosol properties and cloud formation or collection of material after the cloud has formed, at which point nucleation information has been lost. Studies of this sort are adequate when a large fraction of the aerosol activates, but correlations and resulting model parameterizations are much more uncertain at lower supersaturations and activated fractions.

  3. Fast methods of computing bulk radiative properties of inhomogeneous clouds illuminated by solar radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, P. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The use of cloud fraction as a means of incorporating horizontal cloud inhomogeneity in radiative transfer calculations is widespread in the atmospheric science community. This research attempts to bypass the use of cloud fraction in radiative transfer modeling for two-dimensional media. Gabriel describes two approximation techniques useful in calculating the domain averaged bulk radiative properties such as albedo, flux divergence and mean radiance that dispense with the need to use cloud fraction as a specifier of cloud inhomogeneity. The results suggest that the variability of the medium can largely be accounted for through the pseudo-source term, offering hope of parameterizing the equation of transfer in terms of the statistical properties of the medium. 1 fig.

  4. An assessment of cloud top thermodynamic phase products obtained from A-Train passive and active sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zeng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The A-Train observations provide an unprecedented opportunity for the production of high quality dataset describing cloud properties. We illustrate in this study the use of one year of coincident POLDER (Polarization and Directionality of the Earth Reflectance, MODIS (MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization observations to establish a reference dataset for the description of cloud top thermodynamic phase at global scale. We present the results of an extensive comparison between POLDER and MODIS cloud top phase products and discuss those in view of cloud vertical structure and optical properties derived simultaneously from collocated CALIOP active measurements. These results allow to identify and quantify potential biases present in the 3 considered dataset. Among those, we discuss the impacts of observation geometry, thin cirrus in multilayered and single layered cloud systems, supercooled liquid droplets, aerosols, fractional cloud cover and snow/ice or bright surfaces on global statistics of cloud phase derived from POLDER and MODIS passive measurements. Based on these analysis we define criteria for the selection of high confidence cloud phase retrievals which in turn can serve for the establishment of a reference cloud phase product. This high confidence joint product derived from POLDER/PARASOL and MODIS/Aqua can be used in the future as a benchmark for the evaluation of other cloud climatologies, for the assessment of cloud phase representation in models and the development of better cloud phase parametrization in the general circulation models (GCMs.

  5. Improvements in Representations of Cloud Microphysics for BBHRP and Models using Data Collected during M-PACE and TWP-ICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg M. McFarquhar

    2010-02-22

    In our research we proposed to use data collected during the 2004 Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE) and the 2006 Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) to improve retrievals of ice and mixed-phase clouds, to improve our understanding of how cloud and radiative processes affect cloud life cycles, and to develop and test methods for using ARM data more effectively in model. In particular, we proposed to: 1) use MPACE in-situ data to determine how liquid water fraction and cloud ice and liquid effective radius (r{sub ei} and r{sub ew}) vary with temperature, normalized cloud altitude and other variables for Arctic mixed-phase clouds, and to use these data to evaluate the performance of model parameterization schemes and remote sensing retrieval algorithms; 2) calculate rei and size/shape distributions using TWP-ICE in-situ data, investigate their dependence on cirrus type (oceanic or continental anvils or cirrus not directly traced to convection), and develop and test representations for MICROBASE; 3) conduct fundamental research enhancing our understanding of cloud/radiative interactions, concentrating on effects of small crystals and particle shapes and sizes on radiation; and 4) improve representations of microphysical processes for models (fall-out, effective density, mean scattering properties, rei and rew) and provide them to ARM PIs. In the course of our research, we made substantial progress on all four goals.

  6. The ESA Cloud_cci project: generation of multi-decadal, consistent, global data sets of cloud properties with uncertainty information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapelberg, Stefan; Finkensieper, Stephan; Stengel, Martin; Schlundt, Cornelia; Sus, Oliver; Hollmann, Rainer; Poulsen, Caroline; ESA Cloud cci Team

    2016-04-01

    In 2010 the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Cloud project was started along with 12 other CCI projects covering atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial "essential climate variables (ECV)". The main goal is the generation of satellite-based climate data records that meet the challenging requirements of the Global Climate Observing System. The objective target within the ESA Cloud_cci project is the generation of long-term coherent cloud property datasets covering 33 years that also provide mathematically consistent uncertainty information following the optimal estimation (OE) retrieval theory. The cloud properties considered are cloud mask, cloud top level estimates, cloud thermodynamic phase, cloud optical thickness, cloud effective radius and post processed parameters such as cloud liquid and ice water path. In this presentation we will discuss the benefit of using an optimal estimation retrieval framework, which provides consistence among the retrieved cloud variables and pixel-based uncertainty estimates based on different passive instruments such as AVHRR, MODIS and AATSR. We will summarize the results of the project so far along with ongoing further developments that currently take place. Our results will be compared with other well-established satellite data records, surface observations and cloud climatologies (e.g., PATMOS-X, ISCCP, CLARA-A2, MODIS collection 6, SYNOP). These inter-comparison results will indicate the strengths and weaknesses of the Cloud_cci datasets. Finally, we will present long-term time series of the retrieved cloud variables for AVHRR (1982-2014) that enable global, multi-decadal analyses of clouds.

  7. Observations of regional and local variability in the optical properties of maritime clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, A.B. [Univ. of Colorado at Boulder/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States); Fairall, C.W. [Environmental Technology Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    White and Fairall (1995) calculated the optical properties of the marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds observed during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) and compared their results with the results obtained by Fairall et al. for the MBL clouds observed during the First International Satellite Climatology Program (ISSCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE). They found a factor of two difference in the optical depth versus liquid water relationship that applies to the clouds observed in each case. In the present study, we present evidence to support this difference. We also investigate the local variability exhibited in the ASTEX optical properties using measurements of the boundary layer aerosol concentration.

  8. Deep convective clouds at the tropopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Aumann

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Data from the Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS on the EOS Aqua spacecraft identify thousands of cloud tops colder than 225 K, loosely referred to as Deep Convective Clouds (DCC. Many of these cloud tops have "inverted" spectra, i.e. areas of strong water vapor, CO2 and ozone opacity, normally seen in absorption, are now seen in emission. We refer to these inverted spectra as DCCi. They are found in about 0.4% of all spectra from the tropical oceans excluding the Western Tropical Pacific (WTP, 1.1% in the WTP. The cold clouds are the anvils capping thunderstorms and consist of optically thick cirrus ice clouds. The precipitation rate associated with DCCi suggests that imbedded in these clouds, protruding above them, and not spatially resolved by the AIRS 15 km FOV, are even colder bubbles, where strong convection pushes clouds to within 5 hPa of the pressure level of the tropopause cold point. Associated with DCCi is a local upward displacement of the tropopause, a cold "bulge", which can be seen directly in the brightness temperatures of AIRS and AMSU channels with weighting function peaking between 40 and 2 hPa, without the need for a formal temperature retrieval. The bulge is not resolved by the analysis in numerical weather prediction models. The locally cold cloud tops relative to the analysis give the appearance (in the sense of an "illusion" of clouds overshooting the tropopause and penetrating into the stratosphere. Based on a simple model of optically thick cirrus clouds, the spectral inversions seen in the AIRS data do not require these clouds to penetrate into the stratosphere. However, the contents of the cold bulge may be left in the lower stratosphere as soon as the strong convection subsides. The heavy precipitation and the distortion of the temperature structure near the tropopause indicate that DCCi are associated with intense storms. Significant long-term trends in the statistical properties of DCCi could be

  9. An improved ice cloud formation parameterization in the EMAC model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacer, Sara; Pozzer, Andrea; Karydis, Vlassis; Tsimpidi, Alexandra; Tost, Holger; Sullivan, Sylvia; Nenes, Athanasios; Barahona, Donifan; Lelieveld, Jos

    2017-04-01

    Cirrus clouds cover about 30% of the Earth's surface and are an important modulator of the radiative energy budget of the atmosphere. Despite their importance in the global climate system, there are still large uncertainties in understanding the microphysical properties and interactions with aerosols. Ice crystal formation is quite complex and a variety of mechanisms exists for ice nucleation, depending on aerosol characteristics and environmental conditions. Ice crystals can be formed via homogeneous nucleation or heterogeneous nucleation of ice-nucleating particles in different ways (contact, immersion, condensation, deposition). We have implemented the computationally efficient cirrus cloud formation parameterization by Barahona and Nenes (2009) into the EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry) model in order to improve the representation of ice clouds and aerosol-cloud interactions. The parameterization computes the ice crystal number concentration from precursor aerosols and ice-nucleating particles accounting for the competition between homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation and among different freezing modes. Our work shows the differences and the improvements obtained after the implementation with respect to the previous version of EMAC.

  10. Estimating nocturnal opaque ice cloud optical depth from MODIS multispectral infrared radiances using a neural network method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Patrick; Hong, Gang; Sun-Mack, Szedung; Smith, William L.; Chen, Yan; Miller, Steven D.

    2016-05-01

    Retrieval of ice cloud properties using IR measurements has a distinct advantage over the visible and near-IR techniques by providing consistent monitoring regardless of solar illumination conditions. Historically, the IR bands at 3.7, 6.7, 11.0, and 12.0 µm have been used to infer ice cloud parameters by various methods, but the reliable retrieval of ice cloud optical depth τ is limited to nonopaque cirrus with τ water path in the future. Factors affecting the uncertainties and potential improvements are discussed. With improved techniques for discriminating between opaque and semitransparent ice clouds, the method can ultimately improve cloud property monitoring over the entire diurnal cycle.

  11. Climatic Effects of Contrail Cirrus over the Western United States: A Regional Climate Model Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, K.; Ou, S. S.; Kim, J.; Gu, Y.; Yang, P.; Friedl, R. R.

    2009-12-01

    We investigate the impact of contrails and contrail induced cirrus clouds (CICC) on regional energy and water cycles over the Western United States (WUS), a region of both heavy air traffic and high climate sensitivity. Mountain snowpack in the WUS is a major source of warm-season water supply for Southern California and is highly sensitive to seasonal insolation variation, which can be significantly affected by the frequent presence of contrails/CICC. A regional climate model with an 18-km horizontal resolution based on the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model has been developed, which includes improved parameterizations of the optical properties of ice clouds and contrails in the Fu-Liou broadband radiative transfer model. The large-scale forcing data for driving regional climate simulations has been obtained from the NCEP/DOE re-analysis-2. We conduct multiple-year perpetual-spring climate runs to simulate the current climate conditions of the WUS and to investigate the climatic impact of contrails/CICC on radiative forcing, surface temperature, precipitation, and snowpack coverage. As a first approximation, we develop a linear correlation between available aviation emission data and contrail cover using the existing GCM results as proxy. Additionally, we use the ice crystal size spectrum and shape determined from the Subsonic Aircraft Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS) for calculations of the optical properties of contrails/CICC for input to the regional climate model. Preliminary simulation results and uncertainty analysis are presented in association with the effects of contrails/CICC cover and ice crystal size/shape on surface radiative forcing, surface temperature, and snow cover over the WUS in spring.

  12. Cloud-Driven Changes in Aerosol Optical Properties - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogren, John A.; Sheridan, Patrick S.; Andrews, Elisabeth

    2007-09-30

    The optical properties of aerosol particles are the controlling factors in determining direct aerosol radiative forcing. These optical properties depend on the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, which can change due to various processes during the particles’ lifetime in the atmosphere. Over the course of this project we have studied how cloud processing of atmospheric aerosol changes the aerosol optical properties. A counterflow virtual impactor was used to separate cloud drops from interstitial aerosol and parallel aerosol systems were used to measure the optical properties of the interstitial and cloud-scavenged aerosol. Specifically, aerosol light scattering, back-scattering and absorption were measured and used to derive radiatively significant parameters such as aerosol single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction for cloud-scavenged and interstitial aerosol. This data allows us to demonstrate that the radiative properties of cloud-processed aerosol can be quite different than pre-cloud aerosol. These differences can be used to improve the parameterization of aerosol forcing in climate models.

  13. Cloud Optical Properties from the Multifilter Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSRCLDOD). An ARM Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D. D. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); McFarlane, S. A. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Riihimaki, L. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shi, Y. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lo, C. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Min, Q. [State University of New York, Albany; DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The microphysical properties of clouds play an important role in studies of global climate change. Observations from satellites and surface-based systems have been used to infer cloud optical depth and effective radius. Min and Harrison (1996) developed an inversion method to infer the optical depth of liquid water clouds from narrow band spectral Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) measurements (Harrison et al. 1994). Their retrieval also uses the total liquid water path (LWP) measured by a microwave radiometer (MWR) to obtain the effective radius of the warm cloud droplets. Their results were compared with Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) retrieved values at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site (Min and Harrison 1996). Min et al. (2003) also validated the retrieved cloud optical properties against in situ observations, showing that the retrieved cloud effective radius agreed well with the in situ forward scattering spectrometer probe observations. The retrieved cloud optical properties from Min et al. (2003) were used also as inputs to an atmospheric shortwave model, and the computed fluxes were compared with surface pyranometer observations.

  14. Simultaneous Retrieval of Aerosol and Cloud Properties During the MILAGRO Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobelspiesse, K.; Cairns, B.; Redemann, J.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Stohl, A.

    2011-01-01

    Estimation of Direct Climate Forcing (DCF) due to aerosols in cloudy areas has historically been a difficult task, mainly because of a lack of appropriate measurements. Recently, passive remote sensing instruments have been developed that have the potential to retrieve both cloud and aerosol properties using polarimetric, multiple view angle, and multi spectral observations, and therefore determine DCF from aerosols above clouds. One such instrument is the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP), an airborne prototype of a sensor on the NASA Glory satellite, which unfortunately failed to reach orbit during its launch in March of 2011. In the spring of 2006, the RSP was deployed on an aircraft based in Veracruz, Mexico, as part of the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) field campaign. On 13 March, the RSP over flew an aerosol layer lofted above a low altitude marine stratocumulus cloud close to shore in the Gulf of Mexico. We investigate the feasibility of retrieving aerosol properties over clouds using these data. Our approach is to first determine cloud droplet size distribution using the angular location of the cloud bow and other features in the polarized reflectance. The selected cloud was then used in a multiple scattering radiative transfer model optimization to determine the aerosol optical properties and fine tune the cloud size distribution. In this scene, we were able to retrieve aerosol optical depth, the fine mode aerosol size distribution parameters and the cloud droplet size distribution parameters to a degree of accuracy required for climate modeling. This required assumptions about the aerosol vertical distribution and the optical properties of the coarse aerosol size mode. A sensitivity study was also performed to place this study in the context of future systematic scanning polarimeter observations, which found that the aerosol complex refractive index can also be observed accurately if the aerosol optical depth is

  15. Microphysical Properties of Warm Clouds During The Aircraft Take-Off and Landing Over Bucharest, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Sabina; Nicolae Vajaiac, Sorin; Boscornea, Andreea

    2016-06-01

    This paper is focused on airborne measurements of microphysical parameters into warm clouds when the aircraft penetrates the cloud, both during take-off and landing. The experiment was conducted during the aircraft flight between Bucharest and Craiova, in the southern part of Romania. The duration of the experimental flight was 2 hours and 35 minutes in October 7th, 2014, but the present study is dealing solely with the analysis of cloud microphysical properties at the beginning of the experiment (during the aircraft take-off) and at the end, when it got finalized by the aircraft landing procedure. The processing and interpretation of the measurements showed the differences between microphysical parameters, emphasizing that the type of cloud over Bucharest changed, as it was expected. In addition, the results showed that it is important to take into account both the synoptic context and the cloud perturbation due to the velocity of the aircraft, in such cases.

  16. Black carbon mixing state impacts on cloud microphysical properties: effects of aerosol plume and environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ching, Ping Pui; Riemer, Nicole; West, Matthew

    2016-05-27

    Black carbon (BC) is usually mixed with other aerosol species within individual aerosol particles. This mixture, along with the particles' size and morphology, determines the particles' optical and cloud condensation nuclei properties, and hence black carbon's climate impacts. In this study the particle-resolved aerosol model PartMC-MOSAIC was used to quantify the importance of black carbon mixing state for predicting cloud microphysical quantities. Based on a set of about 100 cloud parcel simulations a process level analysis framework was developed to attribute the response in cloud microphysical properties to changes in the underlying aerosol population ("plume effect") and the cloud parcel cooling rate ("parcel effect"). It shows that the response of cloud droplet number concentration to changes in BC emissions depends on the BC mixing state. When the aerosol population contains mainly aged BC particles an increase in BC emission results in increasing cloud droplet number concentrations ("additive effect"). In contrast, when the aerosol population contains mainly fresh BC particles they act as sinks for condensable gaseous species, resulting in a decrease in cloud droplet number concentration as BC emissions are increased ("competition effect"). Additionally, we quantified the error in cloud microphysical quantities when neglecting the information on BC mixing state, which is often done in aerosol models. The errors ranged from -12% to +45% for the cloud droplet number fraction, from 0% to +1022% for the nucleation-scavenged black carbon (BC) mass fraction, from -12% to +4% for the effective radius, and from -30% to +60% for the relative dispersion.

  17. SSH-2 measurements of cirrus at 18-28 micrometers from the King Air during FIRE 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Michael K.

    1993-01-01

    In November of 1991, the First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment (FIRE) Phase II cirrus study took place at Coffeyville, Kansas. The field experiment incorporated instrumentation from surface, aircraft, and satellite to attempt to define the optical, radiative, and microphysical characteristics of these high altitude, predominantly ice clouds. The NCAR King Air research aircraft was outfitted with a variety of radiative and microphysical instrumentation for the FIRE II project. Included for this project was the SSH-2, a 16-channel passive radiometer. The SSH-2 was originally designed as a space-qualified infrared (IR) temperature and water vapor sounder for deployment onboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) series of environmental satellites. For this experiment, only those channels associated with the water vapor profiling function have been examined although downwelling radiance measurements were taken at all channels during the project. With supporting information from the aircraft telemetry observations it may be possible to relate these SSH-2 measurements to cloud radiative and microphysical properties. The following sections will describe the spectral characteristics of the instrument, the calibration scheme used to convert the raw measured counts into calibrated radiances, and the case studies that will be covered in this paper. This will be followed by a discussion of the results of this preliminary investigation and a description of future work to be done.

  18. A two-habit model for the microphysical and optical properties of ice clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To provide a better representation of natural ice clouds, a novel ice cloud model containing two particle habits is developed. The microphysical and optical properties of the two-habit model (THM are compared with both laboratory and in situ measurements, and its performance in downstream satellite remote sensing applications is tested. The THM assumes an ice cloud to be an ensemble of hexagonal columns and twenty-element aggregates, and to have specific habit fractions at each particle size. The ice water contents and median mass diameters calculated based on the THM closely agree with in situ measurements made during 11 field campaigns. In this study, the scattering, absorption, and polarization properties of ice crystals are calculated with a combination of the invariant imbedding T-matrix, pseudo-spectral time domain, and improved geometric-optics methods over an entire range of particle sizes. The phase functions, calculated based on the THM, show excellent agreement with counterparts from laboratory and in situ measurements and from satellite retrievals. For downstream applications in the retrieval of cloud microphysical and optical properties from MODIS observations, the THM presents excellent spectral consistency; specifically, the retrieved cloud optical thicknesses based on the visible/near infrared bands and the thermal infrared bands agree quite well. Furthermore, a comparison between the polarized reflectivities observed by the PARASOL satellite and from theoretical simulations illustrates that the THM can be used to represent ice cloud polarization properties.

  19. Retrieval of aerosol microphysical and optical properties above liquid clouds from POLDER/PARASOL polarization measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Waquet

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the current aerosol retrievals from passive sensors are restricted to cloud-free scenes, which strongly reduces our ability to monitor the aerosol properties at a global scale and to estimate their radiative forcing. The presence of aerosol above clouds (AAC affects the polarized light reflected by the cloud layer, as shown by the spaceborne measurements provided by the POlarization and Directionality of Earth Reflectances (POLDER instrument on the PARASOL satellite. In a previous work, a first retrieval method was developed for AAC scenes and evaluated for biomass-burning aerosols transported over stratocumulus clouds. The method was restricted to the use of observations acquired at forward scattering angles (90–120° where polarized measurements are highly sensitive to fine-mode particle scattering. Non-spherical particles in the coarse mode, such as mineral dust particles, do not much polarize light and cannot be handled with this method. In this paper, we present new developments that allow retrieving also the properties of mineral dust particles above clouds. These particles do not much polarize light but strongly reduce the polarized cloud bow generated by the liquid cloud layer beneath and observed for scattering angles around 140°. The spectral attenuation can be used to qualitatively identify the nature of the particles (i.e. accumulation mode versus coarse mode, i.e. mineral dust particles versus biomass-burning aerosols, whereas the magnitude of the attenuation is related to the optical thickness of the aerosol layer. We also use the polarized measurements acquired in the cloud bow to improve the retrieval of both the biomass-burning aerosol properties and the cloud microphysical properties. We provide accurate polarized radiance calculations for AAC scenes and evaluate the contribution of the POLDER polarization measurements for the simultaneous retrieval of the aerosol and cloud properties. We investigate various scenes

  20. Radiative Heating of the ISCCP Upper Level Cloud Regimes and its Impact on the Large-scale Tropical Circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei; Schumacher, Courtney; McFarlane, Sally A.

    2013-01-31

    Radiative heating profiles of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) cloud regimes (or weather states) were estimated by matching ISCCP observations with radiative properties derived from cloud radar and lidar measurements from the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites at Manus, Papua New Guinea, and Darwin, Australia. Focus was placed on the ISCCP cloud regimes containing the majority of upper level clouds in the tropics, i.e., mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), deep cumulonimbus with cirrus, mixed shallow and deep convection, and thin cirrus. At upper levels, these regimes have average maximum cloud occurrences ranging from 30% to 55% near 12 km with variations depending on the location and cloud regime. The resulting radiative heating profiles have maxima of approximately 1 K/day near 12 km, with equal heating contributions from the longwave and shortwave components. Upper level minima occur near 15 km, with the MCS regime showing the strongest cooling of 0.2 K/day and the thin cirrus showing no cooling. The gradient of upper level heating ranges from 0.2 to 0.4 K/(day∙km), with the most convectively active regimes (i.e., MCSs and deep cumulonimbus with cirrus) having the largest gradient. When the above heating profiles were applied to the 25-year ISCCP data set, the tropics-wide average profile has a radiative heating maximum of 0.45Kday-1 near 250 hPa. Column-integrated radiative heating of upper level cloud accounts for about 20% of the latent heating estimated by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR). The ISCCP radiative heating of tropical upper level cloud only slightly modifies the response of an idealized primitive equation model forced with the tropics-wide TRMM PR latent heating, which suggests that the impact of upper level cloud is more important to large-scale tropical circulation variations because of convective feedbacks rather than direct forcing by

  1. The MSG-SEVIRI-based cloud property data record CLAAS-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benas, Nikos; Finkensieper, Stephan; Stengel, Martin; van Zadelhoff, Gerd-Jan; Hanschmann, Timo; Hollmann, Rainer; Fokke Meirink, Jan

    2017-07-01

    Clouds play a central role in the Earth's atmosphere, and satellite observations are crucial for monitoring clouds and understanding their impact on the energy budget and water cycle. Within the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF), a new cloud property data record was derived from geostationary Meteosat Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) measurements for the time frame 2004-2015. The resulting CLAAS-2 (CLoud property dAtAset using SEVIRI, Edition 2) data record is publicly available via the CM SAF website (https://doi.org/10.5676/EUM_SAF_CM/CLAAS/V002). In this paper we present an extensive evaluation of the CLAAS-2 cloud products, which include cloud fractional coverage, thermodynamic phase, cloud top properties, liquid/ice cloud water path and corresponding optical thickness and particle effective radius. Data validation and comparisons were performed on both level 2 (native SEVIRI grid and repeat cycle) and level 3 (daily and monthly averages and histograms) with reference datasets derived from lidar, microwave and passive imager measurements. The evaluation results show very good overall agreement with matching spatial distributions and temporal variability and small biases attributed mainly to differences in sensor characteristics, retrieval approaches, spatial and temporal samplings and viewing geometries. No major discrepancies were found. Underpinned by the good evaluation results, CLAAS-2 demonstrates that it is fit for the envisaged applications, such as process studies of the diurnal cycle of clouds and the evaluation of regional climate models. The data record is planned to be extended and updated in the future.

  2. The MSG-SEVIRI-based cloud property data record CLAAS-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Benas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Clouds play a central role in the Earth's atmosphere, and satellite observations are crucial for monitoring clouds and understanding their impact on the energy budget and water cycle. Within the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF, a new cloud property data record was derived from geostationary Meteosat Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI measurements for the time frame 2004–2015. The resulting CLAAS-2 (CLoud property dAtAset using SEVIRI, Edition 2 data record is publicly available via the CM SAF website (https://doi.org/10.5676/EUM_SAF_CM/CLAAS/V002. In this paper we present an extensive evaluation of the CLAAS-2 cloud products, which include cloud fractional coverage, thermodynamic phase, cloud top properties, liquid/ice cloud water path and corresponding optical thickness and particle effective radius. Data validation and comparisons were performed on both level 2 (native SEVIRI grid and repeat cycle and level 3 (daily and monthly averages and histograms with reference datasets derived from lidar, microwave and passive imager measurements. The evaluation results show very good overall agreement with matching spatial distributions and temporal variability and small biases attributed mainly to differences in sensor characteristics, retrieval approaches, spatial and temporal samplings and viewing geometries. No major discrepancies were found. Underpinned by the good evaluation results, CLAAS-2 demonstrates that it is fit for the envisaged applications, such as process studies of the diurnal cycle of clouds and the evaluation of regional climate models. The data record is planned to be extended and updated in the future.

  3. Near-Cloud Aerosol Properties from the 1 Km Resolution MODIS Ocean Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnai, Tamas; Marshak, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This study examines aerosol properties in the vicinity of clouds by analyzing high-resolution atmospheric correction parameters provided in the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) ocean color product. The study analyzes data from a 2 week long period of September in 10 years, covering a large area in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. The results indicate that on the one hand, the Quality Assessment (QA) flags of the ocean color product successfully eliminate cloud-related uncertainties in ocean parameters such as chlorophyll content, but on the other hand, using the flags introduces a sampling bias in atmospheric products such as aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Angstrom exponent. Therefore, researchers need to select QA flags by balancing the risks of increased retrieval uncertainties and sampling biases. Using an optimal set of QA flags, the results reveal substantial increases in optical thickness near clouds-on average the increase is 50% for the roughly half of pixels within 5 km from clouds and is accompanied by a roughly matching increase in particle size. Theoretical simulations show that the 50% increase in 550nm AOT changes instantaneous direct aerosol radiative forcing by up to 8W/m2 and that the radiative impact is significantly larger if observed near-cloud changes are attributed to aerosol particles as opposed to undetected cloud particles. These results underline that accounting for near-cloud areas and understanding the causes of near-cloud particle changes are critical for accurate calculations of direct aerosol radiative forcing.

  4. Properties of the electron cloud in a high-energy positron and electron storage ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Harkay

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Low-energy, background electrons are ubiquitous in high-energy particle accelerators. Under certain conditions, interactions between this electron cloud and the high-energy beam can give rise to numerous effects that can seriously degrade the accelerator performance. These effects range from vacuum degradation to collective beam instabilities and emittance blowup. Although electron-cloud effects were first observed two decades ago in a few proton storage rings, they have in recent years been widely observed and intensely studied in positron and proton rings. Electron-cloud diagnostics developed at the Advanced Photon Source enabled for the first time detailed, direct characterization of the electron-cloud properties in a positron and electron storage ring. From in situ measurements of the electron flux and energy distribution at the vacuum chamber wall, electron-cloud production mechanisms and details of the beam-cloud interaction can be inferred. A significant longitudinal variation of the electron cloud is also observed, due primarily to geometrical details of the vacuum chamber. Such experimental data can be used to provide realistic limits on key input parameters in modeling efforts, leading ultimately to greater confidence in predicting electron-cloud effects in future accelerators.

  5. On Depolarization Lidar-Based Method for The Determination of Liquid-Cloud Microphysical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Under single scattering conditions, water droplets clouds do not depolarize the backscattered light. However, backscattered light from multiple scattering will be depolarized. The level of depolarization is a function of the droplets size, the cloud extinction coefficient value and profile; it has also an important dependency on the lidar field-of-view (FOV. The use of depolarization information to retrieve cloud microphysical properties, using Multiple-FOV has been the object of studies, [1], [2]. Recently the use of the depolarization, at a single FOV, has been studied for cloud with linear liquid water content profiles, [3], [4]. In this paper we present the mechanism leading to depolarization and identify the FOV values for which the information on particle size is high. Also Monte Carlo simulations for cloud with constant and ramp up profiles are presented. The degree of linear depolarization as a function of cloud penetration is significantly different for both cloud profiles. This suggests that the use of the degree of linear depolarization at a single FOV should be used with caution to determine clouds micro-physical parameters.

  6. Retrieving ice cloud properties by using a fast infrared radiative transfer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Yang, P.; Heidinger, A. K.; Platnick, S. E.; Baum, B. A.

    2010-12-01

    A new fast infrared radiative transfer (RT) model based on pre-computed look-up tables (LUTs) including the LUTs for emissivity function and cloud effective temperature is proposed. This model can be applied to the simulation of upward radiance (or brightness temperature) at 8.5, 11.0 and 12.0 μm at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) under cloudy-sky conditions. Optical depths of Atmospheric layers resulting from gaseous absorption are derived from the correlated-K distribution (CKD) method. The cloud reflection and transmission functions are computed from the discrete ordinates radiative transfer model (DISORT). In addition to the LUTs of reflection and transmission functions of cloud in traditional RT models, the LUTs of emissivity and effective temperature are also included to improve the accuracy. Generally speaking, for an atmosphere containing a single ice cloud layer with small optical thickness (i.e., less than 5.0), the brightness temperature differences (BTDs) between the fast model and DISORT results are approximately less than 0.1K, whereas the BTDs are less than 0.02K when the ice cloud optical thickness is larger than 5.0. Moreover, with the fast RT model, cloud optical and microphysical properties of ice clouds are retrieved from MODIS and CALIPSO observations and the MERRA reanalysis data. The present retrievals are compared with the MODIS operational cloud products (MYD06).

  7. Cirrus Dopant Nano-Composite Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Inorganic Nano-particles • Ti • Zr • Al • Zn • Yr • Si Coatings • Au • Ag • Sn • Cu • Zn • Ni • NiB • NiCo • NiP cirrus Broadened...1000 1200 HARDNESS (HV) MICROHARDNESS - ELECTROLESS NIP STANDARD COATING TI DOPED COATING ZR DOPED COATING ↑74% Standard DC NiB Cirrus DC NiB 15

  8. Use of A-train satellite observations (CALIPSO-PARASOL) to evaluate tropical cloud properties in the LMDZ5 GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsta, D.; Dufresne, J.-L.; Chepfer, H.; Idelkadi, A.; Cesana, G.

    2016-08-01

    The evaluation of key cloud properties such as cloud cover, vertical profile and optical depth as well as the analysis of their intercorrelation lead to greater confidence in climate change projections. In addition, the comparison between observations and parameterizations of clouds in climate models is improved by using collocated and instantaneous data of cloud properties. Simultaneous and independent observations of the cloud cover and its three-dimensional structure at high spatial and temporal resolutions are made possible by the new space-borne multi-instruments observations collected with the A-train. The cloud cover and its vertical structure observed by CALIPSO and the visible directional reflectance (a surrogate for the cloud optical depth) observed by PARASOL, are used to evaluate the representation of cloudiness in two versions of the atmospheric component of the IPSL-CM5 climate model (LMDZ5). A model-to-satellite approach, applying the CFMIP Observation Simulation Package (COSP), is used to allow a quantitative comparison between model results and observations. The representation of clouds in the two model versions is first evaluated using monthly mean data. This classical approach reveals biases of different magnitudes in the two model versions. These biases consist of (1) an underestimation of cloud cover associated to an overestimation of cloud optical depth, (2) an underestimation of low- and mid-level tropical clouds and (3) an overestimation of high clouds. The difference in the magnitude of these biases between the two model versions clearly highlights the improvement of the amount of boundary layer clouds, the improvement of the properties of high-level clouds, and the improvement of the simulated mid-level clouds in the tropics in LMDZ5B compared to LMDZ5A, due to the new convective, boundary layer, and cloud parametrizations implemented in LMDZ5B. The correlation between instantaneous cloud properties allows for a process-oriented evaluation

  9. Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and cloud properties during the MILAGRO field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Knobelspiesse

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of Direct Climate Forcing (DCF due to aerosols in cloudy areas has historically been a difficult task, mainly because of a lack of appropriate measurements. The Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS, on the upcoming NASA Glory mission, has the potential to retrieve both cloud and aerosol properties because of its polarimetric, multiple view angle, and multi spectral observations. The APS airborne prototype is the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP, which has similar characteristics and can be used to demonstrate APS capabilities. In the spring of 2006, the RSP was deployed on an aircraft based in Veracruz, Mexico, as part of the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO field campaign. On March 13th, the RSP over flew an aerosol layer lofted above a low altitude marine stratocumulus cloud close to shore in the Gulf of Mexico. We investigate the feasibility of retrieving aerosol properties over clouds using these data. Our approach is to first determine cloud droplet size distribution using the angular location of the cloud bow and other features in the polarized reflectance. The selected cloud was then used in a multiple scattering radiative transfer model optimization to determine the aerosol optical properties and fine tune the cloud size distribution. In this scene, we were able to retrieve aerosol optical depth, the fine mode aerosol size distribution and the cloud droplet size distribution to a degree of accuracy required for climate modeling. This required assumptions about the aerosol vertical distribution and the optical properties of the coarse aerosol size mode. A sensitivity study was also performed to place this case study in the context of the potential for future systematic APS observations of this kind, which found that the aerosol complex refractive index can also be observed accurately if the aerosol optical depth is larger than roughly 0.8 at a wavelength of 0.555 μm.

  10. A comparison of Aqua MODIS ice and liquid water cloud physical and optical properties between collection 6 and collection 5.1: Cloud radiative effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Bingqi; Rapp, Anita D.; Yang, Ping; Baum, Bryan A.; King, Michael D.

    2017-04-01

    In our companion study, we show how cloud property products change from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) collection 5.1 (C51) to collection 6 (C6) for both ice and liquid water clouds through a pixel-to-pixel comparison. However, the question remains as to the full impacts of these cloud property differences between collections on the inference of cloud radiative effects (CREs). In this study, we address this question from a modeling perspective using one year (2012) of MODIS gridded annual-averaged ice/liquid water cloud properties at 0.5° × 0.5° spatial resolution. The rapid radiative transfer model for general circulation model applications is used to simulate the broadband radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere under clear-sky and cloudy-sky conditions. The shortwave, longwave, and net radiative effects of ice, liquid water, and total clouds are derived individually assuming different cloud optical property parameterization schemes. The results provide quantifications of ice and liquid water CRE contributions to the total CRE. We find significant differences in the simulated CREs between C6 and C51 for ice clouds (up to 23 W m-2 for the shortwave CRE) and liquid water clouds (approximately -4.5 W m-2 for the shortwave CRE). The C6 total CRE provides the closest match with the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Energy Balanced And Filled product. Sensitivity studies are performed to estimate the impacts of different ice optical parameterization schemes and multilayer cloud overlap assumptions. Results show that the C6-C51 CRE differences are larger than the CRE variations caused by the other factors.

  11. Low cloud investigations for project FIRE: Island studies of cloud properties, surface radiation, and boundary layer dynamics. A simulation of the reflectivity over a stratocumulus cloud deck by the Monte Carlo method. M.S. Thesis Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Thomas P.; Lin, Ruei-Fong

    1993-01-01

    The radiation field over a broken stratocumulus cloud deck is simulated by the Monte Carlo method. We conducted four experiments to investigate the main factor for the observed shortwave reflectively over the FIRE flight 2 leg 5, in which reflectivity decreases almost linearly from the cloud center to cloud edge while the cloud top height and the brightness temperature remain almost constant through out the clouds. From our results, the geometry effect, however, did not contribute significantly to what has been observed. We found that the variation of the volume extinction coefficient as a function of its relative position in the cloud affects the reflectivity efficiently. Additional check of the brightness temperature of each experiment also confirms this conclusion. The cloud microphysical data showed some interesting features. We found that the cloud droplet spectrum is nearly log-normal distributed when the clouds were solid. However, whether the shift of cloud droplet spectrum toward the larger end is not certain. The decrease of number density from cloud center to cloud edges seems to have more significant effects on the optical properties.

  12. Retrieve Optically Thick Ice Cloud Microphysical Properties by Using Airborne Dual-Wavelength Radar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhien; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Li, Lihua; Heymsfield, Andrew J.

    2005-01-01

    An algorithm to retrieve optically thick ice cloud microphysical property profiles is developed by using the GSFC 9.6 GHz ER-2 Doppler Radar (EDOP) and the 94 GHz Cloud Radar System (CRS) measurements aboard the high-altitude ER-2 aircraft. In situ size distribution and total water content data from the CRYSTAL-FACE field campaign are used for the algorithm development. To reduce uncertainty in calculated radar reflectivity factors (Ze) at these wavelengths, coincident radar measurements and size distribution data are used to guide the selection of mass-length relationships and to deal with the density and non-spherical effects of ice crystals on the Ze calculations. The algorithm is able to retrieve microphysical property profiles of optically thick ice clouds, such as, deep convective and anvil clouds, which are very challenging for single frequency radar and lidar. Examples of retrieved microphysical properties for a deep convective clouds are presented, which show that EDOP and CRS measurements provide rich information to study cloud structure and evolution. Good agreement between IWPs derived from an independent submillimeter-wave radiometer, CoSSIR, and dual-wavelength radar measurements indicates accuracy of the IWC retrieved from the two-frequency radar algorithm.

  13. Ice nucleation activity of diesel soot particles at Cirrus relevant conditions: Effects of hydration, secondary organics coating, hydration, soot morphology, and coagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; China, Swarup; Liu, Shang; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Sharma, Noopur; Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Aiken, A. C.; Chand, Duli; Laskin, Alexander; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Shilling, John E.; Shutthanandan, V.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2016-04-16

    The role of atmospheric relevant soot particles that are processed in the atmosphere toward ice nucleation at cirrus cloud condition is poorly understood. In this study, the ice nucleating properties of diesel soot particles subjected to various physical and chemical aging treatments were investigated at temperatures ranging from -40 to -50 °C. We show that bare soot particles nucleate ice in deposition mode, but coating with secondary organics suppresses the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of soot particles requiring homogeneous freezing threshold conditions. However, the ice nucleation efficiency of soot particles coated with an aqueous organic layer was similar to bare soot particles. Hydration of bare soot particles slightly enhanced the ice nucleation efficiency, and the IN abilities of compact soot particles (roundness = ~ 0.6) were similar to bare lacey soot particles (roundness = ~ 0.4). These results indicate that ice nucleation properties are sensitive to the various aging treatments.

  14. Case studies of size resolved CCN composition and cloud properties in cumulus humilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X.; Berg, L. K.; Berkowitz, C. M.; Lee, Y.; Alexander, L.; Ogren, J. A.; Andrews, B.

    2010-12-01

    The Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) provided a unique opportunity to study cloud processing of aerosols. Clouds play an active role in the processing and cycling of atmospheric constituents. Within in a cloud, gases and particles can partition to cloud droplets by absorption and condensation as well as activation and impact scavenging. The Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft was used as one of the main platforms in CHAPS. G-1 flight tracks were designed to characterize aerosols at cloud top and cloud base as well as within individual cumulus humilis (or fair-weather cumulus), in the vicinity of Oklahoma City. Measurements of interstitial aerosols and residuals of activated condensation cloud nuclei were conducted simultaneously. The interstitial aerosols were measured downstream of an isokinetic inlet, and the activated particles downstream of a counter-flow virtual impactor (CVI). The sampling line to the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was switched between the isokinetic inlet and the CVI to allow characterization of non-activated particles outside of clouds in contrast to particles activated in clouds. Trace gases including ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and a series of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured. Key meteorological state parameters included liquid water content, cloud drop size, and dew point. In this presentation, we will focus on case studies of CCN properties in cumulus humilis. The first analysis summarizes three case studies of measurements made at cloud bottom and in-cloud by the AMS. The size-resolved composition is different between background and activated particles. The second analysis links in situ measurements of aerosol, trace gas, and VOCs to look into the sources of CCN. For instance, by comparing the characteristic m/z ratios by AMS and tracers like CO or isoprene, one can gain more insight into the role of primary and secondary organic aerosols in CCN and background aerosols. The third

  15. CALIPSO Observations of PSCs and Cirrus During the 2015-2016 Arctic Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Michael; Poole, Lamont

    2016-04-01

    The POLSTRACC (POlar STRAtosphere in a Changing Climate) field campaign was conducted in the Arctic during December 2015 - March 2016 to investigate the chemical, microphysical, and dynamical processes of the Arctic lowermost stratosphere and upper troposphere. The primary measurement platform for POLSTRACC was the German HALO (High Altitude LOng range) research aircraft carrying a large suite of in situ and remote sensing instruments to measure key chemical species, tracers, as well as aerosol and cloud particles and meteorological parameters. Two primary science objectives of POLSTRACC are to improve our understanding of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particle characteristics and formation processes and investigate the impact of Arctic cirrus clouds on radiative forcing and chlorine activation. To complement the more focused measurements from the POLSTRACC field campaign, we have used spaceborne lidar measurements from CALIPSO to characterize PSC occurrence and composition, as well as the occurrence of Arctic cirrus during the 2015-2016 season on vortex-wide scales. In this paper, we present a general overview of the 2015-2016 winter, examine in detail the evolution of PSCs and cirrus during the season, and explore the unique aspects of this season in attempt to understand the underlying physical mechanisms.

  16. The OCO-2 oxygen A-band response to liquid marine cloud properties from CALIPSO and MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Mark; McDuffie, James; Stephens, Graeme L.; Cronk, Heather Q.; Taylor, Tommy E.

    2017-08-01

    Spectra of reflected sunlight in the oxygen A-band contain information about cloud properties such as cloud top pressure, optical depth, and pressure thickness. Here we show, for the first time, that high-spectral-resolution A-band Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) spectra respond largely as simulated to the optical properties of water clouds over ocean during November 2015 (N = 184,318) using input cloud properties from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Aqua and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization on Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO). In A-band continuum channels the standard deviation of simulated minus observed radiance is ±37%. Selecting horizontally homogeneous clouds to mitigate three-dimensional cloud effects and collocation error with the other satellites, the standard deviation of the residuals is reduced to ±18%. Using a look-up table developed from simulations, OCO-2's estimated cloud top pressure for low clouds (Ptop > 680 hPa) has a standard deviation of ±61 hPa relative to CALIPSO retrievals, and bias is dependent on assumed cloud pressure thickness, with our smallest value being -5 hPa. Versus MODIS optical depth, the standard deviation is ±9.0 and the bias is -2.0, although these shrink for clouds of τ < 30. These values include collocation error between the different satellites, meaning that they place an upper bound on the OCO-2 retrieval uncertainty. The theoretical precision limit from OCO-2's instrumental uncertainty is shown to be ±2.4 hPa in above-cloud path and ±0.2% in optical depth for a two-channel retrieval. Options for retrieving cloud optical depth, cloud top pressure, and pressure thickness are discussed in the context of a formal OCO-2 cloud property retrieval.

  17. Lidar and Ceilometer Observations and Comparisons of Atmospheric Cloud Structure at Nagqu of Tibetan Plateau in 2014 Summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoquan Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the project of the Third Tibetan Plateau Experiment of Atmospheric Science (TIPEX III, the intensive observation of cloud and precipitation in Nagqu was conducted from 1 July to 31 August 2014. The CL31 ceilometer and a WAter vapor, Cloud and Aerosol Lidar (WACAL were deployed and focused on studying the cloud macroscopic characteristics and vertical distribution. The statistical result of CL31 ceilometer in continuous operation mode shows that the cloud occurrence is about 81% with a majority of simple one-layer cloud. The cloud base and top height are retrieved by improved differential zero-crossing method using lidar data. The results of cloud base height (CBH are compared with CL31 ceilometer, showing a good consistency with each other, however, in some cases, the CL31 ceilometer overestimates the CBH and is also validated by synchronous radiosonde data. The time snippet comparisons of cloud property between CL31 ceilometer and lidar imply that the cloud properties have obvious diurnal variations with “U” shape distribution. The cloud development including the time-spatial distribution features also has distinct diurnal variations based on the lidar measurement. The detection range of lidar goes beyond the maximum height of CL31 ceilometer, offering substantial observations to the analysis of cirrus cloud radiation characteristics and formation mechanism.

  18. A multi-approach to the optical depth of a contrail cirrus cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Navarro, Margarita; Bugliaro, Luca; Schumann, Ulrich; Strandgren, Johan; Wirth, Martin; Voigt, Christiane

    2017-04-01

    Amongst the individual aviation emissions, contrail cirrus contribute the largest fraction to the aviation effects on climate. To investigate the optical depth from contrail cirrus, we selected a cirrus and contrail cloud outbreak on the 10th April 2014 between the North Sea and Switzerland detected during the ML-CIRRUS experiment (Voigt et al., 2017). The outbreak was not forecast by weather prediction models. We describe its origin and evolution using a combination of in-situ measurements, remote sensing approaches and contrail prediction model prognosis. The in-situ and lidar measurements were carried out with the HALO aircraft, where the cirrus was first identified. Model predictions from the contrail prediction model CoCiP (Schumann et al., 2012) point to an anthropogenic origin. The satellite pictures from the SEVIRI imager on MSG combined with the use of a contrail cluster tracking algorithm enable the automatic assessment of the origin, displacement and growth of the cloud and the correct labeling of cluster pixels. The evolution of the optical depth and particle size of the selected cluster pixels were derived using the CiPS algorithm, a neural network primarily based on SEVIRI images. The CoCiP forecast of the cluster compared to the actual cluster tracking show that the model correctly predicts the occurrence of the cluster and its advection direction although the cluster spreads faster than simulated. The optical depth derived from CiPS and from the airborne high spectral resolution lidar WALES are compared and show a remarkably good agreement. This confirms that the new CiPS algorithm is a very powerful tool for the assessment of the optical depth of even optically thinner cirrus clouds. References: Schumann, U.: A contrail cirrus prediction model, Geosci. Model Dev., 5, 543-580, doi: 10.5194/gmd-5-543-2012, 2012. Voigt, C., Schumann, U., Minikin, A., Abdelmonem, A., Afchine, A., Borrmann, S., Boettcher, M., Buchholz, B., Bugliaro, L., Costa, A

  19. Near-cloud aerosol properties from the 1 km resolution MODIS ocean product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várnai, Tamás.; Marshak, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    This study examines aerosol properties in the vicinity of clouds by analyzing high-resolution atmospheric correction parameters provided in the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) ocean color product. The study analyzes data from a 2 week long period of September in 10 years, covering a large area in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. The results indicate that on the one hand, the Quality Assessment (QA) flags of the ocean color product successfully eliminate cloud-related uncertainties in ocean parameters such as chlorophyll content, but on the other hand, using the flags introduces a sampling bias in atmospheric products such as aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Angstrom exponent. Therefore, researchers need to select QA flags by balancing the risks of increased retrieval uncertainties and sampling biases. Using an optimal set of QA flags, the results reveal substantial increases in optical thickness near clouds—on average the increase is 50% for the roughly half of pixels within 5 km from clouds and is accompanied by a roughly matching increase in particle size. Theoretical simulations show that the 50% increase in 550 nm AOT changes instantaneous direct aerosol radiative forcing by up to 8 W/m2 and that the radiative impact is significantly larger if observed near-cloud changes are attributed to aerosol particles as opposed to undetected cloud particles. These results underline that accounting for near-cloud areas and understanding the causes of near-cloud particle changes are critical for accurate calculations of direct aerosol radiative forcing.

  20. The Microbase Value-Added Product: A Baseline Retrieval of Cloud Microphysical Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, M; Johnson, K; Jensen, M

    2011-05-31

    This report describes the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility baseline cloud microphysical properties (MICROBASE) value-added product (VAP). MICROBASE uses a combination of millimeter-wavelength cloud radar, microwave radiometer, and radiosonde observations to estimate the vertical profiles of the primary microphysical parameters of clouds including the liquid/ice water content and liquid/ice cloud particle effective radius. MICROBASE is a baseline algorithm designed to apply to most conditions and locations using a single set of parameterizations and a simple determination of water phase based on temperature. This document provides the user of this product with guidelines to assist in determining the accuracy of the product under certain conditions. Quality control flags are designed to identify outliers and indicate instances where the retrieval assumptions may not be met. The overall methodology is described in this report through a detailed description of the input variables, algorithms, and output products.

  1. The Influence of Sea Ice on Arctic Low Cloud Properties and Radiative Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Patrick C.

    2015-01-01

    The Arctic is one of the most climatically sensitive regions of the Earth. Climate models robustly project the Arctic to warm 2-3 times faster than the global mean surface temperature, termed polar warming amplification (PWA), but also display the widest range of surface temperature projections in this region. The response of the Arctic to increased CO2 modulates the response in tropical and extra-tropical regions through teleconnections in the atmospheric circulation. An increased frequency of extreme precipitation events in the northern mid-latitudes, for example, has been linked to the change in the background equator-to-pole temperature gradient implied by PWA. Understanding the Arctic climate system is therefore important for predicting global climate change. The ice albedo feedback is the primary mechanism driving PWA, however cloud and dynamical feedbacks significantly contribute. These feedback mechanisms, however, do not operate independently. How do clouds respond to variations in sea ice? This critical question is addressed by combining sea ice, cloud, and radiation observations from satellites, including CERES, CloudSAT, CALIPSO, MODIS, and microwave radiometers, to investigate sea ice-cloud interactions at the interannual timescale in the Arctic. Cloud characteristics are strongly tied to the atmospheric dynamic and thermodynamic state. Therefore, the sensitivity of Arctic cloud characteristics, vertical distribution and optical properties, to sea ice anomalies is computed within atmospheric dynamic and thermodynamic regimes. Results indicate that the cloud response to changes in sea ice concentration differs significantly between atmospheric state regimes. This suggests that (1) the atmospheric dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics and (2) the characteristics of the marginal ice zone are important for determining the seasonal forcing by cloud on sea ice variability.

  2. Cosmic rays as regulators of molecular cloud properties

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, Marco; Galli, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic rays are the main agents in controlling the chemical evolution and setting the ambipolar diffusion time of a molecular cloud. We summarise the processes causing the energy degradation of cosmic rays due to their interaction with molecular hydrogen, focusing on the magnetic effects that influence their propagation. Making use of magnetic field configurations generated by numerical simulations, we show that the increase of the field line density in the collapse region results in a reduction of the cosmic-ray ionisation rate. As a consequence the ionisation fraction decreases, facilitating the decoupling between the gas and the magnetic field.

  3. Using CO line ratios to trace the physical properties of molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza, Camilo H.; Clark, Paul C.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Shetty, Rahul; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2017-02-01

    The carbon monoxide (CO) rotational transition lines are the most common tracers of molecular gas within giant molecular clouds (MCs). We study the ratio (R2-1/1-0) between CO's first two emission lines and examine what information it provides about the physical properties of the cloud. To study R2-1/1-0, we perform smooth particle hydrodynamic simulations with time-dependent chemistry (using GADGET-2), along with post-process radiative transfer calculations on an adaptive grid (using RADMC-3D) to create synthetic emission maps of a MC. R2-1/1-0 has a bimodal distribution that is a consequence of the excitation properties of each line, given that J = 1 reaches local thermal equilibrium while J = 2 is still sub-thermally excited in the considered clouds. The bimodality of R2-1/1-0 serves as a tracer of the physical properties of different regions of the cloud, and it helps constrain local temperatures, densities and opacities. Additionally, this bimodal structure shows an important portion of the CO emission comes from diffuse regions of the cloud, suggesting that the commonly used conversion factor of R2-1/1-0 ∼ 0.7 between both lines may need to be studied further.

  4. Technical note: A new day- and night-time Meteosat Second Generation Cirrus Detection Algorithm MeCiDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Krebs

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A new cirrus detection algorithm for the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infra-Red Imager (SEVIRI aboard the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG, MeCiDA, is presented. The algorithm uses the seven infrared channels of SEVIRI and thus provides a consistent scheme for cirrus detection at day and night. MeCiDA combines morphological and multi-spectral threshold tests and detects optically thick and thin ice clouds. The thresholds were determined by a comprehensive theoretical study using radiative transfer simulations for various atmospheric situations as well as by manually evaluating actual satellite observations. The cirrus detection has been optimized for mid- and high latitudes but it could be adapted to other regions as well. The retrieved cirrus masks have been validated by comparison with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Cirrus Reflection Flag. To study possible seasonal variations in the performance of the algorithm, one scene per month of the year 2004 was randomly selected and compared with the MODIS flag. 81% of the pixels were classified identically by both algorithms. In a comparison of monthly mean values for Europe and the North-Atlantic MeCiDA detected 29.3% cirrus coverage, while the MODIS SWIR cirrus coverage was 38.1%. A lower detection efficiency is to be expected for MeCiDA, as the spatial resolution of MODIS is considerably better and as we used only the thermal infrared channels in contrast to the MODIS algorithm which uses infrared and visible radiances. The advantage of MeCiDA compared to retrievals for polar orbiting instruments or previous geostationary satellites is that it permits the derivation of quantitative data every 15 min, 24 h a day. This high temporal resolution allows the study of diurnal variations and life cycle aspects. MeCiDA is fast enough for near real-time applications.

  5. Observed correlations between aerosol and cloud properties in an Indian Ocean trade cumulus regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pistone

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many contributing factors which determine the micro- and macrophysical properties of clouds, including atmospheric structure, dominant meteorological conditions, and aerosol concentration, all of which may be coupled to one another. In the quest to determine aerosol effects on clouds, these potential relationships must be understood, as changes in atmospheric conditions due to aerosol may change the expected magnitude of indirect effects by altering cloud properties in unexpected ways. Here we describe several observed correlations between aerosol conditions and cloud and atmospheric properties in the Indian Ocean winter monsoon season. In the CARDEX (Cloud, Aerosol, Radiative forcing, Dynamics EXperiment field campaign conducted in February and March 2012 in the northern Indian Ocean, continuous measurements of atmospheric precipitable water vapor and the liquid water path (LWP of trade cumulus clouds were made, concurrent with measurements of water vapor flux, cloud and aerosol vertical profiles, meteorological data, and surface and total-column aerosol. Here we present evidence of a positive correlation between aerosol and cloud LWP which becomes clear after the data are filtered to control for the natural meteorological variability in the region. We then use the aircraft and ground observatory measurements to explore the mechanisms behind the observed aerosol–LWP correlation. We determine that increased boundary-layer humidity lowering the cloud base is responsible for the observed increase in cloud liquid water. Large-scale analysis indicates that high pollution cases originate with a highly-polluted boundary layer air mass approaching the observatory from a northwesterly direction. This polluted mass exhibits higher temperatures and humidity than the clean case, the former of which may be attributable to heating due to aerosol absorption of solar radiation over the subcontinent. While high temperature conditions dispersed along

  6. Overview of CERES Cloud Properties Derived From VIRS AND MODIS DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minis, Patrick; Geier, Erika; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Chen, Yan; Trepte, Qing Z.; Dong, Xiquan; Doelling, David R.; Ayers, J. Kirk; Khaiyer, Mandana M.

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of radiation and cloud fields on a global basis is recognized as a key component in understanding and modeling the interaction between clouds and radiation at the top of the atmosphere, at the surface, and within the atmosphere. The NASA Clouds and Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) Project (Wielicki et al., 1998) began addressing this issue in 1998 with its first broadband shortwave and longwave scanner on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). This was followed by the launch of two CERES scanners each on Terra and Aqua during late 1999 and early 2002, respectively. When combined, these satellites should provide the most comprehensive global characterization of clouds and radiation to date. Unfortunately, the TRMM scanner failed during late 1998. The Terra and Aqua scanners continue to operate, however, providing measurements at a minimum of 4 local times each day. CERES was designed to scan in tandem with high resolution imagers so that the cloud conditions could be evaluated for every CERES measurement. The cloud properties are essential for converting CERES radiances shortwave albedo and longwave fluxes needed to define the radiation budget (ERB). They are also needed to unravel the impact of clouds on the ERB. The 5-channel, 2-km Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on the TRMM and the 36-channel 1-km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua are analyzed to define the cloud properties for each CERES footprint. To minimize inter-satellite differences and aid the development of useful climate-scale measurements, it was necessary to ensure that each satellite imager is calibrated in a fashion consistent with its counterpart on the other CERES satellites (Minnis et al., 2006) and that the algorithms are as similar as possible for all of the imagers. Thus, a set of cloud detection and retrieval algorithms were developed that could be applied to all three imagers utilizing as few channels as possible

  7. Determining Best Estimates and Uncertainties in Cloud Microphysical Parameters from ARM Field Data: Implications for Models, Retrieval Schemes and Aerosol-Cloud-Radiation Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarquhar, Greg [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2015-12-28

    We proposed to analyze in-situ cloud data collected during ARM/ASR field campaigns to create databases of cloud microphysical properties and their uncertainties as needed for the development of improved cloud parameterizations for models and remote sensing retrievals, and for evaluation of model simulations and retrievals. In particular, we proposed to analyze data collected over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) during the Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), the Storm Peak Laboratory Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX), the Small Particles in Cirrus (SPARTICUS) Experiment and the Routine AAF Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD) Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign, over the North Slope of Alaska during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) and the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), and over the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) during The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE), to meet the following 3 objectives; derive statistical databases of single ice particle properties (aspect ratio AR, dominant habit, mass, projected area) and distributions of ice crystals (size distributions SDs, mass-dimension m-D, area-dimension A-D relations, mass-weighted fall speeds, single-scattering properties, total concentrations N, ice mass contents IWC), complete with uncertainty estimates; assess processes by which aerosols modulate cloud properties in arctic stratus and mid-latitude cumuli, and quantify aerosol’s influence in context of varying meteorological and surface conditions; and determine how ice cloud microphysical, single-scattering and fall-out properties and contributions of small ice crystals to such properties vary according to location, environment, surface, meteorological and aerosol conditions, and develop parameterizations of such effects.In this report we describe the accomplishments that we made on all 3 research objectives.

  8. How well can we monitor cloud properties over polar regions in winter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, S. A.; Holz, R.; Frey, R.; Heidinger, A.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding the impact of clouds on the Earth's radiation balance and detecting changes in the amount and distribution of global cloud cover requires accurate global cloud climatologies with well-characterized uncertainties. To meet this challenge, significant effort has been given to generating climate quality long-term cloud data sets using over 30 years of polar-orbiting satellite measurements [Rossow and Schiffer, 1999; Jacobowitz et al, 2003; Wylie and Menzel, 1999] with plans to continue the cloud record using the next generation of polar orbiting sensors [e.g. Ackerman, et al., 1998]. A "Climate Quality" climatology requires that both the uncertainties and the physical sensitivities are quantified and are smaller than the expected climate signature. Clouds play a critical role in the Arctic climate system, through interacting with other important climate processes, including snow/ice albedo feedback. Clouds modulate the surface radiative fluxes (Wang and Key, 2003) that influence the growth and melting of sea ice. Increasing cloud cover, which keeps the shortwave irradiances at the top-of-atmosphere unchanged, possibly compensates the reduced sea ice extent (Kato et al., 2006). However, assessing changes in polar conditions during winter has been a challenge. Holz et al (2008) presented a global two-month comparison between the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud properties. Both CALIOP and MODIS are part of the NASA A-Train constellation of satellites and provide continuous near-coincident measurements that result in over 28 million cloud detection comparisons in a month. Globally (includes polar regions), it was found that the MODIS 1-km cloud mask and the CALIOP 1-km averaged layer product agreement is 88% for cloudy conditions in both August 2006 and February 2007. For clear-sky conditions the agreement is 84 (85) % for August (February). The best agreement is

  9. High-resolution WRF simulation of cloud properties over the super typhoon Haiyan: physics parameterizations and comparison against MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Tanvir; Srivastava, Prashant K.; Dai, Qiang

    2016-11-01

    Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models can complement the satellite technology in simulating the cloud properties, especially in extreme storm events, when gathering new data becomes more than essential for accurate weather forecasting. In this study, we investigate the capability of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to realistically simulate some important cloud properties in high-resolution grids, such as cloud phase (e.g., liquid or ice) and cloud water path. The sensitivity of different combinations of physics parameterizations to the simulated cloud fields is studied. The experiment is conducted on a super typhoon event by configuring the WRF model in two domains, with two-way nesting, allowing bidirectional information exchange between the parent and the nest. In order to do the assessment, the simulated cloud fields are compared against MODIS-derived cloud properties from one overpass scene. While the simulations have been able to capture the spatial distribution of cloud properties reasonably well, produced cloud quantities such as ice water path has been significantly overestimated when compared to the MODIS optical cloud information. The microphysics parameterizations are found to be more sensitive than the planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterizations.

  10. Aerosol effect on the evolution of the thermodynamic properties of warm convective cloud fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, Guy; Koren, Ilan; Altaratz, Orit; Heiblum, Reuven H.

    2016-12-01

    Convective cloud formation and evolution strongly depend on environmental temperature and humidity profiles. The forming clouds change the profiles that created them by redistributing heat and moisture. Here we show that the evolution of the field’s thermodynamic properties depends heavily on the concentration of aerosol, liquid or solid particles suspended in the atmosphere. Under polluted conditions, rain formation is suppressed and the non-precipitating clouds act to warm the lower part of the cloudy layer (where there is net condensation) and cool and moisten the upper part of the cloudy layer (where there is net evaporation), thereby destabilizing the layer. Under clean conditions, precipitation causes net warming of the cloudy layer and net cooling of the sub-cloud layer (driven by rain evaporation), which together act to stabilize the atmosphere with time. Previous studies have examined different aspects of the effects of clouds on their environment. Here, we offer a complete analysis of the cloudy atmosphere, spanning the aerosol effect from instability-consumption to enhancement, below, inside and above warm clouds, showing the temporal evolution of the effects. We propose a direct measure for the magnitude and sign of the aerosol effect on thermodynamic instability.

  11. The role of boundary layer aerosol particles for the development of deep convective clouds: A high-resolution 3D model with detailed (bin) microphysics applied to CRYSTAL-FACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Delphine; Wobrock, Wolfram; Flossmann, Andrea I.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reproduces aircraft microphysical measurements using a three-dimensional model with bin resolved microphysics and is then used to analyze in particular the role of boundary layer aerosol particles in the anvil and the ice phase. The simulated case is a convective cloud which develops a large anvil of around 10 km height, which was sampled during the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers — Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE). The model couples the 3D dynamics of a cloud scale model with a detailed mixed phase microphysical code. The microphysical package considers the evolution of the wet aerosol particles, drop and ice crystal spectra on size grids with 39 bins. With this model hereafter called DESCAM 3D, we are able to simulate the cloud with features close to those observed and to provide explanations of the observed phenomena concerning cloud microphysics as well as cloud dynamics. The same CRYSTAL-FACE cloud has already been simulated by other groups using a similar model. They investigated the role of mid-tropospheric aerosol particles versus boundary layer aerosol on the microphysical properties of the anvil. Similar simulations with our DESCAM 3D lead to quite different results. Reducing the number of mid-tropospheric aerosol particles causes only minor changes in the cloud anvil. However, changing the aerosol particle spectrum in the boundary layer from clean to polluted conditions modifies strongly the dynamical evolution of the convective clouds and thus impacts significantly on the microphysical properties of the anvil. Possible reasons for the differences are discussed.

  12. Aerosol Microphysical and Macrophysical Effects on Deep Convective Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, T.; Li, Z.; Wilcox, E. M.; Oreopoulos, L.; Remer, L. A.; Yu, H.; Platnick, S. E.; Posselt, D. J.; Zhang, Z.; Martins, J. V.

    2014-12-01

    We illustrate a conceptual model of hydrometeor vertical development inside a convective cloud and its utility in studying of aerosol-DCC interactions. Both case studies and ensemble means are used to investigate aerosol-DCC interactions. We identify a few scenarios where possible signal of aerosol effect on DCC may be extracted. The results show a consistent and physically sound picture of aerosols affecting DCC microphysics as well as macrophysical properties. Specifically, pollutions and smokes are shown to consistently decrease ice particle size. On the contrary, dust particles close to source regions are shown to make cloud ice particle size more maritime like. We postulate that dust may achieve this by acting as either heterogeneous ice nuclei or giant cloud condensation nuclei. This contrast between smoke or pollution and dust also exists for their effects on cloud glaciation temperature. Smoke and pollution aerosols are shown to decrease glaciation temperature while dust particles do the opposite. Possible Implications of our results for studying aerosol indirect forcing, cirrus cloud properties, troposphere-stratosphere water vapor exchange and cloud latent heating are discussed.

  13. Information content of visible and midinfrared radiances for retrieving tropical ice cloud properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kai-Wei; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Kahn, Brian H.; Natraj, Vijay

    2017-05-01

    Hyperspectral instruments such as Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) have spectrally dense observations effective for ice cloud retrievals. However, due to the large number of channels, only a small subset is typically used. It is crucial that this subset of channels be chosen to contain the maximum possible information about the retrieved variables. This study describes an information content analysis designed to select optimal channels for ice cloud retrievals. To account for variations in ice cloud properties, we perform channel selection over an ensemble of cloud regimes, extracted with a clustering algorithm, from a multiyear database at a tropical Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site. Multiple satellite viewing angles over land and ocean surfaces are considered to simulate the variations in observation scenarios. The results suggest that AIRS channels near wavelengths of 14, 10.4, 4.2, and 3.8 μm contain the most information. With an eye toward developing a joint AIRS-MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) retrieval, the analysis is also applied to combined measurements from both instruments. While application of this method to MODIS yields results consistent with previous channel sensitivity studies, the analysis shows that this combination may yield substantial improvement in cloud retrievals. MODIS provides most information on optical thickness and particle size, aided by a better constraint on cloud vertical placement from AIRS. An alternate scenario where cloud top boundaries are supplied by the active sensors in the A-train is also explored. The more robust cloud placement afforded by active sensors shifts the optimal channels toward the window region and shortwave infrared, further constraining optical thickness and particle size.

  14. Satellite and Surface Data Synergy for Developing a 3D Cloud Structure and Properties Characterization Over the ARM SGP. Stage 1: Cloud Amounts, Optical Depths, and Cloud Heights Reconciliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genkova, I.; Long, C. N.; Heck, P. W.; Minnis, P.

    2003-01-01

    One of the primary Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program objectives is to obtain measurements applicable to the development of models for better understanding of radiative processes in the atmosphere. We address this goal by building a three-dimensional (3D) characterization of the cloud structure and properties over the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP). We take the approach of juxtaposing the cloud properties as retrieved from independent satellite and ground-based retrievals, and looking at the statistics of the cloud field properties. Once these retrievals are well understood, they will be used to populate the 3D characterization database. As a first step we determine the relationship between surface fractional sky cover and satellite viewing angle dependent cloud fraction (CF). We elaborate on the agreement intercomparing optical depth (OD) datasets from satellite and ground using available retrieval algorithms with relation to the CF, cloud height, multi-layer cloud presence, and solar zenith angle (SZA). For the SGP Central Facility, where output from the active remote sensing cloud layer (ARSCL) valueadded product (VAP) is available, we study the uncertainty of satellite estimated cloud heights and evaluate the impact of this uncertainty for radiative studies.

  15. Cloud pa