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Sample records for cirripedia thoracica implications

  1. Comparison of nutritional status of field and laboratory reared Balanus amphitrite Darwin (Cirripedia: Thoracica) larvae and implication of starvation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, D.V.; Anil, A.C.

    Comparison of nutritional status of field and laboratory reared Balanus amphitrite Darwin (Cirripedia: Thoracica) larvae and implication of starvation Dattesh V. Desai, A.C. Anil * Marine Corrosion and Materials Research Division, National Institute... (Thorson, 1950; Crisp, 1976; Olson and Olson, 1989; Anil et al., 1995). Starvation will lead to nutritional stress, which can kill the larvae directly or may increase or decrease the duration of larval developmental stages (Knowlton, 1974; Sandifer...

  2. Cypris morphology in the barnacles Ibla and Paralepas (Crustacea: Cirripedia Thoracica) implications for cirripede evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Jens T; Achituv, Yair; Chan, Benny K K; Chan, Karen; Jensen, Peter Gram; Pérez-Losada, Marcos

    2009-01-01

    there are no specific apomorphies with either the Acrothoracica, the Rhizocephala or any particular subgroup within the Thoracica. This is in agreement with recent molecular evidence that Ibla (Ibliformes) is the sister taxon to all other Thoracica and the ibliforms therefore become the outgroup of...

  3. Exploration and metamorphosis in Balanus amphitrite Darwin (Cirripedia ; Thoracica) cyprids: significance of sugars and adult extract

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, L.; Anil, A.C.; Raghukumar, S.

    present in the adults is thought to be responsible for this behavior (Knight-Jones, 1953; Knight-Jones and Crisp, 3 1953; Crisp and Meadows, 1963). Clare et al. (1995) reported the involvement of cyclic AMP in the pheromonal modulation of barnacle... of the fourth antennular segment of Balanus amphitrite amphitrite (Crustacea: Cirripedia). J Mar. Biol. Ass. U. K. 74, 967-970. Clare, A.S., Thomas, R.F., Rittschof, D., 1995. Evidence for the involvement of cyclic AMP in the pheromonal modulation...

  4. Phylogenetic position of Antarctic Scalpelliformes (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Thoracica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, Katrin; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Fitzcharles, Elaine; Sands, Chester J.; Buckeridge, John S.

    2013-03-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of seven Antarctic barnacle species, one verrucomorph and six scalpelliforms from the Scotia, Weddell and Ross seas were investigated using DNA sequences from two nuclear genes (18 S and 28 S) and one mitochondrial gene (COI), with a combined total length of 3,151 base pairs. Analyses of these new sequences, together with those of previously published ibliform, lepadiform, scalpelliform, balanomorph and verrucomorph species, confirm that the Scalpelliformes are not monophyletic. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses consistently recovered a monophyletic group which comprised Ornatoscalpellum stroemii (Sars) and the Southern Ocean scalpellomorphs; Arcoscalpellum sp. from the Weddell Sea, Arcoscalpellum africanum from Elephant Island, A. bouveti from Bouvet Island, the circum-Antarctic Litoscalpellum discoveryi, Litoscalpellum sp. from Shag Rocks and Scalpellum sp. from the Falkland Trough. We also used multiple fossil constraints in a relaxed clock Bayesian framework to estimate divergence times for the 18 S+28 S phylogeny. Our results indicate a mid Cretaceous divergence for the Weddell Sea Arcoscalpellum sp, followed by a late Cretaceous divergence from the North Atlantic O. stroemii. Subsequent to this, the Antarctic scalpellomorphs began to radiate at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Monophyly within the scalpellid genera Arcoscalpellum, Litoscalpellum and Scalpellum was strongly rejected by all loci. Our results show incongruence between taxonomy and molecular systematics and highlight the need for more species to be sequenced as well as taxonomic revisions to resolve uncertainties in the phylogenetic relationships of the stalked barnacles.

  5. Studies on some ecological aspects of Balanus amphitrite (Cirripedia: Thoracica)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, D.V.

    The year round breeding capability of Balanus amphitrite indicates a potential for continuous recruitment. The recruitment pattern however indicated a lull during monsoon. The study site experiences increased land run off lowering the salinity...

  6. Reproduction in Balanus amphitrite Darwin (Cirripedia: Thoracica); influence of temperature and food concentration

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, D.V.; Anil, A.C.; Venkat, K.

    Biol Ecol 19:227-232 Barnes H, Crisp DJ (1956) Evidence of self-fertilization in certain species of barnacles. J Mar Biol Ass U K 35:631-639 Charnov EL (1987) Sexuality and hermaphroditism in barnacles: a natural selection approach. In: Southward...

  7. Studies on some cues regulating metamorphosis of the larvae of Balanus amphitrite (Cirripedia: Thoracica)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, L.

    -filtered (0.22 ?m), UV- irradiated seawater. 2.2.4 Visualization of footprints The sugar-treated, as well as non-treated cyprids, were siphoned out and introduced individually into six-well plates (Corning- 430343) coated with 50 ?g ml-1 AE and to non... introduced into wells of 24-well plates coated with AE and to non-coated multiwells (Corning-430262) along with 2 ml of autoclaved, filtered seawater at 35? (Maki et al. 1990). The above treatments were repeated employing a single cyprid (single cyprid...

  8. Significance of biofilm proteins in modulating cyprid metamorphosis of Balanus amphitrite (Cirripedia: Thoracica)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, L.; KrishnaKumar, S.

    The role of biofilm proteins in modulating cyprid metamorphosis is not well understood. In the present investigation this possibility was explored by disrupting biofilm proteins using commercially available protease. The influence of natural biofilm...

  9. Influence of temperature on the starvation threshold of nauplii of barnacle Balanus amphitrite (Cirripedia: Thoracica)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, D.V.; Anil, A.C.

    of starvation factor in recruitment ecology8. Among barnacles, Balanus amphitrite has gained prominence in studies relevant to larval metamorphosis, influence of different chemical cues and mechanism of their perception. Selection of this species... for his support and encouragement, Dr. A. B. Wagh for his interest in initiating this investigation. We are thankful to Dr. N. B. Bhosle, Head, MCMRD as well as other colleagues. We acknowledge the assistance extended by Mr. S Naik, Mr. N Prabhu and Mr. P...

  10. Physiological responses to hypoxia and anoxia in Balanus amphitrite (Cirripedia: Thoracica)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, D.V.; Prakash, S.

    -mediated toxicity (Halliwell 1978, Halliwell & Gutteridge 1986, Pryor & Godber 1991, Winston & Di Giulio 1991, Ahmad 1995). B. amphitrite is regularly exposed in the intertidal area of the study region to tidal fluctuations from 0.25 to 2.5m. Being an intertidal... #................... 17 REFERENCES Ahmad S (1995) Antioxidant mechanism of enzymes and proteins. In: S. Ahmad (ed) Oxidative stress and Antioxidant defenses in Biology, Chapman and Hall, New York, p 238-272 Anger K, Dawirs RR (1981) Influence of starvation...

  11. Molecular phylogeny and character evolution of the chthamaloid barnacles (Cirripedia:Thoracica)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Crandall, Keith A.;

    2012-01-01

    Chthamaloidea has been debated since Darwin's seminal monographs. Theories of morphological and ontogenetic evolution suggest that the group could have evolved multiple times from pedunculated relatives and that shell plate number diminished gradually (8¿6¿4) from an ancestral state with eight wall plates...

  12. Notes on the ultrastructure of the setae on the fourth antennulary segment of the Balanus amphitrite cyprid (Crustacea : Cirripedia : Thoracica)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagersson, Niklas; Garm, Anders Lydik; Høeg, Jens Thorvald

    2003-01-01

    This study presents electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) observations on the putative settlement receptors of the fourth antennulary segments. The TEM data from all nine setae are from the outer dendritic segment. Eight of them have morphological characteristics, indicating bimodal sensory properties...

  13. Larval development and metamorphosis in Balanus amphitrite Darwin (Cirripedia; Thoracica): Significance of food concentration, temperature and nucleic acids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anil, A.C.; Desai, D.V.; Khandeparker, L.

    incorporated during the earlier planktotrophic naupliar development. Nucleic acids play a major role in growth and development. It has been shown that Ž. the RNArDNA ratio is an indicator of nutritional condition Clemmesen, 1996 , and has been routinely used... for estimating growth rates or nutritional condition of larval fish in the field. Only a few studies have applied this technique to crustaceans and their larvae Ž Dagg and Littlepage, 1972; Sulkin et al., 1975; Anger and Hirche, 1990; Wagner et al., . 1998...

  14. The impact of food type, temperature and starvation on larval development of Balanus amphitrite Darwin (Cirripedia: Thoracica)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, D.V.; Anil, A.C.

    that with development the utility of food types changes. The differences in the carbon gain can be attributed to differences in grazing rate due to variations in the size of the diatom cells, larval intersetular distance, diatom sinking rate and the photo-taxic behavior...

  15. Antennulary sensory organs in cyprids of Octolasmis and Lepas (Crustacea: Thecostraca: Cirripedia: Thoracica): a scanning electron microscopic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomsterberg, Mikkel; Høeg, Jens T; Jeffries, William B;

    2004-01-01

    attachment site within the branchial chamber of swimming crabs and, in particular, no similarities with cyprids of rhizocephalan barnacles, many of which also attach in the gill chamber. The synapomorphies between cyprids of the lepadid species may be adaptations to their life in the neuston....

  16. Influence of bacterial exopolymers, conspecific adult extract and salinity on the cyprid metamorphosis of Balanus amphitrite (Cirripedia: Thoracica)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anil, A.C.; Khandeparker, R.

    The influence of bacterial exopolymers and conspecific adult extract of Balanus amphitrite on metamorphosis of cyprid larvae at different salinities has been evaluated through laboratory assay. The bacterial exopolymers (epm) extracted from...

  17. A coral-eating barnacle, revisited (Cirripedia, Pyrgomatidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ross, Arnold; Newman, William A.

    1995-01-01

    The coral-eating barnacle Hoekia monticulariae (Gray, 1831), the only internal parasite among the Thoracica described to this day, is characterized by an irregularly-shaped shell nestled cryptically between the polyps of the hermatypic coral Hydnophora Fischer, 1807, which occurs throughout most of

  18. Reproduction and larval development in three scalpellid barnacles, Scalpellum scalpellum (Linnaeus 1767), Ornatoscalpellum stroemii (M. Sars 1859) and Arcoscalpellum michelottianum (Seguenza 1876), Crustacea: Cirripedia: Thoracica): implications for reproduction and dispersal in the deep sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl-Mortensen, Lene; Høeg, Jens Thorvald

    2006-01-01

    the female/hermaphrodite, type of larval development and the number and size of eggs were recorded. All three species have a pair of pocket-like receptacles, each of which can host only a single male in O. stroemii, up to five males in S. scalpellum and up to 12 males in A. michelottianum. Eggs and...

  19. Interactive effect of elevated pCO2 and temperature on the larval development of an inter-tidal organism, Balanus amphitrite Darwin (Cirripedia: Thoracica)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Baragi, L.V.; Anil, A.C.

    of the suitable food type (Barnes and Barnes, 1958). The growth rate of an organism is also influenced by the food quality and quantity (Moyse, 1963). Several studies have reported that the rising pCO2/reduced pH change the nutritional quality (Burkhardt et al... on the nutritional quality of the diatom (Chaetoceros calcitrans) which is used as feed for the rearing of barnacle larvae. In this experiment the growth of this diatom was measured in terms of cell numbers; and the nutritional quality was measured in terms...

  20. Southern hemisphere deep-water stylasterid corals including a new species, Errina labrosa sp. n. (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Stylasteridae, with notes on some symbiotic scalpellids (Cirripedia, Thoracica, Scalpellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of stylasterid corals are known to act as host species and create refuges for a variety of mobile and sessile organisms, which enhances their habitat complexity. These include annelids, anthozoans, cirripeds, copepods, cyanobacteria, echinoderms, gastropods, hydroids and sponges. Here we report the first evidence of a diverse association between stylasterids and scalpellid pedunculate barnacles and describe a new stylasterid species, Errina labrosa, from the Tristan da Cunha Archipelago. Overall, five stylasterid species are found to host eight scalpellid barnacles from several biogeographic regions in the southern hemisphere (Southern Ocean, temperate South America and the southern Indo-Pacific realms. There is an apparent lack of specificity in this kind of association and different grades of reaction to the symbiosis have been observed in the coral. These records suggest that the association between pedunculate barnacles and hard stylasterid corals has a wide distribution among different biogeographic realms and that it is relatively rare and confined largely to deep water.

  1. Sympatric three-species infection by Sacculina parasites (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala: Sacculinidae) of an intertidal grapsoid crab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsuchida, Kohei; Lützen, Jørgen; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2006-01-01

    Parasitization by sacculinids (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala: Sacculinidae) induces severe modifications in morphology, behavior, and reproduction of their host crabs. To understand the mechanisms involved, it is important to have comprehensive information on their association. However, such information...

  2. Cypris metamorphosis, injection and earliest internal development of theRrizocephalan Loxothylacus panopaei (Gissler). Crustacea: Cirripedia: Rhizocephala: Sacculinidae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenner, H

    2001-01-01

    substratum and initiate metamorphosis. In the presumed sister group to Rhizocephala, the true barnacles or Thoracica, metamorphosis leads to a juvenile filter-feeding version of the adult organism. In Rhizocephala the female cyprid settles on the integument of a crustacean and undergoes metamorphosis into a...

  3. Over de eerste vondsten van twee Pennella-soorten (Crustacea: Copepoda) en van Conchoderma virgatum (Spengler) (Crustacea: Cirripedia) in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huwae, P.H.M.

    1986-01-01

    On 30 November 1941 a sunfish Mola mola (L.) was found on the beach near Schoorl (Province of Noord-Holland). The fish was parasitized by a specimen of Pennella filosa (L.) (Crustacea, Copepoda) on which a specimen of Conchoderma virgatum (Crustacea: Cirripedia) had attached itself. This is the firs

  4. Larval development of the pedunculate barnacles Octolasmis angulata Aurivillius 1894 and Octolasmis cor Aurivillius 1892 (Cirripedia: Thoracica: Poecilasmatidae) from the gills of the mud crab, Scylla tranquebarica Fabricius, 1798.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, F C; Wong, W L; Maule, A G; Brennan, G P; Lim, L H S

    2015-05-01

    Detailed studies of larval development of Octolasmis angulata and Octolasmis cor are pivotal in understanding the larval morphological evolution as well as enhancing the functional ecology. Six planktotrophic naupliar stages and one non-feeding cyprid stage are documented in details for the first time for the two species of Octolasmis. Morphologically, the larvae of O. angulata and O. cor are similar in body size, setation patterns on the naupliar appendages, labrum, dorsal setae-pores, frontal horns, cyprid carapace, fronto-lateral gland pores, and lattice organs. Numbers of peculiarities were observed on the gnathobases of the antennae and mandible throughout the naupliar life-cycle. The setation pattern on the naupliar appendages are classified based on the segmentation on the naupliar appendages. The nauplius VI of both species undergoes a conspicuous change before metamorphosis into cyprid stage. The cyprid structures begin to form and modify beneath the naupliar body towards the end of stage VI. This study emphasises the importance of the pedunculate barnacle larval developmental studies not only to comprehend the larval morphological evolution but also to fill in the gaps in understanding the modification of the naupliar structures to adapt into the cyprid life-style. PMID:25770075

  5. Why Williamson's (2014) theory of Hybridogenesis fails to explain the evolution of the Rhizocephala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenner, Henrik; Lytzen, Jørgen Gjerom

    2015-01-01

    Alle biologiske, ultrastrukturelle og molekylære data understøtter konlusionen at subordernerne Cirripedia, Rhizocephala og Thoracica er nært beslægtede. Williamsons spekulationer, nemlig at den såkaldte hybridogenesis kan forklare hvo ledes Rhizocepahlerne har udviklet sig, hviler på et selektiv...

  6. Influence of food concentration, temperature and salinity on the larval development of Balanus amphitrite

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anil, A.C.; Kurian, J.

    Influence of food concentration (0.5, 1 and 2 x 10 sup(5) cell ml sup(-1) of Skeletonema costatum), temperature (20 and 30 degrees C) and salinity (15, 25 and 35 ppt) on the larval development of Balanus amphitrite (Cirripedia: Thoracica...

  7. Evaluation of the floating time of a corpse found in a marine environment using the barnacle Lepas anatifera L. (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Pedunculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Paola A; Venn, Cynthia; Aquila, Isabella; Pepe, Francesca; Ricci, Pietrantonio; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Ausania, Francesco; Dadour, Ian R

    2015-02-01

    Human activities involving water may result in a crime scene. Typically, death may be due to natural causes, homicide, or mass disasters. Decomposition in water is a complex process where many factors may interplay. Human remains in water are subject to many potential interactions, depending upon the remains themselves, the type of water and the characteristics of the water. A number of studies are focused on the decomposition process of the corpse in water, on the identification of the post mortem submersion interval (PMSI) and on the diagnosis of drowning, but very few studies consider the fate of floating remains in any aquatic environment. The following case describes a corpse found on a shore of the Tyrrhenian Sea (South West of Italy, Calabria Region). The corpse and the soles of his shoes were colonized by the barnacle Lepas anatifera L. (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Pedunculata). The analyses of the barnacles present on the corpse aided in the evaluation of the floating time of the corpse which assisted in estimating the minimum time since death. PMID:25538026

  8. Unraveling the Evolutionary Radiation of the Thoracican Barnacles Using Molecular and Morphological Evidence: A Comparison of Several Divergence Time Estimation Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Crandall, K. A.

    calibration point, Cirripedia, divergence times, DNA sequences, fossils, genetic algorithms, mixed models, phylogeny......calibration point, Cirripedia, divergence times, DNA sequences, fossils, genetic algorithms, mixed models, phylogeny...

  9. Manpower Implications of Mechanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargill, B. F.

    The fruit and vegetable industry is on the road to total mechanization. The scientific and social communities need to collaborate as technological innovations influence manpower development and utilization. An awareness of the implications of technological advancement and manpower problems is required so that the U. S. fruit and vegetable grower…

  10. THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Bromley, Daniel W.

    1996-01-01

    There are three general classes of environmental implications from agriculture: (1) amenity implications; (2) habitat implications; and (3) ecological implications. Environmental "benefits" or "costs" from agriculture require a prior specification of the norm against which the status quo is to be compared. Agriculture is no longer simply an activity that produces commodities for local, regional, national, or international markets. Indeed, in the OECD countries, commodity abundance, not commod...

  11. Implications of social structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Josefine Bohr

    Social systems in nature are characterised by heterogeneous social structures. The pattern of social interactions or associations between individuals within populations (i.e. their social network) is typically non-random. Such structuring may have important implications for the expression and...... four separate studies. In the first study, we propose a simple framework that may be used as a base when studying the link between social structure and fitness. We furthermore review current evidence for fitness effects of social structure, and find good support for such effects. In the second study...... evolution of behaviour, and for individual fitness. In this thesis I investigated implications of social structure for fitness and behaviour, with focus on three main areas: social structure & fitness, social structure & communication, and social structure & cooperation. These areas were investigated in...

  12. Logic, Algebra and Implication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Noguera, Carles

    Rio de Janeiro : ECEME - Escola de Comando e Estado -Maior do Exército, 2013 - (Béziau, J.; Buchsbaum, A.; Costa-Leite, A.; Altair, A.). s. 34-35 [UniLog 2013. World Congress and School on Universal Logic /4./. 29.03.2013-07.04.2013, Rio de Janeiro] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * consequence relations * weakly implicative logics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  13. The unusual floatation collar around nauplii of certain parasitic barnacles (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Rhizocephala)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Møller, Ole Sten; Rybakov, Alexey V.

    2004-01-01

    Nauplii of the rhizocephalan families Peltogastridae and Lernaeodiscidae carry a torus-shaped collar around the body. It consists of an exceedingly thin cuticle connected to the general body cuticle along a continuous narrow ridge. In nauplii of some species, the collar is very large and its surf...

  14. Phylogenetic position and evolutionary history of the turtle and whale barnacles (Cirripedia: Balanomorpha: Coronuloidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ryota; Chan, Benny K K; Simon-Blecher, Noa; Watanabe, Hiromi; Guy-Haim, Tamar; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Levy, Yaniv; Shuto, Takuho; Achituv, Yair

    2013-04-01

    Barnacles of the superfamily Coronuloidea are obligate epibionts of various marine mammals, marine reptiles and large crustaceans. We used five molecular markers: 12S rDNA, 16S rDNA, 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA and Histone 3 to infer phylogenetic relationships among sixteen coronuloids, representing most of the recent genera of barnacles of this superfamily. Our analyses confirm the monophyly of Coronuloidea and that this superfamily and Tetraclitoidea are sister groups. The six-plated Austrobalanus clusters with these two superfamilies. Based on BEAST and ML trees, Austrobalanus is basal and sister to the Coronuloidea, but the NJ tree places Austrobalanus within the Tetraclitoidae, and in the MP tree it is sister to both Coronuloidea and Tetraclitoidae. Hence the position of Austrobalanus remains unresolved. Within the Coronuloidea we identified four clades. Chelonibia occupies a basal position within the Coronuloidea which is in agreement with previous studies. The grouping of the other clades does not conform to previous studies. Divergence time analyses show that some of the time estimates are congruent with the fossil record while some others are older, suggesting the possibility of gaps in the fossil record. PMID:23306306

  15. Morfología del aparato reproductor del picoroco Austromegabalanus psittacus (Molina, 1782 (Cirripedia, Balanidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Contreras

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Descripción morfológica de las estructuras reproductivas de Austromegabalanus psittacus en dos periodos de maduración sexual. Se determinó que es un organismo hermafrodita que transfiere sus espermatozoides mediante un órgano intromitente o pene. El aparato reproductor masculino consta de testículos organizados en acinos que se distribuyen arboriformemente, dos conductos deferentes que se unen en la base del pene para formar el conducto eyaculador. El aparato reproductor femenino consiste principalmente en un ovario sacular que rodea al resto del cuerpo y se encuentra adherido a través de musculatura a la base de las placas operculares. Se organiza internamente en sacos acinares elongados que contienen ovogonias y ovocitos previtelogénicos adheridos a su pared y vitelogénicos y maduros libres dentro del lumen. Se observaron diferencias notorias en los ovarios entre los organismos recolectados en septiembre y octubre. En septiembre presentaron coloración amarillenta y en su interior se encontraron dos estructuras compactas denominadas lamelas ovígeras en cuyo interior se observaron ovocitos fecundados, embriones en diferentes estados de desarrollo y nauplius libres en la cavidad corporal; en octubre los ovarios son gruesos, blanquecinos y con gran cantidad de fluido lechoso en su interior.

  16. Phylogeny and evolution of life history strategies of the Parasitic Barnacles (Crustacea, Cirripedia, Rhizocephala)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenner, Henrik; Hebsgaard, Martin Bay

    2006-01-01

    resolve the phylogenetic relationship of the order Rhizocephala and elucidate the evolution of the different life history strategies found within the Rhizocephala, we have performed the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the group. Our results indicate that Rhizocephala is monophyletic with a...... filter-feeding barnacle-like ancestor. The host-infective stage, the kentrogon larva, inserted in the lifecycle of the rhizocephalan suborder, Kentrogonida, is shown to be ancestral and most likely a homologue of the juvenile stage of a conventional thoracican barnacle. The mode of host inoculation found...... in the suborder Akentrogonida, where the last pelagic larval stage directly injects the parasitic material into the heamolymph of the host is derived, and has evolved only once within the Rhizocephala. Lastly, our results show that the ancestral host for extant rhizocephalans appears to be the...

  17. Biological features on epibiosis of Amphibalanus improvisus (Cirripedia on Macrobrachium acanthurus (Decapoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Maria Rocha Farrapeira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the epibiosis of barnacles Amphibalanus improvisus on eight adult Macrobrachium acanthurus males from the Mundaú Lagoon, state of Alagoas, Brazil. The number of epibiont barnacles varied from 247 to 1,544 specimens per prawn; these were distributed predominantly on the cephalothorax and pereiopods, but also on the abdomen and other appendices. Although some were already reproducing, most barnacles had been recruited recently or were still sexually immature; this suggests recent host arrival in that estuarine environment. Despite the fact that other barnacles occur in this region, A. improvisus is the only species reported as an epibiont on Macrobrachium acanthurus; this was also the first record of epibiosis on this host. The occurrence of innumerable specimens in the pereiopods' articulations and the almost complete covering of the carapace of some prawns (which also increased their weight suggest that A. improvisus is adapted to fixate this kind of biogenic substrate and that the relationship between the two species biologically damages the basibiont.O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar a epibiose de cirrípedes Amphibalanus improvisus em oito camarões machos adultos da espécie Macrobrachium acanthurus provenientes da Laguna Mundaú, Alagoas, Brasil. O número de cirrípedes epibiontes variou desde 247 até 1.544 espécimes por camarão, distribuídos predominantemente no cefalotórax e pereiópodos, mas presentes também no abdome e demais apêndices. A grande maioria dos cirrípedes era recém-recrutada ou ainda estava sexualmente imatura, embora de alguns estivessem já em reprodução, sugerindo a chegada recente de seu hospedeiro no ambiente estuarino. Apesar de ocorrem outros cirrípedes na região, A. improvisus foi à única espécie relatada como epibionte em Macrobrachium acanthurus e isto se constituiu o primeiro registro de epibiose de Amphibalanus improvisus A ocorrência de inúmeros espécimes nas articulações dos pereiópodos e o recobrimento quase total da carapaça de alguns camarões (incrementando peso aos mesmos indicam que a espécie epibionte está adaptada à fixação neste substrato biogênico e que a relação entre estas duas espécies traz prejuízos biológicos ao basibionte.

  18. Biodiversity and Biogeography of Chthamalid Barnacles from the North-Eastern Pacific (Crustacea Cirripedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny K K Chan

    Full Text Available The biogeography and ecology of the species of Chthamalus present on the west coast of America are described, using data from 51 localities from Alaska to Panama, together with their zonation on the shore with respect to that of other barnacles. The species present were C. dalli, Pilsbry 1916, C. fissus, Darwin, 1854, C. anisopoma Pilsbry 1916 and four species in the C. panamensis complex. The latter are C. panamensis Pilsbry, 1916, C. hedgecocki, Pitombo & Burton, 2007, C. alani nom. nov. (formerly C. southwardorum Pitombo & Burton, 2007 and C. newmani sp. nov.. These four species were initially separated by enzyme electrophoresis. They could only be partially separated by DNA bar coding but may be separated using morphological characters.

  19. A Study of the Morphology and Biology of Thompsonia littoralis (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Rhizocephala)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jørgen; Jespersen, Åse

    1992-01-01

    Interna development within the intertidal tropical crab, Leptodius exaratus, requires up to 4.5 months; the roots become distributed from the CNS along the major nerves and, when the crab moults, results in emergence of numerous externae located symmetrically on the abdomen and bases of the thora...

  20. Implications at the local level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A view is presented of the policy and political implications for local government, as well as the more detailed implications for local government of the management and transportation of radioactive wastes. Headings: public debate; policy framework; radioactive wastes (low- intermediate-, and high-level); sea dumping; nuclear waste transport. (U.K.)

  1. Implications of recent MINER$\

    CERN Document Server

    Wolcott, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Among the most important tasks of neutrino oscillation experiments is correctly estimating the parent neutrino energy from the by-products of their interactions. Large uncertainties in our current understanding of such processes can significantly hamper this effort. We explore several recent measurements made using the \\mnv{} detector in the few-GeV NuMI muon neutrino beam at Fermilab: the differential cross-section vs. $Q^2$ for charged-current quasi-elastic scattering, the differential cross-sections vs. pion angle and pion kinetic energy for resonant single charged pion production, and the differential cross-sections vs. pion angle and kinetic energy for coherent pion production. We furthermore discuss their implications for energy reconstruction in oscillation measurements.

  2. Neutrino Experiments and Their Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Balantekin, A. B.

    2004-01-01

    Recent developments in solar, reactor, and accelerator neutrino physics are reviewed. Implications for neutrino physics, solar physics, nuclear two-body physics, and r-process nucleosynthesis are briefly discussed.

  3. The Ethical Implications of Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Pace, Larry A.

    1999-01-01

    Total Quality Management (TQM) has been described as an ideology, a corporate culture change phenomenon, a set of "hard" techniques, a set of "soft" skills, and as a pragmatic approach to business survival. Each of these descriptions has implicit ethical ramifications. Although TQM clearly has ethical implications, the direct connection between TQM and ethics has largely been unexplored. In this paper, I examine TQM from four ethical perspectives and show the ethical implications of each pers...

  4. Accounting Implications of Corporate Diversification

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Amit; Joshua Livnat; Paul Zarowin

    1991-01-01

    This study investigates the direct effects of corporate diversification on accounting reports, and the implications of these effects for accounting research. The study shows that firms which diversify into unrelated areas of business devote a larger proportion of their capital investments to acquisitions and are, therefore, characterized by smaller differences between replacement-cost and historical-cost values of assets than undiversified firms. The implications of these findings, as well as...

  5. The cirripede Cretiscalpellum paucistriatum (Crustacea, Thoracica) in the lower Maastrichtian of NW Europe - is it stratigraphically useful?

    OpenAIRE

    Jagt, J.W.M.; van Bakel, B.W.M.

    2007-01-01

    New material of the calanticid cirripede Cretiscalpellum paucistriatum (WOODWARD, 1906) is recorded from the lower Maastrichtian (obtusa Zone) as exposed at the Saturn quarry, Kronsmoor (northern Germany); the carina is described for the first time. These specimens, together with material described previously in the literature, suggest C. paucistriatum to have been a shortlived offshoot of the C. striatum group, apparently confined to the interval from the lower obtusa to the lower sumensis z...

  6. Quantum histories and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classical mechanics and standard Copenhagen quantum mechanics respect subspace implications. For example, if a particle is confined in a particular region R of space, then in these theories we can deduce that it is confined in regions containing R. However, subspace implications are generally violated by versions of quantum theory that assign probabilities to histories, such as the consistent histories approach. I define here a new criterion, ordered consistency, which refines the criterion of consistency and has the property that inferences made by ordered consistent sets do not violate subspace relations. This raises the question: do the operators defining our observations form an ordered consistent history? If so, ordered consistency defines a version of quantum theory with greater predictive power than the consistent histories formalism. If not, and our observations are defined by a non-ordered consistent quantum history, then subspace implications are not generally valid. (orig.)

  7. Mind, Matter and the Implicate Order The Implicate Order Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Pylkkänen, Paavo T I

    2007-01-01

    Proposes that Bohm's alternative interpretation of quantum theory resolves the paradoxes such as Schrodinger's cat, and the EPR paradox. This work uses Bohm's concepts of "implicate order", "active information" and "soma-significance" as tools to tackle several well-known problems in the philosophy of mind.

  8. Corporate Social Responsibility: Strategic Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Abagail McWilliams; Siegel, Donald S.; Patrick M. Wright

    2005-01-01

    We describe a variety of perspectives on corporate social responsibility (CSR), which we use to develop a framework for consideration of the strategic implications of CSR. Based on this framework, we propose an agenda for additional theoretical and empirical research on CSR. We then review the papers in this special issue and relate them to the proposed agenda.

  9. Policy Implications of Education Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jo Ann; O'Brien, Nancy P.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: This concluding article identifies the policy implications of education informatics and explores impacts of current copyright laws, legislative structures, publishing practices, and education organizations. Synthesizing the discussions in the preceding articles, this article highlights the importance of designing information…

  10. On branchwise implicative BCI-algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Anwar Chaudhry

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a new class of BCI-algebras, namely the class of branchwise implicative BCI-algebras. This class contains the class of implicative BCK-algebras, the class of weakly implicative BCI-algebras (Chaudhry, 1990), and the class of medial BCI-algebras. We investigate necessary and sufficient conditions for two types of BCI-algebras to be branchwise implicative BCI-algebras.

  11. A Bayesian Model for Discovering Typological Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Daumé, Hal

    2009-01-01

    A standard form of analysis for linguistic typology is the universal implication. These implications state facts about the range of extant languages, such as ``if objects come after verbs, then adjectives come after nouns.'' Such implications are typically discovered by painstaking hand analysis over a small sample of languages. We propose a computational model for assisting at this process. Our model is able to discover both well-known implications as well as some novel implications that deserve further study. Moreover, through a careful application of hierarchical analysis, we are able to cope with the well-known sampling problem: languages are not independent.

  12. Cosmological implications of Heisenberg's principle

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalo, Julio A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this book is to analyze the all important implications of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle for a finite universe with very large mass-energy content such as ours. The earlier and main contributors to the formulation of Quantum Mechanics are briefly reviewed regarding the formulation of Heisenberg's Principle. After discussing “indeterminacy” versus ”uncertainty”, the universal constants of physics are reviewed and Planck's units are given. Next, a novel set of units, Heisenberg–Lemaitre units, are defined in terms of the large finite mass of the universe. With the help of Heisenberg's principle, the time evolution of the finite zero-point energy for the universe is investigated quantitatively. Next, taking advantage of the rigorous solutions of Einstein's cosmological equation for a flat, open and mixed universe of finite mass, the most recent and accurate data on the “age” (to) and the expansion rate (Ho) of the universe and their implications are reconsidered.

  13. Mobile IPTV: Implications for Education

    OpenAIRE

    Pannee Suanpang

    2013-01-01

    Mobile IPTV (Internet Protocol Television) provides digital content which users watch as a television broadcast via the Internet on a mobile device. This paper presents the development of IPTV, Suan Dusit Internet Broadcasting, (SDIB) to mobile IPTV and discusses the implications for education. Mobile IPTV was developed as a prototype and designed to support users via wireless and mobile networks regardless of the mobile device. The system can be broadcasted through both live and video on dem...

  14. Educational Expenditure: Implications for Equality

    OpenAIRE

    McCoy, Selina; Smyth, Emer

    2003-01-01

    Inequalities in educational outcomes over time are described. Patterns of educational expenditure are outlined, highlighting differences between and within the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors. Recent policy developments are explored which involve targeting spending on "disadvantaged" schools, through special programmes and initiatives. The implications of educational failure for labour market and other outcomes among young people in particular and the adult population in general are d...

  15. Occupational fatigue: Implications for aviation

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Teresa Cristina Clímaco Monteiro d'

    2011-01-01

    Occupational fatigue has been considered a major contribution to decreases in well-being and performance in a variety of industries. The objective of the chapter is to review the main issues associated with occupational fatigue and to consider the implications for the globalized aviation industry. Fatigue management in aviation has been associated with rostering practices, countermeasures and the development of international regulations. Recently research has proposed that p...

  16. Error Analysis and Its Implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔蕾

    2007-01-01

    Error analysis is the important theory and approach for exploring the mental process of language learner in SLA. Its major contribution is pointing out that intralingual errors are the main reason of the errors during language learning. Researchers' exploration and description of the errors will not only promote the bidirectional study of Error Analysis as both theory and approach, but also give the implication to second language learning.

  17. Testing Implication of Probabilistic Dependencies

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Michael S. K. M.

    2013-01-01

    Axiomatization has been widely used for testing logical implications. This paper suggests a non-axiomatic method, the chase, to test if a new dependency follows from a given set of probabilistic dependencies. Although the chase computation may require exponential time in some cases, this technique is a powerful tool for establishing nontrivial theoretical results. More importantly, this approach provides valuable insight into the intriguing connection between relational databases and probabil...

  18. Policy Implications of Ageing Sexualities

    OpenAIRE

    Heaphy, B; Yip, A.K.T.

    2006-01-01

    This article aims to open up debate on the policy implications of ageing sexualities. The article begins by discussing the heteronormative perspective that frames current discourse on older people’s needs and citizenship. It then presents data from an empirical study to highlight the concerns that older lesbians and gay men have about housing, health and social service provision, work and job security, and relationship recognition. The article illustrates how the heterosexual assumption...

  19. Practical implications of 'postmodern philosophy'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Mile V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the implications of the discourse about postmodernity. Postmodernity is analyzed as a complex discursive figure. Within the discourse about postmodernity three levels are distinguished: the postmodern condition, postmodernism, and reflection of the postmodern condition. Special attention is paid to globalization and the problem of the enforcement of modern projects in East-European societies, particularly Serbia. These societies are termed object-societies, while their modification of modernity is called eastmodernity. The author's answer to the complexity of the postmodern condition is a conception of the politics of subsistence.

  20. Female genital cutting: nursing implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenstein, Rachel A

    2014-01-01

    Female genital cutting (FGC) is a practice that affects millions of girls and women worldwide. This deeply rooted practice has cultural, religious, and psychosexual meaning to its practitioners, but it also carries long-term physical and mental complications. Decried as a human rights violation, nonetheless this practice is still carried out today. Nurses are in a unique position to contact and educate women who have been cut or are at risk for mutilation. To advocate for these women, a thorough understanding of the practice of FGC, its cultural overtones, religious implications, and psychosexual effects is needed. PMID:23835896

  1. Pharmacogenomics and migraine: possible implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, P.; Brosen, K.

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics is the science about how inherited factors influence the effects of drugs. Drug response is always a result of mutually interacting genes with important modifications from environmental and constitutional factors. Based on the genetic variability of pharmacokinetic and in some...... cases pharmacodynamic variability we mention possible implications for the acute and preventive treatment of migraine. Pharmacogenomics will most likely in the future be one part of our therapeutic armamentarium and will provide a stronger scientific basis for optimizing drug therapy on the basis of...

  2. Networking activism: implications for Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis Vatikiotis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of December 2008 against police brutality through a wave of demonstrations and street protests in Athens, which was strongly advocated by protest activities and practices across the world, addresses several issues in relation to the transformative potentials of mediated collective action. The paper critically evaluates different accounts of December events, probing then into thevery networking of that movement. From this perspective, it points out another aspect of the local-global interplay in protest culture along new mediating practices (beyond the creation of transnational publics, that of the implications of transnational networking for local social activism and identification, addressing relevant questions in the Greek context.

  3. Entrepreneurship Education: Implications for Teacher Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouws, E.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the implications of South Africa's national Entrepreneurship Education curriculum for teacher training, and suggests some guidelines for compiling a relevant curriculum for teacher training. (EV)

  4. Fantastic filters of lattice implication algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Young Bae Jun

    2000-01-01

    The notion of a fantastic filter in a lattice implication algebra is introduced, and the relations among filter, positive implicative filter, and fantastic filter are given. We investigate an equivalent condition for a filter to be fantastic, and state an extension property for fantastic filter.

  5. A Hierarchy of (Fuzzy) Implicational Logics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Noguera i Clofent, C.

    Prague : Filosofia, 2008. s. 18-20. [ Logica 2008. 16.06.2008-20.06.2008, Hejnice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * fuzzy logic * weakly implicative logics * generalized implication Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  6. Ophthalmic implications of seasonal affective disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is presented with a discussion of its standard treatment of phototherapy. A number of ophthalmic implications related to SAD are proposed. These implications relate to both the condition and the phototherapy used in its treatment, especially the use of full spectrum light which contains ultraviolet and near ultraviolet radiation. 12 references

  7. Policy implications of greenhouse warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppock, Rob

    1992-03-01

    A study panel of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine recently issued the report Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. That report examined relevant scientific knowldeg and evidence about the potential of greenhouse warming, and assayed actions that could slow the onset of warming (mitigation policies) or help human and natural systems of plants and animals adapt to climatic changes (adaptation policies). The panel found that, even given the considerable uncertainties knowledge of the relevant phenomena, greenhouse warming poses a threat sufficient to merit prompt action. People in this country could probably adapt to the changes likely to accompany greenhouse warming. The costs, however, could be substantial. Investment in mitigation acts as insurance protection against the great uncertainties and the possibility of dramatic surprises. The panel found mitigation options that could reduce U.S. emissions by an estimated 10 to 40 percent at modest cost.

  8. MARKETING IMPLICATION IN WINE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MATEI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The wine, a very complex product in viticulture, has proved its tremendous importance not only to the individual but rational nutrition and increasing national income of a country cultivators (evidenced by the upward trend of the share of crop production horticulture and viticulture in the global economy agricultural. More interesting is, given the continued growth in the number of scientific publications and their quality (at least since the 1980s - where "wine" is the centerpiece of these studies - we can not but be witnessing a growing interest more to this "potion" and found that the growing popularity of wine in the science reveals the emergence of a new academic field, ie "wine economy" (or wine-economy. This study aims to make a foray into "wine economy" and to outline some of the implications of marketing in this area.

  9. On the Product and Factorization of Lattice Implication Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦克云; 宋振明; 等

    1993-01-01

    In this paper,the concepts of product and factorization of lattice implication algebra are proposed,the relation between lattice implication product algebra and its factors and some properties of lattice implication product algebras are discussed.

  10. Mining TCGA data using Boolean implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subarna Sinha

    Full Text Available Boolean implications (if-then rules provide a conceptually simple, uniform and highly scalable way to find associations between pairs of random variables. In this paper, we propose to use Boolean implications to find relationships between variables of different data types (mutation, copy number alteration, DNA methylation and gene expression from the glioblastoma (GBM and ovarian serous cystadenoma (OV data sets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA. We find hundreds of thousands of Boolean implications from these data sets. A direct comparison of the relationships found by Boolean implications and those found by commonly used methods for mining associations show that existing methods would miss relationships found by Boolean implications. Furthermore, many relationships exposed by Boolean implications reflect important aspects of cancer biology. Examples of our findings include cis relationships between copy number alteration, DNA methylation and expression of genes, a new hierarchy of mutations and recurrent copy number alterations, loss-of-heterozygosity of well-known tumor suppressors, and the hypermethylation phenotype associated with IDH1 mutations in GBM. The Boolean implication results used in the paper can be accessed at http://crookneck.stanford.edu/microarray/TCGANetworks/.

  11. Implications of increased ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implications of increased ethanol production in Canada, assuming a 10% market penetration of a 10% ethanol/gasoline blend, are evaluated. Issues considered in the analysis include the provision of new markets for agricultural products, environmental sustainability, energy security, contribution to global warming, potential government cost (subsidies), alternative options to ethanol, energy efficiency, impacts on soil and water of ethanol crop production, and acceptance by fuel marketers. An economic analysis confirms that ethanol production from a stand-alone plant is not economic at current energy values. However, integration of ethanol production with a feedlot lowers the break-even price of ethanol by about 35 cents/l, and even further reductions could be achieved as technology to utilize lignocellulosic feedstock is commercialized. Ethanol production could have a positive impact on farm income, increasing cash receipts to grain farmers up to $53 million. The environmental impact of ethanol production from grain would be similar to that from crop production in general. Some concerns about ethanol/gasoline blends from the fuel industry have been reduced as those blends are now becoming recommended in some automotive warranties. However, the concerns of the larger fuel distributors are a serious constraint on an expansion of ethanol use. The economics of ethanol use could be improved by extending the federal excise tax exemption now available for pure alcohol fuels to the alcohol portion of alcohol/gasoline blends. 9 refs., 10 tabs

  12. Green buildings: Implications for acousticians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Michael R.

    2005-04-01

    This presentation will deal with the practical implications of green design protocols of the US Green Building Council on interior acoustics of buildings. Three areas of particular consequence to acousticians will be discussed. Ventilation Systems: reduced energy consumption goals dictate reliance on natural cooling and ventilation using ambient air when possible. The consequent large openings in the building envelope to bring fresh air into rooms, and similar sized openings to transfer the mixed air out, can severely compromise the noise isolation of the rooms concerned. Radiant Cooling: the heavy concrete floors of buildings can be used as a thermal flywheel to lessen the cooling load, which forces the concrete ceilings to be exposed to the occupied rooms for heat transfer, and strictly limits the application of acoustical absorption on the ceilings. This challenges the room acoustics design. Green Materials: the LEED protocols require the elimination of potentially harmful finishes, including fibrous materials which may impact air quality or contribute to health problems. Since the backbone of sound absorption is glass and mineral fibres, this further challenges provision of superior room acoustics. Examples and commentary will be provided based on current and recent projects.

  13. National and international social implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every new technology since slash-and-burn has required new social institutions to go along with it, and nuclear technology is no exception. There is, therefore, a need to go beyond decisionmaking among alternative peaceful proliferation schemes. There is a need also to look at the needs for new national and/or transnational institutions that will have to accompany any proliferations in area. There are five social implications that bear on the need to develop new social institutions. First is the issue of Great Power relations, in an era of nuclear proliferation. Second is the conflict between nationalism and internationalism. The third is the issue of the military and diplomatic strategies of small nations, particularly small nations on the threshold of nuclear capacity, and the question of military versus civilian rule in those nations. Fourth, and possibly the most important is the role of multinational corporations in nuclear regulation, and fifth, the question of secrecy and how that bears on power values of primacy in democratic states

  14. Implications of Donald Macdonald's report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chairman of the session debating the implications of the Macdonald report identified three important aspects of utility restructuring: equity, efficiency and sustainability. Dr. Jan Carr, a member of the Macdonald Committee, predicted that the continental energy market will likely demand a much larger number of smaller energy transactions, and the value in having inherently low-cost generation located close to load centres, and/or close to the US border. Douglas Hall, Vice President of RBC Dominion Securities criticized the Macdonald Committee for leaving 70 per cent of Hydro's generating capacity in public hands. He favored transferring all assets to the private sector, and questioned the Committee's assumption that the utility could be broken down into four components that would share overhead and still compete against each other. John Murphy, President of the Power Workers Union stated that the Union was not ideologically opposed to competition in the electricity industry, but he questioned the Committee's assumption that competition would promote efficient supply of power at the least cost to the economy. Tony Jennings, Chief Executive of the Municipal Electric Association tackled a series of myths about municipal electric utilities, and IPPSO Counsel Jay Sheppard emphasized the need for making sure that the entity buying the power in the short term is truly independent and is not doing incestuous deals with its friends at Ontario Hydro Generation (one of the four components of the proposed, restructured Corporation) , because otherwise competition will not work

  15. Health implications of hydropower development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydropower development had been neglected in many countries during the past few decades, but the situation dramatically changed during the 1970s owing to the constantly increasing costs of electricity generation by fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. Currently, hydroelectric generation accounts for approximately 23% of total global electricity supply. Much of the hydropower potential in developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America still remains to be exploited. Like any other source of energy, hydropower development has several health impacts. Conceptually, health implications of hydropower development can be divided into two broad categories: short-term and long-term problems. Short-term health impacts occur during the planning, construction and immediate post-construction phases, whereas long-term impacts stem from the presence of large man-made lakes, development of extensive canal systems, alteration of the ecosystem of the area, and changing socio-economic conditions. Longer-term impacts are further classified into two categories: introduction of new diseases and/or intensification of existing ones due to the improvements of the habitats of disease-carrying vectors, and health problems arising from resettlement of the people whose homes and land-holdings are inundated by the reservoirs. All these impacts are discussed in detail. Health impacts of hydropower developments have not yet been studied extensively. It is often implicitly assumed that health impacts of major dams are minor compared with other social and environmental impacts. Future studies could possibly reverse this assumption. (author)

  16. Climatic implications of ice microphysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, K.N. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Based on aircraft measurements of mid-latitude cirrus clouds, ice crystal size distribution and ice water content (IWC) are shown to be dependent on temperature. This dependence is also evident from the theoretical consideration of ice crystal growth. Using simple models of the diffusion and accretion growth of ice particles, the computed mean ice crystal size and IWC compare reasonably well with the measured mean values. The temperature dependence of ice crystal size and IWC has important climatic implications in that the temperature field perturbed by external radiative forcings, such as greenhouse warming, can alter the composition of ice crystal clouds. Through radiative transfer, ice microphysics can in turn affect the temperature field. Higher IWC would increase cloud solar albedo and infrared emissivity, while for a given IWC, larger crystals would reduce cloud albedo and emissivity. The competing effects produced by greenhouse temperature perturbations via ice micro-physics and radiation interactions and feedbacks are assessed by a one-dimensional radiative-convective climate model that includes an advanced radiation parameterization program. 3 figs.

  17. Implications of zero economic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurow, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    The consequences of a zero economic growth (ZEG) policy are examined to see what limits to growth, some of which already exist, are desirable and what changes in our institutions are required to impose a no-growth policy. Past periods of zero or negative growth have increased unemployment, raised employability standards, and increased income-distribution inequalities with a subsequent lowering of the living standard. Zero population growth would offset this somewhat by freeing the capital now spent on education and career training and using it to raise per capita living standards if a work-sharing and unemployment-payment system were devised. Undesirable social implications would be felt both if a lack of employment opportunities reduced competition and consumption habits or if it led to intensive competition. Advocates of ZEG propose to restrain only those areas using nonrenewable resources and causing pollution of the environment, while expanding the service areas. The service sector (e.g., transportation and utilities) is also polluting and uses nonrenewable resources, however, pointing up their failure to account for indirect consumption. Many undeveloped countries already have ZEG but would not be content for the U.S. to halt growth opportunities. ZEG would be difficult to enforce and would do nothing to promote pollution control. (DCK)

  18. Predictive implications of Gompertz's law

    CERN Document Server

    Richmond, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Gompertz's law tells us that for humans above the age of 35 the death rate increases exponentially with a doubling time of about 10 years. Here, we show that the same law continues to hold even for ages over 100. Beyond 106 there is so far no statistical evidence available because the number of survivors is too small even in the largest nations. However assuming that Gompertz's law continues to hold beyond 106, we conclude that the mortality rate becomes equal to 1 at age 120 (meaning that there are 1,000 deaths in a population of one thousand). In other words, the upper bound of human life is near 120. The existence of this fixed-point has interesting implications. It allows us to predict the form of the relationship between death rates at age 35 and the doubling time of Gompertz's law. In order to test this prediction, we first carry out a transversal analysis for a sample of countries comprising both industrialized and developing nations. As further confirmation, we also develop a longitudinal analysis usi...

  19. Predictive implications of Gompertz's law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-04-01

    Gompertz's law tells us that for humans above the age of 35 the death rate increases exponentially with a doubling time of about 10 years. Here, we show that the same law continues to hold up to age 106. At that age the death rate is about 50%. Beyond 106 there is so far no convincing statistical evidence available because the number of survivors are too small even in large nations. However, assuming that Gompertz's law continues to hold beyond 106, we conclude that the mortality rate becomes equal to 1 at age 120 (meaning that there are 1000 deaths in a population of one thousand). In other words, the upper bound of human life is near 120. The existence of this fixed-point has interesting implications. It allows us to predict the form of the relationship between death rates at age 35 and the doubling time of Gompertz's law. In order to test this prediction, we first carry out a transversal analysis for a sample of countries comprising both industrialized and developing nations. As further confirmation, we also develop a longitudinal analysis using historical data over a time period of almost two centuries. Another prediction arising from this fixed-point model, is that, above a given population threshold, the lifespan of the oldest persons is independent of the size of their national community. This prediction is also supported by empirical evidence.

  20. Tuberous sclerosis - clinical manifestations and genetic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-five patients with tuberous sclerosis have been studied with regard to their clinical manifestations, radiological features and genetic background. The practical implications of the condition in southern Africa are reviewed with reference to the literature

  1. A behaviorological thanatology: Foundations and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Fraley, Lawrence E.

    1998-01-01

    Foundation principles supporting a behaviorological thanatology are reviewed, including concepts of life, person, death, value, right, ethic, and body/person distinctions. These natural science foundations are contrasted with traditional foundations, and their respective implications are speculatively explored.

  2. Corporate Language and Implications for Organizational Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores empirically implications of language use for MNCs’ learning from subsidiaries. Drawing on sociolinguistic literature, the article argues that while employing a single corporate language facilitates quick and direct communication of explicit knowledge, such a language design is...

  3. The economic implications of carbon cycle uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Steven J.; Edmonds, James A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of uncertainty in the carbon cycle for the cost of stabilizing carbon dioxideconcentrations. Using a state of the art integrated assessment model, we find that uncertainty in our understanding of thecarbon cycle has significant implications for the costs of a climate stabilization policy, with cost differences denominatedin trillions of dollars. Uncertainty in the carbon cycle is equivalent to a change in concentration target of up to 100 ppmv.The impact o...

  4. [Name Withheld]: Anonymity and Its Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Weicher, Maureen

    2006-01-01

    Anonymity allows the individual to have a voice without having a name. Since the word “anonymous” entered the English language with the advent of the printing press, the implications of being anonymous - and its lexical offspring “anonymity” - have shifted with time, place, and circumstance. What are the perceived effects of being anonymous/anonymity on the individual and on society? In this paper, I will explore some of the shifting meanings and implications of this concept, first as i...

  5. Vague Congruences and Quotient Lattice Implication Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to further develop the congruence theory on lattice implication algebras. Firstly, we introduce the notions of vague similarity relations based on vague relations and vague congruence relations. Secondly, the equivalent characterizations of vague congruence relations are investigated. Thirdly, the relation between the set of vague filters and the set of vague congruences is studied. Finally, we construct a new lattice implication algebra induced by a vague congruence, and the homomorphism theorem is given.

  6. Knowledge Sharing and Implications to Employee Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Abrar

    2011-01-01

    The objectives to be achieved in this research was to determine the application of knowledge sharing on the lecturers in Economics Faculty UNPAD, and knowing whether the lecturers are engaged or not, and determining the implications of knowledge sharing in employee engagement. This is an empirical study using description and verification methods with two variables. The implications of knowledge sharing to employee engagement includes the conditions of application of knowledge sharing, and the...

  7. Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2010-03-01

    Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

  8. Reproductive effort of both male and female bar-throated Apalis apalis thoracica is predicted by ornamentation of self and mate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Rene E.; Robles, Raquel; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; de Vries, Bonnie; Eising, Corine M.

    2015-01-01

    Melanin-based plumage ornaments have been shown to play an important role in male-male competition, but also influence inter-sexual communication. Consequently, ornaments may be associated with reproductive effort of both males and females. Females mated to males with larger melanin ornaments may ac

  9. Subtleties of Hidden Quantifiers in Implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical conjectures and theorems are most often of the form P(x) ? Q(x), meaning ?x,P(x) ? Q(x). The hidden quantifier ?x is crucial in understanding the implication as a statement with a truth value. Here P(x) and Q(x) alone are only predicates, without truth values, since they contain unquantified variables. But standard textbook…

  10. Teacher's Experiences in PBL: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Anabela C.; Sousa, Rui M.; Fernandes, Sandra; Cardoso, Elisabete; Carvalho, Maria Alice; Figueiredo, Jorge; Pereira, Rui M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Project-Based Learning (PBL) has been implemented in the first year of the Industrial Engineering and Management programme at the University of Minho, Portugal, since 2004/2005. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and discuss teachers' experiences in PBL in this programme and to explore its implications for student learning and for teaching…

  11. Policy Implications of Social Justice in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Barry

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the implications of a particular conception of social justice in education for the policies that have led to significant political controversies in contemporary communities in the United States. Many of these controversies have arisen from the collision between the increasingly multicultural reality in those communities and…

  12. Genetic Counseling: Implications for Community Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenhorn, Nancy; Lawson, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    Special issue of the "Journal of Health Psychology" (Vol. 7, No. 2, 2002) was reviewed. Articles covered a variety of qualitative studies conducted using an interpretive phenomenological analysis method to examine the interviews with people who had received genetic testing and counseling. Implications for the broader counseling field were also…

  13. Commentary: Pedagogical Implications of Experimental SNS Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Maria; Potowski, Kim

    2011-01-01

    This special issue of the "Heritage Language Journal", guest edited by Silvina Montrul, unites four papers on different aspects of heritage Spanish speakers' linguistic abilities. In this commentary, we reexamine these important contributions with an eye toward implications for instruction and toward general trends for the field. In particular, we…

  14. Physical implications of dynamical symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some model-independent physical implications of a class of hypercolorbased theories of dynamical symmetry-breaking are described and discussed. The role which e+e- colliders can play, in distinguishing between such theories and the canonical methodology, is underlined

  15. Clinical Implications of Incomplete Pancreas Divisum

    OpenAIRE

    Terumi Kamisawa; Yuyang Tu; Naoto Egawa; Kouji Tsuruta; Aatsutake Okamoto

    2006-01-01

    Context Incomplete pancreas divisum is a pancreatic anomaly that results in an inadequate communication between the ventral and dorsal pancreatic ducts. Although the relationship between complete pancreas divisum and pancreatitis has been contentious, clinical implications of incomplete pancreas divisum have not been noted. Objective This study was done to investigate the clinical significance of incomplete pancreas divisum. Patients and...

  16. Changing business environment: implications for farming

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm, Bill

    2011-01-01

    The natural, technological, economic, political and social environment in which farmers farm constantly changes. History has lessons about change in agriculture and about farmers coping with change, though the future is unknowable and thus always surprising. The implication for farm operation is to prepare, do not predict.

  17. Ritalin Update: Implications for Reading Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Robert B., Jr.; Werner, Patrice Holden

    1987-01-01

    Investigates how Ritalin, a powerful stimulant drug frequently prescribed for children exhibiting hyperactive behavior, poor attention span, and/or distractibility, is prescribed for children in educational settings, what doses seem appropriate, and what effect Ritalin has on reading achievement. Discusses the implications of Ritalin research for…

  18. Cult Affiliation and Disaffiliation: Implications for Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Beth; Frye, Ellen M.; Bradley, Loretta J.

    1997-01-01

    Data on cult membership and the characteristics of cults are provided. The process of cult affiliation and its relationship to family dynamics are reviewed. Defection, the processes of disaffiliation (voluntary and involuntary), and clinical symptoms after cult disaffiliation are discussed. Implications and recommendations for counselors are…

  19. Deduction Theorems in Weakly Implicative Logics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr

    Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona, 2005. s. 19-20. [Algebraic and Topological Methods in Non-Classical Logics /2./. 15.06.2005-18.06.2005, Barcelona] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : deduction theorem * substructural logic * BCI logic * weakly implicative logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  20. Biological Implications of Gene-Environment Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Gene-environment interaction (G x E) has been treated as both a statistical phenomenon and a biological reality. It is argued that, although there are important statistical issues that need to be considered, the focus has to be on the biological implications of G x E. Four reports of G x E deriving from the Dunedin longitudinal study are used as…

  1. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Implications for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Margaret E.

    This paper provides a discussion of definitions, historical precursors, and prevalence figures for children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and highlights relevant medical and behavioral characteristics. It also addresses the educational implications of working with children with FAS in terms of instruction and curriculum. Educators are urged…

  2. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Research Review and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbach, Linda Sue; Polloway, Edward A.

    Research on fetal alcohol syndrome is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the implications of the syndrome for the development of mental retardation and other handicapping conditions. Attention is given to historical aspects; epidemiology; physiological and behavioral characteristics; and concerns related to diagnosis, prevention, and…

  3. Corporal Punishment: Legalities, Realities, and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchey, Patricia H.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a quiz that will help readers determine the reliability of their own perceptions relating to corporal punishment in schools. Discusses U.S. Courts and corporal punishment, worldwide and nationwide legality, and the realities of corporal punishment in the United States. Discusses implications for what teachers can do to address corporal…

  4. The nuclear and its psychological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the 13. to 15. january 1977, the S.F.R.P. has organised at Paris, with the patronage of The National Institute of Health and Medical Research, the French Society of Radiology, a colloquium devoted to the nuclear and its psycho-implications sociological. It is a second edition, realised at the demand of the Antoine Beclere Center. (N.C.)

  5. Brexit: what are the implications for nurses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-29

    The referendum result is in and appears to have caught the nation by surprise. Whatever the fallout from voters' decision to leave the EU, the implications for nursing are likely to be widespread and profound - and could take years to resolve. PMID:27353892

  6. Transnational Education: Current Developments and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianxin

    2009-01-01

    Ever since the transnational education trend took off since the 1980s, transnational education has come to bearing political, economic and cultural implications. Different approaches have been formulated to achieve specific policy objectives by both importing and exporting countries. Such approaches demonstrate a four dimensional composition,…

  7. Cultural Implications of Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiranpruk, Chaiskran

    A discussion of the cultural effects of economic and, by extension, human resource development in Southeast Asia looks at short- and long-term implications. It is suggested that in the short term, increased competition will affect distribution of wealth, which can promote materialism and corruption. The introduction of labor-saving technology may…

  8. Applications of robust control theory - Educational implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorato, P.; Yedavalli, R. K.

    1992-01-01

    A survey is made of applications of robust control theory to problems of flight control, control of flexible space structures, and engine control which have appeared in recent conferences and journals. An analysis is made of which theoretical techniques are most commonly used and what implications this has for graduate and undergraduate education in aerospace engineering.

  9. Narrative Abilities: Advances in Research and Implications for Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Donna

    2008-01-01

    The article discusses the key findings in recent research dealing narrative abilities in children with and without language implications. The implications of research findings for narrative assessment and intervention are discussed.

  10. Theoretical, regulatory and practical implications of logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Chaberek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The logistics has its practical input in creating economical strategies as well as in creating modern economic environment. Processes of planning, designing and functioning of logistic systems must be based both on the theoretical knowledge covering various areas as well as practical experiences to provide the required support.  To provide logistic services in the rational way, it is necessary to learn the complicated set of implications resulting from three areas covering the theoretical knowledge, practical ones as well as the regulation by the law. Methods: The triad of three concepts: theory, practice and regulation is the main area of consideration in relation to tasks of the logistic support provided by any organization for any production process. The aim of this paper focuses on the necessity of taking into account implications among theory, practice and regulation during the process of analyzing, designing and implementation of systems of the logistic support. The lack of awareness of differences between various implications or ignoring them must lead to irrational behaviors. Results: The implications among theory, practice and legislative regulation of logistics presented differently than usually, broaden the logistic knowledge and at the same time provide the tool of the rationalization of logistic services in all kinds of activities. Conclusions: The correct identification of tasks and functions of the logistics leads to the recognition of its subject and tasks and correct identification of implications occurring among theory, practice and regulation. This knowledge is indispensable in the process of creation of projects of logistic services of each activity, both business and non-business one.

  11. Rejoinder--Implications of "Online Display Advertising: Targeting and Obtrusiveness"

    OpenAIRE

    Avi Goldfarb; Catherine Tucker

    2011-01-01

    The commentaries on our work suggest several broader implications of our findings as well as a concern that we understate the size of the effect. In this rejoinder, we discuss our views on the regulatory implications, the implications for firm strategies, and the implications for our understanding of the underlying behavioral processes. We also acknowledge that our original calculation of $464 million in cost savings for industry is conservative. We conclude with a call for "privacy engineeri...

  12. Sleep disorders in Pregnancy: Glycaemic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K V S Hari

    2016-09-01

    Sleep is one of the essential biorhythms of the body that helps in optimum restoration of many body functions. The sleep-wake cycle is determined by the circadian centre and is responsible for the anabolic functions in the body. Infants require about 14 to 18 hours of sleep per day, which reduces gradually to about 8 hours in adults. Urbanization and evolutionary changes have altered the sleep hygiene and shortened the sleep duration. This lead to various sleep disorders like sleep disordered breathing, insomnia and narcolepsy. Sleep disorders lead to adverse cardio-metabolic consequences, including insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia. Pregnancy poses an enormous burden on the homeostasis of the women with alteration in many physiological functions. The sleep disorders during pregnancy lead to adverse foeto-maternal outcomes with long term cardiovascular implications. In this article, I review the pathophysiology of sleep disorders during pregnancy and their glycaemic implications. PMID:27582156

  13. The environmental implications of landfill gas control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews the implications for landfill gas control of the Environmental Protection Bill in relation to proposed, existing and closed sites. If the Bill is enacted in its present form these changes will have far reaching implications on the waste management industry and especially those involved in landfill gas monitoring and control. The paper describes the requirements for the management of landfill gas both on and around landfill sites before, during and after the cessation of waste disposal operations. It describes the duties of Waste Regulation Authorities (WRAs) under the Bill in relation to landfill gas including their duties in relation to closed sites. The paper concludes that when the WRAs fulfill these duties the risk of further incidents occurring with landfill gas will be significantly reduced. (author)

  14. Teacher's experiences in PBL: implications for practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Anabela C.; Sousa, Rui M.; Fernandes, Sandra; Cardoso, Elisabete; Carvalho, Maria Alice; Figueiredo, Jorge; Pereira, Rui M. S.

    2016-03-01

    Project-Based Learning (PBL) has been implemented in the first year of the Industrial Engineering and Management programme at the University of Minho, Portugal, since 2004/2005. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and discuss teachers' experiences in PBL in this programme and to explore its implications for student learning and for teaching practices in higher education. For data collection, the research method used was written narratives to these teachers, at the end of the PBL semester. Findings suggest that teachers express a positive view of PBL as a learning approach. They identify student motivation and engagement, along with a better understanding of the application of concepts in real-life situations, as important outcomes of the project for students. Besides this, teachers also highlight the importance of the development of transversal skills by students throughout the project. Recommendations for future work and implications for practice will also be discussed.

  15. Learning and reconsolidation implicate different synaptic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Meloni, Edward G; Carlezon, William A; Milad, Mohammed R; Pitman, Roger K; Nader, Karim; Bolshakov, Vadim Y

    2013-03-19

    Synaptic mechanisms underlying memory reconsolidation after retrieval are largely unknown. Here we report that synapses in projections to the lateral nucleus of the amygdala implicated in auditory fear conditioning, which are potentiated by learning, enter a labile state after memory reactivation, and must be restabilized through a postsynaptic mechanism implicating the mammalian target of rapamycin kinase-dependent signaling. Fear-conditioning-induced synaptic enhancements were primarily presynaptic in origin. Reconsolidation blockade with rapamycin, inhibiting mammalian target of rapamycin kinase activity, suppressed synaptic potentiation in slices from fear-conditioned rats. Surprisingly, this reduction of synaptic efficacy was mediated by post- but not presynaptic mechanisms. These findings suggest that different plasticity rules may apply to the processes underlying the acquisition of original fear memory and postreactivational stabilization of fear-conditioning-induced synaptic enhancements mediating fear memory reconsolidation. PMID:23487762

  16. Cognitive Variables Implicated In Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moretti, Luciana Sofía

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the creation of gate control theory, the importance of psychological variables in chronic pain has emerged. Thus, the cognitive variables are emphasized in between behaviors, emotions and social factors for the explanation of chronic pain. Considering the gate control theory, cognitive variables modulate the other two dimensions of the chronic pain experience: the motivational-afective dimension and the sensory-discriminative dimension (Camacho Martel & Anarte Ortiz, 2001; Gatchel, Peng, Peters, Fuchs & Turk, 2007. The aim of this work is to review the main cognitive variables implicated in the chronic pain experience. Moreover, empirical evidence that support the importance of these variables is presented. Furthermore, it is discussed the clinical implications and the importance of this area in the local context.

  17. Implications of LHC Searches for Massive Graviton

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Yong

    2012-01-01

    With the latest LHC available results, we consider the generic constraints on massive graviton. Both dijet and dilepton resonance searches are used. The limits on parameter space can be applied to many models. As an illustration, we show the constraints for Randall-Sundrum (RS) model. Implications on massive graviton and the coupling strength are discussed. For $k/M_{pl}=0.1$, $M_G<2.2$ TeV region is excluded at 95% confidence level. We also present some interesting implications on the RS radion with respect to the 125 GeV excess at the LHC. For $k/M_{pl}=0.1$, $\\Lambda_\\phi<13.8$ TeV is excluded where $\\Lambda_\\phi$ is the scale to charactarize the interaction strengh of radion.

  18. Social Implications of Neo - Imperialism in India

    OpenAIRE

    Dhas, Albert Christopher; Helen, Mary Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    The globalisation process, which aimed at integration of economies and global development, is basically a reflection of neo-imperialism ideas. The question addressed in this paper is: what are the social implications of the neo-imperialism (globalisation) process in India, particularly on the social security aspects of the working population? Accordingly, an attempt is made in this paper to examine changes in the social security status of the working population that have been brought ab...

  19. Colon cancer stem cells: implications in carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Matthew A.; Majumdar, Adhip P. N.

    2011-01-01

    The cancer stem cell model was described for hematologic malignancies in 1997 and since then evidence has emerged to support it for many solid tumors as well, including colon cancer. This model proposes that certain cells within the tumor mass are pluripotent and capable of self-renewal and have an enhanced ability to initiate distant metastasis. The cancer stem cell model has important implications for cancer treatment, since most current therapies target actively proliferating cells and may...

  20. Societal Aging: Implications for Fiscal Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Auerbach, Alan J

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers implications of population aging for the conduct of fiscal policy, grouping the issues into four areas, focusing on the impact of aging on: (1) the size of government budget imbalances; (2) the composition of government spending and government budget flexibility; (3) the composition of tax collections and the desirability of alternative tax systems; and (4) the effectiveness of fiscal policy as a tool for stabilization. Societal aging puts considerable stress put on publi...

  1. Bioavailability: implications for science/cleanup policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denit, Jeffery; Planicka, J. Gregory

    1998-12-01

    This paper examines the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and cleanup decisions. Bioavailability refers to how chemicals ''behave'' and their ''availability'' to interact with living organisms. Bioavailability has significant implications for exposure risks, cleanup goals, and site costs. Risk to human health and the environment is directly tied to the bioavailability of the chemicals of concern.

  2. The Greek Crisis: Causes and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Vlamis Prodromos; Kouretas Georgios P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents and critically discusses the origins and causes of the Greek fiscal crisis and its implications for the euro currency as well as the SEE economies. In the aftermath of the 2007-2009 financial crisis the enormous increase in sovereign debt has emerged as an important negative outcome, since public debt was dramatically increased in an effort by the US and the European governments to reduce the accumulated growth of private debt in the years preceding the recent financ...

  3. FEMALE URETHRA – ANATOMO-CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    C. Zanoschi; R. Moldovanu

    2006-01-01

    Urethra represents the last segment of the urinary tract. We present a comprehensive account of the female urethral anatomy, including its component structures, neurovascular supply, relationship to adjacent structures (the vagina, bladder and vestibular glands, and connective tissue supports) and histology. These data are important because the distal segment of the female urethra is implicated in the mechanism of urinary continence (female stress urinary incontinence is thought to result f...

  4. Implications of Theoretical Ideas Regarding Cold Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Afsar

    1995-01-01

    A lot of theoretical ideas have been floated to explain the so called cold fusion phenomenon. I look at a large subset of these and study further physical implications of the concepts involved. I suggest that these can be tested by other independent physical means. Because of the significance of these the experimentalists are urged to look for these signatures. The results in turn will be important for a better understanding and hence control of the cold fusion phenomenon.

  5. Radioecological implications of the Par Pond drawdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The drawdown of the Par Pond reservoir created dramatic alterations in this formerly stable lentic ecosystem. In addition, the radiation environment at Par Pond has changed significantly because of the exposure of Cesium 137-contaminated sediments and the appearance of new transport pathways to the terrestrial environment. In response to this situation, SREL was asked to study the radioecological implications of the reservoir drawdown. This report contains the objectives, methods, and results of the SREL study

  6. The remnant CP transformation and its implications

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Canales, Felix

    2016-01-01

    In the context of remnant CP transformations, I briefly discuss a generalized $\\mu-\\tau$ reflection symmetry, where the "Majorana" phases have CP conserving values, which are directly related with the CP parities of neutrino states. Also, one finds that the "Dirac-like" CP violation phase is correlated with the atmospheric mixing angle, giving important phenomenological implications for current and future long baseline oscillation neutrino experiments.

  7. Thalamocortical synchronization and cognition: implications for schizophrenia?

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlhaas, Peter J.; Roux, Frederic; Singer, Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are a core dysfunction in schizophrenia. In this issue of Neuron, Parnaudeau et al. (2013) investigated synchronization in thalamocortical pathways in an animal model to address the disconnection between brain regions as a mechanism for working memory impairments in the disorder.implicated dysfunctional neural oscillations in the explanation of cognitive deficits and certain clinical symptoms of schizophrenia. Specifically, we will focus on findings that have examined neura...

  8. Breast cancer heterogeneity: mechanisms, proofs, and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Hsuan Hsiao, Ming-Chih Chou, Carol Fowler, Jeffrey T. Mason, Yan-gao Man

    2010-01-01

    Human breast cancer represents a group of highly heterogeneous lesions consisting of about 20 morphologically distinct subtypes with substantially different molecular and/or biochemical signatures, clinical courses, and prognoses. This study analyzed the possible correlation between the morphological presentations of breast cancer and two hypothesized models of carcinogenesis, in order to identify the intrinsic mechanism(s) and clinical implications of breast cancer heterogeneity.

  9. Breast cancer heterogeneity: mechanisms, proofs, and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsuan Hsiao, Ming-Chih Chou, Carol Fowler, Jeffrey T. Mason, Yan-gao Man

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human breast cancer represents a group of highly heterogeneous lesions consisting of about 20 morphologically distinct subtypes with substantially different molecular and/or biochemical signatures, clinical courses, and prognoses. This study analyzed the possible correlation between the morphological presentations of breast cancer and two hypothesized models of carcinogenesis, in order to identify the intrinsic mechanism(s and clinical implications of breast cancer heterogeneity.

  10. IT Industry in Bangalore: Some Economic Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Meenakshi RAJEEV

    2012-01-01

    IT industry has shown phenomenal growth in the city of Bangalore which has changed the very nature of the city. Large migration to the city also has created several environmental problems. Because of growth of this industry in selected pockets income inequality in the state is also on the rise which have many adverse social implications. But the sector has been able to generate significant employment and this role needs to be highlighted as educated unemployment can create many adverse econom...

  11. Astrophysical Implications of Higher-Dimensional Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Liko, Tomas; Overduin, James M.; Wesson, Paul S.

    2003-01-01

    We review the implications of modern higher-dimensional theories of gravity for astrophysics and cosmology. In particular, we discuss the latest developments of space-time-matter theory in connection with dark matter, particle dynamics and the cosmological constant, as well as related aspects of quantum theory. There are also more immediate tests of extra dimensions, notably involving perturbations of the cosmic 3K microwave background and the precession of a supercooled gyroscope in Earth or...

  12. Aggregate Implications of Micro Asset Market Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Edmond; Pierre-Olivier Weill

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a consumption-based asset pricing model to explain and quantify the aggregate implications of a frictional financial system, comprised of many financial markets partially integrated with one another. Each of our micro financial market's is inhabited by traders who are specialized in that markets type of asset. We specify exogenously the level of segmentation that ultimately determines how much idiosyncratic risk traders bear in their micro market and derive aggregate asset...

  13. Environment Implications of China's WTO Accession

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shantong; He Jianwu

    2006-01-01

    China's WTO accession will have important environmental implications. This article aims at providing environmental analysis of the impact of China's accession to the WTO, based on its final offer for WTO accession and a 53-sector, recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of China. We try to provide some empirical evidences for policy makers to evaluate the effects of China's WTO accession from environmental prospective.

  14. Headquarters Research and Implications for Local Development

    OpenAIRE

    William A. Testa

    2006-01-01

    Drawing from both the professional literature and from a conference held at the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago in 2004, the author summarizes findings and draws implications concerning the locational tendencies of stand-alone headquarters operations. In the United States, the geography of large company headquarters is becoming more dispersed toward medium-sized metropolitan areas even as the headquarters needs for urban infrastructure and amenities continue to sharpen. The location of the fi...

  15. ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF INSUFFICIENT HEALTH LITERACY

    OpenAIRE

    Dukić, Nikolina; Arbula Blecich, Andrea; Cerović, Ljerka

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to elaborate the importance of health literacy in cost-effective utilization of health care services which influence the efficiency of the entire health care sector. In order to complement the theoretical framework of the economic implications and the circular influence of health literacy on the economy, an empirical analysis was carried out using S–TOFHLA. The results suggest that the patients’ personal characteristics and the accessibil...

  16. On the normative implications of social neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Arleen Salles

    2013-01-01

    Within the last decades, brain science has been offering new insights into the relationship among diverse psychological processes and the neural correlates of our moral thought and behavior. Despite the distinction between the explanatory/descriptive nature of science and the normative nature of morality, some neuroethicists have claimed that neuroscientific findings have normative implications. In this paper, I identify three interpretations of the claim. The first focuses on neuroscience’s ...

  17. [Gut microbiota: Description, role and pathophysiologic implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, C; Quévrain, E

    2016-06-01

    The human gut contains 10(14) bacteria and many other micro-organisms such as Archaea, viruses and fungi. Studying the gut microbiota showed how this entity participates to gut physiology and beyond this to human health, as a real "hidden organ". In this review, we aimed to bring information about gut microbiota, its structure, its roles and its implication in human pathology. After bacterial colonization in infant, intestinal microbial composition is unique for each individual although more than 95% can be assigned to four major phyla. The use of culture independent methods and more recently the development of high throughput sequencing allowed to depict precisely gut microbiota structure and diversity as well as its alteration in diseases. Gut microbiota is implicated in the maturation of the host immune system and in many fundamental metabolic pathways including sugars and proteins fermentation and metabolism of bile acids and xenobiotics. Imbalance of gut microbial populations or dysbiosis has important functional consequences and is implicated in many digestive diseases (inflammatory bowel diseases, colorectal cancer, etc.) but also in obesity and autism. These observations have led to a surge of studies exploring therapeutics which aims to restore gut microbiota equilibrium such as probiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation. But recent research also investigates biological activity of microbial products which could lead to interesting therapeutics leads. PMID:26749318

  18. Investigating Variations in Gameplay: Cognitive Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Sedig

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in creating computer games for learning, problem solving, and other high-level cognitive activities. When investigating whether gameplay is conducive to such activities, gameplay is often studied as a whole. As a result, cognitive implications can be linked to the game but not to its structural elements. Given that gameplay arises from interaction between the player and the game, it is the structural components of interaction that should be investigated to better understand the design of gameplay. Furthermore, minor variations in the components of interaction can have significant cognitive implications. However, such variation has not been studied yet. Thus, to gain a better understanding of how we can study the effect of interaction on the cognitive aspect of gameplay, we conducted an exploratory investigation of two computer games. These games were isomorphic at a deep level and only had one minor difference in the structure of their interaction. Volunteers played these games and discussed the cognitive processes that emerged. In one game, they primarily engaged in planning, but in the other game they primarily engaged in visualizing. This paper discusses the results of our investigation as well as its implications for the design of computer games.

  19. Implication-based fuzzy semiautomaton of a finite group and its properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva Rathi, M.; Michael Anna Spinneli, J.

    2016-06-01

    Implication-based fuzzy semiautomaton (IBFSA) of a finite group is defined. The ideas of an implication-based fuzzy kernel and implication-based fuzzy subsemiautomaton of an IBFSA over a finite group are developed using the concept of implication-based fuzzy subgroup and implication-based fuzzy normal subgroup. The necessary and sufficient condition for the implication-based fuzzy kernel and implication-based fuzzy subsemiautomaton of an IBFSA and few other results are proved in this paper.

  20. Introduction: Childhood implications of parental aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedars, Marcelle I

    2015-06-01

    Men and women are increasingly delaying childbearing to the late 30s, the 40s and beyond. The implications of this societal change on childhood health and well-being have only recently been a focus of research. There are known increased perinatal risks associated with increasing maternal age, while paternal age seems to have a potentially greater negative impact on childhood health. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the aging of sperm and eggs, and how these changes impact offspring, is a critical next step as we work to help patients build healthy families. PMID:25936233

  1. Public health implications of altered puberty timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golub, M.S.; Collman, G.W.; Foster, P.M.;

    2008-01-01

    . Altered timing of puberty also has implications for behavioral disorders. For example, an early maturation is associated with a greater incidence of conduct and behavior disorders during adolescence. Finally, altered puberty timing is considered an adverse effect in reproductive toxicity risk assessment...... for chemicals. Recent US legislation has mandated improved chemical testing approaches for protecting children's health and screening for endocrine-disrupting agents, which has led to changes in the US Environmental Protection Agency's risk assessment and toxicity testing guidelines to include puberty......-related assessments and to the validation of pubertal male and female rat assays for endocrine screening Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2...

  2. Massive neutron stars and their implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T K Jha; Keshab C Panda

    2014-05-01

    Recent observations of high mass pulsar PSRJ1614-2230 has raised serious debate over the possible role of exotics in the dense core of neutron stars. The precise measurement of mass of the pulsar may play a very important role in limiting equation of state (EoS) of dense matter and its composition. Indirectly, it may also shape our understanding of the nucleon–hyperon or hyperon–hyperon interactions which is not well known. Within the framework of an effective chiral model, we compute models of neutron stars and analyse the hyperon composition in them. Further related implications are also discussed.

  3. Adolescent Health Implications of New Age Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Cara; Bailin, Alexandra; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    This article examines the health implications of new age technology use among adolescents. As Internet prevalence has increased, researchers have found evidence of potential negative health consequences on adolescents. Internet addiction has become a serious issue. Pornography is now easily accessible to youth and studies have related pornography with several negative health effects. Cyberbullying has become a large problem as new age technologies have created a new and easy outlet for adolescents to bully one another. These technologies are related to increased morbidity and mortality, such as suicides due to cyberbullying and motor vehicle deaths due to texting while driving. PMID:26613696

  4. Dust and radon: the legal implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that radon gas is not generally considered to be a major problem when encountered in the working environment. However, in its process of decay, a series of four short lived daughter products are formed. In a dust-laden atmosphere these daughter products, which are ionized readily, attach to the particulate material and when inhaled are deposited in the alveoli of the lungs. Therefore, if respirable dust is controlled, the effects of radon daughters will also be minimized. The legal requirements for dust control in South Africa and their implications are discussed. 1 ill

  5. Geriatric neuropsychology: implications for front line clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamora, Christina Weyer; Ruff, Ronald M; Connor, Bonnie B

    2008-01-01

    Consistent with the aging population, neuropsychologists are being asked with increased frequency to evaluate older adults. These assessments are often complicated by medical and psychiatric co-morbidities, polypharmacy, and complex psychosocial and legal issues that are frequently encountered in this population. The aim of this review article is to address the challenges neuropsychologists and other frontline clinicians often confront when evaluating older individuals. Specifically, we review psychiatric and medical co-morbidities, testing accommodations, diagnostic versus descriptive testing approaches, normative issues, polypharmacy, and reimbursement rates. Finally, future implications are discussed for advancing the neuropsychologist's role in evaluating and treating older individuals. PMID:18957725

  6. Ionization potentials some variations, implications and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrens, L H

    1983-01-01

    Ionization Potentials: Some Variations, Implications and Applications covers several aspects of ionization potential that is a highly significant parameter in controlling the properties of electric discharge. Comprised of 17 chapters, the book covers topic relevant to ionization potentials, such as properties, concepts, and applications, in order to understand and fully comprehend all aspects of ionization potential. The opening chapter is a review of ionization potentials and a discussion of trends and features. The succeeding chapters then tackle complex topics such as the s and p electrons;

  7. The Implications of Climate Changes over Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mioara Chirita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change presents a great importance in all sectors of the economy, but the agricultural sector is directly influenced by them. These changes have different causes and effects, but the agriculture is known to be a strategic and dynamic sector, which is considered also difficult and a priority of the economy. The higher crop yields guarantee prosperity, economic and financial growth for many countries in the world. The paper aims is to develop an overview on the implications of climate changes in agriculture over the last few years in Europe.

  8. Reliability implications for commercial Plowshare applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the premise that there will always be a finite chance of a Plowshare project failure, the implications of such a failure are examined. It is suggested that the optimum reliability level will not necessarily be the highest attainable, but rather that which results in minimum average project cost. The type of performance guarantee that the U. S. should provide for nuclear explosive services, the determination of nuclear yield, courses of action to take in the event of failure, and methods to offset remedial costs are discussed. (author)

  9. The Risk Implications of Multinational Enterprise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2011-01-01

    volatility and hence the corporate performance risk. But, the internationalization process may also require irreversible investments that increase corporate exposures and leave the risk implications of multinational enterprize somewhat ambiguous. Hence, the purpose of the paper is to present an empirical...... regressions on archival data to control for pre-selection biases. Findings – The analyses indicate that multinationality is associated with lower downside risk as well as higher upside potential and leads to reduced performance risk. The study finds no trace of diminishing effects from higher degrees....... The study extends the industry scope by introducing a comprehensive sample of firms operating in different manufacturing and service businesses....

  10. Transformation of University Organizations:Leadership and Managerial Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemil ULUKAN

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of University Organizations:Leadership and Managerial Implications Cemil ULUKAN, Ph.D Anadolu UniversityOpen Education Faculty Eskisehir-TURKEYABSTRACT Technology and globalization are forcing higher education institutions to transform themselves. This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding the leadership and managerial implications of recent developments for higher education. Reviewing unique characteristics and the fundamental changes shaping higher education, the paper examines the need for organizational transformation and the major managerial implications.

  11. A synopsis of collective alpha effects and implications for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigmar, D.J.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses the following: Alpha Interaction with Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes; Alpha Interaction with Ballooning Modes; Alpha Interaction with Fishbone Oscillations; and Implications for ITER.

  12. Forensic implications: adolescent sexting and cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenis, Panagiota; Billick, Stephen Bates

    2014-03-01

    Adolescence is marked by establishing a sense of identity, core values, a sense of one's relationship to the outside world and heightened peer relationships. In addition, there is also risk taking, impulsivity, self exploration and dramatic increase in sexuality. The dramatic increase in the use of cell phones and the Internet has additional social implications of sexting and cyberbullying. Sexting refers to the practice of sending sexually explicit material including language or images to another person's cell phone. Cyberbullying refers to the use of this technology to socially exclude, threaten, insult or shame another person. Studies of cell phone use in the 21st century report well over 50% of adolescents use them and that text messaging is the communication mode of choice. Studies also show a significant percentage of adolescents send and receive sex messaging, both text and images. This paper will review this expanding literature. Various motivations for sexting will also be reviewed. This new technology presents many dangers for adolescents. The legal implications are extensive and psychiatrists may play an important role in evaluation of some of these adolescents in the legal context. This paper will also make suggestions on future remedies and preventative actions. PMID:24129662

  13. Global implications of China's healthcare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fei; Tang, Shenglan; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing healthcare reform in China has a powerful spillover effect beyond the health sector and the borders of China. A successful completion of the Chinese reform will offer a new model for social justice development, shift the global economy toward sustainability and create a new hub for science and technology in medical and health science. However, reforming the healthcare system in the most populated country is a daunting task. China will not live up to its promise, and all the potentials may end with hype not hope if coherent national strategies are not constructed and state-of-the-art navigation is not achieved with staggering domestic and global challenges. The cost of failure will be immensely high, socioeconomic costs for Chinese and an opportunity cost for the world as a whole. A full appreciation of the global implications of China's healthcare reform is crucial in keeping China receptive toward good practices evidence-approved elsewhere and open minded to fulfill its international obligations. More critically, the appreciation yields constructive engagements from global community toward a joint development and global prosperity. The current report provides a multiple disciplinary assessment on the global implications of the healthcare reform in China. PMID:24890392

  14. Abiding IPRs in Technological Implications for Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtaza Hussain Shaikh A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The focal objective of this article is to analyze the role of intellectual property rights in technological implications within a general context. The performance of the IPRs system and its interaction with national innovation system with some degrees of success has also been highlighted. Major encounter over subsequently decade will be to identify policies and solutions that would permit marketplace economy to flourish in the framework of this intellectual property insurrection. There has been a lot of dispute on the role of intellectual property protection regime specially in fostering innovation, technology development of a country. IPRs are expected to emboli the innovation, by rewarding inventor with a grant of domination rights over the mercantile exploitation for a specified time period. This article tries to attempts to review the role of the IPR regime in technological development and also have suggested some policy implications for country like Pakistan and some reflecting lessons for other developing countries with similar settings and common characteristics. Keywords -

  15. L-型模糊格蕴涵代数%L-fuzzy Lattice Implication Algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋庆龙; 李春瑞; 赵光峰

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduced the concept of L-fuzzy sub lattice implication algebra and discussed its properties. Proved that the intersection set of a family of L-fuzzy sub lattice implication algebras is a L-fuzzy sub lattice implication algebra, that a L-fuzzy sub set of a lattice implication algebra is a L-fuzzy sub lattice implication algebra if and only if its every cut set is a sub lattice implication algebra, and that the image and original image of a L-fuzzy sub lattice implication algebra under a lattice implication homomorphism are both L-fuzzy sub lattice implication algebras.

  16. Education System Reform in China after 1978: Some Practical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miantao

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of education system reform in China since 1978, and its practical implications. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from literature review and interview. An overview of education system reform and its practical implications was found through data analysis. Findings: There has been two…

  17. Local sustainable development – implications for local public finances

    OpenAIRE

    FLORIN OPREA; ELENA CIGU

    2012-01-01

    Local sustainable development implications on local public finances are complex because this phenomenon explained by development strategies mobilizes local resources towards achieving the three dimensions that define the phenomenon. This paper aims to develop these implications in Romania, showing that the local development strategy determines the reorganization of local government finances in identifying resources to cover expenses, which are directed towards achieving the goals.

  18. Armenia Demographic Change : Implications for Social Policy and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This note provides an overview of demographic changes and their policy implications in Armenia, with particular reference to the poor. Armenia is currently experiencing a significant aging of the population and decrease in the size of the population, these changes have far-reaching implications. The fertility rate in Armenia has fallen dramatically, from about 4.5 children per woman in the...

  19. Space industrialization. Volume 3: World and domestic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The status of worldwide space industralization activities is assessed as well as the benefits to be anticipated from enhanced activities. Methods for stimulating space industralization growth are discussed with emphasis on foreign and international activities, national and world impact assessments, industry/government interfaces, legal implications, institutional implications, economics and capitalization, and implementation issues and recommendations.

  20. Rubella Deaf-Blind Child: Implications of Psychological Assessment. Proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouin, Carole

    Presented are proceedings of a conference involving authorities in testing and evaluating the blind, deaf, and deaf-blind. In a paper titled "Psychological Implications of Assessing the Deaf", C. Goetzinger discusses references used in audiology, anatomy and physiology of the ear, degrees of hearing impairment, and implications of the various…

  1. Macroeconomic and policy implications of population aging in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgensen, Ole Hagen

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the macroeconomic implications of population aging in Brazil. Three alternative yet complementary methodologies are adopted, and depending on policy responses to the fiscal implications of aging, there are two main findings: First, saving rates could increase and not necessarily fall as a consequence of aging in Brazil -- thus contradicting conventional views. Second, l...

  2. AIDS and HIV Testing: Implications for Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Sandra Crouse

    1992-01-01

    The article makes health educators aware of issues raised by a move from anonymous to confidential HIV testing. It examines implications of contact tracing and notification and of reporting requirements that identify HIV-positive persons to public health departments. Implications for health education professionals responsible for HIV test…

  3. Motivation and Gifted Students: Implications of Theory and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinkenbeard, Pamela R.

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of contemporary motivation theories reveals implications for gifted and talented students. The expectancy-value framework, intrinsic-extrinsic motivation theories, goal orientations, self-efficacy and other self-perceptions, and attribution theory are described and discussed with respect to implications for the psychology and education…

  4. Subdirectly Irreducible and Directly Indecomposable Lattice Implication Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-fang; XU Yang; SONG Zhen-ming

    2004-01-01

    Lattice implication algebra is analgebraic structure that is established by combining lattice andimplicative algebra. It originated from the study onlattice-valued logic. In this paper, we characterize two specialclasses of lattice implication algebra, namely, subdirectlyirreducible and directly indecomposable lattice implicationalgebras. Some important results are obtained.

  5. Prescription drug abuse: problem, policies, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Janice

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview on prescription drug abuse and highlights a number of related legislative bills introduced during the 112th Congress in response to this growing epidemic. Prescription drug abuse has emerged as the nation's fastest growing drug problem. Although prescription drugs have been used effectively and appropriately for decades, deaths from prescription pain medicine in particular have reached epidemic proportions. Bills related to prescription drug abuse introduced during the 112th Congress focus on strengthening provider and consumer education, tracking and monitoring prescription drug abuse, improving data collection on drug overdose fatalities, combating fraud and abuse in Medicare and Medicaid programs, reclassifying drugs to make them more difficult to prescribe and obtain, and enforcing stricter penalties for individuals who operate scam pain clinics and sell pain pills illegitimately. This article underscores the importance of a multifaceted approach to combating prescription drug abuse and concludes with implications for nursing. PMID:23245611

  6. Researching Lean: Methodological implications of loose definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännmark, Mikael; Langstrand, Jostein; Johansson, Stina;

    2012-01-01

    practices seem to overlap with other popular management concepts, such as High Performance Work Systems, World Class Manufacturing and Total Quality Management. This confusion, combined with different methodological and theoretical traditions, has led to much debate and contradictory conclusions regarding...... Lean. The purpose of the paper is to illustrate some key methodological issues that need to be considered in future Lean research to allow increased understanding of Lean effects for different stakeholders, primarily meaning the customer, employer and employees. Design/methodology/approach – The paper...... operationalized, which makes it very difficult to study through a priori definitions. Practical implications/recommendations – The large variation in interpretations of Lean complicates metaanalyses regarding potential impact of Lean on the primary stakeholders of an organization, i.e. the customer, employees and...

  7. Implications of Harold Shipman for general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R

    2004-06-01

    Harold Shipman was an English general practitioner who murdered at least 215 of his patients between 1974 and 1998. A public inquiry is underway, but general practitioners and all doctors also need to consider the implications for their profession. The aim of this paper is to stimulate debate. Issues identified as important to consider include: trust between doctors; attitudes towards failing systems such as cremation certification; acceptance of the duty of accountability; ensuring patients can have reasonable confidence in their doctors; commitment to preventing such a case occurring again; and relationships with patients. It is argued that restricting debate to methods to detect doctors who murder would limit the opportunity to improve medical practice and would constitute a failure to fulfil the duty owed by doctors to Shipman's victims and their families. PMID:15192157

  8. Waste management implications of concentrating slimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anticipated increase in demand for sand-size tailings from the uranium industry suggests that the fine-grained or 'slime' fraction will require special attention for disposal. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) required information on the behaviour and environmental significance of the fine-grained tailings fraction in disposal facilities. Beak Consultants and Golder Associates were contracted to review the significant characteristics of slimes disposal and prepare a report on the physical and chemical characteristics of fine-grained tailings (Phase 1). This report (Phase 2) presents a summary of disposal and management practices for slimes and outlines potential concerns related to these practices. The report also presents an approach to disposal planning and the implications of available and potential management techniques. Experience with the disposal of uranium slimes is scarce and, therefore, relevant information was borrowed from the other mining sectors to predict the consequences of various disposal scenarios

  9. PRIMARY NURSING IMPLICATIONS ON NURSING CARE ASSISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Mahnis Pereira Carmona

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors present the method “Primary Nursing”, which has as principle the elevation of thenurse’s autonomy, in which he is responsible for the patient 24 hours a day. The also present the function of eachnurse engaged in that process, pointing out the advantages of the method and its implications in the practice. In itsreview, they put results of 07 present works accomplished with the introduction of the “Primary Nursing”. As finalconsiderations, the state that the “Primary Nursing” improves the quality of assistance given by the nurse, and itsperformance will mainly depend on the nurse’s interest, on changing the reference system towards the professionalcompetence.

  10. Nursing implications for Hepatic arterial perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurses working in Nuclear Medicine assist in Hepatic Artery Catheter (HAC) perfusion studies. This scan is not widely performed in Australia, the St George hospital for example performs approximately five per year. The purpose of this article is firstly to review the indications and rationale of HAC patency studies. Secondly, this article will stress the clinical implications for the Nuclear Medicine Nurse during this study. Emphasis will be placed on the importance of patient education during the procedure. A brief overview of hepatic anatomy and the radiopharmaceuticals administered during the scan is discussed. Finally, a step by step protocol is presented to show how the perfusion/ shunt study is performed. Copyright (1999) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  11. Safety implications of self-managed teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lardner, R.

    1999-08-01

    This report traces the history of self-management and the reasons for the introduction of self-management. The Health and Safety Executive's approach to management of safety, literature on self-managing teams and safety, and published examples of self-managing teams in the petrochemical industry are discussed. Diagnosing the suitability for self-management, and best practice in implementation are considered, four UK case studies involving the BP Chemicals plant in Baglan Bay, the Shell Exploration and Production Cada Platforms, Industrial Colours Limited, and Amec Process and Energy at Great Yarmouth are given. The research undertaken at BP Oil's Grangemouth refinery on safety implications of self-managed teams is reviewed.

  12. Pituitary stem cells: candidates and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiri, Farshad; Cusimano, Michael; Zuccato, Jeff A; Mohammed, Safraz; Rotondo, Fabio; Horvath, Eva; Syro, Luis V; Kovacs, Kalman; Lloyd, Ricardo V

    2013-09-01

    The pituitary is the master endocrine gland of the body. It undergoes many changes after birth, and these changes may be mediated by the differentiation of pituitary stem cells. Stem cells in any tissue source must display (1) pluripotent capacity, (2) capacity for indefinite self-renewal, and (3) a lack of specialization. Unlike neural stem cells identified in the hippocampus and subventricular zone, pituitary stem cells are not associated with one specific cell type. There are many major candidates that are thought to be potential pituitary stem cell sources. This article reviews the evidence for each of the major cell types and discuss the implications of identifying a definitive pituitary stem cell type. PMID:23423660

  13. Public Trust Doctrine Implications of Electricity Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noel, Lance Douglas; Firestone, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    ’s impact on those two areas and the comparatively smaller impacts of renewable energy, electricity production has garnered very little public trust doctrine attention. This Article examines how electricity production implicates the public trust doctrine, primarily through the lens of four states...... development; (2) as a legal defense for states to validate actions encouraging renewable electricity development; (3) as a means for courts to more closely scrutinize electricity decisions made by the state; and (4) as an opportunity for state agencies to supplement and guide imperfect statutes. Together......, these four purposes of the public trust can ensure reasonable and timely development of renewable electricity as well as sufficient protection of trust resources....

  14. Rumen bypass nutrients: Manipulation and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feeds available for ruminants in developing countries are either agro-industrial by-products or specially grown forage crops. Many of these feeds are low in protein and require supplementation with non-protein N (NPN) to maintain efficient rumen function and digestibility. The principles for utilizing high energy, low protein feeds by ruminants are discussed in relation to the supply of NPN, the establishment of efficient rumen function, maximizing feed intake by means of supplements, and increasing total energy and protein intake by using supplements which bypass the rumen. To illustrate it the application of these principles to feeding systems based on molasses, chopped whole sugar cane and derinded sugar cane is discussed. The implications of the principles in increasing the feeding value of straw are also discussed. (author)

  15. Low energy implications of minimal superstring unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the phenomenological implications of effective supergravities based on string vacua with spontaneously broken N =1 supersymmetry by dilation and moduli F-terms. We further require Minimal String Unification, namely that large string threshold corrections ensure the correct unification of the gauge couplings at the grand unification scale. The whole supersymmetric mass spectrum turns out to be determined in terms of only two independent parameters, the dilaton-moduli mixing angle and the gravitino mass. In particular we discuss the region of the parameter space where at least one superpartner is ''visible'' at LEPII. We find that the most likely candidates are the scalar partner of the right-handed electron and the lightest chargino, with interesting correlations between their masses and with the mass of the lightest higgs. We show how discovering SUSY particles at LEPII might rather sharply discriminate between scenarios with pure dilaton SUSY breaking and mixed dilaton-moduli breaking. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs

  16. Implications of international protocols on energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratification of the Kyoto Protocol will have significant medium and long term implications for the economies of Annex B and non-Annex B countries. It is shown that the adoption of a system of internationally tradable emission quotas would result in three 'dividends' compared with an outcome where Article 17 trading - relating to emissions trading - is prohibited. First, trading would improve the environmental effectiveness of the protocol because the extent of carbon dioxide equivalent leakage would be reduced. Second, the overall cost of meeting the agreed Annex B targets would be reduced thus leading to greater certainty that the protocol will be implemented in full. Third, a disparity in the differential impacts of Annex B abatement policies on different developing countries would be reduced under emissions trading, leading to a more equitable outcome for these countries

  17. Psychoneuroimmune implications of type 2 diabetes: redux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jason C; Johnson, Daniel R; Freund, Gregory G

    2009-05-01

    A sizable body of knowledge has arisen demonstrating that type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with alterations in the innate immune system. The resulting proinflammatory-leaning imbalance is implicated in the development of secondary disease complications and comorbidities, such as delayed wound healing, accelerated progress of atherosclerosis, and retinopathy, in people who have T2D. New experimental data and the results of recently published health-related quality-of-life surveys indicate that individuals who have T2D experience diminished feelings of happiness, well being, and satisfaction with life. These emotional and psychological consequences of T2D point to altered neuroimmunity as a previously unappreciated complication of T2D. This article discusses recent data detailing the impact of T2D on a person's PNI response. PMID:19389586

  18. Exploring Forensic Implications of the Fusion Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Gupta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the forensic implications of Apple's Fusion Drive. The Fusion Drive is an example of auto-tiered storage. It uses a combination of a flash drive and a magnetic drive. Data is moved between the drives automatically to maximize system performance. This is different from traditional caches because data is moved and not simply copied. The research included understanding the drive structure, populating the drive, and then accessing data in a controlled setting to observe data migration strategies. It was observed that all the data is first written to the flash drive with 4 GB of free space always maintained. If data on the magnetic drive is frequently accessed, it is promoted to the flash drive while demoting other information. Data is moved at a block-level and not a file-level. The Fusion Drive didn't alter the timestamps of files with data migration.

  19. Persuasive Recommender Systems Conceptual Background and Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Yoo, Kyung-Hyan; Zanker, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Whether users are likely to accept the recommendations provided by a recommender system is of utmost importance to system designers and the marketers who implement them. By conceptualizing the advice seeking and giving relationship as a fundamentally social process, important avenues for understanding the persuasiveness of recommender systems open up. Specifically, research regarding influential factors in advice seeking relationships, which is abundant in the context of human-human relationships, can provide an important framework for identifying potential influence factors in recommender system context. This book reviews the existing literature on the factors in advice seeking relationships in the context of human-human, human-computer, and human-recommender system interactions. It concludes that many social cues that have been identified as influential in other contexts have yet to be implemented and tested with respect to recommender systems. Implications for recommender system research and design are dis...

  20. Implications of LHCb measurements and future prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adametz, A; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Anelli, M; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Band, H; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bediaga, I; Beigbeder-Beau, C; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernard, F; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; van Beveren, V; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bochin, B; Boer Rookhuizen, H; Bogdanova, G; Bonaccorsi, E; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Brarda, L; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cacérès, T; Cachemiche, J -P; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casajus Ramo, A; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Ceelie, L; Chadaj, B; Chanal, H; Charles, M; Charlet, D; Charpentier, Ph; Chebbi, M; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciambrone, P; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corajod, B; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; D'Antone, I; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Groen, P; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Decreuse, G; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Dogaru, M; Domingo Bonal, F; Domke, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Drancourt, C; Duarte, O; Dumps, R; Dupertuis, F; Duval, P -Y; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Evangelisti, F; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Faulkner, P J W; Fave, V; Felici, G; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Föhr, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Fournier, C; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frei, R; Frosini, M; Fuchs, H; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Gets, S; Ghez, Ph; Giachero, A; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golovtsov, V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gong, G; Gong, H; Gordon, H; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gromov, V; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Guzik, Z; Gys, T; Hachon, F; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; van der Heijden, B; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hofmann, W; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jamet, O; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jansen, L; Jansweijer, P; Jaton, P; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karavichev, O; Karbach, T M; Kashchuk, A; Kechadi, T; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kihm, T; Kluit, R; Kochebina, O; Komarov, V; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kos, J; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Kristic, R; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudenko, Y; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Landi, L; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Laptev, S; Latham, T; Lax, I; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Likhoded, A; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Maino, M; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Mauricio, J; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meissner, M; Mejia, H; Mendez-Munoz, V; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Mul, F; Müller, K; Munneke, B; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Nawrot, A; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nikolaiko, Y; Nisar, S; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Ostankov, A; Otalora Goicochea, J M; van Overbeek, M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; van Petten, O; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Piedigrossi, D; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, M; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Rethore, F; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roeland, E; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; de Roo, K; Rouvinet, J; Roy, L; Rudloff, K; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Saornil Gamarra, S; Sapunov, M; Saputi, A; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savidge, T; Savrie, M; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schimmel, A; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schneider, T; Schopper, A; Schuijlenburg, H; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shao, B; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Sigurdsson, S; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Slater, M W; Sluijk, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sobczak, K; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Squerzanti, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; Tikhonov, A; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tocut, V; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ullaland, O; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vink, W; Volkov, S; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Vouters, G; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Warda, K; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Wenerke, P; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xue, T; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zappon, F; Zavertyaev, M; Zeng, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zverev, E; Zvyagin, A; Zwart, A; Bharucha, A; Bigi, I I; Bobeth, C; Bobrowski, M; Brod, J; Buras, A J; Davies, C T H; Datta, A; Delaunay, C; Descotes-Genon, S; Ellis, J; Feldmann, T; Fleischer, R; Gedalia, O; Girrbach, J; Guadagnoli, D; Hiller, G; Hochberg, Y; Hurth, T; Isidori, G; Jager, S; Jung, M; Kagan, A; Kamenik, J F; Lenz, A; Ligeti, Z; London, D; Mahmoudi, F; Matias, J; Nandi, S; Nir, Y; Paradisi, P; Perez, G; Petrov, A A; Rattazzi, R; Sharpe, S R; Silvestrini, L; Soni, A; Straub, D M; van Dyk, D; Virto, J; Wang, Y M; Weiler, A; Zupan, J

    2013-01-01

    During 2011 the LHCb experiment at CERN collected $1.0 {\\mbox{fb}^{-1}}$ of $\\sqrt{s} = 7 {\\mathrm{\\,Te\\kern -0.1em V}}$ $pp$ collisions. Due to the large heavy quark production cross-sections, these data provide unprecedented samples of heavy flavoured hadrons. The first results from LHCb have made a significant impact on the flavour physics landscape and have definitively proved the concept of a dedicated experiment in the forward region at a hadron collider. This document discusses the implications of these first measurements on classes of extensions to the Standard Model, bearing in mind the interplay with the results of searches for on-shell production of new particles at ATLAS and CMS. The physics potential of an upgrade to the LHCb detector, which would allow an order of magnitude more data to be collected, is emphasised.

  1. Implications of conformal invariance in momentum space

    CERN Document Server

    Bzowski, Adam; Skenderis, Kostas

    2013-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the implications of conformal invariance for 3-point functions of the stress-energy tensor, conserved currents and scalar operators in general dimension and in momentum space. Our starting point is a novel and very effective decomposition of tensor correlators which reduces their computation to that of a number of scalar form factors. For example, the most general 3-point function of a conserved and traceless stress-energy tensor is determined by only five form factors. Dilatations and special conformal Ward identities then impose additional conditions on these form factors. The special conformal Ward identities become a set of first and second order differential equations, whose general solution is given in terms of integrals involving a product of three Bessel functions (`triple-K integrals'). All in all, the correlators are completely determined up to a number of constants, in agreement with well-known position space results. We develop systematic methods for explicit...

  2. Income inequality: Implications and relevant economic policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arestis Philip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to discuss closely the implications of income inequality and the economic policies to tackle it, especially so in view of inequality being one of the main causes of the 2007/2008 international financial crisis and the “great recession” that subsequently emerged. Wealth inequality is also important in this respect, but the focus is on income inequality. Ever since the financial crisis and the subsequent “great recession”, inequality of income, and wealth, has increased and the demand for economic policy initiatives to produce a more equal distribution of income and wealth has become more urgent. Such reduction would help to increase the level of economic activity as has been demonstrated again more recently. A number of economic policy initiatives for this purpose will be the focus of this contribution.

  3. Public health implications of altered puberty timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golub, Mari S; Collman, Gwen W; Foster, Paul M D;

    2008-01-01

    sexual debut, potential sexual abuse, and psychosocial difficulties. Altered puberty timing is also of concern for the development of reproductive tract cancers later in life. For example, an early age of menarche is a risk factor for breast cancer. A low age at male puberty is associated....... Altered timing of puberty also has implications for behavioral disorders. For example, an early maturation is associated with a greater incidence of conduct and behavior disorders during adolescence. Finally, altered puberty timing is considered an adverse effect in reproductive toxicity risk assessment...... for chemicals. Recent US legislation has mandated improved chemical testing approaches for protecting children's health and screening for endocrine-disrupting agents, which has led to changes in the US Environmental Protection Agency's risk assessment and toxicity testing guidelines to include puberty...

  4. Implications of the Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitcher, P.

    1998-11-01

    The Human Genome Project (HGP), launched in 1991, aims to map and sequence the human genome by 2006. During the fifteen-year life of the project, it is projected that $3 billion in federal funds will be allocated to it. The ultimate aims of spending this money are to analyze the structure of human DNA, to identify all human genes, to recognize the functions of those genes, and to prepare for the biology and medicine of the twenty-first century. The following summary examines some of the implications of the program, concentrating on its scientific import and on the ethical and social problems that it raises. Its aim is to expose principles that might be used in applying the information which the HGP will generate. There is no attempt here to translate the principles into detailed proposals for legislation. Arguments and discussion can be found in the full report, but, like this summary, that report does not contain any legislative proposals.

  5. Implications of inherent safe nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety of present day nuclear power reactors and research reactors depends on a combination of design features of passive and active systems, and the alert judgement of their operators. A few inherently safe designs of nuclear reactors for power plants are currently under development. In these designs, the passive systems are emphasized, and the active systems are minimized. Also efforts are made to eliminate the potential for human failures that initiate the series of accidents. If a major system fails in these designs, the core is flooded automatically with coolants that flow by gravity, not by mechanical pumps or electromagnetic actuators. Depending on the choice of the coolants--water, liquid metal and helium gas--there are three principal types of inherently safe reactors. In this paper, these inherently safe reactor designs are reviewed and their implications are discussed. Further, future perspectives of their acceptance by nuclear industries are discussed. (author)

  6. Clinical Implications of Sarcopenic Obesity in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Isabella P; Mazurak, Vera C; Prado, Carla M

    2016-10-01

    Sarcopenia has been associated with several negative clinical outcomes in cancer. However, the consequences of sarcopenic obesity, a condition of combined sarcopenia and obesity burden, have been less extensively investigated. The aim of this paper was to review the current evidence on the prevalence and clinical implications of sarcopenic obesity in cancer. A total of 14 studies linking sarcopenic obesity to a clinical outcome in cancer were included. There is considerable inconsistency in methods used to evaluate body composition as well as in the criteria used to define sarcopenic obesity, which limits comparison among studies. Therefore, the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity varied substantially: between 1 and 29 % in studies including individuals from all body mass index categories and between 15 and 36 % for those including obese individuals only. Negative clinical outcomes reported to be associated with sarcopenic obesity included higher risk of dose-limiting toxicity, surgical complications, physical disability, and shorter survival. PMID:27541923

  7. Clinical Implications of Antiviral Resistance in Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C. M. Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a major cause of severe respiratory infections leading to excessive hospitalizations and deaths globally; annual epidemics, pandemics, and sporadic/endemic avian virus infections occur as a result of rapid, continuous evolution of influenza viruses. Emergence of antiviral resistance is of great clinical and public health concern. Currently available antiviral treatments include four neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, zanamivir, peramivir, laninamivir, M2-inibitors (amantadine, rimantadine, and a polymerase inhibitor (favipiravir. In this review, we focus on resistance issues related to the use of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs. Data on primary resistance, as well as secondary resistance related to NAI exposure will be presented. Their clinical implications, detection, and novel therapeutic options undergoing clinical trials are discussed.

  8. Implications for incorporating simulation in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shelley

    2010-01-01

    The current intricately complex state of health care holds a multitude of challenges for the novice nurse in acquiring, developing, and maintaining standards of proficiency in clinical practice. This paper will explore the implications or reasons for incorporating simulation in nursing education for two primary reasons. First, simulation is an interactive teaching strategy designed for augmenting the learning process. Simulation is an example of active learning that engages the student to think through a situation then take action through the application of knowledge, and finally to self-reflect during the process of debriefing. Secondly, an increasing number of educational institutions have made the commitment to incorporate simulation technology into nursing curricula. PMID:21175101

  9. Destination image: Origins, Developments and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Dominique Ferreira Lopes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, tourism has become one of the main sectors of the global economy, not only because of its contribution to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP of different countries, but also because of the employment it generates. Since 2009, however, the results of tourism have been severely affected by the economic and financial crisis and it is now essential to analyze the key elements of tourist consumer behavior. In this context, the image that a destination transmits to the market becomes one of the elements which influence tourists the most when choosing a tourist destination. The authors therefore aim to identify the main elements that characterize the image of a tourist destination, as well as their implications for the management of tourist destinations.

  10. Implications of Orientation in Sheared Cocoa Butter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Sarah E.; Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Marangoni, Alejandro; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2004-03-01

    We will present x-ray and mechanical studies of oriented phases of cocoa butter. The structural elements of foods play an important role in determining such things as quality and shelf stability. The specific structure and properties of cocoa butter, however, are complicated due to the ability of the cocoa butter to form crystals in six polymorphic forms. Recent work has shown that the application of shear not only accelerates the transitions to more stable polymorphs, but also causes orientation of the crystallites[1]. The implications of orientation on the structures formed under conditions of shear and cooling will be described using x-ray diffraction and mechanical measurements. 1 G. Mazzanti, S. E. Guthrie, E. B. Sirota et al., Crystal Growth & Design 3 (5), 721 (2003).

  11. Clinical implications of hedgehog signaling pathway inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hailan Liu; Dongsheng Gu; Jingwu Xie

    2011-01-01

    Hedgehog was first described in Drosophila melanogaster by the Nobel laureates Eric Wieschaus and Christiane Nusslein-Volhard. The hedgehog (Hh) pathway is a major regulator of cell differentiation,proliferation, tissue polarity, stem cell maintenance, and carcinogenesis. The first link of Hh signaling to cancer was established through studies of a rare familial disease, Gorlin syndrome, in 1996. Follow-up studies revealed activation of this pathway in basal cell carcinoma, medulloblastoma and, leukemia as well as in gastrointestinal, lung, ovarian, breast, and prostate cancer. Targeted inhibition of Hh signaling is now believed to be effective in the treatment and prevention of human cancer. The discovery and synthesis of specific inhibitors for this pathway are even more exciting. In this review, we summarize major advances in the understanding of Hh signaling pathway activation in human cancer, mouse models for studying Hhmediated carcinogenesis, the roles of Hh signaling in tumor development and metastasis, antagonists for Hh signaling and their clinical implications.

  12. Environmental implications of China's WTO accession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China's accession to the WTO in 2001 completed the country's entry into the global economy. We investigate environmental implications of WTO-accession. There are several hypotheses in this area: The scale hypothesis says that production is scaled up and in turn, pollution increases. The composition hypothesis says that composition of industries changes and pollution reflects the new composition. The technique hypothesis says that production methods become cleaner and pollution decreases. We analyze the relative strength of the hypotheses by means of an environmental CGE-model, and in the case of air pollution find support for a composition effect in favor of clean industries. Thanks to the composition effect, emissions to air of greenhouse gases fall. Emissions of particles and SO2 also fall, but emissions of NOx and VOC rise. Since particle and SO2-emissions fall we estimate that public health improves (author)

  13. IRON-TOLERANT CYANOBACTERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR ASTROBIOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Igor I.; Allen, Carlton C.; Mummey, Daniel L.; Sarkisova, Svetlana A.; McKay, David S.

    2006-01-01

    The review is dedicated to the new group of extremophiles - iron tolerant cyanobacteria. The authors have analyzed earlier published articles about the ecology of iron tolerant cyanobacteria and their diversity. It was concluded that contemporary iron depositing hot springs might be considered as relative analogs of Precambrian environment. The authors have concluded that the diversity of iron-tolerant cyanobacteria is understudied. The authors also analyzed published data about the physiological peculiarities of iron tolerant cyanobacteria. They made the conclusion that iron tolerant cyanobacteria may oxidize reduced iron through the photosystem of cyanobacteria. The involvement of both Reaction Centers 1 and 2 is also discussed. The conclusion that iron tolerant protocyanobacteria could be involved in banded iron formations generation is also proposed. The possible mechanism of the transition from an oxygenic photosynthesis to an oxygenic one is also discussed. In the final part of the review the authors consider the possible implications of iron tolerant cyanobacteria for astrobiology.

  14. Implications of global warming on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the build up of green house gases in atmosphere, less heat escapes through the atmosphere promoting global warming. This may result in world wide droughts, sea-level rise inundating islands and coastal countries, cataclysmic hurricanes etc. Human health as a result of these changes, will be affected both physiologically and psychologically. Physiological effects may be more pronounced in cases occurring due to changes in rainfall and temperature patterns, food production amounts, water availability, etc. Psychological impact may be more in cases of catastrophes like floods, hurricanes or famine. In this paper, an attempt has been made to highlight the implications of global warming on human health due to temperature change. Food production changes and ultra-violet radiation effects and cataclysmic disaster effects. (author)

  15. Learning to Listen - Implications for Interdisciplinary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redish, Edward

    2015-04-01

    For more than twenty years, researchers in the University of Maryland Physics Education Research Group (UMd-PERG) have been developing a theoretical framework for trying to understand how students think about and learn physics - Resources. The Resources Framework provides tools for interpreting how our students respond to our instruction. What may appear on the surface to be serious misconceptions can turn out to have a subtler explanation once one takes into account the roles played in student thinking by (1) experiential knowledge, (2) the dynamic character of their cognitive responses, (3) epistemological assumptions and expectations, (4) framing of the activity along multiple dimensions. The Resources Framework also provides tools to help us understand what knowledge our students bring into our classes and how they use that knowledge to interpret what they are learning. What we have learned in this research has powerful implications for instruction, especially in service courses where an expert is charged with teaching a discipline to students from a different discipline, such as when physicists teach physics to biologists or engineers. For more than a decade, the UMd-PERG and our collaborators have been studying how life science students respond to physics instruction. We have found many surprising results by listening carefully to what students say: Often, ``student errors'' turn out to be failures of communication between teacher and student. Many common practices turn out to be counterproductive and misleading. I will give examples from NEXUS/Physics, an introductory physics class for life science students, and I will suggest implications for instruction and curriculum development. Support gratefully acknowledged for multiple NSF grants.

  16. Alexithymia in eating disorders: therapeutic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Federica; Sanna, Lucia; Carpiniello, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    A high percentage of individuals affected by eating disorders (ED) achieve incomplete recovery following treatment. In an attempt to improve treatment outcome, it is crucial that predictors of outcome are identified, and personalized care approaches established in line with new treatment targets, thus facilitating patient access to evidence-based treatments. Among the psychological factors proposed as predictors of outcome in ED, alexithymia is of outstanding interest. The objective of this paper is to undertake a systematic review of the literature relating to alexithymia, specifically in terms of the implications for treatment of ED. In particular, issues concerning the role of alexithymia as a predictor of outcome and as a factor to be taken into account in the choice of treatment will be addressed. The effect of treatments on alexithymia will also be considered. A search of all relevant literature published in English using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases was carried out on the basis of the following keywords: alexithymia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders, and treatment; no time limits were imposed. Despite the clinical relevance of alexithymia, the number of studies published on the above cited aspects is somewhat limited, and these studies are largely heterogeneous and feature significant methodological weaknesses. Overall, data currently available mostly correlate higher levels of alexithymia with a less favorable outcome in ED. Accordingly, alexithymia is seen as a relevant treatment target with the aim of achieving recovery of these patients. Treatments focusing on improving alexithymic traits, and specifically those targeting emotions, seem to show greater efficacy, although alexithymia levels often remain high even after specific treatment. Further investigations are needed to overcome the methodological limitations of previous studies, to understand the actual impact of alexithymia on ED outcome, and to allow more precise

  17. People management implications of virtual workplace arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ortlepp

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that led to an organisation implementing a particular form of virtual workplace arrangement, namely, home-based work. The benefits and disadvantages associated with this form of work arrangement are explored from both the managers' and home-based employees' perspectives. Design/Methodology/Approach: Given the exploratory nature of the empirical study on which this paper is based, a qualitative research design was adopted so as to ensure that the data collection process was dynamic and probing in nature. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were therefore used as instruments for data collection. Findings: The research findings indicate that virtual work arrangements such as home-based work arrangements have advantages for both employers and employees. For instance, reduction of costs associated with office space and facilities, decrease in absenteeism rates, increased employee job satisfaction and improvements in employees' general quality of life. However, a number of negative experiences related to this form of virtual work arrangement are also evident, for example, feelings of isolation as well as stress related to the inability to have firm boundaries between work and family responsibilities. Implications: Based on the insights gained from the findings in the empirical study, a number of areas that need to be given specific attention when organisations are introducing virtual workplace arrangements of this nature are identified. Recommendations made in this article are important for human resource management specialists as well as core business policy makers considering different forms of organisational design. Originality/Value: Maximising the quality of production and service provided has become the prime objective in most organisations in the 21st century. Technology has made it possible for some jobs to be performed at any place at any time and has facilitated the

  18. Policy implications of technologies for cognitive enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarewitz, Daniel R. (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ); Karas, Thomas H.

    2007-02-01

    The Advanced Concepts Group at Sandia National Laboratory and the Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes at Arizona State University convened a workshop in May 2006 to explore the potential policy implications of technologies that might enhance human cognitive abilities. The group's deliberations sought to identify core values and concerns raised by the prospect of cognitive enhancement. The workshop focused on the policy implications of various prospective cognitive enhancements and on the technologies/nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science--that enable them. The prospect of rapidly emerging technological capabilities to enhance human cognition makes urgent a daunting array of questions, tensions, ambitions, and concerns. The workshop elicited dilemmas and concerns in ten overlapping areas: science and democracy; equity and justice; freedom and control; intergenerational issues; ethics and competition; individual and community rights; speed and deliberations; ethical uncertainty; humanness; and sociocultural risk. We identified four different perspectives to encompass the diverse issues related to emergence of cognitive enhancement technologies: (1) Laissez-faire--emphasizes freedom of individuals to seek and employ enhancement technologies based on their own judgment; (2) Managed technological optimism--believes that while these technologies promise great benefits, such benefits cannot emerge without an active government role; (3) Managed technological skepticism--views that the quality of life arises more out of society's institutions than its technologies; and (4) Human Essentialism--starts with the notion of a human essence (whether God-given or evolutionary in origin) that should not be modified. While the perspectives differ significantly about both human nature and the role of government, each encompasses a belief in the value of transparency and reliable information that can allow public discussion and

  19. Alexithymia in eating disorders: therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinna F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Federica Pinna, Lucia Sanna, Bernardo Carpiniello Department of Public Health, Clinical and Molecular Medicine - Unit of Psychiatry, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy Abstract: A high percentage of individuals affected by eating disorders (ED achieve incomplete recovery following treatment. In an attempt to improve treatment outcome, it is crucial that predictors of outcome are identified, and personalized care approaches established in line with new treatment targets, thus facilitating patient access to evidence-based treatments. Among the psychological factors proposed as predictors of outcome in ED, alexithymia is of outstanding interest. The objective of this paper is to undertake a systematic review of the literature relating to alexithymia, specifically in terms of the implications for treatment of ED. In particular, issues concerning the role of alexithymia as a predictor of outcome and as a factor to be taken into account in the choice of treatment will be addressed. The effect of treatments on alexithymia will also be considered. A search of all relevant literature published in English using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases was carried out on the basis of the following keywords: alexithymia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders, and treatment; no time limits were imposed. Despite the clinical relevance of alexithymia, the number of studies published on the above cited aspects is somewhat limited, and these studies are largely heterogeneous and feature significant methodological weaknesses. Overall, data currently available mostly correlate higher levels of alexithymia with a less favorable outcome in ED. Accordingly, alexithymia is seen as a relevant treatment target with the aim of achieving recovery of these patients. Treatments focusing on improving alexithymic traits, and specifically those targeting emotions, seem to show greater efficacy, although alexithymia levels often remain high even after specific

  20. Three-dimensional computer-aided reconstruction of FMRFamide immunopositive neuron distribution in the ventral ganglion of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite (Cirripedia, Crustacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Gallus

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We have implemented a simple program to solve three of the problems related to 3D reconstruction (3D-Rec of soft tissues: alignment of sections, distortions, and estimation of the spatial position of elements of interest inside the tissues. As a model, we chose the distribution of FMRFamide-like immunopositive neurons in the ventral ganglion of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite collected during different seasonal periods. Images of immunostained sections were acquired by means of a CCDcamera- equipped microscope and a PC and the reference points were taken inside the sections. The FMRFamide-like immunopositive neurons detected in the barnacle ventral ganglion were grouped into four different classes according to size, shape and staining intensity. More numerous FMRFamide- like immunopositive neurons were detected in the autumn-collected barnacle than in the summer counterpart. The two 3D reconstructions obtained from transverse and longitudinal ventral ganglion sections were efficaciously compared after 90° rotation of one of them. Comparison of these two 3D-Rec suggests the presence of at least two groups of FMRFamide-like immunopositive neurons that are seasonally-related and probably involved in reproduction.

  1. The Greek crisis: Causes and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlamis Prodromos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and critically discusses the origins and causes of the Greek fiscal crisis and its implications for the euro currency as well as the SEE economies. In the aftermath of the 2007-2009 financial crisis the enormous increase in sovereign debt has emerged as an important negative outcome, since public debt was dramatically increased in an effort by the US and the European governments to reduce the accumulated growth of private debt in the years preceding the recent financial turmoil. Although Greece is the country member of the eurozone that has been in the middle of this ongoing debt crisis, since November 2009 when it was made clear that its budget deficit and mainly its public debt were not sustainable, Greece’s fiscal crisis is not directly linked to the 2007 US subprime mortgage loan market crisis. As a result of this negative downturn the Greek government happily accepted a rescue plan of 110 billion euros designed and financed by the European Union and the IMF. A lengthy austerity programme and a fiscal consolidation plan have been put forward and are to be implemented in the next three years.

  2. Rehabilitation of executive functions: Implications and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Kluwe-Schiavon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Executive Functions (EF concern a range of abilities including problem-solving, planning, initiation, selfmonitoring,conscious attention, cope with new situations and the ability to modify plans if necessary. It’s a high cognitive function that is crucial for a person to get engaged and maintain daily activities whilst keeping a good quality of life. Problems in the EF were formerly known as Dysexecutive Syndrome (DS. There are many models concerning DS, although the literature on the subject still remains unclear. Several works appoint the effects brought by elderly life, as well as abuse of drugs and some psychopathologies. These factors are known to increase the distress of the frontal circuits and that could be associated to executive deficits. The effects of DS would compromise individuals in day-to-day routine, academic, social and labor fields. There is a growing body of studies trying to determine the causes, implications, associations and the best way to take care of these effects. This work intends to review DS, focusing on the most important fields related to this area, such as psychopathology associations, cognitive reserve, assessment and cognitive rehabilitation programs.

  3. Telocyte implications in human pathology: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibba-Manneschi, Lidia; Rosa, Irene; Manetti, Mirko

    2016-07-01

    Telocytes are a recently described interstitial cell population widely distributed in the stromal compartment of many organs in vertebrates, including humans. Owing to their close spatial relationship with multiple cell types, telocytes are universally considered as 'connecting cells' mostly committed to intercellular signaling by converting the interstitium into an integrated system that drives organ development and contributes to the maintenance of local tissue homeostasis. Increasing evidence indicates that telocytes may cooperate with tissue-resident stem cells to foster organ repair and regeneration, and that telocyte damage and dysfunction may occur in several disorders. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the most recent findings concerning the implication of telocytes in a variety of pathologic conditions in humans, including heart disease, chronic inflammation and multiorgan fibrosis. Based on recent promising experimental data, there is realistic hope that by targeting telocytes alone or in tandem with stem cells, we might be able to promote organ regeneration and/or prevent irreversible end-stage organ damage in different pathologies. PMID:26805444

  4. Neurobiology and clinical implications of lucid dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A; Araujo, John F

    2013-11-01

    Several lines of evidence converge to the idea that rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is a good model to foster our understanding of psychosis. Both REMS and psychosis course with internally generated perceptions and lack of rational judgment, which is attributed to a hyperlimbic activity along with hypofrontality. Interestingly, some individuals can become aware of dreaming during REMS, a particular experience known as lucid dreaming (LD), whose neurobiological basis is still controversial. Since the frontal lobe plays a role in self-consciousness, working memory and attention, here we hypothesize that LD is associated with increased frontal activity during REMS. A possible way to test this hypothesis is to check whether transcranial magnetic or electric stimulation of the frontal region during REMS triggers LD. We further suggest that psychosis and LD are opposite phenomena: LD as a physiological awakening while dreaming due to frontal activity, and psychosis as a pathological intrusion of dream features during wake state due to hypofrontality. We further suggest that LD research may have three main clinical implications. First, LD could be important to the study of consciousness, including its pathologies and other altered states. Second, LD could be used as a therapy for recurrent nightmares, a common symptom of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Finally, LD may allow for motor imagery during dreaming with possible improvement of physical rehabilitation. In all, we believe that LD research may clarify multiple aspects of brain functioning in its physiological, altered and pathological states. PMID:23838126

  5. Microsporogenesis of Cycas and its systematic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Fen ZHANG; Hai-Bo OUYANG; Jin-Yan DU; Shou-Zhou ZHANG; Yong LI; Hong WU

    2012-01-01

    Taxonomists are divided over the infrageneric classification and species delimitation within the genus Cycas.The division is largely determined by whether a broad or narrow species concept is adopted,the latter approach being based on apparently minor morphological differences.It is well known that cytokinesis in the cells of pollen provides important evidence for plant taxonomy,particularly at the higher taxonomic level.Here we present the first broad comparison of the cytokinesis of male meiosis in five species of Cycas.A comparative analysis of microsporogenesis in Cycas was carried out using conventional microscopy,semi-thin sectioning,histochemistry,and fluorescence microscopy with a focus on the cytokinesis of meiosis in the pollen of dividing cells.Our observations confirmed that,contrary to previous reports,the cytokinesis in male meiosis of five species in Cycas is simultaneous at the end of second meiosis.The basic model of microsporogenesis and its systematic implications in Cycas is discussed based both on previous reports and our new results.

  6. Xeroderma pigmentosum and its dental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayli, Hessa Al

    2015-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by defective DNA repair leading to clinical and cellular hypersensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and carcinogenic agents. Important clinical features are: Intense cutaneous photosensitivity, xerosis, poikiloderma, actinic keratosis, acute burning under minimal sun exposure, erythemas, hyperpigmented lentiginous macules, and malignant lesions in sun-exposed areas, including basocellular carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. There is a great involvement of many parts of the body, especially head and neck. Oral implications such as severe oral pain and mouth opening limitation were present due to perioral scars. The disorder is associated more commonly in populations where marriage of close blood relatives is common. Treatment of the disorder includes avoidance of UV radiation, topical application of 5-fluorouracil to treat actinic keratoses, and regular evaluation by an ophthalmologist, dermatologist, and neurologist. Genetic counseling is important aspects as an increased incidence of consanguineous marriages have been reported with this disorder. In addition, this paper discuss some important aspects concerning the role of the dental professional management of this entity, since XP patients require constant dental care and follow-up in order to control the occurrence of new lesions on the lips or inside oral cavity. PMID:25713498

  7. GIS interoperability: current activities and military implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Sylvia

    1997-07-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are gaining importance in military operations because of their capability to spatially and visually integrate various kinds of information. In an era of limited resources, geospatial data must be shared efficiently whenever possible. The military-initiated Global Geospatial Information and Services (GGI&S) Project aims at developing the infrastructure for GIS interoperability for the military. Current activities in standardization and new technology have strong implications on the design and development of GGI&S. To facilitate data interoperability at both the national and international levels, standards and specifications in geospatial data sharing are being studied, developed and promoted. Of particular interest to the military community are the activities related to the NATO DIGEST, ISO TC/211 Geomatics standardization and the industry-led Open Geodata Interoperability Specifications (OGIS). Together with new information technology, standardization provides the infrastructure for interoperable GIS for both civilian and military environments. The first part of this paper describes the major activities in standardization. The second part presents the technologies developed at DREV in support of the GGI&S. These include the Open Geospatial Datastore Interface (OGDI) and the geospatial data warehouse. DREV has been working closely with Defence Geomatics and private industry in the research and development of new technology for the GGI&S project.

  8. Superoxide Ion: Generation and Chemical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayyan, Maan; Hashim, Mohd Ali; AlNashef, Inas M

    2016-03-01

    Superoxide ion (O2(•-)) is of great significance as a radical species implicated in diverse chemical and biological systems. However, the chemistry knowledge of O2(•-) is rather scarce. In addition, numerous studies on O2(•-) were conducted within the latter half of the 20th century. Therefore, the current advancement in technology and instrumentation will certainly provide better insights into mechanisms and products of O2(•-) reactions and thus will result in new findings. This review emphasizes the state-of-the-art research on O2(•-) so as to enable researchers to venture into future research. It comprises the main characteristics of O2(•-) followed by generation methods. The reaction types of O2(•-) are reviewed, and its potential applications including the destruction of hazardous chemicals, synthesis of organic compounds, and many other applications are highlighted. The O2(•-) environmental chemistry is also discussed. The detection methods of O2(•-) are categorized and elaborated. Special attention is given to the feasibility of using ionic liquids as media for O2(•-), addressing the latest progress of generation and applications. The effect of electrodes on the O2(•-) electrochemical generation is reviewed. Finally, some remarks and future perspectives are concluded. PMID:26875845

  9. Environmental health implications of global climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Robert T.; Patz, Jonathan; Gubler, Duane J.; Parson, Edward A.; Vincent, James H.

    2005-07-01

    This paper reviews the background that has led to the now almost-universally held opinion in the scientific community that global climate change is occurring and is inescapably linked with anthropogenic activity. The potential implications to human health are considerable and very diverse. These include, for example, the increased direct impacts of heat and of rises in sea level, exacerbated air and water-borne harmful agents, and - associated with all the preceding - the emergence of environmental refugees. Vector-borne diseases, in particular those associated with blood-sucking arthropods such as mosquitoes, may be significantly impacted, including redistribution of some of those diseases to areas not previously affected. Responses to possible impending environmental and public health crises must involve political and socio-economic considerations, adding even greater complexity to what is already a difficult challenge. In some areas, adjustments to national and international public health practices and policies may be effective, at least in the short and medium terms. But in others, more drastic measures will be required. Environmental monitoring, in its widest sense, will play a significant role in the future management of the problem. (Author)

  10. Prostate cancer epigenetics and its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal cells have a level of epigenetic programming that is superimposed on the genetic code to establish and maintain their cell identity and phenotypes. This epigenetic programming can be thought as the architecture, a sort of cityscape, that is built upon the underlying genetic landscape. The epigenetic programming is encoded by a complex set of chemical marks on DNA, on histone proteins in nucleosomes, and by numerous context-specific DNA, RNA, protein interactions that all regulate the structure, organization, and function of the genome in a given cell. It is becoming increasingly evident that abnormalities in both the genetic landscape and epigenetic cityscape can cooperate to drive carcinogenesis and disease progression. Large-scale cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding the enzymatic machinery for shaping the epigenetic cityscape are among the most common mutations observed in human cancers, including prostate cancer. Interestingly, although the constellation of genetic mutations in a given cancer can be quite heterogeneous from person to person, there are numerous epigenetic alterations that appear to be highly recurrent, and nearly universal in a given cancer type, including in prostate cancer. The highly recurrent nature of these alterations can be exploited for development of biomarkers for cancer detection and risk stratification and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we explore the basic principles of epigenetic processes in normal cells and prostate cancer cells and discuss the potential clinical implications with regards to prostate cancer biomarker development and therapy.

  11. Framework and implications of virtual neurorobotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite decades of societal investment in artificial learning systems, truly “intelligent” systems have yet to be realized. These traditional models are based on input-output pattern optimization and/or cognitive production rule modeling. One response has been social robotics, using the interaction of human and robot to capture important cognitive dynamics such as cooperation and emotion; to date, these systems still incorporate traditional learning algorithms. More recently, investigators are focusing on the core assumptions of the brain “algorithm” itself—trying to replicate uniquely “neuromorphic” dynamics such as action potential spiking and synaptic learning. Only now are large-scale neuromorphic models becoming feasible, due to the availability of powerful supercomputers and an expanding supply of parameters derived from research into the brain’s interdependent electrophysiological, metabolomic and genomic networks. Personal computer technology has also led to the acceptance of computer-generated humanoid images, or “avatars”, to represent intelligent actors in virtual realities. In a recent paper, we proposed a method of virtual neurorobotics (VNR in which the approaches above (social-emotional robotics, neuromorphic brain architectures, and virtual reality projection are hybridized to rapidly forward-engineer and develop increasingly complex, intrinsically intelligent systems. In this paper, we synthesize our research and related work in the field and provide a framework for VNR, with wider implications for research and practical applications.

  12. Relative age effect: implications for effective practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronikos, Georgios; Elumaro, Adeboye Israel; Westbury, Tony; Martindale, Russell J J

    2016-06-01

    Physical and psychological differences related to birthdate amongst athletes of the same selection year have been characterised as the "relative age effects" (RAEs). RAEs have been identified in a variety of sports, both at youth and adult level, and are linked with dropout of athletes and a reduction of the talent pool. This study examined the existence, mechanisms and possible solutions to RAEs using qualitative methodology. Seven experts in the field of talent identification and development were interviewed. Inductive analysis of the data showed that, while there was mixed evidence for the existence of RAEs across sports, the eradication of RAEs was attributed to controllable features of the development environment. The factors reported included the structure of "categories" used to group athletes within the sport (e.g. age, weight, size, skills), recognition and prioritisation of long-term development over "short term win focus." Education of relevant parties (e.g. coaches, scouts, clubs) about RAEs and the nature of "talent" within a long-term context was suggested, along with careful consideration of the structure of the development environment (e.g. delayed selection, provision for late developers, focus on skills not results, use of challenge). Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:26417709

  13. Practical implications of nanodosimetry in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satti, Jahangir A

    2012-01-01

    The grandiose promises made decades ago of cost reduction, miracle cures for cancers and universal availability of nanomedicine are still a far cry. Even we do not have any viable model to exploit nanotechnology in medicine. The most important arena of the nanotechnology is the development of nanoscale drugs for routine clinical practice. The current chemo protocols are based on maximum tolerable dose philosophy. Such a dose, when translated into active nanoscale clusters, quantitatively outnumbers the cells in an average human body. These nanoscale drug issues are discussed in this paper. A theoretical framework for commonly used drug aspirin has been considered as an example. The possible quantum physical effects have also been theoretically evaluated. Further, the amount of drug molecules in a standardized aspirin dose of 100 milligram has been computed into nanoclusters. The calculations show that the processing of nanoscale drug is a monumental task which requires new types of manufacturing facilities. Also there is a need to develop new protocols which will help realize the practical implementation of nanodosimetry in day to day drug administrations. These protocols will need to examine the implications of dose-responses such as necrosis, apoptosis and hormesis in medicine for routine clinical practice. PMID:22942869

  14. Assessment literacy: definition, implementation, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhind, Susan M; Paterson, Jessie

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the current notion of assessment literacy and describes delivery and evaluation of an intervention to support its development in two different cohorts in a veterinary curriculum. Before the intervention, two cohorts (Cohort A, first-year students; Cohort B, third-year students) were surveyed on their expectations and understanding of assessment. The new students expressed uncertainty about their understanding of the assessment process: 51% disagreed that they had a good understanding. As expected, more experienced students had a better understanding, although 30% still disagreed that they had a good understanding of the process. A workshop supporting the development of assessment literacy was implemented, giving students an opportunity to evaluate authentic student work of differing standards. Most of the students in both cohorts found the session helpful in terms of their understanding of different standards in assessments (92% and 97%), and most found it helped them understand how to prepare for the degree examination better (75% and 87%). Student grades were recorded in the workshop involving Cohort B, revealing a large variation in students' ability to grade other students' work accurately, with bias ranging from 22% to -25%. Finally, faculty views on student preparedness for assessment were also explored and compared to student views. Disagreement existed between faculty regarding perceived student preparedness for assessment, and significantly more faculty than students thought that students had a good understanding of how their assessments would be graded. The implications of these results for future work and faculty development are discussed. PMID:25547906

  15. Mechanisms of bilirubin toxicity: clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Thor Willy Ruud

    2002-12-01

    The basic mechanism of kernicterus and bilirubin encephalopathy has not been unequivocally determined. Much knowledge has been gained about phenomena that contribute to bilirubin neurotoxicity, and this knowledge has implications for clinical practice. Conditions that impact on blood-brain barrier function, increase brain blood flow, or impact on bilirubin metabolism, including its transport in serum, should be avoided, if possible. Such conditions include drugs and drug stabilizers that compete with bilirubin binding to albumin, or that inhibit P-glycoprotein in the blood-brain barrier, prematurity/immaturity, and clinically significant illness in the infant that involves hemolysis, respiratory and metabolic acidosis, infection, asphyxia, hypoxia and (perhaps) hyperoxia, and hyperosmolality. If these conditions are not avoidable then there should be a more aggressive approach to the treatment of hyperbilirubinemia. The limits of tolerance for hyperbilirubinemia varies among neonates and there are no tools to determine with certainty when a particular infant is approaching the danger zone. Neurological symptoms in a jaundiced infant require extreme vigilance, and, in most cases, immediate intervention. PMID:12516745

  16. Some practical implications of source term reassessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a brief summary of the current knowledge of severe accident source terms and suggests how this knowledge might be applied to a number of specific aspects of reactor safety. In preparing the report, consideration has been restricted to source term issues relating to light water reactors (LWRs). Consideration has also generally been restricted to the consequences of hypothetical severe accidents rather than their probability of occurrence, although it is recognized that, in the practical application of source term research, it is necessary to take account of probability as well as consequences. The specific areas identified were as follows: Exploration of the new insights that are available into the management of severe accidents; Investigating the impact of source term research on emergency planning and response; Assessing the possibilities which exist in present reactor designs for preventing or mitigating the consequences of severe accidents and how these might be used effectively; Exploring the need for backfitting and assessing the implications of source term research for future designs; and Improving the quantification of the radiological consequences of hypothetical severe accidents for probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) and informing the public about the realistic risks associated with nuclear power plants. 7 refs

  17. Physiological Implications of Myocardial Scar Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, William J; Clarke, Samantha A; Quinn, T Alexander; Holmes, Jeffrey W

    2015-10-01

    Once myocardium dies during a heart attack, it is replaced by scar tissue over the course of several weeks. The size, location, composition, structure, and mechanical properties of the healing scar are all critical determinants of the fate of patients who survive the initial infarction. While the central importance of scar structure in determining pump function and remodeling has long been recognized, it has proven remarkably difficult to design therapies that improve heart function or limit remodeling by modifying scar structure. Many exciting new therapies are under development, but predicting their long-term effects requires a detailed understanding of how infarct scar forms, how its properties impact left ventricular function and remodeling, and how changes in scar structure and properties feed back to affect not only heart mechanics but also electrical conduction, reflex hemodynamic compensations, and the ongoing process of scar formation itself. In this article, we outline the scar formation process following a myocardial infarction, discuss interpretation of standard measures of heart function in the setting of a healing infarct, then present implications of infarct scar geometry and structure for both mechanical and electrical function of the heart and summarize experiences to date with therapeutic interventions that aim to modify scar geometry and structure. One important conclusion that emerges from the studies reviewed here is that computational modeling is an essential tool for integrating the wealth of information required to understand this complex system and predict the impact of novel therapies on scar healing, heart function, and remodeling following myocardial infarction. PMID:26426470

  18. Biological behaviour and clinical implications of micrometastases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kell, M R

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The most important prognostic determinant in cancer is the identification of disseminated tumour burden (metastases). Micrometastases are microscopic (smaller than 2 mm) deposits of malignant cells that are segregated spatially from the primary tumour and depend on neovascular formation (angiogenesis) to propagate. METHODS: The electronic literature (1966 to present) on micrometastases and their implications in malignant melanoma and epithelial cancers was reviewed. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical techniques combined with serial sectioning offer the best accuracy for detection of nodal micrometastases. Molecular techniques should be reserved for blood samples or bone marrow aspirates. Detection of micrometastases in regional lymph nodes and\\/or bone marrow confers a poor prognosis in epithelial cancers. The concept of sentinel node biopsy combined with serial sectioning and dedicated screening for micrometastases may improve staging procedures. Strategies against angiogenesis may provide novel therapies to induce and maintain micrometastatic dormancy. CONCLUSION: The concept of micrometastases has resulted in a paradigm shift in the staging of epithelial tumours and our overall understanding of malignant processes.

  19. Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. (Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

  20. Gamete donation: ethical implications for donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenfield, Francoise

    1999-01-01

    The interests of gamete donors have only recently been recognized in assisted reproduction; traditionally, the interests of the patients (typically a couple) and the prospective child are paramount. However, assisted reproduction would not be possible without donors, and the simple utilitarian view would be to place their interests first to maximize the availability of the practice. There are several ethical issues on both sides of the donor--recipient equation, some of which are mutual and others are in conflict. For example, the word 'donation' implies there is no payment. Informed consent for donation is essential if the autonomy of the donor is to be respected, and includes information about the results of screening. This is a sensitive issue, especially when pathology is found in a donor who is not being screened for his or her own immediate benefit. Counselling may result in donors refusing to take part, but may also lead to selection by the person recruiting the donors, sometimes as a consequence of examining the motivation of the donor. In this case, the main problem is the ethical basis of the selection process. Other aspects of gamete donation may lead to a conflict of interests between the donor, the recipients and even the prospective child, particularly in terms of anonymity and the information that is made available about the specific circumstances of donation. Implications and support counselling are essential tools in achieving an acceptable balance for all parties involved. PMID:11844334

  1. Prostate cancer epigenetics and its clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Normal cells have a level of epigenetic programming that is superimposed on the genetic code to establish and maintain their cell identity and phenotypes. This epigenetic programming can be thought as the architecture, a sort of cityscape, that is built upon the underlying genetic landscape. The epigenetic programming is encoded by a complex set of chemical marks on DNA, on histone proteins in nucleosomes, and by numerous context-specific DNA, RNA, protein interactions that all regulate the structure, organization, and function of the genome in a given cell. It is becoming increasingly evident that abnormalities in both the genetic landscape and epigenetic cityscape can cooperate to drive carcinogenesis and disease progression. Large-scale cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding the enzymatic machinery for shaping the epigenetic cityscape are among the most common mutations observed in human cancers, including prostate cancer. Interestingly, although the constellation of genetic mutations in a given cancer can be quite heterogeneous from person to person, there are numerous epigenetic alterations that appear to be highly recurrent, and nearly universal in a given cancer type, including in prostate cancer. The highly recurrent nature of these alterations can be exploited for development of biomarkers for cancer detection and risk stratification and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we explore the basic principles of epigenetic processes in normal cells and prostate cancer cells and discuss the potential clinical implications with regards to prostate cancer biomarker development and therapy. PMID:27212125

  2. On the normative implications of social neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arleen Salles

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the last decades, brain science has been offering new insights into the relationship among diverse psychological processes and the neural correlates of our moral thought and behavior. Despite the distinction between the explanatory/descriptive nature of science and the normative nature of morality, some neuroethicists have claimed that neuroscientific findings have normative implications. In this paper, I identify three interpretations of the claim. The first focuses on neuroscience’s role in explaining the origin of morality and of moral values and how neurobiology is the bases of moral behavior. A second version is about the role that neuroscientific knowledge can play in showing the psychological plausibility of the moral psychology underlying some ethical approaches. Finally, a third version advances that neuroscience could play a role in determining the moral plausibility of some normative approaches. My aim is to delineate each version and highlight the issues raised to suggest that while neuroscience might provide information regarding the nature of moral reasoning, its role in the normative discussion itself is still quite limited.

  3. Cloud Computing : Research Issues and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marupaka Rajenda Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a rapidly developing and excellent promising technology. It has aroused the concern of the computer society of whole world. Cloud computing is Internet-based computing, whereby shared information, resources, and software, are provided to terminals and portable devices on-demand, like the energy grid. Cloud computing is the product of the combination of grid computing, distributed computing, parallel computing, and ubiquitous computing. It aims to build and forecast sophisticated service environment with powerful computing capabilities through an array of relatively low-cost computing entity, and using the advanced deployment models like SaaS (Software as a Service, PaaS (Platform as a Service, IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service,HaaS (Hardware as a Service to distribute the powerful computing capacity to end-users. This paper will explore the background and service models and also presents the existing research issues and implications in cloud computing such as security, reliability, privacy, and so on.

  4. China's Import of Wastes and Its Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Dongmei

    2008-01-01

    The trade of wastes in the world has been increasing and China has become the largest importer of wastes. This paper examines the import trend of different wastes and finds out that the total import volume to China approved by the Chinese government keeps increasing and the illegal trade can not be banned despite repeated prohibitions; therefore, China is not only "a world factory", but actually "a global garbage dump". In order to well understand the implications of wastes import, this paper further analyzes the resource and environmental effects and risks of different wastes imports as well as the strong driving force of wastes imports. Based on these detailed analysis and solid data, policy recommendations are put forward to reduce the demand for raw materials, to further strengthen the inspection of and supervision over the international trade of the wastes that can be used as raw materials by using the life cycle analysis and risk analysis, to improve the environmental standards and strengthen the disposal capacity, to re-export the raw materials produced from the imported wastes, to develop the long-term planning for the import of wastes and to promote international cooperation.

  5. Surprises from Saturn: Implications for Other Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    The exploration of Saturn by Cassini has provided many surprises regarding: Saturn's rapidly rotating magnetosphere, interactions with its diverse moons, and interactions with the solar wind. Enceladus, orbiting at 4 Saturn radii (RS), was found to have plumes of water vapour and ice which are the dominant source for the inner magnetosphere. Charged water clusters, charged dust and photoelectrons provide key populations in the 'dusty plasma' observed. Direct pickup is seen near Enceladus and field-aligned currents create a spot in Saturn's aurora. At Titan, orbiting at 20 RS, unexpected heavy negative and positive ions are seen in the ionosphere, which provide the source for Titan's haze. Ionospheric plasma is seen in Titan's tail, enabling ion escape to be estimated at 7 tonnes per day. Saturn's ring ionosphere was seen early in the mission and a return will be made in 2017. In addition, highly accelerated electrons are seen at Saturn's high Mach number (MA˜100) quasi-parallel bow shock. Here we review some of these key new results, and discuss the implications for other solar system objects.

  6. The clock ambiguity: Implications and new developments

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    We consider the ambiguity associated with the choice of clock in time reparameterization invariant theories. This arbitrariness undermines the goal of prescribing a fixed set of physical laws, since a change of time variable can completely alter the predictions of the theory. We review the main features of the clock ambiguity and our earlier work on its implications for the emergence of physical laws in a statistical manner. We also present a number of new results: We show that (contrary to suggestions in our earlier work) time independent Hamiltonians may quite generally be assumed for laws of physics that emerge in this picture. We also further explore the degree to which the observed Universe can be well approximated by a random Hamiltonian. We discuss the possibility of predicting the dimensionality of space, and also relate the 2nd derivative of the density of states to the heat capacity of the Universe. This new work adds to the viability of our proposal that strong predictions for physical laws may eme...

  7. Language Learning Strategies: Classification and Pedagogical Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ag. Bambang Setiyadi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted to explore language learning strategies (Rubin, 1975, Naiman et . al ., 1978; Fillmore, 1979; O'Malley et . al ., 1985 and 1990; Politzer and Groarty, 1985; Prokop, 1989; Oxford, 1990; and Wenden, 1991. In the current study a total of 79 university students participating in a 3 month English course participated. This study attempted to explore what language learning strategies successful learners used and to what extent the strategies contributed to success in learning English in Indonesia . Factor analyses, accounting for 62.1 %, 56.0 %, 41.1 %, and 43.5 % of the varience of speaking, listening, reading and writing measures in the language learning strategy questionnaire, suggested that the questionnaire constituted three constructs. The three constructs were named metacognitive strategies, deep level cognitive and surface level cognitive strategies. Regression analyses, performed using scales based on these factors revealed significant main effects for the use of the language learning strategies in learning English, constituting 43 % of the varience in the posttest English achievement scores. An analysis of varience of the gain scores of the highest, middle, and the lowest groups of performers suggested a greater use of metacognitive strategies among successful learners and a greater use of surface level cognitive strategies among unsuccessful learners. Implications for the classroom and future research are also discussed.

  8. The public health implications of melioidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J.J. Inglis

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Melioidosis, which is caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a potentially fatal tropical infection, little known outside its main endemic zone of Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Though it has received more attention in recent years on account of its claimed suitability as a biological weapon agent, the principal threat from melioidosis is a result of naturally occurring events. Occasional case clusters, sporadic cases outside the known endemic zone and infections in unusual demographic groups highlight a changing epidemiology. As melioidosis is the result of an environmental encounter and not person-to-person transmission, subtle changes in its epidemiology indicate a role environmental factors, such as man-made disturbances of soil and surface water. These have implications for travel, occupational and tropical medicine and in particular for risk assessment and prevention. Practical problems with definitive laboratory diagnosis, antibiotic treatment and the current lack of a vaccine underline the need for prevention through exposure avoidance and other environmental health measures. It is likely that the increasing population burden of the tropical zone and extraction of resources from the humid tropics will increase the prevalence of melioidosis. Climate change-driven extreme weather events will both increase the prevalence of infection and gradually extend its main endemic zone.

  9. NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF LEGUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mebrahtom Gebrelibanos*, Dinka Tesfaye, Y. Raghavendra and Biruk Sintayeyu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Legumes are plants in the family Fabaceae characterized by seeds in pods that are often edible though sometimes poisonous. The nutrient content (protein, carbohydrate and micronutrients of legumes contribute to address under-nutrition, especially protein-calorie malnutrition among children and nursing mothers in developing countries where supplementing cereal-based diets with legumes is suggested as one of the best solutions to protein calorie malnutrition. Anti-nutritional factors, in legumes, may limit their biological value and acceptance as a regular food item, yet they are readily removable and recent research has shown potential health benefits of some of these compounds; and hence, manipulation of processing conditions may be required to remove or reduce only those unwanted components. Moreover, legumes play a role in prevention, improvement and/or treatment of disease conditions such as, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, cancer diseases (e.g breast and prostate cancers and lowers blood cholesterol level. Most of these disease conditions are associated with over-nutrition and obesity and are considered as diseases of the rich. It is, therefore, claimed that including legumes in a health-promoting diet is important in meeting the major dietary recommendations to improve the nutritional status of undernourished as well as over-nourished individuals, and to reduce risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and cancer. In this review, some of the scientific viewpoints that attempt to justify the nutritional contributions, anti-nutritional considerations and health implications of legumes are discussed.

  10. Conservation Documentation and the Implications of Digitisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Moore

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Conservation documentation can be defined as the textual and visual records collected during the care and treatment of an object. It can include records of the object's condition, any treatment done to the object, any observations or conclusions made by the conservator as well as details on the object's past and present environment. The form of documentation is not universally agreed upon nor has it always been considered an important aspect of the conservation profession. Good documentation tells the complete story of an object thus far and should provide as much information as possible for the future researcher, curator, or conservator. The conservation profession will benefit from digitising its documentation using software such as databases and hardware like digital cameras and scanners. Digital technology will make conservation documentation more easily accessible, cost/time efficient, and will increase consistency and accuracy of the recorded data, and reduce physical storage space requirements. The major drawback to digitising conservation records is maintaining access to the information for the future; the notorious pace of technological change has serious implications for retrieving data from any machine- readable medium.

  11. Implications and Prospects of the GNEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jae-Soo; Lee, Byung-Wook; Lee, Han-Myung; Ko, Han-Suk; Lee, Kwang-Seok; Kim, Hak-Ro [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    As increased recognition for a role of an economical carbon-free nuclear energy, it is expected that possibility for introduction and an expansion of nuclear power plants (NPPs) will be increased around the world,1) with pursuing self-reliant nuclear fuel cycle in certain states to secure assurances of nuclear fuel supply. However, the pursuit of sensitive nuclear technology such as enrichment and reprocessing has led to concerns about nuclear proliferation. The disclosure of nuclear black market has threatened the current global nonproliferation regime.2) To respond to these concerns, efforts have been made to overcome the loophole of the existing nuclear nonproliferation regime. In February 2004, US President Bush proposed that nuclear exporters refuse to transfer sensitive nuclear technology to prevent new states from producing fissile material to close a loophole in the NPT.3) Meanwhile as the amount of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) by once-through fuel cycle increases, the US needs multiple repositories by the end of the century.4) In February 2006, therefore, Bush administration announced the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), which can bring about expansion of nuclear energy including SNF management while decreasing the risk of nuclear proliferation. It is expected that the GNEP will have an effect on national nuclear programs of participating countries as well as nuclear international cooperation. In this regard, this paper discusses the implication of the GNEP and its prospects.

  12. Comprehensive Map of Molecules Implicated in Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaisri Jagannadham

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global epidemic affecting over 1.5 billion people and is one of the risk factors for several diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. We have constructed a comprehensive map of the molecules reported to be implicated in obesity. A deep curation strategy was complemented by a novel semi-automated text mining system in order to screen 1,000 full-length research articles and over 90,000 abstracts that are relevant to obesity. We obtain a scale free network of 804 nodes and 971 edges, composed of 510 proteins, 115 genes, 62 complexes, 23 RNA molecules, 83 simple molecules, 3 phenotype and 3 drugs in "bow-tie" architecture. We classify this network into 5 modules and identify new links between the recently discovered fat mass and obesity associated FTO gene with well studied examples such as insulin and leptin. We further built an automated docking pipeline to dock orlistat as well as other drugs against the 24,000 proteins in the human structural proteome to explain the therapeutics and side effects at a network level. Based upon our experiments, we propose that therapeutic effect comes through the binding of one drug with several molecules in target network, and the binding propensity is both statistically significant and different in comparison with any other part of human structural proteome.

  13. Comprehensive Map of Molecules Implicated in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannadham, Jaisri; Jaiswal, Hitesh Kumar; Agrawal, Stuti; Rawal, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic affecting over 1.5 billion people and is one of the risk factors for several diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. We have constructed a comprehensive map of the molecules reported to be implicated in obesity. A deep curation strategy was complemented by a novel semi-automated text mining system in order to screen 1,000 full-length research articles and over 90,000 abstracts that are relevant to obesity. We obtain a scale free network of 804 nodes and 971 edges, composed of 510 proteins, 115 genes, 62 complexes, 23 RNA molecules, 83 simple molecules, 3 phenotype and 3 drugs in "bow-tie" architecture. We classify this network into 5 modules and identify new links between the recently discovered fat mass and obesity associated FTO gene with well studied examples such as insulin and leptin. We further built an automated docking pipeline to dock orlistat as well as other drugs against the 24,000 proteins in the human structural proteome to explain the therapeutics and side effects at a network level. Based upon our experiments, we propose that therapeutic effect comes through the binding of one drug with several molecules in target network, and the binding propensity is both statistically significant and different in comparison with any other part of human structural proteome. PMID:26886906

  14. Clinical implications of vitamin D deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Matyjaszek-Matuszek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is a common medical problem worldwide and its prevalence rises along with latitude, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, limited sunlight exposure and aging. A great body of evidence has shown that patients with vitamin D deficiency have increased cardiovascular risks and total mortality. Conversely, the presence of comorbidities progressive with age such as abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and hypertension places the patients at an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency. The multidirectional effect of vitamin D deficiency is present in different phases of the aging process. Based on the literature review, the risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency most often found in post-menopausal women include limited sun exposure and time spent outdoors, inadequate dietary vitamin D intake, winter season and increased age. Vitamin D supplementation in this group might offer prevention of falls and fractures and may be beneficial for cardiovascular health, what may be especially important in osteoporotic and elderly populations. Prevention and treatment processes involve education regarding sunlight exposure and pharmacological cholecalciferol supplementation according to the recommendations for Central Europe. This manuscript reviews the role of vitamin D and its deficiency and considers their clinical implications, with particular regard to peri- and postmenopausal women.

  15. Implications of recurrent disturbance for genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Ian D; Cary, Geoffrey J; Landguth, Erin L; Lindenmayer, David B; Banks, Sam C

    2016-02-01

    Exploring interactions between ecological disturbance, species' abundances and community composition provides critical insights for ecological dynamics. While disturbance is also potentially an important driver of landscape genetic patterns, the mechanisms by which these patterns may arise by selective and neutral processes are not well-understood. We used simulation to evaluate the relative importance of disturbance regime components, and their interaction with demographic and dispersal processes, on the distribution of genetic diversity across landscapes. We investigated genetic impacts of variation in key components of disturbance regimes and spatial patterns that are likely to respond to climate change and land management, including disturbance size, frequency, and severity. The influence of disturbance was mediated by dispersal distance and, to a limited extent, by birth rate. Nevertheless, all three disturbance regime components strongly influenced spatial and temporal patterns of genetic diversity within subpopulations, and were associated with changes in genetic structure. Furthermore, disturbance-induced changes in temporal population dynamics and the spatial distribution of populations across the landscape resulted in disrupted isolation by distance patterns among populations. Our results show that forecast changes in disturbance regimes have the potential to cause major changes to the distribution of genetic diversity within and among populations. We highlight likely scenarios under which future changes to disturbance size, severity, or frequency will have the strongest impacts on population genetic patterns. In addition, our results have implications for the inference of biological processes from genetic data, because the effects of dispersal on genetic patterns were strongly mediated by disturbance regimes. PMID:26839689

  16. Microbiological implications of the food irradiation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teufel, P.

    1981-08-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the wholesomeness of irradiated food which met in 1976 concluded after a detailed and critical review of the available information, that the microbiological aspects of food irradiation were fully comparable to those of conventional processes used in modern food technology. Processing of food by irradiation may be considered from the microbiological point of view as separate procedures: high dose treatment (> 10 kGy), for sterilisation (radappertization) and low dose treatment (< 10 kGy) for pasteurisation (radicidation, radurization), (for definitions see p. 43), disinfestation, or inhibition of sprouting. No public health hazards related to micro-organisms arise from high dose irradiation because this process results in commercially sterile products. On the other hand, it is important to consider the possible microbiological hazards when food is irradiated with a low dose. The microbiological implications relate to the natural radiation resistance of bacteria, yeasts, fungi and viruses or to the mutagenic effects of ionising radiation in micro-organisms. Both areas of concern were reviewed in detail by Ingram and Ingram and Farkas.

  17. Terminal sedation: ethical implications in different situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallenbeck, J L

    2000-01-01

    Terminal sedation (TS) is a recently coined term that may apply to a variety of practices with differing ethical implications. Two hypothetical cases are presented and contrasted. The first presents the more common scenario in which sedation is used for severe distress in a patient very close to death, who has stopped eating and drinking. The second case is more problematic: a nonterminally ill spinal cord injury patient requests sedation because of psychic distress. Sedation is supported in the former, but not the latter case. Suggested principles guiding the ethical use of sedation are: (1) While respect for autonomy is important, we are not obliged under all circumstances to provide sedation. (2) Physician intent matters. In providing sedation the physician's primary intent should be to alleviate suffering. (3) Reasonable inferences of intent can be made from physician actions, providing safeguards to ensure proper care. Sedatives should be titrated to observable signs of distress. (4) Proximity to death is a more useful concept than terminality in weighing benefits and burdens of sedation. (5) The nature of physician action should depend upon the nature of the suffering. Not all suffering is appropriately treated with sedation. (6) In patients close to death who have already stopped eating and drinking, sedation cannot be said to hasten death through dehydration or starvation. (7) Where TS is otherwise appropriate and where dehydration may in fact hasten death, ethical concerns may be addressed through informed consent. If hydration is refused, TS cannot be considered synonymous with euthanasia. PMID:15859672

  18. Big Data: Implications for Health System Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Laura B; Rogers, Joseph W; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:27559194

  19. Cosmological and Astrophysical Implications of Sterile Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Petraki, Kalliopi

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of neutrino masses implies the existence of new particles, the sterile neutrinos. These particles can have important implications for cosmology and astrophysics. A sterile neutrino with mass of a few keV can account for the dark matter of the universe. Its relic abundance can be produced via different mechanisms. A minimal extension of the Higgs sector of the Standard Model, with a gauge-singlet boson coupled to sterile neutrinos, can provide a consistent framework for the theory of neutrino masses, and can produce relic keV sterile neutrinos via decays of the singlet Higgs. This mechanism operates around the electroweak scale, and has interesting consequences for the electroweak phase transition. The resulting dark matter is "colder" than the one produced via oscillations. This property changes the small-scale structure formation limits. Heavier sterile neutrinos can be produced in supernova cores and affect the thermal evolution of the star. Being short-lived, they decay inside the envelope an...

  20. Ethical implications of HIV self-testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngs, Jonathan; Hooper, Carwyn

    2015-10-01

    In April 2015, the first legally approved HIV self-testing kit went on sale in the UK-except Northern Ireland where they remain illegal. These tests allow individuals to test their HIV status and read the result in the privacy of their own home, much like a home pregnancy test. This paper explores the ethical implications of HIV self-testing. We conclude that there are no strong ethical objections to self-testing being made widely available in the UK. Pretest counselling for an HIV test is not an ethical necessity, and self-testing has the potential to increase early diagnosis of HIV infection and thus improve prognosis and reduce ongoing transmission. Self-testing kits might also empower people and promote autonomy by allowing people to dictate the terms on which they test their HIV status. We accept that there are some potential areas of concern. These include the possibility of user error with the tests, and the concern that individuals may not present to health services following a reactive result. False negatives have the potential to cause harm if the 'window period' is not understood, and false positives might produce psychological distress. There is, however, little evidence to suggest that self-testing kits will cause widespread harm, and we argue that the only way to properly evaluate whether they do cause significant harm is to carefully evaluate their use, now that they are available on the market. PMID:26276789

  1. Cellular factors implicated in filovirus entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Suchita; Hope, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Although filoviral infections are still occurring in different parts of the world, there are no effective preventive or treatment strategies currently available against them. Not only do filoviruses cause a deadly infection, but they also have the potential of being used as biological weapons. This makes it imperative to comprehensively study these viruses in order to devise effective strategies to prevent the occurrence of these infections. Entry is the foremost step in the filoviral replication cycle and different studies have reported the involvement of a myriad of cellular factors including plasma membrane components, cytoskeletal proteins, endosomal components, and cytosolic factors in this process. Signaling molecules such as the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases comprising of Tyro3, Axl, and Mer have also been implicated as putative entry factors. Additionally, filoviruses are suggested to bind to a common receptor and recent studies have proposed T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) as potential receptor candidates. This paper summarizes the existing literature on filoviral entry with a special focus on cellular factors involved in this process and also highlights some fundamental questions. Future research aimed at answering these questions could be very useful in designing novel antiviral therapeutics. PMID:23365575

  2. Cellular Factors Implicated in Filovirus Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchita Bhattacharyya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although filoviral infections are still occurring in different parts of the world, there are no effective preventive or treatment strategies currently available against them. Not only do filoviruses cause a deadly infection, but they also have the potential of being used as biological weapons. This makes it imperative to comprehensively study these viruses in order to devise effective strategies to prevent the occurrence of these infections. Entry is the foremost step in the filoviral replication cycle and different studies have reported the involvement of a myriad of cellular factors including plasma membrane components, cytoskeletal proteins, endosomal components, and cytosolic factors in this process. Signaling molecules such as the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases comprising of Tyro3, Axl, and Mer have also been implicated as putative entry factors. Additionally, filoviruses are suggested to bind to a common receptor and recent studies have proposed T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1 and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1 as potential receptor candidates. This paper summarizes the existing literature on filoviral entry with a special focus on cellular factors involved in this process and also highlights some fundamental questions. Future research aimed at answering these questions could be very useful in designing novel antiviral therapeutics.

  3. Relevance Theory and Its Implications to Second Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琪

    2014-01-01

    Relevance Theory Regards human communication as an intentional activity, and as an ostensive-inferential cognitive process. Based on the three key concepts of RT, the present paper shows the implications of this theory in second language teaching.

  4. Implications of the Final Procedures for Evaluating Specific Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senf, Gerald M., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are some negative implications of the final federal rules for evaluating specific learning disabilities (Federal Register, December 29, 1977), which conceptually redefined learning disabilities to mean an "underachievement." (DLS)

  5. Complex Disease Endotypes and Implications for GWAS and Exposomics***

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation Type: Symposia Symposium Title: Human Exposome Discovery and Disease Investigation Abstract Title: Complex Disease Endotypes and Implications for GWAS and Exposomics Authors: Stephen W. Edwards1, David M. Reif, Elaine Cohen Hubaf, ClarLynda Williams-DeVa...

  6. Alterations in polyadenylation and its implications for endocrine disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LennartFriis-Hansen

    2013-05-01

    This review gives a detailed description of alterations in polyadenylation in endocrine disease, an overview of the current literature on polyadenylation and summarizes the clinical implications of the current state of research in this field.

  7. Socio-Economic Implications of New Information Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Page, J.; Lechleuthner, F.; Hervey, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    Socio-Economic Implications of New Information Technology provides not only an exploration of the relevant literature and some guidelines for further, more detailed research, but also some stimulating insights into a host of issues raised by the communications revolution.

  8. Implications to Input of English Teaching Brought By Interaction Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪; 童心

    2011-01-01

    @@ While discussing Krashen's input theory, it is very easy to find that the problems appear in English teaching are related with the theory, and they have provided beneficial implications for the solu- tions to the problems.

  9. Medicare Part D Roulette, Potential Implications of Random..

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medicare Part D Roulette, Potential Implications of Random Assignment and Plan Restrictions Dual-eligible (Medicare and Medicaid) beneficiaries are randomly...

  10. China English and its Implications for English Teaching in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉凤

    2007-01-01

    China English is an English variety used by native-Chinese people for communication under specific language environment. This study attempts to outline the objective existence of China English and the implications of its linguistic features for English teaching.

  11. On Power Idealization Filter Topologies of Lattice Implication Algebras

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce power idealization filter topologies with respect to filter topologies and power ideals of lattice implication algebras, and to investigate some properties of power idealization filter topological spaces and their quotient spaces.

  12. Implications of caries diagnostic strategies for clinical management decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baelum, Vibeke; Hintze, Hanne; Wenzel, Ann;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In clinical practice, a visual-tactile caries examination is frequently supplemented by bitewing radiography. This study evaluated strategies for combining visual-tactile and radiographic caries detection methods and determined their implications for clinical management decisions in a...

  13. Implications of CP-violation in charmed hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I discuss theoretical implications of recent experimental progress in understanding CP-violation in charmed mesons. I review recent standard model predictions and attempts to constrain beyond the standard model scenarios using observations of charm hadron transitions

  14. Common Pediatric Disabilities: Medical Aspects and Educational Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Janet Siantz; Colson, Steven

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents definitions of common pediatric disabilities and information about incidence, causes, diagnosis, common characteristics, complications with educational implications, and multidisciplinary intervention approaches. It covers the following conditions: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, fragile…

  15. Developments of global capital markets and implications to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mr.KevanWatts

    2004-01-01

    Great changes are happening to global capital markets. Those changes will have extensive influences to China. Therefore, China needs to understand their implications and to reflect those trends in setting a framework of policy to deal with this environment.

  16. Politics of North Korean refugees and regional security implications

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jacqueline Danielle

    2009-01-01

    This is the English version of Jacqueline D. Chang's June 2009 Masters Thesis, Politics of North Korean refugees and regional security implication. A Hangul translation version may be found here: http://hdl.handle.net/10945/43808

  17. Exploring ethical implications of personal relationships in dyadic business exchanges

    OpenAIRE

    Davidrajuh, Reggie

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the ethical implications of the existence of personal relationships in business exchanges. Firstly, this paper introduces personal relationship in business exchanges. Secondly, three normative theories of business ethics that are related to the issue of personal relationship are presented. Finally, this paper explores the ethical implications on personal relationships according to the three theories. The main recommendation of this paper is that an analysis of ...

  18. Implications of traffic characteristics on interdomain traffic engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlig, Steve

    2004-01-01

    This thesis discusses the implications of the traffic characteristics on interdomain traffic engineering with BGP. We first provide an overview of the interdomain traffic control problem. Then, we present results concerning the characteristics of the interdomain traffic, based on the analysis of real traffic traces gathered from non-transit ASes. We discuss the implications of the topological properties of the traffic on interdomain traffic engineering. Based on this knowledge of the...

  19. Implication ofCorynebacterium species in food’s contamination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sana Alibi; Asma Ferjani; Jalel Boukadida

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacteriumspp. are part of the human microbiota. Recently, species of this genus are increasingly implicated in different types of infections especially in immunocompromized and hospitalized patients. The significance of the presence of the genusCorynebacterium in foods is not clearly established. These bacteria may be involved in spoilage or ripening of cheese and meats. This review focused on different researches concerning the implication of Corynebacterium species in food’s contamination.

  20. Co-benefits of CDM projects and policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Qie; Xu, Bo; Wennersten, Ronald; Brandt, Nils

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to study the co-benefits of clean development mechanism (CDM) projects, and further to discuss the policy of its implications. It has been found that many energy-related climate change mitigation (CCM) activities, including CDM projects, are able to produce a significant amount of co-benefits, while the policy implications have been limited. Through co-benefits assessment of Chinese CDM projects, it can be concluded that: (1) there are uncertainties relating to co-benefits ass...

  1. The economic implications of house price capitalization: a synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hilber, Christian A. L.

    2015-01-01

    In this article I argue that the extent to which fiscal variables are capitalized into house prices has important economic implications. I synthesize an emerging literature that explores the conditions under which public and private investments and intergovernmental transfers are capitalized into local house prices and the broader implications of such capitalization. The main insights are: (i) House price capitalization is more pronounced in locations with strict regulatory and geographical s...

  2. The Economics Implications of House Price Capitalization: A Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hilber, Christian A. L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I argue that the extent to which fiscal variables are capitalized into house prices has important economic implications. I synthesize an emerging literature that explores the conditions under which public and private investments and intergovernmental transfers are capitalized into local house prices and the broader implications of such capitalization. The main insights are: (i) House price capitalization is more pronounced in locations with strict regulatory and geographical s...

  3. The Military Coup and its Implications for the Thai Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper analyses the regional and international implications of the Thai military coup in September 2006. Focus is furthermore  attached to the economic consequences and the geo-political and geo-economic aspects related to the coup.......The paper analyses the regional and international implications of the Thai military coup in September 2006. Focus is furthermore  attached to the economic consequences and the geo-political and geo-economic aspects related to the coup....

  4. Trading Volume: Definitions, Data Analysis, and Implications of Portfolio Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Andrew W.; Jiang W. Wang

    2000-01-01

    We examine the implications of portfolio theory for the cross-sectional behavior of equity trading volume. Two-fund separation theorems suggest a natural definition for trading activity: share turnover. If two-fund separation holds, share turnover must be identical for all securities. If (K+1)-fund separation holds, we show that turnover satisfies an approximately linear K-factor structure. These implications are examined empirically using individual weekly turnover data for NYSE and AMEX sec...

  5. Shopper marketing implications on communication strategies and actions

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Paulo Duarte; Marreiros, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Comunicação apresentada em 15th IAMB Conference, Lisboa Shopper marketing is an international recent concept and approach to marketing. Since shopper marketing is in the early stages of development, it is also an emerging research field, and consequently questions and challenges acrossall the marketing-mix variables are emerging. This paper addressesshopper marketing implications on one of those variables – communication.Specifically, the purpose of this paper is to study the implications ...

  6. Empirical studies of software design: Implications for SSEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasner, Herb

    1988-01-01

    Implications for Software Engineering Environments (SEEs) are presented in viewgraph format for characteristics of projects studied; significant problems and crucial problem areas in software design for large systems; layered behavioral model of software processes; implications of field study results; software project as an ecological system; results of the LIFT study; information model of design exploration; software design strategies; results of the team design study; and a list of publications.

  7. World Englishes and Its Implications for English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋德龙

    2012-01-01

    <正>The article mainly explores the current concept of World Englishes and its implication for language teaching.After the history and present definition of World Englishes have been discussed in a broad perspective,the author continues to talk about the influence of World Englishes on World Language Education.Chinese English education is then specifically addressed with implications given for both policy-makers and classroom teachers of English.

  8. MARKETING IMPLICATIONS FROM THE NATIONAL CONSUMER BEEF STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Branson, Robert E.; Cross, H. Russell; Savell, Jeff W.; Smith, Gary C.; Edwards, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    Increased consumer health concerns over ingestion of animal fats have spawned consumer research regarding effects of different degrees of leanness (marbling levels) on consumer demand. Previous research is reviewed and a recent multi-city consumer panel test is reported. Implications of the multi-city results are discussed from the viewpoint of applicability of normative consumer behavior demand theory, and implications of the findings for beef marketing structure and strategies. Suggestions ...

  9. Demographic Complementarities and Outsourcing : Implications and Challenges for India

    OpenAIRE

    Mukul G. Asher; Amarendu Nandy

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the implications of differing global demographic trends for Indias competitiveness in outsourcing and offshoring. It also briefly notes the implications of differing demographic trends among the Indian states. The paper argues that demographic complementarities with high-income countries provide India with one-time opportunity to sustain its growth rate and occupy all segments of global outsourcing and offshoring activities. India has used the labor cost advantage to gain ...

  10. CHO Quasispecies—Implications for Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian M. Wurm

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells are a source of multi-ton quantities of protein pharmaceuticals. They are, however, immortalized cells, characterized by a high degree of genetic and phenotypic diversity. As is known for any biological system, this diversity is enhanced by selective forces when laboratories (no sharing of gene pools grow cells under (diverse conditions that are practical and useful. CHO cells have been used in culture for more than 50 years, and various lines of cells are available and have been used in manufacturing. This article tries to represent, in a cursory way, the history of CHO cells, particularly the origin and subsequent fate of key cell lines. It is proposed that the name CHO represents many different cell types, based on their inherent genetic diversity and their dynamic rate of genetic change. The continuing remodeling of genomic structure in clonal or non-clonal cell populations, particularly due to the non-standardized culture conditions in hundreds of different labs renders CHO cells a typical case for “quasispecies”. This term was coined for families of related (genomic sequences exposed to high mutation rate environments where a large fraction of offspring is expected to carry one or more mutations. The implications of the quasispecies concept for CHO cells used in protein manufacturing processes are significant. CHO genomics/transcriptomics may provide only limited insights when done on one or two “old” and poorly characterized CHO strains. In contrast, screening of clonal cell lines, derived from a well-defined starting material, possibly within a given academic or industrial environment, may reveal a more narrow diversity of phenotypes with respect to physiological/metabolic activities and, thus, allow more precise and reliable predictions of the potential of a clone for high-yielding manufacturing processes.

  11. BUSINESS OFFSHORING IMPLICATIONS ON THE LABOUR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei M RGULESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In terms of economic policy, three new aspects are important in the current context of globalization which brings forward new strategies regarding the outsourcing and offshoring of activities and functions of the value chain. These aspects refer to the instant appearance of an offshore transferable function , to the unpredictability of winning and losing functions and to the lowering of competition from the levels of sector, company or professional qualification category to an individual level.. Of the three features, the most problematic for policy makers is the unpredictability of the impact of globalization. For example, in Europe we can not reasonably believe that workers in the most competitive sectors will be in a position of winners, nor that these winners will be the most prepared or trained in analytical functions. Many European workers currently work at prices fixed by the local market and not covered by productivity. But when the competition on functions will expand through globalization outside the country or area, their choices will be either a job loss or a reduction in salary. The question that will be raised ever insistently will be the following: what jobs are more exposed to this new competition? On the one hand, offshoring is on balance positive for Western economies, because it makes domestic companies more competitive. At the same time the material outsourcing is, for most developed economies, much more important than the outsourcing of services and the implications for labor market must be objectively differentiated in the two sectors. On the other hand, if we take into account the amplification of the effects that offshoring already has on the structure and distribution of labor, the socio-economic European policy of labor orientation to the coordinates of a "knowledge based" economy and to the jobs of the "information society" could be wrong.

  12. Implications of conformal invariance in momentum space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the implications of conformal invariance for 3-point functions of the stress-energy tensor, conserved currents and scalar operators in general dimension and in momentum space. Our starting point is a novel and very effective decomposition of tensor correlators which reduces their computation to that of a number of scalar form factors. For example, the most general 3-point function of a conserved and traceless stress-energy tensor is determined by only five form factors. Dilatations and special conformal Ward identities then impose additional conditions on these form factors. The special conformal Ward identities become a set of first and second order differential equations, whose general solution is given in terms of integrals involving a product of three Bessel functions (‘triple-K integrals’). All in all, the correlators are completely determined up to a number of constants, in agreement with well-known position space results. In odd dimensions 3-point functions are finite without renormalisation while in even dimensions non-trivial renormalisation in required. In this paper we restrict ourselves to odd dimensions. A comprehensive analysis of renormalisation will be discussed elsewhere. This paper contains two parts that can be read independently of each other. In the first part, we explain the method that leads to the solution for the correlators in terms of triple-K integrals while the second part contains a self-contained presentation of all results. Readers interested only in results may directly consult the second part of the paper

  13. Propulsion System Choices and Their Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Claude R., II; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Rhodes, Russell, E.; Robinson, John W.

    2010-01-01

    In defining a space vehicle architecture, the propulsion system and related subsystem choices will have a major influence on achieving the goals and objectives desired. There are many alternatives and the choices made must produce a system that meets the performance requirements, but at the same time also provide the greatest opportunity of reaching all of the required objectives. Recognizing the above, the SPST Functional Requirements subteam has drawn on the knowledge, expertise, and experience of its members, to develop insight that wiIJ effectively aid the architectural concept developer in making the appropriate choices consistent with the architecture goals. This data not only identifies many selected choices, but also, more importantly, presents the collective assessment of this subteam on the "pros" and the "cons" of these choices. The propulsion system choices with their pros and cons are presented in five major groups. A. System Integration Approach. Focused on the requirement for safety, reliability, dependability, maintainability, and low cost. B. Non-Chemical Propulsion. Focused on choice of propulsion type. C. Chemical Propulsion. Focused on propellant choice implications. D. Functional Integration. Focused on the degree of integration of the many propulsive and closely associated functions, and on the choice of the engine combustion power cycle. E. Thermal Management. Focused on propellant tank insulation and integration. Each of these groups is further broken down into subgroups, and at that level the consensus pros and cons are presented. The intended use of this paper is to provide a resource of focused material for architectural concept developers to use in designing new advanced systems including college design classes. It is also a possible source of input material for developing a model for designing and analyzing advanced concepts to help identify focused technology needs and their priorities.

  14. BUSINESS OFFSHORING IMPLICATIONS ON THE LABOUR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGHEI MARGULESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In terms of economic policy, three new aspects are important in the current context of globalization which brings forward new strategies regarding the outsourcing and offshoring of activities and functions of the value chain. These aspects refer to the instant appearance of an offshore transferable function , to the unpredictability of winning and losing functions and to the lowering of competition from the levels of sector, company or professional qualification category to an individual level. Of the three features, the most problematic for policy makers is the unpredictability of the impact of globalization. For example, in Europe we can not reasonably believe that workers in the most competitive sectors will be in a position of winners, nor that these winners will be the most prepared or trained in analytical functions. Many European workers currently work at prices fixed by the local market and not covered by productivity. But when the competition on functions will expand through globalization outside the country or area, their choices will be either a job loss or a reduction in salary. The question that will be raised ever insistently will be the following: what jobs are more exposed to this new competition? On the one hand, offshoring is on balance positive for Western economies, because it makes domestic companies more competitive. At the same time the material outsourcing is, for most developed economies, much more important than the outsourcing of services and the implications for labor market must be objectively differentiated in the two sectors. On the other hand, if we take into account the amplification of the effects that offshoring already has on the structure and distribution of labor, the socio-economic European policy of labor orientation to the coordinates of a "knowledge based" economy and to the jobs of the "information society" could be wrong.

  15. Definitions of fuel poverty: Implications for policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines why the definition of fuel poverty is important in policy formulation and describes how the Government's current definitions evolved from the original concept. It discusses the determination of income and fuel costs and the possibilities for a relative and common European measure. It examines problems inherent in assessing fuel costs as a percentage of income and puts forward the arguments for a ‘budget standard’ approach. The paper illustrates how the size of the problem depends on the definition and chosen threshold and suggests advantages for a rating scale. It illustrates how the income composition and thresholds also govern the distribution of the target populations and the relative importance of the main causal factors, and examines the consequent policy implications. It explores the definition of vulnerable households and the importance of severity and questions whether the UK fuel poverty strategy is targeted at households least able to afford their fuel costs (as the name implies) or primarily those at risk from excess winter and summer mortality and morbidity. Finally, after examining the role of supplementary indicators, it looks at the opportunities for changing the definition and comments on the Government review of the definition and targets. - Highlights: ► There are major failings in the existing official definitions of fuel poverty. ► expressing fuel costs as a percentage of income is a poor indicator of fuel poverty. ► A budget standard approach provides a more consistent, meaningful and fairer measure. ► The scale and nature of the problem changes dramatically with different definitions. ► The definition is crucial to the mix of policies and allocation of resources required.

  16. Tidal river dynamics: Implications for deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoitink, A. J. F.; Jay, D. A.

    2016-03-01

    Tidal rivers are a vital and little studied nexus between physical oceanography and hydrology. It is only in the last few decades that substantial research efforts have been focused on the interactions of river discharge with tidal waves and storm surges into regions beyond the limit of salinity intrusion, a realm that can extend inland hundreds of kilometers. One key phenomenon resulting from this interaction is the emergence of large fortnightly tides, which are forced long waves with amplitudes that may increase beyond the point where astronomical tides have become extinct. These can be larger than the linear tide itself at more landward locations, and they greatly influence tidal river water levels and wetland inundation. Exploration of the spectral redistribution and attenuation of tidal energy in rivers has led to new appreciation of a wide range of consequences for fluvial and coastal sedimentology, delta evolution, wetland conservation, and salinity intrusion under the influence of sea level rise and delta subsidence. Modern research aims at unifying traditional harmonic tidal analysis, nonparametric regression techniques, and the existing understanding of tidal hydrodynamics to better predict and model tidal river dynamics both in single-thread channels and in branching channel networks. In this context, this review summarizes results from field observations and modeling studies set in tidal river environments as diverse as the Amazon in Brazil, the Columbia, Fraser and Saint Lawrence in North America, the Yangtze and Pearl in China, and the Berau and Mahakam in Indonesia. A description of state-of-the-art methods for a comprehensive analysis of water levels, wave propagation, discharges, and inundation extent in tidal rivers is provided. Implications for lowland river deltas are also discussed in terms of sedimentary deposits, channel bifurcation, avulsion, and salinity intrusion, addressing contemporary research challenges.

  17. Discovering indigenous science: Implications for science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snively, Gloria; Corsiglia, John

    2001-01-01

    Indigenous science relates to both the science knowledge of long-resident, usually oral culture peoples, as well as the science knowledge of all peoples who as participants in culture are affected by the worldview and relativist interests of their home communities. This article explores aspects of multicultural science and pedagogy and describes a rich and well-documented branch of indigenous science known to biologists and ecologists as traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). Although TEK has been generally inaccessible, educators can now use a burgeoning science-based TEK literature that documents numerous examples of time-proven, ecologically relevant, and cost effective indigenous science. Disputes regarding the universality of the standard scientific account are of critical importance for science educators because the definition of science is a de facto gatekeeping device for determining what can be included in a school science curriculum and what cannot. When Western modern science (WMS) is defined as universal it does displace revelation-based knowledge (i.e., creation science); however, it also displaces pragmatic local indigenous knowledge that does not conform with formal aspects of the standard account. Thus, in most science classrooms around the globe, Western modern science has been taught at the expense of indigenous knowledge. However, because WMS has been implicated in many of the world's ecological disasters, and because the traditional wisdom component of TEK is particularly rich in time-tested approaches that foster sustainability and environmental integrity, it is possible that the universalist gatekeeper can be seen as increasingly problematic and even counter productive. This paper describes many examples from Canada and around the world of indigenous people's contributions to science, environmental understanding, and sustainability. The authors argue the view that Western or modern science is just one of many sciences that need to be

  18. Widening economic & social disparities: implications for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, N J

    2007-10-01

    -bound manner, there could be serious adverse implications for the Indian economy, society and politics. PMID:18032812

  19. Implications for environmental health of multiple stressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent insights into the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of low dose effects of ionising radiation have revealed that similar mechanisms can be induced by chemical stressors in the environment. This means that interactions between radiation and chemicals are likely and that the outcomes following mixed exposures to radiation and chemicals may not be predictable for human health, by consideration of single agent effects. Our understanding of the biological effects of low dose exposure has undergone a major paradigm shift. We now possess technologies which can detect very subtle changes in cells due to small exposures to radiation or other pollutants. We also understand much more now about cell communication, systems biology and the need to consider effects of low dose exposure at different hierarchical levels of organisation from molecules up to and including ecosystems. Furthermore we understand, at least in part, some of the mechanisms which drive low dose effects and which perpetuate these not only in the exposed organism but also in its progeny and in certain cases, its kin. This means that previously held views about safe doses or lack of harmful effects cannot be sustained. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and all national radiation and environmental protection organisations have always accepted a theoretical risk and have applied the precautionary principle and the LNT (linear-non-threshold) model which basically says that there is no safe dose of radiation. Therefore even in the absence of visible effects, exposure of people to radiation is strictly limited. This review will consider the historical context and the new discoveries and will focus on evidence for emergent effects after mixed exposures to combined stressors which include ionising radiation. The implications for regulation of low dose exposures to protect human health and environmental security will be discussed.

  20. Oceanic implications for climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the United Nations convention on the law of the sea (1982), each participating country maintains exclusive economic and environmental rights within the oceanic region extending 200 nm from its territorial sea, known as the exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Although the ocean within each EEZ is undoubtedly an anthropogenic CO2 sink, it has been over-looked within international climate policy. In this paper I use an area-weighted scaling argument to show that the inclusion of the EEZ CO2 sink within national carbon accounts would have significant implications in tracking national greenhouse commitments to any future climate change policy initiative. The advantages and disadvantages for inclusion of the EEZ CO2 sink into global climate change policy are also explored. The most compelling argument for including the EEZ CO2 sink is that it would enhance the equity and resources among coastal nations to combat and adapt against future climate change that will inherently impact coastal nations more so than land locked nations. If included, the funds raised could be used for either monitoring or adaptive coastal infrastructure among the most vulnerable nations. On the other hand, the EEZ anthropogenic CO2 sink cannot be directly controlled by human activities and could be used as a disincentive for some developed nations to reduce fossil-fuel related greenhouse gas emissions. This may therefore dampen efforts to ultimately reduce atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. In consideration of these arguments it is therefore suggested that an 'EEZ clause' be added to Kyoto and any future international climate policy that explicitly excludes its use within national carbon accounts under these international climate frameworks

  1. Implications for environmental health of multiple stressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mothersill, Carmel; Seymour, Colin [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1 (Canada)

    2009-06-01

    Recent insights into the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of low dose effects of ionising radiation have revealed that similar mechanisms can be induced by chemical stressors in the environment. This means that interactions between radiation and chemicals are likely and that the outcomes following mixed exposures to radiation and chemicals may not be predictable for human health, by consideration of single agent effects. Our understanding of the biological effects of low dose exposure has undergone a major paradigm shift. We now possess technologies which can detect very subtle changes in cells due to small exposures to radiation or other pollutants. We also understand much more now about cell communication, systems biology and the need to consider effects of low dose exposure at different hierarchical levels of organisation from molecules up to and including ecosystems. Furthermore we understand, at least in part, some of the mechanisms which drive low dose effects and which perpetuate these not only in the exposed organism but also in its progeny and in certain cases, its kin. This means that previously held views about safe doses or lack of harmful effects cannot be sustained. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and all national radiation and environmental protection organisations have always accepted a theoretical risk and have applied the precautionary principle and the LNT (linear-non-threshold) model which basically says that there is no safe dose of radiation. Therefore even in the absence of visible effects, exposure of people to radiation is strictly limited. This review will consider the historical context and the new discoveries and will focus on evidence for emergent effects after mixed exposures to combined stressors which include ionising radiation. The implications for regulation of low dose exposures to protect human health and environmental security will be discussed.

  2. Neuroimmunological Implications of AQP4 in Astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeshima-Kataoka, Hiroko

    2016-01-01

    The brain has high-order functions and is composed of several kinds of cells, such as neurons and glial cells. It is becoming clear that many kinds of neurodegenerative diseases are more-or-less influenced by astrocytes, which are a type of glial cell. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a membrane-bound protein that regulates water permeability is a member of the aquaporin family of water channel proteins that is expressed in the endfeet of astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS). Recently, AQP4 has been shown to function, not only as a water channel protein, but also as an adhesion molecule that is involved in cell migration and neuroexcitation, synaptic plasticity, and learning/memory through mechanisms involved in long-term potentiation or long-term depression. The most extensively examined role of AQP4 is its ability to act as a neuroimmunological inducer. Previously, we showed that AQP4 plays an important role in neuroimmunological functions in injured mouse brain in concert with the proinflammatory inducer osteopontin (OPN). The aim of this review is to summarize the functional implication of AQP4, focusing especially on its neuroimmunological roles. This review is a good opportunity to compile recent knowledge and could contribute to the therapeutic treatment of autoimmune diseases through strategies targeting AQP4. Finally, the author would like to hypothesize on AQP4's role in interaction between reactive astrocytes and reactive microglial cells, which might occur in neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, a therapeutic strategy for AQP4-related neurodegenerative diseases is proposed. PMID:27517922

  3. Siderophilic Cyanobacteria: Implications for Early Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. I.; Mummey, D.; Sarkisova, S.; Shen, G.; Bryant, D. A.; Lindsay, J.; Garrison, D.; McKay, D. S.

    2006-01-01

    Of all extant environs, iron-depositing hot springs (IDHS) may exhibit the greatest similarity to late Precambrian shallow warm oceans in regards to temperature, O2 gradients and dissolved iron and H2S concentrations. Despite the insights into the ecology, evolutionary biology, paleogeobiochemistry, and astrobiology examination of IDHS could potentially provide, very few studies dedicated to the physiology and diversity of cyanobacteria (CB) inhabiting IDHS have been conducted. Results. Here we describe the phylogeny, physiology, ultrastructure and biogeochemical activity of several recent CB isolates from two different greater Yellowstone area IDHS, LaDuke and Chocolate Pots. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated that 6 of 12 new isolates examined couldn't be placed within established CB genera. Some of the isolates exhibited pronounced requirements for elevated iron concentrations, with maximum growth rates observed when 0.4-1 mM Fe(3+) was present in the media. In light of "typical" CB iron requirements, our results indicate that elevated iron likely represents a salient factor selecting for "siderophilicM CB species in IDHS. A universal feature of our new isolates is their ability to produce thick EPS layers in which iron accumulates resulting in the generation of well preserved signatures. In parallel, siderophilic CB show enhanced ability to etch the analogs of iron-rich lunar regolith minerals and impact glasses. Despite that iron deposition by CB is not well understood mechanistically, we recently obtained evidence that the PS I:PS II ratio is higher in one of our isolates than for other CB. Although still preliminary, this finding is in direct support of the Y. Cohen hypothesis that PSI can directly oxidize Fe(2+). Conclusion. Our results may have implications for factors driving CB evolutionary relationships and biogeochemical processes on early Earth and probably Mars.

  4. Implications of Fast Reactor Transuranic Conversion Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven J. Piet; Edward A. Hoffman; Samuel E. Bays

    2010-11-01

    Theoretically, the transuranic conversion ratio (CR), i.e. the transuranic production divided by transuranic destruction, in a fast reactor can range from near zero to about 1.9, which is the average neutron yield from Pu239 minus 1. In practice, the possible range will be somewhat less. We have studied the implications of transuranic conversion ratio of 0.0 to 1.7 using the fresh and discharge fuel compositions calculated elsewhere. The corresponding fissile breeding ratio ranges from 0.2 to 1.6. The cases below CR=1 (“burners”) do not have blankets; the cases above CR=1 (“breeders”) have breeding blankets. The burnup was allowed to float while holding the maximum fluence to the cladding constant. We graph the fuel burnup and composition change. As a function of transuranic conversion ratio, we calculate and graph the heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; whether the material is “attractive” for direct weapon use using published criteria; the uranium utilization and rate of consumption of natural uranium; and the long-term radiotoxicity after fuel discharge. For context, other cases and analyses are included, primarily once-through light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide fuel at 51 MWth-day/kg-iHM burnup (UOX-51). For CR<1, the heat, gamma, and neutron emission increase as material is recycled. The uranium utilization is at or below 1%, just as it is in thermal reactors as both types of reactors require continuing fissile support. For CR>1, heat, gamma, and neutron emission decrease with recycling. The uranium utilization exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. At the system equilibrium, heat and gamma vary by somewhat over an order of magnitude as a function of CR. Isotopes that dominate heat and gamma emission are scattered throughout the actinide chain, so the modest impact of CR is unsurprising. Neutron emitters are preferentially found

  5. GEMAS - Soil geochemistry and health implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstsen, Vibeke; Ladenberger, Anna; Wragg, Joanna; Gulan, Aleksandra

    2014-05-01

    The GEMAS Project resulted in a large coherent data set displaying baseline levels of elements in agricultural and grazing land soil, which has a wide variety of applications. Medical geology is an emerging new discipline providing a link between geoscience and medicine by interpreting natural geological factors in relation to human and animal health and their geographical distribution. Medical geology shows not only problems related to harmful health effects of natural geological materials and processes, but also deals with their beneficial aspects. Since the GEMAS project demonstrates the importance of geological factors in geochemical patterns in European soil, this data set can be used in improving our understanding of how the geological processes may affect human health in Europe. The main potential health problems are related to deficiency of nutrients in soil and toxic effects of potentially harmful elements. Deficiency in macro- (e.g., K, Fe, Mg, P) and micro-nutrients (e.g., Se, Zn, Cl) can be responsible for a reduction in crop productivity and certain health issues for livestock and humans. On the other hand, bioavailability of crucial elements depends on soil parameters, e.g., pH; namely, low pH in soil (in northern Europe) makes more micronutrients bioavailable, with the exception of Mo, P and Ca. Rocks underlying the soil layer have a major impact on soil composition, and soil parent material can be a main source of toxic metals, for instance, soil developed on black shale (e.g., Oslo region) shows potentially toxic levels of metals, such as As, Cd, U, Zn and Pb. High content of organic matter is another factor amplifying the toxic levels of metals in soil. Several important topics with health implications can be then addressed using the GEMAS data set, namely, soil properties and element bioavailability, arsenic toxicity, selenium deficiency, potential health effects of liming, uranium in European soil, influence of recent and historical volcanic

  6. Chrysotile dissolution rates: Implications for carbon sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Uncertainties in serpentine dissolution kinetics hinder carbon sequestration models. • A pH dependent, far from equilibrium dissolution rate law for chrysotile. • Fchrysotile (mol/m2/s) = 10−0.21pH−10.57 at 22 °C over pH 2–10. • Laboratory dissolution rates consistent with mine waste weathering observations. • Potential for carbon sequestration in mine tailings and aquifers is assessed. - Abstract: Serpentine minerals (e.g., chrysotile) are a potentially important medium for sequestration of CO2 via carbonation reactions. The goals of this study are to report a steady-state, far from equilibrium chrysotile dissolution rate law and to better define what role serpentine dissolution kinetics will have in constraining rates of carbon sequestration via serpentine carbonation. The steady-state dissolution rate of chrysotile in 0.1 m NaCl solutions was measured at 22 °C and pH ranging from 2 to 8. Dissolution experiments were performed in a continuously stirred flow-through reactor with the input solutions pre-equilibrated with atmospheric CO2. Both Mg and Si steady-state fluxes from the chrysotile surface, and the overall chrysotile flux were regressed and the following empirical relationships were obtained: FMg=-0.22pH-10.02;FSi=-0.19pH-10.37;Fchrysotile=-0.21pH-10.57 where FMg, FSi, and Fchrysotile are the log10 Mg, Si, and molar chrysotile fluxes in mol/m2/s, respectively. Element fluxes were used in reaction-path calculations to constrain the rate of CO2 sequestration in two geological environments that have been proposed as potential sinks for anthropogenic CO2. Carbon sequestration in chrysotile tailings at 10 °C is approximately an order of magnitude faster than carbon sequestration in a serpentinite-hosted aquifer at 60 °C on a per kilogram of water basis. A serpentinite-hosted aquifer, however, provides a larger sequestration capacity. The chrysotile dissolution rate law determined in this study has important implications for

  7. Thermoluminescence of ice and its implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, L., E-mail: louis.rey@bluewin.c [Chemin de Verdonnet, 2 CH-1010 Lausanne (Switzerland); Aerial-CRT-Parc d' Innovation, B.P. 40443, F 67412 Illkirch Cedex (France); Gartia, R.K., E-mail: rkgartia02@yahoo.i [Physics Department, Manipur University, Imphal 795003 (India); Bishal Singh, K. [Physics Department, Manipur University, Imphal 795003 (India); Basanta Singh, Th. [Luminescence Dating Laboratory, Manipur University, Imphal 795003 (India)

    2009-12-15

    A set of six glow curves of hexagonal ice irradiated at 77 K with various doses of gamma-rays have been subjected to rigorous analysis. It shows the presence of as many as 11 thermoluminescence (TL) peaks at 108.2 +- 1.7 K, 115.5 +- 1.4 K, 123.4 +- 3.6 K, 131.8 +- 2.5 K, 138.9 +- 2.2 K, 149.8 +- 1.2 K, 161.3 +- 0.9 K, 168.4 +- 0.8 K, 178.0 +- 0.8 K, 194.1 +- 0.8 K and 203.8 +- 3.9 K (for a heating rate of 0.05 K/s) with thermal activation energies of 0.29 +- 0.01 eV, 0.31 +- 0.01 eV, 0.34 +- 0.01 eV, 0.40 +- 0.00 eV, 0.40 +- 0.01 eV, 0.41 +- 0.01 eV, 0.69 +- 0.01 eV, 0.70 +- 0.00 eV, 0.70 +- 0.01 eV, 0.70 +- 0.01 eV and 0.70 +- 0.01 eV, respectively. The lifetime of electrons in the trap giving rise to the most intense TL peak of ice (161.3 +- 0.9 K) estimated from TL data at 273 K is approx55 ns, while that at 77 K is approx2.0 x 10{sup +18} years i.e. ice can be used for TL dating of icy bodies in the solar system. The physical basis of these findings have been provided keeping in mind the formation of H{sup 0}, O{sup -}, OH{sup -}, HO{sub 2}{sup -} and trapped electrons that are known to be produced by irradiation of ice. The implications of these findings have been discussed.

  8. Thermoluminescence of ice and its implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, L.; Gartia, R. K.; Bishal Singh, K.; Basanta Singh, Th.

    2009-12-01

    A set of six glow curves of hexagonal ice irradiated at 77 K with various doses of γ-rays have been subjected to rigorous analysis. It shows the presence of as many as 11 thermoluminescence (TL) peaks at 108.2 ± 1.7 K, 115.5 ± 1.4 K, 123.4 ± 3.6 K, 131.8 ± 2.5 K, 138.9 ± 2.2 K, 149.8 ± 1.2 K, 161.3 ± 0.9 K, 168.4 ± 0.8 K, 178.0 ± 0.8 K, 194.1 ± 0.8 K and 203.8 ± 3.9 K (for a heating rate of 0.05 K/s) with thermal activation energies of 0.29 ± 0.01 eV, 0.31 ± 0.01 eV, 0.34 ± 0.01 eV, 0.40 ± 0.00 eV, 0.40 ± 0.01 eV, 0.41 ± 0.01 eV, 0.69 ± 0.01 eV, 0.70 ± 0.00 eV, 0.70 ± 0.01 eV, 0.70 ± 0.01 eV and 0.70 ± 0.01 eV, respectively. The lifetime of electrons in the trap giving rise to the most intense TL peak of ice (161.3 ± 0.9 K) estimated from TL data at 273 K is ˜55 ns, while that at 77 K is ˜2.0 × 10 +18 years i.e. ice can be used for TL dating of icy bodies in the solar system. The physical basis of these findings have been provided keeping in mind the formation of H 0, O -, OH -, HO2- and trapped electrons that are known to be produced by irradiation of ice. The implications of these findings have been discussed.

  9. Implications of Water Development for Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X.; Rosegrant, M. W.

    2001-05-01

    Water development for agriculture-the major water user worldwide-is one of the most critical factors for food security in many regions of the world. The role of water withdrawals in irrigated agriculture and food security has been receiving substantial attention in recent years. This paper will address key questions regarding implications of water development for food security at both regional and global scale, including what is the current status of water availability for agriculture? How will water availability and water demand evolve over the next three decades, taking into account availability and variability in water resources, the water supply infrastructure, and irrigation and nonagricultural water demands? What is the role of irrigation in food production now and in the future? What risk will be put on regional and global food production, demand and trade if municipal and industrial water demand is high, environmental water requirement is increasing, or groundwater overdraft is phased off? What is the contribution of infrastructure investment in enhancing irrigation water supply capacity, improving water use efficiency, and increasing rainfall harvesting particularly in arid and semi-arid regions and countries? These questions are explored through a global modeling framework, IMPACT-Water, developed in the International Food Policy Research Institute. In general, the results show that, under plausible assumptions on developments in irrigation and water investment, the rapid growth in water demand, particularly for domestic and industrial purposes, coupled with the a continued slowdown in investments, could be a serious threat to future growth in food production, causing negative impacts on low-income developing countries and the poor consumers in these countries. Food production, demand and trade and food prices will be increasingly affected by declining water availibility for irrigation. Developing countries, especially those with arid climates, poor

  10. Implications of NEAR results for asteroid structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, A.

    . MathildeSs high porosity may lead to compressional cratering, which may explain how these giant craters were emplaced, but does this process apply to Eros? Moreover, a 20-km long scarp and polygonal craters have been reported on Mathilde, indicating that it is not completely strengthless and that at least one of its structural components appears coherent over a few tens of km. Still, available evidence suggests that MathildeSs interior is more severely damaged by collisions than the interior of Eros.Recent work has focused on ponded deposits of regolith on Eros. These deposits appear to have been emplaced by fluid-like motion. Electrostatic levitation and seismic shaking have been proposed as mechanisms to mobilize particulates. Because of the low surface gravity on Eros, a low amplitude of seismic shaking suffices to cause slope failures and degradation of topography. A seismic shaking model (Cheng et al. 2002) predicts that ponds should form readily on Eros but not on much larger bodies like the Moon, where ponds are not observed. Seismic shaking may contribute to the degraded appearance of many craters and topographic features on Eros. Implicit in this model is that seismic waves are transmitted globally through Eros. Britt and Consolmagno (2001) suggested that macroscopic fractures within the interior of an asteroid should be void, because fines should be retained by friction near the surface and cannot fall into the interior even if an open path is available. Void, macroscopic fractures, which may be through-going in the case of Eros, would have profound implications for mitigation. I will argue instead that fractures within an asteroid should be filled with particulates, because friction forces should not prevent particles from falling through cracks.2

  11. The CH/π hydrogen bond: Implication in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, M.

    2012-06-01

    The CH/π hydrogen bond is the weakest extreme of hydrogen bonds that occurs between a soft acid CH and a soft base π-system. Implication in chemistry of the CH/π hydrogen bond includes issues of conformation, crystal packing, and specificity in host/guest complexes. The result obtained by analyzing the Cambridge Structural Database is reviewed. The peculiar axial preference of isopropyl group in α-phellandrene and folded conformation of levopimaric acid have been explained in terms of the CH/π hydrogen bond, by high-level ab initio MO calculations. Implication of the CH/π hydrogen bond in structural biology is also discussed, briefly.

  12. The estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia implicates glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Line; Hansen, Thomas; Jakobsen, Klaus D;

    2008-01-01

    . We undertook these challenges by using an established clinical paradigm, the estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia, as the criterion to select candidates among the numerous genes experimentally implicated in schizophrenia. Bioinformatic tools were used to build and priorities the signaling networks...... implicated by the candidate genes resulting from the estrogen selection. We identified ten candidate genes using this approach that are all active in glucose metabolism and particularly in the glycolysis. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that variants of the glycolytic genes are associated with schizophrenia...

  13. SYMPOSIUM - MACRONUTRIENT UTILIZATION DURING EXERCISE: IMPLICATIONS FOR PERFORMANCE AND SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryn S. Willoughby

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The review articles constitute a mini-symposium entitled "Macronutrient Utilization During Exercise: Implications for Performance and Supplementation" that were recently presented at the 2004 annual conference of the International Society of Sports Nutrition in Las Vegas, NV. Much controversy often surrounds macronutrient intake, utilization, and subsequent metabolism regarding exercise and athletic performance. Furthermore, the role of macronutrient supplementation with the specificintent of improving body composition and exercise performance by way of nutrient timing is also an important issue. As such, the articles provide a comprehensive overview of metabolic and performance-enhancing implications regarding carbohydrate, fat, and protein.

  14. On Dynamic Characteristics of Culture and its Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凌志

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the dynamic characteristic of western culture and Chinese culture from the intercultural perspective.Then it puts forward some implications for English teaching,it indicates that English teachers should pay due attention to improve the students cultural awareness and their own cultural teaching ability,adjust teaching content to adapt them to cultural changes.

  15. Social Justice Advocacy in Rural Communities: Practical Issues and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Joshua M.; Werth, James L., Jr.; Hastings, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    The professional literature related to social justice has increased, but there has been little discussion of the practical issues and implications associated with social advocacy. However, adding new roles will result in new considerations for counseling psychologists. The need to be attuned to how the practical aspects of advocacy intersect with…

  16. Innovation and inter-firm linkages : new implications for policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, B

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses the implications for competition, innovation and learning of different forms of inter-firm linkage, ways to govern them, different 'generic systems' of innovation, and government policy. It employs a transformed theory of transactions that can deal with innovation and learning

  17. Electronically Distributed Work Communities: Implications for Research on Telework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Bradford W.; Grantham, Charles E.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the concept of telework, or telecommuting, and its influence on the electronic community and organizational structures. The electronically distributed organization is discussed, and implications for research on telework are suggested in the areas of privacy regulation, self-efficacy, temporal aspects of employee behavior, communication…

  18. Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Implications for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Pediatric exposure to polychlorinated biphynels (PCBs) is a national health concern with significant implications for school psychologists. According to the healthcare collaboration model, the school psychologist plays a key role in the provision of services to children affected by environmental teratogens. To effectively function as healthcare…

  19. The constitutional implications of the rise of the SNP

    OpenAIRE

    McHarg, Aileen

    2015-01-01

    The UK Constitutional Law Association blog has asked constitutional lawyers to review the main party manifestos ahead of the May elections, drawing out key constitutional proposals. Below Aileen McHarg discussed the constitutional implications of the rise of the SNP.

  20. First Amendment Implications of Harassment Rules to Be Studied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschik, Scott

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Education, criticized by colleges for its guidelines on investigating racial harassment and hate-speech charges, will issue a new policy on First Amendment implications of such inquiries. A major issue is school responsibility for racial harassment by diverse populations over whom colleges may have little control. (MSE)

  1. General Relativistic Dynamics of Irrotational Dust Cosmological Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Matarrese, S; Sáez, D; Matarrese, Sabino; Pantano, Ornella; Saez, Diego

    1994-01-01

    The non--linear dynamics of cosmological perturbations of an irrotational collisionless fluid is analyzed within General Relativity. Relativistic and Newtonian solutions are compared, stressing the different role of boundary conditions in the two theories. Cosmological implications of relativistic effects, already present at second order in perturbation theory, are studied and the dynamical role of the magnetic part of the Weyl tensor is elucidated.

  2. Bioavailability: implications for science/cleanup policy; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and cleanup decisions. Bioavailability refers to how chemicals ''behave'' and their ''availability'' to interact with living organisms. Bioavailability has significant implications for exposure risks, cleanup goals, and site costs. Risk to human health and the environment is directly tied to the bioavailability of the chemicals of concern

  3. Global Economies of Fear: Affect, Politics and Pedagogical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to explore the importance of the affective politics of fear in education and to discuss the implications for educational policy, theory and practice. The aim is to explore how discourses of fear work in some educational contexts and draw significant boundaries between "us" and "them" through the structuring of curriculum and…

  4. Radiological protection, environmental implications, health and risk management: forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topics related to the radioactivity or radiation are presented. The importance of protection and security measures that are required both for public health, occupational health and the medical radiation is analyzed. In addition, it emphasizes the risks faced by professionals who work with radioactivity. Issues that confront the serious environmental implications of such activities are also showed

  5. TG Grammar's Implications for the Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷彩

    2009-01-01

    Chomsky's Transformational-Generative (TG) grammar is another revolution to linguistics after Saussure's strueturalism, and it plays an important role in the modem linguistics. Introducing the research perspective and method of TG grammar, this paper analyses its implications for the foreign language teaching.

  6. Training Implications of Harmful Effects of Psychological Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Louis G.; Boswell, James F.; Constantino, Michael J.; Goldfried, Marvin R.; Hill, Clara E.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to delineate training implications regarding harmful effects associated with psychotherapy. The authors strongly recommend that trainees be made aware of (and encouraged to examine carefully) the potentially harmful treatments that have been recently identified (Lilienfeld, 2007). Consistent with a broad perspective on…

  7. Safeguarding and Protecting Children in Maternity Services: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazenbatt, Anne; Greer, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This article debates the issues involved in safeguarding and protecting children in maternity services and offers implications for professional practice. Midwives and other staff who work as members of the maternity team have a safeguarding role to play in the identification of babies and children who have been abused, or are at risk of abuse, and…

  8. Pumps vs. airlifts: Theoretical and practical energy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the design of a recirculating aquaculture system five life-supporting issues should be considered which include aeration, degasification, circulation, biofiltration, and clarification. The implications associated with choosing a pumped system versus an airlift system to address these issues was e...

  9. The nano-plasma interface: implications of the protein corona

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfram, Joy; Yang, Yong; Shen, Jianliang; Moten, Asad; Chen, Chunying; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro; Zhao, Yuliang

    2014-01-01

    The interactions between nanoparticles and macromolecules in the blood plasma dictate the biocompatibility and efficacy of nanotherapeutics. Accordingly, the properties of nanoparticles and endogenous biomolecules change at the nano-plasma interface. Here, we review the implications of such changes including toxicity, immunological recognition, molecular targeting, biodistribution, intracellular uptake, and drug release. Although this interface poses several challenges for nanomedicine, it al...

  10. Human resource management implications of new forms of organizing

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Runde, Carlos; Whittington, Richard; Quintanilla, Javier

    2000-01-01

    Adopting a process view, we explore the personnel (HRM) implications of new forms of organizing (NFOs). We review the characteristics of NFOs and explain how they require a renewed HRM approach. We illustrate the HRM approach with preliminary results from a European comparative study, and comment on the challenges ahead.

  11. File-Sharing among College Students: Moral and Legal Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrum, Colton Dwayne

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the phenomenon of college students who illegally file-share. The main research question was, "What are the experiences of college students who file-share and what are their perspectives on the moral and legal implications for doing so?" Data were collected from six students using interviews, focus groups, and…

  12. LHCb results on flavour physics and implications to BSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LHCb is a dedicated flavour physics experiment at the LHC. Precision measurements of CP violation and the study of rare decays of hadrons containing beauty and charm quarks constitute powerful searches for New Physics. A selection of recent LHCb results and their implications to physics beyond the Standard Model are discussed.

  13. Response to "Violence in Our Schools: Implications for Teacher Education."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, Diane; Mahlios, Marc; Hadadian, Azar; Spitznagel, Ronald

    2000-01-01

    Three responses to an article on implications for teacher education of school violence examine: (1) teacher educators' roles in preparing teachers to detect problems in students; (2) the need for family involvement (because trying to reach students in school is too late); and (3) reasons for school violence (family influence, parent…

  14. Tourist activated networks: Implications for dynamic packaging systems in tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zach, Florian; Gretzel, Ulrike; Fesenmaier, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    structure. The results indicate that the tourist activated network for the destination is rather sparse and that there are clearly differences in core and peripheral nodes. The findings illustrate the structure of a tourist activated network and provide implications for technology design and tourism...

  15. Heart failure: SGLT2 inhibitors and heart failure -- clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Itamar; Cahn, Avivit

    2016-04-01

    The latest findings from the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial show a 34% reduction in hospitalization for heart failure or cardiovascular death in patients receiving empagliflozin, a sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, compared with placebo. These outstanding results call for discussion of the clinical implications, and in-depth studies of the mechanisms of action of SGLT2 inhibitors. PMID:26961066

  16. Sexual Objectification of Women: Clinical Implications and Training Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Carr, Erika R.; Moffitt, Lauren B.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the implications of theory and empirical research on the sexual objectification of women. Drawing largely from the American Psychological Association's 2007 "Guidelines for Psychological Practice With Girls and Women," the 2007 "Report of the American Psychological Association's Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls,"…

  17. Guattari's Ecosophy and Implications for Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh-Spencer, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Guattari's ecosophy has implications for many types of pedagogy practiced in the school. While Guattari never explicitly advocated the educational use of ecosophy, I explore in this article how it can be used as a lens to "read" pedagogy in nuanced ways, highlighting oppressive premises and practices. I first discuss Guattari's…

  18. Plastic surgery in a rural African hospital: spectrum and implications.

    OpenAIRE

    Goodacre, T. E.

    1986-01-01

    A review of general surgical work undertaken at a large bush hospital in Africa revealed a high proportion (16-19%) of reconstructive/plastic cases. The reasons for this are discussed, together with the feasibility of current reconstructive techniques in such a situation in the developing world. The implications for future surgical planning and the training of surgeons for developing countries are discussed.

  19. Hotel Employees' Japanese Language Experiences: Implications and Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita-Discekici, Yasuko

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the Japanese language learning experiences of 13 hotel employees in Guam. Results of the study present implications and suggestions for a Japanese language program for the hotel industry. The project began as a result of hotel employees frustrations when they were unable to communicate effectively with their Japanese guests. (Auth/JL)

  20. Rethinking the Concept of Acculturation: Implications for Theory and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Szapocznik, Jose

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an expanded model of acculturation among international migrants and their immediate descendants. Acculturation is proposed as a multidimensional process consisting of the confluence among heritage-cultural and receiving-cultural practices, values, and identifications. The implications of this reconceptualization for the…

  1. Experimental implications of mirror matter-type dark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Foot, R.

    2003-01-01

    Mirror matter-type dark matter is one dark matter candidate which is particularly well motivated from high energy physics. The theoretical motivation and experimental evidence are pedagogically reviewed, with emphasis on the implications of recent orthopositronium experiments, the DAMA/NaI dark matter search, anomalous meteorite events etc.

  2. Clinical Implications of Dynamic Systems Theory for Phonological Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rvachew, Susan; Bernhardt, Barbara May

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine treatment outcomes in relation to the complexity of treatment goals for children with speech sound disorders. Method: The clinical implications of dynamic systems theory in contrast with learnability theory are discussed, especially in the context of target selection decisions for children with speech sound disorders. Detailed…

  3. Understanding Bipolar Disorder: Implications for Mental Health Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withrow, J. Steve; Hinkle, J. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Provides an overview of bipolar disorder, including a discussion of diagnostic indicators, etiological theories, and psychopharmacological treatment. Examines treatment implications for mental health counselors, including role in psychiatric liaison, individual counseling, marriage and family therapy, and vocational counseling. (Author/ABL)

  4. Somatosensory dysfunctin in fibromyaligia : Implications for pathophysiological mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Kosek, Eva

    1996-01-01

    SOMATOSENSORY DYSFUNCTION IN FIBROMYALGIA. IMPLICATIONS FOR PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS. Eva KosekDissertation from the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Karolinska Institure/Hospital, Stoclcholm, Sweden Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome characterized by generalized pain, tenderness,disturbed sleep and pronounced fatigue. The pathophysiology is unknown ...

  5. Examining Female Life Events: Implications for Counselors and Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiebert, Valerie; Alston, Anne; Bradford, Caroline; Sealander, Karen A.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study examining the impact of female life events (menarche, "the sex talk", and loss of virginity) on women. Fifty-one women from 2 universities responded to a questionnaire containing quantitative and qualitative items. Discussion and implications for counseling girls and women are presented. (Contains 2…

  6. Appraising the Implications of the SAT for Educational Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, Lala Carr; Powell, Brian

    1985-01-01

    Differences in the corrected state rankings on Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores are explained by the percentage of students taking the test and by student composition by sex, race, and average family income. Higher state per capita educational expenditures are significantly related to higher average SAT scores. Policy implications are…

  7. Elasticity of fertilizer and its implication for subsidy

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbar, M. A.; Islam, Md. Shariful

    1981-01-01

    In order to address an on-going debate about the effect of price vs non-price factors on the demand and utilization of fertilizers and its implication for subsidy, this study used a sample farm level data to test the effect of price on demand.

  8. Using Cultural Diversity in Teaching Economics: Global Business Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitry, Darryl J.

    2008-01-01

    Globalization and increasing cross-cultural interactivity have implications for education in general and may also present valuable pedagogical opportunities in the practice of teaching economics for business students. Therefore, the author investigated this proposition and offers some empirical observations from research and teaching experiments.…

  9. IMPLICATION OF MARKETING PLAN: FOR MARKETING LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SERVICES

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. NAIKWADI AND P. M. CHASKAR

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the meaning and purpose of marketing in academic libraries and discusses five laws of library science in the view of marketing. It also describes marketing process, its development and implication of marketing plan, and list of the tools and techniques for marketing

  10. Financial Frictions and Real Implications of Macroprudential Policies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Derviz, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 26 (2012), s. 333-368. ISSN 1555-4961 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Debt * Equity * Bank * Default * Macroprudential policy Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/Derviz-financial frictions and real implications of macroprudential policies.pdf

  11. Baccalaureate Degrees at Ontario Colleges: Issues and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panacci, Adam G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies and examines major issues and implications of the proposal to substantially increase the number of applied baccalaureate degrees offered by Ontario's Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology, including increasing four-year applied degree offerings and introducing three-year applied degrees. Currently, provincial…

  12. A Cognitive Theory of Resistance and Reactance: Implications for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, E. Thomas; Seibel, Cynthia A.

    1990-01-01

    Attempts to integrate the formulations of Brehm and Brehm and of Guidano and sets forth a cognitive theory of resistance and reactance within a cognitive developmental and individual differences context. Differentiates resistance from reactance and explores developmental antecedents of characterological reactance. Describes implications for…

  13. Implications of "Amae" for HIV Risk in Japanese Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuoha, Francis N.; Munakata, Tsunetsugu

    2005-01-01

    Assertiveness, defined as perceived confidence to express true feelings in interpersonal relationships, has been reported to correlate with HIV risk avoidance. However, Japanese social structure encourages "amae" or self-repression. The present study investigated the implications of "amae" for HIV risk avoidance among Japanese university students.…

  14. Implications of a Contextualist Approach to Media-Effects Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, David K.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses implications of the contextualism of William McGuire for media-effects research and for the answers media-effects researchers give to questions of social concern. Argues that mass communication research long has contained latent contextualist orientations. (MS)

  15. Suicide in Middle Level Schools: Implications for Principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepfer, Conrad F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Prevention of teenage suicide and coping with it when it occurs is an increasing concern for middle-level principals. This article focuses on specific implications of the youth suicide problem for middle-level principals with considerations for other principals as well. (Author/TE)

  16. The nucleon spin decomposition: news and experimental implications

    CERN Document Server

    Lorcé, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Recently, many nucleon spin decompositions have been proposed in the literature, creating a lot of confusion. This revived in particular old controversies regarding the measurability of theoretically defined quantities. We propose a brief overview of the different decompositions, discuss the sufficient requirements for measurability and stress the experimental implications.

  17. Mental Illness in Offender Populations: Prevalence, Duty and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderstrom, Irina R.

    2007-01-01

    Prisons are increasingly being filled with inmates who suffer from mental illness. This paper examines the prevalence of mental illness in American jails and prisons, the duty government and society has to provide appropriate mental health treatment, and the implications for inmate safety, costs, recidivism, and community reintegration if…

  18. Religion and Divorce: Implications and Strategies for Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kathleen A.

    2002-01-01

    The religious and spiritual concerns of clients and families experiencing divorce can be complicated. Many counselors are faced with the task of helping clients through divorce within a religious context, a context that is uncomfortable for many. This article suggests strategies to increase awareness of religious and spiritual implications of…

  19. Marital Conflict Behaviors and Implications for Divorce over 16 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birditt, Kira S.; Brown, Edna; Orbuch, Terri L.; McIlvane, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined self-reported marital conflict behaviors and their implications for divorce. Husbands and wives (N = 373 couples; 47% White American, 53% Black American) reported conflict behaviors in Years 1, 3, 7, and 16 of their marriages. Individual behaviors (e.g., destructive behaviors) and patterns of behaviors between partners (e.g.,…

  20. Physical Education and Implications for Students with Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Cynthia G.; Gaus, Mark D.; Biggs, Mary Jo Garcia; Williams, James, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, James Williams, a young man with Asperger's syndrome (AS) shares his experiences taking physical education in a generalized education setting and discusses the implications for students with AS. He was diagnosed with AS when he was 9 years old. School was tough at times, especially when social interactions came into play. One of…

  1. Nutrition Advertisements in Consumer Magazines: Health Implications for African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Charlotte A.; Pratt, Cornelius B.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the "Ladies' Home Journal" and two popular consumer magazines that target blacks to determine the proportions of food and beverage advertisements, nutrition advertisements and their promotional messages, and the health implications they reveal. Findings reveal these magazines had a significantly higher number of alcohol ads, limited…

  2. Local Citation Analysis of Graduate Biology Theses: Collection Development Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laura Newton

    2011-01-01

    This paper will focus on the citation analysis of graduate masters theses from Carleton University's Biology Department with implications for library collection management decisions. Twenty-five masters theses were studied to determine citation types and percentages, ranking of journals by frequency of citation and by number of authors citing, and…

  3. Mentors’ implication in clinical learning and assessment of nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    González Chordá, Víctor; Mena Tudela, Desirée; Cervera Gasch, Águeda; Salas Medina, Pablo; Folch Ayora, Ana; Orts Cortés, María Isabel; Maciá Soler, Loreto

    2014-01-01

    Nursing Education in Europe is regulated by law from 2005. Clinical learning comprises at least 50% of the total degree program in nursing. It is necessary rely on professionals nurses involved in the learning process and skills development assessment. The level of implication in learning processes of these professional nurses is very important to ensure good results.

  4. Vitamin D Status of College Students: Implications for Health Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cress, Eileen McKenna

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is considered to be a pandemic with implications for compromised bone health and other chronic diseases. Few studies have examined vitamin D status in college-aged individuals where prevention of future health consequences is still possible. Serum vitamin D 25(OH)D status and vitamin D intake were examined in 98 college…

  5. Hiroshima and Nagasaki: New doses, risks, and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation summarizes the recent re-evaluations of the dose and risk of cancer among survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It addresses briefly their limitations, and describes some of their implications for the lifetime projection of the risk of a fatal cancer following exposure to ionizing radiation

  6. Multiple Intelligence Theory for Gifted Education: Criticisms and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calik, Basak; Birgili, Bengi

    2013-01-01

    This paper scrutinizes giftedness and gifted learners under the implications of multiple intelligence theory with regard to coaching young scientists. It is one of the pluralistic theories toward intelligence while supporting to view individuals as active participants during teaching and learning processes which correspond with the applications of…

  7. The Religious Implications of an Historical Approach to Jewish Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furst, Rachel

    This project examines the religious implications of an approach to "limmudei kodesh" (primarily the study of Talmud) and "halakhah" (an integration of academic scholarship with traditional Torah study and the evaluation of the educational pros and cons of a curriculum built on such a synthesis). In the concerted effort over the past century to…

  8. Sexual Addiction and the Internet: Implications for Gay Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, Brian J.; Chaney, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an overview of sexual addiction and explore the relationship between Internet use and sexual compulsivity. The role of Internet use in gay men's sexual behavior is described. Implications for the counseling profession are discussed, and a clinical case study is presented.

  9. Tablets in K-12 Education: Integrated Experiences and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Heejung, Ed.; Alon, Sandra, Ed.; Fuentes, David, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of new and emerging technologies in the education sector has been a topic of interest to researchers, educators, and software developers alike in recent years. Utilizing the proper tools in a classroom setting is a critical factor in student success. "Tablets in K-12 Education: Integrated Experiences and Implications"…

  10. Development of Proverb Comprehension in Adolescents: Implications for Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.; Hegel, Susan L.; Uhden, Linda D.; Bustamante, Silvia

    1998-01-01

    Comparison of the comprehension of proverbs of 200 students (50 each in Grades 6, 8, 10, and 12) found growth in proverb comprehension was most pronounced at two transitional points in development: when students move from late childhood into early adolescence, and again when they move from late adolescence into adulthood. Implications for…

  11. Financial Implications of Implementing an E-Learning Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kunal

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to outline the financial implications, while deploying information and communication technologies for implementing e-learning, and to elucidate them, while implementing an e-learning project in a conventional university environment. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is a descriptive account of the various cost factors…

  12. K-12 Implications Seen in Some Cases before High Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Arizona's variation on government vouchers for religious schools and California's prohibition on the sale of violent video games to minors present the top two cases with implications for education in the U.S. Supreme Court term that formally begins Oct. 4. New Justice Elena Kagan brings to the court extensive education policy experience as a…

  13. Green certification and building performance: Implications for tangibles and intangibles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devine, A.; Kok, N.

    2015-01-01

    Commercial buildings represent a significant share of global energy consumption. In the general absence of regulation, voluntary labeling and green building certification schemes have been introduced to reflect this externality to building owners and tenants. The implications of such schemes have pr

  14. English as a Lingua Franca: Concepts, Use, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo, Alessia

    2012-01-01

    Sowden's article raises a number of questions concerning English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) and criticizes it as a simplified and culturally neutral means of communication. In this response, I address the issues concerning the conceptualization and use of ELF as well as the implications for ELT. I provide up-to-date evidence of ELF research and show…

  15. A Gaming Frame of Mind: Digital Contexts and Academic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Sandra S.

    2009-01-01

    When considering the interdisciplinary nature of education, researchers need to acknowledge students' traditional and multimodal literacies and learning environments. Technological changes have brought about new learning spaces and what students learn through their video gaming experiences seems to have important academic implications and…

  16. Azerbaijan Demographic Change : Implications for Social Policy and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This note provides an overview of demographic changes in Azerbaijan and their policy implications. Azerbaijan's population is younger than the populations of most countries in the region. It is estimated that the population in Azerbaijan will increase from about 7.2 million in 1990 to 10.6 million by 2050. Nevertheless, Azerbaijan is beginning to experience the aging of its population, aft...

  17. Features and implications of the plateau inflationary potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Dalianis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    After the last PLANCK CMB data the plateau inflationary potentials are favored. I give some examples of such inflationary models emphasizing particularly on the Starobinsky model and its supergravity embedding. I discuss the crucial implications, regarding the initial conditions problem, of this new sort of potentials for the standard picture of the inflationary theory.

  18. The Environmental Implications of Privatization : Lessons for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lovei, Magda; Gentry, Bradford S.

    2002-01-01

    Governments worldwide have increasingly recognized the economic potential and fiscal advantages of privatization. What is less well recognized is that, under the right conditions, privatization can also yield environmental benefits and contribute to sustainable development. This report reviews a number of case studies to draw lessons about the environmental implications of privatization. I...

  19. Implications for Child Bilingual Acquisition, Optionality and Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serratrice, Ludovica

    2014-01-01

    Amaral & Roeper's Multiple Grammars (MG) proposal offers an appealingly simple way of thinking about the linguistic representations of bilingual speakers. This article presents a commentary on the MG language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in this issue, focusing on the theory's implications for child…

  20. Expectancy in Melody: Tests of the Implication-Realization Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn

    1996-01-01

    Three experiments examined implication-realization model's description of tone-to-tone expectancies for continuations of melodies. The model successfully predicted listeners' judgments across different musical styles, regardless of the listener's musical training or nationality. The collinearity of the model's predictors indicated, however, that a…

  1. Prototype Theory and Its Implication into English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑禄娟; 张锐

    2015-01-01

    Prototype is the cognitive reference point that human beings use to categorize the world.It is the best and most typical member in the category while the other members of the category are centered on it.Guided by prototype theory,this paper will discuss some implications to English vocabulary teaching.

  2. Pluricentric Views towards English and Implications for ELT in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianli, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of the classifications or models of English language have been proposed by a number of scholars who attempt to explain the differences in the ways English is used in different localities. This paper reviews three models of classification of English language, with an aim of drawing implications on how English Language Teaching (ELT) in…

  3. The Affective Politics of Hatred: Implications for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that using the notion of ambivalence in understanding ethnic hatred can be helpful to educators who struggle to address the pedagogical implications of students' feelings of hatred. It is suggested that, although hate feelings are difficult to change, unraveling the ambivalence in the affective politics of hatred creates…

  4. A gene expression signature for RSV: clinical implications and limitations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J M Openshaw

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Peter Openshaw discusses the challenges in advancing respiratory syncytial virus (RSV treatments and the implications of a study by Mejias and colleagues using a newly identified gene signature for diagnosis and prediction of RSV severity. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  5. Behavioral Momentum: Implications and Development from Reinforcement Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaud, Joseph J.; Gaither, George A.

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes historical and contemporary theories of reinforcement and clinical application of reinforcement principles to behavior and modification therapy. Presents a behavioral momentum model that studies the allocation of behavior under changed environmental constraints and discusses the implications of this model on behavior modification and…

  6. Drawing Inferences from Semantically Positive and Negative Implicative Predicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosniadou, Stella

    A study investigated the inferential processing involved in the comprehension of a class of complex predicates (such as "remember to,""manage to,""fail to," and "neglect to") that are known as implicative. The subjects, 64 college students, were timed while they drew inferences from syntactically affirmative and negative sentences containing the…

  7. The Skills Implications of Electronic Retailing. IES Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackey, Nii Djan; Hillage, Jim; Jagger, Nick; Bates, Peter

    The skills and education/training implications of the development of electronic commerce in the United Kingdom's retail industry and its associated supply chain were examined. The major data collection activities were as follows: a literature review; consultation with leading academics and advisers; an e-mail-based call for information from…

  8. Core Strength: Implications for Fitness and Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemohn, Wendell; Pariser, Gina

    2002-01-01

    Presents information to promote understanding of the concept of core strength and stability, explain why this concept is important to spine health, and evaluate trunk training activities with respect to their contribution to core strength and stability, noting implications for physical fitness and low back pain. The paper reviews the anatomy and…

  9. Formulaic Sequences and the Implications for Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi

    2016-01-01

    The present paper is a review of literature in relation to formulaic sequences and the implications for second language learning. The formulaic sequence is a significant part of our language, and plays an essential role in both first and second language learning. The paper first introduces the definition, classifications, and major features of…

  10. Implications of Hegel's Theories of Language on Second Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the implications of Hegel's theories of language on second language (L2) teaching. Three among the various concepts in Hegel's theories of language are selected. They are the crucial role of intersubjectivity; the primacy of the spoken over the written form; and the importance of the training of form or grammar. Applying…

  11. The implications of the Human Tissue Act 2004 for dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Laura; Woof, Marcus

    2006-12-23

    Partly as a consequence of the inquiries into the events at the Bristol Royal Infirmary and the Royal Liverpool Children's Hospital (Alder Hey), the Government recently enacted the Human Tissue Act 2004. The main provisions of the Act came into force on 1 September 2006 and have potential implications for dentists. PMID:17183410

  12. A Brief History of Leadership Preparation. Implications from UCEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Martha M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the "Handbook of Research on the Education of School Leaders" was published by the University Council for Educational Administration (UCEA). The chapter discussed in this issue of "Implications," introduces a conceptual model for describing the different kinds of knowledge and the interactions among technical knowledge, artistry, and…

  13. Considering Shame and Its Implications for Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Diane Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Research evidence is accumulating to suggest that shame can be implicated in important ways in student adjustment to the learning environment. Student survey data spring-fall 2010 suggest that shame is associated with variables thought to be closely related to student learning--sense of community, burnout and achievement goals--and underline the…

  14. eBay Law: The Legal Implications of the C2C Electronic Commerce Model

    OpenAIRE

    Guadamuz, Andres

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts to address some of the legal implications of the popular Consumer-to-Consumer electronic commerce model, in particular the implications of the successful and popular auctions site eBay.

  15. Implication of Information and Communication Technologies for the Internationalisation of Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik

    1997-01-01

    Paper on the implications of ICTs on the internationalisation of services - with an emphasis on factors affecting this development.......Paper on the implications of ICTs on the internationalisation of services - with an emphasis on factors affecting this development....

  16. A ‘Brexit’ would have important implications at the European and international levels

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Tim

    2014-01-01

    The implications of a ‘Brexit’ for the UK has been endlessly discussed, but its implications for the EU and other international powers has hardly been considered. Tim Oliver explores the complex set of possibilities and implications at the European and international level that both the UK and EU need to keep in mind as they move forward.

  17. Fuzzy -Fold BCI-Positive Implicative Ideals in BCI-Algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Tebu, S. F.; C. Lele; Nganou, J. B.

    2012-01-01

    We consider the notion of fuzzy -fold positive implicative ideals in BCI-algebras. We analyse many properties of fuzzy -fold positive implicative ideals. We also establish an extension properties for fuzzy n-fold positive implicative ideals in BCI-algberas. This work generalizes the corresponding results in the crisp case.

  18. Fuzzy controllers based on some fuzzy implication operators and their response functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hongxing; YOU Fei; PENG Jiayin

    2004-01-01

    The fuzzy controllers constructed by 23 fuzzy implication operators based on CRI algorithm and their response functions are discussed.The conclusions show that the fuzzy controllers constructed by 9 fuzzy implication operators are universal approximators to continuous functions and can be used in practical fuzzy control systems.And these 9 fuzzy implication operators except for Einstein operator intersection are all the adjoint pairs of some fuzzy implication operators.Besides, there are 3 other fuzzy controllers formed by fuzzy implication operators being regarded approximately as fitted functions.

  19. Bidirectional voltage biased implication operations using SiOx based unipolar memristors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fei; Guckert, Lauren; Chang, Yao-Feng; Swartzlander, Earl E.; Lee, Jack

    2015-11-01

    This work presents a material implication implementation using SiOx based unipolar memristors. SiOx memristors with TaN/SiOx/Si structures have been fabricated, characterized, and used in the implication operation. The implication function and its truth table were well implemented using both positive and negative voltages for load resistor bias. The voltage range for the implication operation is reduced due to bidirectional bias. The key factors for the operation of material implication, such as load resistance, characteristics of the memristor, and design tradeoffs were investigated. This work demonstrates that unipolar SiOx based memristors are suitable for logic operations.

  20. ERP in large Danish enterprises: Implications for SCM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues that with the present state of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) adoption by the companies, the potential benefits of Supply Chain Management (SCM) and integration is about to be unleashed. This paper presents the results and the implications of a survey on ERP adoption in the...... 500 largest Danish enterprises. The study is based on telephone interviews with ERP managers in 88.4% of the "top 500" enterprises in Denmark. Based on the survey, the paper suggests the following four propositions: (i) ERP has become the pervasive infrastructure; (ii) ERP has become a contemporary...... technology; (iii) ERP adoption has matured; and (iv) ERP adoption is converging towards a dominant design. Finally, the paper discusses the general implications of the surveyed state of practice on the SCM research challenges. Consequently we argue that research needs to adjust its conceptions of the ERP...

  1. Climate change and energy: The implications for the Spanish case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the mutual implications between the climate change problem and the actual energy-at-a-crossroads situation of the unsustainable world energy model. The implications for the Spanish case are studied as a case example. The paper provides a brief review of the scientific evidence on climate change, analyzes the causes of the present energy dilemma and characterizes the problem to be addressed. The principal challenge for the future climate regime is to identify the nature and level of commitment that will provide sufficient incentives for all countries, with such a diversity of interests. The paper also exposes the most plausible framework for the future climate regime, the basic components of such a regime, the role to be played by the major stake holders and some guidelines for future negotiations. (Author)

  2. Patents and plant breeding: Implications for food security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Blakeney

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the inter-relationship between plant variety protection (PVP laws and patent laws and their implications for food security. PVP laws were developed to encourage and protect agricultural innovations by conferring exclusive rights upon the developers of new plant varieties, subject to exceptions for farmers to save seeds for future plantings and for plant breeders to develop new varieties. With the application of recombinant DNA technologies to agriculture and the possibility of patenting DNA and associated enabling technologies the seed saving privilege and breeders’ exception in PVP laws could be circumvented. This has important implications for food security, as does recent efforts of plant breeders to patent their breeding methods. This article examines two recent determinations by the European Patent Office’s Enlarged Board of Appeal concerning attempts to patent plant breeding methods.

  3. Squark Flavor Implications from B --> K* l+ l-

    CERN Document Server

    Behring, Arnd; Hiller, Gudrun; Schacht, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical progress regarding B --> K* l+ l- decays led to improved bounds on the Wilson coefficients C_9 and C_10 of four-fermion operators of the |Delta B|=|Delta S|=1 effective Hamiltonian. We analyze the resulting implications on squark flavor violation in the MSSM and obtain new constraints on flavor-changing left-right mixing in the up-squark-sector. We find the dimensionless flavor mixing parameter (delta^u_23)_LR, depending on the flavor-diagonal MSSM masses and couplings, to be as low as \\lesssim 0.1. This has implications for models based on radiative flavor violation and leads to BR(B_s --> mu+ mu-) \\gtrsim 1 x 10^-9. Rare top decays t --> c gamma, t --> c g, t --> c Z have branching ratios predicted to be below \\lesssim few times 10^-8, 10^-6 and 10^-7, respectively.

  4. Behavioral momentum. Implications and development from reinforcement theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaud, J J; Gaither, G A

    1996-04-01

    Historical and contemporary theories of reinforcement, as well as the clinical application of reinforcement principles to behavior modification and therapy, are critically analyzed and discussed. A new behavioral approach to studying the allocation of behavior under changed environmental constraints, termed behavioral momentum, is also presented. Whereas traditional behavioral analysis has emphasized the role of response rate as an index of response probability and response strength, more recent studies have addressed the persistence of behavior under altered environmental conditions and reinforcement contingencies. In terms of behavior modification and therapy, issues such as generalizability and relapse prevention have major implications for the type and length of behavioral intervention strategies employed. The behavioral momentum model analyzes operant behavior not only in terms of its response rate but also in relation to its persistence under changed environmental constraints. The authors discuss the applicability of this recent addition to reinforcement theories in context of its implications for behavior modification and therapy. PMID:8934866

  5. Business development - the function, research propositions, and managerial implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe

    executives from high-tech firms and venture capitalists in North America, Asia, and Europe to provide a foundation for future research. Business development is an emerging staff function providing an added level of sophistication to the firms' overall strategic management with interesting performance......  The management literature reflects remarkable little effort to investigate the nature and consequences of firms' business development activities. This exploratory research aims at synthesizing the scholarly knowledge on the subject with field interviews with senior business developers and...... implications. The business development function is typically found in progressive firms especially within high-tech industries, but is argued to become critical for all types of firms across industries wishing to grow and accumulate wealth. Research propositions and managerial implications are discussed....

  6. Implications of bilateral free trade agreements on access to medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Carlos María

    2006-05-01

    The TRIPS Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO) mandated the introduction of protection of intellectual property rights, notably patents, for pharmaceutical products. While the implications for the access to medicines contained in the terms of this Agreement raised significant concerns, a recent new wave of free trade agreements, negotiated outside the WTO, requires even higher levels of intellectual property protection for medicines than those mandated by that Agreement. The measures involved include the extension of the patent term beyond 20 years; prohibition of use of test data on drug efficacy and safety for certain periods for the approval of generic products; the linkage between drug registration and patent protection; in some cases, limitations to the grounds for granting compulsory licences. This article reviews some of these measures that further limit the competition of generic products and discusses their possible implication for access to medicines. PMID:16710551

  7. Genetics of Atrial Fibrillation and Possible Implications for Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Lemmens

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiac arrhythmia mainly caused by valvular, ischemic, hypertensive, and myopathic heart disease. Atrial fibrillation can occur in families suggesting a genetic background especially in younger subjects. Additionally recent studies have identified common genetic variants to be associated with atrial fibrillation in the general population. This cardiac arrhythmia has important public health implications because of its main complications: congestive heart failure and ischemic stroke. Since atrial fibrillation can result in ischemic stroke, one might assume that genetic determinants of this cardiac arrhythmia are also implicated in cerebrovascular disease. Ischemic stroke is a multifactorial, complex disease where multiple environmental and genetic factors interact. Whether genetic variants associated with a risk factor for ischemic stroke also increase the risk of a particular vascular endpoint still needs to be confirmed in many cases. Here we review the current knowledge on the genetic background of atrial fibrillation and the consequences for cerebrovascular disease.

  8. The Implications of the Upsurge of Female Criminality in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameh, S. O.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This work looks at the implications of the upsurge of female criminality in Nigeria. The work draws it strength from consulting numerous materials. It supports the assertion that more women are now involved in crime. The work infers that they have always been attracted to and actively involved in crime. Poverty, change in the traditional roles of women, the quest for economic occupations and unbiased criminal justice agents are identified as the main reasons for the increase in female criminality. The upsurge of female criminality is not without implications, as such, this study revealed that it will not only destroy the socialization structure of the society, it is a sure way to norm-less state. The need to discourage female criminality in Nigeria call for encouragement of women in the form of education and training, employment opportunities to reduce poverty and income disparities, and traditional leader as well as religious leaders involvement in the correctional process.

  9. Some Implications for Regulation of ICT and Media Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Falch, Morten; Tadayoni, Reza

    The term convergence in the areas of ICT and media means the coming together of IT, telecommunications, broadcasting and other media, technologically, market and policy wise. It is the sectoral convergence of the hitherto more separate ICT and media areas, which is in focus, even though...... there certainly are also changes taking place vertically in the different sectors. The paper examines the relationships between technology and market developments and policy and regulatory initiatives. The issue is, therefore, not solely the implications of market and technology trends on policy and regulation......, but also the reverse implications of policy and regulatory frameworks on technology and market developments. The paper analyses the convergence tendencies at a technological, market level and policy and regulatory level. It is, however, the policy level, which is the centre of attention in the paper...

  10. Tutorial in oral antithrombotic therapy: Biology and dental implications

    OpenAIRE

    Fakhri, Hamid Reza; Janket, Sok Ja; Jackson, Elizabeth A.; Baird, Alison E; Dinnocenzo, Richard; Meurman, Jukka H

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Recent developments of new direct oral anticoagulants that target specific clotting factors necessitate understanding of coagulation biology. The objective of this tutorial is to offer dental professionals a review of coagulation mechanisms and the pharmacodynamics of the conventional and new oral anticoagulants. Also, we summarized the dental implications of the conventional and new anticoagulants. Method: We searched Medline using search terms “antithrombotic”, “antihemostasis” ...

  11. Implications for democracy of a networked bureaucratic world

    OpenAIRE

    O'Toole Jr, Laurence J.

    1997-01-01

    Dwight Waldo wrote nearly fifty years ago that democracy is very much more than the political context in which public administration is carried out. Public administration is now less hierarchical and insular and is increasingly networked. This has important implications for democracy, including changing responsibilities for the public interest, for meeting public preferences, and for the enhancement of political deliberation, civility, and trust. Networked public administration can pose a thr...

  12. The Real and Financial Implications of Corporate Hedging

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo Campello; Chen Lin; Yue Ma; Hong Zou

    2011-01-01

    We study the implications of hedging for corporate financing and investment. We do so using an extensive, hand-collected data set on corporate hedging activities. Hedging can lower the odds of negative realizations, thereby reducing the expected costs of financial distress. In theory, this should ease a firm's access to credit. Using a tax-based instrumental variable approach, we show that hedgers pay lower interest spreads and are less likely to have capital expenditure restrictions in their...

  13. Suicide methods in Asia: Implications in suicide prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Yip, Paul S. F.; Kevin Chien-Chang Wu; Ying-Yeh Chen

    2012-01-01

    As the largest continent in the World, Asia accounts for about 60% of World suicides. Preventing suicide by restricting access to suicide methods is one of the few evidence-based suicide prevention strategies. However, there has been a lack of systematic exploration of suicide methods in Asian countries. To amend this shortage, the current review examines the leading suicide methods in different Asian countries, their trend, their age- and sex- specific characteristics, and their implications...

  14. Ore concentrate line efficient operation: some energy saving implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihle, Christian F. [BRASS Engineering Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-07-01

    Among the outstanding attributes slurry pipelines must have is the need to optimize production efficiency and, in particular, minimize energy consumption. In the present paper, the energy saving implications of three different factors, namely process variable uncertainties, transport control variables and pipeline availability are referred to and exemplified using an idealized Bingham-type slurry pipeline. Present examples suggest that important energy savings can be achieved with proper designs, equipment and operations scheduling. (author)

  15. Astrocytic Ion Dynamics: Implications for Potassium Buffering and Liquid Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Halnes, Geir; Pettersen, Klas H.; Øyehaug, Leiv; Rognes, Marie E.; Langtangen, Hans Petter; Einevoll, Gaute T.

    2016-01-01

    We review modeling of astrocyte ion dynamics with a specific focus on the implications of so-called spatial potassium buffering, where excess potassium in the extracellular space (ECS) is transported away to prevent pathological neural spiking. The recently introduced Kirchoff-Nernst-Planck (KNP) scheme for modeling ion dynamics in astrocytes (and brain tissue in general) is outlined and used to study such spatial buffering. We next describe how the ion dynamics of astrocytes may regulate mic...

  16. Implications of Philosophy for Engineering and Engineering Technology Bachelors Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Dyrenfurth, Michael; Murphy, Mike; Grimson, William

    2009-01-01

    This paper raises the question: What is philosophy and then, after describing its branches and school, it extends the definitions to implications for the practice of engineering and engineering technology education. It folds the definitions against the work of engineering faculty. The latter was described as including curriculum development, teaching, mentoring/advising, research/scholarship, and engagement. Sample codes of ethics are shared for engineering technology students and professionals.

  17. Ethanol Disrupts Vascular Endothelial Barrier: Implication in Cancer Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Mei; Chen, Gang; Fu, Wei; Liao, Mingjun; FRANK, JACQUELINE A.; Bower, Kimberly A.; Fang, Shengyun; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin; Luo, Jia

    2012-01-01

    Both epidemiological and experimental studies indicate that ethanol exposure enhances tumor progression. Ethanol exposure promotes cancer cell invasion and is implicated in tumor metastasis. Metastasis consists of multiple processes involving intravasation and extravasation of cancer cells across the blood vessel walls. The integrity of the vascular endothelial barrier that lines the inner surface of blood vessels plays a critical role in cancer cell intravasation/extravasation. We examined t...

  18. The Changing Role of Money in China and Its Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Holz , Carsten A.

    2000-01-01

    Economic development is highly correlated with financial sector development. But the emergence, development, and economic implications of different financial structures are not well understood. This paper analyzes the emergence and development of China's financial structure since the beginning of the economic reforms. By focusing on the functions of money, monetary policy, and financial intermediation, it argues that although agricultural and industrial reforms in the early 1980s have led to ...

  19. Nuclear and solar energy implications for homeland security

    OpenAIRE

    Thibeaux, Allen L.

    2008-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In the eyes of many experts, the world is moving away from oil as a cheap energy source. As this future unfolds, the United States may perform a leading role as the planet's premier energy consumer. Solar and nuclear power provide possibilities for this future which represent the extremes in terms of energy supply. The question this thesis asks is: what are the security implications of a substantial shift in energy policy in either a s...

  20. The Emotional and Behavioural Implications of Mobile Commerce Design

    OpenAIRE

    Magrath, Victoria C

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyse the implications of mobile commerce designvariables on the consumer’s emotional and behavioural responses. With mobile and tablet commerce becoming as popular as desktop usage, fashion retailers must ensure that they have designed a mobile channel that will produce the most positive responses. The objective of the research was to therefore study the individual stimuli in the mobile environment and to investigate their effect upon the mobile consumer.Th...

  1. Demand for Carbonated Soft Drinks: Implications for Obesity Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Rigoberto A. Lopez; Kristen L. Fantuzzi

    2012-01-01

    This article examines consumer choices of Carbonated Soft Drinks (CSDs) and their implications for obesity policy. Demand in relation to product and consumer heterogeneity is estimated via a random coefficients logit model (Berry et al., 1995) applied to quarterly scanner data for 26 brands in 20 US cities, involving 40000 consumers. Counterfactual experiments show that caloric taxes could be effective in decreasing caloric CSD consumption though having little impact on obesity incidence.

  2. Sepsis induced immunosuppression: Implications for secondary infections and complications

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna M Sundar; Mazen Sires

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis is the commonest cause of admission to medical ICUs across the world. Mortality from sepsis continues to be high. Besides shock and multi-organ dysfunction occurring following the intense inflammatory reaction to sepsis, complications arising from sepsis-related immunoparalysis contribute to the morbidity and mortality from sepsis. This review explores the basis for sepsis related immune dysfunction and discusses its clinical implications for the treating intensivist. Recent trends ind...

  3. Histone deacetylase inhibitors: clinical implications for hematological malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Tambaro, Francesco Paolo; Dell’Aversana, Carmela; Carafa, Vincenzo; Nebbioso, Angela; Radic, Branka; Ferrara, Felicetto; Altucci, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    Histone modifications have widely been implicated in cancer development and progression and are potentially reversible by drug treatments. The N-terminal tails of each histone extend outward through the DNA strand containing amino acid residues modified by posttranslational acetylation, methylation, and phosphorylation. These modifications change the secondary structure of the histone protein tails in relation to the DNA strands, increasing the distance between DNA and histones, and thus allo...

  4. Real Estate Business in Pakistan and Its Economic Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Rehman, Atiq-ur-

    2014-01-01

    The real estate Business has been one of the most attractive businesses in Pakistan during the last decade. This business minimizes the investment risk and offers high profit margin simultaneously. Therefore this business attracted lot of investment. However, this business has very important implications for several socio- economic indicators. The real estate business demands huge amount of investments and earns high profit margin than the ordinary investment, therefore leads to increased in...

  5. Medicine and health care: implications for health sciences library practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Hafner, A W; Schwarz, M R

    1986-01-01

    The American health care system is experiencing a period of unprecedented change. This paper identifies and discusses the major changes in patient care, research, control of the health care system, and medical education, and their implications for health sciences librarians. These changes have resulted in new demands for effective information delivery and a broader health sciences library clientele. There are both challenges and opportunities for health sciences librarians as they respond to ...

  6. China in 2005 Revisited: The Implications of International Capital Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Ianchovichina, Elena; McDougall, Robert; Hertel, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    This paper revisits the analysis of the implications of China's economic growth on her trading partners presented in Arndt et al. (1997) using a dynamic, applied general equilibrium model that features international capital mobility. We find that accounting for the impact of China's growth on international capital markets reverses some of the findings in the paper by Arndt et al. In particular, net creditor regions lose while net debtor regions benefit from an economic slowdown in China du...

  7. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES): implications for anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has recently evolved as a novel approach for abdominal surgery with great potential to further improve the advantages of laparoscopy over laparotomy. The first patients undergoing NOTES cholecystectomy or appendectomy reported no or only minimal pain, required no narcotic analgesics, and were discharged early from the hospital and immediately resumed daily activities. If this is confirmed by randomized controlled clinical trials, what are the potential implications for anesthesia? PMID:20948698

  8. Accelerator Information on SUSY and its Implications for Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Godbole, Rohini Μ

    1997-01-01

    In this short contribution I want to discuss one particular candidate for the Dark Matter (DM) in the Universe, viz., the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP). I discuss, very briefly, the motivation for Supersymmetry as well as the LSP as DM candidate. Then I summarise the current accelerator bounds on its mass and couplings and end by pointing out the implications of these limits for the experiments which search ‘directly’ for the DM.

  9. Implicational (Semilinear) Logics II: Additional Connectives and Characterizations of Semilinearity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Noguera, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2016), s. 353-372. ISSN 0933-5846 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 247584 - MATOMUVI Institutional support: RVO:67985807 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * implicational logics * disjunctional logics * semilinear logics * non-classical logics * transfer theorems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.320, year: 2014

  10. Comparison between SLA and FLA and its Pedagogical Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王盼盼

    2013-01-01

      A distinction between two terms: SLA (second language acquisition) and FLA (foreign language acquisition) has been made with the purpose of clarifying these two related terms and providing pedagogical implications into EFLT (English as a foreign language teaching) in China. Three aspects have been taken into consideration to reveal the differences between SLA and FLA, namely the learning context, motivation and cultural perspectives.

  11. The Hole Argument and Some Physical and Philosophical Implications

    OpenAIRE

    John Stachel

    2014-01-01

    This is a historical-critical study of the hole argument, concentrating on the interface between historical, philosophical and physical issues. Although it includes a review of its history, its primary aim is a discussion of the contemporary implications of the hole argument for physical theories based on dynamical, background-independent space-time structures. The historical review includes Einstein’s formulations of the hole argument, Kretschmann’s critique, as well as Hilbert’s reformu...

  12. Cesarean Section in Morbidly Obese Parturients: Practical Implications and Complications

    OpenAIRE

    Lovina SM Machado

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has reached pandemic proportions across nations. Morbid obesity has a dramatic impact on pregnancy outcome. Cesarean section in these women poses many surgical, anesthetic, and logistical challenges. In view of the increased risk of cesarean delivery in morbidly obese women, the practical implications and complications are reviewed in this article. A Medline search was conducted to review the recent relevant articles in english literature on cesarean section in morbi...

  13. Targeting in Advertising Markets: Implications for Offline Versus Online Media

    OpenAIRE

    Bergemann, Dirk; Bonatti , Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    We develop a model with many advertisers (products) and many advertising markets (media). Each advertiser sells to a different segment of consumers, and each medium is targeting a different audience. We characterize the competitive equilibrium in the advertising markets and evaluate the implications of targeting. An increase in targeting leads to an increase in the total number of consumer-product matches, and hence in the social value of advertising. Yet, targeting also increases the concent...

  14. Macroeconomic implications of virtual shopping : a theoretical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Yetkiner, I. Hakan; Horvath, Csilla

    2000-01-01

    Recently, parallel to developments in the communication technology, online shopping has become increasingly popular for many products, like books, CDs, software, and computers. Most analysts conjecture that the future will witness a wider basket of products and a higher trade volume via the Internet. This paper investigates the economic implications of Internet shopping in a Ricardian equilibrium framework. First, it shows the necessary and sufficient condition for the shift to Internet shopp...

  15. Essential aspects and practical implications of sexual identity

    OpenAIRE

    Adalberto Campo-Arias

    2010-01-01

    Sexual identity is a multidimensional construct that includes sex identity, gender identity, socio-sexual identity, and erotic identity. Sexual identity has theoretical and practical implications for sexual and reproductive health. For adults, concordance among biological sex, gender and role identity, and erotic identity is expected. However, 10% of the general population reports itself as non-heterosexual and another significant percent shows discordant sexual behavior with sexual identit...

  16. The nano-plasma interface: Implications of the protein corona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Joy; Yang, Yong; Shen, Jianliang; Moten, Asad; Chen, Chunying; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro; Zhao, Yuliang

    2014-12-01

    The interactions between nanoparticles and macromolecules in the blood plasma dictate the biocompatibility and efficacy of nanotherapeutics. Accordingly, the properties of nanoparticles and endogenous biomolecules change at the nano-plasma interface. Here, we review the implications of such changes including toxicity, immunological recognition, molecular targeting, biodistribution, intracellular uptake, and drug release. Although this interface poses several challenges for nanomedicine, it also presents opportunities for exploiting nanoparticle-protein interactions. PMID:24656615

  17. Part 4. Safety implications of alternative fuel types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides an assessment of safety implications associated with alternatives relative to the reference (U,Pu) oxide fuel in fast breeder reactors. The alternatives considered include thorium- and uranium-based oxide, carbide and metal fuel types for the LMFBR and oxide fuel types for the GCFR. Major emphasis is put on low probability, but potentially large-consequence accidents, e.g., core-disruptive accidents

  18. Cosmological implications of modified gravity induced by quantum metric fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xing; Harko, Tiberiu; Liang, Shi-Dong

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the cosmological implications of modified gravities induced by the quantum fluctuations of the gravitational metric. If the metric can be decomposed as the sum of the classical and of a fluctuating part, of quantum origin, then the corresponding Einstein quantum gravity generates at the classical level modified gravity models with a nonminimal coupling between geometry and matter. As a first step in our study, after assuming that the expectation value of the quantum correction ...

  19. Breast cancer screening in British Columbia: implications of diagnostic trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    McKay, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Despite reductions in mortality rates, breast cancer remains the most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer death in Canadian women. Organized screening programs have contributed to the decrease in breast cancer mortality by allowing for early diagnosis and treatment. The diagnostic phase following an abnormal screen has implications for patient well-being, clinical practice, and resource management in health care. We present data from British Columbia that show that improv...

  20. Implications of HIV PrEP Trials Results

    OpenAIRE

    Veronese, Fulvia; Anton, Peter; Fletcher, Courtney V.; DeGruttola, Victor; McGowan, Ian; Becker, Stephen; Zwerski, Sheryl; Burns, David

    2011-01-01

    Six randomized clinical trials have been implemented to examine the efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and/or TDF/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) as preexposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 infection (PrEP). Although largely complementary, the six trials have many similar features. As the earliest results become available, an urgent question may arise regarding whether changes should be made in the conduct of the other trials. To consider this in advance, a Consultation on the Implications of H...

  1. Implications of Decision Making Research for Decision Support and Displays

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Jeffrey G.; Kelly, Richard T.; Moore, Ronald A.; Hutchins, Susan G.

    1998-01-01

    To appear in J. A. Cannon-Bowers & E. Salas (Eds.), Decision Making Under Stress: Implications for Training and Simulation. A prototype decision support system (DSS) was developed to enhance Navy tactical decision making based on naturalistic decision processes. Displays were developed to support critical decision making tasks through recognition-primed and explanation-based reasoning processes, and cognitive analysis was conducted of the decision making problems faced by Navy ...

  2. Considering Co-Players : Implications for research and design

    OpenAIRE

    Eklund, Lina

    2015-01-01

    This empirical study explores the role of co-players in players’ motivations and experiences of gaming through relational sociological analyses of interview and survey data. The aim is to bring attention to the importance of divergent gaming partners, and to offer some implications for considering co-players in game research and design. Results explore three gaming situations: playing with family members, playing with friends and playing with strangers, and shows how differently these co-play...

  3. Implications of the New Political Realities on Healthcare Reform

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    With the recent change in power in the US House of Representatives that will take effect in January, questions arise regarding potential modifications to some features in the healthcare reform bill and its implementation. With many provisions scheduled to take effect between 2011 and 2014, the political implications of the elections have an immediate practical relevance to health plans, employers, and other healthcare stakeholders. American Health & Drug Benefits discussed some of these issue...

  4. Implications of Indian Supreme Court's Innovations for Environmental Jurisprudence

    OpenAIRE

    Geetanjoy Sahu

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the implications of innovative methods of the Indian Supreme Court for environmental jurisprudence to protect and improve the environment. Innovative methods are understood in terms of application and creation of new principle and structure for environmental jurisprudence. Through a series of innovative methods the Supreme Court of India has not only ensured fundamental right of citizen to healthy environment but also has contributed immensely to the evolution of new princ...

  5. Who nominates the board? - Implications on board diversity and turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Viskari, Milla

    2014-01-01

    This thesis assesses whether the type of nomination poses implications on board diversity in terms of age, gender, nationality and education, as well as turnover on a Finnish and Swedish data. The existing research on director selection and especially nomination committees is rather limited, and thus the research aims at contributing to the topic. The reviewed time period concerns 2008 to 2012, and altogether 55 Finnish and 55 Swedish public companies are included in the study, thus resul...

  6. Implications of the global economic crisis for the Bangladesh economy

    OpenAIRE

    Raihan, Selim

    2012-01-01

    There is no denying the fact that the recent global economic crisis has profound implications for the developing countries like Bangladesh. This paper has explored the impacts of global economic crisis on the economy of Bangladesh in a general equilibrium framework. The CGE model for Bangladesh economy is developed with a Social Accounting Matrix for the year 2007 as the database. Analysis of the trend and pattern of the global economic crisis suggests that global economic crisis led to some ...

  7. Markets for Technology and Their Implications for Corporate Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Although market transactions for technologies, ideas, knowledge or information are limited by several well known imperfections, there is increasing evidence that, during the last two decades or so, such market transactions have become more common than in the past. These markets bring about new challenges to the firms. This paper examines some implications of markets for technology for the firms' corporate and technology strategies. Markets for technology change the traditional mindset in whic...

  8. Outward Foreign Direct Investment in Unionized Oligopoly: Some Welfare Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Junichiro Ishida; Noriaki Matsushima

    2005-01-01

    It is often argued, though mostly informally, that outward foreign direct investment (FDI) is a synonym for the export of employment and thus detrimental to the home economy. To see whether and under what conditions this intuition indeed holds true, we construct a model of unionized duopoly and examine welfare implications of outward FDI on the home country. It is found that the presence of domestic competition gives rise to effects which have critical bearings on social welfare. There are tw...

  9. Administrative policies in Estonia : the implication on the structural arrangement

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES IN ESTONIA. THE IMPLICATION ON STRUCTURAL ARRANGEMENT Estonia has undergone vast range of changes and reforms in the last ten year period. The thesis seeks to give an account on the processes that depict the governance problematique from the administrative policy perspective. The thesis takes a closer look on the relevant political events, the development of legislation, and the factual arrangement of top administrative system. The research emphasizes t...

  10. Outsourcing and Offshoring: Sector Implications for Dynamics, Growth, and Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Robert D.; Chung, Sung Hoon

    2009-01-01

    As national economies have integrated through removal of trade barriers, the potential for offshoring production was quickly recognized as a strategy to enhance firm performance. At the same time, labor market reforms opened the door for outsourcing of labor services to specialist firms that supply labor force teams. The implications of these trends for industries that rely on specialized workforces have drawn considerable attention. Both manufacturing and food processing have seen substantia...

  11. Economic Implications of International Tourism on Turkish Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Akal, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    This study outlines, with a review of earlier studies, the effects of international tourism by showing developments in tourism-related economic parameters and discusses the implications of such tourism on the economy of Turkey. It asks how far international tourism contributes to the economic growth and development of Turkey; how far the country fully values its tourism potential by varying the focus of tourism facilities beyond the sun-sea-sand type of tourism, in order to lead to developmen...

  12. The implications of electronic trading in financial markets

    OpenAIRE

    Bank for International Settlements

    2001-01-01

    Preface The Committee on the Global Financial System (CGFS), known until 1999 as the Euro-Currency Standing Committee, serves as a discussion forum for the central bank community on financial stability questions. The CGFS has frequently been asked to examine the potential implications of innovations in global financial market practices. Recent projects by CGFS working groups have concerned the functioning of international interbank markets, financial derivatives and the systemic consequences ...

  13. The Nominal Exchange Rate Implication of VAT Harmonization in EEC

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Meixing

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines, in a one-good two-country Cournot competition model, the implication of European VAT reform on the nominal exchange rate parities which will be pegged in the third stage of monetary union. As result of the reform, the deutchmark needs to be reevaluated so as to prevent generating systematic external disequilibrium of some other European countries, which is inconsistent with pegging nominal exchange parities of European currencies.

  14. Obesity Trends, Determinants and Policy Implications in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Roemling, Cornelia; Qaim, Matin

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is becoming a serious issue in many developing countries, with negative implications for economic growth and human wellbeing. While previous micro level studies on obesity have mostly used cross-section data, we analyze trends and determinants with panel data from Indonesia. Over the past 20 years, obesity has increased remarkably in Indonesia across all population groups, including rural and low income strata. The problem is particularly severe among women. Panel regressions confirm ...

  15. The Economic Implications of Money Laundering in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Uyoyou Kingsley Ogbodo; Ebipanipre Gabriel Mieseigha

    2013-01-01

    The effect of money laundering in frustrating legitimate business, and in corrupting the financial and socio political system should not be taken for granted. It is against this backdrop that this study seeks to examine the economic implication of money laundering in Nigeria. The accidental sampling method was used in the selection of 635 persons out of which 624 representing 98.27% of the sampled persons completely filled and returned the questionnaires administered to them. Data collected w...

  16. Psychiatry in Former Socialist Countries: Implications for North Korean Psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Young Su; Park, Sang Min; Jun, Jin Yong; Kim, Seog Ju

    2014-01-01

    Very little information is available regarding psychiatry in North Korea, which is based on the legacy of Soviet psychiatry. This paper reviews the characteristics of psychiatry in former socialist countries and discusses its implications for North Korean psychiatry. Under socialism, psychiatric disorders were attributed primarily to neurophysiologic or neurobiological origins. Psychosocial or psychodynamic etiology was denied or distorted in line with the political ideology of the Communist ...

  17. The Value and Risk Implications of Grid Expansion Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Dockner, Engelbert J.; Kucsera, Denes; Rammerstorfer, Margarethe

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we look at a model with (independent) system operator who faces stochastic but growing transmission demand and a penalty if frequency is not balanced. In this set up, we derive an optimal grid expansion investment strategy and analyze its value and risk implications. It turns out that the firm value is strictly concave in the level of transmission demand. Firm value, however, increases with optimal investment for any level of demand. Moreover, firm risk is decreasing...

  18. Recent Genetic Discoveries Implicating Ion Channels in Human Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    George, Alfred L.

    2013-01-01

    The term channelopathy refers to human genetic disorders caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels or their interacting proteins. Recent advances in this field have been enabled by next-generation DNA sequencing strategies such as whole exome sequencing with several intriguing and unexpected discoveries. This review highlights important discoveries implicating ion channels or ion channel modulators in cardiovascular disorders including cardiac arrhythmia susceptibility, cardiac condu...

  19. Child Mortality and Injury in Asia: Policy and programme implications

    OpenAIRE

    Michael (et al.) Linnan

    2007-01-01

    Special Series on Child Injury no.4 This paper presents a summary of the findings of the national and sub-national surveys and discusses the implications of the results on child health policy and programmes.The principal finding is that injury has generally been unrecognized as a leading cause of child death. This is largely because the previous estimates of child mortality causality were unable to include injury due to technical issues. The surveys provide convincing evidence that injury is ...

  20. EXPANSION AND THE IMPLICATION OF REGIONAL AUTONOMY IN NORTH SUMATRA

    OpenAIRE

    Alinapia

    2015-01-01

    Region unfoldment euphoria have made Northern Sumatra as one of county unfoldment at Indonesian. For it to need is assessed, how is region unfoldment performing at North Sumatra and its implication to regions autonomous performing at North Sumatra? Method that is utilized is descriptive analytical. That acquired result region unfoldment performing at North Sumatra was appropriate indicator which is determined deep legislation regulation and according to North Sumatra society expectation. Mea...

  1. Conjecture on the physical implications of the scale anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Christopher T.; /Fermilab

    2005-10-01

    Murray Gell-Mann, after co-inventing QCD, recognized the interplay of the scale anomaly, the renormalization group, and the origin of the strong scale, {Lambda}{sub QCD}. I tell a story, then elaborate this concept, and for the sake of discussion, propose a conjecture that the physical world is scale invariant in the classical, {h_bar}, limit. This principle has implications for the dimensionality of space-time, the cosmological constant, the weak scale, and Planck scale.

  2. Advances in Seabed Liquefaction and its Implications for Marine Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2013-01-01

    A review is presented of recent advances in seabed liquefaction and its implications for marine structures. The review is organized in seven sections: Residual liquefaction, including the sequence of liquefaction, mathematical modelling, centrifuge modelling and comparison with standard wave......-flume results; Momentary liquefaction; Floatation of buried pipelines; Sinking of pipelines and marine objects; Liquefaction at gravity structures; Stability of rock berms in liquefied soils; and Impact of seismic-induced liquefaction....

  3. Genetics of Atrial Fibrillation and Possible Implications for Ischemic Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Thijs; Robin Lemmens; Dieter Nuyens; Sylvia Hermans

    2011-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiac arrhythmia mainly caused by valvular, ischemic, hypertensive, and myopathic heart disease. Atrial fibrillation can occur in families suggesting a genetic background especially in younger subjects. Additionally recent studies have identified common genetic variants to be associated with atrial fibrillation in the general population. This cardiac arrhythmia has important public health implications because of its main complications: congestive heart...

  4. Commonality in hedge fund returns: driving factors and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Bussiere, M.; Hoerova, M.; Klaus, B.

    2014-01-01

    We measure the commonality in hedge fund returns, identify its main driving factor and analyse its implications for financial stability. We find that hedge funds’ commonality increased significantly from 2003 until 2006. We attribute this rise mainly to the increase in hedge funds’ exposure to emerging market equities, which we identify as a common factor in hedge fund returns over this period. Our results show that funds with a high commonality were affected disproportionately by illiquidity...

  5. Economic implications of ASEAN integration for Malaysia's labour market

    OpenAIRE

    Rasiah, Rajah

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of the formation of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Economic Community (AEC) in 2015 on Malaysia’s labour market. The discussion centres on the nature of the structural change that Malaysia has experienced, especially since the 1980s, and how that has impacted on its labour market. Integration into ASEAN markets has obviously helped Malaysia enjoy the synergies of regional coordination. Although Malaysia’s economic growth has been steady...

  6. Earthquake 2005: Some Implications for Environment and Human Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdani, Nisar Hussain; Shah, Syed Akhter Hussain

    2005-01-01

    Loss of human capital in the form of skills and experiences is one of the outcomes of any natural hazard such as earthquake, drought, famine, and floods. Generally such losses have many implications for further growth of individuals, communities and nations. Disaster management and risk assessment has established a new need to constitute a paradigm of planning frameworks to develop modules for dealing with interactive rehabilitation and reconstruction activities. However, such management stil...

  7. Pricing behavior in Philippine corn markets: implications for market efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza, Meyra Sebello; Rosegrant, Mark W.

    1995-01-01

    The future for Philippine corn looks bright. Increases in demand for feed for livestock and poultry, activated by income-led growth in demand for meat, are providing the major push for corn growth. But whether the potential for development can be reached hinges on the efficiency of the existing marketing and pricing system. In Pricing Behavior in Philippine Corn Markets: Implications for Market Efficiency, Research Report 101, Meyra Sebello Mendoza and Mark W. Rosegrant explore this issue by ...

  8. The Swiss Solvency Test and its Market Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Eling; Nadine Gatzert; Hato Schmeiser

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we first discuss the characteristics and major benefits of the Swiss risk-based capital standards for insurance companies (Swiss Solvency Test), introduced in 2006. As the insurance industry is one of the largest institutional investors in Switzerland, changes to its asset and liability management as a result of the new regulatory framework could have striking economic effects. Thus, we further examine significant market implications for the Swiss economy due to possible change...

  9. Strategic issues in information technology international implications for decision makers

    CERN Document Server

    Schütte, Hellmut

    1988-01-01

    Strategic Issues in Information Technology: International Implications for Decision Makers presents the significant development of information technology in the output of components, computers, and communication equipment and systems. This book discusses the integration of information technology into factories and offices to increase productivity.Organized into six parts encompassing 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the advancement towards an automated interpretation communication system to achieve real international communication. This text then examines the main determining

  10. Foodservice experience and tourist satisfaction and their implications for destinations

    OpenAIRE

    Yüksel, Atìla

    2000-01-01

    Given the scarcity of research ascertaining the relationship between tourists' foodservice experiences and holiday satisfaction and its implications for destinations, this study primarily set out to provide guidelines on ways in which tourists' foodservice experiences and holiday satisfaction can be assessed and enhanced. The present study consisted of three interdependent phases, and questionnaire-based surveys were employed to test the research hypotheses. A combination of different qua...

  11. Water Implications of Large-Scale Land Acquisitions in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Olalekan Williams; Benjamin Gyampoh; Fred Kizito; Regassa Namara

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the water dimensions of recent large-scale land acquisitions for biofuel production in the Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo and Northern regions of Ghana. Using secondary sources of data complemented by individual and group interviews, the paper reveals an almost universal lack of consideration of the implications of large-scale land deals for crop water requirements, the ecological functions of freshwater ecosystems and water rights of local smallholder farmers and other users. It do...

  12. The implications of migration theory for distributive justice

    OpenAIRE

    Sager, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the implications of empirical theories of migration for normative accounts of migration and distributive justice. It examines neo-classical economics, world-systems theory, dual labor market theory, and feminist approaches to migration and contends that neo-classical economic theory in isolation provides an inadequate understanding of migration. Other theories provide a fuller account of how national and global economic, political, and social institutions cause and shape m...

  13. Implications of purely classical gravity for inflationary tensor modes

    CERN Document Server

    Ashoorioon, Amjad; Mazumdar, Anupam

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the implications of purely classical, instead of quantum, theory of gravity for the gravitational wave spectrum generated during inflation. We show that a positive detection of primordial gravitational waves will no longer suffice to determine the scale of inflation in this case -- even a high-scale model of inflation can bypass the observational constraints due to large uncertainties in the initial classical amplitude of the tensor modes.

  14. Foreign national prisoners in the UK: explanations and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, James

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the rapid expansion of the foreign national prison population in the UK against a backdrop of public and political anxiety about immigration and crime. It explores official data considering some of the possible explanations for the growth in the number of foreign national prisoners and the implications this has for penal management. Whilst increases in both the number of foreign nationals entering the UK and the number of foreign nationals in UK prisons has strengthened ...

  15. Eating disordered patients: personality, alexithymia, and implications for primary care.

    OpenAIRE

    Beales, D. L.; Dolton, R

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eating disorders are becoming more apparent in primary care. Descriptions of character traits related to people with eating disorders are rarely reported in the primary care literature and there is little awareness of the implications of alexithymia--a concept that defines the inability to identify or express emotion. We hypothesised that many individuals with active eating disorders have alexithymic traits and a tendency to somatize their distress. AIM: To analyse the character t...

  16. Exploring Writing In The Workplace: Implications For Human Resource Development

    OpenAIRE

    AKDERE, Dr.Mesut; AZEVEDO, Dr.Ross E.

    2010-01-01

    Writing in the workplace is among the understudied business topics in the field of HRD. Yet, the impacts of writing in today's workplace are significant, and organizations making it a priority benefit from it. Furthermore, writing is related to the issue of workplace literacy which is the umbrella term for basic communication skills. This literature review provides a general view on workplace writing and discusses implications to HRD within a model research proposal

  17. Multiple Intelligence Theory and Its Implications for Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓荣

    2014-01-01

    The theory of Multiple Intelligence plays an important guidance role in language teaching nowadays. Multiple Intelligence theory points out that human beings’ intelligence is multiple. Apart from the usual two forms of linguistics and logical-mathematical abilities, it consists of spatial, musical intelligence and so on. This paper focuses on Multiple Intelligence theory’s implications for language teaching and the use of teaching strategies designed on the basis of Multiple Intelligence theory.

  18. Multiple Intelligence and its Implication in Adult Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佩绮

    2008-01-01

    <正>Theory of multiple intelligence was developed by Dr.Howard Gardner.In the theory of multiple intelligence,Gardner proposed eight different intelligences to account for a broader range of human potential in children and adults.It has great influence on education theory and teaching practice. The paper introduces the frames of multiple intelligence and discusses its implication in adult education.

  19. US acid rain legislation: implications for the steaming coal trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent acid rain legislation passed by the US Congress aims to drastically reduce sulphur dioxide emissions from coal fired power stations. Compliance with this legislation is expected to impinge on industries involved in steaming coal production, consumption and exports. Australia is a major producer of low sulphur coal, therefore it is assumed that this legislation could have positive implications for the Australian steaming coal industry. 13 refs., tabs., figs

  20. Population Aging and its Macroeconomic Implications: A Framework for Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Faruqee

    2002-01-01

    This paper develops a model to examine the macroeconomic implications of population aging. Using a general equilibrium framework, the analysis examines the various channels through which changes in demographics affect the economy. Age-earnings profiles are taken to summarize differences in effective labor supply across age groups and to help determine changes in consumption and saving behavior that occur over an agent's lifetime. Aggregating these supply- and demand-side effects, the implicat...

  1. Rethinking Development as Knowledge: Implications for Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee Reed, Ananya

    2000-01-01

    The idea that knowledge is critical for development is neither new nor controversial, yet its full implications cannot be assessed unless we clarify at least two sets of issues: (a) how exactly knowledge is conceptualised or, what constitutes knowledge; and (b) the conditions under which such knowledge is produced, evaluated and ‘exchanged' or ‘transferred'. This paper will attempt to provide some tentative answers to these two questions, with the ultimate objective of identifying the conditi...

  2. Aquatic metagenomes implicate Thaumarchaeota in global cobalamin production

    OpenAIRE

    Doxey, Andrew C.; Kurtz, Daniel A.; Lynch, Michael DJ; Sauder, Laura A.; Neufeld, Josh D.

    2014-01-01

    Cobalamin (vitamin B12) is a complex metabolite and essential cofactor required by many branches of life, including most eukaryotic phytoplankton. Algae and other cobalamin auxotrophs rely on environmental cobalamin supplied from a relatively small set of cobalamin-producing prokaryotic taxa. Although several Bacteria have been implicated in cobalamin biosynthesis and associated with algal symbiosis, the involvement of Archaea in cobalamin production is poorly understood, especially with resp...

  3. Loss of genes implicated in gastric function during platypus evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Ordóñez, Gonzalo; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Warren, Wesley C.; Gruetzner, Frank; López Otín, Carlos; Suárez Puente, Xosé Antón

    2008-01-01

    Background The duck-billed platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) belongs to the mammalian subclass Prototheria, which diverged from the Theria line early in mammalian evolution. The platypus genome sequence provides a unique opportunity to illuminate some aspects of the biology and evolution of these animals. Results We show that several genes implicated in food digestion in the stomach have been deleted or inactivated in platypus. Comparison with other vertebrate genomes revealed that the main...

  4. Prenatal Psychology: Implications for the Practice of Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Verny, Thomas R.

    1984-01-01

    Through the combined efforts of embryologists, neuro-embryologists, physiologists, obstetricians, pediatricians, nurses, psychiatrists, psychologists and many other health professionals a new science of pre- and perinatal psychology has begun to emerge. This science explores the psychology of conception, pregnancy, labor, delivery and the postpartum period, as well as the unborn and newborn child's intellectual and emotional development. Implications of this new knowledge for the family physi...

  5. Banking Strategy Demography - Future Population Trend: Implication for Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Teo, Lee Koon; Tripathi, Sanjay; Kazi, Zaid

    2010-01-01

    The world is going through a major shift in demographic structure that will affect the economies and global markets in a major way over the next few decades. While extensive research has been done on the macro-economic implications of demographic changes, very little research has been conducted on the demographic challenges at an industry level or for firms and on how these firms should react. The banking sector, in particular has received little attention. The project is initiated by the Glo...

  6. Implications of learning analytics for serious game design

    OpenAIRE

    Baalsrud Hauge, Jannicke; Fernández Manjón, Baltasar; Bellotti, Francesco; Fiucci, Giusy; Padrón-Nápoles, Carmen; Nadolski, Rob; WESTERA, Wim

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the implications of combining learning analytics and serious games for improving game quality, monitoring and assessment of player behavior, gaming performance, game progression, learning goals achievement, and user’s appreciation. We introduce two modes of serious games analytics: in-game (real time) analytics, and post-game (off-line) analytics. We also explain the GLEANER framework for in-game analytics and describe a practical example for off-line analytics. We conclu...

  7. Implications of managed care for health systems, clinicians, and patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Fairfield, G.; Hunter, D.J.; Mechanic, D.; Rosleff, F.

    1997-01-01

    The rhetoric and realities of managed care are easily confused. The rapid growth of managed care in the United States has had many implications for patients, doctors, employers, state and federal programmes, the health insurance industry, major medical institutions, medical research, and vulnerable patient populations. It has restricted patients' choice of doctors and limited access to specialists, reduced the professional autonomy and earnings of doctors, shifted power from the non-profit to...

  8. Animal Models of Early Life Stress: Implications for Understanding Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, David M.; Parker, Karen J.; Schatzberg, Alan F.

    2010-01-01

    In the mid-1950s, Levine and his colleagues reported that brief intermittent exposure to early life stress diminished indications of subsequent emotionality in rats. Here we review ongoing studies of a similar process in squirrel monkeys. Results from these animal models suggest that brief intermittent exposure to stress promotes the development of arousal regulation and resilience. Implications for programs designed to enhance resilience in human development are discussed.

  9. Minimalistic Simulation of Population Aging's Implications in the Slovak Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the paper is to present transparent simulation of population's aging fiscal implications in the Slovak republic. The simulation uses projection of population aging and briefly analyses some of its aspects. It uses the number of people of each age and average government’s expenditures related to citizen of every year of age to calculate total expenditures for every year from present till 2050. The needed level of productivity of labor growth sufficient to balance budget in lon...

  10. Women in Marketing: Their Characteristics, Motivations, Challenges and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Ibok Nkanikpo Ibok; Etuk Samuel George

    2015-01-01

    Women constitute an important workforce in every society all over the world and contributions of women in every profession should be revisited with empirical facts. This study examines women in marketing; their characteristics, motivations and challenges using a survey method. With a sample of 60 respondents drawn across ten banks in Akwa Ibom State, the study reveals that characteristics, motivations and challenges of women has specific implications for national economic growth and marketing...

  11. Uncultivable bacteria: Implications and recent trends towards identification

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya S.; Vijayalakshmi N; Parija S

    2002-01-01

    Diseases due to uncultivable bacteria could represent emerging infectious diseases. However, the growing importance of these pathogens remains ill understood and undefined. Non-culture based approaches, especially molecular genetic methods are evolving as the most important tool in our understanding of these enigmatic pathogens. This article attempts to discuss the scientific implications of the evolution of uncultivable bacteria, review the recent trends in identification, and highlight thei...

  12. Financial Sector Inefficiencies and Coordinate Failures: Implications for Crisis Management

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre-Richard Agenor; Joshua Aizenman

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes the implication of inefficient financial intermediation for crisis management in a country where firms are highly-indebted. The analysis is based on a model in which firms rely on bank credit to finance their working capital needs and lenders face high state verification and enforcement costs of loan contracts. The analysis shows that higher contract enforcement and verification costs, lower expected productivity, or higher volatility, may shift the economy to the wrong si...

  13. Internet addiction: coping styles, expectancies, and treatment implications

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, Matthias; LAIER, CHRISTIAN; Young, Kimberly S.

    2014-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) has become a serious mental health condition in many countries. To better understand the clinical implications of IA, this study tested statistically a new theoretical model illustrating underlying cognitive mechanisms contributing to development and maintenance of the disorder. The model differentiates between a generalized Internet addiction (GIA) and specific forms. This study tested the model on GIA on a population of general Internet users. The findings from 1019 ...

  14. Some Implications of Two Forms of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various theories of quantum gravity predict the existence of a minimum length scale, which leads to the modification of the standard uncertainty principle to the Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP). In this paper, we study two forms of the GUP and calculate their implications on the energy of the harmonic oscillator and the hydrogen atom more accurately than previous studies. In addition, we show how the GUP modifies the Lorentz force law and the time-energy uncertainty principle

  15. Imaging of lung cancer: Implications on staging and management

    OpenAIRE

    Purandare, Nilendu C; Venkatesh Rangarajan

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths. Accurate assessment of disease extent is important in deciding the optimal treatment approach. To play an important role in the multidisciplinary management of lung cancer patients, it is necessary that the radiologist understands the principles of staging and the implications of radiological findings on the various staging descriptors and eventual treatment decisions.

  16. Imaging of lung cancer: Implications on staging and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilendu C Purandare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths. Accurate assessment of disease extent is important in deciding the optimal treatment approach. To play an important role in the multidisciplinary management of lung cancer patients, it is necessary that the radiologist understands the principles of staging and the implications of radiological findings on the various staging descriptors and eventual treatment decisions.

  17. Evaluating the social and cultural implications of the internet

    OpenAIRE

    Brey, Philip

    2006-01-01

    Since the Internet's breakthrough as a mass medium, it has become a topic of discussion because of its implications for society. At one extreme, one finds those who only see great benefits and consider the Internet a tool for freedom, commerce, connectivity, and other societal benefits. At the other extreme, one finds those who lament the harms and disadvantages of the Internet, and who consider it a grave danger to existing social structures and institutions, to culture, morality and human r...

  18. Homers regulate drug-induced neuroplasticity: Implications for addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Szumlinski, Karen K; Ary, Alexis W.; Lominac, Kevin D

    2007-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder, characterized by an uncontrollable motivation to seek and use drugs. Converging clinical and preclinical observations implicate pathologies within the corticolimbic glutamate system in the genetic predisposition to, and the development of, an addicted phenotype. Such observations pose cellular factors regulating glutamate transmission as likely molecular candidates in the etiology of addiction. Members of the Homer family of proteins regulate s...

  19. An implication of G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Kitada, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    A proof of G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem is given. With this new proof a transfinite extension of G\\"odel's theorem is considered. It is shown that if one assumes the set theory ZFC on the meta level as well as on the object level, a contradiction arises. The cause is shown to be the implicit identification of the meta level and the object level hidden behind the G\\"odel numbering. An implication of these considerations is stated.

  20. RISK MANAGEMENT AND THE IMPLICATIONS TO BUSINESS SUCCESS

    OpenAIRE

    MILITARU Madalina; CHENIC (CRETU) Alina Stefania

    2012-01-01

    In business, risk lurk at every turn, competitor innovations that threaten the viability of the products or services of a company, new players in the market place, adverse trends in commodity prices, currencies, interest rates or the economy. The paper aims to highlight the implications of risk management to business success. We analyzed different types of risks and pointed out that risk management is an important part of planning for businesses.

  1. Dopamine in Socioecological and Evolutionary Perspectives: Implications for Psychiatric Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshie eYamaguchi; Young-A eLee; Yukiori eGoto

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) transmission in brain areas such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) plays important roles in cognitive and affective function. As such, DA deficits have been implicated in a number of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Accumulating evidence suggests that DA is also involved in social behavior of animals and humans. Although most animals organize and live in social groups, how the DA system f...

  2. Dopamine in socioecological and evolutionary perspectives: implications for psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Lee, Young-A; Goto, Yukiori

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) transmission in brain areas such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) plays important roles in cognitive and affective function. As such, DA deficits have been implicated in a number of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Accumulating evidence suggests that DA is also involved in social behavior of animals and humans. Although most animals organize and live in social groups, how the DA system fun...

  3. Social Implications of Fiscal Policy Responses During Crises

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos A. Vegh; Guillermo Vuletin

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the social implications of fiscal policy responses to crises in Latin America over the last 40 years and in the Eurozone during the aftermath of the global financial crisis. We focus on the behavior of four social indicators: the poverty rate, income inequality, unemployment rate, and domestic conflict. We find a causal link from counteryclical (procyclical) fiscal policy responses to reductions (increases) in all four social indicators. These results call into question rec...

  4. Imaging of Brain Dopamine Pathways: Implications for Understanding Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Panayotis K Thanos; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is typically associated with abnormal eating behaviors. Brain imaging studies in humans implicate the involvement of dopamine (DA)-modulated circuits in pathologic eating behavior(s). Food cues increase striatal extracellular DA, providing evidence for the involvement of DA in the nonhedonic motivational properties of food. Food cues also increase metabolism in the orbitofrontal cortex indicating the association of this region with the motivation for food consumption. Similar to drug-...

  5. Belief, its inconsistency, and the implications for the teaching faculty

    OpenAIRE

    Fraley, Lawrence E.

    1984-01-01

    The traditional concept of belief is analyzed and compared with a behavior analytic concept of belief. Beliefs and belief statements are differentiated and relationships between them are examined. The often troublesome inconsistencies in people's beliefs are examined in general and explained, including the phenomena of compartmentalization and repression. Social implications are pursued relative to both punishment for inconsistency in belief and counter-controls thwarting such punishment. The...

  6. Tax Structure and Government Behavior: Implications for Tax Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Roger H. Gordon; Wilson, John D.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in tax policy can affect all aspects of the economy. Not only do firms and individuals change behavior, creating efficiency costs, but government expenditure choices can also change. Unless these expenditure choices had been optimal' previously, changes in response to a tax reform affect welfare and should be taken into account when designing tax policy. This paper develops a specific model of government behavior and then explores the implications of government, as well as private, be...

  7. Nursing informatics, ethics and decisions: implications for translational research

    OpenAIRE

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Dowie, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Nursing informatics, ethics and decisions: implications for translational research Objective: To introduce, in the multi-disciplinary contexts of clinical decision making and policy formation, a theory-based decision-analytic framework for the transparent forward translation of research into practice which can simultaneously identify and communicate the needs for backward translation from practice to research.Method:Web-based decision analytic software is used to demonstrate how the weights f...

  8. Ethical and bioethical implications of contemporary women gymnastics

    OpenAIRE

    Antonić, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    Author in this paper refers to ethical and bioethical issues and implications characteristic within female elite gymnastics. Female gymnastics is not the only sport, whose ethics can be called into question, but it is specific, because the female elite gymnasts are mostly under aged girls, and they are faced with both, demanding sport and pressure from parents and coaches. Contemporary athletes are often called modern gladiators. Acute injuries, chronic diseases and various psychosomatic diso...

  9. Some Implications of Two Forms of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various theories of quantum gravity predict the existence of a minimum length scale, which leads to the modification of the standard uncertainty principle to the Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP. In this paper, we study two forms of the GUP and calculate their implications on the energy of the harmonic oscillator and the hydrogen atom more accurately than previous studies. In addition, we show how the GUP modifies the Lorentz force law and the time-energy uncertainty principle.

  10. Evolution in invasive plants: implications for biological control

    OpenAIRE

    Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Schaffner, Urs; Steinger, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Evidence is increasing that invasive plants can undergo rapid adaptive evolution during the process of range expansion. Here, we argue that evolutionary change during invasions will also affect plant–antagonist inter-actions and, thus, will have important implications for biological control programmes targeted at invasive plants. We explore how altered selection in the new range might influence the evolution of plant defence (resistance and tolerance) and life history. The degree to which suc...

  11. Policy Preference Functions: The Implications of Recent Developments

    OpenAIRE

    Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan von

    1997-01-01

    The policy preference function (PPF) approach continues to be the subject of considerable interest in agricultural economics. Recent work has added sophistication and strengthened the approach's theoretical underpinnings. In this paper, several implications of this recent work are considered. First, the distinction between the PPF and the surplus transformation curve (STC) is stressed. Estimated PPF weights are derived from what we know about the STC. We actually know very little about the PP...

  12. Local organic food: The social implications of sustainable consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Seyfang, Gill

    2004-01-01

    In recent years organically-grown produce for local markets has become more popular with consumers, and re-localising food chains has been put forward as a strategy for sustainable consumption due to the apparent benefits to local economies, communities, and environments. Notions of 'sustainable consumption' are contested, however, and can represent competing ideologies and perspectives about the environment and society. In order to examine the social implications of sustainable consumption, ...

  13. Implications of Marijuana Legalization for Adolescent Substance Use

    OpenAIRE

    Hopfer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana that is legally available for adults has multiple implications for adolescent substance use. One potential effect that legalization may have is an increase in adolescent use to due increased availability, greater social acceptance, and possibly lower prices. Legalization may also facilitate the introduction of new formulations of marijuana (edible, vaporized) and with potentially higher potencies. It is unknown what adolescent consumption patterns will be if marijuana is widely avai...

  14. Implications of SCUBA observations for the Planck Surveyor

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Douglas; White, Martin

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the implications for the Planck Surveyor of the recent sub-millimetre number counts obtained using the SCUBA camera. Since it observes at the same frequency as one of the higher frequency science channels on Planck, SCUBA can provide constraints on the point-source contribution to the CMB angular power spectrum, which require no extrapolation in frequency. We have calculated the two-point function of these sub-millimetre sources, using a Poisson model normalized to the observed...

  15. Stachybotrys chartarum (atra) contamination of the indoor environment: Health implications

    OpenAIRE

    Bitnun, Ari; Nosal, Robert M

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, widespread contamination of water-damaged school portables with the toxigenic mold Stachybotrys chartarum was detected in the province of Ontario. This mold may cause human disease through direct irritation, type 1 hypersensitivity or the production of toxins. A variety of respiratory, dermatological, eye and constitutional symptoms have been associated with heavy and prolonged exposure to S chartarum. S chartarum has also been potentially implicated as a rare cause of idiopathic pul...

  16. Income Distribution Implications of Globalization and Liberalization in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kanbur, Ravi

    1999-01-01

    This paper surveys the main income distribution implications of greater openness in the African context. It considers trade, capital flows, technology, risk, and the ethnic dimension. It argues that the central policy dilemma for African policy makers is how to take advantage ofthe undoubted opportunities that integration into the world economy affords for rapid growth, while managing the attendant risks for domestic income distribution in its different dimensions. It proposes a research and ...

  17. Policy Implications of Limiting Immigrant Concentration in Danish Public Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Calmar; Thomsen, Mette Kjærgaard

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant students in Denmark on average perform worse in lower secondary school than native Danish students. Part of the effect may not stem from the immigrant students themselves, but from the student composition at the school. From a policy perspective, the latter aspect is quite interesting s......’ educational outcome, by limiting the share of immigrant students at grade level at any one school to less than 50 percent. The policy implications of this finding are discussed....

  18. Warming Oceans, Phytoplankton, and River Discharge: Implications for Cholera Outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Jutla, Antarpreet S; Akanda, Ali S.; Griffiths, Jeffrey K; Colwell, Rita; Islam, Shafiqul

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplankton abundance is inversely related to sea surface temperature (SST). However, a positive relationship is observed between SST and phytoplankton abundance in coastal waters of Bay of Bengal. This has led to an assertion that in a warming climate, rise in SST may increase phytoplankton blooms and, therefore, cholera outbreaks. Here, we explain why a positive SST-phytoplankton relationship exists in the Bay of Bengal and the implications of such a relationship on cholera dynamics. We f...

  19. Alternative materials for crystalline silicon solar cells - Risks and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Kwapil, Wolfram

    2010-01-01

    This thesis considers the use of alternative silicon materials for photovoltaics – often termed “upgraded metallurgical grade” silicon – from different angles and evaluates the risks and implications for the wafer and solar cell properties at selected steps along the entire process chain.The properties of the alternative, upgraded metallurgical grade silicon materials analyzed in the course of this thesis were governed by the simultaneous presence of boron and phosphorus in high concentration...

  20. Digital exclusion: potential implications for social work education

    OpenAIRE

    Watling, Sue

    2012-01-01

    QAA Subject Benchmark 5.9 requires social work students to demonstrate the ability to have a critical understanding of the social impact of ICT, including an awareness of the impact of the 'digital divide'. In the twenty-first century, the implications of digital exclusion may become increasingly relevant for the social work profession with its values of empowerment and anti-oppressive practices. As governments and organisations move closer to the provision of online services, the social work...