WorldWideScience

Sample records for circumventing national opt-outs

  1. The new opt-out Dutch National Breast Implant Registry - Lessons learnt from the road to implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhorst, Hinne A; Mureau, Marc A M; Cooter, Rodney D; McNeil, John; van Hooff, Miranda; van der Hulst, René; Hommes, Juliette; Hoornweg, Marije; Moojen-Zaal, Laura; Liem, Patricia; Mathijssen, Irene M J

    2017-10-01

    An estimated 1-3% of all women in the Netherlands carry breast implants. Since the introduction five decades ago, problems with a variety of breast implants have emerged with direct consequences for the patients' health. Plastic surgeons worldwide reacted through campaigning for auditing on long-term implant quality, surgeon performance, and institutional outcomes in implant registries. Especially, the PIP implant scandal of 2010 demonstrated the paucity of epidemiological data and uncovered a weakness in our ability to even 'track and trace' patients. In addition, a recent report of the Dutch Institute of National Health showed a lack of compliance of 100% of breast implant producers to CE requirements. These arguments stress the need for an independent implant registry. Insufficient capture rates or dependence from the implant producers made the variety of national and international patient registries unreliable. The Dutch Breast Implant Registry (DBIR) is unique because it is an opt-out registry without the need for informed consent and thus a high capture rate. Furthermore, an estimated 95% of breast implants are implanted by board-certified plastic surgeons. Funding was received from a non-governmental organisation to increase the quality of health care in the Netherlands, and maintenance is gathered by 25 euros per implant inserted. This article describes the way the Dutch have set up their system, with special attention to the well-known hurdles of starting a patient registry. Examples include: funding, medical ethical issues, opt out system, benchmarking, quality assurance as well as governance and collaboration. The Dutch consider their experience and data shareware for others to be used globally to the benefit of patient safety and quality improvement. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pilot for the Australian Breast Device Registry (ABDR): a national opt-out clinical quality registry for breast device surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Ingrid; Best, Renee L; McNeil, John J; Mulvany, Catherine M; Moore, Colin C M; Elder, Elisabeth; Pase, Marie; Cooter, Rodney D; Evans, Sue M

    2017-12-28

    To establish a pilot clinical quality registry (CQR) to monitor the quality of care and device performance for breast device surgery in Australia. All patients having breast device surgery from contributing hospitals in Australia. A literature review was performed which identified quality indicators for breast device surgery. A pilot CQR was established in 2011 to capture prospective data on breast device surgery. An interim Steering Committee and Management Committee were established to provide clinical governance, and guide quality indicator selection. The registry's minimum dataset was formulated in consultation with stakeholder groups; potential quality indicators were assessed in terms of (1) importance and relevance, (2) usability, (3) feasibility to collect and (4) scientific validity. Data collection was by a two-sided paper-based form with manual data entry. Seven sites were recruited, including one public hospital, four private hospitals and two day surgeries. Patients were recruited and opt-out consent used. The pilot breast device registry provides high-quality population-based data. It provides a model for developing a national CQR for breast devices; its minimum dataset and quality indicators reflect the opinions of the broad range of stakeholders. It is easily scalable, and has formed the basis for other international surgical groups establishing similar registries. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Opting Out of the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    controversial cases of differentiated integration: the British and Danish opt-outs from Economic and Monetary Union and European policies on borders, asylum, migration, internal security and justice. Drawing on over one hundred interviews with national representatives and EU officials, the author demonstrates......European integration continues to deepen despite major crises and attempts to take back sovereignty. A growing number of member states are reacting to a more constraining EU by negotiating opt-outs. This book provides the first in-depth account of how opt-outs work in practice. It examines the most...... how representatives manage the stigma of opting out, allowing them to influence even politically sensitive areas covered by their opt-outs. Developing a practice approach to European integration, the book shows how everyday negotiations transform national interests into European ideals. It is usually...

  4. A 10-year population based study of 'opt-out' HIV testing of tuberculosis patients in Alberta, Canada: national implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Long

    Full Text Available Compliance with the recommendation that all tuberculosis (TB patients be tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has not yet been achieved in Canada or globally.The experience of "opt-out" HIV testing of TB patients in the Province of Alberta, Canada is described over a 10-year period, 2003-2012. Testing rates are reported before and after the introduction of the "opt-out" approach. Risk factors for HIV seropositivity are described and demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of TB patients who were newly diagnosed versus previously diagnosed with HIV are compared. Genotypic clusters, defined as groups of two or more cases whose isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis had identical DNA fingerprints over the 10-year period or within 2 years of one another, were analyzed for their ability to predict HIV co-infection.HIV testing rates were 26% before and 90% after the introduction of "opt-out" testing. During the "opt-out" testing years those 64 years of age at diagnosis were less likely to have been tested. In those tested the prevalence of HIV was 5.6%. In the age group 15-64 years, risk factors for HIV were: age (35-64 years, Canadian-born Aboriginal or foreign-born sub-Saharan African origin, and combined respiratory and non-respiratory disease. Compared to TB patients previously known to be HIV positive, TB patients newly discovered to be HIV positive had more advanced HIV disease (lower CD4 counts; higher viral loads at diagnosis. Large cluster size was associated with Aboriginal ancestry. Cluster size predicted HIV co-infection in Aboriginal peoples when clusters included all cases reported over 10 years but not when clusters included cases reported within 2 years of one another."Opt-out" HIV testing of TB patients is effective and well received. Universal HIV testing of TB patients (>80% of patients tested has immediate (patients and longer-term (TB/HIV program planning benefits.

  5. The Diplomacy of Opting Out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    and Home Affairs. Theoretically, the study offers a political sociology of European integration, which is seen as driven by politico-administrative struggling for capital in quasi-autonomous fields. This approach can be used more generally by EU and IR scholars to understand social dynamics of inclusion...... to upholding a doxa of ‘ever closer union among the peoples of Europe'. Empirically, the thesis provides the first extensive study of the diplomatic practices of the two champions of opting out - the UK and Denmark - when they handle their most important opt-outs from the Economic Monetary Union and Justice...... the everyday social setting of international and regional governance....

  6. Opting out of an ever closer union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    How is sovereignty managed in the EU? This paper investigates the relationship between sovereignty and European integration through the prism of national opt-outs from EU treaties, addressing an apparent contradiction in contemporary European governance: the contrasting processes of integration...... and differentiation. On the one hand, European integration is increasing as states transfer sovereign competencies to the EU. On the other hand, we see a multitude of differentiation processes through which member states choose to disengage from the EU polity by negotiating exemptions or derogations. Drawing...... on Pierre Bourdieu’s political sociology, the paper argues that to understand how sovereignty is exercised and interpreted in the EU, it is necessary to focus not only on the constitutive and regulative dimensions of sovereignty, but equally on the practice dimension. This entails an exploration of how...

  7. 16 CFR 313.7 - Form of opt out notice to consumers; opt out methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... your consumers that accurately explains the right to opt out under that section. The notice must state... consumer to a nonaffiliated third party; (ii) That the consumer has the right to opt out of that disclosure; and (iii) A reasonable means by which the consumer may exercise the opt out right. (2) Examples—(i...

  8. 12 CFR 332.7 - Form of opt out notice to consumers; opt out methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... each of your consumers that accurately explains the right to opt out under that section. The notice... your consumer to a nonaffiliated third party; (ii) That the consumer has the right to opt out of that disclosure; and (iii) A reasonable means by which the consumer may exercise the opt out right. (2) Examples...

  9. 12 CFR 216.7 - Form of opt out notice to consumers; opt out methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... each of your consumers that accurately explains the right to opt out under that section. The notice... your consumer to a nonaffiliated third party; (ii) That the consumer has the right to opt out of that disclosure; and (iii) A reasonable means by which the consumer may exercise the opt out right. (2) Examples...

  10. 12 CFR 573.7 - Form of opt out notice to consumers; opt out methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... reserve the right to disclose nonpublic personal information about your consumer to a nonaffiliated third party; (ii) That the consumer has the right to opt out of that disclosure; and (iii) A reasonable means by which the consumer may exercise the opt out right. (2) Examples—(i) Adequate opt out notice. You...

  11. 12 CFR 40.7 - Form of opt out notice to consumers; opt out methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... discloses or reserves the right to disclose nonpublic personal information about its consumer to a nonaffiliated third party; (ii) That the consumer has the right to opt out of that disclosure; and (iii) A reasonable means by which the consumer may exercise the opt out right. (2) Examples. (i) Adequate opt out...

  12. 12 CFR 716.7 - Form of opt out notice to consumers and opt out methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... your consumers that accurately explains the right to opt out under that section. The notice must state... consumer to a nonaffiliated third party; (ii) That the consumer has the right to opt out of that disclosure; and (iii) A reasonable means by which the consumer may exercise the opt out right. (2) Examples. (i...

  13. 17 CFR 248.7 - Form of opt out notice to consumers; opt out methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the right to disclose nonpublic personal information about your consumer to a nonaffiliated third party; (ii) That the consumer has the right to opt out of that disclosure; and (iii) A reasonable means by which the consumer may exercise the opt out right. (2) Examples—(i) Adequate opt out notice. You...

  14. The rise and fall of an opt-out system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordfalk, Francisca; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2018-04-01

    In Denmark, citizens participate in register-based research without the possibility of opting out. However, in 1995 it was made possible for Danish citizens to register an opt-out called 'researcher protection' [ forskerbeskyttelse], which implied that researchers could not contact people to invite them to participate in research projects, such as clinical trials or questionnaries, based on their registrations in national registers. Data already registered could still be used for research. In 2014, this possibility of opt-out was revoked by law. The aims of this paper are to understand how the Danish researcher protection system came about, why it was terminated and what we can we learn from this example. We conducted a descriptive analysis of a copy of the former researcher protection register along with policies and media debate surrounding the rise and revocation of the researcher protection system. Our results show how both the inception and the abolishment of researcher protection appear to be ad hoc and without specified criteria of success. An examination of the recorded entries in the researcher protection registry could have led to changes in its administration as an alternative to its total abolition. In future opt-out systems, there should be focus on monitoring register practices and the purpose and criteria for evaluation must be defined prior to implementation.

  15. Standards, Assessments & Opting Out, Spring 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advance Illinois, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In the spring, Illinois students will take new state assessments that reflect the rigor and relevance of the new Illinois Learning Standards. But some classmates will sit out and join the pushback against standardized testing. Opt-out advocates raise concerns about over-testing, and the resulting toll on students as well as the impact on classroom…

  16. 12 CFR 717.21 - Affiliate marketing opt-out and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affiliate marketing opt-out and exceptions. 717.21 Section 717.21 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 717.21 Affiliate marketing opt-out and exceptions. (a...

  17. UK National Data Guardian for Health and Care’s Review of Data Security: Trust, better security and opt-outs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Chan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sharing health and social care data is essential to the delivery of high quality health care as well as disease surveillance, public health, and for conducting research. However, these societal benefits may be constrained by privacy and data protection principles. Hence, societies are striving to find a balance between the two competing public interests. Whilst the spread of IT advancements in recent decades has increased the demand for an increased privacy and data protection in many ways health is a special case. UK, are adopting guidelines, codes of conduct and regulatory instruments aimed to implement privacy principles into practical settings and enhance public trust. Accordingly, in 2015, the UK National Data Guardian (NDG requested to conduct a further review of data protection, referred to as Caldicott 3.  The scope of this review is to strengthen data security standards and confidentiality. It also proposes a consent system based on an “opt-out” model rather than on “opt-in. Across Europe as well as internationally the privacy-health data sharing balance is not fixed.  In Europe enactment of the new EU Data Protection Regulation in 2016 constitute a major breakthrough, which is likely to have a profound effect on European countries and beyond.  In Australia and across North America different ways are being sought to balance out these twin requirements of a modern society - to preserve privacy alongside affording high quality health care for an ageing population.   Whilst in the UK privacy legal framework remains complex and fragmented into different layers of legislation, which may negatively impact on both the rights to privacy and health the UK is at the forefront in the uptake of international and EU privacy and data protection principles. And, if the privacy regime were reorganised in a more comprehensive manner, it could be used as a sound implementation model for other countries.

  18. 12 CFR 334.27 - Renewal of opt-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Renewal of opt-out. 334.27 Section 334.27 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 334.27 Renewal of opt-out. (a) Renewal notice and opt-out...

  19. 17 CFR 248.124 - Reasonable opportunity to opt out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...” to indicate their opt out preference or that requires the consumer to check one of two blank check... affiliate to make marketing solicitations to a consumer about your products or services unless the consumer... a reasonable opportunity to opt out. The consumer is given a reasonable opportunity to opt out if...

  20. 17 CFR 160.7 - Form of opt out notice to consumers; opt out methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... consumer agrees, electronically. (2) When a customer relationship terminates, the customer's opt out... that relationship. If the individual subsequently establishes a new customer relationship with you, the... relationships. (1) If two or more consumers jointly obtain a financial product or service from you, you may...

  1. 12 CFR 222.27 - Renewal of opt-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Renewal of opt-out. 222.27 Section 222.27 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Affiliate Marketing § 222.27 Renewal of opt-out. (a) Renewal notice and...

  2. 12 CFR 717.27 - Renewal of opt-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applies. (2) Renewal period. Each opt-out renewal must be effective for a period of at least five years as... companies, or their successors, that jointly provided the previous opt-out notice. (b) Contents of renewal... provided by multiple companies with the ABC name or multiple companies in the ABC group or family of...

  3. 12 CFR 222.24 - Reasonable opportunity to opt out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumers to write a “yes” or “no” to indicate their opt-out preference or that requires the consumer to... opt out. (a) In general. You must not use eligibility information about a consumer that you receive from an affiliate to make a solicitation to the consumer about your products or services, unless the...

  4. Nuclear energy: the cost of opting-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, U.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the results of a study made on the financial and ecological costs that would be incurred if Switzerland opted out of the use of nuclear energy. Figures are quoted for the costs if two Swiss popular initiatives on the subject of opting out of nuclear energy were accepted in voting. The disadvantages offered by the alternatives such as combined gas and steam-turbine power plant, photovoltaics and wind power are quoted. Possible negative effects of opting out on the Swiss economy are looked at and the political aspects of renewing operational permits for nuclear power stations are discussed

  5. Optimizing Opt-Out Consent for Record Linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Marcel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a study testing the effects of different ways of administering an opt-out consent for record linkage in a probability-based Internet panel. First, we conducted cognitive interviews to explore reactions to a draft version of the opt-out consent text. Second, we conducted a two-factor experiment to test the effects of content manipulations and mode. The results indicate that the way in which respondents were informed did not have much effect on opting out. Results from a follow-up survey on attitudes regarding privacy, confidentiality, and trust, along with knowledge questions about the process of linking, showed no evidence that presenting the opt-out consent statement makes respondents more concerned about privacy. Knowledge about the aspects of record linkage is generally not high. When looking at long-term effects of sending an opt-out consent statement, we found no evidence that this leads to higher attrition or lower participation rates.

  6. No opt-out is forever. Sweden opts back in

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Horst

    2010-01-01

    The draft legislation by the conservative-liberal Swedish government of early 2010, which was adopted by the Swedish parliament on June 17, 2010, not only repeals the shutdown of all Swedish nuclear power plants, which had earlier been foreseen by this year, but permits the construction and operation of new plants. In Sweden, a referendum in 1980 started the opt-out process. Shutdown within 30 years was foreseen in the regulation. As early as in late 1995, an Energy Committee appointed by the government reported that a complete opt-out by 2010 was impossible to achieve on economic and environmental grounds. Under the 1997 Opt-out Act, the government may shut down nuclear power plants at any time against an indemnification - unlike Germany. Another prerequisite is the realistic availability of new energy sources. As a consequence, only 2 nuclear power plants have been shut down so far, mainly because of protests from neighboring Denmark. Thirty years after the referendum, the acceptance of nuclear power in Sweden is high and stable. In line with growing public acceptance in the course of the debate about climate change, the Christian-Democratic Party changed its policy in March 2007, opting out of the opt-out. Finally, the conservative-liberal Swedish government submitted draft legislation to parliament which also permitted building new nuclear power plants. The Social Democratic Workers' Party, which is in the opposition, stuck to its rejection of the use of nuclear power and announced its intention to reverse the repeal of the opt-out in September 2010, after parliamentary elections and a possible new red-green government. The public and political developments in Sweden show that social attitudes towards nuclear power, opt-out policies and legal regulations can change. Adopting a rational attitude when discussing nuclear power and realities is possible, and political views sooner or later will adapt to the new situation. This could happen also in Germany

  7. Default options and social welfare : Opt in versus opt out

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouckaert, J.M.C.; Degryse, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    We offer a social-welfare comparison of the two most prominent default options – opt in and opt out – using a two-period model of localized competition. We demonstrate that when consumers stick to the default option, the prevailing default policy shapes firms' ability to collect and use customer

  8. 17 CFR 248.127 - Renewal of opt out elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS S-P AND S-AM Regulation S-AM: Limitations on Affiliate Marketing § 248.127 Renewal of... expires, you may not make marketing solicitations to a consumer who previously opted out, unless: (i) The....122(b). (3) Affiliates who may provide the notice. The notice required by this paragraph must be...

  9. 16 CFR 680.24 - Reasonable opportunity to opt out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., such as by posting the notice at an Internet Web site at which the consumer has obtained a product or... conducted on an Internet Web site. The consumer is required to decide, as a necessary part of proceeding... including in a privacy notice. The opt-out notice is included in a Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act privacy notice...

  10. 12 CFR 571.27 - Renewal of opt-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... period. Each opt-out renewal must be effective for a period of at least five years as provided in § 571... (ii) As part of a joint renewal notice from two or more members of an affiliated group of companies... provided by multiple companies with the ABC name or multiple companies in the ABC group or family of...

  11. 12 CFR 717.24 - Reasonable opportunity to opt out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... completing a form that requires consumers to write a “yes” or “no” to indicate their opt-out preference or.... You must not use eligibility information about a consumer that you receive from an affiliate to make a solicitation to the consumer about your products or services, unless the consumer is provided a reasonable...

  12. 12 CFR 571.24 - Reasonable opportunity to opt out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... completing a form that requires consumers to write a “yes” or “no” to indicate their opt-out preference or... eligibility information about a consumer that you receive from an affiliate to make a solicitation to the consumer about your products or services, unless the consumer is provided a reasonable opportunity to opt...

  13. 12 CFR 41.24 - Reasonable opportunity to opt out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... completing a form that requires consumers to write a “yes” or “no” to indicate their opt-out preference or... eligibility information about a consumer that it receives from an affiliate to make a solicitation to the consumer about the bank's products or services, unless the consumer is provided a reasonable opportunity to...

  14. 12 CFR 334.24 - Reasonable opportunity to opt out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...” to indicate their opt-out preference or that requires the consumer to check one of two blank check...) In general. You must not use eligibility information about a consumer that you receive from an affiliate to make a solicitation to the consumer about your products or services, unless the consumer is...

  15. Compatibility with European law of opt-out legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, U.

    2000-01-01

    Should consensus with the utilities not be reached, Federal Minister for the Environment, Mr. Trittin, repeatedly announced to introduce opt-out legislation 'by dissent'. Both the constitutionality of such legislation and its compatibility with European law are topics of controversial debate in the literature. The decision taken by the Bavarian cabinet on February 8 in this year, to use all political and legal means against shutting down German nuclear power plants and, for this purpose, even to approach the European Commission on grounds of potential violation of European law, are reason enough to deal in more detail with the compatibility of an opt-out law with the Euratom Treaty and the EC Treaty. As the opt-out law does not yet exist, these considerations can only be of a theoretical nature. However, this is the working hypothesis assumed: Reprocessing is banned as of the entry into force of the opt-out law. This ban includes moving nuclear waste abroad for reprocessing. The peaceful use of nuclear power for electricity generation in power reactors operated for thirty years is forbidden. Older reactors may be run only for a transition period of another three years. (This includes abandoning the promotion purpose in the German Atomic Energy Act and a ban on building new power reactors). However, the operating life may be distributed in a flexible way. This contribution indicates that there are sound reasons and interesting approaches, respectively, in the literature for assuming that opting out by means of legislation, coupled with a ban on reprocessing, at least constitutes a violation of the freedom for goods and/or services. However, this cannot be derived unequivocally from either the Euratom Treaty or the EC Treaty or from rulings by the European Court of Justice. Ultimately, compatibility with European law of the ban on reprocessing can be decided only by the European Court of Justice. (orig.) [de

  16. 12 CFR 334.23 - Contents of opt-out notice; consolidated and equivalent notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the joint consumers may exercise the right to opt out. (ii) The opt-out notice must explain how an...) Alternative contents. If the consumer is afforded a broader right to opt out of receiving marketing than is... a clear, conspicuous, and concise notice that accurately discloses the consumer's opt-out rights. (4...

  17. 12 CFR 222.23 - Contents of opt-out notice; consolidated and equivalent notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumers. Any of the joint consumers may exercise the right to opt out. (ii) The opt-out notice must...) Alternative contents. If the consumer is afforded a broader right to opt out of receiving marketing than is... a clear, conspicuous, and concise notice that accurately discloses the consumer's opt-out rights. (4...

  18. The Opt-Out Continuation: Education, Work, and Motherhood from 1984 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Byker

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Debate about an increasing trend in highly educated women dropping out of the labor force to care for children—an opt-out revolution—has been considerable. I use unique features of the of Survey of Income and Program Participation—a large nationally representative sample, longitudinal structure, monthly labor-force outcomes, and repeated panels—to study trends in women's birth-related career interruptions over time and across the education spectrum. Methodologically, I use event studies to compare women's monthly labor-force outcomes on the extensive and intensive margins from twenty-four months before to twenty-four months after births in the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s. Rather than an abrupt change in opting out, I find that the pattern of birth-related interruptions has changed surprisingly little over the past thirty years—substantial and sustained interruptions remain common for mothers in all education categories. Rather than a revolution, I find an opt-out continuation.

  19. Assessment Opt-Out Policies: State Responses to Parent Pushback. ECS Education Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Stephanie; Rowland, Julie; Wixom, Micah Ann

    2015-01-01

    With new state assessments kicking into full swing across the country, schools are seeing more and more parents wanting to opt out their children. Determining whether states allow assessment opt-outs can be complex and is constantly evolving. In some states the answer is clear: State policies either allow or prohibit state assessment opt-outs, or…

  20. 12 CFR 717.22 - Scope and duration of opt-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 717.22 Scope and duration of opt-out. (a) Scope of opt-out. (1) In... as described in the notice to make solicitations to the consumer. (2) Continuing relationship. (i) In general. If the consumer establishes a continuing relationship with you or your affiliate, an opt-out...

  1. 16 CFR 680.21 - Affiliate marketing opt-out and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... marketing purposes to a consumer with whom you have a pre-existing business relationship; (2) To facilitate... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affiliate marketing opt-out and exceptions... AFFILIATE MARKETING § 680.21 Affiliate marketing opt-out and exceptions. (a) Initial notice and opt-out...

  2. 12 CFR 41.22 - Scope and duration of opt-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Affiliate Marketing § 41.22 Scope and duration of opt-out. (a) Scope of opt-out. (1) In general. Except as... the notice to make solicitations to the consumer. (2) Continuing relationship. (i) In general. If the consumer establishes a continuing relationship with a bank or its affiliate, an opt-out notice may apply to...

  3. Opt-Out Parental Consent in Online Surveys: Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jane; Porcellato, Lorna

    2018-07-01

    This article aims to foster discussion and debate around seeking parental consent from young people recruited online. The growth of social media, particularly for young people, has led to increased interest in young people's online activities as both a research topic and recruitment setting. In a health-related study, which sought to recruit young people aged 13 to 18 years old from YouTuber fan communities to an online survey, the question arose of how parental consent could be sought from young people below 16 when no link existed between researcher and parents/guardians. A practical strategy is proposed which combines novel communication methods for participant information, opt-out online consent and age verification to address this issue. Strengths and limitations of these approaches are discussed.

  4. Deemed consent: Assessing the new opt-out approach to organ procurement in Wales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    In December 2015, Wales became the first country in the UK to move away from an opt-in system in organ procurement. The new legislation introduces the concept of deemed consent whereby a person who neither opt in nor opt out is deemed to have consented to donation. The data released by the National...... Health Service (NHS) in July 2017 provide an excellent opportunity to assess this legislation in light of concerns that it would decrease procurement rates for living and deceased donation, as well as sparking an increase in family refusals. None of these concerns have come to pass, with Wales...

  5. Opt-out donation and tacit consent: a reply to Wilkinson and De Wispelaere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Ben

    2012-02-01

    In this reply to Wilkinson and De Wispelaere, I argue that an opt-out donation system can be regarded as tacit consent. I first separate the opt-in/opt-out issue from that of the role that the family ought to play. I then argue that what De Wispelaere calls minimal approval-tracking is not obviously necessary and that, even if it were, opt-out schemes can satisfy this requirement.

  6. Opting out of the peaceful use of nuclear power in Germany. A promising special approach in the European context?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buedenbender, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear power is in the focus of politics and public attention in Germany not only because of the federal elections. Again and again, voices are heard which doubt the decision taken in 2000 to opt out of the use of nuclear power. The change in parliamentary majority in favor of the alliance of CDU/CSU and FDP as a result of the elections on September 27 is leading to another review of the opt-out decision, as the three parties in their platforms expressed themselves in favor of extending nuclear power plant life. This makes a stocktaking exercise of all salient arguments imperative at the present juncture. The perspective in that case should not be restricted to national aspects but include especially the influence of the European dimension of the subject. Present political positions in the 27 EU countries indicate a renaissance of nuclear power. Numerous countries, such as Italy, Sweden, Poland or the United Kingdom, revoked their historic opt-out decisions, are using nuclear power for the first time, or want to expand greatly the nuclear share in their electricity generation mix. All 3 European agencies with clear majorities advocate the extensive use of nuclear power as a long-term component of the mix of energy resources. Germany, with its decision to opt out of the use of nuclear power, is part of a minority. Being part of a European electricity market which will grow together more and more closely up to complete integration, Germany will always be supplied electricity from nuclear sources in the long run. This will be true irrespective of nuclear power plants being operated in the country. So, shutting down German nuclear power plants will not achieve the goals of nuclear opponents but merely give rise to additional challenges in power technology in an effort to ensure Germany's electricity supply. For this reason, the new German federal government should revoke the decision to opt out of the peaceful use of nuclear power. (orig.)

  7. Assessing the impact of opt-out definitions in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Bøye; Campbell, Danny; Mørkbak, Morten Raun

    that this heuristic has a larger impact when the opt-out is defined as respondents own typical (perceived) purchase than when defined as a none-of-these or a provided hypothetical alternative. We consequently stress the importance for researchers to be aware of these possible implications related to the definition...... of opt-out alternatives in choice experiments....

  8. Augmenting short cheap talk scripts with a repeated opt-out reminder in choice experiment surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    to choose the opt-out alternative if they find the experimentally designed alternatives too expensive. In an empirical Choice Experiment survey we find the Opt-Out Reminder to significantly reduce total WTP and to some extent also marginal WTP beyond the capability of the Cheap Talk applied without the Opt...

  9. 12 CFR 573.15 - Other exceptions to notice and opt out requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumer. (2) A consumer may revoke consent by subsequently exercising the right to opt out of future... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Exceptions § 573.15 Other exceptions to notice and opt out... consumer, provided that the consumer has not revoked the consent or direction; (2)(i) To protect the...

  10. 12 CFR 716.15 - Other exceptions to notice and opt out requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... insurance to the consumer. (2) A consumer may revoke consent by subsequently exercising the right to opt out... AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Exceptions § 716.15 Other exceptions to... notice to consumers in § 716.4(a)(2), the opt out in §§ 716.7 and 716.10 and service providers and joint...

  11. 17 CFR 248.123 - Contents of opt out notice; consolidated and equivalent notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS S-P AND S-AM Regulation S-AM: Limitations on Affiliate Marketing § 248.123 Contents of opt out notice; consolidated and equivalent notices. (a) Contents of opt out...) The name of the affiliate(s) providing the notice. If the notice is provided jointly by multiple...

  12. Legal issues associated with opting out of the use of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butzke, K.; Storr, S.

    2000-01-01

    The article is a summary of a conference held at Jena University at which the political issues of opting out of using nuclear power were scrutinized under aspects of (constitutional) law. The results of the conference were summed up in the Jena Theses about Opting out of the use of Nuclear Power. (orig.) [de

  13. 12 CFR 334.21 - Affiliate marketing opt-out and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... solicitation for marketing purposes to a consumer with whom you have a pre-existing business relationship; (2... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affiliate marketing opt-out and exceptions. 334... OF GENERAL POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 334.21 Affiliate marketing opt-out and...

  14. 12 CFR 571.22 - Scope and duration of opt-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 571.22 Scope and duration of opt-out. (a) Scope of opt-out—(1) In general... described in the notice to make solicitations to the consumer. (2) Continuing relationship—(i) In general. If the consumer establishes a continuing relationship with you or your affiliate, an opt-out notice...

  15. 16 CFR 680.22 - Scope and duration of opt-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING § 680.22 Scope and duration of opt-out. (a) Scope of opt-out—(1) In general. Except as otherwise... make solicitations to the consumer. (2) Continuing relationship—(i) In general. If the consumer establishes a continuing relationship with you or your affiliate, an opt-out notice may apply to eligibility...

  16. 12 CFR 571.21 - Affiliate marketing opt-out and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... solicitation for marketing purposes to a consumer with whom you have a pre-existing business relationship; (2... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affiliate marketing opt-out and exceptions. 571... CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 571.21 Affiliate marketing opt-out and exceptions. (a) Initial...

  17. 12 CFR 717.26 - Delivery of opt-out notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 717.26 Delivery of opt-out notices. (a) In general. The opt-out... the notice; or (4) Posts the notice on the Internet Web site at which the consumer obtained a product... notice; or (3) Posts the notice on an Internet Web site without requiring the consumer to acknowledge...

  18. 12 CFR 41.26 - Delivery of opt-out notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Affiliate Marketing § 41.26 Delivery of opt-out notices. (a) In general. The opt-out notice must be provided... the notice on the Internet Web site at which the consumer obtained a product or service electronically... on an Internet Web site without requiring the consumer to acknowledge receipt of the notice. ...

  19. 12 CFR 334.25 - Reasonable and simple methods of opting out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 334.25 Reasonable and simple methods... or processed at an Internet Web site, if the consumer agrees to the electronic delivery of... opt-out under the Act, and the affiliate marketing opt-out under the Act, by a single method, such as...

  20. 12 CFR 571.25 - Reasonable and simple methods of opting out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 571.25 Reasonable and simple methods of opting out. (a) In general... out, such as a form that can be electronically mailed or processed at an Internet Web site, if the... (15 U.S.C. 6801 et seq.), the affiliate sharing opt-out under the Act, and the affiliate marketing opt...

  1. 16 CFR 680.25 - Reasonable and simple methods of opting out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AFFILIATE MARKETING § 680.25 Reasonable and simple methods of opting out. (a) In general. You must not use... a form that can be electronically mailed or processed at an Internet Web site, if the consumer..., 15 U.S.C. 6801 et seq., the affiliate sharing opt-out under the Act, and the affiliate marketing opt...

  2. 12 CFR 571.26 - Delivery of opt-out notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Affiliate Marketing § 571.26 Delivery of opt-out notices. (a) In general. The opt-out notice must be... the notice on the Internet Web site at which the consumer obtained a product or service electronically... on an Internet Web site without requiring the consumer to acknowledge receipt of the notice. ...

  3. 12 CFR 222.25 - Reasonable and simple methods of opting out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Affiliate Marketing § 222.25 Reasonable and... electronically mailed or processed at an Internet Web site, if the consumer agrees to the electronic delivery of... opt-out under the Act, and the affiliate marketing opt-out under the Act, by a single method, such as...

  4. Opt-out as an acceptable method of obtaining consent in medical research: a short report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vellinga, Akke

    2011-04-06

    Abstract Background A prospective cohort study was set up to investigate a possible association between antibiotic prescribing and antibiotic resistance of E. coli urinary tract infection in the community. Participation of patients with urinary tract infection was obtained through an opt-out methodology. This short paper reports on the acceptability of the opt-out recruitment approach. Methods Participating practices (22) were requested to send a urine sample from all patients presenting with symptoms of urinary tract infection. Upon receipt of the sample in the laboratory, a letter explaining the study, an opt-out form and a freepost envelope were sent to all adult patients. A website with additional information and including an \\'opt-out\\' button was set up for the study. Results A total of 1362 urine samples were submitted by the 22 participating practices representing 1178 adult patients of whom 193 actively responded to the letter: 142 opted out by letter, 15 through the website, 2 by phone and 12 sent the letter back without indication, making a total of 171 patients or 14.5% opt-out; the remaining 22 patients (1.9%) explicitly opted in. The total group consisted of 80% women and the mean age was 50.9 years (sd 20.8). No significant differences were found between patients who participated and those who opted out in terms of age, gender or whether the urine sample was positive or not. Conclusions Overall the opt-out method was well received and participation in the study reached 85.5%. The low number of complaints (2) indicates that this is a generally acceptable method of patient recruitment. The 14.5% opt-out shows that it effectively empowers patients to decline participation. The similarity between patients opting out and the rest of the patients is reassuring for extrapolation of the results of the study.

  5. Inclusion of residual tissue in biobanks: opt-in or opt-out?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor A A Giesbertz

    Full Text Available Residual samples are an important source of tissue for biobanks. They refer to leftover tissue that is obtained in the course of clinical care. Residual samples can be included through an opt-in method--that is, a person explicitly expresses consent to include residual tissue--or an opt-out method--that is, the tissue is stored unless a person explicitly refuses. At the moment there is a renewed interest in the appropriate method for the inclusion of residual samples in biobanks. The expansion of biobanks and rapid developments in biomedical research underscore the need to evaluate the proper procedure. In this article we revisit the arguments in favor and against opt-in and opt-out methods for residual tissue research. We conclude firstly that an opt-out method is only justifiable when certain conditions are met: (1 awareness has to be raised, (2 sufficient information has to be provided, and (3 a genuine possibility to object has to be offered. An opt-out procedure that fulfills these conditions can be called a "thick" opt-out method. As a consequence, the dichotomy between opt-in and opt-out is less stark than usually suggested, as both methods require a certain amount of effort. Secondly, we conclude that because of the diversity of tissue and research, not every situation can be treated alike. There are at least four situations that require opt-in procedures: (1 research with higher risks or increased burdens, (2 the use of controversial or high-impact techniques, (3 research on sensitive tissue types, and (4 research involving vulnerable patients. We suggest that further interdisciplinary debate should answer the question when to opt-in or when to opt-out.

  6. Deemed consent: assessing the new opt-out approach to organ procurement in Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    In December 2015, Wales became the first country in the UK to move away from an opt-in system in organ procurement. The new legislation introduces the concept of deemed consent whereby a person who neither opt in nor opt out is deemed to have consented to donation. The data released by the National Health Service (NHS) in July 2017 provide an excellent opportunity to assess this legislation in light of concerns that it would decrease procurement rates for living and deceased donation, as well as sparking an increase in family refusals. None of these concerns have come to pass, with Wales experiencing more registered donors, fewer family refusals and more living donations. However, as the number of actual donors has dropped slightly from a high level, the situation must be monitored closely in the years to come. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Why persons choose to opt out of an exception from informed consent cardiac arrest trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Maria J; Deiorio, Nicole M; Schmidt, Terri A; Zive, Dana M; Griffiths, Denise; Newgard, Craig D

    2013-06-01

    We sought to characterize persons who requested to opt out of an exception from informed consent (EFIC) cardiac arrest trial and their reasons for opting out. At one site of a multi-site, out-of-hospital, cardiac arrest EFIC trial (September 2007 - June 2009), persons who did not want to participate in the study could request an opt-out "NO STUDY" bracelet to prevent trial enrollment. We surveyed all persons who requested a bracelet by phone interview, web or mail. Opt-out bracelets were advertised in all public communication about the study, including community consultation and public disclosure efforts. Survey questions included demographics, Likert scale items about attitudes toward the trial and research in general, plus open-ended questions. We used descriptive statistics for standardized questions and qualitative analysis to identify common themes from open-ended questions. Sixty bracelets were requested by 50 individuals. Surveys were completed by 46 persons (92% response rate). Seventy percent of respondents agreed emergency research is important, but 87% objected to any research without consent. In the qualitative analysis, 5 overlapping themes emerged: questioning the ethics of EFIC research; concerns about how the study would impact end-of-life preferences; subjective emotions including sarcasm, anger, and allusions to past unethical research; negative reference to unrelated public health controversies; and objections to the study protocol based on misinformation. A primary reason for opting out from this EFIC trial was opposition to all research without informed consent, despite stated support for emergency research. Understanding the demographics and beliefs of persons opting out may aid researchers planning EFIC studies and help provide clarity in future EFIC-related community education efforts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rethinking HIV exceptionalism: the ethics of opt-out HIV testing in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Opt-out testing for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incorporates testing as a routine part of health care for all patients unless they refuse. The ethics of this approach to testing in sub-Saharan Africa is a source of controversy. Opt-out HIV testing is expected to improve survival by increasing case detection and thus linking more HIV-infected people to earlier treatment, provided there is effective patient follow-up and programme sustainability. At the population level, these benefits will likely outweigh the potential negative consequences of individuals experiencing HIV-related stigma. These justifications appeal to consequentialist moral theories that the acceptability of an action depends upon its outcomes. On the other hand, liberal moral theories state that the autonomy of individuals should always be protected unless restricting autonomy is necessary to protect the welfare of others. Opt-out consent may restrict autonomy and it is unclear whether it would benefit people other than those being tested. Yet, the doctrine of libertarian paternalism proposes that it is justifiable and desirable to use unobtrusive mechanisms to help individuals make choices to maximize their own welfare. Central to this idea are the premises featured by supporters of opt-out consent that individuals will not always make the best choices for their own welfare but they may be influenced to do so in ways that will not compromise their freedom of choice. Also important is the premise that all policies inevitably exert some such influence: opt-in consent encourages test refusal just as opt-out consent encourages acceptance. Based on these premises, opt-out testing may be an effective and ethically acceptable policy response to Africa’s HIV epidemic. PMID:20865076

  9. Health-care providers' experiences with opt-out HIV testing: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidel, Stacy; Wilson, Sally; McConigley, Ruth; Boldy, Duncan; Girdler, Sonya

    2015-01-01

    HIV is now a manageable chronic disease with a good prognosis, but early detection and referral for treatment are vital. In opt-out HIV testing, patients are informed that they will be tested unless they decline. This qualitative systematic review explored the experiences, attitudes, barriers, and facilitators of opt-out HIV testing from a health-care provider (HCP) perspective. Four articles were included in the synthesis and reported on findings from approximately 70 participants, representing diverse geographical regions and a range of human development status and HIV prevalence. Two synthesized findings emerged: HCP attitudes and systems. The first synthesized finding encompassed HCP decision-making attitudes about who and when to test for HIV. It also included the assumptions the HCPs made about patient consequences. The second synthesized finding related to systems. System-related barriers to opt-out HIV testing included lack of time, resources, and adequate training. System-related facilitators included integration into standard practice, support of the medical setting, and electronic reminders. A common attitude among HCPs was the outdated notion that HIV is a terrible disease that equates to certain death. Some HCPs stated that offering the HIV test implied that the patient had engaged in immoral behaviour, which could lead to stigma or disengagement with health services. This paternalism diminished patient autonomy, because patients who were excluded from opt-out HIV testing could have benefited from it. One study highlighted the positive aspects of opt-out HIV testing, in which participants underscored the professional satisfaction that arose from making an HIV diagnosis, particularly when marginalized patients could be connected to treatment and social services. Recommendations for opt-out HIV testing should be disseminated to HCPs in a broad range of settings. Implementation of system-related factors such as electronic reminders and care coordination

  10. Rethinking HIV exceptionalism: the ethics of opt-out HIV testing in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    April, Michael D

    2010-09-01

    Opt-out testing for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incorporates testing as a routine part of health care for all patients unless they refuse. The ethics of this approach to testing in sub-Saharan Africa is a source of controversy. Opt-out HIV testing is expected to improve survival by increasing case detection and thus linking more HIV-infected people to earlier treatment, provided there is effective patient follow-up and programme sustainability. At the population level, these benefits will likely outweigh the potential negative consequences of individuals experiencing HIV-related stigma. These justifications appeal to consequentialist moral theories that the acceptability of an action depends upon its outcomes. On the other hand, liberal moral theories state that the autonomy of individuals should always be protected unless restricting autonomy is necessary to protect the welfare of others. Opt-out consent may restrict autonomy and it is unclear whether it would benefit people other than those being tested. Yet, the doctrine of libertarian paternalism proposes that it is justifiable and desirable to use unobtrusive mechanisms to help individuals make choices to maximize their own welfare. Central to this idea are the premises featured by supporters of opt-out consent that individuals will not always make the best choices for their own welfare but they may be influenced to do so in ways that will not compromise their freedom of choice. Also important is the premise that all policies inevitably exert some such influence: opt-in consent encourages test refusal just as opt-out consent encourages acceptance. Based on these premises, opt-out testing may be an effective and ethically acceptable policy response to Africa's HIV epidemic.

  11. 16 CFR 680.23 - Contents of opt-out notice; consolidated and equivalent notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... equivalent notices. 680.23 Section 680.23 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT AFFILIATE MARKETING § 680.23 Contents of opt-out notice; consolidated and equivalent notices... receiving marketing than is required by this part, the requirements of this section may be satisfied by...

  12. The effect of including an opt-out option in discrete choice experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Veldwijk (Jorien); M.S. Lambooij (Mattijs); E.W. de Bekker-Grob (Esther); H.A. Smit (Henriëtte); G.A. De Wit (G. Ardine)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractObjective: to determine to what extent the inclusion of an opt-out option in a DCE may have an effect on choice behaviour and therefore might influence the attribute level estimates, the relative importance of the attributes and calculated tradeoffs. Methods: 781 Dutch Type 2

  13. 12 CFR 216.15 - Other exceptions to notice and opt out requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... insurance to the consumer. (2) A consumer may revoke consent by subsequently exercising the right to opt out... RESERVE SYSTEM PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION (REGULATION P) Exceptions § 216.15 Other... consent or at the direction of the consumer, provided that the consumer has not revoked the consent or...

  14. 16 CFR 313.15 - Other exceptions to notice and opt out requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumer. (2) A consumer may revoke consent by subsequently exercising the right to opt out of future... ACTS OF CONGRESS PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Exceptions § 313.15 Other exceptions to... at the direction of the consumer, provided that the consumer has not revoked the consent or direction...

  15. 12 CFR 332.15 - Other exceptions to notice and opt out requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... insurance to the consumer. (2) A consumer may revoke consent by subsequently exercising the right to opt out... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Exceptions § 332.15 Other exceptions... consent or at the direction of the consumer, provided that the consumer has not revoked the consent or...

  16. 12 CFR 41.25 - Reasonable and simple methods of opting out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... exercising an opt-out right do not include— (i) Requiring the consumer to write his or her own letter; (ii.... A bank must not use eligibility information about a consumer that it receives from an affiliate to make a solicitation to the consumer about its products or services, unless the consumer is provided a...

  17. 12 CFR 717.25 - Reasonable and simple methods of opting out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... simple methods for exercising an opt-out right do not include— (i) Requiring the consumer to write his or... out. (a) In general. You must not use eligibility information about a consumer that you receive from an affiliate to make a solicitation to the consumer about your products or services, unless the...

  18. Acceptability of routine offer of HIV testing (opt-out approach) among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: With the introduction of the opt out HIV testing policy in Ghana, the HIV test is offered routinely to all pregnant women unless they decline testing. Objective: To assess acceptability of the routine offer of HIV testing antenatal clinic (ANC) clients in the Wa municipality, Ghana. Design: Cross-sectional study of 270 ...

  19. Can a Repeated Opt-Out Reminder mitigate hypothetical bias in discrete choice experiments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we test whether a Repeated Opt-Out Reminder (ROOR) can mitigate hypothetical bias in stated discrete choice experiments (DCE). The data originate from a field experiment concerning consumer preferences for a novel food product made from cricket flour. Utilising a between...

  20. 12 CFR 571.23 - Contents of opt-out notice; consolidated and equivalent notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 571.23 Contents of opt-out notice; consolidated and... concise, and must accurately disclose: (i) The name of the affiliate(s) providing the notice. If the notice is provided jointly by multiple affiliates and each affiliate shares a common name, such as “ABC...

  1. 12 CFR 717.23 - Contents of opt-out notice; consolidated and equivalent notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 717.23 Contents of opt-out notice..., conspicuous, and concise, and must accurately disclose: (i) The name of the affiliate(s) providing the notice. If the notice is provided jointly by multiple affiliates and each affiliate shares a common name...

  2. 12 CFR 222.21 - Affiliate marketing opt-out and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... solicitation for marketing purposes to a consumer with whom you have a pre-existing business relationship; (2... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affiliate marketing opt-out and exceptions. 222... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Affiliate Marketing § 222.21 Affiliate...

  3. 12 CFR 334.22 - Scope and duration of opt-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 334.22 Scope and duration of opt-out. (a) Scope of opt... relationship—(i) In general. If the consumer establishes a continuing relationship with you or your affiliate... continuing relationship or multiple continuing relationships that the consumer establishes with you or your...

  4. 17 CFR 248.121 - Affiliate marketing opt out and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... business relationship with the consumer. (b) Making marketing solicitations—(1) In general. For purposes of... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Affiliate marketing opt out... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS S-P AND S-AM Regulation S-AM: Limitations on Affiliate Marketing § 248.121...

  5. 12 CFR 222.22 - Scope and duration of opt-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Affiliate Marketing § 222.22 Scope and duration of opt-out.... (2) Continuing relationship—(i) In general. If the consumer establishes a continuing relationship... connection with— (A) A single continuing relationship or multiple continuing relationships that the consumer...

  6. 12 CFR 334.26 - Delivery of opt-out notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 334.26 Delivery of opt-out notices. (a) In general... the notice; or (4) Posts the notice on the Internet Web site at which the consumer obtained a product... notice; or (3) Posts the notice on an Internet Web site without requiring the consumer to acknowledge...

  7. 12 CFR 222.26 - Delivery of opt-out notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Affiliate Marketing § 222.26 Delivery of opt-out notices. (a... the affiliate providing the notice; or (4) Posts the notice on the Internet Web site at which the... affiliate providing the notice; or (3) Posts the notice on an Internet Web site without requiring the...

  8. Is opting out of the peaceful uses of nuclear power a responsible approach to take?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1999-01-01

    This was the topic of an Expert Meeting arranged by the VDI-Gesellschaft fuer Energietechnik at the Berlin Palace Hotel on September 28-29, 1999 and attended by roughly one hundred experts, almost exclusively from Germany. The meeting was organized to examine the economic impact of Germany's sole opting out of a high technology in the face of a growing worldwide energy requirement, and whether this approach will allow the objectives of carbon dioxide reduction to be achieved in the interest of climate protection. The detailed points discussed at the meeting included the economic consequences for Germany arising from the country's opting out of the use of nuclear power; the preservation of competence in nuclear technology; the future role of nuclear power in the EU; the energy options existing for climate protection. In addition, political discussions were held with representatives of the political parties. (orig.) [de

  9. Which Factors Drive the Decision to Boycott and Opt Out of Research Rankings?

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Berlemann; Justus Haucap

    2012-01-01

    This note contains an empirical analysis of the decision of German-speaking business scholars to boycott and opt out of the best known research ranking of business scholars, initiated and published by Germany’s largest business daily, Handelsblatt. Our analysis indicates that scientists who are more senior (already have a longer academic career) and scientists who have been either less successful or less eager to publish their research in internationally well renown journals with high impac...

  10. Opt-out of Voluntary HIV Testing: A Singapore Hospital's Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Chua, Arlene C.; Leo, Yee Sin; Cavailler, Philippe; Chu, Christine; Ng, Aloysius; Ng, Oon Tek; Krishnan, Prabha

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Since 2008, the Singapore Ministry of Health (MOH) has expanded HIV testing by increasing anonymous HIV test sites, as well as issuing a directive to hospitals to offer routine voluntary opt out inpatient HIV testing. We reviewed this program implemented at the end of 2008 at Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH), the second largest acute care general hospital in Singapore. METHODS AND FINDINGS: From January 2009 to December 2010, all inpatients aged greater or equal than 21 years were ...

  11. Opt-out of voluntary HIV testing: a Singapore hospital's experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlene C Chua

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Since 2008, the Singapore Ministry of Health (MOH has expanded HIV testing by increasing anonymous HIV test sites, as well as issuing a directive to hospitals to offer routine voluntary opt out inpatient HIV testing. We reviewed this program implemented at the end of 2008 at Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH, the second largest acute care general hospital in Singapore. METHODS AND FINDINGS: From January 2009 to December 2010, all inpatients aged greater or equal than 21 years were screened for HIV unless they declined or were not eligible for screening. We reviewed the implementation of the Opt Out testing policy. There were a total of 93,211 admissions; 41,543 patients were included based on HIV screening program eligibility criteria. Among those included, 79% (n = 32,675 opted out of HIV screening. The overall acceptance rate was 21%. Majority of eligible patients who were tested (63% were men. The mean age of tested patients was 52 years. The opt out rate was significantly higher among females (OR: 1.5, 95%CI: 1.4-1.6, aged >60 years (OR: 2.3, 95%CI: 2.2-2.4 and Chinese ethnicity (OR: 1.7, 95%CI:1.6-1.8. The false positive rate of the HIV screening test is 0.56%. The proportion of patients with HIV infection among those who underwent HIV screening is 0.18%. All 16 confirmed HIV patients were linked to care. CONCLUSION: The default opt-in rate of inpatient HIV testing was low at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore. Efforts to address individual HIV risk perception and campaigns against HIV stigma are needed to encourage more individuals to be tested for HIV.

  12. Opt-out of voluntary HIV testing: a Singapore hospital's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Arlene C; Leo, Yee Sin; Cavailler, Philippe; Chu, Christine; Ng, Aloysius; Ng, Oon Tek; Krishnan, Prabha

    2012-01-01

    Since 2008, the Singapore Ministry of Health (MOH) has expanded HIV testing by increasing anonymous HIV test sites, as well as issuing a directive to hospitals to offer routine voluntary opt out inpatient HIV testing. We reviewed this program implemented at the end of 2008 at Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH), the second largest acute care general hospital in Singapore. From January 2009 to December 2010, all inpatients aged greater or equal than 21 years were screened for HIV unless they declined or were not eligible for screening. We reviewed the implementation of the Opt Out testing policy. There were a total of 93,211 admissions; 41,543 patients were included based on HIV screening program eligibility criteria. Among those included, 79% (n = 32,675) opted out of HIV screening. The overall acceptance rate was 21%. Majority of eligible patients who were tested (63%) were men. The mean age of tested patients was 52 years. The opt out rate was significantly higher among females (OR: 1.5, 95%CI: 1.4-1.6), aged >60 years (OR: 2.3, 95%CI: 2.2-2.4) and Chinese ethnicity (OR: 1.7, 95%CI:1.6-1.8). The false positive rate of the HIV screening test is 0.56%. The proportion of patients with HIV infection among those who underwent HIV screening is 0.18%. All 16 confirmed HIV patients were linked to care. The default opt-in rate of inpatient HIV testing was low at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore. Efforts to address individual HIV risk perception and campaigns against HIV stigma are needed to encourage more individuals to be tested for HIV.

  13. Opting in and opting out: a grounded theory of nursing's contribution to inpatient rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Julie; Walker, Annette; O'Connell, Beverly; Worrall-Carter, Linda

    2009-12-01

    To develop a grounded theory of nursing's contribution to patient rehabilitation from the perspective of nurses working in inpatient rehabilitation. Grounded theory method, informed by the theoretical perspective of symbolic interactionism, was used to guide data collection and analysis, and the development of a grounded theory. Five inpatient rehabilitation units in Australia. Thirty-five registered and 18 enrolled nurses participated in audio-taped interviews and/or were observed during periods of their everyday practice. The analysis revealed a situation whereby nurses made decisions about when to 'opt in' and when to 'opt out' of inpatient rehabilitation. This occurred on two levels: with their interaction with patients and allied health professionals, and when faced with negative system issues that impacted on their ability to contribute to patient rehabilitation. The primary contribution nurses made to inpatient rehabilitation was working directly with patients, enabling them to self-care. Nurses coached patients when their decisions about 'opting in' and 'opting out' were based on assessment of the person in their particular context. In contrast, the nurses mostly distanced themselves from system-based problems, 'opting out' of addressing them. They did this not to make their working lives easier, but more manageable. System-based problems impacted negatively on the nurses' ability to deliver comprehensive rehabilitation care. As a consequence, some nurses felt unable to influence the care and they withdrew professionally to make their work lives more manageable.

  14. Forum: Making Sense of the Opt-Out Movement: "Education Next" Talks with Scott Levy and Jonah Edelman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Scott; Edelman, Jonah

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, students by the thousands have refused to take their state's standardized tests. This "opt-out" phenomenon has prompted debate in state legislatures and in Washington, putting states at risk of losing Title I funds. Advocates describe opt-out as a grassroots movement of parents concerned about overtesting,…

  15. 'We didn't have to dance around it': opt-out HIV testing among homeless and marginalised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidel, Stacy; Leslie, Gavin; Boldy, Duncan; Davies, Andrew; Girdler, Sonya

    2017-07-01

    This study explored opt-out HIV testing in an Australian general practice. The aims were to: (1) determine the effect of the opt-out approach on the number of HIV tests performed; and (2) explore the acceptability of opt-out HIV testing from the healthcare providers' perspective. A prospective mixed-methods study of opt-out HIV testing over a 2-year period (March 2014-March 2016) was conducted. Implementation was based on a theoretical framework that was developed specifically for this study. The setting was Homeless Healthcare, a health service in Perth, Western Australia. The number of HIV tests conducted during the control year (usual practice) was compared with the intervention year (opt-out testing). After the intervention, the healthcare providers (n=8) were interviewed about their experiences with opt-out HIV testing. Directed content analysis was used to explore the qualitative data. HIV testing rates were low during both the control year and the intervention year (315 HIV tests (12% of the patient cohort) and 344 HIV tests (10%) respectively). Opt-out HIV testing was feasible and acceptable to the participating healthcare providers. Other health services could consider opt-out HIV testing for their patients to identify people with undiagnosed infections and sustain Australia's low HIV prevalence.

  16. Vanishing vaccinations: why are so many Americans opting out of vaccinating their children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandrillo, Steve P

    2004-01-01

    Vaccinations against life-threatening diseases are one of the greatest public health achievements in history. Literally millions of premature deaths have been prevented, and countless more children have been saved from disfiguring illness. While vaccinations carry unavoidable risks, the medical, social and economic benefits they confer have led all fifty states to enact compulsory childhood vaccination laws to stop the spread of preventable diseases. Today, however, vaccines are becoming a victim of their success--many individuals have never witnessed the debilitating diseases that vaccines protect against, allowing complacency toward immunization requirements to build. Antivaccination sentiment is growing fast in the United States, in large part due to the controversial and hotly disputed link between immunizations and autism. The internet worsens fears regarding vaccination safety, as at least a dozen websites publish alarming information about the risks of vaccines. Increasing numbers of parents are refusing immunizations for their children and seeking legally sanctioned exemptions instead, apparently fearing vaccines more than the underlying diseases that they protect against. A variety of factors are at play: religious and philosophical beliefs, freedom and individualism, misinformation about risk, and overperception of risk. State legislatures and health departments now face a difficult challenge: respecting individual rights and freedoms while also safeguarding the public welfare. Nearly all states allow vaccination exemptions for religious reasons and a growing number provide "philosophical" opt-outs as well. However, in all but a handful of jurisdictions, neither objection is seriously documented or verified. Often, the law requires a parent to do no more than simply check a box indicating she does not wish her child to receive immunizations. The problem is exacerbated by financial incentives schools have to encourage students to opt out of vaccinations

  17. Correlates of HIV testing refusal among emergency department patients in the opt-out testing era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setse, Rosanna W; Maxwell, Celia J

    2014-05-01

    Opt-out HIV screening is recommended by the CDC for patients in all healthcare settings. We examined correlates of HIV testing refusal among urban emergency department (ED) patients. Confidential free HIV screening was offered to 32,633 ED patients in an urban tertiary care facility in Washington, DC, during May 2007-December 2011. Demographic differences in testing refusals were examined using χ(2) tests and generalized linear models. HIV testing refusal rates were 47.7 % 95 % CI (46.7-48.7), 11.7 % (11.0-12.4), 10.7 % (10.0-11.4), 16.9 % (15.9-17.9) and 26.9 % (25.6-28.2) in 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011 respectively. Persons 33-54 years of age [adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) 1.42, (1.36-1.48)] and those ≥ 55 years [APR 1.39 (1.31-1.47)], versus 33-54 years; and females versus males [APR 1.07 (1.02-1.11)] were more likely to refuse testing. Opt-out HIV testing is feasible and sustainable in urban ED settings. Efforts are needed to encourage testing among older patients and women.

  18. Opt-Out Patient Navigation to Improve Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Homeless Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Ramin; Naderi, Ramesh; Wisnivesky, Juan

    2017-09-01

    A patient navigation model was implemented to improve breast and cervical cancer screening among women who were homeless in five shelters and shelter clinics in New York City in 2014. Navigation consisted of opt-out screening to eligible women; cancer health and screening education; scheduling and following up for screening completion, obtaining, and communicating results to patients and providers; and care coordination with social services organizations. Women (n = 162, aged 21-74, 58% black) completed mammogram (88%) and Pap testing (83%) from baselines of 59% and 50%, respectively. There was no association between mental health or substance abuse and screening completion. Adjusted analysis showed a significant association between refusing/missing Pap testing and older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.20); independent predictors of mammogram included more pregnancies (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.37-0.88) and older age (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.79-0.90). Opt-out patient navigation is feasible and effective and may mitigate multilevel barriers to cancer screening among women with unstable housing.

  19. Opt-out screening strategy for HIV infection among patients attending emergency departments: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez-Camacho, C; Villafuerte-Gutierrez, P; Pérez-Molina, J A; Losa, J; Gotuzzo, E; Cheyne, N

    2017-07-01

    International health agencies have promoted nontargeted universal (opt-out) HIV screening tests in different settings, including emergency departments (EDs). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the testing uptake of strategies (opt-in targeted, opt-in nontargeted and opt-out) to detect new cases of HIV infection in EDs. We searched the Pubmed and Embase databases, from 1984 to April 2015, for opt-in and opt-out HIV diagnostic strategies used in EDs. Randomized controlled or quasi experimental studies were included. We assessed the percentage of positive individuals tested for HIV infection in each programme (opt-in and opt-out strategies). The mean percentage was estimated by combining studies in a random-effect meta-analysis. The percentages of individuals tested in the programmes were compared in a random-effect meta-regression model. Data were analysed using stata version 12. Quality assessments were performed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Of the 90 papers identified, 28 were eligible for inclusion. Eight trials used opt-out, 18 trials used opt-in, and two trials used both to detect new cases of HIV infection. The test was accepted and taken by 75 155 of 172 237 patients (44%) in the opt-out strategy, and 73 581 of 382 992 patients (19%) in the opt-in strategy. The prevalence of HIV infection detected by the opt-out strategy was 0.40% (373 cases), that detected by the opt-in nontargeted strategy was 0.52% (419 cases), and that detected by the opt-in targeted strategy was 1.06% (52 cases). In this meta-analysis, the testing uptake of the opt-out strategy was not different from that of the opt-in strategy to detect new cases of HIV infection in EDs. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  20. Private International Law Issues in Opt-out and Opt-in Instruments of Harmonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogt, Morten Midtgaard

    2013-01-01

    of Goods from 1980 (CISG) and the European Commission Proposal for a common European Sales Law from 2011 (CESL). Although the two instruments of substantial harmonization regulate the same area of civil law, they differ with respect to the type of formal instrument of harmonization, the material, personal......This article deals with opt-in and opt-out instruments of harmonization, how they apply and compete. It analyses the Private International Law (PIL) issues which arise and bases the analysis on the two instruments of harmonization – the Vienna Convention on Contract for the International Sale...... into these questions and argues, inter alia, that the CISG as a global international convention should have priority over the regional CESL, that the choice of the CESL should be based on a PIL choice of binding European ‘Community rules of law’, that both instruments cannot possible overrule the established PIL...

  1. Straitjacket or Sovereignty Shield? The Danish Opt-Out on Justice and Home Affairs and Prospects after the Treaty of Lisbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca; Gammeltoft-Hansen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    How are we to understand the perplexing and sometimes even counter-intuitive position of Denmark in relation to Justice and Home Affairs (JHA)? In this article, we attempt to go behind the many myths and misunderstandings involved and analyse the consequences of the Danish opt-out from EU......-outs. Eurosceptic politicians and media claim that protocols protect national sovereignty and may serve as an example to other member states, whereas British and Danish pro-European ministers argue that they lose political influence when they ‘are sent outside'....

  2. No opt-out is forever. Sweden opts back in; Ausstieg ist nie endgueltig. Schweden kehrt um

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Horst

    2010-06-15

    The draft legislation by the conservative-liberal Swedish government of early 2010, which was adopted by the Swedish parliament on June 17, 2010, not only repeals the shutdown of all Swedish nuclear power plants, which had earlier been foreseen by this year, but permits the construction and operation of new plants. In Sweden, a referendum in 1980 started the opt-out process. Shutdown within 30 years was foreseen in the regulation. As early as in late 1995, an Energy Committee appointed by the government reported that a complete opt-out by 2010 was impossible to achieve on economic and environmental grounds. Under the 1997 Opt-out Act, the government may shut down nuclear power plants at any time against an indemnification - unlike Germany. Another prerequisite is the realistic availability of new energy sources. As a consequence, only 2 nuclear power plants have been shut down so far, mainly because of protests from neighboring Denmark. Thirty years after the referendum, the acceptance of nuclear power in Sweden is high and stable. In line with growing public acceptance in the course of the debate about climate change, the Christian-Democratic Party changed its policy in March 2007, opting out of the opt-out. Finally, the conservative-liberal Swedish government submitted draft legislation to parliament which also permitted building new nuclear power plants. The Social Democratic Workers' Party, which is in the opposition, stuck to its rejection of the use of nuclear power and announced its intention to reverse the repeal of the opt-out in September 2010, after parliamentary elections and a possible new red-green government. The public and political developments in Sweden show that social attitudes towards nuclear power, opt-out policies and legal regulations can change. Adopting a rational attitude when discussing nuclear power and realities is possible, and political views sooner or later will adapt to the new situation. This could happen also in Germany

  3. Domestic uptake of green energy promoted by opt-out tariffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, Felix; Lotz, Sebastian

    2015-09-01

    Motivating individuals to choose energy from sustainable sources over conventionally produced power constitutes one of the biggest policy challenges for societies. Here we present the results of a randomized controlled trial in Germany that tested the impact of default rules (that is, a type of `nudging’) on voluntary purchases of `green’ energy contracts that entirely stem from renewable resources. Setting the default choice to more expensive `green’ energy (that is, where consumers have to actively opt out if they do not want it) increased purchases of such nearly tenfold. Furthermore, county-level political preference for the green party uniquely predicted behaviour in the absence of the nudge, suggesting that default setting potentially overrules motivational aspects of green energy purchases. In follow-up experiments, we provide further evidence that the effect does not seem to be driven by unawareness. Summarizing, the present research provides an example of using behavioural science for climate change mitigation and shows alternatives to the use of subsidies or other economic incentives.

  4. Opt-Out Panel Testing for HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in an Urban Emergency Department: A Pilot Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Studies suggest 2 per 1000 people in Dublin are living with HIV, the level above which universal screening is advised. We aimed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a universal opt-out HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C testing programme for Emergency Department patients and to describe the incidence and prevalence of blood-borne viruses in this population.

  5. Victims, vectors and villains: are those who opt out of vaccination morally responsible for the deaths of others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, Euzebiusz; Handfield, Toby; Selgelid, Michael J

    2016-12-01

    Mass vaccination has been a successful public health strategy for many contagious diseases. The immunity of the vaccinated also protects others who cannot be safely or effectively vaccinated-including infants and the immunosuppressed. When vaccination rates fall, diseases like measles can rapidly resurge in a population. Those who cannot be vaccinated for medical reasons are at the highest risk of severe disease and death. They thus may bear the burden of others' freedom to opt out of vaccination. It is often asked whether it is legitimate for states to adopt and enforce mandatory universal vaccination. Yet this neglects a related question: are those who opt out, where it is permitted, morally responsible when others are harmed or die as a result of their decision? In this article, we argue that individuals who opt out of vaccination are morally responsible for resultant harms to others. Using measles as our main example, we demonstrate the ways in which opting out of vaccination can result in a significant risk of harm and death to others, especially infants and the immunosuppressed. We argue that imposing these risks without good justification is blameworthy and examine ways of reaching a coherent understanding of individual moral responsibility for harms in the context of the collective action required for disease transmission. Finally, we consider several objections to this view, provide counterarguments and suggest morally permissible alternatives to mandatory universal vaccination including controlled infection, self-imposed social isolation and financial penalties for refusal to vaccinate. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Opt-Out Panel Testing for HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in an Urban Emergency Department: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah O'Connell

    Full Text Available Studies suggest 2 per 1000 people in Dublin are living with HIV, the level above which universal screening is advised. We aimed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a universal opt-out HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C testing programme for Emergency Department patients and to describe the incidence and prevalence of blood-borne viruses in this population.An opt-out ED blood borne virus screening programme was piloted from March 2014 to January 2015. Patients undergoing blood sampling during routine clinical care were offered HIV 1&2 antibody/antigen assay, HBV surface antigen and HCV antibody tests. Linkage to care where necessary was co-ordinated by the study team. New diagnosis and prevalence rates were defined as the new cases per 1000 tested and number of positive tests per 1000 tested respectively.Over 45 weeks of testing, of 10,000 patient visits, 8,839 individual patient samples were available for analysis following removal of duplicates. A sustained target uptake of >50% was obtained after week 3. 97(1.09%, 44(0.49% and 447(5.05% HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C tests were positive respectively. Of these, 7(0.08%, 20(0.22% and 58(0.66% were new diagnoses of HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C respectively. The new diagnosis rate for HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C was 0.8, 2.26 and 6.5 per 1000 and study prevalence for HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C was 11.0, 5.0 and 50.5 per 1000 respectively.Opt-out blood borne viral screening was feasible and acceptable in an inner-city ED. Blood borne viral infections were prevalent in this population and newly diagnosed cases were diagnosed and linked to care. These results suggest widespread blood borne viral testing in differing clinical locations with differing population demographic risks may be warranted.

  7. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of the short- and long-term consequences of opting out of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briem, G.; Halstrick, M.; Heilemann, U.; Hillebrand, B.; Kiy, M.; Neuhaus, R.; Knieper, O.; Schmidt, H.W.; Weiss, T.

    1986-08-01

    A reference scenario establishes the prospective development of the energy and overall economy under status-quo conditions, i.e. assuming especially the continued use of nuclear energy, while two scenarios (alternative I: 'immediate opting out' and alternative II: 'opting out in the long term') try to assess the consequences of a shutdown of nuclear energy for the economic development of the Federal Republic of Germany. Especially, the study deals with the effects on the power industry, the ecological consequences, and the overall economic effects both in the short and long run. In all three scenarios, the development of the home consumption of electric power is first of all determined by a structure model of the entire economy. The capacity required to meet that demand and its use are calculated with the aid of a power plant model; short- and long-term cost-minimization programmes making allowance especially for fuel and capital costs from the elements from which these quantities are derived. Fuel and capital costs operate as variables in the structure model to determine the sectoral and overall economic development. The report in addition investigates separately, in partial models, the effects on the chemical industry and the branches of industry processing iron, steel, and non-ferrous metals, all of which are greatly in demand of electric power. (orig./UA) [de

  8. Economic impact of the Commission's 'opt-out' proposal on the use of approved GM crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoste, R.; Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Wijnands, J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    The European Commission proposed the opportunity for individual EU Member States to restrict or prohibit the use of GMOs in food or feed on their territory (a national ‘opt-out’). The economic impact on individual sectors of the feed and food chain (the vegetable oil and meal industry, trade, animal

  9. 12 CFR 716.13 - Exception to opt out requirements for service providers and joint marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... section may include marketing of your own products or services or marketing of financial products or... providers and joint marketing. 716.13 Section 716.13 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Exceptions § 716.13 Exception to...

  10. Is 'Opt-Out HIV Testing' a real option among pregnant women in rural districts in Kenya?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wamalwa David

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An 'opt-out' policy of routine HIV counseling and testing (HCT is being implemented across sub-Saharan Africa to expand prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT. Although the underlying assumption is that pregnant women in rural Africa are able to voluntarily consent to HIV testing, little is known about the reality and whether 'opt-out' HCT leads to higher completion rates of PMTCT. Factors associated with consent to HIV testing under the 'opt-out' approach were investigated through a large cross-sectional study in Kenya. Methods Observations during HIV pre-test information sessions were followed by a cross-sectional survey of 900 pregnant women in three public district hospitals carrying out PMTCT in the Busia district. Women on their first antenatal care (ANC visit during the current pregnancy were interviewed after giving blood for HIV testing but before learning their test results. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression analysis were performed. Results Of the 900 women participating, 97% tested for HIV. Lack of testing kits was the only reason for women not being tested, i.e. nobody declined HIV testing. Despite the fact that 96% had more than four earlier pregnancies and 37% had been tested for HIV at ANC previously, only 17% of the women surveyed knew that testing was optional. Only 20% of those surveyed felt they could make an informed decision to decline HIV testing. Making an informed decision to decline HIV testing was associated with knowing that testing was optional (OR = 5.44, 95%CI 3.44-8.59, not having a stable relationship with the child's father (OR = 1.76, 95%CI 1.02-3.03, and not having discussed HIV testing with a partner before the ANC visit (OR = 2.64 95%CI 1.79-3.86. Conclusion High coverage of HIV testing appears to be achieved at the cost of pregnant women not understanding that testing is optional. Good quality HIV pre-test information is central to ensure that pregnant women

  11. Nuclear power and the opting-out policy of the German Government. A matter of responsibility and controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grawe, J.; Voss, A.

    2000-01-01

    The article critically reviews the energy policy of the German Government and the plans for winding down nuclear power generation and instead pursue a policy for a ''green reshufflement'' of generation technologies, providing for incentives to switch to options for decentralized power generation with enhanced use of renewable energy sources. The article explains arguments against the Government's opting-out policy which were laid down in a memorandum presented to the Government by a group of five university professors, among them the authors of this article who, as experts in this domain, are aware of their responsibility as scientists and members of society and therefore explain their view of the policy issues, also referring to a recent expert opinion of the German Wissenschaftsrat (science council), which recommended to continue nuclear energy research programmes and nuclear power generation. (orig./CB) [de

  12. Is Green better than Blue? The Danish JHA opt-out and the Unilateral attempt to attrack highly skilled labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Marlene; Adamo, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    In 20–30 years Denmark will, just like the rest of the EU, be in need of an increasing number of highly skilled workers from outside the EU to sustain its welfare society. While the EU has adopted a common Blue Card aiming at making it possible for foreign workers to live and work in most of the EU......, Denmark has, due to its opt-out in Justice and Home Affairs, chosen its own Green Card Scheme. This article looks into this choice and compares the recent Danish attempt to attract high skilled workers with the Blue Card directive. It analyses the differences and similarities between the two schemes...... and investigates why initiatives to attract highly skilled workers have not been successful at either the Danish nor the European level....

  13. A randomised controlled trial to compare opt-in and opt-out parental consent for childhood vaccine safety surveillance using data linkage: study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Jesia G; Ryan, Philip; Braunack-Mayer, Annette J; Duszynski, Katherine M; Xafis, Vicki; Gold, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The Vaccine Assessment using Linked Data (VALiD) trial compared opt-in and opt-out parental consent for a population-based childhood vaccine safety surveillance program using data linkage. A subsequent telephone interview of all households enrolled in the trial elicited parental intent regarding the return or non-return of reply forms for opt-in and opt-out consent. This paper describes the rationale for the trial and provides an overview of the design and methods. Methods...

  14. Opting out of the commercial use of nuclear power in Germany and challenges arising to nuclear supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renneberg, W.

    2001-01-01

    The governing majority in Germany has decided to opt out of the commercial use of nuclear power and to terminate this use in a safe and managed way. In the opinion of the federal government, the reasons for this decision include the potential for severe accidents, which is considered intolerable in the long run even though the probability of occurrence is low. In addition, there are the problems of final storage of radioactive waste, issues associated with the risk of proliferation, and the need to end a deep-seated societal conflict in Germany. In its function as the Top Regulator, the department responsible for nuclear matters of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU) has two important functions: It acts as the federal supervisor of the federal states which execute the Atomic Energy Act on behalf of the federal government, and it exercises the duty of preparing the nuclear policy outlined in the norms established by the federal government. After lengthy discussions with the operators of nuclear power plants an agreement was elaborated in preparation of a solution acceptable to all participants, which essentially defines an electricity quota for nuclear power plant operation and deals with spent fuel and nuclear waste management problems. This implies a number of challenges arising to the BMU as a consequence of the need to further ensure a high safety standard. It also means international efforts as well as the need to counteract the impending loss of competence in the nuclear field. (orig.) [de

  15. Improving Public Schools through the Dissent of Parents: Opting out of Tests, Demanding Alternative Curricula, Invoking Parent Trigger Laws, and Withdrawing Entirely

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitzlein, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    Some parents and caregivers, frustrated by low academic performance of their local school, emphasis on testing, or the content of the curriculum, have worked independently or formed parent groups to speak out and demand improvements. Parents and families enact solutions such as opting out of tests, developing alternative curricula, invoking parent…

  16. 16 CFR 316.5 - Prohibition on charging a fee or imposing other requirements on recipients who wish to opt out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... other than the recipient's electronic mail address and opt-out preferences, or take any other steps except sending a reply electronic mail message or visiting a single Internet Web page, in order to: (a) Use a return electronic mail address or other Internet-based mechanism, required by 15 U.S.C. 7704(a...

  17. Evolution/Creationism Controversy: Analysis of Past and Current Policies in Public Schools and the Practice of Allowing Students to Opt Out of Learning Evolution Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speake, Jacquelyn Hoffmann

    2011-07-01

    Recent anti-evolution legislation, in the form of Academic Freedom bills, has been introduced in many state legislatures over the last three years. The language in the proposed Academic Freedom bills may allow different interpretations of what can be taught in the science classrooms, and possibly spur parents to take advantage of their perceived parental rights to request their child be opted-out of class when the scientific theory of evolution is taught. Five research questions guided the analysis of participant responses to questions and perception statements focusing on secondary school administrators' actions, perceptions, and awareness as they relate to their decision to allow or not allow a student to opt out of academics, specifically evolution, through the collection of data using a web-based survey. Opt out policies are typically invoked to excuse students from activities to which they or their parents may have religious objections (Scott & Branch, 2008). Florida statutes allow parents to opt out their child from human sexuality and animal dissection. The population consisted of 281 Florida public secondary school administrators, who were divided into two subgroups based on whether they have allowed or would allow a student to opt out of evolution, or have not allowed or would not allow a student to opt out of class when the scientific theory of evolution is taught. Results found that over 70% of the administrators who completed the survey have allowed or would allow parents to opt out their child from learning about the scientific theory of evolution. There was a significant relationship between the decision to allow opt out and the following variables: (a) Free and Reduced Lunch population, (b) grade level served, (c) support for teaching evolution and alternative theories, and (d) the perception that parent rights supersede state statute requiring students to learn evolution. In Florida, any scientific concept that is based on empirical evidence is

  18. A randomised controlled trial to compare opt-in and opt-out parental consent for childhood vaccine safety surveillance using data linkage: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duszynski Katherine M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Vaccine Assessment using Linked Data (VALiD trial compared opt-in and opt-out parental consent for a population-based childhood vaccine safety surveillance program using data linkage. A subsequent telephone interview of all households enrolled in the trial elicited parental intent regarding the return or non-return of reply forms for opt-in and opt-out consent. This paper describes the rationale for the trial and provides an overview of the design and methods. Methods/Design Single-centre, single-blind, randomised controlled trial (RCT stratified by firstborn status. Mothers who gave birth at one tertiary South Australian hospital were randomised at six weeks post-partum to receive an opt-in or opt-out reply form, along with information explaining data linkage. The primary outcome at 10 weeks post-partum was parental participation in each arm, as indicated by the respective return or non-return of a reply form (or via telephone or email response. A subsequent telephone interview at 10 weeks post-partum elicited parental intent regarding the return or non-return of the reply form, and attitudes and knowledge about data linkage, vaccine safety, consent preferences and vaccination practices. Enrolment began in July 2009 and 1,129 households were recruited in a three-month period. Analysis has not yet been undertaken. The participation rate and selection bias for each method of consent will be compared when the data are analysed. Discussion The VALiD RCT represents the first trial of opt-in versus opt-out consent for a data linkage study that assesses consent preferences and intent compared with actual opting in or opting out behaviour, and socioeconomic factors. The limitations to generalisability are discussed. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000332022

  19. A randomised controlled trial to compare opt-in and opt-out parental consent for childhood vaccine safety surveillance using data linkage: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jesia G; Ryan, Philip; Braunack-Mayer, Annette J; Duszynski, Katherine M; Xafis, Vicki; Gold, Michael S

    2011-01-04

    The Vaccine Assessment using Linked Data (VALiD) trial compared opt-in and opt-out parental consent for a population-based childhood vaccine safety surveillance program using data linkage. A subsequent telephone interview of all households enrolled in the trial elicited parental intent regarding the return or non-return of reply forms for opt-in and opt-out consent. This paper describes the rationale for the trial and provides an overview of the design and methods. Single-centre, single-blind, randomised controlled trial (RCT) stratified by firstborn status. Mothers who gave birth at one tertiary South Australian hospital were randomised at six weeks post-partum to receive an opt-in or opt-out reply form, along with information explaining data linkage. The primary outcome at 10 weeks post-partum was parental participation in each arm, as indicated by the respective return or non-return of a reply form (or via telephone or email response). A subsequent telephone interview at 10 weeks post-partum elicited parental intent regarding the return or non-return of the reply form, and attitudes and knowledge about data linkage, vaccine safety, consent preferences and vaccination practices. Enrolment began in July 2009 and 1,129 households were recruited in a three-month period. Analysis has not yet been undertaken. The participation rate and selection bias for each method of consent will be compared when the data are analysed. The VALiD RCT represents the first trial of opt-in versus opt-out consent for a data linkage study that assesses consent preferences and intent compared with actual opting in or opting out behaviour, and socioeconomic factors. The limitations to generalisability are discussed. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000332022.

  20. Ethical issues surrounding the provider initiated opt--Out prenatal HIV screening practice in Sub-Saharan Africa: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Luchuo Engelbert; Dierickx, Kris; Hens, Kristien

    2015-10-24

    Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV remains a key public health priority in most developing countries. The provider Initiated Opt - Out Prenatal HIV Screening Approach, recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) lately has been adopted and translated into policy in most Sub - Saharan African countries. To better ascertain the ethical reasons for or against the use of this approach, we carried out a literature review of the ethics literature. Papers published in English and French Languages between 1990 and 2015 from the following data bases were searched: Pubmed, Cochrane literature, Embase, Cinhal, Web of Science and Google Scholar. After screening from 302 identified relevant articles, 21 articles were retained for the critical review. Most authors considered this approach ethically justifiable due to its potential benefits to the mother, foetus and society (Beneficence). The breaching of respect for autonomy was considered acceptable on the grounds of libertarian paternalism. Most authors considered the Opt - Out approach to be less stigmatizing than the Opt - In. The main arguments against the Opt - Out approach were: non respect of patient autonomy, informed consent becoming a meaningless concept and the HIV test becoming compulsory, risk of losing trust in health care providers, neglect of social and psychological implications of doing an HIV test, risk of aggravation of stigma if all tested patients are not properly cared for and neglect of sociocultural peculiarities. The Opt - Out approach could be counterproductive in case gender sensitive issues within the various sociocultural representations are neglected, and actions to offer holistic care to all women who shall potentially test positive for HIV were not effectively ascertained. The Provider Initiated Opt - Out Prenatal HIV Screening option remains ethically acceptable, but deserves caution, active monitoring and evaluation within the translation of this approach into to practice.

  1. Uptake of voluntary counselling and testing among young people participating in an HIV prevention trial: comparison of opt-out and opt-in strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Baisley

    Full Text Available HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT is an integral component of HIV prevention and treatment programmes. However, testing coverage in sub-Saharan Africa is still low, particularly among young people. As treatment becomes more widely available, strategies to expand VCT coverage are critically important. We compare VCT uptake using two delivery strategies (opt-in and opt-out within the MEMA kwa Vijana trial in 20 communities in northwest Tanzania.We analysed data from 12,590 young persons (median (IQR age 22 years (20-23 to assess the effect of delivery strategy on VCT uptake. Ten communities used an opt-in approach and 10 used opt-out, balanced across intervention and control. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with uptake within each strategy.VCT uptake was significantly higher with the opt-out approach (90.9% vs 60.5%, prevalence ratio = 1.51, CI = 1.41-1.62. Among females, uptake in the opt-out approach was associated with decreased knowledge of HIV acquisition, sex with a casual partner, and being HSV-2 seronegative; among males, uptake was associated with lower education and increasing lifetime partners. In contrast, uptake using the opt-in approach varied by ethnic group, religion and marital status, and increased with increasing knowledge of STI acquisition (males or pregnancy prevention (females.VCT uptake among young people was extremely high when offered an opt-out strategy. Sociodemographic and knowledge factors affected uptake in different ways depending on delivery strategy. Increased knowledge may increase young persons' self-efficacy, which may have a different impact on testing uptake, depending on the approach used.

  2. Opting out of dialysis – Exploring patients' decisions to forego dialysis in favour of conservative non-dialytic management for end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Angeline S T; Tan, Fiona; Srinivas, Subramaniam; Wu, Huei Yei; Griva, Konstadina

    2015-10-01

    Dialysis prolongs the life of people with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but for patients who are elderly and suffer multiple comorbid illnesses the benefits of dialysis may be outweighed by its negative consequences. Non-dialytic conservative management has therefore become an alternative treatment route, yet little is known on patients' experience with choosing end-of-life treatment. To gain insight into the decision-making process leading to opting out of dialysis and the experience with conservative non-dialytic management from the patients' perspective. Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was undertaken as the framework for data analysis. N = 9 ESRD participants who have taken the decision to forego dialysis were recruited from the advanced care programme under the National Healthcare Group, Singapore. Participants discussed life since ESRD diagnosis, and the personal and contextual factors that led them to choose conservative management. The perceived physical and financial burden of dialysis both for the individual but most importantly for their family, uncertainty over likely gains over risks which were fuelled by communication of negative dialysis stories of others, coupled with sense of life completion and achievement led them to refuse dialysis. All participants took ownership of their decision despite contrary advice by doctors and were content with their decision and current management. Study highlights the factors driving patients' decisions for conservative non-dialytic management over dialysis to allow medical professionals to offer appropriate support to patients through their decision-making process and in caring them for the rest of their lives. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. How Strong Is Europeanisation, Really? The Danish Defence Administration and the Opt-Out from the European Security and Defence Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2011-01-01

    The article questions how strong Europeanisation is as an explanation of administrative changes in EU member states. Denmark has an opt-out from the European cooperation on defence, and, therefore, its defence administration represents a critical or a less likely case to test the Europeanisation...... thesis. The article shows that in spite of the opt-out, the administrative structures and the policy processes in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) have adapted to the common foreign and security policy (CFSP) and the European security and defence policy (ESDP). Surprisingly, the administrative...... structures and the decision-making processes in the Ministry of Defence (MoD) have also adapted to the ESDP. The latter example emphasises the strength of top-down Europeanisation as a possible explanation of domestic administrative changes in member states. It is argued that Europeanisation per se...

  4. Who opts out of a project for health promotion with incentives?: Empirical research on the effect of rewards to motivate persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Shohei; Komamura, Kohei; Tanabe, Kai; Yokoyama, Noriko; Tsukao, Akiko; Chijiki, Shoko; Kuno, Shinya

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Although providing incentives for a better lifestyle has been of increasing concern, there is insufficient evidence about its effect. Therefore, this research aims to discover new insights by verifying the effect of rewards to motivate persistence in a project for health promotion.Methods A total of 7,622 participants of an incentivized project for health promotion (Wellness Point Project) were recruited from 6 municipalities in Japan, namely Tohoku, Chubu, Kanto, Kinki, and Chugoku, of which the 4,291 individuals who had the necessary information for estimation were analyzed. Persistence in the project was judged by whether there was information about daily steps and/or participation in some fitness classes every month for one year at most. In addition, we used the reason participants chose certain rewards in order to categorize the characteristic of rewards, and estimated opt-out hazard ratios from the project using survival time analysis. Furthermore, the estimation in the model included individual features such as age, education, status of physical activity before joining the project, lifestyles such as smoking, drinking, and so on.Results A multivariate analysis reveals that those who had chosen a reward for regional contribution were more likely to opt out than those who had chosen a certain reward because it is close to cash. The opt-out hazard ratio was 1.63 (95% CI: 1.18-2.25) among men and 1.40 (95% CI: 1.08-1.81) among women. In addition, insufficient physical activity, smoking, working for men, and physical condition for women were associated with opt-out.Conclusions This research verified that a reward that participants felt was close to cash, compared to the internal motivation of regional contribution, could enhance the persistence rate of the project. Moreover, it was found that not only giving incentives but also considering participants' conditions is necessary to enhance persistence.

  5. Universal opt-out screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) within correctional facilities is an effective intervention to improve public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Meghan D; Brown, Brandon; Allen, Scott A

    2017-09-11

    Purpose Worldwide efforts to identify individuals infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) focus almost exclusively on community healthcare systems, thereby failing to reach high-risk populations and those with poor access to primary care. In the USA, community-based HCV testing policies and guidelines overlook correctional facilities, where HCV rates are believed to be as high as 40 percent. This is a missed opportunity: more than ten million Americans move through correctional facilities each year. Herein, the purpose of this paper is to examine HCV testing practices in the US correctional system, California and describe how universal opt-out HCV testing could expand early HCV detection, improve public health in correctional facilities and communities, and prove cost-effective over time. Design/methodology/approach A commentary on the value of standardizing screening programs across facilities by mandating all facilities (universal) to implement opt-out testing policies for all prisoners upon entry to the correctional facilities. Findings Current variability in facility-level testing programs results in inconsistent testing levels across correctional facilities, and therefore makes estimating the actual number of HCV-infected adults in the USA difficult. The authors argue that universal opt-out testing policies ensure earlier diagnosis of HCV among a population most affected by the disease and is more cost-effective than selective testing policies. Originality/value The commentary explores the current limitations of selective testing policies in correctional systems and provides recommendations and implications for public health and correctional organizations.

  6. How to Circumvent Church Numerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldberg, Mayer; Torgersen, Mads

    2002-01-01

    In this work we consider a standard numeral system in the lambda-calculus, and the elementary arithmetic and Boolean functions and predicates defined on this numeral system, and show how to construct terms that "circumvent" or "defeat" these functions: The equality predicate is satisfied when com...

  7. Expert staff in reactor safety, and the decision to opt out of the peaceful use of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Also the German federal parliament looked into the attitude of the federal government in matters of preserving competence in nuclear technology in Germany and the possible consequences to this country as a location of research and industry resulting from the loss of know-how in this sector and the potential shortage of expert personnel arising as a consequence. Following an initiative launched by the parliamentary group of the FDP (Liberal Democrats) in the federal parliament in connection with a parliamentary query by Members of Parliament Ulrike Flach, Cornelia Pieper, Birgit Homburger, other members, and the FDP parliamentary group, the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety responded to the catalog of questions on August 21, 2000. The topics covered include questions about the expected development of personnel in public research, and of students of nuclear and nuclear engineering disciplines, and the resultant number of expert personnel available to industry, regulatory authorities, and expert consultants, as well as questions of possible national and international dependencies in nuclear technology, nuclear safety, and the plants currently in operation. (orig.) [de

  8. Evaluation of Routine HIV Opt-Out Screening and Continuum of Care Services Following Entry into Eight Prison Reception Centers--California, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Kimberley D; Eckert, Valorie; Behrends, Czarina N; Wheeler, Charlotte; MacGowan, Robin J; Mohle-Boetani, Janet C

    2016-02-26

    Early diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) improves health outcomes and prevents HIV transmission. Before 2010, HIV testing was available to inmates in the California state prison system upon request. In 2010, the California Correctional Health Care Services (CCHCS) integrated HIV opt-out screening into the health assessment for inmates entering California state prisons. Under this system, a medical care provider informs the inmate that an HIV test is routinely done, along with screening for sexually transmitted, communicable, and vaccine-preventable diseases, unless the inmate specifically declines the test. During 2012-2013, CCHCS, the California Department of Public Health, and CDC evaluated HIV screening, rates of new diagnoses, linkage to and retention in care, ART response, and post-release linkage to care among California prison inmates. All prison inmates are processed through one of eight specialized reception center facilities, where they undergo a comprehensive evaluation of their medical needs, mental health, and custody requirements for placement in one of 35 state prisons. Among 17,436 inmates who entered a reception center during April-September 2012, 77% were screened for HIV infection; 135 (1%) tested positive, including 10 (0.1%) with newly diagnosed infections. Among the 135 HIV-positive patient-inmates, 134 (99%) were linked to care within 90 days of diagnosis, including 122 (91%) who initiated ART. Among 83 who initiated ART and remained incarcerated through July 2013, 81 (98%) continued ART; 71 (88%) achieved viral suppression (care within 30 days of release were virally suppressed at that time. Only one of nine persons with a viral load test conducted between 91 days and 1 year post-release had viral suppression. Although high rates of viral suppression were achieved in prison, continuity of care in the community remains a challenge. An infrastructure for post

  9. Turn in matters of energy. From revolt to reform. With the latest expertises on the prospect of opting out of nuclear energy. Energie-Wende. Von der Empoerung zur Reform. Mit den neuesten Gutachten zum Ausstieg aus der Kernenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauff, V

    1986-01-01

    The book is written with an entirely personal perspective, strives to take into account the latest state of knowledge and attempts to draft a future without nuclear energy at least in outline. The individual chapters have the following headings: Thirty years of development of nuclear power: dream and nightmare; The forecasts and expert opinions on the possibility of opting out - final conclusion: it can be done and is justifiable; The approach to orderly opting out: reform of our energy system. In this chapter a 10-year plan is submitted for a realistic reform of the energy economy to: save energy, reduce environmental pollution, use mainly renewable energy sources as pillars of the energy system; and leave to future generations the choice of their own lifestyle. (HSCH).

  10. Circumventing the Privity Rule in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Pei Meng, Tan

    2009-01-01

    This article briefly introduces the privity rule and its application in Malaysia which has created difficulties in relation to contracts made for the benefit of third parties. This article then investigates how Malaysian courts circumvent the privity rule to ensure that justice prevails. The mechanisms examined include among others agency, trust, tort and estoppel. This article argues that the application of these mechanisms rule are not adequate to resolve the difficulties caused by the priv...

  11. 2008 annual nuclear technology conference: opting out of the use of nuclear power. German special approach leads into a dead end of energy policy. Conference report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    The President of the Deutsches Atomforum, Dr. Walter Hohlefelder, emphasized in his opening address at the 2008 Annual Nuclear Technology Conference in Hamburg that the German special approach to nuclear power utilization led straight into a dead end of energy policy. ''The outcome is foreseeable: The ambitious German goals of carbon dioxide reduction are missed, the competitiveness of the country is jeopardized, dependency on foreign energy imports rises,'' Dr. Hohlefelder stated. In view of the growing challenges in energy policy Germany had no alternative but to reassess nuclear power. The only outcome of this reappraisal could be extension of the life of nuclear power plants currently in operation. This was necessary also in order to avoid an impending gap in German electricity supply, Dr. Hohlefelder added. He invited all stakeholders to join in an open, unbiased dialog. Dr. Hohlefelder openly criticized the continued ban on research into the development of new reactors. ''A policy of this kind, a policy which bans thinking, is unacceptable in a technology-oriented, industrialized nation such as Germany.'' Nuclear power technology as a high-tech area was a unique achievement which had contributed to the prosperity of the country. The Annual Nuclear Technology Conference, which was held for the 39th time this year, is one of the biggest specialized conferences in the nuclear field with an attendance, this year, of approximately 1300 participants from more than twenty nations. (orig.)

  12. Atomic energy law after the opt-out. Alive and fascinating. Report about the 14th German atomic energy law symposium 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leidinger, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Atomic energy law remains a living, fascinating subject matter. Nearly 200 participants were convinced of this impression at the 14 th German Atomic Energy Law Symposium held in Berlin on November 19-20, 2012. Under the scientific chairmanship of Professor Dr. Martin Burgi, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), after an interruption of 5 years, again organized a scientific conference about practice-related topics of atomic energy and radiation protection law. Atomic energy law once again proved to be a reference area for sophisticated issues of constitutional law and administrative law above and beyond its technical confines. The agenda of the 14 th German Atomic Energy Law Symposium featured a broad spectrum of topics ranging from backfitting of nuclear power plants to European atomic energy and radiation protection law, to challenges facing national legal systems in the execution of atomic energy law, to legal issues connected with decommissioning and waste management, and on to the topical subject of finding a repository site. The 14 th German Atomic Energy Law Symposium, on the whole, again demonstrated that an open discourse between science and practice is able to furnish important contributions to the implementation of laws in a balanced way rooted in practice. Especially the contributions dealing with the independence of public authorities and their organization, the doctrine of the reservation of functions of the executive branch, and planning by laws contain additional provisions able to influence the continued development of administrative law also above and beyond atomic energy law. The BMU also referred to a decision just heard from Brussels to the effect that a new European Safety Directive would be published as early as in 2013. As a consequence of the nuclear stress tests conducted EU-wide, the Directive is to lay down provisions about transparency

  13. Circumventing photodamage in live-cell microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magidson, Valentin; Khodjakov, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy has become an essential tool in cell biology. This technique allows researchers to visualize the dynamics of tissue, cells, individual organelles and macromolecular assemblies inside the cell. Unfortunately, fluorescence microscopy is not completely ‘non-invasive’ as the high-intensity excitation light required for excitation of fluorophores is inherently toxic for live cells. Physiological changes induced by excessive illumination can lead to artifacts and abnormal responses. In this chapter we review major factors that contribute to phototoxicity and discuss practical solutions for circumventing photodamage. These solutions include the proper choice of image acquisition parameters, optimization of filter sets, hardware synchronization, and the use of intelligent illumination to avoid unnecessary light exposure. PMID:23931522

  14. Circumventing antivector immunity: potential use of nonhuman adenoviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Gordo, Estrella; Podgorski, Iva I; Downes, Nicholas; Alemany, Ramon

    2014-04-01

    Adenoviruses are efficient gene delivery vectors based on their ability to transduce a wide variety of cell types and drive high-level transient transgene expression. While there have been advances in modifying human adenoviral (HAdV) vectors to increase their safety profile, there are still pitfalls that need to be further addressed. Preexisting humoral and cellular immunity against common HAdV serotypes limits the efficacy of gene transfer and duration of transgene expression. As an alternative, nonhuman AdV (NHAdV) vectors can circumvent neutralizing antibodies against HAdVs in immunized mice and monkeys and in human sera, suggesting that NHAdV vectors could circumvent preexisting humoral immunity against HAdVs in a clinical setting. Consequently, there has been an increased interest in developing NHAdV vectors for gene delivery in humans. In this review, we outline the recent advances and limitations of HAdV vectors for gene therapy and describe examples of NHAdV vectors focusing on their immunogenicity, tropism, and potential as effective gene therapy vehicles.

  15. Semicircular canals circumvent Brownian Motion overload of mechanoreceptor hair cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Mees; Heeck, Kier; Elemans, Coen P H

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate semicircular canals (SCC) first appeared in the vertebrates (i.e. ancestral fish) over 600 million years ago. In SCC the principal mechanoreceptors are hair cells, which as compared to cochlear hair cells are distinctly longer (70 vs. 7 μm), 10 times more compliant to bending (44 vs. 500...... nN/m), and have a 100-fold higher tip displacement threshold (hair cells where the bundle is approximated as a stiff, cylindrical elastic rod subject to friction and thermal agitation. Our models suggest that the above...... differences aid SCC hair cells in circumventing the masking effects of Brownian motion noise of about 70 nm, and thereby permit transduction of very low frequency (

  16. Atomic energy law after the opt-out. Alive and fascinating. Report about the 14{sup th} German atomic energy law symposium 2012; Atomrecht nach dem Ausstieg. Lebendig und spannend. Tagungsbericht 14. Deutsches Atomrechtssymposium 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leidinger, Tobias [Gleiss Lutz Rechtsanwaelte, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Atomic energy law remains a living, fascinating subject matter. Nearly 200 participants were convinced of this impression at the 14{sup th} German Atomic Energy Law Symposium held in Berlin on November 19-20, 2012. Under the scientific chairmanship of Professor Dr. Martin Burgi, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), after an interruption of 5 years, again organized a scientific conference about practice-related topics of atomic energy and radiation protection law. Atomic energy law once again proved to be a reference area for sophisticated issues of constitutional law and administrative law above and beyond its technical confines. The agenda of the 14{sup th} German Atomic Energy Law Symposium featured a broad spectrum of topics ranging from backfitting of nuclear power plants to European atomic energy and radiation protection law, to challenges facing national legal systems in the execution of atomic energy law, to legal issues connected with decommissioning and waste management, and on to the topical subject of finding a repository site. The 14{sup th} German Atomic Energy Law Symposium, on the whole, again demonstrated that an open discourse between science and practice is able to furnish important contributions to the implementation of laws in a balanced way rooted in practice. Especially the contributions dealing with the independence of public authorities and their organization, the doctrine of the reservation of functions of the executive branch, and planning by laws contain additional provisions able to influence the continued development of administrative law also above and beyond atomic energy law. The BMU also referred to a decision just heard from Brussels to the effect that a new European Safety Directive would be published as early as in 2013. As a consequence of the nuclear stress tests conducted EU-wide, the Directive is to lay down provisions about

  17. Lionfish misidentification circumvents an optimized escape response by prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Mark I; Allan, Bridie J M

    2016-01-01

    Invasive lionfish represent an unprecedented problem in the Caribbean basin, where they are causing major changes to foodwebs and habitats through their generalized predation on fishes and invertebrates. To ascertain what makes the red lionfish ( Pterois volitans ) such a formidable predator, we examined the reaction of a native damselfish prey, the whitetail damsel ( Pomacentrus chrysurus ), to a repeatable startle stimulus once they had been forewarned of the sight or smell of lionfish. Fast-start responses were compared with prey forewarned of a predatory rockcod ( Cephalopholis microprion ), a corallivorous butterflyfish ( Chaetodon trifasctiatus ) and experimental controls. Forewarning of the sight, smell or a combination of the two cues from a rockcod led to reduced escape latencies and higher response distances, speed and maximal speed compared with controls, suggesting that forewarning primed the prey and enabled a more effective escape response. In contrast, forewarning of lionfish did not affect the fast-start kinematics measured, which were the same as in the control and non-predatory butterflyfish treatments. Lionfish appear to be able to circumvent mechanisms commonly used by prey to identify predators and were misclassified as non-predatory, and this is likely to contribute to their success as predators.

  18. 12 CFR 41.27 - Renewal of opt-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate... must either separately identify each affiliate by name or identify each of the common names used by... companies” or by “the ABC banking and credit card companies and the XYZ insurance companies”; (2) A list of...

  19. Lean in or Opt Out: Career Pathways of Academic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Pamela L.; Ward, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Casual observers of academic environments might conclude that women's problems in higher education have been resolved. Colleges enroll more women than men on an overall basis. There is gender parity in entry-level faculty hires, and the number of women in senior administrative positions continues to rise. A closer look however at the work, lives,…

  20. Yucca aloifolia (Asparagaceae) opts out of an obligate pollination mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentsch, Jeremy D; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2014-12-01

    • According to Cope's 'law of the unspecialized' highly dependent species interactions are 'evolutionary dead ends,' prone to extinction because reversion to more generalist interactions is thought to be unlikely. Cases of extreme specialization, such as those seen between obligate mutualists, are cast as evolutionarily inescapable, inevitably leading to extinction rather than diversification of participating species. The pollination mutualism between Yucca plants and yucca moths (Tegeticula and Parategeticula) would seem to be locked into such an obligate mutualism. Yucca aloifolia populations, however, can produce large numbers of fruit lacking moth oviposition scars. Here, we investigate the pollination ecology of Y. aloifolia, in search of the non-moth pollination of a Yucca species.• We perform pollinator exclusion studies on Yucca aloifolia and a sympatric yucca species, Y. filamentosa. We then perform postvisit exclusion treatments, an analysis of dissected fruits, and a fluorescent dye transfer experiment.• As expected, Yucca filamentosa plants set fruit only when inflorescences were exposed to crepuscular and nocturnal pollinating yucca moths. In contrast, good fruit set was observed when pollinators were excluded from Y. aloifolia inflorescences from dusk to dawn, and no fruit set was observed when pollinators were excluded during the day. Follow up experiments indicated that European honeybees (Apis mellifera) were passively yet effectively pollinating Y. aloifolia flowers.• These results indicate that even highly specialized mutualisms may not be entirely obligate interactions or evolutionary dead ends. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  1. 17 CFR 248.126 - Delivery of opt out notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS S-P AND S-AM Regulation S-AM: Limitations on Affiliate Marketing § 248.126 Delivery... Internet Web site at which the consumer obtained a product or service electronically and requires the... by e-mail from the affiliate providing the notice; or (3) Posts the notice on an Internet Web site...

  2. 16 CFR 680.27 - Renewal of opt-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... renewal must be effective for a period of at least five years as provided in § 680.22(b) of this part. (3... notice from two or more members of an affiliated group of companies, or their successors, that jointly..., such as “ABC,” then the notice may indicate that it is being provided by multiple companies with the...

  3. Retroflection from slanted coastlines-circumventing the "vorticity paradox"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zharkov

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The balance of long-shore momentum flux requires that the solution of zonally retroflecting currents involve ring shedding on the western side. An important aspect of the ring dynamics is the ring intensity α (analogous to the Rossby number, which reaches its maximum value of unity when the upstream potential vorticity (PV is zero. Friction leads to a slow-down and a decrease in α. The main difficulty is that the solution of the system of equations for conservation of mass and momentum of zonal currents leads to the conclusion that the ratio (Φ of the mass flux going into the rings and the total incoming mass flux is approximately 4α/(1+2α. This yields the "vorticity paradox" – only relatively weak rings (α≤1/2 could satisfy the necessary condition Φ≤1. Physically, this means, for example, that the momentum-flux of zero PV currents upstream is so high that, no matter how many rings are produced and, no matter what size they are, they cannot compensate for it.

    To avoid this paradox, we develop a nonlinear analytical model of retroflection from a slanted non-zonal coastline. We show that when the slant of coastline (γ exceeds merely 150, Φ does not reach unity regardless of the value of α. Namely, the paradox disappears even for small slants. Our slowly varying nonlinear solution does not only let us circumvent the paradox. It also gives a detailed description of the rings growth rate and the mass flux going into the rings as a function of time. For example, in the case of zero PV and zero thickness of the upper layer along the coastline, the maximal values of Φ can be approximately expressed as, 1.012+0.32exp(−γ/3.41−γ/225. Interestingly, for significant slants γ≥300, the rings reach a terminal size corresponding to a balance between the β-force and both the upstream and downstream momentum fluxes. This terminal size is unrelated to the ultimate

  4. Flatland Photonics: Circumventing Diffraction with Planar Plasmonic Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, Jennifer Anne

    On subwavelength scales, photon-matter interactions are limited by diffraction. The diffraction limit restricts the size of optical devices and the resolution of conventional microscopes to wavelength-scale dimensions, severely hampering our ability to control and probe subwavelength-scale optical phenomena. Circumventing diffraction is now a principle focus of integrated nanophotonics. Surface plasmons provide a particularly promising approach to sub-diffraction-limited photonics. Surface plasmons are hybrid electron-photon modes confined to the interface between conductors and transparent materials. Combining the high localization of electronic waves with the propagation properties of optical waves, plasmons can achieve extremely small mode wavelengths and large local electromagnetic field intensities. Through their unique dispersion, surface plasmons provide access to an enormous phase space of refractive indices and propagation constants that can be readily tuned with material or geometry. In this thesis, we explore both the theory and applications of dispersion in planar plasmonic architectures. Particular attention is given to the modes of metallic core and plasmon slot waveguides, which can span positive, near-zero, and even negative indices. We demonstrate how such basic plasmonic geometries can be used to develop a suite of passive and active plasmonic components, including subwavelength waveguides, color filters, negative index metamaterials, and optical MOS field effect modulators. Positive index modes are probed by near- and far-field techniques, revealing plasmon wavelengths as small as one-tenth of the excitation wavelength. Negative index modes are characterized through direct visualization of negative refraction. By fabricating prisms comprised of gold, silicon nitride, and silver multilayers, we achieve the first experimental demonstration of a negative index material at visible frequencies, with potential applications for sub

  5. Perceptions of oocyte banking from women intending to circumvent age-related fertility decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Marije; Dancet, Eline; Repping, Sjoerd; Goddijn, Mariette; Stoop, Dominic; van der Veen, Fulco; Gerrits, Trudie

    2016-01-01

    Women can now opt to bank their oocytes with the intention of increasing their chances of achieving a pregnancy after their fertility has declined. This exploratory study aimed to gain insight into how women, considering oocyte banking to circumvent age-related fertility decline, perceive this

  6. How Students Circumvent Problem-Solving Strategies that Require Greater Cognitive Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes the great diversity in problem-solving strategies used by students in solving a chemistry problem and discusses the relationship between these variables and different cognitive variables. Concludes that students try to circumvent certain problem-solving strategies by adapting flexible and stylistic innovations that render the cognitive…

  7. Perceptions of oocyte banking from women intending to circumvent age-related fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Marije; Dancet, Eline; Repping, Sjoerd; Goddijn, Mariette; Stoop, Dominic; van der Veen, Fulco; Gerrits, Trudie

    2016-12-01

    Women can now opt to bank their oocytes with the intention of increasing their chances of achieving a pregnancy after their fertility has declined. This exploratory study aimed to gain insight into how women, considering oocyte banking to circumvent age-related fertility decline, perceive this intervention. We conducted a qualitative study in a Dutch university medical center and held in-depth interviews with women on the waiting list for oocyte banking. We recorded the interviews, transcribed them verbatim and used thematic analysis. All women were financially independent and lived in single-person urban households. They opted for oocyte banking because they wished to share parenthood with a future partner rather than becoming a single parent. This strong desire was key in their interpretation of all aspects of the intervention. Women set aside information about the limited success rates and potential risks, as they were optimistic about their own prognosis, thought that the chances for success were equally likely as the chances it would fail, and because of "anticipatory regret". They perceived oocyte banking as a "helping hand" to achieve shared parenthood. Although women found the costs of the intervention high, they were willing to invest their money to increase their chances for shared parenthood. Oocyte banking allows women to circumvent age-related fertility decline. The prospect of potential shared parenthood overrules the perceived health risks and burden. Health professionals should take this into account when informing potential users of oocyte banking. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Strategies to overcome or circumvent P-glycoprotein mediated multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hongyu; Li, Xun; Wu, Jifeng; Li, Jinpei; Qu, Xianjun; Xu, Wenfang; Tang, Wei

    2008-01-01

    Cancer patients who receive chemotherapy often experience intrinsic or acquired resistance to a broad spectrum of chemotherapeutic agents. The phenomenon, termed multidrug resistance (MDR), is often associated with the over-expression of P-glycoprotein, a transmembrane protein pump, which can enhance efflux of a various chemicals structurally unrelated at the expense of ATP depletion, resulting in decrease of the intracellular cytotoxic drug accumulation. The MDR has been a big threaten to the human health and the war fight for it continues. Although several other mechanisms for MDR are elucidated in recent years, considerable efforts attempting to inverse MDR are involved in exploring P-glycoprotein modulators and suppressing P-glycoprotein expression. In this review, we will report on the recent advances in various strategies for overcoming or circumventing MDR mediated by P-glycoprotein.

  9. Metal Nanoparticles as Targeted Carriers Circumventing the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintov, A C; Velasco-Aguirre, C; Gallardo-Toledo, E; Araya, E; Kogan, M J

    2016-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles have been proposed as a carrier and a therapeutic agent in biomedical field because of their unique physiochemical properties. Due to these physicochemical properties, they can be used in different fields of biomedicine. In relation to this, plasmonic nanoparticles can be used for detection and photothermal destruction of tumor cells or toxic protein aggregates, and magnetic iron nanoparticles can be used for imaging and for hyperthermia of tumor cells. In addition, both therapy and imaging can be combined in one nanoparticle system, in a process called theranostics. Metal nanoparticles can be synthesized to modulate their size and shape, and conjugated with different ligands, which allow their application in drug delivery, diagnostics, and treatment of central nervous system diseases. This review is focused on the potential applications of metal nanoparticles and their capability to circumvent the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Although many articles have demonstrated delivery of metal nanoparticles to the brain by crossing the BBB after systemic administration, the percentage of the injected dose that reaches this organ is low in comparison to others, especially the liver and spleen. In connection with this drawback, we elaborate the architecture of the BBB and review possible mechanisms to cross this barrier by engineered nanoparticles. The potential uses of metal nanoparticles for treatment of disorders as well as related neurotoxicological considerations are also discussed. Finally, we bring up for discussion a direct and relatively simpler solution to the problem. We discuss this in detail after having proposed the use of the intranasal administration route as a way to circumvent the BBB. This route has not been extensively studied yet for metal nanoparticles, although it could be used as a research tool for mechanistic understanding and toxicity as well as an added value for medical practice. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. PMS2 gene mutational analysis: direct cDNA sequencing to circumvent pseudogene interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Katharina; Wernstedt, Annekatrin

    2014-01-01

    The presence of highly homologous pseudocopies can compromise the mutation analysis of a gene of interest. In particular, when using PCR-based strategies, pseudogene co-amplification has to be effectively prevented. This is often achieved by using primers designed to be parental gene specific according to the reference sequence and by applying stringent PCR conditions. However, there are cases in which this approach is of limited utility. For example, it has been shown that the PMS2 gene exchanges sequences with one of its pseudogenes, named PMS2CL. This results in functional PMS2 alleles containing pseudogene-derived sequences at their 3'-end and in nonfunctional PMS2CL pseudogene alleles that contain gene-derived sequences. Hence, the paralogues cannot be distinguished according to the reference sequence. This shortcoming can be effectively circumvented by using direct cDNA sequencing. This approach is based on the selective amplification of PMS2 transcripts in two overlapping 1.6-kb RT-PCR products. In addition to avoiding pseudogene co-amplification and allele dropout, this method has also the advantage that it allows to effectively identify deletions, splice mutations, and de novo retrotransposon insertions that escape the detection of most DNA-based mutation analysis protocols.

  11. GROUP B STREPTOCOCCUS CIRCUMVENTS NEUTROPHILS AND NEUTROPHIL EXTRACELLULAR TRAPS DURING AMNIOTIC CAVITY INVASION AND PRETERM LABOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldenow, Erica; Gendrin, Claire; Ngo, Lisa; Bierle, Craig; Vornhagen, Jay; Coleman, Michelle; Merillat, Sean; Armistead, Blair; Whidbey, Christopher; Alishetti, Varchita; Santana-Ufret, Veronica; Ogle, Jason; Gough, Michael; Srinouanprachanh, Sengkeo; MacDonald, James W; Bammler, Theo K; Bansal, Aasthaa; Liggitt, H. Denny; Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Waldorf, Kristina M Adams

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Although microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) is associated with the majority of early preterm births, the temporal events that occur during MIAC and preterm labor are not known. Group B Streptococci (GBS) are β-hemolytic, gram-positive bacteria, which commonly colonize the vagina but have been recovered from the amniotic fluid in preterm birth cases. To understand temporal events that occur during MIAC, we utilized a unique chronically catheterized nonhuman primate model that closely emulates human pregnancy. This model allows monitoring of uterine contractions, timing of MIAC and immune responses during pregnancy-associated infections. Here, we show that adverse outcomes such as preterm labor, MIAC, and fetal sepsis were observed more frequently during infection with hemolytic GBS when compared to nonhemolytic GBS. Although MIAC was associated with systematic progression in chorioamnionitis beginning with chorionic vasculitis and progressing to neutrophilic infiltration, the ability of the GBS hemolytic pigment toxin to induce neutrophil cell death and subvert killing by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in placental membranes in vivo facilitated MIAC and fetal injury. Furthermore, compared to maternal neutrophils, fetal neutrophils exhibit decreased neutrophil elastase activity and impaired phagocytic functions to GBS. Collectively, our studies demonstrate how a unique bacterial hemolytic lipid toxin enables GBS to circumvent neutrophils and NETs in placental membranes to induce fetal injury and preterm labor. PMID:27819066

  12. Self-bending elastic waves and obstacle circumventing in wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, S.; Xia, Y.; Ruzzene, M.; Erturk, A.

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate self-bending of elastic waves along convex trajectories by means of geometric and phased arrays. Potential applications include ultrasonic imaging and manipulation, wave focusing, and wireless power transfer around obstacles. The basic concept is illustrated through a geometric array, which is designed to implement a phase delay profile among the array elements that leads to self-bending along a specified circular trajectory. Experimental validation is conducted for the lowest asymmetric Lamb wave mode in a thin plate over a range of frequencies to investigate the bandwidth of the approach. Experiments also illustrate the functionality of the array as a transmitter to deliver elastic wave energy to a receiver/harvester located behind a large obstacle for electrical power extraction. It is shown that the trajectory is not distorted by the presence of the obstacle and circumventing is achieved. A linear phased array counterpart of the geometric array is then constructed to illustrate the concept by imposing proper time delays to the array elements, which allows the generation of different trajectories using the same line source. This capability is demonstrated by tailoring the path diameter in the phased array setting, which offers the flexibility and versatility to induce a variety of convex trajectories for self-bending elastic waves.

  13. Ultimate predators: lionfish have evolved to circumvent prey risk assessment abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnstedt, Oona M; McCormick, Mark I

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species cause catastrophic alterations to communities worldwide by changing the trophic balance within ecosystems. Ever since their introduction in the mid 1980's common red lionfish, Pterois volitans, are having dramatic impacts on the Caribbean ecosystem by displacing native species and disrupting food webs. Introduced lionfish capture prey at extraordinary rates, altering the composition of benthic communities. Here we demonstrate that the extraordinary success of the introduced lionfish lies in its capacity to circumvent prey risk assessment abilities as it is virtually undetectable by prey species in its native range. While experienced prey damselfish, Chromis viridis, respond with typical antipredator behaviours when exposed to a common predatory rock cod (Cephalopholis microprion) they fail to visibly react to either the scent or visual presentation of the red lionfish, and responded only to the scent (not the visual cue) of a lionfish of a different genus, Dendrochirus zebra. Experienced prey also had much higher survival when exposed to the two non-invasive predators compared to P. volitans. The cryptic nature of the red lionfish has enabled it to be destructive as a predator and a highly successful invasive species.

  14. Ultimate predators: lionfish have evolved to circumvent prey risk assessment abilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oona M Lönnstedt

    Full Text Available Invasive species cause catastrophic alterations to communities worldwide by changing the trophic balance within ecosystems. Ever since their introduction in the mid 1980's common red lionfish, Pterois volitans, are having dramatic impacts on the Caribbean ecosystem by displacing native species and disrupting food webs. Introduced lionfish capture prey at extraordinary rates, altering the composition of benthic communities. Here we demonstrate that the extraordinary success of the introduced lionfish lies in its capacity to circumvent prey risk assessment abilities as it is virtually undetectable by prey species in its native range. While experienced prey damselfish, Chromis viridis, respond with typical antipredator behaviours when exposed to a common predatory rock cod (Cephalopholis microprion they fail to visibly react to either the scent or visual presentation of the red lionfish, and responded only to the scent (not the visual cue of a lionfish of a different genus, Dendrochirus zebra. Experienced prey also had much higher survival when exposed to the two non-invasive predators compared to P. volitans. The cryptic nature of the red lionfish has enabled it to be destructive as a predator and a highly successful invasive species.

  15. Flagella-Driven Flows Circumvent Diffusive Bottlenecks that Inhibit Metabolite Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Martin; Solari, Cristian; Ganguly, Sujoy; Kessler, John; Goldstein, Raymond; Powers, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    The evolution of single cells to large and multicellular organisms requires matching the organisms' needs to the rate of exchange of metabolites with the environment. This logistic problem can be a severe constraint on development. For organisms with a body plan that approximates a spherical shell, such as colonies of the volvocine green algae, the required current of metabolites grows quadratically with colony radius whereas the rate at which diffusion can exchange metabolites grows only linearly with radius. Hence, there is a bottleneck radius beyond which the diffusive current cannot keep up with metabolic demands. Using Volvox carteri as a model organism, we examine experimentally and theoretically the role that advection of fluid by surface-mounted flagella plays in enhancing nutrient uptake. We show that fluid flow driven by the coordinated beating of flagella produces a convective boundary layer in the concentration of a diffusing solute which in turn renders the metabolite exchange rate quadratic in the colony radius. This enhanced transport circumvents the diffusive bottleneck, allowing increase in size and thus evolutionary transitions to multicellularity in the Volvocales.

  16. Circumventing furin enhances factor VIII biological activity and ameliorates bleeding phenotypes in hemophilia models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siner, Joshua I.; Samelson-Jones, Benjamin J.; Crudele, Julie M.; French, Robert A.; Lee, Benjamin J.; Zhou, Shanzhen; Merricks, Elizabeth; Raymer, Robin; Camire, Rodney M.; Arruda, Valder R.

    2016-01-01

    Processing by the proprotein convertase furin is believed to be critical for the biological activity of multiple proteins involved in hemostasis, including coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). This belief prompted the retention of the furin recognition motif (amino acids 1645–1648) in the design of B-domain–deleted FVIII (FVIII-BDD) products in current clinical use and in the drug development pipeline, as well as in experimental FVIII gene therapy strategies. Here, we report that processing by furin is in fact deleterious to FVIII-BDD secretion and procoagulant activity. Inhibition of furin increases the secretion and decreases the intracellular retention of FVIII-BDD protein in mammalian cells. Our new variant (FVIII-ΔF), in which this recognition motif is removed, efficiently circumvents furin. FVIII-ΔF demonstrates increased recombinant protein yields, enhanced clotting activity, and higher circulating FVIII levels after adeno-associated viral vector–based liver gene therapy in a murine model of severe hemophilia A (HA) compared with FVIII-BDD. Moreover, we observed an amelioration of the bleeding phenotype in severe HA dogs with sustained therapeutic FVIII levels after FVIII-ΔF gene therapy at a lower vector dose than previously employed in this model. The immunogenicity of FVIII-ΔF did not differ from that of FVIII-BDD as a protein or a gene therapeutic. Thus, contrary to previous suppositions, FVIII variants that can avoid furin processing are likely to have enhanced translational potential for HA therapy. PMID:27734034

  17. Massive star formation by accretion. II. Rotation: how to circumvent the angular momentum barrier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemmerlé, L.; Eggenberger, P.; Meynet, G.; Maeder, A.; Charbonnel, C.; Klessen, R. S.

    2017-06-01

    Context. Rotation plays a key role in the star-formation process, from pre-stellar cores to pre-main-sequence (PMS) objects. Understanding the formation of massive stars requires taking into account the accretion of angular momentum during their PMS phase. Aims: We study the PMS evolution of objects destined to become massive stars by accretion, focusing on the links between the physical conditions of the environment and the rotational properties of young stars. In particular, we look at the physical conditions that allow the production of massive stars by accretion. Methods: We present PMS models computed with a new version of the Geneva Stellar Evolution code self-consistently including accretion and rotation according to various accretion scenarios for mass and angular momentum. We describe the internal distribution of angular momentum in PMS stars accreting at high rates and we show how the various physical conditions impact their internal structures, evolutionary tracks, and rotation velocities during the PMS and the early main sequence. Results: We find that the smooth angular momentum accretion considered in previous studies leads to an angular momentum barrier and does not allow the formation of massive stars by accretion. A braking mechanism is needed in order to circumvent this angular momentum barrier. This mechanism has to be efficient enough to remove more than two thirds of the angular momentum from the inner accretion disc. Due to the weak efficiency of angular momentum transport by shear instability and meridional circulation during the accretion phase, the internal rotation profiles of accreting stars reflect essentially the angular momentum accretion history. As a consequence, careful choice of the angular momentum accretion history allows circumvention of any limitation in mass and velocity, and production of stars of any mass and velocity compatible with structure equations.

  18. Danshen extract circumvents drug resistance and represses cell growth in human oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Yu; Hsieh, Cheng-Chih; Lin, Chih-Kung; Lin, Chun-Shu; Peng, Bo; Lin, Gu-Jiun; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Chang, Wen-Liang; Chen, Yuan-Wu

    2017-12-29

    Danshen is a common traditional Chinese medicine used to treat neoplastic and chronic inflammatory diseases in China. However, the effects of Danshen on human oral cancer cells remain relatively unknown. This study investigated the antiproliferative effects of a Danshen extract on human oral cancer SAS, SCC25, OEC-M1, and KB drug-resistant cell lines and elucidated the possible underlying mechanism. We investigated the anticancer potential of the Danshen extract in human oral cancer cell lines and an in vivo oral cancer xenograft mouse model. The expression of apoptosis-related molecules was evaluated through Western blotting, and the concentration of in vivo apoptotic markers was measured using immunohistochemical staining. The antitumor effects of 5-fluorouracil and the Danshen extract were compared. Cell proliferation assays revealed that the Danshen extract strongly inhibited oral cancer cell proliferation. Cell morphology studies revealed that the Danshen extract inhibited the growth of SAS, SCC25, and OEC-M1 cells by inducing apoptosis. The Flow cytometric analysis indicated that the Danshen extract induced cell cycle G0/G1 arrest. Immunoblotting analysis for the expression of active caspase-3 and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein indicated that Danshen extract-induced apoptosis in human oral cancer SAS cells was mediated through the caspase pathway. Moreover, the Danshen extract significantly inhibited growth in the SAS xenograft mouse model. Furthermore, the Danshen extract circumvented drug resistance in KB drug-resistant oral cancer cells. The study results suggest that the Danshen extract could be a potential anticancer agent in oral cancer treatment.

  19. Modeling and Circumventing the Effect of Sediments and Water Column on Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, P.

    2017-12-01

    Teleseismic P-wave receiver functions are routinely used to resolve crust and mantle structure in various geologic settings. Receiver functions are approximations to the Earth's Green's functions and are composed of various scattered phase arrivals, depending on the complexity of the underlying Earth structure. For simple structure, the dominant arrivals (converted and back-scattered P-to-S phases) are well separated in time and can be reliably used in estimating crustal velocity structure. In the presence of sedimentary layers, strong reverberations typically produce high-amplitude oscillations that contaminate the early part of the wave train and receiver functions can be difficult to interpret in terms of underlying structure. The effect of a water column also limits the interpretability of under-water receiver functions due to the additional acoustic wave propagating within the water column that can contaminate structural arrivals. We perform numerical modeling of teleseismic Green's functions and receiver functions using a reflectivity technique for a range of Earth models that include thin sedimentary layers and overlying water column. These modeling results indicate that, as expected, receiver functions are difficult to interpret in the presence of sediments, but the contaminating effect of the water column is dependent on the thickness of the water layer. To circumvent these effects and recover source-side structure, we propose using an approach based on transfer function modeling that bypasses receiver functions altogether and estimates crustal properties directly from the waveforms (Frederiksen and Delayney, 2015). Using this approach, reasonable assumptions about the properties of the sedimentary layer can be included in forward calculations of the Green's functions that are convolved with radial waveforms to predict vertical waveforms. Exploration of model space using Monte Carlo-style search and least-square waveform misfits can be performed to

  20. 12 CFR 41.21 - Affiliate marketing opt-out and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... relationship with the depository institution's securities affiliate for management of the consumer's securities... institution does not have a pre-existing business relationship with the consumer and none of the other... affiliate that has or has previously had a pre-existing business relationship with the consumer; or (ii) As...

  1. HIV, trauma and the emergency departments: The CDC opt-out ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Bioethics and Law. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 2 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. 12 CFR 41.23 - Contents of opt-out notice; consolidated and equivalent notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... equivalent notices. 41.23 Section 41.23 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE... affiliate by name or identify each of the common names used by those affiliates, for example, by stating... card companies and the XYZ insurance companies” (ii) A list of the affiliates or types of affiliates...

  3. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 571 - Model Forms for Opt-Out Notices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... includes your [income], your [account history with us], and your [credit score]. • Your choice to limit... [income], your [account history with us], and your [credit score]. • Your choice has expired or is about.... Rearranging the order of the references to “your income,” “your account history,” and “your credit score.” 2...

  4. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 41 - Model Forms for Opt-Out Notices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... [income], your [account history with us], and your [credit score]. • Your choice to limit marketing offers... history with us], and your [credit score]. • Your choice has expired or is about to expire. To renew your.... Rearranging the order of the references to “your income,” “your account history,” and “your credit score.” 2...

  5. 16 CFR Appendix C to Part 698 - Model Forms for Affiliate Marketing Opt-Out Notices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... [income], your [account history with us], and your [credit score]. — Your choice to limit marketing offers...], your [account history with us], and your [credit score]. — Your choice has expired or is about to... account history,” and “your credit score.” 2. Substituting other types of information for “income...

  6. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 334 - Model Forms for Opt-Out Notices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... [income], your [account history with us], and your [credit score]. • Your choice to limit marketing offers... history with us], and your [credit score]. • Your choice has expired or is about to expire. To renew your... example: 1. Rearranging the order of the references to “your income,” “your account history,” and “your...

  7. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 222 - Model Forms for Opt-Out Notices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... [income], your [account history with us], and your [credit score]. • Your choice to limit marketing offers... history with us], and your [credit score]. • Your choice has expired or is about to expire. To renew your... account history,” and “your credit score.” 2. Substituting other types of information for “income...

  8. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 717 - Model Forms for Opt-Out Notices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with them. This information includes your [income], your [account history with us], and your [credit... [account history with us], and your [credit score]. • Your choice has expired or is about to expire. To... example: 1. Rearranging the order of the references to “your income,” “your account history,” and “your...

  9. RFG in tight supply at introduction, then opt outs reduced demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, A.; Dale, C.; Lidderdale, T.; Zyren, J.; Hackworth, J.; Shore, J.; Burdette, M.

    1995-01-01

    The first reformulated gasoline (RFG) season went smoothly, meaning the industry was able to deliver product where it was needed. The absence of major refinery outages, along with unexpected reductions in demand resulting from several areas leaving the program at the last minute, contributed to this smooth transition. But the RFG market remains in a state of transition related to unexpected events that have affected supply and demand. An analysis of the RFG supply/demand scenario highlights the effects these events have had on gasoline markets. The paper discusses prior experiences with environmental programs, the complexity of the RFG program, RFG demand, production, imports, inventories, price volatility, and demand outlook

  10. Revenge of the Beta Boys: Opting out as an Exercise in Masculinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the factors influencing underachieving boys on a high-performing high school campus. Unlike the "laddishness" often seen in studies of underachievement among boys, the boys in this study were quiet, unobtrusive, and compliant within the classroom. Using qualitative interviews and observation conducted over a one-year…

  11. 17 CFR 160.9 - Delivering privacy and opt out notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the web site; or (2) The customer has requested that you refrain from sending any information regarding the customer relationship, and your current privacy notice remains available to the customer upon... that a consumer will receive actual notice of your annual privacy notice if: (1) The customer uses your...

  12. 12 CFR 40.9 - Delivering privacy and opt out notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conspicuous manner on the web site; or (2) The customer has requested that the bank refrain from sending any information regarding the customer relationship, and the bank's current privacy notice remains available to... that a customer will receive actual notice of the bank's annual privacy notice if: (1) The customer...

  13. 17 CFR 248.9 - Delivering privacy and opt out notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... regarding the customer relationship, and your current privacy notice remains available to the customer upon... reasonably expect that a customer will receive actual notice of your annual privacy notice if: (i) The customer uses your web site to access financial products and services electronically and agrees to receive...

  14. 12 CFR 573.9 - Delivering privacy and opt out notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the web site; or (2) The customer has requested that you refrain from sending any information regarding the customer relationship, and your current privacy notice remains available to the customer upon... that a customer will receive actual notice of your annual privacy notice if: (1) The customer uses your...

  15. Augmenting short cheap talk scripts with a repeated opt-out reminder in choice experiment surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2014-01-01

    find the OOR to significantly reduce total WTP and to some extent also marginal WTP beyond the capability of the CT applied without the OOR. This suggests that the CT practice should be adapted to fit the potentially different decision processes and repeated choices structure of the Choice Experiment...

  16. Promotional and Non-Stereotypical Policing Roles: Are Women Opting Out?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an appearance that women are uninterested in applying for positions in specialist areas of policing such as tactical operations, traffic and highway patrol, and counterterrorism. It cannot be assumed however that the low numbers of women is indicative of a lack of interest or will to be involved in these areas as there may be unidentified structural impediments preventing them from gaining access to these jobs. This paper critically discusses the issues relevant to women’s involvement in specialist policing roles and what can be done by police leaders to encourage greater employment of women in specialist policing roles.

  17. HIV, trauma and the emergency departments: The CDC opt-out ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (LMICs).[9,10]. This open-access article is distributed under ... Fear, stigma and embarrassment (19%, 11.7 - 30.4%), rejection. (30% ... Fear and denial of HIV status as a ... amounting to over USD 70 000), start-up, computer services and staff.

  18. 17 CFR 248.15 - Other exceptions to notice and opt out requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... providers and joint marketing do not apply when you disclose nonpublic personal information: (1) With the... related to public safety; (5)(i) To a consumer reporting agency in accordance with the Fair Credit....7(f). Relation to Other Laws; Effective Date ...

  19. Can a Repeated Opt-Out Reminder remove hypothetical bias in discrete choice experiments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    hypothetical bias in stated DCE. The data originates from a field experiment concerning consumer preferences for a novel food product made from cricket flour. Utilizing a between-subject design with three treatments, we find significantly higher marginal willingness to pay values in hypothetical than...

  20. 12 CFR 40.13 - Exception to opt out requirements for service providers and joint marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... providers and joint marketing. 40.13 Section 40.13 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT... performs joint marketing, the bank's contractual agreement with that institution meets the requirements of... include joint marketing. The services a nonaffiliated third party performs for a bank under paragraph (a...

  1. 12 CFR 573.13 - Exception to opt out requirements for service providers and joint marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... this section to a financial institution with which you perform joint marketing, your contractual... products or services or marketing of financial products or services offered pursuant to joint agreements... providers and joint marketing. 573.13 Section 573.13 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION...

  2. 17 CFR 160.13 - Exception to opt out requirements for service providers and joint marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... this section may include marketing of your own products or services or marketing of financial products... requirements for service providers and joint marketing. 160.13 Section 160.13 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Exceptions § 160.13...

  3. 12 CFR 332.13 - Exception to opt out requirements for service providers and joint marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... this section may include marketing of your own products or services or marketing of financial products... providers and joint marketing. 332.13 Section 332.13 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Exceptions § 332.13...

  4. 16 CFR 313.13 - Exception to opt out requirements for service providers and joint marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... this section may include marketing of your own products or services or marketing of financial products... service providers and joint marketing. 313.13 Section 313.13 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Exceptions § 313.13...

  5. 17 CFR 248.13 - Exception to opt out requirements for service providers and joint marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... include marketing of your own products or services or marketing of financial products or services offered... requirements for service providers and joint marketing. 248.13 Section 248.13 Commodity and Securities... Consumer Financial Information and Safeguarding Personal Information Exceptions § 248.13 Exception to opt...

  6. 12 CFR 216.13 - Exception to opt out requirements for service providers and joint marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... this section may include marketing of your own products or services or marketing of financial products... providers and joint marketing. 216.13 Section 216.13 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION (REGULATION P) Exceptions...

  7. Maintaining the know-how after opt-out consensus: chances and limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, P.

    2003-01-01

    Within the next decades, nuclear safety and repository research will continue to be a necessary and integral constituent of the society's provident research. Yet, it is very difficult to maintain this competence in a politically complex environment with the scarce funds available. For its purpose, the Federal Government has appointed an evaluation commission, the chairmanship of which lies with the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology. In its report of January 2001, the commission emphasised that efforts to adequately maintain competence in nuclear engineering, including industry-independent expert knowledge, will only meet with success, if the Federal Republic of Germany and the federal states contribute to a sufficient and stable financing of non-university research. (orig.) [de

  8. 17 CFR 248.122 - Scope and duration of opt out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS S-P AND S-AM Regulation S-AM: Limitations on Affiliate Marketing § 248.122 Scope and... information received from another affiliate as described in the notice to make marketing solicitations to the consumer. (2) Continuing relationship—(i) In general. If the consumer establishes a continuing relationship...

  9. 17 CFR 248.125 - Reasonable and simple methods of opting out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS S-P AND S-AM Regulation S-AM: Limitations on Affiliate Marketing § 248.125... consumer that you receive from an affiliate to make a marketing solicitation to the consumer about your... electronically mailed or processed at an Internet Web site, if the consumer agrees to the electronic delivery of...

  10. 16 CFR 680.26 - Delivery of opt-out notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 680.26 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT AFFILIATE MARKETING... Internet Web site at which the consumer obtained a product or service electronically and requires the... disclosures by e-mail from the affiliate providing the notice; or (3) Posts the notice on an Internet Web site...

  11. Atomic structure from large-area, low-dose exposures of materials: A new route to circumvent radiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, J.C., E-mail: jannik.meyer@univie.ac.at; Kotakoski, J.; Mangler, C.

    2014-10-15

    Beam-induced structural modifications are a major nuisance in the study of materials by high-resolution electron microscopy. Here, we introduce a new approach to circumvent the radiation damage problem by a statistical treatment of large, noisy, low-dose data sets of non-periodic configurations (e.g. defects) in the material. We distribute the dose over a mixture of different defect structures at random positions and with random orientations, and recover representative model images via a maximum likelihood search. We demonstrate reconstructions from simulated images at such low doses that the location of individual entities is not possible. The approach may open a route to study currently inaccessible beam-sensitive configurations. - Highlights: • A new approach to circumvent radiation damage. • Statistical treatment of large noisy data sets. • Analysis of radiation sensitive material defects.

  12. Understanding Research Strategies to Improve ERA Performance in Australian Universities: Circumventing Secrecy to Achieve Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diezmann, Carmel M.

    2018-01-01

    Many Australian universities have prioritised improving discipline performance on the national research assessment--Excellence for Research in Australia. However, a "culture of secrecy" pervades "Excellence in Research for Australia" (ERA). There are no specified criteria for the assignment of ratings on a 5-point scale ranging…

  13. Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    Nation er et gammelt begreb, som kommer af det latinske ord for fødsel, natio. Nationalisme bygger på forestillingen om, at mennesker har én og kun én national identitet og har ret til deres egen nationalstat. Ordet og forestillingen er kun godt 200 år gammel, og i 1900-tallet har ideologien bredt...

  14. Nation Binding: How Public Service Broadcasting Mitigates Political Selective Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruikemeier, Sanne; de Vreese, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that more and more citizens select news and information that is congruent with their existing political preferences. This increase in political selective exposure (PSE) has allegedly led to an increase in polarization. The vast majority of studies stem from the US case with a particular media and political system. We contend that there are good reasons to believe PSE is less prevalent in other systems. We test this using latent profile analysis with national survey data from the Netherlands (n = 2,833). We identify four types of media use profiles and indeed only find partial evidence of PSE. In particular, we find that public broadcasting news cross-cuts all cleavages. This research note offers an important antidote in what is considered a universal phenomenon. We do find, however, a relatively large segment of citizens opting out of news consumption despite the readily available news in today’s media landscape. PMID:27218659

  15. Inspection Report: FAA's Alleged Circumvention of National Performance Review Staffing Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-09

    This report responds to a complaint received by the Office of Inspector General : (OIG), Department of Transportation. The complainant alleges the Federal : Aviation Administration (FAA) planned to circumvent National Performance : Review (NPR) staff...

  16. Opting out or denying discrimination? How the framework of free choice in American society influences perceptions of gender inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Nicole M; Levine, Cynthia S

    2011-10-01

    American women still confront workplace barriers (e.g., bias against mothers, inflexible policies) that hinder their advancement at the upper levels of organizations. However, most Americans fail to recognize that such gender barriers still exist. Focusing on mothers who have left the workforce, we propose that the prevalent American assumption that actions are a product of choice conceals workplace barriers by communicating that opportunities are equal and that behavior is free from contextual influence. Study 1 reveals that stay-at-home mothers who view their own workplace departure as an individual choice experience greater well-being but less often recognize workplace barriers and discrimination as a source of inequality than do mothers who do not view their workplace departure as an individual choice. Study 2 shows that merely exposing participants to a message that frames actions in terms of individual choice increases participants' belief that society provides equal opportunities and that gender discrimination no longer exists. By concealing the barriers that women still face in the workplace, this choice framework may hinder women's long-term advancement in society.

  17. Opting Out and Leaning In: The Life Course Employment Profiles of Early Baby Boom Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Manglano, Javier

    2015-12-01

    Most literature on female employment focuses on the intersection between women's labor supply and family events such as marriage, divorce, or childbearing. Even when using longitudinal data and methods, most studies estimate average net effects over time and assume homogeneity among women. Less is known about diversity in women's cumulative work patterns over the long run. Using group-based trajectory analysis, I model the employment trajectories of early Baby Boom women in the United States from ages 20 to 54. I find that women in this cohort can be classified in four ideal-type groups: those who were consistently detached from the labor force (21 %), those who gradually increased their market attachment (27 %), those who worked intensely in young adulthood but dropped out of the workforce after midlife (13 %), and those who were steadily employed across midlife (40 %). I then explore a variety of traits associated with membership in each of these groups. I find that (1) the timing of family events (marriage, fertility) helps to distinguish between groups with weak or strong attachment to the labor force in early adulthood; (2) external constraints (workplace discrimination, husband's opposition to wife's work, ill health) explain membership in groups that experienced work trajectory reversals; and (3) individual preferences influence labor supply across women's life course. This analysis reveals a high degree of complexity in women's lifetime working patterns, highlighting the need to understand women's labor supply as a fluid process.

  18. 75 FR 24802 - Lead; Amendment to the Opt-Out and Recordkeeping Provisions in the Renovation, Repair, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... outcomes, including increased blood pressure and incidence of hypertension. A meta-analysis of numerous...). Elementary and secondary schools (NAICS code 611110), e.g., elementary schools with kindergarten classrooms... Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) data from 1988 through 2004 shows that the prevalence of blood lead...

  19. 17 CFR 160.14 - Exceptions to notice and opt out requirements for processing and servicing transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....13 in connection with service providers and joint marketing, do not apply if you disclose nonpublic... or authorizes, or in connection with: (1) Processing or servicing a financial product or service that... persons engaged in carrying out the financial transaction or providing the product or service; or (2...

  20. Circumventing Therapeutic Resistance and the Emergence of Disseminated Breast Cancer Cells Through Non-Invasive Optical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Investigator (1992-1994); National Science Foundation Young Investigator (1993-1998); E. I. DuPont de Nemours Young Faculty Award (1995-1997); Alfred P. Sloan...address of the Funding Agency’s Procuring Contracting/Grants Officer: Amber Stilh·ich U.S . Almy Medical Resem·ch Acquisition Activity, 820 Chandler

  1. Impact of school-entry and education mandates by states on HPV vaccination coverage: Analysis of the 2009-2013 National Immunization Survey-Teen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Rebecca B; Lin, Mengyun; Wallington, Sherrie F; Hanchate, Amresh D

    2016-06-02

    To determine the effectiveness of existing school entry and education mandates on HPV vaccination coverage, we compared coverage among girls residing in states and jurisdictions with and without education and school-entry mandates. Virginia and the District of Columbia enacted school entry mandates, though both laws included liberal opt-out provisions. Ten additional states had mandates requiring distribution of education to parents or provision of education within school curricula. Using data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen from 2009-2013, we estimated multilevel logistic regression models to compare coverage with HPV vaccines for girls ages 13-17 residing in states and jurisdictions with and without school entry and education mandates, adjusting for demographic factors, healthcare access, and provider recommendation. Girls residing in states and jurisdictions with HPV vaccine school entry mandates (DC and VA) and education mandates (LA, MI, CO, IN, IA, IL, NJ, NC, TX, and WA) did not have higher HPV vaccine series initiation or completion than those living in states without mandates for any year (2009-2013). Similar results were seen when comparing girls ages 13-14 to those ages 15-17, and after adjustment for known covariates of vaccination. States and jurisdictions with school-entry and education mandates do not currently have higher HPV vaccination coverage than states without such legislation. Liberal opt-out language in existing school entry mandates may weaken their impact. Policy-makers contemplating legislation to improve vaccination coverage should be aware of the limitations of existing mandates.

  2. MDR1 siRNA loaded hyaluronic acid-based CD44 targeted nanoparticle systems circumvent paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqian; Lyer, Arun K.; Singh, Amit; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J.; Amiji, Mansoor M.; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2015-02-01

    Development of multidrug resistance (MDR) is an almost universal phenomenon in patients with ovarian cancer, and this severely limits the ultimate success of chemotherapy in the clinic. Overexpression of the MDR1 gene and corresponding P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is one of the best known MDR mechanisms. MDR1 siRNA based strategies were proposed to circumvent MDR, however, systemic, safe, and effective targeted delivery is still a major challenge. Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) targeted hyaluronic acid (HA) based nanoparticle has been shown to successfully deliver chemotherapy agents or siRNAs into tumor cells. The goal of this study is to evaluate the ability of HA-PEI/HA-PEG to deliver MDR1 siRNA and the efficacy of the combination of HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA with paclitaxel to suppress growth of ovarian cancer. We observed that HA-PEI/HA-PEG nanoparticles can efficiently deliver MDR1 siRNA into MDR ovarian cancer cells, resulting in down-regulation of MDR1 and Pgp expression. Administration of HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA nanoparticles followed by paclitaxel treatment induced a significant inhibitory effect on the tumor growth, decreased Pgp expression and increased apoptosis in MDR ovarian cancer mice model. Our findings suggest that CD44 targeted HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA nanoparticles can serve as a therapeutic tool with great potentials to circumvent MDR in ovarian cancer.

  3. Navigating and circumventing a fragmented health system: the patient's pathway in the Sierra Madre Region of Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Rose Leonard; Palazuelos, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Mexico has implemented several important reforms in how health care for its poorest is financed and delivered. Seguro Popular, in particular, a recently implemented social insurance program, aims to provide new funds for a previously underfunded state-based safety net system. Through in-depth ethnographic structured interviews with impoverished farmers in the state of Chiapas, this article presents an analysis of Seguro Popular from the perspective of a highly underserved beneficiary group. Specific points of tension among the various stakeholders--the government system (including public clinics, hospitals, and vertical programs), community members, private doctors, and pharmacies--are highlighted and discussed. Ethnographic data presented in this article expose distinct gaps between national health policy rhetoric and the reality of access to health services at the community level in a highly marginalized municipality in one of Mexico's poorest states. These insights have important implications for the structure and implementation of on-going reforms. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.

  4. Recombinant Protein Truncation Strategy for Inducing Bactericidal Antibodies to the Macrophage Infectivity Potentiator Protein of Neisseria meningitidis and Circumventing Potential Cross-Reactivity with Human FK506-Binding Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Bielecka, Magdalena K.; Devos, Nathalie; Gilbert, Mélanie; Hung, Miao-Chiu; Weynants, Vincent; Heckels, John E.; Christodoulides, Myron

    2014-01-01

    A recombinant macrophage infectivity potentiator (rMIP) protein of Neisseria meningitidis induces significant serum bactericidal antibody production in mice and is a candidate meningococcal vaccine antigen. However, bioinformatics analysis of MIP showed some amino acid sequence similarity to human FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs) in residues 166 to 252 located in the globular domain of the protein. To circumvent the potential concern over generating antibodies that could recognize human protein...

  5. Impact of school-entry and education mandates by states on HPV vaccination coverage: Analysis of the 2009–2013 National Immunization Survey-Teen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Rebecca B.; Lin, Mengyun; Wallington, Sherrie F.; Hanchate, Amresh D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the effectiveness of existing school entry and education mandates on HPV vaccination coverage, we compared coverage among girls residing in states and jurisdictions with and without education and school-entry mandates. Virginia and the District of Columbia enacted school entry mandates, though both laws included liberal opt-out provisions. Ten additional states had mandates requiring distribution of education to parents or provision of education within school curricula. Methods: Using data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen from 2009–2013, we estimated multilevel logistic regression models to compare coverage with HPV vaccines for girls ages 13–17 residing in states and jurisdictions with and without school entry and education mandates, adjusting for demographic factors, healthcare access, and provider recommendation. Results: Girls residing in states and jurisdictions with HPV vaccine school entry mandates (DC and VA) and education mandates (LA, MI, CO, IN, IA, IL, NJ, NC, TX, and WA) did not have higher HPV vaccine series initiation or completion than those living in states without mandates for any year (2009–2013). Similar results were seen when comparing girls ages 13–14 to those ages 15–17, and after adjustment for known covariates of vaccination. Conclusions: States and jurisdictions with school-entry and education mandates do not currently have higher HPV vaccination coverage than states without such legislation. Liberal opt-out language in existing school entry mandates may weaken their impact. Policy-makers contemplating legislation to improve vaccination coverage should be aware of the limitations of existing mandates. PMID:27152418

  6. A cluster-randomized trial of provider-initiated (opt-out) HIV counseling and testing of tuberculosis patients in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Diana S; Deluca, Andrea N; Kali, Paula; Hausler, Harry; Sheard, Carol; Hoosain, Ebrahim; Chaudhary, Mohammad A; Celentano, David D; Chaisson, Richard E

    2008-06-01

    To determine whether implementation of provider-initiated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) counseling would increase the proportion of tuberculosis (TB) patients who received HIV counseling and testing. Cluster-randomized trial with clinic as the unit of randomization. Twenty, medium-sized primary care TB clinics in the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. A total of 754 adults (18 years and older) newly registered as TB patients in the 20 study clinics. Implementation of provider-initiated HIV counseling and testing. Percentage of TB patients HIV counseled and tested. SECONDARY: Percentage of patients with HIV test positive, and percentage of those who received cotrimoxazole and who were referred for HIV care. : A total of 754 adults newly registered as TB patients were enrolled. In clinics randomly assigned to implement provider-initiated HIV counseling and testing, 20.7% (73/352) patients were counseled versus 7.7% (31/402) in the control clinics (P = 0.011), and 20.2% (n = 71) versus 6.5% (n = 26) underwent HIV testing (P = 0.009). Of those patients counseled, 97% in the intervention clinics accepted testing versus 79% in control clinics (P = 0.12). The proportion of patients identified as HIV infected in intervention clinics was 8.5% versus 2.5% in control clinics (P = 0.044). Fewer than 40% of patients with a positive HIV test were prescribed cotrimoxazole or referred for HIV care in either study arm. Provider-initiated HIV counseling significantly increased the proportion of adult TB patients who received HIV counseling and testing, but the magnitude of the effect was small. Additional interventions to optimize HIV testing for TB patients urgently need to be evaluated.

  7. A cluster randomized trial of provider-initiated (Opt-out) HIV counseling and testing of tuberculosis patients in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Diana S.; DeLuca, Andrea N.; Kali, Paula; Hausler, Harry; Sheard, Carol; Hoosain, Ebrahim; Chaudhary, Mohammed A.; Celentano, David D.; Chaisson, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether implementation of provider-initiated HIV counseling would increase the proportion of tuberculosis patients that received HIV counseling and testing. Design Cluster-randomized trial with clinic as unit of randomization Setting Twenty, medium-sized primary care TB clinics in the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa Subjects A total of 754 adults (≥ 18 years) newly registered as tuberculosis patients the twenty study clinics Intervention Implementation of provider-initiated HIV counseling and testing. Main outcome measures Percentage of TB patients HIV counseled and tested. Secondary Percentage of patients HIV test positive and percentage of those that received cotrimoxazole and who were referred for HIV care. Results A total of 754 adults newly registered as tuberculosis patients were enrolled. In clinics randomly assigned to implement provider-initiated HIV counseling and testing, 20.7% (73/352) patients were counseled versus 7.7% (31/402) in the control clinics (p = 0.011), and 20.2 % (n = 71) versus 6.5% (n = 26) underwent HIV testing (p = 0.009). Of those patients counseled, 97% in the intervention clinics accepted testing versus 79% in control clinics (p =0.12). The proportion of patients identified as HIV-infected in intervention clinics was 8.5% versus 2.5% in control clinics (p=0.044). Fewer than 40% of patients with a positive HIV test were prescribed cotrimoxazole or referred for HIV care in either study arm. Conclusions Provider-initiated HIV counseling significantly increased the proportion of adult TB patients that received HIV counseling and testing, but the magnitude of the effect was small. Additional interventions to optimize HIV testing for TB patients urgently need to be evaluated. PMID:18520677

  8. Opting out of nuclear power and general policy for climate protection. An analysis of the situation in Baden-Wuerttemberg/Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schade, D.; Weimer-Jehle, W.

    1999-01-01

    Baden-Wuerttemberg has been selected for this analysis as it is the federal state that hosts the oldest nuclear power plant in operation in Germany, and also belongs to those federal states generating a particularly large share of their total electricity supply in nuclear power stations. The analysis shows that expected costs of a nuclear power phaseout approach based on advance investments in non-nuclear power plants, some of them involving higher operating expenses, will be moderate in case of a long-term scenario, but will rise considerably with decreasing phaseout periods. As the CO2 emissions will rise strongly in case of substitution of nuclear power plants with fossil-fired plants, the Land of Baden-Wuerttemberg would have to review and re-inforce its programme for CO2 mitigation in order to be able to fulfil the Land's commitment in Germany's greenhouse gas reduction policy under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Opting for enhanced use of renewable energy sources and enhanced use of natural gas for power generation in CHP plants, combined with energy efficiency programmes, CO2 emissions can be curbed by 20-25% within the nuclear power plant phaseout, but only until 2020, and with the adverse effect of rising natural gas consumption, as seen from the angle of sustainability. (orig./CB) [de

  9. Is green better than blue? The Danish JHA opt-out and the unilateral attempt to attract highly skilled labour / Marlene Wind

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wind, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Taanis rakendatud rohelise kaardi süsteemist ja kõrgelt kvalifitseeritud tööjõu meelitamisest Sinise kaardi direktiivi abil. Kahe süsteemi erinevustest ja sarnasustest ning raskustest meelitada tööle kõrgelt kvalifitseeritud tööjõudu Taanis ja kogu Euroopas

  10. Full of energy. A vision: The global factor-of-four strategy for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and opting out of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovins, A.; Hennicke, P.

    1999-01-01

    Here it is at last: A sustainable global energy system. Based on a ''factor-of- four'' approach, the authors, who are experts in all matters of energy systems, explain the evolution of their energy strategy which is fit for global implementation and realization. It is technically feasible, ecologically justifiable, and economically attractive, as it relies on enhanced energy efficiency and enhanced use of renewable energy sources. (orig./CB) [de

  11. Seeking congruity between goals and roles: a new look at why women opt out of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekman, Amanda B; Brown, Elizabeth R; Johnston, Amanda M; Clark, Emily K

    2010-08-01

    Although women have nearly attained equality with men in several formerly male-dominated fields, they remain underrepresented in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We argue that one important reason for this discrepancy is that STEM careers are perceived as less likely than careers in other fields to fulfill communal goals (e.g., working with or helping other people). Such perceptions might disproportionately affect women's career decisions, because women tend to endorse communal goals more than men. As predicted, we found that STEM careers, relative to other careers, were perceived to impede communal goals. Moreover, communal-goal endorsement negatively predicted interest in STEM careers, even when controlling for past experience and self-efficacy in science and mathematics. Understanding how communal goals influence people's interest in STEM fields thus provides a new perspective on the issue of women's representation in STEM careers.

  12. Anticipatory opt-out of nuclear power at German universities and research centers? Employment and education opportunities in the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, P.; Closs, K.D.; Kuczera, B.; Erlenwein, P.; Langetepe, G.; Weiss, F.P.; Wolfert, K.

    2001-01-01

    The energy policy objectives of the present German federal government include the regulated, not-to-be-indemnified termination of the use of nuclear power for electricity generation in Germany. This objective was initialed in an agreement between the federal government and the operators of nuclear power plants in June 2000. The criterion it contains for the residual life of existing nuclear power plants are the 'residual electricity volumes' to be generated by existing plants. According to present data, the first nuclear power plant would be decommissioned in late 2002, the last one, in early 2021. A report by an evaluating committee established by the competent German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology published in January 2000 indicates that, even in the light of this medium-term perspective for the use of nuclear power for electricity generation, sufficient competence in terms of manpower in this field must be maintained and promoted in all areas of research, industry, expert consultant organizations, and regulatory authorities far beyond 2021. This makes government support indispensable in the light of the political criteria requiring the preservation of competence in this sector. The 'Kompetenzverbund Kerntechnik' (Association for Nuclear Technology Competence) was established within the framework of the Energy Research Division of the Hermann von Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren. Its mandate outlines its objectives as follows: 'Irrespective of political decisions establishing criteria for terminating the use of nuclear power in Germany, it is necessary that competence in nuclear safety be preserved for the next few decades. Only this will ensure that the government's provident duties can be fulfilled, and the safety of nuclear installations and waste and spent fuel management pathways can be ensured in accordance with the international state of the art'. (orig.) [de

  13. Fitting in or opting out: A review of key social-psychological factors influencing a sense of belonging for women in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Karyn L.; Stout, Jane G.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.; Ito, Tiffany A.

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] A number of cultural, social, environmental, and biological factors have been suggested to explain women's relatively lower representation in physics and other science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. Given its persistence, the causes of gender disparities are likely to be complex and multiply determined. In this review paper, we discuss how a sense of belonging relates to women's interest, persistence, and achievement in physics. We explore what it means to "fit in" and belong in academic contexts, the situational and interpersonal antecedents to belonging, and the consequences of a lack of belonging. We review the empirical evidence for the efficacy of interventions designed to bolster a sense of belonging. Based on these interventions we conclude the paper with a number of practical recommendations to affirm women's sense of belonging and create more welcoming and inclusive physics environments for all students.

  14. Denying Loan Access: The Student-Level Consequences When Community Colleges Opt out of the Stafford Loan Program. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederspan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The degree to which students are able to make adequate repayments on their student loans and avoid default is of special concern for colleges. If too many former students go into default, the college will face sanctions by the federal government and lose eligibility to provide currently enrolled students federal financial aid, such as the Pell…

  15. Testing spatial preferences response patterns in Choice experiments: A comparison between Cheap Talk, Opt-Out Reminder and a control group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Casper; Ladenburg, Jacob

    & Olsen 2014; Bosworth and Taylor 2012). Such ineffectiveness could be related to a weak spatial response motivation in the CT script, though it has not been specifically been addressed in the literature. In the present paper, we make a novel attempt at addressing this issue by comparing spatial responses...

  16. Understanding the factors that influence high science achievers' academic choices and intent to pursue or opt out of the hard sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quihuis, Gisell

    Drawing on Eccles and her colleagues' Expectancy-Value model of academic behavior and choice, this dissertation study set out to serve three purposes: (1) to understand how high achieving high school students who aspire to science college degrees compare, in terms of motivational beliefs and social experiences, with other high achievers who do not aspire to science college degrees; (2) to understand why some high school students who excel in the hard sciences are unsure about pursuing a science degree in college; and (3) to examine whether gender differences in motivational beliefs and social experiences found in previous research on math (see Eccles 1984) exist for science among high achieving high school students. Survey and interview data showed that gender differences previously found in Eccles' research on math exist for science among a select group of high achieving high school students. Yet, these gender differences did not explain students' aspirations for science. Motivation, classroom perceptions, science engagement, as well as other science-related experiences at home and school, including parent and teacher influences, were also important factors associated with students' aspirations for science. Results and implications for this study are encouraging because they suggest that both parents and educators can help more high achievers become interested in science. Parents can expose their children, male and female alike, to science at home early on in their childhood and teachers can help students sustain and further develop an interest in science at school. In this manner, both parents and teachers can work together as a team to encourage more high achievers to aspire to science degrees in their future. Lastly, it is important to note that this study found Eccles' model of motivation and choice helpful in understanding not only gender differences in math and the hard sciences, but also aspiration differences that cut across gender among students. Researchers interested in understanding students' motivation and academic-related choices may want to consider the applicability of Eccles' Expectancy-Value model to studies that do not focus on gender differences and that include academic domains aside from mathematics.

  17. Harmonisation between National and International Tradeable Permit Schemes. CATEP Synthesis Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haites, E.

    2003-01-01

    It is technically possible to link national emissions trading schemes with widely divergent designs. Where design differences create potential problems, technical solutions are available. The greater the similarity of their designs, the easier schemes are to link. During the 2005 - 2007 period the EU Directive, if it is adopted, will lead to the establishment of at least 25 national emissions trading schemes. The Directive specifies many of the design features of these schemes, but leaves the allocation of allowances, rules for banking allowances into the commitment period, use of the opt-out provision, and a few other design features to Member States. The resulting differences among Member State schemes are unlikely to undermine the links between the schemes established by the Directive. The Community may enter into agreements with non-members for mutual recognition of allowances between their emissions trading schemes, but few, if any, links of this type are expected prior to 2008 for practical reasons. Beginning in 2008, Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol establishes an international emissions trading scheme that can link the national trading schemes of Annex I Parties. It imposes no requirements for harmonisation on the national emissions trading schemes linked. Some design differences could create technical problems, although solutions are available and at least one of the governments involved has an incentive to solve the problem. Adverse competitiveness impacts due to differences in the distribution of allowances across national schemes may need to be addressed through institutions such as the WTO. Most of the national trading schemes will also be subject to the EU Directive and be subject to greater harmonisation after 2008. The result is likely to be a progressive expansion and integration of greenhouse gas allowance markets over the next decade

  18. Energy efficiency and the liberalized market - new approaches in national climate protection policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennicke, P.

    2000-01-01

    The paper initially explains the rationale of energy policy-based governmental intervention in the liberalized electricity market ('the need for political governance'). It is shown why there is a 'demand for intelligent regulatory policy' in Germany's energy sector, despite, or rather as a consequence of the deregulation of the energy markets, and refers e.g. to a parliamentary paper of the Bundestag, (BTDrs. 14/2656, p. 9). The author continues with selecting and defining, from the stock of conceivable appropriate action and regulatory instruments, the corner stones of action plans and the range of instruments, specifically designed for the sector and the target groups, that will accelerate market penetration of the energy efficiency policies ('governance functions'). The author also shows that, due to the significance of regulatory and structurizing impacts, as well as resulting consequences to the leading paradigms of policy of this Government (opting out of nuclear power, global climate change), the electricity industry is just the right branch of industry to serve as a ''national demonstration project'' on the way towards sustainable development. (orig./CB) [de

  19. Nationalism in Stateless Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Robert Chr.

    "Nationalism in Stateless Nations" explores national identities and nationalist movements since 1967, using the examples of Scotland and Newfoundland. Adding to the debate about globalisation and the future of the nation-state, the book argues that ethnically rooted nationalism in modern liberal ...... - intellectuals, political parties and the media - the book combines historical, sociological, political and media studies analyses in an interdisciplinary investigation, providing a comprehensive account of the waxing and waning of nationalism....

  20. Lingua and Erasmus: Circumventing the Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Gary

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the development and implementation of a student exchange program between the University of Leeds in England and the Institut fur Praxis der Theorie der Schule in Kiel, Germany. Ten Leeds students participated in the program, which was designed to give students an appreciation of German culture, language, and vocational teaching methods.…

  1. Nation/non-nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnichsen, André; Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2008-01-01

    Is nationality the only way of organizing political community? Given the ubiquity of the national principle, one might think so. But, in practice, the national principle is constantly challenged by what can be termed non-national identities. This article looks at manners in which such deviating...... identities can be conceptualized, how contemporary European states have attempted to deal with them when they arise and to what extent non-national modes of organizing political community can point towards a challenge to the national principle itself. In its capacity as an introduction to the special issue......, this article seeks to frame the subsequent articles within the overarching theme of the tension between national and non-national communities in contemporary Europe....

  2. Recombinant protein truncation strategy for inducing bactericidal antibodies to the macrophage infectivity potentiator protein of Neisseria meningitidis and circumventing potential cross-reactivity with human FK506-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecka, Magdalena K; Devos, Nathalie; Gilbert, Mélanie; Hung, Miao-Chiu; Weynants, Vincent; Heckels, John E; Christodoulides, Myron

    2015-02-01

    A recombinant macrophage infectivity potentiator (rMIP) protein of Neisseria meningitidis induces significant serum bactericidal antibody production in mice and is a candidate meningococcal vaccine antigen. However, bioinformatics analysis of MIP showed some amino acid sequence similarity to human FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs) in residues 166 to 252 located in the globular domain of the protein. To circumvent the potential concern over generating antibodies that could recognize human proteins, we immunized mice with recombinant truncated type I rMIP proteins that lacked the globular domain and the signal leader peptide (LP) signal sequence (amino acids 1 to 22) and contained the His purification tag at either the N or C terminus (C-term). The immunogenicity of truncated rMIP proteins was compared to that of full (i.e., full-length) rMIP proteins (containing the globular domain) with either an N- or C-terminal His tag and with or without the LP sequence. By comparing the functional murine antibody responses to these various constructs, we determined that C-term His truncated rMIP (-LP) delivered in liposomes induced high levels of antibodies that bound to the surface of wild-type but not Δmip mutant meningococci and showed bactericidal activity against homologous type I MIP (median titers of 128 to 256) and heterologous type II and III (median titers of 256 to 512) strains, thereby providing at least 82% serogroup B strain coverage. In contrast, in constructs lacking the LP, placement of the His tag at the N terminus appeared to abrogate bactericidal activity. The strategy used in this study would obviate any potential concerns regarding the use of MIP antigens for inclusion in bacterial vaccines. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Recombinant Protein Truncation Strategy for Inducing Bactericidal Antibodies to the Macrophage Infectivity Potentiator Protein of Neisseria meningitidis and Circumventing Potential Cross-Reactivity with Human FK506-Binding Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecka, Magdalena K.; Devos, Nathalie; Gilbert, Mélanie; Hung, Miao-Chiu; Weynants, Vincent; Heckels, John E.

    2014-01-01

    A recombinant macrophage infectivity potentiator (rMIP) protein of Neisseria meningitidis induces significant serum bactericidal antibody production in mice and is a candidate meningococcal vaccine antigen. However, bioinformatics analysis of MIP showed some amino acid sequence similarity to human FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs) in residues 166 to 252 located in the globular domain of the protein. To circumvent the potential concern over generating antibodies that could recognize human proteins, we immunized mice with recombinant truncated type I rMIP proteins that lacked the globular domain and the signal leader peptide (LP) signal sequence (amino acids 1 to 22) and contained the His purification tag at either the N or C terminus (C-term). The immunogenicity of truncated rMIP proteins was compared to that of full (i.e., full-length) rMIP proteins (containing the globular domain) with either an N- or C-terminal His tag and with or without the LP sequence. By comparing the functional murine antibody responses to these various constructs, we determined that C-term His truncated rMIP (−LP) delivered in liposomes induced high levels of antibodies that bound to the surface of wild-type but not Δmip mutant meningococci and showed bactericidal activity against homologous type I MIP (median titers of 128 to 256) and heterologous type II and III (median titers of 256 to 512) strains, thereby providing at least 82% serogroup B strain coverage. In contrast, in constructs lacking the LP, placement of the His tag at the N terminus appeared to abrogate bactericidal activity. The strategy used in this study would obviate any potential concerns regarding the use of MIP antigens for inclusion in bacterial vaccines. PMID:25452551

  4. Lisabonská smlouva a závaznost Listiny základních práv EU pro Českou republiku vzhledem k tzv.výjimce (opt-out)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šturma, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 6 (2010), s. 191-194 ISSN 1210-6410 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70680506 Keywords : the Lisbon Treaty * the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  5. The Under-Representation of Women in Information Technology (IT) Leadership Positions--An Analysis of Why Women Opt out of the IT Pipeline at Mid-Career Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acholonu, Omogbemiboluwa I.

    2011-01-01

    The underrepresentation of women in Information Technology (IT) leadership positions is a problem that has affected the industry since its onset. It is posited that women face various barriers in advancing through the IT pipeline. This study reviews the findings of other qualitative and quantitative studies to identify any recurring patterns that…

  6. HCAHPS - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The national average for the HCAHPS survey categories. HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital patients about their experiences during a recent...

  7. Payment - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment measures – national data. This data set includes national-level data for the payment measures associated with an episode of care for heart attack, heart...

  8. Culinary nationalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Priscilla Parkhurst

    2010-01-01

    Culinary consciousness raisers, cooking texts often serve as vehicles of national identification. From Pampille (Marthe Allard Daudet) and her cookbook, Les Bons Plats de France, in 1913 to the international culinary competitions of today such as the Bocuse d'or, culinary distinction promotes national interests. In contrast to the strident nationalism of the early twentieth century, culinary nationalism today operates in an increasingly globalized world. National culinary distinction defines the nation and sells its products in a highly competitive international arena. A recent culinary text, the South Korean film Le Grand Chef [Sik Gaek ] (2007), illustrates the phenomenon, subsuming national culinary promotion in a mega culinary competition, all in the service of Korean culinary achievement.

  9. National Intelligence and National Prosperity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Earl; Wittmann, Werner

    2008-01-01

    What is the relation between the cognitive competence of a national population that nation's economic prosperity? Lynn and Vanhanen [Lynn, R. & Vanhanen, T. (2002). "IQ and the wealth of nations." Westport, CT: Praeger.] presented data pointing to an exceptionally strong relationship between IQ scores and Gross Domestic Product per…

  10. National Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — National Park Service unit boundaries (NTAD). These park boundaries signify legislative boundary definitions and local park names have been consolidated according to...

  11. Responsible nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    In National Responsibility and Global Justice, David Miller defends the view that a member of a nation can be collectively responsible for an outcome despite the fact that: (i) she did not control it; (ii) she actively opposed those of her nation's policies that produced the outcome; and (iii......) actively opposing the relevant policy was costly for her. I argue that Miller's arguments in favor of this strong externalist view about responsibility and control are insufficient. Specifically, I show that Miller's two models of synchronic collective responsibility*the like-minded group model...

  12. Feasibility of establishing an Australian ACL registry: a pilot study by the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry (AOANJRR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekkas, Christina; Clarnette, Richard; Graves, Stephen E; Rainbird, Sophia; Parker, David; Lorimer, Michelle; Paterson, Roger; Roe, Justin; Morris, Hayden; Feller, Julian A; Annear, Peter; Forster, Ben; Hayes, David

    2017-05-01

    would not be an issue in for a national registry where inclusion is automatic unless the patient wishes to opt out. The collection of post-operative patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) is more problematic, due to an insufficient proportion of individuals providing patient-reported outcomes. Alternative outcome measures are required for an ACL registry in Australia to be successfully implemented. Diagnostic, Level III.

  13. National laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscati, G.

    1983-01-01

    The foundation of a 'National Laboratory' which would support a Research center in synchrotron radiation applications is proposed. The essential features of such a laboratory differing of others centers in Brazil are presented. (L.C.) [pt

  14. National database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Helen Grundtvig; Stjernø, Henrik

    1995-01-01

    Artikel om national database for sygeplejeforskning oprettet på Dansk Institut for Sundheds- og Sygeplejeforskning. Det er målet med databasen at samle viden om forsknings- og udviklingsaktiviteter inden for sygeplejen.......Artikel om national database for sygeplejeforskning oprettet på Dansk Institut for Sundheds- og Sygeplejeforskning. Det er målet med databasen at samle viden om forsknings- og udviklingsaktiviteter inden for sygeplejen....

  15. Targeting the UPR to Circumvent Endocrine Resistance in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    cells, and re-sensitize resistant cells, to both estrogen withdrawal (analogous to treatment with an AI ) and to two different classes of AE (TAM and...following hits for NPPTA-TsOH and JS20- TsOH: NPPTA-TsOH: c-KIT<PDGFRB<FLT-3 JS20-TsOH: MEK6<NEK1 Future directions and publication(s): Currently

  16. Marine Natural Products as Models to Circumvent Multidrug Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solida Long

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance (MDR to anticancer drugs is a serious health problem that in many cases leads to cancer treatment failure. The ATP binding cassette (ABC transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp, which leads to premature efflux of drugs from cancer cells, is often responsible for MDR. On the other hand, a strategy to search for modulators from natural products to overcome MDR had been in place during the last decades. However, Nature limits the amount of some natural products, which has led to the development of synthetic strategies to increase their availability. This review summarizes the research findings on marine natural products and derivatives, mainly alkaloids, polyoxygenated sterols, polyketides, terpenoids, diketopiperazines, and peptides, with P-gp inhibitory activity highlighting the established structure-activity relationships. The synthetic pathways for the total synthesis of the most promising members and analogs are also presented. It is expected that the data gathered during the last decades concerning their synthesis and MDR-inhibiting activities will help medicinal chemists develop potential drug candidates using marine natural products as models which can deliver new ABC transporter inhibitor scaffolds.

  17. Targeting Tim-1 to Circumvent Immune Tolerance in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    responses to PSA self- antigen in transgenic mice. Prostate 70:1002. 7. Koh, Y. T., A. Gray, S. A. Higgins, B. Hubby, and W. M. Kast . 2009. Androgen...15766662] 14. Koh YT, Gray A, Higgins SA, Hubby B, Kast WM. Androgen ablation augments prostate cancer vaccine immunogenicity only when applied after...Mercader M, Bodner BK, Moser MT, Kwon PS, Park ES, Manecke RG, Ellis TM, Wojcik EM, Yang D, Flanigan RC, Waters WB, Kast WM, Kwon ED. T cell

  18. Circumventing Graphical User Interfaces in Chemical Engineering Plant Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romey, Noel; Schwartz, Rachel M.; Behrend, Douglas; Miao, Peter; Cheung, H. Michael; Beitle, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) are pervasive elements of most modern technical software and represent a convenient tool for student instruction. For example, GUIs are used for [chemical] process design software (e.g., CHEMCAD, PRO/II and ASPEN) typically encountered in the senior capstone course. Drag and drop aspects of GUIs are challenging for…

  19. Circumventing the Glass Ceiling: Women Executives in American State Governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, Angela M.; Wright, Deil S.

    1993-01-01

    Data from 1984 (n=489) and 1988 (n=658) surveys show that female executives in state government have progressed in top positions in certain types of agencies, but much progress has occurred by avoiding, not breaking, the glass ceiling. Most notable male-female differences are in party affiliation, age, interagency mobility, career progress, and…

  20. Can complex regional pain syndrome type 1 be circumvented? A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    stressful life events may have some significance in patients with CRPS 1.4. It is intended .... disciplinary approach with the main goal of all therapeutic interventions being .... into the pain cycle. .... of learning processes resulting from increased physiological .... PHTG. The role of fear of movement/(re)injury in pain disability. J.

  1. Circumventing resistance: using values to indirectly change attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Kevin L; Wegener, Duane T; Murray, Renee A

    2012-10-01

    Most research on persuasion examines messages that directly address the attitude of interest. However, especially when message recipients are inclined to resist change, indirect methods might be more effective. Because values are rarely attacked and defended, value change could serve as a useful indirect route for attitude change. Attitudes toward affirmative action changed more when the value of equality was attacked (indirect change) than when affirmative action was directly attacked using the same message (Experiments 1-2). Changes in confidence in the value were responsible for the indirect change when the value was attacked (controlling for changes in favorability toward the value), whereas direct counterarguments to the message were responsible for the relative lack of change when the attitude was attacked directly (Experiment 2). Attacking the value of equality influenced attitudes toward policies related to the value but left policy attitudes unrelated to the value unchanged (Experiment 3). Finally, a manipulation of value confidence that left attitudes toward the value intact demonstrated similar confidence-based influences on policies related to the value of freedom (Experiment 4). Undermined value confidence also resulted in less confidence in the resulting policy attitudes controlling for the changes in the policy attitudes themselves (Experiments 3 and 4). Therefore, indirect change through value attacks presented a double threat--to both the policy attitudes and the confidence with which those policy attitudes were held (potentially leaving them open to additional influence).

  2. Circumventing shallow air contamination in Mid Ocean Ridge Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy; Parai, Rita; Tucker, Jonathan; Middleton, Jennifer; Langmuir, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Noble gases in mantle-derived basalts provide a rich portrait of mantle degassing and surface-interior volatile exchange. However, the ubiquity of shallow-level air contamination frequently obscures the mantle noble gas signal. In a majority of samples, shallow air contamination dominates the noble gas budget. As a result, reconstructing the variability in heavy noble gas mantle source compositions and inferring the history of deep recycling of atmospheric noble gases is difficult. For example, in the gas-rich popping rock 2ΠD43, 129Xe/130Xe ratios reach 7.7±0.23 in individual step-crushes, but the bulk composition of the sample is close to air (129Xe/130Xe of 6.7). Here, we present results from experiments designed to elucidate the source of shallow air contamination in MORBs. Step-crushes were carried out to measure He, Ne, Ar and Xe isotopic compositions on two aliquots of a depleted popping glass that was dredged from between the Kane and Atlantis Fracture Zones of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in May 2012. One aliquot was sealed in ultrapure N2 after dredge retrieval, while the other aliquot was left exposed to air for 3.5 years. The bulk 20Ne/22Ne and 129Xe/130Xe ratios measured in the aliquot bottled in ultrapure N2 are 12.3 and 7.6, respectively, and are nearly identical to the estimated mantle source values. On the other hand, step crushes in the aliquot left exposed to air for several years show Ne isotopic compositions that are shifted towards air, with a bulk 20Ne/22Ne of 11.5; the bulk 129Xe/130Xe, however, was close to 7.6. These results indicate that lighter noble gases exchange more efficiently between the bubbles trapped in basalt glass and air, suggesting a diffusive or kinetic mechanism for the incorporation of the shallow air contamination. Importantly, in Ne-Ar or Ar-Xe space, step-crushes from the bottled aliquot display a trend that can be easily fit with a simple two-component hyperbolic mixing between mantle and atmosphere noble gases. Step-crushes in the aliquot left exposed to air display significantly more scatter, which makes it difficult to fit a two-component mixing hyperbola and obtain the mantle source value for this aliquot. In summary, our simple and inexpensive experiment demonstrates that at least in some samples, significant air contamination is added after dredge retrieval from the ocean floor. Bottling samples in ultrapure N2 upon dredge retrieval can largely eliminate this component of shallow-level air contamination. As a result, the number of step crushes required to characterize a sample decreases and estimating the mantle source compositions of the basalts becomes significantly easier, which in turn leads to more refined estimates of mantle degassing and regassing rates.

  3. Happy Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Christian

    Happy Nation er et stykke eksperimentel teknologiformidling, der er udformet som en skønlitterær roman. Værket tager udgangspunkt i et fremtidsscenarie, hvor virtual reality er blevet en hverdagsteknologi, hvis sansedel bliver understøttet af implantater, der kan foretage dyb hjernestimulation...

  4. Nation branding and sustainable competitiveness of nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Kyung Mi

    2009-01-01

    Considering the importance of explaining how a nation brand is effectively managed and how nation branding aligns the nation's brand with country management so as to gain competitiveness, this research aims to assess the role of nation branding and to create a strategic management tool for nation

  5. Impact of school-entry and education mandates by states on HPV vaccination coverage: Analysis of the 2009–2013 National Immunization Survey-Teen

    OpenAIRE

    Perkins, Rebecca B.; Lin, Mengyun; Wallington, Sherrie F.; Hanchate, Amresh D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness of existing school entry and education mandates on HPV vaccination coverage, we compared coverage among girls residing in states and jurisdictions with and without education and school-entry mandates. Virginia and the District of Columbia enacted school entry mandates, though both laws included liberal opt-out provisions. Ten additional states had mandates requiring distribution of education to parents or provision of education within school curricula...

  6. National interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Overpopulation is dealt with differently in China, India, Nigeria, and the United States. In China since the last 1970s, policy has emphasized one child per family; the incentives and penalties in wages, housing, and health care were relaxed in 1988 due to international pressure. The one son rule applies now. China policy will be devoted to limiting births for all couples at least until the year 2000. The annual growth rate is 1.5% and population is 1.166 billion, with doubling expected by 2047. India's population stands at 883 million with an annual growth rate of 2.1%; doubling of population is expected by 2028. India was one of the first countries to offer birth control in 1921. Fertility has declined over the past 50 years by about 33%. Family planning policy during the 1970s promoted sterilization, but coercion and targets were stopped in 1977 by rioting. India's 16% of world population is confined to only 2.4% of the world's land resources. Family size desired is still high at 2 sons. The future prospects include a tripling of population, unless political determination is effective in combatting tradition and mistrust of government. Nigeria's population is 93 million with an annual growth rate of 2.9%; doubling is expected by 2018. Nigeria is the most crowded African country and has overpopulation and environmental problems. Family size is high at 5.6 people. The US has a population of 259 million and a growth rate of 1.1%; doubling is expected by 2058. Although the US is the third most populous country and US citizens consume almost six times the world's energy supply per capita, overpopulation seems to be other nations' problem. 30% of growth is due to immigration. Even the US may soon be exceeding its ability to sustain itself. The challenge will be for US citizens to lower consumption and set a world example.

  7. The Dark Side of Illegal Immigration: Cause for National Concern

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Vicki A

    2007-01-01

    America is a country built on the backbones of immigrants. Unfortunately, to preserve this tradition, the government has allowed individuals to circumvent the immigration system and slip into our borders...

  8. Nations need national land administration infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennett, Rohan; Rajabifard, Abbas; Williamson, Ian; Wallace, Jude

    2012-01-01

    Many nations lack a coherent national approach to land administration. Instead, land information and processes are frequently disaggregated across states, provinces, cantons, counties, and municipalities. This is particularly the case in federated countries. The growing body of land administration

  9. Construction and commissioning of the national synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galayda, J.N.; Blume, M.

    1985-01-01

    The road from conception to completion of a large facility like the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is a long and tortuous one. More than fifteen years have passed since the first discussions of a synchrotron radiation source at BNL, and there have been many twists and turns in the process. In putting together an accelerator project like this, there are many critical skills that must be assembled, and budgets, schedules and organizations must be properly examined. The lessons learned in design and commissioning of the NSLS rings may be summarized as follows: (1) the damped emittances expected of a Chasman-Green lattice are attainable at high current, if ion trapping problems can be circumvented; (2) there have been no unexpected effects from the rather strong sextupoles required to correct the chromaticities in this type of lattice; (3) the most important beam instabilities are coupled-bunch, and can be counteracted; and (4) commissioning the NSLS rings was mostly an effort to bring the hardware into conformation with the original ring design; achievement of the specified magnetic fields, injection timing, vacuum, RF voltages, etc. led to ring performance which was easily good enough to begin operation

  10. National Security and National Development: A Critique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    There has been the tendency right from independence to view national ... the nation's economic underdevelopment, which has led to social injustice, ... For a nation, security connotes conditions of peace, stability, order ... They are very important for the ... According to Mathew (1989), Global development now suggests.

  11. Strengthening National Identity through National Symbols and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africans vacillate in their national identity and remain largely attached to their racial and ethnic group identities. The aim of this article is to illustrate the manner in which a sense of understanding, familiarity and pride with regard to national symbols and thus to national identity can be attained. The objective is that the ...

  12. National Convective Weather Diagnostic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current convective hazards identified by the National Convective Weather Detection algorithm. The National Convective Weather Diagnostic (NCWD) is an automatically...

  13. National Coastal Condition Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCCA is a collaborative, statistical survey of the nation's coastal waters and the Great Lakes. It is one of four national surveys that EPA and its partners conduct to assess the condition and health of the nation's water resources.

  14. National Environmental Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first major environmental law in the United States and established national environmental policies for the...

  15. National Wetlands Inventory Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland area features mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National Wetlands Inventory is a national program sponsored by the US Fish and...

  16. Sandia National Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — For more than 60 years, Sandia has delivered essential science and technology to resolve the nation's most challenging security issues.Sandia National Laboratories...

  17. National Health Expenditure Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — National Health Expenditure Accounts are comprised of the following, National Health Expenditures - Historical and Projected, Age Estimates, State Health...

  18. National Wetlands Inventory Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear wetland features (including selected streams, ditches, and narrow wetland bodies) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National...

  19. Demographic studies of Joshua trees in Mojave Desert National Parks: demography with emphasis on germination and recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esque, T.C.; Reynolds, B.; DeFalco, L.A.; Waitman, B.A.; Hughson, Debra

    2010-01-01

    The study of population change with regard to reproduction, seed dispersal, and germination, establishment, growth, and survival/mortality is known as demography. Demographic studies provide managers with information to assess future trends on the density, distribution, health, and population changes of importance or value, including Joshua trees (Yucca brevifolia). Demographic research provides the potential to understand the combined impacts of climate change and land-use practices and determine if strategies for protecting important species are likely to succeed or fall short of management goals and will identify factors that have the potential to de-stabilize populations outside the realm of natural variation so that management strategies can be developed to circumvent challenges for key species, processes, and ecosystems. The National Park Service and US Geological Survey are collaborating to collect demographic information about the demographics of Joshua tree in the Mojave Desert.

  20. National Emission Inventory (NEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data exchange allows states to submit data to the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Emissions Inventory (NEI). NEI is a national database of air...

  1. National Academy of Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Irma. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) PNAS is one of the world’s most- ... Exchange Evolution Resources Biographical Memoirs National Academy of Sciences About The NAS Mission History Organization Leadership and ...

  2. Patient survey (HCAHPS) - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The national average for the HCAHPS survey categories. HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital patients about their experiences during a recent...

  3. National Safety Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work, in homes and communities, and on the road through leadership, research, education and advocacy. NSC Newsletter Sign up for our newsletter! Like Us on Facebook National Safety Council © National Safety Council. All rights reserved. Contact ...

  4. National Forest Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme shows the USFS national forest boundaries in the state. This data was acquired from the GIS coordinators at both the Chippewa National Forest and the...

  5. Environment | Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Argonne National Laboratory Toggle Navigation Toggle Search Energy Environment Laboratory About Safety News Careers Education Community Diversity Directory Energy Environment National Security User Facilities Science Work with Us Environment Atmospheric and Climate Science Ecological

  6. National Diabetes Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living Tips About WIN NIDDK Information Clearinghouses National Diabetes Education Program Together with more than 200 partners ... type 2 diabetes. Learn more about NDEP . National Diabetes Month You are the center of your diabetes ...

  7. National oceanographic information system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, B.N.; Kunte, P.D.; Bhargava, R.M.S.

    Ocean study is inherently interdisciplinary and therefore calls for a controlled and integrated approach for information generation, processing and decision making. In this context, Indian National Oceanographic Data Centre (INODC) of National...

  8. Speaking to Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    The ebbs and flows, which typically influences not just rhetoric around, but also how we think through nationalism, suggest nationalism is somehow at the core the same ‘thing’. But is it really? What connects the rise of nationalism in Australia in the 1880s, to the nationalism of the First...... surrounding refugees and migrancy in Australia and Europe (since this is what we are invited to do by the organisers), and how the deconstruction of such discourses might lead to more constructive ways of speaking through nation, might offer a way. I think Stan Grant’s book, Talking to My Country, through its...... combination of incisive criticism and insistence on constructive nation-(re)building offers an interesting launching pad. I am hoping to use Grant’s nation-rebuilding project to suggest ways that could open up similar spaces in equally exclusivist, the-nation-is-white-places in Europe. I am aware Grant has...

  9. Energy | Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Argonne National Laboratory Toggle Navigation Toggle Search Energy Batteries and Energy Storage Energy Systems Modeling Materials for Energy Nuclear Energy Renewable Energy Smart Laboratory About Safety News Careers Education Community Diversity Directory Energy Environment National

  10. Unplanned Hospital Visits - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Unplanned Hospital Visits – national data. This data set includes national-level data for the hospital return days (or excess days in acute care) measures, the...

  11. Focusing America's National Powers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kabana, Dana P

    2006-01-01

    .... The National Security Counsel (NSC) should modify its efforts to take full advantage of all sources of power to ensure national security by first establishing the NSC/Deputies Committee as the element mandated to manage the interagency process...

  12. Value of care - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Value of care displays – national data. This data set includes national-level data for the value of care displays associated with an episode of care for heart...

  13. Heart Attack Payment - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – national data. This data set includes national-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  14. National Register Historic Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

  15. National transportation statistics 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    National Transportation Statistics presents statistics on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record, economic performance, the human and natural environment, and national security. This is a large online documen...

  16. Regional National Cooperative Observer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA publication dedicated to issues, news and recognition of observers in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer program. Issues published regionally...

  17. Complications and Deaths - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Complications and deaths - national data. This data set includes national-level data for the hip/knee complication measure, the CMS Patient Safety Indicators, and...

  18. National Drug IQ Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Drug IQ Challenge 2017 Reto nacional del coeficiente intelectual (CI) sobre las drogas y el alcohol 2016 National Drug IQ Challenge 2016 Reto nacional del coeficiente intelectual (CI) sobre las drogas y el alcohol 2015 ...

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: Sandia National Laboratories: Missions:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Systems & Assessments: About Us Sandia National Laboratories Exceptional service in ; Security Weapons Science & Technology Defense Systems & Assessments About Defense Systems & Information Construction & Facilities Contract Audit Sandia's Economic Impact Licensing & Technology

  20. Los Alamos National Lab: National Security Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    SKIP TO PAGE CONTENT Los Alamos National Laboratory Delivering science and technology to protect Museum New Hires Publications Research Library Mission Science & Innovation Science & Innovation Facilities Science Pillars Research Library Science Briefs Science News Lab Organizations Science Programs

  1. 2015 National Nation-Level Geography Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 TIGER Geodatabases are extracts of selected nation based and state based geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  2. The New Russian Nationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstø, Pal; Blakkisrud, Helge

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the transformation of Russian nationalist discourse in the 21st century Russian nationalism, previously dominated by ‘imperial’ tendencies – pride in a large, strong and multi-ethnic state able to project its influence abroad – is increasingly focused on ethnic issues. This new ethno-nationalism has come in various guises, like racism and xenophobia, but also in a new intellectual movement of ‘national democracy’ deliberately seeking to emulate conservative West European nationalism...

  3. Prediction of National Wealth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetzel, Deborah L.; McDaniel, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    In their book, IQ and the Wealth of Nations, Lynn and Vanhanen ([Lynn, R. and Vanhanen, T. (2002). IQ and the wealth of nations. Westport, CT: Praeger.]) proposed the hypothesis that "the intelligence of the populations has been a major factor responsible for the national differences in economic growth and for the gap in per capita income between…

  4. Nationalism, Gender and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Stoltz, Pauline

    Feminist scholars have pointed out that constructions of gender and gender equality are embedded in national narratives and politics of belonging (Yuval-Davis 2011; Siim & Mokre 2013). This paper aims to explore gendered approaches to nationalism and to discuss how nationalism in Scandinavia is a...

  5. Gross National Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giri, Krishna Prasad; Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced...... of Gross National Happiness and Educating for Gross National happiness....

  6. National Science Bowl | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Bowl National Science Bowl The Department of Energy's Office of Science sponsors the National Science Bowl competition. This fun, fast-paced academic tournament tests the brainpower of middle and high school student teams on science and math topics. The National Science Bowl provides an

  7. Behind the Scenes of Differentiated Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the formal and informal practices of two champions of opting out, the United Kingdom and Denmark, in the area of Justice and Home Affairs. On the surface, both countries have chosen to avoid further integration within this policy area to safeguard national autonomy. Foreign...

  8. Nation and Classical Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Benedikte

    The last book Anthony D. Smith wrote before he died, and which will be published in Spring 2017, has the title Nation and Classical Music. Smith had for a long time been intrigued by the intimate relationship between the nation and classical music. At the most manifest level it involves...... them into their compositions thus challenging the romantic musical style searching for an authentic national musical expression. Against the backdrop of the extensive research carried out by Anthony Smith into the relationship between the nation and classical music, the present paper seeks to add...... cultural centers. In doing this, the paper seeks to unfold how composers channeled musical inspiration embedded in cultural environments that cut across national boundaries into national musical traditions thus catering to specific national audiences. The paper is written as a tribute to a great mentor...

  9. The National Security Strategy and National Interests: Quantity or Quality?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mercado, Leo

    2001-01-01

    The national security strategy (NSS), National Security Strategy for a New Century, published in December 1999, categorizes national interests as vital, important, and humanitarian and other interests...

  10. Philanthropy and the nation-state in global health: The Gates Foundation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Manjari

    2017-12-15

    In recent years, philanthropic actors such as the Gates Foundation have been understood as commanding sweeping influence in global health. They have been associated with the outsourcing of public health services, shifting of policy priorities, and the eventual sidelining of national governments. This article makes a different argument about the impact of global philanthropic actors. It focuses on the work of the Gates Foundation in India over the last decade and a half, tracing how the foundation initially circumvented the national government but then moved on to a discourse of partnership. Ironically, after an early discounting of the role of the government, the foundation later sought to transition its programmes to the state. The foundation's evolving trajectory reflects its experiences on the ground and also the difficulties of realising its original ambitions. While the foundation's work in India is marked by ebbs and flows, the state's institutions remain constant. The article argues that there is not always a straightforward marginalisation of the government vis-à-vis global philanthropic actors. Actors such as the Gates Foundation, perceived as enormously powerful in global health institutions in Geneva and New York, may have a far more qualified impact in large developing countries such as India.

  11. Integrating National Space Visions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines value proposition assumptions for various models nations may use to justify, shape, and guide their space programs. Nations organize major societal investments like space programs to actualize national visions represented by leaders as investments in the public good. The paper defines nine 'vision drivers' that circumscribe the motivations evidently underpinning national space programs. It then describes 19 fundamental space activity objectives (eight extant and eleven prospective) that nations already do or could in the future use to actualize the visions they select. Finally the paper presents four contrasting models of engagement among nations, and compares these models to assess realistic pounds on the pace of human progress in space over the coming decades. The conclusion is that orthogonal engagement, albeit unlikely because it is unprecedented, would yield the most robust and rapid global progress.

  12. First Nations Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, K. [Whitby Hydro, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The partnership involving the First Nations of Southern First Nations Secretariat (SFNS) Economic Development Corporation and private sector companies is called First Nations Power (FNP), and is Aboriginal-owned. Business opportunities in the energy sector marketplace are being pursued through FNP. The member organizations of FNP are listed. Operating out of facilities located at Delaware First Nation in Moranviatown, Ontario, FNP utilizes strategic alliances with proven private sector firms and other First Nation organizations to advance its plans. FNP operates in the following fields: advisory services, energy management, transmission and grid connections, distribution and utility administration, retail of products and services, training and development, and power generation. The various projects include hydraulic and alternative energy sources. The business activities are briefly described, as are the energy projects and special projects. A discussion of the First Nations Power Team concludes this presentation.

  13. National HIV Testing Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-06-09

    Dr. Kevin A. Fenton, Director of CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses National HIV Testing Day, an annual observance which raises awareness of the importance of knowing one's HIV status and encourages at-risk individuals to get an HIV test.  Created: 6/9/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/9/2011.

  14. GLOBAL OR NATIONAL BRANDS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina GÎRBOVEANU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, branding is such a strong force that hardly anything goes unbranded. Branding in global markets poses several challenges to the marketers. A key decision is the choice between global and nationals brands. This article gives the answers to the questions: what is, what is need for, what are the advantages, costs and risks of global and national brands? All go to the following conclusion: use global brands where possible and national brands where necessary.

  15. National Security Whistleblowers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fisher, Louis

    2005-01-01

    .... Domestic and national security information is provided through agency reports and direct communications from department heads, but lawmakers also receive information directly from employees within the agencies...

  16. News | Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    to give second life to EV batteries Yemen News National Lab Licensing Hydrogen Refueling Method Could Computing Center Centers, Institutes, and Programs RISCRisk and Infrastructure Science Center Other

  17. Feasibility study on the solidification of liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste in the inactive tank system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trussell, S.

    1993-01-01

    A literature survey was conducted to help determine the feasibility of solidifying a liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste in the inactive tank system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this report is to facilitate a decision on the disposition of these wastes by identifying any waste constituents that might (1) compromise the strength or stability of the waste form or (2) be highly leachable. Furthermore, its goal is to identify ways to circumvent interferences and to decrease the leachability of the waste constituents. This study has sought to provide an understanding of inhibition of cement set by identifying the fundamental chemical mechanisms by which this inhibition takes place. From this fundamental information, it is possible to draw some conclusions about the potential effects of waste constituents, even in the absence of particular studies on specific compounds

  18. National promotional campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekevski Siniša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking an attention to promotion as operational variable in marketing effort, author focused on so called ways of creating national images. As a case of very interesting activity paper discuss an experience of regional chamber of Croatia with activities in upgrading international recognition of national products as well as country as destination in such context.

  19. National Transuranic Program Charter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The National Transuranic Program Plan and Charter describes the functional elements of the National TRU Program, organizational relationships, programmatic responsibilities, division of work scope among the various DOE organizations that comprise the program, and program baselines against which overall progress will be measured. The charter defines the authorities and responsibilities of various organizations involved in the management of TRU waste throughout the DOE complex

  20. Denmark's National Inventory Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, J. B.; Lyck, E.; Winther, M.

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2001. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 1999 for CO2, CH4, N2O, CO...

  1. Denmark's National Inventory Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, J. B.; Lyck, E.; Winther, M.

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2001. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 1999 for CO2, CH4, N2O, ......, NMVOC, SO2, HFCs, PFCs and SF6....

  2. National HIV Testing Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Kevin A. Fenton, Director of CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses National HIV Testing Day, an annual observance which raises awareness of the importance of knowing one's HIV status and encourages at-risk individuals to get an HIV test.

  3. Videos - The National Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legislative Liaison Small Business Programs Social Media State Websites Videos Featured Videos On Every Front 2:17 Always Ready, Always There National Guard Bureau Diversity and Inclusion Play Button 1:04 National Guard Bureau Diversity and Inclusion The ChalleNGe Ep.5 [Graduation] Play Button 3:51 The

  4. National School Lunch Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The National School Lunch Program is a federally assisted meal program operating in over 101,000 public and non-profit private schools and residential child care institutions. It provides nutritionally balanced, low-cost or free lunches to more than 30.5 million children each school day in 2008. In 1998, Congress expanded the National School Lunch…

  5. Harmonizing national forest inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Erkki O. Tomppo; Klemens Schadauer; Göran. Ståhl

    2012-01-01

    International agreements increasingly require that countries report estimates of national forest resources. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change requires that countries submit annual reports of greenhouse gas emissions and removals by sources and sinks. The Convention on Biological Diversity requires that countries identify and monitor components...

  6. national Case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This national case study reports on the development of a national network, ... system under the new policy), tends to be limited by content on problems and ... 20 credit programme; and within two Post Graduate Certificate of Education contexts, ...... descriptive with an issues focus (empirical) towards awareness production to.

  7. Building National Healthcare Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Blegind; Thorseng, Anne

    2017-01-01

    This case chapter is about the evolution of the Danish national e-health portal, sundhed.dk, which provides patient-oriented digital services. We present how the organization behind sundhed.dk succeeded in establishing a national healthcare infrastructure by (1) collating and assembling existing...

  8. National Forecast Charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    code. Press enter or select the go button to submit request Local forecast by "City, St" or Prediction Center on Twitter NCEP Quarterly Newsletter WPC Home Analyses and Forecasts National Forecast to all federal, state, and local government web resources and services. National Forecast Charts

  9. Opportunities for First Nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Rodrigo [Anaia Global (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The recent development of wind energy project creates opportunities for First Nations. Although they are interested by such projects, First Nations nevertheless have questions such about how they can be a part of the wind industry, what are their rights, what investment would they need to make, and how to judge if they are getting a favourable deal. This presentation aimed at answering those questions an maintained that wind energy would bring social and economic development to First Nations communities as well as diversifying their sources of revenue. Several companies offer their services to First Nations and Anaia Global is a company which helps aboriginal people identify to promote their investment opportunities in renewable energy projects and benefit from the technology transferred to them. This presentation showed that there are significant opportunities for First Nations in the wind energy sector and that Anaia Global is focusing on helping them seize these opportunities.

  10. Liberal nationalism on immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2009-01-01

    Liberal nationalists such as David Miller and Will Kymlicka have claimed that liberal principles have implausible implications with regard to the issue of immigration. They hold that nationality should play a normative role in this regard, and that this is necessary in order to justify restrictions...... on immigration. The present chapter discusses the envisaged role for considerations of nationality with regard to admission and residence, and examines the actual implications of arguments advanced by liberal nationalists as to why nationality should play this role. It is argued that the connection between...... nationality and immigration on liberal nationalist premises is not as straightforward as one might expect, and that the addition of considerations of nationality to liberal principles makes no practical difference with regard to reasons for restricting immigration or criteria of selection among applicants...

  11. Crowdsourcing The National Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Elizabeth; Craun, Kari J.; Korris, Erin M.; Brostuen, David A.; Moore, Laurence R.

    2015-01-01

    Using crowdsourcing techniques, the US Geological Survey’s (USGS) Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) project known as “The National Map Corps (TNMCorps)” encourages citizen scientists to collect and edit data about man-made structures in an effort to provide accurate and authoritative map data for the USGS National Geospatial Program’s web-based The National Map. VGI is not new to the USGS, but past efforts have been hampered by available technologies. Building on lessons learned, TNMCorps volunteers are successfully editing 10 different structure types in all 50 states as well as Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands.

  12. Banal nationalism in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Lasse Martin

    One of the most important political issues today is the recent upsurge in identity politics and nationalism in Denmark and the western world. In a short period of time, Denmark has turned from being a relatively open, liberal and tolerant society into a nation marked by cultural racism, xenophobia...... and a radical shift to the right. Many studies of the new configuration of nationalism in Denmark and Europe tend to explain this alarming trend through the emergence of a number of extreme right wing organizations and anti-immigrants groups. These are often regarded as key actors in the very visible...

  13. National Geospatial Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, William J.

    2011-01-01

    The National Geospatial Program (NGP; http://www.usgs.gov/ngpo/) satisfies the needs of customers by providing geospatial products and services that customers incorporate into their decisionmaking and operational activities. These products and services provide geospatial data that are organized and maintained in cost-effective ways and developed by working with partners and organizations whose activities align with those of the program. To accomplish its mission, the NGP— organizes, maintains, publishes, and disseminates the geospatial baseline of the Nation's topography, natural landscape, and manmade environment through The National Map

  14. Do nations still need national energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, James [Lehman Brothers, Washington, DC (United States); Odell, P [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of International Energy Studies; Jones, D

    1993-02-01

    Once again the issue has arisen whether a national energy policy is necessary or even desirable. No doubt renewed debate has been stimulated by recent developments - the collapse of the Soviet threat, an altered perception of the power of OPEC, or a jaundiced view regarding the effectiveness of governments in this arena. Yet, beneath the surface lie longer-standing issues regarding interests and ideology. This article attempts to deal with the issue, first, as a generic level, then in terms of the transformed energy market, and, finally, in relation to the content of energy policy. (author)

  15. The National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.J.; Moses, E.; Warner, B.; Sorem, M.; Soures, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is the largest construction project ever undertaken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). NIF consists of 192 forty-centimeter-square laser beams and a 10-m-diameter target chamber. NIF is being designed and built by an LLNL-led team from Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, the University of Rochester, and LLNL. Physical construction began in 1997. The Laser and Target Area Building and the Optics Assembly Building were the first major construction activities, and despite several unforeseen obstacles, the buildings are now 92% complete and have been done on time and within cost. Prototype component development and testing has proceeded in parallel. Optics vendors have installed full-scale production lines and have done prototype production runs. The assembly and integration of the beampath infrastructure has been reconsidered and a new approach has been developed. This paper will discuss the status of the NIF project and the plans for completion. (author)

  16. National Emission Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Emission Inventory contains measured, modeled, and estimated data for emissions of all known source categories in the US (stationary sources, fires,...

  17. National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulbert, S.L.; Lazarz, N.M.

    1991-04-01

    This report discussion research being conducted at the National Synchrotron light source. In particular, this report contains operations summaries; symposia, workshops, and projects; NSLS highlights; and abstracts of science at the NSLS

  18. National Lakes Assessment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Lakes Assessment (NLA) is a first-ever statistically-valid survey of the biological condition of lakes and reservoirs throughout the U.S. The U.S....

  19. National Energy Balance - 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The National Energy Balance - 1985 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to the final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1974 to 1984 (E.G.) [pt

  20. National Energy Balance - 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The National Energy Balance - 1984 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the productions to final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1973 to 1983. (E.G.) [pt

  1. National Toxicology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NTP? NTP develops and applies tools of modern toxicology and molecular biology to identify substances in the ... depend on for decisions that matter. The National Toxicology Program provides the scientific basis for programs, activities, ...

  2. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Initiatives Best Practices Our Network Media Resources National Suicide Prevention Lifeline We can all help prevent suicide. The ... Call The Lifeline Everyone Plays A Role In Suicide Prevention Here are some helpful links: GET HELP NOW ...

  3. National Death Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Death Index (NDI) is a centralized database of death record information on file in state vital statistics offices. Working with these state offices, the...

  4. National Health Interview Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is the principal source of information on the health of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States...

  5. National Weather Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GIS International Weather Cooperative Observers Storm Spotters Tsunami Facts and Figures National Water Center WEATHER SAFETY NOAA Weather Radio StormReady Heat Lightning Hurricanes Thunderstorms Tornadoes Rip Currents Floods Winter Weather ...

  6. Citizen, State and Nation

    OpenAIRE

    Storey, David

    2006-01-01

    This session considered the changing nature of citizenship in a global world by exploring relationships between individuals and the wider society at local, national and global scales, touching on issues of identity, belonging, empathy and responsibility.

  7. Science | Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Security Photon Sciences Physical Sciences & Engineering Energy Frontier Research Centers Scientific Publications Researchers Postdocs Exascale Computing Institute for Molecular Engineering at Argonne Work with Us About Safety News Careers Education Community Diversity Directory Argonne National Laboratory

  8. National Privacy Research Strategy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — On July 1, NITRD released the National Privacy Research Strategy. Research agencies across government participated in the development of the strategy, reviewing...

  9. National Hydrography Dataset (NHD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) is a feature-based database that interconnects and uniquely identifies the stream segments or reaches that comprise the...

  10. National Wetlands Inventory Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland point features (typically wetlands that are too small to be as area features at the data scale) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The...

  11. National Psoriasis Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 723-9166 | Submit a Question | Learn More National Psoriasis Foundation provides you with the help you need to best manage your psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis, while promoting research to find ...

  12. National Elevation Dataset (NED)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a National Elevation Database (NED). The NED is a seamless mosaic of best-available elevation data. The 7.5-minute elevation...

  13. NAIP National Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The NAIP National Metadata Map contains USGS Quarter Quad and NAIP Seamline boundaries for every year NAIP imagery has been collected. Clicking on the map also makes...

  14. National Jewish Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 View More Upcoming Events View All Beaux Arts Ball Saturday, February 24, 2018 Financial Industries Dinner ... Go Submitting... © 2017 National Jewish Health 1400 Jackson Street Denver, Colorado 80206 1.877.225.5654 Policies & ...

  15. 2015 Rails National Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 TIGER Geodatabases are extracts of selected nation based and state based geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  16. National Convective Weather Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NCWF is an automatically generated depiction of: (1) current convection and (2) extrapolated signficant current convection. It is a supplement to, but does NOT...

  17. National Assessment Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Assessment Database stores and tracks state water quality assessment decisions, Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) and other watershed plans designed to...

  18. Climatological Data National Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CDNS was published from 1950 - 1980. Monthly and annual editions contain summarized climatological information from the following publications: Local...

  19. National Energy Balance-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The National Energy Balance - 1987 showns energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1971 to 1986. (E.G.) [pt

  20. National Military Family Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MilitaryFamily.org © 2017 - National Military Family Association Twitter Facebook Pinterest Instagram Charity Navigator Four Star Charity GuideStar Exchange Better Business Bureau Charity Watch Independent Charity of America nonprofit ...

  1. Healthcare Associated Infections - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - national data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...

  2. Outpatient Imaging Efficiency - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Use of medical imaging - national data. These measures give you information about hospitals' use of medical imaging tests for outpatients. Examples of medical...

  3. US National Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This is a polygon feature data layer of United States National Grid (1000m x 1000m polygons ) constructed by the Center for Interdisciplinary Geospatial Information...

  4. National transportation statistics 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Bureau of Transportation Statistics : (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including : its physical components, safety reco...

  5. National Transportation Statistics 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-08

    Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportations Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record...

  6. MQSA National Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standards Act and Program MQSA Insights MQSA National Statistics Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... but should level off with time. Archived Scorecard Statistics 2018 Scorecard Statistics 2017 Scorecard Statistics 2016 Scorecard ...

  7. National Transportation Statistics 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record, ...

  8. National Bycatch Report (NBR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This system collects bycatch data and fishery landings data from all five NOAA Fisheries Regions and automates the generation of the tables required to publish the...

  9. National Women's Science Congress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TSC

    This National Women's Science Congress is planned essentially to bring women to the forefront ... The following areas are indicative of this wide coverage, in each of which ... C. V. Raman, two great scientists of the world; Marie Curie Mahila.

  10. National Emission Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajtakova, E.; Spisakova, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation the Slovak National Emission Information System (NEIS) is presented. The NEIS represents hierarchical oriented modular system of acquisition, verification, saving and reporting of data about annual emissions and payments for pollution of atmosphere

  11. National Headache Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Headache Topic Sheets (Spanish) Headache FAQ NHF Webinars Education Modules MigrainePro™ Children’s Headache Disorders New Perspectives on Caffeine and Headache War Veterans Health Resource Initiative National Headache Foundation Brochures ...

  12. National Cyber Security Policy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    National Cyber Security Policy. Salient Features: Caters to ... Creating a secure cyber ecosystem. Creating an assurance framework. Encouraging Open Standards. Strengthening the Regulatory framework. Creating mechanisms for security threat early warning, vulnerability management and response to security threats.

  13. 2015 Roads National Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 TIGER Geodatabases are extracts of selected nation based and state based geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  14. National Tests and minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal

    Assessment in school represent a technology and materiality with profound impact on the life, activities and interactions in school (eg. Lawn & Grosvenor, 2005). It can be considered as an integrated and in different ways also dominating part of pedagogic practice which influence processes of in...... – in the classroom – as well as at the macro level – the nation.The practice of teachers offering national tests occurs in different forms in primary schools throughout the world (eg. McNess et al. 2015). These practices are often associated with a curriculum and learning objectives that are nationalistic...... in their orientation. In a policy perspective, the underlying motive may be a desire to evaluate and compare students’ academic development and performance as well as schools’ performance and goal attainment at the national level. National testing are based on the assumption that the tested pupils all speak the same...

  15. National Pediatric Program Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The book of the National Pediatric Program Update, issued by the Argentina Society of Pediatrics, describes important issues, including: effective treatment of addictions (drugs); defects of the neural tube; and the use of radiation imaging in diagnosis. [es

  16. National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) National Coastal Mapping Program (NCMP) is designed to provide high-resolution elevation and imagery data along U.S....

  17. National Outbreak Reporting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) is a web-based platform designed to support reporting to CDC by local, state, and territorial health departments in the...

  18. Vigne des Nations

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Since 1995 the Vineyard of Nations has honoured an international organisation. On 7 May, Robert Cramer, the Council of State, removed leaves from the vine at the side of Robert Aymar, Director of CERN (1 paragraph)

  19. National pulpwood production, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; James W. Bentley; Steven W. Hayes

    2014-01-01

    U.S. pulpwood production amounted to 86.5 million cords in 2010, a decrease of 4 percent from 2008. Roundwood production totaled 65.7 million cords and accounted for 76 percent of the Nation's total pulpwood production. The Southern Region led the Nation in total production with 65.5 million cords, followed by the Northern Region with 12.8 million cords, and the...

  20. National pulpwood production, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; Ronald J. Piva; Brian F. Walters; al. et.

    2011-01-01

    United States’ pulpwood production amounted to 89.2 million cords in 2008. Roundwood production totaled 63.0 million cords and accounted for 71 percent of the Nation’s total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue totaled 26.2 million cords. Georgia led the Nation in total production, with 11.6 million cords. In 2008, 146 mills were operating and drawing wood from...

  1. A national control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, A.

    1975-01-01

    An effective control of nuclear fissionable material is dependent on three different kinds of control, the industry - laboratory management, a national control system and an international safeguards system. The national systems of control differ greatly between various industrialized countries. Two principal reasons for fact can be mentioned. The type and the amounts for nuclear material may be different depending upon the stage of development of the nuclear industry in the country in question. Another reason may be that the country may wish to establish a very elaborate national system of control in order to minimize the IAEA control as much as possible. The two safeguards agreements between the Agency and Sweden on one hand and the Agency and Japan on the other hand can serve as examples for the understanding of the latitude of the IAEA safeguards system under NPT due to the influence of the national control system. If it thus is apparent that the national control system is strongly interrelated to the international safeguards system it is equally influenced by the control and accountancy systems which exist at the nuclear plants and development laboratories. A detailed study of national control systems and their relations to plant management control would fall outside the scope of this article. Some important features will however be examined. (author)

  2. Childhood in National Consciousness and National Consciousness in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, David

    1997-01-01

    Examines the place of national imagery and the experience of the nation in childhood. Draws a comparison between such experiences in Iceland and Kamchatka, Russia. Describes ways in which these experiences become resources for expressing a distinct national identity. (EV)

  3. National Energy Plan II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    This volume contains the Administration's second National Energy Plan, as required by section 801 of the Department of Energy Organization Act (Public Law 95-91). A second volume will contain an assessment of the environmental trends associated with the energy futures reported here. Detailed appendices to the Plan will be published separately. The eight chapters and their subtitles are: Crisis and Uncertainty in the World Energy Future (The Immediate Crisis and the Continuing Problem, The Emergence of the Energy Problem, The Uncertainties of the World Energy Future, World Oil Prices, Consequences for the U.S.); The U.S. Energy Future: The Implications for Policy (The Near-, Mid-, and Long-Term, The Strategy in Perspective); Conservation (Historical Changes in Energy Use, Post-Embargo Changes - In Detail, Conservation Policies and Programs, The Role of Conservation); Oil and Gas (Oil, Natural Gas); Coal and Nuclear (Coal, Nuclear, Policy for Coal and Nuclear Power); Solar and Other Inexhaustible Energy Sources (Solar Energy, Geothermal, Fusion, A Strategy for Inexhaustible Resources); Making Decisions Promptly and Fairly (Managing Future Energy Crises: Emergency Planning, Managing the Current Shortfall: The Iranian Response Plan, Managing the Long-Term Energy Problem: The Institutional Framework, Fairness in Energy Policy, Public Participation in the Development of Energy Policy); and NEP-II and the Future (The Second National Energy Plan and the Nation's Energy Future, The Second National Energy Plan and the Economy, Employment and Energy Policy, The Second National Energy Plan and Individuals, The Second National Energy Plan and Capital Markets, and The Second National Energy Plan and the Environment). (ERA citation 04:041097)

  4. National Center for Health Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Search the CDC National Center for Health Statistics Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Survey of Family Growth Vital Records National Vital Statistics System National Death Index Vital Statistics Rapid Release ...

  5. National Coalition for Homeless Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Continues Support of National Campaign to End Veteran Homelessness Nov. 14, 2017 This Veterans Day, Harbor Freight ... support of the national campaign to end veteran homelessness through generous contributions to the National Coalition for ...

  6. National Hansen's Disease (Leprosy) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caring and Curing Since 1894 National Hansen's Disease (Leprosy) Program Caring and Curing Since 1894 A genetic ... Louisiana New York Texas The National Hansen's Disease (Leprosy) Program The National Hansen's Disease Program is the ...

  7. Banking on the Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I analyse the narratives of four Danish central bank governors from the late nineteenth century until the mid-1990s. By conducting a historical analysis informed by neo-institutional theory, I show how these central bank governors were continuously involved in public debates over...... the appropriateness and desirability of their decisions and policies. In these debates, interpretations and reproductions of Danish national identity were central to the governors' claims to legitimacy. I argue that past narratives of the Danish central bank and its governors enabled and framed future legitimacy...... claims and that the central bank and its governors gradually became embedded in national identity. Thus, the article highlights the historical development of the co-configuring relationship between Danish national identity and the legitimacy of monetary organization....

  8. The Danish National Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuchert, Louise Voldby; Nandrup, Anne Brink

    In 2010, the Danish National Tests were implemented in the public compulsory schools as a mean of evaluating the performance of the public school system. The extensive test program consists of ten mandatory tests in six subjects in grades 2 through 8. In this paper, we share our insights from wor...... characteristics as well as pupils' 9th grade examination marks. We document a stable test score gap across grade levels and socio economic background and discuss the prospects of the national test data for future research....... within each test and argue that this is often a more feasible measure for data analyses compared to the transformed test score presented to pupils and teachers. We provide the reader with preliminary analyses of the relation between pupils' national test results and a wide range of pupil background...

  9. National Network for Immunization Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists . © Copyright National Network for Immunization Information. The information contained in the National Network for Immunization Information Web site should not be ...

  10. National Archives Catalog and API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — The National Archives Catalog is the online catalog of NARA's nationwide holdings in the Washington, DC area, Regional Archives, and Presidential Libraries.

  11. Nationalism and the Imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nationalism is produced by tapping the most private attachment to ground for the purposes of the most public statecraft. It is predicated on reproductive heteronormativity: birthright. To "naturalize" is to legalize a simulacrum of displaced birth, which becomes an actual birthright for the next generation. Today's globalized world calls for a reinvention of the abstract state-structure for proper constitutional redress still to be available. It must be persistently cleansed of the emergence of nationalism through education. We are looking for a critical regionalism with trans-frontier jurisdiction. The international civil society has no social contract.

  12. Local versus national

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Bojesen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    of individual energy supply systems based on on-site weather and building conditions, as well as considering the expected energy consumption profile. However, local planning processes are problematic if they do not take regional or national impacts into account. Given the grid connection, the local building...... solution also has an impact on a national scale by exchanging electricity. Therefore it is important to implement respective grid loads into the planning process in order to avoid technology choices, which might counteract grid stability or cost inefficiencies at other sites. The aim of this paper...

  13. Sandia National Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliom, Laura R.

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has identified technology transfer to U.S. industry as a laboratory mission which complements our national security mission and as a key component of the Laboratory's future. A number of technology transfer mechanisms - such as CRADA's, licenses, work-for-others, and consortia - are identified and specific examples are given. Sandia's experience with the Specialty Metals Processing Consortium is highlighted with a focus on the elements which have made it successful. A brief discussion of Sandia's potential interactions with NASA under the Space Exploration Initiative was included as an example of laboratory-to-NASA technology transfer. Viewgraphs are provided.

  14. What Makes Nations Intelligent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Earl

    2012-05-01

    Modern society is driven by the use of cognitive artifacts: physical instruments or styles of reasoning that amplify our ability to think. The artifacts range from writing systems to computers. In everyday life, a person demonstrates intelligence by showing skill in using these artifacts. Intelligence tests and their surrogates force examinees to exhibit some of these skills but not others. This is why test scores correlate substantially but not perfectly with a variety of measures of socioeconomic success. The same thing is true at the international level. Nations can be evaluated by the extent to which their citizens score well on cognitive tests, including both avowed intelligence tests and a variety of tests of academic achievement. The resulting scores are substantially correlated with various indices of national wealth, health, environmental quality, and schooling and with a vaguer variable, social commitment to innovation. These environmental variables are suggested as causes of the differences in general cognitive skills between national populations. It is conceivable that differences in gene pools also contribute to international and, within nations, group differences in cognitive skills, but at present it is impossible to evaluate the extent of genetic influences. © The Author(s) 2012.

  15. fantsika National Park

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Station, a dry deciduous forest within Ankarafantsika National. Park. We set Sherman ... dry deciduous forests compared to research in the eastern rainforests (Goodman et al. .... the ground, this rat was observed on both the ground and trees. We tentatively .... Conservation International, Washington DC. Carleton, M. D. ...

  16. Informal Nationalism After Communism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, nation building and identity construction in the post-socialist region have been the subject of extensive academic research. The majority of these studies have taken a 'top-down' approach - focusing on the variety of ways in which governments have sought...

  17. National energy balance - 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The national energy balance of 1978 shows some modifications in relation to the last year. New tables were included aiming to show the brazilian energy situation, such as the hydraulic potential and the non-renewable energy resources. (E.G.) [pt

  18. National Boy Scout Jamboree

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This video looks at a NASA sponsored exhibit at the National Boy Scout Jamboree in Fredricksburg, VA. Boy Scouts are shown interacting with NASA researchers and astronauts and touring mockups of Space Station Freedom and Apollo 11. NASA's program to encourage the researchers of tomorrow is detailed.

  19. Holy Nations. Global Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and historical insight of historians, political scientists and social scientists on the question of nationalism and globalisation with the methodological knowledge of religion presented by sociologists of religion. The book brings genuine theoretical explorations and original case studies on civil religion...

  20. National Gallery in Prague

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikeš, Stanislav; Haindl, Michal; Holub, Radek

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2011, č. 86 (2011), s. 23-24 ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG11009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : virtrual reality * information system Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/RO/haindl-national gallery in prague.pdf

  1. Sandia National Laboratories: Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Stationary Power Earth Science Transportation Energy Energy Research Global Security WMD and decision-making. Materials science Leading the nation in the knowledge of materials engineering success is our foundational scientific research, which provides us with knowledge and capabilities that

  2. National Centre for Ag

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2014-10-08

    Oct 8, 2014 ... Technology and Research in Irrigation and Drainage/Food and Agriculture. Organization of the United Nations. Bralts, V.F., Edwards, D.M. and Kesner,. C.D. (1985). Field Evaluation of. Drip/Trickle Irrigation Submain Units. In: Drip/Trickle Irrigation in Action. Proceedings of the Third International. Drip/Trickle ...

  3. National energy balance - 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The national energy balance of the 1976 shows several modifications in relation to the last year. The historical serie is based in more confiable information, from several energy companies. The most greater modifications are on energy source of hard control, such as lignite and charcoal for non-siderurgic uses. (E.G.) [pt

  4. NATIONAL HEARING DAY

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The 12th of June 2003 Is the French National Hearing Day. The Medical Service invites everyone working at CERN to come and have an ear test at the infirmary. Bld. 57, ground floor, between 9h00 and 16h00 Tel. 73802

  5. National hearing day

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The 12th of June 2003 Is the French National Hearing Day. The Medical Service invites everyone working at CERN to come and have an ear test at the infirmary. Bld. 57, ground floor, between 9h00 and 16h00 Tel. 73802

  6. Careers | Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    community. Learn More » Life at Argonne Our diverse community values work-life balance. Find your niche ; enjoy life at work! Learn More » Back to top Twitter Flickr Facebook Linked In YouTube Pinterest Google National Security User Facilities Science Work with Us About Safety News Careers Apply for a Job External

  7. 2012 National Leadership Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Two key themes emerged from the 2012 National Leadership Forum: Taking Business to School, which was hosted by the Career and Technical Education Foundation at the end of May. The first was that employers are looking for a workforce that is technologically savvy while having leadership and employability skills. The second is that the business…

  8. National Pesticide Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How can I protect my pets when using pesticides around them? More FAQs FAQ Comics Video FAQs From NPIC: Fact Sheets Videos Web Apps Podcasts Outreach Materials NPIC Professional Resources Social Media: National Pesticide Information Center Tweets by NPICatOSU Please read our ...

  9. Generation IV national program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preville, M.; Sadhankar, R.; Brady, D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the Generation IV National Program. This program involves evolutionary and innovative design with significantly higher efficiencies (∼50% compared to present ∼30%) - sustainable, economical, safe, reliable and proliferation resistant - for future energy security. The Generation IV Forum (GIF) effectively leverages the resources of the participants to meet these goals. Ten countries signed the GIF Charter in 2001

  10. fantsika National Park

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We often observed domestic mammals such as cattle, cats and dogs in the forest at Ampijoroa. Although the primary forest in Ampijoroa is managed by Madagascar National Parks, local people leave these domestic animals in the forest. Introduced animals may be a threat to endemic animals. Cattle can be transmitters of ...

  11. National Energy Balance - 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The National Energy Balance - 1986 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to the final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1970 to 1985. The incorporation of a new brazilian information is done. (E.G.) [pt

  12. National Energy Balance - 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The National Energy Balance - 1981, shows a new metodology and information in level of several economic sectors, as well as a separation of primary and secondary energy sources, its energy fluxes, i.e. production, imports, exports, consumption, etc...(E.G.) [pt

  13. Patriotism, nationalism and modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelhardt, Juliane

    2007-01-01

    The Article investigates sixty-three patriotic societies etablished in the Danish conglomerat state during the Age of the Enlightenment, since they can throw light on the pre-national collective identities. it explains how the patriotic societies had both an external function in regard to society...

  14. Comprehensive national energy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This Comprehensive National Energy Strategy sets forth a set of five common sense goals for national energy policy: (1) improve the efficiency of the energy system, (2) ensure against energy disruptions, (3) promote energy production and use in ways that respect health and environmental values, (4) expand future energy choices, and (5) cooperate internationally on global issues. These goals are further elaborated by a series of objectives and strategies to illustrate how the goals will be achieved. Taken together, the goals, objectives, and strategies form a blueprint for the specific programs, projects, initiatives, investments, and other actions that will be developed and undertaken by the Federal Government, with significant emphasis on the importance of the scientific and technological advancements that will allow implementation of this Comprehensive National Energy Strategy. Moreover, the statutory requirement of regular submissions of national energy policy plans ensures that this framework can be modified to reflect evolving conditions, such as better knowledge of our surroundings, changes in energy markets, and advances in technology. This Strategy, then, should be thought of as a living document. Finally, this plan benefited from the comments and suggestions of numerous individuals and organizations, both inside and outside of government. The Summary of Public Comments, located at the end of this document, describes the public participation process and summarizes the comments that were received. 8 figs.

  15. National Response Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Response planning and coordination (not direct response itself) is accomplished at the federal level through the U.S. National Response Team (NRT), an interagency group co-chaired by EPA and U.S. Coast Guard. NRT distributes information, plans, and trains.

  16. National Cholesterol Education Month

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-09-01

    Do you know your cholesterol numbers? Your doctor can do a simple test to check your cholesterol levels and help you make choices that lower your risk for heart disease and stroke.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/9/2009.

  17. Why Indigenous Nations Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Robert; Yellow Bird, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The development of a new Indigenous Nations Studies program at the University of Kansas is described. Success depended on a critical mass of Indigenous and non-Indigenous faculty and students that had a sense of political and social justice and understood the need for institutional change. The biggest challenge was countering the entrenched…

  18. Ingenuity and National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    is in an unfamiliar situation as the lone super power without a significant existential threat. China is a rising power and Russia aspires to...independence to the most powerful nation on the planet . The time period surrounding World War II demonstrated that governmental processes and

  19. NATIONAL CURRENCY INSTABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Gherman Anca Maria; Huru Dragos

    2008-01-01

    The concept related to currency stability includes internal currency stability as intern price stability, the money demand and supply stability and the stability of the interest rate. Also it includes external currency stability through exchange rate mechanism. The equilibrium of national economy is determined by the evolution of inflation and by the evolution of nominal exchange rate mechanism as an expression of external stability.

  20. England: a healthier nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, D; Barnes, R

    2000-01-01

    HINTS AND TIPS: Several difficult challenges have had to be tackled in developing a health policy for England. Although not all the answers have yet been found and the learning process continues, some lessons can be drawn from experience to date. CONSULTATION: Public consultation and the involvement of a wide range of individuals and groups at all levels and stages is crucial to implementing the policy. Without it, The health of the nation would have remained a paper exercise and the local ownership of the policy that has been achieved in some places could not have come about. This principle has been adopted for Our healthier nation, which will benefit from extensive consultation. Communication of the concepts underlying the policy and of ideas about its strategic implementation is also crucial. A wide variety of mechanisms have been used in England, and this has helped to maintain momentum and to keep health policy high on the agenda. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the Health of the Nation calendar and the Target publication have been especially popular. Target in particular has been and continues to be an effective medium for disseminating ideas and examples of successful implementation strategies. In addition, publication of The health of the nation material on the Internet widened its potential audience considerably. The publication of The health of the nation was especially timely, not only in terms of gaining support and commitment from the leadership of the Department of Health and other government departments, but also across the political spectrum. In addition, the then-recent NHS reforms gave new opportunities for health policy to be incorporated into health service practice. Our healthier nation is also being launched in tandem with a white paper on health services, and the links between them are being stated explicitly. COMMITMENT: As indicated above, commitment from the top is essential to the success of the strategy; this applies not only to the

  1. Human Trafficking and National Morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. DI PIETRO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes that national morality is an important variable for explaining national anti-trafficking policy. It uses cross country regression analysis to see whether or not empirically national morality is a determinant of anti-trafficking policy. The findings of the paper are consistent with the notion that improved levels of national morality lead to better national anti-trafficking policy. National morality is found to be statistically relevant for national anti-trafficking policy when controlling for the extent of democracy, the share of the private sector in the economy, and the degree of globalization.

  2. National Radwaste Repository Mochovce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this leaflet the National Radioactive Waste Repository in Mochovce (Repository) is described. The Mochovce National Radioactive Waste Repository is a surface multi-barrier type storage facility for solid and treated solidified radioactive wastes generated from the Slovak Republic nuclear power plants operation and decommissioning, research institutes, laboratories and hospitals. The Repository comprises a system of single- and double-row storage boxes. The first double-row is enclosed by a steel-structure building. The 18 x 6 x 5.5 m storage boxes are made of reinforced concrete. The wall thickness is 600 mm. Two-double-rows, i.e. 80 storage boxes were built as part of Stage I (1 row = 20 storage boxes). Each storage box has a storage capacity of 90 fibre concrete containers of 3.1 m 3 volume. The total storage capacity is 7200 containers with the overall storage volume of 22320 m 3

  3. National exercise 'INEX 5'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolikova, A.

    2017-01-01

    National INEX suicide took place on 3 and 4 December 2015 and was attended by 21 state administration bodies, the SE, and. with. and 2 organizations as observers. Totally, 75 exercisers, moderators and evaluators and 3 observers took part in the exercise. The purpose of the exercise was to check: (1) decision-making on alert strategies after the occurrence of an extraordinary event, subsequent crisis communication, including possible problems, optimization of the notification system with regard to technical, economic and social factors as well as international communication and coordination; (2) Public information and communication with the public - Coordination review at all levels of governance; (3) National and international support (humanitarian aid, personnel, equipment, etc.) (authors)

  4. American Nations, Latin States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nelson Ahumada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The nation, as artifact of modernity, assumes particularities in America such as the colonization and genocide of original peoples which still weighs as a never ending comeback. Nevertheless, capital, with its overwhelming force, destroyed peoples, cultures, traditions and landscapes. Latin America faces the challenge of uniting beyond the necessities of capital, and beyond two languages, spanish and portuguese. All of which has full validity at present with the blocks UNASUR and ALBA. Ethnocentricity is postulated as the exclusive condition of all possible humanity and, as programme, racism without races; Latin American miscegenation, as the potential for unity and the strength of emancipation as a project. Our intellectuals, who constructed a unique and superlative literature, are the lighthouses in the development of a nationalism without races. Anthropology in debate with psychoanalysis can become a compass in rethinking our America.

  5. Whither a "National Planetarium"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVorkin, David

    2018-01-01

    In Spring 1927 Zeiss contacted the Smithsonian Institution about its new wonderful planetarium projector, sending along brochures and testimonials from astronomers. By the end of the year after much back and forth, Zeiss even found backers to underwrite the planetarium for the Smithsonian, feeling that the first planetarium should be built in Washington. Over the following decades, the push for a “national planetarium” revived several times, as a possible option for Jefferson’s Memorial or as a commercial enterprise to revitalize the southwest quadrant of the city. It was even the topic for a student essay contest. Nothing caught on, though planetariums soon proved to be wildly popular in the cities that nurtured them. Here I’ll outline the efforts for Washington, D.C. and ask what the campaigns reveal about the perception of astronomy on the National Mall.

  6. [The National Serum Bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magos-López, C; Sánchez-Villarreal, F; Gutiérrez, G; Tapia-Conyer, R

    1992-01-01

    A National Serum Bank was established to store sera obtained during the National Seroepidemiological Survey performed in Mexico in 1987. More than 70,000 serum samples were obtained from subjects of either sex 1-99 years of age in each of the 32 states of the country. The current collection of sera includes 28,704 male samples and 40,629 female samples. This paper describes the procedures for handling serum samples, including reception registry, storage and distribution to several laboratories for detection of measles, rubella, poliomyelitis, AIDS, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, brucella, salmonella, amoeba, toxoplasma, American trypanosomiasis and cysticercus. Determinations of total cholesterol were also made in order to describe its distribution and to identify the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia.

  7. National Database of Geriatrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannegaard, Pia Nimann; Vinding, Kirsten L; Hare-Bruun, Helle

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the National Database of Geriatrics is to monitor the quality of interdisciplinary diagnostics and treatment of patients admitted to a geriatric hospital unit. STUDY POPULATION: The database population consists of patients who were admitted to a geriatric hospital unit....... Geriatric patients cannot be defined by specific diagnoses. A geriatric patient is typically a frail multimorbid elderly patient with decreasing functional ability and social challenges. The database includes 14-15,000 admissions per year, and the database completeness has been stable at 90% during the past......, percentage of discharges with a rehabilitation plan, and the part of cases where an interdisciplinary conference has taken place. Data are recorded by doctors, nurses, and therapists in a database and linked to the Danish National Patient Register. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: Descriptive patient-related data include...

  8. National Innovation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    2007-01-01

    The term national system of innovation has been around for more than 20 years and today it has become widely spread among policy makers as well as among scholars all over the world. This paper takes stock and looks ahead from a somewhat personal point of view. It also gives some insight into how...... and why the concept came about. The paper argues that a key to progress is to get a better understanding of knowledge and learning as the basis for innovation and to understand how difference modes of innovation complement each other and find support in the specific national context. A core...... of the innovation system is defined and it is illustrated that it is necessary both to understand micro-behaviour in the core and understand "the wider setting" within which the core operates. Concepts used in organization theory referring to fit and misfit may be used to enrich the understanding of the performance...

  9. Rethinking National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    III. ’Proliferation in the 1990m.’ tratomic Rhvii . 17 (Summer 1969): 9-20. 30 McGowan. Pat, and Charles W. Ke.le.. ZuLfMl. weaLpon. mi Foreig L Y...Vayrynen. ads. Militarization #1nd Production . New York: St. Martin’s, 1983. (HC 79 .D4 M54 1983) Twight, Charlotte. *Political Economy of the National

  10. Why National Biomechanics Day?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVita, Paul

    2018-04-11

    National Biomechanics Day (NBD) seeks to expand the influence and impact of Biomechanics on our society by expanding the awareness of Biomechanics among young people. NBD will manifest this goal through worldwide, synchronized and coordinated celebrations and demonstrations of all things Biomechanics with high school students. NBD invites all Biomechanists to participate in NBD 2018, http://nationalbiomechanicsday.asbweb.org/. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. National energy balance - 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Based on available data from IBGE, CNP/Petrobras, Eletrobras, Nuclebras and other governmental enterprises the National Energy Balance was done. This publication covers since 1965 to 1975. In conformity to the international rules, the energy resources used for non-energy purposes were excluded. The energy production and consumption for the next ten years were forecasted, considering the actual brazilian energy policy. (E.G.) [pt

  12. The Culture of Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    transformation into tools of the extremist nationalist state applies, at least in its broad strokes, to such other art forms as music , theater, or opera. A...monuments were an effective part of the liturgy of public festivals which the Nazis adopted and extended. This development played a key role in the...an area that provided space for festivals and celebrations. A sort of pilgrimage to these sites of national significance was carried out to worship

  13. Performing Nation, Performing Difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Oplægget diskuterer Luhrmanns brug af den episke nationsgrundlæggende fortælling, og hvordan han underminerer den ved hjælp af den sideløbende fortælling om de stjålne generationer af aboriginale børn. Det bliver den sidste fortælling, der ender med at overtage beretningen og blive til den nation...

  14. Intelligent National Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China has unveiled a strategic plan aimed at strengthening I PR protection and enhancing the country’s overall competitiveness China’s State Council published the Outline of the National Intellectual Property Strategy in early June, taking on one of the country’s major bugbears. The plan aims to improve the use of intellectual property rights (IPR) by 2020 and consists of a preface, guiding prin- ciples and strategic goals, strategic focuses,

  15. National nuclear scientific program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plecas, I.; Matausek, M.V.; Neskovic, N.

    2001-01-01

    National scientific program of the Vinca Institute Nuclear Reactors And Radioactive Waste comprises research and development in the following fields: application of energy of nuclear fission, application of neutron beams, analyses of nuclear safety and radiation protection. In the first phase preparatory activities, conceptual design and design of certain processes and facilities should be accomplished. In the second phase realization of the projects is expected. (author)

  16. National Seismic Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, P.A.

    1982-06-01

    The National Seismic Station was developed to meet the needs of regional or worldwide seismic monitoring of underground nuclear explosions to verify compliance with a nuclear test ban treaty. The Station acquires broadband seismic data and transmits it via satellite to a data center. It is capable of unattended operation for periods of at least a year, and will detect any tampering that could result in the transmission of unauthentic seismic data

  17. NATIONAL CURRENCY INSTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gherman Anca Maria

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept related to currency stability includes internal currency stability as intern price stability, the money demand and supply stability and the stability of the interest rate. Also it includes external currency stability through exchange rate mechanism. The equilibrium of national economy is determined by the evolution of inflation and by the evolution of nominal exchange rate mechanism as an expression of external stability.

  18. National energy efficiency programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper focusses on energy conservation and specifically on energy efficiency which includes efficiency in the production, delivery and utilisation of energy as part of the total energy system of the economy. A National Energy Efficiency Programme is being launched in the Eighth Plan that will take into account both macro level and policy and planning considerations as well as micro level responses for different category of users in the industry, agriculture, transport and domestic sectors. The need for such a National Energy Efficiency Programme after making an assessment of existing energy conservation activities in the country is discussed. The broad framework and contents of the National Energy Efficiency Programme have been outlined and the Eighth Plan targets for energy conservation and their break-up have been given. These targets, as per the Eighth Plan document are 5000 MW in electricity installed capacity and 6 million tonnes of petroleum products by the terminal year of the Eighth Plan. The issues that need to be examined for each sector for achieving the above targets for energy conservation in the Eighth Plan are discussed briefly. They are: (a) policy and planning, (b) implementation arrangements which include the institutional setup and selective legislation, (c) technological requirements, and (d) resource requirements which include human resources and financial resources. (author)

  19. National School of Dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivaldi, Fabienne

    2003-01-01

    The National Institut of Nuclear Sciences and Techniques founded of 2001 a National School of Dismantling, NSD, at the end, which was validated by CEA, COGEMA, EDF and ANDRA. This school addresses four major issues: Decontamination; Dismantling; Demolition and waste Disposal (4D). Dedicated for instructing scientific and technical knowledge and know-how, needed in dismantling the nuclear installations, NSD has as targets: - personnel at engineering and operational level; - personnel occupied with involved trades from conception through intervention; - students and employees on leave; - employees while training on the job. Initial basic education for students in collaboration with schools and universities concerns: - master degree in radioactive waste management; - master degree in dismantling; - professional license in 3 D; - pro 4 D graduation. NSD is also engaged in continual formation for employees qualified, or not, adapted to the needs generated by the following tasks and personnel: - introduction in dismantling; - project team; - specialist engineer; - team head; - agent for remedial action; - agent for dismantling. The National School of Dismantling joins a network of human and technological capabilities confined within the 4 D frame, namely: - scientific and technical competencies (experts, instructors working in the nuclear field and dismantling); - pedagogical competence (professionals from basic and continual education); - specific material means such as those used by construction site schools, mock-ups, rooms for practical training etc

  20. Circumventing Y. pestis Virulence by Early Recruitment of Neutrophils to the Lungs during Pneumonic Plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaron Vagima

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonic plague is a fatal disease caused by Yersinia pestis that is associated with a delayed immune response in the lungs. Because neutrophils are the first immune cells recruited to sites of infection, we investigated the mechanisms responsible for their delayed homing to the lung. During the first 24 hr after pulmonary infection with a fully virulent Y. pestis strain, no significant changes were observed in the lungs in the levels of neutrophils infiltrate, expression of adhesion molecules, or the expression of the major neutrophil chemoattractants keratinocyte cell-derived chemokine (KC, macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2 and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF. In contrast, early induction of chemokines, rapid neutrophil infiltration and a reduced bacterial burden were observed in the lungs of mice infected with an avirulent Y. pestis strain. In vitro infection of lung-derived cell-lines with a YopJ mutant revealed the involvement of YopJ in the inhibition of chemoattractants expression. However, the recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs of mice infected with the mutant was still delayed and associated with rapid bacterial propagation and mortality. Interestingly, whereas KC, MIP-2 and G-CSF mRNA levels in the lungs were up-regulated early after infection with the mutant, their protein levels remained constant, suggesting that Y. pestis may employ additional mechanisms to suppress early chemoattractants induction in the lung. It therefore seems that prevention of the early influx of neutrophils to the lungs is of major importance for Y. pestis virulence. Indeed, pulmonary instillation of KC and MIP-2 to G-CSF-treated mice infected with Y. pestis led to rapid homing of neutrophils to the lung followed by a reduction in bacterial counts at 24 hr post-infection and improved survival rates. These observations shed new light on the virulence mechanisms of Y. pestis during pneumonic plague, and have implications for the development of novel therapies against this pathogen.

  1. How Posttranslational Modification of Nitrogenase Is Circumvented in Rhodopseudomonas palustris Strains That Produce Hydrogen Gas Constitutively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiniger, Erin K.; Oda, Yasuhiro; Samanta, Sudip K.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogenase catalyzes the conversion of dinitrogen gas (N2) and protons to ammonia and hydrogen gas (H2). This is a catalytically difficult reaction that requires large amounts of ATP and reducing power. Thus, nitrogenase is not normally expressed or active in bacteria grown with a readily utilized nitrogen source like ammonium. nifA* mutants of the purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris have been described that express nitrogenase genes constitutively and produce H2 when grown with ammonium as a nitrogen source. This raised the regulatory paradox of why these mutants are apparently resistant to a known posttranslational modification system that should switch off the activity of nitrogenase. Microarray, mutation analysis, and gene expression studies showed that posttranslational regulation of nitrogenase activity in R. palustris depends on two proteins: DraT2, an ADP-ribosyltransferase, and GlnK2, an NtrC-regulated PII protein. GlnK2 was not well expressed in ammonium-grown NifA* cells and thus not available to activate the DraT2 nitrogenase modification enzyme. In addition, the NifA* strain had elevated nitrogenase activity due to overexpression of the nif genes, and this increased amount of expression overwhelmed a basal level of activity of DraT2 in ammonium-grown cells. Thus, insufficient levels of both GlnK2 and DraT2 allow H2 production by an nifA* mutant grown with ammonium. Inactivation of the nitrogenase posttranslational modification system by mutation of draT2 resulted in increased H2 production by ammonium-grown NifA* cells. PMID:22179236

  2. Hello from the Other Side: How Autoantibodies Circumvent the Blood–Brain Barrier in Autoimmune Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Cutforth

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies against neuronal receptors and synaptic proteins are associated with autoimmune encephalitides (AE that produce movement and psychiatric disorders. In order to exert their pathological effects on neural circuits, autoantibodies against central nervous system (CNS targets must gain access to the brain and spinal cord by crossing the blood–brain barrier (BBB, a tightly regulated gateway formed by endothelial cells lining CNS blood vessels. To date, the pathogenic mechanisms that underlie autoantibody-triggered encephalitic syndromes are poorly understood, and how autoantibodies breach the barrier remains obscure for almost all AE syndromes. The relative importance of cellular versus humoral immune mechanisms for disease pathogenesis also remains largely unexplored. Here, we review the proposed triggers for various autoimmune encephalopathies and their animal models, as well as basic structural features of the BBB and how they differ among various CNS regions, a feature that likely underlies some regional aspects of autoimmune encephalitis pathogenesis. We then discuss the routes that antibodies and immune cells employ to enter the CNS and their implications for AE. Finally, we explore future therapeutic strategies that may either preserve or restore barrier function and thereby limit immune cell and autoantibody infiltration into the CNS. Recent mechanistic insights into CNS autoantibody entry indicate promising future directions for therapeutic intervention beyond current, short-lived therapies that eliminate circulating autoantibodies.

  3. Hello from the Other Side: How Autoantibodies Circumvent the Blood-Brain Barrier in Autoimmune Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Maryann P; Agalliu, Dritan; Cutforth, Tyler

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies against neuronal receptors and synaptic proteins are associated with autoimmune encephalitides (AE) that produce movement and psychiatric disorders. In order to exert their pathological effects on neural circuits, autoantibodies against central nervous system (CNS) targets must gain access to the brain and spinal cord by crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a tightly regulated gateway formed by endothelial cells lining CNS blood vessels. To date, the pathogenic mechanisms that underlie autoantibody-triggered encephalitic syndromes are poorly understood, and how autoantibodies breach the barrier remains obscure for almost all AE syndromes. The relative importance of cellular versus humoral immune mechanisms for disease pathogenesis also remains largely unexplored. Here, we review the proposed triggers for various autoimmune encephalopathies and their animal models, as well as basic structural features of the BBB and how they differ among various CNS regions, a feature that likely underlies some regional aspects of autoimmune encephalitis pathogenesis. We then discuss the routes that antibodies and immune cells employ to enter the CNS and their implications for AE. Finally, we explore future therapeutic strategies that may either preserve or restore barrier function and thereby limit immune cell and autoantibody infiltration into the CNS. Recent mechanistic insights into CNS autoantibody entry indicate promising future directions for therapeutic intervention beyond current, short-lived therapies that eliminate circulating autoantibodies.

  4. Topoisomerase II Inhibitors Induce DNA Damage-Dependent Interferon Responses Circumventing Ebola Virus Immune Evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Luthra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV protein VP35 inhibits production of interferon alpha/beta (IFN by blocking RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathways, thereby promoting virus replication and pathogenesis. A high-throughput screening assay, developed to identify compounds that either inhibit or bypass VP35 IFN-antagonist function, identified five DNA intercalators as reproducible hits from a library of bioactive compounds. Four, including doxorubicin and daunorubicin, are anthracycline antibiotics that inhibit topoisomerase II and are used clinically as chemotherapeutic drugs. These compounds were demonstrated to induce IFN responses in an ATM kinase-dependent manner and to also trigger the DNA-sensing cGAS-STING pathway of IFN induction. These compounds also suppress EBOV replication in vitro and induce IFN in the presence of IFN-antagonist proteins from multiple negative-sense RNA viruses. These findings provide new insights into signaling pathways activated by important chemotherapy drugs and identify a novel therapeutic approach for IFN induction that may be exploited to inhibit RNA virus replication.

  5. Respecting Young People's Informal Learning: Circumventing Strategic Policy Evasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jocey

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores experiences at the interface of research and policy through the lens of informal learning. The paper contends that in order to further social justice it is essential to value the informal learning that takes place outside the confines of educational institutions. However, it also demonstrates the difficulties in getting…

  6. Circumventing substrate interference in the Raman spectroscopic identification of blood stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Gregory; Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Lednev, Igor K

    2013-09-10

    Raman spectroscopy has demonstrated remarkable capabilities in identifying blood in controlled laboratory conditions. However, substrate interference presents a significant challenge toward characterizing body fluid traces with Raman spectroscopy at a crime scene. Here, several possible solutions are explored, including the selection of laser excitation, isolating the signal of blood using spectral subtraction and using a favorable substrate for collection which minimizes interference. Simulated blood stain evidence was prepared and analyzed using a Raman microscope with variable laser capabilities. It is shown that the best approach for detecting blood depends on the nature of the substrate and the type of interference encountered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Propagation of classical swine fever virus in vitro circumventing heparan sulfate-adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymann-Häni, Rita; Leifer, Immanuel; McCullough, Kenneth C; Summerfield, Artur; Ruggli, Nicolas

    2011-09-01

    Amplification of natural virus isolates in permanent cell lines can result in adaptation, in particular enhanced binding to heparan sulfate (HS)-containing glycosaminoglycans present on most vertebrate cells. This has been reported for several viruses, including the pestivirus classical swine fever virus (CSFV), the causative agent of a highly contagious hemorrhagic disease in pigs. Propagation of CSFV in cell culture is essential in virus diagnostics and research. Adaptation of CSFV to HS-binding has been related to amino acid changes in the viral E(rns) glycoprotein, resulting in viruses with altered replication characteristics in vitro and in vivo. Consequently, a compound blocking the HS-containing structures on cell surfaces was employed to monitor conversion from HS-independency to HS-dependency. It was shown that the porcine PEDSV.15 cell line permitted propagation of CSFV within a limited number of passages without adaptation to HS-binding. The selection of HS-dependent CSFV mutants was also prevented by propagation of the virus in the presence of DSTP 27. The importance of these findings can be seen from the altered ratio of cell-associated to secreted virus upon acquisition of enhanced HS-binding affinity, a phenotype proposed previously to be related to virulence in the natural host. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Trojan Horse Antibiotics-A Novel Way to Circumvent Gram-Negative Bacterial Resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillotson, Glenn S

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance has been emerged as a major global health problem. In particular, gram-negative species pose a significant clinical challenge as bacteria develop or acquire more resistance mechanisms. Often, these bacteria possess multiple resistance mechanisms, thus nullifying most of the major classes of drugs. Novel approaches to this issue are urgently required. However, the challenges of developing new agents are immense. Introducing novel agents is fraught with hurdles, thus adapting known antibiotic classes by altering their chemical structure could be a way forward. A chemical addition to existing antibiotics known as a siderophore could be a solution to the gram-negative resistance issue. Siderophore molecules rely on the bacterial innate need for iron ions and thus can utilize a Trojan Horse approach to gain access to the bacterial cell. The current approaches to using this potential method are reviewed.

  9. "The world's most hostile environment": how the tobacco industry circumvented Singapore's advertising ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunta, M; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To review how tobacco transnational companies conducted their business in the hostile environment of Singapore, attempting to counter some of the government's tobacco control measures; to compare the Malaysian and the Singaporean governments' stance on tobacco control and the direct bearing of this on the way the tobacco companies conduct their business. Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private internal industry documents. The comprehensive prohibition on advertising did not prevent the companies from advertising cigarettes to Singaporeans. Both British American Tobacco and Philip Morris used Malaysian television to advertise into Singapore. To launch a new brand of cigarettes, Alpine, Philip Morris used a non-tobacco product, the Alpine wine cooler. Other creative strategies such as innovative packaging and display units at retailers were explored to overcome the restrictions. Philip Morris experimented with developing a prototype cigarette using aroma and sweetened tipping paper to target the young and health conscious. The industry sought to weaken the strong pack warnings. The industry distributed anti-smoking posters for youth to retailers but privately salivated over their market potential.

  10. Hexon-chimaeric adenovirus serotype 5 vectors circumvent pre-existing anti-vector immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, Diane M.; Nanda, Anjali; Havenga, Menzo J. E.; Abbink, Peter; Lynch, Diana M.; Ewald, Bonnie A.; Liu, Jinyan; Thorner, Anna R.; Swanson, Patricia E.; Gorgone, Darci A.; Lifton, Michelle A.; Lemckert, Angelique A. C.; Holterman, Lennart; Chen, Bing; Dilraj, Athmanundh; Carville, Angela; Mansfield, Keith G.; Goudsmit, Jaap; Barouch, Dan H.

    2006-01-01

    A common viral immune evasion strategy involves mutating viral surface proteins in order to evade host neutralizing antibodies. Such immune evasion tactics have not previously been intentionally applied to the development of novel viral gene delivery vectors that overcome the critical problem of

  11. The global introduction of inactivated polio vaccine can circumvent the oral polio vaccine paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinsbroek, E.; Ruitenberg, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    This literature review identifies the factors that influence the decision to introduce inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) in developing countries as opposed to the policy of vaccine cessation. Attenuated viruses in the oral polio vaccine (OPV) can replicate, revert to neurovirulence and become

  12. A technique to circumvent lower density water trapping by tide-wells

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; VijayKumar, K.; Desa, E.S.; Desa, E.; Peshwe, V.B.

    A 3-year study of water density differences inside and outside of a conventional tide-well indicated that the average water density within the well is consistently lower than the external ambient waters. The tide-well at Goa is situated at the mouth...

  13. Circumventing the natural, frequent oestrogen waves of the female cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) using oral progestin (Altrenogest).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosier, Adrienne E; Comizzoli, Pierre; Koester, Diana C; Wildt, David E

    2017-08-01

    Cheetah are induced ovulators, experiencing short, variable oestrogen waves year-round. Exogenous gonadotrophin administration induces ovulation, but success is variable and often improves if ovaries are quiescent. After affirming the presence of short-term oestrogenic waves, we examined the effect of the timing of administration of exogenous equine and human chorionic gonadotrophins (eCG-hCG) within the oestrogen concentration pattern on subsequent follicle development and oocyte and corpus luteum quality. We also investigated ovarian suppression using an oral progestin (Altrenogest, 7 days) and assessed whether Altrenogest moderated adrenal activity by reducing glucocorticoid metabolites. All cheetahs exhibited short (every ~7-10 days), sporadic, year-round increases in faecal oestradiol punctuated by unpredictable periods (4-10 weeks) of baseline oestradiol (anoestrous). Gonadotrophin (eCG-hCG) efficacy was not affected by oestradiol 'wave' pattern if administered ≥3 days after an oestrogen peak. Such cheetahs produced normative faecal progestagen patterns and higher numbers (P<0.06) of mature oocytes than females given gonadotrophins ≤2 days after an oestradiol peak. Altrenogest supplementation expanded the interval between oestradiol peaks to 12.9 days compared with 7.3 days without progestin pretreatment. Altrenogest-fed females excreted less (P<0.05) glucocorticoid metabolites than non-supplemented counterparts. Results show that Altrenogest is effective for suppressing follicular activity, may contribute to reduced glucocorticoid production and may result in more effective ovulation induction via gonadotrophin therapy.

  14. Circumventing furin enhances factor VIII biological activity and ameliorates bleeding phenotypes in hemophilia models

    OpenAIRE

    Siner, Joshua I.; Samelson-Jones, Benjamin J.; Crudele, Julie M.; French, Robert A.; Lee, Benjamin J.; Zhou, Shanzhen; Merricks, Elizabeth; Raymer, Robin; Nichols, Timothy C.; Camire, Rodney M.; Arruda, Valder R.

    2016-01-01

    Processing by the proprotein convertase furin is believed to be critical for the biological activity of multiple proteins involved in hemostasis, including coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). This belief prompted the retention of the furin recognition motif (amino acids 1645–1648) in the design of B-domain–deleted FVIII (FVIII-BDD) products in current clinical use and in the drug development pipeline, as well as in experimental FVIII gene therapy strategies. Here, we report that processing by fu...

  15. Use of social media to circumvent sales and advertising ban of electronic cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Güner

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background There are no legal electronic cigarette products available in Turkey. According to the law whether including tobacco or not products that resemble tobacco products can not be advertised, promoted and sold through internet.However the use of electronic cigarettes are frequently observed. This study was carried out in order to find out the sales outlet and advertising media of the publicly available products. Methods Internet search of the key words "e-cigarettes and electronic cigarettes" in Turkish language was carried out . The survey of the forum and websites identified were further analyzed to detect the presence of advertising, promotion and trading elements. Results There were 94 websites and one social forum with 69,354 members on electronic cigarettes in Turkish language. Of the websites 95 % had advertising and facilitated online sales. Social media forum had a section for beginners which was accessible by non-member, containing information about the device, liquids and usage. Under the heading" starter kit for beginners" 143 brands were promoted. The suppliers were introduced under 74 headings and 44774 messages. 25 suppliers sold e-cigarettes through the forum by 221 various advertising. Online shopping section was consisted of 1990 topics and 179.100 messages. The forum also facilitated exchange of products between members, as well as international sales without customs. All the websites had Turkish domain names and used regular shipping companies for the delivery of the products. The social media forum had an international hosting. Advertising contained false claims about the safety of the products referring to reputable international organizations.Social media forum provided home-made recipes and the names and adresses of chemical supplier companies. Conclusions Social media was extensively used for the sale and advertising of electronic cigarettes that were not licenced in Turkey. Laws need to be enforced not only in real life but also at the virtual media.

  16. BLM Colorado National Monument and National Conservation Area Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Shapefile Format –This data set consists of digital data describing BLM National Conservation Lands or National Landscape Conservation System (NLCS) in the State of...

  17. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) - National Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2001 forward. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) has monitored the health of the nation since 1957. NHIS data on a broad range of health topics are...

  18. National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) - USGS National Map Downloadable Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) Downloadable Data Collection from The National Map (TNM) is a comprehensive set of digital spatial data that encodes...

  19. USGS National Hydrography Dataset from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS The National Map - National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) is a comprehensive set of digital spatial data that encodes information about naturally occurring and...

  20. VT Green Mountain National Forest National Recreation Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This dataset includes National Recreation Areas (NRAs) designated by Congress on the Green Mountain National Forest (GMNF) as of 2006. There are...

  1. A national assessment of physical activity on US national forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline; Randall S. Rosenberger; Eric M. White

    2011-01-01

    In an era of declining timber harvests on federal lands, the US Forest Service has sought to better describe the public benefits associated with the nation's continued investment in managing the national forests. We considered how national forests contribute to public health by providing significant outdoor recreation opportunities. Physical inactivity has become...

  2. National transuranic program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    As a result of various program initiatives, the U.S. generated and will continue to generate waste contaminated with radioactive materials. Because of increased awareness of the risks and special requirements to safely manage long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides, a new category of radioactive waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, was adopted in 1970. Heads of Field Elements can determine that other alpha-contaminated wastes, peculiar to a specific site, must be managed as transuranic wasteclose quotes. TRU waste is generated and stored at various DOE sites around the country. In December 1993, the National Transuranic Program Office (NTPO) was established as part of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) to integrate and coordinate the diverse organizational elements that contribute to the complex-wide management of TRU waste. Numerous sites with small TRU waste inventories are also part of the national TRU waste system. The majority of TRU waste is also contaminated with hazardous materials and is thus considered mixed waste. Mixed waste must be managed in compliance with all federal, state, and local regulations that are applicable to the radioactive and/or hazardous component of the waste. Each generator site is responsible for the management of its respective waste. Sites must plan and implement programs to minimize, characterize, package, treat, store, ship, and dispose of all TRU waste; construct required waste management facilities and equipment; obtain permits; perform site-specific National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analyses; conduct environmental studies; perform laboratory analyses; and certify that waste meets appropriate disposal facility criteria. Due to the toxicity and long half-lives of TRU radionuclides, TRU waste must be disposed in a manner that offers greater confinement than shallow land burial

  3. National Physics Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oancea, Margareta; Sandu, Doina; Calboreanu, Rodica

    2000-01-01

    The National Physics Conference organized annually by the Romanian Physical Society has been held in Constanta, Romania on September 21-23, 2000. It covered the following 12 sections: - 1. Astrophysics and High Energy (9 reports); - 2. Atomic and Molecular Physics (20 reports); - 3. Nuclear Physics (18 reports); - 4. Technical and Engineering Physics (34 reports); - 5. Condensed Matter Physics (67 reports); - 6. Optics and Quantum Electronics (12 reports); - 7. Plasma Physics (27 reports); - 8. Biophysics (30 reports); - 9. Physics for Energy (17 reports); - 10. Mathematical and Computational Physics (20 reports); -11. Physics and Education (8 reports); - 12. Earth and Environmental Physics (16 reports). The proceedings contains mainly short communications

  4. EDF national emergency organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverge, J.

    1992-01-01

    The scope of French nuclear power led Electricite de France (EDF) to design standard products, manufactured in series but adaptable to different sites. Standardization is based on the decision on a single technology: pressurized water reactors (PWR). Thirty-four 900 MW and seventeen 1300 MW units are in operation on seventeen sites. The specific nature of French organization for normal operation and accident management results from equipment standardization and single licensee. This specificity is based on emergency plan standardization and highly structured national organization. Figs

  5. Polymer solidification national program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1993-04-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed several new and innovative polymer processes for the solidification of low-level radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes streams. Polyethylene and modified sulfur cement solidification technologies have undergone steady, gradual development at BNL over the past nine years. During this time they have progressed through each of the stages necessary for logical technology maturation: from process conception, parameter optimization, waste form testing, evaluation of long-term durability, economic analysis, and scale-up feasibility. This technology development represents a significant investment which can potentially provide DOE with both short- and long-term savings

  6. National HTGR safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.E.; Kelley, A.P. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the National HTGR Program in the US with emphasis on the safety and licensing strategy being pursued. This strategy centers upon the development of an integrated approach to organizing and classifying the functions needed to produce safe and economical nuclear power production. At the highest level, four plant goals are defined - Normal Operation, Core and Plant Protection, Containment Integrity and Emergency Preparedness. The HTGR features which support the attainment of each goal are described and finally a brief summary is provided of the current status of the principal safety development program supporting the validation of the four plant goals

  7. National hydrogen energy roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-11-01

    This report was unveiled by Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham in November 2002 and provides a blueprint for the coordinated, long-term, public and private efforts required for hydrogen energy development. Based on the results of the government-industry National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap Workshop, held in Washington, DC on April 2-3, 2002, it displays the development of a roadmap for America's clean energy future and outlines the key barriers and needs to achieve the hydrogen vision goals defined in

  8. National Calendar-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedrovici, Vera; Svet, Maria; Matvei, Valeria; Madan, Ion; Perju, Elena; Sargun, Maria; Netida, Maria

    The calendar represents a few hundreds of biographies of scientists, artists and writers from everywhere, printed in chronological order and adjusted to their birthdays. A number of international and national holydays, including some refering to science are included in the Calendar. A great defect of the calendar is the introduction of the "International day of astrology" in the list of holydays. Another defect is the absence of the indication on the membership to the Communist Party for persons cited from the former Soviet Union. The following Physicists, mathematicians, chemists and astronomers had biographies in this issue: Ilie I. Lupu (math),Lev D. Landau,

  9. The national geomagnetic initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field, through its variability over a spectrum of spatial and temporal scales, contains fundamental information on the solid Earth and geospace environment (the latter comprising the atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere). Integrated studies of the geomagnetic field have the potential to address a wide range of important processes in the deep mantle and core, asthenosphere, lithosphere, oceans, and the solar-terrestrial environment. These studies have direct applications to important societal problems, including resource assessment and exploration, natural hazard mitigation, safe navigation, and the maintenance and survivability of communications and power systems on the ground and in space. Studies of the Earth's magnetic field are supported by a variety of federal and state agencies as well as by private industry. Both basic and applied research is presently supported by several federal agencies, including the National Science Foundation (NSF), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) (through the Navy, Air Force, and Defense Mapping Agency). Although each agency has a unique, well-defined mission in geomagnetic studies, many areas of interest overlap. For example, NASA, the Navy, and USGS collaborate closely in the development of main field reference models. NASA, NSF, and the Air Force collaborate in space physics. These interagency linkages need to be strengthened. Over the past decade, new opportunities for fundamental advances in geomagnetic research have emerged as a result of three factors: well-posed, first-order scientific questions; increased interrelation of research activities dealing with geomagnetic phenomena; and recent developments in technology. These new opportunities can be exploited through a national geomagnetic initiative to define objectives and

  10. National Medical Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, Rex.

    1991-01-01

    The National Medical Cyclotron, under construction at Sydney's Royal Prince Alfred Hospital(RPAH) is to be operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization in collaboration with the hospital. Its main purpose is to produce radioisotopes on commercial basis for distribution to hospitals through Australia as well as short-lived radioisotopes (2 minutes to 2 hours) for immediate application at RPAH in Positron Emission Tomography, to study the dynamics of human physiology and metabolism in organs, bones and soft tissues. A list of the principal cyclotron-produced radionuclides is provided. ills

  11. An Aerospace Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-25

    of world commerce , informa- tion, and finance. Its education system was second to none, and its cur- rency was the world’s benchmark. In the early...professionals than the United States. An estimate by the US Department of Commerce predicts that by 2018 “the U.S. will have more than 1.2 million unfilled...taxpayer.30 Thus, being an advanced aerospace nation will help balance the federal budget and extend the benefits of prosperity to a new generation

  12. National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Steenbergen, A.

    1979-01-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source comprises two high intensity electron storage rings for the generation of intense fluxes of synchrotron radiation in the vuv wavelength domain (700 MeV e - ring) and in the x-ray wavelength domain (2.5 GeV e - ring). A description is presented of the basic facility and the characteristics of the synchrotron radiation sources. The present plans for specific beam lines will be enumerated and the planned use of beam wigglers and undulators will be discussed

  13. Transcending the nation state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia

    2009-01-01

    competition. This article surveys vocational education and training models in Europe, applying a discursive institutionalist perspective in order to describe how vocational education and training as an institution is being reframed by means of the Copenhagen Process, and concludes that a European model......Throughout Europe, vocational education and training is undergoing reform and modernisation as part of a common EU policy process, the Copenhagen Process. The aim of this Process is initiate a pan-European modernisation of vocational education and training in order to meet the challenges of global...... is under construction which aims to transcend the nation state by introducing a new way of "thinking" vocational education and training....

  14. Cross-National Yardstick Comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Hansen, Kasper; Leth Olsen, Asmus; Bech, Mickael

    2015-01-01

    performance comparisons—even when accounting for classic national sociotropic and egotropic items. Specifically, voters respond strongly to how the prospective wealth of Denmark evolves relative to the neighboring Sweden. Interestingly, voters are more negative in their response to cross-national losses......Comparing performance between countries is both a theoretically and intuitively useful yardstick for voters. Cross-national comparisons provide voters with heuristics that are less cognitively demanding, less ambiguous, and less uncertain than solely national, absolute performance measurements. We...... test this proposition using a unique, choice experiment embedded in the 2011 Danish National Election Study. This design allows to contrast cross-national comparisons with more traditional national sociotropic and egotropic concerns. The findings suggest that voters are strongly influenced by cross-national...

  15. National Fire News- Current Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 to 5) Current hours for the National Fire Information Center are (MST) 8:00 am - 4: ... for more information. June 15, 2018 Nationally, wildland fire activity remains about average for this time of ...

  16. National Patient Care Database (NPCD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The National Patient Care Database (NPCD), located at the Austin Information Technology Center, is part of the National Medical Information Systems (NMIS). The NPCD...

  17. National Center for Biotechnology Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to NCBI Sign Out NCBI National Center for Biotechnology Information Search database All Databases Assembly Biocollections BioProject ... Search Welcome to NCBI The National Center for Biotechnology Information advances science and health by providing access ...

  18. National Strategies for Technological Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Frederick; Bozeman, Barry

    1977-01-01

    Considers the implications of the technological innovation literature for possible national strategies for innovation. Sketches highly generalized innovation strategies for nations at various levels of technological development. (Author/IRT)

  19. Timely and Effective Care - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Timely and Effective Care measures - national data. This data set includes national-level data for measures of heart attack care, heart failure care, pneumonia care,...

  20. National Recommended Water Quality Criteria

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Recommended Water Quality Criteria is a compilation of national recommended water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and human health...

  1. National Take-Back Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disposal Information Drug and Chemical Information E-commerce Initiatives Federal Agencies & Related Links Federal Register Notices National ... Disposal Information Drug and Chemical Information E-commerce Initiatives Federal Agencies & Related Links Federal Register Notices National ...

  2. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Business Congressional Affairs Jobs Benefits Booklet Data & Statistics VA Open Data VA App Store National Resource ... Manuals Mobile Apps Publications Toolkits Videos Web Links Advanced Search About Us National Center for PTSD What ...

  3. National Integration, Citizenship, Political Participation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    attainment of a successful democratization process and national stability. ... insecurity, sectarian violence, ethnic strifes, political instability and threats of .... of nation-states out of disparate socio-economic, religious, ethnic and geographical.

  4. National Knowledge Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitroda, Sam

    2007-04-01

    India's National Knowledge Commission (NKC) established by the prime minister is focused on building institutions and infrastructure in Education, Science and Technology, Innovation etc. to meet the challenges of the knowledge economy in the 21st century and increase India's competitive advantage in the global market. India today stands poised to reap the benefits of a rapidly growing economy and a major demographic advantage, with 550 million young people below the age of 25 years, the largest in the world. The NKC is focused on five critical areas of knowledge related to access, concepts, creation, applications and services. This includes a variety of subject areas such as language, translations, libraries, networks, portals, affirmative action, distance learning, intellectual property, Entrepreneurship, application in Agriculture, health, small and medium scale industries, e-governance etc. One of the keys to this effort is to build a national broadband gigabit of networks of 500 nodes to connect universities, Libraries, Laboratories, Hospitals, Agriculture institutions etc. to share resources and collaborate on multidisciplinary activities. This presentation will introduce the NKC, discuss methodology, subject areas, specific recommendation and outline a plan to build knowledge networks and specifics on network architecture, applications, and utilities.

  5. PLANNING NATIONAL RADIOTHERAPY SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo eRosenblatt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Countries, states and island nations often need forward planning of their radiotherapy services driven by different motives. Countries without radiotherapy services sponsor patients to receive radiotherapy abroad. They often engage professionals for a feasibility study in order to establish whether it would be more cost-beneficial to establish a radiotherapy facility. Countries where radiotherapy services have developed without any central planning, find themselves in situations where many of the available centres are private and thus inaccessible for a majority of patients with limited resources. Government may decide to plan ahead when a significant exodus of cancer patients travel to another country for treatment, thus exposing the failure of the country to provide this medical service for its citizens. In developed countries the trigger has been the existence of highly visible waiting lists for radiotherapy revealing a shortage of radiotherapy equipment.This paper suggests that there should be a systematic and comprehensive process of long-term planning of radiotherapy services at the national level, taking into account the regulatory infrastructure for radiation protection, planning of centres, equipment, staff, education pr

  6. National transmission grid study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Spencer [USDOE Office of the Secretary of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2003-05-31

    The National Energy Policy Plan directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a study to examine the benefits of establishing a national electricity transmission grid and to identify transmission bottlenecks and measures to address them. DOE began by conducting an independent analysis of U.S. electricity markets and identifying transmission system bottlenecks using DOE’s Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS). DOE’s analysis, presented in Section 2, confirms the central role of the nation’s transmission system in lowering costs to consumers through increased trade. More importantly, DOE’s analysis also confirms the results of previous studies, which show that transmission bottlenecks and related transmission system market practices are adding hundreds of millions of dollars to consumers’ electricity bills each year. A more detailed technical overview of the use of POEMS is provided in Appendix A. DOE led an extensive, open, public input process and heard a wide range of comments and recommendations that have all been considered.1 More than 150 participants registered for three public workshops held in Detroit, MI (September 24, 2001); Atlanta, GA (September 26, 2001); and Phoenix, AZ (September 28, 2001).

  7. The National Map - Orthoimagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauck, James; Brown, Kim; Carswell, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Orthorectified digital aerial photographs and satellite images of 1-meter (m) pixel resolution or finer make up the orthoimagery component of The National Map. The process of orthorectification removes feature displacements and scale variations caused by terrain relief and sensor geometry. The result is a combination of the image characteristics of an aerial photograph or satellite image and the geometric qualities of a map. These attributes allow users to: *Measure distance *Calculate areas *Determine shapes of features *Calculate directions *Determine accurate coordinates *Determine land cover and use *Perform change detection *Update maps The standard digital orthoimage is a 1-m or finer resolution, natural color or color infra-red product. Most are now produced as GeoTIFFs and accompanied by a Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC)-compliant metadata file. The primary source for 1-m data is the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) leaf-on imagery. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) utilizes NAIP imagery as the image layer on its 'Digital- Map' - a new generation of USGS topographic maps (http://nationalmap.gov/digital_map). However, many Federal, State, and local governments and organizations require finer resolutions to meet a myriad of needs. Most of these images are leaf-off, natural-color products at resolutions of 1-foot (ft) or finer.

  8. Crises in national leadership?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahathir, M

    1998-01-01

    In Asia, an economic crisis has occurred simultaneously with an immense increase in the prevalence of HIV/AIDS fueled by inadequate responses to the epidemic. This response has been further weakened by sudden budget cuts and changes in government priorities, and the situation has been exacerbated by its suddenness and by the fact that large numbers of people are at risk and are unemployed. Also, Asian countries are now seeking entry into the pool of countries where donors support HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs just as donors are reducing their aid budgets. Prevention programs are being severely compromised even before they became effective, and efforts to secure treatment are hindered by high prices, by devalued national currencies, and by an increasing trend towards the privatization of health care. In the long run, efforts to restore economic stability will be hindered by the socioeconomic impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. In order to improve future prospects, the leadership of all national AIDS programs must reexamine the cost effectiveness of their priorities. Such a move would target marginalized groups, reduce use of expensive mass media campaigns, increase international cooperation over issues dealing with migrant workers, create programs recognizing the crucial role of women, increase the involvement of infected people in prevention programs, recognize the long-term socioeconomic benefits of providing adequate and equitable care and treatment, and recognize the benefits of prioritizing HIV/AIDS funding.

  9. National companies : performance, ventures, utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didier, F.

    1994-01-01

    The author shows how a performing National Company can efficiently contribute, in line with the producing State, to the negotiation with International Companies and the success of large oil ventures contemplated by reserves-short countries. Fully entrepreneurial, the National Company will usefully ''explore'' touchy matters, and bring closer national rationale and petroleum rationale. (Author)

  10. Guard News - The National Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    operations during chemical attack May 25, 2018 - SWANTON, Ohio - Maintenance is a critical component in Leaders discuss future of National Guard cyber warfare May 21, 2018 - CAMP ATTERBURY, Ind. - While National Guard teams from across the nation tested themselves on their cyber defensive capabilities at

  11. 50 CFR Table 47c to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Inshore Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual... Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and... Chinook salmon for the opt-out allocation (15,858) Column F Number of Chinook salmon for the opt-out...

  12. National Smart Water Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaulieu, R A

    2009-07-13

    The United States repeatedly experiences floods along the Midwest's large rivers and droughts in the arid Western States that cause traumatic environmental conditions with huge economic impact. With an integrated approach and solution these problems can be alleviated. Tapping into the Mississippi River and its tributaries, the world's third largest fresh water river system, during flood events will mitigate the damage of flooding and provide a new source of fresh water to the Western States. The trend of increased flooding on the Midwest's large rivers is supported by a growing body of scientific literature. The Colorado River Basin and the western states are experiencing a protracted multi-year drought. Fresh water can be pumped via pipelines from areas of overabundance/flood to areas of drought or high demand. Calculations document 10 to 60 million acre-feet (maf) of fresh water per flood event can be captured from the Midwest's Rivers and pumped via pipelines to the Colorado River and introduced upstream of Lake Powell, Utah, to destinations near Denver, Colorado, and used in areas along the pipelines. Water users of the Colorado River include the cities in southern Nevada, southern California, northern Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Indian Tribes, and Mexico. The proposed start and end points, and routes of the pipelines are documented, including information on right-of-ways necessary for state and federal permits. A National Smart Water Grid{trademark} (NSWG) Project will create thousands of new jobs for construction, operation, and maintenance and save billions in drought and flood damage reparations tax dollars. The socio-economic benefits of NWSG include decreased flooding in the Midwest; increased agriculture, and recreation and tourism; improved national security, transportation, and fishery and wildlife habitats; mitigated regional climate change and global warming such as increased carbon capture; decreased salinity in Colorado River water

  13. Building blocks for national cyberpower

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Vuuren, JJ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available national power, than simply a means or attribute of national power. Thus, for a formulation for perceived cyberpower (PCP) would be best expressed as a replication or fractal of national power, and not a unique independent attribute. National security... by using the indicators of the Booz Allen Cyberpower Index (2011) to the traditional “DIME” elements, shows that cyberpower is an abstraction of the DIME acronym, and thus cyber is a fractal of National Power and not an element. Furthermore...

  14. Genre, raison et nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada Ivekovic

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail s’intéresse aux mécanismes de sexuation et de subjectivation dans la construction de la nation. Quelques-uns ont postulé le “retard” de certains groupes sociaux par rapport à l’avènement de la “modernité”, concernant notamment les sujets extraeuropéens, mais aussi les femmes. En réalité, il n’y a pas de retard soit des femmes, soit des peuples colonisés en matière de modernité, parce que la norme de celle-ci est établie elle-même de façon arbitraire à partir d’une position de domination hégémonique depuis la modernité occidentale.

  15. Understanding US National Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In July 2010, the Washington Post (WP) published the results of a project on “Top Secret America” on which twenty investigative journalists had been working for two years. The project drew attention to the change and growth in National Intelligence following 9/11 (Washington Post 2010a......). The initial idea had been to work on intelligence generally, but given that this proved overwhelming, the team narrowed down to focus only on intelligence qualified as “top secret.” Even so, the growth in this intelligence activity is remarkable. This public is returning, or in this case expanding...... at an impressive speed confirming the general contention of this volume. Between 2001 and 2010 the budget had increased by 250 percent, reaching $75 billion (the GDP of the Czech Republic). Thirty-three building complexes for top secret work had been or were under construction in the Washington area; 1...

  16. Yellowcake National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagget, D.

    1985-01-01

    Exploration for and mining of uranium ore is going on within 10 miles of the Grand Canyon National Park. The current rush started in 1980, when a Denver-based company, Energy Fuels Nuclear, took over a claim in Hack Canyon and uncovered a very rich deposit of uranium ore. Recent explorations have resulted in some 1300 claims in the area around the Grand Canyon, many of them in the Arizona Strip, the land between the Canyon and Utah. The center of current controversy is the 1872 Mining Law. Replacement of the law with a leasing system similar to that used for leasable minerals such as coal, oil shale, oil and gas, potash, and phosphate is advocated. 1 figure

  17. Modernization mixed with nationalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikiforov Konstantin V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay reflects on a particular manner in which modernisation have taken place in the Balkans in modern history, from the 1878 Berlin Congress onwards. The Balkan countries faced twofold difficulties in their development: they had to overcome their backwardness stemming from the centuries of the Ottoman yoke and catch up with modern Western Europe, and resolve their numerous mutual territorial and political disputes. The latter task was especially difficult due to the constant interference in Balkan affairs on the part of Great Powers. This interference further aggravated nationalistic tensions between the Balkan states. The peculiar mixture of modernisation efforts and nationalism remains to this day when the entire region strives to join the European Union.

  18. Danish National Lymphoma Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arboe, Bente; Josefsson, Pär; Jørgensen, Judit

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish National Lymphoma Registry (LYFO) was established in order to monitor and improve the diagnostic evaluation and the quality of treatment of all lymphoma patients in Denmark. STUDY POPULATION: The LYFO database was established in 1982 as a seminational database including...... all lymphoma patients referred to the departments of hematology. The database became nationwide on January 1, 2000. MAIN VARIABLES: The main variables include both clinical and paraclinical variables as well as details of treatment and treatment evaluation. Up to four forms are completed for each......-100 years) and a male/female ratio of 1.23:1. Patients can be registered with any of 42 different subtypes according to the World Health Organization classifications. CONCLUSION: LYFO is a nationwide database for all lymphoma patients in Denmark and includes detailed information. This information is used...

  19. National Calendar-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedrovici, Vera; Svet, Maria; Matvei, Valeria; Perju, Elena; Sargun, Maria; Netida, Maria

    2009-10-01

    The calendar represents a few hundreds of biographies of scientists, artists and writers from everywhere, printed in chronological order and adjusted to their birthdays. A number of international and national holydays, including some refering to science are included in the Calendar. A great deffect of the Calendar is the introduction in the list of holydays of the "international day of astrology". Another defect is the absence of the indication of the membership to Communist Parties for persons cited from the former USSR and former Communist Countries. The following physicists, astronomers and mathematicians had biographies in the actual issue: Kon, Lia Z., Arnautov, Vladimir I. (math), Tsukerblat, B., Kapitza, P., Donici (Donitch), N.N., Sklodowska-Curie, Maria, da Vinci, Leonardo, Birkhof, George David, Galilei, Galileo, Pisarzhveskij, Lev (chemist), Mossbauer, Rudolf Ludwig, Clochisner (Klokishner), Sofia I., Miscoi (Mishkoy), Gh. (Math), Mendel, Gregor Lohan (genet.), Glavan, Vasile (math), Chetrus (Ketrush), P. (chem), Bostan, Ion (mech. eng.), Boltzmann, Ludwig Ed.

  20. Geology of National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2008-01-01

    This is a set of two sheets of 3D images showing geologic features of many National Parks. Red-and-cyan viewing glasses are need to see the three-dimensional effect. A search on the World Wide Web will yield many sites about anaglyphs and where to get 3D glasses. Red-blue glasses will do but red-cyan glasses are a little better. This publication features a photo quiz game: Name that park! where you can explore, interpret, and identify selected park landscapes. Can you identify landscape features in the images? Can you explain processes that may have helped form the landscape features? You can get the answers online.

  1. National arrangements for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    After a presentation of several letters exchanged between the French health ministry and public agencies in charge of public health or nuclear safety after a radiotherapy accident in Epinal, this report comments the evolution of needs in cancerology care and the place given to radiotherapy. It outlines the technological and organisational evolution of radiotherapy and presents the distribution of radiotherapy equipment, of radio-therapists and other radiotherapy professionals in France. Within the context of radiotherapy accidents which occurred in 2007, it presents the regulatory arrangements which aimed at improving the safety, short term and middle term arrangements which are needed to support and structure radiotherapy practice quality. It stresses the fact that the system will deeply evolve by implementing a radiotherapy vigilance arrangement and a permanent follow-on and adaptation plan based on surveys and the creation of a national committee

  2. National Biological Monitoring Inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The National Biological Monitoring Inventory, initiated in 1975, currently consists of four computerized data bases and voluminous manual files. MAIN BIOMON contains detailed information on 1,021 projects, while MINI BIOMON provides skeletal data for over 3,000 projects in the 50 states, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, plus a few in Canada and Mexico. BIBLIO BIOMON and DIRECTORY BIOMON complete the computerized data bases. The structure of the system provides for on-line search capabilities to generate details of agency sponsorship, indications of funding levels, taxonomic and geographic coverage, length of program life, managerial focus or emphasis, and condition of the data. Examples of each of these are discussed and illustrated, and potential use of the Inventory in a variety of situations is emphasized

  3. Honoring our Nation's Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Today is Armistice Day, renamed Veterans Day in 1954, to honor our Nation's Veterans. In Washington the rhetoric from both the political right and left supports our Veterans. My cynical side reminds me that this might have something to do with Veterans voting in a higher percentage than the population as a whole, but let me give the politicians this one. Serving our Country in the military is something that deserves to be honored. I was proud to serve our Veterans over 30 years at the four Department of Veterans Affairs (VA hospitals. However, the VA has had a very bad year. First, in Washington there were the resignations of the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, Eric Shinseki; the undersecretary for the Veterans Health Administration, Robert Petzel; and the undersecretary for the Veterans Benefits Administration, Allison Hickey. Locally, in the light of the VA wait scandal there were the firing of ...

  4. NOAA's National Snow Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, T. R.; Cline, D. W.; Olheiser, C. M.; Rost, A. A.; Nilsson, A. O.; Fall, G. M.; Li, L.; Bovitz, C. T.

    2005-12-01

    NOAA's National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center (NOHRSC) routinely ingests all of the electronically available, real-time, ground-based, snow data; airborne snow water equivalent data; satellite areal extent of snow cover information; and numerical weather prediction (NWP) model forcings for the coterminous U.S. The NWP model forcings are physically downscaled from their native 13 km2 spatial resolution to a 1 km2 resolution for the CONUS. The downscaled NWP forcings drive an energy-and-mass-balance snow accumulation and ablation model at a 1 km2 spatial resolution and at a 1 hour temporal resolution for the country. The ground-based, airborne, and satellite snow observations are assimilated into the snow model's simulated state variables using a Newtonian nudging technique. The principle advantages of the assimilation technique are: (1) approximate balance is maintained in the snow model, (2) physical processes are easily accommodated in the model, and (3) asynoptic data are incorporated at the appropriate times. The snow model is reinitialized with the assimilated snow observations to generate a variety of snow products that combine to form NOAA's NOHRSC National Snow Analyses (NSA). The NOHRSC NSA incorporate all of the available information necessary and available to produce a "best estimate" of real-time snow cover conditions at 1 km2 spatial resolution and 1 hour temporal resolution for the country. The NOHRSC NSA consist of a variety of daily, operational, products that characterize real-time snowpack conditions including: snow water equivalent, snow depth, surface and internal snowpack temperatures, surface and blowing snow sublimation, and snowmelt for the CONUS. The products are generated and distributed in a variety of formats including: interactive maps, time-series, alphanumeric products (e.g., mean areal snow water equivalent on a hydrologic basin-by-basin basis), text and map discussions, map animations, and quantitative gridded products

  5. ADS National Programmes: China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    In China the conceptual study of an ADS concept which lasted for about five years ended in 1999. As one project of the National Basic Research Programme of China (973 Programme) in energy domain, which is sponsored by the China Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), a five year programme of fundamental research of ADS physics and related technology was launched in 2000 and passed national review at the end of 2005. From 2007, another five year 973 Programme Key Technology Research of Accelerator Driven Subcritical System for Nuclear waste Transmutation started. The research activities were focused on HPPA physics and technology, reactor physics of external source driven subcritical assembly, nuclear data base and material study. For HPPA, a high current injector consisting of an ECR ion source, LEBT and an RFQ accelerating structure of 3.5 MeV has been built and were being improved. In reactor physics study, a series of neutron multiplication experimental study has been carrying out. The VENUS I facility has been constructed as the basic experimental platform for neutronics study in ADS blanket. VENUS I a zero power subcritical neutron multiplying assembly driven by external neutron produced by a pulsed neutron generator or 252Cf neutron source. The theoretical, experimental and simulation studies on nuclear data, material properties and nuclear fuel circulation related to ADS are carried out in order to provide the database for ADS system analysis. China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) and other Chinese institutes carried out the MOST project together. Besides CIAE, China Academy of Science (CAS) pays more and more attention to Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles (ANFC). A large programme of ANFC, including ADS and Th based nuclear fuel cycle, has been launched by CAS

  6. Mount Rainier National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert; Woodward, Andrea; Haggerty, Patricia K.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Griffin, Paul C.; Adams, Michael J.; Hagar, Joan; Cummings, Tonnie; Duriscoe, Dan; Kopper, Karen; Riedel, Jon; Samora, Barbara; Marin, Lelaina; Mauger, Guillaume S.; Bumbaco, Karen; Littell, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    Natural Resource Condition Assessments (NRCAs) evaluate current conditions for a subset of natural resources and resource indicators in national parks. NRCAs also report on trends in resource condition (when possible), identify critical data gaps, and characterize a general level of confidence for study findings. The resources and indicators emphasized in a given project depend on the park’s resource setting, status of resource stewardship planning and science in identifying high-priority indicators, and availability of data and expertise to assess current conditions for a variety of potential study resources and indicators. Although the primary objective of NRCAs is to report on current conditions relative to logical forms of reference conditions and values, NRCAs also report on trends, when appropriate (i.e., when the underlying data and methods support such reporting), as well as influences on resource conditions. These influences may include past activities or conditions that provide a helpful context for understanding current conditions and present-day threats and stressors that are best interpreted at park, watershed, or landscape scales (though NRCAs do not report on condition status for land areas and natural resources beyond park boundaries). Intensive cause-andeffect analyses of threats and stressors, and development of detailed treatment options, are outside the scope of NRCAs. It is also important to note that NRCAs do not address resources that lack sufficient data for assessment. For Mount Rainier National Park, this includes most invertebrate species and many other animal species that are subject to significant stressors from climate change and other anthropogenic sources such as air pollutants and recreational use. In addition, we did not include an analysis of the physical hydrology associated with streams (such as riverine landforms, erosion and aggradation which is significant in MORA streams), due to a loss of staff expertise from the USGS

  7. National steel tries wheeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudak, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    In 1989, National Steel felt the need to take the next step to make its Detroit-based division, Great Lakes Steel, more competitive in the world flat-rolled steel market. In 1988, Great Lakes Steel started flowing natural gas through the first fully litigated bypass (Competitive Sourcing Option) of a local distribution company. In 1989, the second connection with the new supply route for gas transportation, Panhandle Eastern had started flowing and the LDC, Michigan Consolidated Gas Co. (MichCon) had pulled out their piping previously serving the plants. Since we had been able to structure a fully reliable supply route, storage and balancing program for gas in the face of such strong opposition by the LDC, the author felt it was time to attack the next singularly sourced major commodity, electricity. Electricity, at this major integrated steel plant, represented approximately 7% of plant cost yearly. Yet being monopolized, Great Lakes Division (GLD) could not multiple source this commodity like it does with its other 93% of costs, except for labor (25% of the 93%). Multiple sourcing is done to bring competitive pressure to suppliers and to diversify supplies and protect plant operation in the event of failure by one supplier. This paper describes National Steel's strategy to reduce the cost of power, at the minimum of capital costs, the most expedient way possible, that does not sacrifice any major long-term potential cost improvements. The results show that competitively priced power is available across the mid-west, at prices well below many state regulated electric utilities, for at least 5 to 15 years, but with major obstacles in obtaining transmission access

  8. Rondocubism versus National Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnídková, Vendula

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a range of various terms used to refer to architectural production from the period after the First World War, among the most common being 'Rondocubism' and the 'National Style'. The terminological ambiguity clearly points to the problem with the very character of the style of expression that lies behind these diverse labels. In the 1920s, figures of the interwar avant-garde were already sharply critical of the post-war decorative style, the leading figures of which were the architects Pavel Janák and Josef Gočár. While this negative stigma was later overcome, following several thematic studies, it is still possible to look for other inspiring sources outside aesthetic categories that were directed at clarifying this theme. Extensive social projects had architects employed in all sorts of artistic activities, and therefore a possible answer to what the essence of the style was is offered by the wider political and cultural context. After the foundation of the Czechoslovak Republic, the former protagonists of architectural Cubism and their colleagues from the Czechoslovak Workshop Association, Artěl and the School of Decorative Arts attained such social standing that they could effectively influence local artistic development. Through the individual conception applied to official commissions they created a visual identity of the new state system. As is apparent from their theoretical writings, they found their sources of information for ornamental decoration of buildings and craft artefacts by bonding with local tradition. This did not of course mean directly borrowing from folk-art prototypes. Advanced forms of national art were intended to help establish Czechoslovakia in the international scene and were also a conscious attempt through a more folkish form of expression to appeal to the wider strata of the population.

  9. National Elevation Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2002-01-01

    The National Elevation Dataset (NED) is a new raster product assembled by the U.S. Geological Survey. NED is designed to provide National elevation data in a seamless form with a consistent datum, elevation unit, and projection. Data corrections were made in the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts, perform edge matching, and fill sliver areas of missing data. NED has a resolution of one arc-second (approximately 30 meters) for the conterminous United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the island territories and a resolution of two arc-seconds for Alaska. NED data sources have a variety of elevation units, horizontal datums, and map projections. In the NED assembly process the elevation values are converted to decimal meters as a consistent unit of measure, NAD83 is consistently used as horizontal datum, and all the data are recast in a geographic projection. Older DEM's produced by methods that are now obsolete have been filtered during the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts that are commonly found in data produced by these methods. Artifact removal greatly improves the quality of the slope, shaded-relief, and synthetic drainage information that can be derived from the elevation data. Figure 2 illustrates the results of this artifact removal filtering. NED processing also includes steps to adjust values where adjacent DEM's do not match well, and to fill sliver areas of missing data between DEM's. These processing steps ensure that NED has no void areas and artificial discontinuities have been minimized. The artifact removal filtering process does not eliminate all of the artifacts. In areas where the only available DEM is produced by older methods, then "striping" may still occur.

  10. National debate (Slovenia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecnik, Maks; Veselic, Miran

    2003-01-01

    The Governmental policies in the area of the safety of spent fuel management and of the safety of radioactive waste management are set in comprehensive nuclear legislation comprising of international agreements, domestic laws and regulations. In addition the government prepared several documents pertinent to the policy in the area of radioactive waste management. The most important are: a Strategy of Energy Use and Supply of Slovenia, adopted by the Slovene Parliament in 1996; a Decommissioning Plan for the Krsko NPP, produced and approved by the Government in September 1996; a Strategy for Long-term Spent Fuel Management,adopted by the Slovenian Government in 1996. The Strategy on Low and Intermediate Level Waste Management has been prepared by the Agency for Radioactive Waste Management. The document has been submitted to the Government for approval. According to the new Act on Ionising Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (2002) the National programme for radioactive waste and spent fuel management shall be adopted by the Parliament as a part of the national programme for the protection of the environment pursuant to the regulations on environmental protection. This National programme will substitute The Strategy for Long-term Spent Fuel Management and The Strategy on Low and Intermediate Level Waste Management. The technical groundwork for the National programme for radioactive waste and spent fuel management, together with a detailed description of the measures relating to the reduction of the occurrence of radioactive waste, to the treatment thereof prior to disposal and to its disposal, and the measures relating to the treatment and disposal of spent fuel, shall be carried out and communicated to the ministry competent for the environment by the ARAO Agency. The operative programmes within the national programme of the radioactive waste and spent fuel management shall be drawn up by the ARAO Agency adopted by the Government. The operative programmes shall

  11. 17 CFR 240.17a-1 - Recordkeeping rule for national securities exchanges, national securities associations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... national securities exchanges, national securities associations, registered clearing agencies and the... Certain Stabilizing Activities § 240.17a-1 Recordkeeping rule for national securities exchanges, national...) Every national securities exchange, national securities association, registered clearing agency and the...

  12. The nutrition policy process: the role of strategic capacity in advancing national nutrition agendas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, David L; Menon, Purnima; Ngo, Tien; Frongillo, Edward A; Frongillo, Dominic

    2011-06-01

    Undernutrition is the single largest contributor to the burden of disease in developing countries and has documented effects on social and economic development, yet progress in reducing undernutrition remains slow. This paper identifies the range of factors that have influenced the nutrition agenda in developing countries, in order to inform the implementation of three major global initiatives related to undernutrition. Data sources include interviews with nutrition practitioners at the national and international level, written accounts from six African countries, and observations of the policy process in five countries. Data were thematically coded to identify recurrent factors that facilitated or inhibited progress in addressing undernutrition. The data reveal the following: First, societal conditions and catalytic events pose a variety of challenges and opportunities to enlarge and shape the nutrition agenda. Some countries have been successful in using such opportunities, while others have been less successful and there have been some unintended consequences. Second, disagreements over interventions and strategies are an almost universal feature of the nutrition policy process, occur primarily among mid-level actors rather than among politicians or senior administrators, and are primarily the product of structural factors such as organizational mandates, interests, and differences in professional perspectives. Third, many of these structural factors can be molded, aligned, and/or circumvented through strategic action on the part of the mid-level actors to strengthen movement on the nutrition agenda. This evidence that strategic action can redirect and/or overcome the effects of structural factors has important implications for future efforts to advance the nutrition agenda.

  13. National Community Solar Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupert, Bart [Clean Energy Collective, Louisville, CO (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This project was created to provide a National Community Solar Platform (NCSP) portal known as Community Solar Hub, that is available to any entity or individual who wants to develop community solar. This has been done by providing a comprehensive portal to make CEC’s solutions, and other proven community solar solutions, externally available for everyone to access – making the process easy through proven platforms to protect subscribers, developers and utilities. The successful completion of this project provides these tools via a web platform and integration APIs, a wide spectrum of community solar projects included in the platform, multiple groups of customers (utilities, EPCs, and advocates) using the platform to develop community solar, and open access to anyone interested in community solar. CEC’s Incubator project includes web-based informational resources, integrated systems for project information and billing systems, and engagement with customers and users by community solar experts. The combined effort externalizes much of Clean Energy Collective’s industry-leading expertise, allowing third parties to develop community solar without duplicating expensive start-up efforts. The availability of this platform creates community solar projects that are cheaper to build and cheaper to participate in, furthering the goals of DOE’s SunShot Initiative. Final SF 425 Final SF 428 Final DOE F 2050.11 Final Report Narrative

  14. OCS National Compendium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, G.J.; Karpas, R.M.; Slitor, D.L.

    1991-06-01

    The Minerals Management Service's (MMS) Outer Continental Shelf Information Program (OCSIP) is responsible for making available to affected coastal States, local governments, and other interested parties data and information related to the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Program. Since its establishment through Section 26 of the OCS Lands Act (OCSLA) Amendments of 1978, OCSIP has prepared regional summary reports, updates, and indexes on leasing, exploration, development, and production activities to fulfill the mandates of the OCSLA Amendments. The OCSIP receives many requests for out-of-print summary reports, updates, and indexes. The purpose of the OCS National Compendium is to consolidate these historical data and to present the data on an OCS-wide and regional scale. The single-volume approach allows the reader access to historical information and facilitates regional comparisons. The fold-out chart in the front of this publication provides the reader with a timeline (January 1988--November 1990) of events since publication of the last Compendium. Some of the events are directly related to the 5-year Oil and Gas Program, whereas others may or may not have an effect on the program. A predominantly graphic format is used in the report so that the large accumulation of data can be more readily comprehended. In some cases, it is not possible to update information through October 21, 1990, because of the nature of the data. For example, production data normally lags 3 months. 58 figs., 37 tabs.

  15. Sharing organs with foreign nationals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Rebecca; Wright, Linda

    2011-03-01

    Organs for transplantation are an absolute scarcity throughout the world, and many countries do not offer transplantation. Developed countries with transplant programs receive requests to list foreign nationals for transplantation. Any national standard deserves justification by a thorough exploration of the issues. In this article, the issues regarding organ transplantation for foreign nationals in Canada are explored. Currently Canada has no policy on listing foreign nationals for transplantation. Three topics are reviewed: (1) arguments for and against the transplantation of organs from deceased donors to foreign nationals, (2) relevant legislation and position statements, and (3) relevant practices in other countries. Finally, practical policy options are suggested. This article's analysis of the issues will provide guidance for health care professionals and policy makers in Canada and developed countries exploring listing foreign nationals for transplantation.

  16. National features of speech etiquette

    OpenAIRE

    Nacafova S.

    2017-01-01

    The article shows the differences between the speech etiquette of different peoples. The most important thing is to find a common language with this or that interlocutor. Knowledge of national etiquette, national character helps to learn the principles of speech of another nation. The article indicates in which cases certain forms of etiquette considered acceptable. At the same time, the rules of etiquette emphasized in the conduct of a dialogue in official meetings and for example, in the ex...

  17. National HIV/AIDS Strategy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about the importance of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and the work of CDC.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  18. National Software Reference Library (NSRL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Software Reference Library (NSRL) (PC database for purchase)   A collaboration of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Defense Computer Forensics Laboratory (DCFL),the U.S. Customs Service, software vendors, and state and local law enforement organizations, the NSRL is a tool to assist in fighting crime involving computers.

  19. Algerian National Culture and TQM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkrim Yahia-Berrouiguet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature on total quality management confirmed that the national culture has an effect on total quality management implementation. The aim of this study is to compare the Algerian national culture and the TQM culture. The results indicated that not all the national culture dimensions are appropriate for TQM implementation in the Algerian context: the collectivism dimension is appropriate, the power distance and uncertainty avoidance dimensions are not appropriate.

  20. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Financial Report (AFR) Budget Submission Recovery Act Resources Business Congressional Affairs Jobs Benefits Booklet Data & Statistics VA Open Data VA App Store National Resource ...