WorldWideScience

Sample records for circumstellar molecular composition

  1. Composite circumstellar dust grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ranjan; Vaidya, Dipak B.; Dutta, Rajeshwari

    2016-10-01

    We calculate the absorption efficiencies of composite silicate grains with inclusions of graphite and silicon carbide in the spectral range 5-25 μm. We study the variation in absorption profiles with volume fractions of inclusions. In particular we study the variation in the wavelength of peak absorption at 10 and 18 μm. We also study the variation of the absorption of porous silicate grains. We use the absorption efficiencies to calculate the infrared flux at various dust temperatures and compare with the observed infrared emission flux from the circumstellar dust around some M-type and asymptotic giant branch stars obtained from IRAS and a few stars from Spitzer satellite. We interpret the observed data in terms of the circumstellar dust grain sizes, shape, composition and dust temperature.

  2. Composite Circumstellar Dust Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Ranjan; Dutta, Rajeshwari

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the absorption efficiencies of composite silicate grains with inclusions of graphite and silicon carbide in the spectral range 5--25$\\rm \\mu m$. We study the variation in absorption profiles with volume fractions of inclusions. In particular we study the variation in the wavelength of peak absorption at 10 and 18$\\rm \\mu m$. We also study the variation of the absorption of porous silicate grains. We use the absorption efficiencies to calculate the infrared flux at various dust temperatures and compare with the observed infrared emission flux from the circumstellar dust around some M-Type \\& AGB stars obtained from IRAS and a few stars from Spitzer satellite. We interpret the observed data in terms of the circumstellar dust grain sizes; shape; composition and dust temperature.

  3. Circumstellar molecular composition of the oxygen-rich AGB star IK Tau: I. Observations and LTE chemical abundance analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hyunjoo; Menten, Karl M; Decin, Leen

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the molecular composition in the circumstellar envelope around the oxygen-rich star IK Tau. We observed IK Tau in several (sub)millimeter bands using the APEX telescope during three observing periods. To determine the spatial distribution of the $\\mathrm{^{12}CO(3-2)}$ emission, mapping observations were performed. To constrain the physical conditions in the circumstellar envelope, multiple rotational CO emission lines were modeled using a non local thermodynamic equilibrium radiative transfer code. The rotational temperatures and the abundances of the other molecules were obtained assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium. An oxygen-rich Asymptotic Giant Branch star has been surveyed in the submillimeter wavelength range. Thirty four transitions of twelve molecular species, including maser lines, were detected. The kinetic temperature of the envelope was determined and the molecular abundance fractions of the molecules were estimated. The deduced molecular abundances were com...

  4. Circumstellar Molecular Spectra towards Evolved Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bakker, E J

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of, and possible scientific gains which can be acquired from studying circumstellar molecular spectra toward evolved stars. Where can we expect circumstellar molecular spectra, why would we want to study these spectra, which molecules might be present, and what can we learn from these studies? We present an overview of reported detections, and discuss some of the results.

  5. The composition of circumstellar and interstellar dust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielens, AGGM; Woodward, CE; Biscay, MD; Shull, JM

    2001-01-01

    A large number of solid dust components have been identified through analysis of stardust recovered from meteorites, and analysis of IR observations of circumstellar shells and the interstellar medium. These include graphite, hydrogenated amorphous carbon, diamond, PAHs, silicon-, iron-, and titanin

  6. Detailed modelling of the circumstellar molecular line emission of the S-type AGB star W Aquilae

    CERN Document Server

    Danilovich, T; Justtanont, K; Lombaert, R; Maercker, M; Olofsson, H; Ramstedt, S; Royer, P

    2014-01-01

    S-type AGB stars have a C/O ratio which suggests that they are transition objects between oxygen-rich M-type stars and carbon-rich C-type stars. As such, their circumstellar compositions of gas and dust are thought to be sensitive to their precise C/O ratio, and it is therefore of particular interest to examine their circumstellar properties. We present new Herschel HIFI and PACS sub-millimetre and far-infrared line observations of several molecular species towards the S-type AGB star W Aql. We use these observations, which probe a wide range of gas temperatures, to constrain the circumstellar properties of W Aql, including mass-loss rate and molecular abundances. We used radiative transfer codes to model the circumstellar dust and molecular line emission to determine circumstellar properties and molecular abundances. We assumed a spherically symmetric envelope formed by a constant mass-loss rate driven by an accelerating wind. Our model includes fully integrated H2O line cooling as part of the solution of th...

  7. A circumstellar molecular gas structure associated with the massive young star Cepheus A-HW 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrelles, Jose M.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Canto, Jorge; Ho, Paul T. P.

    1993-01-01

    We report the detection via VLA-D observations of ammonia of a circumstellar high-density molecular gas structure toward the massive young star related to the object Cepheus A-HW 2, a firm candidate for the powering source of the high-velocity molecular outflow in the region. We suggest that the circumstellar molecular gas structure could be related to the circumstellar disk previously suggested from infrared, H2O, and OH maser observations. We consider as a plausible scenario that the double radio continuum source of HW 2 could represent the ionized inner part of the circumstellar disk, in the same way as proposed to explain the double radio source in L1551. The observed motions in the circumstellar molecular gas can be produced by bound motions (e.g., infall or rotation) around a central mass of about 10-20 solar masses (B0.5 V star or earlier).

  8. Molecular content of the circumstellar disk in AB Aur: First detection of SO in a circumstellar disk

    CERN Document Server

    Fuente, A; Agundez, M; Berne, O; Goicoechea, J R; Alonso-Albi, T; Marcelino, N

    2010-01-01

    Very few molecular species have been detected in circumstellar disks surrounding young stellar objects. We are carrying out an observational study of the chemistry of circumstellar disks surrounding T Tauri and Herbig Ae stars. First results of this study are presented in this note. We used the EMIR receivers recently installed at the IRAM 30m telescope to carry a sensitive search for molecular lines in the disks surrounding AB Aur, DM Tau, and LkCa 15. We detected lines of the molecules HCO+, CN, H2CO, SO, CS, and HCN toward AB Aur. In addition, we tentatively detected DCO+ and H2S lines. The line profiles suggest that the CN, HCN, H2CO, CS and SO lines arise in the disk. This makes it the first detection of SO in a circumstellar disk. We have unsuccessfully searched for SO toward DM Tau and LkCa 15, and for c-C3H2 toward AB Aur, DM Tau, and LkCa 15. Our upper limits show that contrary to all the molecular species observed so far, SO is not as abundant in DM Tau as it is in AB Aur. Our results demonstrate th...

  9. Atomic and Molecular Isotope Ratios in Circumstellar Envelopes: Fractionation vs. Nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, Stefanie

    (e.g. oxygen-rich vs. carbon-rich). The isotope ratios of 12C/13C, 14N/15N, 16O/17O, and 16O/18O will be determined and compared to previous studies conducted on species now considered to be affected by chemistry in the circumstellar shell. These observations will provide constraints on the true internal processes that are occurring in evolved stars as well as photo-selective chemistry affecting molecular abundances in the envelopes. The data analysis program proposed here will provide a self-consistent study of the natal isotopic composition of circumstellar envelopes and test recent theories of circumstellar chemistry. This fundamental information on the isotopic composition of material ejected from evolved stars will help improve current models of Galactic chemical evolution and help constrain star formation rates and stellar ages. Isotopically enriched matter found in some primitive materials has been associated with dust derived from these objects, though there is a lack of data currently available to fully constrain the origins. This work will allow a detailed comparison of laboratory analyses of extraterrestrial materials with a comprehensive astronomical dataset, and strongly constrain theoretical models of circumstellar chemistry. Realization of our project goals will greatly enhance the scientific return from the Herschel Space Observatory, and provide powerful context and motivation for astronomical observations to be made by future missions such as JWST and SOFIA as well as future ground-based studies. This work is highly relevant to the Astrophysics Data Analysis Program by focusing on the analysis of archival data from NASA space astrophysics missions and will address questions difficult to answer in the individual observing programs.

  10. Hot Molecular Circumstellar Disk around Massive Protostar Orion Source I

    CERN Document Server

    Hirota, Tomoya; Kurono, Yasutaka; Honma, Mareki

    2013-01-01

    We report new Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of a circumstellar disk around Source I in Orion KL, an archetype of massive protostar candidate. We detected two ortho-H$_{2}$O lines at 321 GHz ($10_{2,9}$-$9_{3,6}$) and 336 GHz ($\

  11. Testing circumstellar disk lifetimes in young embedded clusters associated with the Vela Molecular Ridge

    CERN Document Server

    Massi, Fabrizio; Codella, Claudio; Testi, Leonardo; Vanzi, Leonardo; Gomes, Joana

    2010-01-01

    Context. The Vela Molecular Ridge hosts a number of young embedded star clusters in the same evolutionary stage. Aims. The main aim of the present work is testing whether the fraction of members with a circumstellar disk in a sample of clusters in the cloud D of the Vela Molecular Ridge, is consistent with relations derived for larger samples of star clusters with an age spread. Besides, we want to constrain the age of the young embedded star clusters associated with cloud D. Methods. We carried out L (3.78 microns) photometry on images of six young embedded star clusters associated with cloud D of the Vela Molecular Ridge, taken with ISAAC at the VLT. These data are complemented with the available HKs photometry. The 6 clusters are roughly of the same size and appear to be in the same evolutionary stage. The fraction of stars with a circumstellar disk was measured in each cluster by counting the fraction of sources displaying a NIR excess in colour-colour (HKsL) diagrams. Results. The L photometry allowed us...

  12. Tracing planet-induced structures in circumstellar disks using molecular lines

    CERN Document Server

    Ober, F; Uribe, A L; Klahr, H H

    2015-01-01

    Circumstellar disks are considered to be the birthplace of planets. Specific structures like spiral arms, gaps, and cavities are characteristic indicators of planet-disk interaction. Investigating these structures can provide insights into the growth of protoplanets and the physical properties of the disk. We investigate the feasibility of using molecular lines to trace planet-induced structures in circumstellar disks. Based on 3D hydrodynamic simulations of planet-disk interactions, we perform self-consistent temperature calculations and produce N-LTE molecular line velocity-channel maps and spectra of these disks using our new N-LTE line radiative transfer code Mol3D. Subsequently, we simulate ALMA observations using the CASA simulator. We consider two nearly face-on inclinations, 5 disk masses, 7 disk radii, and 2 different typical pre-main-sequence host stars (T Tauri, Herbig Ae). We calculate up to 141 individual velocity-channel maps for five molecules/isotopoloques in a total of 32 rotational transitio...

  13. The Rich Circumstellar Chemistry of SMP LMC 11

    CERN Document Server

    Malek, Sarah E; Bernard-Salas, Jeronimo

    2011-01-01

    Carbon-rich evolved stars from the asymptotic giant branch to the planetary nebula phase are characterized by a rich and complex carbon chemistry in their circumstellar envelopes. A peculiar object is the preplanetary nebula SMP LMC 11, whose Spitzer-IRS spectrum shows remarkable and diverse molecular absorption bands. To study how the molecular composition in this object compares to our current understanding of circumstellar carbon chemistry, we modeled this molecular absorption. We find high abundances for a number of molecules, perhaps most notably benzene. We also confirm the presence of propyne (CH3C2H) in this spectrum. Of all the cyanopolyynes, only HC3N is evident; we can detect at best a marginal presence of HCN. From comparisons to various chemical models, we can conclude that SMP LMC 11 must have an unusual circumstellar environment (a torus rather than an outflow).

  14. Structure and Composition of Two Transitional Circumstellar Disks in Corona Australis

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, A M; Wilner, D J; Meyer, M R; Carpenter, J M; Qi, C; Hales, A S; Casassus, S; Hogerheijde, M R; Mamajek, E E; Wolf, S; Henning, T; Silverstone, M D

    2010-01-01

    The late stages of evolution of the primordial circumstellar disks surrounding young stars are poorly understood, yet vital to constrain theories of planet formation. We consider basic structural models for the disks around two ~10 Myr-old members of the nearby RCrA association, RX J1842.9-3532 and RX J1852.3-3700. We present new arcsecond-resolution maps of their 230 GHz continuum emission from the Submillimeter Array and unresolved CO(3-2) spectra from the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment. By combining these data with broadband fluxes from the literature and infrared fluxes and spectra from the catalog of the Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems (FEPS) Legacy program on the Spitzer Space Telescope, we assemble a multiwavelength data set probing the gas and dust disks. Using the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code RADMC to model simultaneously the SED and millimeter continuum visibilities, we derive basic dust disk properties and identify an inner cavity of radius 16 AU in the disk around R...

  15. Molecular anions in circumstellar envelopes, interstellar clouds and planetary atmospheres: quantum dynamics of formation and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Carelli, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    For decades astronomers and astrophysicists believed that only positively charged ions were worthy of relevance in drawing the networks for possible chemical reactions in the interstellar medium, as well as in modeling the physical conditions in most of astrophysical environments. Thus, molecular negative ions received minor attention until their possible existence was observationally confirmed (discovery of the first interstellar anion, C6H-), about thirty years after the first physically reasonable proposal on their actual detection was theoretically surmised by E.Herbst. In an astrophysical context, their role should be then found in their involvement in the charge balance as well as in the chemical evolution of the considered environment: depending on their amount and on the global gas density, in fact, the possible evolutive scenario could be susceptible of marked variations on the estimated time needed for reaching the steady state, their presence having thus also important repercussions on the final ch...

  16. Spitzer IRS Observations of Class I/II Objects in Taurus: Composition, Temperature and Thermal History of the Circumstellar Ices

    CERN Document Server

    Zasowski, G; Watson, Dan M; Furlan, E; Bohac, C J; Hull, C; Green, J D

    2007-01-01

    We present observations of Taurus-Auriga Class I/II protostars obtained with the Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph. Detailed spectral fits to the 6 and 15 micron features are made, using publicly-available laboratory data, to constrain the molecular composition, abundances, and levels of thermal processing along the lines of sight. We provide an inventory of the molecular environments observed, which have an average composition dominated by water ice with ~12% CO_2 (abundance relative to H_2O), >~2-9% CH_3OH, <~14% NH_3, ~4% CH_4, ~2% H_2CO, ~0.6% HCOOH, and ~0.5% SO_2. We find CO_2/H_2O ratios nearly equivalent to those observed in cold clouds and lines of sight toward the galactic center. The unidentified 6.8 micron profile shapes vary from source to source, and it is shown to be likely that even combinations of the most common candidates (NH_4+ and CH_3OH) are inadequate to explain the feature fully. We discuss correlations among SED spectral indices, abundance ratios, and thermally-processed ice fractions ...

  17. The molecular composition of ambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimalt, J.O.; Simoneit, B.R.T.; Hatcher, P.G.; Nissenbaum, A.

    1988-01-01

    Bulk (elemental composition, IR, CP/MAS 13C NMR) and molecular (GC-MS) analyses have been performed on a series of ambers and resins derived from different locations (Dominican Republic, Philippines, Canada, Israel, New Zealand, Chile) having diverse botanical affinities (Araucariaceae, Hymenaea) and variable age (from Holocene to Early Cretaceous). No major differences have been observed from the elemental composition and the spectroscopic data; however, the molecular analyses of the solvent extractable fraction show that a specific mixture of components is present in each sample. These are mainly diterpenoid products that in general are also found abundantly in the higher plants from which the ambers and resins originate. Nevertheless, a direct relationship between major terpenoid constituents in fossil resins and precursor plant materials can only be established for the younger samples. Irrespective of the geographical or botanical origin of the ambers and resins, several common age-dependent molecular transformation trends can be recognized: (1) progressive loss of olefinic bonds (especially those located in exocyclic positions), (2) decrease of functionalized products, and (3) increasing proportion of aromatized components. However, even in the samples of older age (Cretaceous) the degree of aromatization is very low when compared with that of other higher-plant related materials such as fossilized woods or low rank coals. This indicates that maturation must involve essentially olefin polymerization processes instead of extensive aromatization. ?? 1988.

  18. Vortices in circumstellar disks

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, F; Adams, Fred; Watkins, Richard

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the physics of vortices in the circumstellar disks associated with young stellar objects. We elucidate the basic physical properties of these localized storm systems. In particular, we consider point vortices, linear vortices, the effects of self-gravity, magnetic fields, and nonlinear aspects of the problem. We find that these vortices can exist in many different forms in the disks of young stellar objects and may play a role in the formation of binary companions and/or giant planets. Vortices may enhance giant planet formation via gravitational instability by allowing dust grains (heavy elements) to settle to the center on a short timescale; the gravitational instability itself is also enhanced because the vortices also create a larger local surface density in the disk. In addition, vortices can enhance energy dissipation in disks and thereby affect disk accretion. Finally, we consider the possibility that vortices of this type exist in molecular clouds and in the disk of the galaxy itself. On al...

  19. Carbon fiber composite molecular sieves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchell, T.D.; Rogers, M.R.; Williams, A.M.

    1996-06-01

    The removal of CO{sub 2} is of significance in several energy applications. The combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas, releases large volumes of CO{sub 2} to the environment. Several options exist to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, including substitution of nuclear power for fossil fuels, increasing the efficiency of fossil plants and capturing the CO{sub 2} prior to emission to the environment. All of these techniques have the attractive feature of limiting the amount of CO{sub 2} emitted to the atmosphere, but each has economic, technical, or societal limitations. In the production of natural gas, the feed stream from the well frequently contains contaminants and diluents which must be removed before the gas can enter the pipeline distribution system. Notable amongst these diluent gasses is CO{sub 2}, which has no calorific value. Currently, the pipeline specification calls for <2 mol % CO{sub 2} in the gas. Gas separation is thus a relevant technology in the field of energy production. A novel separation system based on a parametric swing process has been developed that utilizes the unique combination of properties exhibited by our carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS).

  20. Collapse of a molecular cloud core to stellar densities: the radiative impact of stellar core formation on the circumstellar disc

    CERN Document Server

    Bate, Matthew R

    2010-01-01

    We present results from the first three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamical calculations to follow the collapse of a molecular cloud core beyond the formation of the stellar core. We find the energy released by the formation of the stellar core, within the optically-thick first hydrostatic core, is comparable to the binding energy of the disc-like first core. This heats the inner regions of the disc, drives a shock wave through the disc, dramatically decreases the accretion rate on to the stellar core, and launches a temporary bipolar outflow perpendicular to the rotation axis that travels in excess of 50 AU into the infalling envelope. This outburst may assist the young protostar in launching a conventional magnetic jet. Furthermore, if these events are cyclic, they may provide a mechanism for intense bursts of accretion separated by long periods of relatively quiescent accretion which can potentially solve both the protostellar luminosity problem and the apparent age spread of stars in young clusters. Such...

  1. The Origin and Formation of the Circumstellar Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Machida, Masahiro N

    2010-01-01

    The formation and evolution of the circumstellar disk in the collapsing molecular cloud is investigated from the prestellar stage resolving both the molecular cloud core and the protostar itself. In the collapsing cloud, the first adiabatic core appears prior to the protostar formation. Reflecting the thermodynamics of the collapsing gas, the first core is much more massive than the protostar. When the molecular cloud has no angular momentum, the first core falls onto the protostar and disappears a few years after the protostar formation. On the other hand, when the molecular cloud has an angular momentum, the first core does not disappear even after the protostar formation, and directly evolves into the circumstellar disk with a Keplerian rotation. There are two paths for the formation of the circumstellar disk. When the initial cloud has a considerably small rotational energy, two nested disks appear just after the protostar formation. During the early main accretion phase, the inner disk increases its size...

  2. Interstellar and circumstellar fullerenes

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard-Salas, J; Jones, A P; Peeters, E; Micelotta, E R; Otsuka, M; Sloan, G C; Kemper, F; Groenewegen, M

    2014-01-01

    Fullerenes are a particularly stable class of carbon molecules in the shape of a hollow sphere or ellipsoid that might be formed in the outflows of carbon stars. Once injected into the interstellar medium (ISM), these stable species survive and are thus likely to be widespread in the Galaxy where they contribute to interstellar extinction, heating processes, and complex chemical reactions. In recent years, the fullerene species C60 (and to a lesser extent C70) have been detected in a wide variety of circumstellar and interstellar environments showing that when conditions are favourable, fullerenes are formed efficiently. Fullerenes are the first and only large aromatics firmly identified in space. The detection of fullerenes is thus crucial to provide clues as to the key chemical pathways leading to the formation of large complex organic molecules in space, and offers a great diagnostic tool to describe the environment in which they reside. Since fullerenes share many physical properties with PAHs, understand...

  3. The complex circumstellar environment of HD142527

    CERN Document Server

    Verhoeff, A P; Pantin, E; Waters, L B F M; Tielens, A G G M; Honda, M; Fujiwara, H; Bouwman, J; van Boekel, R; Dougherty, S M; de Koter, A; Dominik, C; Mulders, G D

    2011-01-01

    The recent findings of gas giant planets around young A-type stars suggest that disks surrounding Herbig Ae/Be stars will develop planetary systems. An interesting case is HD142527, for which previous observations revealed a complex circumstellar environment and an unusually high ratio of infrared to stellar luminosity. Its properties differ considerably from other Herbig Ae/Be stars. This suggests that the disk surrounding HD142527 is in an uncommon evolutionary stage. We aim for a better understanding of the geometry and evolutionary status of the circumstellar material around the Herbig Ae/Be star HD142527. We map the composition and spatial distribution of the dust around HD142527. We analyze SEST and ATCA millimeter data, VISIR N and Q-band imaging and spectroscopy. We gather additional relevant data from the literature. We use the radiative transfer code MCMax to construct a model of the geometry and density structure of the circumstellar matter, which fits all of the observables satisfactorily. We find...

  4. The circumstellar structure around supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time dependent ionization and temperature structure of the circumstellar medium around supernovae has been calculated, in order to interpret recent supernova radio observations. For a stellar wind origin of the circumstellar medium, the authors relate the time of radio turn-on to the progenitor mass loss rate. They also show that large column densities for the UV resonance lines are expected. The results are applied to SN 1979c, SN 1980K and SN 1987A

  5. The circumstellar envelope of the C-rich post-AGB star HD 56126

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hony, S; Tielens, AGGM; Waters, LBFM; de Koter, A

    2003-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the circumstellar envelope of the post-asymptotic giant branch "21 mum object" HD 56126. We build a detailed dust radiative transfer model of the circumstellar envelope in order to derive the dust composition and mass, and the mass-loss history of the star. To model th

  6. Confirmation of circumstellar phosphine

    CERN Document Server

    Agundez, M; Decin, L; Encrenaz, P; Teyssier, D

    2014-01-01

    Phosphine (PH3) was tentatively identified a few years ago in the carbon star envelopes IRC+10216 and CRL2688 from observations of an emission line at 266.9 GHz attributable to the J=1-0 rotational transition. We report the detection of the J=2-1 rotational transition of PH3 in IRC+10216 using the HIFI instrument on board Herschel, which definitively confirms the identification of PH3. Radiative transfer calculations indicate that infrared pumping to excited vibrational states plays an important role in the excitation of PH3 in the envelope of IRC+10216, and that the observed lines are consistent with phosphine being formed anywhere between the star and 100 R* from the star, with an abundance of 1e-8 relative to H2. The detection of PH3 challenges chemical models, none of which offers a satisfactory formation scenario. Although PH3 locks just 2 % of the total available phosphorus in IRC+10216, it is together with HCP, one of the major gas phase carriers of phosphorus in the inner circumstellar layers, suggest...

  7. Molecular composition of IMP1 ribonucleoprotein granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønson, Lars; Vikesaa, Jonas; Krogh, Anders;

    2007-01-01

    Localized mRNAs are transported to sites of local protein synthesis in large ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules, but their molecular composition is incompletely understood. Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein (IMP) zip code-binding proteins participate in mRNA localization, and in mo......Localized mRNAs are transported to sites of local protein synthesis in large ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules, but their molecular composition is incompletely understood. Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein (IMP) zip code-binding proteins participate in mRNA localization......, and in motile cells IMP-containing granules are dispersed around the nucleus and in cellular protrusions. We isolated the IMP1-containing RNP granules and found that they represent a unique RNP entity distinct from neuronal hStaufen and/or fragile X mental retardation protein granules, processing bodies......, and stress granules. Granules were 100-300 nm in diameter and consisted of IMPs, 40 S ribosomal subunits, shuttling heterologous nuclear RNPs, poly(A)-binding proteins, and mRNAs. Moreover granules contained CBP80 and factors belonging to the exon junction complex and lacked eIF4E, eIF4G, and 60 S ribosomal...

  8. A photospheric metal line profile analysis of hot DA white dwarfs with circumstellar material

    CERN Document Server

    Dickinson, Nathan J; Welsh, Barry Y

    2012-01-01

    Some hot DA white dwarfs have circumstellar high ion absorption features in their spectra, in addition to those originating in the photosphere. In many cases, the line profiles of these absorbing components are unresolved. Given the importance of the atmospheric composition of white dwarfs to studies of stellar evolution, extra-solar planetary systems and the interstellar medium, we examine the effect of including circumstellar line profiles in the abundance estimates of photospheric metals in six DA stars. The photospheric C and Si abundances are reduced in five cases where the circumstellar contamination is strong, though the relative weakness of the circumstellar Si IV absorption introduces minimal contamination, resulting in a small change in abundance. The inability of previous, approximate models to reproduce the photospheric line profiles here demonstrates the need for a technique that accounts for the physical line profiles of both the circumstellar and photospheric lines when modelling these blended ...

  9. Herschel Studies of Circumstellar Volatile Isotopes: Supporting Observations from the Ground and SOFIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, Stefanie

    as well as results we will obtain from Herschel. These observations will provide constraints on the true internal processes that are occurring in evolved stars as well as photo-selective chemistry affecting molecular abundances in the envelopes. The observational program proposed here will provide a self-consistent study of the natal isotopic composition of circumstellar envelopes and test recent theories of circumstellar chemistry. This fundamental information on the isotopic composition of material ejected from evolved stars will help improve current models of Galactic chemical evolution and help constrain star formation rates and stellar ages. Isotopically enriched matter found in some primitive materials have been associated with dust derived from these objects, though there is a lack of data currently available to fully constrain the origins. This work will allow a detailed comparison of laboratory analyses of extraterrestrial materials with a comprehensive astronomical dataset, and strongly constrain theoretical astrochemistry models of circumstellar chemistry. Realization of the project goals will greatly enhance the scientific return from the Herschel Space Observatory and SOFIA, and provide powerful context and motivation for astronomical observations to be made by future missions such as JWST.

  10. Circumstellar Nebulae in Young Supernova Remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Y.-H.

    2000-01-01

    Supernovae descendent from massive stars explode in media that have been modified by their progenitors' mass loss and UV radiation. The supernova ejecta will first interact with the circumstellar material shed by the progenitors at late evolutionary stages, and then interact with the interstellar material. Circumstellar nebulae in supernova remnants can be diagnosed by their small expansion velocities and high [N II]/H$\\alpha$ ratios. The presence of circumstellar nebulae appears ubiquitous a...

  11. X-raying circumstellar material around young stars

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, P C

    2015-01-01

    Young stars are surrounded by copious amounts of circumstellar material. Its composition, in particular its gas-to-dust ratio, is an important parameter. However, measuring this ratio is challenging, because gas mass estimates are often model dependent. X-ray absorption is sensitive to the gas along the line-of-sight while optical/near-IR extinction depends on the dust content. Therefore, the gas-to-dust ratio of an absorber is given by the ratio between X-ray and optical/near-IR extinction. We present three systems where we used X-ray and optical/near-IR data to constrain the gas-to-dust ratio of circumstellar material; from a dust-rich debris disk to gaseous protoplanetary disks.

  12. Polarimetric microlensing of circumstellar disks

    CERN Document Server

    Sajadian, Sedighe

    2015-01-01

    We study the benefits of polarimetry observations of microlensing events to detect and characterize circumstellar disks around the microlensed stars located at the Galactic bulge. These disks which are unresolvable from their host stars make a net polarization effect due to their projected elliptical shapes. Gravitational microlensing can magnify these signals and make them be resolved. The main aim of this work is to determine what extra information about these disks can be extracted from polarimetry observations of microlensing events in addition to those given by photometry ones. Hot disks which are closer to their host stars are more likely to be detected by microlensing, owing to more contributions in the total flux. By considering this kind of disks, we show that although the polarimetric efficiency for detecting disks is similar to the photometric observation, but polarimetry observations can help to constraint the disk geometrical parameters e.g. the disk inner radius and the lens trajectory with resp...

  13. Polytype distribution in circumstellar silicon carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daulton, T L; Bernatowicz, T J; Lewis, R S; Messenger, S; Stadermann, F J; Amari, S

    2002-06-01

    The inferred crystallographic class of circumstellar silicon carbide based on astronomical infrared spectra is controversial. We have directly determined the polytype distribution of circumstellar SiC from transmission electron microscopy of presolar silicon carbide from the Murchison carbonaceous meteorite. Only two polytypes (of a possible several hundred) were observed: cubic 3C and hexagonal 2H silicon carbide and their intergrowths. We conclude that this structural simplicity is a direct consequence of the low pressures in circumstellar outflows and the corresponding low silicon carbide condensation temperatures. PMID:12052956

  14. Delamination toughness of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casas-Rodriguez J.P.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE fibre reinforced composites are an important group of material for armours solutions, where their unique combination of properties could be utilized. A commonly observed failure mode in this kind of unidirectional laminated composites under impact ballistic is delamination between the composite layers. In the present study, an investigation on the delamination toughness behaviour exhibited by UHMWPE composites laminated was made. The interlaminar Mode II critical strain energy release rates of (UHMWPE fibre reinforced composites were characterized using the End Notch Flexural (ENF test. Critical strain energy release rate was obtained from the load – deflection test data using the beam theory expression. It was found that the energy release rate of the composite exhibited a very low value of around 60J/m2 using a moulding pressure of approximately 1200 psi. In order to analyse the delamination resistance of composite, the effects of changing the manufacture process variables and the use of a thermoplastic adhesive film in the composites were investigated. The composite laminates were produced by hot compressing moulding using a film-stacking procedure. It was found that the damage resistance of the UHMWPE composite was influenced by the manufacture method, which affects the Mode II interlaminar fracture toughness and the ballistic response of composites.

  15. Tracing Planets in Circumstellar Discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe Ana L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Planets are assumed to form in circumstellar discs around young stellar objects. The additional gravitational potential of a planet perturbs the disc and leads to characteristic structures, i.e. spiral waves and gaps, in the disc density profile. We perform a large-scale parameter study on the observability of these planet-induced structures in circumstellar discs in the (submm wavelength range for the Atacama Large (SubMillimeter Array (ALMA. On the basis of hydrodynamical and magneto-hydrodynamical simulations of star-disc-planet models we calculate the disc temperature structure and (submm images of these systems. These are used to derive simulated ALMA maps. Because appropriate objects are frequent in the Taurus-Auriga region, we focus on a distance of 140 pc and a declination of ≈ 20°. The explored range of star-disc-planet configurations consists of six hydrodynamical simulations (including magnetic fields and different planet masses, nine disc sizes with outer radii ranging from 9 AU to 225 AU, 15 total disc masses in the range between 2.67·10-7 M⊙ and 4.10·10-2 M⊙, six different central stars and two different grain size distributions, resulting in 10 000 disc models. At almost all scales and in particular down to a scale of a few AU, ALMA is able to trace disc structures induced by planet-disc interaction or the influence of magnetic fields in the wavelength range between 0.4...2.0 mm. In most cases, the optimum angular resolution is limited by the sensitivity of ALMA. However, within the range of typical masses of protoplane tary discs (0.1 M⊙...0.001 M⊙ the disc mass has a minor impact on the observability. At the distance of 140 pc it is possible to resolve discs down to 2.67·10-6 M⊙ and trace gaps in discs with 2.67·10-4 M⊙ with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than three. In general, it is more likely to trace planet-induced gaps in magneto-hydrodynamical disc models, because gaps are wider in the presence of

  16. Buckling induced delamination of graphene composites through hybrid molecular modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of graphene-based composites relies on mechanical stability and cooperativity, whereby separation of layers (i.e., delamination) can severely hinder performance. Here we study buckling induced delamination of mono- and bilayer graphene-based composites, utilizing a hybrid full atomistic and coarse-grained molecular dynamics approach. The coarse-grain model allows exploration of an idealized model material to facilitate parametric variation beyond any particular molecular structure. Through theoretical and simulation analyses, we show a critical delamination condition, where ΔD∝kL4, where ΔD is the change in bending stiffness (eV), k the stiffness of adhesion (eV/Å4), and L the length of the adhered section (Å).

  17. Fracture of Carbon Nanotube - Amorphous Carbon Composites: Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Benjamin D.; Wise, Kristopher E.; Odegard, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising candidates for use as reinforcements in next generation structural composite materials because of their extremely high specific stiffness and strength. They cannot, however, be viewed as simple replacements for carbon fibers because there are key differences between these materials in areas such as handling, processing, and matrix design. It is impossible to know for certain that CNT composites will represent a significant advance over carbon fiber composites before these various factors have been optimized, which is an extremely costly and time intensive process. This work attempts to place an upper bound on CNT composite mechanical properties by performing molecular dynamics simulations on idealized model systems with a reactive forcefield that permits modeling of both elastic deformations and fracture. Amorphous carbon (AC) was chosen for the matrix material in this work because of its structural simplicity and physical compatibility with the CNT fillers. It is also much stiffer and stronger than typical engineering polymer matrices. Three different arrangements of CNTs in the simulation cell have been investigated: a single-wall nanotube (SWNT) array, a multi-wall nanotube (MWNT) array, and a SWNT bundle system. The SWNT and MWNT array systems are clearly idealizations, but the SWNT bundle system is a step closer to real systems in which individual tubes aggregate into large assemblies. The effect of chemical crosslinking on composite properties is modeled by adding bonds between the CNTs and AC. The balance between weakening the CNTs and improving fiber-matrix load transfer is explored by systematically varying the extent of crosslinking. It is, of course, impossible to capture the full range of deformation and fracture processes that occur in real materials with even the largest atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. With this limitation in mind, the simulation results reported here provide a plausible upper limit on

  18. Cosmic petrology: comparison of circumstellar dust with solar system extraterrestrial materials

    OpenAIRE

    Morlock, A.; Lisse, C. M.; Howard, K. T.

    2010-01-01

    Remote infrared observations allow us to obtain mineralogical information about micron-sized dust in circumstellar environments like young stellar objects (YSO). Comparison to laboratory infrared measurements of meteorites material from the time when our own Solar System was an YSO provides a link between astronomical observations with the known compositions of extraterrestrial materials in our Solar System.

  19. Catchment scale molecular composition of hydrologically mobilized dissolved organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeke, Julia; Lechtenfeld, Oliver J.; Oosterwoud, Marieke R.; Bornmann, Katrin; Tittel, Jörg; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Increasing concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in rivers of temperate catchments in Europe and North Amerika impose new technical challenges for drinking water production. The driving factors for this decadal increase in DOM concentration are not conclusive and changes in annual temperatures, precipitation and atmospheric deposition are intensely discussed. It is known that the majority of DOM is released by few but large hydrologic events, mobilizing DOM from riparian wetlands for export by rivers and streams. The mechanisms of this mobilization and the resulting molecular composition of the released DOM may be used to infer long-term changes in the biogeochemistry of the respective catchment. Event-based samples collected over two years from streams in three temperate catchments in the German mid-range mountains were analyzed after solid-phase extraction of DOM for their molecular composition by ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Hydrologic conditions, land use and water chemistry parameters were used to complement the molecular analysis. The molecular composition of the riverine DOM was strongly dependent on the magnitude of the hydrologic events, with unsaturated, oxygen-enriched compounds being preferentially mobilized by large events. This pattern is consistent with an increase in dissolved iron and aluminum concentrations. In contrast, the relative proportions of nitrogen and sulfur bearing compounds increased with an increased agricultural land use but were less affected by the mobilization events. Co-precipitation experiments with colloidal aluminum showed that unsaturated and oxygen-rich compounds are preferentially removed from the dissolved phase. The precipitated compounds thus had similar chemical characteristics as compared to the mobilized DOM from heavy rain events. Radiocarbon analyses also indicated that this precipitated fraction of DOM was of comparably young radiocarbon age. DOM radiocarbon from field samples

  20. The Velocity Structure of SN 1987A's Outer Circumstellar Envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotts, A. P. S.; Heathcote, S. R.

    1997-12-01

    We present high-resolution optical spectroscopy, (obtained with the CTIO 4-meter/echelle spectrograph over many epochs between 1989 and 1997) of the circumstellar nebula of SN 1987A, including the outer rings (within 3 arcsec of the SN), the inner (equatorial) ring, and fainter features at larger radii never studied before spectroscopically. We report velocity displacements for portions of the outer rings, up to 26 km s(-1) with respect the SN centroid velocity, with blueshifted components in the location of the southern outer ring and the redshifted portions of the northern outer ring. The largest shifts are near the SN, as predicted by a model in which the outer rings are the crowns of an expanding, bipolar nebula with the inner ring at its waist. We also confirm that the inner ring shows a velocity full-width of about 13 km s(-1) , which, along with the geometry of the rings and our outer ring velocity measurements, allows us to estimate a characteristic timescale of about 20,000 y for each of the three rings, implying that all are coeval. This contrasts with measurements by others of compositional ratios in the inner versus outer rings indicating that they were, perhaps, ejected at different times from the progenitor's star's outer envelope. Additionally, we measure the velocity of low surface brightness features at larger radii indicating that circumstellar material even farther from the SN was ejected up to 400,000 y before the explosion. Finally, we note the presence of transient emission features within the circumstellar nebula and describe their behaviour, and consider what implications our observations may have for the coming transformation of this nebula into Supernova Remnant 1987A.

  1. Molecular composites and polymer blends containing ionic polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Li-Chun

    1997-11-01

    Polymer blends are generally immiscible due to the unfavorable thermodynamics of mixing. By the introduction of ion-dipole interaction, mechanical properties of the PPTA anion/polar polymers (such as PVP, PEO and PPrO) molecular composites have been investigated in relation to their miscibility and microstructural morphology. Optical clarity observed in the glassy PPTA anion/PVP system suggest the presence of miscibility, since the refractive indices between the two components are quite different, nsb{PVP} = 1.509 and nsb{PPTA} = 1.644. In general, the difference greater than 0.01 is sufficient to make blends opaque. DSC measurements, showing a composition dependent Tsb{g} and a melting temperature depression, also indicate the miscibility achieved at the molecular level, about 50-100 A. By using the Hoffman-Weeks plot, a negative Flory-Huggins interaction parameter, chi = -1.10, is obtained for the PPTA anion/PEO molecular composites. An irregular spherulitic pattern and a reduced crystal size suggest that PPTA anion is intimately mixed with the amorphous PEO, both inter- and intra-spherulitically. Molecular composites exhibit not only an enhanced tensile strength and modulus, but also a greater fracture toughness, Ksb{IC}, e.g., an 80% increase at a 2 wt% PPTA anion addition. An enhanced tensile strength associated with a reduced crystallinity suggests that PPTA anion is the major contributor to the superior tensile properties instead of the crystalline phase. Upon addition of PPTA anion to PPrO, a slower relaxation rate and a better thermal stability are observed. Significant enhancement is found when the monovalent K salt is replaced with a divalent Ca salt. The molecular reinforcement achieved via ion-dipole interactions is more effective than the rigid filler effect obtained in the non-ionic PPTA/PPrO blend: e.g., a modulus enhancement of 814% vs. 286%, as compared with the value for PPrO. Two phase systems with microphase separation are developed since many

  2. B[e] Supergiants' circumstellar environment: disks or rings?

    CERN Document Server

    Maravelias, G; Aret, A; Cidale, L; Arias, M L; Fernandes, M Borges

    2016-01-01

    B[e] Supergiants are a phase in the evolution of some massive stars for which we have observational evidence but no predictions by any stellar evolution model. The mass-loss during this phase creates a complex circumstellar environment with atomic, molecular, and dust regions usually found in rings or disk-like structures. However, the detailed structure and the formation of the circumstellar environment are not well-understood, requiring further investigation. To address that we initiated an observing campaign to obtain a homogeneous set of high-resolution spectra in both the optical and NIR (using MPG-ESO/FEROS, GEMINI/Phoenix and VLT/CRIRES, respectively). We monitor a number of Galactic B[e] Supergiants, for which we examined the [OI] and [CaII] emission lines and the bandheads of the CO and SiO molecules to probe the structure and the kinematics of their formation regions. We find that the emission from each tracer forms either in a single or in multiple equatorial rings.

  3. Molecular Weight and Monosaccharide Composition of Astragalus Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Pei Wang

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Two polysaccharides (APS-I and APS-II were isolated from the water extract of Radix Astragali and purified through ethanol precipitation, deproteination and by ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. Their molecular weight was determined using high performance liquid chromatography and gel permeation chromatography (HPLC-GPC and their monosaccharide composition was analyzed by TLC and HPLC methods, using a refractive index detector (RID and an NH2 column. It was shown that APS-I consisted of arabinose and glucose and APS-II consisted of rhamnose, arabinose and glucose, in a molar ratio of 1:3.45 and 1:6.25:17.86, respectively. The molecular weights (Mw of APS-I and APS-II were 1,699,100 Da and 1,197,600 Da, respectively.

  4. Recent advances on polyoxometalate-based molecular and composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu-Fei; Tsunashima, Ryo

    2012-11-21

    Polyoxometalates (POMs) are a subset of metal oxides with unique physical and chemical properties, which can be reliably modified through various techniques and methods to develop sophisticated materials and devices. In parallel with the large number of new crystal structures reported in the literature, the application of these POMs towards multifunctional materials has attracted considerable attention. This critical review summarizes recent progress on POM-based molecular and composite materials, and particularly highlights the emerging areas that are closely related to surface, electronic, energy, environment, life science, etc. (171 references). PMID:22850732

  5. Chemical history of molecules in circumstellar disks

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, Ruud; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Doty, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition of a protoplanetary disk is determined not only by in situ chemical processes during the disk phase, but also by the history of the gas and dust before it accreted from the natal envelope. In order to understand the disk's chemical composition at the time of planet formation, especially in the midplane, one has to go back in time and retrace the chemistry to the molecular cloud that collapsed to form the disk and the central star. Here we present a new astrochemical m...

  6. The circumstellar envelope of AFGL 4106

    CERN Document Server

    Van Loon, J T; Van Winckel, H; Waters, L B F M; Loon, Jacco Th. van; Winckel, Hans van

    1999-01-01

    We present new imaging and spectroscopy of the post-red supergiant binary AFGL 4106. Coronographic imaging in H-alpha reveals the shape and extent of the ionized region in the circumstellar envelope (CSE). Echelle spectroscopy with the slit covering almost the entire extent of the CSE is used to derive the physical conditions in the ionized region and the optical depth of the dust contained within the CSE. The dust shell around AFGL 4106 is clumpy and mixed with ionized gas. H-alpha and [N II] emission is brightest from a thin bow-shaped layer just outside of the detached dust shell. On-going mass loss is traced by [Ca II] emission and blue-shifted absorption in lines of low-ionization species. A simple model is used to interpret the spatial distribution of the circumstellar extinction and the dust emission in a consistent way.

  7. Molecular Dynamics Modeling of Carbon Nanotubes and Their Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lars R.; Pyrz, Ryszard

    2004-06-01

    The tensile modulus of individual nanotubes and nanotube-polypropylene composites has been determined using molecular dynamics simulations. Simulations of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes showed that their tensile modulus was dependent on the tube structure and the diameter if the diameter was below 1,6 nm. The tensile modulus was determined for an infinite single-walled carbon nanotube embedded in an amorphous polypropylene matrix and for a finite and capped single-walled carbon nanotube embedded in a polypropylene matrix. For the infinite nanotube-polypropylene system the modulus was found to correspond to the one given by the Voigt approximation. For the finite nanotube-polypropylene system the reinforcing effect of the nanotube was not very pronounced. A pull out simulation showed that the length of the nanotube in the simulation was much smaller than the critical length and hence no load transfer between the nanotube and the matrix existed.

  8. Use of Carbon Fiber Composite Molecular Sieves for Air Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Frederick S [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL; Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL

    2005-09-01

    A novel adsorbent material, 'carbon fiber composite molecular sieve' (CFCMS), has been developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Its features include high surface area, large pore volume, and a rigid, permeable carbon structure that exhibits significant electrical conductivity. The unique combination of high adsorptive capacity, permeability, good mechanical properties, and electrical conductivity represents an enabling technology for the development of novel gas separation and purification systems. In this context, it is proposed that a fast-cycle air separation process that exploits a kinetic separation of oxygen and nitrogen should be possible using a CFCMS material coupled with electrical swing adsorption (ESA). The adsorption of O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} on activated carbon fibers was investigated using static and dynamic techniques. Molecular sieving effects in the activated carbon fiber were highlighted by the adsorption of CO{sub 2}, a more sensitive probe molecule for the presence of microporosity in adsorbents. The kinetic studies revealed that O2 was more rapidly adsorbed on the carbon fiber than N{sub 2}, and with higher uptake under equilibrium conditions, providing the fiber contained a high proportion of very narrow micropores. The work indicated that CFCMS is capable of separating O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} from air on the basis of the different diffusion rates of the two molecules in the micropore network of the activated carbon fibers comprising the composite material. In response to recent enquires from several potential users of CFCMS materials, attention has been given to the development of a viable continuous process for the commercial production of CFCMS material. As part of this effort, work was implemented on characterizing the performance of lignin-based activated carbon fiber, a potentially lower cost fiber than the pitch-based fibers used for CFCMS production to date. Similarly, to address engineering issues

  9. Dissecting plasmodesmata molecular composition by mass spectrometry-based proteomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Maria Françoise Bayer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In plants, the intercellular communication through the membranous channels called plasmodesmata (PD; singular plasmodesma plays pivotal roles in the orchestration of development, defence responses and viral propagation. PD are dynamic structures embedded in the plant cell wall that are defined by specialised domains of the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane. PD structure and unique functions are guaranteed by their particular molecular composition. Yet, up to recent years and despite numerous approaches such as mutant screens, immunolocalisation or screening of random cDNAs, only few PD proteins had been conclusively identified and characterised. A clear breakthrough in the search of PD constituents came from mass-spectrometry-based proteomic approaches coupled with subcellular fractionation strategies. Due to their position, firmly anchored in the extracellular matrix, PD are notoriously difficult to isolate for biochemical analysis. Proteomic-based approaches have therefore first relied on the use of cell wall fractions containing embedded PD then on free PD fractions whereby PD membranes were released from the walls by enzymatic degradation. To discriminate between likely contaminants and PD protein candidates, bioinformatics tools have often been used in combination with proteomic approaches. GFP fusion proteins of selected candidates have confirmed the PD association of several protein families. Here we review the accomplishments and limitations of the proteomic based strategies to unravel the functional and structural complexity of PD. We also discuss the role of the identified PD associated proteins.

  10. 41Ca in Circumstellar Graphite from Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, S.; Zinner, E.; Lewis, R. S.

    1995-09-01

    anomalies (Fig. 1), with patterns that are consistent with that predicted for the O-rich zones of a 25 (sub)Solar Mass supernova [4] (shown as broad lines in the figure). Thus, ^41Ca in these two grains is likely to have been produced by neutron capture in these zones. One grain (KE3c-242) has a ^44Ca excess due to the decay of ^44Ti (T(sub)1/2=52a), with an inferred ^44Ti/^48Ti ratio of (3.6+/-1.4) x 10^-2. The presence of ^41Ca together with Ca isotopic anomalies in circumstellar graphite grains is evidence for mixing between the C-rich and O-rich zones. Furthermore, evidence for ^44Ti in a few low density graphite grains [6] strongly suggests contributions from the innermost zone to the ejecta from which the grains formed. Observations of SN 1987A [e.g., 7] and hydrodynamic calculations [e.g., 8] indicate the existence of clumps of variable compositions in SN ejecta. The large variety of isotopic compositions in low density graphite grains is evidence for extensive and heterogeneous mixing of SN ejecta, confirming the astronomical observations and the theoretical calculations. References: [1] Amari S. et al. (1994) LPS XXV, 27-28. [2] Zinner E. et al. (1995) LPS XXVI, 1561-1562. [3] Travaglio C. et al. (1995) in preparation. [4] Meyer B. S. et al. (1995) Meteoritics, 30, 319-324. [5] Woosley S. E. and Weaver T. A. (1995) Astrophys. J. Suppl., in press. [6] Amari S. et al. (1995) LPS XXVI, 37-38. [7] Hass M. R. et al. (1990) Astrophys. J., 360, 257-266. [8] Herant M. and Benz W. (1992) Astrophys. J., 387, 294-308.

  11. Secular Planetary Perturbations in Circumstellar Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Joseph M.; Capobianco, C.

    2006-12-01

    Circumstellar debris disks are likely the by-product of collisions among unseen planetesimals. Planetesimals are also the seeds of planets, so it is reasonable to expect that some debris disks might also harbor planets. In fact several such disks, like those orbiting beta Pictoris, Fomalhaut, etc., do appear to be perturbed by unseen planets orbiting within. The signatures of planetary perturbations include: central gaps, warps, and radial offsets in the disk's surface brightness. By modeling the disturbances observed in a circumstellar dust disk, one can then measure or constrain the masses and orbits of the planets that may be lurking within. Of particular interest here are the warps and radial offsets seen in such disks, since these features can be due to secular planetary perturbations (Mouillet et al 1997, Wyatt et al 1999). Secular perturbations are the slowly varying gravitational perturbations that can excite orbital eccentricities and inclinations in a disk, and can also drive a slow orbital precession. Note that a dust grain's motion is completely analytic when suffering secular perturbations (Murray & Dermott 1999), which allows us to rapidly generate a synthetic image of a simulated disk as would be seen in scattered starlight or via thermal emission. And because this model is quite fast, our model can rapidly scan a rather large parameter space in order to determine the planetary configuration that may be responsible for the disk's perturbed appearance. We have applied this dust-disk model to Hubble observations of the β Pictoris dust-disk (from Heap et al 2000), and will report on the planets that may be responsible for the warp seen in this edge-on disk. We will also apply the model to optical and IR observations of debris disks at Fomalhaut, AU Microscopii, and others, with additional results to be reported at conference time.

  12. Tribological behavior of in situ Ag nanoparticles/polyelectrolyte composite molecular deposition films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multilayer polyelectrolyte films containing silver ions were obtained by molecular deposition method on a glass plate or a quartz substrate. The in situ Ag nanoparticles were synthesized in the multilayer polyelectrolyte films which were put into fresh NaBH4 aqueous solution. The structure and surface morphology of composite molecular deposition films were observed by UV-vis spectrophotometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Tribological characteristic was investigated by AFM and micro-tribometer. It was found that the in situ Ag nanoparticles/polyelectrolyte composite molecular deposition films have lower coefficient of friction and higher anti-wear life than pure polyelectrolyte molecular deposition films.

  13. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Muscle Fiber Composition Under Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Nadia A.

    1999-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying the selective and debilitating atrophy of specific skeletal muscle fiber types that accompanies sustained conditions of microgravity. Since little is currently known about the regulation of fiber-specific gene expression programs in mammalian muscle, elucidation of the basic mechanisms of fiber diversification is a necessary prerequisite to the generation of therapeutic strategies for attenuation of muscle atrophy on earth or in space. Vertebrate skeletal muscle development involves the fusion of undifferentiated mononucleated myoblasts to form multinucleated myofibers, with a concomitant activation of muscle-specific genes encoding proteins that form the force-generating contractile apparatus. The regulatory circuitry controlling skeletal muscle gene expression has been well studied in a number of vertebrate animal systems. The goal of this project has been to achieve a similar level of understanding of the mechanisms underlying the further specification of muscles into different fiber types, and the role played by innervation and physical activity in the maintenance and adaptation of different fiber phenotypes into adulthood. Our recent research on the genetic basis of fiber specificity has focused on the emergence of mature fiber types and have implicated a group of transcriptional regulatory proteins, known as E proteins, in the control of fiber specificity. The restriction of E proteins to selected muscle fiber types is an attractive hypothetical mechanism for the generation of muscle fiber-specific patterns of gene expression. To date our results support a model wherein different E proteins are selectively expressed in muscle cells to determine fiber-restricted gene expression. These studies are a first step to define the molecular mechanisms responsible for the shifts in fiber type under conditions of microgravity, and to determine the potential importance of E proteins as

  14. Sulphur molecules in the circumstellar envelopes of M-type AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Danilovich, Taissa; Black, J H; Olofsson, H; Justtanont, K

    2016-01-01

    The sulphur compounds SO and SO$_2$ have not been widely studied in the circumstellar envelopes of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. By presenting and modelling a large number of SO and SO$_2$ lines in the low mass-loss rate M-type AGB star R Dor, and modelling the available lines of those molecules in a further four M-type AGB stars, we aim to determine their circumstellar abundances and distributions. We use a detailed radiative transfer analysis based on the accelerated lambda iteration method to model circumstellar SO and SO$_2$ line emission and molecular data files for both SO and SO$_2$ that are more extensive than those previously available. Using 17 SO lines and 98 SO2 lines to constrain our models for R Dor, we find an SO abundance of 6.7x10$^{-6}$ and an SO$_2$ abundance of 5x10$^{-6}$ with both species having high abundances close to the star. We also modelled $^{34}$SO and found an abundance of 3.1x10$^{-7}$, giving an $^{32}$SO/$^{34}$SO ratio of 21.6. We derive similar results for the circum...

  15. Imaging the circumstellar environment of the young T Tauri star SU Aurigae

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffers, S V; Canovas, H; Rodenhuis, M; Keller, C U

    2013-01-01

    The circumstellar environments of classical T Tauri stars are challenging to directly image because of their high star-to-disk contrast ratio. One method to overcome this is by using imaging polarimetry where scattered and consequently polarised starlight from the star's circumstellar disk can be separated from the unpolarised light of the central star. We present images of the circumstellar environment of SU Aur, a classical T Tauri star at the transition of T Tauri to Herbig stars. The images directly show that the disk extends out to ~500 au with an inclination angle of $\\sim$ 50$^\\circ$. Using interpretive models, we derived very small grains in the surface layers of its disk, with a very steep size- and surface-density distribution. Additionally, we resolved a large and extended nebulosity in our images that is most likely a remnant of the prenatal molecular cloud. The position angle of the disk, determined directly from our images, rules out a polar outflow or jet as the cause of this large-scale nebulo...

  16. The infrared spectral features of circumstellar envelope of evolved low- and intermediate-mass stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The circumstellar envelope of evolved stars of low- and intermediate-mass is an important site for dust formation. In comparison with the interstellar medium, they have more types of organics and different types of inorganics. Various infrared features in the circumstellar envelope can reveal the composition and abundance of dust, as well as the chemical and physical conditions of the circumstellar shell. Infrared features and their carriers are different in the C-rich or O-rich environment, and the mixed-environment where the C-rich and O-rich circumstellar materials co-exist. The C-rich sources exhibit a series of spectral features which are attrib- uted to organic molecules. They also show two prominent features at 21 μm and 30 μm which emit a large portion of infrared radiation. The O-rich sources exhibit the strong 9.7 μm and 18 μm features attributed to the Si-O bending and O-Si-O stretching modes of amorphous silicate dust. With the ISO/SWS spectrometer, about 50 narrow bands are identified with the crystalline silicate grains, mainly forsterite and enstatite. In addition, a series of features, at 13 μm, 16.8 μm, 19.5 μm and 31.8 μm, appearing to be correlated with each other, are attributed to oxides. Some objects simultaneously show the C-rich and O-rich features, e.g. some C-rich sources have silicate features. There is no well-accepted interpretation for such mixed appearance, though a binary model is suggested.

  17. The infrared spectral features of circumstellar envelope of evolved low-and intermediate-mass stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ke; JIANG BiWei

    2008-01-01

    The circumstellar envelope of evolved stars of low-and intermediate-mass is an important site for dust formation. In comparison with the interstellar medium, they have more types of organics and different types of inorganics. Various infrared features in the circumstellar envelope can reveal the composition and abundance of dust, as well as the chemical and physical conditions of the circumstellar shell. Infrared features and their carriers are different in the C-rich or O-rich environment, and the mixed-environment where the C-rich and O-rich circumstellar materials co-exist. The C-rich sources exhibit a series of spectral features which are attrib-uted to organic molecules. They also show two prominent features at 21 μm and 30 μm which emit a large portion of infrared radiation. The O-rich sources exhibit the strong 9.7 μm and 18 μm features attributed to the Si-O bending and O-Si-O stretching modes of amorphous silicate dust. With the ISO/SWS spectrometer, about 50 narrow bands are identified with the crystalline silicate grains, mainly forsterite and enstatite. In addition, a series of features, at 13 μm, 16.8 μm, 19.5 μm and 31.8 μm, appearing to be correlated with each other, are attributed to oxides. Some objects simultaneously show the C-rich and O-rich features, e.g. some C-rich sources have silicate features. There is no well-accepted interpretation for such mixed appearance, though a binary model is suggested.

  18. Unveiling the circumstellar environment towards a massive young stellar object

    CERN Document Server

    Paron, S; Ortega, M E

    2013-01-01

    As a continuation of a previous work, in which we found strong evidence of massive molecular outflows towards a massive star forming site, we present a new study of this region based on very high angular resolution observations with the aim of discovering the outflow driven mechanism. Using near-IR data acquired with Gemini-NIRI at the broad H- and Ks-bands, we study a region of 22" x 22" around the UCHII region G045.47+0.05, a massive star forming site at the distance of about 8 kpc. To image the source with the highest spatial resolution possible we employed the adaptative optic system ALTAIR, achieving an angular resolution of about 0.15". We discovered a cone-like shape nebula with an opening angle of about 90 degree extending eastwards the IR source 2MASS J19142564+1109283, a very likely MYSO. This morphology suggests a cavity that was cleared in the circumstellar material and its emission may arise from scattered continuum light, warm dust, and likely emission lines from shock-excited gas. The nebula, p...

  19. Evolution of Cold Circumstellar Dust Around Solar-Type Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, J M; Schreyer, K; Launhardt, R; Henning, T; Carpenter, John M.; Wolf, Sebastian; Schreyer, Katharina; Launhardt, Ralf; Henning, Th.

    2004-01-01

    We present submillimeter (CSO 350um) and millimeter (SEST 1.2 mm, OVRO 3 mm) photometry for 125 solar-type stars from the FEPS Spitzer Legacy program that have masses between ~0.5 and 2.0 Msun and ages from 3 Myr to 3 Gyr. Continuum emission was detected toward four stars with a signal to noise ratio >= 3$: the classical T Tauri stars RX J1842.9-3532, RX J1852.3-3700, and PDS 66 with SEST, and the debris disk system HD 107146 with OVRO. RXJ1842.9-3532 and RXJ1852.3-3700 are located in projection nearby the R CrA molecular cloud with estimated ages of ~10 Myr, while PDS66 is a probable member of the 20 Myr old Lower Centaurus-Crux subgroup of the Sco-Cen OB association. The continuum emission toward these three sources is unresolved at the 24'' SEST resolution and likely originates from circumstellar accretion disks, each with estimated dust masses of ~5x10**-5 Msun. Analysis of the visibility data toward HD107146 (age 80-200 Myr) indicates that the 3 mm continuum emission is centered on the star within the as...

  20. The chemical history of molecules in circumstellar disks. I. Ices

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, R; Doty, S D; Dullemond, C P

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) Aims & Methods. A two-dimensional, semi-analytical model is presented that follows, for the first time, the chemical evolution from a collapsing molecular cloud (a pre-stellar core) to a protostar and circumstellar disk. The model computes infall trajectories from any point in the cloud and tracks the radial and vertical motion of material in the viscously evolving disk. It includes a full time-dependent radiative transfer treatment of the dust temperature, which controls much of the chemistry. A small parameter grid is explored to understand the effects of the sound speed and the mass and rotation of the cloud. The freeze-out and evaporation of carbon monoxide (CO) and water (H2O), as well as the potential for forming complex organic molecules in ices, are considered as important first steps to illustrate the full chemistry. Results. Both species freeze out towards the centre before the collapse begins. Pure CO ice evaporates during the infall phase and re-adsorbs in those parts of the disk th...

  1. Circumstellar Dust Created by Terrestrial Planet Formation in HD 113766

    CERN Document Server

    Lisse, C M; Wyatt, M C; Morlok, A

    2007-01-01

    We present an analysis of the gas-poor circumstellar material in the HD 113766 binary system (F3/F5, 10 - 16 Myr), recently observed by the Spitzer Space Telescope. For our study we have used the infrared mineralogical model derived from observations of the Deep Impact experiment. We find the dust dominated by warm, fine (~1 um) particles, abundant in Mg-rich olivine, crystalline pyroxenes, amorphous silicates, Fe-rich sulfides, amorphous carbon, and colder water-ice. The warm dust material mix is akin to an inner main belt asteroid of S-type composition. The ~440 K effective temperature of the warm dust implies that the bulk of the observed material is in a narrow belt ~1.8 AU from the 4.4 L_solar central source, in the terrestrial planet-forming region and habitable zone of the system (equivalent to 0.9 AU in the solar system). The icy dust lies in 2 belts, located at 4-9 AU and at 30 - 80 AU. The lower bound of warm dust mass in 0.1 - 20 um, dn/da ~ a^-3.5 particles is very large, at least 3 x 10^20 kg, eq...

  2. A dynamical study of the circumstellar gas in UX Orionis

    CERN Document Server

    Mora, A; Eiroa, C; Grady, C A; De Winter, D; Davies, J K; Ferlet, R; Harris, A W; Montesinos, B; Oudmaijer, R D; Palacios, J; Quirrenbach, Andreas G; Rauer, H; Alberdi, A; Cameron, A; Deeg, H J; Garzón, F; Horne, K; Merin, B; Penny, A; Schneider, J; Solano, E; Tsapras, Y; Wesselius, P R

    2002-01-01

    We present the results of a high spectral resolution study of the circumstellar (CS) gas around the intermediate mass, pre-main sequence star UX Ori. The results are based on a set of 10 echelle spectra, monitoring the star on time scales of months, days and hours. A large number of transient blueshifted and redshifted absorption features are detected in the Balmer and in many metallic lines. A multigaussian fit is applied to determine for each transient absorption the velocity, v, dispersion velocity, Delta v, and the parameter R, which provides a measure of the absorption strength of the CS gas. The time evolution of those parameters is presented and discussed. A comparison of intensity ratios among the transient absorptions suggests a solar-like composition of the CS gas. This confirms previous results and excludes a very metal-rich environment as the cause of the transient features in UX Ori. The features can be grouped by their similar velocities into 24 groups, of which 17 are redshifted and 7 blueshift...

  3. Quantitative multicolor compositional imaging resolves molecular domains in cell-matrix adhesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Zamir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cellular processes occur within dynamic and multi-molecular compartments whose characterization requires analysis at high spatio-temporal resolution. Notable examples for such complexes are cell-matrix adhesion sites, consisting of numerous cytoskeletal and signaling proteins. These adhesions are highly variable in their morphology, dynamics, and apparent function, yet their molecular diversity is poorly defined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present here a compositional imaging approach for the analysis and display of multi-component compositions. This methodology is based on microscopy-acquired multicolor data, multi-dimensional clustering of pixels according to their composition similarity and display of the cellular distribution of these composition clusters. We apply this approach for resolving the molecular complexes associated with focal-adhesions, and the time-dependent effects of Rho-kinase inhibition. We show here compositional variations between adhesion sites, as well as ordered variations along the axis of individual focal-adhesions. The multicolor clustering approach also reveals distinct sensitivities of different focal-adhesion-associated complexes to Rho-kinase inhibition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Multicolor compositional imaging resolves "molecular signatures" characteristic to focal-adhesions and related structures, as well as sub-domains within these adhesion sites. This analysis enhances the spatial information with additional "contents-resolved" dimensions. We propose that compositional imaging can serve as a powerful tool for studying complex multi-molecular assemblies in cells and for mapping their distribution at sub-micron resolution.

  4. Electrochemical sensor for dopamine based on a novel graphene-molecular imprinted polymers composite recognition element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Yan; Bao, Yu; Gan, Shiyu;

    2011-01-01

    A novel composite of graphene sheets/Congo red-molecular imprinted polymers (GSCR-MIPs) was synthesized through free radical polymerization (FRP) and applied as a molecular recognition element to construct dopamine (DA) electrochemical sensor. The template molecules (DA) were firstly absorbed at ...

  5. Charting molecular composition of phosphatidylcholines by fatty acid scanning and ion trap MS3 fragmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekroos, Kim; Ejsing, Christer S.; Bahr, Ute;

    2003-01-01

    preliminary separation of lipid classes or of individual molecular species, enzymatic digestion, or chemical derivatization. The approach was validated by the comparative analysis of the molecular composition of PCs from human red blood cells. In the total lipid extract of Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells...

  6. Carbon-fiber composite molecular sieves for gas separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagtoyen, M.; Derbyshire, F.; Kimber, G.; Fei, Y.Q. [Univ. of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The progress of research in the development of novel, rigid, monolithic adsorbent carbon fiber composites is described. Carbon fiber composites are produced at ORNL and activated at the CAER using steam or CO{sub 2} under different conditions, with the aims of producing a uniform degree of activation through the material, and of closely controlling pore structure and adsorptive properties The principal focus of the work to date has been to produce materials with narrow porosity for use in gas separations.

  7. Carbon-fiber composite molecular sieves for gas separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagtoyen, M.; Derbyshire, F. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1996-08-01

    This report describes continuing work on the activation and characterization of formed carbon fiber composites. The composites are produced at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and activated at the Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) using steam, CO{sub 2}, or O{sub 2} at different conditions of temperature and time, and with different furnace configurations. The general aims of the project are to produce uniformly activated samples with controlled pore structures for specialist applications such as gas separation and water treatment. In previous work the authors reported that composites produced from isotropic pitch fibers weighing up to 25g can be uniformly activated through the appropriate choice of reaction conditions and furnace configurations. They have now succeeded in uniformly activating composites of dimensions up to 12 x 7 x 6 cm, or up to about 166 gram - a scale-up factor of about six. Part of the work has involved the installation of a new furnace that can accommodate larger composites. Efforts were made to achieve uniform activation in both steam and CO{sub 2}. The authors have also succeeded in producing materials with very uniform and narrow pore size distributions by using a novel method involving low temperature oxygen chemisorption in combination with heat treatment in N{sub 2} at high temperatures. Work has also started on the activation of PAN based carbon fibers and fiber composites with the aim of producing composites with wide pore structures for use as catalyst supports. So far activation of the PAN fiber composites supplied by ORNL has been difficult which is attributed to the low reactivity of the PAN fibers. As a result, studies are now being made of the activation of the PAN fibers to investigate the optimum carbonization and activation conditions for PAN based fibers.

  8. Circumstellar Debris Disks: Diagnosing the Unseen Perturber

    CERN Document Server

    Nesvold, Erika R; Vican, Laura; Farr, Will M

    2016-01-01

    The first indication of the presence of a circumstellar debris disk is usually the detection of excess infrared emission from the population of small dust grains orbiting the star. This dust is short-lived, requiring continual replenishment, and indicating that the disk must be excited by an unseen perturber. Previous theoretical studies have demonstrated that an eccentric planet orbiting interior to the disk will stir the larger bodies in the belt and produce dust via interparticle collisions. However, motivated by recent observations, we explore another possible mechanism for heating a debris disk: a stellar-mass perturber orbiting exterior to and inclined to the disk and exciting the disk particles' eccentricities and inclinations via the Kozai-Lidov mechanism. We explore the consequences of an exterior perturber on the evolution of a debris disk using secular analysis and collisional N-body simulations. We demonstrate that a Kozai-Lidov excited disk can generate a dust disk via collisions and we compare t...

  9. Circumstellar disks around binary stars in Taurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akeson, R. L. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, IPAC/Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Jensen, E. L. N. [Swarthmore College, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Swarthmore, PA 19081 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    We have conducted a survey of 17 wide (>100 AU) young binary systems in Taurus with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) at two wavelengths. The observations were designed to measure the masses of circumstellar disks in these systems as an aid to understanding the role of multiplicity in star and planet formation. The ALMA observations had sufficient resolution to localize emission within the binary system. Disk emission was detected around all primaries and 10 secondaries, with disk masses as low as 10{sup –4} M {sub ☉}. We compare the properties of our sample to the population of known disks in Taurus and find that the disks from this binary sample match the scaling between stellar mass and millimeter flux of F{sub mm}∝M{sub ∗}{sup 1.5--2.0} to within the scatter found in previous studies. We also compare the properties of the primaries to those of the secondaries and find that the secondary/primary stellar and disk mass ratios are not correlated; in three systems, the circumsecondary disk is more massive than the circumprimary disk, counter to some theoretical predictions.

  10. An MCMC Circumstellar Disks Modeling Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Schuyler; Perrin, Marshall D.; Mazoyer, Johan; Choquet, Elodie; Soummer, Remi; Ren, Bin; Pueyo, Laurent; Debes, John H.; Duchene, Gaspard; Pinte, Christophe; Menard, Francois

    2016-01-01

    We present an enhanced software framework for the Monte Carlo Markov Chain modeling of circumstellar disk observations, including spectral energy distributions and multi wavelength images from a variety of instruments (e.g. GPI, NICI, HST, WFIRST). The goal is to self-consistently and simultaneously fit a wide variety of observables in order to place constraints on the physical properties of a given disk, while also rigorously assessing the uncertainties in the derived properties. This modular code is designed to work with a collection of existing modeling tools, ranging from simple scripts to define the geometry for optically thin debris disks, to full radiative transfer modeling of complex grain structures in protoplanetary disks (using the MCFOST radiative transfer modeling code). The MCMC chain relies on direct chi squared comparison of model images/spectra to observations. We will include a discussion of how best to weight different observations in the modeling of a single disk and how to incorporate forward modeling from PCA PSF subtraction techniques. The code is open source, python, and available from github. Results for several disks at various evolutionary stages will be discussed.

  11. A database of circumstellar OH masers

    CERN Document Server

    Engels, D

    2015-01-01

    We present a new database of circumstellar OH masers at 1612, 1665, and 1667 MHz in the Milky Way galaxy. The database (version 2.4) contains 13655 observations and 2341 different stars detected in at least one transition. Detections at 1612\\,MHz are considered to be complete until the end of 2014 as long as they were published in refereed papers. Detections of the main lines (1665 and 1667 MHz) and non-detections in all transitions are included only if published after 1983. The database contains flux densities and velocities of the two strongest maser peaks, the expansion velocity of the shell, and the radial velocity of the star. Links are provided for about 100 stars ($<$5\\% of all stars with OH masers) to interferometric observations and monitoring programs of the maser emission published since their beginnings in the 1970s. Access to the database is possible over the Web (www.hs.uni-hamburg.de/maserdb), allowing cone searches for individual sources and lists of sources. A general search is possible in...

  12. EFFECTS OF MATRIX MOLECULAR WEIGHT ON STRUCTURE AND REINFORCEMENT OF HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE/MICA COMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chen; Yu-fang Xiang; Ke Wang; Qin Zhang; Rong-ni Du; Qiang Fu

    2011-01-01

    Three types of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with different molecular weights (high, medium and Iow) were adopted to evaluate the influence of matrix molecular weight on the structure-property relation of injection-molded HDPE/mica composites through a combination of SEM, 2d-WAXS, DSC, DMA and tensile testing. Various structural factors including orientation, filler dispersion, interfacial interaction between HDPE and mica, etc., which can impact the macroscopic mechanics, were compared in detail among the three HDPE/mica composites. The transcrystallization of HDPE on the mica surface was observed and it exhibited strong matrix molecular weight dependence. Obvious transcrystalline structure was found in the composite with Iow molecular weight HDPE, whereas it was hard to be detected in the composites with increased HDPE molecular weight. The best reinforcement effect in the composite with low molecular weight HDPE can be understood as mainly due to substantially improved interracial adhesion between matrix and mica filler, which arises from the transerystallization mechanism.

  13. Molecular Design of Strong SWNT/Polyelectrolyte Multilayers Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, Nicholas

    2003-03-01

    The mechanical failure of hybrid materials made from polymers and single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) is primarily attributed to poor matrix-SWNT connectivity and severe phase segregation. Both problems can be successfully mitigated when the SWNTcomposite is made following the protocol of layer-by-layer assembly. This deposition technique prevents phase segregation of the polymer/SWNT binary system, and after subsequent cross-linking, the nm-scale-uniform composite with SWNT loading as high as 50 wtmembranes delaminated from the substrate were found to be exceptionally strong with tensile strength approaches that of hard ceramics. Considering the light-weight nature of SWNT composites the prepared free-standing membranes can serve as unique components for a variety of long-life-time devices. The assembly process also affords preparation of aligned SWNT composites. Laminar flow adsorption shows gradual untangling of the nanotube agglomerates and the formation of parallel ribbons.

  14. The circumstellar shell of the post-ABB star HD 56126: the 12C12C/12C13C isotope ratio and12C16O column density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker, E.J.; Lambert, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    We have made the first detection of circumstellar absorption lines of the 12C13C A 1Πu-X 1∑g+ (Phillips) system 1-0 band and the 12C16O X 1∑+ first-overtone 2-0 band in the spectrum of the post-AGB star HD 56126 (IRAS 07134+1005). All current detections of circumstellar molecular absorption lines to

  15. MODELING THE MOLECULAR COMPOSITION IN AN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Nanase [Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Thompson, Todd A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Herbst, Eric [Departments of Chemistry, Astronomy, and Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We use a high-temperature chemical network to derive the molecular abundances in axisymmetric accretion disk models around active galactic nuclei (AGNs) within 100 pc using simple radial and vertical density and temperature distributions motivated by more detailed physical models. We explore the effects of X-ray irradiation and cosmic-ray ionization on the spatial distribution of the molecular abundances of CO, CN, CS, HCN, HCO{sup +}, HC{sub 3}N, C{sub 2}H, and c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2} using a variety of plausible disk structures. These simple models have molecular regions with an X-ray-dominated region layer, a midplane without the strong influence of X-rays, and a high-temperature region in the inner portion with moderate X-ray flux where families of polyynes (C{sub n}H{sub 2}) and cyanopolyynes can be enhanced. For the high midplane density disks we explore, we find that cosmic rays produced by supernovae do not significantly affect the regions unless the star formation efficiency significantly exceeds that of the Milky Way. We highlight molecular abundance observations and ratios that may distinguish among theoretical models of the density distribution in AGN disks. Finally, we assess the importance of the shock crossing time and the accretion time relative to the formation time for various chemical species. Vertical column densities are tabulated for a number of molecular species at both the characteristic shock crossing time and steady state. Although we do not attempt to fit any particular system or set of observations, we discuss our models and results in the context of the nearby AGN NGC 1068.

  16. Preparation and Application of Novel Magnetic Molecularly Imprinted Composites for Recognition of Sulfadimethoxine in Feed Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Min; Li, Hengye; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Jingyou; Dai, Jianping; Wang, Xiaojin; Zhang, Lingli; Wei, Yunji

    2016-01-01

    Novel magnetic molecularly imprinted composites were prepared through a facile method using sulfadimethoxine (SDM) as template. The inorganic magnetic nanoparticles were linked with the organic molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) through irreversibly covalent bond. So, the resulted composites showed excellent stability and reusability under acidic elution conditions. The magnetic MIP composites showed good selectivity, high binding capacity and excellent kinetics toward SDM. Adopting the magnetic MIP composites as extraction material, an off-line magnetic solid-phase extraction (SPE)/high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was established. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.05 - 15 mg kg(-1) (r(2) = 0.9976). The LOD and LOQ were 0.016 and 0.052 mg kg(-1), respectively, while the recoveries were in the range of 89.3 - 107.0%. These novel magnetic MIP composites may become a powerful tool for the extraction of template from complex samples with good efficiency. PMID:27169650

  17. Modeling The Molecular Composition in an AGN Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Harada, Nanase; Herbst, Eric

    2013-01-01

    We use a high-temperature chemical network to derive the molecular abundances in axisymmetric accretion disk models around active galactic nuclei (AGNs) within 100 pc using simple radial and vertical density and temperature distributions motivated by more detailed physical models. We explore the effects of X-ray irradiation and cosmic ray ionization on the spatial distribution of the molecular abundances of CO, CN, CS, HCN, HCO+, HC3N, C2H, and c-C3H2 using a variety of plausible disk structures. These simple models have molecular regions with a layer of X-ray dominated regions, a midplane without the strong influence of X-rays, and a high-temperature region in the inner portion with moderate X-ray flux where families of polyynes (C$_{\\rm n}$H$_{2}$) and cyanopolyynes can be enhanced. For the high midplane density disks we explore, we find that cosmic rays produced by supernovae do not significantly affect the regions unless the star formation efficiency significantly exceeds that of the Milky Way. We highlig...

  18. The Nature of Transition Circumstellar Disks II. Southern Molecular Clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Gisela A.; Schreiber, Matthias R.; Cieza, Lucas A.; Rebassa-Mansergas, Alberto; Merín, Bruno; Castelli, Analía V. Smith; Allen, Lori E.; Morrell, Nidia

    2012-01-01

    Transition disk objects are pre-main-sequence stars with little or no near-IR excess and significant far-IR excess, implying inner opacity holes in their disks. Here we present a multifrequency study of transition disk candidates located in Lupus I, III, IV, V, VI, Corona Australis, and Scorpius. Complementing the information provided by Spitzer with adaptive optics (AO) imaging (NaCo, VLT), submillimeter photometry (APEX), and echelle spectroscopy (Magellan, Du Pont Telescopes), we estimate ...

  19. THE NATURE OF TRANSITION CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS. II. SOUTHERN MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Gisela A.; Schreiber, Matthias R.; Rebassa-Mansergas, Alberto [Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Universidad de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Cieza, Lucas A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Merin, Bruno [Herschel Science Centre, ESAC (ESA), P.O. Box 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Smith Castelli, Analia V. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires (Argentina); Allen, Lori E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Morrell, Nidia [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile)

    2012-04-10

    Transition disk objects are pre-main-sequence stars with little or no near-IR excess and significant far-IR excess, implying inner opacity holes in their disks. Here we present a multifrequency study of transition disk candidates located in Lupus I, III, IV, V, VI, Corona Australis, and Scorpius. Complementing the information provided by Spitzer with adaptive optics (AO) imaging (NaCo, VLT), submillimeter photometry (APEX), and echelle spectroscopy (Magellan, Du Pont Telescopes), we estimate the multiplicity, disk mass, and accretion rate for each object in our sample in order to identify the mechanism potentially responsible for its inner hole. We find that our transition disks show a rich diversity in their spectral energy distribution morphology, have disk masses ranging from {approx}<1 to 10 M{sub JUP}, and accretion rates ranging from {approx}<10{sup -11} to 10{sup -7.7} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. Of the 17 bona fide transition disks in our sample, three, nine, three, and two objects are consistent with giant planet formation, grain growth, photoevaporation, and debris disks, respectively. Two disks could be circumbinary, which offers tidal truncation as an alternative origin of the inner hole. We find the same heterogeneity of the transition disk population in Lupus III, IV, and Corona Australis as in our previous analysis of transition disks in Ophiuchus while all transition disk candidates selected in Lupus V, VI turned out to be contaminating background asymptotic giant branch stars. All transition disks classified as photoevaporating disks have small disk masses, which indicates that photoevaporation must be less efficient than predicted by most recent models. The three systems that are excellent candidates for harboring giant planets potentially represent invaluable laboratories to study planet formation with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array.

  20. The Nature of Transition Circumstellar Disks II. Southern Molecular Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, Gisela A; Cieza, Lucas A; Rebassa-Mansergas, Alberto; Merín, Bruno; Castelli, Analía V Smith; Allen, Lori E; Morrell, Nidia; 10.1088/0004-637X/749/1/79

    2012-01-01

    Transition disk objects are pre-main-sequence stars with little or no near-IR excess and significant far-IR excess, implying inner opacity holes in their disks. Here we present a multifrequency study of transition disk candidates located in Lupus I, III, IV, V, VI, Corona Australis, and Scorpius. Complementing the information provided by Spitzer with adaptive optics (AO) imaging (NaCo, VLT), submillimeter photometry (APEX), and echelle spectroscopy (Magellan, Du Pont Telescopes), we estimate the multiplicity, disk mass, and accretion rate for each object in our sample in order to identify the mechanism potentially responsible for its inner hole. We find that our transition disks show a rich diversity in their spectral energy distribution morphology, have disk masses ranging from lsim1 to 10 M JUP, and accretion rates ranging from lsim10-11 to 10-7.7 M \\odot yr-1. Of the 17 bona fide transition disks in our sample, three, nine, three, and two objects are consistent with giant planet formation, grain growth, ph...

  1. The effect of molecular mobility on electronic transport in carbon nanotube-polymer composites and networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multiscale modeling approach to the prediction of electrical conductivity in carbon nanotube (CNT)–polymer composite materials is developed, which takes into account thermally activated molecular mobility of the matrix and the CNTs. On molecular level, a tight-binding density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function method are used to calculate the static electron transmission function in the contact between two metallic carbon nanotubes that corresponds to electron transport at 0 K. For higher temperatures, the statistical distribution of effective contact resistances is considered that originates from thermal fluctuations of intermolecular distances caused by molecular mobility of carbon nanotube and the polymer matrix. Based on this distribution and using effective medium theory, the temperature dependence of macroscopic electrical resistivity for CNT-polymer composites and CNT mats is calculated. The predicted data indicate that the electrical conductivity of the CNT-polymer composites increases linearly with temperature above 50 K, which is in a quantitative agreement with the experiments. Our model predicts a slight nonlinearity in temperature dependence of electric conductivity at low temperatures for percolated composites with small CNT loading. The model also explains the effect of glass transition and other molecular relaxation processes in the polymer matrix on the composite electrical conductivity. The developed multiscale approach integrates the atomistic charge transport mechanisms in percolated CNT-polymer composites with the macroscopic response and thus enables direct comparison of the prediction with the measurements of macroscopic material properties

  2. Simulating the circum-stellar environment of supernova and GRB progenitors by combining stellar evolution models and hydrodynamical code

    OpenAIRE

    Georgy, Cyril; Walder, Rolf; Folini, Doris

    2011-01-01

    The medium around massive stars is strongly shaped by the stellar winds. Those winds depend on various stellar parameters (effective temperature, luminosity, chemical composition, rotation, ...), which are varying as a function of the time. Using the wind properties obtained by classical stellar evolution code allows for the multi- D hydrodynamical simulation of the circum-stellar medium accounting for the time variations of the wind. We present here the preliminary results of the simulation ...

  3. Composition control of quinary GaInNAsSb alloy grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyashita, Naoya; Ahsan, Nazmul; Okada, Yoshitaka [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology (RCAST), The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Islam, Muhammad Monirul [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    In order to precisely control the composition of quinary GaInNAsSb alloy, we investigated the incorporation behavior of constituent atoms during atomic hydrogen-assisted molecular beam epitaxial growth. The nitrogen (N) composition, in comparison of GaNAs and GaNAsSb, increased by the supply of antimony (Sb). However, addition of indium (In) decreases the N composition during Sb mediated growth of GaInNAsSb, which enables obtaining the same N composition when an adequate In composition is chosen. It was revealed that Sb incorporation was increased when (i) In composition decreased, (ii) Sb flux increased, (iii) growth temperature decreased, and (iv) growth rate increased. These results are thought to be related to the effect of competitive role among strain, coverage, desorption, and segregation. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Hemichannel composition and electrical synaptic transmission: molecular diversity and its implications for electrical rectification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Prado, Nicolás; Huetteroth, Wolf; Pereda, Alberto E

    2014-01-01

    Unapposed hemichannels (HCs) formed by hexamers of gap junction proteins are now known to be involved in various cellular processes under both physiological and pathological conditions. On the other hand, less is known regarding how differences in the molecular composition of HCs impact electrical synaptic transmission between neurons when they form intercellular heterotypic gap junctions (GJs). Here we review data indicating that molecular differences between apposed HCs at electrical synapses are generally associated with rectification of electrical transmission. Furthermore, this association has been observed at both innexin and connexin (Cx) based electrical synapses. We discuss the possible molecular mechanisms underlying electrical rectification, as well as the potential contribution of intracellular soluble factors to this phenomenon. We conclude that asymmetries in molecular composition and sensitivity to cellular factors of each contributing hemichannel can profoundly influence the transmission of electrical signals, endowing electrical synapses with more complex functional properties.

  5. The EXoplanetary Circumstellar Environments and Disk Explorer (EXCEDE)

    CERN Document Server

    Guyon, Olivier; Belikov, Ruslan; Tenerelli, Domenick J

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of the EXoplanetary Circumstellar Environments and Disk Explorer (EXCEDE), selected by NASA for technology development and maturation. EXCEDE will study the formation, evolution and architectures of exoplanetary systems, and characterize circumstellar environments into stellar habitable zones. EXCEDE provides contrast-limited scattered-light detection sensitivities ~ 1000x greater than HST or JWST coronagraphs at a much smaller effective inner working angle (IWA), thus enabling the exploration and characterization of exoplanetary circumstellar disks in currently inaccessible domains. EXCEDE will utilize a laboratory demonstrated high-performance Phase Induced Amplitude Apodized Coronagraph (PIAA-C) integrated with a 70 cm diameter unobscured aperture visible light telescope. The EXCEDE PIAA-C will deliver star-to-disk augmented image contrasts of < 10E-8 and a 1.2 L/D IWA or 140 mas with a wavefront control system utilizing a 2000-element MEMS DM and fast steering mirror. EXCEDE will...

  6. The Circumstellar Medium of Massive Stars in Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Mackey, Jonathan; Meyer, Dominique M -A; Gvaramadze, Vasilii V; Mohamed, Shazrene; Neilson, Hilding R; Mignone, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The circumstellar medium around massive stars is strongly impacted by stellar winds, radiation, and explosions. We use numerical simulations of these interactions to constrain the current properties and evolutionary history of various stars by comparison with observed circumstellar structures. Two- and three-dimensional simulations of bow shocks around red supergiant stars have shown that Betelgeuse has probably only recently evolved from a blue supergiant to a red supergiant, and hence its bow shock is very young and has not yet reached a steady state. We have also for the first time investigated the magnetohydrodynamics of the photoionised H II region around the nearby runaway O star Zeta Oph. Finally, we have calculated a grid of models of bow shocks around main sequence and evolved massive stars that has general application to many observed bow shocks, and which forms the basis of future work to model the explosions of these stars into their pre-shaped circumstellar medium.

  7. Laboratory Studies Of Circumstellar Carbonaceous Grain Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Cesar; Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Salama, Farid

    2014-06-01

    The study of the formation processes of dust is essential to understand the budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. Although dust with all its components plays an important role in the evolution of interstellar (IS) chemistry and in the formation of organic molecules, little is known on the formation processes of carbonaceous dust. We report the progress that was recently achieved in this domain using NASA Ames’ COSmIC facility (Contreras & Salama 2013, ApJS, 208, 6). PAHs are important chemical building blocks of IS dust. They are detected in IDPs and in meteoritic samples. Additionally, observational, laboratory, and theoretical studies have shown that PAHs are an important, ubiquitous component of the ISM. The formation of PAHs from smaller molecules has not been extensively studied. Therefore, we have performed laboratory experiments to study the dynamic processes of carbon grain formation, starting from the smallest hydrocarbon molecules into the formation of larger PAH and further into nanograins. Studies of IS dust analogs formed from a variety of PAH and hydrocarbon precursors as well as species that include the atoms O, N, and S, have recently been performed in our laboratory using the COSmIC facility to provide conditions that simulate IS and circumstellar environments. The species formed in the COSmiC chamber through a pulsed discharge nozzle plasma source are detected and characterized with a cavity ringdown spectrometer coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, thus providing both spectroscopic and ion mass information in-situ. Analysis of solid soot particles was also conducted using scanning electron microscopy at the UCSC/NASA Ames’ MACS facility. The SEM analysis of the deposition of soot from methane and acetylene precursors seeded in argon plasmas provide examples on the types of nanoparticles and micrograins that are produced in these gas mixtures under our experimental conditions. From these measurements, we derive information on

  8. Molecular composition and ultrastructure of Jurassic paravian feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Johan; Sjövall, Peter; Carney, Ryan M; Cincotta, Aude; Uvdal, Per; Hutcheson, Steven W; Gustafsson, Ola; Lefèvre, Ulysse; Escuillié, François; Heimdal, Jimmy; Engdahl, Anders; Gren, Johan A; Kear, Benjamin P; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Yans, Johan; Godefroit, Pascal

    2015-08-27

    Feathers are amongst the most complex epidermal structures known, and they have a well-documented evolutionary trajectory across non-avian dinosaurs and basal birds. Moreover, melanosome-like microbodies preserved in association with fossil plumage have been used to reconstruct original colour, behaviour and physiology. However, these putative ancient melanosomes might alternatively represent microorganismal residues, a conflicting interpretation compounded by a lack of unambiguous chemical data. We therefore used sensitive molecular imaging, supported by multiple independent analytical tests, to demonstrate that the filamentous epidermal appendages in a new specimen of the Jurassic paravian Anchiornis comprise remnant eumelanosomes and fibril-like microstructures, preserved as endogenous eumelanin and authigenic calcium phosphate. These results provide novel insights into the early evolution of feathers at the sub-cellular level, and unequivocally determine that melanosomes can be preserved in fossil feathers.

  9. Detection of circumstellar CH2CHCN, CH2CN, CH3CCH and H2CS

    CERN Document Server

    Agundez, M; Cernicharo, J; Pardo, J R; Guélin, M

    2007-01-01

    We report on the detection of vinyl cyanide (CH2CHCN), cyanomethyl radical (CH2CN), methylacetylene (CH3CCH) and thioformaldehyde (H2CS) in the C-rich star IRC +10216. These species, which are all known to exist in dark clouds, are detected for the first time in the circumstellar envelope around an AGB star. The four molecules have been detected trough pure rotational transitions in the course of a 3 mm line survey carried out with the IRAM 30-m telescope. The molecular column densities are derived by constructing rotational temperature diagrams. A detailed chemical model of the circumstellar envelope is used to analyze the formation of these molecular species. We have found column densities in the range 5 x 10^(12)- 2 x 10^(13) cm^(-2), which translates to abundances relative to H2 of several 10^(-9). The chemical model is reasonably successful in explaining the derived abundances through gas phase synthesis in the cold outer envelope. We also find that some of these molecules, CH2CHCN and CH2CN, are most pr...

  10. Materials chemistry. Composition-matched molecular "solders" for semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolzhnikov, Dmitriy S; Zhang, Hao; Jang, Jaeyoung; Son, Jae Sung; Panthani, Matthew G; Shibata, Tomohiro; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Talapin, Dmitri V

    2015-01-23

    We propose a general strategy to synthesize largely unexplored soluble chalcogenidometallates of cadmium, lead, and bismuth. These compounds can be used as "solders" for semiconductors widely used in photovoltaics and thermoelectrics. The addition of solder helped to bond crystal surfaces and link nano- or mesoscale particles together. For example, CdSe nanocrystals with Na2Cd2Se3 solder was used as a soluble precursor for CdSe films with electron mobilities exceeding 300 square centimeters per volt-second. CdTe, PbTe, and Bi2Te3 powders were molded into various shapes in the presence of a small additive of composition-matched chalcogenidometallate or chalcogel, thus opening new design spaces for semiconductor technologies.

  11. Molecular modeling of cracks at interfaces in nanoceramic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavia, F.; Curtin, W. A.

    2013-10-01

    Toughness in Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) is achieved if crack deflection can occur at the fiber/matrix interface, preventing crack penetration into the fiber and enabling energy-dissipating fiber pullout. To investigate toughening in nanoscale CMCs, direct atomistic models are used to study how matrix cracks behave as a function of the degree of interfacial bonding/sliding, as controlled by the density of C interstitial atoms, at the interface between carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a diamond matrix. Under all interface conditions studied, incident matrix cracks do not penetrate into the nanotube. Under increased loading, weaker interfaces fail in shear while stronger interfaces do not fail and, instead, the CNT fails once the stress on the CNT reaches its tensile strength. An analytic shear lag model captures all of the micromechanical details as a function of loading and material parameters. Interface deflection versus fiber penetration is found to depend on the relative bond strengths of the interface and the CNT, with CNT failure occurring well below the prediction of the toughness-based continuum He-Hutchinson model. The shear lag model, in contrast, predicts the CNT failure point and shows that the nanoscale embrittlement transition occurs at an interface shear strength scaling as τs~ɛσ rather than τs~σ typically prevailing for micron scale composites, where ɛ and σ are the CNT failure strain and stress, respectively. Interface bonding also lowers the effective fracture strength in SWCNTs, due to formation of defects, but does not play a role in DWCNTs having interwall coupling, which are weaker than SWCNTs but less prone to damage in the outerwall.

  12. Stability of Y/MCM-48 composite molecular sieve with mesoporous and microporous structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Y/MCM-48 composite molecular sieve was hydrothermally synthesized at different crystallization temperatures and crystallization times using ethyl orthosilicate as Si source and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide as template with the aid of fluoride ions and was characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 physical adsorption technique, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The thermal, hydrothermal, acidic, and basic stabilities of the Y/MCM-48 composite were investigated. The results show that Y/MCM-48 composite molecular sieve with meso- and microporous structures was synthesized successfully at 120 °C for 36 h. The Y/MCM-48 composite has the surface area of 864 m2/g and the average pore size is ca. 2.48 nm. The bi-porous structure in composite molecular sieve still maintains its stability even after thermal treatment at 800 °C for 4 h or hydrothermal treatment at 100 °C for 48 h. After treatment in 1 mol/L hydrochloric acid solution or 1 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution for 48 h, the Y/MCM-48 composite exhibits good acidic stability. The acidic stability is superior to the basic stability at the same treatment time.

  13. Mineral-Biochar Composites: Molecular Structure and Porosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Aditya; Joseph, Stephen D; Hook, James M; Chia, Chee H; Munroe, Paul R; Donne, Scott; Lin, Yun; Phelan, David; Mitchell, David R G; Pace, Ben; Horvat, Joseph; Webber, J Beau W

    2016-07-19

    Dramatic changes in molecular structure, degradation pathway, and porosity of biochar are observed at pyrolysis temperatures ranging from 250 to 550 °C when bamboo biomass is pretreated by iron-sulfate-clay slurries (iron-clay biochar), as compared to untreated bamboo biochar. Electron microscopy analysis of the biochar reveals the infusion of mineral species into the pores of the biochar and the formation of mineral nanostructures. Quantitative (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy shows that the presence of the iron clay prevents degradation of the cellulosic fraction at pyrolysis temperatures of 250 °C, whereas at higher temperatures (350-550 °C), the clay promotes biomass degradation, resulting in an increase in both the concentrations of condensed aromatic, acidic, and phenolic carbon species. The porosity of the biochar, as measured by NMR cryoporosimetry, is altered by the iron-clay pretreatment. In the presence of the clay, at lower pyrolysis temperatures, the biochar develops a higher pore volume, while at higher temperature, the presence of clay causes a reduction in the biochar pore volume. The most dramatic reduction in pore volume is observed in the kaolinite-infiltrated biochar at 550 °C, which is attributed to the blocking of the mesopores (2-50 nm pore) by the nonporous metakaolinite formed from kaolinite. PMID:27284608

  14. Extra virgin olive oil: from composition to "molecular gastronomy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Raffaele; Paduano, Antonello; Savarese, Maria; Vitaglione, Paola; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of the recent results of studies on extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and its interactions with other food ingredients during cooking, to highlight basic molecular aspects of the "magic" of EVOO and its role in Mediterranean gastronomy. The use of raw EVOO added to foods after cooking (or as a salad oil) is the best way to express the original flavour and to maximize the intake of natural antioxidants and compounds related to positive effects on human health (hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancerogenic, among others). EVOO, however, also exhibits its protective properties during/after cooking. Different chemical interactions between biophenolic compounds and other food ingredients (water, milk proteins, carotenoids of tomato, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned-in-oil fish and meat or fish proteins) occur. Even during cooking, EVOO exhibits strong antioxidant properties and influences the overall flavour of cooked foods. The physical (partitioning, emulsion) and chemical (hydrolysis, covalent binding, antioxidant properties) phenomena occurring during cooking of EVOO are discussed with emphasis on the changes in the sensory (bitterness and fruity flavour) and nutritional qualities of some traditional Mediterranean foods. In particular, tomato-oil interactions during cooking, fish canning in EVOO, meat marinated in EVOO before cooking and roasting and frying in EVOO are examined. The interactions between EVOO antioxidants and flavours with milk proteins are also briefly discussed.

  15. Extra virgin olive oil: from composition to "molecular gastronomy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Raffaele; Paduano, Antonello; Savarese, Maria; Vitaglione, Paola; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of the recent results of studies on extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and its interactions with other food ingredients during cooking, to highlight basic molecular aspects of the "magic" of EVOO and its role in Mediterranean gastronomy. The use of raw EVOO added to foods after cooking (or as a salad oil) is the best way to express the original flavour and to maximize the intake of natural antioxidants and compounds related to positive effects on human health (hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancerogenic, among others). EVOO, however, also exhibits its protective properties during/after cooking. Different chemical interactions between biophenolic compounds and other food ingredients (water, milk proteins, carotenoids of tomato, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned-in-oil fish and meat or fish proteins) occur. Even during cooking, EVOO exhibits strong antioxidant properties and influences the overall flavour of cooked foods. The physical (partitioning, emulsion) and chemical (hydrolysis, covalent binding, antioxidant properties) phenomena occurring during cooking of EVOO are discussed with emphasis on the changes in the sensory (bitterness and fruity flavour) and nutritional qualities of some traditional Mediterranean foods. In particular, tomato-oil interactions during cooking, fish canning in EVOO, meat marinated in EVOO before cooking and roasting and frying in EVOO are examined. The interactions between EVOO antioxidants and flavours with milk proteins are also briefly discussed. PMID:24114489

  16. Neuroendocrine and squamous colonic composite carcinoma: Case report with molecular analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sabrina C Wentz; Cindy Vnencak-Jones; William V Chopp

    2011-01-01

    Composite colorectal carcinomas are rare. There are a modest number of cases in the medical literature, with even fewer cases describing composite carcinoma with neuroendocrine and squamous components. There are to our knowledge no reports of composite carcinoma molecular alterations. We present a case of composite carcinoma of the splenic flexure in a 33 year-old Cau casian male to investigate the presence and prognos tic significance of molecular alterations in rare colonic carcinoma subtypes. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue was hematoxylin and eosin- and mucicar-mine-stained according to protocol, and immuno-stained with cytokeratin (CK)7, CK20, CDX2, AE1/AE3, chromo-granin-A and synaptophysin. DNA was extracted from FFPE tissues and molecular analyses were performedaccording to lab-developed methods, followed by capil lary electrophoresis. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed admixed neuroendocrine and keratinized squa mous cells. Positive nuclear CDX2 expression confirmed intestinal derivation. CK7 and CK20 were negative. Neuroendocrine cells stained positively for synaptophy sin and AE1/AE3 and negatively for chromogranin and mucicarmine. Hepatic metastases showed a similar im munohistochemical profile. Molecular analysis revealed a G13D KRAS mutation. BRAF mutational testing was negative and microsatellite instability was not detected. The patient had rapid disease progression on chemo therapy and died 60 d after presentation. Although the G13D KRAS mutation normally predicts an intermediate outcome, the aggressive tumor behavior suggests other modifying factors in rare types of colonic carcinomas.

  17. Circumstellar and explosion properties of Type Ibn supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Moriya, Takashi J

    2016-01-01

    We investigate circumstellar and explosion properties of Type Ibn supernovae (SNe) by analyzing their bolometric light curves. Bolometric light curves of Type Ibn SNe generally have a large contrast between peak luminosity and late-phase luminosity, which is much larger than those of 56Ni-powered SNe. Thus, most of them are likely powered by the interaction between SN ejecta and dense circumstellar media. In addition, Type Ibn SNe decline much faster than Type IIn SNe, and this indicates that the interaction in Type Ibn SNe ceases earlier than in Type IIn SNe. Thus, we argue that Type Ibn SN progenitors experience high mass-loss rates in a short period just before explosion, while Type IIn SN progenitors have high mass-loss rates sustained for a long time. Furthermore, we show that rise time and peak luminosity of Type Ibn and Type IIn SNe are similar and thus, they have similar explosion properties and circumstellar density. The similar circumstellar density in the two kinds of SNe may indicate that mass-los...

  18. Development of Laser Desorption Imaging Mass Spectrometry Methods to Investigate the Molecular Composition of Latent Fingermarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzon, Nidia; Dufresne, Martin; Chauhan, Vinita; Chaurand, Pierre

    2015-06-01

    For a century, fingermark analysis has been one of the most important and common methods in forensic investigations. Modern chemical analysis technologies have added the potential to determine the molecular composition of fingermarks and possibly identify chemicals a suspect may have come into contact with. Improvements in analytical detection of the molecular composition of fingermarks is therefore of great importance. In this regard, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and laser desorption ionization (LDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) have proven to be useful technologies for fingermark analysis. In these analyses, the choice of ionizing agent and its mode of deposition are critical steps for the identification of molecular markers. Here we propose two novel and complementary IMS approaches for endogenous and exogenous substance detection in fingermarks: sublimation of 2-mercaptobenzothiazol (2-MBT) matrix and silver sputtering.

  19. Circumstellar C2, CN, and CH+ in the optical spectra of post-AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bakker, E J; Waters, L B F M; Schoenmaker, T; Bakker, Eric J.; Dishoeck, Ewine F. van; Schoenmaker, Ton

    1996-01-01

    We present optical high-resolution spectra of a sample of sixteen post-AGB stars and IRC +10216. Of the post-AGB stars, ten show C2 Phillips and Swan and CN Red System absorption, one CH+ emission, one CH+ absorption, and four without any molecules. We find typically Trot=43-399, 155-202, and 18-50 K, log N = 14.90-15.57, 14.35, and 15.03-16.47 cm-2 for C2, CH+, and CN respectively, and 0.620. The presence of C2 and CN absorption is correlated with cold dust (Tdust300K). All objects with the unidentified 21mum emission feature exhibit C2 and CN absorption, but not all objects with C2 and CN detections exhibit a 21mum feature. The derived expansion velocity, ranging from 5 to 44 km/s, is the same as that derived from CO millimeter line emission. This unambiguously proves that these lines are of circumstellar origin and are formed in the AGB ejecta (circumstellar shell expelled during the preceding AGB phase). Furthermore there seems to be a relation between the C2 molecular column density and the expansion vel...

  20. The circumstellar envelope of the C-rich post-AGB star HD 56126

    CERN Document Server

    Hony, S; Waters, L B F M; De Koter, A

    2003-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the circumstellar envelope of the post-asymptotic giant branch ``21 micron object'' HD 56126. We build a detailed dust radiative transfer model of the circumstellar envelope in order to derive the dust composition and mass, and the mass-loss history of the star. To model the emission of the dust we use amorphous carbon, hydrogenated amorphous carbon, magnesium sulfide and titanium carbide. We present a detailed parametrisation of the optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous carbon as a function of H/C content. The mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopy is best reproduced by a single dust shell from 1.2 to 2.6 arcsec radius around the central star. This shell originates from a short period during which the mass-loss rate exceeded 10^(-4) M_sun/yr. We find that the strength of the ``21'' micron feature poses a problem for the TiC identification. The low abundance of Ti requires very high absorption cross-sections in the ultraviolet and visible wavelength range to explain the st...

  1. Effect of Molecular Weight on Load Transfer in Nanotube / Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Minfang; Du, Fangming; Haggenmueller, Reto; Winey, Karen

    2006-03-01

    The tensile moduli of nanocomposite fibers are being investigated with attention to the molecular weight of the polymer. Nanocomposites composed of single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were prepared by our coagulation method and processed into composite fibers using melt fiber spinning. SWNT in the fibers are aligned and the nanotube - nanotube interactions are diminished, so that, the mechanical load on SWNT is mainly from polymer - SWNT interactions. The tensile moduli along the direction parallel to the SWNT were characterized at 1.0 mm / sec with the fiber length of 25.4 mm. At a weight-average molecular weight (Mw) 25 kDa, the tensile moduli of PMMA are the same with the composites. However, when the Mw is increased to 100kDa, the tensile moduli are improved greatly by adding SWNT. This indicates that the load in the composites is transferred to the SWNT more efficiently at 100 kDa molecular weight. A micromechanics model was used to relate the elastic shear stress on the polymer - SWNT interface to the polymer chain length. It showed that with increasing polymer chain length, the interfacial shear stress was enhanced. This study demonstrates the importance of the molecular weight of the polymer matrix to the load transfer in nanocomposites.

  2. The molecular composition of dissolved organic matter in forest soils as a function of pH and temperature

    OpenAIRE

    V. Roth; Dittmar, T.; R. Gaupp; G. Gleixner

    2015-01-01

    We examined the molecular composition of forest soil water during three different seasons at three different sites, using electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FT-ICR-MS). We examined oxic soils and tested the hypothesis that pH and season correlate with the molecular composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM). We used molecular formulae and their relative intensity from ESI-FT-ICR-MS for statistical analysis. Applying unconstrained and co...

  3. Spectroscopic Evolution of Disintegrating Planetesimals: Minutes to Months Variability in the Circumstellar Gas Associated with WD 1145+017

    CERN Document Server

    Redfield, Seth; Cauley, P Wilson; Parsons, Steven G; Gaensicke, Boris T; Duvvuri, Girish

    2016-01-01

    With the recent discovery of transiting planetary material around WD 1145+017, a critical target has been identified that links the evolution of planetary systems with debris disks and their accretion onto the star. We present a series of observations, five epochs over a year, taken with Keck and the VLT, which for the first time show variability of circumstellar absorption in the gas disk surrounding WD 1145+017 on timescales of minutes to months. Circumstellar absorption is measured in more than 250 lines of 14 ions among ten different elements associated with planetary composition, e.g., O, Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni. Broad circumstellar gas absorption with a velocity spread of 225 km/s is detected, but over the course of a year blue shifted absorption disappears while redshifted absorption systematically increases. A correlation of equivalent width and oscillator strength indicates that the gas is not highly optically thick (median tau approximately 2). We discuss simple models of an eccentric disk couple...

  4. Deformation behavior of metallic glass composites reinforced with shape memory nanowires studied via molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şopu, D.; Stoica, M.; Eckert, J.

    2015-05-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the deformation behavior and mechanism of Cu64Zr36 composite structures reinforced with B2 CuZr nanowires are strongly influenced by the martensitic phase transformation and distribution of these crystalline precipitates. When nanowires are distributed in the glassy matrix along the deformation direction, a two-steps stress-induced martensitic phase transformation is observed. Since the martensitic transformation is driven by the elastic energy release, the strain localization behavior in the glassy matrix is strongly affected. Therefore, the composite materials reinforced with a crystalline phase, which shows stress-induced martensitic transformation, represent a route for controlling the properties of glassy materials.

  5. Influence of molecular composition on H-aggregation in hemicyanine Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wen-jun; LI Shu-hong; HU Hai-quan; BAI Cheng-lin

    2006-01-01

    Influence of molecular composition in hemicyanine Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films on the aggregation features was investigated by using steady state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy.It was found that a lower degree of H-aggregation (smaller aggregate size) could be realized in hemicyanine LB films with larger donor groups,leading to a smaller photoluminescence peak blue shift with respect to their solution spectra and longer aggregate lifetime.

  6. Molecular composition of atmospheric aerosols from Halley Bay, Antarctica, using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtchev, Ivan; Brough, Neil; Rincon, Angela; Jones, Anna; Kalberer, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Antarctica is one of the few pristine places to study natural processes of atmospheric aerosols and anthropogenic impacts on the clean remote atmosphere. Although stratospheric aerosol in Antarctica has now been explored in some detail because of the ozone depletion phenomenon, tropospheric aerosol particles in Antarctica remain very little studied. The main goal of this work is to identify in detail the organic chemical composition of aerosol from Halley Bay station, which is located on the Brunt Ice Shelf floating on the Weddell Sea in Antarctica. In this study we characterise the molecular composition of aerosols from three seasons (summer, autumn and winter in 2012) using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHRMS). The technique provides high accuracy and high mass resolving power that allows determining unambiguous number of organic compounds present in complex organic mixtures (Noziere et al., 2015). The molecular composition interpretation was facilitated using visualisation methods (e.g. double bond equivalent, Van Krevelen diagrams, Kendrick mass analysis, and carbon oxidation state), which allowed to identify patterns, such as differences between sampling times and atmospheric processes. The majority of the identified compounds were attributed to nitrogen and sulphur containing species which exhibited very strong seasonal trends. Relatively large fraction (up to 30% of the total number of molecules) of these species contained very low hydrogen to carbon ratios (below 1) indicating that the site is impacted by anthropogenic emissions. Influences of the meteorological parameters and air mass trajectories on the molecular composition are discussed. Nozière et al., The Molecular Identification of Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere: State of the Art and Challenges, Chem. Rev., 115, 3920-3983, 2015.

  7. Circumstellar absorption in double detonation Type Ia supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Ken J; Foley, Ryan J

    2013-01-01

    Upon formation, degenerate He core white dwarfs are surrounded by a radiative H-rich layer primarily supported by ideal gas pressure. In this Letter, we examine the effect of this H-rich layer on mass transfer in He-C/O double white dwarf binaries that will eventually merge and possibly yield a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) in the double detonation scenario. Because its thermal profile and equation of state differ from the underlying He core, the H-rich layer is transferred stably onto the C/O white dwarf prior to the He core's tidal disruption. We find that this material is ejected from the binary system and sweeps up the surrounding interstellar medium hundreds to thousands of years before the SN Ia. The close match between the resulting circumstellar medium profiles and values inferred from recent observations of circumstellar absorption in SNe Ia gives further credence to the resurgent double detonation scenario.

  8. CIRCUMSTELLAR ABSORPTION IN DOUBLE DETONATION TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upon formation, degenerate He core white dwarfs are surrounded by a radiative H-rich layer primarily supported by ideal gas pressure. In this Letter, we examine the effect of this H-rich layer on mass transfer in He+C/O double white dwarf binaries that will eventually merge and possibly yield a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) in the double detonation scenario. Because its thermal profile and equation of state differ from the underlying He core, the H-rich layer is transferred stably onto the C/O white dwarf prior to the He core's tidal disruption. We find that this material is ejected from the binary system and sweeps up the surrounding interstellar medium hundreds to thousands of years before the SN Ia. The close match between the resulting circumstellar medium profiles and values inferred from recent observations of circumstellar absorption in SNe Ia gives further credence to the resurgent double detonation scenario.

  9. CIRCUMSTELLAR ABSORPTION IN DOUBLE DETONATION TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Ken J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Guillochon, James [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Foley, Ryan J., E-mail: kenshen@astro.berkeley.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    Upon formation, degenerate He core white dwarfs are surrounded by a radiative H-rich layer primarily supported by ideal gas pressure. In this Letter, we examine the effect of this H-rich layer on mass transfer in He+C/O double white dwarf binaries that will eventually merge and possibly yield a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) in the double detonation scenario. Because its thermal profile and equation of state differ from the underlying He core, the H-rich layer is transferred stably onto the C/O white dwarf prior to the He core's tidal disruption. We find that this material is ejected from the binary system and sweeps up the surrounding interstellar medium hundreds to thousands of years before the SN Ia. The close match between the resulting circumstellar medium profiles and values inferred from recent observations of circumstellar absorption in SNe Ia gives further credence to the resurgent double detonation scenario.

  10. Bimodality of circumstellar disk evolution induced by Hall current

    CERN Document Server

    Tsukamoto, Y; Okuzumi, S; Machida, M N; Inutsuka, S

    2015-01-01

    The formation process of circumstellar disks is still controversial because of the interplay of complex physical processes that occurs during the gravitational collapse of prestellar cores. In this study, we investigate the effect of the Hall current term on the formation of circumstellar disk using three-dimensional simulations. In our simulations, all non-ideal effects as well as the radiation transfer are considered. We show that the size of the disk is significantly affected by a simple difference in the inherent properties of the prestellar core, namely whether the rotation vector and the magnetic field are parallel or anti-parallel. In the former case, only a very small disk ($20$ AU) disk is formed in the early phase of protostar formation. We also show that the anti-rotating envelopes against the disk-rotation appear with a size of $\\gtrsim 200$ AU. We predict that the anti-rotating envelope will be found in the future observations.

  11. Optical Evidence for Circumstellar Interaction Around SN 1993J

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Feng; ZHANG Tian-Meng; ZHOU Xu; LI Zong-Wei

    2004-01-01

    We study the circumstellar interaction around SN 1993J by its intermediate-band light curves obtained by the 60/90 cm Schmidt telescope at Xinglong station. The optical emission showed a slow decay of 0.05±0.02 mag/100 d in the period from 1995 to 2003, invoking a main energy contribution from SN-circumstellar interaction at late times. The relatively flat power law SN density model fits better with the observations. In particular, the line ratio of [O Ⅲ]λλ4959, 5007 and Na I D relative to Hα are well reproduced by the model. Moreover, the Hα light curve displayed obvious bump structures at some epochs, which is probably attributed to the density fluctuations in the ambient material that surrounds the reverse shockwave.

  12. Spectroscopic diagnostics for circumstellar disks of B[e] supergiants

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    B[e] supergiants (B[e]SGs) are emission-line objects, presumably in a short-lived phase in the post-main sequence evolution of massive stars. Their intense infrared excess emission indicates large amounts of warm circumstellar dust, and the stars were longtime assumed to possess an aspherical wind consisting of a classical line-driven wind in polar direction and a dense, slow equatorial wind dubbed outflowing disk. The general properties obtained for these disks are in line with this scenario, although current theories have considerable difficulties reproducing the observed quantities. Therefore, more sophisticated observational constraints are needed. These follow from combined optical and infrared spectroscopic studies, which delivered the surprising result that the circumstellar material of B[e]SGs is concentrated in multiple rings revolving the stars on stable Keplerian orbits. Such a scenario requires new ideas for the formation mechanism, in which pulsations might play an important role.

  13. External Shaping of Circumstellar Envelopes of Evolved Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2015-08-01

    The circumstellar envelopes of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and red supergiants (RSGs) are complex chemical and physical environments, and the specifics of their mass-loss history are important for both stellar and galactic evolution. One key aspect in this is to understand how the circumstellar medium of these stars can be shaped and affected by both internal and external mechanisms. These influences can skew our view on the (dust) chemistry and mass-loss history of these stars, and hence their role in the chemical enrichment of galaxies. This contribution focuses on the external mechanism related to the interaction between the slow dusty stellar wind and the local ambient medium. I will discuss what recent observations and hydrodynamical simulations have revealed and how these can help us learn more about AGB stars and RSGs, as well as the interstellar medium (ISM).

  14. Two-dimensional topological insulator molecular networks: dependence on structure, symmetry, and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liang Z.; Louie, Steven G.

    2014-03-01

    2D molecular networks can be fabricated from a wide variety of molecular building blocks, arranged in many different configurations. Interactions between neighboring molecular building blocks result in the formation of new 2D materials. Examples of 2D organic topological insulators, that contain molecular building blocks and heavy elements arranged in a hexagonal lattice, have been recently proposed by Feng Liu and coworkers (Nano Lett., 13, 2842 (2013)). In this work, we present a systematic study of the design space of 2D molecular network topological insulators, elucidating the role of structure, symmetry, and composition of the networks. We show that the magnitude and presence of spin-orbit gaps in the electronic band structure is strongly dependent on the symmetry properties and arrangement of the individual components of the molecular lattice. We present general rules to maximize the magnitude of spin-orbit gaps and perform ab-initio calculations on promising structures derived from these guidelines. This work was supported by National Science Foundation Grant No. DMR10-1006184, the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Computational resources have been provided by the NSF through XSEDE resources at NICS.

  15. Dissolved organic nitrogen in urban streams: Biodegradability and molecular composition studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Mary G; Toor, Gurpal S

    2016-06-01

    A portion of the dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is biodegradable in water bodies, yet our knowledge of the molecular composition and controls on biological reactivity of DON is limited. Our objective was to investigate the biodegradability and molecular composition of DON in streams that drain a gradient of 19-83% urban land use. Weekly sampling over 21 weeks suggested no significant relationship between urban land use and DON concentration. We then selected two streams that drain 28% and 83% urban land use to determine the biodegradability and molecular composition of the DON by coupling 5-day bioassay experiments with high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). Both urban streams contained a wide range of N-bearing biomolecular formulas and had >80% DON in lignin-like compounds, with only 5-7% labile DON. The labile DON consisted mostly of lipid-and protein-like structures with high H/C and low O/C values. Comparison of reactive formulas and formed counterparts during the bioassay experiments indicated a shift toward more oxygenated and less saturated N-bearing DON formulas due to the microbial degradation. Although there was a little net removal (5-7%) of organic-bound N over the 5-day bioassay, there was some change to the carbon skeleton of DON compounds. These results suggest that DON in urban streams contains a complex mixture of compounds such as lipids, proteins, and lignins of variable chemical structures and biodegradability. PMID:27058880

  16. Dissolved organic nitrogen in urban streams: Biodegradability and molecular composition studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Mary G; Toor, Gurpal S

    2016-06-01

    A portion of the dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is biodegradable in water bodies, yet our knowledge of the molecular composition and controls on biological reactivity of DON is limited. Our objective was to investigate the biodegradability and molecular composition of DON in streams that drain a gradient of 19-83% urban land use. Weekly sampling over 21 weeks suggested no significant relationship between urban land use and DON concentration. We then selected two streams that drain 28% and 83% urban land use to determine the biodegradability and molecular composition of the DON by coupling 5-day bioassay experiments with high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). Both urban streams contained a wide range of N-bearing biomolecular formulas and had >80% DON in lignin-like compounds, with only 5-7% labile DON. The labile DON consisted mostly of lipid-and protein-like structures with high H/C and low O/C values. Comparison of reactive formulas and formed counterparts during the bioassay experiments indicated a shift toward more oxygenated and less saturated N-bearing DON formulas due to the microbial degradation. Although there was a little net removal (5-7%) of organic-bound N over the 5-day bioassay, there was some change to the carbon skeleton of DON compounds. These results suggest that DON in urban streams contains a complex mixture of compounds such as lipids, proteins, and lignins of variable chemical structures and biodegradability.

  17. Molecular composition of recycled organic wastes, as determined by solid-state {sup 13}C NMR and elemental analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldridge, S.M., E-mail: simon.eldridge@dpi.nsw.gov.au [Environmental Futures Centre, School of Environment, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); NSW Department of Primary Industries, Bruxner Highway, Wollongbar, NSW 2477 (Australia); Chen, C.R. [Environmental Futures Centre, School of Environment, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Xu, Z.H. [Environmental Futures Centre, School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Nelson, P.N. [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, James Cook University, Cairns, QLD 4870 (Australia); Boyd, S.E. [Environmental Futures Centre, School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Meszaros, I. [Formerly NSW Department of Primary Industries, Richmond, NSW 2753 (Australia); Chan, K.Y. [Graduate School of Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2109 (Australia); Formerly NSW Department of Primary Industries, Richmond, NSW 2753 (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Model estimated the molecular C components well for most RO wastes. • Molecular nature of organic matter in RO wastes varied widely. • Molecular composition by NMR modelling preferable to extraction techniques. • Some model shortcomings in estimating molecular composition of biochars. • Waste molecular composition important for carbon/nutrient outcomes in soil. - Abstract: Using solid state {sup 13}C NMR data and elemental composition in a molecular mixing model, we estimated the molecular components of the organic matter in 16 recycled organic (RO) wastes representative of the major materials generated in the Sydney basin area. Close correspondence was found between the measured NMR signal intensities and those predicted by the model for all RO wastes except for poultry manure char. Molecular nature of the organic matter differed widely between the RO wastes. As a proportion of organic C, carbohydrate C ranged from 0.07 to 0.63, protein C from <0.01 to 0.66, lignin C from <0.01 to 0.31, aliphatic C from 0.09 to 0.73, carbonyl C from 0.02 to 0.23, and char C from 0 to 0.45. This method is considered preferable to techniques involving imprecise extraction methods for RO wastes. Molecular composition data has great potential as a predictor of RO waste soil carbon and nutrient outcomes.

  18. Molecular composition of recycled organic wastes, as determined by solid-state 13C NMR and elemental analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Model estimated the molecular C components well for most RO wastes. • Molecular nature of organic matter in RO wastes varied widely. • Molecular composition by NMR modelling preferable to extraction techniques. • Some model shortcomings in estimating molecular composition of biochars. • Waste molecular composition important for carbon/nutrient outcomes in soil. - Abstract: Using solid state 13C NMR data and elemental composition in a molecular mixing model, we estimated the molecular components of the organic matter in 16 recycled organic (RO) wastes representative of the major materials generated in the Sydney basin area. Close correspondence was found between the measured NMR signal intensities and those predicted by the model for all RO wastes except for poultry manure char. Molecular nature of the organic matter differed widely between the RO wastes. As a proportion of organic C, carbohydrate C ranged from 0.07 to 0.63, protein C from <0.01 to 0.66, lignin C from <0.01 to 0.31, aliphatic C from 0.09 to 0.73, carbonyl C from 0.02 to 0.23, and char C from 0 to 0.45. This method is considered preferable to techniques involving imprecise extraction methods for RO wastes. Molecular composition data has great potential as a predictor of RO waste soil carbon and nutrient outcomes

  19. The progenitor of SN 2011ja: Clues from circumstellar interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Ray, Alak; Smith, Randall; Ryder, Stuart; Yadav, Naveen; Sutaria, Firoza; Dwarkadas, Vikram V; Chandra, Poonam; Pooley, David; Roy, Rupak

    2013-01-01

    Massive stars, possibly red supergiants, which retain extended hydrogen envelopes until core collapse, produce Type II Plateau (IIP) supernovae. The ejecta from these explosions shock the circumstellar matter originating from the mass loss of the progenitor during the final phases of its life. This interaction accelerates particles to relativistic energies which then lose energy via synchrotron radiation in the shock-amplified magnetic fields and inverse Compton scattering against optical pho...

  20. Molecular species composition of plant cardiolipin determined by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yonghong; Peisker, Helga; Dörmann, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Cardiolipin (CL), an anionic phospholipid of the inner mitochondrial membrane, provides essential functions for stabilizing respiratory complexes and is involved in mitochondrial morphogenesis and programmed cell death in animals. The role of CL and its metabolism in plants are less well understood. The measurement of CL in plants, including its molecular species composition, is hampered by the fact that CL is of extremely low abundance, and that plants contain large amounts of interfering compounds including galactolipids, neutral lipids, and pigments. We used solid phase extraction by anion exchange chromatography to purify CL from crude plant lipid extracts. LC/MS was used to determine the content and molecular species composition of CL. Thus, up to 23 different molecular species of CL were detected in different plant species, including Arabidopsis, mung bean, spinach, barley, and tobacco. Similar to animals, plant CL is dominated by highly unsaturated species, mostly containing linoleic and linolenic acid. During phosphate deprivation or exposure to an extended dark period, the amount of CL decreased in Arabidopsis, accompanied with an increased degree in unsaturation. The mechanism of CL remodeling during stress, and the function of highly unsaturated CL molecular species, remains to be defined. PMID:27179363

  1. Broadband molecular composition of dissolved organic matter in grassland soil as a function of depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Vanessa-Nina; Lange, Markus; Dittmar, Thorsten; Gleixner, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    We tested the application of electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FT-ICR-MS) on dissolved organic matter (DOM) from four different soil depths (10 - 60 cm) of a large-scale grassland experiment ("The Jena Experiment"). DOM is a key component of the global carbon cycle and links terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems Thus, it is of special interest to understand its origin and fate. In soil profiles, DOM is assumed to change rapidly from surface- and plant-derived to microbial-derived compounds in deeper soil layers. Composition changes have been observed with various analytical techniques but the applied techniques were restricted either by molecular resolution or the number of analytes. To widen the understanding of processes along the soil profile, it is necessary to apply methods that capture the broadband molecular composition. We used ESI-FT-ICR-MS to measure the molecular composition of DOM from four depths down to 60 cm of grassland soil at 18 plots of "The Jena Experiment". We focused on the shared depth trend of all plots leading to robust site trends. Molecular formulae assignment to detected masses gave access to the chemical composition of several thousand compounds. We applied statistical analyses to highlight the changes of DOM composition with depth for the complete spectra but also for N, S or P formulae separately. By analyzing Bray-Curtis distances of the spectras' molecular composition (relative intensities) we examined the general dissimilarity between depths. We used differential spectra of samples from 10 and 60 cm to identify formula with higher detected intensity in the respective depths. Considering only formulae of differential spectra that occurred in 90 % of the plots ensured the focus on the general depth trend for the whole site. Analyzing Bray-Curtis distances revealed increasing differences of the molecular composition with increasing distance of sampling depth. Bimodal MS spectra

  2. Molecularly imprinted poly (methacrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) composite membranes for recognition of curcumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, molecularly imprinted poly (methacrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) composite membranes with different ratio of methacrylamide (MAM) versus methacrylic acid (MAA) were prepared via UV initiated photo-copolymerization on the commercial filter paper. Curcumin was chosen as the template molecule. Infra-red (IR) spectroscopy was used to study the binding mechanism between the imprinted sites and the templates. The morphology of the resultant membranes was visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Static equilibrium binding and recognition properties of the imprinted composite membranes to curcumin (cur-I) and its analogues demethoxycurcumin (cur-II) or bisdemethoxycurcumin (cur-III) were tested. The results showed that curcumin-imprinted membranes had the best recognition ability to curcumin compared to its analogues. From the results, the biggest selectivity factor of αcur-I/cur-II and αcur-I/cur-III were 1.50 and 5.94, and they were obtained from the composite membranes in which MAM/MAA were 1:4 and 0:1, respectively. The results of this study implied that the molecularly imprinted composite membranes could be used as separation membranes for curcumin enrichment

  3. Molecularly imprinted poly (methacrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) composite membranes for recognition of curcumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Ping; Hu Wenming [College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University of Technology, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Su Weike [College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University of Technology, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Hangzhou 310014 (China)], E-mail: suweike@zjut.edu.cn

    2008-05-12

    In this study, molecularly imprinted poly (methacrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) composite membranes with different ratio of methacrylamide (MAM) versus methacrylic acid (MAA) were prepared via UV initiated photo-copolymerization on the commercial filter paper. Curcumin was chosen as the template molecule. Infra-red (IR) spectroscopy was used to study the binding mechanism between the imprinted sites and the templates. The morphology of the resultant membranes was visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Static equilibrium binding and recognition properties of the imprinted composite membranes to curcumin (cur-I) and its analogues demethoxycurcumin (cur-II) or bisdemethoxycurcumin (cur-III) were tested. The results showed that curcumin-imprinted membranes had the best recognition ability to curcumin compared to its analogues. From the results, the biggest selectivity factor of {alpha}{sub cur-I/cur-II} and {alpha}{sub cur-I/cur-III} were 1.50 and 5.94, and they were obtained from the composite membranes in which MAM/MAA were 1:4 and 0:1, respectively. The results of this study implied that the molecularly imprinted composite membranes could be used as separation membranes for curcumin enrichment.

  4. Thermal decomposition of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/mesoporous molecular sieve composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUN Mingtao; ZHANG Dayu; WU Sizhu; WU Gang

    2007-01-01

    The nonisothermal and isothermal degradation processesofpoly(ethyleneterephthalate)/mesoporous molecular sieve (PET/MMS) composites synthesized by insitu polymerization were studied by using thermogravimetric analysis in nitrogen.The nonisothermal degradation of the composite is found to be the first-order reaction.An isoconversional procedure developed by Ozawa is used to calculate the apparent activation energy (E),which is an average value of about 260 kJ/mol with the weight conversion from 0% to 30%,and is higher than that of neat PET.Isothermal degradation results are confirmed with the nonisothermal process,in which PET/MMS showed higher thermal stability than neat PET.The polymer in mesoporous channels has more stability due to the protection of the inorganic pore-wall.These results indicate that mesoporous MMS in PET/MMS composites improve the stability of the polymer.

  5. Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Polymer Composites-Molecular Dynamics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sumit; Chandra, Rakesh; Kumar, Pramod; Kumar, Navin

    2016-06-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation has been used to study the effect of carbon nanofiber (CNF) volume fraction ( V f) and aspect ratio ( l/d) on mechanical properties of CNF-reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites. Materials Studio 5.5 has been used as a tool for finding the modulus and damping in composites. CNF composition in PP was varied by volume from 0% to 16%. The aspect ratio of CNF was varied from l/d = 5 to l/d = 100. Results show that, with only 2% addition by volume of CNF in PP, E 11 increases 748%. Increase in E 22 is much less in comparison to the increase in E 11. With the increase in the CNF aspect ratio ( l/d) up to l/d = 60, the longitudinal loss factor ( η 11) decreases rapidly. The results of this study have been compared with those available in the literature.

  6. Photodissociation and chemistry of N$_2$ in the circumstellar envelope of carbon-rich AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiaohu; Walsh, Catherine; Heays, Alan N; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2014-01-01

    The envelopes of AGB stars are irradiated externally by ultraviolet photons; hence, the chemistry is sensitive to the photodissociation of N$_2$ and CO, which are major reservoirs of nitrogen and carbon, respectively. The photodissociation of N$_2$ has recently been quantified by laboratory and theoretical studies. Improvements have also been made for CO photodissociation. For the first time, we use accurate N$_2$ and CO photodissociation rates and shielding functions in a model of the circumstellar envelope of the carbon-rich AGB star, IRC +10216. We use a state-of-the-art chemical model of an AGB envelope, the latest CO and N$_2$ photodissociation data, and a new method for implementing molecular shielding functions in full spherical geometry with isotropic incident radiation. We compare computed column densities and radial distributions of molecules with observations. The transition of N$_2$ $\\to$ N (also, CO $\\to$ C $\\to$ C$^+$) is shifted towards the outer envelope relative to previous models. This leads...

  7. On Absorption by Circumstellar Dust, With the Progenitor of SN2012aw as a Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Kochanek, C S; Dai, X

    2012-01-01

    We use the progenitor of SN2012aw to illustrate the consequences of modeling circumstellar dust using Galactic (interstellar) extinction laws that (1) ignore dust emission in the near-IR and beyond; (2) average over dust compositions, and (3) mis-characterize the optical/UV absorption by assuming that scattered photons are lost to the observer. The primary consequences for the progenitor of SN2012aw are that both the luminosity and the absorption are significantly over-estimated. In particular, the stellar luminosity is most likely in the range 10^4.8 0.3 micron) and total (absorption plus scattering) V-band optical depth (tau < 20). These do not include the contributions of dust emission, but provide a simple, physical alternative to incorrectly using interstellar extinction laws.

  8. Sodium pump molecular activity and membrane lipid composition in two disparate ectotherms, and comparison with endotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nigel; Hulbert, A J; Else, Paul L

    2005-02-01

    Previous research has shown that the lower sodium pump molecular activity observed in tissues of ectotherms compared to endotherms, is largely related to the lower levels of polyunsaturates and higher levels of monounsaturates found in the cell membranes of ectotherms. Marine-based ectotherms, however, have very polyunsaturated membranes, and in the current study, we measured molecular activity and membrane lipid composition in tissues of two disparate ectothermic species, the octopus (Octopus vulgaris) and the bearded dragon lizard (Pogona vitticeps), to determine whether the high level of membrane polyunsaturation generally observed in marine-based ectotherms is associated with an increased sodium pump molecular activity relative to other ectotherms. Phospholipids from all tissues of the octopus were highly polyunsaturated and contained high concentrations of the omega-3 polyunsaturate, docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 (n-3)). In contrast, phospholipids from bearded dragon tissues contained higher proportions of monounsaturates and lower proportions of polyunsaturates. Sodium pump molecular activity was only moderately elevated in tissues of the octopus compared to the bearded dragon, despite the much greater level of polyunsaturation in octopus membranes. When the current data were combined with data for the ectothermic cane toad, a significant (P = 0.003) correlation was observed between sodium pump molecular activity and the content of 22:6 (n-3) in the surrounding membrane. These results are discussed in relation to recent work which shows a similar relationship in endotherms. PMID:15726386

  9. Cerium modified Y/SBA-15 composite molecular sieve catalyzed synthesis ofn-butyl acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史春薇; 吴文远; 边雪; 裴明远; 赵杉林; 陈平

    2016-01-01

    A novel Ce-Y/SBA-15 catalyst was prepared by modifying HY/SBA-15 microporous-mesoporous composite molecular sieve with cerium using the impregnation method. The characterization results from scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) studies indi-cated that the Ce-modified catalyst maintained the microporous-mesoporous structure of Y/SBA-15. The Ce ions were found to be uniformly dispersed in the pores of the molecular sieve without aggregation. The results from pyrolysis coupled-Fourier transform in-frared spectroscopy (Pyridine-FTIR) and temperature programmed desorption of ammonia (NH3-TPD) showed that the loading of ce-rium caused the hydroxyl group in the catalyst to display stronger Bronsted acidity. The efficiency of the modified Ce-Y/SBA-15 catalyst was evaluated by using it to catalyze the synthesis ofn-butyl acetate. The optimal synthesis conditions were determined by orthogonal experiments. The highest esterification yield of 94.4% was obtained when the reaction time was 2.0 h, with acid/alcohol molar ratio of 1:1.2, and catalyst loading of 10 wt.%. The results in this study demonstrated that the loading of cerium and the structure of Y/SBA-15 microporous-mesoporous composite molecular sieve helped in improving the catalytic activity of this acidic catalyst.

  10. Source identification of Malaysian atmosphere polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons nearby forest fires using molecular and isotopic compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, Tomoaki; Takada, Hideshige [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture; Kumata, Hidetoshi [Tokyo Univ. of Pharmacy and Life Sciences (Japan); Zakaria, M.P. [Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Naraoka, Hiroshi; Ishiwatari, Ryoshi [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Hachioji (Japan). Graduate School of Science

    2002-07-01

    We report measurements of molecular and carbon isotopic compositions of Malaysian atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoke haze from the 1997 Indonesian forest fire. Comparison of the carbon isotopic compositions ({sup {delta}}1{sup 3C}) of individual PAHs from the smoke haze, with those from other PAHs sources (soot collected from gasoline and diesel vehicle muffler, woodburning smoke), enables us to discriminate among the diverse sources of atmospheric PAHs. Soot PAHs extracted from gasoline and diesel vehicles show heavy isotopic signatures with a large inter-species {sup {delta}}1{sup 3C} variation from {sup -}12.9 per mille to {sup -}26.6 per mille, compared to soot PAHs extracted from woodburning smoke which are isotopically light, and have a small inter-species {sup {delta}}{sup 13}C variation from {sup -}26.8 per mille to -31.6 per mille. Values from -17.7 per mille to -27.9 per mille were obtained for the corresponding PAHs extracted from the smoke haze, indicating that they are derived mainly from automotive exhaust. Molecular and isotopic compositions of PAHs extracted from smoke haze were similar to those extracted from non-haze aerosol. Quantitative estimation shows that woodburning contribution to Malaysian atmospheric PAHs ranges from 25% to 35% with no relation to haze intensity, while automotive contribution ranges from 65% to 75%. These results suggest that the major contributor of PAHs in Malaysian air is automotive exhaust whether smoke haze is observed or not. (Author)

  11. Molecular sieve/sulfonated poly(ether ketone ether sulfone) composite membrane as proton exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changkhamchom, Sairung; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2012-02-01

    A proton exchange membrane (PEM) is an electrolyte membrane used in both polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Currently, PEMs typically used for PEMFCs are mainly the commercially available Nafion^ membranes, which is high cost and loss of proton conductivity at elevated temperature. In this work, the Sulfonated poly(ether ketone ether sulfone), (S-PEKES), was synthesized by the nucleophilic aromatic substitution polycondensation between bisphenol S and 4,4'-dichlorobenzophenone, and followed by the sulfonation reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid. The molecular sieve was added in the S-PEKES matrix at various ratios to form composite membranes to be the candidate for PEM. Properties of both pure sulfonated polymer and composite membranes were compared with the commercial Nafion^ 117 membrane from Dupont. S-PEKES membranes cast from these materials were evaluated as a polymer electrolyte membrane for direct methanol fuel cells. The main properties investigated were the proton conductivity, methanol permeability, thermal, chemical, oxidative, and mechanical stabilities by using a LCR meter, Gas Chromatography, Thermogravimetric Analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Fenton's reagent, and Universal Testing Machine. The addition of the molecular sieve helped to increase both the proton conductivity and the methanol stability. These composite membranes are shown as to be potential candidates for use as a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM).

  12. LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON FORMATION AND DESTRUCTION IN THE CIRCUMSTELLAR OUTFLOWS OF CARBON STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, Cesar S.; Salama, Farid, E-mail: cesar.contreras@nasa.gov, E-mail: Farid.Salama@nasa.gov [Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    The formation and destruction mechanisms of interstellar dust analogs formed from a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and hydrocarbon molecular precursors are studied in the laboratory. We used the newly developed facility COSmIC, which simulates interstellar and circumstellar environments, to investigate both PAHs and species that include the cosmically abundant atoms O, N, and S. The species generated in a discharge plasma are detected, monitored, and characterized in situ using highly sensitive techniques that provide both spectral and ion mass information. We report here the first series of measurements obtained in these experiments which focus on the characterization of the most efficient molecular precursors in the chemical pathways that eventually lead to the formation of carbonaceous grains in the stellar envelopes of carbon stars. We compare and discuss the relative efficiencies of the various molecular precursors that lead to the formation of the building blocks of carbon grains. We discuss the most probable molecular precursors in terms of size and structure and the implications for the expected growth and destruction processes of interstellar carbonaceous dust.

  13. LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON FORMATION AND DESTRUCTION IN THE CIRCUMSTELLAR OUTFLOWS OF CARBON STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation and destruction mechanisms of interstellar dust analogs formed from a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and hydrocarbon molecular precursors are studied in the laboratory. We used the newly developed facility COSmIC, which simulates interstellar and circumstellar environments, to investigate both PAHs and species that include the cosmically abundant atoms O, N, and S. The species generated in a discharge plasma are detected, monitored, and characterized in situ using highly sensitive techniques that provide both spectral and ion mass information. We report here the first series of measurements obtained in these experiments which focus on the characterization of the most efficient molecular precursors in the chemical pathways that eventually lead to the formation of carbonaceous grains in the stellar envelopes of carbon stars. We compare and discuss the relative efficiencies of the various molecular precursors that lead to the formation of the building blocks of carbon grains. We discuss the most probable molecular precursors in terms of size and structure and the implications for the expected growth and destruction processes of interstellar carbonaceous dust

  14. Chemistry and distribution of daughter species in the circumstellar envelopes of O-rich AGB stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohu; Millar, Tom J.; Heays, Alan N.; Walsh, Catherine; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Cherchneff, Isabelle

    2016-03-01

    Context. Thanks to the advent of Herschel and ALMA, new high-quality observations of molecules present in the circumstellar envelopes of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are being reported that reveal large differences from the existing chemical models. New molecular data and more comprehensive models of the chemistry in circumstellar envelopes are now available. Aims: The aims are to determine and study the important formation and destruction pathways in the envelopes of O-rich AGB stars and to provide more reliable predictions of abundances, column densities, and radial distributions for potentially detectable species with physical conditions applicable to the envelope surrounding IK Tau. Methods: We use a large gas-phase chemical model of an AGB envelope including the effects of CO and N2 self-shielding in a spherical geometry and a newly compiled list of inner-circumstellar envelope parent species derived from detailed modeling and observations. We trace the dominant chemistry in the expanding envelope and investigate the chemistry as a probe for the physics of the AGB phase by studying variations of abundances with mass-loss rates and expansion velocities. Results: We find a pattern of daughter molecules forming from the photodissociation products of parent species with contributions from ion-neutral abstraction and dissociative recombination. The chemistry in the outer zones differs from that in traditional PDRs in that photoionization of daughter species plays a significant role. With the proper treatment of self-shielding, the N → N2 and C+→ CO transitions are shifted outward by factors of 7 and 2, respectively, compared with earlier models. An upper limit on the abundance of CH4 as a parent species of (≲2.5 × 10-6 with respect to H2) is found for IK Tau, and several potentially observable molecules with relatively simple chemical links to other parent species are determined. The assumed stellar mass-loss rate, in particular, has an impact on the

  15. Molecular Composition of Carbonaceous Globules in the Bells (CM2) Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemett, S. J.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Robinson, G.-A.; Mckay, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    Some meteorites and IDPs contain micron-size carbonaceous globules that are associated with significant H and/or N isotopic anomalies. This has been interpreted as indicating that such globules may contain at least partial preserved organic species formed in the outer reaches of the proto-solar disk or the presolar cold molecular cloud. Owing to their small sizes, relatively little is known about their chemical compositions. Here we present in situ measurements of aromatic molecular species in organic globules from the Bells (CM2) chondrite by microprobe two-step laser mass spectrometry. This meteorite was chosen for study because we have previously found this meteorite to contain high abundances of globules that often occur in clusters. The Bells (CM2) globules are also noteworthy for having particularly high enrichments in H-2. and N-15. In this study, we identified individual globules and clusters of globules using native UV fluorescence.

  16. COMPOSITE POLYMERICADDITIVESDESIGNATED FORCONCRETEMIXES BASED ONPOLYACRYLATES, PRODUCTS OF THERMAL DECOMPOSITION OF POLYAMIDE-6 AND LOW-MOLECULAR POLYETHYLENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyakov Vyacheslav Sergeevich

    2012-07-01

    4 the optimal composite additive that increases the time period of stiffening of the cement grout , improves the water resistance and the compressive strength of concrete, represents the composition of polyacrylates and polymethacrylates, products of thermal decomposition of polyamide-6 and low-molecular polyethylene in the weight ratio of 1:1:0.5.

  17. Study of glass transition temperature (Tg) of novel stress-sensitive composites using molecular dynamic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the glass transition temperature (Tg) of novel stress-sensitive composites capable of detecting a damage precursor using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The molecular structures of a cross-linked epoxy network (which consist of epoxy resin, hardener and stress-sensitive material) have been simulated and experimentally validated. The chemical constituents of the molecular structures are di-glycidyl ether of bisphenol F (DGEBF: epoxy resin), di-ethylene tri-amine (DETA: hardener) and tris-(cinnamoyloxymethyl)-ethane (TCE: stress-sensitive material). The cross-linking degree is varied by manipulating the number of covalent bonds through tuning a cutoff distance between activated DGEBF and DETA during the non-equilibrium MD simulation. A relationship between the cross-linking degree and Tgs has been studied numerically. In order to validate a proposed MD simulation framework, MD-predicted Tgs of materials used in this study have been compared to the experimental results obtained by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Two molecular models have been constructed for comparative study: (i) neat epoxy (epoxy resin with hardener) and (ii) smart polymer (neat epoxy with stress-sensitive material). The predicted Tgs show close agreement with the DSC results. (paper)

  18. Improving the ballistic performance of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene fiber reinforced composites using conch particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method was proposed to improve ballistic impact performance of unidirectional ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber plate (UD plate) by adding shell particles in matrix. The complex micro-laminate structure of these bio-composite materials was studied. It was revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra that modified shell particles were uniformly dispersed in the matrix. The results of ballistic tests and temperature adaptation tests demonstrated that the bulletproof property of the modified UD plate was improved by 20%.

  19. Adsorption of Molecular Gases on Silver/Carbon Nanotube Composites at Low Temperatures and Low Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barberio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an experimental study adsorption of molecular gases (N2, H2, O2, CH4, C2H4, and C2H6 on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and MWCNT doped with Ag at low temperatures (35 K and pressures (10−6 Torr using the temperature programmed desorption technique. Our results show that the desorption kinetics is of the first order; furthermore comparative measurements indicate that Ag/MWCNTs have an adsorption capacity higher than that of a pure sample suggesting that these composites are good candidates as gas cryosorbers for applications in cryopumps or sensor of latest generation.

  20. Hypervelocity Impact Experiments on Epoxy/Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Composite Panels Reinforced with Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, Suman; Laughman, Jay W.; Armada, Carlos A.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Barrera, Enrique V.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced composites with multi-functional capabilities are of great interest to the designers of aerospace structures. Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) reinforced with high strength fibers provide a lightweight and high strength alternative to metals and metal alloys conventionally used in aerospace architectures. Novel reinforcements such as nanofillers offer potential to improve the mechanical properties and add multi-functionality such as radiation resistance and sensing capabilities to the PMCs. This paper reports the hypervelocity impact (HVI) test results on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber composites reinforced with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT). Woven UHMWPE fabrics, in addition to providing excellent impact properties and high strength, also offer radiation resistance due to inherent high hydrogen content. SWCNT have exceptional mechanical and electrical properties. BNNT (figure 1) have high neutron cross section and good mechanical properties that add multi-functionality to this system. In this project, epoxy based UHMWPE composites containing SWCNT and BNNT are assessed for their use as bumper shields and as intermediate plates in a Whipple Shield for HVI resistance. Three composite systems are prepared to compare against one another: (I) Epoxy/UHMWPE, (II) Epoxy/UHMWPE/SWCNT and (III) Epoxy/UHMWPE/SWCNT/BNNT. Each composite is a 10.0 by 10.0 by 0.11 cm3 panel, consisting of 4 layers of fabrics arranged in cross-ply orientation. Both SWCNT and BNNT are 0.5 weight % of the fabric preform. Hypervelocity impact tests are performed using a two-stage light gas gun at Rice University

  1. Synthesis and Tribological Behavior of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE-Lignin Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surojit Gupta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report the synthesis and characterization of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE-lignin composites. During this study four different compositions, namely UHMWPE, UHMWPE-13 wt. % lignin, UHMWPE-25 wt. % lignin and UHMWPE-42.5 wt. % lignin were fabricated by hot pressing. Detailed microstructural studies by scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed that UHMWPE and UHMWPE-13 wt. % lignin had a uniform microstructure, whereas UHMWPE-25 wt. % lignin and UHMWPE-42.5 wt. % lignin samples were riddled with pores. UHMWPE and UHMWPE-13% lignin showed comparable flexural strengths of ~32.2 MPa and ~32.4 MPa, respectively. However, the flexural strength dropped drastically in UHMWPE-25 wt. % lignin and UHMWPE-42.5 wt. % samples to ~13 MPa and ~8 MPa, respectively. The tribology of UHMWPE-lignin composites is governed by the tribofilm formation. All the compositions showed similar µmean values and the specific wear rates (WR decreased gradually as the concentration of lignin in UHMWPE was increased.

  2. Biotribological behavior of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene composites containing bovine bone hydroxyapatite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin-long; ZHU Yuan-yuan; WANG Qing-liang; GE Shi-rong

    2008-01-01

    Wear particles of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) are the main cause of long-term failure of total joint replacements. Therefore, increasing its wear resistance or bioactivity will be very useful in order to obtain high quality artificial joints. In our study, UHMWPE composites filled with the bovine bone hydroxyapatite (BHA) were prepared by the method of compression moulding. A ball-on-disc wear test was carried out with a Universal Micro-Tribometer to investigate the friction and wear behavior of a Si3N4 ceramic ball, cross-sliding against the UHMWPE/BHA composites with human plasma lubrication. At the same time, the profiles of the worn grooves on the UHMWPE/BHA surface were scanned. The experimental results indicate that the addition of BHA to UHMWPE had a significant effect on the biotribological behavior of UHMWPE cross-sliding against the Si3N4 ceramic ball. The addition of BHA powder enhanced the hardness and modulus of elasticity of these composites and decreased the friction coefficients and wear rates under conditions of human plasma lubrication. When the added amount of BHA powders was up to 20%~30%, UHMWPE/BHA composites demonstrated the designed performance of the mechanical properties and biotribological behavior.

  3. SANS studies of solutions and molecular composites prepared from cellulose tricarbanilate

    CERN Document Server

    Alava, C; Cameron, J D; Cowie, J M G; Vaqueiro, P; Möller, A; Triolo, A

    2002-01-01

    We report on SANS measurements carried out on the instrument SANS1 (V4) at the BENSC facility on solutions and composites of cellulose tricarbanilate (CTC). This cellulose derivative exhibits lyotropic behaviour in methylacrylate (MA). The SANS data indicate that in the isotropic liquid state (up to 25% wt CTC in MA) the CTC chains behave like rods of mass per unit length (M/L). In the liquid crystalline (LC) phase (at and above 35% wt CTC in MA), the Q dependence varies from Q sup - sup 1 to Q sup - sup 4 , probably as a result of self-assembling of the CTC chains. The general aim of our work is to prepare molecular composites, i.e. miscible blends of rigid-rod and flexible-coil polymers, from CTC solutions in polymerizable media. To establish the degree of homogeneity of the composites, we performed SANS measurements on UV-cured CTC/MA solutions. Here, we compare the SANS data of CTC/monomer solutions with those of the corresponding composites. (orig.)

  4. Molecular dynamics and composition of crude oil by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zijian; Xiao, Lizhi; Wang, Zhizhan; Liao, Guangzhi; Zhang, Yan; Liang, Can

    2016-08-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are widely used to identify pure substances and probe protein dynamics. Oil is a complex mixture composed of hydrocarbons, which have a wide range of molecular size distribution. Previous work show that empirical correlations of relaxation times and diffusion coefficients were found for simple alkane mixtures, and also the shape of the relaxation and diffusion distribution functions are related to the composition of the fluids. The 2D NMR is a promising qualitative evaluation method for oil composition. But uncertainty in the interpretation of crude oil indicated further study was required. In this research, the effect of each composition on relaxation distribution functions is analyzed in detail. We also suggest a new method for prediction of the rotational correlation time distribution of crude oil molecules using low field NMR (LF-NMR) relaxation time distributions. A set of down-hole NMR fluid analysis system is independently designed and developed for fluid measurement. We illustrate this with relaxation-relaxation correlation experiments and rotational correlation time distributions on a series of hydrocarbon mixtures that employ our laboratory-designed downhole NMR fluid analyzer. The LF-NMR is a useful tool for detecting oil composition and monitoring oil property changes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Molecular dynamics and composition of crude oil by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zijian; Xiao, Lizhi; Wang, Zhizhan; Liao, Guangzhi; Zhang, Yan; Liang, Can

    2016-08-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are widely used to identify pure substances and probe protein dynamics. Oil is a complex mixture composed of hydrocarbons, which have a wide range of molecular size distribution. Previous work show that empirical correlations of relaxation times and diffusion coefficients were found for simple alkane mixtures, and also the shape of the relaxation and diffusion distribution functions are related to the composition of the fluids. The 2D NMR is a promising qualitative evaluation method for oil composition. But uncertainty in the interpretation of crude oil indicated further study was required. In this research, the effect of each composition on relaxation distribution functions is analyzed in detail. We also suggest a new method for prediction of the rotational correlation time distribution of crude oil molecules using low field NMR (LF-NMR) relaxation time distributions. A set of down-hole NMR fluid analysis system is independently designed and developed for fluid measurement. We illustrate this with relaxation-relaxation correlation experiments and rotational correlation time distributions on a series of hydrocarbon mixtures that employ our laboratory-designed downhole NMR fluid analyzer. The LF-NMR is a useful tool for detecting oil composition and monitoring oil property changes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26990450

  6. Molecular Dynamics Modeling of Carbon Nanotube Composite Fracture Using ReaxFF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Benjamin D.; Wise, Kristopher E.; Odegard, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) fiber reinforced composites with specific tensile strengths and moduli approaching those of aerospace grade carbon fiber composites have recently been reported. This achievement was enabled by the emerging availability of high N/tex yarns in kilometer-scale quantities. While the production of this yarn is an impressive advance, its strength is still much lower than that of the individual CNTs comprising the yarn. Closing this gap requires understanding load transfer between CNTs at the nanometer dimensional scale. This work uses reactive molecular dynamics simulations to gain an understanding at the nanometer scale of the key factors that determine CNT nanocomposite mechanical performance, and to place more realistic upper bounds on the target properties. While molecular dynamics simulations using conventional force fields can predict elastic properties, the ReaxFF reactive forcefield can also model fracture behavior because of its ability to accurately describe bond breaking and formation during a simulation. The upper and lower bounds of CNT composite properties are investigated by comparing systems composed of CNTs continuously connected across the periodic boundary with systems composed of finite length CNTs. These lengths, effectively infinite for the continuous tubes and an aspect ratio of 13 for the finite length case, result from practical limitations on the number of atoms that can be included in a simulation. Experimentally measured aspect ratios are typically on the order of 100,000, so the calculated results should represent upper and lower limits on experimental mechanical properties. Finally, the effect of various degrees of covalent crosslinking between the CNTs and amorphous carbon matrix is considered to identify the amount of CNT-matrix covalent bonding that maximizes overall composite properties.

  7. Exploring meso-/microporous composite molecular sieves with core-shell structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xufang F; Li, Bin; Hu, Yuanyuan Y; Niu, Guoxing X; Zhang, D Yahong H; Che, Renchao C; Tang, Yi; Su, Dangsheng S; Asiri, Abdullah M; Zhao, Dongyuan Y

    2012-01-16

    A series of core-shell-structured composite molecular sieves comprising zeolite single crystals (i.e., ZSM-5) as a core and ordered mesoporous silica as a shell were synthesized by means of a surfactant-directed sol-gel process in basic medium by using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a template and tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as silica precursor. Through this coating method, uniform mesoporous silica shells closely grow around the anisotropic zeolite single crystals, the shell thickness of which can easily be tuned in the range of 15-100 nm by changing the ratio of TEOS/zeolite. The obtained composite molecular sieves have compact meso-/micropore junctions that form a hierarchical pore structure from ordered mesopore channels (2.4-3.0 nm in diameter) to zeolite micropores (≈0.51 nm). The short-time kinetic diffusion efficiency of benzene molecules within pristine ZSM-5 (≈7.88×10(-19)  m(2)  s(-1)) is almost retainable after covering with 75 nm-thick mesoporous silica shells (≈7.25×10(-19)  m(2)  s(-1)), which reflects the greatly opened junctions between closely connected mesopores (shell) and micropores (core). The core-shell composite shows greatly enhanced adsorption capacity (≈1.35 mmol  g(-1)) for large molecules such as 1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene relative to that of pristine ZSM-5 (≈0.4 mmol  g(-1)) owing to the mesoporous silica shells. When Al species are introduced during the coating process, the core-shell composite molecular sieves demonstrate a graded acidity distribution from weak acidity of mesopores (predominant Lewis acid sites) to accessible strong acidity of zeolite cores (Lewis and Brønsted acid sites). The probe catalytic cracking reaction of n-dodecane shows the superiority of the unique core-shell structure over pristine ZSM-5. Insight into the core-shell composite structure with hierarchical pore and graded acidity distribution show great potential for petroleum catalytic processes. PMID

  8. Cepheids at high angular resolution: circumstellar envelope and pulsation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallenne, Alexandre

    2011-12-01

    In 2005, interferometric observations with VLTI/VINCI and CHARA/FLUOR revealed the existence of a circumstellar envelope (CSE) around some Cepheids. This surrounding material is particularly interesting for two reasons: it could have an impact on the distance estimates and could be linked to a past or on-going mass loss. The use of Baade-Wesselink methods for independent distance determinations could be significantly biased by the presence of these envelopes. Although their observations are difficult because of the high contrast between the photosphere of the star and the CSE, several observation techniques have the potential to improve our knowledge about their physical properties. In this thesis, I discuss in particular high angular resolution techniques that I applied to the study of several bright Galactic Cepheids. First, I used adaptive optic observations with NACO of the Cepheid RS Puppis, in order to deduce the flux ratio between the CSE and the photosphere of the star. In addition, I could carry out a statistical study of the speckle noise and inspect a possible asymmetry. Secondly, I analysed VISIR data to study the spectral energy distribution of a sample of Cepheids. These diffraction-limited images enabled me to carry out an accurate photometry in the N band and to detect an IR excess linked to the presence of a circumstellar component. On the other hand, applying a Fourier analysis I showed that some components are resolved. I then explored the K' band with the recombination instrument FLUOR for some bright Cepheids. Thanks to new set of data of Y Oph, I improved the study of its circumstellar envelope, using a ring-like model for the CSE. For two other Cepheids, U Vul and S Sge, I applied the interferometric Baade-Wesselink method in order to estimate their distance.

  9. Light-scattering models applied to circumstellar dust properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation pressure force, Poynting-Robertson effect, and collisions are important to determine the size distribution of dust in circumstellar debris disks with the two former parameters depending on the light-scattering properties of grains. We here present Mie and discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) calculations to describe the optical properties of dust particles around β Pictoris, Vega, and Fomalhaut in order to study the influence of the radiation pressure force. We find that the differences between Mie and DDA calculations are lower than 30% for all porosities. Therefore, Mie calculations can be used to determine the cut-off limits which contribute to the size distribution for the different systems

  10. Local Elastic Constants for Epoxy-Nanotube Composites from Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankland, S. J. V.; Gates, T. S.

    2007-01-01

    A method from molecular dynamics simulation is developed for determining local elastic constants of an epoxy/nanotube composite. The local values of C11, C33, K12, and K13 elastic constants are calculated for an epoxy/nanotube composite as a function of radial distance from the nanotube. While the results possess a significant amount of statistical uncertainty resulting from both the numerical analysis and the molecular fluctuations during the simulation, the following observations can be made. If the size of the region around the nanotube is increased from shells of 1 to 6 in thickness, then the scatter in the data reduces enough to observe trends. All the elastic constants determined are at a minimum 20 from the center of the nanotube. The C11, C33, and K12 follow similar trends as a function of radial distance from the nanotube. The K13 decreases greater distances from the nanotube and becomes negative which may be a symptom of the statistical averaging.

  11. Circum-stellar medium around rotating massive stars at solar metallicity

    CERN Document Server

    Georgy, Cyril; Folini, Doris; Bykov, Andrei; Marcowith, Alexandre; Favre, Jean M

    2013-01-01

    Aims. Observations show nebulae around some massive stars but not around others. If observed, their chemical composition is far from homogeneous. Our goal is to put these observational features into the context of the evolution of massive stars and their circumstellar medium (CSM) and, more generally, to quantify the role of massive stars for the chemical and dynamical evolution of the ISM. Methods. Using the A-MAZE code, we perform 2d-axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulations of the evolution of the CSM, shaped by stellar winds, for a whole grid of massive stellar models from 15 to 120 Msun and following the stellar evolution from the zero-age main-sequence to the time of supernova explosion. In addition to the usual quantities, we also follow five chemical species: H, He, C, N, and O. Results. We show how various quantities evolve as a function of time: size of the bubble, position of the wind termination shock, chemical composition of the bubble, etc. The chemical composition of the bubble changes considerab...

  12. The molecular composition of the planet-forming regions of protoplanetary disks across the luminosity regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Catherine; Nomura, Hideko; van Dishoeck, Ewine

    2015-10-01

    Context. Near- to mid-infrared observations of molecular emission from protoplanetary disks show that the inner regions are rich in small organic volatiles (e.g., C2H2 and HCN). Trends in the data suggest that disks around cooler stars (Teff ≈ 3000 K) are potentially (i) more carbon-rich; and (ii) more molecule-rich than their hotter counterparts (Teff ≳ 4000 K). Aims: We explore the chemical composition of the planet-forming region (gas-grain chemical network to map the molecular abundances in the planet-forming zone. The effects of (i) N2 self shielding; (ii) X-ray-induced chemistry; and (iii) initial abundances, are investigated. The chemical composition in the "observable" atmosphere is compared with that in the disk midplane where the bulk of the planet-building reservoir resides. Results: M dwarf disk atmospheres are relatively more molecule rich than those for T Tauri or Herbig Ae disks. The weak far-UV flux helps retain this complexity which is enhanced by X-ray-induced ion-molecule chemistry. N2 self shielding has only a small effect in the disk molecular layer and does not explain the higher C2H2/HCN ratios observed towards cooler stars. The models underproduce the OH/H2O column density ratios constrained in Herbig Ae disks, despite reproducing (within an order of magnitude) the absolute value for OH: the inclusion of self shielding for H2O photodissociation only increases this discrepancy. One possible explanation is the adopted disk structure. Alternatively, the "hot" H2O (T ≳ 300 K) chemistry may be more complex than assumed. The results for the atmosphere are independent of the assumed initial abundances; however, the composition of the disk midplane is sensitive to the initial main elemental reservoirs. The models show that the gas in the inner disk is generally more carbon rich than the midplane ices. This effect is most significant for disks around cooler stars. Furthermore, the atmospheric C/O ratio appears larger than it actually is when

  13. First Evidence of Circumstellar Disks around Blue Straggler Stars

    CERN Document Server

    De Marco, O; Ouellette, J A; Zurek, D R; Shara, M M; Marco, Orsola De; Lanz, Thierry; Ouellette, John A.; Zurek, David; Shara, Michael M.

    2004-01-01

    We present an analysis of optical HST/STIS and HST/FOS spectroscopy of 6 blue stragglers found in the globular clusters M3, NGC6752 and NGC6397. These stars are a subsample of a set of ~50 blue stragglers and stars above the main sequence turn-off in four globular clusters which will be presented in an forthcoming paper. All but the 6 stars presented here can be well fitted with non-LTE model atmospheres. The 6 misfits, on the other hand, possess Balmer jumps which are too large for the effective temperatures implied by their Paschen continua. We find that our data for these stars are consistent with models only if we account for extra absorption of stellar Balmer photons by an ionized circumstellar disk. Column densities of HI and CaII are derived as are the the disks' thicknesses. This is the first time that a circumstellar disk is detected around blue stragglers. The presence of magnetically-locked disks attached to the stars has been suggested as a mechanism to lose the large angular momentum imparted by ...

  14. The Circumstellar Disk of the Be Star $o$~Aquarii

    CERN Document Server

    Sigut, T A A; Jansen, B; Zavala, R T

    2015-01-01

    Omicron Aquarii is late-type, Be shell star with a stable and nearly symmetric H$\\alpha$ emission line. We combine H$\\alpha$ interferometric observations obtained with the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer (NPOI) covering 2007 through 2014 with H$\\alpha$ spectroscopic observations over the same period and a 2008 observation of the system's near-infrared spectral energy distribution to constrain the properties of $o$~Aqr's circumstellar disk. All observations are consistent with a circumstellar disk seen at an inclination of $75\\pm\\,3^{\\circ}$ with a position angle on the sky of $110\\pm\\,8^{\\circ}$ measured E from N. From the best-fit disk density model, we find that 90\\% of the H$\\alpha$ emission arises from within $9.5$ stellar radii, and the mass associated with this H$\\alpha$ disk is $\\sim 1.8\\times10^{-10}$ of the stellar mass and the associated angular momentum, assuming Keplerian rotation for the disk, is $\\sim 1.6\\times10^{-8}$ of the total stellar angular momentum. The occurrence of a central quas...

  15. THE PROGENITOR OF SN 2011ja: CLUES FROM CIRCUMSTELLAR INTERACTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massive stars, possibly red supergiants, which retain extended hydrogen envelopes until core collapse, produce Type II plateau (IIP) supernovae. The ejecta from these explosions shocks the circumstellar matter originating from the mass loss of the progenitor during the final phases of its life. This interaction accelerates particles to relativistic energies which then lose energy via synchrotron radiation in the shock-amplified magnetic fields and inverse Compton scattering against optical photons from the supernova. These processes produce different signatures in the radio and X-ray parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Observed together, they allow us to break the degeneracy between shock acceleration and magnetic field amplification. In this work, we use X-rays observations from the Chandra and radio observations from the Australia Telescope Compact Array to study the relative importance of processes which accelerate particles and those which amplify magnetic fields in producing the non-thermal radiation from SN 2011ja. We use radio observations to constrain the explosion date. Multiple Chandra observations allow us to probe the history of variable mass loss from the progenitor. The ejecta expands into a low-density bubble followed by interaction with a higher density wind from a red supergiant consistent with MZAMS ∼> 12 M☉. Our results suggest that a fraction of Type IIP supernovae may interact with circumstellar media set up by non-steady winds

  16. Carbon stars with oxygen-rich circumstellar material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jura, Michael; Hawkins, I.

    1991-01-01

    The IUE satellite was used to search for companions to two carbon-rich stars with oxygen-rich circumstellar envelopes, EU And and V778 Cyg. Depending upon the amount of interstellar extinction and distances (probably between 1 and 2 kpc from the Sun) to these two stars, upper limits were placed between approx. 1.5 and 6 solar mass to the mass of any main sequence companions. For the 'near' distance of 1 kpc, it seems unlikely that there are white dwarf companions because the detection would be expected of ultraviolet emission from accretion of red giant wind material onto the white dwarf. A new model is proposed to explain the oxygen-rich envelopes. If these stars have a high nitrogen abundance, the carbon that is in excess of the oxygen may be carried in the circumstellar envelopes in HCN rather than C2H2 which is a likely key seed molecule for the formation of carbon grains. Consequently, carbon particles may not form; instead, oxygen-rich silicate dust may nucleate from the SiO present in the outflow.

  17. The Three-Dimensional Circumstellar Environment of SN 1987A

    CERN Document Server

    Sugerman, B E K; Kunkel, W E; Heathcote, S R; Lawrence, S S; Sugerman, Ben E. K.; Crotts, Arlin P. S.; Kunkel, William E.; Heathcote, Stephen R.; Lawrence, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    We present the detailed construction and analysis of the most complete map to date of the circumstellar environment around SN 1987A, using ground and space-based imaging from the past 16 years. PSF-matched difference-imaging analyses of data from 1988 through 1997 reveal material between 1 and 28 ly from the SN. Careful analyses allows the reconstruction of the probable circumstellar environment, revealing a richly-structured bipolar nebula. An outer, double-lobed ``Peanut,'' which is believed to be the contact discontinuity between red supergiant and main sequence winds, is a prolate shell extending 28 ly along the poles and 11 ly near the equator. Napoleon's Hat, previously believed to be an independent structure, is the waist of this Peanut, which is pinched to a radius of 6 ly. Interior to this is a cylindrical hourglass, 1 ly in radius and 4 ly long, which connects to the Peanut by a thick equatorial disk. The nebulae are inclined 41\\degr south and 8\\degr east of the line of sight, slightly elliptical in...

  18. An energetic stellar outburst accompanied by circumstellar light echoes

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, H E; Levay, Z G; Panagia, N; Sparks, W B; Starrfield, S; Wagner, R M; Corradi, R L M; Munari, U; Bond, Howard E.; Henden, Arne; Levay, Zoltan G.; Panagia, Nino; Sparks, William B.; Starrfield, Sumner

    2003-01-01

    Some classes of stars, including supernovae and novae, undergo explosive outbursts that eject stellar material into space. In 2002, the previously unknown variable star V838 Monocerotis brightened suddenly by a factor of about 10^4. Unlike a supernova or nova, V838 Mon did not explosively eject its outer layers; rather, it simply expanded to become a cool supergiant with a moderate-velocity stellar wind. Superluminal light echoes were discovered as light from the outburst propagated into surrounding, pre-existing circumstellar dust. Here we report high-resolution imaging and polarimetry of the light echoes, which allow us to set direct geometric distance limits to the object. At a distance of >6 kpc, V838 Mon at its maximum brightness was temporarily the brightest star in the Milky Way. The presence of the circumstellar dust implies that previous eruptions have occurred, and spectra show it to be a binary system. When combined with the high luminosity and unusual outburst behavior, these characteristics indic...

  19. Morphology and Molecular Composition of Purified Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Envelope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Callens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The family Flaviviridae includes viruses that have different virion structures and morphogenesis mechanisms. Most cellular and molecular studies have been so far performed with viruses of the Hepacivirus and Flavivirus genera. Here, we studied bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, a member of the Pestivirus genus. We set up a method to purify BVDV virions and analyzed their morphology by electron microscopy and their protein and lipid composition by mass spectrometry. Cryo-electron microscopy showed near spherical viral particles displaying an electron-dense capsid surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer with no visible spikes. Most particles had a diameter of 50 nm and about 2% were larger with a diameter of up to 65 nm, suggesting some size flexibility during BVDV morphogenesis. Morphological and biochemical data suggested a low envelope glycoprotein content of BVDV particles, E1 and E2 being apparently less abundant than Erns. Lipid content of BVDV particles displayed a ~2.3 to 3.5-fold enrichment in cholesterol, sphingomyelin and hexosyl-ceramide, concomitant with a 1.5 to 5-fold reduction of all glycerophospholipid classes, as compared to lipid content of MDBK cells. Although BVDV buds in the endoplasmic reticulum, its lipid content differs from a typical endoplasmic reticulum membrane composition. This suggests that BVDV morphogenesis includes a mechanism of lipid sorting. Functional analyses confirmed the importance of cholesterol and sphingomyelin for BVDV entry. Surprisingly, despite a high cholesterol and sphingolipid content of BVDV envelope, E2 was not found in detergent-resistant membranes. Our results indicate that there are differences between the structure and molecular composition of viral particles of Flaviviruses, Pestiviruses and Hepaciviruses within the Flaviviridae family.

  20. Morphology and Molecular Composition of Purified Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Nathalie; Brügger, Britta; Bonnafous, Pierre; Drobecq, Hervé; Gerl, Mathias J; Krey, Thomas; Roman-Sosa, Gleyder; Rümenapf, Till; Lambert, Olivier; Dubuisson, Jean; Rouillé, Yves

    2016-03-01

    The family Flaviviridae includes viruses that have different virion structures and morphogenesis mechanisms. Most cellular and molecular studies have been so far performed with viruses of the Hepacivirus and Flavivirus genera. Here, we studied bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a member of the Pestivirus genus. We set up a method to purify BVDV virions and analyzed their morphology by electron microscopy and their protein and lipid composition by mass spectrometry. Cryo-electron microscopy showed near spherical viral particles displaying an electron-dense capsid surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer with no visible spikes. Most particles had a diameter of 50 nm and about 2% were larger with a diameter of up to 65 nm, suggesting some size flexibility during BVDV morphogenesis. Morphological and biochemical data suggested a low envelope glycoprotein content of BVDV particles, E1 and E2 being apparently less abundant than Erns. Lipid content of BVDV particles displayed a ~2.3 to 3.5-fold enrichment in cholesterol, sphingomyelin and hexosyl-ceramide, concomitant with a 1.5 to 5-fold reduction of all glycerophospholipid classes, as compared to lipid content of MDBK cells. Although BVDV buds in the endoplasmic reticulum, its lipid content differs from a typical endoplasmic reticulum membrane composition. This suggests that BVDV morphogenesis includes a mechanism of lipid sorting. Functional analyses confirmed the importance of cholesterol and sphingomyelin for BVDV entry. Surprisingly, despite a high cholesterol and sphingolipid content of BVDV envelope, E2 was not found in detergent-resistant membranes. Our results indicate that there are differences between the structure and molecular composition of viral particles of Flaviviruses, Pestiviruses and Hepaciviruses within the Flaviviridae family. PMID:26939061

  1. Molecular and carbon isotopic compositions of gas inclusions of deep carbonate rocks in the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shixin; WANG Xianbin; MENG Zifang; LI Yuan; Paul Farrimond; LI Liwu; DUAN Yi

    2004-01-01

    Gaseous components of gas inclusions in deep carbonate rocks (>5700 m) from the Tacan 1 well were analyzed by online mass spectrometry by means of either the stepwise heating technique or vacuum electromagnetism crushing. The carbon isotopic compositions of gases released by vacuum electromagnetism crushing were also measured. Although the molecular compositions of gas inclusions show differences between the two methods, the overall characteristics are that gas inclusions mainly contain CO2, whilst hydrocarbon gases, such as CH4, C2H6 and C3H8, are less abundant. The content of CO is higher in the stepwise heating experiment than that in the method of vacuum electromagnetism crushing, and there are only minor amounts of N2, H2 and O2 in gas inclusions. Methane δ13C values of gas inclusions in Lower Ordovician and Upper Cambrian rocks (from 5713.7 to 6422 m; -52‰-63‰) are similar to those of bacterial methane, but their chemical compositions do not exhibit the dry character in comparison with biogenic gases. These characteristics of deep gas inclusions may be related to the migration fractionation. Some deep natural gases with light carbon isotopic characteristics in the Tazhong Uplift may have a similar origin. The δ13C1 values of gas inclusions in Lower Cambrian rocks (7117-7124 m) are heavier (-39‰), consistent with highly mature natural gases. Carbon isotopic compositions of CO2 in the gas inclusions of deep carbonate rocks are similar (from -4‰ to -13‰) to those of deep natural gases, indicating predominantly an inorganic origin.

  2. The Three-dimensional Circumstellar Environment of SN 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugerman, Ben E. K.; Crotts, Arlin P. S.; Kunkel, William E.; Heathcote, Stephen R.; Lawrence, Stephen S.

    2005-07-01

    Surrounding SN 1987A is a three-ring nebula attributed to interacting stellar winds, yet no model has successfully reproduced this system. Fortunately, the progenitor's mass-loss history can be reconstructed using light echoes, in which scattered light from the supernova traces the three-dimensional morphology of its circumstellar dust. In this paper, we construct and analyze the most complete map to date of the progenitor's circumstellar environment, using ground- and space-based imaging from the past 16 years. PSF-matched difference-imaging analyses of data from 1988 through 1997 reveal material between 1 and 28 lt-yr from the SN. Previously known structures, such as an inner hourglass, Napoleon's Hat, and a contact discontinuity, are probed in greater spatial detail than before. Previously unknown features are also discovered, such as a southern counterpart to Napoleon's Hat. Careful analyses of these echoes allows the reconstruction of the probable circumstellar environment, revealing a richly structured bipolar nebula. An outer, double-lobed ``Peanut,'' which is believed to be the contact discontinuity between red supergiant and main-sequence winds, is a prolate shell extending 28 lt-yr along the poles and 11 lt-yr near the equator. Napoleon's Hat, previously believed to be an independent structure, is the waist of this Peanut, which is pinched to a radius of 6 lt-yr. Interior to this is a cylindrical hourglass, 1 lt-yr in radius and 4 lt-yr long, which connects to the Peanut by a thick equatorial disk. The nebulae are inclined 41° south and 8° east of the line of sight, slightly elliptical in cross section, and marginally offset west of the SN. From the hourglass to the large, bipolar lobes, echo fluxes suggest that the gas density drops from 1-3 to >~0.03 cm-3, while the maximum dust-grain size increases from ~0.2 to 2 μm, and the silicate:carbonaceous dust ratio decreases. The nebulae have a total mass of ~1.7 Msolar. The geometry of the three rings is

  3. Molecular Composition of Plant Vacuoles: Important but Less Understood Regulations and Roles of Tonoplast Lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The vacuole is an essential organelle for plant growth and development. It is the location for the storage of nutrients; such as sugars and proteins; and other metabolic products. Understanding the mechanisms of vacuolar trafficking and molecule transport across the vacuolar membrane is of great importance in understanding basic plant development and cell biology and for crop quality improvement. Proteins play important roles in vacuolar trafficking; such proteins include Rab GTPase signaling proteins; cargo recognition receptors; and SNAREs (Soluble NSF Attachment Protein Receptors that are involved in membrane fusion. Some vacuole membrane proteins also serve as the transporters or channels for transport across the tonoplast. Less understood but critical are the roles of lipids in vacuolar trafficking. In this review, we will first summarize molecular composition of plant vacuoles and we will then discuss our latest understanding on the role of lipids in plant vacuolar trafficking and a surprising connection to ribosome function through the study of ribosomal mutants.

  4. HMW glutenin subunits in multiploid Aegilops species: composition analysis and molecular cloning of coding sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Aegilops genus contains species closely related to wheat. Incommon with wheat, Aegilops species accumulate high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits in their endospermic tissue. In this study, we investigated the composition of HMW glutenin subunits in four multiploid Aegilops species using SDS-PAGE analysis. Furthermore, by working with Ae. ventricosa, we established an efficient genomic PCR condition for simultaneous amplification of DNA sequences coding for either x-ory-type HMW glutenin subunits from polyploid Aegilops species. Using the genomic PCR condition, we amplified and subsequently cloned two DNA fragments that may code for HMW glutenin subunits in Ae. ventricosa. Based on an analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences, we concluded that the two cloned sequences encode one x- and one y-type of HMW glutenin subunit, respectively.

  5. Flash-Heating of Circumstellar Clouds by $\\gamma$ Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Dermer, C D; Dermer, Charles D.; Boettcher, Markus

    2000-01-01

    The blast-wave model for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has been called intoquestion by observations of spectra from GRBs that are harder than can beproduced through optically thin synchrotron emission. If GRBs originate fromthe collapse of massive stars, then circumstellar clouds near burst sourceswill be illuminated by intense gamma radiation, and the electrons in theseclouds will be rapidly scattered to energies as large as several hundred keV.Low-energy photons that subsequently pass through the hot plasma will bescattered to higher energies, hardening the intrisic spectrum. This effectresolves the "line-of-death" objection to the synchrotron shock model.Illuminated clouds near GRBs will form relativistic plasmas containing largenumbers of electron-positron pairs that can be detected within ~ 1-2 days ofthe explosion before expanding and dissipating. Localized regions of pairannihilation radiation in the Galaxy would reveal past GRB explosions.

  6. Magnetic field and early evolution of circumstellar disks

    CERN Document Server

    Tsukamoto, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic field plays a central role in the formation and evolution of circumstellar disks. The magnetic field connects the rapidly rotating central region with the outer envelope and extracts angular momentum from the central region during gravitational collapse of the cloud core. This process is known as magnetic braking. Both analytical and multidimensional simulations have shown that disk formation is strongly suppressed by magnetic braking in moderately magnetized cloud cores in the ideal magnetohydrodynamic limit. On the other hand, recent observations have provided growing evidence of a relatively large disk several tens of astronomical units in size existing in some Class 0 young stellar objects. This introduces a serious discrepancy between the theoretical study and observations. Various physical mechanisms have been proposed to solve the problem of catastrophic magnetic braking, such as misalignment between the magnetic field and the rotation axis, turbulence, and non-ideal effect. In this paper,...

  7. Circumstellar Debris and Pollution at White Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Farihi, J

    2016-01-01

    Circumstellar disks of planetary debris are now known or suspected to closely orbit hundreds of white dwarf stars. To date, both data and theory support disks that are entirely contained within the preceding giant stellar radii, and hence must have been produced during the white dwarf phase. This picture is strengthened by the signature of material falling onto the pristine stellar surfaces; disks are always detected together with atmospheric heavy elements. The physical link between this debris and the white dwarf host abundances enables unique insight into the bulk chemistry of extrasolar planetary systems via their remnants. This review summarizes the body of evidence supporting dynamically active planetary systems at a large fraction of all white dwarfs, the remnants of first generation, main-sequence planetary systems, and hence provide insight into initial conditions as well as long-term dynamics and evolution.

  8. The progenitor of SN 2011ja: Clues from circumstellar interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Smith, Randall; Ryder, Stuart; Yadav, Naveen; Sutaria, Firoza; Dwarkadas, Vikram V; Chandra, Poonam; Pooley, David; Roy, Rupak

    2013-01-01

    Massive stars, possibly red supergiants, which retain extended hydrogen envelopes until the time of core collapse produce Type IIP (Plateau) supernovae. The ejecta from these explosions shock the circumstellar matter originating from the mass loss of the progenitor during the final phases of its life. This interaction accelerates particles to relativistic energies which then lose energy via synchrotron radiation in the shock-amplified magnetic fields and inverse Compton scattering against optical photons from the supernova. These processes produce different signatures in the radio and X-ray part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Observed together, they allow us to break the degeneracy between shock acceleration and magnetic field amplification. In this work we use X-rays observations from the Chandra and radio observations from the ATCA to study the relative importance of particle acceleration and magnetic fields in producing the non-thermal radiation from SN 2011ja. We use radio observations to constrain the ...

  9. The Complex Circumstellar and Circumbinary Environment of V356 Sgr

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Jamie R; Malatesta, Michael A; Babler, Brian; Bednarski, Daniel; Berdis, Jodi R; Bjorkman, Karen S; Bjorkman, Jon E; Carciofi, Alex C; Davidson, James W; Keil, Marcus; Meade, Marilyn R; Nordsieck, Kenneth; Scheffler, Matt; Hoffman, Jennifer L; Wisniewski, John P

    2016-01-01

    We analyze 45 spectropolarimetric observations of the eclipsing, interacting binary star V356 Sgr, obtained over a period of 21 years, to characterize the geometry of the system's circumstellar material. After removing interstellar polarization from these data, we find the system exhibits a large intrinsic polarization signature arising from electron scattering. In addition, the lack of repeatable eclipses in the polarization phase curves indicates the presence of a substantial pool of scatterers not occulted by either star. We suggest that these scatterers form either a circumbinary disk coplanar with the gainer's accretion disk or an elongated structure perpendicular to the orbital plane of V356 Sgr, possibly formed by bipolar outflows. We also observe small-scale, cycle-to-cycle variations in the magnitude of intrinsic polarization at individual phases, which we interpret as evidence of variability in the amount of scattering material present within and around the system. This may indicate a mass transfer ...

  10. Archival Legacy Investigation of Circumstellar Environments (ALICE). Survey results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soummer, Remi; Choquet, Elodie; Pueyo, Laurent; Brendan Hagan, J.; Gofas-Salas, Elena; Rajan, Abhijith; Chen, Christine; Perrin, Marshall D.; Debes, John H.; Golimowski, David A.; Hines, Dean C.; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Schneider, Glenn; Mawet, Dimitri; Marois, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We report on the status of the ALICE project (Archival Legacy Investigation of Circumstellar Environments. HST/AR-12652), which consists in a consistent reanalysis of the entire HST-NICMOS coronagraphic archive with advanced post-processing techniques. Over the last two years, we have developed a sophisticated pipeline able to handle the data of the 400 stars of the archive. We present the results of the overall reduction campaign and discuss the first statistical analysis of the candidate detections. As we will deliver high-level science products to the STScI MAST archive, we are defining a new standard format for high-contrast science products, which will be compatible with every new high-contrast imaging instrument and used by the JWST coronagraphs. We present here an update and overview of the specifications of this standard.

  11. Hydrocarbon anions in interstellar clouds and circumstellar envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Millar, T J; Cordiner, M A; Herbst, Eric; Walsh, C

    2007-01-01

    The recent detection of the hydrocarbon anion C6H- in the interstellar medium has led us to investigate the synthesis of hydrocarbon anions in a variety of interstellar and circumstellar environments. We find that the anion/neutral abundance ratio can be quite large, on the order of at least a few percent, once the neutral has more than five carbon atoms. Detailed modeling shows that the column densities of C6H- observed in IRC+10216 and TMC-1 can be reproduced. Our calculations also predict that other hydrocarbon anions, such as C4H- and C8H-, are viable candidates for detection in IRC+10216, TMC-1 and photon-dominated regions such as the Horsehead Nebula.

  12. COBRA: A Computational Brewing Application for Predicting the Molecular Composition of Organic Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fooshee, David R.; Nguyen, Tran B.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Baldi, Pierre

    2012-05-08

    Atmospheric organic aerosols (OA) represent a significant fraction of airborne particulate matter and can impact climate, visibility, and human health. These mixtures are difficult to characterize experimentally due to the enormous complexity and dynamic nature of their chemical composition. We introduce a novel Computational Brewing Application (COBRA) and apply it to modeling oligomerization chemistry stemming from condensation and addition reactions of monomers pertinent to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by photooxidation of isoprene. COBRA uses two lists as input: a list of chemical structures comprising the molecular starting pool, and a list of rules defining potential reactions between molecules. Reactions are performed iteratively, with products of all previous iterations serving as reactants for the next one. The simulation generated thousands of molecular structures in the mass range of 120-500 Da, and correctly predicted ~70% of the individual SOA constituents observed by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS). Selected predicted structures were confirmed with tandem mass spectrometry. Esterification and hemiacetal formation reactions were shown to play the most significant role in oligomer formation, whereas aldol condensation was shown to be insignificant. COBRA is not limited to atmospheric aerosol chemistry, but is broadly applicable to the prediction of reaction products in other complex mixtures for which reasonable reaction mechanisms and seed molecules can be supplied by experimental or theoretical methods.

  13. High-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunit Composition of Chinese Wheat Germplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ling-li; LI Xiu-quan; YANG Xin-ming; LI Hong-jie; WANG Hui; LI Li-hui

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the high molecular glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) composition and the presence of 1B/1R translocation in newly developed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm, which have one or more traits that are useful in wheat improvement. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)and acid polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (A-PAGE) were used to detect HMW-GS composition and the presence of 1B/1R wheat-rye (Secale cereale L.) chromosome translocation in the wheat germplasm. Bread-making quality scores of these lines were determined. A high level of variations in HMW-GS encoded by Glu-1 locus was observed. Sixteen major HMW-GS, with 30 combinations, were detected. The percentage of cultivars with more than two desirable subunits was 38.7%. Thirteen cultivars had bread-making quality scores of 10 in combination with one or two desirable agronomical traits, such as high-yield potential, dwarfing stem, resistance to diseases, and/or tolerance to abiotic stress. Sixty-eight (36.6%) cultivars possessed 1B/1R translocation. The newly developed germplasm with HMW-GS for good quality can be promising resources for improving bread-making quality of wheat.

  14. Composition and Content of High-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunits and Their Effects on Wheat Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jian-min; LIU Ai-feng; WU Xiang-yun; LIU Jian-jun; ZHAO Zhen-dong; LIU Guang-tian

    2002-01-01

    Sedimentation values, flour glutenin macropolymer (GMP) contents, composition and contents of high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits (GS) of 233 flour samples were determined. Our data indicated that subunit 1 occurred more frequently at Glu-A1, subunit pair 7 + 8 at Glu- B1 and 2 + 12 at Glu-D1. The significant relationships between Glu-1 quality score and total HMW glutenin content, sedimentation value and GMP content suggested that the composition of HMW-GS affects wheat quality strongly. Moreover,the total content of HMW-GS was correlated with certain quality parameters more significantly. Relationship between subunit 5 + 10 content and breadmaking quality was better than others, but 2 + 12, 7 + 8, 7 + 9 and 4 + 12 also correlated with certain quality parameters significantly. The contents of total HMW-glutenin, x-type subunits and y-type subunits related with sedimentation value, flour GMP content, and Glu-1 quality score more strongly than that of individual subunit or subunit pair. The flour GMP content, with excellent correlation to sedimentation value, total contents of HMW glutenin, x- and y-type subunits and many other quality parameters, could be an ideal indicator of breadmaking quality at earlier generations for breeding purpose for its simple procedure and small scale.

  15. Influence of Copolyester Composition on Adhesion to Soda-Lime Glass via Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ben; Hofmann, John; Pasquinelli, Melissa A

    2016-06-01

    Copolyesters are a subset of polymers that have the desirable properties of strength and clarity while retaining chemical resistance, and are thus potential candidates for enhancing the impact resistance of soda-lime glass. Adhesion between the polymer and the glass relates to the impact performance of the system, as well as the longevity of the bond between the polymer and the glass under various conditions. Modifying the types of diols and diacids present in the copolyester provides a method for fine-tuning the physical properties of the polymer. In this study, we used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to examine the influence of the chemical composition of the polymers on adhesion of polymer film laminates to two soda-lime glass surfaces, one tin-rich and one oxygen-rich. By calculating properties such as adhesion energies and contact angles, these results provide insights into how the polymer-glass interaction is impacted by the polymer composition, temperature, and other factors such as the presence of free volume or pi stacking. These results can be used to optimize the adhesion of copolyester films to glass surfaces. PMID:27206103

  16. Molecular composition and paleobotanical origin of Eocene resin from northeast India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arka Rudra; Suryendu Dutta; Srinivasan V Raju

    2014-07-01

    The molecular composition of fossil resins from early to middle Eocene coal from northeast India, has been analyzed for the first time to infer their paleobotanical source. The soluble component of fossil resin was analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The resin extracts are composed of cadalene-based C15 sesquiterpenoids and diagenetically altered triterpenoids. The macromolecular composition was investigated using pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC–MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The major pyrolysis products are C15} bicyclic sesquiterpenoids, alkylated naphthalenes, benzenes and a series of C17–C34 -alkene--alkane pairs. Spectroscopic analysis revealed the dominance of aliphatic components. The presence of cadalene-based sequiterpenoids confirms the resin to be Class II or dammar resin, derived from angiosperms of Dipterocarpaceae family. These sesquiterpenoids are often detected in many SE Asian fluvio-deltaic oils. Dipterocarpaceae are characteristic of warm tropical climate suggesting the prevalence of such climate during early Eocene in northeast India.

  17. Molecular-dynamic studies of carbon-water-carbon composite nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jian; Ji, Baohua; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Gao, Huajian

    2006-11-01

    We recently reported the discovery via molecular-dynamic simulations that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with different diameters, lengths, and chiralities can coaxially self-assemble into multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in water via the spontaneous insertion of smaller tubes into larger ones. Here, we extend that study to investigate the various water structures formed between two selected SWCNTs after such coaxial assembly. Depending on the tube geometry, typical water structures, besides the bulk phase, include a one-dimensional (1D) ordered water chain inside the smaller tube, a uniform or nonuniform water shell between the two tubes, and a "boundary layer" of water near the exterior wall of the larger tube. It was found that a concentric water shell consisting of up to three layers of water molecules can form between the two SWCNTs, which leads to a class of carbon-water-carbon composite nanotubes. Analysis of the potential energy of the SWCNT-water system indicated that the composite nanotubes are stabilized by both the tube-tube and tube-water van der Waals interactions. Geometrically confined between the two SWCNTs, water mono- and bilayers are found to be stable, highly condensed, and ordered, although the average number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule is reduced. In contrast, a water trilayer between the two CNTs can be easily disrupted by thermal fluctuations.

  18. Nanostructures on spin-coated polymer films controlled by solvent composition and polymer molecular weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dario, Aline F.; Macia, Henrique B.; Petri, Denise F.S., E-mail: dfsp@iq.usp.br

    2012-12-01

    In this study we systematically investigated how the solvent composition used for polymer dissolution affects the porous structures of spin-coated polymers films. Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and poly(methyl methacrylate) with low (PMMA-L) and high (PMMA-H) molecular weights were dissolved in mixtures of acetone (AC) and ethyl acetate (EA) at constant polymer concentration of 10 g/L The films were spin-coated at a relative air humidity of 55 {+-} 5%, their thickness and index of refraction were determined by means of ellipsometry and their morphology was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. The dimensions and frequency of nanocavities on polymer films increased with the acetone content ({phi}{sub AC}) in the solvent mixture and decreased with increasing polymer molecular weight. Consequently, as the void content increased in the films, their apparent thicknesses increased and their indices of refraction decreased, creating low-cost anti-reflection surface. The void depth was larger for PMMA-L than for CAB. This effect was attributed to different activities of EA and AC in CAB or PMMA-L solution, the larger mobility of chains and the lower polarity of PMMA-L in comparison to CAB. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanostructures in spin-coated polymer films depend on the solvent vapor pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-reflection polymer films are produced at high solvent vapor pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Only shallow cavities are obtained in films of polymers with high molecular weight.

  19. A regional study of the seasonal variation in the molecular composition of rainwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Barbara A.; Gonsior, Michael; Isabelle, Lorne M.; Luo, W.; Perraud, Véronique; McIntire, Theresa M.; Pankow, James F.; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Cooper, William J.; Simpson, André J.

    2013-10-01

    Rainwater is not only a critical source of drinking and agricultural water but it plays a key role in the fate and transport of contaminants through their removal by wet deposition. Rainwater is a complex mixture of organic compounds yet despite its importance its spatial and temporal variability are not well understood and less than 50% of the organic matter has been characterized. In-depth analytical approaches were used in this study to characterize the seasonal variation in rainwater composition. Rainwater samples were collected over a one-year period in Scarborough, Ontario, Canada. The seasonal variation of atmospheric organic carbon (AOC) in rainwater was analyzed by excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMs), 1D and 2D NMR with compound identification by spectral database matching, GC-MS, FT-ICR-MS, and GC × GC-TOFMS. This combination of techniques provided four complementary datasets, with less than 10% overlap, of anthropogenic and biogenic AOC. NMR with database matching identified over 100 compounds, primarily carboxylic acids, carbohydrates, and nitrogen-containing compounds. GC × GC-TOFMS analysis identified 344 compounds in two rain events with 33% of the compounds common to both events. FT-ICR-MS generated a seasonally dependent profile of 1226-1575 molecular ions of CHO, CHOS, and CHON elemental composition. FT-ICR-MS and GC × GC-TOFMS datasets were compared using van Krevelen diagrams (H/C vs. O/C), the H/C ratio vs. mass/charge (m/z), and the carbon oxidation state/carbon number matrix. Fluorescence patterns were correlated with NMR results resulting in the identification one seasonally-dependent component of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). This study demonstrated the importance of using of an integrated analytical approach to monitor the compositional variation of AOC.

  20. Molecular Modeling of Distillate Oil Composition Based on Molecular Matrix%基于分子矩阵的馏分油组成的分子建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎龙; 王子军; 张锁江; 申海平; 张香平

    2012-01-01

    将MTHS分子矩阵(Molecular type homologous series matrix)应用于馏分油组成的分子建模,提出了表征馏分油的lMTHS(Improved MTHS matrix)分子矩阵,并建立了IMTHS分子矩阵中等价组分的性质关联方法,实现了基于分子尺度的馏分油的分子表征.实例研究表明,IMTHS分子矩阵是一种可行的预测石油馏分近似分子组成的方法.%The MTHS (Molecular type homologous series matrix) was used to study the molecular modeling of distillate oil. The IMTHS (improved MTHS matrix) was developed to describe the composition of distillate oil on the basis of MTHS matrix. Transformation correlations were built to capture the molecular properties of each homologous series in the IMTHS matrix and to interrelate the molecular composition and bulk properties of the product streams. Two cases were illustrated for validation of the proposed model and methodology.

  1. Molecular modeling of nanotube composite materials: Interface formation, interfacial strength, and thermal expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietta-Tondin, Olivier

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of the wonders of modern science. Discovered a little over 15 years ago, they have shown the research community an outstanding set of properties. In terms of mechanical properties, they exhibit extremely high young's modulus, which, coupled with a high strain to break, leads to unsurpassed strength to break. CNTs also demonstrate superior thermal conductivity, good electrical capacity and high thermal stability. In light of these properties, CNTs are expected to be introduced into a wide variety of new materials aimed at applications for various fields, such as high-performance composites, biological and chemical sensors, magnetic recording, nanoelectronic devices and flat panel displays. One such promising application is CNT-reinforced composite materials, exhibiting the possibility of outstanding mechanical properties. In practice, however, many reports indicate that nanocomposites are weaker or only slightly stronger than the neat resins. Several factors are believed to be the primary source of this discrepancy, namely poor nanotube dispersion in resin, inadequate alignment of the nanotubes, and weak interfacial bonding between nanotubes and resins. As a result, these have become crucial investigation issues for developing high-performance nanocomposites. In this dissertation, fundamental understanding of the interfacial phenomena between carbon nanotubes and polymer matrices are studied. Both molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, an effective approach to investigate nanoscale behaviors, and experimental investigation, are utilized to achieve this goal. First, we examine the interface formation phenomena between a Single Wall Carbon Nanotube (SWNT) and the resin, prior to curing, in the case of the Epon862 resin system. The MD simulation results outline the validity of some of the current theories, such as molecular migration and reduction of molecular mobility of the resin, while they seem to indicate some other mechanisms are not

  2. Thermal desorption of circumstellar and cometary ice analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Martín-Doménech, Rafael; Bueno, Juan; Goesmann, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Thermal annealing of interstellar ices takes place in several stages of star formation. Knowledge of this process comes from a combination of astronomical observations and laboratory simulations under astrophysically relevant conditions. For the first time we present the results of temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments with pre-cometary ice analogs composed of up to five molecular components: H2 O, CO, CO2, CH3 OH, and NH3 . The experiments were performed with an ultra-high vacuum chamber. A gas line with a novel design allows the controlled preparation of mixtures with up to five molecular components. Volatiles desorbing to the gas phase were monitored using a quadrupole mass spectrometer, while changes in the ice structure and composition were studied by means of infrared spectroscopy. The TPD curves of water ice containing CO, CO2, CH3 OH, and NH3 present desorption peaks at temperatures near those observed in pure ice experiments, volcano desorption peaks after water ice crystallization, and...

  3. Molecular Dynamics Study on the Particle Dispersion Mechanism of Polyamide-imide/Silica Nano-composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hideyuki; Iwasaki, Tomio; Hanawa, Hidehito; Honda, Yuki

    We studied the particle dispersion mechanism of polyamide-imide/silica nano-composite material by using molecular-dynamics simulation technique based on Newtonian dynamics and quantum mechanics. In simulations, adhesive fracture energies at the interfaces between silica and solvents were calculated, and Brownian motions of silica particles were simulated to clarify dispersion properties. The simulation results showed that the colloidal state of silica was maintained by covering the silica surface with a new low hygroscopicity solvent and that the chemical structure of polymer contributed to the dispersion of silica. It is found that the results obtained from molecular dynamics agree well with those obtained by experiments, and that molecular-dynamics simulation technique will become very useful for the development of nano-composite materials in the future.

  4. Study of the interpolyelectrolyte reaction between chitosan and alginate: influence of alginate composition and chitosan molecular weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becherán-Marón, L; Peniche, C; Argüelles-Monal, W

    2004-04-01

    The interpolyelectrolyte reaction between chitosan (CHI) and alginate (ALG) was followed by conductimetry and potentiometry. Five chitosan samples, all with almost the same degree of N-acetylation (DA approximately 0.20) and molecular weights ranging from 5 x 10(3) to 2.5 x 10(5) Da were used. The polyelectrolyte complex was formed using alginate samples with three different M/G values (0.44, 1.31 and 1.96). The composition of the complex, Z (Z = [CHI]/[ALG]) resulted 0.70 +/- 0.02, independently of the molecular weight of chitosan and the composition of the alginate used. The degree of complexation was 0.51 with no dependence on the alginate composition.

  5. Exploring the circumstellar environment of the young eruptive star V2492 Cyg

    CERN Document Server

    Kóspál, Á; Acosta-Pulido, J A; Morales, M J Arévalo; Balog, Z; Carnerero, M I; Szegedi-Elek, E; Farkas, A; Henning, Th; Kelemen, J; Kovács, T; Kun, M; Marton, G; Mészáros, Sz; Moór, A; Pál, A; Sárneczky, K; Szakáts, R; Szalai, N; Szing, A; Tóth, I; Turner, N J; Vida, K

    2013-01-01

    Context. V2492 Cyg is a young eruptive star that went into outburst in 2010. The near-infrared color changes observed since the outburst peak suggest that the source belongs to a newly defined sub-class of young eruptive stars where time-dependent accretion and variable line-of-sight extinction play a combined role in the flux changes. Aims. In order to learn about the origin of the light variations and to explore the circumstellar and interstellar environment of V2492 Cyg, we monitored the source at ten different wavelengths, between 0.55 \\mu m and 2.2 \\mu m from the ground, and between 3.6 \\mu m and 160 \\mu m from space. Methods. We analyze the light curves and study the color-color diagrams via comparison with the standard reddening path. We examine the structure of the molecular cloud hosting V2492 Cyg by computing temperature and optical depth maps from the far-infrared data. Results. We find that the shapes of the light curves at different wavelengths are strictly self-similar, and the observed variabil...

  6. CO and H2 Absorption in the AA Tauri Circumstellar Disk

    CERN Document Server

    France, Kevin; Herczeg, Gregory J; Schindhelm, Eric; Yang, Hao; Abgrall, Herve; Roueff, Evelyne; Brown, Alexander; Brown, Joanna; Linsky, Jeffrey L

    2011-01-01

    The direct study of molecular gas in inner protoplanetary disks is complicated by uncertainties in the spatial distribution of the gas, the time-variability of the source, and the comparison of observations across a wide range of wavelengths. Some of these challenges can be mitigated with far-ultraviolet spectroscopy. Using new observations obtained with the HST-Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, we measure column densities and rovibrational temperatures for CO and H2 observed on the line-of-sight through the AA Tauri circumstellar disk. CO A-X absorption bands are observed against the far-UV continuum. The CO absorption is characterized by log(N(^{12}CO)) = 17.5 +/- 0.5 cm^{-2} and T_rot(CO) = 500$^{+500}_{-200} K, although this rotational temperature may underestimate the local kinetic temperature of the CO-bearing gas. We also detect ^{13}CO in absorption with an isotopic ratio of ~20. We do not observe H2 absorption against the continuum; however, hot H2 (v > 0) is detected in absorption against the LyA emissio...

  7. TW Hya Association Membership and New WISE-detected Circumstellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Adam; Song, Inseok

    2012-01-01

    We assess the current membership of the nearby, young TW Hydrae Association and examine newly proposed members with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to search for infrared excess indicative of circumstellar disks. Newly proposed members TWA 30A, TWA 30B, TWA 31, and TWA 32 all show excess emission at 12 and 22 \\mum providing clear evidence for substantial dusty circumstellar disks around these low-mass, ~8 Myr old stars that were previously shown to likely be accreting from circumstellar material. TWA 30B shows large amounts of self-extinction, likely due to an edge-on disk geometry. We also confirm previously reported circumstellar disks with WISE, and determine a 22 \\mum excess fraction of 42+/- 9% based on our results.

  8. Synthetic Spectra and Light Curves of Interacting Binaries and Exoplanets with Circumstellar Material: SHELLSPEC

    CERN Document Server

    Budaj, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Program SHELLSPEC is designed to calculate light-curves, spectra and images of interacting binaries and extrasolar planets immersed in a moving circumstellar environment which is optically thin. It solves simple radiative transfer along the line of sight in moving media. The assumptions include LTE and optional known state quantities and velocity fields in 3D. Optional (non)transparent objects such as a spot, disc, stream, jet, ufo, shell or stars may be defined (embedded) in 3D and their composite synthetic spectrum calculated. Roche model can be used as a boundary condition for the radiative transfer. Recently a new model of the reflection effect, dust and Mie scattering were incorporated into the code. $\\epsilon$ Aurigae is one of the most mysterious objects on the sky. Prior modeling of its light-curve assumed dark, inclined, disk of dust with the central hole to explain the light-curve with a sharp mid-eclipse brightening. Our model consists of two geometrically thick flared disks. Internal optically thi...

  9. Late-Time UV Spectroscopic Signatures from Circumstellar Interaction in Type IIn Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ori

    2013-10-01

    Type IIn supernovae {SNe IIn} are defined by their relatively narrow spectral features associated with a dense circumstellar medium {CSM} formed by the progenitor star. The nature of the progenitors and mass loss remains relatively unknown. Shock interaction with the dense CSM offers an important probe of the CSM characteristics, progenitor mass-loss history, and ultimately the progenitor itself. While most supernovae tend to be faint in the UV at late times {>200 days}, shock interaction and dust formation in the dense CSM often result in significant emission ranging from X-ray to radio for many years post-explosion. Here we propose HST/STIS observations of 4 relatively bright, nearby SNe IIn that reflect the diversity and significance of the subclass. The SNe 2005ip, 2006gy, 20009ip, and 2010jl are some of the most well-studied SNe IIn, and our team has already compiled a comprehensive set of multi-wavelength data that has resulted in numerous publications, but the UV remains largely unexplored. Recent observations indicate these SNe are still detectable. UV observations will {1} constrain the CSM characteristics, including geometry and composition, {2} confirm shock interaction as the heating source for late-time emission from warm dust, and {3} explore the possible presence of a scattered-light echo in SN 2006gy. Coinciding with Cycle 21's UV Initiative, this program offers new insights regarding both the progenitor and explosion characteristics of the SN IIn subclass.

  10. [Preparation of molecularly imprinted polypyrrole/Fe3O4 composite material and its application in recognition of tryptophan enantiomers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhidong; Shan, Xueling; Kong, Yong

    2012-04-01

    Ferrosoferric oxide (Fe(3)O(4)) magnetic material was first synthesized, and then the in-situ chemical polymerization of pyrrole was carried out on the surface of Fe(3)O(4) by using pyrole and L-tryptophan (L-Trp) as the functional monomer and templates, respectively. As a result, molecularly imprinted polypyrrole/Fe(3)O(4) composite material was obtained. This composite material was separated from the solution because of its magnetic property. Polypyrrole in the composite was overoxidized in 1 mol/L NaOH solution by applying a potential of 1.0 V, and thus L-Trp templates were de-deoped from the composite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electrochemical methods were employed to characterize the composite. The solution containing L- or D-Trp was pumped through a porous ceramic tube packed with the composite, separately. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was adopted for the detection of L- or D-Trp in the eluate, and the results indicated that the enrichment ability of the composite for L-Trp was almost 2 times that of D-Trp. Therefore, the electro-magnetic composite material has potential applications as chromatographic stationary phase for chiral recognition.

  11. Molecular dynamics of structural properties of molten CaO-SiO2 with varying composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴永全; 黄世萍; 尤静林; 蒋国昌

    2002-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of the xCaO-(1-x)SiO2 melts (x varying with the composition of melt) were performed to achieve some structural information. It is found that the first peak positions of Si-Si, Si-O and O-O partial radial distribution functions RDFs(3.165, 1.612  and 2.6 )agree very well with those of x-ray diffraction experiments. The discovered relation of coordinate number NSi-Si(r0) with the molar ratio of CaO is linear and the slope is -0.05617. The average bond lengths of Si-Ob and Si-Onb are 1.6275~1.630 and 1.595~1.60, respectively. Both distribution curves of the angles O-Si-O and Si-O-Si show one peak. For the distribution of angle O-Si-O the positions of the peaks are just a little less than the typical tetrahedral angle 109.5°. And for angle Si-O-Si the positions of peaks fluctuate in the range from 148° to 151°. At last, the distribution of five Si-O tetrahedra was obtained and discussed.

  12. Importance of the H2 abundance in protoplanetary disk ices for the molecular layer chemical composition

    CERN Document Server

    Wakelam, V; Hersant, F; Dutrey, A; Semenov, D; Majumdar, L; Guilloteau, S

    2016-01-01

    Protoplanetary disks are the target of many chemical studies (both observational and theoretical) as they contain the building material for planets. Their large vertical and radial gradients in density and temperature make them challenging objects for chemical models. In the outer part of these disks, the large densities and low temperatures provide a particular environment where the binding of species onto the dust grains can be very efficient and can affect the gas-phase chemical composition. We attempt to quantify to what extent the vertical abundance profiles and the integrated column densities of molecules predicted by a detailed gas-grain code are affected by the treatment of the molecular hydrogen physisorption at the surface of the grains. We performed three different models using the Nautilus gas-grain code. One model uses a H2 binding energy on the surface of water (440 K) and produces strong sticking of H2. Another model uses a small binding energy of 23 K (as if there were already a monolayer of H...

  13. [Composition, physico-chemical properties and molecular superstructure of dietary fiber preparations of the cellan type].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongowski, G; Frigge, K; Zenke, I

    1995-07-01

    Dietary fiber preparations of "cellan" type were prepared from apples, white cabbage, sugar beet pulp, soy hulls and wheat bran by treatment with amylolytic and proteolytic enzymes as well as by chemical extractions. Scanning electron microscopic examinations show different morphological structures of the preparations and a high maintenance of native biomolecular superstructure. The content of pectin, protein, polysaccharide-hexoses and -pentoses and the composition of monosaccharides (also after their treatment with 4 or 8% sodium hydroxide) were determined. The cellans possess waterbinding capacities (WBC) between 25 g H2O/g and waterholding capacities between 50 g H2O/g. The WBC is related to the internal surface; it diminishes after treatment with NaOH. The interactions between the cellans and the adsorbed water were characterized by NMR-spin-lattice relaxation time T1. The molecular mobility increases as the water content grows. The T1-values of dried cellans decreased with increasing degree of moisture before drying. The supermolecular structure is comparatively disordered. Only in case of soy cellan a crystalline cellulose-I-modification could be identified by X-ray-diffraction pattern, esp. after NaOH treatment. The low degree of order of cellans was observed in the 13C-NMR spectra, too. Only the soy hull preparation resulted in a spectrum corresponding to well-ordered cellulose. The botanic source has an essential influence on the physico-chemical properties of dietary fiber preparations of cellan type.

  14. Dust Migration and Morphology in Optically Thin Circumstellar Gas Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, T; Takeuchi, Taku; Artymowicz, Pawel

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of gas-dust coupling in the presence of stellar radiation pressure in circumstellar gas disks, which are in a transitional stage between the gas-dominated, optically thick, primordial nebulae, and the dust-dominated, optically thin Vega-type disks. Dust undergo radial migration, seeking a stable equilibrium orbit in corotation with gas. The migration of dust gives rise to radial fractionation of dust and creates a variety of possible observed disk morphologies, which we compute by considering the equilibrium between the dust production and the dust-dust collisions removing particles from their equilibrium orbits. Sand-sized and larger grains are distributed throughout most of the gas disk, with concentration near the gas pressure maximum in the inner disk. Smaller grains (typically in the range of 10 to 200 micron) concentrate in a prominent ring structure in the outer region of the gas disk (presumably at radius 100 AU), where gas density is rapidly declining with radius. The width an...

  15. ALMA Observations of HD141569's Circumstellar Disk

    CERN Document Server

    White, J A; Hughes, A M; Flaherty, K M; Ford, E; Wilner, D; Corder, S; Payne, M

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA band 7 (345 GHz) continuum and $^{12}$CO(J = 3-2) observations of the circumstellar disk surrounding HD141569. At an age of about 5 Myr, the disk has a complex morphology that may be best interpreted as a nascent debris system with gas. Our $870\\rm~\\mu m$ ALMA continuum observations resolve a dust disk out to approximately $ 56 ~\\rm au$ from the star (assuming a distance of 116 pc) with $0."38$ resolution and $0.07 ~ \\rm mJy~beam^{-1}$ sensitivity. We measure a continuum flux density for this inner material of $3.8 \\pm 0.4 ~ \\rm mJy$ (including calibration uncertainties). The $^{12}$CO(3-2) gas is resolved kinematically and spatially from about 30 to 210 au. The integrated $^{12}$CO(3-2) line flux density is $15.7 \\pm 1.6~\\rm Jy~km~s^{-1}$. We estimate the mass of the millimeter debris and $^{12}$CO(3-2) gas to be $\\gtrsim0.04~\\rm M_{\\oplus}$ and $\\sim2\\times 10^{-3}~\\rm M_{\\oplus}$, respectively. If the millimeter grains are part of a collisional cascade, then we infer that the inner disk ($&...

  16. Cepheids at high angular resolution: circumstellar envelope and pulsation

    CERN Document Server

    Gallenne, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, interferometric observations with VLTI/VINCI and CHARA/FLUOR revealed the existence of a circumstellar envelope (CSE) around some Cepheids. This surrounding material is particularly interesting for two reasons: it could have an impact on the distance estimates and could be linked to a past or on-going mass loss. The use of Baade-Wesselink methods for independent distance determinations could be significantly biased by the presence of these envelopes. Although their observations are difficult because of the high contrast between the photosphere of the star and the CSE, several observation techniques have the potential to improve our knowledge about their physical properties. In this thesis, I discuss in particular high angular resolution techniques that I applied to the study of several bright Galactic Cepheids. First, I used adaptive optic observations with NACO of the Cepheid RS Puppis, in order to deduce the flux ratio between the CSE and the photosphere of the star. In addition, I could carry out ...

  17. Secular resonances in circumstellar systems in binary stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazso, A.; Pilat-Lohinger, E.; Eggl, S.; Funk, B.; Bancelin, D.

    2016-02-01

    Planet formation around single stars is already a complicated matter, but extrasolar planets are also present in binary and multiple star systems. We investigate circumstellar planets in binary star systems with stellar separations below 100 astronomical units. For a selection of 11 systems with at least one detected giant planet we determine the location and extension of the habitable zone (HZ), subject to the incident stellar flux from both stars. We work out the stability of additional hypothetical terrestrial planets in or close to the HZ in these systems. To study the secular dynamics we apply a semi-analytical method. This method employs a first-order perturbation theory to determine the secular frequencies of objects moving under the gravitational influence of two much more massive perturbers. The other part uses a single numerical integration of the equations of motion and a frequency analysis of the obtained time-series to determine the apsidal precession frequencies of the massive bodies. By combining these two parts we are able to find the location of the most important secular resonances and the regions of chaotic motion. We demonstrate that terrestrial planets interior to the giant planet’s orbit may suffer from a linear secular resonance that could prevent the existence of habitable planets. Contrary to this, close-in giant planets are less of a problem, but one has to take into account the general relativistic precession of the pericenter that can also lead to resonances.

  18. Supernova spectra below strong circum-stellar interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Leloudas, G; Johansson, J; Maeda, K; Moriya, T J; Nordin, J; Petrushevska, T; Silverman, J M; Sollerman, J; Stritzinger, M D; Taddia, F; Xu, D

    2013-01-01

    (abridged) We construct spectra of supernovae interacting strongly with a circum-stellar medium (CSM) by adding SN templates, a black-body continuum and an emission-line spectrum. In a Monte Carlo simulation we generate 500 spectra, distribute them to 10 different classifiers, and study how the different simulation parameters affect the appearance of the spectra. SNe IIn showing some structure over the continuum were characterized as 'SNe IInS'. It is demonstrated that the flux ratio of the underlying SN to the continuum fv is the most important parameter determining the spectral classification. Thermonuclear SNe get progressively classified as Ia-CSM, IInS and IIn as fv decreases. The transition between Ia-CSM and IInS occurs at fv~0.2-0.3. It is shown that SNe Ia-CSM are found at the magnitude range -19.5 > M > -21.6, in good agreement with observations, and that the faintest SN IIn that can hide a SN Ia has M = -20.1. The sample of SNe Ia-CSM shows an association with 91T-like SNe Ia. Our experiment does n...

  19. A statistical analysis of circumstellar material in Type Ia supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Maguire, Kate; Patat, Ferdinando; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Hook, Isobel M; Dhawan, Suhail; Howell, D Andrew; Mazzali, Paolo; Nugent, Peter E; Pan, Yen-Chen; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Simon, Joshua D; Sternberg, Assaf; Valenti, Stefano; Baltay, Charles; Bersier, David; Blagorodnova, Nadejda; Chen, Ting-Wan; Ellman, Nancy; Feindt, Ulrich; Förster, Francisco; Fraser, Morgan; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Graham, Melissa L; Gutiérrez, Claudia; Hachinger, Stephan; Hadjiyska, Elena; Inserra, Cosimo; Knapic, Cristina; Laher, R R; Leloudas, Giorgos; Margheim, Steven; McKinnon, Ryan; Molinaro, Marco; Morrell, Nidia; Ofek, Eran O; Rabinowitz, David; Rest, Armin; Sand, David; Smareglia, Riccardo; Smartt, Stephen J; Taddia, Francesco; Walker, Emma S; Walton, Nicholas A; Young, David R

    2013-01-01

    A key tracer of the elusive progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is the detection of narrow blueshifted time-varying Na I D absorption lines, interpreted as evidence of circumstellar material (CSM) surrounding the progenitor system. The origin of this material is controversial, but the simplest explanation is that it results from previous mass loss in a system containing a white dwarf and a non-degenerate companion star. We present new single-epoch intermediate-resolution spectra of 17 low-redshift SNe Ia taken with XShooter on the ESO Very Large Telescope. Combining this sample with events from the literature, we confirm an excess (~20 per cent) of SNe Ia displaying blueshifted narrow Na I D absorption features compared to non-blueshifted Na I D features. The host galaxies of SNe Ia displaying blueshifted absorption profiles are skewed towards later-type galaxies, compared to SNe Ia that show no Na I D absorption, and SNe Ia displaying blueshifted narrow Na I D absorption features have broader l...

  20. Polarization of circumstellar bow shocks due to electron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Manisha; Hoffman, J. L.; Neilson, H.; Ignace, R.

    2014-01-01

    Circumstellar material (CSM) provides a link between interacting supernovae and their massive progenitor stars. This CSM arises from stellar winds, outflows, or eruptions from a massive star before it explodes and can be detected around stars or supernovae with polarimetric observations. We use a Monte Carlo based radiative transfer code (SLIP) to investigate the polarization created by different models for the CSM surrounding a central source such as supernovae or massive stars. We vary parameters such as the shape, optical depth, temperature, and brightness of the CSM and compare the simulated flux and polarization behavior with observational data. We present results from new simulations that assume a bow shock shape for the CSM. Bow shocks are commonly observed around massive stars; this shape forms when a star moving more quickly than the speed of sound in the local interstellar medium emits a stellar wind that drives a shock wave into the ISM. Since a bow shock projects an aspherical shape onto the sky, light from the central source that scatters in the shock region becomes polarized. We present electron-scattering polarization maps for this geometry and discuss the behavior of observed polarization with viewing angle in the unresolved case.

  1. The formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in evolved circumstellar environments

    CERN Document Server

    Cherchneff, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    The formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the circumstellar outflows of evolved stars is reviewed, with an emphasis on carbon stars on the Asymptotic Giant Branch. Evidence for PAHs present in their winds is provided by meteoritic studies and recent observations of the Unidentified Infrared bands. We detail the chemical processes leading to the closure of the first aromatic ring as well as the growth mechanisms leading to amorphous carbon grains. Existing studies on PAH formation in evolved stellar envelopes are reviewed and new results for the modelling of the inner wind of the archetype carbon star IRC+10216 are presented. Benzene, C6H6, forms close to the star, as well as water, H2O, as a result of non-equilibrium chemistry induced by the periodic passage of shocks. The growth process of aromatic rings may thus resemble that active in sooting flames due to the presence of radicals like hydroxyl, OH. Finally, we discuss possible formation processes for PAHs and aromatic compounds in the hydrogen-...

  2. Massive circumstellar envelope around type IIn supernova SN 1995G

    CERN Document Server

    Chugai, N N

    2003-01-01

    We model the interaction of the supernova SN 1995G with a dense circumstellar (CS) gas in a thin shell approximation. A model fit of the observed bolometric light curve combined with data on the supernova expansion velocity provides an estimate of the density of the CS shell, its mass ($approx 1 M_{odot}$), and age ($approx 8$ years). It is shown that the derived CS gas density does not depend on the assumed mass of the supernova ejecta. This results from the high CS density, which ensures that the forward shock wave is essentially radiative. The derived CS density is consistent with the H$alpha$ luminosity and with the presence of the apparent effect of Thomson scattering in the red wing of this line. The mass of the CS envelope together with its expansion velocity indicates that the CS envelope was ejected as a result of violent energy release ($sim 6times10^{48}$ erg) eight years before the supernova outburst.

  3. A WISE Survey of Circumstellar Disks in Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Esplin, T L; Mamajek, E E

    2014-01-01

    We have compiled photometry at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 $\\mu$m from the all-sky survey performed by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for all known members of the Taurus complex of dark clouds. Using these data and photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have identified members with infrared excess emission from circumstellar disks and have estimated the evolutionary stages of the detected disks, which include 31 new full disks and 16 new candidate transitional, evolved, evolved transitional, and debris disks. We have also used the WISE All-Sky Source Catalog to search for new disk-bearing members of Taurus based on their red infrared colors. Through optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, we have confirmed 26 new members with spectral types of M1 - M7. The census of disk-bearing stars in Taurus should now be largely complete for spectral types earlier than $\\sim$M8 ($M \\gtrsim 0.03$ $M_\\odot$).

  4. Rapid disappearance of a warm, dusty circumstellar disk

    CERN Document Server

    Melis, Carl; Rhee, Joseph H; Song, Inseok; Murphy, Simon J; Bessell, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    Stars form with gaseous and dusty circumstellar envelopes, which rapidly settle into disks that eventually give rise to planetary systems. Understanding the process by which these disks evolve is paramount in developing an accurate theory of planet formation that can account for the variety of planetary systems discovered so far. The formation of Earth-like planets through collisional accumulation of rocky objects within a disk has mainly been explored in theoretical and computational work in which post-collision ejecta evolution is typically ignored, although recent work has considered the fate of such material. Here we report observations of a young, Sun-like star (TYC 8241 2652 1) where infrared flux from post-collisional ejecta has decreased drastically, by a factor of about 30, over a period of less than two years. The star seems to have gone from hosting substantial quantities of dusty ejecta, in a region analogous to where the rocky planets orbit in the Solar System, to retaining at most a meagre amoun...

  5. Optical Signatures of Circumstellar Interaction in Type IIP Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Chugai, N N; Utrobin, V P; Chugai, Nikolai N.; Chevalier, Roger A.; Utrobin, Victor P.

    2007-01-01

    We propose new diagnostics for circumstellar interaction in Type IIP supernovae by the detection of high velocity (HV) absorption features in Halpha and He I 10830 A lines during the photospheric stage. To demonstrate the method, we compute the ionization and excitation of H and He in supernova ejecta taking into account time-dependent effects and X-ray irradiation. We find that the interaction with a typical red supergiant wind should result in the enhanced excitation of the outer layers of unshocked ejecta and the emergence of corresponding HV absorption, i.e. a depression in the blue absorption wing of Halpha and a pronounced absorption of He I 10830 A at a radial velocity of about -10,000 km/s. We identify HV absorption in Halpha and He I 10830 A lines of SN 1999em and in Halpha of SN 2004dj as being due to this effect. The derived mass loss rate is close to 10^{-6} Msun/yr for both supernovae, assuming a wind velocity 10 km/s. We argue that, in addition to the HV absorption formed in the unshocked ejecta...

  6. The circumstellar environment of pre-SN Ia systems

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, E; Boumis, P; Kopsacheili, M; Akras, S; Sabin, L; Jurkic, T

    2016-01-01

    Here we explore the possible preexisting circumstellar debris of supernova type Ia systems. Classical, symbiotic and recurrent novae all accrete onto roughly solar mass white dwarfs from main sequence or Mira type companions and result in thermonuclear runaways and expulsion of the accreted material at high velocity. The expelled material forms a fast moving shell that eventually slows to planetary nebula expansion velocities within several hundred years. All such systems are recurrent and thousands of shells (each of about 0.001 Mo) snow plough into the environment. As these systems involve common envelope binaries the material is distributed in a non-spherical shell. These systems could be progenitors of some SN Ia and thus explode into environments with large amounts of accumulated gas and dust distributed in thin non-spherical shells. Such shells should be observable around 100 years after a SN Ia event in a radio flash as the SN Ia debris meets that of the ejected material of the systems previous incarna...

  7. Probing the circumstellar structure of pre-main sequence stars

    CERN Document Server

    Vink, J S; Harries, T J; Oudmaijer, R D; Oudmaijer, Rene D.

    2003-01-01

    We present Halpha spectropolarimetry of a large sample of pre-main sequence (PMS) stars of low and intermediate mass, and argue that the technique is a powerful tool in studying the circumstellar geometry around these objects. For the intermediate mass (2 -- 15 Msun) Herbig Ae/Be stars we find that 16 out of 23 show a line effect, which immediately implies that flattening is common among these objects. Furthermore, we find a significant difference in Halpha spectropolarimetry behaviour between the Herbig Be and Ae groups. For the Herbig Be stars, the concept of an electron scattering disc is shown to be a useful concept to explain the depolarizations seen in this spectral range. At lower masses, more complex Halpha polarimetry behaviour starts to appear. The concept of a compact source of Halpha emission that is formed close to the stellar surface, for instance by hot spots due to magnetospheric accretion, is postulated as a working hypothesis to qualitatively explain the Halpha spectropolarimetry behaviour a...

  8. Observation of Circumstellar Gas in the Neighborhood of RZ Psc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potravnov, I. S.; Grinin, V. P.; Ilyin, I. V.

    2013-12-01

    The first evidence is found of the existence of circumstellar gas in the nearest surroundings of the UX Ori star RZ Psc. Spectra obtained at the Terskol Observatory, Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), and the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) reveal a strong variability in the sodium doublet lines that is indicative of a sporadic outflow of matter. Weak variability was also observed in the core of the Hα line. One nontrivial feature of this discovery is that RZ Psc is of spectral class K0 IV. This means that the star has no intrinsic energy resources for creating the observed outflow of matter. There are no emission lines in the star's spectrum which might indicate that matter is falling into the star so that the observed outflow could be related to an accretion process. We suggest, nevertheless, that the ejection of gas is related to residual (slow) accretion and is driven by a propeller mechanism. The latter is possible if the star has a sufficiently high (on the order of 103 G) magnetic field.

  9. Unifying Type II Supernova Light Curves with Dense Circumstellar Material

    CERN Document Server

    Morozova, Viktoriya; Valenti, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    A longstanding problem in the study of supernovae (SNe) has been the relationship between the Type IIP and Type IIL subclasses. Whether they come from distinct progenitors or they are from similar stars with some property that smoothly transitions from one class to another has been the subject of much debate. Here we show using one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic SN models that the multi-band light curves of SNe IIL are well fit by ordinary red supergiants surrounded by dense circumstellar material (CSM). The inferred extent of this material, coupled with a typical wind velocity of ~10-100 km/s, suggests enhanced activity by these stars during the last ~months to ~years of their lives, which may be connected with advanced stages of nuclear burning. Furthermore, we find that even for more plateau-like SNe that dense CSM provides a better fit to the first ~20 days of their light curves, indicating that the presence of such material may be more widespread than previously appreciated. Here we choose to model t...

  10. FIRST DETECTION OF NEAR-INFRARED LINE EMISSION FROM ORGANICS IN YOUNG CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandell, Avi M.; Mumma, Michael J.; Villanueva, Geronimo [Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bast, Jeanette; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Blake, Geoffrey A. [California Institute of Technology, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, MS 150-21, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Salyk, Colette, E-mail: Avi.Mandell@nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2012-03-10

    We present an analysis of high-resolution spectroscopy of several bright T Tauri stars using the CRIRES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope and NIRSPEC spectrograph on the Keck Telescope, revealing the first detections of emission from HCN and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} in circumstellar disks at near-infrared wavelengths. Using advanced data reduction techniques, we achieve a dynamic range with respect to the disk continuum of {approx}500 at 3 {mu}m, revealing multiple emission features of H{sub 2}O, OH, HCN, and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. We also present stringent upper limits for two other molecules thought to be abundant in the inner disk, CH{sub 4} and NH{sub 3}. Line profiles for the different detected molecules are broad but centrally peaked in most cases, even for disks with previously determined inclinations of greater than 20 Degree-Sign , suggesting that the emission has both a Keplerian and non-Keplerian component as observed previously for CO emission. We apply two different modeling strategies to constrain the molecular abundances and temperatures: we use a simplified single-temperature local thermal equilibrium (LTE) slab model with a Gaussian line profile to make line identifications and determine a best-fit temperature and initial abundance ratios, and we compare these values with constraints derived from a detailed disk radiative transfer model assuming LTE excitation but utilizing a realistic temperature and density structure. Abundance ratios from both sets of models are consistent with each other and consistent with expected values from theoretical chemical models, and analysis of the line shapes suggests that the molecular emission originates from within a narrow region in the inner disk (R < 1 AU).

  11. Molecular composition of organic aerosols in central Amazonia: an ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtchev, Ivan; Godoi, Ricardo H. M.; Connors, Sarah; Levine, James G.; Archibald, Alex T.; Godoi, Ana F. L.; Paralovo, Sarah L.; Barbosa, Cybelli G. G.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Seco, Roger; Sjostedt, Steve; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Guenther, Alex; Kim, Saewung; Smith, James; Martin, Scot T.; Kalberer, Markus

    2016-09-01

    The Amazon Basin plays key role in atmospheric chemistry, biodiversity and climate change. In this study we applied nanoelectrospray (nanoESI) ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHRMS) for the analysis of the organic fraction of PM2.5 aerosol samples collected during dry and wet seasons at a site in central Amazonia receiving background air masses, biomass burning and urban pollution. Comprehensive mass spectral data evaluation methods (e.g. Kendrick mass defect, Van Krevelen diagrams, carbon oxidation state and aromaticity equivalent) were used to identify compound classes and mass distributions of the detected species. Nitrogen- and/or sulfur-containing organic species contributed up to 60 % of the total identified number of formulae. A large number of molecular formulae in organic aerosol (OA) were attributed to later-generation nitrogen- and sulfur-containing oxidation products, suggesting that OA composition is affected by biomass burning and other, potentially anthropogenic, sources. Isoprene-derived organosulfate (IEPOX-OS) was found to be the most dominant ion in most of the analysed samples and strongly followed the concentration trends of the gas-phase anthropogenic tracers confirming its mixed anthropogenic-biogenic origin. The presence of oxidised aromatic and nitro-aromatic compounds in the samples suggested a strong influence from biomass burning especially during the dry period. Aerosol samples from the dry period and under enhanced biomass burning conditions contained a large number of molecules with high carbon oxidation state and an increased number of aromatic compounds compared to that from the wet period. The results of this work demonstrate that the studied site is influenced not only by biogenic emissions from the forest but also by biomass burning and potentially other anthropogenic emissions from the neighbouring urban environments.

  12. Titan's organic aerosols: Molecular composition and structure of laboratory analogues inferred from pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisson, Marietta; Szopa, Cyril; Carrasco, Nathalie; Buch, Arnaud; Gautier, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Analogues of Titan's aerosols are of primary interest in the understanding of Titan's atmospheric chemistry and climate, and in the development of in situ instrumentation for future space missions. Numerous studies have been carried out to characterize laboratory analogues of Titan aerosols (tholins), but their molecular composition and structure are still poorly known. If pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (pyr-GCMS) has been used for years to give clues about their chemical composition, highly disparate results were obtained with this technique. They can be attributed to the variety of analytical conditions used for pyr-GCMS analyses, and/or to differences in the nature of the analogues analyzed, that were produced with different laboratory set-ups under various operating conditions. In order to have a better description of Titan's tholin's molecular composition by pyr-GCMS, we carried out a systematic study with two major objectives: (i) exploring the pyr-GCMS analytical parameters to find the optimal ones for the detection of a wide range of chemical products allowing a characterization of the tholins composition as comprehensive as possible, and (ii) highlighting the role of the CH4 ratio in the gaseous reactive medium on the tholin's molecular structure. We used a radio-frequency plasma discharge to synthetize tholins with different concentrations of CH4 diluted in N2. The samples were pyrolyzed at temperatures covering the 200-700°C range. The extracted gases were then analyzed by GCMS for their molecular identification. The optimal pyrolysis temperature for characterizing the molecular composition of our tholins by GCMS analysis is found to be 600°C. This temperature choice results from the best compromise between the number of compounds released, the quality of the signal and the appearance of pyrolysis artifacts. About a hundred molecules are identified as pyrolysates. A common major chromatographic pattern appears clearly for all the

  13. A molecular survey of outflow gas: velocity-dependent shock chemistry and the peculiar composition of the EHV gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafalla, M.; Santiago-García, J.; Hacar, A.; Bachiller, R.

    2010-11-01

    Context. Bipolar outflows from Class 0 protostars often present two components in their CO spectra that have different kinematic behaviors: a smooth outflow wing and a discrete, extremely high-velocity (EHV) peak. Aims: To better understand the origin of these two outflow components, we have studied and compared their molecular composition. Methods: We carried out a molecular survey of the outflows powered by L1448-mm and IRAS 04166+2706, two sources with prominent wing and EHV components. For each source, we observed a number of molecular lines towards the brightest outflow position and used them to determine column densities for 12 different molecular species. Results: The molecular composition of the two outflows is very similar. It presents systematic changes with velocity that we analyze by dividing the outflow in three chemical regimes, two of them associated with the wing component and the other the EHV gas. The analysis of the two wing regimes shows that species like H2CO and CH3OH favor the low-velocity gas, while SiO and HCN are more abundant in the fastest gas. This fastest wing gas presents strong similarities with the composition of the “chemically active” L1157 outflow (whose abundances we re-evaluate in an appendix). We find that the EHV regime is relatively rich in O-bearing species compared to the wing regime. The EHV gas is not only detected in CO and SiO (already reported elsewhere), but also in SO, CH3OH, and H2CO (newly reported here), with a tentative detection in HCO+. At the same time, the EHV regime is relatively poor in C-bearing molecules like CS and HCN, for which we only obtain weak detections or upper limits despite deep integrations. We suggest that this difference in composition arises from a lower C/O ratio in the EHV gas. Conclusions: The different chemical compositions of the wing and EHV regimes suggest that these two outflow components have different physical origins. The wing component is better explained by shocked ambient

  14. Body Composition and Circulating High-Molecular-Weight Adiponectin and IGF-I in Infants Born Small for Gestational Age

    OpenAIRE

    Zegher, Francis de; Sebastiani, Giorgia; Diaz, Marta; Sánchez-Infantes, David; Lopez-Bermejo, Abel; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal growth restraint, if followed by postnatal overweight, confers risk for adult disease including diabetes. The mechanisms whereby neonatal nutrition may modulate such risk are poorly understood. We studied the effects of nutrition (breast-feeding [BRF] vs. formula-feeding [FOF]) on weight partitioning and endocrine state (as judged by high-molecular-weight [HMW] adiponectin and IGF-I) of infants born small for gestational age (SGA). Body composition (by absorptiometry), HMW adiponecti...

  15. A Collisional Algorithm for Modeling Circumstellar Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvold, Erika; Kuchner, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Many planetary systems harbor circumstellar disks of dust and planetesimals thought to be debris left over from planet formation. These debris disks exhibit a range of morphological features which can arise from the gravitational perturbations of planets. Accurate models of these features, accounting for the interactions of the particles in a disk with each other and with whatever planets they contain, can act as signposts for planets in debris disks that otherwise could not be detected. Such models can also constrain the planet's mass and orbital parameters. Current models for many disks consider the gravitational and radiative effects of the star and planets on the disk, but neglect the morphological consequences of collisional interactions between the planetesimals. Many observed disk features are not satisfactorily explained by the current generation of models. I am developing a new kind of debris disk model that considers both the gravitational shaping of the disk by planets and the inelastic collisions between particles. I will use a hybrid N-body integrator to numerically solve the equations of motion for the particles and planets in the disk. To include the collisional effects, I begin with an algorithm that tests for collisions at each step of the orbit integration and readjusts the velocities of colliding particles. I am adapting this algorithm to the problem at hand by allowing each particle to represent a "swarm" of planetesimals with a range of masses. When the algorithm detects an encounter between swarms, two or three swarms are produced to approximate the range of possible trajectories of the daughter planetesimals. Here I present preliminary results from my collisional algorithm.

  16. Characterization of silane coated hollow sphere alumina-reinforced ultra high molecular weight polyethylene composite as a possible bone substitute material

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Roy; S Pal

    2002-12-01

    Silane coated hollow sphere alumina ceramic particles were moulded with ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) to form a series of composites with alumina weight percent in the range from 15 to 50. The composites were prepared in a cylindrical mould using powder-processing technique. The composites were characterized for mechanical properties using destructive and non-destructive ultrasonic testing methods. The physical properties of the composite were determined and compared with those of cortical bone.

  17. Behavior of Aramid Fiber/Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene Fiber Hybrid Composites under Charpy Impact and Ballistic Impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The aramid fiber/UHMWPE (ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene) fiber hybrid composites (AF/DF) were manufactured. By Charpy impact, the low velocity impact behavior of AF/DF composite was studied. And the high velocity impact behavior under ballistic impact was also investigated. The influence of hybrid ratio on the performances of low and high velocity impact was analyzed, and hybrid structures with good impact properties under low velocity impact and high velocity were optimized. For Charpy impact, the maximal impact load increased with the accretion of the AF layers for AF/DF hybrid composites. The total impact power was reduced with the decrease of DF layers and the delamination can result in the increase of total impact power. For ballistic impact, the DF ballistic performance was better than that of the AF and the hybrid ratio had a crucial influence. The failure morphology of AF/DF hybrid composite under Charpy impact and ballistic impact was analyzed. The AF/DF hybrid composites in suitable hybrid ratio could attain better performance than AF or DF composites.

  18. Photons transport through ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene based composite containing tungsten and boron carbide fillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, S.M. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, S.A. [Russian State Technological University “MATI”, Moscow 121552 (Russian Federation); Volkov, A.E.; Terekhin, P.N.; Dmitriev, S.V. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Tcherdyntsev, V.V.; Gorshenkov, M.V. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Boykov, A.A., E-mail: kink03@gmail.com [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • The developed method for predicting X-ray properties of the polymer. • Higher content of the fillers results in an increase of mechanical properties. • X-ray defensive properties of the samples were investigated experimentally. -- Abstract: Polymers are a base for creating of composite materials with high mechanical and chemical properties. Using the heavy metals as filler in these composites can give them X-ray protective properties. These materials have high deactivation rates and can be used to create Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) used in aggressive environments. It was proposed a model for calculation of X-ray protection properties of the polymer-based nanocomposite materials with ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) matrix, filled with tungsten and boron carbide particles. X-ray protective properties were calculated in a wide range of filler content using the developed model. Results of calculations allow selecting most effective compounds of X-ray protective UHMWPE based composites.

  19. Compression Molded Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene-Hydroxyapatite-Aluminum Oxide-Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Composites for Hard Tissue Replacement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ankur Gupta; Garima Tripathi; Debrupa Lahiri; Kantesh Balani

    2013-01-01

    Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is widely used for articulating surfaces in total hip and knee replacements.In the present work,UHMWPE based polymer composites were synthesized by synergistic reinforcing of bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA),bioinert aluminum oxide (Al2O3),and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using compression molding.Phase and microstructural analysis suggests retention of UHMWPE and reinforcing phases in the compression molded composites.Microstructural analysis elicited variation in densification due to the size effect of the reinforcing particles.The hybrid composites exhibited hardness,elastic modulus and toughness comparable to that of UHMWPE.The interfacial effect of reinforcement phases has evinced the effectiveness of Al2O3 over HA and CNT reinforcements,depicting synergistic enhancement in hardness and elastic modulus.Weak interfacial bonding of polymer matrix with HA and CNT requires utilization of coupling agents to achieve enhanced mechanical properties without deteriorating cytocompatible properties.

  20. Molecular Composite Coatings on Nafion Using Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefaux, Christophe J; Kim, Byoung-Suhk; Venkat, Narayanan; Mather, Patrick T

    2015-05-20

    Controlled growth of nanometer-scale multilayered coatings of negatively charged sulfonated poly(benzobisimidazole) (SPBI), complexed with positively charged poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP) on quartz, and Nafion membrane as substrates has been explored. Both polymers, SPBI and P2VP, possess a net charge in methanol as a result of the dissolution of SPBI by complexation with triethylamine (TEA) and the protonation of P2VP with HCl, respectively, and thereby can form a multilayered molecular composite of alternating anionic SPBI and cationic P2VP via an electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly. UV-vis absorption spectrophotometry was used to monitor the buildup and growth rate of such SPBI/P2VP multilayer films. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to determine the roughness and thickness of the resulting SPBI/P2VP multilayers. As a result, it was found that a steady-state linear growth regime for the LbL self-assembled SPBI/P2VP multilayer films and coatings onto quartz and Nafion membranes was observed after completion of the first few deposition cycles, indicating the successful formation of the SPBI/P2VP multilayered assembly in methanol solutions. In addition, the SPBI/P2VP multilayer films in the perpendicular direction (flat view) demonstrated isotropic orientation distribution on the Nafion membrane, while the SPBI/P2VP multilayer films examined by X-ray scattering in the parallel direction (edge view) revealed anisotropic orientation, the combined observations indicating confinement of SPBI rods to the plane of the coating. We further found that the SPBI/P2VP multilayer coated Nafion possesses good thermal stability, as indicated by isothermal gravimetric analysis at 310 °C, and it was further observed that SPBI/P2VP multilayer coatings using the LbL self-assembly technique on Nafion membrane significantly increased the membrane stiffness, despite the small coating thickness employed. PMID:25923689

  1. The stable isotopic composition of molecular hydrogen in the tropopause region probed by the CARIBIC aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batenburg, A. M.; Schuck, T. J.; Baker, A. K.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Röckmann, T.

    2012-05-01

    More than 450 air samples that were collected in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS) region by the CARIBIC aircraft (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) have been analyzed for molecular hydrogen (H2) mixing ratios (χ(H2)) and H2 isotopic composition (deuterium content, δD). More than 120 of the analyzed samples contained air from the lowermost stratosphere (LMS). These show that χ(H2) does not vary appreciably with O3-derived height above the thermal tropopause (TP), whereas δD does increase with height. The isotope enrichment is caused by H2 production and destruction processes that enrich the stratospheric H2 reservoir in deuterium (D); the exact shapes of the profiles are mainly determined by mixing of stratospheric with tropospheric air. Tight negative correlations are found between δD and the mixing ratios of methane (χ(CH4)) and nitrous oxide (χ(N2O)), as a result of the relatively long lifetimes of these three species. The correlations are described by δD[‰]=-0.35 · χ(CH4)[ppb]+768 and δD[‰]=-1.90· χ(N2O)[ppb]+745. These correlations are similar to previously published results and likely hold globally for the LMS. Samples that were collected from the Indian subcontinent up to 40° N before, during and after the summer monsoon season show no significant seasonal change in χ(H2), but δD is up to 12.3‰ lower in the July, August and September monsoon samples. This δD decrease is correlated with the χ(CH4) increase in these samples. The significant correlation with χ(CH4) and the absence of a perceptible χ(H2) increase that accompanies the δD decrease indicates that microbial production of very D-depleted H2 in the wet season may contribute to this phenomenon. Some of the samples have very high χ(H2) and very low δD values, which indicates a pollution effect. Aircraft engine exhaust plumes are a suspected cause, since the effect mostly occurs in samples

  2. Coupling effects of abiotic and biotic factors on molecular composition of dissolved organic matter in a freshwater wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Choi, Ilhwan; Lee, Jung-Joon; Hur, Jin

    2016-02-15

    In this study, temporal and spatial variations in five defined molecular size fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were examined for a well preserved wetland (Upo Wetland) and its surrounding areas, and the influencing factors were explored with many biotic and abioic parameters. For each DOM sample, the five size fractions were determined by size-exclusion chromatography coupled with organic carbon detector (SEC-OCD). For 2-year long monthly monitoring, bio-polymers (BP), humic substances (HS), building blocks (BB), low molecular-weight (LMW) neutrals, and LMW acids displayed the median values of 264, 1884, 1070, 1090, and 11 μg-CL(-1), respectively, accounting for 6.2%, 41.7%, 24.5%, 26.4%, and 0.4% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The dominant presence of HS indicated that terrestrial input played important roles in DOM composition of the freshwater ecosystem, which contrasted with coastal wetlands in other reports. Both seasonal and periodic patterns in the variations were found only for HS and BB among the size fractions. It was also notable that the sources of HS were seasonally shifted from aquagenic origin in winter to pedogenic origin in summer. The correlations among the size fractions revealed that BB and LMW neutrals might be degradation products from HS and humic-like substances (HS+BB), respectively, while LMW acids, from LMW neutrals. Principle component analysis revealed that the humic-like substances and the aromaticity of DOM were associated with temperature, chlorophyll a, phosphorous, and rainfall, whereas the other fractions and the molecular weight of HS were primarily affected by solar irradiation. Significant correlations between DOM composition and some biotic factors further suggested that DOM may even affect the biological communities, which provides an insight into the potential coupling effects of biotic and abiotic factors on DOM molecular composition in freshwater wetlands.

  3. Coupling effects of abiotic and biotic factors on molecular composition of dissolved organic matter in a freshwater wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Choi, Ilhwan; Lee, Jung-Joon; Hur, Jin

    2016-02-15

    In this study, temporal and spatial variations in five defined molecular size fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were examined for a well preserved wetland (Upo Wetland) and its surrounding areas, and the influencing factors were explored with many biotic and abioic parameters. For each DOM sample, the five size fractions were determined by size-exclusion chromatography coupled with organic carbon detector (SEC-OCD). For 2-year long monthly monitoring, bio-polymers (BP), humic substances (HS), building blocks (BB), low molecular-weight (LMW) neutrals, and LMW acids displayed the median values of 264, 1884, 1070, 1090, and 11 μg-CL(-1), respectively, accounting for 6.2%, 41.7%, 24.5%, 26.4%, and 0.4% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The dominant presence of HS indicated that terrestrial input played important roles in DOM composition of the freshwater ecosystem, which contrasted with coastal wetlands in other reports. Both seasonal and periodic patterns in the variations were found only for HS and BB among the size fractions. It was also notable that the sources of HS were seasonally shifted from aquagenic origin in winter to pedogenic origin in summer. The correlations among the size fractions revealed that BB and LMW neutrals might be degradation products from HS and humic-like substances (HS+BB), respectively, while LMW acids, from LMW neutrals. Principle component analysis revealed that the humic-like substances and the aromaticity of DOM were associated with temperature, chlorophyll a, phosphorous, and rainfall, whereas the other fractions and the molecular weight of HS were primarily affected by solar irradiation. Significant correlations between DOM composition and some biotic factors further suggested that DOM may even affect the biological communities, which provides an insight into the potential coupling effects of biotic and abiotic factors on DOM molecular composition in freshwater wetlands. PMID:26674681

  4. Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hanqing; Guo, Yuanzheng

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was a literature study concerning composites. With composites becoming increasingly popular in various areas such as aerospace industry and construction, the research about composites has a significant meaning accordingly. This thesis was aim at introducing some basic information of polymer matrix composites including raw mate-rial, processing, testing, applications and recycling to make a rough understanding of this kind of material for readers. Polymeric matrices, fillers,...

  5. Molecular environment and thermal X-ray spectroscopy of the semicircular young composite supernova remnant 3C 396

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Yang; Yang, Ji; Koo, Bon-Chul; Zhou, Xin; Lu, Deng-Rong; Jeong, Il-Gyo; DeLaney, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the molecular gas environment of the semicircular composite supernova remnant (SNR) 3C 396 in multiwavelengths and performed a Chandra spatially resolved thermal X-ray spectroscopic study of this young SNR. With our CO millimeter observations toward 3C 396, we find that the molecular gas at V(LSR)~84km/s can better explain the multiwavelength properties of the remnant than the V(LSR)=67-72km/s molecular gas that is suggested by Lee et al. (2009). At 84km/s, the western boundary of the SNR is perfectly confined by the western molecular wall. The CO emission fades out from west to east, indicating that the eastern region is of low gas density. In particular, a finger/pillar-like molecular cloud (MC) intruding inside the SNR border is revealed in the southwest (SW). The shock interaction with the "pillar tip" can well explain the X-ray and radio enhancement in the SW and some infrared filaments there. The SNR-MC interaction is also favored by the relatively elevated 12CO J=2-1/J=1-0 line rat...

  6. Synthetic Spectra and Light Curves of Interacting Binaries and Exoplanets with Circumstellar Material: SHELLSPEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budaj, Ján

    2012-04-01

    Program SHELLSPEC is designed to calculate light-curves, spectra and images of interacting binaries and extrasolar planets immersed in a moving circumstellar environment which is optically thin. It solves simple radiative transfer along the line of sight in moving media. The assumptions include LTE and optional known state quantities and velocity fields in 3D. Optional (non)transparent objects such as a spot, disc, stream, jet, shell or stars may be defined (embedded) in 3D and their composite synthetic spectrum calculated. The Roche model can be used as a boundary condition for the radiative transfer. Recently, a new model of the reflection effect, dust and Mie scattering were incorporated into the code. ɛ Aurigae is one of the most mysterious objects on the sky. Prior modeling of its light-curve assumed a dark, inclined, disk of dust with a central hole to explain the light-curve with a sharp mid-eclipse brightening. Our model consists of two geometrically thick flared disks: an internal optically thick disk and an external optically thin disk which absorbs and scatters radiation. Shallow mid-eclipse brightening may result from eclipses by nearly edge-on flared (dusty or gaseous) disks. Mid-eclipse brightening may also be due to strong forward scattering and optical properties of the dust which can have an important effect on the light-curves. There are many similarities between interacting binary stars and transiting extrasolar planets. The reflection effect which is briefly reviewed is one of them. The exact Roche shape and temperature distributions over the surface of all currently known transiting extrasolar planets have been determined. In some cases (HAT-P-32b, WASP-12b, WASP-19b), departures from the spherical shape can reach 7-15%.

  7. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2010-01-01

    New Year is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. It is included in "From the Danish Seasons" (see under this title). See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You...

  8. Polarized Line Profiles as Diagnostics of Circumstellar Geometry in Type IIn Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, J L

    2006-01-01

    Supernovae of type IIn possess spectral signatures that indicate an intense interaction between the supernova ejecta and surrounding dense circumstellar material cast off by the star in pre-explosion mass-loss episodes. Studying this interaction can yield clues to the nature of Type IIn progenitors and their mass loss history. In particular, polarization spectra of Type IIn's show complex line polarization and position angle features that arise from a combination of geometrical and optical effects. I have constructed a Monte Carlo code that simulates the transfer of the H alpha line through circumstellar shells with various geometrical configurations and optical characteristics. The superposition of broad and narrow line components produced in different regions of the circumstellar environment and modified by electron and line scattering, hydrogen absorption, thermal emission, and geometrical and viewing angle effects gives rise to a variety of polarized line shapes in the model spectra. Comparison of these r...

  9. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE STRONGLY INTERACTING WITH THEIR CIRCUMSTELLAR MEDIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, Jeffrey M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Nugent, Peter E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gal-Yam, Avishay; Arcavi, Iair; Ben-Ami, Sagi [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Sullivan, Mark [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Howell, D. Andrew; Graham, Melissa L. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Clubb, Kelsey I. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Cao, Yi; Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Chornock, Ryan; Foley, Ryan J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Coil, Alison L. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Griffith, Christopher V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kasliwal, Mansi M., E-mail: jsilverman@astro.as.utexas.edu [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); and others

    2013-07-01

    Owing to their utility for measurements of cosmic acceleration, Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are perhaps the best-studied class of SNe, yet the progenitor systems of these explosions largely remain a mystery. A rare subclass of SNe Ia shows evidence of strong interaction with their circumstellar medium (CSM), and in particular, a hydrogen-rich CSM; we refer to them as SNe Ia-CSM. In the first systematic search for such systems, we have identified 16 SNe Ia-CSM, and here we present new spectra of 13 of them. Six SNe Ia-CSM have been well studied previously, three were previously known but are analyzed in depth for the first time here, and seven are new discoveries from the Palomar Transient Factory. The spectra of all SNe Ia-CSM are dominated by H{alpha} emission (with widths of {approx}2000 km s{sup -1}) and exhibit large H{alpha}/H{beta} intensity ratios (perhaps due to collisional excitation of hydrogen via the SN ejecta overtaking slower-moving CSM shells); moreover, they have an almost complete lack of He I emission. They also show possible evidence of dust formation through a decrease in the red wing of H{alpha} 75-100 days past maximum brightness, and nearly all SNe Ia-CSM exhibit strong Na I D absorption from the host galaxy. The absolute magnitudes (uncorrected for host-galaxy extinction) of SNe Ia-CSM are found to be -21.3 mag {<=} M{sub R} {<=} -19 mag, and they also seem to show ultraviolet emission at early times and strong infrared emission at late times (but no detected radio or X-ray emission). Finally, the host galaxies of SNe Ia-CSM are all late-type spirals similar to the Milky Way, or dwarf irregulars like the Large Magellanic Cloud, which implies that these objects come from a relatively young stellar population. This work represents the most detailed analysis of the SN Ia-CSM class to date.

  10. Chemical composition and molecular structure of polysaccharide-protein biopolymer from Durio zibethinus seed: extraction and purification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amid Bahareh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biological functions of natural biopolymers from plant sources depend on their chemical composition and molecular structure. In addition, the extraction and further processing conditions significantly influence the chemical and molecular structure of the plant biopolymer. The main objective of the present study was to characterize the chemical and molecular structure of a natural biopolymer from Durio zibethinus seed. A size-exclusion chromatography coupled to multi angle laser light-scattering (SEC-MALS was applied to analyze the molecular weight (Mw, number average molecular weight (Mn, and polydispersity index (Mw/Mn. Results The most abundant monosaccharide in the carbohydrate composition of durian seed gum were galactose (48.6-59.9%, glucose (37.1-45.1%, arabinose (0.58-3.41%, and xylose (0.3-3.21%. The predominant fatty acid of the lipid fraction from the durian seed gum were palmitic acid (C16:0, palmitoleic acid (C16:1, stearic acid (C18:0, oleic acid (C18:1, linoleic acid (C18:2, and linolenic acid (C18:2. The most abundant amino acids of durian seed gum were: leucine (30.9-37.3%, lysine (6.04-8.36%, aspartic acid (6.10-7.19%, glycine (6.07-7.42%, alanine (5.24-6.14%, glutamic acid (5.57-7.09%, valine (4.5-5.50%, proline (3.87-4.81%, serine (4.39-5.18%, threonine (3.44-6.50%, isoleucine (3.30-4.07%, and phenylalanine (3.11-9.04%. Conclusion The presence of essential amino acids in the chemical structure of durian seed gum reinforces its nutritional value.

  11. The molecular composition of impact-generated atmospheres on terrestrial planets during the post-accretion stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Hideharu; Sugita, Seiji

    2015-09-01

    Both geochemical measurements and theoretical calculations suggest that impact degassing from meteoritic materials after the completion of main phase of planetary accretion may have produced a large fraction of the early terrestrial atmospheres. However, the molecular compositions of such impact-generated atmospheres are not well constrained because the thermodynamic cooling path, which controls the chemical reactions in impact-induced vapor, has not been investigated extensively. In this study, we theoretically assess the chemical reactions within impact-induced vapor that cools adiabatically until the pressure equilibrates with the ambient atmosphere. The calculation results indicate that there are two primary controlling factors for the cooling path: impact entropy gain and atmospheric pressure. The former is mainly determined by both impact velocity and the presence/absence of an ocean. The degree of atmospheric effect depends on vapor plume size. For large impacts, atmospheric containment of vapor expansion is inefficient. However, the expansion of small vapor plumes is contained by the pre-existing atmosphere and their terminal molecular composition is controlled by this process. This is because whether a chemical reaction quenches during adiabatic cooling or during subsequent radiative cooling would depend on the cooling transition temperature, at which adiabatic expansion stops and radiative cooling takes over. For high atmospheric pressures and/or the vapor generated by high-velocity impacts, adiabatic expansion will cease at higher temperatures than typical quenching temperatures. Thus, the molecular composition of the vapor will not greatly depend on the impact velocity. The calculation results suggest that the molecular composition of the impact-induced vapor would vary widely (i.e., CH4/CO ratios) even if the compositions of the impactors are the same. More specifically, the impact-induced vapor generated by lower velocity impacts may be rich in CH4

  12. Amino Acid Composition, Molecular Weight Distribution and Gel Electrophoresis of Walnut (Juglans regia L. Proteins and Protein Fractionations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Mao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a by-product of oil production, walnut proteins are considered as an additional source of plant protein for human food. To make full use of the protein resource, a comprehensive understanding of composition and characteristics of walnut proteins are required. Walnut proteins have been fractionated and characterized in this study. Amino acid composition, molecular weight distribution and gel electrophoresis of walnut proteins and protein fractionations were analyzed. The proteins were sequentially separated into four fractions according to their solubility. Glutelin was the main component of the protein extract. The content of glutelin, albumin, globulin and prolamin was about 72.06%, 7.54%, 15.67% and 4.73% respectively. Glutelin, albumin and globulin have a balanced content of essential amino acids, except for methionine, with respect to the FAO pattern recommended for adults. SDS-PAGE patterns of albumin, globulin and glutelin showed several polypeptides with molecular weights 14.4 to 66.2 kDa. The pattern of walnut proteins in two-dimension electrophoresis (2-DE showed that the isoelectric point was mainly in the range of 4.8–6.8. The results of size exclusion chromatogram indicated molecular weight of the major components of walnut proteins were between 3.54 and 81.76 kDa.

  13. Amino acid composition, molecular weight distribution and gel electrophoresis of walnut (Juglans regia L.) proteins and protein fractionations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiaoying; Hua, Yufei; Chen, Guogang

    2014-01-01

    As a by-product of oil production, walnut proteins are considered as an additional source of plant protein for human food. To make full use of the protein resource, a comprehensive understanding of composition and characteristics of walnut proteins are required. Walnut proteins have been fractionated and characterized in this study. Amino acid composition, molecular weight distribution and gel electrophoresis of walnut proteins and protein fractionations were analyzed. The proteins were sequentially separated into four fractions according to their solubility. Glutelin was the main component of the protein extract. The content of glutelin, albumin, globulin and prolamin was about 72.06%, 7.54%, 15.67% and 4.73% respectively. Glutelin, albumin and globulin have a balanced content of essential amino acids, except for methionine, with respect to the FAO pattern recommended for adults. SDS-PAGE patterns of albumin, globulin and glutelin showed several polypeptides with molecular weights 14.4 to 66.2 kDa. The pattern of walnut proteins in two-dimension electrophoresis (2-DE) showed that the isoelectric point was mainly in the range of 4.8-6.8. The results of size exclusion chromatogram indicated molecular weight of the major components of walnut proteins were between 3.54 and 81.76 kDa.

  14. Plant Fibre: Molecular Structure and Biomechanical Properties, of a Complex Living Material, Influencing Its Deconstruction towards a Biobased Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Sorieul

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell walls form an organic complex composite material that fulfils various functions. The hierarchical structure of this material is generated from the integration of its elementary components. This review provides an overview of wood as a composite material followed by its deconstruction into fibres that can then be incorporated into biobased composites. Firstly, the fibres are defined, and their various origins are discussed. Then, the organisation of cell walls and their components are described. The emphasis is on the molecular interactions of the cellulose microfibrils, lignin and hemicelluloses in planta. Hemicelluloses of diverse species and cell walls are described. Details of their organisation in the primary cell wall are provided, as understanding of the role of hemicellulose has recently evolved and is likely to affect our perception and future study of their secondary cell wall homologs. The importance of the presence of water on wood mechanical properties is also discussed. These sections provide the basis for understanding the molecular arrangements and interactions of the components and how they influence changes in fibre properties once isolated. A range of pulping processes can be used to individualise wood fibres, but these can cause damage to the fibres. Therefore, issues relating to fibre production are discussed along with the dispersion of wood fibres during extrusion. The final section explores various ways to improve fibres obtained from wood.

  15. Reflection mass spectrometry technique for monitoring and controlling composition during molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Thomas M.; Hammons, B. Eugene; Tsao, Jeffrey Y.

    1992-01-01

    A method for on-line accurate monitoring and precise control of molecular beam epitaxial growth of Groups III-III-V or Groups III-V-V layers in an advanced semiconductor device incorporates reflection mass spectrometry. The reflection mass spectrometry is responsive to intentional perturbations in molecular fluxes incident on a substrate by accurately measuring the molecular fluxes reflected from the substrate. The reflected flux is extremely sensitive to the state of the growing surface and the measurements obtained enable control of newly forming surfaces that are dynamically changing as a result of growth.

  16. Compositional Analysis of the High Molecular Weight Ethylene Oxide Propylene Oxide Copolymer by MALDI Mass Spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Houshia, Orwa Jaber

    2012-01-01

    The composition of narrow distribution poly ethylene oxide-propylene oxide copolymer (Mw ~ 8700 Da) was studied using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The ethylene oxide-propylene oxide copolymer produced oligomers separated by 14 Da. The average resolving power over the entire spectrum was 28,000. Approximately 448 isotopically resolved peaks representing about 56 oligomers are identified. Although agreement between experimental and calculated isotopic distributions was strong, the compositional assignment was difficult. This is due to the large number of possible isobaric components. The purpose of this research is to resolve and study the composition of high mass copolymer such as ethylene oxide-propylene oxide.

  17. Design principles of molecular networks revealed by global comparisons and composite motifs

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Haiyuan; Xia, Yu; Trifonov, Valery; Gerstein, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Background Molecular networks are of current interest, particularly with the publication of many large-scale datasets. Previous analyses have focused on topologic structures of individual networks. Results Here, we present a global comparison of four basic molecular networks: regulatory, co-expression, interaction, and metabolic. In terms of overall topologic correlation - whether nearby proteins in one network are close in another - we find that the four are quite similar. However, focusing ...

  18. The stable isotopic composition of molecular hydrogen in the tropopause region probed by the CARIBIC aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Batenburg

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available More than 450 air samples that were collected in the upper troposphere – lower stratosphere (UTLS region by the CARIBIC aircraft (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container have been analyzed for molecular hydrogen (H2 mixing ratios (χ(H2 and H2 isotopic composition (deuterium content, δD.

    More than 120 of the analyzed samples contained air from the lowermost stratosphere (LMS. These show that χ(H2 does not vary appreciably with O3-derived height above the thermal tropopause (TP, whereas δD does increase with height. The isotope enrichment is caused by H2 production and destruction processes that enrich the stratospheric H2 reservoir in deuterium (D; the exact shapes of the profiles are mainly determined by mixing of stratospheric with tropospheric air. Tight negative correlations are found between δD and the mixing ratios of methane (χ(CH4 and nitrous oxide (χ(N2O, as a result of the relatively long lifetimes of these three species. The correlations are described by δD[‰]=−0.35 · χ(CH4[ppb]+768 and δD[‰]=−1.90· χ(N2O[ppb]+745. These correlations are similar to previously published results and likely hold globally for the LMS.

    Samples that were collected from the Indian subcontinent up to 40° N before, during and after the summer monsoon season show no significant seasonal change in χ(H2, but δD is up to 12.3‰ lower in the July, August and September monsoon samples. This δD decrease is correlated with the χ(CH4 increase in these samples. The significant correlation with χ(CH4 and the absence of a perceptible χ(H2 increase that accompanies the δD decrease indicates that microbial production of

  19. Acid hydrolysis and molecular density of phytoglycogen and liver glycogen helps understand the bonding in glycogen α (composite particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence O Powell

    Full Text Available Phytoglycogen (from certain mutant plants and animal glycogen are highly branched glucose polymers with similarities in structural features and molecular size range. Both appear to form composite α particles from smaller β particles. The molecular size distribution of liver glycogen is bimodal, with distinct α and β components, while that of phytoglycogen is monomodal. This study aims to enhance our understanding of the nature of the link between liver-glycogen β particles resulting in the formation of large α particles. It examines the time evolution of the size distribution of these molecules during acid hydrolysis, and the size dependence of the molecular density of both glucans. The monomodal distribution of phytoglycogen decreases uniformly in time with hydrolysis, while with glycogen, the large particles degrade significantly more quickly. The size dependence of the molecular density shows qualitatively different shapes for these two types of molecules. The data, combined with a quantitative model for the evolution of the distribution during degradation, suggest that the bonding between β into α particles is different between phytoglycogen and liver glycogen, with the formation of a glycosidic linkage for phytoglycogen and a covalent or strong non-covalent linkage, most probably involving a protein, for glycogen as most likely. This finding is of importance for diabetes, where α-particle structure is impaired.

  20. Acid Hydrolysis and Molecular Density of Phytoglycogen and Liver Glycogen Helps Understand the Bonding in Glycogen α (Composite) Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Prudence O.; Sullivan, Mitchell A.; Sheehy, Joshua J.; Schulz, Benjamin L.; Warren, Frederick J.; Gilbert, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Phytoglycogen (from certain mutant plants) and animal glycogen are highly branched glucose polymers with similarities in structural features and molecular size range. Both appear to form composite α particles from smaller β particles. The molecular size distribution of liver glycogen is bimodal, with distinct α and β components, while that of phytoglycogen is monomodal. This study aims to enhance our understanding of the nature of the link between liver-glycogen β particles resulting in the formation of large α particles. It examines the time evolution of the size distribution of these molecules during acid hydrolysis, and the size dependence of the molecular density of both glucans. The monomodal distribution of phytoglycogen decreases uniformly in time with hydrolysis, while with glycogen, the large particles degrade significantly more quickly. The size dependence of the molecular density shows qualitatively different shapes for these two types of molecules. The data, combined with a quantitative model for the evolution of the distribution during degradation, suggest that the bonding between β into α particles is different between phytoglycogen and liver glycogen, with the formation of a glycosidic linkage for phytoglycogen and a covalent or strong non-covalent linkage, most probably involving a protein, for glycogen as most likely. This finding is of importance for diabetes, where α-particle structure is impaired. PMID:25799321

  1. Molecular Paleohydrology: Interpreting the Hydrogen- Isotopic Composition of Lipid Biomarkers from Photosynthesizing Organisms

    OpenAIRE

    D. Sachse; Billault, I.; G. J. Bowen; CHIKARAISHI, Y.; Dawson, T E; Feakins, S.J.; Freeman, Katherine; Magill, C.R.; McInerney, F.A.; Meer, M.T.J. van der; Polissar, P.; Robins, R.J.; Sachs, J.P.; Schmidt, H.L.; Sessions, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen-isotopic abundances of lipid biomarkers are emerging as important proxies in the study of ancient environments and ecosystems. A decade ago, pioneering studies made use of new analytical methods and demonstrated that the hydrogen-isotopic composition of individual lipids from aquatic and terrestrial organisms can be related to the composition of their growth (i.e., environmental) water. Subsequently, compound-specific deuterium/hydrogen (D/H) ratios of sedimentary biomarkers have bee...

  2. Application of a Neural Network Model for Prediction of Wear Properties of Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Ibrahim Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the effect of applied load, sliding speed, and type and weight percentages of reinforcements on the wear properties of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE was theoretically studied. The extensive experimental results were taken from literature and modeled with artificial neural network (ANN. The feed forward (FF back-propagation (BP neural network (NN was used to predict the dry sliding wear behavior of UHMWPE composites. Eleven input vectors were used in the construction of the proposed NN. The carbon nanotube (CNT, carbon fiber (CF, graphene oxide (GO, and wollastonite additives are the main input parameters and the volume loss is the output parameter for the developed NN. It was observed that the sliding speed and applied load have a stronger effect on the volume loss of UHMWPE composites in comparison to other input parameters. The proper condition for achieving the desired wear behaviors of UHMWPE by tailoring the weight percentage and reinforcement particle size and composition was presented. The proposed NN model and the derived explicit form of mathematical formulation show good agreement with test results and can be used to predict the volume loss of UHMWPE composites.

  3. Multi-walled carbon nanotube reinforced ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Shilun

    This thesis is concerned with the development of high performance ultrahigh molecular polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers reinforced using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). A novel process has been developed, whereby, MWCNT/UHMWPE nanocomposite fibers with Young's modulus up to 137 GPa and tensile strength of ˜4.2 GPa has been produced. This fiber possesses the best specific mechanical properties amongst all current commercial high performance fibers. Systematic investigations were carried out to elucidate the mechanisms of reinforcement. Firstly, systematical experimental studies were carried out to investigate the CNT reinforcing effect on nanocomposite fibers prepared with different PE molecular orientations. The overall effect can be classified into three regions. At low molecular orientation levels, the CNTs act to toughen and strengthen the nanocomposites. At the intermediate molecular orientations, the CNTs have negligible effects on the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites. At very high molecular orientations, the CNTs act to mainly stiffen and strengthen the nanocomposite. Secondly, systematic investigations were carried out to investigate the structure evolution as well as the load transfer between the embedded CNTs and that of the matrix PE. Thermal and morphological studies demonstrate that CNTs act as effective nucleation sites for PE crystal growth. The load transfer mechanisms in both the low and high molecular orientation fibers are similar. Major differences were related to CNT alignment effects. The highly oriented fibers show CNT alignment effect in the initial elastic regime, whereas the CNTs in the fibers of low molecular orientations show no appreciable alignment in the elastic regime. Finally, based on the experimental observations, a mechanistic model has been proposed to elucidate the reinforcement mechanisms. This model proposes that there exists an absorption layer surrounding CNTs. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  4. Daughter Fragmentation is Unlikely To Occur in Self-Gravitating Circumstellar Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Forgan, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    Circumstellar discs are thought to be self-gravitating at very early times. If the disc is relatively cool, extended and accreting sufficiently rapidly, it can fragment into bound objects of order a few Jupiter masses and upwards. Given that the fragment's initial angular momentum is non-zero, and it will continue to accrete angular momentum from the surrounding circumstellar disc, we should expect that the fragment will also possess a relatively massive disc at early times. Therefore, we can ask: is disc fragmentation a hierarchical process? Or, can a disc fragment go on to produce its own self-gravitating circumfragmentary disc that produces daughter fragments? We investigate this using a set of nested 1D self-gravitating disc models. We calculate the radial structure of a marginally stable, self-gravitating circumstellar disc, and compute its propensity to fragmentation. We use this data to construct the local fragment properties at this radius. For each circumstellar disc model that results in fragmentati...

  5. Attenuation of super-soft X-ray sources by circumstellar material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel; Gilfanov, Marat

    2015-01-01

    of the circumbinary material photo-ionised by the radiation of the central source. Our results show that the circumstellar mass-loss rates required for obcuration of super-soft X-ray sources is about an order of magnitude larger than those reported in earlier studies, for comparable model parameters. While this does...

  6. Molecular design of strong single-wall carbon nanotube/polyelectrolyte multilayer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedov, Arif A.; Kotov, Nicholas A.; Prato, Maurizio; Guldi, Dirk M.; Wicksted, James P.; Hirsch, Andreas

    2002-11-01

    The mechanical failure of hybrid materials made from polymers and single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) is primarily attributed to poor matrix-SWNT connectivity and severe phase segregation. Both problems can be successfully mitigated when the SWNT composite is made following the protocol of layer-by-layer assembly. This deposition technique prevents phase segregation of the polymer/SWNT binary system, and after subsequent crosslinking, the nanometre-scale uniform composite with SWNT loading as high as 50 wt% can be obtained. The free-standing SWNT/polyelectrolyte membranes delaminated from the substrate were found to be exceptionally strong with a tensile strength approaching that of hard ceramics. Because of the lightweight nature of SWNT composites, the prepared free-standing membranes can serve as components for a variety of long-lifetime devices.

  7. Global scale observations of atmospheric molecular hydrogen and its stable isotopic composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    With average mixing ratios (χ) around 550 ppb (nmole/mole), molecular hydrogen (H2) is the most abundant reduced gas in our atmosphere after methane (CH4), but considerably less studied. H2 is also a promising energy carrier that might replace fossil fuels in vehicles with great sustainability advan

  8. Photoswitchable molecular dipole antennas with tailored coherent coupling in glassy composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbahri, Mady; Zillohu, Ahnaf Usman; Gothe, Bastian;

    2015-01-01

    . We also introduce the concept of 'tailored molecular photonic coupling' while highlighting the role of interferences for the design of optically active media by adjusting the photonic response of the medium with the real and imaginary refractive index of photoswitchable molecules in the 'ON' state...

  9. Molecular Paleohydrology: Interpreting the Hydrogen- Isotopic Composition of Lipid Biomarkers from Photosynthesizing Organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sachse, D.; Billault, I.; Bowen, G.J.; Chikaraishi, Y.; Dawson, T.E.; Feakins, S.J.; Freeman, Katherine; Magill, C.R.; McInerney, F.A.; van der Meer, M.T.J.; Polissar, P.; Robins, R.J.; Sachs, J.P.; Schmidt, H.L.; Sessions, A.L.; White, J.W.C.; West, J.B.; Kahmen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen-isotopic abundances of lipid biomarkers are emerging as important proxies in the study of ancient environments and ecosystems. A decade ago, pioneering studies made use of new analytical methods and demonstrated that the hydrogen-isotopic composition of individual lipids from aquatic and te

  10. Tracking changes in the optical properties and molecular composition of dissolved organic matter during drinking water production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavonen, E E; Kothawala, D N; Tranvik, L J; Gonsior, M; Schmitt-Kopplin, P; Köhler, S J

    2015-11-15

    Absorbance, 3D fluorescence and ultrahigh resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FT-ICR-MS) were used to explain patterns in the removal of chromophoric and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (CDOM and FDOM) at the molecular level during drinking water production at four large drinking water treatment plants in Sweden. When dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal was low, shifts in the dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition could not be detected with commonly used DOC-normalized parameters (e.g. specific UV254 absorbance - SUVA), but was clearly observed by using differential absorbance and fluorescence or ESI-FT-ICR-MS. In addition, we took a novel approach by identifying how optical parameters were correlated to the elemental composition of DOM by using rank correlation to connect optical properties to chemical formulas assigned to mass peaks from FT-ICR-MS analyses. Coagulation treatment selectively removed FDOM at longer emission wavelengths (450-600 nm), which significantly correlated with chemical formulas containing oxidized carbon (average carbon oxidation state ≥ 0), low hydrogen to carbon ratios (H/C: average ± SD = 0.83 ± 0.13), and abundant oxygen-containing functional groups (O/C = 0.62 ± 0.10). Slow sand filtration was less efficient in removing DOM, yet selectively targeted FDOM at shorter emission wavelengths (between 300 and 450 nm), which commonly represents algal rather than terrestrial sources. This shorter wavelength FDOM correlated with chemical formulas containing reduced carbon (average carbon oxidation state ≤ 0), with relatively few carbon-carbon double bonds (H/C = 1.32 ± 0.16) and less oxygen per carbon (O/C = 0.43 ± 0.10) than those removed during coagulation. By coupling optical approaches with FT-ICR-MS to characterize DOM, we were for the first time able to confirm the molecular composition of absorbing and fluorescing DOM selectively targeted during drinking

  11. Biodegradability and Molecular Composition of Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in Urban Stormwater Runoff and Outflow Water from a Stormwater Retention Pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Mary G; Toor, Gurpal S

    2016-04-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) can be a significant part of the reactive N in aquatic ecosystems and can accelerate eutrophication and harmful algal blooms. A bioassay method was coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) to determine the biodegradability and molecular composition of DON in the urban stormwater runoff and outflow water from an urban stormwater retention pond. The biodegradability of DON increased from 10% in the stormwater runoff to 40% in the pond outflow water and DON was less aromatic and had lower overall molecular weight in the pond outflow water than in the stormwater runoff. More than 1227 N-bearing organic formulas were identified with FT-ICR-MS in the stormwater runoff and pond outflow water, which were only 13% different in runoff and outflow water. These molecular formulas represented a wide range of biomolecules such as lipids, proteins, amino sugars, lignins, and tannins in DON from runoff and pond outflow water. This work implies that the urban infrastructure (i.e., stormwater retention ponds) has the potential to influence biogeochemical processes in downstream water bodies because retention ponds are often a junction between the natural and the built environment.

  12. Lipid Classes, Fatty Acid Composition, and Glycerolipid Molecular Species of the Red Alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla, a Prostaglandin-Producing Seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Masaki; Ishimaru, Takashi; Itabashi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla is a well-known producer of prostaglandins, such as PGE2 and PGF2α. In this study, the characteristics of glycerolipids as substrates of prostaglandin production were clarified, and the lipid classes, fatty acid composition, and glycerolipid molecular species were investigated in detail. The major lipid classes were monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), as well as phosphatidylcholine (PC), which accounted for 43.0% of the total lipid profile. Arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), a prostaglandin precursor, and palmitic acid (16:0) were the predominant fatty acids in the total lipid profile. The 20:4n-6 content was significantly high in MGDG and PC (more than 60%), and the 16:0 content was significantly high in DGDG and SQDG (more than 50%). Chiral-phase high-performance liquid chromatography determined that fatty acids were esterified at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions of those lipids. The main glycerolipid molecular species were 20:4n-6/20:4n-6 (sn-1/sn-2) for MGDG (56.5%) and PC (40.0%), and 20:4n-6/16:0 for DGDG (75.4%) and SQDG (58.4%). Thus, it was considered that the glycerolipid molecular species containing one or two 20:4n-6 were the major substrates for prostaglandin production in G. vermiculophylla.

  13. A HIFI view on circumstellar H2O in M-type AGB stars: radiative transfer, velocity profiles, and H2O line cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Maercker, M; Olofsson, H; De Beck, E; Justtanont, K; Lombaert, R; Royer, P

    2016-01-01

    We aim to constrain the temperature and velocity structures, and H2O abundances in the winds of a sample of M-type AGB stars. We further aim to determine the effect of H2O line cooling on the energy balance in the inner circumstellar envelope. We use two radiative-transfer codes to model molecular emission lines of CO and H2O towards four M-type AGB stars. We focus on spectrally resolved observations of CO and H2O from HIFI. The observations are complemented by ground-based CO observations, and spectrally unresolved CO and H2O observations with PAC. The observed line profiles constrain the velocity structure throughout the circumstellar envelopes (CSEs), while the CO intensities constrain the temperature structure in the CSEs. The H2O observations constrain the o-H2O and p-H2O abundances relative to H2. Finally, the radiative-transfer modelling allows to solve the energy balance in the CSE, in principle including also H2O line cooling. The fits to the line profiles only set moderate constraints on the velocit...

  14. Comparative Spectra of Oxygen-Rich vs. Carbon-Rich Circumstellar Shells: VY Canis Majoris and IRC+10216 at 215-285 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Tenenbaum, E D; Milam, S N; Woolf, N J; Ziurys, L M

    2010-01-01

    A sensitive (1{\\sigma} rms at 1 MHz resolution ~3 mK) 1 mm spectral line survey (214.5-285.5 GHz) of VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa) and IRC+10216 has been conducted to compare the chemistries of oxygen and carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes. This study was carried out using the Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) of the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO) with a new ALMA-type receiver. This survey is the first to chemically characterize an O-rich circumstellar shell at millimeter wavelengths. In VY CMa, 128 emission features were detected arising from 18 different molecules, and in IRC+10216, 720 lines were observed, assigned to 32 different species. The 1 mm spectrum of VY CMa is dominated by SO2 and SiS; in IRC +10216, C4H and SiC2 are the most recurrent species. Ten molecules were common to both sources: CO, SiS, SiO, CS, CN, HCN, HNC, NaCl, PN, and HCO+. Sulfur plays an important role in VY CMa, but saturated/unsaturated carbon dominates the molecular content of IRC+10216, producing CH2NH, for example. Although the mol...

  15. Mechanical, Rheological, and Bioactivity Properties of Ultra High-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene Bioactive Composites Containing Polyethylene Glycol and Hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazatusziha Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene/high-density polyethylene (UHMWPE/HDPE blends prepared using polyethylene glycol PEG as the processing aid and hydroxyapatite (HA as the reinforcing filler were found to be highly processable using conventional melt blending technique. It was demonstrated that PEG reduced the melt viscosity of UHMWPE/HDPE blend significantly, thus improving the extrudability. The mechanical and bioactive properties were improved with incorporation of HA. Inclusion of HA from 10 to 50 phr resulted in a progressive increase in flexural strength and modulus of the composites. The strength increment is due to the improvement on surface contact between the irregular shape of HA and polymer matrix by formation of mechanical interlock. The HA particles were homogenously distributed even at higher percentage showed improvement in wetting ability between the polymer matrix and HA. The inclusion of HA enhanced the bioactivity properties of the composite by the formation of calcium phosphate (Ca-P precipitates on the composite surface as proven from SEM and XRD analysis.

  16. Effects of nitrogen composition on fermentation performance of brewer's yeast and the absorption of peptides with different molecular weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Fen; Zhao, Haifeng; Lei, Hongjie; Zhao, Mouming

    2013-11-01

    Four kinds of worts with different nitrogen compositions were used to examine their effects on fermentation performance of brewer's yeast. The absorption pattern of peptides with different molecular weights (Mw) in yeast cells during wort fermentation was also investigated. Results showed that both the nitrogen composition and level had significant impacts on the yeast biomass accumulation, ethanol production, and free amino nitrogen and sugars consumption rates. Worts supplemented with wheat gluten hydrolysates increased 11.5% of the biomass, 5.9% of fermentability, and 0.6% of ethanol content and decreased 25.6% of residual sugar content during wort fermentation. Moreover, yeast cells assimilated peptides with various Mw differently during fermentation. Peptides with Mw below 1 kDa decreased quickly, and the rate of assimilation was more than 50% at the end of fermentation, while those with Mw above 10 kDa almost could not be assimilated by yeast. All these results further indicated that the level and composition of wort nitrogen had significant impacts on the growth and fermentation performances of brewer's yeast, and peptides with Mw below 1 kDa were one of preferred nitrogen sources for brewer's yeast. PMID:23955296

  17. Herschel/HIFI observations of the circumstellar ammonia lines in IRC+10216

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M. R.; He, J. H.; Szczerba, R.; Bujarrabal, V.; Alcolea, J.; Cernicharo, J.; Decin, L.; Justtanont, K.; Teyssier, D.; Menten, K. M.; Neufeld, D. A.; Olofsson, H.; Planesas, P.; Marston, A. P.; Sobolev, A. M.; de Koter, A.; Schöier, F. L.

    2016-08-01

    Context. A discrepancy exists between the abundance of ammonia (NH3) derived previously for the circumstellar envelope (CSE) of IRC+10216 from far-IR submillimeter rotational lines and that inferred from radio inversion or mid-infrared (MIR) absorption transitions. Aims: To address the discrepancy described above, new high-resolution far-infrared (FIR) observations of both ortho- and para-NH3 transitions toward IRC+10216 were obtained with Herschel, with the goal of determining the ammonia abundance and constraining the distribution of NH3 in the envelope of IRC+10216. Methods: We used the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI) on board Herschel to observe all rotational transitions up to the J = 3 level (three ortho- and six para-NH3 lines). We conducted non-LTE multilevel radiative transfer modelling, including the effects of near-infrared (NIR) radiative pumping through vibrational transitions. The computed emission line profiles are compared with the new HIFI data, the radio inversion transitions, and the MIR absorption lines in the ν2 band taken from the literature. Results: We found that NIR pumping is of key importance for understanding the excitation of rotational levels of NH3. The derived NH3 abundances relative to molecular hydrogen were (2.8 ± 0.5) × 10-8 for ortho-NH3 and for para-NH3, consistent with an ortho/para ratio of 1. These values are in a rough agreement with abundances derived from the inversion transitions, as well as with the total abundance of NH3 inferred from the MIR absorption lines. To explain the observed rotational transitions, ammonia must be formed near to the central star at a radius close to the end of the wind acceleration region, but no larger than about 20 stellar radii (1σ confidence level). Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. HIFI is the Herschel Heterodyne Instrument for the Far

  18. Exploring the circumstellar environment of the young eruptive star V2492 Cygni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kóspál, Á.; Ábrahám, P.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Arévalo Morales, M. J.; Balog, Z.; Carnerero, M. I.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Farkas, A.; Henning, Th.; Kelemen, J.; Kovács, T.; Kun, M.; Marton, G.; Mészáros, Sz.; Moór, A.; Pál, A.; Sárneczky, K.; Szakáts, R.; Szalai, N.; Szing, A.; Tóth, I.; Turner, N. J.; Vida, K.

    2013-03-01

    Context. V2492 Cyg is a young eruptive star that went into outburst in 2010. The near-infrared color changes observed since the outburst peak suggest that the source belongs to a newly defined sub-class of young eruptive stars, where time-dependent accretion and variable line-of-sight extinction play a combined role in the flux changes. Aims: In order to learn about the origin of the light variations and to explore the circumstellar and interstellar environment of V2492 Cyg, we monitored the source at ten different wavelengths, between 0.55 μm and 2.2 μm from the ground and between 3.6 μm and 160 μm from space. Methods: We analyze the light curves and study the color-color diagrams via comparison with the standard reddening path. We examine the structure of the molecular cloud hosting V2492 Cyg by computing temperature and optical depth maps from the far-infrared data. Results: We find that the shapes of the light curves at different wavelengths are strictly self-similar and that the observed variability is related to a single physical process, most likely variable extinction. We suggest that the central source is episodically occulted by a dense dust cloud in the inner disk and, based on the invariability of the far-infrared fluxes, we propose that it is a long-lived rather than a transient structure. In some respects, V2492 Cyg can be regarded as a young, embedded analog of UX Orionis-type stars. Conclusions: The example of V2492 Cyg demonstrates that the light variations of young eruptive stars are not exclusively related to changing accretion. The variability provided information on an azimuthally asymmetric structural element in the inner disk. Such an asymmetric density distribution in the terrestrial zone may also have consequences for the initial conditions of planet formation. This work is based on observations made with the Herschel Space Observatory and with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments

  19. Depth-dependent molecular composition and photoreactivity of dissolved organic matter in a Boreal Lake under winter and summer conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gonsior

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Transformations of dissolved organic matter (DOM in boreal lakes lead to large greenhouse gas emissions as well as substantial carbon storage in sediments. Using novel molecular characterization approaches and photochemical degradation experiments we studied how seasonal patterns in water column stratification affected the DOM in a Swedish lake under late winter and early summer conditions. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations were consistently higher above the sediment when compared to surface waters. Solely photobleaching could not explain this difference in DOC because the lake was covered by 40 cm thick ice during late winter sampling and still showed the same DOC trend. The differences in the molecular diversity between surface water DOM in winter and summer were consistent with summertime photobleaching/decarboxylation reactions and a possible bacterial consumption of photo-products. Additional photodegradation experiments using simulated sunlight showed a production of highly oxidized organic molecules and low molecular weight compounds in all late winter samples and also in the deep water sample in summer. In the surface summer DOM sample, few such molecules were produced during the photodegradation experiments confirming that DOM was already photobleached prior to the experiments. This study suggests that photobleaching, and therefore also the ice cover during winter plays a central role in surface DOM structural dynamics with important differences in the molecular composition of DOM between surface and deep boreal lake waters. The release of DOC from boreal lake sediments likely also contribute to this pattern. Photochemical degradation of DOM may be more extensive following ice-out and water column turnover when non-light exposed and thereby photosensitive DOM is photo-mineralized. Hence, the yearly DOM photo-mineralization may be greater than inferred from studies of recently light exposed DOM.

  20. The HD 163296 Circumstellar Disk in Scattered Light: Evidence of Time-Variable Self-Shadowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, John P.; Clampin, Mark; Grady, Carol A.; Ardila, David R.; Ford, Holland C.; Golimowski, David A.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Krist, John E.

    2008-01-01

    We present the first multi-color view of the scattered light disk of the Herbig Ae star HD 163296, based on coronagraphic observations from the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). Radial profile fits of the surface brightness along the disk's semi-major axis indicates that the disk is not continuously flared, and extends to approx.540 AU. The disk's color (V-I)=1.1 at a radial distance of 3.5" is redder than the observed stellar color (V-I)=0.15. This red disk color might be indicative of either an evolution in the grain size distribution (i.e. grain growth) and/or composition, both of which would be consistent with the observed non-flared geometry of the outer disk. We also identify a single ansa morphological structure in our F435W ACS data, which is absent from earlier epoch F606W and F814W ACS data, but corresponds to one of the two ansa observed in archival HST STIS coronagraphic data. Following transformation to similar band-passes, we find that the scattered light disk of HD 163296 is 1 mag arcsec(sup -2) fainter at 3.5" in the STIS data than in the ACS data. Moreover, variations are seen in (i) the visibility of the ansa(e) structures, in (ii) the relative surface brightness of the ansa(e) structures, and in (iii) the (known) intrinsic polarization of the system. These results indicate that the scattered light from the HD 163296 disk is variable. We speculate that the inner disk wall, which Sitko et al. suggests has a variable scale height as diagnosed by near-IR SED variability, induces variable self-shadowing of the outer disk. We further speculate that the observed surface brightness variability of the ansa(e) structures may indicate that the inner disk wall is azimuthally asymmetric. Subject headings: circumstellar matter - stars: individual (HD 163296) - planetary systems: formation - planetary systems: protoplanetary disks

  1. A description of the mechanical behavior of composite solid propellants based on molecular theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landel, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    Both the investigation and the representation of the stress-strain response (including rupture) of gum and filled elastomers can be based on a simple functional statement. Internally consistent experiments are used to sort out the effects of time, temperature, strain and crosslink density on gum rubbers. All effects are readily correlated and shown to be essentially independent of the elastomer when considered in terms of non-dimensionalized stress, strain and time. A semiquantitative molecular theory is developed to explain this result. The introduction of fillers modifies the response, but, guided by the framework thus provided, their effects can be readily accounted for.

  2. Small SiC grains and a nitride grain of circumstellar origin from the Murchison meteorite: implications for stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, P; Strebel, R; Eberhardt, P; Amari, S; Lewis, R S

    1996-03-01

    We report the results of SIMS isotopic analyses of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and silicon made on 849 small (approximately 1 micrometer) individual silicon carbide grains from the Murchison meteorite. The isotopic compositions of the major elements carbon and silicon of most grains (mainstream) are similar to those observed in larger grain studies suggesting an AGB star origin of these grains. In contrast, the trace element nitrogen shows a clear dependency on grain size. 14N/15N ratios increase with decreasing grain size, suggesting different stellar sources for grains of different size. Typically observed 14N/15N ratios in the small grains of this study are approximately 2700, clearly larger than the values expected from model calculations of AGB stars. In addition to the three dredge-up episodes characteristic for the evolution of AGB stars, extra-mixing of CNO-processed matter in low mass AGB stars appears to be a promising possibility in order to explain the high 14N/15N ratios of the small circumstellar SiC grains. A small fraction of grains shows a silicon isotopic signature not observed in larger circumstellar SiC grains from Murchison. Their stellar origin is still uncertain. The minor type A, B, Y, and X grains were found to be present at a level of a percent, which is similar to their abundance in the larger-grain SiC separates from Murchison. Oxygen isotopic compositions are normal within the experimental uncertainties of several 10%, indicating that oxygen of stellar origin is rare or even absent in the SiC grains. We conclude that most of the oxygen is a contaminant which was introduced into the SiC grains after their formation, e.g., during sample processing in the laboratory. We identified a nitride grain, most likely Si3N4 with little carbon, with highly anomalous isotopic compositions (12C/13C = 157 +/- 33, 14N/15N = 18 +/- 1, delta 29 Si = -43 +/- 56%, delta 30 Si = -271 +/- 50%). The isotopic patterns of carbon, nitrogen, and silicon resemble

  3. INTERFACIAL MOLECULAR DESIGN OF A RIGID- PARTICLE TOUGHENED POLYAMIDE 6 COMPOSITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Yuchun; YU Zhongzhen; FENG Yupeng; FANG Xiaoping

    1993-01-01

    The effects of interfacial modifier on the mechanical properties of kaolin- filled polyamide 6 (PA6) have been studied. The interfacial interaction between polyamide 6 and kaolin has been characterized by means of infrared spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the role of the interfacial modifier lies in forming an elastic interlayer with good adhesion between kaolin and PA 6. A composite with high impact strength, high tensile strength and high elastic modulus can be obtained by inserting the elastic interfacial modifier into the rigid-particle-filled polymer system.

  4. Statistical analysis of the processes controlling choline and ethanolamine glycerophospholipid molecular species composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Zarringhalam

    Full Text Available The regulation and maintenance of the cellular lipidome through biosynthetic, remodeling, and catabolic mechanisms are critical for biological homeostasis during development, health and disease. These complex mechanisms control the architectures of lipid molecular species, which have diverse yet highly regulated fatty acid chains at both the sn1 and sn2 positions. Phosphatidylcholine (PC and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE serve as the predominant biophysical scaffolds in membranes, acting as reservoirs for potent lipid signals and regulating numerous enzymatic processes. Here we report the first rigorous computational dissection of the mechanisms influencing PC and PE molecular architectures from high-throughput shotgun lipidomic data. Using novel statistical approaches, we have analyzed multidimensional mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomic data from developmental mouse heart and mature mouse heart, lung, brain, and liver tissues. We show that in PC and PE, sn1 and sn2 positions are largely independent, though for low abundance species regulatory processes may interact with both the sn1 and sn2 chain simultaneously, leading to cooperative effects. Chains with similar biochemical properties appear to be remodeled similarly. We also see that sn2 positions are more regulated than sn1, and that PC exhibits stronger cooperative effects than PE. A key aspect of our work is a novel statistically rigorous approach to determine cooperativity based on a modified Fisher's exact test using Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling. This computational approach provides a novel tool for developing mechanistic insight into lipidomic regulation.

  5. Molecular dynamics study of mechanical properties of carbon nanotube reinforced aluminum composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ashish Kumar; Mokhalingam, A.; Singh, Akhileshwar; Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-05-01

    Atomistic simulations were conducted to estimate the effect of the carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforcement on the mechanical behavior of CNT-reinforced aluminum (Al) nanocomposite. The periodic system of CNT-Al nanocomposite was built and simulated using molecular dynamics (MD) software LAMMPS (Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator). The mechanical properties of the nanocomposite were investigated by the application of uniaxial load on one end of the representative volume element (RVE) and fixing the other end. The interactions between the atoms of Al were modeled using embedded atom method (EAM) potentials, whereas Adaptive Intermolecular Reactive Empirical Bond Order (AIREBO) potential was used for the interactions among carbon atoms and these pair potentials are coupled with the Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential. The results show that the incorporation of CNT into the Al matrix can increase the Young's modulus of the nanocomposite substantially. In the present case, i.e. for approximately 9 with % reinforcement of CNT can increase the axial Young's modulus of the Al matrix up to 77 % as compared to pure Al.

  6. Molecular anions in circumstellar envelopes, interstellar clouds and planetary atmospheres: quantum dynamics of formation and evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Carelli, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, it is a well known fact that most of the matter in our Solar System, in our Galaxy and, probably, within the whole Universe, exists in the form of ionized particles. For decades astronomers and astrophysicists believed that only positively charged ions were worthy of relevance in drawing the networks for possible chemical reactions in the interstellar medium, as well as in modeling the physical conditions in most of astrophysical environments. Thus, negative ions (and especially mol...

  7. Preliminary molecular analysis of bacterial composition in periapical lesions with primary endodontic infections of deciduous teeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Jia-jian; YANG Qiu-bo; ZHAO Huan-ying; CAI Shuang; ZHOU Yan; SUN Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Background The bacterial composition of periapical lesions in deciduous teeth has not been well documented.This study was designed to explore the bacterial compositions,especially the dominant bacteria in periapical lesions using 16S rRNA sequencing.Methods Tissue samples were collected from 11 periapical lesions in deciduous teeth with primary endodontic infections.DNA was extracted from each sample and analyzed using 16S rRNA cloning and sequencing for the identification of bacteria.Results All DNA samples were positive for 16S rRNA gene PCR.One hundred and fifty-one phylotypes from 810 clones were identified to eight phyla,and each sample contained an average of 25.9 phylotypes.In addition,59 phylotypes were detected in more than two samples,and Fusobacterium (F.) nucleatum (8/11),Dialister (D.) invisus (8/11),Campylobacter (C.) gracilis (7/11),Escherichia (E.) coil DH1 (6/11),Aggregatibacter (A.) segnis (6/11),and Streptococcus (S.) mitis (6/11) were the most prevalent species.Furthermore,45 as-yet-uncultivated phylotypes were also identified.Conclusions Chronic periapical lesions in deciduous teeth contained polymicrobial infections.F.nucleatum,D.invisus,C.gracilis,E.coli DH1,A.segnis,and S.mitis were the most prevalent species detected by 16S rRNA sequencing.

  8. The molecular composition of the planet-forming regions of protoplanetary disks across the luminosity regime

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Catherine; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2015-01-01

    (Abridged) Near- to mid-IR observations of protoplanetary disks show that the inner regions (<10AU) are rich in small organic volatiles (e.g., C2H2 and HCN). Trends in the data suggest that disks around cooler stars (~3000K) are potentially more carbon- and molecule-rich than their hotter counterparts. Our aims are to explore the composition of the planet-forming region of disks around stars from M dwarf to Herbig Ae and compare with the observed trends. Models of the disk physical structure are coupled with a gas-grain chemical network to map the abundances in the planet-forming zone. N2 self shielding, X-ray-induced chemistry, and initial abundances, are investigated. The composition in the 'observable' atmosphere is compared with that in the midplane where the planet-building reservoir resides. M dwarf disk atmospheres are relatively more molecule rich than those for T Tauri or Herbig Ae disks. The weak far-UV flux helps retain this complexity which is enhanced by X-ray-induced ion-molecule chemistry. N...

  9. Changes in molecular structure and properties of irradiated polymers of different compositions - ESR and NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations of molecular structural changes in polymers during exposure to high energy radiation is the long term interest of the Polymer Materials and Radiation Group at the University of Queensland. Recently, the group had looked at a range of polymers including natural and synthetic rubbers, methacrylates and polyesters. The objective of the work has been to investigate the relationships between polymer structure and sensitivity towards high energy radiation, including gamma radiation. This report will focus on the Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies of the effects of gamma irradiation on these polymers. Other methods such as Gas Chromatography (GC), Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), Fourier Transformed Infra Red (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) have also been used as these methods combine with ESR and NMR, to provide a more complete picture of the mechanism of the structural changes. (author)

  10. Influence of molding pressure on blunt trauma effect and ballistic properties of unidirectional and bidirectional composites based on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Dimeski, Dimko; Spaseska, Dijana; Smileski, Rose

    2003-01-01

    The influence of molding pressure on blunt traume effect and ballistic strength of unidirectional and bidirectional composites based on UHMWPE (Ultra Hight Molecular Weight Polyethylene) fibers is investigated. Two types of unidirectional and one type of bidirectional composites molded at 20, 60 and 100 bar were tested on their ballistic strength and their blunt traume depth and area were measured. It was found out that by increasing the molding pressure the blunt trauma effect was decreas...

  11. Molecular distributions and compound-specific stable carbon isotopic compositions of lipids in wintertime aerosols from Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lujie; Fu, Pingqing; He, Yue; Hou, Juzhi; Chen, Jing; Pavuluri, Chandra Mouli; Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa

    2016-01-01

    Molecular distributions and stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ(13)C) of n-alkanes, fatty acids and n-alcohols were investigated in urban aerosols from Beijing, northern China to better understand the sources and long-range atmospheric transport of terrestrial organic matter during polluted and clear days in winter. n-Alkanes (C19-C36), fatty acids (C8-C32) and n-alcohols (C16-C32) detected in Beijing aerosols are characterized by the predominance of C23, C16 and C28, respectively. Carbon preference index (CPI) values of n-alkanes, the ratios of the sum of odd-numbered n-alkanes to the sum of even-numbered n-alkanes, are close to 1, indicating a heavy influence of fossil fuel combustion. Relatively higher ratios of C(18:0+16:0)/C(18:n+16:1) (fatty acids) on clear days than polluted days indicate that long-distance transport and/or photochemical aging are more significant during clear days. δ(13)C values of n-alkanes and low molecular weight fatty acids (C16:0, C18:0) ranged from -34.1 to -24.7% and -26.9 to -24.6%, respectively, which are generally heavier on polluted days than those on clear days. Such a wide range suggests that atmospheric lipids in Beijing aerosols originate from multiple sources and encounter complicated atmospheric processes during long-range transport in North China. PMID:27270951

  12. Properties of the H-alpha-emitting Circumstellar Regions of Be Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Tycner, C; Hajian, A R; Armstrong, J T; Benson, J A; Gilbreath, G C; Hutter, D J; Pauls, T A; White, N M; Tycner, Christopher; Lester, John B.; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2005-01-01

    Long-baseline interferometric observations obtained with the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer of the H-alpha-emitting envelopes of the Be stars eta Tauri and beta Canis Minoris are presented. For compatibility with the previously published interferometric results in the literature of other Be stars, circularly symmetric and elliptical Gaussian models were fitted to the calibrated H-alpha observations. The models are sufficient in characterizing the angular distribution of the H-alpha-emitting circumstellar material associated with these Be stars. To study the correlations between the various model parameters and the stellar properties, the model parameters for eta Tau and beta CMi were combined with data for other Be stars from the literature. After accounting for the different distances to the sources and stellar continuum flux levels, it was possible to study the relationship between the net H-alpha emission and the physical extent of the H-alpha-emitting circumstellar region. A clear dependence of the...

  13. Differential interferometric phases at high spectral resolution as a sensitive physical diagnostic of circumstellar disks

    CERN Document Server

    Faes, D M; Rivinius, Th; Štefl, S; Baade, D; de Souza, A Domiciano

    2013-01-01

    Context. The circumstellar disks ejected by many rapidly rotating B stars (so-called Be stars) offer the rare opportunity of studying the structure and dynamics of gaseous disks at high spectral as well as angular resolution. Aims. This paper explores a newly identified effect in spectro-interferometric phase that can be used for probing the inner regions of gaseous edge-on disks on a scale of a few stellar radii. Methods. The origin of this effect (dubbed central quasi-emission phase signature, CQE-PS) lies in the velocity-dependent line absorption of photospheric radiation by the circumstellar disk. At high spectral and marginal interferometric resolution, photocenter displacements between star and isovelocity regions in the Keplerian disk reveal themselves through small interferometric phase shifts. To investigate the diagnostic potential of this effect, a series of models are presented, based on detailed radiative transfer calculations in a viscous decretion disk. Results. Amplitude and detailed shape of ...

  14. Radiative transfer modeling of three T Tauri stars: selecting candidates for studying circumstellar disk evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Liu; Hong-Chi Wang; Sebastian Wolf; David Madlener

    2013-01-01

    We present modeling work on three young stellar objects that are promising targets for future high-resolution observations to investigate circumstellar disk evolution.The currently available data comprise the spectral energy distribution from optical to millimeter wavelengths which allow constraining the structure of the circumstellar disk using self-consistent radiative transfer models.The results suggest that the assumption of well-mixed dust and gas leads to overestimation of flux in the far-infrared.Observational and theoretical arguments suggest that an overall decrease in far-infrared excess can be explained by dust settling towards the midplane.A new disk model is hence employed to take the effect of dust sedimentation into account.The extended model satisfactorily reproduces all existing observations.The three targets studied here therefore deserve follow-up observations to reveal the evolutionary state of their protoplanetary disks.

  15. Synthetic photometry for carbon-rich giants II. The effects of pulsation and circumstellar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Nowotny, Walter; Höfner, Susanne; Lederer, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    By using self-consistent dynamic model atmospheres which simulate pulsation-enhanced dust-driven winds of AGB stars we studied in detail the influence of (i) pulsations of the stellar interiors, and (ii) the development of dusty stellar winds on the spectral appearance of long period variables with carbon-rich atmospheric chemistry. While the pulsations lead to large-amplitude photometric variability, the dusty envelopes cause pronounced circumstellar reddening. Based on one selected dynamical model which is representative of C-type Mira variables with intermediate mass loss rates, we calculated synthetic spectra and photometry for standard broad-band filters from the visual to the near-infrared. Our modelling allows to investigate in detail the substantial effect of circumstellar dust on the resultant photometry. The pronounced absorption of amorphous carbon dust grains leads to colour indices which are significantly redder than the corresponding ones based on hydrostatic dust-free models. Only if we account...

  16. Wind Dynamics and Circumstellar Extinction Variations in the T Tauri Star RY Tau

    CERN Document Server

    Babina, Elena V; Petrov, Peter P

    2016-01-01

    The wind interaction with the dusty environment of the classical T Tauri star RY Tau has been investigated. During two seasons of 2013-2015 we carried out a spectroscopic and photometric (BVR) monitoring of the star. A correlation between the stellar brightness and the radial velocity of the wind determined from the H-alpha and Na D line profiles has been found for the first time. The irregular stellar brightness variations are shown to be caused by extinction in a dusty disk wind at a distance of about 0.2 AU from the star. We suppose, that variations of the circumstellar extinction results from cyclic rearrangements of the stellar magnetosphere and coronal mass ejections, which affect the dusty disk wind near the inner boundary of the circumstellar disk.

  17. Circumstellar Habitable Zones to Ecodynamic Domains: A Preliminary Review and Suggested Future Directions

    CERN Document Server

    Heath, Martin J

    2009-01-01

    The concept of the Circumstellar Habitable Zone has served the scientific community well for some decades. It slips easily off the tongue, and it would be hard to replace. Recently, however, several workers have postulated types of habitable bodies which might exist outside the classic circumstellar habitable zone (HZ). These include not only bodies which orbit at substantial distances from their parent stars, but also snowball worlds with geothermally-maintained internal oceans and even densely-atmosphered worlds with geothermally-maintained surface oceans, which have been ejected from unstable planetary systems into interstellar space. If habitability is not a unique and diagnostic property of the HZ, then the value of the term has been compromised in a fundamental way. At the same time, it has become evident that multiple environmental states, differing in important ways in their habitability, are possible even for geophysically similar planets subject to similar levels of insolation, within the classic HZ...

  18. Microphase Separation in Thin Films of Block Copolymer Supramolecular Assemblies: Composition Dependent Morphological Transitions and Molecular Architecture Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandan, Bhanu; Stamm, Manfred

    2010-03-01

    Block copolymer based supramolecular assemblies (SMAs) recently have attracted lot of attention because of their potential application as nanotemplates. These SMAs are prepared by attaching small molecules selectively to one of the blocks of the copolymer through physical interactions. In the present study, the phase behavior of SMAs formed by polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) with 2-(4'-hydroxybenzeneazo)benzoic acid (HABA) was investigated with respect to the molar ratio (X) between HABA and 4VP monomer unit in bulk as well as in thin films. It will be shown that these SMAs show some interesting composition dependent and solvent induced pathway dependent phase transitions. Moreover, the orientation of cylindrical or lamellar microdomains of P4VP(HABA) depends on the selectivity of the solvent as well as on the degree of swelling of the thin film. Furthermore, it will be shown that the molecular architecture of the block copolymer influences the orientation and ordering of microdomains in the SMA. Hence, whereas, the cylindrical and lamellar microdomains of SMA composed of a P4VP-b-PS-b-P4VP triblock copolymer were perpendicular to the substrate, those composed from a PS-b-P4VP diblock of similar composition had in-plane orientation of the microdomains.

  19. Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John G.

    The Composites market is arguably the most challenging and profitable market for phenolic resins aside from electronics. The variety of products and processes encountered creates the challenges, and the demand for high performance in critical operations brings value. Phenolic composite materials are rendered into a wide range of components to supply a diverse and fragmented commercial base that includes customers in aerospace (Space Shuttle), aircraft (interiors and brakes), mass transit (interiors), defense (blast protection), marine, mine ducting, off-shore (ducts and grating) and infrastructure (architectural) to name a few. For example, phenolic resin is a critical adhesive in the manufacture of honeycomb sandwich panels. Various solvent and water based resins are described along with resin characteristics and the role of metal ions for enhanced thermal stability of the resin used to coat the honeycomb. Featured new developments include pultrusion of phenolic grating, success in RTM/VARTM fabricated parts, new ballistic developments for military vehicles and high char yield carbon-carbon composites along with many others. Additionally, global regional market resin volumes and sales are presented and compared with other thermosetting resin systems.

  20. Searching for signatures of planet formation in stars with circumstellar debris discs

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado, J.; Eiroa, C.; Villaver, E.; Montesinos, B.; Mora, A.

    2015-01-01

    Astronomy and Astrophysics 579 (2015): A20 reproduced with permission from Astronomy & Astrophysics Context. Tentative correlations between the presence of dusty circumstellar debris discs and low-mass planets have recently been presented. In parallel, detailed chemical abundance studies have reported different trends between samples of planet and non-planet hosts. Whether these chemical differences are indeed related to the presence of planets is still strongly debated. Aims. We aim t...

  1. Oxygen Chemistry in the Circumstellar Envelope of the Carbon-Rich Star IRC+10216

    CERN Document Server

    Agundez, M; Agundez, Marcelino; Cernicharo, Jose

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study the oxygen chemistry in the C-rich circumstellar shells of IRC+10216. The recent discoveries of oxygen bearing species (water, hydroxyl radical and formaldehyde) toward this source challenge our current understanding of the chemistry in C-rich circumstellar envelopes. The presence of icy comets surrounding the star or catalysis on iron grain surfaces have been invoked to explain the presence of such unexpected species. This detailed study aims at evaluating the chances of producing O-bearing species in the C-rich circumstellar envelope only by gas phase chemical reactions. For the inner hot envelope, it is shown that although most of the oxygen is locked in CO near the photosphere (as expected for a C/O ratio greater than 1), some stellar radii far away species such as H2O and CO2 have large abundances under the assumption of thermochemical equilibrium. It is also shown how non-LTE chemistry makes very difficult the CO-->H2O,CO2 transformation predicted in LTE. Concerning the chemistry ...

  2. Anisotropic inverse Compton scattering of photons from the circumstellar disc in PSR B1259-63

    CERN Document Server

    van Soelen, B; Odendaal, A; Townsend, L J

    2012-01-01

    The gamma-ray binary system PSR B1259-63 consists of a 48 ms pulsar orbiting a Be star. The system is particularly interesting because it is the only gamma-ray binary system where the nature of the compact object is known. The non-thermal radiation from the system is powered by the spin-down luminosity of the pulsar and the unpulsed radiation originates from the stand-off shock front which forms between the pulsar and stellar wind. The Be star/optical companion in the system produces an excess infrared flux from the associated circumstellar disc. This infrared excess provides an additional photon source for inverse Compton scattering. We discuss the effects of the IR excess near periastron, for anisotropic inverse Compton scattering and associated gamma-ray production. We determine the infrared excess from the circumstellar disc using a modified version of a curve of growth method, which takes into account the changing optical depth through the circumstellar disc during the orbit. The model is constrained usi...

  3. Observational Possibility of the "Snow Line" on the Surface of Circumstellar Disks with the Scattered Light

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Akio K; Nakamoto, Taishi; Oka, Akinori

    2008-01-01

    We discuss how we obtain the spatial distribution of ice on the surface of the circumstellar disk around young stars. Ice in the disks plays a very important role in various issues, for instance, on the disk structure, on the planet formation, on the isotopic anomaly in meteorites, and on the origin of the sea on the Earth. Therefore, the spatially resolved observation of the condensation/sublimation front of ice, so-called ``snow line'' is strongly required. Here, we propose a new method for obtaining the spatially resolved ``snow line'' on the circumstellar disks by observing 3 \\micron H$_2$O ice feature in the scattered light. Based on radiative transfer considerations, we show that the feature is clearly imprinted in the spectrum of the scattered light from both optically thick and thin circumstellar disks. We also show that the scattered light and the H$_2$O ice feature from protoplanetary disks are detectable and spatially resolvable with the current instruments through a $H_2O$ narrowband filter around...

  4. Circumstellar Dust, PAHs, and Stellar Populations in Early-Type Galaxies: Insights from GALEX and WISE

    CERN Document Server

    Simonian, Gregory V

    2016-01-01

    A majority of early-type galaxies contain interstellar dust, yet the origin of this dust, and why the dust sometimes exhibits unusual PAH ratios, remains a mystery. If the dust is internally produced, the most likely origin is the large number of AGB stars associated with the old stellar population. We present GALEX and WISE elliptical aperture photometry of $\\sim350$ early-type galaxies with Spitzer mid-infrared spectroscopy and/or ancillary data from ATLAS3D, to characterize their circumstellar dust and the shape of the radiation field that illuminates the interstellar PAHs. We find that circumstellar dust is ubiquitous in early-type galaxies, which indicates some tension between stellar population age estimates and models for circumstellar dust production in very old stellar populations. We also use dynamical masses from ATLAS3D to show that WISE W1 (3.4 $\\mu$m) mass-to-light ratios are inconsistent with model predictions for a single IMF, as found by previous work. While the stellar population differences...

  5. Observing the Circumstellar Environment of the Eruptive FUor/EXor Protostar V1647 Ori with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principe, David; Cieza, Lucas A.; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Tobin, John J.; Prieto, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Fu Ori (FUor) and EXor objects represent a short-lived stage of protostellar evolution characterized by intense mass accretion events which cause extreme variability in the form of outbursts. While it is well demonstrated that these objects exhibit sudden outbursts (ΔV~2-6), the mechanism causing such variability is not well understood. High spatial and spectral resolution observations of the circumstellar environment of these objects are essential to distinguish between different outbursting mechanisms. We present ALMA observations of the FUor/EXor object V1647 Ori as part of an ALMA campaign, which has observed a combined eight FUor and EXor type objects. Deeply embedded in the dark cloud LDN 1630 (L1630), V1647 Ori is one of a few FUor/EXor objects to have been extensively studied at multiple wavelengths before, during and after an outburst. We present preliminary results derived from ALMA 12CO, 13CO, C18O and continuum observations of the circumstellar environment of V1647 Ori. By measuring gas/dust masses and gas kinematics of the circumstellar disk, we investigate the potential mechanisms producing variability in these eruptive protostars during an essential, yet rarely observed, stage of pre-main sequence stellar evolution.

  6. Photon Bubbles in the Circumstellar Envelopes of Young Massive Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, N J; Yorke, H W

    2007-01-01

    We show that the optically-thick dusty envelopes surrounding young high-mass stars are subject to the photon bubble instability. The infrared radiation passing through the envelope amplifies magnetosonic disturbances, with growth rates in our local numerical radiation MHD calculations that are consistent with a linear analysis. Modes with wavelengths comparable to the gas pressure scale height grow by more than two orders of magnitude in a thousand years, reaching non-linear amplitudes within the envelope lifetime. If the magnetic pressure in the envelope exceeds the gas pressure, the instability develops into trains of propagating shocks. Radiation escapes readily through the low-density material between the shocks, enabling accretion to continue despite the Eddington limit imposed by the dust opacity. The supersonic motions arising from the photon bubble instability can help explain the large velocity dispersions of hot molecular cores, while conditions in the shocked gas are suitable for maser emission. We...

  7. Does host plant influence parasitism and parasitoid species composition in Lygus rugulipennis? A molecular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariepy, T D; Kuhlmann, U; Gillott, C; Erlandson, M

    2008-06-01

    Lygus Hahn plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) are serious pests of a wide variety of economically important crops in North America. European Peristenus digoneutis Loan and P. relictus Ruthe (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are being considered for release in Canada as part of a classical biological control program for Lygus. The attractiveness of different host plants to European Peristenus has not been addressed, but may be an important consideration prior to parasitoid release. Lygus rugulipennis Poppius nymphs were collected in the Northern Temperate Atlantic (NTA) ecoregion on red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; Fabaceae) and chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.; Asteraceae), and in the Western European Broadleaf Forest (WEBF) ecoregion on red clover and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.; Fabaceae). Parasitism levels and parasitoid species were determined using a multiplex PCR assay for P. digoneutis, P. relictus, and P. pallipes Curtis. Mean parasitism levels in L. rugulipennis were 45-49% in the NTA ecoregion and 25-32% in the WEBF ecoregion. However, in neither ecoregion were parasitism levels and parasitoid species compositions significantly different in nymphs from different host plant species. Furthermore, multiparasitism was low despite the fact that P. digoneutis and P. relictus share the same host species. PMID:18439339

  8. Comparative Spectra of Oxygen-Rich Versus Carbon-Rich Circumstellar Shells: VY Canis Majoris and IRC(plus)10216 at 215-285 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenebaum, E. D.; Dodd, J. L.; Milam, S. N.; Woolf, N. J.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2010-01-01

    A sensitive (1sigma rms at 1 MHz resolution approx.3 mK) 1 mm spectral line survey (214.5-285.5 GHz) of VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa) and IRC +10216 has been conducted to compare the chemistries of oxygen- and carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes. This study was carried out using the Submillimeter Telescope of the Arizona Radio Observatory with a new Atacama Large Millimeter Array type receiver. This survey is the first to chemically characterize an O-rich circumstellar shell at millimeter wavelengths. In VY CMa, 128 emission features were detected arising from 18 different molecules; and in IRC +10216, 720 lines were observed, assigned to 32 different species. The 1 mm spectrum of VY CMa is dominated by SO, and SiS; in IRC +10216, C4H and SiC2 are the most recurrent species. Ten molecules were common to both sources: CO, SiS, SiO, CS, CN, HCN, HNC, NaCl, PN, and HCO(+). Sulfur plays an important role in VY CMa, but saturated/ unsaturated carbon dominates the molecular content of IRC +102.16, producing CH2NH, for example. Although the molecular complexity of IRC +10216 is greater, VY CMa supports a unique "inorganic" chemistry leading to the oxides PO, AlO, and AlOH. Only diatomic and triatomic compounds were observed in VY CMa, while species with four or more atoms are common in IRC +10216, reflecting carbon's ability to form multiple strong bonds, unlike oxygen. In VY CMa, a new water maser (v2 = 2) has been found, as well as vibrationally excited NaCl. Toward IRC +10216, vibrationally excited CCH was detected for the first time.

  9. Molecular composition of sugars in atmospheric particulate matter from interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md. Mozammel; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kim, Yongwon

    2015-04-01

    Sugars can account for 0.5-8% of carbon in atmospheric particulate matter, affecting the earth climate, air quality and public health. Total of 33 total suspended particle (TSP) samples were collected from Fairbanks, Alaska in June 2008 to June 2009 using a low volume air sampler. Here, we report the molecular characteristics of anhydro-sugars (levoglucosan, galactosan and mannosan), primary saccharides (xylose, fructose, glucose, sucrose and trehalose) and sugar alcohols (erythritol, arabitol, mannitol and inositol). The average contribution of sugars to the organic carbon (OC) was also determined to be 0.92%. Sugar compounds were measured using solvent extraction/TMS-derivatization technique followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) determination. The concentrations of total quantified sugar compounds ranged from 2.3 to 453 ng m-3 (average 145 ng m-3). The highest concentration was recorded for levoglucosan in summer, with a maximum concentration of 790 ng m-3 (average 108 ng m-3). Levoglucosan, which is specifically formed by a pyrolysis of cellulose, has been used as an excellent tracer of biomass burning. The highest level of levoglucosan indicates a significant contribution of biomass burning in ambient aerosols. Galactosan (average 20 ng m-3) and mannosan (average 27 ng m-3), which are also formed through the pyrolysis of cellulose/hemicelluloses, were identified in all samples. The average concentrations of arabitol, mannitol, glucose and sucrose were also found 14.7, 14.6, 14.1 and 16.8 ng m-3, respectively. They have been proposed as tracers for resuspension of surface soil and unpaved road dust, which contain biological materials including fungi and bacteria. These results suggest that there is some impact of bioaerosols on climate over Interior Alaska. We will also measure water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and inorganic ions for all samples.

  10. Physical properties of a high molecular weight hydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane modified castor oil based polyurethane/epoxy interpenetrating polymer network composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shoubing; Wang, Qihua; Wang, Tingmei

    2011-06-01

    A series of polyurethane (PU)/epoxy resin (EP) graft interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) composites modified by a high molecular weight hydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (HTPDMS) were prepared. The effects of HTPDMS content on the phase structure, damping properties and the glass transition temperature ( Tg) of the HTPDMS-modified PU/EP IPN composites were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the thermal decomposition temperature of the composites increased with the increase of HTPDMS content. The tensile strength and impact strength of the IPN composites were also significantly improved, especially when the HTPDMS content was 10%. The modified IPN composites were expected to be used as structural damping materials in the future.

  11. Far-Ultraviolet H2 Emission from Circumstellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Ingleby, Laura; Bergin, Edwin; Yerasi, Ashwin; Espaillat, Catherine; Herczeg, Gregory; Roueff, Evelyne; Abgrall, Herve; Hernandez, Jesus; Briceno, Cesar; Pascucci, Ilaria; Miller, Jon; Fogel, Jeffrey; Hartmann, Lee; Meyer, Michael; Carpenter, John; Crockett, Nathan; McClure, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectra of 33 classical T Tauri stars (CTTS), including 20 new spectra obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys Solar Blind Channel (ACS/SBC) on the Hubble Space Telescope. Of the sources, 28 are in the ~1 Myr old Taurus-Auriga complex or Orion Molecular Cloud, 4 in the 8-10 Myr old Orion OB1a complex and one, TW Hya, in the 10 Myr old TW Hydrae Association. We also obtained FUV ACS/SBC spectra of 10 non-accreting sources surrounded by debris disks with ages between 10 and 125 Myr. We use a feature in the FUV spectra due mostly to electron impact excitation of \\h2 to study the evolution of the gas in the inner disk. We find that the \\h2 feature is absent in non-accreting sources, but is detected in the spectra of CTTS and correlates with accretion luminosity. Since all young stars have active chromospheres which produce strong X-ray and UV emission capable of exciting \\h2 in the disk, the fact that the non-accreting sources show no \\h2 emission implies that the \\h2 ga...

  12. Molecular evolution from AGB stars to planetary nebulae

    OpenAIRE

    Kwok, S

    2011-01-01

    The late stages of stellar evolution from the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) to planetary nebulae represent the most active phase of molecular synthesis in a star's life. Over 60 molecular species, including inorganics, organics, radicals, chains, rings, and molecular ions have been detected in the circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars. Most interestingly, complex organic compounds of aromatic and aliphatic structures are synthesized over very short time intervals after the end of the AGB. ...

  13. W Hya : Molecular inventory by ISO-SWS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Justtanont, K; de Jong, T; Tielens, AGGM; Feuchtgruber, H; Waters, LBFM

    2004-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is a powerful tool to probe the inventory of solid state and molecular species in circumstellar ejecta. Here we analyse the infrared spectrum of the Asymptotic Giant Branch star W Hya, obtained by the Short and Long Wavelength Spectrometers on board of the Infrared Satellite Ob

  14. W Hya: Molecular inventory by ISO-SWS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Justtanont; T. de Jong; A.G.G.M. Tielens; H. Feuchtgruber; L.B.F.M. Waters

    2004-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is a powerful tool to probe the inventory of solid state and molecular species in circumstellar ejecta. Here we analyse the infrared spectrum of the Asymptotic Giant Branch star W Hya, obtained by the Short and Long Wavelength Spectrometers on board of the Infrared Satellite Ob

  15. Molecular level computational studies of polyethylene and polyacrylonitrile composites containing single walled carbon nanotubes: effect of carboxylic acid functionalization on nanotube-polymer interfacial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighatpanah, Shayesteh; Bohlén, Martin; Bolton, Kim

    2014-09-01

    Molecular dynamics and molecular mechanics methods have been used to investigate additive-polymer interfacial properties in single walled carbon nanotube - polyethylene and single walled carbon nanotube - polyacrylonitrile composites. Properties such as the interfacial shear stress and bonding energy are similar for the two composites. In contrast, functionalizing the single walled carbon nanotubes with carboxylic acid groups leads to an increase in these properties, with a larger increase for the polar polyacrylonitrile composite. Increasing the percentage of carbon atoms that were functionalized from 1% to 5% also leads to an increase in the interfacial properties. In addition, the interfacial properties depend on the location of the functional groups on the single walled carbon nanotube wall.

  16. Molecular level computational studies of polyethylene and polyacrylonitrile composites containing single walled carbon nanotubes: effect of carboxylic acid functionalization on nanotube-polymer interfacial properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayesteh eHaghighatpanah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics and molecular mechanics methods have been used to investigate additive-polymer interfacial properties in single walled carbon nanotube – polyethylene and single walled carbon nanotube – polyacrylonitrile composites. Properties such as the interfacial shear stress and bonding energy are similar for the two composites. In contrast, functionalizing the single walled carbon nanotubes with carboxylic acid groups leads to an increase in these properties, with a larger increase for the polar polyacrylonitrile composite. Increasing the percentage of carbon atoms that were functionalized from 1% to 5% also leads to an increase in the interfacial properties. In addition, the interfacial properties depend on the location of the functional groups on the single walled carbon nanotube wall.

  17. Molecular distributions and compound-specific stable carbon isotopic compositions of lipids in wintertime aerosols from Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lujie; Fu, Pingqing; He, Yue; Hou, Juzhi; Chen, Jing; Pavuluri, Chandra Mouli; Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa

    2016-06-01

    Molecular distributions and stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) of n-alkanes, fatty acids and n-alcohols were investigated in urban aerosols from Beijing, northern China to better understand the sources and long-range atmospheric transport of terrestrial organic matter during polluted and clear days in winter. n-Alkanes (C19–C36), fatty acids (C8–C32) and n-alcohols (C16–C32) detected in Beijing aerosols are characterized by the predominance of C23, C16 and C28, respectively. Carbon preference index (CPI) values of n-alkanes, the ratios of the sum of odd-numbered n-alkanes to the sum of even-numbered n-alkanes, are close to 1, indicating a heavy influence of fossil fuel combustion. Relatively higher ratios of C(18:0+16:0)/C(18:n+16:1) (fatty acids) on clear days than polluted days indicate that long-distance transport and/or photochemical aging are more significant during clear days. δ13C values of n-alkanes and low molecular weight fatty acids (C16:0, C18:0) ranged from –34.1 to ‑24.7% and ‑26.9 to ‑24.6%, respectively, which are generally heavier on polluted days than those on clear days. Such a wide range suggests that atmospheric lipids in Beijing aerosols originate from multiple sources and encounter complicated atmospheric processes during long-range transport in North China.

  18. Molecular and stable carbon isotopic compositions of hopanoids in seep carbonates from the South China Sea continental slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Hongxiang; Sun, Yongge; Mao, Shengyi; Zhu, Xiaowei; Wu, Nengyou

    2014-10-01

    The lipid biomarkers of hopanoids in cold seep carbonates from the South China Sea continental slope were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-isotope ratio-mass spectrometer (GC-ir-MS). The distribution of hopanes/hopenes shows a preference for the ‘biological’ 17β(H), 21β(H)-over the ‘geological’ 17α(H), 21β(H)-configuration. This interpretation is in agreement with the strong odd-even preference of long-chain n-alkanes in those samples, suggesting that the ββ hopanes may be the early diagenetic products of biohopanoids and the αβ, βα configurations of hopanes were mainly derived from allochthonous sources contributing to the organic matter of the carbonates. In terms of hopanoid acids, the C30 to C33 17β(H), 21β(H)-hopanoid acids were detected with C32 17β(H), 21β(H)-hopanoid acid being the most abundant. However, there is a significant difference in stable carbon isotopic compostions of the C32 17β(H), 21β(H)-hopanoic acid among samples (-30.7‰ to -69.8‰). The δ13C values match well with the carbon isotopic compositions of SRB-derived iso-/anteiso-C15:0 fatty acids in the samples, which strongly depend on the carbon utilization types by microbe. The most abundant compound of hopanols detected in the samples, C30-17β(H), 21β(H)-hopanol, may be a good indicator of diagenetic product of type I methanotrophs. The molecular and carbon isotopic compositions of hopanoids demonstrate clearly that there is a combination contribution of both SRB and type I or type X methanotrophs to the source organism in the seep carbonates from the South China Sea continental slope.

  19. Photodissociation Region Models of Photoevaporating Circumstellar Disks and Application to the Proplyds in Orion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störzer, H.; Hollenbach, D.

    1999-04-01

    We have modeled the neutral flows emerging from circumstellar disks or small clumps of size r0 illuminated by an external source of ultraviolet radiation. The models are applied to the disks (proplyds) in the Orion Nebula, most of which are illuminated by θ1C Ori. Our models improve upon the simpler models of Johnstone, Hollenbach, & Ballyby including the results of both equilibrium and nonequilibrium photodissociation region (PDR) codes, and by treating the flow speed off the disk surface in a more consistent manner. We present a study that delineates the parameter space (G0, r0, and σext) in which far-ultraviolet (FUV)-dominated, as opposed to extreme-ultraviolet (EUV)-dominated, flows exist. G0 is the FUV (6 eVrIF>~2r0, have a shock between the disk surface and IF, and the mass-loss rates are determined by FUV photons. For σext=8×10-22 cm2 and a UV source similar to θ1 C Ori, the FUV-dominated region extends from G0~5×104 to G0~2×107 (or distances from θ1 C Ori of 0.3-0.01 pc), for disk or clump size of r0~1014-1015 cm. Outside this parameter space, hydrogen-ionizing EUV photons dominate the photoevaporation, and the IF is close to the disk surface (rIFrIF, depends mainly on r0, G0, and σext inside the flow region. Using ten objects in Orion for which both r0 and rIF are directly observed, and for which G0 can be estimated from the observed projected distance of the proplyd from θ1C Ori, we find that σext~8×10-22 cm2 best fits the observations. In these models, the disk mass-loss rates are roughly 10-7 Msolar yr-1. We have determined the disk masses for circular and radial proplyd orbits. For circular orbits around θ1C Ori, the disk masses range between 0.005 and 0.04 (ti/105 yr) Msolar, where ti is the illumination timescale. Comparison with millimeter observations of the disk masses (mass and shrink is ~105 yr. If the disks cross the Trapezium cluster on radial orbits, the proplyd masses range between 0.002 and 0.01 Msolar. For radial orbits, the

  20. On the composition dependence of thermodynamic, dynamic and dielectric properties of water-methanol model mixtures. Molecular dynamics simulation results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Galicia-Andrés

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated thermodynamic and dynamic properties as well as the dielectric constant of water-methanol model mixtures in the entire range of composition by using constant pressure molecular dynamics simulations at ambient conditions. The SPC/E and TIP4P/Ew water models are used in combination with the OPLS united atom modelling for methanol. Changes of the average number of hydrogen bonds between particles of different species and of the fractions of differently bonded molecules are put in correspondence with the behavior of excess mixing volume and enthalpy, of self-diffusion coefficients and rotational relaxation times. From the detailed analyses of the results obtained in this work, we conclude that an improvement of the description of an ample set of properties of water-methanol mixtures can possibly be reached, if a more sophisticated, carefully parameterized, e.g., all atom, model for methanol is used. Moreover, exploration of parametrization of the methanol force field, with simultaneous application of different combination rules for methanol-water cross interactions, is required.

  1. Lipid composition and molecular interactions change with depth in the avian stratum corneum to regulate cutaneous water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Alex M; Allen, Heather C; Williams, Joseph B

    2015-10-01

    The outermost 10-20 µm of the epidermis, the stratum corneum (SC), consists of flat, dead cells embedded in a matrix of intercellular lipids. These lipids regulate cutaneous water loss (CWL), which accounts for over half of total water loss in birds. However, the mechanisms by which lipids are able to regulate CWL and how these mechanisms change with depth in the SC are poorly understood. We used attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) to measure lipid-lipid and lipid-water interactions as a function of depth in the SC of house sparrows (Passer domesticus Linnaeus) in the winter and summer. We then compared these molecular interactions at each depth with lipid composition at the same depth. We found that in both groups, water content increased with depth in the SC, and likely contributed to greater numbers of gauche defects in lipids in deeper levels of the SC. In winter-caught birds, which had lower rates of CWL than summer-caught birds, water exhibited stronger hydrogen bonding in deeper layers of the SC, and these strong hydrogen bonds were associated with greater amounts of polar lipids such as ceramides and cerebrosides. Based on these data, we propose a model by which polar lipids in deep levels of the SC form strong hydrogen bonds with water molecules to increase the viscosity of water and slow the permeation of water through the SC. PMID:26447196

  2. Defects, strain relaxation, and compositional grading in high indium content InGaN epilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazioti, C.; Kehagias, Th.; Pavlidou, E.; Komninou, Ph.; Karakostas, Th.; Dimitrakopulos, G. P., E-mail: gdim@auth.gr [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Papadomanolaki, E.; Iliopoulos, E. [Microelectronics Research Group (MRG), IESL, FORTH, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion Crete, Greece and Physics Department, University of Crete, Heraklion Crete (Greece); Walther, T. [Department of Electronic & Electrical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Smalc-Koziorowska, J. [Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-10-21

    We investigate the structural properties of a series of high alloy content InGaN epilayers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, employing the deposition temperature as variable under invariant element fluxes. Using transmission electron microscopy methods, distinct strain relaxation modes were observed, depending on the indium content attained through temperature adjustment. At lower indium contents, strain relaxation by V-pit formation dominated, with concurrent formation of an indium-rich interfacial zone. With increasing indium content, this mechanism was gradually substituted by the introduction of a self-formed strained interfacial InGaN layer of lower indium content, as well as multiple intrinsic basal stacking faults and threading dislocations in the rest of the film. We show that this interfacial layer is not chemically abrupt and that major plastic strain relaxation through defect introduction commences upon reaching a critical indium concentration as a result of compositional pulling. Upon further increase of the indium content, this relaxation mode was again gradually succeeded by the increase in the density of misfit dislocations at the InGaN/GaN interface, leading eventually to the suppression of the strained InGaN layer and basal stacking faults.

  3. Investigating the composition of organic aerosol resulting from cyclohexene ozonolysis: low molecular weight and heterogeneous reaction products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Hamilton

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of organic aerosol formed from the gas phase ozonolysis of cyclohexene has been investigated in a smog chamber experiment. Comprehensive gas chromatography with time of flight mass spectrometric detection was used to determine that dicarboxylic acids and corresponding cyclic anhydrides dominated the small gas phase reaction products found in aerosol sampled during the first hour after initial aerosol formation. Structural analysis of larger more polar molecules was performed using liquid chromatography with ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. This indicated that the majority of identified organic mass was in dimer form, built up from combinations of the most abundant small acid molecules, with frequent indication of the inclusion of adipic acid. Trimers and tetramers potentially formed via similar acid combinations were also observed in lower abundances. Tandem mass spectral data indicated dimers with either acid anhydride or ester functionalities as the linkage between monomers. High-resolution mass spectrometry identified the molecular formulae of the most abundant dimer species to be C10H16O6, C11H18O6, C10H14O8 and C11H16O8 and could be used in some cases to reduce uncertainty in exact chemical structure determination by tandem MS.

  4. Revealing changes in molecular composition of plant cell walls on the micron-level by Raman mapping and vertex component analysis (VCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierlinger, Notburga

    2014-01-01

    At the molecular level the plant cell walls consist of a few nanometer thick semi-crystalline cellulose fibrils embedded in amorphous matrix polymers such as pectins, hemicelluloses, and lignins. The arrangement of these molecules within the cell wall in different plant tissues, cells and cell wall layers is of crucial importance for a better understanding and thus optimized utilization of plant biomass. During the last years Confocal Raman microscopy evolved as a powerful method in plant science by revealing the different molecules in context with the microstructure. In this study two-dimensional spectral maps have been acquired of micro-cross-sections of spruce (softwood) and beech (hardwood). Raman images have been derived by using univariate (band integration, height ratios) and multivariate methods [vertex component analysis (VCA)]. While univariate analysis only visualizes changes in selected band heights or areas, VCA separates anatomical regions and cell wall layers with the most different molecular structures. Beside visualization of the distinguished regions and features the underlying molecular structure can be derived based on the endmember spectra. VCA revealed that the lumen sided S3 layer has a similar molecular composition as the pit membrane, both revealing a clear change in lignin composition compared to all other cell wall regions. Within the S2 layer a lamellar structure was visualized, which was elucidated to derive from slight changes in lignin composition and content and might be due to successive but not uniform lignification during growth. PMID:25071792

  5. A New View of the Circumstellar Environment of SN 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugerman, Ben E. K.; Crotts, Arlin P. S.; Kunkel, William E.; Heathcote, Stephen R.; Lawrence, Stephen S.

    2005-07-01

    We summarize the analysis of a uniform set of both previously known and newly discovered scattered-light echoes, detected within 30" of SN 1987A in 10 years of optical imaging, and with which we have constructed the most complete three-dimensional model of the progenitor's circumstellar environment. Surrounding the SN is a richly structured bipolar nebula. An outer, double-lobed ``peanut,'' which we believe is the contact discontinuity between the red supergiant and main-sequence winds, is a prolate shell extending 28 lt-yr along the poles and 11 lt-yr near the equator. Napoleon's Hat, previously believed to be an independent structure, is the waist of this peanut, which is pinched to a radius of 6 lt-yr. Interior, the innermost circumstellar material lies along a cylindrical hourglass, 1 lt-yr in radius and 4 lt-yr long, which connects to the peanut by a thick equatorial disk. The nebulae are inclined 41° south and 8° east of the line of sight, slightly elliptical in cross section, and marginally offset west of the SN. The three-dimensional geometry of the three circumstellar rings is studied, suggesting the northern and southern rings are located 1.3 and 1.0 lt-yr from the SN, while the equatorial ring is elliptical (b/a~0.03 cm-3 the maximum dust-grain size increases from ~0.2 to 2 μm and the silicate:carbonaceous dust ratio decreases. The nebulae have a total mass of ~1.7 Msolar, yielding a red-supergiant mass loss around 5×10-6 Msolar yr-1. We compare these results to current formation models and find that no model has successfully reproduced this system. However, our results suggest a heuristic evolutionary sequence in which the progenitor evolves through two ``blue loops,'' perhaps accompanied by a close binary companion.

  6. Radio Observations Reveal Unusual Circumstellar Environments for Some Type Ibc Supernova Progenitors

    OpenAIRE

    Wellons, Sarah; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Chevalier, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    We present extensive radio observations of the nearby Type Ibc supernovae 2004cc, 2004dk, and 2004gq spanning 8-1900 days after explosion. Using a dynamical model developed for synchrotron emission from a slightly decelerated shockwave, we estimate the velocity and energy of the fastest ejecta and the density profile of the circumstellar medium. The shockwaves of all three supernovae are characterized by non-relativistic velocities of v ~ (0.1-25)c and associated energies of E ~ (2-10) * 1e47...

  7. A Rigidly Rotating Magnetosphere Model for Circumstellar Emission from Magnetic OB Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, R. H. D.; Owocki, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    We present a semi-analytical approach for modeling circumstellar emission from rotating hot stars with a strong dipole magnetic field tilted at an arbitrary angle to the rotation axis. By assuming the rigid-field limit in which material driven (e.g., in a wind outflow) from the star is forced to remain in strict rigid-body co-rotation, we are able to solve for the effective centrifugal-plus-gravitational potential along each field line, and thereby identify the location of potential minima wh...

  8. Archival Legacy Investigations of Circumstellar Environments (ALICE): Statistical assessment of point source detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquet, Élodie; Pueyo, Laurent; Soummer, Rémi; Perrin, Marshall D.; Hagan, J. Brendan; Gofas-Salas, Elena; Rajan, Abhijith; Aguilar, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    The ALICE program, for Archival Legacy Investigation of Circumstellar Environment, is currently conducting a virtual survey of about 400 stars, by re-analyzing the HST-NICMOS coronagraphic archive with advanced post-processing techniques. We present here the strategy that we adopted to identify detections and potential candidates for follow-up observations, and we give a preliminary overview of our detections. We present a statistical analysis conducted to evaluate the confidence level on these detection and the completeness of our candidate search.

  9. Archival Legacy Investigations of Circumstellar Environments (ALICE): Statistical assessment of point source detections

    CERN Document Server

    Choquet, É; Soummer, R; Perrin, M D; Hagan, J B; Gofas-Salas, E; Rajan, A; Aguilar, J

    2015-01-01

    The ALICE program, for Archival Legacy Investigation of Circumstellar Environment, is currently conducting a virtual survey of about 400 stars, by re-analyzing the HST-NICMOS coronagraphic archive with advanced post-processing techniques. We present here the strategy that we adopted to identify detections and potential candidates for follow-up observations, and we give a preliminary overview of our detections. We present a statistical analysis conducted to evaluate the confidence level on these detection and the completeness of our candidate search.

  10. Composition and functional analysis of low-molecular-weight glutenin alleles with Aroona near-isogenic lines of bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaofei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS strongly influence the bread-making quality of bread wheat. These proteins are encoded by a multi-gene family located at the Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Glu-D3 loci on the short arms of homoeologous group 1 chromosomes, and show high allelic variation. To characterize the genetic and protein compositions of LMW-GS alleles, we investigated 16 Aroona near-isogenic lines (NILs using SDS-PAGE, 2D-PAGE and the LMW-GS gene marker system. Moreover, the composition of glutenin macro-polymers, dough properties and pan bread quality parameters were determined for functional analysis of LMW-GS alleles in the NILs. Results Using the LMW-GS gene marker system, 14–20 LMW-GS genes were identified in individual NILs. At the Glu-A3 locus, two m-type and 2–4 i-type genes were identified and their allelic variants showed high polymorphisms in length and nucleotide sequences. The Glu-A3d allele possessed three active genes, the highest number among Glu-A3 alleles. At the Glu-B3 locus, 2–3 m-type and 1–3 s-type genes were identified from individual NILs. Based on the different compositions of s-type genes, Glu-B3 alleles were divided into two groups, one containing Glu-B3a, B3b, B3f and B3g, and the other comprising Glu-B3c, B3d, B3h and B3i. Eight conserved genes were identified among Glu-D3 alleles, except for Glu-D3f. The protein products of the unique active genes in each NIL were detected using protein electrophoresis. Among Glu-3 alleles, the Glu-A3e genotype without i-type LMW-GS performed worst in almost all quality properties. Glu-B3b, B3g and B3i showed better quality parameters than the other Glu-B3 alleles, whereas the Glu-B3c allele containing s-type genes with low expression levels had an inferior effect on bread-making quality. Due to the conserved genes at Glu-D3 locus, Glu-D3 alleles showed no significant differences in effects on all quality parameters. Conclusions This work

  11. High-resolution measurements of atmospheric molecular hydrogen and its isotopic composition at the West African coast of Mauritania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Walter

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oceans are a net source of molecular hydrogen (H2 to the atmosphere, where nitrogen (N2 fixation is assumed to be the main biological production pathway followed by photochemical production from organic material. The sources can be distinguished using isotope measurements because of clearly differing isotopic signatures of the produced hydrogen. Here we present the first ship-borne measurements of atmospheric molecular H2 mixing ratio and isotopic composition at the West African coast of Mauritania (16–25° W, 17–24° N. This area is one of the biologically most active regions of the world's oceans with seasonal upwelling events and characterized by strongly differing hydrographical/biological properties and phytoplankton community structures. The aim of this study was to identify areas of H2 production and distinguish H2 sources by isotopic signatures of atmospheric H2. For this more than 100 air samples were taken during two cruises in February 2007 and 2008. During both cruises a transect from the Cape Verde Islands towards the Mauritanian Coast was sampled to cover differing oceanic regions such as upwelling and oligotrophic regimes. In 2007, additionally, four days were sampled at high resolution of one sample per hour to investigate a possible diurnal cycle of atmospheric H2. Our results indicate the influence of local sources and suggest the Banc d'Arguin as a pool for precursors for photochemical H2 production, whereas oceanic N2 fixation could not be identified as a source for atmospheric H2 during these two cruises. The variability in diurnal cycles is probably influenced by released precursors for photochemical H2 production and also affected by a varying origin of air masses. This means for future investigations that only measuring the mixing ratio of H2 is insufficient to explain the variability of an atmospheric diurnal cycle and support is needed, e.g. by isotopic measurements. Nevertheless, measurements of atmospheric H2

  12. High-resolution measurements of atmospheric molecular hydrogen and its isotopic composition at the West African coast of Mauritania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Walter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Oceans are a net source of molecular hydrogen (N2 to the atmosphere, where nitrogen (N2 fixation is assumed to be the main biological production pathway besides photochemical production from organic material. The sources can be distinguished using isotope measurements because of clearly differing isotopic signatures of the produced hydrogen.

    Here we present the first ship-borne measurements of atmospheric molecular H2 mixing ratio and isotopic composition at the West African coast of Mauritania (16–25° W, 17–24° N. This area is one of the biologically most active regions of the world's oceans with seasonal upwelling events and characterized by strongly differing hydrographical/biological properties and phytoplankton community structures. The aim of this study was to identify areas of H2 production and distinguish H2 sources by isotopic signatures of atmospheric H2. Besides this a diurnal cycle of atmospheric H2 was investigated. For this more than 100 air samples were taken during two cruises in February 2007 and 2008, respectively. During both cruises a transect from the Cape Verde Island towards the Mauritanian Coast was sampled. In 2007 additionally four days were sampled with a high resolution of one sample per hour.

    Our results clearly indicate the influence of local sources and suggest the Banc d'Arguin as a pool for precursors for photochemical H2 production, whereas N2 fixation could not be identified as a H2 source during these two cruises. With our experimental setup we could demonstrate that variability in diurnal cycles is probably influenced and biased by released precursors for photochemical H2 production and the origin of air masses. This means for further investigations that just measuring the mixing ratio of H2 is insufficient to explain the variability of a diurnal cycle and

  13. Organic molecular composition of marine aerosols over the Arctic Ocean in summer: contributions of primary emission and secondary aerosol formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Q. Fu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Organic molecular composition of marine aerosol samples collected during the MALINA cruise in the Arctic Ocean was investigated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. More than 110 individual organic compounds were determined in the samples and were grouped into different compound classes based on the functionality and sources. The concentrations of total quantified organics ranged from 7.3 to 185 ng m−3 (mean 47.6 ng m−3, accounting for 1.8–11.0% (4.8% of organic carbon in the marine aerosols. Primary saccharides were found to be dominant organic compound class, followed by secondary organic aerosol (SOA tracers formed from the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs such as isoprene, α-pinene and β-caryophyllene. Mannitol, the specific tracer for airborne fungal spores, was detected as the most abundant organic species in the samples with a concentration range of 0.052–53.3 ng m−3 (9.2 ng m−3, followed by glucose, arabitol, and the isoprene oxidation products of 2-methyltetrols. Biomass burning tracers such as levoglucosan are evident in all samples with trace levels. On the basis of the tracer-based method for the estimation of fungal-spore OC and biogenic secondary organic carbon (SOC, we estimate that an average of 10.7% (up to 26.2% of the OC in the marine aerosols was due to the contribution of fungal spores, followed by the contribution of isoprene SOC (mean 3.8% and α-pinene SOC (2.9%. In contrast, only 0.19% of the OC was due to the photooxidation of β-caryophyllene. This study indicates that primary organic aerosols from biogenic emissions, both from long-range transport of mid-latitude aerosols and from sea-to-air emission of marine organics, as well as secondary organic aerosols formed from the photooxidation of biogenic VOCs are important factors controlling the organic chemical composition of marine aerosols in the Arctic Ocean.

  14. Organic molecular composition of marine aerosols over the Arctic Ocean in summer: contributions of primary emission and secondary aerosol formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Q. Fu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic molecular composition of marine aerosol samples collected during the MALINA cruise in the Arctic Ocean was investigated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. More than 110 individual organic compounds were determined in the samples and were grouped into different compound classes based on the functionality and sources. The concentrations of total quantified organics ranged from 7.3 to 185 ng m−3 (mean 47.6 ng m−3, accounting for 1.8–11.0% (4.8% of organic carbon in the marine aerosols. Primary saccharides were found to be dominant organic compound class, followed by secondary organic aerosol (SOA tracers formed from the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs such as isoprene, α-pinene and β-caryophyllene. Mannitol, the specific tracer for airborne fungal spores, was detected as the most abundant organic species in the samples with a concentration range of 0.052–53.3 ng m−3 (9.2 ng m−3, followed by glucose, arabitol, and the isoprene oxidation products of 2-methyltetrols. Biomass burning tracers such as levoglucosan are evident in all samples with trace levels. On the basis of the tracer-based method for the estimation of fungal-spore OC and biogenic secondary organic carbon (SOC, we estimate that an average of 10.7% (up to 26.2% of the OC in the marine aerosols was due to the contribution of fungal spores, followed by the contribution of isoprene SOC (mean 3.8% and α-pinene SOC (2.9%. In contrast, only 0.19% of the OC was due to the photooxidation of β-caryophyllene. This study indicates that primary organic aerosols from biogenic emissions, both from long-range transport of mid-latitude aerosols and from sea-to-air emission of marine organics, as well as secondary organic aerosols formed from the photooxidation of biogenic VOCs are important factors controlling the organic chemical composition of marine aerosols in the Arctic Ocean.

  15. The circumstellar envelope of IRC+10216 from milli-arcsecond to arcmin scales

    CERN Document Server

    Leao, I C; Mekarnia, D; De Medeiros, J R; Vandame, B; Laverny, Patrick De; Vandame, Benoit

    2006-01-01

    Aims.Analysis of the innermost regions of the carbon-rich star IRC+10216 and of the outer layers of its circumstellar envelope have been performed in order to constrain its mass-loss history. Methods: .We analyzed the high dynamic range of near-infrared adaptive optics and the deep V-band images of the circumstellar envelope of IRC+10216 using high angular resolution, collected with the VLT/NACO and FORS1 instruments. Results: .From the near-infrared observations, we present maps of the sub-arcsecond structures, or clumps, in the innermost regions. The morphology of these clumps is found to strongly vary from J- to L-band. Their relative motion appears to be more complex than proposed in earlier works: they can be weakly accelerated, have a constant velocity, or even be motionless with respect to one another. From V-band imaging, we present a high spatial resolution map of the shell distribution in the outer layers of IRC+10216. Shells are resolved well up to a distance of about 90'' to the core of the nebula...

  16. Radio Observations Reveal Unusual Circumstellar Environments for Some Type Ibc Supernova Progenitors

    CERN Document Server

    Wellons, Sarah; Chevalier, Roger A

    2012-01-01

    We present extensive radio observations of the nearby Type Ibc supernovae 2004cc, 2004dk, and 2004gq spanning 8-1900 days after explosion. Using a dynamical model developed for synchrotron emission from a slightly decelerated shockwave, we estimate the velocity and energy of the fastest ejecta and the density profile of the circumstellar medium. The shockwaves of all three supernovae are characterized by non-relativistic velocities of v ~ (0.1-25)c and associated energies of E ~ (2-10) * 1e47 erg, in line with the expectations for a typical homologous explosion. Smooth circumstellar density profiles are indicated by the early radio data and we estimate the progenitor mass loss rates to be ~ (0.6-13) * 1e-5 M_sun/yr (wind velocity 10^3 km/s). These estimates approach the saturation limit (~1e-4 M_sun/yr) for line-driven winds from Wolf-Rayet stars, the favored progenitors of SNe Ibc including those associated with long-duration GRBs. Intriguingly, at later epochs all three supernovae show evidence for abrupt r...

  17. The Low Velocity Wind from the Circumstellar Matter Around the B9V Star sigma Herculis

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C H

    2003-01-01

    We have obtained FUSE spectra of sigma Her, a nearby binary system, with a main sequence primary, that has a Vega-like infrared excess. We observe absorption in the excited fine structure lines C II* at 1037 A, N II* at 1085 A, and N II** at 1086 A that are blueshifted by as much as ~30 km/sec with respect to the star. Since these features are considerably narrower than the stellar lines and broader than interstellar features, the C II and N II are circumstellar. We suggest that there is a radiatively driven wind, arising from the circumstellar matter, rather than accretion as occurs around beta Pic, because of sigma Her's high luminosity. Assuming that the gas is liberated by collisions between parent bodies at 20 AU, the approximate distance at which blackbody grains are in radiative equilibrium with the star and at which 3-body orbits become unstable, we infer dM/dt ~ 6 * 10^-12 M_{sun}/yr. This wind depletes the minimum mass of parent bodies in less than the estimated age of the system.

  18. The PDS 66 Circumstellar Disk as seen in Polarized Light with the Gemini Planet Imager

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, Schuyler G; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A; Nielsen, Eric L; Wang, Jason; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Dong, Ruobing; Draper, Zachary H; Duchene, Gaspard; Fitzgerald, Michael P; Goodsell, Stephen J; Grady, Carol A; Graham, James R; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Hines, Dean C; Hung, Li-Wei; Kalas, Paul; Macintosh, Bruce; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyro, Fredrik T; Schneider, Glenn; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J

    2016-01-01

    We present H and K band imaging polarimetry for the PDS 66 circumstellar disk obtained during the commissioning of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). Polarization images reveal a clear detection of the disk in to the 0.12'' inner working angle (IWA) in H band, almost 3 times as close to the star as the previous HST observations with NICMOS and STIS (0.35'' effective IWA). The centro-symmetric polarization vectors confirm that the bright inner disk detection is due to circumstellar scattered light. A more diffuse disk extends to a bright outer ring centered at 80 AU. We discuss several physical mechanisms capable of producing the observed ring + gap structure. GPI data confirm enhanced scattering on the East side of the disk which is inferred to be nearer to us. We also detect a lateral asymmetry in the South possibly due to shadowing from material within the inner working angle. This likely corresponds to a temporally variable azimuthal asymmetry observed in HST/STIS coronagraphic imaging.

  19. Effects of stellar flybys on planetary systems: 3D modeling of the circumstellar disks damping effects

    CERN Document Server

    Picogna, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Stellar flybys in star clusters are suspected to affect the orbital architecture of planetary systems causing eccentricity excitation and orbital misalignment between the planet orbit and the equatorial plane of the star. We explore whether the impulsive changes in the orbital elements of planets, caused by an hyperbolic stellar flyby, can be fully damped by the circumstellar disk surrounding the star. The time required to disperse stellar clusters is in fact comparable to circumstellar disk's lifetime. We have modelled in 3D a system made of a solar type star surrounded by a low density disk with a giant planet embedded in it approached on a hyperbolic encounter trajectory by a second star, of similar mass and with its own disk. We focus on extreme configurations where a very deep stellar flyby perturbs a Jovian planet on an external orbit. This allows to test in full the ability of the disk to erase the effects of the stellar encounter. We find that the amount of mass lost by the disk during the stellar fly...

  20. Photoevaporation of Circumstellar Disks due to External FUV Radiation in Stellar Aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, F C; Laughlin, G; Gorti, U; Adams, Fred C.; Hollenbach, David; Laughlin, Gregory; Gorti, Uma

    2004-01-01

    When stars form in small groups (N = 100 - 500 members), their circumstellar disks are exposed to little EUV radiation but a great deal of FUV radiation from massive stars in the group. This paper calculates mass loss rates for circumstellar disks exposed to external FUV radiation. Previous work treated large disks and/or intense radiation fields in which the disk radius exceeds the critical radius (supercritical disks) where the sound speed in the FUV heated layer exceeds the escape speed. This paper shows that significant mass loss still takes place for subcritical systems. Some of the gas extends beyond the disk edge (above the disk surface) to larger distances where the temperature is higher, the escape speed is lower, and an outflow develops. The evaporation rate is a sensitive function of the stellar mass and disk radius, which determine the escape speed, and the external FUV flux, which determines the temperature structure of the flow. Disks around red dwarfs are readily evaporated and shrink to disk r...

  1. A New View of the Circumstellar Environment of SN 1987A

    CERN Document Server

    Sugerman, B E K; Kunkel, W E; Heathcote, S R; Lawrence, S S; Sugerman, Ben E. K.; Crotts, Arlin P. S.; Kunkel, William E.; Heathcote, Stephen R.; Lawrence, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    We summarize the analysis of a uniform set of both previously-known and newly-discovered scattered-light echoes, detected within 30" of SN 1987A in ten years of optical imaging, and with which we have constructed the most complete three-dimensional model of the progenitor's circumstellar environment. Surrounding the SN is a richly-structured bipolar nebula. An outer, double-lobed ``peanut,'' which we believe is the contact discontinuity between the red supergiant and main sequence winds, is a prolate shell extending 28 ly along the poles and 11 ly near the equator. Napoleon's Hat, previously believed to be an independent structure, is the waist of this peanut, which is pinched to a radius of 6 ly. Interior, the innermost circumstellar material lies along a cylindrical hourglass, 1 ly in radius and 4 ly long, which connects to the peanut by a thick equatorial disk. The nebulae are inclined 41o south and 8o east of the line of sight, slightly elliptical in cross section, and marginally offset west of the SN. Th...

  2. THE PDS 66 CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK AS SEEN IN POLARIZED LIGHT WITH THE GEMINI PLANET IMAGER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Schuyler G.; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Perrin, Marshall; Hines, Dean C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Nielsen, Eric L. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Wang, Jason; Dong, Ruobing; Duchêne, Gaspard; Graham, James R.; Kalas, Paul [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cardwell, Andrew [LBT Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Room 552, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Chilcote, Jeffrey [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Draper, Zachary H. [University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Hung, Li-Wei [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Goodsell, Stephen J. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Grady, Carol A. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 96002 (United States); Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale, E-mail: swolff9@jh.edu [Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); and others

    2016-02-10

    We present H- and K-band imaging polarimetry for the PDS 66 circumstellar disk obtained during the commissioning of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). Polarization images reveal a clear detection of the disk in to the 0.″12 inner working angle (IWA) in the H band, almost three times closer to the star than the previous Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations with NICMOS and STIS (0.″35 effective IWA). The centro-symmetric polarization vectors confirm that the bright inner disk detection is due to circumstellar scattered light. A more diffuse disk extends to a bright outer ring centered at 80 AU. We discuss several physical mechanisms capable of producing the observed ring + gap structure. GPI data confirm enhanced scattering on the east side of the disk that is inferred to be nearer to us. We also detect a lateral asymmetry in the south possibly due to shadowing from material within the IWA. This likely corresponds to a temporally variable azimuthal asymmetry observed in HST/STIS coronagraphic imaging.

  3. A search of diffuse bands in fullerene planetary nebulae: evidence for diffuse circumstellar bands

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz-Luis, J J; Rao, N Kameswara; Manchado, A; Cataldo, F

    2014-01-01

    Large fullerenes and fullerene-based molecules have been proposed as carriers of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). The recent detection of the most common fullerenes (C60 and C70) around some Planetary Nebulae (PNe) now enable us to study the DIBs towards fullerene-rich space environments. We search DIBs in the optical spectra towards three fullerene-containing PNe (Tc 1, M 1-20, and IC 418). Special attention is given to DIBs which are found to be unusually intense towards these fullerene sources. In particular, an unusually strong 4428A absorption feature is a common charateristic to fullerene PNe. Similarly to Tc 1, the strongest optical bands of neutral C60 are not detected towards IC 418. Our high-quality (S/N > 300) spectra for PN Tc 1 together with its large radial velocity permits us to search for the presence of diffuse bands of circumstellar origin which we refer to as diffuse circumstellar bands (DCBs). We report the first tentative detection of two DCBs at 4428 and 5780 A in the fullerene-rich ci...

  4. Modelling the circumstellar medium in RS Ophiuchi and its link to Type Ia supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, Richard A; Podsiadlowski, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Recent interpretations of narrow, variable absorption lines detected in some Type Ia supernovae suggest that their progenitors are surrounded by dense, circumstellar material. Similar variations detected in the symbiotic recurrent nova system RS Oph, which undergoes thermonuclear outbursts every ~20 years, making it an ideal candidate to investigate the origin of these lines. To this end, we present simulations of multiple mass transfer-nova cycles in RS Oph. We find that the quiescent mass transfer produces a dense, equatorial outflow, i.e., concentrated towards the binary orbital plane, and an accretion disc forms around the white dwarf. The interaction of a spherical nova outburst with these aspherical circumstellar structures produces a bipolar outflow, similar to that seen in HST imaging of the 2006 outburst. In order to produce an ionization structure that is consistent with observations, a mass-loss rate of $5 \\times 10^{-7}\\,\\mathrm{M}_{\\odot}\\,\\mathrm{yr}^{-1}$ from the red giant is required. The sim...

  5. BANYAN. VIII. New Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs with Candidate Circumstellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Boucher, Anne; Gagné, Jonathan; Malo, Lison; Faherty, Jacqueline K; Doyon, René; Chen, Christine H

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a search for new circumstellar disks around low-mass stars and brown dwarfs with spectral types >K5 that are confirmed or candidate members of nearby young moving groups. Our search input sample was drawn from the BANYAN surveys of Malo et al. and Gagn\\'e et al. Two-Micron All-Sky Survey and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer data were used to detect near- to mid-infrared excesses that would reveal the presence of circumstellar disks. A total of 13 targets with convincing excesses were identified: four are new and nine were already known in the literature. The new candidates are 2MASS J05010082$-$4337102 (M4.5), J08561384$-$1342242 (M8$\\,\\gamma$), J12474428$-$3816464 (M9$\\,\\gamma$) and J02265658$-$5327032 (L0$\\,\\delta$), and are candidate members of the TW Hya ($\\sim10\\pm 3\\,$Myr), Columba ($\\sim 42^{+6}_{-4}\\,$Myr) and Tucana-Horologium ($\\sim 45\\pm 4\\,$Myr) associations, with masses of $120$ and $13-18\\,M_{\\mathrm{Jup}}$. The M8$-$L0 objects in Columba and Tucana-Horologium are po...

  6. AGB stars in the LMC: evolution of dust in circumstellar envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Dell'Agli, F; Schneider, R; Di Criscienzo, M; García-Hernández, D A; Rossi, C; Brocato, E

    2014-01-01

    We calculated theoretical evolutionary sequences of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, including formation and evolution of dust grains in their circumstellar envelope. By considering stellar populations of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), we calculate synthetic colour-colour and colour-magnitude diagrams, which are compared with those obtained by the Spitzer Space Telescope. The comparison between observations and theoretical predictions outlines that extremely obscured carbon-stars and oxygen-rich sources experiencing hot bottom burning (HBB) occupy well defined, distinct regions in the colour-colour ($[3.6]-[4.5]$, $[5.8]-[8.0]$) diagram. The C-rich stars are distributed along a diagonal strip that we interpret as an evolutionary sequence, becoming progressively more obscured as the stellar surface layers enrich in carbon. Their circumstellar envelopes host solid carbon dust grains with size in the range $0.05 2$, are the descendants of stars with initial mass $M_{in} \\sim 2.5 - 3 M_{\\odot}$ in the ver...

  7. V409 Tau As Another AA Tau: Photometric Observations of Stellar Occultations by the Circumstellar Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Joseph E; Stassun, Keivan G; Siverd, Robert J; Cargile, Phillip; Weintraub, David A; Beatty, Thomas G; Gaudi, B Scott; Mamajek, Eric E; Sanchez, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    AA Tau is a well studied young stellar object that presents many of the photometric characteristics of a Classical T Tauri star (CTTS), including short-timescale stochastic variability attributed to spots and/or accretion as well as long duration dimming events attributed to occultations by vertical features (e.g., warps) in its circumstellar disk. We present new photometric observations of AA Tau from the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope North (KELT-North) which reveal a deep, extended dimming event in 2011, which we show supports the interpretation by Bouvier et al. (2013) of an occultation by a high-density feature in the circumstellar disk located >8 AU from the star. We also present KELT-North observations of V409 Tau, a relatively unstudied young stellar object also in Taurus-Auriga, showing short timescale erratic variability, along with two separate long and deep dimming events, one from January 2009 through late October 2010, and the other from March 2012 until at least September 2013. We interp...

  8. Recurring Occultations of RW Aurigae by Coagulated Dust in the Tidally Disrupted Circumstellar Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Joseph E; Siverd, Robert J; Pepper, Joshua; Stassun, Keivan G; Gaudi, B Scott; Weintraub, David A; Beatty, Thomas G; Lund, Michael B; Stevens, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    We present photometric observations of RW Aurigae, a Classical T Tauri system, that reveal two remarkable dimming events. These events are similar to that which we observed in 2010-2011, which was the first such deep dimming observed in RW Aur in a century's worth of photometric monitoring. We suggested the 2010-2011 dimming was the result of an occultation of the star by its tidally disrupted circumstellar disk. In 2012-2013, the RW Aur system dimmed by ~0.7 mag for ~40 days and in 2014/2015 the system dimmed by ~2 mag for >250 days. The ingress/egress duration measurements of the more recent events agree well with those from the 2010-2011 event, providing strong evidence that the new dimmings are kinematically associated with the same occulting source. Therefore, we suggest that both the 2012-2013 and 2014-2015 dimming events, measured using data from the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope and the Kutztown University Observatory, are also occultations of RW Aur A by tidally disrupted circumstellar materi...

  9. Multi-Scale Modelling of Deformation and Fracture in a Biomimetic Apatite-Protein Composite: Molecular-Scale Processes Lead to Resilience at the μm-Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Dirk; Duchstein, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Fracture mechanisms of an enamel-like hydroxyapatite-collagen composite model are elaborated by means of molecular and coarse-grained dynamics simulation. Using fully atomistic models, we uncover molecular-scale plastic deformation and fracture processes initiated at the organic-inorganic interface. Furthermore, coarse-grained models are developed to investigate fracture patterns at the μm-scale. At the meso-scale, micro-fractures are shown to reduce local stress and thus prevent material failure after loading beyond the elastic limit. On the basis of our multi-scale simulation approach, we provide a molecular scale rationalization of this phenomenon, which seems key to the resilience of hierarchical biominerals, including teeth and bone. PMID:27300748

  10. Application of graphene-ionic liquid-chitosan composite-modified carbon molecular wire electrode for the sensitive determination of adenosine-5′-monophosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Fan [Key Laboratory of Tropical Medicinal Plant Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 (China); Gong, Shixing; Xu, Li; Zhu, Huanhuan [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Sun, Zhenfan [Key Laboratory of Tropical Medicinal Plant Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 (China); Sun, Wei, E-mail: swyy26@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory of Tropical Medicinal Plant Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 (China)

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a graphene (GR) ionic liquid (IL) 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and chitosan composite-modified carbon molecular wire electrode (CMWE) was fabricated by a drop-casting method and further applied to the sensitive electrochemical detection of adenosine-5′-monophosphate (AMP). CMWE was prepared with diphenylacetylene (DPA) as the modifier and the binder. The properties of modified electrode were examined by scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Electrochemical behaviors of AMP was carefully investigated with enhanced responses appeared, which was due to the presence of GR-IL composite on the electrode surface with excellent electrocatalytic ability. A well-defined oxidation peak of AMP appeared at 1.314 V and the electrochemical parameters were calculated by electrochemical methods. Under the selected conditions, the oxidation peak current of AMP was proportional to its concentration in the range from 0.01 μM to 80.0 μM with the detection limit as 3.42 nM (3σ) by differential pulse voltammetry. The proposed method exhibited good selectivity and was applied to the detection of vidarabine monophosphate injection samples with satisfactory results. - Highlights: • A graphene, ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and chitosan composite were prepared. • Composite-modified carbon molecular wire electrode was fabricated and characterized. • A sensitive electrochemical method for the detection of adenosine-5′-monophosphate was established.

  11. Application of graphene-ionic liquid-chitosan composite-modified carbon molecular wire electrode for the sensitive determination of adenosine-5′-monophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a graphene (GR) ionic liquid (IL) 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and chitosan composite-modified carbon molecular wire electrode (CMWE) was fabricated by a drop-casting method and further applied to the sensitive electrochemical detection of adenosine-5′-monophosphate (AMP). CMWE was prepared with diphenylacetylene (DPA) as the modifier and the binder. The properties of modified electrode were examined by scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Electrochemical behaviors of AMP was carefully investigated with enhanced responses appeared, which was due to the presence of GR-IL composite on the electrode surface with excellent electrocatalytic ability. A well-defined oxidation peak of AMP appeared at 1.314 V and the electrochemical parameters were calculated by electrochemical methods. Under the selected conditions, the oxidation peak current of AMP was proportional to its concentration in the range from 0.01 μM to 80.0 μM with the detection limit as 3.42 nM (3σ) by differential pulse voltammetry. The proposed method exhibited good selectivity and was applied to the detection of vidarabine monophosphate injection samples with satisfactory results. - Highlights: • A graphene, ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and chitosan composite were prepared. • Composite-modified carbon molecular wire electrode was fabricated and characterized. • A sensitive electrochemical method for the detection of adenosine-5′-monophosphate was established

  12. Scale effects in tribological properties of solid-lubricating composites made of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene filled with calcium stearate particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, S. A.; Volkov-Bogorodskiy, D. B.; Knyzeva, A. G.; Panin, S. V.; Kornienko, L. A.

    2016-04-01

    Friction properties being influenced by scale effects are simulated in the paper by the example of polymer composite material made from Ultra High-Molecular Weight Polyethylenes (UHMWPE) filled by calcium stearate (C36H70CaO4). Of interest are the composites whose mechanical properties and tribotechnical characteristics do not depend monotonically on filler (inclusions) weight fraction. In order to describe the influence of scale effects onto frictional properties the model based on Reiss averaging (model of "weak phase") is employed. It is also suggested that when gradient elasticity theory is applicable the formal analogy between effective friction coefficient for surface heterogeneous structures and effective mechanical properties (compliances) for heterogeneous material can take place. Theoretical dependence to describe nonmonotonic change of effective friction coefficient versus filler concentration was obtained for the polymer composites under study. The suggested expressions might be useful for the sake of properties prognosis of antifriction polymeric materilas.

  13. Dynamics of Circumstellar Disks. III. The Case of GG Tau A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew F.; Marzari, F.

    2016-08-01

    We present two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic code, VINE, to model a self-gravitating binary system. We model configurations in which a circumbinary torus+disk surrounds a pair of stars in orbit around each other and a circumstellar disk surrounds each star, similar to that observed for the GG Tau A system. We assume that the disks cool as blackbodies, using rates determined independently at each location in the disk by the time dependent temperature of the photosphere there. We assume heating due to hydrodynamical processes and to radiation from the two stars, using rates approximated from a measure of the radiation intercepted by the disk at its photosphere. We simulate a suite of systems configured with semimajor axes of either a = 62 AU (“wide”) or a = 32 AU (“close”), and with assumed orbital eccentricity of either e = 0 or e = 0.3. Each simulation follows the evolution for ˜6500-7500 yr, corresponding to about three orbits of the torus around the center of mass. Our simulations show that strong, sharply defined spiral structures are generated from the stirring action of the binary and that, in some cases, these structures fragment into 1-2 massive clumps. The torus quickly fragments into several dozen such fragments in configurations in which either the binary is replaced by a single star of equal mass, or radiative heating is neglected. The spiral structures extend inwards to the circumstellar environment as large scale material streams for which most material is found on trajectories that return it to the torus on a timescale of 1-200 yr, with only a small fraction accreting into the circumstellar environment. The spiral structures also propagate outwards through the torus, generating net outwards mass flow, and eventually losing coherence at large distances from the stars. The torus becomes significantly eccentric in shape over most of its evolution. In all configurations, accretion onto the stars

  14. Dynamics of Circumstellar Disks. III. The Case of GG Tau A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew F.; Marzari, F.

    2016-08-01

    We present two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic code, VINE, to model a self-gravitating binary system. We model configurations in which a circumbinary torus+disk surrounds a pair of stars in orbit around each other and a circumstellar disk surrounds each star, similar to that observed for the GG Tau A system. We assume that the disks cool as blackbodies, using rates determined independently at each location in the disk by the time dependent temperature of the photosphere there. We assume heating due to hydrodynamical processes and to radiation from the two stars, using rates approximated from a measure of the radiation intercepted by the disk at its photosphere. We simulate a suite of systems configured with semimajor axes of either a = 62 AU (“wide”) or a = 32 AU (“close”), and with assumed orbital eccentricity of either e = 0 or e = 0.3. Each simulation follows the evolution for ˜6500–7500 yr, corresponding to about three orbits of the torus around the center of mass. Our simulations show that strong, sharply defined spiral structures are generated from the stirring action of the binary and that, in some cases, these structures fragment into 1–2 massive clumps. The torus quickly fragments into several dozen such fragments in configurations in which either the binary is replaced by a single star of equal mass, or radiative heating is neglected. The spiral structures extend inwards to the circumstellar environment as large scale material streams for which most material is found on trajectories that return it to the torus on a timescale of 1–200 yr, with only a small fraction accreting into the circumstellar environment. The spiral structures also propagate outwards through the torus, generating net outwards mass flow, and eventually losing coherence at large distances from the stars. The torus becomes significantly eccentric in shape over most of its evolution. In all configurations, accretion onto the

  15. Revealing changes in molecular composition of plant cell walls on the micron-level by Raman mapping and vertex component analysis (VCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Notburga eGierlinger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available At the molecular level the plant cell walls consist of a few nanometer thick semi-crystalline cellulose fibrils embedded in amorphous matrix polymers such as pectins, hemicelluloses and lignins. The arrangement of these molecules within the cell wall in different plant tissues, cells and cell wall layers is of crucial importance for a better understanding and thus optimized utilization of plant biomass. During the last years Confocal Raman microscopy evolved as a powerful method in plant science by revealing the different molecules in context with the microstructure. In this study two-dimensional spectral maps have been acquired of micro-cross-sections of spruce (softwood and beech (hardwood. Raman images have been derived by using univariate (band integration, height ratios and multivariate methods (vertex component analysis, VCA. While univariate analysis only visualizes changes in selected band heights or areas, VCA separates anatomical regions and cell wall layers with the most different molecular structures by projecting the data to the identified orthogonal subspace in an interactive way and finding the endmember by repeated iteration. Beside visualization of the distinguished regions and features the underlying molecular structure can be derived based on the endmember spectra. Only one pure component spectrum (lignin from the cell corner was extracted, while all other endmember spectra represented mixtures characteristic for the different resolved spatial areas. VCA revealed that the lumen sided S3 layer has a similar molecular composition as the pit membrane, both revealing a clear change in lignin composition compared to all other cell wall regions. Within the S2 layer a lamellar structure was visualized, which was elucidated to derive also from slight changes in lignin composition and content and might be due to successive but not uniform lignification during growth.

  16. RADIO OBSERVATIONS REVEAL UNUSUAL CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVIRONMENTS FOR SOME TYPE Ibc SUPERNOVA PROGENITORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present extensive radio observations of the nearby Type Ibc supernovae (SNe Ibc) 2004cc, 2004dk, and 2004gq spanning Δt ≈ 8-1900 days after explosion. Using a dynamical model developed for synchrotron emission from a slightly decelerated shock wave, we estimate the velocity and energy of the fastest ejecta and the density profile of the circumstellar medium. The shock waves of all three supernovae are characterized by non-relativistic velocities of v-bar approx. (0.1-25)c and associated energies of E ≈ (2-10) × 1047 erg, in line with the expectations for a typical homologous explosion. Smooth circumstellar density profiles are indicated by the early radio data and we estimate the progenitor mass-loss rates to be M-dot approx. (0.6-13) x 10-5 M☉ yr-1 (wind velocity, vw = 103 km s–1). These estimates approach the saturation limit ( M-dot ∼10-4 M☉ yr-1) for line-driven winds from Wolf-Rayet stars, the favored progenitors of SNe Ibc including those associated with long-duration gamma-ray bursts. Intriguingly, at later epochs all three supernovae show evidence for abrupt radio variability that we attribute to large density modulations (factor of ∼3-6) at circumstellar radii of r ≈ (1-50) × 1016 cm. If due to variable mass loss, these modulations are associated with progenitor activity on a timescale of ∼10-100 years before explosion. We consider these results in the context of variable mass-loss mechanisms including wind clumping, metallicity-independent continuum-driven ejections, and binary-induced modulations. It may also be possible that the SN shock waves are dynamically interacting with wind termination shocks; however, this requires the environment to be highly pressurized and/or the progenitor to be rapidly rotating prior to explosion. The proximity of the density modulations to the explosion sites may suggest a synchronization between unusual progenitor mass loss and the SN explosion, reminiscent of Type IIn supernovae. This study

  17. Mid-infrared sizes of circumstellar disks around Herbig Ae/Be stars measured with MIDI on the VLTI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Leinert; R.J.H.M. van Boekel; L.B.F.M. Waters; O. Chesneau; F. Malbet; R. Köhler; W. Jaffe; T. Ratzka; A. Dutrey; T. Preibisch; U. Graser; E. Bakker; G. Chagnon; W.D. Cotton; C. Dominik; C.P. Dullemond; A.W. Glazenborg-Kluttig; A. Glindemann; T. Henning; K.-H. Hofmann; J. de Jong; R. Lenzen; S. Ligori; B. Lopez; J. Meisner; S. Morel; F. Paresce; J.-W. Pel; I. Percheron; G. Perrin; F. Przygodda; A. Richichi; M. Schöller; P. Schuller; B. Stecklum; M.E. van den Ancker; O. von der Lühe; G. Weigelt

    2004-01-01

    We present the first long baseline mid-infrared interferometric observations of the circumstellar disks surrounding Herbig Ae/Be stars. The observations were obtained using the mid-infrared interferometric instrument MIDI at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope Interferometer

  18. Strontium-doped calcium polyphosphate/ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene composites: A new class of artificial joint components with enhanced biological efficacy to aseptic loosening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhipeng; Huang, Bingxue; Li, Yiwen; Tian, Meng; Li, Li; Yu, Xixun

    2016-04-01

    To enhance implant stability and prolong the service life of artificial joint component, a new approach was proposed to improve the wear resistance of artificial joint component and endow artificial joint component with the biological efficacy of resistance to aseptic loosening. Strontium calcium polyphosphate (SCPP) were interfused in ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) by a combination of liquid nitrogen ball-milling and flat-panel curing process to prepare the SCPP/UHMWPE composites. The micro-structure, mechanical characterization, tribological characterization and bioactivities of various SCPP/UHMWPE composites were investigated. The results suggested that this method could statistically improve the wear resistance of UHMWPE resulting from a good SCPP particle dispersion. Moreover, it is also observed that the SCPP/UHMWPE composites-wear particles could promote the production of OPG by osteoblasts and decrease the production of RANKL by osteoblasts, and then increase the OPG/RANKL ratio. This indicated that the SCPP/UHMWPE composites had potential efficacy to prevent and treat aseptic loosening. Above all, the SCPP/UHMWPE composites with a suitable SCPP content would be the promising materials for fabricating artificial joint component with ability to resist aseptic loosening.

  19. Strontium-doped calcium polyphosphate/ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene composites: A new class of artificial joint components with enhanced biological efficacy to aseptic loosening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhipeng; Huang, Bingxue; Li, Yiwen; Tian, Meng; Li, Li; Yu, Xixun

    2016-04-01

    To enhance implant stability and prolong the service life of artificial joint component, a new approach was proposed to improve the wear resistance of artificial joint component and endow artificial joint component with the biological efficacy of resistance to aseptic loosening. Strontium calcium polyphosphate (SCPP) were interfused in ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) by a combination of liquid nitrogen ball-milling and flat-panel curing process to prepare the SCPP/UHMWPE composites. The micro-structure, mechanical characterization, tribological characterization and bioactivities of various SCPP/UHMWPE composites were investigated. The results suggested that this method could statistically improve the wear resistance of UHMWPE resulting from a good SCPP particle dispersion. Moreover, it is also observed that the SCPP/UHMWPE composites-wear particles could promote the production of OPG by osteoblasts and decrease the production of RANKL by osteoblasts, and then increase the OPG/RANKL ratio. This indicated that the SCPP/UHMWPE composites had potential efficacy to prevent and treat aseptic loosening. Above all, the SCPP/UHMWPE composites with a suitable SCPP content would be the promising materials for fabricating artificial joint component with ability to resist aseptic loosening. PMID:26838880

  20. CO and HI emission from the circumstellar envelopes of some evolved stars

    CERN Document Server

    Diep, P N; Nhung, P T; Tuan-Anh, P; Bertre, T Le; Winters, J M; Matthews, L D; Phuong, N T; Thao, N T; Darriulat, P

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the CO and HI radio emission of some evolved stars are presented using data collected by the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer and Pico Veleta telescope, the Nan\\c{c}ay Radio Telescope and the JVLA and ALMA arrays. Approximate axial symmetry of the physical and kinematic properties of the circumstellar envelope (CSE) are observed in CO emission, in particular, from RS Cnc, EP Aqr and the Red Rectangle. A common feature is the presence of a bipolar outflow causing an enhanced wind velocity in the polar directions. HI emission extends to larger radial distances than probed by CO emission and displays features related to the interaction between the stellar outflow and interstellar matter. With its unprecedented sensitivity, FAST will open a new window on such studies. Its potential in this domain is briefly illustrated.

  1. Prospecting for planets in circumstellar dust - Sifting the evidence from Beta Pictoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diner, D. J.; Appleby, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    IRAS and near-IR coronographic data for the A5V star Beta Pic are analyzed for evidence of planetary formation. The light scattered from the central star in the system is integrated along the distance to the star to determine the disk magnitude at various distances from the star. A modified gamma distribution is applied to evaluate the scattering coefficient to test a hypothesis that the inner 30 AU of the disk has been swept out by planets. The scattering from the region around Beta Pic is compared with scattering around other A5V stars. Finally, the IR data at 0.89 micron is compared with scattering at the coronograph wavelengths. No evidence is found to support the hypothesis of clearing in the inner disk, although large particle densities can be found very close to Beta Pic. The study illustrates the effectiveness of using scattered light and IR data to discover and characterize matter distributions circumstellar disks.

  2. Circular Polarization of Water Masers in the Circumstellar Envelopes of Late Type Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Vlemmings, W H T; Van Langevelde, H J

    2002-01-01

    We present circular polarization measurements of circumstellar H_2O masers. The circular polarization detected in the (6_{16}-5_{23}) rotational transition of the H_{2}O maser can be attributed to Zeeman splitting in the intermediate temperature and density regime. The magnetic fields are derived using a general, LTE Zeeman analysis as well as a full radiative transfer method (non-LTE), which includes a treatment of all hyperfine components simultaneously as well as the effects of saturation and unequal populations of the magnetic substates. The differences and relevances of these interpretations are discussed extensively. The field strengths are compared with previous detections of the magnetic field on the SiO and OH masers. We show that the magnetic pressure dominates the thermal pressure by a factor of 20 or more.

  3. An efficient algorithm for two-dimensional radiative transfer in axisymmetric circumstellar envelopes and disks

    CERN Document Server

    Dullemond, C P

    2000-01-01

    We present an algorithm for two-dimensional radiative transfer in axisymmetric, circumstellar media. The formal integration of the transfer equation is performed by a generalization of the short characteristics (SC) method to spherical coordinates. Accelerated Lambda Iteration (ALI) and Ng's algorithm are used to converge towards a solution. By taking a logarithmically spaced radial coordinate grid, the method has the natural capability of treating problems that span several decades in radius, in the most extreme case from the stellar radius up to parsec scale. Flux conservation is guaranteed in spherical coordinates by a particular choice of discrete photon directions and a special treatment of nearly-radially outward propagating radiation. The algorithm works well from zero up to very high optical depth, and can be used for a wide variety of transfer problems, including non-LTE line formation, dust continuum transfer and high temperature processes such as compton scattering. In this paper we focus on multip...

  4. Volatile-Rich Circumstellar Gas in the Unusual 49 Ceti Debris Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Roberge, Aki; Kamp, Inga; Weinberger, Alycia J; Grady, Carol A

    2014-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope STIS far-UV spectra of the edge-on disk around 49 Ceti, one of the very few debris disks showing sub-mm CO emission. Many atomic absorption lines are present in the spectra, most of which arise from circumstellar gas lying along the line-of-sight to the central star. We determined the line-of-sight CI column density, estimated the total carbon column density, and set limits on the OI column density. Surprisingly, no line-of-sight CO absorption was seen. We discuss possible explanations for this non-detection, and present preliminary estimates of the carbon abundances in the line-of-sight gas. The C/Fe ratio is much greater than the solar value, suggesting that 49 Cet harbors a volatile-rich gas disk similar to that of Beta Pictoris.

  5. Constraints on the Formation and Evolution of Circumstellar Disks in Rotating Magnetized Cloud Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, S

    1998-01-01

    We use magnetic collapse models to place some constraints on the formation and angular momentum evolution of circumstellar disks which are embedded in magnetized cloud cores. Previous models have shown that the early evolution of a magnetized cloud core is governed by ambipolar diffusion and magnetic braking, and that the core takes the form of a nonequilibrium flattened envelope which ultimately collapses dynamically to form a protostar. In this paper, we focus on the inner centrifugally-supported disk, which is formed only after a central protostar exists, and grows by dynamical accretion from the flattened envelope. We estimate a centrifugal radius for the collapse of mass shells within a rotating, magnetized cloud core. The centrifugal radius of the inner disk is related to its mass through the two important parameters characterizing the background medium: the background rotation rate $\\Omb$ and the background magnetic field strength $\\Bref$. We also revisit the issue of how rapidly mass is deposited onto...

  6. A Compact Circumstellar Shell as the Source of High--velocity Features in SN 2011fe

    CERN Document Server

    Mulligan, Brian W

    2015-01-01

    High--velocity features (HVF), especially of Ca II, are frequently seen in Type Ia supernovae observed prior to B-band maximum (Bmax). These HVF start at more than 25,000 km/s in the days after first light, and slow to about 18,000 km/s near Bmax. To recreate the Ca II near-infrared triplet (CaNIR) HVF in SN 2011fe, we consider the interaction between a Type Ia supernova and a compact circumstellar shell, employing a hydrodynamic 1-D simulation using FLASH. We generate synthetic spectra from the hydrodynamic results using syn++. We show that the CaNIR HVF and its velocity evolution is better explained by a supernova model interacting with a shell than a model without a shell, and briefly discuss the implications for progenitor models.

  7. THE GAS/DUST RATIO OF CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS: TESTING MODELS OF PLANETESIMAL FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, David [New York Center for Astrobiology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180-3590 (United States); Gibb, Erika [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-St. Louis, 8001 Natural Bridge Road, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Rettig, Terrence W.; Tilley, David; Balsara, Dinshaw [Center for Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Brittain, Sean [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    We present high-resolution, near-infrared NIRSPEC observations of CO absorption toward six class II T Tauri stars: AA Tau, DG Tau, IQ Tau, RY Tau, CW Tau, and Haro 6-5b. {sup 12}CO overtone absorption lines originating from the circumstellar disk of each object were used to calculate line-of-sight gas column densities toward each source. We measured the gas/dust ratio as a function of disk inclination, utilizing measured visual extinctions and inclinations for each star. The majority of our sources show further evidence for a correlation between the gas/dust column density ratio and disk inclination similar to that found by Rettig et al.

  8. Early-time signatures of {\\gamma}-ray emission from supernovae in dense circumstellar media

    CERN Document Server

    Kantzas, Dimitrios; Mastichiadis, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    We present our results on the {\\gamma}-ray emission from interaction-powered supernovae (SNe), a recently discovered SN type that is suggested to be surrounded by a circumstellar medium (CSM) with densities 10^7-10^12~ cm^-3. Such high densities favor inelastic collisions between relativistic protons accelerated in the SN blast wave and CSM protons and the production of {\\gamma}-ray photons through neutral pion decays. Using a numerical code that includes synchrotron radiation, adiabatic losses due to the expansion of the source, photon-photon interactions, proton-proton collisions and proton-photon interactions, we calculate the multi-wavelength non-thermal photon emission soon after the shock breakout and follow its temporal evolution until 100-1000 days. Focusing on the {\\gamma}-ray emission at >100 MeV, we show that this could be detectable by the Fermi-LAT telescope for nearby (10^11 cm^-3).

  9. THE GAS/DUST RATIO OF CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS: TESTING MODELS OF PLANETESIMAL FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present high-resolution, near-infrared NIRSPEC observations of CO absorption toward six class II T Tauri stars: AA Tau, DG Tau, IQ Tau, RY Tau, CW Tau, and Haro 6-5b. 12CO overtone absorption lines originating from the circumstellar disk of each object were used to calculate line-of-sight gas column densities toward each source. We measured the gas/dust ratio as a function of disk inclination, utilizing measured visual extinctions and inclinations for each star. The majority of our sources show further evidence for a correlation between the gas/dust column density ratio and disk inclination similar to that found by Rettig et al.

  10. Molecular and isotopic composition of hydrate-bound and dissolved gases in the southern basin of Lake Baikal, based on an improved headspace gas method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Hirotoshi; Takahashi, Nobuo; Hachikubo, Akihiro; Minami, Hirotsugu; Yamashita, Satoshi; Shoji, Hitoshi; Khlystov, Oleg; Kalmychkov, Gennadiy; Grachev, Mikhail; De Batist, Marc

    2012-12-01

    Assessments of the molecular and isotopic composition of hydrate-bound and dissolved gases in pore water were conducted during the multi-phase gas hydrate project (MHP-09) cruise VER09-03 to the southern basin of Lake Baikal in September 2009. To avoid changes in gas composition during core sampling and transport, various headspace methods were investigated aimed at preserving the dissolved gases in pore water. When distilled water was added to the sediment samples, the concentrations of carbon dioxide and oxygen decreased because of dissolution into the water and/or microbial consumption. When the headspace was not flushed with inert gases, trace levels of hydrogen and ethylene were detected. The findings suggest that best preparation is achieved by flushing the headspace with helium, and adding a saturated aqueous solution of sodium chloride. This improved headspace method served to examine the molecular and isotopic compositions of gas samples retrieved at several new sites in the southern basin. Methane was the major component, and the proportion of ethane ranged widely from 0.0009 to 1.67 mol% of the total hydrocarbon gases. The proportions of propane and higher hydrocarbons were small or less than their detection limits. The carbon isotope signatures suggest that microbial-sourced methane and ethane were dominant in the Peschanka study area, whereas ethane was of thermogenic origin at all other study sites in the southern basin of Lake Baikal.

  11. Separation of small molecular peptides with the same amino acid composition but different sequences by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Peptidomics has emerged as a new discipline in recent years. Mass spectrometry (MS) is the most universal and efficient tool for structure identification of proteins and peptides. However,there is a limitation for the identification of peptides with the same amino acid composition but different se-quences because these peptides have identical mass spectra of molecular ions. This paper presents a high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) method for the separation of small molecular peptides with the same amino acid composition but dif-ferent sequences. Two tripeptides of Gly-Ser-Phe and Gly-Phe-Ser were used as a model sample. The separation behavior has been investigated and the separation conditions have been optimized. Under the optimum conditions,good repeatability was achieved. The developed method could provide a helpful reference for the separation of other peptides with the same amino acid composition but different sequences in the study of proteomics and peptidomics.

  12. A SYMMETRIC INNER CAVITY IN THE HD 141569A CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazoyer, J.; Choquet, É.; Perrin, M. D.; Pueyo, L.; Debes, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore MD 21218 (United States); Boccaletti, A. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC and Univ. Paris Diderot, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon (France); Augereau, J.-C.; Lagrange, A.-M. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Institut de Planétologie et d´Astrophysique (IPAG) F-38000 Grenoble (France); Wolff, S. G., E-mail: jmazoyer@stsci.edu [Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-02-20

    Some circumstellar disks, called transitional or hybrid disks, present characteristics of both protoplanetary disks (significant amount of gas) and debris disks (evolved structures around young main-sequence stars, composed of second generation dust, from collisions between planetesimals). Therefore, they are ideal astrophysical laboratories to witness the last stages of planet formation. The circumstellar disk around HD 141569A was intensively observed and resolved in the past from space, but also from the ground. However, the recent implementation of high contrast imaging systems has opened up new opportunities to re-analyze this object. We analyzed Gemini archival data from the Near-infrared Coronagraphic Imager obtained in 2011 in the H band, using several angular differential imaging techniques (classical ADI, LOCI, KLIP). These images reveal the complex structures of this disk with an unprecedented resolution. We also include archival Hubble Space Telescope images as an independent data set to confirm these findings. Using an analysis of the inner edge of the disk, we show that the inner disk is almost axisymmetrical. The measurement of an offset toward the east observed by previous authors is likely due to the fact that the eastern part of this disk is wider and more complex in substructure. Our precise reanalysis of the eastern side shows several structures, including a splitting of the disk and a small finger detached from the inner edge to the southeast. Finally, we find that the arc at 250 AU is unlikely to be a spiral, at least not at the inclination derived from the first ring, but instead could be interpreted as a third belt at a different inclination. If the very symmetrical inner disk edge is carved by a companion, the data presented here put additional constraints on its position. The observed very complex structures will be confirmed by the new generation of coronagraphic instrument (GPI, SPHERE). However, a full understanding of this system will

  13. Modelling the circumstellar medium in RS Ophiuchi and its link to Type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, R. A.; Mohamed, S.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.

    2016-03-01

    Recent interpretations of narrow, variable absorption lines detected in some Type Ia supernovae suggest that their progenitors are surrounded by dense, circumstellar material. Similar variations detected in the symbiotic recurrent nova system RS Oph, which undergoes thermonuclear outbursts every 20 years, making it an ideal candidate to investigate the origin of these lines. To this end, we present simulations of multiple mass transfer-nova cycles in RS Oph. We find that the quiescent mass transfer produces a dense, equatorial outflow, i.e. concentrated towards the binary orbital plane, and an accretion disc forms around the white dwarf. The interaction of a spherical nova outburst with these aspherical circumstellar structures produces a bipolar outflow, similar to that seen in Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the 2006 outburst. In order to produce an ionization structure that is consistent with observations, a mass-loss rate of 5 × 10-7 M⊙ yr-1 from the red giant is required. The simulations also produce a polar accretion flow, which may explain the broad wings of the quiescent H line and hard X-rays. By comparing simulated absorption line profiles to observations of the 2006 outburst, we are able to determine which components arise in the wind and which are due to the novae. We explore the possible behaviour of absorption line profiles as they may appear should a supernova occur in a system like RS Oph. Our models show similarities to supernovae like SN 2006X, but require a high mass-loss rate, dot{M} ˜ 10^{-6}-10-5 M⊙ yr-1, to explain the variability in SN 2006X.

  14. COMPOSITE POLYMERICADDITIVESDESIGNATED FORCONCRETEMIXES BASED ONPOLYACRYLATES, PRODUCTS OF THERMAL DECOMPOSITION OF POLYAMIDE-6 AND LOW-MOLECULAR POLYETHYLENE

    OpenAIRE

    Polyakov Vyacheslav Sergeevich; Padokhin Valeriy Alekseevich; Akulova Marina Vladimirovna -

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the present research is to develop polymeric additives based on aqueous dispersions of (meth)acrylic polymers, including polymethacrylates, polyacrylates, products of thermal decomposition of polyamide-6 in the vegetable oil media, and low-molecular polyethylene. Decomposition of polyamide-6 took 8…10 hours at the temperature of 245…275 °С. The mixture of low-molecular polyamides, the average molecular weight of which reached 3400…8600, was used both independently and as a consti...

  15. RECEIVING OF COMPOSITION OF THE RELEASE COATINGS BASED ON HIGH-MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS FOR MOLDING OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS UNDER PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Pivovarchik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of researches on determination of optimal technological parameters of the emulsions preparation, enabling to receive composition of separating covering with high sediment stability, are given.

  16. Temperature effects on polymer-carbon composite sensors: evaluating the role of polymer molecular weight and carbon loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, M. L.; Lim, J. R.; Manatt, K.; Kisor, A.; Lara, L.; Jewell, A. D.; Yen, S. -P. S.; Shevade, A. V.; Ryan, M. A.

    2003-01-01

    We report the effect of environmental condtions coupled with varying polymer properties and carbon loadings on the performance of polymer-carbon black composite film, used as sensing medium in the JPL Electronic Nose.

  17. Determination of the linear coefficient of thermal expansion in polymer films at the nanoscale: influence of the composition of EVA copolymers and the molecular weight of PMMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Benito, J; Castillo, E; Cruz-Caldito, J F

    2015-07-28

    Nanothermal-expansion of poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate), EVA, and poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, in the form of films was measured to finally obtain linear coefficients of thermal expansion, CTEs. The simple deflection of a cantilever in an atomic force microscope, AFM, was used to monitor thermal expansions at the nanoscale. The influences of: (a) the structure of EVA in terms of its composition (vinylacetate content) and (b) the size of PMMA chains in terms of the molecular weight were studied. To carry out this, several polymer samples were used, EVA copolymers with different weight percents of the vinylacetate comonomer (12, 18, 25 and 40%) and PMMA polymers with different weight average molecular weights (33.9, 64.8, 75.600 and 360.0 kg mol(-1)). The dependencies of the vinyl acetate weight fraction of EVA and the molecular weight of PMMA on their corresponding CTEs were analyzed to finally explain them using new, intuitive and very simple models based on the rule of mixtures. In the case of EVA copolymers a simple equation considering the weighted contributions of each comonomer was enough to estimate the final CTE above the glass transition temperature. On the other hand, when the molecular weight dependence is considered the free volume concept was used as novelty. The expansion of PMMA, at least at the nanoscale, was well and easily described by the sum of the weighted contributions of the occupied and free volumes, respectively. PMID:26108706

  18. Surface composition of BaTiO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3}(001) films grown by atomic oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbier, A.; Stanescu, D.; Jegou, P.; Magnan, H. [CEA, IRAMIS, SPCSI, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mocuta, C. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers Saint-Aubin, BP 48, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Jedrecy, N. [Institut des Nano Sciences de Paris, UPMC-Sorbonne Universites, CNRS-UMR7588, 75005 Paris (France)

    2012-12-01

    We have investigated the growth of BaTiO{sub 3} thin films deposited on pure and 1% Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3}(001) single crystals using atomic oxygen assisted molecular beam epitaxy and dedicated Ba and Ti Knudsen cells. Thicknesses up to 30 nm were investigated for various layer compositions. We demonstrate 2D growth and epitaxial single crystalline BaTiO{sub 3} layers up to 10 nm before additional 3D features appear; lattice parameter relaxation occurs during the first few nanometers and is completed at {approx}10 nm. The presence of a Ba oxide rich top layer that probably favors 2D growth is evidenced for well crystallized layers. We show that the Ba oxide rich top layer can be removed by chemical etching. The present work stresses the importance of stoichiometry and surface composition of BaTiO{sub 3} layers, especially in view of their integration in devices.

  19. Nearby Supernova Factory Observations of SN 2005gj: Another Type Ia Supernova in a Massive Circumstellar Envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the independent discovery and follow-up observations of supernova 2005gj by the Nearby Supernova Factory. This is the second confirmed case of a ''hybrid'' Type Ia/IIn supernova, which like the prototype SN 2002ic, we interpret as the explosion of a white dwarf interacting with a circumstellar medium. Our early-phase photometry of SN 2005gj shows that the strength of the interaction between the supernova ejecta and circumstellar material is much stronger than for SN 2002ic. Our .rst spectrum shows a hot continuum with broad and narrow Hα emission. Later spectra, spanning over 4 months from outburst, show clear Type Ia features combined with broad and narrow Hγ, Hβ,Hα and He I λλ5876,7065 in emission. At higher resolution, P Cygni profiles are apparent. Surprisingly, we also observe an inverted P Cygni profile for [O III] λ5007. We find that the lightcurve and measured velocity of the unshocked circumstellar material imply mass loss as recently as 8 years ago. This is in contrast to SN 2002ic, for which an inner cavity in the circumstellar material was inferred. Within the context of the thin-shell approximation, the early lightcurve is well-described by a flat radial density profile for the circumstellar material. However, our decomposition of the spectra into Type Ia and shock emission components allows for little obscuration of the supernova, suggesting an aspherical or clumpy distribution for the circumstellar material. We suggest that the emission line velocity profiles arise from electron scattering rather than the kinematics of the shock. This is supported by the inferred high densities, and the lack of evidence for evolution in the line widths. Ground- and space-based photometry, and Keck spectroscopy, of the host galaxy are used to ascertain that the host galaxy has low metallicity (Z/Z#circledot# < 0.3; 95% confidence) and that this galaxy is undergoing a significant star formation event that began roughly 200 ± 70 Myr ago. We discuss the

  20. Nearby Supernova Factory Observations of SN 2005gj: Another TypeIa Supernova in a Massive Circumstellar Envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Bauer, A.; Blanc, N.; Bongard, S.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E.; Gilles, S.; Kessler, R.; Kocevski, D.; Lee, B.C.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Pain, R.; Pecontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rigaudier, G.; Scalzo, R.; Smadja, G.; Thomas, R.C.; Wang, L.; Weaver, B.A.; Rabinowitz, D.; Bauer, A.

    2006-06-01

    We report the independent discovery and follow-up observations of supernova 2005gj by the Nearby Supernova Factory. This is the second confirmed case of a ''hybrid'' Type Ia/IIn supernova, which like the prototype SN 2002ic, we interpret as the explosion of a white dwarf interacting with a circumstellar medium. Our early-phase photometry of SN 2005gj shows that the strength of the interaction between the supernova ejecta and circumstellar material is much stronger than for SN 2002ic. Our .rst spectrum shows a hot continuum with broad and narrow H{alpha} emission. Later spectra, spanning over 4 months from outburst, show clear Type Ia features combined with broad and narrow H{gamma}, H{beta},H{alpha} and He I {lambda}{lambda}5876,7065 in emission. At higher resolution, P Cygni profiles are apparent. Surprisingly, we also observe an inverted P Cygni profile for [O III] {lambda}5007. We find that the lightcurve and measured velocity of the unshocked circumstellar material imply mass loss as recently as 8 years ago. This is in contrast to SN 2002ic, for which an inner cavity in the circumstellar material was inferred. Within the context of the thin-shell approximation, the early lightcurve is well-described by a flat radial density profile for the circumstellar material. However, our decomposition of the spectra into Type Ia and shock emission components allows for little obscuration of the supernova, suggesting an aspherical or clumpy distribution for the circumstellar material. We suggest that the emission line velocity profiles arise from electron scattering rather than the kinematics of the shock. This is supported by the inferred high densities, and the lack of evidence for evolution in the line widths. Ground- and space-based photometry, and Keck spectroscopy, of the host galaxy are used to ascertain that the host galaxy has low metallicity (Z/Z{sub {circle_dot}} < 0.3; 95% confidence) and that this galaxy is undergoing a significant star

  1. Multiscale simulation of polymer nano-composites (PNC) using molecular dynamics (MD) and generalized interpolation material point method (GIMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Abilash R.

    Recent mechanical characterization experiments with pultruded E-Glass / polypropylene (PP) and compression molded E-Glass/Nylon-6 composite samples with 3-4 weight% nanoclay and baseline polymer (polymer without nanoclay) confirmed significant improvements in compressive strength (˜122%) and shear strength (˜60%) in the nanoclay modified nanocomposites, in comparison with baseline properties. Uniaxial tensile tests showed a small increase in tensile strength (˜3.4%) with 3 wt % nanoclay loading. While the synergistic reinforcing influence of nanoparticle reinforcement is obvious, a simple rule-of-mixtures approach fails to quantify the dramatic increase in mechanical properties. Consequently, there is an immediate need to investigate and understand the mechanisms at the nanoscale that are responsible for such unprecedented strength enhancements. In this work, an innovative and effective method to model nano-structured components in a thermoplastic polymer matrix is proposed. Effort will be directed towards finding fundamental answers to the reasons for significant changes in mechanical properties of nanoparticle-reinforced thermoplastic composites. This research ensues a multiscale modeling approach in which (a) a concurrent simulations scheme is developed to visualize atomistic behavior of polymer molecules as a function of continuum scale loading conditions and (b) a novel nanoscale damage mechanics model is proposed to capture the constitutive behavior of polymer nano composites (PNC). The proposed research will contribute towards the understanding of advanced nanostructured composite materials, which should subsequently benefit the composites manufacturing industry.

  2. Circumstellar Disks and Envelopes around Young Low-mass Stars: Observing the Cradles of Future Planetary Systems in the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanz, Sascha P.

    2008-05-01

    How do stars - like our sun - form? Where do planets come from? - In the last years astronomers were able to uncover some of the fundamental processes related to these very questions. It showed that circumstellar disks and envelopes of gas, dust and ices are a natural byproduct of the formation process of young stars. These objects grow then more massive by accreting material from the disk, which itself is fed by the envelope in the early phases. In the course of several million years, the envelope is dispersed, infall onto the disk comes to a hold, and most matter is either accreted onto the young star or possibly built into planets. In this book, astronomical observations of young low-mass stars are presented. Using data from modern telescopes the surrounding accretion disks and envelopes are investigated, and physical parameters, their possible dust compositions, and ice properties are derived. Some of the young stars seem to have masses in the range of only several Jupiter masses and might be among the least massive free-floating objects known today.This book is intended for students in physics or astronomy who are interested in the formation of stars and planets.

  3. High-resolution measurements of atmospheric molecular hydrogen and its isotopic composition at the West African coast of Mauritania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, S.; Kock, A; Röckmann, T.

    2013-01-01

    Oceans are a net source of molecular hydrogen (H2) to the atmosphere, where nitrogen (N2) fixation is assumed to be the main biological production pathway followed by photochemical production from organic material. The sources can be distinguished using isotope measurements because of clearly differ

  4. Lines of Circumstellar C2, CN, and CH$^+$ in the Optical Spectra of Post-Agb Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bakker, E J; Van Dishoeck, E F; Bakker, Eric J.; Lambert, David L.; Dishoeck, Ewine F. van

    1996-01-01

    Recent optical spectra of post-AGB stars show the presence of C2, CN, and CH+ originating in the circumstellar shell. We present here new, higher resolution spectra which provide constraints on the physical parameters and information on the line profiles. An empirical curve of growth for the C2 Phillips and CN Red system lines in the spectrum of HD 56126 yields b = 0.50 (+0.59, -0.23) km/s. CH+ (0,0) emission lines in the spectrum of the Red Rectangle have been resolved with a FWHM approx 8.5 pm 0.8 km/s. The circumstellar CN lines of IRAS 08005--2356 are resolved into two separate components with a velocity separation of Delta v = 5.7 pm 2.0 km/s. The line profiles of CN of HD 235858 have not been resolved.

  5. Observational constraints for the circumstellar disk of the B[e] star CPD-52 9243

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidale, L. S.; Borges Fernandes, M.; Andruchow, I.; Arias, M. L.; Kraus, M.; Chesneau, O.; Kanaan, S.; Curé, M.; de Wit, W. J.; Muratore, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    Context. The formation and evolution of gas and dust environments around B[e] supergiants are still open issues. Aims: We intend to study the geometry, kinematics and physical structure of the circumstellar environment (CE) of the B[e] supergiant CPD-52 9243 to provide further insights into the underlying mechanism causing the B[e] phenomenon. Methods: The influence of the different physical mechanisms acting on the CE (radiation pressure, rotation, bi-stability or tidal forces) is somehow reflected in the shape and kinematic properties of the gas and dust regions (flaring, Keplerian, accretion or outflowing disks). To investigate these processes we mainly used quasi-simultaneous observations taken with high spatial resolution optical long-baseline interferometry (VLTI/MIDI), near-IR spectroscopy of CO bandhead features (Gemini/Phoenix and VLT/CRIRES) and optical spectra (CASLEO/REOSC). Results: High angular resolution interferometric measurements obtained with VLTI/MIDI provide strong support for the presence of a dusty disk(ring)-like structure around CPD-52 9243, with an upper limit for its inner edge of ~8 mas (~27.5 AU, considering a distance of 3.44 kpc to the star). The disk has an inclination angle with respect to the line of sight of 46 ± 7°. The study of CO first overtone bandhead evidences a disk structure in Keplerian rotation. The optical spectrum indicates a rapid outflow in the polar direction. Conclusions: The IR emission (CO and warm dust) indicates Keplerian rotation in a circumstellar disk while the optical line transitions of various species are consistent with a polar wind. Both structures appear simultaneously and provide further evidence for the proposed paradigms of the mass-loss in supergiant B[e] stars. The presence of a detached cold CO ring around CPD-52 9243 could be due to a truncation of the inner disk caused by a companion, located possibly interior to the disk rim, clearing the center of the system. More spectroscopic and

  6. Recurring Occultations of RW Aurigae by Coagulated Dust in the Tidally Disrupted Circumstellar Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Reed, Phillip A.; Siverd, Robert J.; Pepper, Joshua; Stassun, Keivan G.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Weintraub, David A.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Lund, Michael B.; Stevens, Daniel J.

    2016-02-01

    We present photometric observations of RW Aurigae, a Classical T Tauri system, that reveal two remarkable dimming events. These events are similar to that which we observed in 2010-2011, which was the first such deep dimming observed in RW Aur in a century’s worth of photometric monitoring. We suggested the 2010-2011 dimming was the result of an occultation of the star by its tidally disrupted circumstellar disk. In 2012-2013, the RW Aur system dimmed by ˜0.7 mag for ˜40 days and in 2014/2015 the system dimmed by ˜2 mag for >250 days. The ingress/egress duration measurements of the more recent events agree well with those from the 2010-2011 event, providing strong evidence that the new dimmings are kinematically associated with the same occulting source as the 2010-2011 event. Therefore, we suggest that both the 2012-2013 and 2014-2015 dimming events, measured using data from the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope and the Kutztown University Observatory, are also occultations of RW Aur A by the tidally disrupted circumstellar material. Recent hydrodynamical simulations of the eccentric fly-by of RW Aur B suggest the occulting body to be a bridge of material connecting RW Aur A and B. These simulations also suggest the possibility of additional occultations which are supported by the observations presented in this work. The color evolution of the dimmings suggest that the tidally stripped disk material includes dust grains ranging in size from small grains at the leading edge, typical of star-forming regions, to large grains, ices or pebbles producing gray or nearly gray extinction deeper within the occulting material. It is not known whether this material represents arrested planet building prior to the tidal disruption event, or perhaps accelerated planet building as a result of the disruption event, but in any case the evidence suggests the presence of advanced planet building material in the space between the two stars of the RW Aur system.

  7. Preparation of mesoporous-molecular-sieve/polydicyclopentadiene composites%介孔分子筛/聚双环戊二烯复合材料的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆昶; 黄新辉; 赫玉欣; 张玉清

    2012-01-01

    The mesoporous molecular sieve(SBA-15)/polydicyclopentadiene(PDCPD) composites were prepared by in-situ polymerization with SBA-15 supported catalyst(method 1),SBA-15 modified by coupling agent(method 2),modified SBA-15 supported catalyst(method 3),respectively.The effect of preparing methods on mechanical performances of SBA-15/PDCPD was investigated.The results show that for the SBA-15/PDCPD composites prepared by method 2,although modified SBA-15 can improve the interface interaction between SBA-15 and PDCPD matrix,the polymerization of dicyclopentadiene(DCPD) monomer is difficult to occur in the pores of SBA-15,causing the mechanical performances of composites improve weakly,compared with PDCPD.Method 1 and method 3 applied to prepare SBA-15/PDCPD composites are beneficial to the form of PDCPD molecular chains in the pores of SBA-15.The form of molecular chains in the pores can improve the interface interaction between SBA-15 and PDCPD matrix,enhancing the mechanical performances of composites greatly.Compared with PDCPD,the tensile strength and bending strength of SBA-15/PDCPD prepared by method 1 increase by 24.5% and 24% when the mass ratio of SBA-15/PDCPD is 2∶100,respectively.For the composites prepared by method 3,the quantity of PDCPD molecular chains formed in the pores of SBA-15 is smaller than that of method 1 due to the SBA-15 pores occupied by coupling agent molecule,resulting that the mechanical performances is lower than that of method 1,but higher than that of method 2.%将负载催化剂的SBA-15型介孔分子筛(方法1)、偶联剂表面改性的SBA-15(方法2)、偶联剂表面改性后负载催化剂的SBA-15(方法3),采用原位聚合法分别制备了SBA-15/聚双环戊二烯(PDCPD)复合材料。研究了不同制备方法对SBA-15/PDCPD力学性能的影响。结果表明,对于方法2,虽然偶联剂改性SBA-15可提高与PDCPD界面作用力,但由于分子筛孔道中的双环戊二烯

  8. Active and passive smoking - New insights on the molecular composition of different cigarette smoke aerosols by LDI-FTICRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Sébastien; Carré, Vincent; Scheffler, Jean-Luc; Aubriet, Frédéric

    2014-08-01

    The aerosol generated when a cigarette is smoked is a significant indoor contaminant. Both smokers and non-smokers can be exposed to this class of pollutants. Nevertheless, they are not exposed to the same kind of smoke. The active smoker breathes in the mainstream smoke (MSS) during a puff, whereas the passive smoker inhales not only the smoke generated by the lit cigarette between two puffs (SSS) but also the smoke exhaled by active smokers (EXS). The aerosol fraction of EXS has until now been poorly documented; its composition is expected to be different from MSS. This study aims to investigate the complex composition of aerosol from EXS to better understand the difference in exposure between active and passive smokers. To address this, the in-situ laser desorption ionisation Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry (LDI-FTICRMS) was used to characterise the aerosol composition of EXS from two different smokers. Results clearly indicated many similarities between EXS samples but also significant differences with MSS and SSS aerosol. The comparison of MSS and EXS aerosol allowed the chemicals retained by the active smoker's lungs to be identified, whereas the convolution of the EXS and SSS aerosol compositions were considered relevant to the exposition of a passive smoker. As a consequence, active smokers are thought to be mainly exposed to polar and poorly unsaturated oxygenated and nitrogenated organics, compared with poorly oxygenated but highly unsaturated compounds in passive smokers.

  9. ZSM-5-SBA-15复合分子筛的制备%Preparation of ZSM-5-SBA-15 Composite Molecular Sieves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏; 沈健

    2015-01-01

    The micro-mesoporous composite molecular sieves of ZSM-5–SBA-15 were synthesized via a post synthesis. The influences of mass ratio of ZSM-5/SBA-15, crystallization time, acid content and calcination temperature on the preparation of the composite molecular sieves were investigated. The ZSM-5–SBA-15 prepared at the mass ratio of ZSM-5/SBA-15 of 0.2, crystallization time of 18 h, acid content of 20 mL and calcination temperature of 550 ℃ has a conversion rate of methanol of 94.93%and a selectivity of para-xylene of 45.46%. The acidity on the surface of ZSM-5 is reduced by mesoporous molecular sieve of nonvalent SBA-15, thus improving the selectivity of para-xylene.%采用后合成法合成了 ZSM-5–SBA-15微介孔复合分子筛,考察了 m(ZSM-5)/m(SBA-15)、晶化时间、盐酸量、焙烧温度对烷基化催化性能的影响。在 m(ZSM-5)/m(SBA-15)=0.2,晶化时间为18 h,盐酸量为20 mL,焙烧温度为550℃条件下,合成的复合分子筛催化剂的甲醇转化率为94.93%,对二甲苯选择性为45.46%。惰性 SBA-15介孔分子筛抑制了 ZSM-5外表面酸性,提高了对二甲苯的选择性。

  10. Engineered Molecular Chain Ordering in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes/Polyaniline Composite Films for High-Performance Organic Thermoelectric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liming; Yao, Qin; Xiao, Juanxiu; Zeng, Kaiyang; Qu, Sanyin; Shi, Wei; Wang, Qun; Chen, Lidong

    2016-06-21

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)/polyaniline (PANI) composite films with enhanced thermoelectric properties were prepared by combining in situ polymerization and solution processing. Conductive atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed that solution processing and strong π-π interactions between the PANI and SWNTs induced the PANI molecules to form a highly ordered structure. The improved degree of order of the PANI molecular arrangement increased the carrier mobility and thereby enhanced the electrical transport properties of PANI. The maximum in-plane electrical conductivity and power factor of the SWNTs/PANI composite films reached 1.44×10(3)  S cm(-1) and 217 μW m(-1)  K(-2) , respectively, at room temperature. Furthermore, a thermoelectric generator fabricated with the SWNTs/PANI composite films showed good electric generation ability and stability. A high power density of 10.4 μW cm(-2)  K(-1) was obtained, which is superior to most reported results obtained in organic thermoelectric modules.

  11. Resolving the inner regions of the HD97048 circumstellar disk with VLT/NACO polarimetric differential imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Quanz, Sascha P; Apai, Daniel; Wolf, Sebastian; Henning, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Circumstellar disks are the cradles of planetary systems and their physical and chemical properties directly influence the planet formation process. As most planets supposedly form in the inner disk regions, i.e., within a few tens of AU, it is crucial to study circumstellar disk on these scales to constrain the conditions for planet formation. Our aims are to characterize the inner regions of the circumstellar disk around the young Herbig Ae/Be star HD97048 in polarized light. We use VLT/NACO to observe HD97048 in polarimetric differential imaging (PDI) mode in the H and Ks band. We spatially resolve the disk around HD97048 in polarized flux in both filters on scales between ~0.1"-1.0" corresponding to the inner ~16-160 AU. Fitting isophots to the flux calibrated H-band image between 13 - 14 mag/arcsec^2 and 14 - 15 mag/arcsec^2 we derive a apparent disk inclination angle of 34+-5 deg and 47+-2 deg, respectively. The disk position angle in both brightness regimes is almost identical and roughly 80 deg. Along...

  12. Circumstellar water vapour in M-type AGB stars: Radiative transfer models, abundances and predictions for HIFI

    CERN Document Server

    Maercker, Matthias; Olofsson, Hans; Bergman, Per; Ramstedt, Sofia

    2008-01-01

    Aims: By performing a detailed radiative transfer analysis, we determine fractional abundances of circumstellar H2O in the envelopes around six M-type asymptotic giant branch stars. The models are also used to predict H2O spectral line emission for the upcoming Herschel/HIFI mission. Methods: We use Infrared space observatory long wavelength spectrometer spectra to constrain the circumstellar fractional abundance distribution of ortho-H2O, using a non-local thermal equilibrium, and non-local, radiative transfer code based on the accelerated lambda iteration formalism. The mass-loss rates and kinetic temperature structures for the sample stars are determined through radiative transfer modelling of CO line emission based on the Monte-Carlo method. The density and temperature profiles of the circumstellar dust grains are determined through spectral energy distribution modelling using the publicly available code Dusty. Results: The determined ortho-H2O abundances lie between 1e-4 and 1.5e-3 relative to H2, with t...

  13. The effects of solvent composition on the affinity of a peptide towards hair keratin: experimental and molecular dynamics data

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, José Egipto Ferreira; Cruz, Celia F.; Azóia, Nuno G.; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-01-01

    The study of the interaction between hair filaments and formulations or peptides is of utmost importance in fields like cosmetic research. Keratin intermediate filaments structure is not fully described, limiting the molecular dynamics (MD) studies in this field although its high potential to improve the area. We developed a computational model of a truncated protofibril, simulated its behavior in alcoholic based formulations and with one peptide. The simulations showed a strong interaction b...

  14. Nitrogen-containing compounds in two CR2 meteorites: 15N composition, molecular distribution and precursor molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzarello, Sandra; Holmes, William

    2009-04-01

    Amino acids, amines and aldehydes were obtained from the water extracts of two CR2 carbonaceous chondrites from Antarctica and analyzed for their molecular and 15N isotopic content. These compounds were found to differ significantly from those of CM chondrites in both overall abundances and molecular distribution. The amino acids suites comprise a preponderant abundance of linear, 2-H amino acids, show rapid non-linear decrease with the compounds' increasing chain length and include protein amino acids never identified in meteorites before, such as threonine, tyrosine and phenylalanine. The presence of tertiary amines as well as a diverse, large abundance of aldehydes and ketones also distinguishes both CR2 organic suites. The δ 15N values determined for CR2 amino acids have a distribution between molecular subgroups that is opposite to the one of their δD values, with 2-H amino acids having higher δ 15N and lower δD values than 2-methyl amino acids, while the opposite is true for 2-methyl amino acids. Based on theoretical data, these isotopic findings would place the formation of the two amino acid groups or their direct precursors at different ISM stages of star formation.

  15. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Javanian Pimpinella pruatjan Molk. and Its Molecular Phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina D. R. Nurcahyanti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The species-rich and diverse genus Pimpinella is mainly distributed in Europe and Asia; a few species occur in Africa. Yet, the Javanian Pimpinella, P. pruatjan, which has been used as an aphrodisiac in Indonesian traditional medicine, was studied for the first time in the context of chemical composition, as well as phylogeny analysis and antimicrobial activity. We examined the chemical composition of the essential oil (EO from aerial parts of P. pruatjan by gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GLC-MS. The main component of EO was (Z-γ-bisabolene. Several oxygenated monoterpenes, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and sesquiterpenes were also detected. The genetic relationship of Pimpinella pruatjan Molk. to other Pimpinella species was reconstructed using nucleotide sequences of the nuclear DNA marker ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer. P. pruatjan clusters as a sister group to the African Pimpinella species. The EO did not exhibit an apparent antimicrobial activity.

  16. Far-infrared and sub-millimetre imaging of HD 76582's circumstellar disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jonathan P.; Booth, Mark; Holland, Wayne; Matthews, Brenda C.; Greaves, Jane S.; Zuckerman, Ben

    2016-07-01

    Debris discs, the tenuous rocky and icy remnants of planet formation, are believed to be evidence for planetary systems around other stars. The JCMT/SCUBA-2 debris disc legacy survey `SCUBA-2 Observations of Nearby Stars' (SONS) observed 100 nearby stars, amongst them HD 76582, for evidence of such material. Here, we present imaging observations by JCMT/SCUBA-2 and Herschel/PACS at sub-millimetre and far-infrared wavelengths, respectively. We simultaneously model the ensemble of photometric and imaging data, spanning optical to sub-millimetre wavelengths, in a self-consistent manner. At far-infrared wavelengths, we find extended emission from the circumstellar disc providing a strong constraint on the dust spatial location in the outer system, although the angular resolution is too poor to constrain the interior of the system. In the sub-millimetre, photometry at 450 and 850 μm reveals a steep fall-off that we interpret as a disc dominated by moderately sized dust grains (amin = 36 μm), perhaps indicative of a non-steady-state collisional cascade within the disc. A disc architecture of three distinct annuli, comprising an unresolved component at 20 au and outer components at 80 and 270 au, along with a very steep particle size distribution (γ = 5), is proposed to match the observations.

  17. Dynamics of Circumstellar Disks III: The case of GG Tau A

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Andrew F

    2016-01-01

    (abridged) We present 2-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) code, VINE, to model a self-gravitating binary system similar to the GG Tau A system. We simulate systems configured with semi-major axes of either $a=62$~AU (`wide') or $a=32$~AU (`close'), and with eccentricity of either $e=0$ or $e=0.3$. Strong spiral structures are generated with large material streams extending inwards. A small fraction accretes onto the circumstellar disks, with most returning to the torus. Structures also propagate outwards, generating net outwards mass flow and eventually losing coherence at large distances. The torus becomes significantly eccentric in shape. Accretion onto the stars occurs at a rate of a few $\\times10^{-8}$\\msun/yr implying disk lifetimes shorter than $\\sim10^4$~yr, without replenishment. Only wide configurations retain disks by virtue of robust accretion. In eccentric configurations, accretion is episodic, occurs preferentially onto the secondary at wrates pea...

  18. Bursting SN 1996cr's Bubble: Hydrodynamic and X-ray Modeling of its Circumstellar Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Dwarkadas, Vikram V; Bauer, Franz

    2010-01-01

    SN1996cr is one of the five closest SNe to explode in the past 30 years. Due to its fortuitous location in the Circinus Galaxy at ~ 3.7 Mpc, there is a wealth of recently acquired and serendipitous archival data available to piece together its evolution over the past decade, including a recent 485 ks Chandra HETG spectrum. In order to interpret this data, we have explored hydrodynamic simulations, followed by computations of simulated spectra and light curves under non-equilibrium ionization conditions, and directly compared them to the observations. Our simulated spectra manage to fit both the X-ray continuum and lines at 4 epochs satisfactorily, while our computed light curves are in good agreement with additional flux-monitoring data sets. These calculations allow us to infer the nature and structure of the circumstellar medium, the evolution of the SN shock wave, and the abundances of the ejecta and surrounding medium. The data imply that SN 1996cr exploded in a low-density medium before interacting with ...

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CO and HCN observations of circumstellar envelopes (Loup+ 1993)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loup, C.; Forveille, T.; Omont, A.; Paul, J. F.

    1997-06-01

    We have searched the literature for all observations of the 12CO(1-0), 12CO(2-1), and HCN(1-0) lines in circumstellar envelopes of late type stars published between January 1985 and September 1992. We report data for 1361 observations (stellar velocity, expansion velocity, peak intensity, integrated area, noise level). This CO-HCN sample now contains 444 sources. 184 are identified as oxygen-rich, 205 as carbon-rich, and there are 9 S stars. About 85% of the sources are AGB stars. There are 32 planetary nebulae and about thirty post-AGB stars candidates. Besides results of millimeter observations, we also list identifications, coordinates, IRAS data, chemical and spectral types for every source. For AGB stars, we have estimated (or compiled) bolometric fluxes and distances for 349 sources, and mass loss rates deduced from CO results for 324 sources, taking into account the influence of the CO photodissociation radius. We also list mass loss rates derived from detailed models of CO emission which we could find in the literature. (7 data files).

  20. Spitzer observations of a circumstellar nebula around the candidate Luminous Blue Variable MWC 930

    CERN Document Server

    Cerrigone, L; Buemi, C S; Hora, J L; Trigilio, C; Leto, P; Hart, A

    2013-01-01

    MWC 930 is a star just ~2{\\deg} above the Galactic plane whose nature is not clear and that has not been studied in detail so far. While a post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) classification was proposed in the past, studies of its optical spectrum and photometry pointed toward strong variability, therefore the object was reclassified as a Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) candidate. LBVs typically undergo phases of strong mass loss in the form of eruptions that can create shells of ejecta around the star. Our goal is to search for the presence of such a circumstellar nebula in MWC 930 and investigate its properties. To do so, we make use of space-based infrared data from our Spitzer campaign performed with the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) and the InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) as well as data from optical and infrared (IR) surveys. In our Spitzer images, we clearly detect an extended shell around MWC 930 at wavelengths longer than 5 um. The mid-infrared spectrum is dominated by the central star and mostly shows forbid...

  1. Circumstellar Habitable Zones of Binary Star Systems in the Solar Neighborhood

    CERN Document Server

    Eggl, Siegfried; Funk, Barbara; Georgakarakos, Nikolaos; Haghighipour, Nader

    2012-01-01

    Binary and multiple systems constitute more than half of the total stellar population in the Solar neighborhood (Kiseleva-Eggleton and Eggleton 2001). Their frequent occurrence as well as the fact that more than 70 (Schneider et al. 2011) planets have already been discovered in such configurations - most noteably the telluric companion of alpha Centauri B (Dumusque et al. 2012) - make them interesting targets in the search for habitable worlds. Recent studies (Eggl et al. 2012b, Forgan 2012) have shown, that despite the variations in gravitational and radiative environment, there are indeed circumstellar regions where planets can stay within habitable insolation limits on secular dynamical timescales. In this article we provide habitable zones for 19 near S-Type binary systems from the Hipparchos and WDS catalogues with semimajor axes between 1 and 100 AU. Hereby, we accounted for the combined dynamical and radiative influence of the second star on the Earth-like planet. Out of the 19 systems presented, 17 of...

  2. Hubble imaging of V1331 Cygni: Proper motion study of its circumstellar structures

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhary, Arpita; Linz, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    The young star V1331 Cyg received previous attention because it is surrounded by an optical, arc-like reflection nebula. V1331 Cyg is commonly considered to be a candidate for an object that has undergone an FU-Ori (FUOR) the outbreak in the past. This in turn could lead to a time-varying appearance of the dusty arcs that may be revealed by multi-epoch imaging. In particular, a radial colour analysis of the dust arcs can then be attempted to check whether radial grain size distribution was modified by a previous FUOR wind. Second-epoch imaging of V1331 Cyg was obtained by us in 2009 using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). By comparing this to archival HST data from 2000, we studied the time evolution of the circumstellar nebulae. After a point spread function subtraction using model point spread functions, we used customised routines to perform a proper motion analysis. The nebula expansion was first derived by deconvolving and correlating the two-epoch radial brightness profiles. Additional data from other f...

  3. Spitzer Observations of G Dwarfs in the Pleiades: Circumstellar Debris Disks at 100 Myr Age

    CERN Document Server

    Stauffer, J R; Carpenter, J; Hillenbrand, L; Backman, D; Meyer, M R; Kim, J S; Silverstone, M D; Young, E; Hines, D C; Soderblom, D R; Mamajek, E E; Morris, P; Bouwman, J; Strom, S E

    2005-01-01

    Fluxes and upper limits in the wavelength range from 3.6 to 70 microns from the Spitzer Space Telescope are provided for twenty solar-mass Pleiades members. One of these stars shows a probable mid-IR excess and two others have possible excesses, presumably due to circumstellar debris disks. For the star with the largest, most secure excess flux at MIPS wavelengths, HII1101, we derive Log(L[dust]/L[Sun]) ~ -3.8 and an estimated debris disk mass of 4.2 x 10^-5 M(Earth) for an assumed uniform dust grain size of 10 microns If the stars with detected excesses are interpreted as stars with relatively recent, large collision events producing a transient excess of small dust particles, the frequency of such disk transients is about ~ 10 % for our ~ 100 Myr, Pleiades G dwarf sample. For the stars without detected 24-70 micron excesses, the upper limits to their fluxes correspond to approximate 3 sigma upper limits to their disk masses of 6 x 10^-6 M(Earth) using the MIPS 24 micron upper limit, or 2 x 10^-4 M(Earth) us...

  4. The polluted atmosphere of the white dwarf NLTT 25792 and the diversity of circumstellar environments

    CERN Document Server

    Vennes, S

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of X-Shooter spectra of the polluted, hydrogen-rich white dwarf NLTT 25792. The spectra show strong lines of calcium (Ca H&K, near-infrared calcium triplet, and Ca I 4226 and numerous lines of iron along with magnesium and aluminum lines from which we draw the abundance pattern. Moreover, the photospheric Ca H&K lines are possibly blended with a circumstellar component shifted by -20 km/s relative to the photosphere. A comparison with a sample of four white dwarfs with similar parameters show considerable variations in their abundance patterns, particularly in the calcium to magnesium abundance ratio that varies by a factor of five within this sample. The observed variations, even after accounting for diffusion effects, imply similar variations in the putative accretion source. Also, we find that silicon and sodium are significantly underabundant in the atmosphere of NLTT 25792, a fact that may offer some clues on the nature of the accretion source.

  5. SN 2012ca: a stripped envelope core-collapse SN interacting with dense circumstellar medium

    CERN Document Server

    Inserra, C; Scalzo, R; Fraser, M; Pastorello, A; Childress, M; Pignata, G; Jerkstrand, A; Kotak, R; Benetti, S; Della Valle, M; Gal-Yam, A; Mazzali, P; Smith, K; Sullivan, M; Valenti, S; Yaron, O; Young, D

    2013-01-01

    We report optical and near-infrared observations of SN 2012ca with PESSTO, spread over one year since discovery. The SN bears many similarities to SN 1997cy and to other events classified as Type IIn but which have been suggested to have a thermonuclear origin with narrow hydrogen lines produced when the ejecta impact a hydrogen-rich circumstellar medium (CSM). Our analysis, especially in the nebular phase, reveals the presence of strong oxygen, magnesium and carbon features. The broad ejecta lines resemble those seen in Type Ic SNe. This suggests a core collapse explanation for this event, in contrast to the thermonuclear interpretation proposed for some members of this group. We suggest that the data can be explained with a hydrogen and helium deficient SN ejecta (Type I) interacting with a hydrogen-rich CSM, but that the explosion was more likely a Ic core-collapse explosion than a Type Ia thermonuclear explosion. This suggests two channels (both thermonuclear and stripped envelope core-collapse) are respo...

  6. Supernova PTF 09UJ: A Possible Shock Breakout from a Dense Circumstellar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofek, E. O.; Rabinak, I.; Neill, J. D.; Arcavi, I.; Cenko, S. B.; Waxman, E.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Gal-Yam, A.; Nugent, P. E.; Bildsten, L.; Bloom, J. S.; Filippenko, A. V.; Forster, K.; Howell, D. A.; Jacobsen, J.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Law, N.; Martin, C.; Poznanski, D.; Quimby, R. M.; Shen, K. J.; Sullivan, M.; Dekany, R.; Rahmer, G.; Hale, D.; Smith, R.; Zolkower, J.; Velur, V.; Walters, R.; Henning, J.; Bui, K.; McKenna, D.

    2010-12-01

    Type-IIn supernovae (SNe IIn), which are characterized by strong interaction of their ejecta with the surrounding circumstellar matter (CSM), provide a unique opportunity to study the mass-loss history of massive stars shortly before their explosive death. We present the discovery and follow-up observations of an SN IIn, PTF 09uj, detected by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). Serendipitous observations by Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) at ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths detected the rise of the SN light curve prior to the PTF discovery. The UV light curve of the SN rose fast, with a timescale of a few days, to a UV absolute AB magnitude of about -19.5. Modeling our observations, we suggest that the fast rise of the UV light curve is due to the breakout of the SN shock through the dense CSM (n ≈ 1010 cm-3). Furthermore, we find that prior to the explosion the progenitor went through a phase of high mass-loss rate (~0.1 M sun yr-1) that lasted for a few years. The decay rate of this SN was fast relative to that of other SNe IIn.

  7. Supernova PTF 09uj: A possible shock breakout from a dense circumstellar wind

    CERN Document Server

    Ofek, E O; Neill, J D; Arcavi, I; Cenko, S B; Waxman, E; Kulkarni, S R; Yam, A Gal; Nugent, P E; Bildsten, L; Bloom, J S; Filippenko, A V; Forster, K; Howell, D A; Jacobsen, J; Kasliwal, M M; Law, N; Martin, C; Poznanski, D; Quimby, R M; Shen, K J; Sullivan, M; Dekany, R; Rahmer, G; Hale, D; Smith, R; Zolkower, J; Velur, V; Walters, R; Henning, J; Bui, K; McKenna, D

    2010-01-01

    Type-IIn supernovae (SNe), which are characterized by strong interaction of their ejecta with the surrounding circumstellar matter (CSM), provide a unique opportunity to study the mass-loss history of massive stars shortly before their explosive death. We present the discovery and follow-up observations of a Type IIn SN, PTF 09uj, detected by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). Serendipitous observations by GALEX at ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths detected the rise of the SN light curve prior to the PTF discovery. The UV light curve of the SN rose fast, with a time scale of a few days, to a UV absolute AB magnitude of about -19.5. Modeling our observations, we suggest that the fast rise of the UV light curve is due to the breakout of the SN shock through the dense CSM (n~10^10 cm^-3). Furthermore, we find that prior to the explosion the progenitor went through a phase of high mass-loss rate (~0.1 solar mass per year) that lasted for a few years. The decay rate of this SN was fast relative to that of other SNe I...

  8. Far-infrared and sub-millimetre imaging of HD~76582's circumstellar disk

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, J P; Holland, W S; Matthews, B C; Greaves, J S; Zuckerman, B

    2016-01-01

    Debris disks, the tenuous rocky and icy remnants of planet formation, are believed to be evidence for planetary systems around other stars. The JCMT/SCUBA-2 debris disk legacy survey 'SCUBA-2 Observations of Nearby Stars' (SONS) observed 100 nearby stars, amongst them HD~76582, for evidence of such material. Here we present imaging observations by JCMT/SCUBA-2 and \\textit{Herschel}/PACS at sub-millimetre and far-infrared wavelengths, respectively. We simultaneously model the ensemble of photometric and imaging data, spanning optical to sub-millimetre wavelengths, in a self-consistent manner. At far-infrared wavelengths, we find extended emission from the circumstellar disk providing a strong constraint on the dust spatial location in the outer system, although the angular resolution is too poor to constrain the interior of the system. In the sub-millimetre, photometry at 450 and 850~$\\mu$m reveal a steep fall-off that we interpret as a disk dominated by moderately-sized dust grains ($a_{\\rm min}~=~36~\\mu$m), ...

  9. Modeling transiting circumstellar disks: characterizing the newly discovered eclipsing disk system OGLE LMC-ECL-11893

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Erin L.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Pecaut, Mark J.; Quillen, Alice C.; Moolekamp, Fred; Bell, Cameron P. M., E-mail: elscott@pas.rochester.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    We investigate the nature of the unusual eclipsing star OGLE LMC-ECL-11893 (OGLE J05172127-6900558) in the Large Magellanic Cloud recently reported by Dong et al. The eclipse period for this star is 468 days, and the eclipses exhibit a minimum of ∼1.4 mag, preceded by a plateau of ∼0.8 mag. Spectra and optical/IR photometry are consistent with the eclipsed star being a lightly reddened B9III star of inferred age ∼150 Myr and mass ∼4 M {sub ☉}. The disk appears to have an outer radius of ∼0.2 AU with predicted temperatures of ∼1100-1400 K. We model the eclipses as being due to either a transiting geometrically thin dust disk or gaseous accretion disk around a secondary object; the debris disk produces a better fit. We speculate on the origin of such a dense circumstellar dust disk structure orbiting a relatively old low-mass companion, and on the similarities of this system to the previously discovered EE Cep.

  10. Circumstellar Environments of Luminous Infrared Stellar Objects in the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari, Abigail; Sahai, Raghvendra

    2011-01-01

    Young stars are formed out of the interstellar medium (ISM) which is replenished by mass loss rates from evolved stars. Circumstellar matter around young and evolved stellar objects usually emits energy in the infrared (IR) wavelength range as the matter is heated by the central star. Surveys of the Magellanic Clouds with the Spitzer Space Telescope in the 3.6-160 micron range have previously been completed. These surveys have led to catalogs of infrared sources: which include HII regions, young stars, super giants, asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stars, and planetary nebulae. The utility of such surveys can be improved upon by using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data. HST provides higher angular resolution than Spitzer and has allowed for more detailed investigation of these luminous IR objects. This project used previously obtained HST archival data to examine luminous IR objects at optical wavelengths. This allows for the reclassification of stellar objects previously thought as one type of object or in a particular stage of their stellar evolution. An overall objective of this project included looking for extended nebulosity around evolved stars to better understand the life cycle of such objects and classify these nebulae by shape.

  11. A CHARA ARRAY SURVEY OF CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS AROUND NEARBY Be-TYPE STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a high angular resolution survey of circumstellar disks around 24 northern sky Be stars. The K-band continuum survey was made using the CHARA Array long baseline interferometer (baselines of 30-331 m). The interferometric visibilities were corrected for the flux contribution of stellar companions in those cases where the Be star is a member of a known binary or multiple system. For those targets with good (u, v) coverage, we used a four-parameter Gaussian elliptical disk model to fit the visibilities and to determine the axial ratio, position angle, K-band photospheric flux contribution, and angular diameter of the disk's major axis. For the other targets with relatively limited (u, v) coverage, we constrained the axial ratio, inclination angle, and/or disk position angle where necessary in order to resolve the degeneracy between possible model solutions. We also made fits of the ultraviolet and infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to estimate the stellar angular diameter and infrared flux excess of each target. The mean ratio of the disk diameter (measured in K-band emission) to stellar diameter (from SED modeling) is 4.4 among the 14 cases where we reliably resolved the disk emission, a value which is generally lower than the disk size ratio measured in the higher opacity Hα emission line. We estimated the equatorial rotational velocity from the projected rotational velocity and disk inclination for 12 stars, and most of these stars rotate close to or at the critical rotational velocity.

  12. The circumstellar disc around the Herbig AeBe star HD169142

    CERN Document Server

    Dent, W R F; Osorio, M; Calvet, N; Anglada, G

    2006-01-01

    We present 7 mm and 3.5 cm wavelength continuum observations toward the Herbig AeBe star HD169142 performed with the Very Large Array (VLA) with an angular resolution of ~1". We find that this object exhibits strong (~4.4 mJy), unresolved (~1") 7 mm continuum emission, being one of the brightest isolated Herbig AeBe stars ever detected with the VLA at this wavelength. No emission is detected at 3.5 cm continuum, with a 3 sigma upper limit of ~0.08 mJy. From these values, we obtain a spectral index of ~2.5 in the 3.5 cm to 7 mm wavelength range, indicating that the observed flux density at 7mm is most likely dominated by thermal dust emission coming from a circumstellar disc. We use available photometric data from the literature to model the spectral energy distribution (SED) of this object from radio to near-ultraviolet frequencies. The observed SED can be understood in terms of an irradiated accretion disc with low mass accretion rate, 10^{-8} solar masses per year, surrounding a star with an age of ~10 Myr....

  13. Evolution of Supernova Remnants Expanding out of the Dense Circumstellar Matter into the Rarefied Interstellar Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Shimizu, Takafumi; Koyama, Katsuji

    2011-01-01

    We carry out 3D-hydrodynamical calculations for the interaction of expanding supernova ejecta with the dense circumstellar matter (CSM) and the rarefied interstellar medium (ISM) outside. The CSM is composed of the stellar wind matter from the progenitor in its pre-supernova phase, and assumed to be axially symmetric: more matter around the equator than in the polar direction driven by rotation of the progenitor. Because of high density of the CSM, the ionization state of the shock-heated ejecta quickly becomes equilibrium with the electron temperature. When the blast wave breaks out of the CSM into the rarefied ISM, the shocked ejecta cools rapidly due to adiabatic expansion, and hence an over-ionized/recombining plasma would be left. The ejecta is reheated by the second reverse shock due to the interaction with the ISM. We calculate the emission measure of the supernova remnant (SNR) along the line of sight, and find that the over-ionized plasma appears to be bar-like with wings in the edge-on (equatorial v...

  14. ALMA Observations of Circumstellar Disks in the Upper Scorpius OB Association

    CERN Document Server

    Barenfeld, Scott A; Ricci, Luca; Isella, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of 106 G-, K-, and M-type stars in the Upper Scorpius OB Association hosting circumstellar disks. With these data, we measure the 0.88 mm continuum and $^{12}$CO $J = 3-2$ line fluxes of disks around low mass ($0.14-1.66$ $M_{\\odot}$) stars at an age of 5-11 Myr. Of the 75 primordial disks in the sample, 53 are detected in the dust continuum and 26 in CO. Of the 31 disks classified as debris/evolved transitional disks, 5 are detected in the continuum and none in CO. The lack of CO emission in approximately half of the disks with detected continuum emission can be explained if CO is optically thick but has a compact emitting area ($\\lesssim 40$ AU), or if the CO is heavily depleted by a factor of at least $\\sim1000$ relative to interstellar medium abundances and is optically thin. The continuum measurements are used to estimate the dust mass of the disks. We find a correlation between disk dust mass and stellar host mass consistent with a power-law relation of $M_{dust}\\propto M_*^...

  15. Analysis of the circumstellar environment of the B[e] star HD 45677 (FS CMa)

    CERN Document Server

    Muratorio, G; Friedjung, M; Rossi, Corinne; Friedjung, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We studied the circumstellar environment of the B[e] star HD 45677 through the analysis of the emission lines from ionized metals. We used the statistical approach of the self absorption curve method (SAC) to derive physical parameters of the line emitting region. The Fe II and Cr II double-peaked emission line structure is explained by the presence of a thin absorption component red shifted by ~3 km/s. This absorption component can be interpreted geometricaly as being due to infalling material perpendicularly to the disk seen nearly pole-on, as indicated by the emission line structure. The Cr II and Fe II emission lines have a complex structure with two (narrow and broad) components, of 45 and 180 km/s FWHM for the permitted lines and 25 and 100 km/s FWHM for the forbidden ones, respectively. We argue that the narrow components are principaly emitted by an optically thin disk seen nearly pole-on, in a region whose minimum radius is estimated to be 4 10^12 cm, while the broad ones are formed in a disk-linked ...

  16. Models of the circumstellar medium of evolving, massive runaway stars moving through the Galactic plane

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, D M -A; Langer, N; Gvaramadze, V V; Mignone, A; Izzard, R G; Kaper, L

    2014-01-01

    At least 5 per cent of the massive stars are moving supersonically through the interstellar medium (ISM) and are expected to produce a stellar wind bow shock. We explore how the mass loss and space velocity of massive runaway stars affect the morphology of their bow shocks. We run two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulations following the evolution of the circumstellar medium of these stars in the Galactic plane from the main sequence to the red supergiant phase. We find that thermal conduction is an important process governing the shape, size and structure of the bow shocks around hot stars, and that they have an optical luminosity mainly produced by forbidden lines, e.g. [OIII]. The Ha emission of the bow shocks around hot stars originates from near their contact discontinuity. The H$\\alpha$ emission of bow shocks around cool stars originates from their forward shock, and is too faint to be observed for the bow shocks that we simulate. The emission of optically-thin radiation mainly comes from th...

  17. A Deep Spitzer Survey of Circumstellar Disks in the Young Double Cluster, h and chi Persei

    CERN Document Server

    Cloutier, Ryan; Rieke, George; Kenyon, Scott J; Balog, Zoltan; Jayawardhana, Ray

    2014-01-01

    We analyze very deep IRAC and MIPS photometry of $\\sim$ 12,500 members of the 14 Myr old Double Cluster, h and $\\chi$ Persei, building upon on our earlier, shallower Spitzer studies (Currie et al. 2007a, 2008a). Numerous likely members show infrared (IR) excesses at 8 {\\mu}m and 24 $\\mu$m indicative of circumstellar dust. The frequency of stars with 8 $\\mu$m excess is at least 2% for our entire sample, slightly lower (higher) for B/A stars (later type, lower-mass stars). Optical spectroscopy also identifies gas in about 2% of systems but with no clear trend between the presence of dust and gas. Spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling of 18 sources with detections at optical wavelengths through MIPS 24 $\\mu m$ reveals a diverse set of disk evolutionary states, including a high fraction of transitional disks, although similar data for all disk-bearing members would provide better constraints. We combine our results with those for other young clusters to study the global evolution of dust/gas disks. For nomi...

  18. CARMA CO(J = 2 - 1) Observations of the Circumstellar Envelope of Betelgeuse

    CERN Document Server

    O'Gorman, Eamon; Brown, Joanna M; Brown, Alexander; Redfield, Seth; Richter, Matthew J; Requena-Torres, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    We report radio interferometric observations of the 12C16O 1.3 mm J = 2-1 emission line in the circumstellar envelope of the M supergiant Alpha Ori and have detected and separated both the S1 and S2 flow components for the first time. Observations were made with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) interferometer in the C, D, and E antenna configurations. We obtain good u-v coverage (5-280 klambda) by combining data from all three configurations allowing us to trace spatial scales as small as 0.9\\arcsec over a 32\\arcsec field of view. The high spectral and spatial resolution C configuration line profile shows that the inner S1 flow has slightly asymmetric outflow velocities ranging from -9.0 km s-1 to +10.6 km s-1 with respect to the stellar rest frame. We find little evidence for the outer S2 flow in this configuration because the majority of this emission has been spatially-filtered (resolved out) by the array. We also report a SOFIA-GREAT CO(J= 12-11) emission line profile w...

  19. The nearby population of M dwarfs with WISE: A search for warm circumstellar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Avenhaus, Henning; Meyer, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Circumstellar debris disks are important for their connection to planetary systems. An efficient way to identify such systems is through their infrared excess. Most studies so far concentrated on early-type or solar-type stars, but less effort has gone into M dwarfs. We characterize the mid-infrared photometric behavior of M dwarfs and search for infrared excess in nearby M dwarfs taken from the volume-limited RECONS sample using data from the WISE satellite and the 2MASS catalog. Our sample consists of 85 sources encompassing 103 M dwarfs. We derive empirical infrared colors from these data and discuss their errors. From this, we check the stars for infrared excess and discuss the minimum excess we would be able to detect. Other than the M8.5 dwarf SCR 1845-6357 A, where the excess is produced by a known T6 companion, we detect no excesses in any of our sample stars. The limits we derive for the 22um excess are slightly larger than the usual detection limit of 10-15% for Spitzer studies, but the inclusion of...

  20. THE FIRST DETERMINATION OF THE VISCOSITY PARAMETER IN THE CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK OF A Be STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carciofi, Alex C.; Bjorkman, Jon E.; Haubois, Xavier [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Otero, Sebastian A. [American Association of Variable Star Observers, 49 Bay State Road, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Okazaki, Atsuo T. [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkai-Gakuen University, Toyohira-ku, Sapporo 062-8605 (Japan); Stefl, Stanislav; Rivinius, Thomas [European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Baade, Dietrich, E-mail: carciofi@usp.br, E-mail: jon@physics.utoledo.edu [European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Be stars possess gaseous circumstellar decretion disks, which are well described using standard {alpha}-disk theory. The Be star 28 CMa recently underwent a long outburst followed by a long period of quiescence, during which the disk dissipated. Here we present the first time-dependent models of the dissipation of a viscous decretion disk. By modeling the rate of decline of the V-band excess, we determine that the viscosity parameter {alpha} = 1.0 {+-} 0.2, corresponding to a mass injection rate M-dot =(3.5{+-}1.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. Such a large value of {alpha} suggests that the origin of the turbulent viscosity is an instability in the disk whose growth is limited by shock dissipation. The mass injection rate is more than an order of magnitude larger than the wind mass-loss rate inferred from UV observations, implying that the mass injection mechanism most likely is not the stellar wind, but some other mechanism.

  1. A CHARA Array Survey of Circumstellar Disks around Nearby Be-type Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Touhami, Y; Schaefer, G H; McAlister, H A; Ridgway, S T; Richardson, N D; Matson, R; Grundstrom, E D; Brummelaar, T A ten; Goldfinger, P J; Sturmann, L; Sturmann, J; Turner, N H; Farrington, C

    2013-01-01

    We report on a high angular resolution survey of circumstellar disks around 24 northern sky Be stars. The K-band continuum survey was made using the CHARA Array long baseline interferometer (baselines of 30 to 331 m). The interferometric visibilities were corrected for the flux contribution of stellar companions in those cases where the Be star is a member of a known binary or multiple system. For those targets with good uv coverage, we used a four parameter Gaussian elliptical disk model to fit the visibilities and to determine the axial ratio, position angle, K-band photospheric flux contribution, and angular diameter of the disk major axis. For the other targets with relatively limited uv coverage, we constrained the axial ratio, inclination angle, and or disk position angle where necessary in order to resolve the degeneracy between possible model solutions. We also made fits of the ultraviolet and infrared spectral energy distributions to estimate the stellar angular diameter and infrared flux excess of e...

  2. Disk Detective: Discovery of New Circumstellar Disk Candidates through Citizen Science

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchner, Marc J; Bans, Alissa S; Bhattacharjee, Shambo; Kenyon, Scott J; Debes, John H; Currie, Thayne; Garcia, Luciano; Jung, Dawoon; Lintott, Chris; McElwain, Michael; Padgett, Deborah L; Rebull, Luisa M; Wisniewski, John P; Nesvold, Erika; Schawinski, Kevin; Thaller, Michelle L; Grady, Carol A; Biggs, Joseph; Bosch, Milton; Cernohous, Tadeás; Luca, Hugo A Durantini; Hyogo, Michiharu; Wah, Lily Lau Wan; Piipuu, Art; Piñeiro, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The Disk Detective citizen science project aims to find new stars with 22 micron excess emission from circumstellar dust using data from NASA's WISE mission. Initial cuts on the AllWISE catalog provide an input catalog of 277,686 sources. Volunteers then view images of each source online in 10 different bands to identify false-positives (galaxies, background stars, interstellar matter, image artifacts, etc.). Sources that survive this online vetting are followed up with spectroscopy on the FLWO Tillinghast telescope. This approach should allow us to unleash the full potential of WISE for finding new debris disks and protoplanetary disks. We announce a first list of 37 new disk candidates discovered by the project, and we describe our vetting and follow-up process. One of these systems appears to contain the first debris disk discovered around a star with a white dwarf companion: HD 74389. We also report four newly discovered classical Be stars (HD 6612, HD 7406, HD 164137, and HD 218546) and a new detection o...

  3. Flash-ionization of pre-existing circumstellar material around Nova Oph 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munari, U.; Walter, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    We have obtained daily high-resolution Echelle spectroscopy of Nova Oph 2015 during its initial evolution. It reveals the presence of pre-existing circumstellar material around the nova, which can be interpreted as the wind of an evolved companion. On earliest observations, the emission line profiles of Nova Oph 2015 displayed a very narrow emission component (full width at half-maximum [FWHM] ˜ 60 km s-1), recombining over a time-scale of 5 days and showing constant low velocity (RV⊙ = -4.5 km s-1), that we interpret as coming from the wind of the secondary recombining after the ionization from the initial UV-flash of the nova. The underlying broad component underwent a marked reduction in both FWHM and width at zero intensity (the latter declining from 4000 to 2000 km s-1 in 10 days) while increasing by six times in flux, that we believe is the result of the high-velocity ejecta of the nova being slowed down while trying to expand within the surrounding wind of the companion. Nova Oph 2015 is possibly unique among novae with evolved companions in having displayed a long rise to maximum brightness and a slow decline from it, an Fe II-type classification, and a probable sub-giant luminosity class for the secondary.

  4. A SCUBA-2 850-$\\mu$m survey of circumstellar disks in the $\\lambda$ Orionis cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Ansdell, Megan; Cieza, Lucas A

    2015-01-01

    We present results from an 850-$\\mu$m survey of the $\\sim$ 5 Myr old $\\lambda$ Orionis star-forming region. We used the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope to survey a $\\sim$0.5-diameter circular region containing 36 (out of 59) cluster members with infrared excesses indicative of circumstellar disks. We detected only one object at $>3\\sigma$ significance, the Herbig Ae star HD 245185, with a flux density of $\\sim74$ mJy beam$^{-1}$ corresponding to a dust mass of $\\sim150$ M$_{\\oplus}$. Stacking the individually undetected sources did not produce a significant mean signal but gives an upper limit on the average dust mass for $\\lambda$ Orionis disks of $\\sim3$ M$_{\\oplus}$. Our follow-up observations of HD 245185 with the Submillimeter Array found weak CO 2--1 line emission with an integrated flux of $\\sim170$ mJy km s$^{-1}$ but no $^{13}$CO or C$^{18}$O isotopologue emission at 30 mJy km s$^{-1}$ sensitivity, suggesting a gas mass of $\\lesssim1$ M$_{\\rm Jup}$. The implied gas-to-dust ratio i...

  5. Extinction Laws toward Stellar Sources within a Dusty Circumstellar Medium and Implications for Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Takashi; Maeda, Keiichi; Nozawa, Takaya

    2016-06-01

    Many astronomical objects are surrounded by dusty environments. In such dusty objects, multiple scattering processes of photons by circumstellar (CS) dust grains can effectively alter extinction properties. In this paper, we systematically investigate the effects of multiple scattering on extinction laws for steady-emission sources surrounded by the dusty CS medium using a radiation transfer simulation based on the Monte Carlo technique. In particular, we focus on whether and how the extinction properties are affected by properties of CS dust grains by adopting various dust grain models. We confirm that behaviors of the (effective) extinction laws are highly dependent on the properties of CS grains, especially the total-to-selective extinction ratio R V , which characterizes the extinction law and can be either increased or decreased and compared with the case without multiple scattering. We find that the criterion for this behavior is given by a ratio of albedos in the B and V bands. We also find that either small silicate grains or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are necessary for realizing a low value of R V as often measured toward SNe Ia if the multiple scattering by CS dust is responsible for their non-standard extinction laws. Using the derived relations between the properties of dust grains and the resulting effective extinction laws, we propose that the extinction laws toward dusty objects could be used to constrain the properties of dust grains in CS environments.

  6. The impact of secular resonances on habitable zones in circumstellar planetary systems of known binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bazsó, Ákos; Eggl, Siegfried; Funk, Barbara; Bancelin, David

    2016-01-01

    We present a survey on binary star systems with stellar separations less than 100 astronomical units. For a selection of 11 binaries with a detected (giant) planet in circumstellar motion we determine the conditions that would allow additional planets to be present inside or nearby the habitable zone (HZ) of the host star. First we calculate the three-body HZ for these systems, in order to investigate the dynamics of bodies in those regions. After adding the giant planet's influence the final HZ is considerably modified in particular by mean motion and secular resonances. We apply a semi-analytical method to determine the locations of linear secular resonances, which is based on finding the apsidal precession frequencies of the massive bodies. For very close-in giant planets we also take the general relativistic precession of the pericenter into account. Our results demonstrate that there is a qualitative difference in the dynamics whether the giant planet is located exterior or interior to the HZ. An exterio...

  7. The circumstellar matter of supernova 2014J and the core-degenerate scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Soker, Noam

    2015-01-01

    I show that the circumstellar matter (CSM) of the type Ia supernova 2014J is too massive and its momentum too large to be accounted for by any but the core-degenerate (CD) scenario for type Ia supernovae. Assuming the absorbing gas is of CSM origin, the several shells responsible of the absorption potassium lines are accounted for by a mass loss episode from a massive asymptotic giant branch star during a common envelope phase with a white dwarf companion. The time-varying potassium lines can be accounted for by ionization of neutral potassium and the Na-from-dust absorption (NaDA) model. Before explosion some of the potassium resides in the gas phase and some in dust. Weakening in absorption strength is caused by potassium-ionizing radiation of the supernova, while release of atomic potassium from dust increases the absorption. I conclude that if the absorbing gas originated from the progenitor of SN 2014J, then a common envelope phase took place about 15,000 years ago, leading to the merging of the core wit...

  8. The inner circumstellar disk of the UX Ori star V1026 Sco

    CERN Document Server

    Vural, J; Kishimoto, M; Weigelt, G; Hofmann, K -H; Kraus, S; Schertl, D; Dugué, M; Duvert, G; Lagarde, S; Massi, F

    2014-01-01

    The UX Ori type variables (named after the prototype of their class) are intermediate-mass pre-main sequence objects. One of the most likely causes of their variability is the obscuration of the central star by orbiting dust clouds. We investigate the structure of the circumstellar environment of the UX~Ori star V1026 Sco (HD 142666) and test whether the disk inclination is large enough to explain the UX Ori variability. We observed the object in the low-resolution mode of the near-infrared interferometric VLTI/AMBER instrument and derived H- and K-band visibilities and closure phases. We modeled our AMBER observations, published Keck Interferometer observations, archival MIDI/VLTI visibilities, and the spectral energy distribution using geometric and temperature-gradient models. Employing a geometric inclined-ring disk model, we find a ring radius of 0.15 +- 0.06 AU in the H band and 0.18 +- 0.06 AU in the K band. The best-fit temperature-gradient model consists of a star and two concentric, ring-shaped disk...

  9. Study of infrared excess from circumstellar disks in binaries with Spitzer/IRAC

    CERN Document Server

    Itoh, Yusuke; Shibai, Hiroshi; Sumi, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Kodai

    2015-01-01

    The presence of excess emission at 3.6--8.0 $\\mu$m was investigated in a sample of 27 binary systems located in two nearby star-forming regions, Taurus and Ophiuchus, by using Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) archival data. Angular (Projected) separations for the binaries are greater than 2"($\\sim$280 AU), which allowed us to perform spatially resolved photometry of individual primary and secondary sources. The measured occurrence of infrared excess suggests that binarity plays a role in the evolution of circumstellar disks, even at such wide binary separations. Most of the binaries have excess emission from both the circumprimary and circumsecondary disks, or show photospheric levels for both components at all four wavelengths of IRAC. On the other hand, four systems ($17^{+11}_{-8}$%, designated by "mixed" systems) exhibit excess emission from a single binary component. This ratio is significantly smaller than that predicted by the random pairing of single stars, suggesting that circumprimary and circum...

  10. Molecular level control of nanoscale composition and morphology: Toward photocatalytic nanocomposites for solar-to-chemical energy conversion of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruberu, Thanthrige P. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the factors influencing nanocrystal formation is a challenge yet to be realized. In comparison to the large number of studies on nanocrystal synthesis and their applications, the number of studies on the effect of the precursor chemistry on nanocrystal composition and shape remains low. Although photochemical fabrication of metalsemiconductor nano-heterostructures is reported in literature, control over the free particle formation and the site of metal deposition have not been achieved. Moreover, utilization of metal- semiconductor nano-heterostructures in photocatalytic reactions other than water splitting is hardly explored. In this thesis, we studied the effect of chalcogenide precursor reactivity on the composition, morphology and the axial anisotropy of cadmiumchalcogenide nanocrystals. We also investigated the influence of the irradiation wavelength in synthesizing metal-semiconductor nano-heterostructures. Finally, we showed that metal semiconductor nano-heterostructures can be used as a photocatalyst for alcohol dehydrogenation reactions. We explored the pathways for the formation of Pt and Pd nanoparticles on CdS and CdS{sub 0.4}Se{sub 0.6} nanorods. This study revealed that the wavelength of irradiation is critical to control free-standing vs. bound metal (Pt and Pd) nanoparticles to semiconductor. Additionally, we observed that metal photodeposition occurs on specific segments of axially anisotropic, compositionally graded CdS0.4Se0.6 nanorods due to the band-gap differential between their nano-domains. We used semiconductor-metal heterostructures for sunlightdriven dehydrogenation and hydrogenolysis of benzyl alcohol. Heterostructure composition dictates activity (turnovers) and product distribution. A few metal (Pt, Pd) islands on the semiconductor surface significantly enhance activity and selectivity and also greatly stabilize the semiconductor against photoinduced etching and degradation.

  11. Molecular composition of leaves and stems of genetically modified Bt and near-isogenic non-Bt maize--characterization of lignin patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poerschmann, Juergen; Gathmann, Achim; Augustin, Juergen; Langer, Uwe; Górecki, Tadeusz

    2005-01-01

    Transformation of crops, including maize (Zea mays L.), with the cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis to combat lepidopteran pests results in pleiotropic effects regarding lignin biosynthesis. Lignin patterns in stems and leaves of two genetically modified Bt-maize varieties (Novelis T and Valmont T) were studied along with their non-Bt near-isolines (Nobilis and Prelude, respectively). Molecular-level based thermochemolysis using tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to quantitate the total lignin contents and to identify monomeric lignin subunits including p-hydroxyphenyl (P), guaiacyl (G), and syringyl (S) moieties. The results were supplemented and confirmed by cupric oxide oxidation. The stems of the transgenic lines had higher concentrations of total lignin than the respective isogenic lines: Valmont T/Prelude by 18% and Novelis T/Nobilis by 28%. In contrast, differences in the total lignin concentration of leaves between the transgenic and the respective near-isogenic lines were marginal. There were significant modifications in the ratio of p-hydroxyphenyl/guaiacyl/syringyl molecular marker units of stem lignin between transgenic and isogenic lines. The guaiacyl units (in particular the G18 marker) accounted chiefly for the higher total lignin contents in the transgenic lines. The leaf lignin patterns did not show significant differences in molecular markers between isogenic and transgenic lines. TMAH-induced thermochemolysis--conducted in both the on-line and off-line modes--provided detailed information on the molecular composition of lignin, thus proving superior to the established "wet chemistry" methods of lignin determination. PMID:16091603

  12. Plant lipid composition changes as a function of burning conditions and can be used as molecular proxy for the assessment of burning environments in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesenberg, Guido

    2010-05-01

    Plant-derived biomass entering soil commonly leads to a typical chemical composition of soil organic matter (SOM), whereas alteration of biomass during microbial degradation results in different chemical changes of plant-derived SOM. On a molecular level plant-derived SOM is characterized by a predominance of long-chain alkanes, fatty acids and alcohols within the lipid fraction with a strong relative predominance of odd or even carbon-numbered homologues depending on the lipid fraction. E.g. plant-derived alkanes as typical degradation products of functionalized lipids are dominated by odd long-chain alkanes. Contrastingly, a progressive increase in short-chain even-numbered alkanes was found in charred biomass with increasing temperature associated by a decrease in chain-length and a decrease in the predominance of odd n-alkanes [1]. Thermal degradation of plant biomass during a fire results in a modification of lipid distribution patterns that differs from microbial degradation. Not only the composition, but the total amount of lipidic components changes as well. Thus, during charring at low temperatures (acids (BPCA) [3], where a higher aromaticity was correlated to higher charring temperatures. All these observations indicate that incomplete burning results in large amounts of complex organic remains in soil, where with increasing temperature burning gets more complete leaving less burning residues. Recent investigations indicate a structural re-arrangement of lipidic components in burned plant biomass not only as a function of temperature, duration of thermal degradation, and oxygen availability, but also as a function of the initial plant biomass composition. Molecular marker might be useful to trace not only fire in recent and ancient soils, but also the burning conditions and the initial biomass. In this study it will be demonstrated how total lipid contents and distribution patterns are modified during thermal degradation and how molecular markers can be

  13. Molecular and isotopic compositions and origin of natural gases from Cambrian and Carboniferous-Lower Permian reservoirs of the onshore Polish Baltic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Maciej J.; Nagao, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Natural gases from Middle Cambrian and Carboniferous-Lower Permian reservoirs of the onshore Polish Baltic region were studied for their molecular and stable isotope compositions. The following gas species were analysed: 12,13C in CH4, C2H6, C3H8, n-C4H10, i-C4H10 and CO2, 1,2H in CH4, 14,15N in N2, and stable isotopes of all noble gases. Due to significantly different geological settings and genetic types of source rocks of Eastern and Western Pomerania, the molecular and isotopic compositions of natural gases of these two regions exhibit distinct differences. Hydrocarbon gases associated with oil accumulated in the Middle Cambrian reservoir of Eastern Pomerania were generated during low-temperature thermogenic processes from a single source rock containing Type-II kerogen at one phase of petroleum generation. Non-associated hydrocarbon gases accumulated in the Carboniferous (Mississippian and Pennsylvanian)-Lower Permian (Rotliegend) reservoirs of Western Pomerania originated during at least two phases of gas generation by thermogenic processes from mainly Type-III kerogen and a small component of mixed Type-III/II kerogen. Noble gases are in general heavily enriched in radiogenic and nucleogenic isotopes such as 4He, 40Ar and 21Ne accumulated in the reservoirs. Weak contributions of mantle-derived He and Ne are observed. Radiogenic 4He/40Ar ratios are higher than the average production rate ratio of about 5 for radiogenic 4He/40Ar in crustal materials, which might have been caused by a selective supply of 4He that is lighter than 40Ar from crustal rocks, or (U + Th)/K ratio might be higher than the average in crustal block. Carbon dioxide from gases of both the Western and Eastern Pomerania were mainly generated during thermogenic processes of transformation of organic matter, although gases of Western Pomerania can contain an endogenic component. Molecular nitrogen from the Eastern Pomeranian natural gases was mainly generated during low-temperature thermal

  14. Molecular composition of biogenic secondary organic aerosols using ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry: linking laboratory and field studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtchev, Ivan; Fuller, Stephen; Aalto, Juho; Healy, Robert; Alfara, Rami; Ruuskanen, Taina; Wenger, John; McFiggans, Gordon; Kulmala, Markku; Kalberer, Markus

    2013-04-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) play an important role in atmospheric chemistry and give rise to secondary organic aerosols (SOA), which have effects on climate and human health. Laboratory chamber experiments have been performed during several decades in an attempt to mimic atmospheric SOA formation. However, it is still unclear how close the aerosol particles generated in laboratory experiments resemble atmospheric SOA with respect to their detailed chemical composition. To date, most laboratory experiments have been performed using a single organic precursor (e.g., alpha- or beta-pinene, isoprene) while in the atmosphere a wide range of precursors contribute to SOA, which results most likely in a more complex SOA composition compared to the one-precursor laboratory systems. The objective of this work is to compare laboratory generated SOA from oxidation of BVOCs mixtures and remote ambient samples using ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry (UHR-MS) that allows detection of hundreds of individual SOA constituents. We examined aerosol samples from a boreal forest site, Hyytiälä, Finland and determined that a dominant fraction of the detected compounds are reaction products of a multi-component mixture of BVOCs. In the subsequent smog chamber experiments, SOA was generated from the ozonolysis and OH initiated reactions with BVOC mixtures containing species (alpha- and beta-pinene, delta-3-carene, and isoprene) that are most abundant in Hyytiälä's environment. The laboratory experiments were performed at conditions (e.g., RH, aerosol seed, and VOC ratios) that would resemble those at the boreal sampling site during the summer period. The elemental composition of the complex mixtures from laboratory generated SOA samples were compared with field samples using statistical data analysis methods.

  15. Widely tunable alloy composition and crystal structure in catalyst-free InGaAs nanowire arrays grown by selective area molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, J.; Speckbacher, M.; Saller, K.; Morkötter, S.; Döblinger, M.; Xu, X.; Riedl, H.; Abstreiter, G.; Finley, J. J.; Koblmüller, G.

    2016-02-01

    We delineate the optimized growth parameter space for high-uniformity catalyst-free InGaAs nanowire (NW) arrays on Si over nearly the entire alloy compositional range using selective area molecular beam epitaxy. Under the required high group-V fluxes and V/III ratios, the respective growth windows shift to higher growth temperatures as the Ga-content x(Ga) is tuned from In-rich to Ga-rich InGaAs NWs. Using correlated x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy, we identify structural defects to govern luminescence linewidths in In-rich (x(Ga) 0.6) NWs, whereas limitations at intermediate Ga-content (0.4 blue-shifted to red-shifted photoluminescence emission relative to the band edge emission of the bulk ZB InGaAs phase.

  16. Changes in the Fatty Acid Profile and Phospholipid Molecular Species Composition of Human Erythrocyte Membranes after Hybrid Palm and Extra Virgin Olive Oil Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacetti, D; Gagliardi, R; Balzano, M; Frega, N G; Ojeda, M L; Borrero, M; Ruiz, A; Lucci, P

    2016-07-13

    This work aims to evaluate and compare, for the first time, the effects of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and hybrid palm oil (HPO) supplementation on the fatty acid profile and phospholipid (PL) molecular species composition of human erythrocyte membranes. Results supported the effectiveness of both HPO and EVOO supplementation (3 months, 25 mL/day) in decreasing the lipophilic index of erythrocytes with no significant differences between HPO and EVOO groups at month 3. On the other hand, the novel and rapid ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method used for PL analysis reveals an increase in the levels of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine species esterified with polyunsaturated fatty acids. This work demonstrates the ability of both EVOO and HPO to increase the degree of unsaturation of erythrocyte membrane lipids with an improvement in membrane fluidity that could be associated with a lower risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Changes in the Fatty Acid Profile and Phospholipid Molecular Species Composition of Human Erythrocyte Membranes after Hybrid Palm and Extra Virgin Olive Oil Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacetti, D; Gagliardi, R; Balzano, M; Frega, N G; Ojeda, M L; Borrero, M; Ruiz, A; Lucci, P

    2016-07-13

    This work aims to evaluate and compare, for the first time, the effects of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and hybrid palm oil (HPO) supplementation on the fatty acid profile and phospholipid (PL) molecular species composition of human erythrocyte membranes. Results supported the effectiveness of both HPO and EVOO supplementation (3 months, 25 mL/day) in decreasing the lipophilic index of erythrocytes with no significant differences between HPO and EVOO groups at month 3. On the other hand, the novel and rapid ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method used for PL analysis reveals an increase in the levels of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine species esterified with polyunsaturated fatty acids. This work demonstrates the ability of both EVOO and HPO to increase the degree of unsaturation of erythrocyte membrane lipids with an improvement in membrane fluidity that could be associated with a lower risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27315139

  18. A systems biology, whole-genome association analysis of the molecular regulation of biomass growth and composition in Populus deltoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirst, Matias [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2014-04-14

    Poplars trees are well suited for biofuel production due to their fast growing habit, favorable wood composition and adaptation to a broad range of environments. The availability of a reference genome sequence, ease of vegetative propagation and availability of transformation methods also make poplar an ideal model for the study of wood formation and biomass growth in woody, perennial plants. The objective of this project was to conduct a genome-wide association genetics study to identify genes that regulate bioenergy traits in Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). Populus deltoides is a genetically diverse keystone forest species in North America and an important short rotation woody crop for the bioenergy industry. We searched for associations between eight growth and wood composition traits and common and low-frequency single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) detected by targeted resequencing of 18,153 genes in a population of 391 unrelated individuals. To increase power to detect associations with low-frequency variants, multiple-marker association tests were used in combination with single-marker association tests. Significant associations were discovered for all phenotypes and are indicative that low-frequency polymorphisms contribute to phenotypic variance of several bioenergy traits. These polymorphism are critical tools for the development of specialized plant feedstocks for bioenergy.

  19. A systems biology, whole-genome association analysis of the molecular regulation of biomass growth and composition in Populus deltoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirst, Matias [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Poplars trees are well suited for biofuel production due to their fast growing habit, favorable wood composition and adaptation to a broad range of environments. The availability of a reference genome sequence, ease of vegetative propagation and availability of transformation methods also make poplar an ideal model for the study of wood formation and biomass growth in woody, perennial plants. The objective of this project was to conduct a genome-wide association genetics study to identify genes that regulate bioenergy traits in Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). Populus deltoides is a genetically diverse keystone forest species in North America and an important short rotation woody crop for the bioenergy industry. We searched for associations between eight growth and wood composition traits and common and low-frequency single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) detected by targeted resequencing of 18,153 genes in a population of 391 unrelated individuals. To increase power to detect associations with low-frequency variants, multiple-marker association tests were used in combination with single-marker association tests. Significant associations were discovered for all phenotypes and are indicative that low-frequency polymorphisms contribute to phenotypic variance of several bioenergy traits. These polymorphism are critical tools for the development of specialized plant feedstocks for bioenergy.

  20. Measuring changes in chemistry, composition, and molecular structure within hair fibers by infrared and Raman spectroscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojin; Senak, Laurence; Moore, David J.

    2011-05-01

    Spatially resolved infrared (IR) and Raman images are acquired from human hair cross sections or intact hair fibers. The full informational content of these spectra are spatially correlated to hair chemistry, anatomy, and structural organization through univariate and multivariate data analysis. Specific IR and Raman images from untreated human hair describing the spatial dependence of lipid and protein distribution, protein secondary structure, lipid chain conformational order, and distribution of disulfide cross-links in hair protein are presented in this study. Factor analysis of the image plane acquired with IR microscopy in hair sections, permits delineation of specific micro-regions within the hair. These data indicate that both IR and Raman imaging of molecular structural changes in a specific region of hair will prove to be valuable tools in the understanding of hair structure, physiology, and the effect of various stresses upon its integrity.

  1. Quantum Mechanical Treatment of Variable Molecular Composition: From "Alchemical" Changes of State Functions to Rational Compound Design

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, K Y Samuel

    2015-01-01

    "Alchemical" interpolation paths, i.e.~coupling systems along fictitious paths that without realistic correspondence, are frequently used within materials and molecular modeling and simulation protocols for the estimation of relative changes in state functions such as free energies. We discuss alchemical changes in the context of quantum chemistry, and present illustrative numerical results for the changes of HOMO eigenvalues of the He atom due to a linear alchemical teleportation---the simultaneous annihilation and creation of nuclear charges at different locations. To demonstrate the predictive power of alchemical first order derivatives (Hellmann-Feynman) the covalent bond potential of hydrogen fluoride and hydrogen chloride is investigated, as well as the van-der-Waals binding in the water-water and water-hydrogen fluoride dimer, respectively. Based on converged electron densities for one configuration, the versatility of alchemical derivatives is exemplified for the screening of entire binding potentials...

  2. Lack of Correlation between Turnover of Low-Molecular-Weight Dissolved Organic Carbon and Differences in Microbial Community Composition or Growth across a Soil pH Gradient▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Rousk, Johannes; Brookes, Philip C.; Glanville, Helen C.; Jones, David L.

    2011-01-01

    We studied how soil pH (pHs 4 to 8) influenced the mineralization of low-molecular-weight (LMW)-dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compounds, and how this compared with differences in microbial community structure. The mineralization of LMW-DOC compounds was not systematically connected to differences in soil pH, consistent with soil respiration. In contrast, the microbial community compositions differed dramatically. This suggests that microbial community composition data will be of limited use ...

  3. A comparative study of the molecular composition and electrophysiological activity of the venoms from two fishing spiders Dolomedes mizhoanus and Dolomedes sulfurous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiayan; Li, Dan; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Hengyun; Yu, Hai; Liu, Zhonghua; Liang, Songping

    2014-06-01

    Dolomedes mizhoanus and Dolomedes sulfurous are two venomous spiders found in the same area in southern China and are characterized by living in water plants and feeding on fish. In this study, the chemical compositions and activities of these venoms were compared. Both venoms contain hundreds of peptides as shown by off-line RP-HPLC/MALDI-TOF-MS analysis, but have a different peptide distribution, with D. mizhoanus venom containing fewer high molecular mass (7000-9000 Da) peptides (3%) than D. sulfurous venom (25.6%). Patch-clamp analyses showed that both venoms inhibited voltage-activated Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) channels in rat DRG neurons, however, differences in their inhibitory effects were observed. In general, D. mizhoanus venom had lower inhibitory activity than D. sulfurous venom and both venoms had a different inhibitory spectrum against these ion channels, showing that both venoms are useful for identifying antagonists to them. In addition, intrathoracic injection of both venoms caused severe neurotoxic effects in zebrafish and death at higher concentrations, respectively. Considering that both spiders belong to the same genus, live in the same area and have similar habits, elucidation of the differences between the peptide toxins from both venoms would provide new molecular insights into the evolution of spider peptides.

  4. Body composition and circulating high-molecular-weight adiponectin and IGF-I in infants born small for gestational age: breast- versus formula-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zegher, Francis; Sebastiani, Giorgia; Diaz, Marta; Sánchez-Infantes, David; Lopez-Bermejo, Abel; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2012-08-01

    Prenatal growth restraint, if followed by postnatal overweight, confers risk for adult disease including diabetes. The mechanisms whereby neonatal nutrition may modulate such risk are poorly understood. We studied the effects of nutrition (breast-feeding [BRF] vs. formula-feeding [FOF]) on weight partitioning and endocrine state (as judged by high-molecular-weight [HMW] adiponectin and IGF-I) of infants born small for gestational age (SGA). Body composition (by absorptiometry), HMW adiponectin, and IGF-I were assessed at birth and 4 months in BRF infants born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; n = 72) and SGA infants receiving BRF (n = 46) or FOF (n = 56), the latter being randomized to receive a standard (FOF1) or protein-rich formula (FOF2). Compared with AGA-BRF infants, the catchup growth of SGA infants was confined to lean mass, independently of nutrition. Compared with AGA-BRF infants, SGA-BRF infants had normal HMW adiponectin and IGF-I levels at 4 months, whereas SGA-FOF infants had elevated levels of HMW adiponectin (particularly SGA-FOF1) and IGF-I (particularly SGA-FOF2). In conclusion, neonatal nutrition seems to influence endocrinology more readily than body composition of SGA infants. Follow-up will disclose whether the endocrine abnormalities in SGA-FOF infants can serve as early markers of an unfavorable metabolic course and whether they may contribute to design early interventions that prevent subsequent disease, including diabetes. PMID:22648385

  5. Widely tunable alloy composition and crystal structure in catalyst-free InGaAs nanowire arrays grown by selective area molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treu, J., E-mail: Julian.Treu@wsi.tum.de, E-mail: Gregor.Koblmueller@wsi.tum.de; Speckbacher, M.; Saller, K.; Morkötter, S.; Xu, X.; Riedl, H.; Abstreiter, G.; Finley, J. J.; Koblmüller, G., E-mail: Julian.Treu@wsi.tum.de, E-mail: Gregor.Koblmueller@wsi.tum.de [Walter Schottky Institut, Physik Department, Center of Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials, Technische Universität München, Am Coulombwall 4, Garching 85748 (Germany); Döblinger, M. [Department of Chemistry, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Butenandtstr. 5-13, Munich 81377 (Germany)

    2016-02-01

    We delineate the optimized growth parameter space for high-uniformity catalyst-free InGaAs nanowire (NW) arrays on Si over nearly the entire alloy compositional range using selective area molecular beam epitaxy. Under the required high group-V fluxes and V/III ratios, the respective growth windows shift to higher growth temperatures as the Ga-content x(Ga) is tuned from In-rich to Ga-rich InGaAs NWs. Using correlated x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy, we identify structural defects to govern luminescence linewidths in In-rich (x(Ga) < 0.4) and Ga-rich (x(Ga) > 0.6) NWs, whereas limitations at intermediate Ga-content (0.4 < x(Ga) < 0.6) are mainly due to compositional inhomogeneities. Most remarkably, the catalyst-free InGaAs NWs exhibit a characteristic transition in crystal structure from wurtzite to zincblende (ZB) dominated phase near x(Ga) ∼ 0.4 that is further reflected in a cross-over from blue-shifted to red-shifted photoluminescence emission relative to the band edge emission of the bulk ZB InGaAs phase.

  6. Mid-Infrared Signatures from Type Ia Supernovae Strongly Interacting with a Circumstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ori

    2016-08-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are well-known for their use as precise cosmological distance indicators due to a standardizable peak luminosity resulting from a thermonuclear explosion. A growing subset of SNe Ia, however, show evidence for interaction with a dense circumstellar medium during the first year post-explosion, and sometimes longer (SNe Ia-CSM). The origin of this dense CSM is unknown and suggests either a) the less typical single-degenerate progenitor scenario must be considered or b) the exploding star was not a thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf at all (i.e., core-collapse). Mid-infrared (IR) observations, in particular, are critical for tracing the density profile of dust (and hence gas) in the surrounding CSM. Yet no Spitzer light curve exists for this subclass within the first year post-expolosion. Here we propose a 'low-impact' (>8 weeks) ToO to obtain 3 epochs of Spitzer imaging of a SN Ia-CSM within 100 Mpc over 1 year post-explosion. The strength of this program is that it will be in conjunction with pre-approved multi-wavelength programs on HST/STIS/UV (GO 13649), Chandra/ASIS-S (17500672), the Keck/LRIS optical spectrograph (U037LA), and the RATIR visible/infrared robotic imager. Requiring only 2.1 hours of observation total, this program will not only distinguish between the SN explosion mechanisms, but also trace CSM interaction, constrain the progenitor mass loss history, and identify late-time heating mechanisms of warm dust.

  7. Circumstellar Dust Shells: Clues to the Evolution of R Coronae Borealis Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Edward J.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.

    2016-06-01

    R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are an exotic group of extremely hydrogen- deficient, carbon-rich supergiants that are known for their spectacular declines in brightness (up to 8 mags) at irregular intervals. Two scenarios are currently competing to explain the origins of these stars. One suggests that RCB stars are the products after a binary white dwarf (WD) system merges. The other takes a single, evolved star and has it undergo a final, helium-shell flash (FF) and becoming a cool giant. Recently, observations of elemental abundances in RCB stars have strongly swung the argument in favor of the WD merger model. The FF scenario has maintained its relevancy by seemingly being the only model able to offer a suitable explanation for one RCB feature that merger model has historically struggled with explaining: the presence of cold, circumstellar dust envelopes which might be fossil planetary nebulae (PNe). In reality, the shells could actually be fossil PNe, material left over from the WD merger, or mass lost during the RCB phase, itself. I will present the results of my dissertation, which is to try and discern the nature and history of the far-IR dust shells around RCB stars to help understand the origin of these enigmatic stars. I will discuss our efforts to determine the mass, size, temperature, and morphology of these diffuse structures surrounding a sample of RCB stars using multi-wavelength observations ranging from the ultraviolet to the submillimeter. These observations have provided unprecedented wavelength coverage for both the central stars and their CSM. They have been examined by eye for morphology and have been used in the construction of maximum-light spectral energy distributions (SEDs). I will present the results of our Monte Carlo radiative transfer of the maximum-light SEDs. Finally, I will highlight our work investigating the HI abundance of the envelope of R Coronae Borealis, itself, using archival 21—cm observations from the Arecibo

  8. A deep Spitzer survey of circumstellar disks in the young double cluster, h and χ Persei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze very deep Infrared Array Camera and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) photometry of ∼12, 500 members of the 14 Myr old Double Cluster, h and χ Persei, building upon our earlier, shallower Spitzer Cycle 1 studies. Numerous likely members show infrared (IR) excesses at 8 μm and 24 μm, indicative of circumstellar dust. The frequency of stars with 8 μm excess is at least 2% for our entire sample, slightly lower (higher) for B/A stars (later type, lower mass stars). Optical spectroscopy also identifies gas in about 2% of systems, but with no clear trend between the presence of dust and gas. Spectral energy distribution modeling of 18 sources with detections at optical wavelengths through MIPS 24 μm reveals a diverse set of disk evolutionary states, including a high fraction of transitional disks, though similar data for all disk-bearing members would provide constraints. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we combine our results with those for other young clusters to study the global evolution of dust/gas disks. For nominal cluster ages, the e-folding times (τ0) for the frequency of warm dust and gas are 2.75 Myr and 1.75 Myr, respectively. Assuming a revised set of ages for some clusters, these timescales increase to 5.75 and 3.75 Myr, respectively, implying a significantly longer typical protoplanetary disk lifetime than previously thought. In both cases, the transitional disk duration, averaged over multiple evolutionary pathways, is ≈1 Myr. Finally, 24 μm excess frequencies for 4-6 M ☉ stars appear lower than for 1-2.5 M ☉ stars in other 10-30 Myr old clusters.

  9. ALMA Observations of Circumstellar Disks in the Upper Scorpius OB Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenfeld, Scott A.; Carpenter, John M.; Ricci, Luca; Isella, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    We present ALMA observations of 106 G-, K-, and M-type stars in the Upper Scorpius OB Association hosting circumstellar disks. With these data, we measure the 0.88 mm continuum and 12CO J = 3-2 line fluxes of disks around low-mass (0.14-1.66 M ⊙) stars at an age of 5-11 Myr. Of the 75 primordial disks in the sample, 53 are detected in the dust continuum and 26 in CO. Of the 31 disks classified as debris/evolved transitional disks, five are detected in the continuum and none in CO. The lack of CO emission in approximately half of the disks with detected continuum emission can be explained if CO is optically thick but has a compact emitting area (≲40 au), or if the CO is heavily depleted by a factor of at least ˜1000 relative to interstellar medium abundances and is optically thin. The continuum measurements are used to estimate the dust mass of the disks. We find a correlation between disk dust mass and stellar host mass consistent with a power-law relation of {M}{dust}\\propto {M}* 1.67+/- 0.37. Disk dust masses in Upper Sco are compared to those measured in the younger Taurus star-forming region to constrain the evolution of disk dust mass. We find that the difference in the mean of {log}({M}{dust}/{M}* ) between Taurus and Upper Sco is 0.64 ± 0.09, such that M dust/M * is lower in Upper Sco by a factor of ˜4.5.

  10. Composite mantle cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma: a clinicopathologic and molecular study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeller, Sylvia; Zhou, Yi; Kanagal-Shamanna, Rashmi; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Hoehn, Daniela; Bihl, Michel; Swerdlow, Steven H; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ott, German; Said, Jonathan; Dunphy, Cherie H; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E; Lin, Pei; Wang, Michael; Miranda, Roberto N; Tzankov, Alexander; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Young, Ken H

    2013-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) share many features and both arise from CD5+ B-cells; their distinction is critical as MCL is a more aggressive neoplasm. Rarely, cases of composite MCL and CLL/SLL have been reported. Little is known about the nature of these cases and, in particular, the clonal relationship of the 2 lymphomas. Eleven composite MCL and CLL/SLL cases were identified. The clinical, morphologic and immunophenotypic features of the MCL and CLL/SLL were characterized. IGH (immunoglobulin heavy chain) gene analysis was performed on microdissected MCL and CLL/SLL components to assess their clonal relationship. Ten patients had lymphadenopathy, and 7 patients had bone marrow involvement. The MCL component had the following growth patterns: in situ (n = 1), mantle zone (n = 3), nodular and diffuse (n = 3), diffuse (n = 3), and interstitial in the bone marrow (the only patient without lymphadenopathy) (n = 1); 6 MCLs had blastoid or pleomorphic and 5 small lymphocytic features. The CLL/SLL component was nodular (n = 9) or diffuse (n = 2). All MCL were CD5(+) and cyclin D1(+) with t(11;14) translocation. All CLL/SLL were CD5(+), CD23(+) and negative for cyclin D1 or t(11;14). IGH gene analysis showed that the MCL and CLL/SLL components displayed different sized fragments, indicating that the MCL and CLL/SLL are likely derived from different neoplastic B-cell clones. The lack of a clonal relationship between the MCL and CLL/SLL components suggests that MCL and CLL/SLL components represent distinct disease processes and do not share a common progenitor B-cell.

  11. Impact of landuse change on the molecular composition of soil organic matter studied at the observatory for environmental research in Lusignan, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpel, C.; Chabbi, A.

    2009-04-01

    The transformation of grassland into agicultural land is a common practice in many parts of the world. The management commonly leads to decrease of the soils organic matter content. Continous sampling at different time intervals after the land-use change and analysis of the samples for soil organic matter composition may allow for the assessment of the resistance/resiliance capacity of the system. We studied the long-term observatory for environmental research in Poitiers, France. At this site, an experiment was conducted in 2004, including transformation of grassland into agricultural land. Three replicated soil samples were taken from the converted soil after 3 weeks, 3 months, 1 year and 2 years, as well as from agricultural and grassland control soils. The samples were treated with 10 % HF to remove mineral material before being subjected to analysis of the bulk chemical composition by 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy and Curiepoint pyrolysis. Additionally, we carried out wet chemical analysis to analyse transformations of the lignin and polysaccharide compounds of SOM. Our data show that despite an significant decrease in carbon and nitrogen content after grassland transformation, the bulk chemical composition as seen by 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy remains similar. The more sensitive molecular analysis (pyrolysis and wet chemistry) are most adapted to follow SOM changes after grassland transformation. These analysis show that after 2 years, SOM does not yet show the characteristic of agricultural soil. We conclude, that long-term monitoring of land-use changes are necessary, to assess the adaptation period of ecosystems.

  12. Molecular Signposts of the Physics and Chemistry of Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleeves, Lauren Ilsedore

    Observations of molecules in planet-forming circumstellar disks are powerful diagnostic tools, enabling characterization of both gas composition and underlying physical conditions using molecular excitation. My thesis has primarily focused on the role of disk structure and ionization for the chemistry of disks and the corresponding submillimeter emission. Changes in the overall morphology of disks, including inner holes or gaps, significantly alters the stellar irradiation of the disk, which will affect the disk heating, especially at the walls of an inner hole (Chapter 2). I have modeled the 3D chemistry of gapped disks, carved out by planets, including for the first time heating by a luminous protoplanet. The planet sublimates ices beyond expected disk "snow-lines" leading to observable signatures detectable with ALMA (Chapter 3). Regarding ionization, I have studied disk ionization by cosmic rays (Chapter 4), short-lived radionuclides (Chapter 5), and X-rays from the central star (Chapter 6). In Chapter 6, I investigated the molecular dependence on each of these processes and made testable predictions for sensitive submillimeter observations to map out disk ionization, which I applied to the TW Hya disk, finding a substantially lower than interstellar cosmic ray rate (Chapter 7). One of the major implications of this work is related to the formation chemistry of water, which requires ionization to proceed. In the absence of water-formation in the solar nebula protoplanetary disk, this work demonstrates that there must be a substantial inheritance of water from earlier evolutionary stages, pre-dating the Sun's formation (Chapter 8). Together, these projects have also enabled the development of a comprehensive 2D and 3D disk modeling framework, useful for parameter space studies and source-targeted modeling.

  13. Structure, mechanical and tribological properties of radiation cross-linked ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene and composite materials based on it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tcherdyntsev, V.V., E-mail: vvch@misis.ru [National University of Science and Technology «MISiS», Leninsky Prospect, 4, Moscow, 119049 (Russian Federation); Kaloshkin, S.D.; Lunkova, A.A.; Musalitin, A.M. [National University of Science and Technology «MISiS», Leninsky Prospect, 4, Moscow, 119049 (Russian Federation); Danilov, V.D. [A.A. Blagonravov Institute of Mechanical Engineering RAS, ul. Bardina 4, Moscow, 117334 (Russian Federation); Borisova, Yu.V.; Boykov, A.A.; Sudarchikov, V.A. [National University of Science and Technology «MISiS», Leninsky Prospect, 4, Moscow, 119049 (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Effect of irradiation, oriented drawing, and filling on the structure and properties of UHMWPE was studied. • Radiation cross-linking leads to an increase in the melting temperature of UHMWPE. • The optimal irradiation dose is found to be 20 Mrad. • Strength of UHMWPE can be improved by a combination of irradiation, orientation, and filling with nanotubes. -- Abstract: The effect of irradiation with electrons, oriented drawing, and reinforcement with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) on the structure, physico-mechanical and tribological properties of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is studied. It is shown that the radiation cross-linking leads to the melting temperature of UHMWPE nearly linear increases with the dose of radiation. The optimal irradiation dose with respect to the mechanical characteristics is found to be 20 Mrad. It is shown that the strength characteristics of UHMWPE can be improved most efficiently by a combination of irradiation, oriented drawing, and reinforcement with nanotubes, and the second and the third factors have a stronger effect than the first one. A combined effect of three factors enabled us to enhance the yield strength of material by almost four times without a detrimental effect on its plasticity.

  14. Protein-mineral Interactions: Molecular Dynamics Simulations Capture Importance of Variations in Mineral Surface Composition and Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Amity; Reardon, Patrick N.; Chacon, Stephany S.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Washton, Nancy M.; Kleber, Markus

    2016-05-31

    Molecular dynamics simulations, conventional and metadynamics, were performed to determine the interaction of model protein Gb1 over kaolinite (001), Na+-montmorillonite (001), Ca2+-montmorillonite (001), goethite (100), and Na+-birnessite (001) mineral surfaces. Gb1, a small (56 residue) protein with a well-characterized solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure and having α-helix, four-fold β-sheet, and hydrophobic core features, is used as a model protein to study protein soil mineral interactions and gain insights on structural changes and potential degradation of protein. From our simulations, we observe little change to the hydrated Gb1 structure over the kaolinite, montmorillonite, and goethite surfaces relative to its solvated structure without these mineral surfaces present. Over the Na+-birnessite basal surface, however, the Gb1 structure is highly disturbed as a result of interaction with this birnessite surface. Unraveling of the Gb1 β-sheet at specific turns and a partial unraveling of the α-helix is observed over birnessite, which suggests specific vulnerable residue sites for oxidation or hydrolysis possibly leading to fragmentation.

  15. Protein-Mineral Interactions: Molecular Dynamics Simulations Capture Importance of Variations in Mineral Surface Composition and Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Amity; Reardon, Patrick N; Chacon, Stephany S; Qafoku, Nikolla P; Washton, Nancy M; Kleber, Markus

    2016-06-21

    Molecular dynamics simulations, conventional and metadynamics, were performed to determine the interaction of model protein Gb1 over kaolinite (001), Na(+)-montmorillonite (001), Ca(2+)-montmorillonite (001), goethite (100), and Na(+)-birnessite (001) mineral surfaces. Gb1, a small (56 residue) protein with a well-characterized solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure and having α-helix, 4-fold β-sheet, and hydrophobic core features, is used as a model protein to study protein soil mineral interactions and gain insights on structural changes and potential degradation of protein. From our simulations, we observe little change to the hydrated Gb1 structure over the kaolinite, montmorillonite, and goethite surfaces relative to its solvated structure without these mineral surfaces present. Over the Na(+)-birnessite basal surface, however, the Gb1 structure is highly disturbed as a result of interaction with this birnessite surface. Unraveling of the Gb1 β-sheet at specific turns and a partial unraveling of the α-helix is observed over birnessite, which suggests specific vulnerable residue sites for oxidation or hydrolysis possibly leading to fragmentation. PMID:27243116

  16. Molecular composition and indigenity of organic matter in Late Neoproterozoic sedimentary rocks from the Yangtze region, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Meijun; WANG Tieguan; WANG Chunjiang; ZHANG Weibiao

    2006-01-01

    Diamictites from Late Neoproterozoic Nantuo tillites (~600 Ma), and dolomites from the overlying Dousantuo and Dengying formations in the Yangtze region, southern China, were analyzed for solvent extractable hydrocarbons. Even though all these samples have low contents of TOC and have undergone overmature thermal evolution, there has been still preserved quite a large amount of hydrocarbons. Analysis of the extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed the presence of n-alkanes, regular acyclic isoprenoids, tricyclic terpanes, hopanes, gammacerane, steranes, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Strict experimental measurements were performed in the analytical procedure to prevent any potential contaminants from being introduced. All these bitumens have molecular markers of Precambrian characteristics and no external organics derived from current contamination events or migrated hydrocarbons from younger strata. The maturity parameters for bitumens indicate that the hydrocarbons are of over-maturity, which is consistent with the thermal maturity of the host rocks. Consequently, it is concluded that the Late Neoproterozoic bitumens in the Yangtze region, South China, are indigenous to their host rocks, which provides the basis for our organic geochemical research on "Snowball Earth" and "Cambrian Explosion."

  17. Reexamination In Vitro and In Situ of an Antibacterially Modified Experimental Dental Resin Composite with Molecular Methods: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Henrich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To introduce additional methods to detect and to quantify single pathogens in the complex biofilm formation on an antibacterial dental material. Materials and Methods. A conventional (ST and an antibacterial dental composite (B were manufactured. In vitro: specimens were incubated with a mixture of early colonizers. Bacterial adhesion was analyzed by TaqMan PCR after 8/24 h. In situ: TaqMan PCR and 16S rRNA Next Generation Sequencing (NGS were performed. Results. In vitro: after 8 h incubation, B was covered by 58.6% of the bacterial amount that was attached to ST. After 24 h, the amount of attached bacteria to ST remained constant on ST only slightly lower on B. In situ: after 8 h the amount of adhering A. viscosus and S. mitis was prominent on ST and reduced on B. NGS revealed that S. sanguinis, S. parasanguinis, and Gemella sanguinis were the mainly attached species with S. sanguinis dominant on ST and S. parasanguinis and G. sanguinis dominant on B. Conclusions. Initial biofilm formation was altered by B. A shift between actinomycetes and streptococci was observed in situ. TaqMan PCR and 16S rRNA NGS revealed comparable results in situ and demonstrated the usefulness of NGS to characterize complex bacterial communities.

  18. The Lack of Chemical Equilibrium does not Preclude the Use of the Classical Nucleation Theory in Circumstellar Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, John A.; Nuth, Joseph A., III

    2011-01-01

    Classical nucleation theory has been used in models of dust nucleation in circumstellar outflows around oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch stars. One objection to the application of classical nucleation theory (CNT) to astrophysical systems of this sort is that an equilibrium distribution of clusters (assumed by CNT) is unlikely to exist in such conditions due to a low collision rate of condensable species. A model of silicate grain nucleation and growth was modified to evaluate the effect of a nucleation flux orders of magnitUde below the equilibrium value. The results show that a lack of chemical equilibrium has only a small effect on the ultimate grain distribution.

  19. New Class of High-Energy Transients from Crashes of Supernova Ejecta with Massive Circumstellar Material Shells

    OpenAIRE

    Murase, Kohta; Thompson, Todd A.; Lacki, Brian C.; Beacom, John F.

    2010-01-01

    A new class of core-collapse supernovae (SNe) has been discovered in recent years by optical/infrared surveys; these SNe suggest the presence of one or more extremely dense (~10^5-10^11 cm^-3) shells of circumstellar material (CSM) on 10^2-10^4 AU scales. We consider the collisions of the SN ejecta with these massive CSM shells as potential cosmic-ray (CR) accelerators. If ~10% of the SN energy goes into CRs, multi-TeV neutrinos and/or GeV-TeV gamma rays almost simultaneous with the optical/i...

  20. Probing Molecular Composition of Soil Organic Matter with Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization (nano-DESI) High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, A.; Laskin, J.; Nizkorodov, S.

    2014-12-01

    The standard techniques for chemical analysis of SOM often lack molecular detail necessary for characterization of the key classes of compounds in soil necessary for the development of predictive models. High-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) combined with tandem mass spectrometry (MSn) is the technique of choice for structural characterization of individual molecules in complex environmental mixtures because HR-MS enables chemical characterization of complex samples with a level of detail that is not attainable using other techniques. However, the power of this technique for characterization of SOM has been demonstrated only recently. Nanospray desorption ionization (nano-DESI) bypasses the traditional SOM extraction steps and provides the unique ability to record SOM mass spectra from small whole-soil samples. Nano-DESI benefits from a short sample preparation time (dozens of samples can be analyzed in a matter of hours by simply swapping the samples on the sample holder and running a pre-programmed positioning stage protocol), fast analysis time (useful signal results from only a few seconds of contact between the sample and the liquid bridge), and highly sensitive detection (less than 10 ng of organic mass is required for analysis). The nano-DESI method is minimally destructive. Only a small spot (typically < 1mm) is in contact with the solvent bridge during the analysis, and the rest of the sample is unaffected. Sampling over multiple spots on the same sample in effect replaces the need to extract a large amount of SOM from a soil sample in order to homogenize it, as done in conventional soil analysis. Another critical advantage of nano-DESI is that it makes it possible to observe organic components that cannot be easily detected using traditional ESI method (69). Specifically, by minimizing the residence time of analyte in the spray solvent, it enables detection and structural characterization of chemically labile molecules in environmental samples, which

  1. The Molecular Composition of Comet C/2007 W1 (Boattini): Evidence of a Peculiar Outgassing and a Rich Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, G. L.; Mumma, M. J.; DiSanti, M. A.; Bonev, B. P.; Gibb, E. L.; Magee-Sauer, K.; Blake, G. A.; Salyk, C.

    2011-01-01

    We measured the chemical composition of Comet C/2007 W1 (Boattini) using the long-slit echelle grating spectrograph at Keck-2 (NIRSPEC) on 2008 July 9 and 10. We sampled 11 volatile species (H2O, OH*, C2H6, CH3OH, H2CO, CH4, HCN, C2H2, NH3, NH2, and CO), and retrieved three important cosmogonic indicators: the ortho-para ratios of H2O and CH4, and an upper-limit for the D/H ratio in water. The abundance ratios of almost all trace volatiles (relative to water) are among the highest ever observed in a comet. The comet also revealed a complex outgassing pattern, with some volatiles (the polar species H2O and CH3OH) presenting very asymmetric spatial profiles (extended in the anti-sunward hemisphere), while others (e.g., C2H6 and HCN) showed particularly symmetric profiles. We present emission profiles measured along the Sun-comet line for all observed volatiles, and discuss different production scenarios needed to explain them. We interpret the emission profiles in terms of release from two distinct moieties of ice, the first being clumps of mixed ice and dust released from the nucleus into the sunward hemisphere. The second moiety considered is very small grains of nearly pure polar ice (water and methanol, without dark material or apolar volatiles). Such grains would sublimate only very slowly, and could be swept into the anti-sunward hemisphere by radiation pressure and solar-actuated non-gravitational jet forces, thus providing an extended source in the anti-sunward hemisphere.

  2. Efeitos da incorporação de peneiras moleculares 3A, 4A, 5A e 13X em membranas compósitas de quitosana/poli(vinil álcool Effect of molecular sieves 3A, 4A, 5A and 13X incorporation on the chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol composites membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denice Schulz Vicentini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The composite membranes prepared via incorporation of 12.5% of molecular sieves 3A, 4A, 5A and 13X into chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol (1:1. The composite membranes were immersed in the cross-linker sulfuric acid in order to acquire high proton conductivity for applications in electrolytes in PEMCF and DMF. The influence of the molecular sieves on the structural, optical, thermal, mechanical, morphologic and protonic conductivity properties and water/methanol swelling degree of membranes were investigated.

  3. Hubble imaging of V1331 Cygni: proper motion study of its circumstellar structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, A.; Stecklum, B.; Linz, Hendrik

    2016-05-01

    Aims: The young star V1331 Cyg received previous attention because it is surrounded by an optical, arc-like reflection nebula. V1331 Cyg is commonly considered to be a candidate for an object that has undergone an FU-Ori (FUOR) outbreak in the past. This in turn could lead to a time-varying appearance of the dusty arcs that may be revealed by multi-epoch imaging. In particular, a radial colour analysis of the dust arcs can then be attempted to check whether the radial grain size distribution was modified by a previous FUOR wind. Methods: Second-epoch imaging of V1331 Cyg was obtained by us in 2009 using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). By comparing this to archival HST data from 2000, we studied the time evolution of the circumstellar nebulae. After a point spread function subtraction using model point spread functions, we used customised routines to perform a proper motion analysis. The nebula expansion was derived by deconvolving and correlating the two-epoch radial brightness profiles. Additional data from other facilities - TLS, UKIDSS, Spitzer, and Herschel - were also incorporated to improve our understanding of the star in terms of environment, viewing angle, bipolar outflow length, and the FUOR phenomenon. Results: The outer dust arc is found to be expanding at ≈14.8 ± 3.6 km s-1 on average. The expansion velocity for the inner ring is less consistent, between 0.8 km s-1 and 3.0 km s-1. The derived radial colour profiles do not indicate a spatial separation of the dust grain sizes. The Herschel 160 μm images show for the first time thermal emission from dust probably residing in the outer arc. By viewing V1331 Cyg almost pole-on, the length of the bipolar outflow exceeds previous estimates by far. Conclusions: The outer arc expansion timescale is consistent with the implantation time of the CO torus, which supports the hypothesis of an outburst that occurred a few thousand years ago. The azimuthal colour variation of the outer arc is probably due to

  4. The inner circumstellar disk of the UX Orionis star V1026 Scorpii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vural, J.; Kreplin, A.; Kishimoto, M.; Weigelt, G.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Kraus, S.; Schertl, D.; Dugué, M.; Duvert, G.; Lagarde, S.; Massi, F.

    2014-04-01

    Context. The UX Ori type variables (named after the prototype of their class) are intermediate-mass pre-main sequence objects. One of the most likely causes of their variability is the obscuration of the central star by orbiting dust clouds. Aims: We investigate the structure of the circumstellar environment of the UX Ori star V1026 Sco (HD 142666) and test whether the disk inclination is large enough to explain the UX Ori variability. Methods: We observed the object in the low-resolution mode of the near-infrared interferometric VLTI/AMBER instrument and derived H- and K-band visibilities and closure phases. We modeled our AMBER observations, published Keck Interferometer observations, archival MIDI/VLTI visibilities, and the spectral energy distribution using geometric and temperature-gradient models. Results: Employing a geometric inclined-ring disk model, we find a ring radius of 0.15 ± 0.06 AU in the H band and 0.18 ± 0.06 AU in the K band. The best-fit temperature-gradient model consists of a star and two concentric, ring-shaped disks. The inner disk has a temperature of 1257+133-53 K at the inner rim and extends from 0.19 ± 0.01 AU to 0.23 ± 0.02 AU. The outer disk begins at 1.35+0.19-0.20 AU and has an inner temperature of 334+35-17 K. The derived inclination of 48.6+2.9-3.6° approximately agrees with the inclination derived with the geometric model (49 ± 5° in the K band and 50 ± 11° in the H band). The position angle of the fitted geometric and temperature-gradient models are 163 ± 9° (K band; 179 ± 17° in the H band) and 169.3+4.2-6.7°, respectively. Conclusions: The narrow width of the inner ring-shaped model disk and the disk gap might be an indication for a puffed-up inner rim shadowing outer parts of the disk. The intermediate inclination of ~50° is consistent with models of UX Ori objects where dust clouds in the inclined disk obscure the central star. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory

  5. Dependence of negative-mode electrospray ionization response factors on mobile phase composition and molecular structure for newly-authenticated neutral acylsucrose metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Banibrata; Jones, A Daniel

    2015-10-01

    Authentic standards of known concentrations serve as references for accurate absolute quantification of plant metabolites using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). However, often such standards are not commercially available or not amenable for custom syntheses. Despite the widespread use of electrospray ionization for metabolite analyses, the fundamentals needed for reliable prediction of molecular response factors have yet to be explored in detail for analytes that lack ionized functional groups. In order to lay a foundation for quantifying unknown neutral plant metabolites in absence of authentic standards, sub-milligram quantities of purified homologous acylsucrose metabolites were authenticated by subjecting each to basic hydrolysis and quantifying the sucrose product using stable-isotope dilution ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Once authenticated, molar response factors of [M + formate](-) ions for the acylsucrose metabolites were determined at different mobile phase compositions ranging from 40%-80% acetonitrile, and demonstrated relationships of response factors with mobile phase composition and metabolite structural features including nonpolar surface areas, the length of the longest acyl chain, and the number of hydroxyl groups. This approach was employed to calculate predicted response factors for three authenticated acylsucroses based on mean values for all isomers with a common number of total acyl carbon atoms. Absolute UHPLC-MS quantification was performed on these three metabolites in an extract from leaves of the wild tomato Solanum habrochaites LA1777, yielding deviations of 26%, 6.7%, and 7.3% from values established using compound-specific response factors. PMID:26331907

  6. Source characterization of sedimentary organic matter using molecular and stable carbon isotopic composition of n-alkanes and fatty acids in sediment core from Lake Dianchi, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Jidun [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Shandong Key Laboratory of Eco-Environmental Science for Yellow River Delta, Binzhou University, Binzhou, Shandong Province 256600 (China); Wu, Fengchang, E-mail: wufengchang@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Xiong, Yongqiang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li, Fasheng; Du, Xiaoming; An, Da [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Wang, Lifang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China)

    2014-03-01

    The distribution and compound-specific carbon isotope ratios of n-alkanes and fatty acids in a sediment core (63 cm) collected from Lake Dianchi were examined to investigate organic matter sources in the eutrophic lake. Fatty acids included free and bound fatty acids. The carbon isotope compositions of individual n-alkanes and fatty acids from Lake Dianchi sediments were determined using gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC–IRMS). The δ{sup 13}C values of individual n-alkanes (C{sub 16}–C{sub 31}) varied between − 24.1‰ and − 35.6‰, suggesting a dominance of {sup 13}C-depleted n-alkanes that originated from C{sub 3} plants and lacustrine algae. Fatty acids from the sediment extracts were analyzed for their abundances and carbon isotopic compositions. Molecular and isotopic evidence indicates that most of the short-chain fatty acids from Lake Dianchi sediment extracts are sourced from intense microbial recycling and resynthesis of organic matter. Long-chain free fatty acids are mainly derived from terrestrial sources. However, long-chain bound fatty acids are sourced from a combination of terrestrial organic matter, bacteria and algae, with the contribution from algal sources higher in the hypereutrophic stage. - Highlights: • Long-chain n-alkanes and FFAs are mainly derived from terrestrial sources. • Short-chain n-alkanes and fatty acids are mainly derived from bacterial and/or algal sources. • Long-chain BFAs are mainly derived from algal sources in hypereutrophic lakes.

  7. Source characterization of sedimentary organic matter using molecular and stable carbon isotopic composition of n-alkanes and fatty acids in sediment core from Lake Dianchi, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution and compound-specific carbon isotope ratios of n-alkanes and fatty acids in a sediment core (63 cm) collected from Lake Dianchi were examined to investigate organic matter sources in the eutrophic lake. Fatty acids included free and bound fatty acids. The carbon isotope compositions of individual n-alkanes and fatty acids from Lake Dianchi sediments were determined using gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC–IRMS). The δ13C values of individual n-alkanes (C16–C31) varied between − 24.1‰ and − 35.6‰, suggesting a dominance of 13C-depleted n-alkanes that originated from C3 plants and lacustrine algae. Fatty acids from the sediment extracts were analyzed for their abundances and carbon isotopic compositions. Molecular and isotopic evidence indicates that most of the short-chain fatty acids from Lake Dianchi sediment extracts are sourced from intense microbial recycling and resynthesis of organic matter. Long-chain free fatty acids are mainly derived from terrestrial sources. However, long-chain bound fatty acids are sourced from a combination of terrestrial organic matter, bacteria and algae, with the contribution from algal sources higher in the hypereutrophic stage. - Highlights: • Long-chain n-alkanes and FFAs are mainly derived from terrestrial sources. • Short-chain n-alkanes and fatty acids are mainly derived from bacterial and/or algal sources. • Long-chain BFAs are mainly derived from algal sources in hypereutrophic lakes

  8. Polarization morphology of SiO masers in the circumstellar envelope of the AGB star R Cassiopeiae

    CERN Document Server

    Assaf, K A; Richards, A M S; Gray, M D

    2013-01-01

    Silicon monoxide maser emission has been detected in the circumstellar envelopes of many evolved stars in various vibrationally-excited rotational transitions. It is considered a good tracer of the wind dynamics close to the photosphere of the star. We have investigated the polarization morphology in the circumstellar envelope of an AGB star, R Cas. We mapped the linear and circular polarization of SiO masers in the v=1, J=1-0 transition. The linear polarization is typically a few tens of percent while the circular polarization is a few percent. The fractional polarization tends to be higher for emission of lower total intensity. We found that, in some isolated features the fractional linear polarization appears to exceed 100%. We found the Faraday rotation is not negligible but is ~15 deg., which could produce small scale structure in polarized emission whilst total intensity is smoother and partly resolved out. The polarization angles vary considerably from feature to feature but there is a tendency to favo...

  9. POLARIMETRY WITH THE GEMINI PLANET IMAGER: METHODS, PERFORMANCE AT FIRST LIGHT, AND THE CIRCUMSTELLAR RING AROUND HR 4796A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, Marshall D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Duchene, Gaspard; Graham, James R.; Kalas, Paul G. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, Hearst Field Annex B-20, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Millar-Blanchaer, Max [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Chilcote, Jeffrey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Dillon, Daren; Gavel, Donald [Department of Astronomy, UC Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Macintosh, Bruce; Bauman, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94040 (United States); Cardwell, Andrew; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale [Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603 La Serena (Chile); De Rosa, Robert J. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Doyon, René [Department de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren [National Research Council of Canada Herzberg, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); and others

    2015-02-01

    We present the first results from the polarimetry mode of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), which uses a new integral field polarimetry architecture to provide high contrast linear polarimetry with minimal systematic biases between the orthogonal polarizations. We describe the design, data reduction methods, and performance of polarimetry with GPI. Point-spread function (PSF) subtraction via differential polarimetry suppresses unpolarized starlight by a factor of over 100, and provides sensitivity to circumstellar dust reaching the photon noise limit for these observations. In the case of the circumstellar disk around HR 4796A, GPI's advanced adaptive optics system reveals the disk clearly even prior to PSF subtraction. In polarized light, the disk is seen all the way in to its semi-minor axis for the first time. The disk exhibits surprisingly strong asymmetry in polarized intensity, with the west side ≳ 9 times brighter than the east side despite the fact that the east side is slightly brighter in total intensity. Based on a synthesis of the total and polarized intensities, we now believe that the west side is closer to us, contrary to most prior interpretations. Forward scattering by relatively large silicate dust particles leads to the strong polarized intensity on the west side, and the ring must be slightly optically thick in order to explain the lower brightness in total intensity there. These findings suggest that the ring is geometrically narrow and dynamically cold, perhaps shepherded by larger bodies in the same manner as Saturn's F ring.

  10. Nearby Supernova Factory Observations of SN 2005gj: Another Type Ia Supernova in a Massive Circumstellar Envelope

    CERN Document Server

    Aldering, G; Bailey, S; Baltay, C; Bauer, A; Blanc, N; Bongard, S; Copin, Y; Gangler, E; Gilles, S; Kessler, R; Kocevski, D; Lee, B C; Loken, S; Nugent, P; Pain, R; Pécontal, E; Pereira, R; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Rigaudier, G; Scalzo, R; Smadja, G; Thomas, R C; Wang, L; Weaver, B A

    2006-01-01

    We report Nearby Supernova Factory observations of SN 2005gj, the second confirmed case of a "hybrid" Type Ia/IIn supernova. Our early-phase photometry of SN 2005gj shows that the interaction is much stronger than for the prototype, SN 2002ic. Our first spectrum shows a hot continuum with broad and narrow H-alpha emission. Later spectra, spanning over 4 months from outburst, show clear Type Ia features combined with broad and narrow H-gamma, H-beta, H-alpha and HeI 5876,7065 in emission. At higher resolution, P Cygni profiles are apparent. Surprisingly, we also observe an inverted P Cygni profile for [OIII] 5007. We find that the lightcurve and measured velocity of the unshocked circumstellar material imply mass loss as recently as 8 years ago. The early lightcurve is well-described by a flat radial density profile for the circumstellar material. However, our decomposition of the spectra into Type Ia and shock emission components allows for little obscuration of the supernova, suggesting an aspherical or clum...

  11. The Evolution of Supernovae in Circumstellar Wind-Blown Bubbles I. Introduction and One-Dimensional Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Dwarkadas, V V

    2004-01-01

    Mass loss from massive stars ($\\ga 8 \\msun$) can result in the formation of circumstellar wind blown cavities surrounding the star, bordered by a thin, dense, cold shell. When the star explodes as a core-collapse supernova (SN), the resulting shock wave will interact with this modified medium around the star, rather than the interstellar medium. In this work we first explore the nature of the circumstellar medium around massive stars in various evolutionary stages. This is followed by a study of the evolution of SNe within these wind-blown bubbles. The evolution depends primarily on a single parameter $\\Lambda$, the ratio of the mass of the dense shell to that of the ejected material. We investigate the evolution for different values of this parameter. We also plot approximate X-ray surface brightness plots from the simulations. Our results show that in many cases the SN remnant spends a significant amount of time within the bubble. The low density within the bubble can delay the onset of the Sedov stage, and...

  12. The circumstellar shell of the post-AGB star HD 56126 the $^{12}CN\\/^{13}CN$ isotope ratio and fractionation

    CERN Document Server

    Bakker, E J; Bakker, Eric J.; Lambert, David L.

    1997-01-01

    We have detected circumstellar absorption lines of the $^{12}$CN and $^{13}$CN Violet and Red System in the spectrum of the post-AGB star HD~56126. From a synthetic spectrum analysis, we derive a Doppler broadening parameter of $b=0.51\\pm0.04$ km~s$^{-1}$, $^{12}$CN/$^{13}$CN$=38\\pm2$, and a lower limit of $2000$ on $^{12}$CN/$^{14}$CN and $^{12}$C$^{14}$N/$^{12}$C$^{15}$N. A simple chemical model has been computed of the circumstellar shell surrounding HD~56126 that takes into account the gas-phase ion-molecule reaction between CN and C$^{+}$. From this we infer that this reaction leads to isotopic fractionation of CN. Taking into account the isotopic exchange reaction and the observed $^{12}$CN/$^{13}$CN we find $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C$\\sim 67$ (for $T_{\\rm kin}=25$ K). Our analysis suggests that $^{12}$CN has a somewhat higher rotational temperature than $^{13}$CN: $T_{\\rm rot}=11.5\\pm0.6$ and $8.0\\pm0.6$ K respectively. We identify possible causes for this difference in excitation temperature, among which the $...

  13. A multi-wavelength investigation of a radio-loud supernova interacting with Helium-dominated circumstellar material

    CERN Document Server

    Corsi, A; Gal-Yam, A; Frail, D A; Kulkarni, S R; Fox, D B; Kasliwal, M M; Sullivan, M; Horesh, A; Carpenter, J; Maguire, K; Arcavi, I; Cenko, S B; Cao, Y; Mooley, K; Pan, Y -C; Sesar, B; Sternberg, A; Xu, D; Bersier, D; James, P; Bloom, J S; Nugent, P E

    2013-01-01

    We present the discovery, classification, and extensive panchromatic follow-up observations of PTF11qcj, a type Ibn supernova discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory. Our observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array show that this event is the first radio-loud member of the rare Ibn class: PTF11qcj reached a radio peak luminosity comparable to that of the famous gamma-ray-burst-associated supernova 1998bw (L5GHz ~ 10^{29} erg/s/Hz). PTF11qcj is also detected in X-rays with the Chandra observatory, and in the infrared band with Spitzer. Our multi-wavelength analysis probes the supernova interaction with a Helium-rich circumstellar material. The radio observations suggest a progenitor mass-loss rate of ~ 10^{-4} Msun/yr x (v_w/1000 km/s), and a velocity of ~(0.3-0.5)c for the fastest moving ejecta (at about 10d after explosion). However, these estimates are derived assuming the simplest model of supernova ejecta interacting with a smooth circumstellar material, and could be improved via modeling ac...

  14. Investigating the Nature of the Dust Emission around Massive Protostar NGC 7538 IRS 1: Circumstellar Disk and Outflow?

    CERN Document Server

    De Buizer, J M; Buizer, James M. De; Minier, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    We have obtained high resolution mid-infrared images of the high mass protostar NGC 7538 IRS 1 using Michelle on Gemini North and find that the circumstellar dust associated with this source is extended on both large and small scales. The large-scale mid-infrared emission is asymmetric about the peak of IRS 1, being more extended to the northwest than the southeast. The position angle of the mid-infrared emission is similar to the position angle of the linearly distributed methanol masers at this location which are thought to trace a circumstellar disk. However, this position angle is also very similar to that of the CO outflow in this region which appears to be centered on IRS 1. We suggest that the large-scale extended mid-infrared emission is coming from dust heated on the walls of the outflow cavities near the source. IRS 1 is also elongated in the mid-infrared on a smaller scale, and this elongation is near PERPENDICULAR to the axis of the CO outflow (and the linearly distributed methanol masers). Becaus...

  15. Polarimetry with the Gemini Planet Imager: methods, performance at first light, and the circumstellar ring around HR 4796A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, Marshall D.; Duchene, Gaspard; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Graham, James R.; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Kalas, Paul G.; Macintosh, Bruce; Bauman, Brian; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; De Rosa, Robert J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, René; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Ingraham, Patrick; Kerley, Daniel; Konapacky, Quinn; Larkin, James E.; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Mittal, Tushar; Morzinski, Katie M.; Oppenheimer, B. R.; Palmer, David W.; Patience, Jennifer; Poyneer, Lisa; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Soummer, Rémi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wang, Jason J.; Wolff, Schuyler G.

    2015-01-28

    We present the first results from the polarimetry mode of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), which uses a new integral field polarimetry architecture to provide high contrast linear polarimetry with minimal systematic biases between the orthogonal polarizations. We describe the design, data reduction methods, and performance of polarimetry with GPI. Point spread function subtraction via di erential polarimetry suppresses unpolarized starlight by a factor of over 100, and provides sensitivity to circumstellar dust reaching the photon noise limit for these observations. In the case of the circumstellar disk around HR 4796A, GPI's advanced adaptive optics system reveals the disk clearly even prior to PSF subtraction. In polarized light, the disk is seen all the way in to its semi-minor axis for the first time. The disk exhibits surprisingly strong asymmetry in polarized intensity, with the west side ≳ 9 times brighter than the east side despite the fact that the east side is slightly brighter in total intensity. Based on a synthesis of the total and polarized intensities, we now believe that the west side is closer to us, contrary to most prior interpretations. Forward scattering by relatively large silicate dust particles leads to the strong polarized intensity on the west side, and the ring must be slightly optically thick in order to explain the lower brightness in total intensity there. These findings suggest that the ring is geometrically narrow and dynamically cold, perhaps shepherded by larger bodies in the same manner as Saturn's F ring.

  16. Metamorphosis of SN 2014C: Delayed Interaction Between a Hydrogen Poor Core-collapse Supernova and a Nearby Circumstellar Shell

    CERN Document Server

    Milisavljevic, D; Kamble, A; Patnaude, D; Raymond, J; Eldridge, J; Fong, W; Bietenholz, M; Challis, P; Chornock, R; Drout, M; Fransson, C; Fesen, R; Grindlay, J; Kirshner, R; Lunnan, R; Mackey, J; Miller, G; Parrent, J; Sanders, N; Soderberg, A; Zauderer, B

    2015-01-01

    We present optical observations of supernova SN 2014C, which underwent an unprecedented slow metamorphosis from H-poor type Ib to H-rich type IIn over the course of one year. The observed spectroscopic evolution is consistent with the supernova having exploded in a cavity before encountering a massive shell of the progenitor star's stripped hydrogen envelope. Possible origins for the circumstellar shell include a brief Wolf-Rayet fast wind phase that overtook a slower red supergiant wind, eruptive ejection, or confinement of circumstellar material by external influences of neighboring stars. An extended high velocity Halpha absorption feature seen in near-maximum light spectra implies that the progenitor star was not completely stripped of hydrogen at the time of core collapse. Archival pre-explosion Subaru Telescope Suprime-Cam and Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images of the region obtained in 2009 show a coincident source that is most likely a compact massive star cluster in NGC 7331 ...

  17. Tracing the oxygen triple isotopic composition of tropospheric molecular oxygen in biogenic apatite - a new tool for palaeoclimatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pack, A.; Süssenberger, A.; Gehler, A.; Wotzlaw, J.

    2009-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that tropospheric molecular oxygen posses a significant isotope anomaly [1, 2 and refs. therein]. Relative to the rocks- and minerals-defined terrestrial fractionation line (TFL), tropospheric O2 has an anomaly of -0.35‰ [2]. Because almost all oxygen on Earth is contained in rocks, we suggest that the rocks- and minerals-defined TFL [3] should be used as reference when reporting isotope anomalies with ∆17O = δ'17OSMOW - βTFL δ'18OSMOW. We have developed a new technique for the determination of δ17O and δ18O of silicates by means of laser fluorination GC-CF-irmMS. We have determined βTFL to 0.5247 (N > 100), which is identical to the value reported by other laboratories and techniques [2, 3]. The uncertainty in ∆17O is ±0.03 (1σ) for a single analysis. It was suggested that ∆17O of tropospheric O2 can be used as proxy for the global bioactivity rate [GBR, 1] as well as for past atmospheric CO2 concentrations [4]. Past ∆17O of tropospheric O2 can be determined by analyzing O2 trapped in ice [1, 5] or by analyzing sulfates from terrestrial sulphide oxidation [4]. Disadvantage of ice core data is the limitation in time back Elephant). The ∆17O of apatite varies between -0.16‰ for a wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) and +0.04‰ for a wild boar (Sus scrofa). Samples were analyzed between 5 and 7 times in order to reduce the analytical uncertainty to ±0.012-0.025‰. Our data confirm the prediction from mass balance that animals inherit a ∆17O signature from anomalous air O2. We have developed a detailed mass balance for mammals with respect to ∆17O. The mass balance considers the oxygen fluxes (drinking and food water, respired O2, metabolic water, excrements, evaporated water and exhaled CO2). The fractionation in δ18O and ∆17O (from associated β-value) was considered for each of the fluxes. The result is an allometric scaling model for ∆17O as function of log Mb. Predicted and measured data agree within the

  18. Short-term sleep deprivation disrupts the molecular composition of ionotropic glutamate receptors in entorhinal cortex and impairs the rat spatial reference memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Meilan; Li, Chao; He, Chao; Yang, Li; Tan, Gang; Yan, Jie; Wang, Jiali; Hu, Zhian

    2016-03-01

    Numerous studies reported that sleep deprivation (SD) causes impairment in spatial cognitive performance. However, the molecular mechanisms affected by SD underlying this behavioral phenomenon remain elusive. Here, we focused on the entorhinal cortex (EC), the gateway of the hippocampus, and investigated how SD affected the subunit expression of AMPARs and NMDARs, the main ionotropic glutamategic receptors serving a pivotal role in spatial cognition. In EC, we found 4h SD remarkably reduced surface expression of GluA1, while there was an increase in the surface expression of GluA2 and GluA3. As for NMDARs, SD with short duration significantly reduced the surface expression levels of GluN1 and GluN2B without effect on the GluN2A. In parallel with the alterations in AMPARs and NMDARs, we found the 4h SD impaired rat spatial reference memory as assessed by Morris water maze task. Overall, these data indicate that brief SD differently affects the AMPAR and NMDAR subunit expressions in EC and might consequently disrupt the composition and functional properties of these receptors. PMID:26455878

  19. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of TiO2-coated granular activated carbon composites by a molecular adsorption-deposition method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    TiO2 nanoparticle-coated granular activated carbon (GAC) composite photocatalysts (CPs) were suc-cessfully prepared by a molecular adsorption-deposition (MAD) method. The CPs were detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), BET surface area and UV-Vis adsorption spectroscopy, and their photoactivity was evaluated by methyl orange (MO) photodegradation. The results show that small-sized TiO2 nanoparticles were dispersed well, deposited on the surface of GAC, and showed slight blue shift in comparison with pure TiO2. With the increase in TiO2 content, the CPs showed band gaps in lower energy, smaller surface areas and the higher content of Ti3+ ions. Compared with pure TiO2 and others CPs samples, CPs-382 sample showed the highest photoactivity due to the optimum TiO2 content and surface area besides the synergic effect of photocatalytic degradation of TiO2 and adsorptive property of GAC. In addition, the CPs could be very easily reclaimed, recycled and reused for methyl orange removal while high photoactivity is pre-served.

  20. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of TiO2-coated granular activated carbon composites by a molecular adsorption-deposition method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Youdi; LI Jing; MA MingYuan; OUYANG YuZhu; YAN WenBin

    2008-01-01

    TiO2 nanoparUcle-coated granular activated carbon (GAC) composite photocatalysts (CPs) were suc-cessfully prepared by a molecular adsorption-deposition (MAD) method. The CPs were detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), BET surface area and UV-Vis adsorption spectroscopy, and their photoactivity was evaluated by methyl orange (MO) photodegradation. The results show that small-sized TiO2 nanoparticles were dispersed well, deposited on the surface of GAC, and showed slight blue shift in comparison with pure TiO2. With the increase in TiO2 content, the CPs showed band gaps in lower energy, smaller surface areas and the higher content of Ti3+ ions. Compared with pure TiO2 and others CPs samples, CPs-382 sample showed the highest photoactivity due to the optimum TiO2 content and surface area besides the synergic effect of photocatslytic degradation of TiO2 and adsorptive property of GAC. In addition, the CPs could be very easily reclaimed, recycled and reused for methyl orange removal while high photoactivity is pre-served.

  1. Inhomogeneous molecular ring around the B[e] supergiant LHA 120-S 73

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, M; Arias, M L; Maravelias, G; Nickeler, D H; Torres, A F; Fernandes, M Borges; Aret, A; Cure, M; Vallverdu, R; Barba, R H

    2016-01-01

    We aim to improve our knowledge on the structure and dynamics of the circumstellar disk of the LMC B[e] supergiant LHA 120-S 73. High-resolution optical and near-IR spectroscopic data were obtained over a period of 16 and 7 years, respectively. The spectra cover the diagnostic emission lines from [CaII] and [OI], as well as the CO bands. These features trace the disk at different distances from the star. We analyzed the kinematics of the individual emission regions by modeling their emission profiles. A low-resolution mid-infrared spectrum was obtained as well, which provides information on the composition of the dusty disk. All diagnostic emission features display double-peaked line profiles, which we interpret as due to Keplerian rotation. We find that LHA 120-S 73 is surrounded by at least four individual rings of material with alternating densities (or by a disk with strongly non-monotonic radial density distribution). Moreover, we find that the molecular ring must have gaps or at least strong density inh...

  2. The Molecular Weight and Monosaccharide Composition of Polysaccharides from Opuntia stricta%仙人掌多糖的分子量及单糖组成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭燕娇; 何钢; 颜军; 刘续成; 邬晓勇; 易勇; 苟小军

    2012-01-01

    The molecular weight and monosaccharide composition of Opuntia polysaccharide were studied. The crude polysaccharides were extracted from Opuntia with hot water and precipitated by alcohol, then purified by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE cellulose column. High performance gel filtration chromatography (HPGFC) and high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method of precolumn-derivatization with l-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) were used for detection of the polysaccharide molecular weight and the monosaccharide composition, respectively. The results of HPLC analysis showed that three main polysaccharides fractions were obtained, named OPS-1, OPS-2, OPS-3, with the molecular weights being of 124712, 197943 and 43083, respectively. The OPS-1 was composed of glucose, xylose, arabinose with the molar ratio of 1.5:12.9:1.0. The OPS-2 was composed of mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, xylose, arabinose with the molar ratio of 1.0:15.6:1.0:2.4:8.2:41.6:36.3. The OPS-3 was composed of rhamnose, glucose, xylose, arabinose with the molar ratio of 1.0:2.4:1.4:1.4. The experiment can be used as a scientific basis for the research of Opuntia pharmacology in the future.%对仙人掌多糖分子量及其单糖组成进行了研究.采用水提醇沉法提取多糖,DEAE-纤维素离子交换层析柱分离纯化,高效凝胶过滤色谱法(HPGFC)测定多糖分子量,1-苯基-3-甲基-5-吡唑啉酮(PMP)柱前衍生化高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定单糖组成.结果表明:此法最终获得三个多糖组分OPS-1、OPS-2、OPS-3,相对分子量分别为124712、197943、43083.OPS-1含葡萄糖、木糖、阿拉伯糖,摩尔比为1.5∶12.9∶1.0; OPS-2含甘露糖、鼠李糖、葡萄糖醛酸、半乳糖醛酸、葡萄糖、木糖、阿拉伯糖,摩尔比为1.0∶15.6∶1.0∶ 2.4∶8.2∶41.6∶36.3; OPS-3含鼠李糖、葡萄糖、木糖、阿拉伯糖,摩尔比为1.0∶2.4∶1.4∶1.4.为仙人掌多糖的进一步研究及开发提供了科学依据.

  3. A chemical route to the formation of water in circumstellar envelopes around carbon-rich asymptotic branch stars: Fischer-Tropsch catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willacy, K.

    2004-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch catalysis has been suggested as a means of driving hydrocarbon chemistry in oxygen rich regions such as the protosolar nebula. In addition to producing hydrocarbons, Fischer-Tropsch catalysis also produces water, and it is therefore possible that such processes could account for the recent observations of water in the circumstellar envelope of asymptotic giant branch star IRC +10216.

  4. Carbon fiber composite molecular sieves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchell, T.D.; Rogers, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Monolithic adsorbents based on isotropic pitch fibers have been developed jointly by ORNL and the University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research. The monoliths are attractive for gas separation and storage applications because of their unique combination of physical properties and microporous structure. Currently at ORNL the monoliths are produced in billets that are 10 cm in diameter and 25 cm in length. The monolithic adsorbent material is being considered for guard bed applications on a natural gas (NG) powered device. In order for the material to be successful in this application, one must attain a uniform activation to modest micropore volumes throughout the large monoliths currently being produced. Here the authors report the results of a study directed toward attaining uniform activation in these billets.

  5. HZSM-5/MCM-41 composite molecular sieves for the catalytic cracking of endothermic hydrocarbon fuels: nano-ZSM-5 zeolites as the source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang, Yu; Jiao, Qingze; Li, Hansheng, E-mail: hanshengli@bit.edu.cn; Wu, Qin; Zhao, Yun; Sun, Kening, E-mail: sunkn@bit.edu.cn [Beijing Institute of Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment (China)

    2014-12-15

    A series of HZSM-5/MCM-41 composite molecular sieves (HZM-Ns (x)) were prepared by employing nano-ZSM-5 zeolites with the SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratios (x) of 50, 100 and 150 as the source. These materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption measurement, and NH{sub 3} temperature-programmed desorption. The catalytic cracking of endothermic hydrocarbon fuels over the HZM-Ns with n-decane as model was evaluated at atmospheric pressure and 500 °C. The effect of the parent zeolite, mesopore and SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio on the structure, acidity, and catalytic performance of HZM-Ns was investigated. The HZM-Ns exhibited a skeletal matrix with nano-sized HZSM-5 particles (200–300 nm) with a controllable acidity well dispersed in and microporous–mesoporous hierarchical pores. The mesoporous structure improved the diffusion of the reactants and products in the pores, and the HZSM-5 nanoparticles uniformly dispersed in the MCM-41 matrix supplied a proper acidity, shorter channels, and a higher specific surface area for reaction. These resulted in a high catalytic activity, a high selectivity to light olefins and a long lifetime for n-decane catalytic cracking. The HZM-N (150) exhibited the excellent conversion, a high selectivity to light olefins and a long lifetime due to low diffusion resistance, high specific surface area, and appropriate acid distribution and strength, with the increasing SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio.

  6. Composition of the vaginal microbiota in women of reproductive age--sensitive and specific molecular diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis is possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Shipitsyna

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Bacterial vaginosis (BV is the most common vaginal disorder, characterized by depletion of the normal lactobacillus-dominant microbiota and overgrowth of commensal anaerobic bacteria. This study aimed to investigate the composition of the vaginal microbiota in women of reproductive age (healthy women and women with BV, with the view of developing molecular criteria for BV diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Vaginal samples from 163 women (79 control, 73 BV and 11 intermediate (Lactobacillary grade II flora cases were analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing of the hypervariable regions V3-V4 of the 16S rRNA gene and 16 quantitative bacterial species/genus-specific real-time PCR assays. Sensitivities and specificities of potential BV markers were computed using the Amsel criteria as reference standard for BV. The use of quantitative thresholds for prediction of BV, determined for both relative abundance measured with 454 pyrosequencing and bacterial load measured with qPCR, was evaluated. RESULTS: Relative to the healthy women, the BV patients had in their vaginal microbiota significantly higher prevalence, loads and relative abundances of the majority of BV associated bacteria. However, only Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Eggerthella, Prevotella, BVAB2 and Megasphaera type 1 detected at or above optimal thresholds were highly predictable for BV, with the best diagnostic accuracy shown for A. vaginae. The depletion of Lactobacillus species combined with the presence of either G. vaginalis or A. vaginae at diagnostic levels was a highly accurate BV predictor. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative determination of the presence of G. vaginalis, A. vaginae, Eggerthella, Prevotella, BVAB2 and Megasphaera type 1 as well as the depletion of Lactobacillus was highly accurate for BV diagnosis. Measurements of abundance of normal and BV microbiota relative to total bacteria in vaginal fluid may provide more accurate BV diagnosis, and be

  7. Transformations of the chemical compositions of high molecular weight DOM along a salinity transect: Using two dimensional correlation spectroscopy and principal component analysis approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Hussain A. N.; Minor, Elizabeth C.; Dias, Robert F.; Hatcher, Patrick G.

    2013-10-01

    In a study of chemical transformations of estuarine high-molecular-weight (HMW, >1000 Da) dissolved organic matter (DOM) collected over a period of two years along a transect through the Elizabeth River/Chesapeake Bay system to the coastal Atlantic Ocean off Virginia, USA, δ13C values, N/C ratios, and principal component analysis (PCA) of the solid-state 13C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectra of HMW-DOM show an abrupt change in both its sources and chemical structural composition occurring around salinity 20. HMW-DOM in the lower salinity region had lighter isotopic values, higher aromatic and lower carbohydrate contents relative to that in the higher salinity region. These changes around a salinity of 20 are possibly due to introduction of a significant amount of new carbon (autotrophic DOM) to the transect. PC-1 loadings plot shows that spatially differing DOM components are similar to previously reported 13C NMR spectra of heteropolysaccharides (HPS) and carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM). Applying two dimensional correlation spectroscopy techniques to 1H NMR spectra from the same samples reveals increases in the contribution of N-acetyl amino sugars, 6-deoxy sugars, and sulfated polysaccharides to HPS components along the salinity transect, which suggests a transition from plant derived carbohydrates to marine produced carbohydrates within the HMW-DOM pool. In contrast to what has been suggested previously, our combined results from 13C NMR, 1H NMR, and FTIR indicate that CRAM consists of at least two different classes of compounds (aliphatic polycarboxyl compounds and lignin-like compounds).

  8. Tracing Physical Conditions of the Circumstellar Medium in the Supernova Remnant G292.0+1.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcomb, Kielan; Ghavamian, Parviz; Hughes, John Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Recent X-ray and infrared studies of the oxygen-rich supernova remnant G292.0+1.8 have shown that it is likely interacting with the circumstellar wind from the massive progenitor star (≥20 Solar Masses). Some of this material lies in a moderately dense equatorial belt stretching across the middle of G292.0+1.8. Here we present analysis of ground based optical spectra of the equatorial belt. We use forbidden line diagnostics to probe the abundances, density and temperature in the belt, where non-radiative shocks are beginning to transition to the radiative stage. We interpret our results in conjunction with existing X-ray and infrared data to improve our understanding of how a supernova remnant interacts with the outermost part of its relic red giant wind.

  9. Dynamics of the circumstellar gas in the Herbig Ae stars BF Orionis, SV Cephei, WW Vulpeculae and XY Persei

    CERN Document Server

    Mora, A; Natta, A; Grady, C A; De Winter, D; Davies, J K; Ferlet, R; Harris, A W; Miranda, L F; Montesinos, B; Oudmaijer, R D; Palacios, J; Quirrenbach, Andreas G; Rauer, H; Alberdi, A; Cameron, A; Deeg, H J; Garzón, F; Horne, K; Merin, B; Penny, A; Schneider, J; Solano, E; Tsapras, Y; Wesselius, P R

    2004-01-01

    We present high resolution (lambda / Delta_lambda = 49000) echelle spectra of the intermediate mass, pre-main sequence stars BF Ori, SV Cep, WW Wul and XY Per. The spectra cover the range 3800-5900 angstroms and monitor the stars on time scales of months and days. All spectra show a large number of Balmer and metallic lines with variable blueshifted and redshifted absorption features superimposed to the photospheric stellar spectra. Synthetic Kurucz models are used to estimate rotational velocities, effective temperatures and gravities of the stars. The best photospheric models are subtracted from each observed spectrum to determine the variable absorption features due to the circumstellar gas; those features are characterized in terms of their velocity, v, dispersion velocity, Delta v, and residual absorption, R_max. The absorption components detected in each spectrum can be grouped by their similar radial velocities and are interpreted as the signature of the dynamical evolution of gaseous clumps with, in m...

  10. Fine Structure in the Circumstellar Environment of a Young, Solar-like Star the Unique Eclipses of KH 15D

    CERN Document Server

    Herbst, W; Vrba, F J; Ibrahimov, M A; Bailer-Jones, C A L; Mundt, R; Lamm, M J; Mazeh, T; Webster, Z T; Haisch, K E; Williams, E C; Rhodes, A H; Balonek, T J; Riffeser, A; Herbst, William; Hamilton, Catrina M.; Vrba, Frederick J.; Ibrahimov, Mansur A.; Bailer-Jones, Coryn A.L.; Mundt, Reinhard; Lamm, Markus; Mazeh, Tsevi; Webster, Zodiac T.; Haisch, Karl E.; Williams, Eric C.; Rhodes, Andrew H.; Balonek, Thomas J.; Riffeser, Alexander Scholz and Arno

    2002-01-01

    Results of an international campaign to photometrically monitor the unique pre-main sequence eclipsing object KH 15D are reported. An updated ephemeris for the eclipse is derived that incorporates a slightly revised period of 48.36 d. There is some evidence that the orbital period is actually twice that value, with two eclipses occurring per cycle. The extraordinary depth (~3.5 mag) and duration (~18 days) of the eclipse indicate that it is caused by circumstellar matter, presumably the inner portion of a disk. The eclipse has continued to lengthen with time and the central brightness reversals are not as extreme as they once were. V-R and V-I colors indicate that the system is slightly bluer near minimum light. Ingress and egress are remarkably well modeled by the passage of a knife-edge across a limb-darkened star. Possible models for the system are briefly discussed.

  11. Mapping the 12CO J = 1-0 and J = 2-1 emission in AGB and early post-AGB circumstellar envelopes. I. The COSAS program, first sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Carrizo, A.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Neri, R.; Bujarrabal, V.; Schöier, F. L.; Winters, J. M.; Olofsson, H.; Lindqvist, M.; Alcolea, J.; Lucas, R.; Grewing, M.

    2010-11-01

    We present COSAS (CO Survey of late AGB Stars), a project to map and analyze the 12CO J = 1-0 and J = 2-1 line emission in a representative sample of circumstellar envelopes around AGB and post-AGB stars. The survey was undertaken with the aim of investigating small- and large-scale morphological and kinematical properties of the molecular environment surrounding stars in the late AGB and early post-AGB phases. For this, COSAS combines the high sensitivity and spatial resolving power of the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer with the better capability of the IRAM 30 m telescope to map extended emission. The global sample encompasses 45 stars selected to span a range in chemical type, variability type, evolutionary state, and initial mass. COSAS provides means to quantify variations in the mass-loss rates, assess morphological and kinematical features, and to investigate the appearance of fast aspherical winds in the early post-AGB phase. This paper, which is the first of a series of COSAS papers, presents the results from the analyses of a first sample of 16 selected sources. The envelopes around late AGB stars are found to be mostly spherical, often mingled with features such as concentric arcs (R Cas and TX Cam), a broken spiral density pattern (TX Cam), molecular patches testifying to aspherical mass-loss (WX Psc, IK Tau, V Cyg, and S Cep), and also with well-defined axisymmetric morphologies and kinematical patterns (X Her and RX Boo). The sources span a wide range of angular sizes, from relatively compact (CRL 2362, OH 104.9+2.4 and CRL 2477) to very large (χ Cyg and TX Cam) envelopes, sometimes partially obscured by self-absorption features, which particularly for IK Tau and χ Cyg testifies to the emergence of aspherical winds in the innermost circumstellar regions. Strong axial structures with more or less complex morphologies are detected in four early post-AGB stars (IRAS 20028+3910, IRAS 23321+6545, IRAS 19475+3119 and IRAS 21282+5050) of the sub

  12. Molecular precursor derived silicon boron carbonitride/carbon nanotube and silicon oxycarbide/carbon nanotube composite nanowires for energy based applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandavat, Romil

    Molecular precursor derived ceramics (also known as polymer-derived ceramics or PDCs) are high temperature glasses that have been studied for applications involving operation at elevated temperatures. Prepared from controlled thermal degradation of liquid-phase organosilicon precursors, these ceramics offer remarkable engineering properties such as resistance to crystallization up to 1400 °C, semiconductor behavior at high temperatures and intense photoluminescence. These properties are a direct result of their covalent bonded amorphous network and free (-sp2) carbon along with mixed Si/B/C/N/O bonds, which otherwise can not be obtained through conventional ceramic processing techniques. This thesis demonstrates synthesis of a unique core/shell type nanowire structure involving either siliconboroncarbonitride (SiBCN) or siliconoxycarbide (SiOC) as the shell with carbon nanotube (CNT) acting as the core. This was made possible by liquid phase functionalization of CNT surfaces with respective polymeric precursor (e.g., home-made boron-modified polyureamethylvinylsilazane for SiBCN/CNT and commercially obtained polysiloxane for SiOC/CNT), followed by controlled pyrolysis in inert conditions. This unique architecture has several benefits such as high temperature oxidation resistance (provided by the ceramic shell), improved electrical conductivity and mechanical toughness (attributed to the CNT core) that allowed us to explore its use in energy conversion and storage devices. The first application involved use of SiBCN/CNT composite as a high temperature radiation absorbant material for laser thermal calorimeter. SiBCN/CNT spray coatings on copper substrate were exposed to high energy laser beams (continuous wave at 10.6 mum 2.5 kW CO2 laser, 10 seconds) and resulting change in its microstructure was studied ex-situ. With the aid of multiple techniques we ascertained the thermal damage resistance to be 15 kW/cm -2 with optical absorbance exceeding 97%. This represents

  13. - and Cross-Polarization 13C NMR Evidence of Alterations in Molecular Composition of Humic Substances Following Afforestation with Eucalypt in Distinct Brazilian Biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, I. R.; Soares, E. M.; Schmidt-Rohr, K.; Novais, R.; Barros, N.; Fernandes, S.

    2010-12-01

    The effect of planting fast growing tree species on SOM quality in tropical regions has been overlooked. In the present study 13C-NMR approaches were used to evaluate the impact of eucalypt cultivation on humic and fulvic acids molecular composition. The results indicate that the replacement of native vegetation by eucalypt plantations increased the relative contribution of aliphatic groups in HA from soils previously under Atlantic Forest, Grassland, and the Cerrado (Curvelo site only). The same trend was observed for FA, except in the Curvelo site. A trend for degradation and smaller contribution of O-alkyl C (carbohydrates) in HA was observed in soils under eucalyptus in Atlantic Forest and Cerrado. For FA such decreases were seen in Cerrado and Grassland biomes after eucalypt planting. In the area cultivated with pasture in the Atlantic Forest biome and in the Grassland soil, the largest contributions of lignin-derived compounds were detected in HA. The HA from the Cerrado at the Curvelo site, where the woody vegetation is virtually devoid of grassy species, showed the lowest intensity of lignin signal then those from the Cerrado sensu stricto in Itacambira, where grass species are more abundant. At our study sites, charred material are most likely derived from burning of the native vegetation, as naturally occurs in the Cerrado region, or anthropogenic fires in the Grassland biome. Burning of harvest residues in eucalypt fields was also a common practice in the early rotations. The replacement of native vegetation by eucalypt plantations increases the relative contribution of nonpolar alkyl groups in HA from soils previously under Atlantic Forest, Grassland, and the Cerrado (Curvelo site only) biomes. There is evidence of substantial contribution of lignin-derived C to HA and FA, especially in sites planted with Brachiaria sp pastures. Eucalypt introduction decreases the relative contribution of carbohydrates in HA and FA. 13C DP/MAS NMR functional groups in

  14. 抗冲共聚聚丙烯的组成与分子结构研究%Studies on composition and molecular structure of high impact polypropylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁列; 卜志扬; 范宏; 李伯耿

    2012-01-01

    采用溶剂萃取的方法将抗冲共聚聚丙烯分为乙醚可溶物(级分1)、己烷可溶物(级分2)、庚烷可溶物(级分3)和庚烷不溶物(级分4)四个级分,通过差示扫描量热法(DSC)、广角X射线衍射(WAXD)、傅里叶变换红外光谱及核磁共振碳谱分析了各级分的组成和分子结构.DSC结果显示:级分1没有熔融峰,级分2~级分4的熔融峰分别出现在80~90,120~140,160℃.WAXD结果显示:级分1和级分2为非晶态聚合物,级分3为长序列共聚物,级分4为等规聚丙烯.由此可以确定,抗冲共聚聚丙烯具有多重微结构,由乙丙无规共聚物、短序列共聚物、长序列共聚物和等规聚丙烯构成.%High impact copolymer of propylene was separated via solvent extraction into four fractions: ether soluble part (fraction 1), hexane soluble part (fraction 2), heptane soluble part (fraction 3) and heptane insoluble part (fraction 4). Composition and molecular structure of the fractions were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) respectively. The results of DSC show that fraction 1 has no melt peak, and the fraction 2, 3 and 4 has a melt peak at 80-90℃, 120-140℃ and 160℃ respectively. The results of WAXD indicate that fraction 1 and 2 are random copolymers, fraction 3 is a long sequence copolymer, and fraction 4 is an isotactic polypropylene. The analytical conclusion verifies that the high impact copolymer of propylene has multiple microstructures which are composed of ethylene -propylene random copolymer, short sequence copolymer, long sequence copolymer and isotactic polypropylene.

  15. Molecular gas in young debris disks

    CERN Document Server

    Moór, A; Juhász, A; Kiss, Cs; Pascucci, I; Kóspál, Á; Apai, D; Henning, Th; Csengeri, T; Grady, C

    2011-01-01

    Gas-rich primordial disks and tenuous gas-poor debris disks are usually considered as two distinct evolutionary phases of the circumstellar matter. Interestingly, the debris disk around the young main-sequence star 49 Ceti possesses a substantial amount of molecular gas, and possibly represents the missing link between the two phases. Motivated to understand the evolution of the gas component in circumstellar disks via finding more 49 Ceti-like systems, we carried out a CO J=3-2 survey with Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment, targeting 20 infrared-luminous debris disks. These systems fill the gap between primordial and old tenuous debris disks in terms of fractional luminosity. Here we report on the discovery of a second 49 Ceti-like disk around the 30 Myr old A3-type star HD21997, a member of the Columba Association. This system was also detected in the CO(2-1) transition, and the reliable age determination makes it an even clearer example of an old gas-bearing disk than 49 Ceti. While the fractional luminosities...

  16. Molecular abundances in the inner layers of IRC +10216

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agúndez, M.; Fonfría, J. P.; Cernicharo, J.; Kahane, C.; Daniel, F.; Guélin, M.

    2012-07-01

    Context. The inner layers of circumstellar envelopes around asymptotic giant branch stars are sites where a variety of processes such as thermochemical equilibrium, shocks induced by the stellar pulsation, and condensation of dust grains determine the chemical composition of the material that is expelled into the outer envelope layers and, ultimately, into interstellar space. Aims: We aim at studying the abundances, throughout the whole circumstellar envelope of the carbon star IRC +10216, of several molecules formed in the inner layers in order to constrain the different processes at work in such regions. Methods: Observations towards IRC +10216 of CS, SiO, SiS, NaCl, KCl, AlCl, AlF, and NaCN have been carried out with the IRAM 30-m telescope in the 80-357.5 GHz frequency range. A large number of rotational transitions covering a wide range of energy levels, including highly excited vibrational states, are detected in emission and serve to trace different regions of the envelope. Radiative transfer calculations based on the LVG formalism have been performed to derive molecular abundances from the innermost out to the outer layers. The excitation calculations include infrared pumping to excited vibrational states and inelastic collisions, for which up-to-date rate coefficients for rotational and, in some cases, ro-vibrational transitions are used. Results: We find that in the inner layers CS, SiO, and SiS have abundances relative to H2 of 4 × 10-6, 1.8 × 10-7, and 3 × 10-6, respectively, and that CS and SiS have significant lower abundances in the outer envelope, which implies that they actively contribute to the formation of dust. Moreover, in the inner layers, the amount of sulfur and silicon in gas phase molecules is only 27% for S and 5.6% for Si, implying that these elements have already condensed onto grains, most likely in the form of MgS and SiC. Metal-bearing molecules lock up a relatively small fraction of metals, although our results indicate that Na

  17. MOLECULAR COMPOSITION MODEL OF RESIDUE BASED ON STRUCTURE ORIENTED LUMPING%基于结构导向集总的渣油分子组成矩阵构建模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪腾亚; 刘纪昌; 沈本贤; 孙辉

    2015-01-01

    The composition information of residue is critically important to the selection of heavy oil cracking process. Due to complex composition of residue,it is difficult to describe the composition of residue by traditional method at the molecular level. Based on the Structure Oriented Lumping (SOL) method,21 structure units (metal structural groups,hydrocarbon groups and heteroatom groups)and totally 2 791 kinds of typical molecular structural vector were built to describe the molecular composition of residue. This paper built a molecular composition calculating matrix of residue calculated by simula-ted annealing algorithm,which makes the hydrocarbon composition information and the calculated aver-age molecular structure parameters in conformity with the instrument measurements. The results show that simulated values of residual properties such as CCR,density and structural parameters (f A ,C A ) are in good coincident with experimental values. This model,based on SOL,could be used for quantita-tive description of other residual composition at molecular level.%渣油组成信息对重油轻质化加工工艺的选择具有重要的指导作用,但由于渣油组成的复杂性,传统方法难以对其组成进行分子水平的描述。采用结构导向集总方法,设计了包含烃类结构、杂原子结构及重金属结构的21个结构单元,构建了代表渣油分子组成的55类共2791种典型分子的结构向量。采用模拟退火算法计算渣油的分子组成矩阵,使烃类组成信息和平均分子结构参数的计算值与仪器测定值相吻合,构建了基于结构导向集总的渣油分子组成计算模型。结果表明,采用该模型对渣油进行分子组成矩阵构建后,渣油的残炭、密度等性质指标和芳碳率、芳环数等结构参数的计算值和实验测定值吻合较好。表明基于结构导向集总方法可以对渣油组成进行分子水平的定量描述。

  18. THE CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK OF THE Be STAR o AQUARII AS CONSTRAINED BY SIMULTANEOUS SPECTROSCOPY AND OPTICAL INTERFEROMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigut, T. A. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Tycner, C.; Jansen, B. [Department of Physics, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Zavala, R. T. [US Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 10391 W. Naval Observatory Rd, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Omicron Aquarii is a late-type, Be shell star with a stable and nearly symmetric Hα emission line. We combine Hα interferometric observations obtained with the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer covering 2007 through 2014 with Hα spectroscopic observations over the same period and a 2008 observation of the system's near-infrared spectral energy distribution to constrain the properties of o Aqr's circumstellar disk. All observations are consistent with a circumstellar disk seen at an inclination of 75° ±  3° with a position angle on the sky of 110° ±  8° measured East from North. From the best-fit disk density model, we find that 90% of the Hα emission arises from within 9.5 stellar radii, and the mass associated with this Hα disk is ∼1.8 × 10{sup −10} of the stellar mass, and that the associated angular momentum, assuming Keplerian rotation for the disk, is ∼1.6 × 10{sup −8} of the total stellar angular momentum. The occurrence of a central quasi-emission feature in Mg ii λ4481 is also predicted by this best-fit disk model and the computed profile compares successfully with observations from 1999. To obtain consistency between the Hα line profile modeling and the other constraints, it was necessary in the profile fitting to weight the line core (emission peaks and central depression) more heavily than the line wings, which were not well reproduced by our models. This may reflect the limitation of assuming a single power law for the disk's variation in equatorial density. The best-fit disk density model for o Aqr predicts that Hα is near its maximum strength as a function of disk density, and hence the Hα equivalent width and line profile change only weakly in response to large (factor of ∼5) changes in the disk density. This may in part explain the remarkable observed stability of o Aqr's Hα emission line profile.

  19. A Hubble Space Telescope Survey of H2 Emission in the Circumstellar Environments of Young Stars

    CERN Document Server

    France, Kevin; Herczeg, Gregory J; Brown, Alexander; Abgrall, Herve; Alexander, Richard D; Bergin, Edwin A; Brown, Joanna M; Linsky, Jeffrey L; Roueff, Evelyne; Yang, Hao

    2012-01-01

    The formation timescale and final architecture of exoplanetary systems are closely related to the properties of the molecular disks from which they form. Observations of the spatial distribution and lifetime of the molecular gas at planet-forming radii (r < 10 AU) are important for understanding the formation and evolution of exoplanetary systems. Towards this end, we present the largest spectrally resolved survey of H2 emission around low-mass pre-main sequence stars compiled to date. We use a combination of new and archival far-ultraviolet spectra from the COS and STIS instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope to sample 34 T Tauri stars (27 actively accreting CTTSs and 7 non-accreting WTTSs) with ages ranging from roughly 1-10 Myr. We observe fluorescent H2 emission, excited by LyA photons, in 100 of the accreting sources, including all of the transitional disks in our sample (CS Cha, DM Tau, GM Aur, UX Tau A, LkCa15, HD 135344B and TW Hya). The spatial distribution of the emitting gas is inferred from s...

  20. Contrasting roles of layered structures in the molecular assembly of liquid crystal matrices on the viscoelastic properties of microparticle/liquid crystal composite gels leading to rigidification and destabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takahiro; Kawata, Yuki; Yoshida, Masaru

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the effects of the nematic and smectic A (SmA) phase structures of liquid crystalline matrices on the viscoelastic properties of microparticle/liquid-crystal composite gels. The storage (G') and loss (G″) moduli of the gels were largely increased in gels containing SmA matrices with a layered molecular assembly. However, the critical strain at which the gel state transformed into the sol state by the application of mechanical strain showed no significant changes with variation in the liquid crystal phase of the matrix. These results indicate that the introduction of a layered molecular assembly could be effective for rigidification of composite gels, while maintaining their critical strains. However, the composite gels tended to show a metastable state when SmA matrices were used because G' and G″ of the gels were close to each other in the entire frequency region. This behavior was in contrast to the gels with nematic matrices, which showed a larger value in G' than that in G″. The metastable state of gels with SmA matrices was also reflected in the frequency dependence of G' and in the deterioration of the recovery of the gel state after mechanical breakdown. PMID:23465188

  1. Synthesis and application of molecularly imprinted poly(methacrylic acid)-silica hybrid composite material for selective solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography determination of oxytetracycline residues in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yun-Kai; Wang, Li-Min; Yang, Lei; Zhao, Chen-Xi; Sun, Han-Wen

    2012-03-01

    A novel molecularly imprinted organic-inorganic hybrid composite material (MIP-HCM) was developed based on molecular imprinting technique in combination with hybrid composite synthesis and sol-gel technology for selective solid-phase extraction (SPE) of tetracyclines residues in milk. The MIP-HCM was prepared using oxytetracycline as the template, methacrylic acid as organic functional monomer, tetraethoxysilane as inorganic precursor and methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane as the coupling agent. Synthesis conditions are optimized by changing some factors to obtain sorbent with the controllable adsorption capacity, selectivity, hardness and toughness. Binding study demonstrated that the imprinted hybrid composites showed excellent affinity and high selectivity to oxytetracycline. An enrichment factor of 18.8 along with a good sample clean-up was obtained under the optimized SPE conditions. The average recoveries of three tetracyclines antibiotics spiked milk at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 mg kg⁻¹ were in the range of 80.9-104.3% with the precision of 1.5-5.0%. The limits of detection and quantitation of the proposed method were in a range of 4.8-12.7 μg kg⁻¹ and 16.0-42.3 μg kg⁻¹, respectively.

  2. Dense Molecular Gas Around Protostars and in Galactic Nuclei European Workshop on Astronomical Molecules 2004

    CERN Document Server

    Baan, W A; Langevelde, H J

    2004-01-01

    The phenomena observed in young stellar objects (YSO), circumstellar regions and extra-galactic nuclei show some similarity in their morphology, dynamical and physical processes, though they may differ in scale and energy. The European Workshop on Astronomical Molecules 2004 gave astronomers a unique opportunity to discuss the links among the observational results and to generate common interpretations of the phenomena in stars and galaxies, using the available diagnostic tools such as masers and dense molecular gas. Their theoretical understanding involves physics, numerical simulations and chemistry. Including a dozen introductory reviews, topics of papers in this book also cover: maser and dense gas diagnostics and related phenomena, evolution of circumstellar regions around protostars, evolution of circumnuclear regions of active galaxies, diagnostics of the circumnuclear gas in stars and galactic nuclei. This book summarizes our present knowledge in these topics, highlights major problems to be addressed...

  3. Molecular composition of dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls and fatty acids in atmospheric aerosols from Tanzania, East Africa during wet and dry seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Mkoma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosol samples of PM2.5 and PM10 were collected during the wet and dry seasons in 2011 from a rural site in Tanzania and analysed for water-soluble dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids using a gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID and GC/mass spectrometry. Here we report the molecular composition and sources of diacids and related compounds for wet and dry seasons. Oxalic acid (C2 was found as the most abundant diacid species followed by succinic and/or malonic acids whereas glyoxylic acid and glyoxal were the dominant ketoacid and α-dicarbonyl, respectively in both seasons in PM2.5 and PM10. Mean concentration of C2 in PM2.5 (121 ± 47 ng m−3 was lower in wet season than dry season (258 ± 69 ng m−3. Similarly, PM10 samples showed lower concentration of C2 (169 ± 42 ng m−3 in wet season than dry season (292 ± 165 ng m−3. Relative abundances of C2 in total diacids were 65% and 67% in PM2.5 and 65% and 64% in PM10 in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. Total concentrations of diacids (289–362 ng m−3, ketoacids (37.8–53.7 ng m−3, and α-dicarbonyls (5.7–7.8 ng m−3 in Tanzania are higher than those reported at a rural background site in Nylsvley (South Africa but comparable or lower than those reported from sites in Asia and Europe. Diacids and ketoacids were found to be present mainly in PM2.5 in both seasons (total α-dicarbonyls in the dry season, suggesting a production of organic acids from pyrogenic sources and photochemical oxidations. Averaged contributions of total diacids to aerosol total carbon were 1.4% in PM2.5 and 2.1% in PM10 during wet season and 3.3% in PM2.5 and 3.9% in PM10 during

  4. Detection of a large Be circumstellar disk during X-ray quiescence of XTE J1946+274

    CERN Document Server

    Arabaci, M Ozbey; Gutierrez-Soto, J; Zurita, C; Nespoli, E; Suso, J; Kiaeerad, F; Garcia-Rojas, J; Kiziloglu, U

    2014-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the Be/X-ray binary system XTE J1946+274 with the main goal of better characterizing its behavior during X-ray quiescence. We aim to shed light on the mechanism which triggers the X-ray activity for this source. XTE J1946+274 was observed by Chandra-ACIS during quiescence in 2013 March 12. In addition, this source has been monitored from the ground-based astronomical observatories of El Teide (Tenerife, Spain), Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Spain) and Sierra Nevada (Granada, Spain) since 2011 September, and from the TUBITAK National Observatory (Antalya, Turkey) since 2005 April. We have performed spectral and photometric temporal analyses in order to investigate the quiescent state and transient behavior of this binary system. In 2006, a long mass ejection event took place from the Be star, lasting for about seven years. We also found that a large Be circumstellar disk was present during quiescence, although major X-ray activity was not observed. We made an attempt t...

  5. Setting the Stage for Circumstellar Interaction in Core-Collapse Supernovae II: Wave-Driven Mass Loss in Supernova Progenitors

    CERN Document Server

    Shiode, Joshua H

    2013-01-01

    Supernovae (SNe) powered by interaction with circumstellar material provide evidence for intense stellar mass loss during the final years leading up to core collapse. We have argued that during and after core neon burning, internal gravity waves excited by core convection can tap into the core fusion power and transport a super-Eddington energy flux out to the stellar envelope, potentially unbinding up to ~ 1 solar mass of material. In this work, we explore the internal conditions of SN progenitors using the MESA 1-D stellar evolution code, in search of those most susceptible to wave-driven mass loss. We focus on simple, order of magnitude considerations applicable to a wide range of progenitors. Wave-driven mass loss during core neon and oxygen fusion happens preferentially in either lower mass (<~ 20 solar mass ZAMS) stars or massive, sub-solar metallicity stars. Roughly 20 per cent of the SN progenitors we survey can excite ~ 10^46 - 10^48 erg of energy in waves that can potentially drive mass loss with...

  6. ALMA Observations of Anisotropic Dust Mass-loss in the Inner Circumstellar Environment of the Red Supergiant VY CMa

    CERN Document Server

    O'Gorman, E; Richards, A M S; Baudry, A; De Beck, E; Decin, L; Harper, G M; Humphreys, E M; Kervella, P; Khouri, T; Muller, S

    2014-01-01

    The processes leading to dust formation and the subsequent role it plays in driving mass-loss in cool evolved stars is an area of intense study. Here, we present high resolution ALMA Science Verification data of the continuum emission around the highly evolved oxygen-rich red supergiant VY CMa. These data enable us to study the dust in its inner circumstellar environment at a spatial resolution of 129 mas at 321 GHz and 59 mas at 658 GHz, allowing us to trace dust on spatial scales down to 11 R$_{\\star}$ (71 AU). Two prominent dust components are detected and resolved. The brightest dust component, C, is located 334 mas (61 R$_{\\star}$) south-east of the star and has a dust mass of at least $2.5\\times 10^{-4} $M$_{\\odot}$. It has an emissivity spectral index of $\\beta =-0.1$ at its peak, implying that it is either optically thick at these frequencies with a cool core of $T_{d}\\lesssim 100$ K, and/or contains very large dust grains. Interestingly, not a single molecule in the ALMA data has emission close to th...

  7. Against the Wind: Radio Light Curves of Type Ia Supernovae Interacting with Low-Density Circumstellar Shells

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Chelsea E; Kasen, Daniel N

    2016-01-01

    For decades, a wide variety of observations spanning the radio through optical and on to the x-ray have attempted to uncover signs of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) interacting with a circumstellar medium (CSM). The goal of these studies is to constrain the nature of the hypothesized SN Ia mass-donor companion. A continuous CSM is typically assumed when interpreting observations of interaction. However, while such models have been successfully applied to core-collapse SNe, the assumption of continuity may not be accurate for SNe Ia, as shells of CSM could be formed by pre-supernova eruptions (novae). In this work, we model the interaction of SNe with a spherical, low density, finite-extent CSM and create a suite of synthetic radio synchrotron light curves. We find that CSM shells produce sharply peaked light curves, and identify a fiducial set of models that all obey a common evolution and can be used to generate radio light curves for interaction with an arbitrary shell. The relations obeyed by the fiducial mod...

  8. New observations and models of circumstellar CO line emission of AGB stars in the Herschel SUCCESS programme

    CERN Document Server

    Danilovich, Taissa; Justtanont, K; Olofsson, H; Cerrigone, L; Bujarrabal, V; Alcolea, J; Cernicharo, J; Castro-Carrizo, A; Garcia-Lario, P; Marston, A

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are in one of the latest evolutionary stages of low to intermediate-mass stars. Their vigorous mass loss has a significant effect on the stellar evolution, and is a significant source of heavy elements and dust grains for the interstellar medium. The mass-loss rate can be well traced by carbon monoxide (CO) line emission. AIMS: We present new Herschel HIFI and IRAM 30m telescope CO line data for a sample of 53 galactic AGB stars. The lines cover a fairly large range of excitation energy from the $J=1\\to0$ line to the $J=9\\to8$ line, and even the $J=14\\to13$ line in a few cases. We perform radiative transfer modelling for 38 of these sources to estimate their mass-loss rates. METHODS: We used a radiative transfer code based on the Monte Carlo method to model the CO line emission. We assume spherically symmetric circumstellar envelopes that are formed by a constant mass-loss rate through a smoothly accelerating wind. RESULTS: We find models that are consistent across...

  9. Flash Spectroscopy: Emission Lines from the Ionized Circumstellar Material around $<10$-Day-Old Type II Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Khazov, D; Gal-Yam, A; Manulis, I; Rubin, A; Kulkarni, S R; Arcavi, I; Kasliwal, M M; Ofek, E O; Cao, Y; Perley, D; Sollerman, J; Horesh, A; Sullivan, M; Filippenko, A V; Nugent, P E; Howell, D A; Cenko, S B; Silverman, J M; Ebeling, H; Taddia, F; Johansson, J; Laher, R R; Surace, J; Rebbapragada, U D; Wozniak, P R; Matheson, T

    2015-01-01

    Supernovae (SNe) embedded in dense circumstellar material (CSM) may show prominent emission lines in their early-time spectra ($\\leq 10$ days after the explosion), owing to recombination of the CSM ionized by the shock-breakout flash. From such spectra ("flash spectroscopy"), we can measure various physical properties of the CSM, as well as the mass-loss rate of the progenitor during the year prior to its explosion. Searching through the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF and iPTF) SN spectroscopy databases from 2009 through 2014, we found 12 Type II SNe showing flash-ionized (FI) signatures in their first spectra. All are younger than 10 days. These events constitute 14\\% of all 84 SNe in our sample having a spectrum within 10 days from explosion, and 18\\% of SNe~II observed at ages $<5$ days, thereby setting lower limits on the fraction of FI events. We classified as "blue/featureless" (BF) those events having a first spectrum which is similar to that of a black body, without any emission or absorption signa...

  10. The young low-mass star ISO-Oph-50: Extreme variability induced by a clumpy, evolving circumstellar disk

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Aleks; Geers, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    ISO-Oph-50 is a young low-mass object in the ~Myr old Ophiuchus star forming region undergoing dramatic changes in its optical/near/mid-infrared brightness by 2-4 mag. We present new multi-band photometry and near-infrared spectra, combined with a synopsis of the existing literature data. Based on the spectroscopy, the source is confirmed as a mid M dwarf, with evidence for ongoing accretion. The near-infrared lightcurves show large-scale variations, with 2-4 mag amplitude in the bands IJHK, with the object generally being bluer when faint. Near its brightest state, the object shows colour changes consistent with variable extinction of dAV~7 mag. High-cadence monitoring at 3.6mu reveals quasi-periodic variations with a typical timescale of 1-2 weeks. The best explanation for these characteristics is a low-mass star seen through circumstellar matter, whose complex variability is caused by changing inhomogeneities in the inner parts of the disk. When faint, the direct stellar emission is blocked; the near-infra...

  11. Search for Early Gamma-ray Production in Supernovae Located in a Dense Circumstellar Medium with the Fermi LAT

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Supernovae (SNe) exploding in a dense circumstellar medium (CSM) are hypothesized to accelerate cosmic rays in collisionless shocks and emit GeV gamma rays and TeV neutrinos on a time scale of several months. We perform the first systematic search for gamma-ray emission in Fermi LAT data in the energy range from 100 MeV to 300 GeV from the ensemble of 147 SNe Type IIn exploding in dense CSM. We search for a gamma-ray excess at each SNe location in a one year time window. In order to enhance a possible weak signal, we simultaneously study the closest and optically brightest sources of our sample in a joint-likelihood analysis in three different time windows (1 year, 6 months and 3 months). For the most promising source of the sample, SN 2010jl (PTF10aaxf), we repeat the analysis with an extended time window lasting 4.5 years. We do not find a significant excess in gamma rays for any individual source nor for the combined sources and provide model-independent flux upper limits for both cases. In addition, we de...

  12. First Science Observations with SOFIA/FORCAST: Properties of Intermediate-Luminosity Protostars and Circumstellar Disks in OMC-2

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Joseph D; Osorio, Mayra; Macias, Enrique; Megeath, S Thomas; Fischer, William J; Ali, Babar; Calvet, Nuria; D'Alessio, Paola; De Buizer, James M; Gull, George E; Henderson, Charles P; Keller, Luke D; Morris, Mark R; Remming, Ian S; Schoenwald, Justin; Shuping, Ralph Y; Stacey, Gordon; Stanke, Thomas; Stutz, Amelia; Vacca, William

    2012-01-01

    We examine eight young stellar objects in the OMC-2 star forming region based on observations from the SOFIA/FORCAST early science phase, the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Herschel Space Observatory, 2MASS, APEX, and other results in the literature. We show the spectral energy distributions of these objects from near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths, and compare the SEDs with those of sheet collapse models of protostars and circumstellar disks. Four of the objects can be modelled as protostars with infalling envelopes, two as young stars surrounded by disks, and the remaining two objects have double-peaked SEDs. We model the double-peaked sources as binaries containing a young star with a disk and a protostar. The six most luminous sources are found in a dense group within a 0.15 x 0.25 pc region; these sources have luminosities ranging from 300 L_sun to 20 L_sun. The most embedded source (OMC-2 FIR 4) can be fit by a class 0 protostar model having a luminosity of ~50 L_sun and mass infall rate of ~10^-4 sol...

  13. The First Circumstellar Disk Imaged in Silhouette with Adaptive Optics: MagAO Imaging of Orion 218-354

    CERN Document Server

    Follette, Katherine B; Males, Jared R; Kopon, Derek; Wu, Ya-Lin; Morzinski, Katie M; Hinz, Philip; Rodigas, Timothy J; Puglisi, Alfio; Esposito, Simone; Riccardi, Armando; Pinna, Enrico; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa

    2013-01-01

    We present high resolution adaptive optics (AO) corrected images of the silhouette disk Orion 218-354 taken with Magellan AO (MagAO) and its visible light camera, VisAO, in simultaneous differential imaging (SDI) mode at H-alpha. This is the first image of a circumstellar disk seen in silhouette with adaptive optics and is among the first visible light adaptive optics results in the literature. We derive the disk extent, geometry, intensity and extinction profiles and find, in contrast with previous work, that the disk is likely optically-thin at H-alpha. Our data provide an estimate of the column density in primitive, ISM-like grains as a function of radius in the disk. We estimate that only ~10% of the total sub-mm derived disk mass lies in primitive, unprocessed grains. We use our data, Monte Carlo radiative transfer modeling and previous results from the literature to make the first self-consistent multiwavelength model of Orion 218-354. We find that we are able to reproduce the 1-1000micron SED with a ~2...

  14. Two Distinct-Absorption X-Ray Components from Type IIn Supernovae: Evidence for Asphericity in the Circumstellar Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Katsuda, Satoru; Bamba, Aya; Terada, Yukikatsu; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Kawabata, Koji; Ohno, Masanori; Sugawara, Yasuharu; Tsuboi, Yohko; Immler, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We present multi-epoch X-ray spectral observations of three Type IIn supernovae (SNe) 2005kd, 2006jd, and 2010jl, acquired with Chandra, XMM-Newton, Suzaku, and Swift. Previous extensive X-ray studies of SN 2010jl have revealed that X-ray spectra are dominated by thermal emission, which likely arises from a hot plasma heated by a forward shock propagating into a massive circumstellar medium (CSM). Interestingly, an additional soft X-ray component was required to reproduce the spectra at a period of ~1-2 yr after the SN explosion. Although this component is likely associated with the SN, its origin remained an open question. We find a similar, additional soft X-ray component from the other two SNe IIn as well. Given this finding, we present a new interpretation for the origin of this component; it is thermal emission from a forward shock essentially identical to the hard X-ray component, but directly reaches us from a void of the dense CSM. Namely, the hard and soft components are responsible for the heavily- ...

  15. Infrared and X-Ray Evidence for Circumstellar Grain Destruction by the Blast Wave of Supernova 1987A

    CERN Document Server

    Dwek, E; Bouchet, P; Burrows, D N; Challis, P; Danziger, I J; De Buizer, J M; Gehrz, R D; Kirshner, R P; McCray, R; Park, S; Polomski, E F; Woodward, C E

    2007-01-01

    Multiwavelength observations of supernova remnant (SNR) 1987A show that its morphology and luminosity are rapidly changing at X-ray, optical, infrared, and radio wavelengths as the blast wave from the explosion expands into the circumstellar equatorial ring, produced by mass loss from the progenitor star. The observed infrared (IR) radiation arises from the interaction of dust grains that formed in mass outflow with the soft X-ray emitting plasma component of the shocked gas. Spitzer IRS spectra at 5 - 30 microns taken on day 6190 since the explosion show that the emission arises from ~ 1.1E-6 Msun of silicate grains radiating at a temperature of ~180+20-15 K. Subsequent observations on day 7137 show that the IR flux had increased by a factor of 2 while maintaining an almost identical spectral shape. The observed IR-to-X-ray flux ratio (IRX) is consistent with that of a dusty plasma with standard Large Magellanic Cloud dust abundances. IRX has decreased by a factor of ~ 2 between days 6190 and 7137, providing...

  16. FIRST SCIENCE OBSERVATIONS WITH SOFIA/FORCAST: PROPERTIES OF INTERMEDIATE-LUMINOSITY PROTOSTARS AND CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS IN OMC-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine eight young stellar objects in the OMC-2 star-forming region based on observations from the SOFIA/FORCAST early science phase, the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Herschel Space Observatory, Two Micron All Sky Survey, Atacama Pathfinder Experiment, and other results in the literature. We show the spectral energy distributions (SED) of these objects from near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths, and compare the SEDs with those of sheet collapse models of protostars and circumstellar disks. Four of the objects can be modeled as protostars with infalling envelopes, two as young stars surrounded by disks, and the remaining two objects have double-peaked SEDs. We model the double-peaked sources as binaries containing a young star with a disk and a protostar. The six most luminous sources are found in a dense group within a 0.15 × 0.25 pc region; these sources have luminosities ranging from 300 L☉ to 20 L☉. The most embedded source (OMC-2 FIR 4) can be fit by a class 0 protostar model having a luminosity of ∼50 L☉ and mass infall rate of ∼10–4 M☉ yr–1.

  17. FIRST SCIENCE OBSERVATIONS WITH SOFIA/FORCAST: PROPERTIES OF INTERMEDIATE-LUMINOSITY PROTOSTARS AND CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS IN OMC-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Joseph D.; Herter, Terry L.; Gull, George E.; Henderson, Charles P.; Schoenwald, Justin; Stacey, Gordon [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Space Sciences Bldg., Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Osorio, Mayra; Macias, Enrique [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC, Camino Bajo de Huetor 50, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Thomas Megeath, S.; Fischer, William J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Mailstop 111, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Ali, Babar [NHSC/IPAC/Caltech, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Calvet, Nuria [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 825 Dennison Building, 500 Church St, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); D' Alessio, Paola [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 58089 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); De Buizer, James M.; Shuping, Ralph Y. [SOFIA-University Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, Mail Stop N211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Keller, Luke D. [Ithaca College, Physics Department, 264 Ctr for Natural Sciences, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); Morris, Mark R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 405 Hilgard Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Remming, Ian S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Stanke, Thomas [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Stutz, Amelia [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2012-04-20

    We examine eight young stellar objects in the OMC-2 star-forming region based on observations from the SOFIA/FORCAST early science phase, the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Herschel Space Observatory, Two Micron All Sky Survey, Atacama Pathfinder Experiment, and other results in the literature. We show the spectral energy distributions (SED) of these objects from near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths, and compare the SEDs with those of sheet collapse models of protostars and circumstellar disks. Four of the objects can be modeled as protostars with infalling envelopes, two as young stars surrounded by disks, and the remaining two objects have double-peaked SEDs. We model the double-peaked sources as binaries containing a young star with a disk and a protostar. The six most luminous sources are found in a dense group within a 0.15 Multiplication-Sign 0.25 pc region; these sources have luminosities ranging from 300 L{sub Sun} to 20 L{sub Sun }. The most embedded source (OMC-2 FIR 4) can be fit by a class 0 protostar model having a luminosity of {approx}50 L{sub Sun} and mass infall rate of {approx}10{sup -4} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}.

  18. Line-driven ablation of circumstellar disks: I. Optically thin decretion disks of classical Oe/Be stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kee, N D; Sundqvist, J O

    2016-01-01

    The extreme luminosities of hot, massive stars drive strong stellar winds through UV line-scattering. For OB stars with an orbiting circumstellar disk, we explore the effect of such line-scattering in ablating disk material, initially focusing on the marginally optically thin decretion disks of classical Oe and Be stars. For this we apply a multi-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics code, assuming optically thin ray tracing for the stellar continuum and a multi-ray Sobolev treatment of the line transfer. This accounts for desaturation of line-absorption by Keplerian shear in the disk, and associated driving by non-radial photons. Results show dense, intermediate-speed surface ablation, consistent with the strong, blue-shifted absorption seen in UV wind lines of Be shell stars. The asymptotic ablation rate is typically an order-unity factor times the stellar wind mass loss rate, leading to disk destruction times of order months to years for Be disks, consistent with observations. The much stronger radiative for...

  19. Chemical composition and structure of particles synthesized on the surface of HHPC in nuclear reactions induced by bremstrahlung γ quanta with threshold energy of 10 MeV in molecular hydrogen at a pressure of 0.5 kbar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didyk, A. Yu.; Wiśniewski, R.

    2015-12-01

    A high-pressure chamber filled with molecular hydrogen (HHPC) at a pressure of 0.5 kbar with a Pd rod inside has been irradiated for 14 h with γ quanta with an energy of 9.7 kbar produced by an electron beam current of 20-21 μA. Postirradiation studies of the changes in the structure of the synthesized particle and other objects on the surface of a brass hub in the composition of HHPC revealed the presence of light elements from carbon to calcium. Multiple small particles of lead have also been found and studied. The detected synthesized particle has complex shape and composition. Also, thin-walled microtubes were detected on the inner surfaces inside HHPC. Based on fission reactions of intermediate mass nuclei (descending reactions), as well as the reactions of synthesis from hydrogen and heavier nuclei (ascending reactions), an attempt to explain the anomalies that were observed is made.

  20. Photodetachment as destruction mechanism for CN- and C3N- anions in circumstellar envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, S S; Jindra, R; Best, T; Roucka, S; Geppert, W D; Millar, T J; Wester, R

    2013-01-01

    Absolute photodetachment cross sections of two anions of astrophysical importance CN- and C3N- were measured to be (1.18 +- (0.03)_stat (0.17)_sys) * 10^-17 cm^2 and (1.43 +- (0.14)_stat (0.37)_sys) * 10^-17 cm^2 respectively at the ultraviolet wavelength of 266 nm (4.66 eV). These relatively large values of the cross sections imply that photodetachment can play a major role in the destruction mechanisms of these anions particularly in photon-dominated regions. We have therefore carried out model calculations using the newly measured cross sections to investigate the abundance of these molecular anions in the cirumstellar envelope of the carbon-rich star IRC+10216. The model predicts the relative importance of the various mechanisms of formation and destruction of these species in different regions of the envelope. UV photodetachment was found to be the major destruction mechanism for both CN- and C3N- anions in those regions of the envelope, where they occur in peak abundance. It was also found that photodet...