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Sample records for circumferential endocardial extent

  1. Assessment of circumferential endocardial extent of myocardial edema and infarction in patients with reperfused acute myocardial infarction: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Shingo; Tanimoto, Takashi; Hirata, Kumiko; Orii, Makoto; Shiono, Yasutsugu; Shimamura, Kunihiro; Ishibashi, Kohei; Yamano, Takashi; Ino, Yasushi; Kitabata, Hironori; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Kubo, Takashi; Imanishi, Toshio; Akasaka, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    T2 weighted (T2W) images on cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) visualizes myocardial edema, which reflects the myocardial area at risk (AAR) in reperfused acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) demonstrates myocardial infarction. LGE images cover the whole left ventricle, but T2W images are obtained from a few slices of the left ventricle due to the long sequence time, so the quantification of AAR of the entire left ventricle is difficult. We hypothesize that we can quantify AAR with only LGE images if there is a strong correlation between the circumferential endocardial extent of myocardial edema and infarction. Thirty patients with first AMI were enrolled. All patients underwent successfully reperfusion therapy and CMR was performed within the first week after the event. We measured the circumferential extent of edema and infarction on short-axis views (T2 angle and LGE angle), respectively. A total of 82 short-axis slices showed transmural edema on T2W images. Corresponding LGE images were analyzed for the circumferential extent of infarction. The median [interquartile range] of T2 angle and DE angle were 147° [116°-219°] and 134° [104°-200°] in patients with LAD culprit lesion, 91° [87°-101°] and 85° [80°-90°] in LCX, and 110° [94°-123°] and 104° [89°-118°] in RCA, respectively. T2 angle was well correlated with LGE angle (r = 0.99, P infarction in reperfused AMI. Thus, T2 weighted imaging can be skipped to quantify the amount of AAR.

  2. Endocardial fibroelastosis in a quarterhorse mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, T L

    2013-01-01

    A 4-year-old crossbred Quarterhorse mare was submitted to the Clemson Veterinary Diagnostic Center for necropsy examination with a chronic history of inappetence, weight loss and lethargy. Prior to death the horse had developed mild diarrhoea and began showing evidence of colic. Necropsy examination revealed a markedly enlarged heart due predominantly to marked dilation of the right atrium, tortuous congested mesenteric blood vessels, marked ascites, pleural effusion and pulmonary oedema. Further examination of the heart showed the endocardium of the left side of the heart, including the mitral valve leaflets, to be diffusely thickened. Microscopically, the endocardial thickening was due to deposition of fibrous connective tissue and elastin fibres. These findings are consistent with a diagnosis of endocardial fibroelastosis. PMID:23651694

  3. File list: DNS.CDV.05.AllAg.Endocardial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.CDV.05.AllAg.Endocardial_cells hg19 DNase-seq Cardiovascular Endocardial cells ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.CDV.05.AllAg.Endocardial_cells.bed ...

  4. File list: His.CDV.10.AllAg.Endocardial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.CDV.10.AllAg.Endocardial_cells hg19 Histone Cardiovascular Endocardial cells ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.CDV.10.AllAg.Endocardial_cells.bed ...

  5. File list: His.CDV.20.AllAg.Endocardial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.CDV.20.AllAg.Endocardial_cells hg19 Histone Cardiovascular Endocardial cells ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.CDV.20.AllAg.Endocardial_cells.bed ...

  6. File list: Unc.CDV.05.AllAg.Endocardial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.CDV.05.AllAg.Endocardial_cells hg19 Unclassified Cardiovascular Endocardial cel...ls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.CDV.05.AllAg.Endocardial_cells.bed ...

  7. File list: DNS.CDV.10.AllAg.Endocardial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.CDV.10.AllAg.Endocardial_cells hg19 DNase-seq Cardiovascular Endocardial cells ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.CDV.10.AllAg.Endocardial_cells.bed ...

  8. File list: DNS.CDV.20.AllAg.Endocardial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.CDV.20.AllAg.Endocardial_cells hg19 DNase-seq Cardiovascular Endocardial cells ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.CDV.20.AllAg.Endocardial_cells.bed ...

  9. File list: His.CDV.05.AllAg.Endocardial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.CDV.05.AllAg.Endocardial_cells hg19 Histone Cardiovascular Endocardial cells ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.CDV.05.AllAg.Endocardial_cells.bed ...

  10. File list: Unc.CDV.20.AllAg.Endocardial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.CDV.20.AllAg.Endocardial_cells hg19 Unclassified Cardiovascular Endocardial cel...ls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.CDV.20.AllAg.Endocardial_cells.bed ...

  11. File list: His.CDV.50.AllAg.Endocardial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.CDV.50.AllAg.Endocardial_cells hg19 Histone Cardiovascular Endocardial cells ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.CDV.50.AllAg.Endocardial_cells.bed ...

  12. File list: DNS.CDV.50.AllAg.Endocardial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.CDV.50.AllAg.Endocardial_cells hg19 DNase-seq Cardiovascular Endocardial cells ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.CDV.50.AllAg.Endocardial_cells.bed ...

  13. File list: Unc.CDV.50.AllAg.Endocardial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.CDV.50.AllAg.Endocardial_cells hg19 Unclassified Cardiovascular Endocardial cel...ls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.CDV.50.AllAg.Endocardial_cells.bed ...

  14. Quantitative assessment of regional left ventricular motion using endocardial landmarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Slager (Cornelis); T.E.H. Hooghoudt (Ton); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); J.C.H. Schuurbiers (Johan); J.H.C. Reiber (Johan); G.T. Meester (Geert); P.D. Verdouw (Pieter); P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractIn this study the hypothesis is tested that the motion pattern of small anatomic landmarks, recognizable at the left ventricular endocardial border in the contrast angiocardiogram, reflects the motion of the endocardial wall. To verify this, minute metal markers were inserted in the endo

  15. Endocardial expression and functional characterization of endothelin-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saetrum Opgaard, O; Adner, M; Peters, T H;

    2001-01-01

    human myocardial as well as in endocardial endothelial cells. Biological activity of endocardial endothelial cells derived ET-1 was established as the conditioned media obtained from cultured porcine endocardial endothelial cells induced a slowly developing, strong and long-lasting contraction of......Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a 21 amino acid peptide exerts a wide range of biological activities including vasoconstriction, mitogenesis and inotropic effects on the heart. In this study, we examined whether endocardial endothelial cells express ET-1 and evaluated its functional properties. Using...... immunofluorescence localization method, we demonstrated cytoplasmic staining of ET-1 in the human endocardial endothelial cells from the right atrium and left ventricle. Employing reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) expression of ET-1 mRNA and its receptors ET(A) and ET(B) mRNAs were found in...

  16. Early endocardial morphogenesis requires Scl/Tal1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Bussmann

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The primitive heart tube is composed of an outer myocardial and an inner endocardial layer that will give rise to the cardiac valves and septa. Specification and differentiation of these two cell layers are among the earliest events in heart development, but the embryonic origins and genetic regulation of early endocardial development remain largely undefined. We have analyzed early endocardial development in the zebrafish using time-lapse confocal microscopy and show that the endocardium seems to originate from a region in the lateral plate mesoderm that will give rise to hematopoietic cells of the primitive myeloid lineage. Endocardial precursors appear to rapidly migrate to the site of heart tube formation, where they arrive prior to the bilateral myocardial primordia. Analysis of a newly discovered zebrafish Scl/Tal1 mutant showed an additional and previously undescribed role of this transcription factor during the development of the endocardium. In Scl/Tal1 mutant embryos, endocardial precursors are specified, but migration is severely defective and endocardial cells aggregate at the ventricular pole of the heart. We further show that the initial fusion of the bilateral myocardial precursor populations occurs independently of the endocardium and tal1 function. Our results suggest early separation of the two components of the primitive heart tube and imply Scl/Tal1 as an indispensable component of the molecular hierarchy that controls endocardium morphogenesis.

  17. Early endocardial morphogenesis requires Scl/Tal1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Jeroen; Bakkers, Jeroen; Schulte-Merker, Stefan

    2007-08-01

    The primitive heart tube is composed of an outer myocardial and an inner endocardial layer that will give rise to the cardiac valves and septa. Specification and differentiation of these two cell layers are among the earliest events in heart development, but the embryonic origins and genetic regulation of early endocardial development remain largely undefined. We have analyzed early endocardial development in the zebrafish using time-lapse confocal microscopy and show that the endocardium seems to originate from a region in the lateral plate mesoderm that will give rise to hematopoietic cells of the primitive myeloid lineage. Endocardial precursors appear to rapidly migrate to the site of heart tube formation, where they arrive prior to the bilateral myocardial primordia. Analysis of a newly discovered zebrafish Scl/Tal1 mutant showed an additional and previously undescribed role of this transcription factor during the development of the endocardium. In Scl/Tal1 mutant embryos, endocardial precursors are specified, but migration is severely defective and endocardial cells aggregate at the ventricular pole of the heart. We further show that the initial fusion of the bilateral myocardial precursor populations occurs independently of the endocardium and tal1 function. Our results suggest early separation of the two components of the primitive heart tube and imply Scl/Tal1 as an indispensable component of the molecular hierarchy that controls endocardium morphogenesis.

  18. Localization of endocardial ectopic activity by means of noninvasive endocardial surface current density reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Localization of the source of cardiac ectopic activity has direct clinical benefits for determining the location of the corresponding ectopic focus. In this study, a recently developed current-density (CD)-based localization approach was experimentally evaluated in noninvasively localizing the origin of the cardiac ectopic activity from body-surface potential maps (BSPMs) in a well-controlled experimental setting. The cardiac ectopic activities were induced in four well-controlled intact pigs by single-site pacing at various sites within the left ventricle (LV). In each pacing study, the origin of the induced ectopic activity was localized by reconstructing the CD distribution on the endocardial surface of the LV from the measured BSPMs and compared with the estimated single moving dipole (SMD) solution and precise pacing site (PS). Over the 60 analyzed beats corresponding to ten pacing sites (six for each), the mean and standard deviation of the distance between the locations of maximum CD value and the corresponding PSs were 16.9 mm and 4.6 mm, respectively. In comparison, the averaged distance between the SMD locations and the corresponding PSs was slightly larger (18.4 ± 3.4 mm). The obtained CD distribution of activated sources extending from the stimulus site also showed high consistency with the endocardial potential maps estimated by a minimally invasive endocardial mapping system. The present experimental results suggest that the CD method is able to locate the approximate site of the origin of a cardiac ectopic activity, and that the distribution of the CD can portray the propagation of early activation of an ectopic beat.

  19. File list: InP.CDV.20.AllAg.Endocardial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.CDV.20.AllAg.Endocardial_cells hg19 Input control Cardiovascular Endocardial ce...lls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.CDV.20.AllAg.Endocardial_cells.bed ...

  20. File list: NoD.CDV.10.AllAg.Endocardial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.CDV.10.AllAg.Endocardial_cells hg19 No description Cardiovascular Endocardial c...ells DRX014674 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.CDV.10.AllAg.Endocardial_cells.bed ...

  1. File list: Oth.CDV.05.AllAg.Endocardial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.CDV.05.AllAg.Endocardial_cells hg19 TFs and others Cardiovascular Endocardial c...ells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.CDV.05.AllAg.Endocardial_cells.bed ...

  2. File list: Oth.CDV.50.AllAg.Endocardial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.CDV.50.AllAg.Endocardial_cells hg19 TFs and others Cardiovascular Endocardial c...ells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.CDV.50.AllAg.Endocardial_cells.bed ...

  3. File list: Pol.CDV.10.AllAg.Endocardial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.CDV.10.AllAg.Endocardial_cells hg19 RNA polymerase Cardiovascular Endocardial c...ells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.CDV.10.AllAg.Endocardial_cells.bed ...

  4. File list: Oth.CDV.20.AllAg.Endocardial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.CDV.20.AllAg.Endocardial_cells hg19 TFs and others Cardiovascular Endocardial c...ells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.CDV.20.AllAg.Endocardial_cells.bed ...

  5. File list: ALL.CDV.50.AllAg.Endocardial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.CDV.50.AllAg.Endocardial_cells hg19 All antigens Cardiovascular Endocardial cel...ls DRX014674 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.CDV.50.AllAg.Endocardial_cells.bed ...

  6. File list: Pol.CDV.50.AllAg.Endocardial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.CDV.50.AllAg.Endocardial_cells hg19 RNA polymerase Cardiovascular Endocardial c...ells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.CDV.50.AllAg.Endocardial_cells.bed ...

  7. File list: InP.CDV.05.AllAg.Endocardial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.CDV.05.AllAg.Endocardial_cells hg19 Input control Cardiovascular Endocardial ce...lls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.CDV.05.AllAg.Endocardial_cells.bed ...

  8. File list: Oth.CDV.10.AllAg.Endocardial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.CDV.10.AllAg.Endocardial_cells hg19 TFs and others Cardiovascular Endocardial c...ells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.CDV.10.AllAg.Endocardial_cells.bed ...

  9. File list: ALL.CDV.05.AllAg.Endocardial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.CDV.05.AllAg.Endocardial_cells hg19 All antigens Cardiovascular Endocardial cel...ls DRX014674 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.CDV.05.AllAg.Endocardial_cells.bed ...

  10. File list: InP.CDV.50.AllAg.Endocardial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.CDV.50.AllAg.Endocardial_cells hg19 Input control Cardiovascular Endocardial ce...lls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.CDV.50.AllAg.Endocardial_cells.bed ...

  11. File list: ALL.CDV.10.AllAg.Endocardial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.CDV.10.AllAg.Endocardial_cells hg19 All antigens Cardiovascular Endocardial cel...ls DRX014674 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.CDV.10.AllAg.Endocardial_cells.bed ...

  12. File list: NoD.CDV.20.AllAg.Endocardial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.CDV.20.AllAg.Endocardial_cells hg19 No description Cardiovascular Endocardial c...ells DRX014674 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.CDV.20.AllAg.Endocardial_cells.bed ...

  13. File list: InP.CDV.10.AllAg.Endocardial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.CDV.10.AllAg.Endocardial_cells hg19 Input control Cardiovascular Endocardial ce...lls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.CDV.10.AllAg.Endocardial_cells.bed ...

  14. File list: NoD.CDV.50.AllAg.Endocardial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.CDV.50.AllAg.Endocardial_cells hg19 No description Cardiovascular Endocardial c...ells DRX014674 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.CDV.50.AllAg.Endocardial_cells.bed ...

  15. File list: Pol.CDV.05.AllAg.Endocardial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.CDV.05.AllAg.Endocardial_cells hg19 RNA polymerase Cardiovascular Endocardial c...ells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.CDV.05.AllAg.Endocardial_cells.bed ...

  16. File list: NoD.CDV.05.AllAg.Endocardial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.CDV.05.AllAg.Endocardial_cells hg19 No description Cardiovascular Endocardial c...ells DRX014674 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.CDV.05.AllAg.Endocardial_cells.bed ...

  17. File list: ALL.CDV.20.AllAg.Endocardial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.CDV.20.AllAg.Endocardial_cells hg19 All antigens Cardiovascular Endocardial cel...ls DRX014674 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.CDV.20.AllAg.Endocardial_cells.bed ...

  18. File list: Pol.CDV.20.AllAg.Endocardial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.CDV.20.AllAg.Endocardial_cells hg19 RNA polymerase Cardiovascular Endocardial c...ells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.CDV.20.AllAg.Endocardial_cells.bed ...

  19. Endocardial fibrosarcoma in a reticulated python (Python reticularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumber, Sanjeev; Nevarez, Javier G; Cho, Doo-Youn

    2010-11-01

    A female, reticulated python (Python reticularis) of unknown age was presented with a history of lethargy, weakness, and distended coelom. Physical examination revealed severe dystocia and stomatitis. The reticulated python was euthanized due to a poor clinical prognosis. Postmortem examination revealed marked distention of the reproductive tract with 26 eggs (10-12 cm in diameter), pericardial effusion, and a slightly firm, pale tan mass (3-4 cm in diameter) adhered to the endocardium at the base of aorta. Based on histopathologic and transmission electron microscopic findings, the diagnosis of endocardial fibrosarcoma was made.

  20. 49 CFR 178.345-7 - Circumferential reinforcements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circumferential reinforcements. 178.345-7 Section... reinforcements. (a) A cargo tank with a shell thickness of less than 3/8 inch must be circumferentially... tank heads. (1) Circumferential reinforcement must be located so that the thickness and...

  1. Circumferential cracking of steam generator tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karwoski, K.J.

    1997-04-01

    On April 28, 1995, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued Generic Letter (GL) 95-03, {open_quote}Circumferential Cracking of Steam Generator Tubes.{close_quote} GL 95-03 was issued to obtain information needed to verify licensee compliance with existing regulatory requirements regarding the integrity of steam generator tubes in domestic pressurized-water reactors (PWRs). This report briefly describes the design and function of domestic steam generators and summarizes the staff`s assessment of the responses to GL 95-03. The report concludes with several observations related to steam generator operating experience. This report is intended to be representative of significant operating experience pertaining to circumferential cracking of steam generator tubes from April 1995 through December 1996. Operating experience prior to April 1995 is discussed throughout the report, as necessary, for completeness.

  2. Circumferential TIG welding of zircaloy flow tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactivity control mechanism consists of 10 mtr. long zircaloy flow tubes (inner and outer) with components welded to hold the absorber elements. These components were welded by the plug welding process and supplied to Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) and Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS). In view of the in-service problem faced in Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS), the spot welds were modified to circumferential TIG welding with additional reinforcement. Development work was taken up for additional reinforcement with screws and circumferential TIG welding of these assemblies. The additional reinforcement with screws and spot welds were critically examined and the job was taken up and successfully completed at Narora site for Narora Atomic Power Projects (NAPP-II). Several trials were conducted for circumferential TIG welding of zircaloy. Since zircaloy is highly reactive in nature, good shielding with inert gas should be ensured to avoid weld contamination due to oxygen and nitrogen. The strength, microstructural and radiographical requirements were examined with different parameters of welding such as weld current, feed, inert gas flow and weld configuration. The strength and other requirements were achieved meeting stringent specifications and assemblies for KAPP-I were successfully completed and despatched. (author). 7 figs

  3. Endocardial cushion defect associated with cor triatriatum sinistrum or supravalve mitral ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilenius, O G; Vitullo, D; Bharati, S; Luken, J; Lamberti, J J; Tatooles, C; Lev, M; Carr, I; Arcilla, R A

    1979-12-01

    Clinical and angiographic or autopsy data, or both, on three children with a subdivided left atrium (cor triatriatum) and an associated endocardial cushion defect are reviewed. (One child had ostium primum defect, and two had complete atrioventricular [A-V] canal.) A fourth patient demonstrates the difficulties in differentiating subdivided left atrium from supravalve mitral stenosis in the presence of an endocardial cushion defect. The clinical findings are greatly influenced by the endocardial cushion defect. A pressure gradient between the pulmonary wedge and (left or right) ventricular end-diastolic pressures in patients with an endocardial cushion defect indicates pulmonary venous obstruction and should alert one to the possibility of these combined lesions. The exact diagnosis is made with injections of angiographic contrast medium into the proximal and distal left atrial chambers, to documented the respective relations of the pulmonary veins, left atrial appendage and A-V valves to these atrial chambers. All three patients with an endocardial cushion defect and a subdivided left atrium had an associated patent ductus arteriosus. The common association of subdivided left atrium with intracardiac, pulmonary venous and aortic anomalies is again demonstrated.

  4. The Mechanism of Stall Margin Improvement in a Centrifugal Compressor with the Air Bleeding Circumferential Grooves Casing Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, P.; Chu, W. L.; Wu, Y. H.

    The air bleeding circumferential grooves casing treatment has the potential to extent the operating range of centrifugal compressor with no loss in efficiency. A time accurate 3-dimentional numerical simulation was performed in a low speed centrifugal compressor with the air bleeding circumferential grooves casing treatment. The numerical results agreed well with experimental test data for the global performance. Detailed analyses of the flow visualization at the tip of blades have exposed the different tip flow topologies between the cases with casing treatment and with untreated smooth wall, and the reasons how the second flow vortex is retrained. The mechanism of stall margin improvement is gained finally.

  5. S1pr2/Gα13 signaling regulates the migration of endocardial precursors by controlling endoderm convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huaping; Ye, Ding; Sepich, Diane; Lin, Fang

    2016-06-15

    Formation of the heart tube requires synchronized migration of endocardial and myocardial precursors. Our previous studies indicated that in S1pr2/Gα13-deficient embryos, impaired endoderm convergence disrupted the medial migration of myocardial precursors, resulting in the formation of two myocardial populations. Here we show that endoderm convergence also regulates endocardial migration. In embryos defective for S1pr2/Gα13 signaling, endocardial precursors failed to migrate towards the midline, and the presumptive endocardium surrounded the bilaterally-located myocardial cells rather than being encompassed by them. In vivo imaging of control embryos revealed that, like their myocardial counterparts, endocardial precursors migrated with the converging endoderm, though from a more anterior point, then moved from the dorsal to the ventral side of the endoderm (subduction), and finally migrated posteriorly towards myocardial precursors, ultimately forming the inner layer of the heart tube. In embryos defective for endoderm convergence due to an S1pr2/Gα13 deficiency, both the medial migration and the subduction of endocardial precursors were impaired, and their posterior migration towards the myocardial precursors was premature. This placed them medial to the myocardial populations, physically blocking the medial migration of the myocardial precursors. Furthermore, contact between the endocardial and myocardial precursor populations disrupted the epithelial architecture of the myocardial precursors, and thus their medial migration; in embryos depleted of endocardial cells, the myocardial migration defect was partially rescued. Our data indicate that endoderm convergence regulates the medial migration of endocardial precursors, and that premature association of the endocardial and myocardial populations contributes to myocardial migration defects observed in S1pr2/Gα13-deficient embryos. The demonstration that endoderm convergence regulates the synchronized

  6. Endocardial to myocardial notch-wnt-bmp axis regulates early heart valve development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidong Wang

    Full Text Available Endocardial to mesenchymal transformation (EMT is a fundamental cellular process required for heart valve formation. Notch, Wnt and Bmp pathways are known to regulate this process. To further address how these pathways coordinate in the process, we specifically disrupted Notch1 or Jagged1 in the endocardium of mouse embryonic hearts and showed that Jagged1-Notch1 signaling in the endocardium is essential for EMT and early valvular cushion formation. qPCR and RNA in situ hybridization assays reveal that endocardial Jagged1-Notch1 signaling regulates Wnt4 expression in the atrioventricular canal (AVC endocardium and Bmp2 in the AVC myocardium. Whole embryo cultures treated with Wnt4 or Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1 show that Bmp2 expression in the AVC myocardium is dependent on Wnt activity; Wnt4 also reinstates Bmp2 expression in the AVC myocardium of endocardial Notch1 null embryos. Furthermore, while both Wnt4 and Bmp2 rescue the defective EMT resulting from Notch inhibition, Wnt4 requires Bmp for its action. These results demonstrate that Jagged1-Notch1 signaling in endocardial cells induces the expression of Wnt4, which subsequently acts as a paracrine factor to upregulate Bmp2 expression in the adjacent AVC myocardium to signal EMT.

  7. Evaluation of optical flow algorithms for tracking endocardial surfaces on three-dimensional ultrasound data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qi; Angelini, Elsa D.; Herz, Susan L.; Ingrassia, Christopher M.; Gerard, Olivier; Costa, Kevin D.; Holmes, Jeffrey W.; Laine, Andrew F.

    2005-04-01

    With relatively high frame rates and the ability to acquire volume data sets with a stationary transducer, 3D ultrasound systems, based on matrix phased array transducers, provide valuable three-dimensional information, from which quantitative measures of cardiac function can be extracted. Such analyses require segmentation and visual tracking of the left ventricular endocardial border. Due to the large size of the volumetric data sets, manual tracing of the endocardial border is tedious and impractical for clinical applications. Therefore the development of automatic methods for tracking three-dimensional endocardial motion is essential. In this study, we evaluate a four-dimensional optical flow motion tracking algorithm to determine its capability to follow the endocardial border in three dimensional ultrasound data through time. The four-dimensional optical flow method was implemented using three-dimensional correlation. We tested the algorithm on an experimental open-chest dog data set and a clinical data set acquired with a Philips' iE33 three-dimensional ultrasound machine. Initialized with left ventricular endocardial data points obtained from manual tracing at end-diastole, the algorithm automatically tracked these points frame by frame through the whole cardiac cycle. A finite element surface was fitted through the data points obtained by both optical flow tracking and manual tracing by an experienced observer for quantitative comparison of the results. Parameterization of the finite element surfaces was performed and maps displaying relative differences between the manual and semi-automatic methods were compared. The results showed good consistency between manual tracing and optical flow estimation on 73% of the entire surface with fewer than 10% difference. In addition, the optical flow motion tracking algorithm greatly reduced processing time (about 94% reduction compared to human involvement per cardiac cycle) for analyzing cardiac function in three

  8. Effect of circumferential wave number on stability of suspension flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Feng-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The linear stability analysis is carried out for the suspension flow of spherical particles between a rotating inner cylinder and a stationary concentric outer cylinder. The mass conservation equation and Navier-Stokes equation are applied to the continuous fluid phase and the particle phase. Results of stability analysis show that the increase of wave number in the circumferential direction attenuates the effect of the axial wave number on the amplification factor. The ratio of particle density to fluid density increasing above 0.1 amplifies the flow instability, while it can be weakened with higher circumferential direction wave number. Effect of the critical Taylor number on the amplification factor is reduced by increasing the circumferential direction wave number. The flow stability is affected by the geometry of flow field (the radius ratio at non-zero circumferential direction wave numbers.

  9. Influence of monocytes and antibiotic treatment on tissue factor activity of endocardial vegetations in rabbits infected with Streptococcus sanguis.

    OpenAIRE

    Bancsi, M J; Veltrop, M H; Bertina, R M; Thompson, J

    1996-01-01

    A main feature in the pathogenesis of bacterial endocarditis is the activation of the coagulation system via the extrinsic pathway, resulting in the formation of infected endocardial vegetations. Earlier studies gave indirect evidence that monocytes play an important role in the procoagulant response during the course of the disease. In this study, we assessed the role of monocytes more directly. We compared weights and tissue factor activities (TFA) of endocardial vegetations of normal rabbi...

  10. An optically coupled system for quantitative monitoring of MRI gradient currents induced into endocardial leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, E; Calcagnini, G; Triventi, M; Delogu, A; Del Guercio, M; Angeloni, A; Bartolini, P

    2013-01-01

    The time-varying gradient fields generated during Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) procedures have the potential to induce electrical current on implanted endocardial leads. Whether this current can result in undesired cardiac stimulation is unknown. This paper presents an optically coupled system with the potential to quantitatively measure the currents induced by the gradient fields into endocardial leads during MRI procedures. Our system is based on a microcontroller that works as analog-to-digital (A/D) converter and sends the current signal acquired from the lead to an optical high-speed light-emitting-diode transmitter. Plastic fiber guides the light outside the MRI chamber, to a photodiode receiver and then to an acquisition board connected to a PC. The preliminary characterization of the performances of the system is also presented. PMID:24110209

  11. Structural and leakage integrity of tubes affected by circumferential cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernalsteen, P. [TRACTEBEL, Brussels (Belgium)

    1997-02-01

    In this paper the author deals with the notion that circumferential cracks are generally considered unacceptable. He argues for the need to differentiate two facets of such cracks: the issue of the size and growth rate of a crack; and the issue of the structural strength and leakage potential of the tube in the presence of the crack. In this paper the author tries to show that the second point is not a major concern for such cracks. The paper presents data on the structural strength or burst pressure characteristics of steam generator tubes derived from models and data bases of experimental work. He also presents a leak rate model, and compares the performance of circumferential and axial cracks as far as burst strength and leak rate. The final conclusion is that subject to improvement in NDE capabilities (sizing, detection, growth), that Steam Generator Defect Specific Management can be used to allow circumferentially degraded tubes to remain in service.

  12. Circumferential gap propagation in an anisotropic elastic bacterial sacculus

    CERN Document Server

    Taneja, Swadhin; Rutenberg, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    We have modelled stress concentration around small gaps in anisotropic elastic sheets, corresponding to the peptidoglycan sacculus of bacterial cells, under loading corresponding to the effects of turgor pressure in rod-shaped bacteria. We find that under normal conditions the stress concentration is insufficient to mechanically rupture bacteria, even for gaps up to a micron in length. We then explored the effects of stress-dependent smart-autolysins, as hypothesised by Arthur L Koch [Advances in Microbial Physiology 24, 301 (1983); Research in Microbiology 141, 529 (1990)]. We show that the measured anisotropic elasticity of the PG sacculus can lead to stable circumferential propagation of small gaps in the sacculus. This is consistent with the recent observation of circumferential propagation of PG-associated MreB patches in rod-shaped bacteria. We also find a bistable regime of both circumferential and axial gap propagation, which agrees with behavior reported in cytoskeletal mutants of B. subtilis. We con...

  13. Circumferential fusion improves outcome in comparison with instrumented posterolateral fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbaek, Tina S; Christensen, Finn B; Soegaard, Rikke;

    2006-01-01

    -36 instrument, and the Low Back Pain Rating Scale. All measures assessed the endpoint outcomes at 5 to 9 years after surgery. RESULTS: The available response rate was 93%. The circumferential group showed a significantly better improvement (P ...STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomized clinical study with a 5- to 9-year follow-up period. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to analyze the long-term outcome with respect to functional disability, pain, and general health of patients treated by means of circumferential lumbar fusion...... fusion (titanium Cotrel-Dubousset) or circumferential lumbar fusion (instrumented posterolateral fusion with anterior intervertebral support by a Brantigan cage). The primary outcome measure was the Dallas Pain Questionnaire (DPQ). The secondary outcome measures were the Oswestry Disability Index, the SF...

  14. GUIDED CIRCUMFERENTIAL WAVES IN DOUBLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A model of guided circumferential waves propagating in double-walled carbon nanotubes is built by the theory of wave propagation in continuum mechanics, while the van der Waals force between the inner and outer nanotube has been taken into account in the model. The dispersion curves of the guided circumferential wave propagation are studied, and some dispersion characteristics are illustrated by comparing with those of single-walled carbon nanotubes. It is found that in double-walled carbon nanotubes, the guided circumferential waves will propagate in more dispersive ways. More interactions between neighboring wave modes may take place. In particular, it has been found that a couple of wave modes may disappear at a certain frequency and that, while a couple of wave modes disappear, another new couple of wave modes are excited at the same wave number.

  15. A Critical Appraisal of Circumferential Resection Margins in Esophageal Carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pultrum, Bareld B.; Honing, Judith; Smit, Justin K.; van Dullemen, Hendrik M.; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Groen, Henk; Hollema, Harry; Plukker, John Th. M.

    2010-01-01

    In esophageal cancer, circumferential resection margins (CRMs) are considered to be of relevant prognostic value, but a reliable definition of tumor-free CRM is still unclear. The aim of this study was to appraise the clinical prognostic value of microscopic CRM involvement and to determine the opti

  16. Ultransonic circumferential waves in empty and water- filled tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing

    Ultrasonic waves propagating in the circumference of elastic isotropic cylindrical shells are theoretically and experimentally studied. Dispersion relations of different circumferential modes, including the SH-type and Lamb-type families, are obtained by solving the wave equations numerically. Asymptotic solutions are also given for the SH-like modes. Various technologies are applied for generating and detecting the circumferential waves. In particular, a new approach is developed for experimental determination of the dispersion of the circumferential waves in cylindrical shells. With a chirp interdigital transducer (IDT) as a broadband transmitter and receiver made on a stainless steel tube coated with piezoelectric film, both the group and phase velocities of the circumferential waves are obtained over a wide frequency range, which covers the most sensitive region of the lowest flexural mode. Other transduction approaches are also used as complementary tools in the experiments. Experiments are carried out on both empty and fluid- loaded cylindrical shells at different frequencies. With the specially developed experimental configuration, propagation of a new flexural wave type in a water-filled tube is observed. Mode conversions are also observed between the A 0 mode in the shell and the compressional waves in the water. The results show good application potentials in liquid level sensing.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging characterization of circumferential and longitudinal strain under various coronary interventions in swine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed; SA; Suhail; Mark; W; Wilson; Steven; W; Hetts; Maythem; Saeed

    2013-01-01

    AIM:To compare the acute changes in circumferential and longitudinal strain after exposing a coronary artery to various interventions in swine.METHODS:Percutaneous balloon angioplasty catheter was guided to location aid device(LAD)under X-ray fluoroscopy to create different patterns of ischemic insults.Pigs(n=32)were equally divided into 4 groups:controls,90 min LAD occlusion/reperfusion,LAD microembolization,and combined LAD occlusion/microembolization/reperfusion.Three days after interventions,cine,tagged and viability magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)were acquired to measure and compare left and right circumferential strain,longitudinal strain and myocardial viability,respectively.Measurements were obtained using HARP and semi-automated threshold method and statistically analyzed using unpaired t-test.Myocardial and vascular damage was characterized microscopically.RESULTS:Coronary microemboli caused greater impairment in l left ventricular(LV)circumferential strain and dyssynchrony than LAD occlusion/reperfusion despite the significant difference in the extent of myocardial damage.Microemboli also caused significant decrease in peak systolic strain rate of remote myocardium and LV dyssynchrony.Cine MRI demonstrated the interaction between LV and right ventricular(RV)at 3 d after interventions.Compensatory increase in RV free wall longitudinal strain was seen in response to all interventions.Viability MRI,histochemical staining and microscopy revealed different patterns of myocardial damage and microvascular obstruction.CONCLUSION:Cine MRI revealed subtle changes in LV strain caused by various ischemic insults.It also demonstrated the interaction between the right and left ventricles after coronary interventions.Coronary microemboli with and without acute myocardial infarction(AMI)cause complex myocardial injury and ventricular dysfunction that is not replicated in solely AMI.

  18. Status of the steam generator tube circumferential ODSCC degradation experienced at the Doel 4 plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel, G. [AIB-Vincotte Nuclear, Brussels (Belgium)

    1997-02-01

    Since the 1991 outage, the Doel Unit 4 nuclear power plant is known to be affected by circumferential outside diameter intergranular stress corrosion cracking at the hot leg tube expansion transition. Extensive non destructive examination inspections have shown the number of tubes affected by this problem as well as the size of the cracks to have been increasing for the three cycles up to 1993. As a result of the high percentage of tubes found non acceptable for continued service after the 1993 in-service inspection, about 1,700 mechanical sleeves were installed in the steam generators. During the 1994 outage, all the tubes sleeved during the 1993 outage were considered as potentially cracked to some extent at the upper hydraulic transition and were therefore not acceptable for continued service. They were subsequently repaired by laser welding. Furthermore all the tubes not sleeved during the 1993 outage were considered as not acceptable for continued service and were repaired by installing laser welded sleeves. During the 1995 outage, some unexpected degradation phenomena were evidenced in the sleeved tubes. This paper summarizes the status of the circumferential ODSCC experienced in the SG tubes of the Doel 4 plant as well as the other connected degradation phenomena.

  19. Circumferential wires as a supplement to intramedullary nailing in unstable trochanteric hip fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Birkelund, Lasse; Palm, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    Fixation of unstable trochanteric fractures is challenging. Application of a circumferential wire may facilitate bone contact and avoid postoperative fracture displacement. However, the use of circumferential wires remains controversial due to possible disturbance of the blood supply to the under...

  20. Retinoic Acid Signaling Is Essential for Valvulogenesis by Affecting Endocardial Cushions Formation in Zebrafish Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junbo; Yue, Yunyun; Zhao, Qingshun

    2016-02-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) plays important roles in many stages of heart morphogenesis. Zebrafish embryos treated with exogenous RA display defective atrio-ventricular canal (AVC) specification. However, whether endogenous RA signaling takes part in cardiac valve formation remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the role of RA signaling in cardiac valve development by knocking down aldh1a2, the gene encoding an enzyme that is mainly responsible for RA synthesis during early development, in zebrafish embryos. The results showed that partially knocking down aldh1a2 caused defective formation of primitive cardiac valve leaflets at 108 hpf (hour post-fertilization). Inhibiting endogenous RA signaling by 4-diethylaminobenzal-dehyde revealed that 16-26 hpf was a key time window when RA signaling affects the valvulogenesis. The aldh1a2 morphants had defective formation of endocardial cushion (EC) at 76 hpf though they had almost normal hemodynamics and cardiac chamber specification at early development. Examining the expression patterns of AVC marker genes including bmp4, bmp2b, nppa, notch1b, and has2, we found the morphants displayed abnormal development of endocardial AVC but almost normal development of myocardial AVC at 50 hpf. Being consistent with the reduced expression of notch1b in endocardial AVC, the VE-cadherin gene cdh5, the downstream gene of Notch signaling, was ectopically expressed in AVC of aldh1a2 morphants at 50 hpf, and overexpression of cdh5 greatly affected the formation of EC in the embryos at 76 hpf. Taken together, our results suggest that RA signaling plays essential roles in zebrafish cardiac valvulogenesis.

  1. Single-beat noninvasive imaging of ventricular endocardial and epicardial activation in patients undergoing CRT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Berger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT on endo- and epicardial ventricular activation. Noninvasive imaging of cardiac electrophysiology (NICE is a novel imaging tool for visualization of both epi- and endocardial ventricular electrical activation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: NICE was performed in ten patients with congestive heart failure (CHF undergoing CRT and in ten patients without structural heart disease (control group. NICE is a fusion of data from high-resolution ECG mapping with a model of the patient's individual cardiothoracic anatomy created from magnetic resonance imaging. Beat-to-beat endocardial and epicardial ventricular activation sequences were computed during native rhythm as well as during ventricular pacing using a bidomain theory-based heart model to solve the related inverse problem. During right ventricular (RV pacing control patients showed a deterioration of the ventricular activation sequence similar to the intrinsic activation pattern of CHF patients. Left ventricular propagation velocities were significantly decreased in CHF patients as compared to the control group (1.6±0.4 versus 2.1±0.5 m/sec; p<0.05. CHF patients showed right-to-left septal activation with the latest activation epicardially in the lateral wall of the left ventricle. Biventricular pacing resulted in a resynchronization of the ventricular activation sequence and in a marked decrease of total LV activation duration as compared to intrinsic conduction and RV pacing (129±16 versus 157±28 and 173±25 ms; both p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Endocardial and epicardial ventricular activation can be visualized noninvasively by NICE. Identification of individual ventricular activation properties may help identify responders to CRT and to further improve response to CRT by facilitating a patient-specific lead placement and device programming.

  2. Circumferential buckling instability of a growing cylindrical tube

    KAUST Repository

    Moulton, D.E.

    2011-03-01

    A cylindrical elastic tube under uniform radial external pressure will buckle circumferentially to a non-circular cross-section at a critical pressure. The buckling represents an instability of the inner or outer edge of the tube. This is a common phenomenon in biological tissues, where it is referred to as mucosal folding. Here, we investigate this buckling instability in a growing elastic tube. A change in thickness due to growth can have a dramatic impact on circumferential buckling, both in the critical pressure and the buckling pattern. We consider both single- and bi-layer tubes and multiple boundary conditions. We highlight the competition between geometric effects, i.e. the change in tube dimensions, and mechanical effects, i.e. the effect of residual stress, due to differential growth. This competition can lead to non-intuitive results, such as a tube growing to be thinner and yet buckle at a higher pressure. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characteristics and identification of sites of chagasic ventricular tachycardia by endocardial mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Távora Maria Zildany P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study electrophysiological characteristics that enable the identification and ablation of sites of chagasic tachycardia. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with chronic Chagas' heart disease and sustained ventricular tachycardia (SVT underwent electrophysiological study to map and ablate that arrhythmia. Fifteen patients had hemodinamically stable SVT reproducible by programmed ventricular stimulation, 9 men and 6 women with ages ranging from 37 to 67 years and ejection fraction varying from 0.17 to 0.64. Endocardial mapping was performed during SVT in all patients. Radiofrequency (RF current was applied to sites of presystolic activity of at least 30 ms. Entrainment was used to identify reentrant circuits. In both successful and unsuccessful sites of RF current application, electrogram and entrainment were analyzed. RESULTS: Entrainment was obtained during all mapped SVT. In 70.5% of the sites we observed concealed entrainment and ventricular tachycardia termination in the first 15 seconds of RF current application. In the unsuccessful sites, significantly earlier electrical activity was seen than in the successful ones. Concealed entrainment was significantly associated with ventricular tachycardia termination. Bystander areas were not observed. CONCLUSION: The reentrant mechanism was responsible for the genesis of all tachycardias. In 70.5% of the studied sites, the endocardial participation of the slow conducting zone of reentrant circuits was shown. Concealed entrainment was the main electrophysiological parameter associated with successful RF current application. There was no electrophysiological evidence of bystander regions in the mapped circuits of SVT.

  4. Analysis of endocardial acceleration during intraoperative optimization of cardiac resynchronization therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Alfredo I.; Ziglio, Filippo; Amblard, Amel; Senhadji, Lotfi; Leclercq, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is the therapy of choice for selected patients suffering from drug-refractory congestive heart failure and presenting an interventricular desynchronization. CRT is delivered by an implantable biventricular pacemaker, which stimulates the right atrium and both ventricles at specific timings. The optimization and personalization of this therapy requires to quantify both the electrical and the mechanical cardiac functions during the intraoperative and postoperative phases. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the feasibility of the calculation of features extracted from endocardial acceleration (EA) signals and the potential utility of these features for the intraoperative optimization of CRT. Endocardial intraoperative data from one patient are analyzed for 33 different pacing configurations, including changes in the atrio-ventricular and inter-ventricular delays and different ventricular stimulation sites. The main EA features are extracted for each pacing configuration and analyzed so as to estimate the intra-configuration and inter-configuration variability. Results show the feasibility of the proposed approach and suggest the potential utility of EA for intraoperative monitoring of the cardiac function and defining optimal, adaptive pacing configurations. PMID:24111356

  5. Epicardial and endocardial mapping determine most successful site of ablation for ventricular tachyarrhythmias originating from left ventricular summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Kenichi; Chinushi, Masaomi; Furushima, Hiroshi; Aizawa, Yoshifusa

    2012-06-01

    A 34-year-old woman presented with idiopathic premature ventricular complex (PVC) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) originating from the area called the left ventricular summit. Radiofrequency (RF) application both through the coronary sinus and to the epicardial surface transiently suppressed the VT/PVC. Radiofrequency with sufficient energy was only applicable from the endocardial site, and the VT/PVC was successfully eliminated.

  6. Comparison of longevity, paging, and sensing characteristics of steroid-eluting epicardial versus conventional endocardial pacing leads in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaufort-Krol, GCM; Mulder, H; Nagelkerke, D; Waterbolk, TW; Bink-Boelkens, MTE

    1999-01-01

    Objective: Because of either cardiac anatomy or small size, pacing in children often occurs by means of epicardial leads. The disadvantage of epicardial leads is the shorter longevity of these leads compared with endocardial leads. During short-term follow-up, improved stimulation thresholds were fo

  7. Range_Extent_15

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The GIS layer "Range_extent_15" is a simple polyline representing the geographic distribution of the southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) in mainland...

  8. Automatic generation of endocardial surface meshes with 1-to-1 correspondence from cine-MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi; Teo, S.-K.; Lim, C. W.; Zhong, L.; Tan, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we develop an automatic method to generate a set of 4D 1-to-1 corresponding surface meshes of the left ventricle (LV) endocardial surface which are motion registered over the whole cardiac cycle. These 4D meshes have 1- to-1 point correspondence over the entire set, and is suitable for advanced computational processing, such as shape analysis, motion analysis and finite element modelling. The inputs to the method are the set of 3D LV endocardial surface meshes of the different frames/phases of the cardiac cycle. Each of these meshes is reconstructed independently from border-delineated MR images and they have no correspondence in terms of number of vertices/points and mesh connectivity. To generate point correspondence, the first frame of the LV mesh model is used as a template to be matched to the shape of the meshes in the subsequent phases. There are two stages in the mesh correspondence process: (1) a coarse matching phase, and (2) a fine matching phase. In the coarse matching phase, an initial rough matching between the template and the target is achieved using a radial basis function (RBF) morphing process. The feature points on the template and target meshes are automatically identified using a 16-segment nomenclature of the LV. In the fine matching phase, a progressive mesh projection process is used to conform the rough estimate to fit the exact shape of the target. In addition, an optimization-based smoothing process is used to achieve superior mesh quality and continuous point motion.

  9. Estimation of circumferential fiber shortening velocity by echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschhaupt, D G; Sodt, P C; Hutcheon, N A; Arcilla, R A

    1983-07-01

    The M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiograms of 40 young patients were analyzed to compare the mean circumferential fiber shortening velocity (Vcf) of the left ventricle calculated separately by two methods. The mean circumferential fiber shortening velocity was derived from the M-mode echocardiogram as minor axis shortening/ejection time and derived from the two-dimensional echocardiogram as actual circumference change/ejection time. With computer assistance, circumference was determined from the short-axis two-dimensional echocardiographic images during end-diastole and end-systole. Good correlations were obtained between the left ventricular diameter derived by M-mode echocardiography and the vertical axis during end-diastole (r = 0.79) and end-systole (r = 0.88) derived by two-dimensional echocardiography. Likewise, high correlations were noted between diameter and circumference in end-diastole (r = 0.89) and end-systole (r = 0.88). However, comparison of Vcf obtained by M-mode echocardiography with that obtained by two-dimensional echocardiography showed only fair correlation (r = 0.68). Moreover, the diameter/circumference ratio determined in end-diastole and end-systole differed significantly (p less than 0.001), possibly owing to the change in geometry of the ventricular sector image during systole. Although Vcf derived by M-mode echocardiography is a useful index of left ventricular performance, it does not truly reflect the circumference change during systole.

  10. Detection of a longitudinal defect in a pipe based on guided circumferential waves techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Longtao; HE Cunfu; WU Bin

    2005-01-01

    Based on elasticity theory, the multi-modes and disperse characteristics of guided circumferential waves in a pipe were investigated theoretically and experimentally, the disperse curves of guided circumferential waves were gotten by numerical calculations. The relationships between the angle of beam transducer, frequency and guided circumferential modes were analyzed by our guided wave experiment system. Then single guided circumferential mode was excited in the pipe (O.D 88.8 mm, I.D 80.8 mm). An artificial longitudinal defect (25 × 1 × 0.7 mm)on the surface of the pipe was detected by use of the single guided circumferential wave. The results show that single guided circumferential mode can be excited in the pipe by choosing special frequency and special angle beam transducer, similar to the excitation of Lamb wave in a plate, and it can be used to find the longitudinal defect on a pipe surface.

  11. Characterization of mechanical and geometrical properties of a tube with axial and circumferential guided waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Cheng-Hung; Yang, Che-Hua

    2011-05-01

    Guided waves propagating in cylindrical tubes are frequently applied for the characterization of material or geometrical properties of tubes. In a tube, guided waves can propagate in the axial direction and called axial guided waves, or in the circumferential direction called circumferential guided waves. Dispersion spectra for the axial and circumferential guided waves share some common behaviors and however exhibit some particular behaviors of their own. This study provides an investigation with theoretical modeling, experimental measurements, and a simplex-based inversion procedure to explore the similarity and difference between the axial guided waves and circumferential guided waves, aiming at providing useful information while axial and circumferential guided waves are applied in the area of material characterization. The sensitivity to the radius curvature for the circumferential guided waves dispersion spectra is a major point that makes circumferential guided waves different from axial guided waves. For the purpose of material characterization, both axial and circumferential guided waves are able to extract an elastic moduli and wall-thickness information from the dispersion spectra, however, radius information can only be extracted from the circumferential guided waves spectra. PMID:21211810

  12. In-treatment midwall and endocardial fractional shortening predict cardiovascular outcome in hypertensive patients with preserved baseline systolic ventricular function: the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, Kristian; Gerdts, Eva; Palmieri, Vittorio;

    2010-01-01

    Endocardial fractional shortening (EFS) and midwall shortening (MWS) are impaired in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. However, it remains unknown whether improvement of left ventricular systolic function during treatment reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive pa...

  13. Transverse shear effect in a circumferentially cracked cylindrical shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.

    1979-01-01

    The objectives of the paper are to solve the problem of a circumferentially-cracked cylindrical shell by taking into account the effect of transverse shear, and to obtain the stress intensity factors for the bending moment as well as the membrane force as the external load. The formulation of the problem is given for a specially orthotropic material within the framework of a linearized shallow shell theory. The particular theory used permits the consideration of all five boundary conditions as to moment and stress resultants on the crack surface. The effect of Poisson's ratio on the stress intensity factors and the nature of the out-of-plane displacement along the edges of the crack, i.e., bulging, are also studied.

  14. Transient thermal stress problem for a circumferentially cracked hollow cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nied, H. F.; Erdogan, F.

    1982-01-01

    The transient thermal stress problem for a hollow elasticity cylinder containing an internal circumferential edge crack is considered. It is assumed that the problem is axisymmetric with regard to the crack geometry and the loading, and that the inertia effects are negligible. The problem is solved for a cylinder which is suddenly cooled from inside. First the transient temperature and stress distributions in an uncracked cylinder are calculated. By using the equal and opposite of this thermal stress as the crack surface traction in the isothermal cylinder the crack problem is then solved and the stress intensity factor is calculated. The numerical results are obtained as a function of the Fourier number tD/b(2) representing the time for various inner-to-outer radius ratios and relative crack depths, where D and b are respectively the coefficient of diffusivity and the outer radius of the cylinder.

  15. Accurate wall thickness measurement using autointerference of circumferential Lamb wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a method of accurately measuring the pipe wall thickness by using noncontact air-coupled ultrasonic transducer (NAUT) was presented. In this method, accurate measurement of angular wave number (AWN) is a key technique because the AWN is changes minutely with the wall thickness. An autointerference of the circumferential (C-) Lamb wave was used for accurate measurements of the AWN. Principle of the method was first explained. Modified method for measuring the wall thickness near a butt weld line was also proposed and its accuracy was evaluated within 6 μm error. It was also shown in the paper that wall thickness measurement was accurately carried out beyond the difference among the sensors by calibrating the frequency response of the sensors. (author)

  16. Downscaling of inundation extents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, Filipe; Prigent, Catherine; Papa, Fabrice

    2014-05-01

    The Global Inundation Extent from Multi-Satellite (GIEMS) provides multi-year monthly variations of the global surface water extent at about 25 kmx25 km resolution, from 1993 to 2007. It is derived from multiple satellite observations. Its spatial resolution is usually compatible with climate model outputs and with global land surface model grids but is clearly not adequate for local applications that require the characterization of small individual water bodies. There is today a strong demand for high-resolution inundation extent datasets, for a large variety of applications such as water management, regional hydrological modeling, or for the analysis of mosquitos-related diseases. This paper present three approaches to do downscale GIEMS: The first one is based on a image-processing technique using neighborhood constraints. The third approach uses a PCA representation to perform an algebraic inversion. The PCA-representation is also very convenient to perform temporal and spatial interpolation of complexe inundation fields. The third downscaling method uses topography information from Hydroshed Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Information such as the elevation, distance to river and flow accumulation are used to define a ``flood ability index'' that is used by the downscaling. Three basins will be considered for illustrative purposes: Amazon, Niger and Mekong. Aires, F., F. Papa, C. Prigent, J.-F. Cretaux and M. Berge-Nguyen, Characterization and downscaling of the inundation extent over the Inner Niger delta using a multi-wavelength retrievals and Modis data, J. of Hydrometeorology, in press, 2014. Aires, F., F. Papa and C. Prigent, A long-term, high-resolution wetland dataset over the Amazon basin, downscaled from a multi-wavelength retrieval using SAR, J. of Hydrometeorology, 14, 594-6007, 2013. Prigent, C., F. Papa, F. Aires, C. Jimenez, W.B. Rossow, and E. Matthews. Changes in land surface water dynamics since the 1990s and relation to population pressure

  17. Qualitative and quantitative effects of harmonic echocardiographic imaging on endocardial edge definition and side-lobe artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D. N.; Yazbek, N.; Garcia, M. J.; Stewart, W. J.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Harmonic imaging is a new ultrasonographic technique that is designed to improve image quality by exploiting the spontaneous generation of higher frequencies as ultrasound propagates through tissue. We studied 51 difficult-to-image patients with blinded side-by-side cineloop evaluation of endocardial border definition by harmonic versus fundamental imaging. In addition, quantitative intensities from cavity versus wall were compared for harmonic versus fundamental imaging. Harmonic imaging improved left ventricular endocardial border delineation over fundamental imaging (superior: harmonic = 71.1%, fundamental = 18.7%; similar: 10.2%; P Quantitative analysis of 100 wall/cavity combinations demonstrated brighter wall segments and more strikingly darker cavities during harmonic imaging (cavity intensity on a 0 to 255 scale: fundamental = 15.6 +/- 8.6; harmonic = 6.0 +/- 5.3; P <.0001), which led to enhanced contrast between the wall and cavity (1.89 versus 1.19, P <.0001). Harmonic imaging reduces side-lobe artifacts, resulting in a darker cavity and brighter walls, thereby improving image contrast and endocardial delineation.

  18. The use of circumferentially varying stagger guide vanes in an axial flow pump or compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlock, J. H.

    1990-04-01

    An actuator disk analysis is given of the flow through a guide vane and rotor combination. It is shown that changes in total pressure across the rotor are, in general, related to circumferential variations in guide vane outlet angle. In particular, known variations in inlet total pressure may be eliminated by suitable circumferential changes in guide vane stagger.

  19. Analysis of circumferential waves on a water-filled cylindrical shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Wei; ZHENG Guoyin; FAN Jun

    2012-01-01

    The formation of scattering field from a water-filled cylindrical shell was studied. The analytic solutions of scattering field are derived using elastic thin shell theory and Sommerfeld-Watson Transformation (SWT) method. Complex wave-number poles of circumferential waves are found numerically, the phase speed and attenuation of circumferential waves between the situation of a hollow cylindrical shell and a water-filled cylindrical shell are compared. The synthesis of backscattering form functions which are sum of specular reflection component and circumferential waves is consistent with normal mode result. The calculated echo sequences of additional fluid circumferential waves are compared with experimental results. The results show that richer resonance peaks appeared in the backscattering form functions of a water-filled cylindrical shell and the formation of echo's structure are due to re-radiation effects of additional fluid circumferential waves.

  20. Fracture behavior of short circumferentially surface-cracked pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnaswamy, P.; Scott, P.; Mohan, R. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    This topical report summarizes the work performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Comniission`s (NRC) research program entitled ``Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds`` that specifically focuses on pipes with short, circumferential surface cracks. The following details are provided in this report: (i) material property deteminations, (ii) pipe fracture experiments, (iii) development, modification and validation of fracture analysis methods, and (iv) impact of this work on the ASME Section XI Flaw Evaluation Procedures. The material properties developed and used in the analysis of the experiments are included in this report and have been implemented into the NRC`s PIFRAC database. Six full-scale pipe experiments were conducted during this program. The analyses methods reported here fall into three categories (i) limit-load approaches, (ii) design criteria, and (iii) elastic-plastic fracture methods. These methods were evaluated by comparing the analytical predictions with experimental data. The results, using 44 pipe experiments from this and other programs, showed that the SC.TNP1 and DPZP analyses were the most accurate in predicting maximum load. New Z-factors were developed using these methods. These are being considered for updating the ASME Section XI criteria.

  1. Exoscope Update: Automated Laser Welding Of Circumferential Tissue Anastomoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Jude S.; McGuire, Kevin P.; Hinshaw, J. Raymond

    1989-09-01

    The speed, accuracy and efficiency of using laser energy to fuse together or weld living tissue makes laser tissue welding one of the most exciting areas of medical research today. Numerous investigators using animal models and several surgeons conducting clinical studies have demonstrated many promising potential applications of laser tissue welding. Accurate tissue positioning and well controlled delivery of laser energy during laser welding are essential for consistently successful laser tissue repairs. Many surgical procedures involve the creation of functional anastomoses, which are patent connections between hollow, tubular tissue structures, like bowel, blood vessels or fallopian tubes. We are developing the Exoscope SystemTM to automate and simplify the production of laser welded end-to-end and end-to-side anastomoses. Any laser light that can be passed through an optical fiber can be used in this system. The Exoscope SystemTM employs a fiber optic Exoscope Device,TM which provides for the precise placement of laser energy onto the abutted tissue seam, and a biocompatible, dissolvable intraluminal PolySurgeTM stent, which holds the tissue in circumferential apposition during lasing. The feasibility of employing the Exoscope SystemTM technique for the construction of rabbit small bowel anastomoses was successfully demonstrated in a Phase I study comparing 30 Exoscope SystemTM laser welded anastomoses to 30 conventional sutured anastomoses.

  2. Effect of strength matching on the reliability of welded pipe with circumferential surface crack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何柏林; 于影霞; 霍立兴; 张玉凤

    2004-01-01

    For different strength matching, the reliability index and failure probability of welded pressure pipe with circumferential surface crack were calculated using three dimensional stochastic finite element method. This method has overcome the shortcomings of conservative results in safety assessment with deterministic fracture mechanics method. The effects of external moment and the depth of the circumferential surface crack (a) on the reliability of pressure pipe were also calculated and discussed. The calculation results indicate that the strength matching has certain effect on the reliability of the welded pressure pipe with circumferential surface crack. The failure probability of welded pressure pipe with high strength matching is lower than that with low strength matching at the same conditions. The effects of strength matching on the failure probability and reliability index increased by adding external moment (M) and the depth of the circumferential surface crack (a).

  3. ISSLS prize winner: cost-effectiveness of two forms of circumferential lumbar fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freeman, Brian J C; Steele, Nicholas A; Sach, Tracey H;

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Economic evaluation alongside a prospective, randomized controlled trial from a secondary care National Health Service (NHS) perspective. OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of titanium cages (TC) compared with femoral ring allografts (FRA) in circumferential lumbar spina...

  4. Circumferential Propagation of Tip Leakage Flow Unsteadiness for a Low-Speed Axial Compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaojuan Geng; Feng Lin; Jingyi Chen; Hongwu Zhang; Lei He

    2009-01-01

    ase shift propagating at about half of rotor rotation speed. Features of the short and long length-scale circum-ferential waves are similar to those of rotating instability and modal wave, respectively.

  5. Variation in circumferential resection margin: Reporting and involvement in the South-Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, J.; Bokkerink, G.M.J.; Aarts, M.J.; Lemmens, V.E.; Lijnschoten, G. van; Rutten, H.J.; Wijsman, J.H.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Wilt, J.H.W. de

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of total mesorectal surgery the outcome of rectal cancer patients has improved significantly. Involvement of the circumferential resection margin (CRM) is an important predictor of increased local recurrence, distant metastases and decreased overall survival. Abdom

  6. Reduced Circumferential Resection Margin Involvement in Rectal Cancer Surgery: Results of the Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gietelink, L.; Wouters, M.W.; Tanis, P.J.; Deken, M.M.; Berge, M.G. Ten; Tollenaar, R.A.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Noo, M.E. de

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The circumferential resection margin (CRM) is a significant prognostic factor for local recurrence, distant metastasis, and survival after rectal cancer surgery. Therefore, availability of this parameter is essential. Although the Dutch total mesorectal excision trial raised awareness ab

  7. Effect of surface contamination on osseointegration of dental implants surrounded by circumferential bone defects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohamed, Seif

    2010-05-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of surface contamination on osseointegration of dental implants surrounded by a circumferential bone defect and to compare osseointegration around Osseotite with that around Nanotite implants.

  8. Soft Sensor for Oxide Scales on the Steam Side of Superheater Tubes under Uneven Circumferential Load

    OpenAIRE

    Qing Wei Li; Gui Huan Yao

    2015-01-01

    A soft sensor for oxide scales on the steam side of superheater tubes of utility boiler under uneven circumferential loading is proposed for the first time. First finite volume method is employed to simulate oxide scales growth temperature on the steam side of superheater tube. Then appropriate time and spatial intervals are selected to calculate oxide scales thickness along the circumferential direction. On the basis of the oxide scale thickness, the stress of oxide scales is calculated by t...

  9. Understanding the link between circumferential dikes and eruptive fissures around calderas based on numerical and analog models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbi, Fabio; Rivalta, Eleonora; Pinel, Virginie; Maccaferri, Francesco; Acocella, Valerio

    2016-06-01

    Active calderas are seldom associated with circumferential eruptive fissures, but eroded magmatic complexes reveal widespread circumferential dikes. This suggests that, while the conditions to emplace circumferential dikes are easily met, mechanisms must prevent them from reaching the surface. We explain this discrepancy with experiments of air injection into gelatin shaped as a volcano with caldera. Analog dikes show variable deflection, depending on the competition between overpressure, Pe, and topographic unloading, Pl; when Pl/Pe = 4.8-5.3, the dikes propagate orthogonal to the least compressive stress. Due to the unloading, they become circumferential and stall below the caldera rim; buoyancy is fundamental for the further rise and circumferential fissure development. Numerical models quantitatively constrain the stress orientation within the gelatin, explaining the observed circumferential dikes. Our results explain how dikes propagate below the rim of felsic and mafic calderas, but only in the latter they are prone to feed circumferential fissures.

  10. Analyses of axial, lateral and circumferential deformations of rock specimen in triaxial compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-bin

    2008-01-01

    The axial, lateral and circumferential strains were analyzed for a rock specimen subjected to shear failure in the form of a shear band bisecting the specimen in triaxial compression. Plastic deformation of the specimen stemmed from shear strain localization initiated at the peak shear stress. Beyond the onset of strain localization, the axial, lateral and circumferential strains were decomposed into two parts, respectively. One is the elas-tic strain described by general Hooke's law. The other is attributable to the plastic shear slips along shear band with a certain thickness dependent on the internal length of rock.The post-peak circumferential strain-axial strain curve of longer specimen is steeper than that of shorter specimen, as is consistent with the previous experiments. In elastic stage,the circumferential strain-axial strain curve exhibits nonlinear characteristic, as is in agreement with the previous experiment since confining pressure is loaded progressively until a certain value is reached. When the confining pressure is loaded completely, the circumferential strain-axial strain curve is linear in elastic and strain-softening stages. The predicted circumferential strain-axial strain curve in elastic and strain- softening stages agrees with the previous experiment.

  11. Encircling endocardial ventriculotomy for refractory ischemic ventricular tachycardia. II. Effects on regional myocardial blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungerleider, R M; Holman, W L; Stanley, T E; Lofland, G K; Williams, J M; Smith, P K; Quick, G; Cox, J L

    1982-06-01

    Previous experimental studies of the encircling endocardial ventriculotomy (EEV) have shown a significant alteration of normal local electrical activity within the encompassed region. Although this procedure may result in isolation of ventricular arrhythmias, the data are more suggestive of a less specific effect on regional myocardial blood flow. This study examines the effect of EEV on local myocardial blood flow using the radioactive tracer microsphere technique in 10 dogs. Flows were determined before and after an EEV with the animals on cardiopulmonary bypass at controlled perfusion pressures, temperatures, and heart rates. Blood flow was studied at subepicardial and subendocardial levels inside, outside, and bordering the EEV. Prior to performance of the EEV, subepicardial blood flow in the left ventricular myocardium ranged from 0.81 +/- 0.07 to 0.89 +/- 0.08 ml/gm/min. Subendocardial flows ranged from 0.80 +/- 0.07 to 0.91 +/- 0.09 ml/gm/min. There was no significant difference between any of the flows across each respective layer of myocardium. Following the EEV procedure, blood flow to the subendocardium within the EEV fell to 0.33 +/- 0.07 ml/gm/min, while flow to the subendocardium of the normal regions of the same hearts actually increased to 1.21 +/- 0.23 ml/gm/min. Similar changes occurred at subepicardial levels, with flow at the center of the EEV falling to 0.66 +/- 0.10 ml/gm/min despite a tendency for normal subepicardial flow to increase to 1.78 +/- 0.24 ml/gm/min. Superimposed ischemia to the EEV-encompassed myocardium, created by occlusion of the distal left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), accentuated this abnormality by demonstrating that the region continues to receive some flow from epicardially based coronary vessels. The data from this study show that the EEV decreased regional blood flow to the encompassed myocardium and suggests that myocardial ischemia may be responsible for ablation of the delicate re-entrant mechanisms

  12. Accelerated circumferential strain quantification of the left ventricle using CIRCOME: simulation and factor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Abbas N.; Finn, J. Paul

    2008-03-01

    Circumferential strain of the left ventricle reflects myocardial contractility and is considered a key index of cardiac function. It is also an important parameter in the quantitative evaluation of heart failure. Circumferential compression encoding, CIRCOME, is a novel method in cardiac MRI to evaluate this strain non-invasively and quickly. This strain encoding technique avoids the explicit measurement of the displacement field and does not require calculation of strain through spatial differentiation. CIRCOME bypasses these two time-consuming and noise sensitive steps by directly using the frequency domain (k-space) information from radially tagged myocardium, before and after deformation. It uses the ring-shaped crown region of the k-space, generated by the taglines, to reconstruct circumferentially compression-weighted images of the heart before and after deformation. CIRCOME then calculates the circumferential strain through relative changes in the compression level of corresponding regions before and after deformation. This technique can be implemented in 3D as well as 2D and may be employed to estimate the overall global or regional circumferential strain. The main parameters that affect the accuracy of this method are spatial resolution, signal to noise ratio, eccentricity of the center of radial taglines their fading and their density. Also, a variety of possible image reconstruction and filtering options may influence the accuracy of the method. This study describes the pulse sequence, algorithm, influencing factors and limiting criteria for CIRCOME and provides the simulated results.

  13. Numerical investigation of a centrifugal compressor with circumferential grooves in vane diffuser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. F.; Qin, G. L.; Ai, Z. J.

    2015-08-01

    Enhancing stall and surge margin has a great importance for the development of turbo compressors. The application of casing treatment is an effective measure to expand the stall margin and stable operation range. Numerical investigations were conducted to predict the performance of a low flow rate centrifugal compressor with circumferential groove casing treatment in vane diffuser. Numerical cases with different radial location, radial width and axial depth of a circumferential single groove and different numbers of circumferential grooves were carried out to compare the results. The CFD analyses results show that the centrifugal compressor with circumferential grooves in diffuser can extend stable range by about 9% while the efficiency over the whole operating range decreases by 0.2 to 1.7%. The evaluation based on stall margin improvement showed the optimal position for the groove to be located was indicated to exist near the leading edge of the diffuser, and a combination of position, width, depth and numbers of circumferential grooves that will maximize both surge margin range and efficiency.

  14. Circumferential myocardial strain in cardiomyopathy with and without left bundle branch block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimetbaum Peter J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT has been shown to decrease mortality in 60-70% of advanced heart failure patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB and QRS duration > 120 ms. There have been intense efforts to find reproducible non-invasive parameters to predict CRT response. We hypothesized that different left ventricular contraction patterns may exist in LBBB patients with depressed systolic function and applied tagged cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR to assess circumferential strain in this population. Methods We determined myocardial circumferential strain at the basal, mid, and apical ventricular level in 35 subjects (10 with ischemic cardiomyopathy, 15 with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, and 10 healthy controls. Patterns of circumferential strain were analyzed. Time to peak systolic circumferential strain in each of the 6 segments in all three ventricular slices and the standard deviation of time to peak strain in the basal and mid ventricular slices were determined. Results Dyskinesis of the anterior septum and the inferior septum in at least two ventricular levels was seen in 50% (5 out of 10 of LBBB patients while 30% had isolated dyskinesis of the anteroseptum, and 20% had no dyskinesis in any segments, similar to all of the non-LBBB patients and healthy controls. Peak circumferential strain shortening was significantly reduced in all cardiomyopathy patients at the mid-ventricular level (LBBB 9 ± 6%, non-LBBB 10 ± 4% vs. healthy 19 ± 4%; both p Conclusions Septal dyskinesis exists in some patients with LBBB. Myocardial circumferential strain analysis enables detailed characterization of contraction patterns, strengths, and timing in cardiomyopathy patients with and without LBBB.

  15. A study on nondestructive evaluation techniques for composite motors cases using circumferential waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For structural integrity evaluation of composite rocket motor cases, acoustic emission (AE) during hydroproof test is currently used. For the suitable performance of this test, it is very important to determine the optimal component of elastic waves to be monitored. In this study, the optimal component of circumferential wave that propagate in the circumferential direction of the composite motor case has been determined experimentally. Then its potential to be served as a robust tool for nondestructive evaluation of composite motor cases was demonstrated by investigating the initial performances for flaw detection and AE source location.

  16. An analysis of the Circumferential Grooves Casing Treatment for transonic compressor flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The stall mechanism of the NASA Rotor 37 is investigated through the analysis of the critical flow structures near the stall under the transonic condition. The performance of the rotor with Circumferential Grooves Casing Treatment (CGCT) is also studied based on the Reynolds-Averaging Navier-Stokes approach. The study finds that stall margin improvement can be achieved without significant penalty on the efficiency for the two CGCT configurations applied. The effects of circumferential grooves on the critical flow structures are studied through the analysis of the tip leakage mass and momentum transport that further re-veal the CGCT mechanism.

  17. Molecular Modeling of the Axial and Circumferential Elastic Moduli of Tubulin

    OpenAIRE

    Zeiger, A. S.; Layton, B. E.

    2008-01-01

    Microtubules play a number of important mechanical roles in almost all cell types in nearly all major phylogenetic trees. We have used a molecular mechanics approach to perform tensile tests on individual tubulin monomers and determined values for the axial and circumferential moduli for all currently known complete sequences. The axial elastic moduli, in vacuo, were found to be 1.25 GPa and 1.34 GPa for α- and β-bovine tubulin monomers. In the circumferential direction, these moduli were 378...

  18. Determination of the minimum number exposures in radiographic examination of circumferential welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain specifications require that, in the radiography of circumferential welds, the penetrated thickness at the side of the beam should not exceed the wall thickness by more than a given percentage. A mathematical solution is presented, which shows the minimum number of exposures in accurate and easy-to-read diagrams suitable for use by field radiographers. (orig.)

  19. 46 CFR 52.05-45 - Circumferential joints in pipes, tubes and headers (modifies PW-41).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., tubes and headers shall be as required by PW-41 of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circumferential joints in pipes, tubes and headers...) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Requirements for Boilers Fabricated by Welding §...

  20. Circumferential optical coherence tomography angiography imaging of the swine esophagus using a micromotor balloon catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Ahsen, Osman Oguz; Liang, Kaicheng; Wang, Zhao; Cleveland, Cody; Booth, Lucas; Potsaid, Benjamin; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Cable, Alex E; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Langer, Robert; Traverso, Giovanni; Fujimoto, James G

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate a micromotor balloon imaging catheter for ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) which provides wide area, circumferential structural and angiographic imaging of the esophagus without contrast agents. Using a 1310 nm MEMS tunable wavelength swept VCSEL light source, the system has a 1.2 MHz A-scan rate and ~8.5 µm axial resolution in tissue. The micromotor balloon catheter enables circumferential imaging of the esophagus at 240 frames per second (fps) with a ~30 µm (FWHM) spot size. Volumetric imaging is achieved by proximal pullback of the micromotor assembly within the balloon at 1.5 mm/sec. Volumetric data consisting of 4200 circumferential images of 5,000 A-scans each over a 2.6 cm length, covering a ~13 cm(2) area is acquired in <18 seconds. A non-rigid image registration algorithm is used to suppress motion artifacts from non-uniform rotational distortion (NURD), cardiac motion or respiration. En face OCT images at various depths can be generated. OCT angiography (OCTA) is computed using intensity decorrelation between sequential pairs of circumferential scans and enables three-dimensional visualization of vasculature. Wide area volumetric OCT and OCTA imaging of the swine esophagus in vivo is demonstrated.

  1. Optimization of the axial compressor flow passage to reduce the circumferential distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, G.; Kolmakova, D.; Shklovets, A.; Ermakov, A.

    2015-08-01

    This work is motivated by the necessity to reduce the effects of the flow circumferential distortion in the flow passage of the aircraft gas turbine engine (GTE). In previous research, the authors have proposed the approaches to decrease of the flow circumferential distortion arising from the mid-support racks of GTE compressor and having a negative impact on the blade rows, located upstream. In particular, the idea of introducing the circumferentially non-uniform blade pitch and profile stagger angle of guide vanes located in front of the support was contributed in order to redistribute the flow and decrease the dynamic stresses in the rotor wheel of the same stage. During the research presented in this paper, another principal of reduction of the flow circumferential distortion was chosen. Firstly, the variants of upgrading the existing support racks were found. Secondly, the new design of support was offered. Both the first and the second version of the support design variation took into account the availability of technological and structural limitations associated with the location of oil pipes, springs and others elements in the support racks. Investigations of modified design showed that the support with altered racks provides a reduction of dynamic stresses by 20% at resonance with the most dangerous harmonic, and the new design of support can give the decrease of 30%.

  2. Conventional CT for the prediction of an involved circumferential resection margin in primary rectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolberink, Steven V. R. C.; Beets-Tan, Regina G. H.; de Haas-Kock, Danielle F. M.; Span, Mark M.; van de Jagt, Eric J.; van de Velde, Cornelis J. H.; Wiggers, Theo

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the accuracy of conventional computed tomography (CT) scan in the preoperative prediction of an involved circumferential resection margin (CRM) in primary rectal cancer. Methods: 125 patients with biopsy-proven adenocarcinoma of the rectum underwent CT of the abdomen before und

  3. Consideration on evaluation of internal pressure creep rupture for tube with circumferential joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of internal pressure creep rupture of the thin-walled cylinders with circumferential joints is affected by the combination of creep characteristics of parent materials and weld metals. In particular, the compatibility of the creep strain rate of parent materials and weld metals becomes an important controlling factor. The behavior of internal pressure creep of the welded parts in circumferential joint cylinders can be evaluated simply with the uniaxial creep data of parent materials and weld metals, considering it by approximately substituting with the creep behavior of a uniaxial longitudinal joint. The method of evaluation is, first, to analyze the breaking behavior of uniaxial longitudinal joints using the uniaxial creep characteristic values of parent materials and weld metals, and next, by combining the equation for the relation between the rupture times of uniaxial creep and internal pressure creep with the analyzed breaking behavior of uniaxial joints, the internal pressure creep rupture behavior of the cylinders with circumferential joints can be evaluated. The internal pressure creep behavior of the thin-walled cylinders with circumferential joints, their rupture life and the uniaxial creep rupture life of longitudinal joints, and the examination of Hastelloy X cylinders are reported. (Kako, I.)

  4. Modification of the ASME code z-factor for circumferential surface crack in nuclear ferritic pipings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to modify the ASME Code Z-Factor, which is used in the evaluation of circumferential surface crack in nuclear ferritic pipings. The ASME Code Z-Factor is a load multiplier to compensate plastic load with elasto-plastic load. The current ASME Code Z-Factor underestimates pipe maximum load. In this study, the original SC. TNP method is modified first because the original SC. TNP method has a problem that the maximum allowable load predicted from the original SC. TNP method is slightly higher than that measured from the experiment. Then the new Z-Factor is developed using the modified SC. TNP method. The desirability of both the modified SC. TNP method and the new Z-Factor is examined using the experimental results for the circumferential surface crack in pipings. The results show that (1) the modified SC. TNP method is good for predicting the circumferential surface crack behavior in pipings, and (2) the Z-Factor obtained from the modified SC. TNP method well predicts the behavior of circumferential surface crack in ferritic pipings. 30 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs. (author)

  5. A method for measuring mean circumferential fiber shortening rate from gated blood pool scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejection fraction and ejection rate are easily obtained from gated cardiac images, but no method is available for calculating mean circumferential fiber shortening rate. We assumed that the cube root of left ventricular end-diastolic volume or counts is proportional to the minor axis of the left ventricle at end-diastole or end-systole. Mean circumferential fiber shortening rate is then equal to the [cube root of the end-diastolic volume (count) minus cube root of end-systolic volume (count)] divided by [cube root of end-diastolic volume (count) multiplied by the ejection time]. In 250 contrast ventriculograms, the standard mean circumferential fiber shortening rate (MCFSR) and that derived by the cube root method correlated well (r = 0.94). The mean value of MCFSR (0.85 +- 0.35) was greater than the cube root value (0.75 +- 0.35) (P < 0.001). The regression equation was y = 0.86x + 0.02. Similar correlations were obtained from gated radionuclide images using a semiautomated program (r = 0.93) in 24 subjects or completely automated program (r = 0.85) in 28 patients. The regression equation between MCFSR and that derived from the cube root of counts for the semiautomated program was y = 0.82x + 0.04 and for the automated program was y = 0.84x + 0.004. Similar correlations, slopes, and intercepts were seen using circumferential fractional shortening for angiographic data when correlated with both the semiautomated and automated gated blood pool scan programs. These data indicate that MCFSR and circumferential fractional shortening may be obtained from gated blood pool images using cube root estimates of end-diastolic and end-systolic radii with a high degree of correlation with the standard contrast ventriculographic technique. (orig.)

  6. Bactericidal Activities of Daptomycin, Quinupristin-Dalfopristin, and Linezolid against Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an In Vitro Pharmacodynamic Model with Simulated Endocardial Vegetations

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Raymond; Brown, William J.; Rybak, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    In search of treatment alternatives against vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA), an in vitro pharmacodynamic model with simulated endocardial vegetations incorporating protein and a high inoculum was used to simulate daptomycin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and vancomycin against the Michigan VRSA strain. Daptomycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin exhibited the greatest bacterial reductions, and all tested agents except vancomycin exhibited bactericidal activity against the VRSA.

  7. Analysis of dispersion characteristics of circumferential guided waves and detection of axial cracks in pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A circumferential guided wave method was developed to detect the axial crack on the but feeder pipe. Dispersion curves of circumferential guided waves were calculated as a function of curvature of the pipe. In the case of thin plate, i. e. infinite curvature, as the frequency increases, the S0 and A0 become to be coincided and eventually Rayleigh wave mode. In the case of pipe, however, as the curvature increases, the lowest modes do not coincide even in the high frequencies. Based on the analysis, a rocking technique using angle beam transducer was applied to detect axial defect in the bent region of PHWR feeder pipe. After review of the experimental data on the artificial notches, the vibration modes of each signal were identified. It was found that the notches with the depth of 10% of wall thickness be detected with the method.

  8. Circumferential-wave phase velocities for empty, fluid-immersed spherical metal shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Überall, Herbert; Ahyi, A. C.; Raju, P. K.;

    2002-01-01

    In earlier studies of acoustic scattering resonances and of the dispersive phase velocities of surface waves that generate them [see, e.g., Talmant et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 278–289 (1989) for spherical aluminum shells] we have demonstrated the effectiveness and accuracy of obtaining phase...... results with those calculated from three-dimensional elasticity theory whenever the latter are available. The present investigation is based on the mentioned resonance frequency/elasticity theory connection, and we obtain comparative circumferential-wave dispersion-curve results for water......-loaded, evacuated spherical metal shells of aluminum, stainless steel, and tungsten carbide. In particular, the characteristic upturn of the dispersion curves of low-order shell-borne circumferential waves (A or A0 waves) which takes place on spherical shells when the frequency tends towards very low values, is...

  9. In vivo vascular wall shear rate and circumferential strain of renal disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dae Woo; Kruger, Grant H; Rubin, Jonathan M; Hamilton, James; Gottschalk, Paul; Dodde, Robert E; Shih, Albert J; Weitzel, William F

    2013-02-01

    This study measures the vascular wall shear rate at the vessel edge using decorrelation based ultrasound speckle tracking. Results for nine healthy and eight renal disease subjects are presented. Additionally, the vascular wall shear rate and circumferential strain during physiologic pressure, pressure equalization and hyperemia are compared for five healthy and three renal disease subjects. The mean and maximum wall shear rates were measured during the cardiac cycle at the top and bottom wall edges. The healthy subjects had significantly higher mean and maximum vascular wall shear rate than the renal disease subjects. The key findings of this research were that the mean vascular wall shear rates and circumferential strain changes between physiologic pressure and hyperemia that was significantly different between healthy and renal disease subjects.

  10. Guided waves based diagnostic imaging of circumferential cracks in small-diameter pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kehai; Wu, Zhanjun; Jiang, Youqiang; Wang, Yishou; Zhou, Kai; Chen, Yingpu

    2016-02-01

    To improve the safety and reliability of pipeline structures, much work has been done using ultrasonic guided waves methods for pipe inspection. Though good for evaluating the defects in the pipes, most of the methods lack the capability to precisely identify the defects in the pipe features like welds or supports. Therefore, a novel guided wave based cross-sectional diagnostic imaging algorithm was developed to improve the ability of circumferential cracks identification in the pipe features. To ensure the accuracy of the imaging, an angular profile-based frequency selection method is presented. As validation, the approach was employed to identify the presence and location of a small circumferential crack with 1.13% cross sectional area (CSA) in the welding zone of a 48 mm diameter type 304 stainless steel pipe. Accurate identification results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the developed approach. PMID:26548527

  11. Low cycle fatigue of pressurized pipes with circumferential flaws under cyclic bending moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipes of 706 mm inner diameter, 47 mm wall thickness and about 5,000 mm in length were provided with circumferential surface cracks and loaded by internal pressure of 15 MPa whilst being simultaneously subjected to an alternating external bending moment. Usually a load ratio R of -1 (Mmin/Mmax), in one case R = 0.1, was applied. The pipes were fabricated of two types of ferritic steel: one, grade 20 MnMoNi 5 5, with a high upper shelf impact energy of about 200 J and one, MnMoNiV-special melt, with a low upper shelf impact energy of about 60 J. Deformation and crack growth in the wall thickness and circumferential direction were determined and compared with calculated values. 9 refs., 13 figs

  12. Crack resistance of austenitic pipes with circumferential through-wall cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For monotonously increasing load the correct evaluation of the crack resistance properties of a structure is essential for safety analyses. Considerable attention has been given to the through-wall case, since this is generally believed to be the controlling case with regard to complete pipe failure. The maximum load conditions for circumferential crack growth in pipes under displacement-controlled loadings has been determined. The need for crack resistance curves, measured on circumferentially through-wall cracked straight pipes of austenitic stainless steel 316L under bending, is emphasized by the limitation in the data range on small specimens and by the differences in the procedures. To answer open questions and to improve calculational methods a joint fracture mechanics program is being performed by Electricite de France, Novatome and Siemens-Interatom. The working program contains experimental and theoretical investigations on the applicability of small-specimen data to real structures. 10 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Circumferential mucosal dissection and esophageal perforation in a patient with eosinophilic esophagitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gennaro Liguori; Maurizio Cortale; Fabrizio Cimino; Michele Sozzi

    2008-01-01

    A young man with a previous history of episodes of mild solid food dysphagia was admitted with a total dysphagia.The esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGDS) showed an extensive disruption of mucosal layer with a cul-de-sac in the lower part of the esophagus.Soon after the procedure,the patient suffered from an acute chest pain and subsequent CT scan demonstrated an intramural circumferential dissection of thoracic esophagus,and a mediastinal emphysema.An emergency right thoracotomy was performed,followed by a total esophagectomy with esophagogastroplasty and jejunostomy.The histopathology confirmed that mucosal and submucosal layers were circumferentially detached from muscular wall and showed an eosinophilic infiltration of the whole organ with necrosis and erosions of mucosal,submucosal and muscular layers.The diagnosis was esophageal perforation in eosinophilic esophagitis.

  14. Endocardial Remodeling in Heart Failure Patients with Impaired and Preserved Left Ventricular Systolic Function--A Magnetic Resonance Image Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lian-Yu; Su, Mao-Yuan M; Pham, Van-Truong; Tran, Thi-Thao; Wang, Yung-Hung; Tseng, Wen-Yih I; Lo, Men-Tzung; Lin, Jiunn-Lee

    2016-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) trabeculation has been studied in certain forms of cardiomyopathy. However, the changes of LV endocardial trabeculation during the remodeling process leading to heart failure (HF) are unclear. Seventy-four patients with systolic heart failure (SHF), 65 with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and 61 without HF were prospectively enrolled. All subjects received magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study including cine, T1 and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images. Trabecular-papillary muscle (TPM) mass, fractal dimension (FD) and extracellular volume (ECV) were derived. The results showed that TPM mass index was higher in patients with SHF than that in patients with HFpEF and non-HF. The TPM mass-LV mass ratio (TPMm/LVM) was higher in SHF group than that in HFpEF and non-HF. FD was not different among groups. The presence of LGE was inversely associated with TPM mass index and TPMm/LVM while the ECV were positively associated with TPMm/LVM. The FD was positively associated with LV chamber size. In conclusion, TPM increases in patients with SHF and are probably related to myocardial cell hypertrophy and fibrotic repair during remodeling. The FD increases with the dilatation of LV chamber but remain unchanged with the deterioration of LV function. PMID:26876005

  15. Mmp15 is a direct target of Snai1 during endothelial to mesenchymal transformation and endocardial cushion development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ge; Levay, Agata K; Gridley, Thomas; Lincoln, Joy

    2011-11-15

    Cardiac valves originate from endocardial cushions (EC) formed by endothelial-to-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) during embryogenesis. The zinc-finger transcription factor Snai1 has previously been reported to be important for EMT during organogenesis, yet its role in early valve development has not been directly examined. In this study we show that Snai1 is highly expressed in endothelial, and newly transformed mesenchyme cells during EC development. Mice with targeted snai1 knockdown display hypocellular ECs at E10.5 associated with decreased expression of mesenchyme cell markers and downregulation of the matrix metalloproteinase (mmp) family member, mmp15. Snai1 overexpression studies in atrioventricular canal collagen I gel explants indicate that Snai1 is sufficient to promote mmp15 expression, cell transformation, and mesenchymal cell migration and invasion. However, treatment with the catalytically active form of MMP15 promotes cell motility, and not transformation. Further, we show that Snai1-mediated cell migration requires MMP activity, and caMMP15 treatment rescues attenuated migration defects observed in murine ECs following snai1 knockdown. Together, findings from this study reveal previously unappreciated mechanisms of Snai1 for the direct regulation of MMPs during EC development.

  16. Feasibility of radial and circumferential strain analysis using 2D speckle tracking echocardiography in cats

    OpenAIRE

    Takano, Hiroshi; ISOGAI, Tomomi; Aoki, Takuma; WAKAO, Yoshito; Fujii, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the feasibility of strain analysis using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) in cats and to evaluate STE variables in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Sixteen clinically healthy cats and 17 cats with HCM were used. Radial and circumferential strain and strain rate variables in healthy cats were measured using STE to assess the feasibility. Comparisons of global strain and strain variables between healthy cats and cats with HCM...

  17. Is Circumferential Minimally Invasive Surgery Effective in the Treatment of Moderate Adult Idiopathic Scoliosis?

    OpenAIRE

    Anand, Neel; Baron, Eli M.; Khandehroo, Babak

    2014-01-01

    Background Outcomes for minimally invasive scoliosis correction surgery have been reported for mild adult scoliosis. Larger curves historically have been treated with open surgical procedures including facet resections or posterior column osteotomies, which have been associated with high-volume blood loss. Further, minimally invasive techniques have been largely reported in the setting of degenerative scoliosis. Questions/purposes We describe the effects of circumferential minimally invasive ...

  18. Numerical Investigation of Inlet Distortion on an Axial Flow Compressor Rotor with Circumferential Groove Casing Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Jian; Wu Hu

    2008-01-01

    On the base of an assumed steady inlet circumferential total pressure distortion, three-dimensional time-dependent numerical simulations are conducted on an axial flow subsonic compressor rotor. The performances and flow fields of a compressor rotor, either casing treated or untreated, are investigated in detail either with or without inlet pressure distortion. Results show that the circumferential groove casing treatment can expand the operating range of the compressor rotor either with or without inlet pressure distortion at the expense of a drop in peak isentropic efficiency. The casing treatment is capable of weakening or even removing the tip leakage vortex effectively either with or without inlet distortion. In clean inlet circumstances, the enhancement and forward movement of tip leakage vortex cause the untreated compressor rotor to stall. By contrast, with circumferential groove casing, the serious flow separation on the suction surface leads to aerodynamic stalling eventually. In the presence of inlet pressure distortion, the blade loading changes from passage to passage as the distorted inflow sector is traversed. Similar to the clean inlet circumstances, with a smooth wall casing, the enhancement and forward movement of tip leakage vortex are still the main factors which lead to the compressor rotor stalling eventu-ally. When the rotor works under near stall conditions, the blockage resulting from the tip leakage vortex in all the passages is very seri-ous. Especially in several passages, flow-spillage is observed. Compared to the clean inlet circumstances, circumferential groove casing treatment can also eliminate the low energy zone in the outer end wall region effectively.

  19. Selective radiofrequency therapy as a non-invasive approach for contactless body contouring and circumferential reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajkošová, Kateřina; Machovcová, Alena; Onder, Meltem; Fritz, Klaus

    2014-03-01

    In this study, the efficacy of non-contact, selective radiofrequency (RF) were evaluated for body contouring as non-invasive fat and circumferential reduction of the abdomen. 40 healthy (36 female, 4 male) subjects showing significant volume of subcutaneous fat tissue on the abdomen and waistline were included. Once a week for 30 minutes, 4 sessions were performed. The applicator was placed on a supplied spacer covering the treatment area. Maximum power was 200W, which induced heat in the fat and connective tissue layer. The homogeneity of heat distribution and temperature of the skin surface were controlled. The circumferential reduction was measured at the baseline and after the last treatment. The photographs and adverse effects were recorded. Participants completed the self-evaluation questionnaires and rated their level of satisfaction. All subjects tolerated the treatments well. The only side effect was mild to moderate erythema. 35 subjects finished the protocol as planned and 5 subjects dropped off due to events not related to the study. 32 subjects had a 1-13 cm decrease in abdominal circumference and 3 subjects did not show significant response (0-1 cm). Most likely, a very thin fat layer was the reason for lack of response (the non-responding group was the thinnest patient group). No significant differences were found between men and women. The average decrease of 4.93 cm was calculated as a result of circumferential reduction statistical evidence. This study demonstrates that the selective RF system designed for contactless deep tissue heating is a painless, safe, and effective treatment for non-surgical body contouring and circumferential fat reduction.

  20. Nonlinear vibrations and energy exchange of single-walled carbon nanotubes. Circumferential flexural modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozzi, Matteo; Smirnov, Valeri V.; Manevitch, Leonid I.; Milani, Massimo; Pellicano, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the nonlinear vibrations and energy exchange of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are studied. The Sanders-Koiter theory is applied to model the nonlinear dynamics of the system in the case of finite amplitude of vibration. The SWNT deformation is described in terms of longitudinal, circumferential and radial displacement fields. Simply supported, clamped and free boundary conditions are considered. The circumferential flexural modes (CFMs) are investigated. Two different approaches based on numerical and analytical models are compared. In the numerical model, an energy method based on the Lagrange equations is used to reduce the nonlinear partial differential equations of motion to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, which is solved by using the implicit Runge-Kutta numerical method. In the analytical model, a reduced form of the Sanders-Koiter theory assuming small circumferential and tangential shear deformations is used to get the nonlinear ordinary differential equations of motion, which are solved by using the multiple scales analytical method. The transition from energy beating to energy localization in the nonlinear field is studied. The effect of the aspect ratio on the analytical and numerical values of the nonlinear energy localization threshold for different boundary conditions is investigated. Time evolution of the total energy distribution along the axis of a simply supported SWNT

  1. Circumferential profiles for region-based analysis of dynamic SPECT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetic parameters (washin, washout) of dynamic SPECT teboroxime data sets may provide a more sensitive measure of coronary artery disease than conventional (Tl, MIBI) static myocardial perfusion studies. A time-consuming and subjective step of the data analysis is drawing regions of interest to delineate blood pool and myocardial tissue regions. The time-activity curves for the regions are then used to estimate local kinetic parameters. In this work, the appropriate time-activity curves are found automatically, in a manner similar to that used for calculating circumferential profiles in conventional static cardiac studies. The drawbacks to applying standard static circumferential profile methods are the high noise level and high liver uptake common in dynamic studies. Searching along each ray for maxima to locate the myocardium does not always provide useful information. Here we propose an iterative scheme in which constraints are imposed on the radii searched. The constraints are based on the shape of the time-activity curve of the circumferential profile members and on an assumption that the short axis slices are approximately circular. The constraints eliminate outliers and help to reduce the effects of the noise and the liver activity. Kinetic parameter estimates from the automatically generated regions were comparable to estimates from manually selected regions in canine dynamic teboroxime studies

  2. Soft Sensor for Oxide Scales on the Steam Side of Superheater Tubes under Uneven Circumferential Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A soft sensor for oxide scales on the steam side of superheater tubes of utility boiler under uneven circumferential loading is proposed for the first time. First finite volume method is employed to simulate oxide scales growth temperature on the steam side of superheater tube. Then appropriate time and spatial intervals are selected to calculate oxide scales thickness along the circumferential direction. On the basis of the oxide scale thickness, the stress of oxide scales is calculated by the finite element method. At last, the oxide scale thickness and stress sensors are established on support vector machine (SMV optimized by particle swarm optimization (PSO with time and circumferential angles as inputs and oxide scale thickness and stress as outputs. Temperature and stress calculation methods are validated by the operation data and experimental data, respectively. The soft sensor is applied to the superheater tubes of some power plant. Results show that the soft sensor can give enough accurate results for oxide scale thickness and stress in reasonable time. The forecasting model provides a convenient way for the research of the oxide scale failure.

  3. Numerical Simulation for Three-Dimensional (3D) Unsteady State Temperature Field in Circumferential Laser Oxygen Cutting of Pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaijin HUANG; Dawen ZENG; Changsheng XIE; Desheng XU

    2003-01-01

    A 3D unsteady state numerical model of heat transfer in the circumferential laser oxygen cutting of pipes wasdeveloped. In order to minimize the computing time required for solving the finite difference equations as much aspossible, the alternating direct

  4. Scalp ulceration from a circumferential head dressing after craniotomy: Case report of an uncommon complication due to human error

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal, Ashutosh; Bray, Peter W.; Bernstein, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The present paper describes a previously unpublished complication of the application of a circumferential head dressing after cranial neuro-surgery. A 34-year-old woman developed a large area of skin necrosis on her forehead from a circumferential head dressing applied after the surgical removal of a colloid cyst. Neurological recovery was excellent but plastic surgical repair of her iatrogenic cosmetic injury was required.

  5. Local heart irradiation of ApoE−/− mice induces microvascular and endocardial damage and accelerates coronary atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Radiotherapy of thoracic and chest-wall tumors increases the long-term risk of radiation-induced heart disease, like a myocardial infarct. Cancer patients commonly have additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as hypercholesterolemia. The goal of this study is to define the interaction of irradiation with such cardiovascular risk factors in radiation-induced damage to the heart and coronary arteries. Material and methods: Hypercholesterolemic and atherosclerosis-prone ApoE−/− mice received local heart irradiation with a single dose of 0, 2, 8 or 16 Gy. Histopathological changes, microvascular damage and functional alterations were assessed after 20 and 40 weeks. Results: Inflammatory cells were significantly increased in the left ventricular myocardium at 20 and 40 weeks after 8 and 16 Gy. Microvascular density decreased at both follow-up time-points after 8 and 16 Gy. Remaining vessels had decreased alkaline phosphatase activity (2–16 Gy) and increased von Willebrand Factor expression (16 Gy), indicative of endothelial cell damage. The endocardium was extensively damaged after 16 Gy, with foam cell accumulations at 20 weeks, and fibrosis and protein leakage at 40 weeks. Despite an accelerated coronary atherosclerotic lesion development at 20 weeks after 16 Gy, gated SPECT and ultrasound measurements showed only minor changes in functional cardiac parameters at 20 weeks. Conclusions: The combination of hypercholesterolemia and local cardiac irradiation induced an inflammatory response, microvascular and endocardial damage, and accelerated the development of coronary atherosclerosis. Despite these pronounced effects, cardiac function of ApoE−/− mice was maintained.

  6. Posterior-Only Circumferential Decompression and Reconstruction in the Surgical Management of Lumbar Vertebral Osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovrlj, Branko; Guzman, Javier Z; Caridi, John; Cho, Samuel K

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective The purpose of this report is to discuss the surgical management of lumbar vertebral osteomyelitis with a spinal epidural abscess (SEA) and present a single-stage, posterior-only circumferential decompression and reconstruction with instrumentation using an expandable titanium cage and without segmental nerve root sacrifice as an option in the treatment of this disease process. Methods We report a 42-year-old man who presented with 3 days of low back pain and chills who rapidly decompensated with severe sepsis following admission. Magnetic resonance imaging of his lumbosacral spine revealed intramuscular abscesses of the left paraspinal musculature and iliopsoas with SEA and L4 vertebral body involvement. The patient failed maximal medical treatment, which necessitated surgical treatment as a last resort for infectious source control. He underwent a previously undescribed procedure in the setting of SEA: a single-stage, posterior-only approach for circumferential decompression and reconstruction of the L4 vertebral body with posterior segmental instrumented fixation. Results After the surgery, the patient's condition gradually improved; however, he suffered a wound dehiscence necessitating a surgical exploration and deep wound debridement. Six months after the surgery, the patient underwent a revision surgery for adjacent-level pseudarthrosis. At 1-year follow-up, the patient was pain-free and off narcotic pain medication and had returned to full activity. Conclusion This patient is the first reported case of lumbar osteomyelitis with SEA treated surgically with a single-stage, posterior-only circumferential decompression and reconstruction with posterior instrumentation. Although this approach is more technically challenging, it presents another viable option for the treatment of lumbar vertebral osteomyelitis that may reduce the morbidity associated with an anterior approach. PMID:26835214

  7. The thermal effect at the distal pole of the endocardial electrodes of the pacemaker in electrosurgical treatment. The risk heart's damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedotov N. M.

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion. A thermal effect was observed during electrosurgical intervention in the tissue around the distal pole of the pacemaker endocardial electrodes that depends on the location of the pacing system in relation to the electrodes of electrocoagulator, power and duration of exposure. Clinical signs of the thermal effect were non-effective pacing, supraventricular and ventricular rhythm disturbances and primarily due to the violation of safety standards for electrosurgical procedures. The clinical significance of this effect is minimal when the suggested principles are adhered to and the pacing system is placed out of the lines of force of the electric field.

  8. Investigations on an Axial Flow Fan Stage subjected to Circumferential Inlet Flow Distortion and Swirl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Govardhan; K.Viswanath

    1997-01-01

    The combined effects of swirl and circumferential inlet flow distortion on the flow field of an axial flow fan stage are reported in this paper,The study involves measurements at the inlet of the rotor and exit of the rotor and stator atdesign and off design flow conditions.The study indicated that at the design flow condition,swirl had caused deterioration of the performance in addition to that caused by distortion.Pressure rise imparted in the distortion zone is hogher than in the free zone.The attenuation of distortion is high in the presence of swirl.

  9. Inner wall inspection of steam generator tubes with circumferential welds using ultrasonic crack detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cracks in the neighbourhood of circumferential welds at the inside of generator tubes to the weld seam can be detected with an ultrasonic probe system using Rayleigh's surface waves. A reference reflector with about 0.5 mm in depth and 1.5 mm in length is used. The ultrasonic inspection system is using a rotating mirror with two faces which can detect cracks on both sides of the weld and which can clearly separate crown or root indications from real defects. The signal-to-noise ratio is better than 12 dB. The system and results on tubes with artificial and real test reflectors are described

  10. Inner wall inspection of steam generator tubes with circumferential welds using ultrasonic crack detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cracks in the neighbourhood of circumferential welds at the inside of generator tubes to the weld seam can be detected with an ultrasonic probe system using Rayleigh's surface waves. A reference reflector with about 0.5 mm in depth and 1.5 mm in length is used. The ultrasonic inspection system is using a rotating mirror with two faces which can detect cracks on both sides of the weld and which can clearly separate crown or root indications from real defects. The signal-to-noise ratio is better than 12 dB. The system and results on tubes with artificial and real test reflectors are described. 8 refs

  11. Geometric characterization of a circumferential seam by automatic segmentation of digitized radioscopic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study deals with the nondestructive control of a circumferential seam by digital radioscopy. A series of images for one complete revolution of the welded component is available. We first resort to a joint approach by simulation and experimentation. This approach allows the detection of the molten zone limits for an initial image. We then develop a segmentation method that permits automatic extraction of the geometric characteristics of the set of images representative of the weld. These measures supply fast and automatic control of the weld quality. Results are shown for real components. (author)

  12. Sea Ice Concentration and Extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2014-01-01

    Among the most seasonal and most dynamic parameters on the surface of the Earth is sea ice which at any one time covers about 3-6% of the planet. In the Northern Hemisphere, sea ice grows in extent from about 6 x 10(exp 6) sq km to 16 x 10(exp 6) sq km, while in the Southern Hemisphere, it grows from about 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km to about 19 x 10(exp 6) sq km (Comiso, 2010; Gloersen et al., 1992). Sea ice is up to about 2-3 m thick in the Northern Hemisphere and about 1 m thick in the Southern Hemisphere (Wadhams, 2002), and compared to the average ocean depth of about 3 km, it is a relatively thin, fragile sheet that can break due to waves and winds or melt due to upwelling of warm water. Being constantly advected by winds, waves, and currents, sea ice is very dynamic and usually follows the directions of the many gyres in the polar regions. Despite its vast expanse, the sea ice cover was previously left largely unstudied and it was only in recent years that we have understood its true impact and significance as related to the Earths climate, the oceans, and marine life.

  13. Effects of inlet circumferential fluctuation on the sweep aerodynamic performance of axial fans/compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Xingmin; Zhu, Fang; Wan, Ke; Jin, Donghai

    2013-10-01

    Swept blades have been widely used in the transonic fan/compressor of aircraft engines with the aids of 3D CFD simulation since the design concept of controlling the shock structure was firstly proposed and successfully tested by Dr. Wennerstrom in the 1980s. However, some disadvantage phenomenon has also been induced by excessively 3D blade geometries on the structure stress insufficiency, vibration and reliability. Much confusion in the procedure of design practice leading us to recognize a new view on the flow mechanism of sweep aerodynamical induction: the new radial equilibrium established by the influence of inlet circumferential fluctuation (CF) changes the inlet flows of blading and induces the performance modification of axial fans/compressors blade. The view is verified by simplified models through numerical simulation and circumferentially averaged analysis in the present paper. The results show that the CF source items which originate from design parameters, such as the spanwise distributions of the loading and blading geometries, contribute to the changing of averaged incidence spanwise distribution, and further more affect the performance of axial fans/compressors with swept blades.

  14. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON TIP LEAKAGE VORTEX OF CIRCUMFERENTIAL SKEWED BLADES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yang; OUYANG Hua; DU Zhaohui

    2007-01-01

    In the steady operation condition, the experiments and the numerical simulations are used to investigate the tip leakage flow fields in three low pressure axial flow fans with three kinds of circumferential skewed rotors, including the radial rotor, the forward-skewed rotor and the backward-skewed rotor. The three-dimensional viscous flow fields of the fans are computed. In the experiments, the two-dimensional plane particle image velocimetry (PIV) system is used to measure the flow fields in the tip region of three different pitchwise positions of each fan. The results show that the computational results agree well with the experimental data in the flow field of the tip region of each fan. The tip leakage vortex core segments based on method of the eigenmode analysis can display clearly some characteristics of the tip leakage vortex, such as the origination position of tip leakage vortex, the development of vortex strength, and so on. Compared with the radial rotor, the other two skewed rotors can increase the stability of the tip leakage vortex and the increment in the forward-skewed rotor is more than that in the backward-skewed one. Among the tip leakage vortices of the three rotors, the velocity of the vortex in the forward-skewed rotor is the highest in the circumferential direction and the lowest in the axial direction.

  15. Recent evaluations of crack-opening-area in circumferentially cracked pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, S.; Brust, F.; Ghadiali, N.; Wilkowski, G.; Miura, N.

    1997-04-01

    Leak-before-break (LBB) analyses for circumferentially cracked pipes are currently being conducted in the nuclear industry to justify elimination of pipe whip restraints and jet shields which are present because of the expected dynamic effects from pipe rupture. The application of the LBB methodology frequently requires calculation of leak rates. The leak rates depend on the crack-opening area of the through-wall crack in the pipe. In addition to LBB analyses which assume a hypothetical flaw size, there is also interest in the integrity of actual leaking cracks corresponding to current leakage detection requirements in NRC Regulatory Guide 1.45, or for assessing temporary repair of Class 2 and 3 pipes that have leaks as are being evaluated in ASME Section XI. The objectives of this study were to review, evaluate, and refine current predictive models for performing crack-opening-area analyses of circumferentially cracked pipes. The results from twenty-five full-scale pipe fracture experiments, conducted in the Degraded Piping Program, the International Piping Integrity Research Group Program, and the Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds Program, were used to verify the analytical models. Standard statistical analyses were performed to assess used to verify the analytical models. Standard statistical analyses were performed to assess quantitatively the accuracy of the predictive models. The evaluation also involved finite element analyses for determining the crack-opening profile often needed to perform leak-rate calculations.

  16. Smooth muscle-like tissue constructs with circumferentially oriented cells formed by the cell fiber technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Y Hsiao

    Full Text Available The proper functioning of many organs and tissues containing smooth muscles greatly depends on the intricate organization of the smooth muscle cells oriented in appropriate directions. Consequently controlling the cellular orientation in three-dimensional (3D cellular constructs is an important issue in engineering tissues of smooth muscles. However, the ability to precisely control the cellular orientation at the microscale cannot be achieved by various commonly used 3D tissue engineering building blocks such as spheroids. This paper presents the formation of coiled spring-shaped 3D cellular constructs containing circumferentially oriented smooth muscle-like cells differentiated from dedifferentiated fat (DFAT cells. By using the cell fiber technology, DFAT cells suspended in a mixture of extracellular proteins possessing an optimized stiffness were encapsulated in the core region of alginate shell microfibers and uniformly aligned to the longitudinal direction. Upon differentiation induction to the smooth muscle lineage, DFAT cell fibers self-assembled to coiled spring structures where the cells became circumferentially oriented. By changing the initial core-shell microfiber diameter, we demonstrated that the spring pitch and diameter could be controlled. 21 days after differentiation induction, the cell fibers contained high percentages of ASMA-positive and calponin-positive cells. Our technology to create these smooth muscle-like spring constructs enabled precise control of cellular alignment and orientation in 3D. These constructs can further serve as tissue engineering building blocks for larger organs and cellular implants used in clinical treatments.

  17. Fracture behavior of circumferentially surface-cracked elbows. Technical report, October 1993--March 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results from Task 2 of the Second International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-2) program. The focus of the Task 2 work was directed towards furthering the understanding of the fracture behavior of long-radius elbows. This was accomplished through a combined analytical and experimental program. J-estimation schemes were developed for both axial and circumferential surface cracks in elbows. Large-scale, quasi-static and dynamic, pipe-system, elbow fracture experiments under combined pressure and bending loads were performed on elbows containing an internal surface crack at the extrados. In conjunction with the elbow experiments, material property data were developed for the A106-90 carbon steel and WP304L stainless steel elbow materials investigated. A comparison of the experimental data with the maximum stress predictions using existing straight pipe fracture prediction analysis methods, and elbow fracture prediction methods developed in this program was performed. This analysis was directed at addressing the concerns regarding the validity of using analysis predictions developed for straight pipe to predict the fracture stresses of cracked elbows. Finally, a simplified fitting flaw acceptance criteria incorporating ASME B2 stress indices and straight pipe, circumferential-crack analysis was developed

  18. Nonlinear Local Bending Response and Bulging Factors for Longitudinal and Circumferential Cracks in Pressurized Cylindrical Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard D.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Results of a geometrically nonlinear finite element parametric study to determine curvature correction factors or bulging factors that account for increased stresses due to curvature for longitudinal and circumferential cracks in unstiffened pressurized cylindrical shells are presented. Geometric parameters varied in the study include the shell radius, the shell wall thickness, and the crack length. The major results are presented in the form of contour plots of the bulging factor as a function of two nondimensional parameters: the shell curvature parameter, lambda, which is a function of the shell geometry, Poisson's ratio, and the crack length; and a loading parameter, eta, which is a function of the shell geometry, material properties, and the applied internal pressure. These plots identify the ranges of the shell curvature and loading parameters for which the effects of geometric nonlinearity are significant. Simple empirical expressions for the bulging factor are then derived from the numerical results and shown to predict accurately the nonlinear response of shells with longitudinal and circumferential cracks. The numerical results are also compared with analytical solutions based on linear shallow shell theory for thin shells, and with some other semi-empirical solutions from the literature, and limitations on the use of these other expressions are suggested.

  19. Effects of circumferential rigid wrist orthoses in rehabilitation of patients with radius fracture at typical site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović Aleksandar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of orthoses is a questionable rehabilitation method for patients with the distal radius fracture at typical site. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the rehabilitation on patients with radius fracture at the typical site, who wore circumferential static wrist orthoses, with those who did not wear them. Methods. Thirty patients were divided into 3 equal groups, 2 experimental groups, and 1 control group. The patients in the experimental groups were given the rehabilitation program of wearing serially manufactured (off-the-shelf, as well as custom-fit orthoses. Those in the control group did not wear wrist orthoses. Evaluation parameters were pain, edema, the range of the wrist motion, the quality of cylindrical, spherical, and pinch-spherical grasp, the strength of pinch and hand grasp, and patient's assessment of the effects of rehabilitation. Results. No significant difference in the effects of rehabilitation on the patients in experimental groups as opposed to control group was found. Patients in the first experimental group, and in control group were more satisfied with the effects of rehabilitation, as opposed to the patients in the second experimental group (p<0,05. Conclusion. The effects of circumferential static wrist orthoses in the rehabilitation of patients with distal radius fracture at the typical site were not clinically significant. There was no significant difference between the custom and off-the-shelf orthoses.

  20. Experimental investigation on circumferential and axial temperature gradient over fuel channel under LOCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ashwini Kumar; kumar, Ravi; Gupta, Akhilesh; Chatterjee, Barun; Mukhopadhyay, Deb; Lele, H. G.

    2014-06-01

    In a nuclear reactor temperature rises drastically in fuel channels under loss of coolant accident due to failure of primary heat transportation system. Present investigation has been carried out to capture circumferential and axial temperature gradients during fully and partially voiding conditions in a fuel channel using 19 pin fuel element simulator. A series of experiments were carried out by supplying power to outer, middle and center rods of 19 pin fuel simulator in ratio of 1.4:1.1:1. The temperature at upper periphery of pressure tube (PT) was slightly higher than at bottom due to increase in local equivalent thermal conductivity from top to bottom of PT. To simulate fully voided conditions PT was pressurized at 2.0 MPa pressure with 17.5 kW power injection. Ballooning initiated from center and then propagates towards the ends and hence axial temperature difference has been observed along the length of PT. For asymmetric heating, upper eight rods of fuel simulator were activated and temperature difference up-to 250 °C has been observed from top to bottom periphery of PT. Such situation creates steep circumferential temperature gradient over PT and could lead to breaching of PT under high pressure.

  1. Transmit-receive eddy current probes for circumferential cracks in heat exchanger tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional eddy current bobbin probes are known to be ineffectual in detecting circumferential cracks in tubing. Multi-pancake and/or rotating pancake probes are required to detect circumferential cracks. It has recently been demonstrated in CANDU steam generator tubes, with deformation, ferromagnetic deposits, and copper deposits, that multi-channel probes with transmit-receive (T/R) coils are superior to those using surface impedance coils. Unlike rotating probes, the design of a new probe denoted as C3 permits fast, single-scan inspection of a full-length tube at inspection speeds comparable to conventional bobbin probes. Since 1992, the probe has been used routinely for steam generator in-service inspection at 4 CANDU plants. Defective tubes have been plugged and the units returned to service, and they continue to operate without leaks. This paper describes the basic features of T/R surface probes. Two-dimensional voltage diagrams showing computer-derived probe response to frequency, lift-off, carbon steel supports, magnetite deposits and copper deposits are presented and compared with corresponding signals from impedance coils. Theoretical and experimental results show that T/R probes are able to detect defects in the presence of variable lift-off (due to tube-wall deformation) with ten times the signal-to-noise ratio as that exhibited by comparable pancake-type impedance probes. In addition, T/R probes are less sensitive to magnetite deposits, and possess good phase discrimination to internal defects

  2. Fracture behavior of circumferentially surface-cracked elbows. Technical report, October 1993--March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilinski, T.; Mohan, R.; Rudland, D.; Fleming, M. [and others

    1996-12-01

    This report presents the results from Task 2 of the Second International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-2) program. The focus of the Task 2 work was directed towards furthering the understanding of the fracture behavior of long-radius elbows. This was accomplished through a combined analytical and experimental program. J-estimation schemes were developed for both axial and circumferential surface cracks in elbows. Large-scale, quasi-static and dynamic, pipe-system, elbow fracture experiments under combined pressure and bending loads were performed on elbows containing an internal surface crack at the extrados. In conjunction with the elbow experiments, material property data were developed for the A106-90 carbon steel and WP304L stainless steel elbow materials investigated. A comparison of the experimental data with the maximum stress predictions using existing straight pipe fracture prediction analysis methods, and elbow fracture prediction methods developed in this program was performed. This analysis was directed at addressing the concerns regarding the validity of using analysis predictions developed for straight pipe to predict the fracture stresses of cracked elbows. Finally, a simplified fitting flaw acceptance criteria incorporating ASME B2 stress indices and straight pipe, circumferential-crack analysis was developed.

  3. Tip clearance flow interaction with circumferential groove casing treatment in a transonic axial compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Mark Hamilton

    Experimental and computational studies were conducted to study the role of the tip leakage flow in axial compressor stall and the relationship between the tip clearance flow flow field and surge margin extension from circumferential groove casing treatment. The CFD results were used to identify the existence of an interface between the approach ow and the tip-leakage flow. The experiments used a surface streaking visualization method to identify the time-averaged location of this interface as a line of zero axial shear stress at the casing. The axial position of this line, denoted xzs, moved upstream with decreasing ow coefficient in both the experiments and computations. The line was consistently located at the rotor leading edge plane at the stalling flow coefficient, regardless of in flow boundary condition. These results were successfully modeled using a control volume approach that balanced the reverse axial momentum ux of the tip-leakage flow with the momentum flux of the approach fluid. Non-uniform tip clearance measurements demonstrated that movement of the interface upstream of the rotor leading edge plane leads to the generation of short length scale rotating disturbances. Therefore, stall was interpreted as a critical point in the momentum flux balance of the approach ow and the reverse axial momentum flux of the tip-leakage flow. Experimental measurements of surge margin extension from seven CGCT configurations with a fixed groove geometry demonstrated that the contribution of individual grooves in a multi-groove casing to surge margin extension is an (a) additive and (b) linear function of the smooth wall tip clearance axial momentum ux at the location of a each groove. Extending the axial momentum model to include the in uence of a CGCT showed that circumferential grooves reduce the tip leakage flow axial momentum through radial transport. The equivalent force due to a circumferential groove was demonstrated to be related to the smooth wall tip

  4. Reduction of longitudinal axial residual stresses in near-root region of circumferential joint of steam pipeline in technological way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Prokhorenko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a variant for solving the problem of reduction of longitudinal residual stresses in near-root region of a circumferential welded joint of section of steam pipeline by FEM simulation of the stress-strain state of repaired section of a circumferential weld in the zone of lack of root penetration on a thin-wall shell of 89 mm diameter and 6 mm wall thickness from steel 20. The result of solving the problem is total distribution of stresses and residual plastic deformations in the repaired zone.

  5. Endocardial and pericardial disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930109 A study of immunocompetence of pep-tide hormones in human pericardium.WENShaojun(温绍君),et al.Xuanwu Hosp,CapitalInstit Med,Beijing.100053.Chin J Cardiol1992;20(4):240-242.With RIA/HPLC and immunohistochemistry.the presence of angiotensin(A)and atrial natri-uretic factor-like materials(ANF-LMs)was

  6. Endocardial and pericardial disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970308 Study on the mechanism of effect ofangiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor on renin-angiotensin system while undergoing bicycle exercisetest. WU Shendi(吴顺娣), et al. Shanghai Hyperten-sive Instit, Ruijin Hosp, 2nd Med Univ, Shanghai,200025. Acta Univ Med 2nd Shanghai 1997; 17(2); 81

  7. Endocardial and pericardial disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920664 Serious complications and potentialdanger of endomyocardial biopsy.QUNailu (曲乃路), et al. Cardiovascular Dept,Dalian Centr Hosp, Dalian. Chin Cir J1992; 7(3): 257-258. Endomyocardial biopsy(EMB)of 86 patients,aged 15-57 yrs; has been prerformed in this

  8. Crack shape developments and leak rates for circumferential complex-cracked pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brickstad, B.; Bergman, M. [SAQ Inspection Ltd., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-04-01

    A computerized procedure has been developed that predicts the growth of an initial circumferential surface crack through a pipe and further on to failure. The crack growth mechanism can either be fatigue or stress corrosion. Consideration is taken to complex crack shapes and for the through-wall cracks, crack opening areas and leak rates are also calculated. The procedure is based on a large number of three-dimensional finite element calculations of cracked pipes. The results from these calculations are stored in a database from which the PC-program, denoted LBBPIPE, reads all necessary information. In this paper, a sensitivity analysis is presented for cracked pipes subjected to both stress corrosion and vibration fatigue.

  9. Analysis of parameters likely to explain the secondary side circumferential cracking of steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990, a new type of damage mechanism was brought to light by means of eddy current inspections in Steam Generator (SG) tube bundle. This is circumferential cracking, started on the outer wall of the tubes. These cracks generally appear below the level of the tube sheet. By the end of 1993, 89 tubes with this king of damage were discovered in the French nuclear power plants: 85 of these were located on the 6 SG's of 2 units of Dampierre. We present here the work carried out to provide better understanding of this phenomenon. It involves statistical analysis of data from experience feedback, together with analysis of the thermohydraulic conditions found on the tube sheet. (authors). 8 figs., 2 refs

  10. Circumferential resonance modes of solid elastic cylinders excited by obliquely incident acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ying; Honarvar, Farhang; Sinclair, Anthony N; Jafari, Mohammad-Reza

    2003-01-01

    When an immersed solid elastic cylinder is insonified by an obliquely incident plane acoustic wave, some of the resonance modes of the cylinder are excited. These modes are directly related to the incidence angle of the insonifying wave. In this paper, the circumferential resonance modes of such immersed elastic cylinders are studied over a large range of incidence angles and frequencies and physical explanations are presented for singular features of the frequency-incidence angle plots. These features include the pairing of one axially guided mode with each transverse whispering gallery mode, the appearance of an anomalous pseudo-Rayleigh in the cylinder at incidence angles greater than the Rayleigh angle, and distortional effects of the longitudinal whispering gallery modes on the entire resonance spectrum of the cylinder. The physical explanations are derived from Resonance Scattering Theory (RST), which is employed to determine the interior displacement field of the cylinder and its dependence on insonification angle.

  11. Development of circumferential seal for helicopter transmissions: Results of bench and flight tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, T. N.; Ludwig, L. P.

    1975-01-01

    A modified circumferential segmented ring seal was designed for direct replacement of a helicopter transmission elastomeric lip seal operating on a shaft diameter of 13.91 centimeters (5.481 in.) at sliding velocities to 52.48 m/sec (10 330 ft/min). The modifications involved the garter spring tension, shaft roundness, seal housing flatness, and pumping grooves to inhibit leakage. Operation of the seals in bench tests under simulated helicopter transmission conditions revealed that the seal leakage rate was within acceptable limits and that the wear rate was negligible. The low leakage and wear rates were confirmed in flight tests of 600 and 175 hours (sliding speed, 48.11 m/sec (9470 ft/min)). An additional 200 hours of air worthiness qualification testing (aircraft tie down) demonstrated that the seal can operate at the advanced sliding conditions of 52.48 m/sec (10 330 ft/min).

  12. Lower bound limit load of a circumferentially cracked pipe under combined mechanical loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a study on extension of the reference stress method, for J simplified assessment, to a three dimensional (3D) configuration under combined loading, lower bound limit analysis has been developed by J. Desquines. In the present paper the limit load for cracked pipe, with a 3D circumferential flaw, under pressure, tension and bending is detailed. The limit load is explicitly defined as a yield surface is the 3D space loading. A simple algorithm is proposed to solve the non linear problem associated to the reference stress calculation. Moreover, the lower bound solution is compared with elastic compensation method (ECM) results computed on a 3D finite element mesh of the cracked pipe. The lower bound yield surface underestimates the numerical limit loads with a discrepancy lower than 20%. (orig.)

  13. Quantitative lymphoscintigraphy in post-mastectomy lymphedema: correlation with circumferential measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Joon Young; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Sang Eun; Kim, Byung Tae; Hwang, Jee Hea; Lee, Byung Boong [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    An objective measure for the severity and progression is important for the management of lymphedema. To evaluate the usefulness of lympho-scintigraphy in this regard, we compared various quantitative indices from upper extremity lymphoscintigraphy with circumferential measurements, before and after physiotheraphy. Upper extremity lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 38 patients with unilateral postmastectomy lymphedema. Tc-99m antimony sulfide colloid (37 MBq) was injected s.c. into the second and third interdigital spaces. The injection sites were imaged immediately after injection. After standardized exercise for 15 min, upper extremity images were acquired 30 min, 1 hr and 2 hr after injection. The clearance of the injection site (CL), and % uptake in regional lymph nodes (%LN) and soft tissue of the extremity (i.e., the degree of dermal backflow) (%EXT) compared to the initial injection site were calculated. Circumference of each extremity was measured at 7 levels; the severity of lymphedema was expressed as the percentage difference of total circumferential difference (TCD) between healthy and edematous extremities compared to the total circumference of healthy extremity (%TCD). In 19 patients who received physiotherapy, the therapeutic effect was measured by % decrease of TCD (%DTCD) before and after therapy (Raines. et al., 1977). The quantitative indices calculated in the image at 2 hr p.i. had better correlation with either %TCD or %DTCD than those from earlier images (Table). The CL, %LN and %EXT of edematous extremity had a significant correlation with TCD. The %EXT was correlated best with either TCD or %DTCD. The results suggest that the %EXT which corresponds to the degree of dermal backflow may be a simple and useful quantitative index for evaluating the severity and progression in lymphedema and predicting the effect of therapy.

  14. Initial experience with circumferential pulmonary vein ablation guided by fusion of magnetic resonance imaging with three-dimensional electroanatomic mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Kai; MA Jian; MA Fu-sheng; JlA Yu-he; ZHANG Shu

    2006-01-01

    @@ Catheter ablation for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) has been a focal target of electrophysiological study in recent years. Up to date,circumferential pulmonary vein ablation (CPVA)guided by three-dimensional (3-D) electroanatomic mapping (Carto, USA) has been one of the most favourable procedures for the treatment of AF.

  15. High speed OH-PLIF measurement of self-excited circumferential instabilities in an annular combustion chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Nicholas; Dawson, James

    2012-11-01

    Self-excited thermo-acoustic instabilities are a significant issue in the development of lean burn gas turbine combustors. Such instabilities arise through coupling of the unsteady heat release and acoustic waves, which can propagate both longitudinally and circumferentially in annular combustor geometries. Although a large number of studies have investigated longitudinal fluctuations in single axisymmetric flames, it is currently uncertain whether these results can be used to emulate circumferential oscillations in annular geometry. Therefore, the aim of the current project is to investigate the flame dynamics in an annular model gas turbine combustor during self-excited circumferential oscillations. Pressure measurements are used to characterise the circumferential oscillations, with high-speed OH chemiluminescence and OH-PLIF used to capture the flame dynamics. The flame structure and dynamics are significantly affected by both the proximity of neighbouring flames and the excitation mode; with different responses observed for small and large separation distances, and standing and spinning modes. These observations indicate that results from single flame investigations may only be representative of self-excited flames in annular geometry under in a limited set of conditions.

  16. Burn-out, Circumferential Film Flow Distribution and Pressure Drop for an Eccentric Annulus with Heated Rod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P. S.; Jensen, A.; Mannov, G.;

    1974-01-01

    Measurements of (1) burn-out, (2) circumferential film flow distribution, and (3) pressure drop in a 17 × 27.2 × 3500 mm concentric and eccentric annulus geometry are presented. The eccentric displacement was varied between 0 and 3 mm. The working fluid was water. Burn-out curves at 70 bar...... flow variation on burn-out is discussed....

  17. Circumferential electrocautery of the patella in primary total knee replacement without patellar replacement: a meta-analysis and systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lihong; Ge, Zhaogang; Zhang, Chen; Li, Jia; Yu, Zefeng; Dang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Kunzheng

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis and systematic review was to identify and assess whether circumferential electrocautery is useful for improving outcomes after primary total knee replacement(TKR). We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, SpringerLink, Web of Knowledge, OVID CINAHL, OVID EBM and Google Scholar and included articles published through January 2014. A total of 6 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of the 776 cases included in the analysis, 388 cases involved patellar denervation, and 388 cases were designated as the control group. The meta-analysis revealed no significant difference in the incidence of anterior knee pain (AKP, p = 0.18) or in the visual analogue scale score (VAS, p = 0.23) between the two groups. In addition, AKSS Function Score indicated no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.28). However, the OKS (p = 0.02), patellar score (p = 0.01), AKSS-Knee Score (p = 0.004), range of motion (ROM, p < 0.0001) and WOMAC Score (p = 0.0003) indicated that circumpatellarelectrocautery improved clinical outcomes compared with non-electrocautery. The results indicate that circumferential electrocautery of the patella does not significantly improve AKP compared with non-electrocautery techniques but that circumferential electrocautery significantly improves patients' knee function after surgery. Therefore, we believe that circumferential electrocautery is beneficial to the outcome of primary TKR surgery without patellar replacement.

  18. Finite Element Limit Pressures for Circumferential Through-Wall Cracks in the Interface between Elbow and Pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among integrity assessment method based on a fracture mechanics concept for piping system, a limit load method is one of the important way to predict a maximum load carrying capacity in the materials with high ductility in the sense that it is used to either assess directly structural integrity of pipe based on fully plastic fracture mechanics or calculate elasticplastic fracture mechanics parameters based on reference stress concept. In nuclear power plants, piping system often involves elbows welded to straight pipe. Since welded regions are vulnerable to cracking, it is important to predict an accurate limit load for pipes with a crack in the interface between elbows and attached pipes. However, although extensive works have been made for developing limit analysis methods for cracked pipes, they were mainly for straight pipes. Recently, limit moment solutions for elbow that is attached to straight pipe with a circumferential through-wall crack(TWC) in the interface were proposed, whereas limit pressure for this geometry is not suggested yet. In this context, plastic limit pressures of circumferential TWCs between elbow and straight pipe were calculated in the present study considering geometric parameters such as an elbow curvature, a pipe size and a crack length. In the present study, the FE plastic limit analyses for circumferential TWC in the interface between elbow and pipe under internal pressure were conducted based on elastic perfectly plastic assumption. Based on the present FE results, it is found that plastic limit pressures of straight pipes with circumferential TWC are not appropriate for predicting plastic limit pressures of circumferential TWC in the interface between elbow and pipe for shorter crack length

  19. Influence of circumferential flaw length on internal burst pressure of a wall-thinned pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The effect of θ on pf was examined by experimental analysis and FEA. ► Here θ is the circumferential angle of a flaw, pf is the internal burst pressure. ► pf decreased as θ increased in some cases. ► The effect of θ on pf should be taken into consideration in evaluating pf. -- Abstract: This paper examines the effect of the circumferential angle of a flaw θ on the internal burst pressure pf of pipes with artificial wall-thinned flaws. The effect of θ has conventionally been regarded as unimportant in the evaluation of the pf of wall-thinned straight pipes. Therefore, a burst pressure equation for an axial crack inside a cylinder (Fig. 1, left), such as Kiefner's equation (Kiefner et al., 1973), has been widely applied (ANSI/ASME B31.G., 1991; Hasegawa et al., 2011). However, the following implicit assumptions notably exist when applying the equation to planar flaws in situations with non-planar flaws. 1)The fracture mode of the non-planar flaw under consideration is identical to that of the crack. 2)The effect of θ on pf, which is not considered for an axial crack, is small or negligible. However, the experimental results from the systematic burst tests for carbon steel pipes with artificial wall-thinned flaws examined in this paper showed that these implicit assumptions may be incorrect. In this paper the experimental results are evaluated in further detail. The purpose of the evaluation was to clarify the effect of θ on pf. Specifically, the significance of the flaw configuration (axial length δz and wall-thinning ratio t1/t) was studied for its effects on θ and pf. In addition, a simulation of this effect was conducted using a large strain elastic-plastic Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model. As observed from the experimental results, θ tended to affect pf in cases with large δz, and t1/t was also correlated with a decrease in pf with an increase in θ. These tendencies were successfully simulated by the large strain elastic

  20. 27 CFR 4.2 - Territorial extent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Territorial extent. 4.2 Section 4.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Scope § 4.2 Territorial extent. This...

  1. Simultaneously Combined Anterior-Posterior Approaches for Subaxial Cervical Circumferential Reconstruction in a Sitting Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yue; Xia, Qun; Hu, Yong-cheng; Zhang, Ji-dong; Lan, Jie; Ma, Xin-long

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce and analyze the feasibility of simultaneously combined anterior-posterior approaches for subaxial cervical circumferential reconstruction in sitting position. A retrospective case review was performed for above surgery procedure. A 79-year-old man was confirmed subaxial cervical fracture and dislocation with facet locked by radiological examination, and the involved levels were C5-6. According to American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) classification, the impairment scale was grade B. And the Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury and Severity Score (SLIC) were 9. The patient was restricted in sitting position with traction on a halo in extension to immobilize the head during the operation. A posterior laminectomy and pedicle screws insertion to the involved cervical spine was performed firstly. And then the anterior discectomy and strut graft were accomplished through an anterior cervical approach. The final fixation was finished by clamping the strut graft with pedicle screw system. Total blood loss was 600 ml and the total operating time was 150 min. The patient was followed up for 6 months. The symptom of neck pain improved distinctly and no evidence about implant failure was noted. Neurological status improvement was confirmed and the ASIA scale was improved to grade C. We believed that the simultaneously combined anterior-posterior approach in sitting position was safe and more advantageous for appropriate cases. PMID:26790982

  2. Leak before break behaviour of austenitic and ferritic pipes containing circumferential defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadtmueller, W.; Sturm, D.

    1997-04-01

    Several research projects carried out at MPA Stuttgart to investigate the Leak-before-Break (LBB) behavior of safety relevant pressure bearing components are summarized. Results presented relate to pipes containing circumferential defects subjected to internal pressure and external bending loading. An overview of the experimentally determined results for ferritic components is presented. For components containing postulated or actual defects, the dependence of the critical loading limit on the defect size is shown in the form of LBB curves. These are determined experimentally and/or by calculation for through-wall slits, and represent the boundary curve between leakage and massive fracture. For surface defects and a given bending moment and internal pressure, no fracture will occur if the length at leakage remains smaller than the critical defect length given by the LBB curve for through-wall defects. The predictive capability of engineering calculational methods are presented by way of example. The investigation programs currently underway, testing techniques, and initial results are outlined.

  3. Fracture behavior evaluations for ferritic steel piping with circumferential double flaws on the inner surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for assessing the structural integrity of nuclear components having some flaws are provided in the Rules on Fitness-for-Service for Nuclear Power Plants of the JSME code (JSME FFS code). Although the JSME FFS code provides such methods for piping with a single flaw, it does not describe any method for fracture assessment of piping with multiple flaws including flaw coalescence criteria. Some investigations on the fracture behavior of mainly austenitic stainless steel piping with multiple flaws, whose fracture mode is plastic collapse, have recently been reported and fracture assessment methods have been proposed. In the present study, fracture tests and analyses of carbon steel piping with a single and two circumferential flaw(s) on the inner surface were conducted to investigate a method for fracture assessment of ferritic steel piping with multiple flaws. It was found that fracture assessment based on the twice elastic slope method and the plastic collapse mechanism gave inadequate results for a large single flaw. Including this case, two kinds of elastic–plastic fracture assessment method, one using the Z-factor in the JSME FFS code and the other by ductile instability analysis, gave conservative estimates of fracture strength even when the structural factor SF was not considered (i.e. SF = 1)

  4. The Prognostic Value of Circumferential Resection Margin Involvement in Patients with Extraperitoneal Rectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Woo; Shin, Jin Yong; Oh, Sung Jin; Park, Jong Kwon; Yu, Hyeon; Ahn, Min Sung; Bae, Ki Beom; Hong, Kwan Hee; Ji, Yong Il

    2016-04-01

    The prognostic influence of circumferential resection margin (CRM) status in extraperitoneal rectal cancer probably differs from that of intraperitoneal rectal cancer because of its different anatomical and biological behaviors. However, previous reports have not provided the data focused on extraperitoneal rectal cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the prognostic significance of the CRM status in patients with extraperitoneal rectal cancer. From January 2005 to December 2008, 248 patients were treated for extraperitoneal rectal cancer and enrolled in a prospectively collected database. Extraperitoneal rectal cancer was defined based on tumors located below the anterior peritoneal reflection, as determined intraoperatively by a surgeon. Cox model was used for multivariate analysis to examine risk factors of recurrence and mortality in the 248 patients, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of recurrence and mortality in 135 patients with T3 rectal cancer. CRM involvement for extraperitoneal rectal cancer was present in 29 (11.7%) of the 248 patients, and was the identified predictor of local recurrence, overall recurrence, and death by multivariate Cox analysis. In the 135 patients with T3 cancer, CRM involvement was found to be associated with higher probability of local recurrence and mortality. In extraperitoneal rectal cancer, CRM involvement is an independent risk factor of recurrence and survival. Based on the results of the present study, it seems that CRM involvement in extraperitoneal rectal cancer is considered an indicator for (neo)adjuvant therapy rather than conventional TN status. PMID:27097629

  5. Tensile and Fracture Properties of Circumferentially Notched Tensile Specimens of Stainless Steel Weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tensile and fracture properties of different types of austenitic stainless steel weldments were determined using round notched tensile specimens. These included 304L, 316L and 6%Mo super austenitic stainless steels and their weld metals. The triaxial state of stress, the plastic constraint and the plane strain conditions developed ahead of the notch root make notched specimens eligible for the evaluation of fracture toughness. This was achieved through the testing procedure: J-evaluation on tensile test (JETT) using circumferentially notched round bar specimens. The JETT index was taken as a measure of the relevant elastic-plastic fracture toughness of the tested materials. In the case of austenitic stainless steels being too ductile at room temperature the resulted JETT were of relatively higher values than the fracture toughness values determined from the standard fracture mechanics test methods. This could be related to the difference in the stress state ahead of the sharp crack of the standard fracture mechanics specimen and that of the blunt notch of the tensile specimen. The results showed that the 6% Mo weld metal ranked highest while the 316L weld metal ranked lowest regarding JETT fracture toughness values. The deformation mechanisms pertinent to austenitic stainless steels (generation of stacking faults and formation of strain induced martensite) were employed for the interpretation of the experimental results.

  6. The stability of through-wall circumferential cracks in cylindrical pipes subjected to bending loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Paris and Gamble have used the tearing modulus approach to show that when a circumferential through-wall crack exists in a 304 SS circular cylindrical pipe, and the pipe is subjected to an applied bending moment, then crack growth requires the rotation at the pipe-ends to be increased, (i.e. crack growth is stable), unless the pipe length is unduly large. On this basis it was concluded that unstable fracture is unlikely to occur in BWR SS piping, when the system is designed in accord with the ASME Code load levels for normal operation and anticipated transients. The Tada-Paris-Gamble analysis focuses on the inter-relation between instability and the onset of crack extension, and does not specifically consider the possibility that a crack might become unstable after some stable crack extension. The paper addresses this aspect of the crack stability problem using a crack tip opening angle criterion for crack extension, which has similarities with the tearing modulus approach. The results show that unstable fracture should not occur even after some stable crack extension, again provided that the pipe length is not unduly large. In other words, guillotine failure of a pipe in a BWR system is unlikely, even though the ASME Code limiting stress levels as might be exceeded, as may be the case with a very severe earthquake. (orig./HP)

  7. Feasibility of radial and circumferential strain analysis using 2D speckle tracking echocardiography in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Hiroshi; Isogai, Tomomi; Aoki, Takuma; Wakao, Yoshito; Fujii, Yoko

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the feasibility of strain analysis using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) in cats and to evaluate STE variables in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Sixteen clinically healthy cats and 17 cats with HCM were used. Radial and circumferential strain and strain rate variables in healthy cats were measured using STE to assess the feasibility. Comparisons of global strain and strain variables between healthy cats and cats with HCM were performed. Segmental assessments of left ventricle (LV) wall for strain and strain rate variables in cats with HCM were also performed. As a result, technically adequate images were obtained in 97.6% of the segments for STE analysis. Sedation using buprenorphine and acepromazine did not affect any global strain nor strain rate variable. In LV segments of cats with HCM, reduced segmental radial strain and strain rate variables had significantly related with segmental LV hypertrophy. It is concluded that STE analysis using short axis images of LV appeared to be clinically feasible in cats, having the possibility to be useful for detecting myocardial dysfunctions in cats with diseased heart. PMID:25373881

  8. SERI Surgical Scaffold as an Adjunct for Circumferential Abdominoplasty and Lower Body Lift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Kornstein, MD, FACS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Patients who have undergone massive weight loss typically have poor-quality skin and fascia and thus are prone to experiencing recurrent skin laxity, bulges, and poor scarring after body contouring efforts, even in the hands of experienced surgeons. Moreover, this challenging patient population often has nutritional deficiencies and concomitant medical problems, which may lead to delayed or suboptimal wound healing. A silk-derived biological scaffold (SBS and its facilitation of autogenous tissue generation may be viewed as a qualitative reinforcement of the superficial fascial system. Therefore, it may help support and stabilize a superficial fascial system that has been weakened by obesity and other factors. When employed in body lifting for patients with massive weight loss who desire long-lasting aesthetic results, it may represent a paradigm shift that has the potential to solve at least some issues that plague this patient population. In the present case of circumferential abdominoplasty and lower body lift, this silk-based bioresorbable scaffold was implanted in one side of the patient’s body but not the other. Throughout the 7-month follow-up period, the patient and her husband (who were blinded as to which side received the SBS and the author consistently observed more favorable results for the SBS side, which included greater postoperative comfort, better shape, higher buttock position, less recurrent laxity, and less descent of the scar.

  9. The Prognostic Value of Circumferential Resection Margin Involvement in Patients with Extraperitoneal Rectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Woo; Shin, Jin Yong; Oh, Sung Jin; Park, Jong Kwon; Yu, Hyeon; Ahn, Min Sung; Bae, Ki Beom; Hong, Kwan Hee; Ji, Yong Il

    2016-04-01

    The prognostic influence of circumferential resection margin (CRM) status in extraperitoneal rectal cancer probably differs from that of intraperitoneal rectal cancer because of its different anatomical and biological behaviors. However, previous reports have not provided the data focused on extraperitoneal rectal cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the prognostic significance of the CRM status in patients with extraperitoneal rectal cancer. From January 2005 to December 2008, 248 patients were treated for extraperitoneal rectal cancer and enrolled in a prospectively collected database. Extraperitoneal rectal cancer was defined based on tumors located below the anterior peritoneal reflection, as determined intraoperatively by a surgeon. Cox model was used for multivariate analysis to examine risk factors of recurrence and mortality in the 248 patients, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of recurrence and mortality in 135 patients with T3 rectal cancer. CRM involvement for extraperitoneal rectal cancer was present in 29 (11.7%) of the 248 patients, and was the identified predictor of local recurrence, overall recurrence, and death by multivariate Cox analysis. In the 135 patients with T3 cancer, CRM involvement was found to be associated with higher probability of local recurrence and mortality. In extraperitoneal rectal cancer, CRM involvement is an independent risk factor of recurrence and survival. Based on the results of the present study, it seems that CRM involvement in extraperitoneal rectal cancer is considered an indicator for (neo)adjuvant therapy rather than conventional TN status.

  10. Interactions of a propeller with a stator-induced circumferentially varying flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnsworth, John [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Mechanical Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Troy, NY (United States); US Air Force Academy, Department of Aeronautics, Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Amitay, Michael [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Mechanical Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Troy, NY (United States); Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Center for Flow Physics and Control (CeFPaC), Troy, NY (United States); Beal, David; Huyer, Stephen A. [Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division, Vehicle Dynamics and Signature Control, Newport, RI (United States)

    2012-02-15

    The interactions of a circumferentially varying stator cascade and a downstream fixed pitch propeller were investigated experimentally. The global performance of the components and the coupled system were systematically investigated through force and moment measurements on the propulsor model in a water tunnel. In addition, the wake of the cyclic stator cascade with and without the propeller was investigated downstream from a propulsor model using the Stereoscopic PIV technique. A cyclic distribution of the stators' deflections resulted in non-axisymmetric distributions of the flow field downstream of the stator array. The stator distribution alone produced a significant side force that increased linearly with stator pitch amplitude. When a propeller was incorporated downstream from the cyclic cascade, the side force from the stator cascade was reduced, but a small normal force and pitching moment were created. The generation of these secondary forces and moments can be related to the redistribution of the tangential flow from the cyclic cascade into the axial direction by the retreating and advancing blade states of the fixed pitch propeller. (orig.)

  11. Flood inundation extent in storage cell mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.; Farahi; Saeed; Reza; Khodashenas; B.; Ghahraman; K.; Esmaeeli

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of floodplain processes in general and floodplains flooding in particular are vital issues for river engineers and managers. Insufficient observations of flood inundation extent and the infrequent nature of flood inundation necessitate some sort of predictive tools. In this paper flood inundation extent has been simulated by HEC-RAS software in two storage cell and normal modes and capabilities and limitations of the two models have been determined by comparing simulated and observed flood inundation extent which occurred in the study area on Feb 4th, 2004.

  12. Flood inundation extent in storage cell mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Farahi; Saeed Reza Khodashenas; B.Ghahraman; K.Esmaeeli

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of floodplaln processes In general and floodplains flooding in particular are vital issues for river engineers and managers.Insufficient observations of flood inundation extent and the infrequent nature of flood inundation necessitate some sort of predictive tools.In this paper flood in-undation extent has been simulated by HEC-RAS software in two storage cell and normal modes and capabilities and limitations of the two models have been determined by comparing simulated and ob-served flood inundation extent which occurred in the study area on Feb 4th, 2004.

  13. Mismatch Limit Load Analyses for V-groove Welded Pipe with Through-wall Circumferential Defect in Centre of Weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work reports the mismatch limit loads for a V-groove welded pipe for a circumferential crack using finite element (FE) analyses. To integrate the effect of groove angles on mismatch limit loads, one geometry related slenderness parameter was modified by relevant geometric parameters including the groove angle, crack depth, and root opening based on plastic deformation patterns in the theory of plasticity. Circumferential through-wall cracks are located at the centre of the weldments with two different groove angles (45 .deg., 90 .deg.). With regard to the loading conditions, axial (longitudinal) tension and bending are applied for all cases. For the parent and weld metal, elastic-perfectly plastic materials are considered to simulate and analyze under- and over-matching conditions in plasticity. The overall results from the proposed solutions are found to be similar to the FE results

  14. Circumferential 2D-strain imaging for the prediction of long term response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Gert

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT leads to hemodynamic and clinical improvement in heart failure patients. The established methods to evaluate myocardial asynchrony analyze longitudinal and radial myocardial function. This study evaluates the new method of circumferential 2D-strain imaging in the prediction of the long-term response to CRT. Methods and results 38 heart failure patients (NYHA II-III, QRS > 120 ms, LVEF Conclusion There is a significant decrease in the circumferential 2D-strain derived delays after CRT, indicating that resynchronization induces improvement in all three dimensions of myocardial contraction. However, the resulting predictive values of 2D strain delays are not superior to longitudinal and radial 2D-strain or TDI delays.

  15. Comparison of treatment for 153 cases of circumferential facial paralysis by low-power laser and galvan acupuncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Ling; Zhuo, Qing-shan

    1993-03-01

    Seventy-six patients were treated by low power He-Ne laser irradiation on Yangbai, Sibai, and other related acupoints. The other 77 cases were treated by Galvan-acupuncture with infrared radiation on the same acupoints. There was little difference between the therapeutic effects of these two groups (P > 0.05). However, the laser group had a much shorter treatment time than the other group. According to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, circumferential facial paralysis is caused by exposure to cold which blocks the channel of vital energy resulting in the damage of bodily function. Acupuncture and moxibustion on certain acupoints can warm up the channels and remove the stasis allowing vital energy to pass through their passages to regulate bodily functions. Laser can do the same effectively with much less time. The laser therapy also features painlessness, safeness, and is free of bacteria. Circumferential facial paralysis is a common disease, which is clinically treated by acupuncture with reliable results. However, acupuncture is not fit for children who are not cooperative and those patients who are afraid of the pain accompanied with acupuncture. So we applied low power laser irradiation in the treatment of circumferential facial paralysis starting in 1985. The results were favorable. And the treatment time was shortened. The treatment procedures are reported.

  16. Ross-Konno and Endocardial Fibroelastosis Resection After Hybrid Stage I Palliation in Infancy: Successful Staged Left-Ventricular Rehabilitation and Conversion to Biventricular Circulation After Fetal Diagnosis of Aortic Stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Moon-Grady, Anita J.; Moore, Phillip; Azakie, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    We report a patient who presented during fetal life with severe aortic stenosis, left-ventricular dysfunction, and endocardial fibroelastosis (evolving hypoplastic left heart syndrome). Management involved in utero and postnatal balloon aortic valvuloplasty for partial relief of obstruction and early postnatal hybrid stage I palliation until recovery of left-ventricular systolic function had occurred. The infant subsequently had successful conversion to a biventricular circulation by combinin...

  17. Treatment of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium with RP 59500 (Quinupristin-Dalfopristin) Administered by Intermittent or Continuous Infusion, Alone or in Combination with Doxycycline, in an In Vitro Pharmacodynamic Infection Model with Simulated Endocardial Vegetations

    OpenAIRE

    Aeschlimann, Jeffrey R.; Zervos, Marcus J.; Rybak, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Quinupristin-dalfopristin is a streptogramin antibiotic combination with activity against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF), but emergence of resistance has been recently reported. We studied the activity of quinupristin-dalfopristin against two clinical strains of VREF (12311 and 12366) in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model with simulated endocardial vegetations (SEVs) to determine the potential for resistance selection and possible strategies for prevention. Baseline MICs/mini...

  18. Early-phase changes of P-wave characteristics after circumferential pulmonary vein isolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Liang; JIANG Wei-feng; ZHOU Li; LIU Xu

    2013-01-01

    Background Circumferential pulmonary vein isolation (CPVI),as the basal ablation strategy for treating atrial fibrillation (AF),not only isolates the connection between the left atrium (LA) and the pulmonary veins (PVs),but also induces extensive atrial endocardia damage.This could have an effect on the sinus pulse conduction in the LA and subsequently result in changes of P-wave characteristics of surface electrocardiogram (ECG).Methods Fifty consecutive patients underwent CPVI for symptomatic drug-refractory paroxysmal AF.The 12-lead ECGs were recorded one day before CPVI and seven days after CPVI at sinus rhythm by a standard resting ECG device.Measured characteristics of the P-wave consisted of P-wave duration (PWD),P-wave amplitude (PWA),P-wave polarity (PWP),P-wave notch,P-wave dispersion and P-wave index.Results After CPVI,a prevalent decrease of PWD,PWA,and P-wave dispersion was observed; a transition of P-wave polarity was observed in the leads of Ⅲ,aVL and aVF.The rate of P-wave notch decreased significantly in all leads,especially in the leads of Ⅱ,Ⅲ,aVF and V3.Patients with sinus rhythm had a shorter P-wave dispersion and P-wave index and had a lower rate of P-wave notch compared with the patients with recurrent atrial tachyarrhythmia.Conclusion Observations from using the surface ECG showed that CPVI has instant effects on the electrical conduction in the LA,and several changes of P-wave characteristics associated with development of AF are improved by CPVI.

  19. Single-stage Posterior Spondylectomy,Circumferential Decompression and Reconstruction Using Mesh Cage for Spinal Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Zhu; Hong Zhao; Giu-xing Qiu; Jian-guo Zhang; Ye Tian; Shu-gang Li; Suo-mao Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility and clinical results of circumferential decompression and threecolumn reconstruction through single-stage posterior transpedicular approach for spinal tumor treatment.Methods Totally,24 patients with spinal tumor underwent tumor resection and spinal reconstruction through single-stage posterior transpedicular approach.Preoperatively,according to the Frankel classification,12 patients were grade E,9 grade D,and 3 grade C.Anterior column was reconstructed with non-expandable titanium cages.Posterior segmental instrumentation was used to maintain the stability of spine in all cases.Anterior and posterolateral fusion was performed with autograft and allogenic bone.The following data were followed up in these patients:deformity angle,local recurrence,neurological function,and spinal bony fusion.Results The average operating time and blood loss was 5.6 hours and 3 400 ml respectively.No intraoperative and postoperative complications were observed in this group.Postoperatively,21 patients were Frankel grade E,2 grade D,and 1 grade C.Four patients reported significant functional restoration and twenty patients reported complete resolution of pain.At follow-up(range,6-42 months),implant failure or recurrent neurological symptoms was not found.Conclusions The tumor resection and spinal reconstruction through single-stage posterior transpedicular approach is a safe and effective technique for the treatment of spinal tumor.It can fully decompress the neurological structures,correct the kyphosis,and achieve early weight-bearing.This technique can improve life quality for the patients with spinal tumor.

  20. Different bone regeneration patterns in periimplant circumferential gap defects grafted with two types of osteoconductive biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Seok; Sohn, Joo-Yeon; Lim, Hyun-Chang; Jung, Ui-Won; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to determine healing patterns in periimplant gap defect grafted with demineralized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) and porous titanium granules (PTG), which are known to induce a minimal tissue reaction and to undergo minimal biodegradation in healing process. Experiments were performed using a standardized periimplant gap-defect model in dogs with two observational periods: 4 and 8 weeks. Circumferential defects were surgically induced around dental implants on unilateral mandibles in five dogs, and collagen barrier membranes were placed over the DBBM and PTG grafts at two experimental sites and over a nongrafted site. Four weeks later, the same procedures were performed on the contralateral mandible, and the animals allowed to heal for a further 4 weeks, after which they were sacrificed and their mandibles with graft/control sites harvested for histologic evaluation. Both types of grafted biomaterials significantly enhanced the defect fill with newly formed bone, but the bone-to-implant contact (BIC) was significantly increased only at sites that had been grafted with DBBM. The two experimental sites exhibited different healing patterns, with new bone formation being observed on the surface of the DBBM particles throughout the defect, while there was no de novo bone formation on the PTG surface, but rather appositional bone growth from the base and lateral walls of the defect. It has been suggested that gap-defect filling with DBBM around dental implants may enhance both BIC and defect fill; however, the present findings show that defect grafting with PTG enhances only defect fill and not BIC. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1202-1209, 2016. PMID:26087247

  1. Fracture Toughness (K1C) evaluation for dual phase medium carbon low alloy steels using circumferential notched tensile (CNT) specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth Kanayo Alaneme

    2011-01-01

    The fracture behavior of dual phase medium carbon low alloy steels produced using two different chemical compositions (A - 0.34C, 0.75Mn, 0.12Cr, 0.13Ni steel and B - 0.3C, 0.97Mn, 0.15Cr steel) was investigated using circumferential notched tensile (CNT) specimens. Intercritical treatments were performed on samples with composition A by 1) austenitizing at 860 °C for 1 hour cooling in air, then treating at 770 °C for 30 minutes before oil quenching; 2) austenitizing at 860 °C for 1 hour quen...

  2. K{sub I}-T estimation for embedded flaws in pipes - Part II: Circumferentially oriented cracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Xudong, E-mail: cveqx@nus.edu.s [Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Singapore, 1 Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2010-04-15

    This paper, in parallel to the investigation on axially embedded cracks reported in the companion paper, presents a numerical study on the linear-elastic K{sub I} and T-stress values over the front of elliptical cracks circumferentially embedded in the wall of a pipe/cylindrical structure, under a uniform pressure applied on the inner surface of the pipe. The numerical procedure employs the interaction-integral approach to compute the linear-elastic stress-intensity factor (SIF) K{sub I} and T-stress values for embedded cracks with practical sizes at different locations in the wall of the pipe. The parametric study covers a wide range of geometric parameters for embedded cracks in the pipe, including: the wall thickness to the inner radius ratio (t/R{sub i}), the crack depth over the wall thickness ratio (a/t), the crack aspect ratio (a/c) and the ratio of the distance from the centerline of the crack to the outer surface of the pipe over the pipe wall thickness (e{sub M}/t). The parametric investigation identifies a significant effect of the remaining ligament length on both the T-stress and K{sub I} values at the crack-front location (denoted by point O) nearest to the outer surface of the pipe and at the crack-front location (denoted by point I) nearest to the inner surface of the pipe. The numerical investigation establishes the database to derive approximate functions from a nonlinear curve-fitting procedure to predict the T-stress and K{sub I} values at three critical front locations of the circumferentially embedded crack in a pipe: points O, I and M. The proposed T-stress and K{sub I} functions utilize a combined second-order polynomial and a power-law expression, which presents a close agreement with the T-stress and K{sub I} values computed from the very detailed finite element models. The comparison between the circumferentially embedded crack and the axially embedded crack indicates that both the T-stress and K{sub I} values at crack-front points O and

  3. Contribution to the Evaluation of the Circumferentially-Cracked Round Bar for Fracture Toughness Determination of Reactor Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scibetta, M

    1999-06-01

    The subject of this PhD dissertation is the use of the Circumferentially-Cracked Round Bar (CRB) for fracture toughness measurements. The main advantages of CRB are the relatively small size requirements of the testing specimens, the low cost to machine the specimen, the rotating bending fatigue allowing for easy precracking of specimens, the use of standard tensile test fixture and the axisymmetry of the specimen that avoids time consuming 3D finite element calculations. An in-depth study of the most widely used precracking technique for CRB, namely the rotating bending fatigue, is made.

  4. Prediction of weld penetration extent in GTAW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Ming; Zhai Lei

    2008-01-01

    The governing equations of surface-deformation in fully-penetrated GTA W weld pool are derived. The solution scheme of the Lagrange multiplier, which makes the top sutface-deformation equation be coupled with that for the bottomsurface of a single weld pool, is given out. Through numerical analysis of weld pool surface-deformation in GTA W,it is found that there is clear correlation between the penetration extent and the Lagrange multiplier, in addition to the relationship between the penetration extent and the maximum depression and hump as well as the depressed volume of the top surface of weld pool. It lays good foundation for top-side sensing based weld penetration control.

  5. Quantitative circumferential strain analysis using adenosine triphosphate-stress/rest 3-T tagged magnetic resonance to evaluate regional contractile dysfunction in ischemic heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Masashi, E-mail: m.nakamura1230@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Toon-city, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan); Kido, Tomoyuki [Department of Radiology, Saiseikai Matsuyama Hospital, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan); Kido, Teruhito; Tanabe, Yuki; Matsuda, Takuya; Nishiyama, Yoshiko; Miyagawa, Masao; Mochizuki, Teruhito [Department of Radiology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Toon-city, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Infarcted segments could be differentiated from non-ischemic and ischemic segments with high sensitivity and specificity under at rest conditions. • The time-to-peak circumferential strain values in infarcted segments were more significantly delayed than those in non-ischemic and ischemic segments. • Both circumferential strain and circumferential systolic strain rate values under ATP-stress conditions were significantly lower in ischemic segments than in non-ischemic segments. • Subtracting stress and rest circumferential strain had a higher diagnostic capability for ischemia relative to only utilizing rest or ATP-stress circumferential strain values. • A circumferential strain analysis using tagged MR can quantitatively assess contractile dysfunction in ischemic and infarcted myocardium. - Abstract: Purpose: We evaluated whether a quantitative circumferential strain (CS) analysis using adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-stress/rest 3-T tagged magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can depict myocardial ischemia as contractile dysfunction during stress in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). We evaluated whether it can differentiate between non-ischemia, myocardial ischemia, and infarction. We assessed its diagnostic performance in comparison with ATP-stress myocardial perfusion MR and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE)-MR imaging. Methods: In 38 patients suspected of having CAD, myocardial segments were categorized as non-ischemic (n = 485), ischemic (n = 74), or infarcted (n = 49) from the results of perfusion MR and LGE-MR. The peak negative CS value, peak circumferential systolic strain rate (CSR), and time-to-peak CS were measured in 16 segments. Results: A cutoff value of −12.0% for CS at rest allowed differentiation between infarcted and other segments with a sensitivity of 79%, specificity of 76%, accuracy of 76%, and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.81. Additionally, a cutoff value of 477.3 ms for time-to-peak CS at rest

  6. The Aerodynamic Performance of an Over-the-Rotor Liner With Circumferential Grooves on a High Bypass Ratio Turbofan Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozak, Richard F.; Hughes, Christopher E.; Buckley, James

    2013-01-01

    While liners have been utilized throughout turbofan ducts to attenuate fan noise, additional attenuation is obtainable by placing an acoustic liner over-the-rotor. Previous experiments have shown significant fan performance losses when acoustic liners are installed over-the-rotor. The fan blades induce an oscillating flow in the acoustic liners which results in a performance loss near the blade tip. An over-the-rotor liner was designed with circumferential grooves between the fan blade tips and the acoustic liner to reduce the oscillating flow in the acoustic liner. An experiment was conducted in the W-8 Single-Stage Axial Compressor Facility at NASA Glenn Research Center on a 1.5 pressure ratio fan to evaluate the impact of this over-the-rotor treatment design on fan aerodynamic performance. The addition of a circumferentially grooved over-the-rotor design between the fan blades and the acoustic liner reduced the performance loss, in terms of fan adiabatic efficiency, to less than 1 percent which is within the repeatability of this experiment.

  7. Refinement and evaluation of crack-opening-area analyses for circumferential through-wall cracks in pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leak-before-break (LBB) analyses for circumferentially cracked pipes are currently being conducted in the nuclear industry to justify elimination of pipe whip restraints and jet impingement shields which are present because of the expected dynamic effects from pipe rupture. The application of the LBB methodology frequently requires calculation of leak rates. These leak rates depend on the crack-opening area of a through-wall crack in the pipe. In addition to LBB analyses, which assume a hypothetical flaw size, there is also interest in the integrity of actual leaking cracks corresponding to current leakage detection requirements in NRC Regulatory Guide 1.45, or for assessing temporary repair of Class 2 and 3 pipes that have leaks as are being evaluated in ASME Section 11. This study was requested by the NRC to review, evaluate, and refine current analytical models for crack-opening-area analyses of pipes with circumferential through-wall cracks. Twenty-five pipe experiments were analyzed to determine the accuracy of the predictive models. Several practical aspects of crack-opening such as; crack-face pressure, off-center cracks, restraint of pressure-induced bending, cracks in thickness transition regions, weld residual stresses, crack-morphology models, and thermal-hydraulic analysis, were also investigated. 140 refs., 105 figs., 41 tabs

  8. Marcapasso endocárdico definitivo na primeira década de vida Permanent endocardial pacemaker in the first decade of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Costa

    1986-12-01

    ão necessita outros tipos de prótese para acomodar o eletrodo; 3 permite o acompanhamento seguro da criança com simples estudo radiológico; 4 preserva o sistema cava superior para a utilização na idade adulta; 5 permite, ainda, a integração social perfeita da criança, que poderá participar de atividades esportiva e de lazer, sem que o marcapasso seja notado pelas outras crianças.Pacemaker implantation in children represents a challenge due to the lack of flexibility of the existing system in relation to the growth of the patients to difficulties in choosing the best place to insert the pulse generator and to technical and social problems as well. Even in Services where the first option should have been the endocardial via, the epicardial implantation has been employed in low weight children. At the INCOR - USP, from November 1980 to October 1985, there were 21 endocardial pacemaker implantations in children at the first decade of their lives. The implantation technique consists of lead insertion through the femoral vein, leaving a loop in the right atrium and placing of the pulse generator in the illiac region. After few years, when the growth of the patient has stretched the lead, the child is reoperated to liberate more leak and to form a new loop, thus allowing the use of the same system for a very long period. The age of the patients varied from 2 months to 10 years. Thirteen of the 21 children were less than 5 years old, and 5 were in their first year of life. The predominant indication was 3rd. degree A-V block (90%, which in 75% of the cases was postoperative. In the follow-up period - three to 63 months and mean of 26 months - 3 patients died from causes unrelated to the pacemaker; the remaining patientsare well. Five children have been reoperated on to liberate the lead from the pulse generator pocket and to form a new loop in the atrium. The advantages of this technique were observed in the follow-up, as compared to epicardial and conventional endocardial

  9. Research Misconduct—Definitions, Manifestations and Extent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Bornmann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the international scientific community has been rocked by a number of serious cases of research misconduct. In one of these, Woo Suk Hwang, a Korean stem cell researcher published two articles on research with ground-breaking results in Science in 2004 and 2005. Both articles were later revealed to be fakes. This paper provides an overview of what research misconduct is generally understood to be, its manifestations and the extent to which they are thought to exist.

  10. Extent and determinants of patients' unvoiced needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Lee Lan; Sondi, Sararaks; Azman, Abu Bakar; Goh, Pik Pin; Maimunah, A Hamid; Ibrahim, Mohd Yusof; Hassan, Muhammad Radzi Abu; Letchuman, Ramanathan

    2011-09-01

    Patients with issues or health problems usually plan to discuss their concerns with their health care providers. If these concerns were not presented or voiced during the health care provider-patient encounter, the patients are considered to have unvoiced needs. This article examines the extent and possible determinants of patients' unvoiced needs in an outpatient setting. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 Ministry of Health Malaysia primary health facilities throughout the country. Of 1829 who participated, 5 did not respond to the question on planned issues. Of the 1824 respondents, 57.9% (95% confidence interval = 47.1-68.7) claimed to have issues/problems they planned to share, of whom 15.1% to 26.7% had unvoiced needs. Extent of unvoiced needs differed by employment status, perceived category of health care provider, and study center. Perceived category of health care provider, method of questionnaire administration, and study center were the only significant determinants of unvoiced needs. Unvoiced needs do exist in Malaysia and there is a need for health care providers to be aware and take steps to counter this.

  11. Circumferential fusion is dominant over posterolateral fusion in a long-term perspective: cost-utility evaluation of a randomized controlled trial in severe, chronic low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soegaard, Rikke; Bünger, Cody E; Christiansen, Terkel;

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Cost-utility evaluation of a randomized, controlled trial with a 4- to 8-year follow-up. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incremental cost per quality-adjusted-life-year (QALY) when comparing circumferential fusion to posterolateral fusion in a long-term, societal perspective. SUMMARY...... no significant difference between posterolateral and circumferential fusion reporting cost-effectiveness from a 2-year viewpoint. METHODS: A total of 146 patients were randomized to posterolateral or circumferential fusion and followed 4 to 8 years after surgery. The mean age of the cohort was 46 years (range...... of the labor market due to sickness. The EQ-5D instrument was applied for the measurement of health-related quality of life and costs (2004 U.S. dollars) were measured in a full-scale societal perspective. Productivity costs were valued by the Friction Cost method, and both costs and effects were discounted...

  12. Quantifying the Cognitive Extent of Science

    CERN Document Server

    Milojević, Staša

    2015-01-01

    While the modern science is characterized by an exponential growth in scientific literature, the increase in publication volume clearly does not reflect the expansion of the cognitive boundaries of science. Nevertheless, most of the metrics for assessing the vitality of science or for making funding and policy decisions are based on productivity. Similarly, the increasing level of knowledge production by large science teams, whose results often enjoy greater visibility, does not necessarily mean that "big science" leads to cognitive expansion. Here we present a novel, big-data method to quantify the extents of cognitive domains of different bodies of scientific literature independently from publication volume, and apply it to 20 million articles published over 60-130 years in physics, astronomy, and biomedicine. The method is based on the lexical diversity of titles of fixed quotas of research articles. Owing to large size of quotas, the method overcomes the inherent stochasticity of article titles to achieve...

  13. Comparison of circumferential pulmonary vein anatomy mapping guided by 3D mapping versus a mesh mapping catheter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Wen Yan a; Gang Chen a; Feng Zhang; Song-Wen Chen; Wei-Dong Meng; Shao-Wen Liu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Catheter-based pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is an established therapy for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. The high-density mesh mapper (HDMM) guides circumferential PV-atrium isolation without the 3D electroanatomic mapping. This study aims to compare circumferential pulmonary vein (CPV) anatomy mapping between guiding by a 3D mapping system and the HDMM. Methods: Forty-four consecutive patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation were scheduled for a first procedure for PVI. A CPV ostial anatomy map guided by HDMM was set up in the CARTO system while the operator was blinded to the CARTO screen. Then CARTO-guided ipsilateral PV maps were obtained and PVI was performed. This established another set of CPV ostial anatomy maps. The differences between the two mapping images were compared and analyzed. Results: All 176 PVs in 44 patients could be mapped by both HDMM and CARTO. About 44.9%of the PV ostial anatomies were generally similar between the two different map images. The average point-to-point straight distance between the HDMM-guided map and the CARTO-guided map was 6.2 ± 1.4 mm. The area of the circumferential right PV (CRPV) in the HDMM map was larger than that in the CARTO map (P ¼ 0.013). After a mean follow-up of 18.3 ± 4.3 months (6e24 months), 72.7%of patients (32/44) were free of atrial arrhythmia without anti-arrhythmic drugs (AADs). Conclusion: Compared to the CARTO-guided CPV anatomy image, a highly similar figure could be achieved by mapping guided by the HDMM. (Clinical trial.gov number, ChiCTR-TNRC-11001390.) Copyright © 2015, Chinese Medical Association Production. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of KeAi Communications Co., Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  14. Early posterior spinal canal decompression and circumferential reconstruction of rotationally unstable thoracolumbar burst fractures with neurological deficit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Guo-quan; WANG Yan; TANG Pei-fu; ZHANG Yong-gang; ZHANG Xue-song; GUO Yi-zhu; TAO Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Among the various treatments of neurologically involved unstable thoracolumbar burst fractures,the combination of anterior and posterior instrumentation provides the most stable reconstruction.However,the use of both approaches on a trauma patient may increase the morbidity.This study is a retrospective matched cohort study to evaluate the advantages of a single stage posterior approach for spinal canal decompression in combination with circumferential reconstruction by comparing the clinical and radiographic results.Methods From March 2005 to September 2009,patients with matched type spinal fracture,ages at surgery,and involved levels in our institute underwent either a single stage posterior approach (group one,n=12) or traditional combined approach (group two,n=14) for spinal canal decompression and circumferential reconstruction were reviewed.Pre-and post-operative X-ray films were reviewed and changes in Cobb angle of thoracolumbar spine were documented.Intra-operative,post-operative,and general complications were registered.Results The mean follow-up was (27.7±9.6) months (range,14 to 56 months) in group one and (29.2±7.4) months (range,20 to 60 months) in group two (P >0.05).The mean operation time was 214 minutes (range,186-327 minutes) in group one and 284 minutes (range,219-423 minutes) in group two (P <0.05).The average volume of intraoperative blood loss was 1856 ml (range,1250-3480 ml) in group one and 2453 ml (range,1600-3680 ml) in group two (P <0.05).There was no statistical difference between the groups one and two in average vertebral body height loss at the injured level and the average Cobb angle in sagittal plane before and immediately after surgery.Postoperatively,there was an epidural hematoma in one patient in group one and two patients in group two.Bony union after stabilization was obtained in all patients,without loosening or breakage of screws.Loss of correction (5°) was seen in 1 patient in group one at the 6th month

  15. Numerical simulation and experimental investigation of temperature distribution in the circumferentially butt GTAW of Incoloy 800H pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multi-pass circumferential butt GTAW process of Incoloy 800H pipes was modelled with the FEM in 3D. The element birth and death technique was used for the addition of filler material. Goldak model was used to simulate the distribution of arc heat source. The validation of the simulation model was carried out based on the precise temperature measurements within the HAZ of the welds by thermocouples as well as metallographic characterisation of the cross section of the welds. A good agreement was found between the simulation and experimental results for both thermal field and weld zone shape. The present model showed that increasing the heat input resulted in a wider weld zone as well as a higher HAZ peak temperature. These effects were related to the net heat input and not to either welding current or welding speed, individually. The developed simulation model is a useful tool to investigate the welding thermal regime and the weld pool profile.

  16. Transverse shear effects on the stress-intensity factor for a circumferentially cracked, specially orthotropic cylindrical shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of a cylindrical shell containing a circumferential through crack is considered by taking into account the effect of transverse shear deformations. The formulation is given for a specially orthotropic material within the confines of a linearized shallow shell theory. The particular theory used permits the consideration of all five boundary conditions regarding moment and stress resultants on the crack surface. Consequently, aside from multiplicative constants representing the stress intensity factors, the membrane and bending components of the asymptotic stress fields near the crack tip are found to be identical. The stress intensity factors are calculated separately for a cylinder under a uniform membrane load, and that under a uniform bending moment. Sample results showing the nature of the out-of-plane crack surface displacement and the effect of the Poisson's ratio are presented.

  17. Ductile fracture behavior of 3-inch diameter carbon steel piping with a circumferential through-wall crack under bending load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to introduce Leak-Before-Break (LBB) concept into the piping design criteria of the LWR pressure boundary pipings, it is necessary to investigate the pipe fracture behaviors, such as fracture condition and crack opening area, etc. At JAERI, pipe fracture tests of stainless steel and STS42 carbon steel pipes under bending load have been conducted as a part of the LBB research program. This report summarizes the four-point bending test results of 3-inch diameter STS42 carbon steel pipe with a circumferential through-wall crack. Tests were carried out at room temperature. In the tests, the fracture behavior of pipes was investigated to evolute the validity of Net-section collapse criterion, J-R curve and crack opening area. It is shown that the Net-section collapse criterion gives a conservative evaluation for the fracture load of 3-inch diameter carbon steel pipes. (author)

  18. The stability of growth of a through-wall circumferential crack in a cylindrical pipe subjected to bending deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Paris and Gamble have used the tearing modulus approach to examine the stability of growth of a through-wall circumferential crack in a 304 stainless steel circular cylindrical pipe subject to bending deformation. They showed that crack growth is stable, in the sense that growth requires the rotation imposed at the pipe-ends to be increased, provided the pipe length is less than a critical length Lsub(c), which is given by their analysis. The Tada-Paris-Gamble analysis focuses on the question of the stability, or otherwise, of crack growth at the onset of crack extension. The analysis does not consider the possibilities that (a) instability might occur after some stable crack growth, and (b) arrest might occur after some unstable growth. A study of these aspects of the circumferential crack growth problem using the tearing modulus approach is precluded by the geometry dependence of the J-crack growth resistance curve. Consequently the present paper uses a crack tip opening angle criterion to describe crack growth, and thereby demonstrates that possibilities (a) and (b) should both occur, depending on the initial crack length and pipe length. In terms of relevance to the technologically important problem of cracking in Boiling Water Reactor piping, the important conclusion stemming from the paper's analysis is that stability of crack growth after the onset of crack extension is assured if the pipe length is less than a critical length L'sub(c). L'sub(c) is less than Lsub(c), the critical length relevant to the onset of crack extension, but it is still appreciably greater than the pipe run lengths in actual reactor piping systems, and safety against guillotine failure of a pipe is therefore generally assured. (author)

  19. OUTCOME OF POSTEROLATERAL FUSION VERSUS CIRCUMFERENTIAL FUSION WITH CAGE FOR LUMBAR STENOSIS AND LOW DEGREE LUMBAR SPONDYLOLISTHESIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the outcome of two methods for stabilization and fusion: posterolateral fusion and circumferential fusion involving posterior lumbar interbody fusion for lumbar stenosis with Grades 1 and 2 lumbar spondylolisthesis. Methods From April 1998 to April 2003, 45 patients suffering from lumbar stenosis with low degree lumbar spondylolisthesis treated in our hospital were retrospectively reviewed and assigned to two groups. Among them, 24 patients (group A) were treated with instrumented posterolateral fusion and 21 patients (group B) with instrumented circumferential fusion. The two groups were compared for clinical and radiological outcomes. Results All patients were followed up for 12 to 72 months. In group A, results showed preoperative clinical symptoms disappeared completely in 12 of 24 patients, and pain relief was seen in 91.7% (22/24). Two cases suffered from residual symptoms. Twenty-two cases obtained complete reduction of olisthy vertebral bodies, and anatomical reduction rate was 91.7%. No infection or neurological complication occurred in this group. In group B, results showed preoperative clinical symptoms disappeared completely in 13 of 21 patients, and pain relief was seen in 90. 5% ( 19/21 ). One case suffered from residual symptoms. Twenty cases obtained complete reduction of the olisthy vertebral bodies, and anatomical reduction rate was 95.2%. Four cases of infection or neurological complication occurred in this group. Both groups indicated no significant difference in clinical outcomes and anatomical reduction rate during followup. But group A had better intraoperative circumstances and postoperative outcome than group B, while group B had better postoperative parameters in X-ray of Angle of Slipping and Disc Index than group A.Conclusions The first choice of surgical method for lumbar stenosis with low degree lumbar spondylolisthesis is instrumented posterolateral fusion. Only when patients suffer from severe preoperative disc

  20. Modeled Combined Extent of All Columbia River Basalt Units (CRB_extent4xconnections)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile was created as a boundary for the Columbia River Basalt extent and a buffered version was used to clip the geomodel unit grids. As part of a U.S....

  1. The distribution and extent of lunar swirls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denevi, Brett W.; Robinson, Mark S.; Boyd, Aaron K.; Blewett, David T.; Klima, Rachel L.

    2016-07-01

    The mysterious high-reflectance loops and ribbons known as swirls are not uncommon on the Moon, but are apparently unique to this body. We mapped their distribution and extent using ultraviolet-visible images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera. We find two main geographic groupings of swirls (South Pole-Aitken Basin and Marginis-King) and a host of smaller features including swirls near craters Abel, Crozier, Dewar, and Dufay X. All mapped swirls are associated with magnetic anomalies and swirls have magnetic field strengths shifted to higher values than their background, though there is not a 1:1 correspondence between the locations of swirls and magnetic anomalies. Swirls are also found in regions with iron abundances shifted to higher-than-background values, which could indicate that their formation is inhibited by low iron content. The most distinguishing characteristic of swirls is a low 321/415 nm ratio coupled with moderate to high reflectance, and swirls generally have high optical maturity (OMAT) parameter values, stronger 1-μm bands, and shallower normalized continuum slopes than their surroundings, consistent with a surface that has experienced less space weathering. However, some swirls cannot be discerned in OMAT or band-depth images. Areas with low 321/415 nm ratios but non-distinct visible-near-infrared properties could be related to the presence of fresh silicates or a glassy component that does not have a substantial abundance of embedded large submicroscopic iron grains (i.e., a difference in the agglutinate fraction of the soil). Swirl color properties vary with distance from Copernican and some Eratosthenian craters; their association with Eratostheninan craters suggests fresh material may be preserved longer in swirls than in non-swirl regions.

  2. Total hip replacement using hemi-circumferential interposition acetabuloplasty for acetabular deficiency in post-Perthes deformities: technique and long-term results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Haverkamp; H. Eijer; R.K. Marti

    2006-01-01

    We describe a technique of hemi-circumferential interposition grafting that allows placement of the cup in the anatomical position of the original acetabulum in the rare cases of post-Perthes or Perthes-like deformities of the femoral head combined with a steep and shallow acetabulum. This technique

  3. Rehabilitation program for prosthetic tracheojejunal voice production and swallowing function following circumferential pharyngolaryngectomy and neopharyngeal reconstruction with a jejunal free flap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.W.J. Baijens; R. Speijer; N. Roodenburg; F.J.M. Hilgers

    2011-01-01

    The case of a 68-year-old woman with postoperative speech and swallowing problems following a circumferential pharyngolaryngectomy and neopharyngeal reconstruction with a jejunal free flap is presented. The primary tumor was an extended papillary thyroid carcinoma (pT4N0M0). For vocal restoration, a

  4. The May 2005 eruption of Fernandina volcano, Galápagos: The first circumferential dike intrusion observed by GPS and InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, W.W.; Jonsson, Sigurjon; Geist, Dennis J.; Poland, M.; Johnson, Daniel J.; Batt, S.; Harpp, Karen S.; Ruiz, A.

    2011-01-01

    The May 2005 eruption of Fernandina volcano, Galápagos, occurred along circumferential fissures parallel to the caldera rim and fed lava flows down the steep southwestern slope of the volcano for several weeks. This was the first circumferential dike intrusion ever observed by both InSAR and GPS measurements and thus provides an opportunity to determine the subsurface geometry of these enigmatic structures that are common on Galápagos volcanoes but are rare elsewhere. Pre- and post- eruption ground deformation between 2002 and 2006 can be modeled by the inflation of two separate magma reservoirs beneath the caldera: a shallow sill at ~1 km depth and a deeper point-source at ~5 km depth, and we infer that this system also existed at the time of the 2005 eruption. The co-eruption deformation is dominated by uplift near the 2005 eruptive fissures, superimposed on a broad subsidence centered on the caldera. Modeling of the co-eruption deformation was performed by including various combinations of planar dislocations to simulate the 2005 circumferential dike intrusion. We found that a single planar dike could not match both the InSAR and GPS data. Our best-fit model includes three planar dikes connected along hinge lines to simulate a curved concave shell that is steeply dipping (~45–60°) toward the caldera at the surface and more gently dipping (~12–14°) at depth where it connects to the horizontal sub-caldera sill. The shallow sill is underlain by the deep point source. The geometry of this modeled magmatic system is consistent with the petrology of Fernandina lavas, which suggest that circumferential eruptions tap the shallowest parts of the system, whereas radial eruptions are fed from deeper levels. The recent history of eruptions at Fernandina is also consistent with the idea that circumferential and radial intrusions are sometimes in a stress-feedback relationship and alternate in time with one another.

  5. Radiofrequency Ablation Mapping with Circumferential Catheter for Paroxys-mal Atrial Fibrillation Originating From the Pulmonary Veins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘震; 吴书林; 杨平珍; 方咸宏; 李海杰; 陈泗林; 詹贤章; 薛玉梅

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To assessed thefeasibility and effectiveness of electrophysiologicalmapping of pulmonary veins with a circumferential 10-electrode catheter and radiofrequency catheter abla-tion therapy for patients with paroxysmal atrial fibril-lation. Background Standard mapping and ablationof focal sources of atrial fibrillation are associated withvery long procedure times and low efficacy. Mappingand ablation pulmonary veins guide with a circularcatheter could overcome these limitations. Methods16 patients [male 11, female 5, mean age (51 +14.5) years] with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation refrac-tory to antiarrhythmic drugs were included in thisgroup. A circumferential 10-electrode catheter wasused to pulmonary vein mapping during sinus rhythm orCSd pacing to determine the origin of atrial prematurecontractions. When the ablative target pulmonary veinwas found, the pulmonary vein potentials' distributionand activation were assessment pulmonary veins' ostialablation was performed at the segments showing earliestactivation of pulnonary vein potentials. The end pointwas designed: 1 ) elimination of pulmonary vein po-tential; 2) pulmonary vein potential dissociation fromatrial waves; 3) atrial ectopic beats disappear. ResultsA total of 36 pulmonary veins were ablated, in-cluding 16 left superior, 12 right superior, 7 left in-ferior and 1 right inferior. 1 pulmonary vein in 2 pa-tients was ablated, 2 pulmonary veins in 8 patientswere ablated, 3 pulmonary veins were ablated in 5patients and 4 pulmonary veins were ablated in 1 pa-tient. Procedure duration and fluoroscopy time respec-tively were 186.7 _+ 63.8 min and 51.5 + 15.0 min.During the follow-up 1- 12 months, 11 patients(68.7 % ) were free of AF without any antiarrhythmicdrugs, 2 of them were reablation, effective in 3/16(18.7%) and unsuccessful in 2/16 (12.6%) . 2cases recurred with atrial premature, 1 was treated withamiodarone and the other was repeat electrophysiologi-cal mapping and ablation, 5 cases with

  6. Wall thickness measurement using resonant phenomena of circumferential Lamb waves generated by plural transducer elements located evenly on girth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Hideo; Iwata, Kodai; Ishikawa, Masashi

    2016-07-01

    We present a novel method of measuring the pipe wall thickness using the resonance of the circumferential (C-) Lamb wave generated by a piezoelectric ring-shaped sensor (PS). The PS is a special device for an axially propagating torsional wave; however, the C-Lamb waves are generated simultaneously as spurious signals owing to the structure of the PS. Particularly under resonant conditions, the C-Lamb waves are dominantly generated, distorting the axially propagating wave. In this method, these troublesome spurious signals are used effectively for the measurement of the wall thickness under the PS location that is a dead zone of the PS itself. The method can compensate for its drawback, namely, the dead zone problem, without using additional instruments. In this study, the mechanisms of the generation and resonance of the C-Lamb waves were first explained. Secondly, the principle of the wall thickness estimation utilizing the resonance of the C-Lamb waves was proposed. Finally, experimental verifications were carried out. The estimated wall thicknesses agreed very well (maximum 1.5% error) with those measured by a micrometer caliper under suitable resonant conditions.

  7. Crack-tip Stress Field of Fully Circumferential Surface Cracked Pipe Under Combined Tension and Thermal Loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under excessive plasticity, the fracture toughness of a material depends on its size and geometry. Under fully yielded conditions, the stresses in a material near its crack tip are not unique but rather depend on the geometry. Therefore, the single-parameter J-approach is limited to a high-constraint crack geometry. The JQ theory has been proposed for establishing the crack geometry constraints . This approach assumes that the crack-tip fields have two degrees of freedom. In this study, the crack-tip stress field of a fully circumferential surface-cracked pipe under combined loads is investigated on the basis of the JQ theory by using finite element analysis. The combined loads are a tensile axial force and the thermal gradient in the radial direction. Q-stresses of the crack geometry and its loading state are used to determine the constraint effects. The constraint effects of secondary loading are found to be greater than those of primary loading. Therefore, thermal shock is believed to be the most severe loading condition of constraint effects

  8. New matrix method for response analysis of circumferentially stiffened non-circular cylindrical shells under harmonic pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the governing equation of vibration of a kind of cylindrical shells written in a matrix differential equation of the first order, a new matrix method is presented for steady-state vibration analysis of a noncircular cylindrical shell simply supported at two ends and circumferentially stiffened by rings under harmonic pressure. Its difference from the existing works by Yamada and Irie is that the matrix differential equation is solved by using the extended homogeneous capacity precision integration approach other than the Runge-Kutta-Gill integration method. The transfer matrix can easily be determined by a high precision integration scheme. In addition, besides the normal interacting forces, which were commonly adopted by researchers earlier, the tangential interacting forces between the cylindrical shell and the rings are considered at the same time by means of the Dirac-δ function. The effects of the exciting frequencies on displacements and stresses responses have been investigated. Numerical results show that the proposed method is more efficient than the aforementioned method.

  9. Nondestructive Evaluation of Functionally Graded Subsurface Damage on Cylinders in Nuclear Installations Based on Circumferential SH Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Qu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface damage could affect the service life of structures. In nuclear engineering, nondestructive evaluation and detection of the evaluation of the subsurface damage region are of great importance to ensure the safety of nuclear installations. In this paper, we propose the use of circumferential horizontal shear (SH waves to detect mechanical properties of subsurface regions of damage on cylindrical structures. The regions of surface damage are considered to be functionally graded material (FGM and the cylinder is considered to be a layered structure. The Bessel functions and the power series technique are employed to solve the governing equations. By analyzing the SH waves in the 12Cr-ODS ferritic steel cylinder, which is frequently applied in the nuclear installations, we discuss the relationship between the phase velocities of SH waves in the cylinder with subsurface layers of damage and the mechanical properties of the subsurface damaged regions. The results show that the subsurface damage could lead to decrease of the SH waves’ phase velocity. The gradient parameters, which represent the degree of subsurface damage, can be evaluated by the variation of the SH waves’ phase velocity. Research results of this study can provide theoretical guidance in nondestructive evaluation for use in the analysis of the reliability and durability of nuclear installations.

  10. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE AND EXIT FLOW FIELD OF LOW PRESSURE AXIAL FLOW FAN WITH CIRCUMFERENTIAL SKEWED BLADES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the low pressure axial flow fan with circumferential skewed rotor blade, including the radial blade, the forward-skewed blade and the backward-skewed blade, was studied with experimental methods. The aerodynamic performance of the rotors was measured. At the design condition at outlet of the rotors, detailed flow measurements were performed with a five-hole probe and a Hot-Wire Anemometer (HWA). The results show that compared to the radial rotor, the forward-skewed rotor demonstrates a wider Stable Operating Range (SOR), is able to reduce the total pressure loss in the hub region and make main loading of blade accumulating in the mid-span region. There is a wider wake in the upper mid-span region of the forward-skewed rotor. Compared to the radial rotor, in the backward-skewed rotor there is higher total pressure loss near the hub and shroud regions and lower loss in the mid-span region. In addition, the velocity deficit in the wake is lower at mid-span of the backward-skewed rotor than the forward-skewed rotor.

  11. Effect of anxiety and depression on the recurrence of persistent atrial fibrillation after circumferential pulmonary vein ablation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Sheng-bo; HU Wei; ZHAO Qing-yan; QIN Mu; HUANG He; CUI Hong-ying; HUANG Cong-xin

    2012-01-01

    Background The effects of anxiety and depression on the recurrence of persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) after circumferential pulmonary vein ablation (CPVA) are not clear.Whether CPVA can alleviate the anxiety and depression symptoms of persistent AF patients is unknown.Methods One hundred and sixty-four patients with persistent AF,of which 43 treated with CPVA (CPVA group) and 103 treated with anti-arrhythmics drugs (medicine group),were enrolled.The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS),and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) were assessed before and 12 months after treatment in all patients.Results The scores of SAS (40.33±7.90 vs.49.76±9.52,P <0.01) and SDS (42.33±8.73 vs.48.17±8.77,P <0.01)decreased 12 months after CPVA.Over 12 months follow-up,AF relapsed in 17 patients in CPVA group.Compared with the data in the recurrent group (17 patients),the scores of SAS and SDS were significantly lower in the non-recurrent group (26 patients) at baseline.The results of multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed normal scores of SAS and SDS were the independent risk factors of AF recurrence after CPVA.Conclusions Anxiety and depression increase the recurrence risk of persistent AF after CPVA.CPVA can ameliorate the anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with persistent AF.

  12. Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent - Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH) products provide measurements of daily sea ice extent and sea ice edge boundary for the...

  13. Severe Left Atrioventricular Valve Regurgitation Due to Discontinuity between the Leaflets of the Aortic and Left Atrioventricular Valves in a Patient with Endocardial Cushion Defect: A Rare Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabati, Maryam; Habibi, Valiolla; Soleimani, Aria; Shokri, Mojtaba

    2015-06-01

    Discontinuities between the leaflets of the aortic and left atrioventricular valves are uncommon congenital malformations. The anomaly may be discovered during surgery without preoperative diagnosis. It represents a spectrum of anomalies that result from interruption of the normal development of the endocardial cushions during the fetal life. We describe a rare case of Down syndrome with transient complete atrioventricular block and discontinuity between the leaflets of the aortic and left atrioventricular valves without intervening fibrous band, leading to separation and detachment between them. It caused severe eccentric jet of regurgitation originated from left ventricular outflow tract and base of anterior leaflet of left atrioventricular valve into the left atrium. He underwent cardiopulmonary bypass, and the defect between left atrioventricular valve and aortic annuli was sewn. Permanent epicardial pacing was inserted during cardiac surgery. To the best of our knowledge, such a case has not been previously reported in the literature. PMID:25483555

  14. The use of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime labelled granulocytes with single-photon emission tomography imaging in the detection and follow-up of recurrence of infective endocarditis complicating transvenous endocardial pacemaker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramackers, J.M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU E. Herriot, Lyon (France); Kotzki, P.O. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Lapeyronie et A. de Villeneuve, Montpellier (France); Couret, I. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Lapeyronie et A. de Villeneuve, Montpellier (France); Messner-Pellenc, P. [Department of Cardiology, CHU Lapeyronie et A. Villeneuve, Montpellier (France); Davy, J.M. [Department of Cardiology, CHU Lapeyronie et A. Villeneuve, Montpellier (France); Rossi, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Lapeyronie et A. de Villeneuve, Montpellier (France)

    1995-11-01

    In this case report we present a patient with a recurrence of subacute bacterial infectious endocarditis (IE) complicating a transvenous endocardial pacemaker. Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) labelled granulocytes were used for diagnosis and follow-up under medical treatment only, since surgical removal of the pacemaker lead was ruled out because of the general condition of the patient. Single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging displayed the active lesion previously suspected on echography. At the end of antibiotic therapy, SPET indicated a favourable disease outcome whereas echocardiographic abnormalities remained nearly unchanged. The medical treatment had eradicated the IE, and the patient did well for more than 1 year thereafter. (orig.)

  15. 完全性心内膜垫缺损合并右室双出口的双心室修复%Biventricular refair for endocardial cushion defects with double outlet right ventricle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李富骊; 尤斌; 李平; 郑铁; 许李力; 徐屹; 刘硕

    2011-01-01

    目的 总结完全性心内膜垫缺损合并右室双出口双心室修复的经验.方法 2006年7月至209年11月对6例完全性心内膜垫缺损合并右室双出口病人采用双片法修补完全性心内膜垫缺损,人工血管补片作右心室内隧道,连接室间隔缺损与主动脉口,引导左心室血经内隧道进入主动脉;应用牛心包补片扩大右室流出道;肺动脉瓣环小者用带瓣补片跨环修补右室流出道;心室内隧道有可能阻塞右室流出道造成重度梗阻者,右室流出道与主肺动脉之间安置带瓣管道(Rastelli手术).结果 术后死亡1例,占16.6%,其余病例恢复良好.结论 完全性心内膜垫缺损合并右室双出口一期双心室修复可获得良好效果.%Objective Double-outlet right ventricle,which often associated with total anomalous pulmonary venous connection and complete endocardial cushion defects,has been considered a risk factor for biventricular repair procedure.To reviewed cases treated by biventricular repair for endocardial cushion defects with double outlet right ventricle.Methods From July to November of 2009,6 patients (3 males and 3 females) aged from 7 to 24 (16.17±5.98) years and with endocardial cushion defects and double outlet right ventricle underwent operation of biventricular repair The duration of follow-up ranged from 10 days to 2 years(median,16 months).Endocardial cushion defects were repaired with a 2-patch technique.The artificial vascular patch was implanted to connect the ventricular septal defects and the aorta for draining the blood stream from the left ventricle to the aorta.The other patch was used to repair the ostium primum atrial septal defects.Right ventricular outflow tract obstructions was released and reconstructed by transplanting a bovine pericardium patch.If the size of pulmonary valve annulus was far more below the normal,a transannular pericardial patch was used.Rastelli procedure with a valved conduit between the right

  16. Systolic and diastolic myocardial mechanics in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and their link to the extent of hypertrophy, replacement fibrosis and interstitial fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucifora, Gaetano; Muser, Daniele; Gianfagna, Pasquale; Morocutti, Giorgio; Proclemer, Alessandro

    2015-12-01

    Aim of the present study was to investigate the relations between myocardial mechanics and the extent of hypertrophy and fibrosis in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Forty-five consecutive patients with HCM and 15 subjects without structural heart disease were included. Cardiac magnetic resonance with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging was performed to evaluate biventricular function, LV mass index and presence/extent of LGE, expression of replacement fibrosis. Myocardial T1 relaxation, a surrogate of interstitial fibrosis, was measured from Look-Locker sequence. Feature-tracking analysis was applied to LV basal, mid and apical short-axis images to assess systolic and diastolic global LV circumferential strain (CS) and strain rate (CSr). Peak systolic CS and CSr were significantly higher among HCM patients as compared to control subjects (p = 0.015 and p = 0.007, respectively). The ratio of peak CSr during early filling to peak systolic CSr was significantly lower among HCM patients (p = 0.002). At multivariate linear regression analysis, LV mass index (p mechanics are enhanced and LV diastolic mechanics are impaired in HCM. Extent of hypertrophy and replacement fibrosis influence the LV systolic mechanics while extent of replacement fibrosis and interstitial fibrosis influence the LV diastolic mechanics.

  17. Stress Intensity Factor for a Circumferential Crack in a Finite-Length Thin to Thick Walled Cylinder under an Arbitrary Biquadratic Stress Distribution on the Crack Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    MESHII, Toshiyuki; WATANABE, Katsuhiko

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a practical method, by using prepared tabulated data, tocalculate the mode I stress intensity factor (SIF) for an inner surface circumferential crack in a finitelength cylinder. The crack surfaces are subjected to an axisymmetric stress with an arbitrary biquadraticradial distribution. The method was derived by applying the authors’ weight function for the crack. Thiswork is based on the thin shell theory and the Petroski-Achenbach method. Our method is ...

  18. Leakage Failure Reason Analysis of Circumferential Weld for Natural Gas Pipeline%天然气输送管道环焊缝泄漏失效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡美娟; 刘迎来; 朱丽霞; 齐丽华; 杨放

    2014-01-01

    通过断口形貌、金相分析以及力学性能检测等方法对某X80天然气输送管道环焊缝泄漏产生的原因进行了失效分析。分析结果表明,环焊缝焊接接头的拉伸性能符合Q/SY GJX 0110-2007《西气东输二线管道工程线路焊接技术规范》要求,但焊缝和热影响区的冲击性能均未达到焊接技术规范的要求,管道环焊缝泄漏裂纹位于环焊缝6点位置根焊区域,此位置根焊进行过内补焊作业,补焊焊缝焊趾处存在的焊接缺陷是环焊缝开裂泄漏的主要原因。%The leakage failure reason of circumferential weld for some X80 natural gas pipeline was analyzed by means of fracture morphology, microstructure observation and mechanical properties tests. The results showed that the tensile performance of welded joint for circumferential weld accord with the requirements of Q/SY GJX 0110-2007 Welding Technology Specification for the Second West-to-East Gas Pipeline Project, and the impact toughness of weld and HAZ both fail to meet the welding requirements of technical specification. The leaking crack of circumferential weld lies in the six position of root welding zone, and repair welding was implemented in the six position of root welding. The main leakage failure reason of circumferential weld was the welding defects close to the toe zone of the repair welding.

  19. Accuracy of High-Resolution MRI with Lumen Distention in Rectal Cancer Staging and Circumferential Margin Involvement Prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with lumen distention for rectal cancer staging and circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement prediction. Seventy-three patients with primary rectal cancer underwent high-resolution MRI with a phased-array coil performed using 60-80 mL room air rectal distention, 1-3 weeks before surgery. MRI results were compared to postoperative histopathological findings. The overall MRI T staging accuracy was calculated. CRM involvement prediction and the N staging, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were assessed for each T stage. The agreement between MRI and histological results was assessed using weighted-kappa statistics. The overall MRI accuracy for T staging was 93.6% (k = 0.85). The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for each T stage were as follows: 91.8%, 86.2%, 95.5%, 92.6% and 91.3% for the group ≤ T2; 90.4%, 94.6%, 86.1%, 87.5% and 94% for T3; 98,6%, 85.7%, 100%, 100% and 98.5% for T4, respectively. The predictive CRM accuracy was 94.5% (k = 0.86); the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 89.5%, 96.3%, 89.5%, and 96.3% respectively. The N staging accuracy was 68.49% (k = 0.4). MRI performed with rectal lumen distention has proved to be an effective technique both for rectal cancer staging and involved CRM predicting

  20. Accuracy of High-Resolution MRI with Lumen Distention in Rectal Cancer Staging and Circumferential Margin Involvement Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannicelli, Elsa; Di Renzo, Sara [Radiology Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Ferri, Mario [Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Pilozzi, Emanuela [Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Di Girolamo, Marco; Sapori, Alessandra [Radiology Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Ziparo, Vincenzo [Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); David, Vincenzo [Radiology Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with lumen distention for rectal cancer staging and circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement prediction. Seventy-three patients with primary rectal cancer underwent high-resolution MRI with a phased-array coil performed using 60-80 mL room air rectal distention, 1-3 weeks before surgery. MRI results were compared to postoperative histopathological findings. The overall MRI T staging accuracy was calculated. CRM involvement prediction and the N staging, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were assessed for each T stage. The agreement between MRI and histological results was assessed using weighted-kappa statistics. The overall MRI accuracy for T staging was 93.6% (k = 0.85). The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for each T stage were as follows: 91.8%, 86.2%, 95.5%, 92.6% and 91.3% for the group ≤ T2; 90.4%, 94.6%, 86.1%, 87.5% and 94% for T3; 98,6%, 85.7%, 100%, 100% and 98.5% for T4, respectively. The predictive CRM accuracy was 94.5% (k = 0.86); the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 89.5%, 96.3%, 89.5%, and 96.3% respectively. The N staging accuracy was 68.49% (k = 0.4). MRI performed with rectal lumen distention has proved to be an effective technique both for rectal cancer staging and involved CRM predicting.

  1. Sparing Sphincters and Laparoscopic Resection Improve Survival by Optimizing the Circumferential Resection Margin in Rectal Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Metin; Bayraktar, Adem; Sivirikoz, Emre; Yegen, Gülcin; Karip, Bora; Saglam, Esra; Bulut, Mehmet Türker; Balik, Emre

    2016-02-01

    The goal of rectal cancer treatment is to minimize the local recurrence rate and extend the disease-free survival period and survival. For this aim, obtainment of negative circumferential radial margin (CRM) plays an important role. This study evaluated predictive factors for positive CRM status and its effect on patient survival in mid- and distal rectal tumors.Patients who underwent curative resection for rectal cancer were included. The main factors were demographic data, tumor location, surgical technique, neoadjuvant therapy, tumor diameter, tumor depth, lymph node metastasis, mesorectal integrity, CRM, the rate of local recurrence, distant metastasis, and overall and disease-free survival. Statistical analyses were performed by using the Chi-squared test, Fisher exact test, Student t test, Mann-Whitney U test and the Mantel-Cox log-rank sum test.A total of 420 patients were included, 232 (55%) of whom were male. We observed no significant differences in patient characteristics or surgical treatment between the patients who had positive CRM and who had negative CRM, but a higher positive CRM rate was observed in patients undergone abdominoperineal resection (APR) (P CRM status. Logistic regression analysis revealed that APR (P CRM status. Moreover, positive CRM was associated with decreased 5-year overall and disease-free survival (P = 0.002 and P = 0.004, respectively).This large single-institution series demonstrated that APR and open resection were independent predictive factors for positive CRM status in rectal cancer. Positive CRM independently decreased the 5-year overall and disease-free survival rates.

  2. Fracture Toughness (K1C evaluation for dual phase medium carbon low alloy steels using circumferential notched tensile (CNT specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Kanayo Alaneme

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The fracture behavior of dual phase medium carbon low alloy steels produced using two different chemical compositions (A - 0.34C, 0.75Mn, 0.12Cr, 0.13Ni steel and B - 0.3C, 0.97Mn, 0.15Cr steel was investigated using circumferential notched tensile (CNT specimens. Intercritical treatments were performed on samples with composition A by 1 austenitizing at 860 °C for 1 hour cooling in air, then treating at 770 °C for 30 minutes before oil quenching; 2 austenitizing at 860 °C for 1 hour quenching in oil, then treating at 770 °C for 30 minutes before quenching in oil; and 3 austenitizing at 860 °C for 1 hour, super-cooling to 770 °C and then quenching in oil. Samples of composition B were subjected to intercritical treatment at temperatures of 740, 760, and 780 °C for 30 minutes, followed by quenching rapidly in oil. Tensile testing was then performed on specimens without notches and the CNT specimens. It was observed that the dual phase steel produced from procedure (2 yielded a fine distribution of ferrite and martensite which gave the best combination of tensile properties and fracture toughness for composition A while the dual phase structure produced by treating at 760 °C yielded the best combination of tensile properties and fracture toughness for composition B. The fracture toughness results evaluated from the test were found to be valid (in plain strain condition and a high correlation between the fracture toughness and notch tensile strength was observed. The fracture toughness values were also found to be in close agreement with data available in literature.

  3. The May 2005 eruption of Fernandina volcano, Galápagos: The first circumferential dike intrusion observed by GPS and InSAR

    KAUST Repository

    Chadwick, William W Jr

    2010-12-15

    The May 2005 eruption of Fernandina volcano, Galápagos, occurred along circumferential fissures parallel to the caldera rim and fed lava flows down the steep southwestern slope of the volcano for several weeks. This was the first circumferential dike intrusion ever observed by both InSAR and GPS measurements and thus provides an opportunity to determine the subsurface geometry of these enigmatic structures that are common on Galápagos volcanoes but are rare elsewhere. Pre- and post- eruption ground deformation between 2002 and 2006 can be modeled by the inflation of two separate magma reservoirs beneath the caldera: a shallow sill at ~1 km depth and a deeper point-source at ~5 km depth, and we infer that this system also existed at the time of the 2005 eruption. The co-eruption deformation is dominated by uplift near the 2005 eruptive fissures, superimposed on a broad subsidence centered on the caldera. Modeling of the co-eruption deformation was performed by including various combinations of planar dislocations to simulate the 2005 circumferential dike intrusion. We found that a single planar dike could not match both the InSAR and GPS data. Our best-fit model includes three planar dikes connected along hinge lines to simulate a curved concave shell that is steeply dipping (~45-60°) toward the caldera at the surface and more gently dipping (~12-14°) at depth where it connects to the horizontal sub-caldera sill. The shallow sill is underlain by the deep point source. The geometry of this modeled magmatic system is consistent with the petrology of Fernandina lavas, which suggest that circumferential eruptions tap the shallowest parts of the system, whereas radial eruptions are fed from deeper levels. The recent history of eruptions at Fernandina is also consistent with the idea that circumferential and radial intrusions are sometimes in a stress-feedback relationship and alternate in time with one another. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Assessment of Extent and Degree of Thermal Damage to Polymeric Materials in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal damage to susceptible materials in accessible regions of the TMI-2 reactor building shows damage-distribution patterns that indicate non-uniform intensity of exposure. No clear explanation for non-uniformity is found in existing evidence; e.g., in some regions a lack of thermally susceptible materials frustrates analysis. Elsewhere, burned materials are present next to materials that seem similar but appear unscathed-leading to conjecture that the latter materials preferentially absorb water vapor during periods of high local steam concentration. Most of the polar crane pendant shows heavy burns on one half of its circumferential surface. This evidence suggests that the polar crane pendant side that experienced heaviest burn damage was exposed to intense radiant energy from a transient fire plume in the reactor containment volume. Tests and simple heat-transfer calculations based on pressure and temperature records from the accident show that the atmosphere inside the reactor building was probably 8% hydrogen in air, a value not inconsistent with the extent of burn damage. Burn-pattern geography indicates uniform thermal exposure in the dome volume to the 406-ft level (about 6 ft below the polar crane girder), partial thermal exposure in the volume between the 406- and 347-ft levels as indicated by the polar crane cable, and lack of damage to most thermally susceptible materials in the west quadrant of the reactor building; some evidence of thermal exposure Is seen in the free volume between the 305- and 347-ft levels. (author)

  5. 38 CFR 21.3303 - Extent of training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determines that the eligible person's physical or mental condition permits training for that amount of time... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extent of training. 21.... Chapter 35 Special Restorative Training § 21.3303 Extent of training. (a) Length of special...

  6. 14 CFR 252.8 - Extent of smoking restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extent of smoking restrictions. 252.8... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.8 Extent of smoking restrictions. The restrictions on smoking described in §§ 252.3 through 252.7 shall apply to all locations within the aircraft....

  7. Does Trust Influence the Extent of Inter-Organizational Barter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    2014-01-01

    /or services are not exchanged at the same time, using barter tends to lead to a higher solvency risk than using money. Therefore, it is possible to theoretize that there is relation between the level of trust and the extent of barter use; namely that a higher level of trust leads to a higher extent...

  8. 5 CFR 1.4 - Extent of the excepted service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extent of the excepted service. 1.4 Section 1.4 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES COVERAGE AND DEFINITIONS (RULE I) § 1.4 Extent of the excepted service. (a) The excepted service shall include all...

  9. 32 CFR 728.12 - Extent of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extent of care. 728.12 Section 728.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE FOR... § 728.12 Extent of care. Members who are away from their duty stations or are on duty where there is...

  10. 46 CFR 172.235 - Extent of damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BULK CARGOES Special Rules Pertaining to Great Lakes Dry Bulk Cargo Vessels § 172.235 Extent of damage... Damage Collision Penetration Longitudinal extent 0.495 L2/3 or 47.6 feet. (1/3 L2/3 or 14.5 m),...

  11. 基于直接数字合成技术用于心内膜三维标测的激励源设计%Excitation source design for endocardial three-dimensional mapping based on direct digital synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈中中; 田国强; 苏智剑; 郑伟

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The excitation source's design is precondition of detecting the catheter's position in endocardial three-dimensional (3D) mapping by low-frequency electric field.OBJECTIVE: To design an excitation source for endocardial 3D mapping with simple structure and high integration, furthermore,to test the performance of the excitation source through animal experiments.M ETHODS : Three channel different frequencies (28, 30, 32 kHz) sine voltage signals were generated based on the direct digital synthesis (DDS) technology and modularization design through three AD9851 chip controlled by single-chip microcomputer STC89C52. The excitation source's performance is analyzed by acquisition and processing the localization signal in animal right atrium.RESOULTS AND CONCLUSION: The animal experimental results show that three signals' current value can be stable at 1mA and the frequency errors are 0.054%, 0.097%, 0.056%, respectively, furthermore, voltage signals in three directions can be extracted from the mapping catheter's sampling data. The excitation source has little frequency error and higher constant-current performance, and therefore can satisfy the endocardial mapping requirements.%背景:低频电场定位方式下的心内膜三维标测技术中,激励源的设计是探测导管位置的前提.目的:旨在设计一种结构简单、集成度高、专用于心内膜三维标测的激励源,并通过动物实验对激励源性能进行测试分析.方法:基于直接数字合成技术,采用模块化设计,以单片机STC89C52控制三块直接数字合成芯片AD9851为核心,生成三路频率分别为28,30,32 kHz的1 mA正弦恒流信号.施加三路信号于动物体,采集并处理右心房内的定位信号数据,对激励源性能进行评价和分析.结果与结论:动物实验结果表明,三路信号的电流值均可稳定于1 mA,其频率误差分别为0.054%,0.097%及0.056%,同时标测导管采集数据正常,能够分离出3个方向的

  12. 铝合金桁架环缝自动焊机的研制%Design and manufacture of automatic circumferential welding equipment for aluminium alloy boom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田松亚; 封艳

    2012-01-01

    根据铝合金桁架铝合金管材与接头环缝焊接要求,设计并制造了一台专用焊接设备.根据焊接时序要求,采用可编程控制器实现对焊接设备逻辑顺序的控制,并制定了铝合金桁架铝合金管材与接头环缝的惰性气体保护焊MIG自动焊接工艺.结果表明,该焊机自动化程度高、性能稳定、操作简便,能够满足铝桁架铝合金管材与接头环缝自动焊生产要求,同时提高了生产率.依据制定的焊接工艺,进行了焊接试验.焊接试验表明,制定的工艺所获得的铝合金桁架铝合全管材与接头对接接头,满足焊缝质量要求.%According to the requirements of aluminium alloy boom circumferential welding,this paper design and manufacture a special automatic welding equipment.In terms of weld time sequence requirement,PLC is used to implement the control of welding device logical subsequence.besides.work out the MIG automatic welding procedure of circumferential welding.The Result shows that the welding device displays high degree of automation,stable performance and convenient movement,which could satisfy production requirements of aluminium alloy boom automatic circumferential welding and improve productivity .Based on the welding procedure, welding experiment is done.The result indicates that welding procedure could reach the quality requirements of welding joint.

  13. Magnetic resonance-derived circumferential strain provides a superior and incremental assessment of improvement in contractile function in patients early after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Dennis T.L.; Psaltis, Peter J. [University of Adelaide, Discipline of Medicine, Adelaide (Australia); South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute (SAHMRI), Adelaide (Australia); Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (Monash Medical Centre)Monash University and Monash Heart, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Leong, Darryl P.; Weightman, Michael J.; Richardson, James D.; Worthley, Matthew I.; Worthley, Stephen G. [University of Adelaide, Discipline of Medicine, Adelaide (Australia); Dundon, Benjamin K.; Leung, Michael C.H.; Meredith, Ian T. [Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (Monash Medical Centre)Monash University and Monash Heart, Clayton, VIC (Australia)

    2014-06-15

    We evaluate whether circumferential strain derived from grid-tagged CMR is a better method for assessing improvement in segmental contractile function after STEMI compared to late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). STEMI patients post primary PCI underwent baseline CMR (day 3) and follow-up (day 90). Cine, grid-tagged and LGE images were acquired. Baseline LGE infarct hyperenhancement was categorised as ≤25 %, 26-50 %, 51-75 % and >75 % hyperenhancement. The segmental baseline circumferential strain (CS) and circumferential strain rate (CSR) were calculated from grid-tagged images. Segments demonstrating an improvement in wall motion of ≥1 grade compared to baseline were regarded as having improved segmental contractile-function. Forty-five patients (aged 58 ± 12 years) and 179 infarct segments were analysed. A baseline CS cutoff of -5 % had sensitivity of 89 % and specificity of 70 % for detection of improvement in segmental-contractile-function. On receiver-operating characteristic analysis for predicting improvement in contractile function, AUC for baseline CS (0.82) compared favourably to LGE hyperenhancement (0.68), MVO (0.67) and baseline-CSR (0.74). On comparison of AUCs, baseline CS was superior to LGE hyperenhancement and MVO in predicting improvement in contractile function (P < 0.001). On multivariate-analysis, baseline CS was the independent predictor of improvement in segmental contractile function (P < 0.001). Grid-tagged CMR-derived baseline CS is a superior predictor of improvement in segmental contractile function, providing incremental value when added to LGE hyperenhancement and MVO following STEMI. (orig.)

  14. The effect of deformation on unloading compliance values of TPB specimens and throughwall circumferentially cracked straight pipes under four point bending load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compliance technique is one of the convenient methods to measure crack growth during fracture experiments. One correlation expressing crack size as a function of unloading compliance is the prerequisite of this technique. Conventionally, compliance correlation is derived by generating compliance VI crack length data by performing small displacement linear elastic finite element analysis. However, it does not account for the large geometric deformation that may take place during the loading of the specimen. The unloading compliance may be influenced by the increasing stiffness of the specimen because of change In basic geometry. It is, therefore, of interest to study the effect of deformation on the unloading compliance. In the present work, elastic-plastic finite element analysis is carried out on three point bend (TPB) specimens and throughwall circumferentially cracked pipes under four point bending load. In case of TPB specimens, unloading compliance correlation is available. However, this correlation does not consider the effect of deformation on the compliance. The objective of this study is, therefore to investigate whether deformation of the TPB specimen changes the unloading compliances or not and whether this change, if any, warrants any modifications in the existing compliance correlation. In case of throughwall circumferentially cracked straight pipe under four point bending load which is a common component for fracture studies, no such compliance correlation is available. Because of ovalisation of pipe cross section during deformation, compliance not only depends on current crack length, but also on current load. In the present work, elastic-plastic finite element analysis has been carried out on pipes having various diameter, thickness and circumferential throughwall crack sizes. The objective is to study how initial elastic compliance of pipe is affected by deformation of the original circular cross section. From the foregoing analyses, two

  15. Circumferential decompression via the posterior approach for the surgical treatment of multilevel thoracic ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligaments: a single institution comparative study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiao; Zhu Bin; Liu Xiaoguang; Liu Zhongjun; Dang Gengting

    2014-01-01

    Background The treatment strategies for multilevel thoracic ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligaments (T-OPLL) were rarely reported.The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes and complications of circumferential decompression for multilevel T-OPLL and compare two different methods in the management of the OPLL (resection or floating).Methods Data of sequentially treated patients who received surgical treatment for thoracic spinal stenosis caused by multilevel T-OPLL from January 2005 to February 2012 were retrospectively reviewed.Based on the surgical approaches applied,the patients were divided into two groups.Group A consisted the patients who received posterior decompression and group B consisted the patients who received circumferential decompression via the posterior approach.Group B was further divided into two subgroups:subgroup 1 (the resection group) where the OPLL was completely resected and subgroup 2 (the floating group) where the OPLL was floated.Results A total of 49 patients were included in the study.Fourteen patients with single posterior decompression were included in group A and 35 patients who received circumferential decompression were included in group B.In group B,29 patients had complete resection of the ossified posterior longitudinal ligaments,while the other six underwent a flotation procedure.The follow-up data were available in 39 patients.Mean JOA scores improved from 5.4 ± 1.8 to 7.5 ± 2.8 in group A and from 3.7 ± 1.8 to 7.9 ± 2.4 in group B.The main complications included cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage and postoperative neurologic deterioration (ND).Twenty-three of the 25 cases with postoperative CSF leakage achieved a complete recovery at the last follow-up and 12 of the 15 cases with ND achieved some neurological improvement at the last follow-up.Conclusions Circumferential decompression via the posterior approach is an effective surgical method for thoracic spinal stenosis caused by

  16. Reconstructed North American Snow Extent, 1900-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains reconstructed monthly North American snow extent values for November through March, 1900-1993. Investigators used a combination of satellite...

  17. Vapor Intrusion Facility Boundaries - Approximate Extent of Contamination

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Theses polygons represent the approximate extent of contamination for Vapor Intrusion facilities. Polygons for non-Federal Facility sites were updated in January,...

  18. Treatment of Lung Carcinoid by Type and Extent of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Lung Carcinoid Tumor » Detailed Guide » Treatment of lung carcinoid, by type and extent of disease Share this Page Close Push escape to close share window. Print ...

  19. Dynamic preconditioning of the September sea-ice extent minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James; Tremblay, Bruno; Newton, Robert; Allard, Richard

    2016-04-01

    There has been an increased interest in seasonal forecasting of the sea-ice extent in recent years, in particular the minimum sea-ice extent. We propose a dynamical mechanism, based on winter preconditioning through first year ice formation, that explains a significant fraction of the variance in the anomaly of the September sea-ice extent from the long-term linear trend. To this end, we use a Lagrangian trajectory model to backtrack the September sea-ice edge to any time during the previous winter and quantify the amount of sea-ice divergence along the Eurasian and Alaskan coastlines as well as the Fram Strait sea-ice export. We find that coastal divergence that occurs later in the winter (March, April and May) is highly correlated with the following September sea-ice extent minimum (r = ‑0.73). This is because the newly formed first year ice will melt earlier allowing for other feedbacks (e.g. ice albedo feedback) to start amplifying the signal early in the melt season when the solar input is large. We find that the winter mean Fram Strait sea-ice export anomaly is also correlated with the minimum sea-ice extent the following summer. Next we backtrack a synthetic ice edge initialized at the beginning of the melt season (June 1st) in order to develop hindcast models of the September sea-ice extent that do not rely on a-priori knowledge of the minimum sea-ice extent. We find that using a multi-variate regression model of the September sea-ice extent anomaly based on coastal divergence and Fram Strait ice export as predictors reduces the error by 41%. A hindcast model based on the mean DJFMA Arctic Oscillation index alone reduces the error by 24%.

  20. Assessment of Myocardial Contractile Function Using Global and Segmental Circumferential Strain following Intracoronary Stem Cell Infusion after Myocardial Infarction: MRI Feature Tracking Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) strain analysis is a sensitive method to assess myocardial function. Our objective was to define the feasibility of MRI circumferential strain (εcc) analysis in assessing subtle changes in myocardial function following stem cell therapy. Methods and Results. Patients in the Amorcyte Phase I trial were randomly assigned to treatment with either autologous bone-marrow-derived stem cells infused into the infarct-related artery 5 to 11 days following primary PCI or control. MRI studies were obtained at baseline, 3, and 6 months. εcc was measured in the short axis views at the base, mid and apical slices of the left ventricle (LV) for each patient (13 treatments and 10 controls). Mid-anterior LV εcc improved between baseline −18.5 ± 8.6 and 3 months −22.6 ± 7.0, P = 0.03. There were no significant changes in εcc at 3 months and 6 months compared to baseline for other segments. There was excellent intraobserver and interobserver agreement for basal and mid circumferential strain. Conclusion. MRI segmental strain analysis is feasible in assessment of regional myocardial function following cell therapy with excellent intra- and inter-observer variability's. Using this method, a modest interval change in segmental εcc was detected in treatment group

  1. Cerebral hemodynamic difference between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease by circumferential profile analysis with 123I-IMP brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted investigation to determine whether early- and late-onset Alzheimer's diseases differ pathophysiologically. Five patients with the early-onset (65 years and under) of the disease and 11 with the late-onset (65 years and over) of the disease were studied by single photon emission CT (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (IMP). Circumferential profile analysis (CPA) was performed to examine differences in the predominant hypoperfusion in the temporoparietal lobe, which is considered to be functionally damaged the most in Alzheimer's disease. The Xm values, calculated from gradients between the motorsensory or occipital cortices and temporoparietal cortex in the circumferential profile curve, were compared in both groups. The Xm values for patients with early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease were 6.81±2.10 (counts/degree) and 3.28±1.58, respectively, the difference being significant. Our results suggest that functional abnormalities in the temporoparietal area severer in early- than late-onset Alzheimer's disease and that the application of CPA to IMP SPECT is useful to elucidate the pathophysiological difference between each of the disease. (author)

  2. New Evaluation on the Preoxidation Extent of Different PAN Precursors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wangxi ZHANG; Jie LIU; Jieying LIANG

    2004-01-01

    Structural changes in carbon fibers at each stage of, especially, preoxidation process are well known to play a great role in achieving the ultimate product quality. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM), density method and optical microscope were used to characterize the preoxidation extent. A conventional pproach, e.g., density aim, to evaluate the extent of preoxidation is not very exact. A DSC curve of a PAN precursor only can provide general information, major in the temperature regime of preoxidation reaction. However,the evaluation of a preoxidation extent, especially from conventional preoxidation temperature with a great span egime of 200~400℃, is put forward in this paper, in which the evolution of core/shell morphological structure is a kind of straightforward evidence.

  3. The 2014 high record of Antarctic sea ice extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massonnet, Francois; Guemas, Virginie; Fuckar, Neven; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    In September 2014, Antarctic sea ice extent exceeded the symbolic level of 20 million km²for the first time since 1978, when reliable satellite measurements became available. After the successive records of 2012 and 2013, sea ice extent in 2014 once again reinforced the positive trend observed since the late 1970s. We conduct here a dedicated study to elucidate the origins of a major, and perhaps the most intriguing, event that happened at our Poles recently. Observations, reanalyses and model results all point towards the important role of winds in modifying near-surface heat advection patterns around Antarctica. The role of pre-conditioning (summer conditions) is found to be of lesser importance. Finally, we find no evidence that anomalous freshwater forcing (from atmospheric or continental origin) could have explained the record extent of 2014.

  4. Real-time flood extent maps based on social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilander, Dirk; van Loenen, Arnejan; Roskam, Ruud; Wagemaker, Jurjen

    2015-04-01

    During a flood event it is often difficult to get accurate information about the flood extent and the people affected. This information is very important for disaster risk reduction management and crisis relief organizations. In the post flood phase, information about the flood extent is needed for damage estimation and calibrating hydrodynamic models. Currently, flood extent maps are derived from a few sources such as satellite images, areal images and post-flooding flood marks. However, getting accurate real-time or maximum flood extent maps remains difficult. With the rise of social media, we now have a new source of information with large numbers of observations. In the city of Jakarta, Indonesia, the intensity of unique flood related tweets during a flood event, peaked at 8 tweets per second during floods in early 2014. A fair amount of these tweets also contains observations of water depth and location. Our hypothesis is that based on the large numbers of tweets it is possible to generate real-time flood extent maps. In this study we use tweets from the city of Jakarta, Indonesia, to generate these flood extent maps. The data-mining procedure looks for tweets with a mention of 'banjir', the Bahasa Indonesia word for flood. It then removes modified and retweeted messages in order to keep unique tweets only. Since tweets are not always sent directly from the location of observation, the geotag in the tweets is unreliable. We therefore extract location information using mentions of names of neighborhoods and points of interest. Finally, where encountered, a mention of a length measure is extracted as water depth. These tweets containing a location reference and a water level are considered to be flood observations. The strength of this method is that it can easily be extended to other regions and languages. Based on the intensity of tweets in Jakarta during a flood event we can provide a rough estimate of the flood extent. To provide more accurate flood extend

  5. Circumferential lesion formation around the pulmonary veins in the left atrium with focused ultrasound using a 2D-array endoesophageal device: a numerical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichardo, Samuel; Hynynen, Kullervo [Imaging Research-Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Room C713, Toronto, ON M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2007-08-21

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequently sustained cardiac arrhythmia affecting humans. The electrical isolation by ablation of the pulmonary veins (PVs) in the left atrium (LA) of the heart has been proven as an effective cure of AF. The ablation consists mainly in the formation of a localized circumferential thermal coagulation of the cardiac tissue surrounding the PVs. In the present numerical study, the feasibility of producing the required circumferential lesion with an endoesophageal ultrasound probe is investigated. The probe operates at 1 MHz and consists of a 2D array with enough elements (114 x 20) to steer the acoustic field electronically in a volume comparable to the LA. Realistic anatomical conditions of the thorax were considered from the segmentation of histological images of the thorax. The cardiac muscle and the blood-filled cavities in the heart were identified and considered in the sound propagation and thermal models. The influence of different conditions of the thermal sinking in the LA chamber was also studied. The circumferential ablation of the PVs was achieved by the sum of individual lesions induced with the proposed device. Different scenarios of lesion formation were considered where ultrasound exposures (1, 2, 5 and 10 s) were combined with maximal peak temperatures (60, 70 and 80 {sup 0}C). The results of this numerical study allowed identifying the limits and best conditions for controlled lesion formation in the LA using the proposed device. A controlled situation for the lesion formation surrounding the PVs was obtained when the targets were located within a distance from the device in the range of 26 {+-} 7 mm. When combined with a maximal temperature of 70 {sup 0}C and an exposure time between 5 and 10 s, this distance ensured preservation of the esophageal structures, controlled lesion formation and delivery of an acoustic intensity at the transducer surface that is compatible with existing materials. With a peak

  6. Spatial extent in demographic research - approach and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the starting methodological problems in demographic research is the definition of spatial extent, which mostly doesn’t correspond to spatial extent already defined by different levels of administrative-territorial unitsthat are used for distribution of usable statistical data. That’s why determining the spatial extent of a demographic research is closely tied with administrative-territorial division of the territory that is being researched, wherein the fact that differentiation of demographic phenomena and processes cannot be the only basis of setting the principles of regionalization must be strictly acknowledged. This problem is particularly common in historical demographic analyses of geographically determined wholes, which are in administratively-territorial sense represented by one or more smaller territorial units, with their borders changing through the history, which directly affects comparability of the statistical data, and makes it considerably more difficult to track demographic change through longer time intervals. The result of these efforts is usually a solution based on a compromise which enables us to examine the dynamics of population change with little deviation from already defined borders of regional geographic wholes. For that reason in this paper the problem of defining spatial extent in demographic research is examined trough several different approaches in case of Eastern Serbia, as a geographically determined region, a historic area, a spatially functioning whole and as a statistical unit for demographic research, with no judgment calls in regard to any of the regionalization principles. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47006

  7. The Extent and Nature of Bullying in a Christian School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazeltine, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is a problem that has been studied in schools worldwide, but there is little research on bullying within Christian schools, a dearth which may stem from the assumption that Christian schools teach character traits that are inimical to bullying. Yet understanding the extent and nature of bullying in Christian schools may lead to a better…

  8. 45 CFR 400.202 - Extent of Federal funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Extent of Federal funding. 400.202 Section 400.202... CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Federal Funding Federal Funding for Expenditures for Determining Eligibility and Providing Assistance and Services §...

  9. 5 CFR 1.2 - Extent of the competitive service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extent of the competitive service. 1.2 Section 1.2 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES COVERAGE AND... pursuant to statute or by the Office of Personnel Management (hereafter referred to in this subchapter...

  10. The Extent of Educational Technology's Influence on Contemporary Educational Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Bradford-Watts

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates how advances in educational technologies have influenced contemporary educational practices.It discusses the nature of educational technology, the limitations imposed by the digital divide and other factors of uptake, and the factors leading to successful implementation of educational technologies.The extent of influence is then discussed,together with the probable implications for educational sites for the future.

  11. Spatial flood extent modelling. A performance based comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, M.G.F.

    2004-01-01

    The rapid development of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) has together with the inherent spatial nature of hydrological modelling led to an equally rapid development in the integration between GIS and hydrological models. The advantages of integration are particularly apparent in flood extent

  12. 42 CFR 31.16 - Retired personnel; extent of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retired personnel; extent of treatment. 31.16 Section 31.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR CERTAIN PERSONNEL OF THE COAST GUARD, NATIONAL OCEAN SURVEY,...

  13. To What Extent Do Gestalt Grouping Principles Influence Tactile Perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallace, Alberto; Spence, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Since their formulation by the Gestalt movement more than a century ago, the principles of perceptual grouping have primarily been investigated in the visual modality and, to a lesser extent, in the auditory modality. The present review addresses the question of whether the same grouping principles also affect the perception of tactile stimuli.…

  14. Simplified change detection method for flood extent mapping using SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, S. A.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Policelli, F.

    2011-12-01

    Radar-derived flood maps have the benefit of providing flood hazard information regardless of cloud cover or time of day. Disaster relief agencies are seeking increasingly accurate flood extent maps to better provide support to inundated regions. Several flood extent mapping methods have been developed (Kussul et al, 2008, Matgen et al., 2011), some which require fore-knowledge of the original water extent. None of the methods researched provide flood mapping in areas where the double-bounce effect may brighten a pixel, such as vegetated or urban areas. Utilizing the current available radar satellite resources, European Space Agency's ENVISAT/ASAR and the Canadian Space Agency's Radarsat-2, a simple change detection method was developed for rapid flood extent mapping in open and vegetated and/or urban areas. For each flood event, a "dry" image is chosen for the same area and the pixel values are subtracted: "dry" minus "flooded". A decision tree classification is then used to mask steeply sloped pixels and to apply threshold criteria for flooding. Pixels less than the mean minus the standard deviation are classified as flooded, pixels greater than the mean plus the standard deviation times a threshold coefficient (usually 1.75 or 2.00) are classified as flooded in vegetated and/or urban areas. Segmentation is then performed on the "flooded" and "flooded in vegetation" classes separately to remove any scattered pixels, and finally the flooded regions are extracted as separate vectors. Flood maps were created for the 2009 floods in southern Africa and compared with MODIS Flood Maps. The 2008 and 2010 hurricane-related flooding in Haiti was also evaluated. The simplified change detection method provides a standardized means to flood extent mapping, which can capture flooding in open and vegetated regions using imagery from active radar.

  15. Is crack branching under shear loading caused by shear fracture? ——A critical review on maximum circumferential stress theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宗颀

    2001-01-01

    When a crack is subjected to shear force, crack branching usually occurs. Theoretical study shows that the crack branching under shear loading is caused by tensile stress, but not caused by shear fracture. The co-plane shear fracture could be obtained if compressive stress with given direction is applied to the specimen, subsequently, calculated shear fracture toughness, KⅡ C, is larger than KⅠ C. A prerequisite of possible occurrence of mode Ⅱ fracture was proposed. The study of shear fracture shows that the maximum circumferential stress theory considered its criterion as a parametric equation of a curve in KⅠ, KⅡ plane is incorrect; the predicted ratio KⅡ C/KⅠ C=0.866 is incorrect too.

  16. Application of fracture-proof design methods using tearing-instability theory to nuclear piping postulating circumferential through-wall cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents methods of applying tearing instability analysis to large circumferential through-wall cracks in piping to demonstrate cases of adequate ductility to avoid double ended break. The first part gives results of applying simplified rigid-plastic cracked section analysis to some typical piping systems and subsequently gives some additional refinements of this type of analysis. The second part presents full elastic-plastic cracked section analysis which demonstrates the adequacy of rigid-plastic analysis for most cases and provides the methodology where elastic-plastic analysis is required. The results combined with adequate treatment of material property data and other deformation limiting and load limiting aspects of as-built piping systems, provides a complete analysis of subject

  17. A method for the measurement of dispersion curves of circumferential guided waves radiating from curved shells: experimental validation and application to a femoral neck mimicking phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauleau, Pierre; Minonzio, Jean-Gabriel; Chekroun, Mathieu; Cassereau, Didier; Laugier, Pascal; Prada, Claire; Grimal, Quentin

    2016-07-01

    Our long-term goal is to develop an ultrasonic method to characterize the thickness, stiffness and porosity of the cortical shell of the femoral neck, which could enhance hip fracture risk prediction. To this purpose, we proposed to adapt a technique based on the measurement of guided waves. We previously evidenced the feasibility of measuring circumferential guided waves in a bone-mimicking phantom of a circular cross-section of even thickness. The goal of this study is to investigate the impact of the complex geometry of the femoral neck on the measurement of guided waves. Two phantoms of an elliptical cross-section and one phantom of a realistic cross-section were investigated. A 128-element array was used to record the inter-element response matrix of these waveguides. This experiment was simulated using a custom-made hybrid code. The response matrices were analyzed using a technique based on the physics of wave propagation. This method yields portions of dispersion curves of the waveguides which were compared to reference dispersion curves. For the elliptical phantoms, three portions of dispersion curves were determined with a good agreement between experiment, simulation and theory. The method was thus validated. The characteristic dimensions of the shell were found to influence the identification of the circumferential wave signals. The method was then applied to the signals backscattered by the superior half of constant thickness of the realistic phantom. A cut-off frequency and some portions of modes were measured, with a good agreement with the theoretical curves of a plate waveguide. We also observed that the method cannot be applied directly to the signals backscattered by the lower half of varying thicknesses of the phantom. The proposed approach could then be considered to evaluate the properties of the superior part of the femoral neck, which is known to be a clinically relevant site.

  18. 环形大腿吸脂术150例体会%A clinical analysis of circumferential thigh liposuction: 150 cases report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎石峰; 李俊明; 张昕霞; 江华; 李琳

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨一种安全有效的大腿吸脂塑形的方法.方法 自2008年4月至2012年5月,采用持续硬膜外麻醉+肿胀麻醉下行360°环形吸脂术,对150例求美者大腿进行吸脂塑形.结果 本组求美者150例,术中麻醉效果好,出血少,术后随访3~9个月,吸脂塑形效果好,并发症少.结论 持续硬膜外麻醉+肿胀麻醉下行360°环形大腿吸脂术是一种安全、有效的方法,值得临床推广.%Objective To explore a safe and effective liposuction method for the thigh lipostructure.Methods From April 2008 to May 2012,circumferential bilateral thigh liposuction under continuous epidural anesthesia combined with local tumescent anesthesia was performed on 150 cases.Results Satisfactory results were received with good intraoperative anesthetic effect and less bleeding.After 3 to 9 months follow-up,satisfied thigh contour was obtained in all cases with few postoperative complications.Conclusion Circumferential thigh liposuction under continuous epidural anesthesia combined with local tumescent anesthesia is a safe and efficacy approach for thigh lipostructure.

  19. Effects of steroids and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition on circumferential strain in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study utilizing cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinnett Kathi J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Steroid use has prolonged ambulation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD and combined with advances in respiratory care overall management has improved such that cardiac manifestations have become the major cause of death. Unfortunately, there is no consensus for DMD-associated cardiac disease management. Our purpose was to assess effects of steroid use alone or in combination with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI or angiotension receptor blocker (ARB on cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR derived circumferential strain (εcc. Methods We used CMR to assess effects of corticosteroids alone (Group A or in combination with ACEI or ARB (Group B on heart rate (HR, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, mass (LVM, end diastolic volume (LVEDV and circumferential strain (εcc in a cohort of 171 DMD patients >5 years of age. Treatment decisions were made independently by physicians at both our institution and referral centers and not based on CMR results. Results Patients in Group A (114 studies were younger than those in Group B (92 studies(10 ± 2.4 vs. 12.4 ± 3.2 years, p cc magnitude was lower in Group B than Group A (-13.8 ± 1.9 vs. -12.8 ± 2.0, p = 0.0004, age correction using covariance analysis eliminated this effect. In a subset of patients who underwent serial CMR exams with an inter-study time of ~15 months, εcc worsened regardless of treatment group. Conclusions These results support the need for prospective clinical trials to identify more effective treatment regimens for DMD associated cardiac disease.

  20. 基于PLC的钢管环缝焊接性能研究%Performance of circumferential welding for steel tube based on PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈怀忠; 许雪贵; 黄芳

    2014-01-01

    PLC technique was applied for controlling the CO2 gas shielded welding process of circumferential welding for 20MnCr steel tube. The corrosion resistance,thermal fatigue resistance,tensile and impact properties were tested and analyzed. The results show that compared with the common control method,the PLC control technique can obtain better corrosion resistance, thermal fatigue resistance,tensile and impact properties of welding joint. After neutral salt-spray corrosion for 240 h,the mass loss rate of circumferential welding joint by PLC technique decreases by 65%,tensile strength at 20℃increases by 15%,and impact energy at 20℃increases by 26%.%在20MnCr钢管环缝CO2气体保护焊控制过程中引入PLC技术,进行焊接接头耐腐蚀性能、抗热疲劳性能、拉伸和冲击性能的测试与对比分析。结果表明:与传统控制技术相比,采用PLC技术获得的焊接接头具有更优的耐腐蚀性能、抗热疲劳性能、拉伸和冲击性能;经过240 h中性盐雾腐蚀后质量损失率降低了65%;20℃抗拉强度增加15%、冲击吸收功增加26%。

  1. A method for the measurement of dispersion curves of circumferential guided waves radiating from curved shells: experimental validation and application to a femoral neck mimicking phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauleau, Pierre; Minonzio, Jean-Gabriel; Chekroun, Mathieu; Cassereau, Didier; Laugier, Pascal; Prada, Claire; Grimal, Quentin

    2016-07-01

    Our long-term goal is to develop an ultrasonic method to characterize the thickness, stiffness and porosity of the cortical shell of the femoral neck, which could enhance hip fracture risk prediction. To this purpose, we proposed to adapt a technique based on the measurement of guided waves. We previously evidenced the feasibility of measuring circumferential guided waves in a bone-mimicking phantom of a circular cross-section of even thickness. The goal of this study is to investigate the impact of the complex geometry of the femoral neck on the measurement of guided waves. Two phantoms of an elliptical cross-section and one phantom of a realistic cross-section were investigated. A 128-element array was used to record the inter-element response matrix of these waveguides. This experiment was simulated using a custom-made hybrid code. The response matrices were analyzed using a technique based on the physics of wave propagation. This method yields portions of dispersion curves of the waveguides which were compared to reference dispersion curves. For the elliptical phantoms, three portions of dispersion curves were determined with a good agreement between experiment, simulation and theory. The method was thus validated. The characteristic dimensions of the shell were found to influence the identification of the circumferential wave signals. The method was then applied to the signals backscattered by the superior half of constant thickness of the realistic phantom. A cut-off frequency and some portions of modes were measured, with a good agreement with the theoretical curves of a plate waveguide. We also observed that the method cannot be applied directly to the signals backscattered by the lower half of varying thicknesses of the phantom. The proposed approach could then be considered to evaluate the properties of the superior part of the femoral neck, which is known to be a clinically relevant site. PMID:27272197

  2. Assessing the Global Extent of Rivers Observable by SWOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelsky, T.; Durand, M. T.; Andreadis, K.; Beighley, E.; Allen, G. H.; Miller, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Flow of water through rivers is among the key fluxes in the global hydrologic cycle and its knowledge would advance the understanding of flood hazards, water resources management, ecology, and climate. However, gauges providing publicly accessible measurements of river stage or discharge remain sparse in many regions. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission is a joint project of NASA and the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) that would provide the first high-resolution images of simultaneous terrestrial water surface height, inundation extent, and ocean surface elevation. Among SWOT's primary goals is the direct observation of variations in river water surface elevation and, where possible, estimation of river discharge from SWOT measurements. The mission science requirements specify that rivers wider than 100 m would be observed globally, with a goal of observing rivers wider than 50m. However, the extent of anticipated SWOT river observations remains fundamentally unknown because no high-resolution, global dataset of river widths exists. Here, we estimate the global extent of rivers wider than 50 m-100 m thresholds using established relationships among river width, discharge, and drainage area. We combine a global digital elevation model with in situ river discharge data to estimate the global extent of SWOT-observable rivers, and validate these estimates against satellite-derived measurements of river width in two large river basins (the Yukon and the Ohio). We then compare the extent of SWOT-observed rivers with the current publicly-available, global gauge network included in the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC) database to examine the impact of SWOT on the availability of river observation over continental and global scales. Results suggest that if SWOT observes 100 m wide rivers, river basins with areas greater than 50,000 km2 will commonly be measured. If SWOT could observe 50 m wide rivers, then most 10,000 km2 basins

  3. Terror And Territory: The Spatial Extent Of Sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José Mendonça

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The text consists of one review of the book Terror and territory: the spatial extent of sovereignty (2009 English geographer Stuart Elden. The work provides an approach of territory as the spatial extent of political sovereignty, which conceives importance to the notion of terror as a fundamental quality of the territory as a form punitive of control executed within the recognized boundaries, through use the monopoly of legitimate violence that state power has. However, the territorial sovereignty that evokes modern state, Elden argues, has become contingent after the terrorist attacks of September 11 (2001, when the USA unleashed a policy of “war on terror”, unilaterally applying the law of international intervention.

  4. Extent of hippocampal atrophy predicts degree of deficit in recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patai, Eva Zita; Gadian, David G; Cooper, Janine M; Dzieciol, Anna M; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-10-13

    Which specific memory functions are dependent on the hippocampus is still debated. The availability of a large cohort of patients who had sustained relatively selective hippocampal damage early in life enabled us to determine which type of mnemonic deficit showed a correlation with extent of hippocampal injury. We assessed our patient cohort on a test that provides measures of recognition and recall that are equated for difficulty and found that the patients' performance on the recall tests correlated significantly with their hippocampal volumes, whereas their performance on the equally difficult recognition tests did not and, indeed, was largely unaffected regardless of extent of hippocampal atrophy. The results provide new evidence in favor of the view that the hippocampus is essential for recall but not for recognition. PMID:26417089

  5. The extent of emphysema in patients with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Saher Burhan; Stavngaard, Trine; Hestad, Marianne;

    2009-01-01

    measurement and visual and quantitative assessment of CT, from which the relative area of emphysema below -910 Hounsfield units (RA-910) was extracted. RESULTS: Mean RA-910 was 7.4% (n = 5) in patients with GOLD stage I, 17.0% (n = 119) in stage II, 24.2% (n = 79) in stage III and 33.9% (n = 6) in stage IV......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The global initiative for COPD (GOLD) adopted the degree of airway obstruction as a measure of the severity of the disease. The objective of this study was to apply CT to assess the extent of emphysema in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and relate...... this extent to the GOLD stage of airway obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 209 patients with COPD. COPD was defined as FEV(1)/FVC or=20 pack-years. Patients were assessed by lung function...

  6. The spatial extent of the effect of foreclosures on crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, Seth B; Stucky, Thomas D; Ottensmann, John R

    2015-01-01

    Although neighborhood stability has long been considered a substantial determinant of crime, foreclosures have not been the subject of concerted research among criminologists until recently. A number of recent studies have examined the linkage between home foreclosures and crime. Though generally finding a significant relationship, studies have used different approaches and units of analysis. This variation led us to examine the spatial extent to which foreclosures affect a relatively small surrounding area. In this paper, we consider the spatial extent of the foreclosure effect on crime by estimating fixed effect negative binomial models using geocoded UCR data for 2003-2008 and foreclosure data to predict crime counts using the number of foreclosures within various small area radii. Results show that, independently and jointly, foreclosures are a predictor of crime up to at least a distance of 2250 feet. Importantly, that effect declines with distance. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of those findings.

  7. A report on the extent of radioisotope usage in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A market survey was carried out to study the extent of radioisotope usage in Malaysia. From the survey, the radioisotopes and their activities/quantities that are used in Industry, Medicine and Research were identified. The radioisotopes that are frequently needed or routinely used were also determined and this formed the basis of the recommendations put forward in this report. It is proposed that PUSPATI adopt the concept of a Distribution Centre in order to provide a service to the Malaysian community. (author)

  8. Estimating Global Cropland Extent with Multi-year MODIS Data

    OpenAIRE

    Justice, Christopher O; Potapov, Peter V.; Kyle Pittman; Inbal Becker-Reshef; Hansen, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the suitability of 250 m MODIS (MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for mapping global cropland extent. A set of 39 multi-year MODIS metrics incorporating four MODIS land bands, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and thermal data was employed to depict cropland phenology over the study period. Sub-pixel training datasets were used to generate a set of global classification tree models using a bagging methodology, resulting in a global per-pixel c...

  9. To what extent are financial crises comparable and thus predictable?

    OpenAIRE

    Diamondopoulos, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper critically examines the quantitative approach to financial crises from two perspectives. First, the assumption of comparability of financial crises is analyzed. The key question here is: how comparable are crises? An important consideration here is the context – social and political. Second, if financial crises are comparable to a certain extent, then we should be able to make predictions. Thus, the second key question is: how predictable are crises? The results have implication...

  10. Assessing the potential global extent of SWOT river discharge observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelsky, Tamlin M.; Durand, Michael T.; Andreadis, Konstantinos M.; Beighley, R. Edward; Paiva, Rodrigo C. D.; Allen, George H.; Miller, Zachary F.

    2014-11-01

    Despite its importance as a major element of the global hydrologic cycle, runoff remains poorly constrained except at the largest spatial scales due to limitations of the global stream gauge network and inadequate data sharing. Efforts using remote sensing to infer runoff from discharge estimates are limited by characteristics of present-day sensors. The proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, a joint project between the United States and France, aims to substantially improve space-based estimates of river discharge. However, the extent of rivers observable by SWOT, likely limited to those wider than 50-100 m, remains unknown. Here, we estimate the extent of SWOT river observability globally using a downstream hydraulic geometry (DHG) approach combining basin areas from the Hydro1k and Hydrosheds elevation products, discharge from the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC), and width estimates from a global width-discharge relationship. We do not explicitly consider SWOT-specific errors associated with layover and other phenomena in this analysis, although they have been considered in formulation of the 50-100 m width thresholds. We compare the extent of SWOT-observable rivers with GRDC and USGS gauge datasets, the most complete datasets freely available to the global scientific community. In the continental US, SWOT would match USGS river basin coverage only at large scales (>25,000 km2). Globally, SWOT would substantially improve on GRDC observation extent: SWOT observation of 100 m (50 m) rivers will allow discharge estimation in >60% of 50,000 km2 (10,000 km2) river basins. In contrast, the GRDC observes fewer than 30% (15%) of these basins. SWOT could improve characterization of global runoff processes, especially with a 50 m observability threshold, but in situ gauge data remains essential and must be shared more freely with the international scientific community.

  11. The extent of strangeness equilibration in quark gluon plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dipali Pal; Abhijit Sen; Munshi Golam Mustafa; Dinesh Kumar Srivastava

    2003-05-01

    The evolution and production of strangeness from chemically equilibrating and transversely expanding quark gluon plasma which may be formed in the wake of relativistic heavy-ion collisions is studied with initial conditions obtained from the self screened parton cascade (SSPC) model. The extent of partonic equilibration increases almost linearly with the square of the initial energy density, which can then be scaled with the number of participants.

  12. To what extent can the nuclear public relations be effective?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki [CRC Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    The effect of public relations (PRs) on the public`s attitude to nuclear energy was assessed using a model developed under the assumption that the extent of attitude change of the public by the PRs activity is essentially the same as that by the nuclear information released by the newsmedia. The attitude change of the public was quantitatively estimated by setting variables explicitly manifesting the activities such as the circulation of exclusive publicity and the area of advertising messages in the newspaper as parameters. The public`s attitude became clear to have a nonlinear dependence on the amount of activity, the extent of its change being varied considerably with demographic classes. Under a given financial condition, the offer of PRs information to the people, as many as possible in a target region, in spite of its little force of appeal, was found to be more effective for the amelioration of public attitude than the repeated offer of the information to a limited member of the public. It also became clear that there exists the most effective media mix for the activity depending on the extent of target region and on the target class of demography, therefore, it is quite significant to determine beforehand the proper conditions for the activity to be executed, such a situation indicating the need for the introduction of nuclear PRs management. (Author).

  13. To what extent can the nuclear public relations be effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of public relations (PRs) on the public's attitude to nuclear energy was assessed using a model developed under the assumption that the extent of attitude change of the public by the PRs activity is essentially the same as that by the nuclear information released by the newsmedia. The attitude change of the public was quantitatively estimated by setting variables explicitly manifesting the activities such as the circulation of exclusive publicity and the area of advertising messages in the newspaper as parameters. The public's attitude became clear to have a nonlinear dependence on the amount of activity, the extent of its change being varied considerably with demographic classes. Under a given financial condition, the offer of PRs information to the people, as many as possible in a target region, in spite of its little force of appeal, was found to be more effective for the amelioration of public attitude than the repeated offer of the information to a limited member of the public. It also became clear that there exists the most effective media mix for the activity depending on the extent of target region and on the target class of demography, therefore, it is quite significant to determine beforehand the proper conditions for the activity to be executed, such a situation indicating the need for the introduction of nuclear PRs management. (Author)

  14. Extent of pyrolysis impacts on fast pyrolysis biochar properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Catherine E; Hu, Yan-Yan; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus; Loynachan, Thomas E; Laird, David A; Brown, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    A potential concern about the use of fast pyrolysis rather than slow pyrolysis biochars as soil amendments is that they may contain high levels of bioavailable C due to short particle residence times in the reactors, which could reduce the stability of biochar C and cause nutrient immobilization in soils. To investigate this concern, three corn ( L.) stover fast pyrolysis biochars prepared using different reactor conditions were chemically and physically characterized to determine their extent of pyrolysis. These biochars were also incubated in soil to assess their impact on soil CO emissions, nutrient availability, microorganism population growth, and water retention capacity. Elemental analysis and quantitative solid-state C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed variation in O functional groups (associated primarily with carbohydrates) and aromatic C, which could be used to define extent of pyrolysis. A 24-wk incubation performed using a sandy soil amended with 0.5 wt% of corn stover biochar showed a small but significant decrease in soil CO emissions and a decrease in the bacteria:fungi ratios with extent of pyrolysis. Relative to the control soil, biochar-amended soils had small increases in CO emissions and extractable nutrients, but similar microorganism populations, extractable NO levels, and water retention capacities. Corn stover amendments, by contrast, significantly increased soil CO emissions and microbial populations, and reduced extractable NO. These results indicate that C in fast pyrolysis biochar is stable in soil environments and will not appreciably contribute to nutrient immobilization. PMID:22751053

  15. Extent of thrombi following sclerotherapy of esophageal varices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, S; Arakawa, M; Toyonaga, A

    1986-10-01

    Fifteen autopsy cases who died within 20 days after intravariceal endoscopic injection sclerotherapy using 5% ethanolamine oleate were examined to clarify the planar extent of thrombi. In 11 of the 15 cases, thrombi extended to part of the fundus of the stomach, as well as the lower esophagus. In addition to these cases, six autopsy cases who survived more than a month after the first injection were studied for the extent of thrombi on the basis of the angioarchitectural characteristics of esophageal varices. The extent could be divided into 3 groups: Group 1 included 5 cases with thrombosis in the main trunk of the varix alone, which connected with longitudinal veins (so-called "Venetian blind-like or sudare-like veins") running for 3-4 cm upward from the esophago-gastric junction. Group 2 included 9 cases with thrombosis in the main trunk and Venetian blind-like veins in the submucosa alone. Group 3 included 7 cases with thrombosis in the main trunk and Venetian blind-like veins in both the submucosa and lamina propria. These results obtained may provide basic information concerning this treatment. Furthermore, the mechanism of the recurrence of varices after eradication induced by treatment was discussed on the basis of the results. PMID:3781169

  16. Exploring the Origin, Extent, and Future of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertka, Constance M.

    2009-09-01

    1. Astrobiology in societal context Constance Bertka; Part I. Origin of Life: 2. Emergence and the experimental pursuit of the origin of life Robert Hazen; 3. From Aristotle to Darwin, to Freeman Dyson: changing definitions of life viewed in historical context James Strick; 4. Philosophical aspects of the origin-of-life problem: the emergence of life and the nature of science Iris Fry; 5. The origin of terrestrial life: a Christian perspective Ernan McMullin; 6. The alpha and the omega: reflections on the origin and future of life from the perspective of Christian theology and ethics Celia Deane-Drummond; Part II. Extent of Life: 7. A biologist's guide to the Solar System Lynn Rothschild; 8. The quest for habitable worlds and life beyond the Solar System Carl Pilcher; 9. A historical perspective on the extent and search for life Steven J. Dick; 10. The search for extraterrestrial life: epistemology, ethics, and worldviews Mark Lupisella; 11. The implications of discovering extraterrestrial life: different searches, different issues Margaret S. Race; 12. God, evolution, and astrobiology Cynthia S. W. Crysdale; Part III. Future of Life: 13. Planetary ecosynthesis on Mars: restoration ecology and environmental ethics Christopher P. McKay; 14. The trouble with intrinsic value: an ethical primer for astrobiology Kelly C. Smith; 15. God's preferential option for life: a Christian perspective on astrobiology Richard O. Randolph; 16. Comparing stories about the origin, extent, and future of life: an Asian religious perspective Francisca Cho; Index.

  17. On the Extent CLT Applied in a College Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂红芹

    2010-01-01

    To what content is Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) likely to meet the needs of learners of English in China? It's a question still under debate,under discussion,having generated much interest in this field.By analyzing the development of CLT abroad and home,the comparison of EFL and ESL,the challenges and opportunities we meet in the application of CLT,the extent to which CLT is likely to meet the needs of learners in China is further discussed.

  18. Spatial Database Management System of China Geological Survey Extent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jianguo; Chen Zhijun; Wang Quanming; Fang Yiping

    2003-01-01

    The spatial database management system of China geological survey extent is a social service system. Its aim is to help the government and the whole social public to expediently use the spatial database, such as querying, indexing, mapping and product outputting. The management system has been developed based on MAPGIS6. x SDK and Visual C++, considering the spatial database contents and structure and the requirements of users. This paper introduces the software structure, the data flow chart and some key techniques of software development.

  19. Circumferential or sectored beam arrangements for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of primary lung tumors: Effect on target and normal-structure dose-volume metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Mara W. [Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA (United States); Department of Physics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA (United States); Kato, Catherine M. [Macalester College, St. Paul, MN (United States); Carson, Kelly M.P. [The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Matsunaga, Nathan M. [Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA (United States); Arao, Robert F. [Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States); Doss, Emily J. [Department of Internal Medicine, Providence St. Vincent Medical Center, Portland, OR (United States); McCracken, Charles L. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States); Meng, Lu Z. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Chen, Yiyi [Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States); Laub, Wolfram U.; Fuss, Martin [Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Tanyi, James A., E-mail: tanyij@ohsu.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2013-01-01

    To compare 2 beam arrangements, sectored (beam entry over ipsilateral hemithorax) vs circumferential (beam entry over both ipsilateral and contralateral lungs), for static-gantry intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery techniques with respect to target and organs-at-risk (OAR) dose-volume metrics, as well as treatment delivery efficiency. Data from 60 consecutive patients treated using stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for primary non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) formed the basis of this study. Four treatment plans were generated per data set: IMRT/VMAT plans using sectored (-s) and circumferential (-c) configurations. The prescribed dose (PD) was 60 Gy in 5 fractions to 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) (maximum PTV dose ∼ 150% PD) for a 6-MV photon beam. Plan conformality, R{sub 50} (ratio of volume circumscribed by the 50% isodose line and the PTV), and D{sub 2} {sub cm} (D{sub max} at a distance ≥2 cm beyond the PTV) were evaluated. For lungs, mean doses (mean lung dose [MLD]) and percent V{sub 30}/V{sub 20}/V{sub 10}/V{sub 5} Gy were assessed. Spinal cord and esophagus D{sub max} and D{sub 5}/D{sub 50} were computed. Chest wall (CW) D{sub max} and absolute V{sub 30}/V{sub 20}/V{sub 10}/V{sub 5} {sub Gy} were reported. Sectored SBRT planning resulted in significant decrease in contralateral MLD and V{sub 10}/V{sub 5} {sub Gy}, as well as contralateral CW D{sub max} and V{sub 10}/V{sub 5} {sub Gy} (all p < 0.001). Nominal reductions of D{sub max} and D{sub 5}/D{sub 50} for the spinal cord with sectored planning did not reach statistical significance for static-gantry IMRT, although VMAT metrics did show a statistically significant decrease (all p < 0.001). The respective measures for esophageal doses were significantly lower with sectored planning (p < 0.001). Despite comparable dose conformality, irrespective of planning configuration, R{sub 50} significantly improved with IMRT

  20. IMF BY dependence of the extent of substorm westward electrojet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Arun; Ajay Dhar; K Emperumal; B M Pathan

    2005-04-01

    In this paper the duskward extension of the westward auroral electrojet is investigated for substorm intervals on the basis of magnetograms recorded at the Indian Antarctic station, Maitri. The database comprises three years from 1998-2000. Based on an initial study of the magnetograms, an arbitrary local time of 2030 MLT is fixed to define the early manifestation of the substorm westward electrojet. Using this criterion 12 substorms are identified and the possible causes examined. Many of these events are observed to be associated with a moderate to intense ring current.The hourly average of the GSM BY-component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) for the hour preceding the substorm onset at Maitri is negative for most of the events. It is suggested that the azimuthal shift of the auroral electrojets in the southern hemisphere resulting from a negative BY-component of the IMF influences the extent of the substorm westward electrojet. This finding implies that the IMF may have a role in controlling the longitudinal extent of substorm occurrence.

  1. Typical magnitude and spatial extent of crowding in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyberg, Jan; Robertson, Caroline E; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced spatial processing of local visual details has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC), and crowding is postulated to be a mechanism that may produce this ability. However, evidence for atypical crowding in ASC is mixed, with some studies reporting a complete lack of crowding in autism and others reporting a typical magnitude of crowding between individuals with and without ASC. Here, we aim to disambiguate these conflicting results by testing both the magnitude and the spatial extent of crowding in individuals with ASC (N = 25) and age- and IQ-matched controls (N = 23) during an orientation discrimination task. We find a strong crowding effect in individuals with and without ASC, which falls off as the distance between target and flanker is increased. Both the magnitude and the spatial range of this effect were comparable between individuals with and without ASC. We also find typical (uncrowded) orientation discrimination thresholds in individuals with ASC. These findings suggest that the spatial extent of crowding is unremarkable in ASC, and is therefore unlikely to account for the visual symptoms reported in individuals with the diagnosis.

  2. The Extent of Students’ Initiation of Ideas in The Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oranu Philomena Chika

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to identify the extent of students’ initiation of ideas in the classroom using three classroom interaction techniques. All senior secondary schools in Port Harcourt Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria constituted the population. One research question guided the study. One hypothesis was tested and analysed using chi square statistics. The population is made up of 10,983 students 496 teachers. The sample is made up of 1098 students and 12 teachers. SS1 and SS11 students in three public participated in the study. Six classroom were used; three in SS1 and three in SS11 respectively. Six teachers taught SS1 and six teachers taught SS11 using a technique (Flanders, IRE, and Teaching Cycles. Twelve lessons were recorded on a cassette, transcribed, coded and analysed. Flanders category was the observational instrument. Test- retest method was used to establish the reliability of the instrument at 0.87 co-efficient. The result showed students’ initiation ideas in the classroom is not contingent on classroom technique used. The extent of students’ initiation of ideas in the classroom is very minimal therefore teacher should go extra step to encourage voluntary verbal contribution by the students’ in every classroom. This makes them more critical and reflective in weighing life challenges.

  3. The extent of computation in Malament-Hogarth spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Welch, P D

    2006-01-01

    We analyse the extent of possible computations following Hogarth in Malament-Hogarth (MH) spacetimes, and Etesi and N\\'emeti in the special subclass containing rotating Kerr black holes. Hogarth had shown that any arithmetic statement could be resolved in a suitable MH spacetime. Etesi and Nemeti had shown that some \\forall \\exists relations on natural numbers which are neither universal nor co-universal, can be decided in Kerr spacetimes, and had asked specifically as to the extent of computational limits there. The purpose of this note is to address this question, and further show that MH spacetimes can compute far beyond the arithmetic: effectively Borel statements (so hyperarithmetic in second order number theory, or the structure of analysis) can likewise be resolved: Theorem A. If H is any hyperarithmetic predicate on integers, then there is an MH spacetime in which any query ? n \\in H ? can be computed. In one sense this is best possible, as there is an upper bound to computational ability in any space...

  4. The spatial extent and dynamics of the Antarctic Cold Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Joel B.; Bostock, Helen C.; Bitz, Cecilia M.; He, Feng; Vandergoes, Marcus J.; Steig, Eric J.; Chase, Brian M.; Krause, Claire E.; Rasmussen, Sune O.; Markle, Bradley R.; Cortese, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Antarctic ice cores show that a millennial-scale cooling event, the Antarctic Cold Reversal (14,700 to 13,000 years ago), interrupted the last deglaciation. The Antarctic Cold Reversal coincides with the Bølling-Allerød warm stage in the North Atlantic, providing an example of the inter-hemispheric coupling of abrupt climate change generally referred to as the bipolar seesaw. However, the ocean-atmosphere dynamics governing this coupling are debated. Here we examine the extent and expression of the Antarctic Cold Reversal in the Southern Hemisphere using a synthesis of 84 palaeoclimate records. We find that the cooling is strongest in the South Atlantic and all regions south of 40° S. At the same time, the terrestrial tropics and subtropics show abrupt hydrologic variations that are significantly correlated with North Atlantic climate changes. Our transient global climate model simulations indicate that the observed extent of Antarctic Cold Reversal cooling can be explained by enhanced northward ocean heat transport from the South to North Atlantic, amplified by the expansion and thickening of sea ice in the Southern Ocean. The hydrologic variations at lower latitudes result from an opposing enhancement of southward heat transport in the atmosphere mediated by the Hadley circulation. Our findings reconcile previous arguments about the relative dominance of ocean and atmospheric heat transports in inter-hemispheric coupling, demonstrating that the spatial pattern of past millennial-scale climate change reflects the superposition of both.

  5. The Extent of Students’ Reponses in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oranu Philomena Chika

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to identify the extent of students’ responses in the classroom using three classroom interaction techniques. One research question guided the study. One hypothesis was tested and analysed using chi square statistics. The population is made up of 10,983 students 496 teachers. The sample is made up of 1098 students and 12 teachers. SS1 and SS11 students in three public schools were used for the study. Six classroom were used; three in SS1 and three in SS11 respectively. Six teachers taught SS1 and six teachers taught SS11 using a technique (Flanders, IRE, and Teaching Cycles. Twelve lessons were recorded on a cassette, transcribed, coded and analysed. Flanders category was the observational instrument. Test- retest method was used to establish the reliability of the instrument at 0.87 co-efficient. The result showed students’ responses in the classroom are not contingent on classroom technique used. The extent of students’ responses in the classroom is very minimal therefore teacher should go extra step to encourage voluntary verbal contribution by the students’ in every classroom. This makes the students more critical in weighing life challenges.

  6. Using Dust as Probes to Determine Sheath Extent and Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Douglass, Angela; Qiao, Ke; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2016-01-01

    Two in-situ experimental methods are presented in which dust particles are used to determine the extent of the sheath and gain information about the time-averaged electric force profile within a RF plasma sheath. These methods are advantageous because they are not only simple and quick to carry out, but they also can be performed using standard dusty plasma experimental equipment. In the first method, dust particles are tracked as they fall through the plasma toward the lower electrode. These trajectories are then used to determine the electric force on the particle as a function of height as well as the extent of the sheath. In the second method, dust particle levitation height is measured across a wide range of RF voltages. Similarities were observed between the two experiments, but in order to understand the underlying physics behind these observations, the same conditions were replicated using a self-consistent fluid model. Through comparison of the fluid model and experimental results, it is shown that t...

  7. Position Effect of Circumferential Crack Defects on Elbow Pipe Bearing Capacity%周向缺陷位置对弯管承载能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万晋; 秦超

    2016-01-01

    Taking elbow pipe as the object of study, the finite element method was adopted to investigate axial stress distribution on the cross section of the elbow pipe and plastic limit load;and the stress distribution there under internal pressure and bending load was summarized, including location of the maximum axial stress and its calculation formulation. Analyzing the position effect of circumferential crack defects on the elbow pipe’ s bearing capacity shows that, as for the elbow pipe with smaller bending radius and bigger diameter-thickness ratio, the circumferential crack defect should be located at the spot of the maximal axial stress so as to deter-mine the elbow’ s bearing capacity and lay the foundation for further study of the plastic ultimate bending mo-ment and improvement of elbow failure assessment.%以弯管为研究对象,采用有限元法对弯管中间横截面应力分布规律和塑性极限载荷进行研究,给出了弯管在内压和弯矩载荷下的应力分布情况,指出了弯矩载荷下弯管中间截面最大轴向应力点位置和计算公式,分析了中间截面上不同位置周向裂纹缺陷对弯管塑性极限弯矩载荷的影响。结果表明,对于弯曲半径比较小,径厚比较大的弯管应将周向裂纹缺陷定位在最大轴向应力点确定弯管弯矩承载能力,为进一步研究弯管塑性极限弯矩,完善弯管失效评定奠定基础。

  8. A comparison between remote sensing approaches to water extent monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    elmi, omid; javad tourian, mohammad; sneeuw, nico

    2013-04-01

    Monitoring the variation of water storage in a long period is a primary issue for understanding the impact of climate change and human activities on earth water resources. In order to obtain the change in water volume in a lake and reservoir, in addition to water level, water extent must be repeatedly determined in an appropriate time interval. Optical satellite imagery as a passive system is the main source of determination of coast line change as it is easy to interpret. Optical sensors acquire the reflected energy from the sunlight in various bands from visible to near infrared. Also, panchromatic mode provides more geometric details. Establishing a ratio between visible bands is the most common way of extract coastlines because with this ratio, water and land can be separated directly. Also, since the reflectance value of water is distinctly less than soil in infrared bands, applying a histogram threshold on this band is a effective way of coastline extraction. However, optical imagery is highly vulnerable to occurrence of dense clouds and fog. Moreover, the coastline is hard to detect where it is covered by dense vegetation. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) as an active system provides an alternative source for monitoring the spatial change in coastlines. Two methods for monitoring the shoreline with SAR data have been published. First, the backscatter difference is calculated between two images acquired at different times. Second, the change in coastline is detected by computing the coherence of two SAR images acquired at different times. A SAR system can operate in all weather, so clouds and fog don't impact its efficiency. Also, it can penetrate into the plant canopy. However, in comparison with optical imagery, interpretation of SAR image in this case is relatively hard because of limitation in the number of band and polarization modes, also due to effects caused by speckle noises, slant-range imaging and shadows. The primary aim of this study is a

  9. Quantifying the extent of recrossing flux for quantumsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, Michael S.; Predescu, Cristian; Miller, William H.

    2005-04-19

    We present arguments demonstrating that the Miller, Schwartz, and Tromp (MST) correlation function is the only computationally reasonable choice with regard to minimizing the extent of recrossing flux. However, using accurate numerical results, we point out that the MST flux-flux correlation function almost always exhibits non-vanishing negative parts, even for the simplest physical systems. We argue that, in order to best handle the residual recrossing flux, one must not rely on the ''no recrossing'' assumption in the development of quantum transition state theories. To provide accurate numerical examples, we derive the analytical expressions for the flux-flux correlation and spectral functions for the symmetric Eckart and rectangular potential barriers.

  10. To what extent is language teaching methodology informed by theory?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱殿勇; 崔丹

    2005-01-01

    With the globalization of the world, language teaching becomes more important than ever before, and many universities and classroom teachers are active to explore the most efficient and effective methodology to teach languages to achieve a desirable result. When they seek to improve the quality of language teaching, they ofter research teaching methodologies by referring to general theories about language and language learning. Theoretical bases and teachers' hands-out experience have informed methodologies of language teaching, and methods of language teaching have been improved with the developments about linguistics, psychology and education. But there is a question which extent the information that theory has made available can be used to explore language teaching methodology and of the relevance of theory to language teaching methodology.

  11. Mapping phylogenetic endemism in R using georeferenced branch extents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Greg R.; Lowe, Andrew J.

    2015-12-01

    Applications are needed to map biodiversity from large-scale species occurrence datasets whilst seamlessly integrating with existing functions in R. Phylogenetic endemism (PE) is a biodiversity measure based on range-restricted phylogenetic diversity (PD). Current implementations use area of occupancy (AOO) or frequency to estimate the spatial range of branch-length (i.e. phylogenetic range-rarity), rather than extent of occurrence (EOO; i.e. georeferenced phylogenetic endemism), which is known to produce different range estimates. We present R functions to map PD or PE weighted by AOO or EOO (new georeferenced implementation), taking as inputs georeferenced species occurrences and a phylogeny. Non-parametric statistics distinguish PD/PE from trivial correlates of species richness and sampling intensity.

  12. Visual uncertainty influences the extent of an especial skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyż, S H; Kwon, O-S; Marzec, J; Styrkowiec, P; Breslin, G

    2015-12-01

    An especial skill in basketball emerges through highly repetitive practice at the 15 ft free throw line. The extent of the role vision plays in the emergence of an especial skill is unknown. We examined the especial skills of ten skilled basketball players in normal and blurred vision conditions where participants wore corrective lenses. As such, we selectively manipulated visual information without affecting the participants' explicit knowledge that they were shooting free throws. We found that shot efficiency was significantly lower in blurred vision conditions as expected, and that the concave shape of shot proficiency function in normal vision conditions became approximately linear in blurred vision conditions. By applying a recently proposed generalization model of especial skills, we suggest that the linearity of shot proficiency function reflects the participants' lesser dependence on especial skill in blurred vision conditions. The findings further characterize the role of visual context in the emergence of an especial skill. PMID:26342796

  13. Peritoneum and mesenterium. Radiological anatomy and extent of peritoneal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The abdominal cavity is subdivided into the peritoneal cavity, lined by the parietal peritoneum, and the extraperitoneal space. It extends from the diaphragm to the pelvic floor. The visceral peritoneum covers the intraperitoneal organs and part of the pelvic organs. The parietal and visceral layers of the peritoneum are in sliding contact; the potential space between them is called the peritoneal cavity and is a part of the embryologic abdominal cavity or primitive coelomic duct. To understand the complex anatomical construction of the different variants of plicae and recesses of the peritoneum, an appreciation of the embryologic development of the peritoneal cavity is crucial. This knowledge reflects the understanding of the peritoneal anatomy, deep knowledge of which is very important in determining the cause and extent of peritoneal diseases as well as in decision making when choosing the appropriate therapeutic approach, whether surgery, conservative treatment, or interventional radiology. (orig.)

  14. Vocal fold epithelial hyperplasia. Vibratory behavior vs extent of lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R X; Hirano, M; Tanaka, S; Sato, K

    1991-09-01

    The vibratory behavior of 72 vocal folds with epithelial hyperplasia or dysplasia was investigated by means of videostroboscopy. The amplitude of vibration (AMP) and mucosal wave (WAV) were related to the relative area, depth, and relative volume of the lesion. The AMP and WAV were evaluated for the entire vocal fold (AMPE, WAVE) and for the affected portion or the lesion (AMPL, WAVL). The AMPE, AMPL, WAVE, and WAVL were negatively related to the relative area, depth, and relative volume. The relationship between the limited vibratory movement and the extent of the lesion was most significantly manifested in WAVL. A complete absence of any vibratory movement of the vocal fold took place only for large lesions occupying three fourths or more of the membranous vocal fold.

  15. The International Extent and Elasticity of Lifestyle Television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    2008-01-01

    programming is still produced very differently within this region according to the media systemic conditions of the specific national TV markets and the specific broadcasters and channels in question. As such, the lifestyle genre is indeed tremendously flexible and elastic and can be used in a diverse number...... of ways, catering for local broadcasters’ image and target groups, local markets’ competitive conditions, media regulations, and history. This article investigates the international extent of the genre and looks into possible explanations for its Anglophone and Northern European bias. Subsequently......, the great elasticity of the genre is examined by way of a thorough analysis of the Australian and Danish versions of the program format The Block, which will demonstrate precisely how the genre can be adapted radically differently to suit two diverse broadcasters and their diverse conditions....

  16. Obesity and extent of emphysema depicted at CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To investigate the underlying relationship between obesity and the extent of emphysema depicted at CT. Methods and materials: A dataset of 477 CT examinations was retrospectively collected from a study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The low attenuation areas (LAAs; ≤950 HU) of the lungs were identified. The extent of emphysema (denoted as %LAA) was defined as the percentage of LAA divided by the lung volume. The association between log-transformed %LAA and body mass index (BMI) adjusted for age, sex, the forced expiratory volume in one second as percent predicted value (FEV1% predicted), and smoking history (pack years) was assessed using multiple linear regression analysis. Results: After adjusting for age, gender, smoking history, and FEV1% predicted, BMI was negatively associated with severe emphysema in patients with COPD. Specifically, one unit increase in BMI is associated with a 0.93-fold change (95% CI: 0.91–0.96, p < 0.001) in %LAA; the estimated %LAA for males was 1.75 (95% CI: 1.36–2.26, p < 0.001) times that of females; per 10% increase in FEV1% predicated is associated with a 0.72-fold change (95% CI: 0.69–0.76, p < 0.001) in %LAA. Conclusion: Increasing obesity is negatively associated with severity of emphysema independent of gender, age, and smoking history. - Highlights: • BMI is inversely associated with emphysema depicted on CT. • Emphysema severity in men was higher than that in women. • ∼50% of the subjects with COPD in our dataset were either overweight or obese. • Age and smoking status are not significantly associated with %LAA

  17. Estimating Global Cropland Extent with Multi-year MODIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher O. Justice

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the suitability of 250 m MODIS (MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data for mapping global cropland extent. A set of 39 multi-year MODIS metrics incorporating four MODIS land bands, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and thermal data was employed to depict cropland phenology over the study period. Sub-pixel training datasets were used to generate a set of global classification tree models using a bagging methodology, resulting in a global per-pixel cropland probability layer. This product was subsequently thresholded to create a discrete cropland/non-cropland indicator map using data from the USDA-FAS (Foreign Agricultural Service Production, Supply and Distribution (PSD database describing per-country acreage of production field crops. Five global land cover products, four of which attempted to map croplands in the context of multiclass land cover classifications, were subsequently used to perform regional evaluations of the global MODIS cropland extent map. The global probability layer was further examined with reference to four principle global food crops: corn, soybeans, wheat and rice. Overall results indicate that the MODIS layer best depicts regions of intensive broadleaf crop production (corn and soybean, both in correspondence with existing maps and in associated high probability matching thresholds. Probability thresholds for wheat-growing regions were lower, while areas of rice production had the lowest associated confidence. Regions absent of agricultural intensification, such as Africa, are poorly characterized regardless of crop type. The results reflect the value of MODIS as a generic global cropland indicator for intensive agriculture production regions, but with little sensitivity in areas of low agricultural intensification. Variability in mapping accuracies between areas dominated by different crop types also points to the desirability of a crop-specific approach rather than attempting

  18. Estimating rocky seafloor extent on the Southern California continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, G.R.; Greene, H. Gary

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution sonar data are necessary to map bottom substrate for habitat studies but are lacking over much of the continental shelf. With such data, areas covered by sediment can be distinguished from bedrock areas with an accuracy of ??90%. Without these data, the extent of sediment as thick as 10 m cannot be resolved, and estimates of the extent of rocky seafloor are exaggerated. A study area north of Anacapa Island in Southern California interpreted as a large rocky area after mapping with low-resolution seismic systems was found to have exposed rocky bottom in only 10% of the area when mapped with high-resolution, side-scan sonar. The area of rock was estimated using video-supervised, sonar-image classification of textural derivatives of the data calculated from gray-level co-occurrence matrices. The classification of soft bottom was found to be ??90% accurate using an independent data set, derived from seafloor sampling records. Two general types of rock exposure are observed-sparse linear outcrops of layered sedimentary rocks and more massive, rounded outcrop areas of volcanic rocks. The percentage of exposed rock in volcanic areas exceeded that in sedimentary rock areas by a factor of 5 in the study area north of Anacapa Island. South of Point Arguello, 80% of the shelf seafloor is underlain by sedimentary rock units. The percentage of area that is exposed, rocky-reef habitat may be greater in other areas of coastal seafloor if the bedrock is predominantly volcanic. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  19. Geologic interpretations of seismic data Route 128 (Northern Circumferential Highway) cut, and Hopkins Street grade separation stations 1-18 in Wakefield, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, James E.; Lineham, Rev. Daniel

    1950-01-01

    The completion of a segment of the Northern Circumferential Highway, Route 126, in Wakefield, Mass., requires an underpass bridge at Hopkins Street, Station 5+50. The plan of the project shows approximately 1800 feet if approach cuts between stations 1 and 18. In October 1945 a preliminary seismic study was made of a segment of this cut between stations 6+50 and 13+30. Four profiles were made at this time and a report was submitted by Newton E. Chute and Rev. Daniel Linhan (file report of January 15). This work showed a relatively shallow (in general, 6 to 12 feet in depth) somewhat irregular bedrock surface between stations 6+50 and 13+50. That data indicated that much of this segment of the cut will be in bedrock. In order to obtain more complete data for the preparation of detailed estimates on the amount of bedrock to be excavated for this segment of the cut, and also to obtain sufficient data for the unexplored segment of the cut, 21 additional seismic traverses were made in September 1949. The present report contains only the results obtained from this later work. The work was performed as a part of a cooperative program of the Massachusetts Department of Public Works and the United States Geological Survey.

  20. Learning Curve in a Western Training Center of the Circumferential En Bloc Esophageal Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection in an In Vivo Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Tanimoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Evaluate the feasibility to overcome the learning curve in a western training center of the en bloc circumferential esophageal (ECE- ESD in an in vivo animal model. Methods. ECE-ESD was performed on ten canine models under general anesthesia on artificial lesions at the esophagus marked with coagulation points. After the ESD each canine model was euthanized and surgical resection of the esophagus and stomach was carried out according to “the Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, Russel and Burch.” The specimen was fixed with needles on cork submerged in formalin with the esophagus and stomach then delivered to the pathology department to be analyzed. Results. ECE-ESD was completed without complications in the last 3/10 animal models. Mean duration for the procedures was 192±35 minutes (range 140–235 minutes. All the procedures were done at the animal lab surgery room with cardio pulmonary monitoring and artificial ventilation by staff surgery members and a staff member of the Gastroenterology department trained during 1999–2001 at the Fujigaoka hospital of the Showa U. in Yokohama, Japan, length (range 15–18 mm and 51±6.99 width (range 40–60 mm. Conclusion. ECE-ESD training is feasible in canine models for postgraduate endoscopy fellows.

  1. Thromboembolic event rate in patients with persistent or paroxysmal atrial fibrillation post circumferential pulmonary vein isolation:a single center experience in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jing-min; LIU Shao-wen; LIN Jia-xiong; NIE Zhen-ning; WU Hong-yi; ZHOU Jun; HAO Ying; CAI Nai-sheng; GE Jun-bo

    2007-01-01

    Background Pulmonary-vein isolation (PVI) is currently used for the treatment of chronic and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and a major risk of PVI is thromboembolism. The purpose of this study was to observe embolic event rate in patients with persistent or paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) undergone PVI.Methods Circumferential PVI (CPVI) was performed in 64 consecutive patients with persistent AF (42 men, aged (60.0±9.1) years) and in 84 consecutive patients with paroxysmal AF (53 men, aged (61.4±9.3) years). Warfarin was administrated in all patients before ablation for at least 3 weeks ((5.2±2.6) weeks) and continued for at least 3 months post ablation with international normalized ratio (INR) of 2.0-3.0. During CPVI, intravenous heparin was given at a dose of 5000-8000 U or 75-100 U/kg, followed by 1000 U or 12 U/kg per hour.Results In patients with persistent AF, 1 patient developed embolic event during ablation and 3 patients developed embolic events after ablation. In contrast, no thromboembolic event was observed in patients with paroxysmal AF (4/64vs 0/84, P=0. 033).Conclusion Thromboembolic event rate related to CPVI is significantly higher in patients with persistent AF than that in patients with paroxysmal AF.

  2. Extents of the aquifer and confining units of the Atlantic Coastal Plain of North and South Carolina aquifer system (pp1773_extents)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The data set pp1773_extents contains polygon datasets that represent the areal extents of each of the 16 hydrogeologic units of the of the Atlantic Coastal Plain of...

  3. Estimating the extent of horizontal gene transfer in metagenomic sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moya Andrés

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the extent of horizontal gene transfer (HGT in complete genomes has been widely studied, its influence in the evolution of natural communities of prokaryotes remains unknown. The availability of metagenomic sequences allows us to address the study of global patterns of prokaryotic evolution in samples from natural communities. However, the methods that have been commonly used for the study of HGT are not suitable for metagenomic samples. Therefore it is important to develop new methods or to adapt existing ones to be used with metagenomic sequences. Results We have created two different methods that are suitable for the study of HGT in metagenomic samples. The methods are based on phylogenetic and DNA compositional approaches, and have allowed us to assess the extent of possible HGT events in metagenomes for the first time. The methods are shown to be compatible and quite precise, although they probably underestimate the number of possible events. Our results show that the phylogenetic method detects HGT in between 0.8% and 1.5% of the sequences, while DNA compositional methods identify putative HGT in between 2% and 8% of the sequences. These ranges are very similar to these found in complete genomes by related approaches. Both methods act with a different sensitivity since they probably target HGT events of different ages: the compositional method mostly identifies recent transfers, while the phylogenetic is more suitable for the detections of older events. Nevertheless, the study of the number of HGT events in metagenomic sequences from different communities shows a consistent trend for both methods: the lower amount is found for the sequences of the Sargasso Sea metagenome, while the higher quantity is found in the whale fall metagenome from the bottom of the ocean. The significance of these observations is discussed. Conclusion The computational approaches that are used to find possible HGT events in complete

  4. Sensitivity of detachment extent to magnetic configuration and external parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschultz, Bruce; Parra, Felix I.; Hutchinson, Ian H.

    2016-05-01

    Divertor detachment may be essential to reduce heat loads to magnetic fusion tokamak reactor divertor surfaces. Yet in experiments it is difficult to control the extent of the detached, low pressure, plasma region. At maximum extent the front edge of the detached region reaches the X-point and can lead to degradation of core plasma properties. We define the ‘detachment window’ in a given position control variable C (for example, the upstream plasma density) as the range in C within which the front location can be stably held at any position from the target to the X-point; increased detachment window corresponds to better control. We extend a 1D analytic model [1] to determine the detachment window for the following control variables: the upstream plasma density, the impurity concentration and the power entering the scrape-off layer (SOL). We find that variations in magnetic configuration can have strong effects; increasing the ratio of the total magnetic field at the X-point to that at the target, {{B}×}/{{B}t} , (total flux expansion, as in the super-x divertor configuration) strongly increases the detachment window for all control variables studied, thus strongly improving detachment front control and the capability of the divertor plasma to passively accommodate transients while still staying detached. Increasing flux tube length and thus volume in the divertor, through poloidal flux expansion (as in the snowflake or x-divertor configurations) or length of the divertor, also increases the detachment window, but less than the total flux expansion does. The sensitivity of the detachment front location, z h , to each control variable, C, defined as \\partial {{z}h}/\\partial C , depends on the magnetic configuration. The size of the radiating volume and the total divertor radiation increase \\propto {{≤ft({{B}×}/{{B}t}\\right)}2} and \\propto {{B}×}/{{B}t} , respectively, but not by increasing divertor poloidal flux expansion or field line length. We

  5. 10.10.Endocardial and Pericardial disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920087 The relationship between calcifica-tion of bovine pericardial tissue and itsproteoglycan content.JIN Lei (金磊),et al.Cardiovasc Instit,CAMS,Beijing.Chin Cir J 1991; 6(5): 347-349.Bovine pericardium (BP) was treated by

  6. A study of circumferentially-heated and block-heated heat pipes. I - Experimental analysis and generalized analytical prediction of capillary limits. II - Three-dimensional numerical modeling as a conjugate problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalhofer, Joseph; Faghri, Amir

    1993-01-01

    The wall and centerline vapor temperatures and heat output are determined experimentally for a low-temperature copper-water heat pipe under uniform circumferential heating and block heating. The time required to reach a vapor temperature of 60 C from an initial ambient temperature of 21 C is determined for both modes of heating. The experimental capillary limit of the heat pipe is compared to the generalized capillary limits for block-heated pipes over a range of vapor temperatures. A three-dimensional numerical model is then developed for determining the temperature, pressure, and velocity distributions in the entire domain of a circumferentially heated and a block-heated pipe. The problem is formulated as a conjugate problem, without the assumption of a uniform vapor temperature. The predictions of the model are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.

  7. Quantifying the impact and extent of undocumented biomedical synonymy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Blair

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Synonymous relationships among biomedical terms are extensively annotated within specialized terminologies, implying that synonymy is important for practical computational applications within this field. It remains unclear, however, whether text mining actually benefits from documented synonymy and whether existing biomedical thesauri provide adequate coverage of these linguistic relationships. In this study, we examine the impact and extent of undocumented synonymy within a very large compendium of biomedical thesauri. First, we demonstrate that missing synonymy has a significant negative impact on named entity normalization, an important problem within the field of biomedical text mining. To estimate the amount synonymy currently missing from thesauri, we develop a probabilistic model for the construction of synonym terminologies that is capable of handling a wide range of potential biases, and we evaluate its performance using the broader domain of near-synonymy among general English words. Our model predicts that over 90% of these relationships are currently undocumented, a result that we support experimentally through "crowd-sourcing." Finally, we apply our model to biomedical terminologies and predict that they are missing the vast majority (>90% of the synonymous relationships they intend to document. Overall, our results expose the dramatic incompleteness of current biomedical thesauri and suggest the need for "next-generation," high-coverage lexical terminologies.

  8. What controls the local time extent of flux transfer events?

    CERN Document Server

    Milan, S E; Carter, J A; Walach, M -T; Hubert, B

    2016-01-01

    Flux transfer events (FTEs) are the manifestation of bursty and/or patchy magnetic reconnection at the magnetopause. We compare two sequences of the ionospheric signatures of flux transfer events observed in global auroral imagery and coherent ionospheric radar measurements. Both sequences were observed during very similar seasonal and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions, though with differing solar wind speed. A key observation is that the signatures differed considerably in their local time extent. The two periods are 26 August 1998, when the IMF had components $\\mathit{B}_{\\mathit{z}}$ $\\approx$ -10 nT and $\\mathit{B}_{\\mathit{y}}$ $\\approx$ 9 nT and the solar wind speed was $\\mathit{V}_{\\mathit{x}}$ $\\approx$ 650 km $s^{-1}$, and 31 August 2005, IMF $\\mathit{B}_{\\mathit{z}}$ $\\approx$ -7 nT, $\\mathit{B}_{\\mathit{y}}$ $\\approx$ 17 nT, and $\\mathit{V}_{\\mathit{x}}$ $\\approx$ 380 km $s^{-1}$. In the first case, the reconnection rate was estimated to be near 160 kV, and the FTE signatures extended ...

  9. Distracted walking: Examining the extent to pedestrian safety problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Mwakalonge

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians, much like drivers, have always been engaged in multi-tasking like using hand-held devices, listening to music, snacking, or reading while walking. The effects are similar to those experienced by distracted drivers. However, distracted walking has not received similar policies and effective interventions as distracted driving to improve pedestrian safety. This study reviewed the state-of-practice on policies, campaigns, available data, identified research needs, and opportunities pertaining to distracted walking. A comprehensive review of literature revealed that some of the agencies/organizations disseminate useful information about certain distracting activities that pedestrians should avoid while walking to improve their safety. Various walking safety rules/tips have been given, such as not wearing headphones or talking on a cell phone while crossing a street, keeping the volume down, hanging up the phone while walking, being aware of traffic, and avoiding distractions like walking with texting. The majority of the past observational-based and experimental-based studies reviewed in this study on distracted walking is in agreement that there is a positive correlation between distraction and unsafe walking behavior. However, limitations of the existing crash data suggest that distracted walking may not be a severe threat to the public health. Current pedestrian crash data provide insufficient information for researchers to examine the extent to which distracted walking causes and/or contributes to actual pedestrian safety problems.

  10. Towards Encoding Background Knowledge with Temporal Extent into Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Han; Marques, Nuno C.

    Neuro-symbolic integration merges background knowledge and neural networks to provide a more effective learning system. It uses the Core Method as a means to encode rules. However, this method has several drawbacks in dealing with rules that have temporal extent. First, it demands some interface with the world which buffers the input patterns so they can be represented all at once. This imposes a rigid limit on the duration of patterns and further suggests that all input vectors be the same length. These are troublesome in domains where one would like comparable representations for patterns that are of variable length (e.g. language). Second, it does not allow dynamic insertion of rules conveniently. Finally and also most seriously, it cannot encode rules having preconditions satisfied at non-deterministic time points - an important class of rules. This paper presents novel methods for encoding such rules, thereby improves and extends the power of the state-of-the-art neuro-symbolic integration.

  11. Extent and modes of physics instruction in European dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letić, Milorad; Popović, Gorjana

    2013-01-01

    Changes in dental education towards integration of sciences and convergence of curricula have affected instruction in physics. Earlier studies of undergraduate curricula make possible comparisons in physics instruction. For this study, the websites of 245 European dental schools were explored, and information about the curriculum was found on 213 sites. Physics instruction in the form of a separate course was found in 63 percent of these schools, with eighty-two hours and 5.9 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) credits on average. Physics integrated with other subjects or into modules was found in 19 percent of these schools. Half of these schools had on average sixty-one hours and 6.9 ECTS credits devoted to physics. Eighteen percent of the schools had no noticeable obligatory physics instruction, but in half of them physics was found to be required or accepted on admission, included in other subjects, or appeared as an elective course. In 122 dental schools, the extent of physics instruction was found to be between forty and 120 contact hours. Physics instruction has been reduced by up to 14 percent in the last fourteen years in the group of eleven countries that were members of the European Union (EU) in 1997, but by approximately 30 percent in last five years in the group of ten Accession Countries to the EU.

  12. Chemophobia in the College Classroom: Extent, Sources, and Student Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Roberta M.

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to provide an understanding of chemophobia (chemistry anxiety) at the college level by determining (i) the extent of chemophobia in the college classroom; (ii) the factors that contribute to college students' anxiety about learning chemistry and handling chemicals; and (iii) the characteristics of college students who have anxiety about learning chemistry and handling chemicals. A questionnaire containing the Derived Chemistry Anxiety Rating Scale (mean = 81.47, SD = 21.31, a = 0.94), the Revised Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (mean = 56.68, SD = 20.55, a = 0.98), and the Trait-Anxiety Scale (mean = 39, SD = 10, a = 0.90) was administered to 480 college students (435 nonmajors and 45 chemistry majors) taking an introductory chemistry course. Eight interviews were conducted. Quantitative data were analyzed by SPSS (p ?.05). Chemophobia was found to exist at an average level between a little bit and moderate. Highest anxiety was associated with chemistry evaluation; lowest anxiety with learning chemistry. Sources that contributed most to chemistry anxiety were, for learning, chemical equations; for evaluation, taking the final exam; and for handling chemicals, getting chemicals on hands. Women had significantly higher anxiety than men. Students with low chemistry experience had significantly higher anxiety than students with high chemistry experience. There were no significant main effects for type of major or math experience.

  13. Body dissatisfaction in female adolescents: extent and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sven; Weiss, Melanie; Thiel, Ansgar; Werner, Anne; Mayer, Jochen; Hoffmann, Holger; Diehl, Katharina

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the extent, patterns, and predictors of feelings of body dissatisfaction experienced by female German adolescents. Using 3D-avatar software, a sample population of 144 girls between 14 and 17 years of age was asked to estimate their actual body image, their desired body image (individual ideal), and the body image they believed their parents and their best female friend considered to be the ideal body image for them. The participants estimated their actual body mass index (BMI) to be 18.82 ± 3.01. The individual ideal body shape reported was significantly thinner, with a BMI score of 16.84 ± 2.51. Given a girl who stands 1.65 m and weighs 55 kg, this corresponds to a difference in weight of about 5.5 kg. After adjustment for the participant's self-reported BMI, participating in an esthetic sport was correlated with a significantly lower body dissatisfaction. Conversely, low socio-economic status and the amount of time spent watching TV was correlated with a significantly higher body dissatisfaction. Negative body image-related comments made by parents were significantly associated with body dissatisfaction. The girls who participated in this study would like to be an average of 1.97 BMI units thinner. The findings presented here suggest that future intervention measures should focus on the risk groups of physically inactive girls, those who smoke, and those with a lower social status and high rates of TV consumption. Intervention measures would be especially effective in German schools which offer lower education levels and should include the pupils' parents, who should be informed about the negative effects weight- and diet-related comments have on their children's body images. PMID:23207738

  14. Electroanatomical systems to guided circumferential pulmonary veins ablation for atrial fibrillation: initial experience from comparison between the Ensite/NavX and CARTO system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xu; WANG Xin-hua; GU Jia-ning; ZHOU Li; QIU Jian-hua

    2005-01-01

    Background The circumferential pulmonary vein ablation (CPVA) has been proved effective for atrial fibrillation (AF) treatment and is becoming more widely accepted and practiced. This study aims to evaluate the characteristics of the CARTO and the Ensite/NavX system and draw a comparison between them on the aspects of procedural parameters and clinical effectiveness.Methods Seventy-five cases with paroxysmal or chronic symptomatic AF were randomly assigned to CPVA procedure guided by the Ensite/NavX system (group Ⅰ, n=40) and by the CARTO system (group Ⅱ, n=35). After successful transseptal procedure, the geometry of left atrium was created under the guidance of the two systems. Radiofrequency energy was applied to circumferentially ablate tissues out of pulmonary veins' (PVs') ostia. In cases with chronic AF, linear ablation was applied to modify the substrate of left atrium (LA). The endpoint of the procedure was complete PVs isolation. Results Seventy-five cases underwent the procedure successfully. The total procedure and fluoroscopic durations in group Ⅱ were significantly shorter than in group Ⅰ [(150±23) min and (18±17) min versus (170±34) min and (25±16) min, P=0.03 and 0.04, respectively]. There was no significant difference in the fluoroscopic and procedure durations for geometry creation between group Ⅰ and group Ⅱ [(8±4) min and (16±11) min versus (5±4) min and (14±8) min, respectively]. The fluoroscopic durations for CPVA were (15±5) min in group Ⅰ versus (10±6) min in group Ⅱ (P=0.05), and the CPVA procedural durations were significantly shorter in group Ⅱ than in group Ⅰ [(18±11) min versus (25±10) min, P=0.04]. AF was terminated by radio frequency delivery in 14 cases (35%) in group Ⅰ versus 5 cases (14%) in group Ⅱ (P=0.035). After CPVA complete PV isolation was attained in 26 cases (65%) in group Ⅰ versus 11 cases (31%) in group Ⅱ (P=0.004). During a mean follow-up of 7 months, 32 (80%) cases in group

  15. 周向多爆炸成型弹丸战斗部仿真%Simulation Study of Circumferential MEFP Warhead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利; 彭雪琴

    2014-01-01

    为了提高多爆炸成形弹丸(MEFP)对武装直升机、巡航导弹及空地制导武器等目标的毁伤能力,通过在炸药周向布置多个药型罩、轴向布置多层结构的办法,设计了一种新型多枚爆炸成形弹丸战斗部,分析了弹丸成型过程中的力学特性并利用动力学仿真软件模拟了成形过程。毁伤计算结果表明:该型战斗部所形成的单个EFP在穿透10 mm 装甲后仍具有较高的剩余动能,对轻型装甲目标具有较高的毁伤效能,研究结果可为小口径MEFP战斗部设计提供参考。%To strength the multiple explosively formed projectiles’(MEFP)damage effect on such targets like armed helicopters,cruise missiles and ground guided weapons,liners this paper designed were cir-cumferential layered with multi-layers along the axial.After the analysis on the EFP’s mechanical proper-ties during the forming process,the dynamic simulation software was adopted to reappear this forming process.De Marre formula calculation results show:the single EFP’s residual kinetic energy was signifi-cant even after it penetrated 10mm armor plate.The result of this paper indicates that MEFP warhead has impressive prospect to damage the abovementioned targets,and it will provide valuable reference for the Small-Caliber of the EFP’s warhead.

  16. Initial experience with circumferential pulmonary vein isolation guided by Overlay Ref and CartoMerge in the treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Kai; ZHAO Dong-dong; ZHANG Jing-ying; CHEN Yan-qing; XU Ya-wei

    2010-01-01

    Background CartoMerge has been widely used in guiding circumferential pulmonary vein isolation (CPVI) for the treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF).However, the procedure of landmarks selection varies among operators according to their experience.Techniques have to be established to standardize this procedure.We propose that Overlay Ref could facilitate this procedure.This paper aimed to report our initial experience with CPVI guided by Overlay Ref and CartoMerge for the treatment of PAF.Methods Fifty-nine patients with PAF were enrolled in this study.Using Overlay Ref technique, a reference image (inverted) was faded into the live fluoroscopic image.Landmarks of CartoMerge were selected from anatomic points of the top of superior pulmonary veins (PVs) and the bottom of inferior PVs guided by Overlay Ref image.Overlay Ref images were also used to guide the ablation procedure combining with CartoMerge.Results All patients were successfully mapped by CartoMerge guided by Overlay Ref.The distance between the mapping points and the CT surfaces was (1.42±0.67) mm for the patients as a whole.This led to a successful rate of 96%for isolation of pulmonary veins.Duration of ablation procedure was (92±17) minutes.And the total duration of procedure was (139±32) minutes.CartoMerge could also be performed just with 3 paries to 4 paries selected landmarks guided by Overlay Ref without a full anatomic model constructed by Carto.Then, the total duration of procedure could be shortened to (115±38) minutes.Conclusions Overlay Ref technique can facilitate the catheter ablation of PAF and can help to standardize the procedure of landmarks selection.

  17. A Fully Automated Classification for Mapping the Annual Cropland Extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, F.; Defourny, P.

    2015-12-01

    Mapping the global cropland extent is of paramount importance for food security. Indeed, accurate and reliable information on cropland and the location of major crop types is required to make future policy, investment, and logistical decisions, as well as production monitoring. Timely cropland information directly feed early warning systems such as GIEWS and, FEWS NET. In Africa, and particularly in the arid and semi-arid region, food security is center of debate (at least 10% of the population remains undernourished) and accurate cropland estimation is a challenge. Space borne Earth Observation provides opportunities for global cropland monitoring in a spatially explicit, economic, efficient, and objective fashion. In the both agriculture monitoring and climate modelling, cropland maps serve as mask to isolate agricultural land for (i) time-series analysis for crop condition monitoring and (ii) to investigate how the cropland is respond to climatic evolution. A large diversity of mapping strategies ranging from the local to the global scale and associated with various degrees of accuracy can be found in the literature. At the global scale, despite efforts, cropland is generally one of classes with the poorest accuracy which make difficult the use for agricultural. This research aims at improving the cropland delineation from the local scale to the regional and global scales as well as allowing near real time updates. To that aim, five temporal features were designed to target the key- characteristics of crop spectral-temporal behavior. To ensure a high degree of automation, training data is extracted from available baseline land cover maps. The method delivers cropland maps with a high accuracy over contrasted agro-systems in Ukraine, Argentina, China and Belgium. The accuracy reached are comparable to those obtained with classifiers trained with in-situ data. Besides, it was found that the cropland class is associated with a low uncertainty. The temporal features

  18. Extent of Cropland and Related Soil Erosion Risk in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidele Karamage

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Land conversion to cropland is one of the major causes of severe soil erosion in Africa. This study assesses the current cropland extent and the related soil erosion risk in Rwanda, a country that experienced the most rapid population growth and cropland expansion in Africa over the last decade. The land cover land use (LCLU map of Rwanda in 2015 was developed using Landsat-8 imagery. Based on the obtained LCLU map and the spatial datasets of precipitation, soil properties and elevation, the soil erosion rate of Rwanda was assessed at 30-m spatial resolution, using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE model. According to the results, the mean soil erosion rate was 250 t·ha−1·a−1 over the entire country, with a total soil loss rate of approximately 595 million tons per year. The mean soil erosion rate over cropland, which occupied 56% of the national land area, was estimated at 421 t·ha−1·a−1 and was responsible for about 95% of the national soil loss. About 24% of the croplands in Rwanda had a soil erosion rate larger than 300 t·ha−1·a−1, indicating their unsuitability for cultivation. With a mean soil erosion rate of 1642 t·ha−1·a−1, these unsuitable croplands were responsible for 90% of the national soil loss. Most of the unsuitable croplands are distributed in the Congo Nile Ridge, Volcanic Range mountain areas in the west and the Buberuka highlands in the north, regions characterized by steep slopes (>30% and strong rainfall. Soil conservation practices, such as the terracing cultivation method, are paramount to preserve the soil. According to our assessment, terracing alone could reduce the mean cropland soil erosion rate and the national soil loss by 79% and 75%, respectively. After terracing, only a small proportion of 7.6% of the current croplands would still be exposed to extreme soil erosion with a rate >300 t·ha−1·a−1. These irremediable cropland areas should be returned to mountain forest to

  19. The international extent and elasticity of lifestyle television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Majbritt Jensen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle is a TV genre that exists predominantly on the screens of Northern Europe and Anglophone countries such as the UK, the USA and Australia. Hence, lifestyle formats are not traded globally but rather trans-nationally within a distinct geo-linguistic region. Nonetheless, lifestyle programming is still produced very differently within this region according to the media systemic conditions of the specific national TV markets and the specific broadcasters and channels in question. As such, the lifestyle genre is indeed tremendously flexible and elastic and can be used in a diverse number of ways, catering for local broadcasters’ image and target groups, local markets’ competitive conditions, media regulations, and history. This article investigates the international extent of the genre and looks into possible explanations for its Anglophone and Northern European bias. Subsequently, the great elasticity of the genre is examined by way of a thorough analysis of the Australian and Danish versions of the program format The Block, which will demonstrate precisely how the genre can be adapted radically differently to suit two diverse broadcasters and their diverse conditions. Livsstilsgenrens internationale udbredelse og elasticitet Artiklen tager et produktionsperspektiv på livsstils-tv, der er en relativt ny underholdningsgenre. Den har sine historiske rødder i de didaktiske faktagenrer, men dens moderne, mere underholdende[,] version blev født på britisk tv’s primetime i 1990’erne, hvorfra den spredtes internationalt, hovedsageligt til andre angelsaksiske lande samt Danmark og resten af Nordeuropa. Et andet karakteristika ved genren er, at livsstilsprogrammerne i stigende omfang handles på det internationale tv-marked som programformater, der efterfølgende versioneres lokalt på en sådan måde, at de passes ind efter markedsforhold uden for deres originale hjemmemarked. Livsstilsformaterne danner således en ny og anderledes og

  20. Stand Factors and Risk Analysis of Harm Extent of Gypsy Moths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Juan; Yan Guozeng; Guan Ling; Li Zhenyu; Feng Jihua

    2006-01-01

    Twelve stand factors affecting the harm extent of Gypsy moths (Lymantria dispar) were studied.Through stepwise regression analyses,three key factors were selected,such as crown density,soil infertility extent,and forestland area.The results showed that there exists a positive correlation between soil infertility extent and the harm extent of Gypsy moths and a significant negative correlation between the other two key factors and the harm extent of this insect.Using the three key factors,a multivariate linear regression model was established by which the authors made a risk analysis of the harm extent of Gypsy moths.

  1. An essay on the extent and significance of the Greek athletic culture in the classical period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Heine

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the extent of the Greek athletic culture in the classical period. It is demonstrated that the athletic culture had a surprising extent, and the article goes on the discuss the historical significance of this fact.......This article discusses the extent of the Greek athletic culture in the classical period. It is demonstrated that the athletic culture had a surprising extent, and the article goes on the discuss the historical significance of this fact....

  2. 聚乙烯管道热熔接头环向裂纹应力强度因子的数值分析%Numerical Analysis of Stress Intensity Factor for Circumferential Cracks of Polyethylene Pipe's Hot Melting Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱志彬; 杨晓翔; 陈丽静; 林乃昌; 庄鹏辉

    2013-01-01

    应力强度因子K是缺陷结构安全评定的重要参数.基于粘弹性理论,将聚乙烯管材料的粘弹性参数用Prony级数表示,运用非线性有限元法,在ANSYS中建立聚乙烯管热熔接头环向裂纹模型,并对K进行计算和分析.通过有限元的模拟,总结得到聚乙烯管最可能发生断裂的时间为产生裂纹时刻,从而得出分析聚乙烯管环向表面裂纹应力强度因子时不必考虑聚乙烯管的黏弹性,环向表面裂纹缺陷的主要影响因素是裂纹深度与聚乙烯管的厚度之比.%Aiming at the PE pipe' s viscoelastic properties,the Ansys was used to simulate and analyze the hot melting connector' s mechanical properties of the PE pipe with circumferential surface cracks,and the Prony series was used to analog material's viscoelastic properties,as well as the 1/4 node singular element was used to mesh the volumes at the crack boundary and to calculate the stress intensity factor of the PE pipe under the well-distributed internal pressure.The finite element simulation shows that the time of PE pipe rupture is just the moment that the crack occurs,and it is unnecessary to take PE pipe' s viscoelasticity into account while calculating the stress intensity factor of circumferential surface cracks.The crack depth-PE pipe thickness ratio mainly influences the circumferential cracks.

  3. Clinical study of microsplint and circumferential wiring in the treatment of mandibular body fracture in children%微型夹板配合环颌结扎治疗儿童下颌体部骨折的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜刚勇

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨微型夹板配合环颌结扎固定在儿童下颌骨体部骨折治疗中的应用。方法:选择2009~2012年儿童下颌体部骨折23例,采用微型夹板配合环颌结扎固定,观察其疗效。结果:微型夹板配合环颌结扎固定方法对儿童下颌骨骨折进行治疗具有不损伤恒牙胚,骨折复位良好、固定稳固、不影响进食,便于口腔清洁的特点。结论:微型夹板配合环颌结扎固定是治疗儿童下颌骨体部骨折的有效方法。%Objective:To evaluate the application of microsplint and circumferential wiring in the treatment of mandibular body frac-ture in children.Methods:23 children with mandibular body fracture were treated by microsplint and circumferential wiring from 2009 to 2012,the effects of treatment were assessed.Results:Treatment with microsplint and circumferential wiring did not injure perma-nent teeth germ.It showed many features,such as easy reduction of fractured bone segments,stable fixation,without interfere with eat-ing and benefit of mouth clearness.Conclusion:Microsplin and cicumferential wiring is effective for the treatment of mandibular body fracture in children.

  4. Implantation of dual chamber pacemaker defibrillator and placement of endocardial leads via the axillary vein%置入双腔起搏心脏复律除颤器及经腋静脉送入心内电极的初步临床体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    目的初步评价新型双腔起搏心脏复律除颤器抗室性心动过速/室颤(VT/VF)及心动过缓起搏的临床效果,了解经腋静脉送入心房及心室电极的安全性及有效性。 方法 7例室性心动过速及或室颤同时伴有心动过缓患者接受了双腔起搏心脏复律除颤器治疗,其中冠心病5例、扩张性心肌病2例。心房及心室电极均在X光线透视、静脉注入造影剂指导下,直接穿刺腋静脉,从该静脉送入。 结果脉冲发生器埋在左上胸皮下5例,胸大肌与胸小肌之间2例。仪器对所有VT/VF均能及时识别并成功治疗,同时提供有效的房室顺序起搏功能。所有心内电极均成功地经腋静脉送入,无并发症。 结论双腔起搏心脏复律除颤器不但能有效地治疗严重室性心律失常,而且能提供可靠的房室顺序性起搏功能,且经腋静脉送入电极安全,可靠。%Objectives To assess the preliminary clinical results of implantation of dual chamber pacemaker defibrillator and to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of placement of endocardial leads in the axillary vein. Methods Seven patients with ventricular tachycardia and/or ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF), associated with bradyarrhythmia received implantation of a dual chamber pacemaker defibrillator, including 5 patients with coronary artery disease and 2 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.The atrial and ventricular leads were introduced via the axillary vein under venographic guidance. Results Dual chamber pacemaker defibrillators were successfully implanted in the left chest subcutaneous pocket in 5 patients and the left pectoral muscular pocket in 2 patients. All the VT/VF occurring either inducibly during the procedure or spontanuously during follow-up were detected promptly and treated successfully. Both the pacing and sensing functions were satisfactory. The endocardial leads required were successfully introduced via the axillary vein

  5. Zonal Differences in Correlation Patterns Between Soil Organic Carbon and Climate Factors at Multi-extent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Falyu; SHI Xuezheng; XU Shengxiang; YU Dongsheng; WANG Dandan

    2016-01-01

    Studying the relationship between climate factors and soil organic carbon (SOC) is vitally important.However,how SOC responses to climate (temperature and precipitation) at cohesive extents is poorly studied.Two transects of approximately the same length (transect P and transect T) were selected to examine the variation of SOC content in relation to mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP).The coefficients of partial correlation between SOC density and MAT (Rt) and MAP (Rp) were determined to quantify the relationships between SOC density and the two climate factors.The results indicated that for transect T,Rt was statistically significant once the extent level was greater than or equal to two fundamental extent units,while for transect P,Rp showed statistical significance only at extent levels which were greater than two fundamental extent units.At the same extent levels but in different transects,Rts exhibited no zonal difference,but Rps did once the extent level was greater than two fundamental extent units.Therefore,to study the relationship between SOC density and different climate factors,different minimum extent levels should be examined.The results of this paper could deepen the understanding of the impacts that SOC pool has on terrestrial ecosystem and global carbon cycling.

  6. 46 CFR 252.22 - Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition... WORLDWIDE SERVICES Operation § 252.22 Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition. (a) Type and tonnage groupings. Foreign-flag competition shall be determined, as of January 1 of the year...

  7. 47 CFR 76.92 - Cable network non-duplication; extent of protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable network non-duplication; extent of... RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Network Non-duplication Protection, Syndicated Exclusivity and Sports Blackout § 76.92 Cable network non-duplication; extent of protection....

  8. 斑点追踪技术评价缺血心肌短轴缩短率和圆周应变%Evaluation of Regional Shortening Fraction and Circumferential Strain in Patients with Myocardial Ischemia by Speckle Tracking Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何艳; 王东平; 陈金国; 张娜; 杨体霞; 张军; 周利民

    2012-01-01

    目的 运用斑点追踪技术(STI)测量缺血心肌的短轴缩短率和圆周应变值,探讨其在诊断心肌缺血,评价心肌功能中的应用价值.方法 对29例心肌缺血患者(冠状动脉狭窄≥75%)和28例正常对照组(冠状动脉没有狭窄)分别行超声心动图检查,采集并记录左室短轴观(二尖瓣水平)的高帧频动态二维灰阶图像,应用二维应变分析软件进行脱机分析,系统自动将左室短轴分为前间隔、前壁、侧壁、后壁、下壁、后间隔6个节段,并给出应变曲线,分别测量各节段心肌的短轴缩短率和圆周应变值.结果 正常对照组的圆周应变曲线是负向峰值曲线,短轴缩短率曲线是正向峰值曲线,整组曲线排列较整齐;而心肌缺血组的应变曲线形态不规则.心肌缺血组圆周应变和短轴缩短率均低于正常对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 斑点追踪技术能对心肌的二维应变进行定量分析,为临床诊断心肌缺血,评价心肌功能提供了无创性新方法.%Objective To evaluate the clinical value of speckle tracking imaging in the measurement of regional shortening fraction and circumferential strain in patients with myocardial ischemia. Methods Twenty-nine patients with myocardial ischemia and twenty-eight healthy subjects underwent echocardiography,high frame rate two-dimensional images were recorded from the left ventricular short-axis views at the levels of mitral annulus, regional shortening fraction and circumferential strain were measured in the left ventricular short-axis views using two-dimensional strain software. Results Circumferential strain curve, regional shortening fraction curve in healthy group changed regularly, while in myocardial ischemia patients, the curve changed irregularly. Regional shortening fraction and circumferential strain in myocardial ischemia patients showed significant reduction compared with normal myocardium(P<0.05). Conclusion Speckle

  9. Design and performance test of circumferential crankle guide vane of multistage centrifugal pumps%多级离心泵圆周弯扭式导叶设计及性能试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张启华; 徐燕; 施卫东; 高雄发; 马栋棋; 陆伟刚

    2013-01-01

      为开发一种紧凑式多级泵,研究配套的一种圆周弯扭式导叶,其设计思路源自扭曲离心叶轮设计方法。通过固定导叶顶端曲线,将导叶底端曲线沿圆周方向向前延伸,形成弯扭式曲面。该导叶结构具有2个优点。首先,导叶底端沿圆周向前延伸后保证了较大的喉部进水区域面积。其次,利用底端向前延伸的部分与下一个叶片的圆柱部分自然形成扩压器状的过流通道,增强了导叶的扩压能力。在二次开发技术的基础上开发出该结构的水力设计系统。利用该系统设计出多组方案,同时利用CFD计算分析,经过不同方案的比较,最终获得了优化的导叶模型,并通过样机试验验证该模型具有较好的水力性能。该设计方法将有利于多级泵的节能,同时该方法也为紧凑式多级泵开发提供了有益的参考。%To design compact multistage centrifugal pumps, a circumferential crankle guide vane was proposed to match their compact structure. The basic design principle originated from the twisted centrifugal impeller design method and the design method of this guide vane was investigated systematically. By fixing the top curve of the guide vane and extending the bottom curve forward along a circumferential direction, a crankle surface is shaped. This design method has two merits. Firstly, the bottom curve of the first guide vane is extended circumferentially forward to guarantee a large throat flow area. And secondly, a diffuser-like passage is naturally formed by the extended surface and the cylindrical surface of the next blade, which enhances its pressure recovery ability. In addition, the blade surface is divided into two segmented parts, that is, a full twisted surface and a cylindrical surface, thus the casting and molding of the guide vane is more convenient. To reduce the design cycle of the guide vane, a hydraulic design system of the circumferential crankle

  10. 超声衍射时差法检测汽水管道环焊缝根部腐蚀减薄%Time-of-Flight-Diffraction Testing of Steam and Water Piping Circumferential Weld Roots Local Wall-thinning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟志民; 张维; 汪明辉

    2016-01-01

    The field feedbacks show that the industry should pay more attention to secondary loop steam and water piping circumferential weld root flow-accelerated corrosion(FAC)in Nuclear Power Plants from field feedbacks. Without effective inspection and supervision, it will lead to serious consequences such as high energy pipe leakage or rupture. The weld root Ultrasonic Time of Flight Diffraction(TOFD) inspection principle and testing results were discussed in detail. It was shown that TOFD can be applied to inspect local wall-thinning ,caused by flow-accelerated corrosion, at circumferential weld roots of secondary loop steam & water piping in nuclear power plants.%工程经验反馈表明,过往关注较少的核电站二回路汽水管道环焊缝根部由流动加速腐蚀引起的局部减薄现象应引起业界重视,如不进行有效的检测和监督,也会导致高能管道泄漏或破裂.本文重点探讨了核电站二回路汽水管道环焊缝根部局部减薄超声衍射时差法的检测原理、试验情况.结果表明,超声衍射时差法可用于检测流动加速腐蚀引起的汽水管道环焊缝根部局部减薄.

  11. 周向导波电磁超声探头(EMAT)设计与优化%Design and Optimization of Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) for Guided Circumferential Wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙高峰; 蔡桂喜

    2012-01-01

    To inspect oil and gas pipelines by using SHO mode guided circumferential ultrasonic wave,a novel electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) for guided circumferential wave was designed. The EMAT has two structural features,a carbon steel sheet is on top of all the magnets and small nonmagnetic blocks are placed between adjacent magnets. To improve its transduction efficiency, ANSYS software was used to optimize some geometric parameters of EMAT. The optimal result is the carbon steel sheet should be thicker than 1 mm, and the wire spacing of the coil should be as small as possible. Experiments on a tube 200 mm in OD and 4 mm in wall thickness indicate that the EMAT optimized can excite the SHO mode guided wave effectively.%为了利用SH0模超声周向导波检测油气管道纵向裂纹,提出了一种新的周向导波电磁超声探头(EMAT)结构设计,其结构特点是磁铁顶部放置碳钢片,相邻磁铁之间放置非磁性材料片.为了提高周向导波EMAT的换能效率,采用ANSYS仿真对其结构参数进行了优化.优化的结果为:磁铁顶部应放置厚度大于1mm的碳钢片,线圈中导线间距要尽量小.在直径200 mm壁厚、4mm的管材上进行实验,结果表明,优化设计后的探头能有效地激励出周向SH0导波.

  12. Extent of Corcoran Clay modified from Page (1986) for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the areal extent of the Corcoran Clay Member of the Tulare Formation. The complex hydrologic system of the Central Valley is simulated...

  13. Sea Ice Edge Location and Extent in the Russian Arctic, 1933-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sea Ice Edge Location and Extent in the Russian Arctic, 1933-2006 data are derived from sea ice charts from the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI),...

  14. Extent of soil with moderate phosphorus retention potential in the United States Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the extent of soils with moderate phosphorus retention potential in the Pacific...

  15. Reconstructed North American, Eurasian, and Northern Hemisphere Snow Cover Extent, 1915-1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains time series of monthly snow cover extent (SCE) for North America, Eurasia, and the Northern Hemisphere from 1915 to 1997, based on snow cover...

  16. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Northern Hemisphere (NH) Snow Cover Extent (SCE), Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) is a record for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) Snow Cover Extent (SCE) spanning from October 4, 1966 to present, updated monthly...

  17. Extent of soil with low phosphorus retention potential in the United States Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the extent of soils with low phosphorus retention potential in the Pacific...

  18. Arctic Sea Ice Concentration and Extent from Danish Meteorological Institute Sea Ice Charts, 1901-1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set provides estimates of Arctic sea ice extent and concentration from 1901 to 1956 created from a collection of historic, hand-drawn sea ice charts from...

  19. Extent of oxide layer at the inner surface of burst cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extent of oxide layer at the inner surface of burst cladding is one of very important items in the heat-up calculation during a postulated LOCA transient in LWRs. The extent of oxide layers were measured on burst claddings being conducted over a range of oxidation temperature from 900 to 11500C, oxidation time varying from 35 to 240s, steam flow rate varying from 2 to 1530 g/m2s and rupture varying in length from about 5 to 26 mm. The extent of oxide layer at the inner surface of burst cladding is influenced by oxidation temperature, oxidation time and supplied amount of steam entering a rupture of burst cladding. The extent of oxide layer, in paticular, becomes large as the length of a rupture is longer. The thickness of oxide near the burst, which is thicker than that away from the burst, exceeds the value calculated by the reaction rate. (author)

  20. Myrtle Bend Substrate Enhancement Pilot Project Extent, Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, ID, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The substrate enhancement pilot project (SEPP) extent GIS layer represents an area where an artificial substrate will be placed. The artificial substrate,...

  1. Shorty's Island Substrate Enhancement Pilot Project Extent, Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, ID, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The substrate enhancement pilot project (SEPP) extent GIS layer represents an area where an artificial substrate will be placed. The artificial substrate,...

  2. Vibrato rate and extent in soprano voice: a survey on one century of singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Isidoro

    2011-09-01

    This work presents a statistical study of vibrato parameters in soprano voices. More than one hundred recordings of the same tone sung by 75 artists have been analyzed. Vibrato rate and extent, tone length and intonation, together with their correlations are the main parameters under examination. The study shows a clear decrease of the mean vibrato rate during the last century (-1.8±0.3 Hz/century), together with an increase of vibrato extent (56.4±0.3cent/century). Vibrato rate and extent show a statistically significant negative correlation (r=-0.62). Vibrato rate increase near the end of the tone has been observed too, in agreement with previous measurements, together with a mean increase of the pitch of the tone. A small positive correlation has been also found among note duration and vibrato extent. PMID:21895105

  3. Extent of soil with high phosphorus retention potential in the United States Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the extent of soils with high phosphorus retention potential in the Pacific...

  4. NOAA/NMC/CAC Arctic and Antarctic Monthly Sea Ice Extent, 1973-1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea ice extent from January 1973 through August 1990 was digitized from weekly operational sea ice charts produced by the Navy/NOAA Joint Ice Center. Charts were...

  5. Numerical Simulation of Extent of Carbon Dioxide Plume Injected in the Gyeongsang Basin, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihm, J.; Park, S.; Kim, J.

    2012-12-01

    A series of thermo-hydro-chemical numerical simulations was performed to evaluate extent of carbon dioxide plume injected in the Gyeongsang Basin, which is one of the prospective onshore sedimentary basins for geologic storage of carbon dioxide in Korea. The carbon dioxide plume extent is an important factor in estimating storage efficiency and thus storage capacity of carbon dioxide in a storage formation because it represents an actual volume of the storage formation, which is occupied by injected carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide plume extent is also an essential component in risk analysis of geologic storage of carbon dioxide because most of thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical responses to carbon dioxide injection occur within it. To evaluate impacts of injection scenarios (i.e., injection rate and period) of carbon dioxide and geological conditions (i.e., thickness and depth) and hydrogeochemical properties (i.e., porosity, intrinsic permeability, salt concentration in groundwater, and volume fraction of chlorite) of a storage formation on the carbon dioxide plume extent, a series of sensitivity tests was also performed. The numerical simulation results show that the carbon dioxide plume extent is significantly affected by such injection scenarios, geological conditions, and hydrogeochemical properties. The carbon dioxide plume extent increases as the injection rate (with a constant injection period) increases, and this trend does not change with time. The carbon dioxide plume extent decreases as the injection period (with a constant total injection amount) increases until about 50 years, while it is not sensitive to the injection period after about 50 years. The carbon dioxide plume extent also decreases as the thickness increases until about 100 years, while it is not sensitive to the thickness after about 100 years. In contrast, the carbon dioxide plume extent decreases as the depth increases, and this trend is intensified with time. On the other hand, the

  6. Observed Differences between North American Snow Extent and Snow Depth Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Y.; Gong, G.

    2006-12-01

    Snow extent and snow depth are two related characteristics of a snowpack, but they need not be mutually consistent. Differences between these two variables at local scales are readily apparent. However at larger scales which interact with atmospheric circulation and climate, snow extent is typically the variable used, while snow depth is often assumed to be minor and/or mutually consistent compared to snow extent, though this is rarely verified. In this study, a new regional/continental-scale gridded dataset derived from field observations is utilized to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between snow extent and snow depth over North America. Various statistical methods are applied to assess the mutual consistency of monthly snow depth vs. snow extent, including correlations, composites and principal components. Results indicate that snow depth variations are significant in their own rights, and that depth and extent anomalies are largely unrelated, especially over broad high latitude regions north of the snowline. In the vicinity of the snowline, where precipitation and ablation can affect both snow extent and snow depth, the two variables vary concurrently, especially in autumn and spring. It is also found that deeper winter snow translates into larger snow-covered area in the subsequent spring/summer season, which suggests a possible influence of winter snow depth on summer climate. The observed lack of mutual consistency at continental/regional scales suggests that snowpack depth variations may be of sufficiently large magnitude, spatial scope and temporal duration to influence regional-hemispheric climate, in a manner unrelated to the more extensively studied snow extent variations.

  7. Fecal calprotectin level correlated with both endoscopic severity and disease extent in ulcerative colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashima, Kousaku; Ishihara, Shunji; Yuki, Takafumi; Fukuba, Nobuhiko; Oshima, Naoki; Kazumori, Hideaki; Sonoyama, Hiroki; Yamashita, Noritsugu; Tada, Yasumasa; Kusunoki, Ryusaku; Oka, Akihiko; Mishima, Yoshiyuki; Moriyama, Ichiro; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship between fecal calprotectin (FC) and disease extent in ulcerative colitis (UC) has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to clarify the correlation of FC with disease extent and severity in UC patients. Methods UC patients scheduled to undergo an ileocolonoscopy were enrolled and fecal samples for FC measurement were collected prior to the procedure. A Mayo endoscopic subscore (MES) was determined for each of 5 colonic segments. To evaluate the associ...

  8. 不同后路环状融合术治疗老年人腰椎不稳症的临床疗效%The therapeutic effect of different posterior circumferential fusion on lumbar instability in aged patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈柏龄; 黎艺强; 刘少喻; 李佛保; 梁春祥

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价传统后路环状融合术和简化后路环状融合术治疗老年人腰椎不稳症的临床疗效。 方法 2005年开始使用椎弓根钉系统辅助后路环状融合术治疗60岁及以上单节段腰椎不稳症80例,58例进行2年以上随访,其中28例采用了横突间植骨的传统后路环状融合术(PLIF+PLF,A组),30例采用不进行横突间植骨的简化后路环状融合术(PLIF+FF,B组)。术前和术后1、3、6、12、24个月应用X线评价腰椎状态及植骨融合情况,并应用视觉疼痛评分(VAS)和()swestry功能障碍指数(ODI)评价患者腰腿疼痛程度及生活功能情况。 结果 A组手术时间(185.3±56.6)min,术中出血量(376.3±92.9)ml;B组手术时间(146.4±46.3)min,术中出血量(234.3±64.5)ml,两组比较手术时间和出血量差异均有统计学意义(t= 12.37和37.49,均P<0.01)。A组28例中27例获骨性融合,融合率96.4%,B组30例中28例获骨性融合,融合率93.3%,两组骨融合率差异无统计学意义(x2=0.004,P>0.05)。两组患者术后腰、腿痛VAS评分及ODI均较术前明显改善。术后1个月和3个月,B组腰痛VAS评分比A组显著降低(t=3.178和2.158,P<0.05),其余3个时间点两组之间腰痛VAS差异无统计学意义(均P>0.05)。术后5个时间点A、B两组间腿痛VAS评分及ODI值均无统计学差别(均P>0.05)。 结论对于具有手术指征的老年腰椎不稳症患者,采用不进行横突间植骨融合的简化后路环状融合术与传统的后路环状融合术相比,可获得相似的融合率和满意的临床疗效,且创伤显著减少,是值得推荐的一种手术方式。%Objective To compare the clinical effect of posterior circumferential fusion with versus without intertransverse process fusion on lumbar instability in aged patients. Methods The elderly with lumbar instability were treated with the posterior instrumented circumferential fusion technique in 80

  9. Factors influencing the spatial extent of mobile source air pollution impacts: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Jonathan I

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been growing interest among exposure assessors, epidemiologists, and policymakers in the concept of "hot spots", or more broadly, the "spatial extent" of impacts from traffic-related air pollutants. This review attempts to quantitatively synthesize findings about the spatial extent under various circumstances. Methods We include both the peer-reviewed literature and government reports, and focus on four significant air pollutants: carbon monoxide, benzene, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter (including both ultrafine particle counts and fine particle mass. From the identified studies, we extracted information about significant factors that would be hypothesized to influence the spatial extent within the study, such as the study type (e.g., monitoring, air dispersion modeling, GIS-based epidemiological studies, focus on concentrations or health risks, pollutant under study, background concentration, emission rate, and meteorological factors, as well as the study's implicit or explicit definition of spatial extent. We supplement this meta-analysis with results from some illustrative atmospheric dispersion modeling. Results We found that pollutant characteristics and background concentrations best explained variability in previously published spatial extent estimates, with a modifying influence of local meteorology, once some extreme values based on health risk estimates were removed from the analysis. As hypothesized, inert pollutants with high background concentrations had the largest spatial extent (often demonstrating no significant gradient, and pollutants formed in near-source chemical reactions (e.g., nitrogen dioxide had a larger spatial extent than pollutants depleted in near-source chemical reactions or removed through coagulation processes (e.g., nitrogen oxide and ultrafine particles. Our illustrative dispersion model illustrated the complex interplay of spatial extent definitions, emission rates

  10. Mapping US Urban Extents from MODIS Data Using One-Class Classification Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas are one of the most important components of human society. Their extents have been continuously growing during the last few decades. Accurate and timely measurements of the extents of urban areas can help in analyzing population densities and urban sprawls and in studying environmental issues related to urbanization. Urban extents detected from remotely sensed data are usually a by-product of land use classification results, and their interpretation requires a full understanding of land cover types. In this study, for the first time, we mapped urban extents in the continental United States using a novel one-class classification method, i.e., positive and unlabeled learning (PUL, with multi-temporal Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data for the year 2010. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS night stable light data were used to calibrate the urban extents obtained from the one-class classification scheme. Our results demonstrated the effectiveness of the use of the PUL algorithm in mapping large-scale urban areas from coarse remote-sensing images, for the first time. The total accuracy of mapped urban areas was 92.9% and the kappa coefficient was 0.85. The use of DMSP-OLS night stable light data can significantly reduce false detection rates from bare land and cropland far from cities. Compared with traditional supervised classification methods, the one-class classification scheme can greatly reduce the effort involved in collecting training datasets, without losing predictive accuracy.

  11. 冠状窦顶重建治疗无顶综合征合并心内膜垫缺损和永存左上腔静脉%Reestablishment the roof of coronary sinus in treating unroofed coronary sinus syndrome with endocardial cushion defect and persistent left superior vena cava

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范祥明; 闫军; 王强; 罗国华; 吕晓东; 刘迎龙

    2010-01-01

    目的 总结冠状静脉窦顶重建在无顶冠状静脉窦综合征合并心内膜垫缺损和永存左上腔静脉的外科治疗经验.方法 2000年1月至2008年1月共753例心内膜垫缺损病人行畸形矫治手术,15例(2%)同时合并永存左上腔静脉和无顶冠状静脉窦综合征,包括部分型心内膜垫缺损12例,完全型心内膜垫缺损3例.均在行心内膜垫缺损矫治术同期重建冠状静脉窦顶,1例直接结扎左上腔静脉,14例将左上腔静脉隔入右房,其中10例用自体心包补片,4例通过折叠左房后壁完成冠状静脉窦顶的重建,最后在重建的冠状静脉窦开口的左侧缝合修补房间隔缺损.结果 术后早期1例死于严重肺部感染.术后随访3个月~6年,无远期死亡病例.14例术后均未见腔静脉、肺静脉回流梗阻和心房水平残余分流.1例行左房后壁折叠分隔左上腔静脉者术后早期超声心动图提示左上腔静脉入左房顶处血流速度偏快.结论 合并心内膜垫缺损和永存左上腔静脉的无顶冠状静脉窦综合征外科治疗有难度,冠状窦顶重建技术能够取得良好的治疗效果.%Objective To summarize the surgical procedures of unroofed coronary sinus syndrome with endocardial cushion defect and persistent left superior vena cava.Methods From 2000 to 2008,753 cases of endocardial cushion defect underwent surgical repair.Among them 15 cages(2.0%)were associated with persistent left superior vena cava and unroofed coronary sinus syndrome.The drainage of the persistent left superior vena cava and coronary vein were corrected simultaneously during the operation by reestablishing the roof of the coronary sinus.The persistent left superior vena cava were drained to right atrium by intra-atrial tunnel with pericardial patch or left atrium folding in 14 cases and it was ligated in the remain one.Most of the coronary veins were drained into right atrium after the correction of cardiac defect.Results One patient

  12. 袖状蒂岛状环形包皮瓣尿道成形术一期修复会阴型尿道下裂%One-stage urethroplasty with circumferential vascular pedicle preputial island flap for perineal hypospadias

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱再生; 吴汉; 李瑞阳; 汪定海

    2010-01-01

    Objective To report the treatment of perineal hypospadias with one-stage urethroplaty with circumferential vascular pedicle preputial island flap. Methods A circumferential incision was made proximal to the corona and the urethral plate to correct chordee. A U-shaped skin incision was then made surrounding the meatus, and extended to the dorsal prepuce and parallel to the first incision. The tissue between the prepuce and dartos was dissected on the dorsum of penis to fix the prepuce as a neourethra.After mobilizing the loop shaped skin flap through the button-hole of the pedicle, the internal and external sides of the loop were sutured to construct a new urethra, the catheter was removed 10-14 days (mean,12.8 days ) after operation. Results Since 1997, 22 patients with perineal hypospadias were treated.Primary healing was achieved in 18 cases(81.8% ). Fistula happened in 4 patients. Among them, one case with meatal stenosis was treated with dilatation. Another 3 patients were reoperated. The neourethral flap was 3.50-18.00 cm (mean, 9.43 cm) in length. All patients were followed up for more than 6 months. Good cosmetic appearance was achieved in 72. 7% (16/22) of the patients. Conclusions The circumferential vascular pedicle preputial island flap has advantages of good blood supply and autograft for new meatus, which allows the chordee correction and urethroplaty at one stage. It is a good method for the treatment of perineal hypospadias with severe chordee and penoscrotal transposition.%目的 探讨袖状蒂岛状环形包皮瓣尿道成形术一期修复会阴型尿道下裂的临床效果.方法 距冠状沟0.5 cm处环形切开包皮内板和尿道板,脱套以纠正阴茎下曲.沿尿道板两侧平行切开,近端绕尿道口后会合,呈U形,远端环绕包皮到背侧,使新尿道皮瓣呈环状.解剖供应皮瓣的深层皮下组织与阴茎皮肤,形成血管蒂.经纽扣样孔隙,转移环状皮瓣至腹侧.缝合岛状环形皮瓣的内、外缘,形

  13. 基于有限元分析的便携式漏磁检测周向磁化器设计%Design of Magnetizer for Portable Pipeline Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing under Circumferential Magnetization Based on FEM Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵昆明; 武新军; 沈功田; 王宝轩

    2015-01-01

    The axial magnetization is the main magnetization method nowadays, which means that the probe speciifcation is changed with the change of the industry pipeline speciifcation. It is inconvenient in the ifeld. To solve the problem, the magnetic lfux leakage testing based on circumferential magnetization is applied to test of industrial pipelines. The design of the magnetizer is the key of the magnetic flux leakage testing based on circumferential magnetization. In order to optimize it, the distribution of magnetic induction ifeld in pipelines under circumferential magnetization is simulated and studied based on 3D ifnite element analysis. The inlfuences of magnetizer parameters, such as the thickness and width of the magnet, the thickness of the armature, and the pole spacing, are analyzed; and the correlation curves of magnetic induction below the pipe detection probe and the size of the uniform magnetization region which changing with the magnetizer parameters and the magnets lift-off are obtained. The magnetization designed by the finite element method is verified by experiments, and the experiments show that the magnetizer satisifes detection requirements.%对于工业架空管道检测,若采用目前广泛应用的轴向磁化漏磁检测方法,管道规格繁多造成探头规格多样,不利于现场操作。为解决这一问题,本文提出将周向磁化漏磁检测应用于工业管道检测,周向磁化漏磁检测的核心是磁化器设计。为优化便携式周向磁化漏磁检测磁化器设计,采用三维有限元方法,仿真研究周向磁化下管道磁化场分布特征,分析磁铁厚度与宽度、衔铁厚度、磁极间距、磁铁提离等参数对管道磁化场分布影响,得到探头下方管道磁感应强度大小及磁化均匀区域大小随磁化器几何尺寸和磁铁提离的变化规律,并通过实验对设计的磁化器进行验证,结果表明通过有限元仿真得到的磁化器满足检测要求。

  14. Study on Volatility Risk Contagion Effects between China's Stock Market and Circumferential Stock Markets%中国股市与周边股市波动风险传导效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈王; 魏宇; 淳伟德; 侯县平

    2011-01-01

    The conditional volatility of financial asset returns is an important measurement of market risk, and it often shows an asymmetric leverage effect. So in this paper, using LGARCH (Leverage GARCH) model to estimate the volatility of stock markets, we analyze the contagion effects of volatility risk between China's stock market and its circumferential stock markets by Granger-causality test method. The empirical results show a weak risk link between Shanghai stock market and the others in the entire sample period. Hongkong stock market affects Shanghai stock market at the 5% significance level while evidence of such contagion effect doesn't exist between Shanghai and Tokyo, Singapore stock markets. However, after Chings stock market are open for QFII (Qualified Foreign Institutional Investors), contagion effects of volatility risk are found to be much more significant between China's stock market and its circumferential stock markets.%由于金融资产收益的条件波动率不仅是金融市场风险度量的重要指标,而且呈现出明显的杠杆效应。因此,本文运用能够刻画波动率杠杆效应的LGARCH(Leverage GARCH)模型对金融市场条件波动率进行建模分析,进而运用Grangercausality检验分析了中国股市与周边股市波动风险的传导效应。实证结果表明,在整个样本区间,上海股市与周边重要股市的联系比较微弱,仅与香港股市存在一定的风险传导关系,而与东京、新加坡股市却不存在传导关系。然而,在我国股市对境外合格机构投资者(Qualified Foreign Institutional Investors,QFII)开放后,中国股市与周边股市的波动风险传导关系明显异于对QFII开放之前和整个样本期的风险传导关系,上海股市与香港、东京、新加坡股市间的波动风险传导关系均显著增强。

  15. Prevalence, Vascular Distribution, and Multiterritorial Extent of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in a Middle-Aged Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Peñalvo, José L; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data are limited on the presence, distribution, and extent of subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged populations. METHODS AND RESULTS: The PESA (Progression of Early Subclinical Atherosclerosis) study prospectively enrolled 4184 asymptomatic participants 40 to 54 years of age (mean...... age, 45.8 years; 63% male) to evaluate the systemic extent of atherosclerosis in the carotid, abdominal aortic, and iliofemoral territories by 2-/3-dimensional ultrasound and coronary artery calcification by computed tomography. The extent of subclinical atherosclerosis, defined as presence of plaque...... or coronary artery calcification ≥1, was classified as focal (1 site affected), intermediate (2-3 sites), or generalized (4-6 sites) after exploration of each vascular site (right/left carotids, aorta, right/left iliofemorals, and coronary arteries). Subclinical atherosclerosis was present in 63...

  16. Estimating the extent of stress influence by using earthquake triggering groundwater level variations in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Jung; Hsu, Kuo-Chin; Lai, Wen-Chi; Wang, Chein-Lee

    2015-11-01

    Groundwater level variations associated with earthquake events may reveal useful information. This study estimates the extent of stress influence, defined as the distance over which an earthquake can induce a step change of the groundwater level, using earthquake-triggering groundwater level variations in Taiwan. Groundwater variations were first characterized based on the dynamics of groundwater level changes dominantly triggered by earthquakes. The step-change data in co-seismic groundwater level variations were used to analyze the extent of stress influence for earthquakes. From the data analysis, the maximum extent of stress influence is 250 km around Taiwan. A two-dimensional approach was adopted to develop two models for estimating the maximum extent of stress influence for earthquakes. From the developed models, the extent of stress influence is proportional to the earthquake magnitude and inversely proportional to the groundwater level change. The model equations can be used to calculate the influence radius of stress from an earthquake by using the observed change of groundwater level and the earthquake magnitude. The models were applied to estimate the area of anomalous stress, defined as the possible areas where the strain energy is accumulated, using the cross areas method. The results show that the estimated area of anomalous stress is close to the epicenter. Complex geological structures and material heterogeneity and anisotropy may explain this disagreement. More data collection and model refinements can improve the proposed model. This study shows the potential of using groundwater level variations for capturing seismic information. The proposed concept of extent of stress influence can be used to estimate the earthquake effect in hydraulic engineering, mining engineering, and carbon dioxide sequestration, etc. This study provides a concept for estimating the possible areas of anomalous stress for a forthcoming earthquake.

  17. Human Activities on the Deep Seafloor in the North East Atlantic: An Assessment of Spatial Extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Angela R.; Weaver, Philip P.; Billet, David S. M.; van den Hove, Sybille; Murdock, Andrew P.; Doneghan, Gemma B.; Le Bas, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Background Environmental impacts of human activities on the deep seafloor are of increasing concern. While activities within waters shallower than 200 m have been the focus of previous assessments of anthropogenic impacts, no study has quantified the extent of individual activities or determined the relative severity of each type of impact in the deep sea. Methodology The OSPAR maritime area of the North East Atlantic was chosen for the study because it is considered to be one of the most heavily impacted by human activities. In addition, it was assumed data would be accessible and comprehensive. Using the available data we map and estimate the spatial extent of five major human activities in the North East Atlantic that impact the deep seafloor: submarine communication cables, marine scientific research, oil and gas industry, bottom trawling and the historical dumping of radioactive waste, munitions and chemical weapons. It was not possible to map military activities. The extent of each activity has been quantified for a single year, 2005. Principal Findings Human activities on the deep seafloor of the OSPAR area of the North Atlantic are significant but their footprints vary. Some activities have an immediate impact after which seafloor communities could re-establish, while others can continue to make an impact for many years and the impact could extend far beyond the physical disturbance. The spatial extent of waste disposal, telecommunication cables, the hydrocarbon industry and marine research activities is relatively small. The extent of bottom trawling is very significant and, even on the lowest possible estimates, is an order of magnitude greater than the total extent of all the other activities. Conclusions/Significance To meet future ecosystem-based management and governance objectives for the deep sea significant improvements are required in data collection and availability as well as a greater awareness of the relative impact of each human activity

  18. Human activities on the deep seafloor in the North East Atlantic: an assessment of spatial extent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela R Benn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental impacts of human activities on the deep seafloor are of increasing concern. While activities within waters shallower than 200 m have been the focus of previous assessments of anthropogenic impacts, no study has quantified the extent of individual activities or determined the relative severity of each type of impact in the deep sea. METHODOLOGY: The OSPAR maritime area of the North East Atlantic was chosen for the study because it is considered to be one of the most heavily impacted by human activities. In addition, it was assumed data would be accessible and comprehensive. Using the available data we map and estimate the spatial extent of five major human activities in the North East Atlantic that impact the deep seafloor: submarine communication cables, marine scientific research, oil and gas industry, bottom trawling and the historical dumping of radioactive waste, munitions and chemical weapons. It was not possible to map military activities. The extent of each activity has been quantified for a single year, 2005. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human activities on the deep seafloor of the OSPAR area of the North Atlantic are significant but their footprints vary. Some activities have an immediate impact after which seafloor communities could re-establish, while others can continue to make an impact for many years and the impact could extend far beyond the physical disturbance. The spatial extent of waste disposal, telecommunication cables, the hydrocarbon industry and marine research activities is relatively small. The extent of bottom trawling is very significant and, even on the lowest possible estimates, is an order of magnitude greater than the total extent of all the other activities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To meet future ecosystem-based management and governance objectives for the deep sea significant improvements are required in data collection and availability as well as a greater awareness of the relative impact of

  19. Surface Water and Flood Extent Mapping, Monitoring, and Modeling Products and Services for the SERVIR Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric

    2016-01-01

    SERVIR is a joint NASA - US Agency for International Development (USAID) project to improve environmental decision-making using Earth observations and geospatial technologies. A common need identified among SERVIR regions has been improved information for disaster risk reduction and in specific surface water and flood extent mapping, monitoring and forecasting. Of the 70 SERVIR products (active, complete, and in development), 4 are related to surface water and flood extent mapping, monitoring or forecasting. Visit http://www.servircatalog.net for more product details.

  20. 241-AY-101 Tank Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Gunter, Jason R.

    2013-08-26

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for tank 241-AY-101. The construction history of tank 241-AY-101 has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In tank 241-AY-101, the second double-shell tank constructed, similar issues as those with tank 241-AY-102 construction reoccurred. The overall extent of similary and affect on tank 241-AY-101 integrity is described herein.

  1. 241-AW Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Gunter, Jason R.; Reeploeg, Gretchen E.

    2013-11-19

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for the 241-AW tank farm. The construction history of the 241-AW tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-AW tank farm, the fourth double-shell tank farm constructed, similar issues as those with tank 241-AY-102 construction occured. The overall extent of similary and affect on 241-AW tank farm integrity is described herein.

  2. Thermoluminescence glow curve involving any extent of retrapping or any order of kinetics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jai Prakash

    2013-09-01

    Adirovitch set of equations has been modified to explain the mechanisms involved in thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve. A simple model is proposed which explains the occurrence of TL glow curve involving any extent of retrapping or any order of kinetics. It has been observed that the extents of recombination and simultaneous rewrapping decide the order of kinetics involved. TL decay parameters, order of kinetics and initial concentration of trapped electrons per unit volume are evaluated easily and conveniently. It has been observed that retrapping increases with increasing order of kinetics.

  3. Investigation of temporal change in glacial extent of Chitral watershed using Landsat data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Usman Ali; Shamim, Muhammad Ali; Ejaz, Naeem; Ur Rehman, Habib; Mustafa, Umer; Hashmi, Hashim Nisar; Ghumman, Abdul Razzaq

    2016-01-01

    Glaciers are also known as solid reservoirs, and in this regard, Pakistan is a blessed country to have enriched glaciers. The change in glacial extent becomes very crucial for rivers whose discharges are associated with glacier melt. Even a little change in the glacial extent may bring a significant change in the resulting river flows. Considering climate change scenarios, many researchers have predicted future flows in such catchments. But in almost all such studies, the reduction in the glaciers is not normally based on any rational. Therefore, research is needed in order to estimate how glaciers are actually behaving under the change of temperature and precipitations to better estimate the future flows. For this purpose, Chitral watershed was considered as the study area. The seasonal change in the snow extent was estimated by using MODIS data for various years that helped to identify the month with minimum glacial extent. With the help of remote sensing, unsupervised classification was performed to estimate the glacier area in Chitral watershed. The results show a definite receding trend with respect to time in the glaciers of the region for the past decade. PMID:26687086

  4. The relationship between sex hormones and extent of coronary artery disease in postmenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Odgerel Tumur; HAN Jiang-li; YANG Chi-sun; MAO Jie-ming

    2007-01-01

    @@ The prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in women increases with menopause. Results from the studies on the role of endogenous sex hormones on CAD in postmenopausal women are conflicting.1,2 The present study evaluated the relationship between endogenous sex hormones and extent of CAD in postmenopausal women and the associations of sex hormones with CAD risk factors.

  5. 76 FR 60504 - Guidance for Industry on Time and Extent Applications for Nonprescription Drug Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration (Formerly 2004D-0027) Guidance for Industry on Time and... a guidance for industry entitled ``Time and Extent Applications for Nonprescription Drug Products... (TEA) to determine whether a condition is eligible for inclusion in the OTC drug monograph system...

  6. Discussion on extent of personal dose monitoring and source-related monitoring of occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There exist several issues for personal dose monitoring in radiation protection, such as, extent of personal dose monitoring, source-related evaluation in dose monitoring. We analyzed the origins and critical points of these issues, and finally discussed the ways to solve these issues for on-site monitoring in this paper. (authors)

  7. Regional Urban Extent Extraction Using Multi-Sensor Data and One-Class Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiya Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stable night-time light data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP Operational Line-scan System (OLS provide a unique proxy for anthropogenic development. This paper presents a regional urban extent extraction method using a one-class classifier and combinations of DMSP/OLS stable night-time light (NTL data, MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI data, and land surface temperature (LST data. We first analyzed how well MODIS NDVI and LST data quantify the properties of urban areas. Considering that urban area is the only class of interest, we applied the one-class support vector machine (OCSVM to classify different combinations of the three datasets. We evaluated the effectiveness of the proposed method and compared with the locally optimized threshold method in regional urban extent mapping in China. The experimental results demonstrate that DMSP/OLS NTL data, MODIS NDVI and LST data provide different but complementary information sources to quantify the urban extent at a regional scale. The results also indicate that the OCSVM classification of the combination of all three datasets generally outperformed the locally optimized threshold method. The proposed method effectively and efficiently extracted the urban extent at a regional scale, and is applicable to other study areas.

  8. To What Extent Are School Counselors Using Meditation and Relaxation Techniques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laselle, Kevin M.; Russell, Todd T.

    1993-01-01

    Examined extent to which meditation and relaxation techniques are used by secondary school counselors as group counseling component for treating adolescents with behavior problems. Findings from 57 secondary school counselors revealed that few respondents used such techniques. Recommends that counselors change their roles, enhance counseling…

  9. Total Quality Management in Secondary Schools in Kenya: Extent of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngware, Moses Waithanji; Wamukuru, David Kuria; Odebero, Stephen Onyango

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the extent to which secondary schools practiced aspects of total quality management (TQM). Design/methodology/approach: A cross-sectional research design was used in this study. A sample of 300 teachers in a residential session during a school holiday provided their perceptions on the practice of TQM in their schools. Data…

  10. The Extent to Which Relaxation Techniques Are Taught at Community Colleges in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Anne

    As part of a study of the role of relaxation training in the reduction of student test anxiety, a survey of the deans of instruction at 102 California community colleges was conducted to determine the extent to which the colleges were teaching Centering, Meditation, Transcendental Meditation, Hypnotism, Yoga, and Relaxation. For each of these…

  11. The Extent of Skills Mismatch among Childhood Education Graduates of Princess Alia University College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashash, Hyam M.

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the extent of skill mismatch between the skills the childhood education graduates at Al-Balqa Applied University--Princess Alia University College acquired during their studies and those demanded in the labor market. The descriptive survey design was adopted and the purposive sampling technique was employed to…

  12. The Extent and Effects of Peer Pressure among High School Students: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B. Bradford

    1982-01-01

    The extent of peer pressure in high school and its influences on behavior were examined in accounts from college undergraduates. One-third of both genders identified peer pressure as difficult, being stronger for females. Pressure areas included dating, sexual activity, and drug and alcohol use, but not parent-child relationships. (Author/CM)

  13. Adjudication and Justification: To What Extent Should the Exluded Be Included in the Judge's Decision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klink, van B.M.J.

    2016-01-01

    As follows from the Rule of Law, the judge has to justify herdecision. In contemporary legal and social theory, it is arguedthat she should somehow give recognition to arguments andviewpoints that have been excluded from the final decision. Inmy paper, I will address the question why, to what extent

  14. To What Extent Is Criminal Justice Content Specifically Addressed in MSW Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperson, Matthew W.; Roberts, Leslie E.; Ivanoff, Andre; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Gilmer, Christy N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which criminal justice content is addressed in all CSWE-accredited MSW programs in the United States ("N"?=?192). Criminal justice content was measured in three areas: (1) dual or joint degree programs, (2) concentrations or specializations, and (3) coursework. Excluding social work and law classes, 22%…

  15. The Nature, Extent and Causes of Abuse of Children with Disabilities in Schools in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumba, Almon; Abosi, Okey C.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that the exact number of children with disabilities in Botswana is unknown. A study on child abuse sought to determine: the forms of child abuse perpetrated on children with disabilities; the extent of child abuse; and the causes of child abuse of children with disabilities. A questionnaire on child abuse was adapted and used to…

  16. 48 CFR 252.247-7022 - Representation of extent of transportation by sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of transportation by sea. 252.247-7022 Section 252.247-7022 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... transportation by sea. As prescribed in 247.574(a), use the following provision: Representation of Extent of Transportation By Sea (AUG 1992) (a) The Offeror shall indicate by checking the appropriate blank in paragraph...

  17. A Portrait of Family Involvement during Head Start: Nature, Extent, and Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Annemarie H.; Miller, Alison L.; Froyen, Laura C.; Skibbe, Lori E.

    2012-01-01

    Family involvement, an important resource for early learning among children in poverty, is a primary focus of the Head Start preschool program. The current study examined the extent to which families in Head Start were involved in children's learning at home, in the community, and at school, as well as the child, family, and center factors that…

  18. THE EXTENT OF MINE DRAINAGE INTO STREAMS OF THE CENTRAL APPALACHIAN AND ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runoff and drainage from active and inactive mines are contaminating streams throughout the United States with acidic and metal contaminated waters and sediments. The extent of mining impacts on streams of the coal bearing region of the Central Appalachians and the metal bearing...

  19. 47 CFR 76.101 - Cable syndicated program exclusivity: extent of protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Syndicated Exclusivity and Sports Blackout § 76.101 Cable syndicated program exclusivity: extent of... are held by a commercial television station licensed by the Commission, shall not carry that program... to each syndicated program, the geographic zone within which the television station is entitled...

  20. Does the Extent of Problem Familiarity Influence Students' Learning in Problem-Based Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockalingam, Nachamma; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between problem familiarity and students' learning in a problem-based course. Problem familiarity in this study refers to the extent to which a problem fits with students' prior knowledge and experiences. As part of regular course work, 172 students were given two problems on different occasions.…

  1. 9 CFR 381.70 - Ante mortem inspection; when required; extent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ante mortem inspection; when required... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection § 381.70 Ante mortem inspection; when required; extent. (a) An ante mortem inspection of...

  2. Estimating the seaward extent of sea breeze from QuickSCAT scatterometry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aparna, M.; Shetye, S.R.; Shankar, D.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Mehra, P.; Desai, R.G.P.

    An objective method for quantifying the seaward extent of the sea breeze is presented. The underlying assumption is that the offshore decay in the strength of the sea breeze results in an offshore decay of the vector correlation between the wind...

  3. 41 CFR 102-118.60 - To what extent must my agency use electronic commerce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agency use electronic commerce? 102-118.60 Section 102-118.60 Public Contracts and Property Management... Services § 102-118.60 To what extent must my agency use electronic commerce? Your agency must use electronic commerce in all areas of your transportation program. This includes the use of electronic...

  4. Extent of Utilizing Electrical Equipment in Poultry Production in Ebonyi State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogba, E. I.; Ogbu, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the extent of utilizing electrical equipment in poultry production in the rural areas of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A survey research design was adopted for the study. Three research questions guided the study. The population for the study was 46 respondents comprising 16 Extension agents and 30 Poultry farmers.…

  5. 42 CFR 32.111 - Conditions and extent of treatment; charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conditions and extent of treatment; charges. 32.111 Section 32.111 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN...

  6. Investigation of temporal change in glacial extent of Chitral watershed using Landsat data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Usman Ali; Shamim, Muhammad Ali; Ejaz, Naeem; Ur Rehman, Habib; Mustafa, Umer; Hashmi, Hashim Nisar; Ghumman, Abdul Razzaq

    2016-01-01

    Glaciers are also known as solid reservoirs, and in this regard, Pakistan is a blessed country to have enriched glaciers. The change in glacial extent becomes very crucial for rivers whose discharges are associated with glacier melt. Even a little change in the glacial extent may bring a significant change in the resulting river flows. Considering climate change scenarios, many researchers have predicted future flows in such catchments. But in almost all such studies, the reduction in the glaciers is not normally based on any rational. Therefore, research is needed in order to estimate how glaciers are actually behaving under the change of temperature and precipitations to better estimate the future flows. For this purpose, Chitral watershed was considered as the study area. The seasonal change in the snow extent was estimated by using MODIS data for various years that helped to identify the month with minimum glacial extent. With the help of remote sensing, unsupervised classification was performed to estimate the glacier area in Chitral watershed. The results show a definite receding trend with respect to time in the glaciers of the region for the past decade.

  7. Interdependence between measures of extent and severity of myocardial perfusion defects provided by automatic quantification programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Ali, Henrik Hussein; Palmer, John; Carlsson, Marcus;

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of the values of lesion extent and severity provided by the two automatic quantification programs AutoQUANT and 4D-MSPECT using myocardial perfusion images generated by Monte Carlo simulation of a digital phantom. The combination between a realistic computer phantom...

  8. Numerical Investigation of the Hydrogen Jet Flammable Envelope Extent with Account for Unsteady Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyavsky, Boris; Benard, Pierre

    2010-11-01

    An important aspect of safety analysis in hydrogen applications is determination of the extent of flammable gas envelope in case of hydrogen jet release. Experimental investigations had shown significant disagreements between the extent of average flammable envelope predicted by steady-state numerical methods, and the region observed to support ignition, with proposed cause being non-steady jet phenomena resulting in significant variations of instantaneous gas concentration and velocity fields in the jet. In order to investigate the influence of these transient phenomena, a numerical investigation of hydrogen jet at low Mach number had been performed using unsteady Large Eddy Simulation. Instantaneous hydrogen concentration and velocity fields were monitored to determine instantaneous flammable envelope. The evolution of the instantaneous fields, including the development of the turbulence structures carrying hydrogen, their extent and frequency, and their relation with averaged fields had been characterized. Simulation had shown significant variability of the flammable envelope, with jet flapping causing shedding of large scale rich and lean gas pockets from the main jet core, which persist for significant times and substantially alter the extent of flammability envelope.

  9. Consolidating and updating estimates of northern peatland extents and carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugelius, G.; Loisel, J.; MacDonald, G. M.; Jackson, R. B.; Treat, C. C.; Turetsky, M. R.; Yu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Conditions favoring peat accumulation have been particularly prevalent in boreal and subarctic regions. The large pool of organic carbon accumulated in Northern peatlands has been an important component in the global carbon cycle throughout the Holocene. All northern peatlands store an estimated 440 Pg organic carbon while a separate study estimates that permafrost region peatlands store ca. 300 Pg organic carbon. However, the degree of overlap between these studies remains unclear and there are differences in methodologies and definitions which prevent direct harmonization of estimates. Here we address this problems by (1) compiling several different databases of field observation data and by (2) comparing previously estimated northern peatland areal extents to the extents of organic soils estimated from compiled harmonized regional and national soil maps from the northern mid and high latitudes. Organic soils are by definition peatlands with >40 cm of near surface peat. The combined estimated extent of organic soils in these maps is 3.44 million km2. This is very similar to the spatial extents of Northern peatlands derived from various national peat resource inventories as reported by previous studies. Our results show that roughly one third of this organic soil area is in permafrost. Based on newly compiled databases we provide spatially distributed estimates of peatland depth and stocks of peat carbon across different biomes. These analyses reveal significant differences in peat depth and carbon stocks between peatland regions and between non-permafrost and permafrost peatlands.

  10. Robust and Reproducible Quantification of the Extent of Chest Radiographic Abnormalities (And It’s Free!)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Requena-Méndez; Edelweiss Aldasoro; Jose Muñoz; Moore, David A. J.

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Objective, reproducible quantification of the extent of abnormalities seen on a chest radiograph would improve the user-friendliness of a previously proposed severity scoring system for pulmonary tuberculosis and could be helpful in monitoring response to therapy, including in clinical trials. METHODS: In this study we report the development and evaluation of a simple t...

  11. 26 CFR 1.731-1 - Extent of recognition of gain or loss on distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extent of recognition of gain or loss on distribution. 1.731-1 Section 1.731-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... recognition of gain or loss on distribution. (a) Recognition of gain or loss to partner—(1) Recognition...

  12. Microstructure and Ductility-Dip Cracking Susceptibility of Circumferential Multipass Dissimilar Weld Between 20MND5 and Z2CND18-12NS with Ni-Base Filler Metal 52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Renyao; Duan, Zhaoling; He, Guo

    2013-10-01

    The large circumferential multipass dissimilar weld between 20MND5 steel and Z2CND18-12NS stainless steel welded with FM52 filler material was investigated in terms of the diluted composition, the grain boundary precipitation, and the ductility-dip cracking (DDC) susceptibility of the weld. The diluted composition of the weld is composed of 37 to 47 pct Ni, 21 to 24 pct Cr, and 28 to 40 pct Fe, which are inhomogeneous along the depth and over the width of the deep weld. The carbon content has a distribution in the region of the surface weld from a high level (~0.20 pct) in the zone near 20MND5 steel to a normal level (~0.03 pct) in the zone near Z2CND18-12NS stainless steel. The carbon distribution is corresponding to the grain boundary carbides. The minimum threshold strains for DDC occur in the temperature range of 1223 K to 1323 K (950 °C to 1050 °C), which are 0.5, 0.35, and 0.4 pct for the root weld, middle region, and the surface weld, respectively. The dissimilar weld has the largest susceptibility to the DDC compared to the filler metal 52 and the Inconel 690.

  13. Meta-analysis of lumbar posterolateral fusion versus circumferential fusion in the treatment of the lumbar disease%腰椎后外侧融合与360°融合的系统评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔璀; 朱悦; 韩秀鑫

    2009-01-01

    目的 对腰椎后外侧融合与360°融合治疗腰椎疾病的疗效进行系统对比评价.方法 计算机检索MEDLINE(1966.1-2007.12,Ovid检索平台)、EMBASE(1984.1-2007.12)、Cochrance Central Register of Controlled Trial(4th Quarter 2007)、中国生物医学文献数据库(1986.1-2007.12)等,手工检索Spine、European SPine Jurnal、The Journat of Bone and Joint Surgery、、、等相关期刊,检索两种融合术式的相关病例研究结果、综述等相关内容,并评价纳入研究的方法学质量,采用RevMan 5.0,5.0软件对总体疗效、融合率、二次手术率、并发症发生率、平均手术时间、手术出血量进行荟萃分析.结果 有4个临床随机对照试验(RCT)符合纳入标准,共437例患者.在融合率[OR 0.47,95%CI(0.24,0.94)]、并发症发生率[OR 0.53,95%CI(0.32,0.87)]、术中出血量[加权均数差值(WMD)=-349.95,95%CI(-561.64,-138.26)]方面,360°融合组要高于后外侧融合组,差异具有统计学意义(P=0.030、0.010、0.001);在二次手术率[OR 2.28,95%CI(1.30,3.98)]方面,后外侧融合组要高于360°融合组,差异具有统计学意义(P=0.004);在总体疗效[OR 1.04,95%CI(0.64,1.68)]和手术时间[WMD=-90.24,95%CI(-190.20,9.71)]上,两组差异无统计学意义(P=0.870、0.080).结论 360°融合组相比于后外侧融合组,能显著提高融合率,降低二次手术率,但并发症、术中出血量也显著高于后者.本研究结果尚需要多中心大样本RCT进一步证实.%Objective To evaluate the efficacy of lumbar posterolateral fusion versus circumferential fusion in the treatment of the lumbar disease. Methods Searched MEDLINE(January, 1966 to December, 2007), EMBASE (January, 1984 to December, 2007), Coehrance Central Register of Controlled Trial (4th Quarter 2007), The China Biological Medicine Database (1984 to December, 2007), and hand searched several related journals, such as Spine, European Spine Journal, The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Chinese

  14. Regeneración ósea de un defecto circunferencial de tres paredes con hueso autólogo Autologous bone regeneration of an circumferential three walls defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Escudero Castaño

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available La periodontitis provoca, a lo largo de su proceso evolutivo, un deterioro de los tejidos periodontales, entreellos del hueso alveolar. En la mayoría de las ocasiones, la progresión de esta enfermedad puede ocasionar defectos óseos. Su tratamiento consistirá en la eliminación de los factores etiológicos y recuperar, en la medida de loposible, la estructura perdida mediante diferentes técnicas regenerativas o resectivas. En el presente artículo, se muestra una opción para el tratamiento de un defecto óseo circunferencial de tres paredes, comparándolo condiferentes alternativas de tratamiento para combatir este defecto.The periodontal disease causes, along the evolutive process of the illness, a damage of periodontal tissues,including the alveolar bone; in many times, the evolution of the pathology makes irregular bone deformities. The treatment of that disease could be to eliminate the etiological factors and to recuperate as much as possible, the missed structure with regenerative and resectives techniques. In this article, we will set up a clinical case where we will describe a treatment option of a circumferential bone defect and we will compare that treatment with others alternatives.

  15. Sea-ice extent provides a limited metric of model performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Notz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine the common practice of using sea-ice extent as the primary metric to evaluate modeled sea-ice coverage. Based on this analysis, we recommend a possible best practice for model evaluation. We find that for Arctic summer sea ice, model biases in sea-ice extent can be qualitatively different compared to biases in the geophysically more meaningful sea-ice area. These differences come about by a different frequency distribution of high-concentration sea-ice: while in summer about half of the CMIP5 models and satellite retrievals based on the Bootstrap and the ASI algorithm show a compact ice cover with large areas of high concentration sea ice, the other half of the CMIP5 models and satellite retrievals based on the NASA Team algorithm show a loose ice cover. The different behaviour of the CMIP5 models can be explained by their different distribution of excess heat between lateral melt and sea-ice thinning. Differences in grid geometry and round-off errors during interpolation only have a minor impact on the different biases in sea-ice extent and sea-ice area. Because of regional cancellation of biases in the integrative measures sea-ice extent and sea-ice area, these measures show little correlation with the more meaningful mean absolute bias in sea-ice concentration. Comparing the uncertainty arising directly from the satellite retrievals with those that arise from internal variability, we find that the latter by far dominates the uncertainty estimate for trends in sea-ice extent and area: much of the differences between modeled and observed trends can simply be explained by internal variability. Only for the absolute value of sea-ice area, differences between observations and models are so large that they cannot be explained by either observational uncertainty nor internal variability.

  16. Extent of Surgery Does Not Influence 30-Day Mortality in Surgery for Metastatic Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Michala Skovlund; Hindsø, Klaus; Hovgaard, Thea Bechmann; Petersen, Michael Mørk

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Estimating patient survival has hitherto been the main focus when treating metastatic bone disease (MBD) in the appendicular skeleton. This has been done in an attempt to allocate the patient to a surgical procedure that outlives them. No questions have been addressed as to whether the extent of the surgery and thus the surgical trauma reduces survival in this patient group. We wanted to evaluate if perioperative parameters such as blood loss, extent of bone resection, and duration of surgery were risk factors for 30-day mortality in patients having surgery due to MBD in the appendicular skeleton. We retrospectively identified 270 consecutive patients who underwent joint replacement surgery or intercalary spacing for skeletal metastases in the appendicular skeleton from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2013. We collected intraoperative (duration of surgery, extent of bone resection, and blood loss), demographic (age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologist score [ASA score], and Karnofsky score), and disease-specific (primary cancer) variables. An association with 30-day mortality was addressed using univariate and multivariable analyses and calculation of odds ratio (OR). All patients were included in the analysis. ASA score 3 + 4 (OR 4.16 [95% confidence interval, CI, 1.80–10.85], P = 0.002) and Karnofsky performance status below 70 (OR 7.34 [95% CI 3.16–19.20], P < 0.001) were associated with increased 30-day mortality in univariate analysis. This did not change in multivariable analysis. No parameters describing the extent of the surgical trauma were found to be associated with 30-day mortality. The 30-day mortality in patients undergoing surgery for MBD is highly dependent on the general health status of the patients as measured by the ASA score and the Karnofsky performance status. The extent of surgery, measured as duration of surgery, blood loss, and degree of bone resection were not associated with 30-day mortality. PMID:27082592

  17. A phase coherence approach to estimating the spatial extent of earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Jessica C.; Ampuero, Jean-Paul

    2016-04-01

    We present a new method for estimating the spatial extent of seismic sources. The approach takes advantage of an inter-station phase coherence computation that can identify co-located sources (Hawthorne and Ampuero, 2014). Here, however, we note that the phase coherence calculation can eliminate the Green's function and give high values only if both earthquakes are point sources---if their dimensions are much smaller than the wavelengths of the propagating seismic waves. By examining the decrease in coherence at higher frequencies (shorter wavelengths), we can estimate the spatial extents of the earthquake ruptures. The approach can to some extent be seen as a simple way of identifying directivity or variations in the apparent source time functions recorded at various stations. We apply this method to a set of well-recorded earthquakes near Parkfield, CA. We show that when the signal to noise ratio is high, the phase coherence remains high well above 50 Hz for closely spaced M<1.5 earthquake. The high-frequency phase coherence is smaller for larger earthquakes, suggesting larger spatial extents. The implied radii scale roughly as expected from typical magnitude-corner frequency scalings. We also examine a second source of high-frequency decoherence: spatial variation in the shape of the Green's functions. This spatial decoherence appears to occur on a similar wavelengths as the decoherence associated with the apparent source time functions. However, the variation in Green's functions can be normalized away to some extent by comparing observations at multiple components on a single station, which see the same apparent source time functions.

  18. Quantitative Ultrasound Spectroscopic Imaging for Characterization of Disease Extent in Prostate Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadeghi-Naini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional quantitative ultrasound spectroscopic imaging of prostate was investigated clinically for the noninvasive detection and extent characterization of disease in cancer patients and compared to whole-mount, whole-gland histopathology of radical prostatectomy specimens. Fifteen patients with prostate cancer underwent a volumetric transrectal ultrasound scan before radical prostatectomy. Conventional-frequency (~5 MHz ultrasound images and radiofrequency data were collected from patients. Normalized power spectra were used as the basis of quantitative ultrasound spectroscopy. Specifically, color-coded parametric maps of 0-MHz intercept, midband fit, and spectral slope were computed and used to characterize prostate tissue in ultrasound images. Areas of cancer were identified in whole-mount histopathology specimens, and disease extent was correlated to that estimated from quantitative ultrasound parametric images. Midband fit and 0-MHz intercept parameters were found to be best associated with the presence of disease as located on histopathology whole-mount sections. Obtained results indicated a correlation between disease extent estimated noninvasively based on midband fit parametric images and that identified histopathologically on prostatectomy specimens, with an r2 value of 0.71 (P < .0001. The 0-MHz intercept parameter demonstrated a lower level of correlation with histopathology. Spectral slope parametric maps offered no discrimination of disease. Multiple regression analysis produced a hybrid disease characterization model (r2 = 0.764, P < .05, implying that the midband fit biomarker had the greatest correlation with the histopathologic extent of disease. This work demonstrates that quantitative ultrasound spectroscopic imaging can be used for detecting prostate cancer and characterizing disease extent noninvasively, with corresponding gross three-dimensional histopathologic correlation.

  19. Quantitative ultrasound spectroscopic imaging for characterization of disease extent in prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Sofroni, Ervis; Papanicolau, Naum; Falou, Omar; Sugar, Linda; Morton, Gerard; Yaffe, Martin J; Nam, Robert; Sadeghian, Alireza; Kolios, Michael C; Chung, Hans T; Czarnota, Gregory J

    2015-02-01

    Three-dimensional quantitative ultrasound spectroscopic imaging of prostate was investigated clinically for the noninvasive detection and extent characterization of disease in cancer patients and compared to whole-mount, whole-gland histopathology of radical prostatectomy specimens. Fifteen patients with prostate cancer underwent a volumetric transrectal ultrasound scan before radical prostatectomy. Conventional-frequency (~5MHz) ultrasound images and radiofrequency data were collected from patients. Normalized power spectra were used as the basis of quantitative ultrasound spectroscopy. Specifically, color-coded parametric maps of 0-MHz intercept, midband fit, and spectral slope were computed and used to characterize prostate tissue in ultrasound images. Areas of cancer were identified in whole-mount histopathology specimens, and disease extent was correlated to that estimated from quantitative ultrasound parametric images. Midband fit and 0-MHz intercept parameters were found to be best associated with the presence of disease as located on histopathology whole-mount sections. Obtained results indicated a correlation between disease extent estimated noninvasively based on midband fit parametric images and that identified histopathologically on prostatectomy specimens, with an r(2) value of 0.71 (P<.0001). The 0-MHz intercept parameter demonstrated a lower level of correlation with histopathology. Spectral slope parametric maps offered no discrimination of disease. Multiple regression analysis produced a hybrid disease characterization model (r(2)=0.764, P<.05), implying that the midband fit biomarker had the greatest correlation with the histopathologic extent of disease. This work demonstrates that quantitative ultrasound spectroscopic imaging can be used for detecting prostate cancer and characterizing disease extent noninvasively, with corresponding gross three-dimensional histopathologic correlation.

  20. Quantitative Ultrasound Spectroscopic Imaging for Characterization of Disease Extent in Prostate Cancer Patients1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Sofroni, Ervis; Papanicolau, Naum; Falou, Omar; Sugar, Linda; Morton, Gerard; Yaffe, Martin J.; Nam, Robert; Sadeghian, Alireza; Kolios, Michael C.; Chung, Hans T.; Czarnota, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional quantitative ultrasound spectroscopic imaging of prostate was investigated clinically for the noninvasive detection and extent characterization of disease in cancer patients and compared to whole-mount, whole-gland histopathology of radical prostatectomy specimens. Fifteen patients with prostate cancer underwent a volumetric transrectal ultrasound scan before radical prostatectomy. Conventional-frequency (~ 5 MHz) ultrasound images and radiofrequency data were collected from patients. Normalized power spectra were used as the basis of quantitative ultrasound spectroscopy. Specifically, color-coded parametric maps of 0-MHz intercept, midband fit, and spectral slope were computed and used to characterize prostate tissue in ultrasound images. Areas of cancer were identified in whole-mount histopathology specimens, and disease extent was correlated to that estimated from quantitative ultrasound parametric images. Midband fit and 0-MHz intercept parameters were found to be best associated with the presence of disease as located on histopathology whole-mount sections. Obtained results indicated a correlation between disease extent estimated noninvasively based on midband fit parametric images and that identified histopathologically on prostatectomy specimens, with an r2 value of 0.71 (P < .0001). The 0-MHz intercept parameter demonstrated a lower level of correlation with histopathology. Spectral slope parametric maps offered no discrimination of disease. Multiple regression analysis produced a hybrid disease characterization model (r2 = 0.764, P < .05), implying that the midband fit biomarker had the greatest correlation with the histopathologic extent of disease. This work demonstrates that quantitative ultrasound spectroscopic imaging can be used for detecting prostate cancer and characterizing disease extent noninvasively, with corresponding gross three-dimensional histopathologic correlation. PMID:25749174

  1. Extent and distribution of skeletal muscle necrosis after graded periods of complete ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbe, R.; Lindsay, T.; Walker, P.M.

    1987-08-01

    The management of an acutely ischemic extremity requires knowledge of the response of skeletal muscle (the largest component of the lower limb) to prolonged periods of complete normothermic ischemia. We have used the canine gracilis muscle model to evaluate the extent and distribution of ischemic necrosis after 3 and 5 hours of ischemia and 48 hours of reperfusion. Each muscle was cut into six slices, and the extent and distribution of postischemic necrosis identified by means of nitroblue tetrazolium staining and 99mTc pyrophosphate uptake. After 3, 4, and 5 hours of ischemia the extent of necrosis was 2.0% +/- 0.9%, 30.3% +/- 6.0%, and 90.1% +/- 3.5% (mean +/- SEM), respectively. A statistically significant correlation exists between the extent of necrosis and the uptake of 99mTc pyrophosphate uptake per gram of tissue (y = 1574.9x - 8.4, r = 0.84, p less than 0.001). Most necrosis was centrally located and found in the thickest portion of the muscle. We conclude that there is a graded response in the extent of skeletal muscle necrosis related to the length of ischemic stress rather than an ''all-or-none'' phenomenon. This central distribution of necrosis makes the usual external evaluation of ischemic damage clinically unreliable. In addition, since there was no enveloping fascia in this model, a compartment release alone may not prevent the development of skeletal muscle necrosis. This knowledge of the response of skeletal muscle to ischemia may lead to an improved clinical approach to an extremity suffering a prolonged ischemic insult.

  2. The extent to which core nursing textbooks inform holistic spiritual care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Fiona; Murphy, Maryanne; Begley, Thelma; Neill, Freda; Sheaf, Greg

    2016-09-01

    National and international professional health and nursing guidelines recommend that attention should be given to the spiritual and religious needs of patients. This suggests that spiritual care is an important aspect of holistic patient care that needs to be considered and supported, if relevant, in a healthcare context. However, many nurses lack knowledge and awareness of the subject, and it is unclear to what extent core textbooks provide the information they need. This article reports on a study that explored the extent to which contemporary core nursing textbooks support and advocate the provision of spiritual care by nurses. Its findings suggest there is a lack of consistency in the inclusion of spirituality in these texts, and few refer specifically to the need for spiritual assessment tools or referral to chaplains. As more attention is given to patients' spiritual needs, the guidance given by nursing textbooks needs to be more substantive and consistent. PMID:27581914

  3. Efficacy of volume navigation in assessment of extent of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Satoko Suzuki; Miki Mori; Rena Shigenaga; Kenya Suzuki; Katsutoshi Enokido; Terumasa Sawada; Masanori Hirose; Seigo Nakamura

    2012-01-01

    Objective Volume navigation (Vnav) combines real-time ultrasound (US) with previously acquired volume data from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data into a single display. The efficacy of Vnav for preoperative assessment of the extent of breast cancer lesions was evaluated in the present study.Methods Twenty-nine breast cancer patients were evaluated using Vnav during second-look US or preoperative mapping. Retrospective chart review was performed. Correlation detection rates and pathological results were evaluated.Results Vnav identified lesions that were initially detected on MRI in 23 of 29 patients (79.3%). Of the 23 patients who had US correlated lesions, pathological diagnoses of the corresponding lesions were as follows: benign (n=9) and malignant (n=14).Conclusion Vnav may be a useful technique for identification of the extent of breast cancer lesions.

  4. Strategic environmental assessment in tourism planning — Extent of application and quality of documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has been applied throughout the world in different sectors and in various ways. This paper reports on results of a PhD research on SEA applied to tourism development planning, reflecting the situation in mid-2010. First, the extent of tourism specific SEA application world-wide is established. Then, based on a review of the quality of 10 selected SEA reports, good practice, as well as challenges, trends and opportunities for tourism specific SEA are identified. Shortcomings of SEA in tourism planning are established and implications for future research are outlined. - Highlights: ► The extent of tourism specific SEA practice is identified. ► Selected SEA/Tourism reports are evaluated. ► SEA application to tourism planning is still limited. ► A number of shortcomings can be pointed out.

  5. Macroscopic extent of gastric mucosal atrophy: increased risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Noritoshi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to estimate whether the macroscopic extent of gastric mucosal atrophy is associated with a risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using a case-control study in Japanese subjects, a population known to have a high prevalence of CagA-positive H. pylori infection. Methods Two hundred and fifty-three patients who were diagnosed as having esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and 253 sex- and age-matched controls were enrolled in the present study. The macroscopic extent of gastric mucosal atrophy was evaluated based on the Kimura and Takemoto Classification. A conditional logistic regression model with adjustment for potential confounding factors was used to assess the associations. Results Body gastritis, defined endoscopically, was independently associated with an increased risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion Our findings suggest that macroscopic body gastritis may be a risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Japan. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  6. The Role of Deposition in Limiting the Hazard Extent of Dense-Gas Plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, M B

    2008-01-29

    Accidents involving release of large (multi-ton) quantities of toxic industrial chemicals often yield far fewer fatalities and causalities than standard, widely-used assessment and emergency response models predict. While recent work has suggested that models should incorporate the protection provided by buildings, more refined health effect methodologies, and more detailed consideration of the release process; investigations into the role of deposition onto outdoor surfaces has been lacking. In this paper, we examine the conditions under which dry deposition may significantly reduce the extent of the downwind hazard zone. We provide theoretical arguments that in congested environments (e.g. suburbs, forests), deposition to vertical surfaces (such as building walls) may play a significant role in reducing the hazard zone extent--particularly under low-wind, stable atmospheric conditions which are often considered to be the worst-case scenario for these types of releases. Our analysis suggests that in these urban or suburban environments, the amount of toxic chemicals lost to earth's surface is typically a small fraction of overall depositional losses. For isothermal gases such as chlorine, the degree to which the chemicals stick to (or react with) surfaces (i.e. surface resistance) is demonstrated to be a key parameter controlling hazard extent (the maximum distance from the release at which hazards to human health are expected). This analysis does not consider the depositional effects associated with particulate matter or gases that undergo significant thermal change in the atmosphere. While no controlled experiments were available to validate our hypothesis, our analysis results are qualitatively consistent with the observed downwind extent of vegetation damage in two chlorine accidents.

  7. Comparison of Bioclimatic, NDVI and Elevation variables in assessing extent of Commiphora wightii (Arnt.) Bhand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulloli, R. N.; Kumar, S.

    2014-11-01

    Commiphora wightii (Arnt.) Bhand., is an important medicinal plant of Indian Medicine System (IMS) since ancient time. It is used in different ailments of obesity, arthritis, rheumatism and high cholesterol. Due to overexploitation its natural populations declined to large extent. IUCN has put it under Data Deficient (DD) category due to lack of data on its extent of occurrence in nature. Hence, the study was carried out using MaxEnt distribution modelling algorithm to estimate its geographic distribution and to identify potential habitats for its reintroduction. For modelling employed 68 presence locality data, 19 bioclimatic variables, Normalize Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and elevation data. These were tested for multicollinearity and those variables having r-value less than 0.8 were selected for further analysis, which was carried out in two ways i) Bioclimatic variables and elevation; ii) NDVI and elevation. Area Under the Curve (AUC) in both analysis was above 0.9 for all variables, indicating very high accuracy of prediction. Variables governing distribution of C. wightii in the analysis using bioclimatic and elevation data set are precipitation seasonality (56.6 %), annual precipitation (16.4 %) and elevation (14.7 %). Extent of occurrence of C.wightii predicted by model closely matched in the districts of Jaisalmer and Barmer. In the second analysis elevation (48.3 %), NDVI of June (11.1 %) and August (11.2 %) contributed for NDVI and Elevation data set. NDVI of June corresponds to its leafing phase while NDVI of August to flowering phase. Area of its occurrence predicted for NDVI and elevation data set are Bikaner, Churu, Jhunjhunun some part of Jodhpur which are completely sandy, where C. wightii is totally absent. Extent of occurrence was also validated in ground survey. Potential areas for its reintroduction were identified as Jaisalmer and Barmer districts in Indian arid zone.

  8. Decadal trends in the Antarctic sea ice extent ultimately controlled by ice-ocean feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Goosse

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The large natural variability of the Antarctic sea ice is a key characteristic of the system that might be responsible for the small positive trend in sea ice extent observed since 1979. In order to gain insight in the processes responsible for this variability, we have analysed in a control simulation performed with a coupled climate model a strong positive ice-ocean feedback that amplifies sea ice variations. When sea ice concentration increases in a region, in particular close to the ice edge, the mixed layer depth tends to decrease. This can be caused by a net inflow of ice and thus of freshwater that stabilizes the water column. Another stabilizing mechanism at interannual time scales that appears more widespread in our simulation is associated with the downward salt transport due to the seasonal cycle of ice formation: brine is released in winter when ice is formed and mixed over a deep layer while the freshwater flux caused by ice melting is included in a shallow layer, resulting in a net vertical transport of salt. Because of this stronger stratification due to the presence of sea ice, more heat is stored at depth in the ocean and the vertical oceanic heat flux is reduced, which contributes to maintain a higher ice extent. This positive feedback is not associated with a particular spatial pattern. Consequently, the spatial distribution of the trend in ice concentration is largely imposed by the wind changes that can provide the initial perturbation. A positive freshwater flux could alternatively be the initial trigger but the amplitude of the final response of the sea ice extent is finally set up by the amplification related to ice-ocean feedback. Initial conditions have also an influence as the chance to have a large increase in ice extent is higher if starting from a state characterized by a low value.

  9. Genetic dissection of the Canq1 locus governing variation in extent of the collateral circulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiliang Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Native (pre-existing collaterals are arteriole-to-arteriole anastomoses that interconnect adjacent arterial trees and serve as endogenous bypass vessels that limit tissue injury in ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, coronary and peripheral artery disease. Their extent (number and diameter varies widely among mouse strains and healthy humans. We previously identified a major quantitative trait locus on chromosome 7 (Canq1, LOD = 29 responsible for 37% of the heritable variation in collateral extent between C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. We sought to identify candidate genes in Canq1 responsible for collateral variation in the cerebral pial circulation, a tissue whose strain-dependent variation is shared by similar variation in other tissues. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Collateral extent was intermediate in a recombinant inbred line that splits Canq1 between the C57BL/6 and BALB/c strains. Phenotyping and SNP-mapping of an expanded panel of twenty-one informative inbred strains narrowed the Canq1 locus, and genome-wide linkage analysis of a SWRxSJL-F2 cross confirmed its haplotype structure. Collateral extent, infarct volume after cerebral artery occlusion, bleeding time, and re-bleeding time did not differ in knockout mice for two vascular-related genes located in Canq1, IL4ra and Itgal. Transcript abundance of 6 out of 116 genes within the 95% confidence interval of Canq1 were differentially expressed >2-fold (p-value<0.05÷150 in the cortical pia mater from C57BL/6 and BALB/c embryos at E14.5, E16.5 and E18.5 time-points that span the period of collateral formation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings refine the Canq1 locus and identify several genes as high-priority candidates important in specifying native collateral formation and its wide variation.

  10. Adoption and extent of conservation agriculture practices among smallholder farmers in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Ngwira, Robert Amos; Johnsen, Fred Håkon; Aune, Jens Bernt; Mekuria, Mulugetta; Thierfelder, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Understanding factors affecting farmers' adoption of improved technologies is critical to success of conservation agriculture (CA) program implementation. This study, which explored the factors that determine adoption and extent of farmers' use of the three principles of CA (i.e., minimum soil disturbance, permanent soil cover with crop residues, and crop rotations), was conducted in 10 target communities in 8 extension planning areas in Malawi. The primary data was collected using structured...

  11. To what extent is a transition into employment associated with an exit from poverty

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    A link between lack of employment and poverty is often made implicitly, but can rarely be enumerated in any sort of satisfactory manner. We would therefore like to ask the question: to what extent does acquiring employment increase a poor household’s probability of exiting poverty? Register data from the entire resident population of Norway serves as the basis for the analysis. We distinguish between full-time and part-time employment and also include an investigation into the effect transfer...

  12. The Extent of Overweight Among US Children and Adolescents from 1971-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Jolliffe, Dean

    2004-01-01

    CONTEXT: The prevalence of overweight (OW) among children in the United States has increased during the last three decades, but prevalence measures fail to reveal the extent to which OW children exceed the OW threshold. OBJECTIVE: To measure the amount by which OW children exceed the OW threshold. To examine the trend in this measure over the last three decades using data with measured weights and heights. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Data used for analysis are from the National ...

  13. Low-cost Space-borne Data for Inundation Modelling: Topography, Flood Extent and Water Level

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, K

    2015-01-01

    Floods are among the most damaging natural hazards and their impacts have been dramatically increasing worldwide over the past decades. As most basins of the world are ungauged or poorly gauged and some measurement networks are continuously under decline, the spatial distribution of flood hazard is often difficult to estimate because the input data needed for flood inundation modelling (e.g. topographies, flood extents, water levels) are often not available. A unique opportunity is nowadays p...

  14. Assessment of the extent of damage, socio-economic effects, mitigation and recovery in Tanzania: Proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Muhando, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    Coral reefs play a crucial role to the well-being of coastal communities in Tanzania. Coastal fisheries, ecotourism and coastal land protection are, to some extent, sustained by coral reefs. A variety of fish species, spiny lobsters, octopus, sea cucumbers, clams, oysters and turtles form the basis of harvestable reef resources. More than 30% of marine fish landings are harvested on or adjacent to coral reef environment. Coral reefs also support offshore fisheries by providing feeding and nur...

  15. The Extent of Jordanian Banks Commitment in Applying the Principles of Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Al hanini

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to reveal the extent of Jordanian banks? commitment to apply the principles of corporate governance. And to achieve this objective , a questionnaire was designed and distributed to a sample consisted of 120 respondents of the general managers? assistants, managers of the administrations , managers of the branches, the assistants of the managers of the branches and the employees of the audit departments in the Jordanian banks. After data was analyzed using SPSS, the study conc...

  16. Decreased plasma urotensin Ⅱ levels inversely correlate with extent and severity of coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the plasma urolensin Ⅱ(UⅡ) levels in various types of coronary heart disease and to clarify how the plasma UⅡ levels correlate with the clinical presentation, extent and severity of coronary artery atherosclerosis (CAD). Methods: One hundred and three aged patients undergoing elective diagnostic coronary angiography for proven or clinical suspected coronary heart disease were enrolled in this study. The extent and severity of coronary artery disease were evaluated by vessel score and Gensini score, respectively. Plasma UⅡ levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results: The plasma UⅡ levels in the patients with modest to severe coronary stenosis (3.03±0.34 pg/ml, 1.83±0.67 pg/ml) were significantly lower than that in subjects with normal coronary artery (4.80±1.11 pg/ml, P<0.001). The plasma UⅡ levels in patients with coronary heart disease were also significantly lower than that in patients with insignificant coronary stenosis (P < 0.001). Compared to patients with stable angina pectoris, plasma UⅡ levels in patients with acute coronary syndrome were significantly decreased (1.89±0.51 pg/ml vs 2.42±0.77 pg/ml, P< 0.001). Plasma UⅡ levels were found to be negatively correlated with the severity of coronary artery stenosis (r = -0.488, P<0.001), as well as the vessel score (r = -0.408, P<0.05) in the patients with CAD. Conclusion: Significant inverse correlations exist between the plasma UⅡ levels, and the extent and severity of coronary artery stenosis. These findings suggest that plasma UⅡ contribute to the development and progression of coronary artery stenosis, and may be a novel marker to predict clinical types, as well as the extent and severity of coronary artery disease in the patients.

  17. Improving the extent of malignant glioma resection by dual intraoperative visualization approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Y Eyüpoglu

    Full Text Available Despite continuing debates around cytoreductive surgery in malignant gliomas, there is broad consensus that increased extent of tumor reduction improves overall survival. However, maximization of the extent of tumor resection is hampered by difficulty in intraoperative discrimination between normal and pathological tissue. In this context, two established methods for tumor visualization, fluorescence guided surgery with 5-ALA and intraoperative MRI (iMRI with integrated functional neuronavigation were investigated as a dual intraoperative visualization (DIV approach. Thirty seven patients presumably suffering from malignant gliomas (WHO grade III or IV according to radiological appearance were included. Twenty-one experimental sequences showing complete resection according to the 5-ALA technique were confirmed by iMRI. Fourteen sequences showing complete resection according to the 5-ALA technique could not be confirmed by iMRI, which detected residual tumor. Further analysis revealed that these sequences could be classified as functional grade II tumors (adjacent to eloquent brain areas. The combination of fluorescence guided resection and intraoperative evaluation by high field MRI significantly increased the extent of tumor resection in this subgroup of malignant gliomas located adjacent to eloquent areas from 61.7% to 100%; 5-ALA alone proved to be insufficient in attaining gross total resection without the danger of incurring postoperative neurological deterioration. Furthermore, in the case of functional grade III gliomas, iMRI in combination with functional neuronavigation was significantly superior to the 5-ALA resection technique. The extent of resection could be increased from 57.1% to 71.2% without incurring postoperative neurological deficits.

  18. Correlation of renal complications with extent and progression of tissue damage in electrical burns

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan D; Chari P; Khuller G; Singh Dalbir

    2004-01-01

    Electrical injuries due to high-tension voltage (>1000 volts) cause destruction at the point of contact with massive necrosis of deeper structures such as muscles, vessels and nerves. Rhabdomyolysis due to massive breakdown of skeletal muscles may lead to acute renal failure secondary to myoglobinuria. The study was undertaken to observe the correlation of renal complications with extent and progression of tissue damage in high-tension voltage electrical burns. Renal biochemical parameters as...

  19. The influence of changes in glacier extent and surface elevation on modeled mass balance

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, F.

    2010-01-01

    Glaciers are widely recognized as unique demonstration objects for climate change impacts, mostly due to the strong change of glacier length in response to small climatic changes. However, glacier mass balance as the direct response to the annual atmospheric conditions can be better interpreted in meteorological terms. When the climatic signal is deduced from long-term mass balance data, changes in glacier geometry (i.e. surface extent and elevation) must be considered as such adjustments ...

  20. The Nature and Extent of Desktop Graffiti Among U.S. College Students: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, Daisy Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The Nature and Extent of Desktop Graffiti Among U.S. College Students: An Exploratory Study Daisy Barbara Ball Abstract This study investigates classroom graffiti by U.S. college students. The data analyzed were collected in nine classrooms randomly selected from two buildings at a major land grant university. In all, 1,758 examples of identifiable pieces of graffiti were collected and analyzed from 419 desktops. Using data supplied by the University Registrar, the t...

  1. An Exploration into the Nature and Extent of Violence Experienced by Secondary School Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Lernihan, Ciana

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the nature and extent of violence experienced by secondary school teachers. A combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in order to gain the greatest insight into teachers experiences of violence and intimidation in schools. The research instrument used in order to gather data was a questionnaire. One hundred and ten questionnaires were gathered from teachers in a number of different schools. The study investigates t...

  2. High-Resolution Daily Flood Extent Depiction from Microwave Remote Sensing: Global Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galantowicz, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    The need for frequent, accurate, high-resolution characterization of the temporal and spatial progression of flood hazards is evident, but has been beyond the capabilities of remote sensing methods. The surface is too often obscured by cloud cover for visual and infrared sensors and observations from radar sensors are too infrequent to create consistent historical databases or for monitoring current conditions. Passive microwave sensors, such as SSM/I, AMSR-E, and AMSR-2, acquire useful data during clear and cloudy conditions, have revisit periods of up to twice daily, and provide a continuous record of data from 1987 to the present. In this presentation, we will describe results from a flood mapping system capable of producing high-resolution (100-m) flood extent depictions from lower resolution (10-40-km) microwave data. The system uses the strong sensitivity of microwave data to surface water extent combined with land surface and atmospheric data to derive daily flooded fraction estimates globally on a sensor footprint basis. The system downscales flooded fraction to make a high-resolution Boolean flood extent depiction that is both spatially continuous and consistent with the lower resolution data (see Figure). The downscaling step is based on a relative floodability index derived from higher resolution topographic and hydrological data and processed to represent the minimum total water fraction threshold above which each grid point is expected to be flooded given microwave-derived water fraction inputs. We have completed daily, 100-m resolution flood maps for Africa for the 9.3-year AMSR-E period and will soon complete global flood maps fo the same period. We will present animations of daily flood extents during major events and discuss: validation of the flood maps against imagery derived from MODIS and Landsat data; analyses of minimum detectable flood size; statistical analyses of flooding over time; applications for this novel historical dataset; and

  3. Magnitude and Extent of Contaminated Sediment and Toxicity in Chesapeake Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwell, S. Ian; Hameedi, Jawed

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This report summarizes the results of NOAA's sediment toxicity, chemistry, and benthic community studies in the Chesapeake Bay estuary. As part of the National Status and Trends (NS&T) Program, NOAA has conducted studies to determine the spatial extent and severity of chemical contamination and associated adverse biological effects in coastal bays and estuaries of the United States since 1991. Sediment contamination in U.S. coastal areas is a major environmental issue becaus...

  4. To what extent are airlines communicating their commitment to sustainability issues?

    OpenAIRE

    Tornes, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This thesis investigates Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the aviation industry. The aim of the research is to analyse the extent to which these airlines are communicating their commitment to sustainability issues. The central question is essentially whether they are committed to the triple bottom line or to Milton Friedman's view that businesses need only follow the law? It is hard to measure commitment, but the first step in measuring commitment is to look at what these ...

  5. Extent of linkage disequilibrium in the domestic cat, Felis silvestris catus, and its breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Alhaddad

    Full Text Available Domestic cats have a unique breeding history and can be used as models for human hereditary and infectious diseases. In the current era of genome-wide association studies, insights regarding linkage disequilibrium (LD are essential for efficient association studies. The objective of this study is to investigate the extent of LD in the domestic cat, Felis silvestris catus, particularly within its breeds. A custom illumina GoldenGate Assay consisting of 1536 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs equally divided over ten 1 Mb chromosomal regions was developed, and genotyped across 18 globally recognized cat breeds and two distinct random bred populations. The pair-wise LD descriptive measure (r(2 was calculated between the SNPs in each region and within each population independently. LD decay was estimated by determining the non-linear least-squares of all pair-wise estimates as a function of distance using established models. The point of 50% decay of r(2 was used to compare the extent of LD between breeds. The longest extent of LD was observed in the Burmese breed, where the distance at which r(2 ≈ 0.25 was ∼380 kb, comparable to several horse and dog breeds. The shortest extent of LD was found in the Siberian breed, with an r(2 ≈ 0.25 at approximately 17 kb, comparable to random bred cats and human populations. A comprehensive haplotype analysis was also conducted. The haplotype structure of each region within each breed mirrored the LD estimates. The LD of cat breeds largely reflects the breeds' population history and breeding strategies. Understanding LD in diverse populations will contribute to an efficient use of the newly developed SNP array for the cat in the design of genome-wide association studies, as well as to the interpretation of results for the fine mapping of disease and phenotypic traits.

  6. Childcare immunization programme – to what extent are children covered by vaccinations in Greenland?

    OpenAIRE

    Bjarnason Skifte, Turid

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: New vaccines in the child healthcare programme are regularly considered. When considering the introduction of the Hepatitis-B vaccine into the programme, it was asked to what extent children in Greenland were actually covered by the existing immunization series. Would introducing new vaccines make any sense if the percentage of children immunized was shown to be low? A telephone enquiry conducted in 2000 showed a tendency of very high percentage of full coverage per child (98-99 %...

  7. Quantifying the buildup in extent and complexity of free exploration in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamini, Yoav; Fonio, Ehud; Galili, Tal; Havkin, Gregor Z.; Golani, Ilan

    2011-01-01

    To obtain a perspective on an animal's own functional world, we study its behavior in situations that allow the animal to regulate the growth rate of its behavior and provide us with the opportunity to quantify its moment-by-moment developmental dynamics. Thus, we are able to show that mouse exploratory behavior consists of sequences of repeated motion: iterative processes that increase in extent and complexity, whose presumed function is a systematic active management of input acquired durin...

  8. Spousal Abuse in Zimbabwe: Nature and Extent across Socio-Economic Class, Gender and Religiosity

    OpenAIRE

    Magen Mhaka-Mutepfa

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the nature and extent of spousal abuse among the different sexes, social classes, religious and non-religious families in Zimbabwe. Five types of spousal abuse were considered: physical, emotional, economical, sexual and psychological. The relationships between these types of spousal abuse by gender, social class and religious affiliation were tested. A total of 130 informants (mean age=33.8 years; s.d= 6.8 years) who knew families with abuse took part in this study. P...

  9. Effect of Helicobacter Pylori Eradication on Extent of Duodenal Gastric Metaplasia and Grade of Gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Bago, J; Strinić, D.; Belošić Halle, Ž.; Jandrić, D.; Tomić, M.; Bilić, A.; Bago, P.

    2002-01-01

    The extent of the regression of duodenal gastric metaplasia (DGM) after the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection is controversial. Therefore, we decided to assess the degree of DGM before, sex weeks and one year after H. pylori eradication. 105 consecutive Helicobacter pylori positive patients with endoscopically proven duodenal ulcer, with DGM and Helicobacter pylori infection were recruited for this study. The diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection was based on CL...

  10. Extent of Implementation of Post-Basic Economics Curriculum in Senior Secondary Schools in Edo State

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. E. O. Oleabhiele; Ernest Paul Oleabhiele

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the extent of implementation of post-economics curriculum in senior secondary schools in Edo state. Two research questions and two research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The research designed used for the study was the descriptive survey. The population for the study were one hundred and twenty-five (125) economics teachers. A structured questionnaire was used for the collection of data for the study while the research questions were answered...

  11. The Role of Deposition in Limiting the Hazard Extent of Dense-Gas Plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, M B

    2008-05-11

    Accidents that involve large (multi-ton) releases of toxic industrial chemicals and form dense-gas clouds often yield far fewer fatalities, casualties and environmental effects than standard assessment and emergency response models predict. This modeling study, which considers both dense-gas turbulence suppression and deposition to environmental objects (e.g. buildings), demonstrates that dry deposition to environmental objects may play a significant role in reducing the distance at which adverse impacts occur - particularly under low-wind, stable atmospheric conditions which are often considered to be the worst-case scenario for these types of releases. The degree to which the released chemical sticks to (or reacts with) environmental surfaces is likely a key parameter controlling hazard extents. In all modeled cases, the deposition to vertical surfaces of environmental objects (e.g. building walls) was more efficient in reducing atmospheric chemical concentrations than deposition to the earth's surface. This study suggests that (1) hazard extents may vary widely by release environment (e.g. grasslands vs. suburbia) and release conditions (e.g. sunlight or humidity may change the rate at which chemicals react with a surface) and (2) greenbelts (or similar structures) may dramatically reduce the impacts of large-scale releases. While these results are demonstrated to be qualitatively consistent with the downwind extent of vegetation damage in two chlorine releases, critical knowledge gaps exist and this study provides recommendations for additional experimental studies.

  12. Mapping the lateral extent of human cadaver decomposition with soil chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitkenhead-Peterson, J A; Owings, C G; Alexander, M B; Larison, N; Bytheway, J A

    2012-03-10

    Soil below decomposing cadavers may have a different lateral spatial extent depending upon whether scavengers have access to the human cadaver or not. We examined the lateral spatial extent of decomposition products to a depth of 7cm of soils beneath two decomposing corpses, one in which the subject was autopsied, unclothed and placed under a wire cage to restrict scavenger access and one in which the subject was not autopsied, unclothed and exposed to scavengers. The two bodies had accumulated degree days (ADD) of 5799 and 5469 and post mortem interval (PMI) of 288 and 248d, respectively. The spatial extent for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and organic nitrogen (DON) for both bodies was large but similar suggesting some movement off site for both compounds. Mean DOC was 1087±727 and 1484±1236μgg(-1) dry soil under the two corpses relative to 150±68μgg(-1) in upslope control soils. Sulfate tended to have 'hot spots' of lower values relative to the control soils indicative of anaerobic respiration. pH was lower and electrical conductivity was higher in the soil under both decomposing cadavers relative to control soils. Some of the nutrients examined downslope of the human remains were significantly higher than control soils upslope suggesting movement of decomposition products off-site which could be an important factor when using human remains detector dogs.

  13. Normalized edge detection, and the horizontal extent and depth of geophysical anomalies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li-Li; Han Li-Guo; Huang Da-Nian

    2014-01-01

    Edge detection is an image processing technique for finding the boundaries of objects within images. It is typically used to interpret gravity and magnetic data, andfi nd the horizontal boundaries of geological bodies. Large deviations between model and true edges are common because of the interference of depth and errors in computing the derivatives; thus, edge detection methods cannot provide information about the depth of the source. To simultaneously obtain the horizontal extent and depth of geophysical anomalies, we use normalized edge detection filters, which normalize the edge detection function at different depths, and the maxima that correspond to the location of the source. The errors between model and actual edges are minimized as the depth of the source decreases and the normalized edge detection method recognizes the extent of the source based on the maxima, allowing for reliable model results. We demonstrate the applicability of the normalized edge detection fi lters in defi ning the horizontal extent and depth using synthetic and actual aeromagnetic data.

  14. A field test of the extent of bias in selection estimates after accounting for emigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, B.H.; Horton, G.E.; Dubreuil, T.L.; O'Donnell, M. J.

    2005-01-01

    Question: To what extent does trait-dependent emigration bias selection estimates in a natural system? Organisms: Two freshwater cohorts of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) juveniles. Field site: A 1 km stretch of a small stream (West Brook) in western Massachusetts. USA from which emigration could be detected continuously. Methods: Estimated viability selection differentials for body size either including or ignoring emigration (include = emigrants survived interval, ignore = emigrants did not survive interval) for 12 intervals. Results: Seasonally variable size-related emigration from our study site generated variable levels of bias in selection estimates for body size. The magnitude of this bias was closely related with the extent of size-dependent emigration during each interval. Including or ignoring the effects of emigration changed the significance of selection estimates in 5 of the 12 intervals, and changed the estimated direction of selection in 4 of the 12 intervals. These results indicate the extent to which inferences about selection in a natural system can be biased by failing to account for trait-dependent emigration. ?? 2005 Benjamin H. Letcher.

  15. Impact of the El Nino on the Variability of the Antarctic Sea Ice Extent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锦年; 褚健婷; 徐兰英

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the spreading way in the southern hemisphere that anomalous warm water piled in tropical eastern Pacific is analysed and then impact of El Nino on the variability of the Antarctic sea ice extent is investigated by using a dataset from 1970 to 2002. The analysis result show that in El Nino event the anomalous warm water piled in tropical eastern Pacific is poleward propagation yet the westward propagation along southern equator current hasn 't been discovered . The poleward propagation time of the anomalous warm water is about 1 year or so. El Nino event has a close relationship with the sea ice extent in the Amundsen sea , Bellingshausen sea and Antarctic peninsula. After El Nino appears , there is a lag of two years that the sea ice in the Amundsen sea , Bellingshausea sea, especially in the Antarctic peninsula decreases obviously. The processes that El Nino has influence with Antarctic sea ice extent is the warm water piled in tropical eastern Pacific poleward propagation along off the coast of southern America and cause the anomalous temperature raise in near pole and then lead the sea ice in Amundsen sea , Bellingshausen sea and Antarctic peninsula to decrease where the obvious decrease of the sea ice since 80 'decade has close relation to the frequently appearance of El Nino.

  16. Relationship between Hadley circulation and sea ice extent in the Bering Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU BoTao; WANG HuiJun

    2008-01-01

    The linkage between Hadley circulation (HC) and sea ice extent in the Bering Sea during March-April is investigated through an analysis of observed data in this research. It is found that HC is negatively correlated to the sea ice extent in the Bering Sea, namely, strong (weak) HC is corresponding to less (more) sea ice in the Bering Sea. The present study also addresses the large-scale atmospheric general circulation changes underlying the relationship between HC and sea ice in the Bering Sea. It follows that a positive phase of HC corresponds to westward located Aleutian low, anomalous southerlies over the eastern North Pacific and higher temperature in the Bering Sea, providing unfavorable atmospheric and thermal conditions for the sea ice forming, and thus sea ice extent in the Bering Sea is decreased, and vice versa. In addition, it is further identified that East Asian-North Pacific-North America telecon-nection may play an important role in linking HC and changes of atmospheric circulations as well as sea ice in the Bering Sea.

  17. Capturing heterogeneity: The role of a study area's extent for estimating net precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Alexander; Voss, Sebastian; Metzger, Johanna Clara; Hildebrandt, Anke; Zimmermann, Beate

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and precise estimates of net precipitation are required for many hydrological applications. For instance, most interception models require high quality estimates of the canopy storage capacity and the free throughfall coefficient. Good estimates of these parameters, in turn, critically depend on the quality of throughfall estimates. Previous attempts to guide throughfall sampling focused on the selection of an appropriate sample size, support, and sampling design. Comparatively little attention has been given to the role of the extent, i.e. the size of the area under study. In this contribution we investigate the influence of the extent on the representativeness of mean throughfall estimates for simply structured and heterogeneous forest ecosystems. We based our investigation on stochastic simulations which we derived from large empirical throughfall datasets. Using the simulated throughfall fields, we conducted virtual sampling experiments using a number of typical extents. We ran these tests both for a range of event sizes and for accumulated data. Our findings suggest that the size of the study area should be carefully adapted to the required temporal resolution of the throughfall data (i.e. event-based versus long-term) and to the complexity of the system under study.

  18. The impact of 'open throat' technique on vibrato rate, extent and onset in classical singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Helen F; Kenny, Dianna T

    2004-01-01

    Mitchell, Kenny et al. (2003) identified 'open throat' as integral to the production of an even and consistent sound in classical singing. In this study, we compared vibrato rate, extent and onset of six advanced singing students under three conditions: 'optimal' (O), representing maximal open throat; 'sub-optimal' (SO), using reduced open throat; and loud sub-optimal (LSO), using reduced open throat but controlling for the effect of loudness. Fifteen expert judges correctly identified the sound produced when singers used open throat with 85% accuracy. Having verified the technique perceptually, we used a series of univariate repeated measures ANOVAs with planned orthogonal contrasts to test the hypotheses that frequency modulations associated with vibrato rate, extent and onset would vary outside acceptable or desirable parameters for SO and LSO. Hypotheses were confirmed for vibrato extent and onset but not for rate. There were no significant differences between SO and LSO on any of the vibrato parameters. As vibrato is considered a key indicator of good singing, these findings suggest that open throat is important to the production of a good sound in classical singing. PMID:15764211

  19. A global dataset of the extent of irrigated land from 1900 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Siebert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation intensifies land use by increasing crop yield but also impacts water resources. It affects water and energy balances and consequently the microclimate in irrigated regions. Therefore, knowledge of the extent of irrigated land is important for hydrological and crop modelling, global change research, and assessments of resource use and management. Information on the historical evolution of irrigated lands is limited. The new global Historical Irrigation Dataset (HID provides estimates of the temporal development of the area equipped for irrigation (AEI between 1900 and 2005 at 5 arc-minute resolution. We collected subnational irrigation statistics from various sources and found that the global extent of AEI increased from 63 million ha (Mha in 1900 to 112 Mha in 1950 and 306 Mha in 2005. We developed eight gridded versions of time series of AEI by combining subnational irrigation statistics with different data sets on the historical extent of cropland and pasture. Different rules were applied to maximize consistency of the gridded products to subnational irrigation statistics or to historical cropland and pasture data sets. The HID reflects very well the spatial patterns of irrigated land in the western United States as shown on historical maps. Mean aridity on irrigated land increased and river discharge decreased from 1900–1950 whereas aridity decreased from 1950–2005. The dataset and its documentation are made available in an open data repository at https://mygeohub.org/publications/8 (doi:10.13019/M2MW2G.

  20. 特高压钢管塔对接环焊缝超声波检测影响因素分析%Influence Factors Analysis on Ultrasonic Testing of Ultra High Voltage(UHV) Steel Pipe Tower Butt Circumferential Weld

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国俊; 武英利; 韩晋锋

    2015-01-01

    特高压钢管塔对接环焊缝的超声波检测,依据 GB/T 11345和Q/GDW 707进行检测。由于钢管塔构件和焊缝的错边、余高和焊缝宽度等情况,易导致检测误判。对钢管塔法兰-钢管对接环焊缝超声波检测若干影响因素进行了分析,提出了识别和判定方法,可以实现对钢管塔对接环焊缝焊接质量的有效控制。%According to the criteria of GB/T 11345 and Q/GDW 707, ultrasonic testing was applied into butt circumferential weld of UHV steel tower. Weld offset,reinforcement,weld width of steel tower may lead to misjudgments of ultrasonic testing. In this paper, aiming to the analysis on the influence factors of steel tower flange and butt circumferential weld on exact implementation of ultrasonic testing, the methods of distinguish and judgment of ultrasonic testing were put forward. It can realize efficient controlling of welding quality for steel tower butt circumferential weld.

  1. Genetic variation in retinal vascular patterning predicts variation in pial collateral extent and stroke severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Pranay; Zhang, Hua; Chen, De; Faber, James E

    2015-01-01

    The presence of a native collateral circulation in tissues lessens injury in occlusive vascular diseases. However, differences in genetic background cause wide variation in collateral number and diameter in mice, resulting in large variation in protection. Indirect estimates of collateral perfusion suggest that wide variation also exists in humans. Unfortunately, methods used to obtain these estimates are invasive and not widely available. We sought to determine whether differences in genetic background in mice result in variation in branch patterning of the retinal arterial circulation, and whether these differences predict strain-dependent differences in pial collateral extent and severity of ischemic stroke. Retinal patterning metrics, collateral extent, and infarct volume were obtained for 10 strains known to differ widely in collateral extent. Multivariate regression was conducted, and model performance was assessed using K-fold cross-validation. Twenty-one metrics varied with strain (pcollateral number and diameter across seven regression models, with the best model closely predicting (pcollaterals, K-fold R2=0.83-0.98), diameter (±1.2-1.9 μm, R2=0.73-0.88), and infarct volume (±5.1 mm3, R2=0.85-0.87). An analogous set of the most predictive metrics, obtained for the middle cerebral artery (MCA) tree in a subset of the above strains, also predicted (pcollateral number (±3.3 collaterals, K-fold R2=0.78) and diameter (±1.6 μm, R2=0.86). Thus, differences in arterial branch patterning in the retina and the MCA trees are specified by genetic background and predict variation in collateral extent and stroke severity. If also true in human, and since genetic variation in cerebral collaterals extends to other tissues at least in mice, a similar "retinal predictor index" could serve as a non- or minimally invasive biomarker for collateral extent in brain and other tissues. This could aid prediction of severity of tissue injury in the event of an occlusive event

  2. What is the Extent of Theory in Computer-Based Sexual Health Promotion Interventions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cassidy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual health is a critical component of health and well-being that remains a public health challenge, with many sexual health interventions having mixed success at preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs and HIV/AIDS (1. One strategy in ensuring greater success of sexual health interventions is to use behavior change theory as a guide for the development and implementation of interventions. Behaviour change theory allows for greater understanding of the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence an individual’s motivations for change (2. Some studies have shown that interventions are more likely to succeed when theory is used in the development and implementation process (3–7. However, many researchers continue to use theory as a loose framework without explicitly applying or testing it (8. Currently, it is unknown how behaviour change theory is used in computer-based sexual health interventions. Aim: To investigate a systematic review on computer-based sexual health promotion interventions to determine the extent that behaviour change theory is used to inform, develop, and test the interventions. Methods: We conducted an in-depth secondary analysis of a Cochrane review on computer-based interventions for sexual health promotion (1 to determine the extent that behaviour change theory was used to inform, develop, and test the interventions. The extent and type of theory use was assessed using the Theory Coding Scheme (TCS − a reliable method for assessing the extent to which behavioural interventions are theory-based (8. Two independent coders conducted the analysis. Data were extracted and grouped according to the six categories outlined by the Theory Coding Scheme. Results: The findings suggest that over half of the primary studies (n=9 mention theory in the background to the study. Fewer studies (n=6 used the theory or predictors of behaviour to design the intervention or to select intervention recipients. While

  3. Reproducibility of quantitative technetium Sestamibi myocardial perfusion SPECT in the evaluation of myocardial ischaemic extent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiat, H.; Williams, C.; Van Train, K.; Tecson, J.; Silagan, G.; Hachamovich, R.; Bernan, D.S. [Sydney Cardiology Group, Sydney, NSW (Australia)]|[Cedar-Sinai Medical Centre, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1998-02-01

    Full text: Myocardial perfusion single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) is utilized clinically to assess the efficacy of medical and interventional treatments as well as to evaluate coronary artery disease progression. To evaluate the reproducibility of quantitative exercise technetium-99m sestamibi/rest thallium-201 dual isotope myocardial perfusion single photon emission computerized tomography (dual Isotope SPECT), 42 patients with chronic stable coronary artery disease prospectively underwent repeat exercise dual isotope SPECT studies. The mean inter-treadmill test interval was 31 days. Analyses of the quantitative global technetium-99m sestamibi perfusion Dattern between the two exercise tests yielded an `r` value of 0.94 (SEE: 0.05) for stress defect extent, 0.92 (SEE: 0.05) for defect reversibility and 0.99 (SEE: 0.03) for defect severity. For individual coronary artery territories, the correlation coefficients for stress defect extent, reversibility and severity were also similarly high (Pearson r of 0.93 to 0.99, SEE: 0.02-0.06). Abnormality tolerance limit analyses showed the quantitative defect threshold (proportion 0.90, 95% confidence level) to be a change of 9.6% in global left ventricular stress defect extent. For global stress defect reversibility, the quantitative defect threshold was 13.6%. The quantitative defect threshold for individual coronary artery territories ranged from 10.3% to 14.6% for stress defect extent and 13.6% to 18.3% for defect reversibility extent. Quantitative indices for stress technetium-99m sestamibi/rest thallium 201 dual isotope SPECT were reproducible between repeat stress studies. The findings of this study define the degree of change in the quantitative measurements needed to distinguish real perfusion differences from variations due to chance. The results indicate that quantitative analysis of dual isotope SPECT may be used for accurate quantitative and objective serial evaluation of medical and

  4. 海洋隔水管对接环焊缝接头高周疲劳性能研究%Research on High Cycle Fatigue Property for Butt Circumferential Weld of Marine Riser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余钊辉; 党恩; 朱安达; 杨龙; 张建勋

    2013-01-01

    The four-point bend fatigue test method was used to measure the high cycle fatigue property of marine riser X80/X80J butt circumferential weld. The influence on crack initiation location of stress concentration,microstructure and hardness was analyzed comprehensively. The results showed that the fatigue crack of welded joint with weld reinforcement initiates from toes, and then extends to the heat affected zone from the weld reinforcement,while the crack initiates from weld and propagates along the weld without reinforcement. The stress concentration caused by the weld reinforcement is the main factor to reduce the welded joint fatigue performance. The fatigue limit of welded joint is 216 MPa for with reinforcement and 400 MPa for without the weld reinforcement.%采用四点弯曲疲劳试验法,测试了海洋隔水管道X80/X80J对接环焊缝高周疲劳性能。综合分析了应力集中、显微组织和硬度对裂纹萌生位置的影响。结果表明,有余高焊接接头疲劳裂纹在焊趾处萌生并向热影响区扩展,去除余高的焊接接头疲劳裂纹从焊缝处萌生并沿焊缝扩展;焊缝余高引起的应力集中是降低焊接接头疲劳性能的主要因素,有余高焊接接头的疲劳极限为216 MPa,去除余高的焊接接头疲劳极限为400 MPa。

  5. F52法兰/X52接管环焊接头开裂原因浅析%Cracking Reason Analysis on Circumferential Welding Joints of F52 Flange and X52 Welded Pipe Butt Welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛靖; 刘迎来; 王鹏; 齐丽华; 冯耀荣; 吉玲康; 张建勋

    2011-01-01

    通过化学成分、微观组织、断口形貌分析等方法对某管线场站建设中F52法兰/X52接管环焊接头裂纹产生的原因进行了研究.结果表明,裂纹出现于打底焊缝F52法兰侧的近缝区,呈现出沿晶+穿晶的开裂形貌,属于焊接冷裂纹.打底焊法兰侧近缝区的粗大马氏体是裂纹产生的主要原因,焊接工艺不当是裂纹产生的直接诱因,控制F52法兰的化学成分和适当的打底焊前预热是防止该裂纹产生的主要途径.%The circumferential welding joints cracking reason of F52 flange and XS2 welded pipe butt welding in some pipeline station was analyzed by chemical composition analysis, microstructure observation and fracture appearance analysis. The results showed that the crack which appeared near weld zone of F52 flange side belongs to welding cold cracking during backing welding, because its fracture appearance presents intergranular and transgranular fracture. The coarse martensite near weld zone of flange side is main reason which leads to crack; the improper welding process is direct inducement for crack. Controlling chemical composition of F52 flange and preheating before backing welding are the principal methods to prevent cracks.

  6. Residual stress simulation of circumferential welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melicher R.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Residual stresses are an important consideration in the component integrity and life assessment of welded structure. The welding process is very complex time dependent physical phenomenon with material nonlinearity. The welding is a thermal process with convection between fluid flow and welding body, between welding bodyand environment. Next type of boundary conditions is radiation and thermo-mechanical contact on the outer surface of gas pipe in the near of weld. The temperature variation so obtained is utilised to find the distribution of the stress field.In this paper, a brief review of weld simulation and residual stress modelling using the finite element method (FEM by commercial software ANSYS is presented. Thermo-elastic-plastic formulations using a von Mises yield criterion with nonlinear kinematics hardening has been employed. Residual axial and hoop stresses obtained from the analysis have been shown. The commercial FEM code ANSYS was used for coupled thermalmechanical analysis.

  7. These lit areas are undeveloped: Delimiting China's urban extents from thresholded nighttime light imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Delahunty, Tina; Zhao, Naizhuo; Cao, Guofeng

    2016-08-01

    Nighttime light imagery is a powerful tool to study urbanization because it can provide a uniform metric, lit area, to delimit urban extents. However, lit area is much larger than actual urban area, so thresholds of digital number (DN) values are usually needed to reduce the lit area. The threshold varies greatly among different regions, but at present it is still not very clear what factors impact the changes of the threshold. In this study, urban extent by province for China is mapped using official statistical data and four intercalibrated and geometrically corrected nighttime light images between 2004 and 2010. Lit area in the imagery for most provinces is at least 94% greater than the official amount of urban area. Regression analyses show a significant correlation between optimal thresholds and GDP per capita, and larger thresholds more commonly indicate higher economic level. Size and environmental condition may explain a province's threshold that is disproportionate to GDP. Findings indicate one threshold DN is not appropriate for multiple (adjacent) province urban extent mapping, and optimal thresholds for one year may be notably different than the next. Province-level derived thresholds are not appropriate for other geographic levels. Brightness of nighttime lights is an advantage over imagery that relies on daylight reflection, and decreases in brightness indicate faster growth in the horizontal direction than the vertical. A province's optimal threshold does not always maintain an increase with population and economic growth. In the economically developed eastern provinces, urban population densities decreased (and this is seen in the brightness data), while urban population increased.

  8. Differentiating the extent of cartilage repair in rabbit ears using nonlinear optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X Q; Xu, Y H; Liao, C X; Liu, W G; Cheng, K K; Chen, J X

    2015-11-01

    Nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM) was used as a noninvasive and label-free tool to detect and quantify the extent of the cartilage recovery. Two cartilage injury models were established in the outer ears of rabbits that created a different extent of cartilage recovery based on the presence or absence of the perichondrium. High-resolution NLOM images were used to measure cartilage repair, specifically through spectral analysis and image texture. In contrast to a wound lacking a perichondrium, wounds with intact perichondria demonstrated significantly larger TPEF signals from cells and matrix, coarser texture indicating the more deposition of type I collagen. Spectral analysis of cells and matrix can reveal the matrix properties and cell growth. In addition, texture analysis of NLOM images showed significant differences in the distribution of cells and matrix of repaired tissues with or without perichondrium. Specifically, the decay length of autocorrelation coefficient based on TPEF images is 11.2 ± 1.1 in Wound 2 (with perichondrium) and 7.5 ± 2.0 in Wound 1 (without perichondrium), indicating coarser image texture and faster growth of cells in repaired tissues with perichondrium (p < 0.05). Moreover, the decay length of autocorrelation coefficient based on collagen SHG images also showed significant difference between Wound 2 and 1 (16.2 ± 1.2 vs. 12.2 ± 2.1, p < 0.05), indicating coarser image texture and faster deposition of collagen in repaired tissues with perichondrium (Wound 2). These findings suggest that NLOM is an ideal tool for studying cartilage repair, with potential applications in clinical medicine. NLOM can capture macromolecular details and distinguish between different extents of cartilage repair without the need for labelling agents.

  9. THE USE OF LIDAR AND VOLUNTEERED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION TO MAP FLOOD EXTENTS AND INUNDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. McDougall

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Floods are one of the most destructive natural disasters that threaten communities and properties. In recent decades, flooding has claimed more lives, destroyed more houses and ruined more agricultural land than any other natural hazard. The accurate prediction of the areas of inundation from flooding is critical to saving lives and property, but relies heavily on accurate digital elevation and hydrologic models. The 2011 Brisbane floods provided a unique opportunity to capture high resolution digital aerial imagery as the floods neared their peak, allowing the capture of areas of inundation over the various city suburbs. This high quality imagery, together with accurate LiDAR data over the area and publically available volunteered geographic imagery through repositories such as Flickr, enabled the reconstruction of flood extents and the assessment of both area and depth of inundation for the assessment of damage. In this study, approximately 20 images of flood damaged properties were utilised to identify the peak of the flood. Accurate position and height values were determined through the use of RTK GPS and conventional survey methods. This information was then utilised in conjunction with river gauge information to generate a digital flood surface. The LiDAR generated DEM was then intersected with the flood surface to reconstruct the area of inundation. The model determined areas of inundation were then compared to the mapped flood extent from the high resolution digital imagery to assess the accuracy of the process. The paper concludes that accurate flood extent prediction or mapping is possible through this method, although its accuracy is dependent on the number and location of sampled points. The utilisation of LiDAR generated DEMs and DSMs can also provide an excellent mechanism to estimate depths of inundation and hence flood damage

  10. Scope and extent of participation of female volunteers in tobacco control activities in Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sreedharan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : In India, NGOs play a key role in creating a supportive environment for the control of tobacco consumption. Aims : This study was conducted to assess the scope and the extent to which community-based women organizations are involved in tobacco control activities. To assess the scope and extent of participation in tobacco control activities according to the sociodemographic characteristics and also the extent to which they have participated in tobacco control activities. Settings and Design : The participants were Kudumbasree volunteers from the rural areas of Kannur district of Kerala state, India. This population-based study adopted a cross-sectional design. Materials and Methods : A self-administered, structured, close-ended, pre-tested questionnaire was prepared and used to collect data from 1000 female volunteers who participated in the study. Statistical Analysis : Chi-square test was used to compare nonparametric variables, such as education, marital status, and age with attitude toward tobacco control activities. Results : Age of the participants ranged from 17 to 53 years. The association between education level and positive attitude to participate in tobacco control activities was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001. A statistically significant association between participation in tobacco control activities and marital status (P < 0.001 was observed. With regard to education and readiness/willingness to participate in tobacco control activities, in all the education groups more than 90% were willing to participate in tobacco control activities. Among the ever married participants, 98% were willing to participate in antitobacco activities. Old age, husband working in a beedi factory, or not being able to make frequent visits were the reasons reported for their unwillingness of the remaining people. Conclusion : Based on the findings, a set of Kudumbasree volunteers were trained in tobacco and health to work in

  11. The influence of changes in glacier extent and surface elevation on modeled mass balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Paul

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers are widely recognized as unique demonstration objects for climate change impacts, mostly due to the strong change of glacier length in response to small climatic changes. However, glacier mass balance as the direct response to the annual atmospheric conditions can be better interpreted in meteorological terms. When the climatic signal is deduced from long-term mass balance data, changes in glacier geometry (i.e. surface extent and elevation must be considered as such adjustments form an essential part of the glacier reaction to new climatic conditions. In this study, a set of modeling experiments is performed to assess the influence of changes in glacier geometry on mass balance for constant climatic conditions. The calculations are based on a simplified distributed energy/mass balance model in combination with information on glacier extent and surface elevation for the years 1850 and 1973/1985 for a larger sample of glaciers in the Swiss Alps. The results reveal that about 50–70% of the glacier reaction to climate change (here a one degree increase in temperature is "hidden" in the geometric adjustment, while only 30–50% can be measured as the long-term mean mass balance. Thereby, changes in glacier extent alone have an even stronger effect, but they are partly compensated for by a lowered surface elevation which gives on average a slightly more negative balance despite an increase of topographic shading. In view of several additional reinforcement feedbacks that are observed in periods of strong glacier decline, it seems that the climatic interpretation of mass balance data is also rather complex.

  12. The Use of LIDAR and Volunteered Geographic Information to Map Flood Extents and Inundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, K.; Temple-Watts, P.

    2012-07-01

    Floods are one of the most destructive natural disasters that threaten communities and properties. In recent decades, flooding has claimed more lives, destroyed more houses and ruined more agricultural land than any other natural hazard. The accurate prediction of the areas of inundation from flooding is critical to saving lives and property, but relies heavily on accurate digital elevation and hydrologic models. The 2011 Brisbane floods provided a unique opportunity to capture high resolution digital aerial imagery as the floods neared their peak, allowing the capture of areas of inundation over the various city suburbs. This high quality imagery, together with accurate LiDAR data over the area and publically available volunteered geographic imagery through repositories such as Flickr, enabled the reconstruction of flood extents and the assessment of both area and depth of inundation for the assessment of damage. In this study, approximately 20 images of flood damaged properties were utilised to identify the peak of the flood. Accurate position and height values were determined through the use of RTK GPS and conventional survey methods. This information was then utilised in conjunction with river gauge information to generate a digital flood surface. The LiDAR generated DEM was then intersected with the flood surface to reconstruct the area of inundation. The model determined areas of inundation were then compared to the mapped flood extent from the high resolution digital imagery to assess the accuracy of the process. The paper concludes that accurate flood extent prediction or mapping is possible through this method, although its accuracy is dependent on the number and location of sampled points. The utilisation of LiDAR generated DEMs and DSMs can also provide an excellent mechanism to estimate depths of inundation and hence flood damage

  13. Location, timing and extent of wildfire vary by cause of ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphard, Alexandra D.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing extent of wildfires has prompted investigation into alternative fire management approaches to complement the traditional strategies of fire suppression and fuels manipulation. Wildfire prevention through ignition reduction is an approach with potential for success, but ignitions result from a variety of causes. If some ignition sources result in higher levels of area burned, then ignition prevention programmes could be optimised to target these distributions in space and time. We investigated the most common ignition causes in two southern California sub-regions, where humans are responsible for more than 95% of all fires, and asked whether these causes exhibited distinct spatial or intra-annual temporal patterns, or resulted in different extents of fire in 10-29-year periods, depending on sub-region. Different ignition causes had distinct spatial patterns and those that burned the most area tended to occur in autumn months. Both the number of fires and area burned varied according to cause of ignition, but the cause of the most numerous fires was not always the cause of the greatest area burned. In both sub-regions, power line ignitions were one of the top two causes of area burned: the other major causes were arson in one sub-region and power equipment in the other. Equipment use also caused the largest number of fires in both sub-regions. These results have important implications for understanding why, where and how ignitions are caused, and in turn, how to develop strategies to prioritise and focus fire prevention efforts. Fire extent has increased tremendously in southern California, and because most fires are caused by humans, ignition reduction offers a potentially powerful management strategy, especially if optimised to reflect the distinct spatial and temporal distributions in different ignition causes.

  14. Extent of colocalization of serotonin and GABA in neurons of the ventral medulla oblongata in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millhorn, D E; Hökfelt, T; Seroogy, K; Verhofstad, A A

    1988-09-27

    The colocalization of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the ventral aspect of the rat medulla oblongata was studied using antibodies directed against 5-HT and GABA. Although 5-HT- and GABA-immunoreactive cell bodies were observed over the entire rostral-caudal extent of the ventral medulla, the colocalization of these two classical neurotransmitters in single cells was, for the most part, limited to a region that corresponds anatomically to nucleus raphe magnus/nucleus paragigantocellularis. Schematic drawings showing the distribution of 5-HT/GABA cell bodies in the ventral medulla are provided. PMID:3066433

  15. Assessing the extent and effects of herbicide drift into Danish hedgerows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marianne Bruus; Andersen, H. V.; Strandberg, M. T.;

    Very low dosages of herbicides are known to cause effects on bird cherry (Prunus avium) and hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna). It is not yet known whether other hedgerow trees and shrubs are equally sensitive to herbicide drift, to which extent spray drift into hedges and other habitats close to fields...... was performed with a common tractor sprayer in five tracks parallel to the hedgerow, and either the herbicide metsulfuron methyl in combination with the dye fluorescein or fluorescein alone was applied. Deposition in the hedgerow and 12-48 m into the field was measured. Herbicide effects on hawthorn fruit set...

  16. 241-AZ Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Boomer, Kayle D.; Gunter, Jason R.; Venetz, Theodore J.

    2013-07-30

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102. The construction history of the 241-AZ tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-AZ tank farm, the second DST farm constructed, both refractory quality and tank and liner fabrication were improved.

  17. 241-SY Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Boomer, Kayle D.; Gunter, Jason R.; Venetz, Theodore J.

    2013-07-25

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for tanks 241-SY-101, 241-SY-102, and 241-SY-103. The construction history of the 241-SY tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank 241-AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank 241-AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-SY tank farm, the third DST farm constructed, refractory quality and stress relief were improved, while similar tank and liner fabrication issues remained.

  18. Estimating the extent of Antarctic summer sea ice during the Heroic Age of Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Edinburgh, Tom; Day, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    In stark contrast to the sharp decline in Arctic sea ice, there has been a steady increase in ice extent around Antarctica during the last three decades, especially in the Weddell and Ross Seas. In general, climate models do not to capture this trend and a lack of information about sea ice coverage in the pre-satellite period limits our ability to quantify the sensitivity of sea ice to climate change and robustly validate climate models. However, evidence of the presence and nature of sea ice...

  19. 241-AP Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Gunter, Jason R.; Reeploeg, Gretchen E.

    2014-04-04

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for the 241-AP tank farm. The construction history of the 241-AP tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-AP tank farm, the sixth double-shell tank farm constructed, tank bottom flatness, refractory material quality, post-weld stress relieving, and primary tank bottom weld rejection were improved.

  20. Rate of Interest and its Impact on Investment to the Extent of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman D. Muhammad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary reason of this study is to test real interest rate and its impact on investment to the extent of Pakistan span from 1964 to 2012. To test the long-term nexus among level of income, interest rate and investment mainly Johansen Cointegration test is employed. The hypothesis of this study is that investment has an inverse association with real interest rate in Pakistan. If relationship exists then policy maker can make better policy for Pakistan. The outcomes confirm economic theory and a number of other studies that investment has significantly inverse association with real interest rate in Pakistan.

  1. Detection of temperature and sea ice extent changes in the Antarctic and Southern Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some global climate models indicate that future global warming from increased atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases may be greatest in the polar regions, over areas where the sea ice cover is reduced. The reduction of sea ice area in the models also gives rise to a strong positive feedback to the warming. From the increase of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration to date and the results of transient climate models, an estimate of the expected change in the Antarctic temperatures and sea ice extent can be made. The existing data for observed changes in temperatures of the Antarctic and Southern Ocean (extending back to ∼1956 and ∼1945 respectively) are analyzed along with the data of sea ice cover (commencing in 1973) to examine the extent to which the anticipated warming trends and sea ice decrease are being realized. In spite of high temporal and spatial variability, the data does support small significant trends of temperature increase and sea ice cover decrease compatible in magnitude to those expected as a consequence of atmospheric greenhouse gas increase. The seasonal cycle shows a delayed period of autumn-winter sea ice growth with a longer period of open water. This supports a mechanism for positive feedback between decreasing sea ice cover and increasing temperature

  2. Using citizen science reports to define the equatorial extent of auroral visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, N. A.; MacDonald, E. A.; Viereck, R.

    2016-03-01

    An aurora may often be viewed hundreds of kilometers equatorward of the auroral oval owing to its altitude. As such, the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) Aurora Forecast product provides a "view line" to demonstrate the equatorial extent of auroral visibility, assuming that it is sufficiently bright and high in altitude. The view line in the SWPC product is based upon the latitude of the brightest aurora, for each hemisphere, as specified by the real-time oval variation, assessment, tracking, intensity, and online nowcasting (OVATION) Prime (2010) aurora precipitation model. In this study, we utilize nearly 500 citizen science auroral reports to compare with the view line provided by an updated SWPC aurora forecast product using auroral precipitation data from OVATION Prime (2013). The citizen science observations were recorded during March and April 2015 using the Aurorasaurus platform and cover one large geomagnetic storm and several smaller events. We find that this updated SWPC view line is conservative in its estimate and that the aurora is often viewable further equatorward than is indicated by the forecast. By using the citizen reports to modify the scaling parameters used to link the OVATION Prime (2013) model to the view line, we produce a new view line estimate that more accurately represents the equatorial extent of visible aurora. An OVATION Prime (2013) energy flux-based equatorial boundary view line is also developed and is found to provide the best overall agreement with the citizen science reports, with an accuracy of 91%.

  3. The kinematic and microphysical control of lightning rate, extent, and NOX production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Lawrence D.; Koshak, William; Peterson, Harold; Mecikalski, Retha M.

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the kinematic and microphysical control of lightning properties, particularly those that may govern the production of nitrogen oxides (NOX = NO + NO2) via lightning (LNOX), such as flash rate, type, and extent. The NASA Lightning Nitrogen Oxides Model (LNOM) is applied to lightning observations following multicell thunderstorms through their lifecycle in a Lagrangian sense over Northern Alabama on 21 May 2012 during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) experiment. LNOM provides estimates of flash rate, type, channel length distributions, channel segment altitude distributions (SADs), and LNOX production profiles. The LNOM-derived lightning characteristics and LNOX production are compared to the evolution of radar-inferred updraft and precipitation properties. Intercloud, intracloud (IC) flash SAD comprises a significant fraction of the total (IC + cloud-to-ground [CG]) SAD, while increased CG flash SAD at altitudes >6 km occurs after the simultaneous peaks in several thunderstorm properties (i.e., total [IC + CG] and IC flash rate, graupel volume/mass, convective updraft volume, and maximum updraft speed). At heights 6 km. Graupel volume/mass, updraft volume, and maximum updraft speed are all well correlated to the total flash rate (correlation coefficient, ρ ≥ 0.8) but are less correlated to total flash extent (ρ ≥ 0.6) and total LNOX production (ρ ≥ 0.5). Although LNOM transforms lightning observations into LNOX production values, these values are estimates and are subject to further independent validation.

  4. Combining measurements to estimate properties and characterization extent of complex biochemical mixtures; applications to Heparan Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradines, Joël R.; Beccati, Daniela; Lech, Miroslaw; Ozug, Jennifer; Farutin, Victor; Huang, Yongqing; Gunay, Nur Sibel; Capila, Ishan

    2016-04-01

    Complex mixtures of molecular species, such as glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans, have important biological and therapeutic functions. Characterization of these mixtures with analytical chemistry measurements is an important step when developing generic drugs such as biosimilars. Recent developments have focused on analytical methods and statistical approaches to test similarity between mixtures. The question of how much uncertainty on mixture composition is reduced by combining several measurements still remains mostly unexplored. Mathematical frameworks to combine measurements, estimate mixture properties, and quantify remaining uncertainty, i.e. a characterization extent, are introduced here. Constrained optimization and mathematical modeling are applied to a set of twenty-three experimental measurements on heparan sulfate, a mixture of linear chains of disaccharides having different levels of sulfation. While this mixture has potentially over two million molecular species, mathematical modeling and the small set of measurements establish the existence of nonhomogeneity of sulfate level along chains and the presence of abundant sulfate repeats. Constrained optimization yields not only estimations of sulfate repeats and sulfate level at each position in the chains but also bounds on these levels, thereby estimating the extent of characterization of the sulfation pattern which is achieved by the set of measurements.

  5. Origin of strong chiroptical activities in films of nonafluorenes with a varying extent of pendant chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yanhou; Trajkovska, Anita; Culligan, Sean W; Ou, Jane J; Chen, H M Philip; Katsis, Dimitris; Chen, Shaw H

    2003-11-19

    Novel nonafluorenes with a varying extent of pendant chirality were synthesized for an investigation of the origins of chiroptical activities in neat films. Thermal annealing of 4-microm-thick sandwiched films and of 90-nm-thick spin-cast films, all on surface-treated substrates, produced monodomain glassy films characterized as a right-handed cholesteric stack with a helical pitch length ranging from 180 to 534 nm and from 252 to 1151 nm, respectively. The observed strong circular dichroism (CD) and g(e) as functions of helical pitch length in single-substrate monodomain glassy cholesteric films were quantitatively interpreted with a circularly polarized fluorescence theory accounting for light absorption, emission, and propagation in a cholesteric stack. Although intertwined molecular helices were likely to be present, cholesteric stacking of rodlike molecules seemed to be the predominant contributor to the strong chiroptical activities. All the cholesteric stacks comprising a polydomain glassy film on an untreated substrate were found to contribute to CD and g(e) largely to the same extent as in a monodomain film. A circularly polarized blue organic light-emitting diode containing a nonafluorene film resulted in a g(e) of 0.35 with a luminance yield of 0.94 cd/A at 20 mA/cm(2), the best performance to date.

  6. Earth observation data based rapid flood-extent modelling for tsunami-devastated coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hese, Sören; Heyer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Earth observation (EO)-based mapping and analysis of natural hazards plays a critical role in various aspects of post-disaster aid management. Spatial very high-resolution Earth observation data provide important information for managing post-tsunami activities on devastated land and monitoring re-cultivation and reconstruction. The automatic and fast use of high-resolution EO data for rapid mapping is, however, complicated by high spectral variability in densely populated urban areas and unpredictable textural and spectral land-surface changes. The present paper presents the results of the SENDAI project, which developed an automatic post-tsunami flood-extent modelling concept using RapidEye multispectral satellite data and ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model Version 2 (GDEM V2) data of the eastern coast of Japan (captured after the Tohoku earthquake). In this paper, the authors developed both a bathtub-modelling approach and a cost-distance approach, and integrated the roughness parameters of different land-use types to increase the accuracy of flood-extent modelling. Overall, the accuracy of the developed models reached 87-92%, depending on the analysed test site. The flood-modelling approach was explained and results were compared with published approaches. We came to the conclusion that the cost-factor-based approach reaches accuracy comparable to published results from hydrological modelling. However the proposed cost-factor approach is based on a much simpler dataset, which is available globally.

  7. Urinary retinol binding protein is a marker of the extent of interstitial kidney fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pallet

    Full Text Available Currently, a non-invasive method to estimate the degree of interstitial fibrosis (IF in chronic kidney disease is not available in routine. The aim of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the measurement of urinary low molecular weight (LMW protein concentrations as a method to determine the extent of IF. The urines specimen from 162 consecutive patients who underwent renal biopsy were used in the analysis. Numerical quantification software based on the colorimetric analysis of fibrous areas was used to assess the percentage IF. Total proteinuria, albuminuria, and the urinary levels of retinol binding protein (RBP, alpha1-microglobulin (α1MG, beta 2-microglobulin (β2MG, transferrin, and IgG immunoglobulins were measured. There was a significant correlation between the degree of IF and the RBP/creatinine (creat ratio (R2: 0.11, p25% of the parenchyma was 95% when using a threshold of 20 mg/g creat. In conclusion, RBP appears to be a quantitative and non-invasive marker for the independent prediction of the extent of kidney IF. Because methods for the measurement of urinary RBP are available in most clinical chemistry departments, RBP measurement is appealing for implementation in the routine care of patients with chronic kidney disease.

  8. Assessment of spring floods and surface water extent over the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofaier, A. M.; Bartsch, A.; Rees, W. G.; Leibman, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    Remote sensing of Arctic water bodies is an essential method for monitoring the dynamics of frozen ground. Thaw lake change provides insight into the state of permafrost. In the vast Arctic and sub-Arctic areas capturing changes in lake extent is assisted by satellite data. In particular, active microwave sensors can be used in a straightforward manner for water body classifications. This study uses the pan-Siberian datasets that are provided under the ESA STSE-ALANIS methane project. Surface water classifications in 10-day intervals have been produced using Envisat ASAR (Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar) operating in wide swath mode. The high temporal frequency of these data allows an investigation of surface hydrology on an intra-annual basis. The current study applies a post-processing algorithm to the ALANIS products in order to investigate changes in surface inundation across the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District over the summer period of 2007. Multiple areas are found to exhibit changes in surface inundation. Strong seasonal variations occur in areas where previous investigations determined disappearing lakes. Spring floods associated with the depletion of snow-cover and melt waters as well as floodplain dynamics can be identified. On the Yamal peninsula, these changes occur most dominantly in the west; an area subject to anthropogenic land-use change. Changes in water body extent for each hot spot of seasonal variations are quantified and discussed.

  9. Analysis of thoracic epidurography and correlating factors affecting the extent of contrast medium spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jung Hue; Park, Ki Bum

    2016-01-01

    Background Thoracic epidural anesthesia is frequently used to maintain intraoperative and postoperative analgesia. Frequently, 3 ml of local anesthetic is used as a test dose, or for intermittent epidural injection. We assessed the extent of the spread of 3 ml of contrast medium in the thoracic epidural space and attempted to identify any correlating factors affecting the epidurography. Methods A total of 70 patients were enrolled in the study, and thoracic epidural catheterizations were performed under fluoroscopic guidance. Using 3 ml of contrast medium, epidurography was evaluated to confirm the number of spinal segments covered by the contrast medium. Correlation analysis was performed between patient characteristics (sex, age, body mass index, weight, height, and location of catheter tip) and the extent of the contrast spread. Results The mean number of vertebral segments evaluated by contrast medium was 7.9 ± 2.2 using 3 ml of contrast medium. The contrast spread in the cranial direction showed more extensive distribution than that in the caudal direction, with statistical significance (P spread, and patient height showed a weak negative correlation with the distribution of contrast medium.

  10. Windstorm of the eighteenth century in the Czech Lands: course, extent, impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Szabó, Péter; Dobrovolný, Petr; Řezníčková, Ladislava; Kotyza, Oldřich; Suchánková, Silvie; Valášek, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    This paper addresses the course, extent, and impacts of a windstorm that occurred on 20-21 December 1740, in the Czech Lands. The analysis is based on documentary data included in chronicles, "books of memory", memoirs, damage reports, urbaria, and cadastral records, as well as secondary sources. The windstorm started with a thunderstorm in the afternoon of 20 December, continued during the night, and was followed by a flood. It also appeared in documentary data from Bavaria, Thuringia, Saxony, Silesia, Slovakia, and Hungary. The event may be related to a cyclone north-west of the Czech territory moving to the east with an intense western flow over central Europe. The storm did great material damage to houses, farm buildings, churches, and forests and is recorded in various documentary sources for 85 places in the Czech Lands. The windstorm had a significant influence on the development of local plantation forestry (discussed in greater detail). Judging by territorial extent and damage done, this windstorm, compared to other similar events, has been classified as "the windstorm of the eighteenth century" in the Czech Lands. This contribution demonstrates the potential of documentary evidence for the elucidation of heavy windstorms in the pre-instrumental period in Europe.

  11. The calibration of flood inundation models using uncertain satellite observed flood extent maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, E. M.; Bates, P. D.; Freer, J. E.; Mason, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    The performance of flood inundation models is often assessed using satellite data; however, due to emergent vegetation, wind roughening and other factors these data have inherent uncertainty. Here, we develop a methodology to evaluate the impact of uncertainty in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) observed flood extents on the calibration of the LISFLOOD-FP flood inundation model. Two case studies are used, the River Dee in North Wales, UK, using a 12.5m resolution ERS-2 SAR image, and the River Derwent in Cumbria, England, UK, using a 1m TerraSAR-X image. Water surface elevations are calculated at the margin of the flood by intersecting the observed flood extent with high resolution LiDAR topographic data. The proposed methodology calibrates the friction parameters in the inundation model using multiple random subsamples of the observed data points to sample from the uncertainty in the observed data. Using this methodology we assess how different subsets of the observed data can produce different optimum parameter sets. We then produce probabilistic flood inundation maps that are able to identify areas of uncertainty not identified by a deterministic model assessment.

  12. Conductivity mapping to identify vertical and lateral extents of contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrissey, B.J. [Associated Geosciences Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed a combined electromagnetic and electrical imaging survey that was conducted to map variations in electrical conductivity associated with a pipeline break in central Alberta. A fixed-frequency electromagnetic (FEM) instrument and an OhmMapper apparent resistivity system were used to determine both the lateral and the vertical extent of chloride contamination resulting from the pipeline break. The OhmMapper is a relatively new technology that measures apparent resistivity by generating electrical current flow in the subsurface through capacitive coupling. The FEM system identified a single, laterally extensive anomaly, but the OhmMapper mapped vertical variations in apparent conductivity, indicating that multiple spills may have occurred in the area. Laboratory testing of samples yielded findings consistent with the geophysical survey. As a technique for obtaining both lateral and vertical extents of the contaminant, the OhmMapper proved to be cost-effective and quick and easy to use relative to conventional electrical resistivity systems, although it has several particular limitations such as poor signal penetration in highly conducive environments. The derived information is useful for targeted remediation planning. Apparent conductivity is a common tool in environmental investigations given the contrast in electrical resistivity expected between chloride contaminant and host soils. The relative merits, limitations, and operating parameters of the OhmMapper were outlined, along with the appropriate uses and suggested supportive methodologies. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Insight into glacier climate interaction: reconstruction of the mass balance field using ice extent data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visnjevic, Vjeran; Herman, Frédéric; Licul, Aleksandar

    2016-04-01

    With the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), about 20 000 years ago, ended the most recent long-lasting cold phase in Earth's history. We recently developed a model that describes large-scale erosion and its response to climate and dynamical changes with the application to the Alps for the LGM period. Here we will present an inverse approach we have recently developed to infer the LGM mass balance from known ice extent data, focusing on a glacier or ice cap. The ice flow model is developed using the shallow ice approximation and the developed codes are accelerated using GPUs capabilities. The mass balance field is the constrained variable defined by the balance rate β and the equilibrium line altitude (ELA), where c is the cutoff value: b = max(βṡ(S(z) - ELA), c) We show that such a mass balance can be constrained from the observed past ice extent and ice thickness. We are also investigating several different geostatistical methods to constrain spatially variable mass balance, and derive uncertainties on each of the mass balance parameters.

  14. The Policies That Affect the Extent of the Subcultures' Alignment in Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suela GERDHE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The culture of the organization can be a strategic tool for the success of organization, because it influences how the organization conduct its business and helps regulate, control and model of the behavior in each subculture of the organization. Often, the subcultures are viewed by management as the representing tolerated deviations that do not disrupt the normative solidarity of the overall corporate culture’s dominant values. However, these deviations may become intolerable when there is significant value misalignment among the various subcultures within the organization. In such conditions, the lack of the subcultures’ alignment in organization is considered critical and important to manage. While diagnosing culture alignment of the “Pro Credit” bank in Albania, the article focuses on problems of alignment and techniques that improve the alignment of subcultures. For this purpose we estimate the extent to which individuals in each gender and generational subcultures agree or disagree with the culture’s dimensions. While, assess of the extent to which organization vision and values are understood and shared by subcultures within the organization, is in core of practical study.

  15. Service provider-Customer Relationship: To What Extent Are Customers in Terengganu Being Respected?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Haryati Shaikh Ali,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Today’s rapidly changing environment is demanding service companies to seek more creative and flexible means for dealing with competition. In fact, more and more retailers are investing in relationship building as a strategy for enhancing customer retention in the business-to-customer (B2C context. From the literature, it is learnt that efforts are being concentrated in creating quality relationship with customers. This effort should include respecting customers. Respecting customers is one of the easiest ways to earn quality relationship with customers. However, the big question is to what extent does respect affect the quality of relationship between customer and service provider? The purpose of this study is to determine the dimensions of respect and to what extent it affects relationship quality. This preliminary study draws on empirical results from clients of banks and clinics in Kuala Terengganu. The hypotheses were tested using Pearson Correlation and Multiple Regression Analysis to examine the relationship between the three dimensions of respect and overall relationship quality. The results of the empirical tests give some support to the view that attention to the particularity, understanding and responsibility towards customers are crucial in shaping customers perception of respect and the quality of their relationship with service providers.

  16. Robust and Reproducible Quantification of the Extent of Chest Radiographic Abnormalities (And It's Free!.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Requena-Méndez

    Full Text Available Objective, reproducible quantification of the extent of abnormalities seen on a chest radiograph would improve the user-friendliness of a previously proposed severity scoring system for pulmonary tuberculosis and could be helpful in monitoring response to therapy, including in clinical trials.In this study we report the development and evaluation of a simple tool using free image editing software (GIMP to accurately and reproducibly quantify the area of affected lung on the chest radiograph of tuberculosis patients. As part of a pharmacokinetic study in Lima, Peru, a chest radiograph was performed on patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and this was subsequently photographed using a digital camera. The GIMP software was used by two independent and trained readers to estimate the extent of affected lung (expressed as a percentage of total lung area in each radiograph and the resulting radiographic SCORE.56 chest radiographs were included in the reading analysis. The Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC between the 2 observers was 0.977 (p<0.001 for the area of lung affected and was 0.955 (p<0.001 for the final score; and the kappa coefficient of Interobserver agreement for both the area of lung affected and the score were 0.9 (p<0.001 and 0.86 (p<0.001 respectively.This high level of between-observer agreement suggests that this freely available software could constitute a simple and useful tool for robust evaluation of individual and serial chest radiographs.

  17. Determining the ice seasons severity during 1982-2015 using the ice extents sum as a new characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rjazin, Jevgeni; Pärn, Ove

    2016-04-01

    Sea ice is a key climate factor and it restricts considerably the winter navigation in sever seasons on the Baltic Sea. So determining ice conditions severity and describing ice cover behaviour at severe seasons interests scientists, engineers and navigation managers. The present study is carried out to determine the ice seasons severity degree basing on the ice seasons 1982 to 2015. A new integrative characteristic is introduced to describe the ice season severity. It is the sum of ice extents of the ice season id est the daily ice extents of the season are summed. The commonly used procedure to determine the ice season severity degree by the maximal ice extent is in this research compared to the new characteristic values. The remote sensing data on the ice concentrations on the Baltic Sea published in the European Copernicus Programme are used to obtain the severity characteristic values. The ice extents are calculated on these ice concentration data. Both the maximal ice extent of the season and a newly introduced characteristic - the ice extents sum are used to classify the winters with respect of severity. The most severe winter of the reviewed period is 1986/87. Also the ice seasons 1981/82, 1984/85, 1985/86, 1995/96 and 2002/03 are classified as severe. Only three seasons of this list are severe by both the criteria. They are 1984/85, 1985/86 and 1986/87. We interpret this coincidence as the evidence of enough-during extensive ice cover in these three seasons. In several winters, for example 2010/11 ice cover extended enough for some time, but did not endure. At few other ice seasons as 2002/03 the Baltic Sea was ice-covered in moderate extent, but the ice cover stayed long time. At 11 winters the ice extents sum differed considerably (> 10%) from the maximal ice extent. These winters yield one third of the studied ice seasons. The maximal ice extent of the season is simple to use and enables to reconstruct the ice cover history and to predict maximal ice

  18. The Kinematic and Microphysical Control of Storm Integrated Lightning Flash Extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, L. D.; Koshak, W. J.; Peterson, H. S.; Schultz, E. V.; Matthee, R.; Schultz, C. J.; Petersen, W. A.; Bain, L.

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this preliminary study is to investigate the kinematic and microphysical control of lightning properties, particularly those that may govern the production of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in thunderstorms, such as flash rate, type and extent. The mixed-phase region is where the noninductive charging (NIC) process is thought to generate most storm electrification during rebounding collisions between ice particles in the presence of supercooled water. As a result, prior radar-based studies have demonstrated that lightning flash rate is well correlated to kinematic and microphysical properties in the mixed-phase region of thunderstorms such as updraft volume, graupel mass, or ice mass flux. There is also some evidence that lightning type is associated with the convective state. Intracloud (IC) lightning tends to dominate during the updraft accumulation of precipitation ice mass while cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning is more numerous during the downdraft-driven descent of radar echo associated with graupel and hail. More study is required to generalize these relationships, especially regarding lightning type, in a wide variety of storm modes and meteorological conditions. Less is known about the co-evolving relationship between storm kinematics, microphysics, morphology and three-dimensional flash extent, despite its importance for lightning NOx production. To address this conceptual gap, the NASA MSFC Lightning Nitrogen Oxides Model (LNOM) is applied to North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA) and Vaisala National Lightning Detection NetworkTM (NLDN) observations following ordinary convective cells through their lifecycle. LNOM provides estimates of flash type, channel length distributions, lightning segment altitude distributions (SADs) and lightning NOx production profiles. For this study, LNOM is applied in a Lagrangian sense to well isolated convective cells on 3 April 2007 (single cell and multi-cell hailstorm, non-severe multi-cell) and 6 July 2007

  19. SOM-based Hybrid Neural Network Model for Flood Inundation Extent Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Chiu; Shen, Hung-Yu; Chang, Fi-John

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, the increasing frequency and severity of floods caused by climate change and/or land overuse has been reported both nationally and globally. Therefore, estimation of flood depths and extents may provide disaster information for alleviating risk and loss of life and property. The conventional inundation models commonly need a huge amount of computational time to carry out a high resolution spatial inundation map. Moreover, for implementing appropriate mitigation strategies of various flood conditions, different flood scenarios and the corresponding mitigation alternatives are required. Consequently, it is difficult to reach real-time forecast of the inundation extent by conventional inundation models. This study proposed a SOM-RNARX model, for on-line forecasting regional flood inundation depths and extents. The SOM-RNARX model is composed of SOM (Self-Organizing Map) and RNARX (recurrent configuration of nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous inputs). The SOM network categorizes various flood inundation maps of the study area to produce a meaningful regional flood topological map. The RNARX model is built to forecast the total flooded volume of the study area. To find the neuron with the closest total inundated volume to the forecasted total inundated volumes, the forecasted value is used to adjust the weights (inundated depths) of the closest neuron and obtain a regional flood inundation map. The proposed methodology was trained and tested based on a large number of inundation data generated by a well validated two-dimensional simulation model in Yilan County, Taiwan. For comparison, the CHIM (clustering-based hybrid inundation model) model which was issued by Chang et al. (2010) was performed. The major difference between these two models is that CHIM classify flooding characteristics, and SOM-RNARX extracts the relationship between rainfall pattern and flooding spatial distribution. The results show that (1)two models can adequately provide on

  20. Extent of the Disturbed Rock Zone Around a WIPP Disposal Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, C. G.; Park, B. Y.; Holcomb, D. J.

    2008-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeastern New Mexico, is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as the underground disposal facility for transuranic (TRU) nuclear waste. It is located in a bedded salt formation at a depth of about 650 m. Salt at this depth behaves as a viscous material having an initially lithostatic state of stress. Mining of an opening disturbs the static equilibrium to a degree where fracturing of the rock surrounding a room occurs, changing its mechanical and hydrologic properties. This disturbed rock zone (DRZ) is an important geomechanical feature included in the performance assessment process models used to predict future repository conditions as a part of certification by the EPA as meeting regulatory compliance. Based on ongoing scientific investigations and evaluation of published data since the original certification in 1998, our understanding of the DRZ has continued to progress. Three deformation processes are activated as deviatoric stresses are induced upon excavation of a room in a salt formation: (1) elastic response, (2) inelastic viscoplastic flow, and (3) inelastic- damage induced flow. Damage, the least understood of these processes, is manifested by the time- dependent initiation, growth, coalescence, and healing of microfractures with a deviatoric stress state. Since the ability to model the spatial and temporal changes in salt damage is not available at this time, various means to measure it have been attempted. At the WIPP, for this study, we used sonic velocity measurements obtained over a 12 year period as the principal field method to describe the extent of the DRZ. Predictions of the DRZ extent based on these experimental results are substantiated by permeability measurements and microfracture density analysis from other places in the repository. Extensive laboratory salt creep data demonstrate that damage can be assessed in terms of volumetric strain and principal stresses. Stress states

  1. Numerical Simulation of Flow Field in End Face Seal with Circumferential Waviness%端面周向波度密封中流场的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙赫; 张秋翔; 蔡纪宁; 李双喜

    2011-01-01

    建立端面周向波度密封密封端面间液膜流场的数值模型,采用计算流体力学软件FLUENT对密封间隙中的液膜进行三维数值模拟,得到液膜流场的压力分布,求得密封的泄漏量、开启力和刚度等密封特性参数,分析密封几何参数(如波幅、波数、密封环坝区的宽度与密封环宽度之比)对密封性能的影响.结果表明:随着液膜厚度的增加,开启力减小,泄漏量增大;密封几何参数对密封特性参数的影响存在一定的规律,如波幅越大、波数越多,密封环端面的流体动压效应越明显,而随密封环坝区的宽度与密封环宽度之比的增加,开启力、泄漏量和刚度都减小.%A theoretical analysis model of fluid film flow between the seal faces was established for the end face seal with circumferential waviness. By using the hydromechanics software FLUENT, a three-dimensional numerical simulation was performed for the liquid film of the seal gap, the pressure distribution of the liquid film flow was got, and the seal characteristic parameters, such as leakage, opening force and stiffness of seal were obtained. The effect of seal geometric parameters, such as wave amplitude, wave number and the rate of breadth of seal dam zone and seal breadth, on seal performance was analyzed. Results show that with the increase of fluid film thickness, the opening force is reduced and the leakage increased. There is certain law existed between the seal geometric parameters and the seal characteristic parameters, that there is obvious hydrodynamic pressure effect in seal ring end face for the seal with big wave amplitude and more wave number. With the increase of the rate of breadth of seal dam zone and seal breadth, the opening force, leakage and stiffness are reduced.

  2. 几种焊接缺陷对X70管道环缝接头应力集中的影响%Influences on Stress Concentration of X70 Pipeline Circumferential Weld Joints of Several Welding Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李根; 张腾

    2014-01-01

    利用大型有限元软件ANSYS对在工作压力下带有咬边、凹坑、焊缝余高、错边等焊接缺陷的X70环缝管道进行了应力分析。分析结果显示,在咬边、凹坑、焊缝余高、错边焊接缺陷中,焊缝余高对受内压管道环焊缝的应力集中的影响最低,错边其次,咬边较为严重,凹坑最为严重;焊缝余高不影响X70管道接头静载强度,超过2 mm的错边量对环缝接头应力集中影响明显,咬边缺陷对X70管道环缝接头应力集中的影响大于错边,缺陷凹坑缺陷对环缝接头应力集中的影响随其三维尺寸增大而增大。%In this paper, the finite element analysis software ANSYS was used to carry out stress analysis on X70 pipeline under working pressure with welding defects, such as undercut, pit, weld reinforcement and misalignment. The results indicated that in the above defects, the influence on the weld reinforcement of stress concentration is the lowest, misalignment is the second, undercut is a bit severe, and the influence on pit is the most severe. The weld reinforcement does not affect the static load strength of X70 pipeline circumferential weld joints, and the influence of misalignment more than 2 mm on stress concentration is obvious. The influence of undercut on stress concentration is more than that of misalignment, and the influence of pit increases with three-dimensional size increasing.

  3. 45 CFR 2505.3 - To what extent are meetings of the Board open to the public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false To what extent are meetings of the Board open to... To what extent are meetings of the Board open to the public? The Board shall conduct meetings, as defined in § 2505.2, in accordance with this part. Except as provided in § 2505.4, the Board's...

  4. TO WHAT EXTENT DOES THE DEGREE OF MEANINGFUL MODEL COMPLEXITY DEPEND ON OBSERVATION DATA?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Philip; Doherty, John; Christensen, Steen;

    and not to individual parameters. Consequently, parameters and parameter combinations that are left unconstrained by that process are dispensable. It follows that the model may lose little if it were simplified in ways suggested by the calibration process. This point is illustrated by comparing predictions......We systematically quantify to what extent vadose zone parameters can be constrained by including different types of observation data in the calibration process. Observation data considered are hydraulic heads, soil saturation, evaporation and transpiration. Besides assessing parameter uncertainty...... reduction of predictive uncertainty. This gives raise to interesting questions concerning the level of complexity required. The capacity of a recharge model to reduce the uncertainty of future groundwater level predictions does not rely on accurate estimation of all hydraulic properties affecting...

  5. Determining the extent of heparan sulfate depolymerisation following heparin lyase treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnachan, Susan M; Bell, Tracey J; Sims, Ian M; Smith, Raymond A A; Nurcombe, Victor; Cool, Simon M; Hinkley, Simon F R

    2016-11-01

    The depolymerisation of porcine mucosal heparan sulfate under the action of heparin lyases and analysis by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) is described. Heparan sulfate treated to enzymic bond scission producing a Δ4,5 double-bond and quantified by SEC with ultraviolet-visible (UV) spectroscopic detection (230nm) indicated that the majority of the biopolymer (>85%) was reduced to disaccharides (degree of polymerisation (DP)=2). However, analysis of the SEC eluant using refractive index (RI), which reflects the mass contribution of the oligosaccharides rather than the molar response of a UV chromophore, indicated that a considerable proportion of the digested HS, up to 43%, was present with DP >2. This was supported by a mass balance analysis. These results contradict the accepted literature where "complete digestion" is routinely reported. Herein we report on the composition and methodology utilised to ascertain the extent of depolymerization and disaccharide composition of this important biopolymer. PMID:27516308

  6. Imaging the Sources and Full Extent of the Sodium Tail of the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgardner, Jeffrey; Wilson, Jody; Mendillo, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Observations of sodium emission from Mercury can be used to describe the spatial and temporal patterns of sources and sinks in the planet s surface-boundary-exosphere. We report on new data sets that provide the highest spatial resolution of source regions at polar latitudes, as well as the extraordinary length of a tail of escaping Na atoms. The tail s extent of approx.1.5 degrees (nearly 1400 Mercury radii) is driven by radiation pressure effects upon Na atoms sputtered from the surface in the previous approx.5 hours. Wide-angle filtered-imaging instruments are thus capable of studying the time history of sputtering processes of sodium and other species at Mercury from ground-based observatories in concert with upcoming satellite missions to the planet. Plasma tails produced by photo-ionization of Na and other gases in Mercury s neutral tails may be observable by in-situ instruments.

  7. Electric Vehicles Parking (EVP Sitting Considering GIS Information and the Extent of Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad R. Aghaebrahimi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available energy resources, such as wind and solar, are increased. Also, the use of Electric Vehicles (EV and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV, known as V2G, is under development. Due to the widespread use of these vehicles in the near future, Electric Vehicles Parking (EVP is considered as a source of Distributed Generation (DG and Electric Energy Storage. The location of parking lot is important for power utilities to reduce power losses, and to municipalities of the urban areas from construction point of view. In this paper, sitting of EVP considering GIS information and the extent of urban areas will be discussed for rapid determination of parking locations using different evolutionary algorithms. The goal is to reduce the candidate locations, to analyze and to compare the performance of these algorithms as well as increasing the satisfaction of power utilities and municipalities.

  8. Principal forest dieback episodes in northern hardwoods: development of numeric indices of areal extent and severity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of forest dieback in the Northern Hardwoods biome of Canada and the United States was determined for period from 1910 to 1990. Information from annual forest service pathology inventories in the two countries and other published literature was coded to estimate yearly the severity and areal extent of dieback on white/yellow birch and sugar maple from 1910 to 1990. Principal dieback episodes occurred as distinct waves coincident with maturation of the forest population in each of six regions. These episodes endured an average of 11 years. It is hypothesized that, once forest populations are mature, they are susceptible to extreme stresses such as freezing and drought which serve to synchronize the onset and subsidence of major dieback episodes. 38 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  9. 5-aminolevulinic acid guidance during awake craniotomy to maximise extent of safe resection of glioblastoma multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corns, Robert; Mukherjee, Soumya; Johansen, Anja; Sivakumar, Gnanamurthy

    2015-01-01

    Overall survival for patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has been consistently shown to improve when the surgeon achieves a gross total resection of the tumour. It has also been demonstrated that surgical adjuncts such as 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) fluorescence--which delineates malignant tumour tissue--normal brain tissue margin seen using violet-blue excitation under an operating microscope--helps achieve this. We describe the case of a patient with recurrent left frontal GBM encroaching on Broca's area (eloquent brain). Gross total resection of the tumour was achieved by combining two techniques, awake resection to prevent damage to eloquent brain and 5-ALA fluorescence guidance to maximise the extent of tumour resection.This technique led to gross total resection of all T1-enhancing tumour with the avoidance of neurological deficit. The authors recommend this technique in patients when awake surgery can be tolerated and gross total resection is the aim of surgery. PMID:26177997

  10. Stresses and Displacements in Functionally Graded Materials of Semi-Infinite Extent Induced by Rectangular Loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Qi Yue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the stress and displacement fields in a functionally graded material (FGM caused by a load. The FGM is a graded material of Si3N4-based ceramics and is assumed to be of semi-infinite extent. The load is a distributed loading over a rectangular area that is parallel to the external surface of the FGM and either on its external surface or within its interior space. The point-load analytical solutions or so-called Yue’s solutions are used for the numerical integration over the distributed loaded area. The loaded area is discretized into 200 small equal-sized rectangular elements. The numerical integration is carried out with the regular Gaussian quadrature. Weak and strong singular integrations encountered when the field points are located on the loaded plane, are resolved with the classical methods in boundary element analysis. The numerical integration results have high accuracy.

  11. Subsidies to energy in the world: their extent, their efficiency and their necessary reorientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report aims at analyzing the extent of subsidies to energy in the world, at assessing theoretical and practical arguments against different forms of subsidy, and at synthesizing reflections on reforms of subsidies to energy, mainly in developing countries. In the first part, the author recalls the theoretical and practical backgrounds of subsidies to energy, indicates the different forms of support to energy production and consumption, and discusses the existing assessments in the world and in some regions while specifying subsidies to fuels in the transport sector. In a second part, he addresses theoretical and practical critics of subsidies (notably in terms of environmental and economical inefficiency), assessments of economical and environmental benefits of their withdrawal, and ways of reorienting subsidies for fossil fuels in developing countries

  12. Spatial Database of Geological Survey Extent in 20th Century in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Quanming; Ye Tianzhu; Fang Yiping; Chen Jianguo; Li Shuyu; Zhang Daquan

    2003-01-01

    During the whole 20th century in China, especially the latest 50 years, we have gotten much geological information about geological mapping, geophysics, geochemistry, mineral exploration,remote sensing, environmental geology, hydrogeoiogy, engineering geology and oceanic geology etc. by our geologists and explorers. All the information has been accumulated and can be used as a decisionmaking foundation for the future plan of geological survey. The spatial database of geological survey extents has been established by using computer technology. The database contained all kinds of exploration sections and collected about 160 000 records in this database. This paper introduces the data construction, contents and applying system of this database, and trys to let people know what kinds of geological survey were finished, when the exploration were carried out, and how and where you can get this information.

  13. Danish travel activities: do we travel more and longer – and to what extent?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mette Aagaard

    Two separate Danish National travel surveys are analysed to outline the amount and extent of national and international travelling during the latest 15-20 years; the national travel survey (TU) describes mainly national daily travel activities, whereas the holiday and business travel survey...... describes national and international travel activities including overnight stay(s). When sampling only respondents with trips above 100 kilometres, they only accounts for around 2% of all daily travel activities, however, this share appears to increase and suggest in general that we do travel longer...... holidays. The majority of international travel is within Europe, but increasing travelling outside Europe is furthermore emerging. In total these trends implies that Danes do travel more and longer, which is related to a general increase in travelling within the whole population, but also more holidays per...

  14. Extent of the last ice sheet in northern Scotland tested with cosmogenic 10Be exposure ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W.M.; Hall, A.M.; Ballantyne, C.K.; Binnie, S.; Kubik, P.W.; Freeman, S.

    2008-01-01

    The extent of the last British-Irish Ice Sheet (BIIS) in northern Scotland is disputed. A restricted ice sheet model holds that at the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ca. 23-19 ka) the BIIS terminated on land in northern Scotland, leaving Buchan, Caithness and the Orkney Islands ice-free. An alternative model implies that these three areas were ice-covered at the LGM, with the BIIS extending offshore onto the adjacent shelves. We test the two models using cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure dating of erratic boulders and glacially eroded bedrock from the three areas. Our results indicate that the last BIIS covered all of northern Scotland during the LGM, but that widespread deglaciation of Caithness and Orkney occurred prior to rapid warming at ca. 14.5 ka. Copyright ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Sources, extent and history of methane seepage on the continental shelf off northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Simone; Lepland, Aivo; Chand, Shyam; Schubert, Carsten J.; Eichinger, Florian; Knies, Jochen

    2014-05-01

    Active natural hydrocarbon gas seepage was recently discovered in the Hola area on the continental shelf off Vesterålen, northern Norway. We conducted acoustic and geochemical investigations to assess the modern and past extent, source and pathways of the gas seepage . Water column echosounder surveys showed bubble plumes up to several tens of metres above the seafloor. Analyses of dissolved methane in the water column indicated slightly elevated concentrations (50 nM) close to the seafloor. To identify fluxes and origin of methane in the sediments we analysed sediment pore water chemistry, the isotopic composition of methane and of dissolved inorganic carbon (d13CCH4, d2HCH4, d13CDIC) in three closely spaced (

  16. The Extent of Corporate Social Responsibility Engagement in Malaysian Banks Offering Islamic Banking Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujana A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the extent of corporate social responsibility (CSR engagement in Malaysian banks offering Islamic banking services. A total of 16 banks (10 local banks and 6 foreign banks offering Islamic banking services forms the sample for this research study. Only banks offering Islamic banking services and listed on the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange were selected for the purpose of this research. Banks websites and annual reports were studied to gather and analyse the data through content analysis. Results obtained indicated that the local and the foreign banks differed significantly in terms of their engagement in CSR-based activities, CSR reporting, CSR communication and CSR board structure. Evidently Malaysian banks offering Islamic banking services need to focus on embedding relevant alternative strategies in order to publicise widely about their engagement in CSR-based activities. This would further enhance the banks brand reputation and strengthen their internal and external communication strategies.

  17. Extent and variations in mobile phone use among drivers of heavy vehicles in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troglauer, Thomas; Hels, Tove; Christens, P.

    2006-01-01

    the number of stops and the amount of phone use. 0.5% reported that their use of mobile phones had contributed to an accident, while 6% had experienced their mobile phone use causing a dangerous situation. However, 66% reported experiencing dangerous situations because of others road users' mobile phone use......A substantial body of research has shown that use of mobile phones while driving can impair driving performance and increase the risk of being involved in accidents. Similarly, mobile phone use seems to be an increasing activity thus representing a relevant traffic safety issue. This paper...... investigates the extent and variations in mobile phone use among drivers of heavy vehicles in Denmark. The data was collected through written questionnaires and had a response rate of 58%. It was found that more than 99% of the drivers used mobile phones while driving. Despite a prohibition of hand-held mobile...

  18. Initial Temperature and Extent of Chemical Equilibration of Partons in Relativistic Collision of Heavy Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Dinesh K; Mustafa, Munshi G

    2016-01-01

    We emphasize that a knowledge of energy and entropy densities of quark gluon plasma - a thermalized de-confined matter, formed in relativistic heavy ion collisions fixes the formation temperature and the product of gluon fugacity and formation time uniquely, {\\em provided} we know the relative fugacities of quarks and gluons. This also provides that a smaller formation time would imply larger fugacities for partons. Next we explore the limits of chemical equilibration of partons during the initial stages in relativistic collision of heavy nuclei. The experimentally measured rapidity densities of transverse energy and charged particle multiplicity at RHIC and LHC energies are used to estimate the energy and number densities with the assumption of formation of a thermally equilibrated quark gluon plasma which may be chemically equilibrated to the same or differing extents for quarks and gluons. The estimates are found to be very sensitive to the correction factor used for the Bj\\"{o}rken energy density for iden...

  19. An improved strategy for evaluating the extent of chronic arterial baroreceptor denervation in conscious rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rodríguez-Martínez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There is no index or criterion of aortic barodenervation, nor can we differentiate among rats that have suffered chronic sham, aortic or sino-aortic denervation. The objective of this study was to develop a procedure to generate at least one quantitative, reproducible and validated index that precisely evaluates the extent of chronic arterial barodenervation performed in conscious rats. Data from 79 conscious male Wistar rats of about 65-70 days of age with diverse extents of chronic arterial barodenervation and used in previous experiments were reanalyzed. The mean arterial pressure (MAP and the heart rate (HR of all rats were measured systematically before (over 1 h and after three consecutive iv bolus injections of phenylephrine (PHE and sodium nitroprusside (SNP. Four expressions of the effectiveness of barodenervation (MAP lability, PHE ratio, SNP ratio, and SNP-PHE slope were assessed with linear fixed models, three-level average variance, average separation among levels, outlier box plot analysis, and overlapping graphic analysis. The analysis indicated that a neither MAP lability nor SNP-PHE slope was affected by the level of chronic sodium intake; b even though the Box-Cox transformations of both MAP lability [transformed lability index (TLI] and SNP-PHE slope [transformed general sensitivity index (TGSI, {((3-(ΔHRSNP-ΔHRPHE/ΔMAPSNP-ΔMAPPHE-0.4-1/-0.04597}] could be two promising indexes, TGSI proved to be the best index; c TLI and TGSI were not freely interchangeable indexes for this purpose. TGSI ranges that permit differentiation between sham (10.09 to 11.46, aortic (8.40 to 9.94 and sino-aortic (7.68 to 8.24 barodenervated conscious rats were defined.

  20. The influence of the hydrologic cycle on the extent of sea ice with climatic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis techniques and models are being developed to provide a basis to investigate the role of the hydrologic cycle on the extent of sea ice throughout the Arctic Basin and hence its net influence on regional as well as global climate. A predicted global climatic warming may have a pronounced effect on the Arctic environment including a decrease in the extent of sea ice. This will affect the fluxes of heat and moisture transferred from the ocean to the atmosphere in the region, as well as the arctic marine ecosystem. Rivers are an important source of thermal energy and fresh water to this marine environment. The magnitude of the influence of the rivers is being assessed in a limited region offshore of Alaska and Canada (Mackenzie River). This region was chosen for logistical reasons and because of the availability of supporting field data. Two numerical models are being developed to assess the effect of the hydrologic cycle on the break-up and formation of sea ice, and to evaluate the associated heat and moisture fluxes at the atmosphere-ocean-sea ice interface. A break-up model will simulate the river discharge as a fresh water plume which provides sensible heat to the nearshore sea ice-ocean environment, and affects the radiation budget of the sea ice by significantly altering its albedo. The second model is a mixed-layer model of the oceanic salinity-temperature regime to predict the initial formation of the sea ice cover as a function of late summer oceanic stratification and autumn meteorological conditions. Satellite imagery, hydrologic field measurements and meteorological data will be used for the calibration and testing of the models